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Sample records for first-year patient-centered medicine

  1. Integrative medicine and patient-centered care.

    PubMed

    Maizes, Victoria; Rakel, David; Niemiec, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Integrative medicine has emerged as a potential solution to the American healthcare crisis. It provides care that is patient centered, healing oriented, emphasizes the therapeutic relationship, and uses therapeutic approaches originating from conventional and alternative medicine. Initially driven by consumer demand, the attention integrative medicine places on understanding whole persons and assisting with lifestyle change is now being recognized as a strategy to address the epidemic of chronic diseases bankrupting our economy. This paper defines integrative medicine and its principles, describes the history of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in American healthcare, and discusses the current state and desired future of integrative medical practice. The importance of patient-centered care, patient empowerment, behavior change, continuity of care, outcomes research, and the challenges to successful integration are discussed. The authors suggest a model for an integrative healthcare system grounded in team-based care. A primary health partner who knows the patient well, is able to addresses mind, body, and spiritual needs, and coordinates care with the help of a team of practitioners is at the centerpiece. Collectively, the team can meet all the health needs of the particular patient and forms the patient-centered medical home. The paper culminates with 10 recommendations directed to key actors to facilitate the systemic changes needed for a functional healthcare delivery system. Recommendations include creating financial incentives aligned with health promotion and prevention. Insurers are requested to consider the total costs of care, the potential cost effectiveness of lifestyle approaches and CAM modalities, and the value of longer office visits to develop a therapeutic relationship and stimulate behavioral change. Outcomes research to track the effectiveness of integrative models must be funded, as well as feedback and dissemination strategies

  2. Teaching Patient-centered Tobacco Intervention to First-year Medical Students

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Richard L; Pfeifer, Judie M; Gjerde, Craig L; Seibert, Christine S; Haq, Cynthia L

    2004-01-01

    The University of Wisconsin's Tobacco Intervention Basic Skills curriculum (TIBS) was inaugurated to begin training 147 first-year medical students in skills for promoting health behavior change. Learning activities included lecture, demonstration, reading, quiz, role-play exercises, and standardized patient interviews. After TIBS, the 69 students who provided pre- and postintervention data exhibited more therapeutic attitudes and increased knowledge and self-confidence in applying TIBS skills. Two months later, 52% of the 109 posttest respondents had applied TIBS in clinical settings, often for behaviors other than tobacco use. We conclude that medical students can gain from early training on promoting behavior change. PMID:15109319

  3. [Patient centered practice in internal medicine].

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Rui; Freire, Elga; Alves, Júlia; Rocha, Nelson

    2010-01-01

    We made a cross-sectional study aimed at 50 professionals (18 doctors, 32 nurses) of a tertiary hospital Internal Medicine (IM) ward, focusing the relevant knowledge in various areas of Patient-Centered Care in Chronic Disease: symptom control, pharmacology and palliative prognostic discussion. Almost 98% believe that most patients need strategies for symptomatic care, which died in hospital in considerable suffering (68%). Provision of palliative care in the community was rarely established with the primary health team. 90% were favourable on the creation of a hospital palliative care team. Around 57% find essential to prognosticate before thinking about mitigation strategies. While 75% of professionals had already discussed end-of-life directives with, at least, one patient, only one case could be formalized in writing. The rate of use of scales for assessing the intensity of pain was less than 50% and 38% did not indicate major opioids for the treatment of moderate intensity pain. These were considered contra-indicated for relief of dyspnoea in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease by 20% of professionals and 55% of those were unaware that its use and titration is governed by the same principles used in pain control. Around 44% of the respondents had already used the subcutaneous route for administration of drugs and 58% for hydration. Despite the team recognition of the potential for suffering of patients and the need for mitigation strategies, they remain linked to prognosis and not to symptomatic complexity. There are gaps in regard to control of pain, dyspnoea and in continuity of care.

  4. Stem cell research and regenerative medicine in 2014: first year of regenerative medicine in Japan.

    PubMed

    Okano, Hideyuki

    2014-09-15

    It is my great pleasure to announce that we were able to publish the Japan Issue in Stem Cells and Development, especially in this year 2014. This year, 2014, is said to be the First Year of Regenerative Medicine in Japan. This movement is likely to be based on the establishment of a new law system regarding regenerative medicine (an Act for Ensuring the Safety of Regenerative Medicine or the so-called Regenerative Medicine Law) and the partial revision of the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law (PAL). Both laws will come into effect in 2014 in this country. These new law systems are expected to have a great impact on the facilitation of R&D related to regenerative medicine and stem cell biology. In the present Japan Issue, some excellent stem cell research in this country will be introduced to celebrate the First Year of Regenerative Medicine in Japan.

  5. Nuclear medicine in the first year of life.

    PubMed

    Treves, S Ted; Baker, Amanda; Fahey, Frederic H; Cao, Xinhua; Davis, Royal T; Drubach, Laura A; Grant, Frederick D; Zukotynski, Katherine

    2011-06-01

    Nuclear medicine has an important role in the care of newborns and children less than 1 y old. Patients in this age group present with a spectrum of diseases different from those of older children or adults. These patients can benefit from the full range of nuclear medicine studies. In these young children, nuclear medicine studies are more likely to be used to evaluate a wide range of congenital conditions but also can be helpful for evaluating acquired conditions such as infection, cancer, and trauma. This review first will cover the general aspects of nuclear medicine practice with these patients, including the special considerations that can help achieve successful diagnostic imaging. These topics will include clinical indications, imaging technology, instrumentation, software, positioning and immobilization, sedation, local and general anesthesia, radiopharmaceutical doses, radiation risk, and dose reduction. The review then will discuss the specific nuclear medicine studies that typically are obtained in patients in this age group. With extra care and attention to the special needs of this population, nuclear medicine departments can successfully study patients less than 1 y old.

  6. First-year family medicine residents' use of computers: knowledge, skills and attitudes.

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, B H; Ryan, D T; Therrien, S; Mulloy, J V

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify the computer knowledge, skills and attitudes of first-year family medicine residents. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey of family medicine residents during the academic year 1993-94; sampling began in July 1993 and ended in October 1993. SETTING: Canada. PARTICIPANTS: All 727 first-year family medicine residents, of whom 433 (60%) responded. OUTCOME MEASURES: Previous computer experience or training, current use, barriers to use, and comfort with and attitudes regarding computers. RESULTS: There was no difference in age or sex between the respondents and all first-year family medicine residents in Canada. French-speaking respondents from Quebec were underrepresented (p < 0.001). Only 56 respondents (13%) felt extremely or very comfortable with computer use. The most commonly cited barriers to obtaining computer training were lack of time (243 respondents [56%]) and the high cost of computers (214 [49%]) but not lack of interest (69 [16%]). Most residents wanted more computer training (367 [85%]) and felt that computer training should be a mandatory component of family medicine training programs (308 [71%]). CONCLUSIONS: Computer knowledge and skills and comfort with computer use appear low among first-year family medicine residents in Canada, and barriers to acquisition of computer knowledge are impressive. Computer training should become an integral part of family medicine training in Canada, and user-friendly applicable computer systems are needed. PMID:7614442

  7. An Integrated Visualization and Basic Molecular Modeling Laboratory for First-Year Undergraduate Medicinal Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    A 3D model visualization and basic molecular modeling laboratory suitable for first-year undergraduates studying introductory medicinal chemistry is presented. The 2 h practical is embedded within a series of lectures on drug design, target-drug interactions, enzymes, receptors, nucleic acids, and basic pharmacokinetics. Serving as a teaching aid…

  8. First Year Medical Students' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Interest in Geriatric Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Wei-Hsin; Hoffman, Kimberly G.; Hosokawa, Michael C.; Gray, M. Peggy; Zweig, Steven C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of an extracurricular geriatric program on medical students' knowledge of, and attitudes toward, the elderly and their interest in studying geriatric medicine. The participants were first-year medical students (n = 137) who joined the Senior Teacher Education Partnership (STEP) program that…

  9. First Year Medical Students' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Interest in Geriatric Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Wei-Hsin; Hoffman, Kimberly G.; Hosokawa, Michael C.; Gray, M. Peggy; Zweig, Steven C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of an extracurricular geriatric program on medical students' knowledge of, and attitudes toward, the elderly and their interest in studying geriatric medicine. The participants were first-year medical students (n = 137) who joined the Senior Teacher Education Partnership (STEP) program that…

  10. An Integrated Visualization and Basic Molecular Modeling Laboratory for First-Year Undergraduate Medicinal Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    A 3D model visualization and basic molecular modeling laboratory suitable for first-year undergraduates studying introductory medicinal chemistry is presented. The 2 h practical is embedded within a series of lectures on drug design, target-drug interactions, enzymes, receptors, nucleic acids, and basic pharmacokinetics. Serving as a teaching aid…

  11. Medicinal plants used as home remedies: a family survey by first year medical students.

    PubMed

    Sewani-Rusike, Constance R; Mammen, Marykutty

    2014-01-01

    There is a hierarchical organisation of knowledge in the use of medicinal plants in communities. Medicinal use knowledge starts in the home and is passed on to family members. Next in the hierarchy are neighbours, village elders and finally, traditional healers being the most knowledgeable. For primary health care this hierarchy is actively followed in seeking remedies for ailments. This study was a survey of medicinal plant knowledge from family members of 1(st) year medical students registered at Walter Sisulu University. A total of 206 first year medical students participated in this study in 2010 and 2011. Results revealed 47 species used as home remedies, 32% of which are food plants. Leaves and roots were reported as most commonly used. The top five ailments managed at home were gastrointestinal problems (25 plants), wounds (19 plants), respiratory tract problems (19 plants), infections, including sexually transmitted diseases (19 plants) and pain including headaches (19 plants). Chronic diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, cancer and reproductive ailments also formed a large group of diseases self-managed at home (29 plants). Family members hold knowledge of medicinal plant use. From this study, first year medical students were made aware of the relationship between common ailments and associated home remedies. This study forms a basis for further study of medicinal plants to validate their use as medicinal remedies.

  12. Pediatrics Education in an AHEC Setting: Preparing Students to Provide Patient Centered Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Steven Owens

    2012-01-01

    Patient centered medicine is a paradigm of health care that seeks to treat the whole person, rather than only the illness. The physician must understand the patient as a whole by considering the patient's individual needs, social structure, socioeconomic status, and educational background. Medical education includes ways to train students in this…

  13. Pediatrics Education in an AHEC Setting: Preparing Students to Provide Patient Centered Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Steven Owens

    2012-01-01

    Patient centered medicine is a paradigm of health care that seeks to treat the whole person, rather than only the illness. The physician must understand the patient as a whole by considering the patient's individual needs, social structure, socioeconomic status, and educational background. Medical education includes ways to train students in this…

  14. Exploratory trials, confirmatory observations: a new reasoning model in the era of patient-centered medicine.

    PubMed

    Sacristán, José A

    2011-04-25

    The prevailing view in therapeutic clinical research today is that observational studies are useful for generating new hypotheses and that controlled experiments (i.e., randomized clinical trials, RCTs) are the most appropriate method for assessing and confirming the efficacy of interventions. The current trend towards patient-centered medicine calls for alternative ways of reasoning, and in particular for a shift towards hypothetico-deductive logic, in which theory is adjusted in light of individual facts. A new model of this kind should change our approach to drug research and development, and regulation. The assessment of new therapeutic agents would be viewed as a continuous process, and regulatory approval would no longer be regarded as the final step in the testing of a hypothesis, but rather, as the hypothesis-generating step. The main role of RCTs in this patient-centered research paradigm would be to generate hypotheses, while observations would serve primarily to test their validity for different types of patients. Under hypothetico-deductive logic, RCTs are considered "exploratory" and observations, "confirmatory". In this era of tailored therapeutics, the answers to therapeutic questions cannot come exclusively from methods that rely on data aggregation, the analysis of similarities, controlled experiments, and a search for the best outcome for the average patient; they must also come from methods based on data disaggregation, analysis of subgroups and individuals, an integration of research and clinical practice, systematic observations, and a search for the best outcome for the individual patient. We must look not only to evidence-based medicine, but also to medicine-based evidence, in seeking the knowledge that we need.

  15. The Impact of Vodcast Utilisation upon Student Learning of Physiology by First Year Graduate to Entry Medicine Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rae, Mark G.; McCarthy, Marion

    2017-01-01

    The current study sought to determine the effectiveness of video-on-demand podcasts (vodcasts) as a tool for facilitating the understanding of Physiology by first year undergraduate Graduate Entry to Medicine (GEM 1) students. Seventy-three GEM 1 students were provided with full length vodcasts of lecture material in advance of each of nine…

  16. The role of informatics in patient-centered care and personalized medicine.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Matthew G; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2017-06-01

    The practice of cytopathology has dramatically changed due to advances in genomics and information technology. Cytology laboratories have accordingly become increasingly dependent on pathology informatics support to meet the emerging demands of precision medicine. Pathology informatics deals with information technology in the laboratory, and the impact of this technology on workflow processes and staff who interact with these tools. This article covers the critical role that laboratory information systems, electronic medical records, and digital imaging plays in patient-centered personalized medicine. The value of integrated diagnostic reports, clinical decision support, and the use of whole-slide imaging to better evaluate cytology samples destined for molecular testing is discussed. Image analysis that offers more precise and quantitative measurements in cytology is addressed, as well as the role of bioinformatics tools to cope with Big Data from next-generation sequencing. This article also highlights the barriers to the widespread adoption of these disruptive technologies due to regulatory obstacles, limited commercial solutions, poor interoperability, and lack of standardization. Cancer Cytopathol 2017;125(6 suppl):494-501. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  17. Patient-centered care in chronic disease management: a thematic analysis of the literature in family medicine.

    PubMed

    Hudon, Catherine; Fortin, Martin; Haggerty, Jeannie; Loignon, Christine; Lambert, Mireille; Poitras, Marie-Eve

    2012-08-01

    The objective was to provide a synthesis of the results of the research and discourse lines on main dimensions of patient-centered care in the context of chronic disease management in family medicine, building on Stewart et al.'s model. We developed search strategies for the Medline, Embase, and Cochrane databases, from 1980 to April 2009. All articles addressing patient-centered care in the context of chronic disease management in family medicine were included. A thematic analysis was performed using mixed codification, based on Stewart's model of patient-centered care. Thirty-two articles were included. Six major themes emerged: (1) starting from the patient's situation; (2) legitimizing the illness experience; (3) acknowledging the patient's expertise; (4) offering realistic hope; (5) developing an ongoing partnership; (6) providing advocacy for the patient in the health care system. The context of chronic disease management brings forward new dimensions of patient-centered care such as legitimizing the illness experience, acknowledging patient expertise, offering hope and providing advocacy. Chronic disease management calls for the adaptation of the family physician's role to patients' fluctuating needs. Literature also suggests the involvement of the family physician in care transitions as a component of patient-centered care. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Patient Partnerships Transforming Sleep Medicine Research and Clinical Care: Perspectives from the Sleep Apnea Patient-Centered Outcomes Network

    PubMed Central

    Redline, Susan; Baker-Goodwin, Si; Bakker, Jessie P.; Epstein, Matthew; Hanes, Sherry; Hanson, Mark; Harrington, Zinta; Johnston, James C.; Kapur, Vishesh K.; Keepnews, David; Kontos, Emily; Lowe, Andy; Owens, Judith; Page, Kathy; Rothstein, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Due to an ongoing recent evolution in practice, sleep medicine as a discipline has been compelled to respond to the converging pressures to reduce costs, improve outcomes, and demonstrate value. Patient “researchers” are uniquely placed to participate in initiatives that address the specific needs and priorities of patients and facilitate the identification of interventions with high likelihood of acceptance by the “customer.” To date, however, the “patient voice” largely has been lacking in processes affecting relevant policies and practice guidelines. In this Special Report, patient and research leaders of the Sleep Apnea Patient-Centered Outcomes Network (SAPCON), a national collaborative group of patients, researchers and clinicians working together to promote patient-centered comparative effectiveness research, discuss these interrelated challenges in the context of sleep apnea, and the role patients and patient-centered networks may play in informing evidence-based research designed to meet patient's needs. We first briefly discuss the challenges facing sleep medicine associated with costs, outcomes, and value. We then discuss the key role patients and patient-centered networks can play in efforts to design research to guide better sleep health care, and national support for such initiatives. Finally, we summarize some of the challenges in moving to a new paradigm of patient-researcher-clinician partnerships. By forging strong partnerships among patients, clinicians and researchers, networks such as SAPCON can serve as a living demonstration of how to achieve value in health care. Citation: Redline S, Baker-Goodwin S, Bakker JP, Epstein M, Hanes S, Hanson M, Harrington Z, Johnston JC, Kapur VK, Keepnews D, Kontos E, Lowe A, Owens J, Page K, Rothstein N, Sleep Apnea Patient-Centered Outcomes Network. Patient partnerships transforming sleep medicine research and clinical care: perspectives from the Sleep Apnea Patient-Centered Outcomes Network. J

  19. Patient Partnerships Transforming Sleep Medicine Research and Clinical Care: Perspectives from the Sleep Apnea Patient-Centered Outcomes Network.

    PubMed

    Redline, Susan; Baker-Goodwin, Si; Bakker, Jessie P; Epstein, Matthew; Hanes, Sherry; Hanson, Mark; Harrington, Zinta; Johnston, James C; Kapur, Vishesh K; Keepnews, David; Kontos, Emily; Lowe, Andy; Owens, Judith; Page, Kathy; Rothstein, Nancy

    2016-07-15

    Due to an ongoing recent evolution in practice, sleep medicine as a discipline has been compelled to respond to the converging pressures to reduce costs, improve outcomes, and demonstrate value. Patient "researchers" are uniquely placed to participate in initiatives that address the specific needs and priorities of patients and facilitate the identification of interventions with high likelihood of acceptance by the "customer." To date, however, the "patient voice" largely has been lacking in processes affecting relevant policies and practice guidelines. In this Special Report, patient and research leaders of the Sleep Apnea Patient-Centered Outcomes Network (SAPCON), a national collaborative group of patients, researchers and clinicians working together to promote patient-centered comparative effectiveness research, discuss these interrelated challenges in the context of sleep apnea, and the role patients and patient-centered networks may play in informing evidence-based research designed to meet patient's needs. We first briefly discuss the challenges facing sleep medicine associated with costs, outcomes, and value. We then discuss the key role patients and patient-centered networks can play in efforts to design research to guide better sleep health care, and national support for such initiatives. Finally, we summarize some of the challenges in moving to a new paradigm of patient-researcher-clinician partnerships. By forging strong partnerships among patients, clinicians and researchers, networks such as SAPCON can serve as a living demonstration of how to achieve value in health care. © 2016 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  20. Patient-centered medical home intervention at an internal medicine resident safety-net clinic.

    PubMed

    Hochman, Michael E; Asch, Steven; Jibilian, Arek; Chaudry, Bharat; Ben-Ari, Ron; Hsieh, Eric; Berumen, Margaret; Mokhtari, Shahrod; Raad, Mohamad; Hicks, Elisabeth; Sanford, Crystal; Aguirre, Norma; Tseng, Chi-hong; Vangala, Sitaram; Mangione, Carol M; Goldstein, David A

    2013-10-14

    The patient-centered medical home (PCMH) model holds promise for improving primary care delivery, but it has not been adequately tested in teaching settings. We implemented an intervention guided by PCMH principles at a safety-net teaching clinic with resident physician providers. Two similar clinics served as controls. Using a cross-sectional design, we measured the effect on patient and resident satisfaction using the Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems survey and a validated teaching clinic survey, respectively. Both surveys were conducted at baseline and 1 year after the intervention. We also measured the effect on emergency department and hospital utilization. Following implementation of our intervention, the clinic’s score on the National Committee for Quality Assurance’s PCMH certification tool improved from 35 to 53 of 100 possible points, although our clinic did not achieve all must-pass elements to qualify as a PCMH. During the 1-year study period, 4676 patients were exposed to the intervention; 39.9% of these used at least 1 program component. Compared with baseline, patient-reported access and overall satisfaction improved to a greater extent in the intervention clinic, and the composite satisfaction rating increased from 48% to 65% in the intervention clinic vs from 50% to 59% in the control sites (P = .04). The improvements were particularly notable for questions relating to access. For example, satisfaction with urgent appointment scheduling increased from 12% to 53% in the intervention clinic vs from 14% to 18% in the control clinics (P < .001). Resident satisfaction also improved in the intervention clinic: the composite satisfaction score increased from 39% to 51% in the intervention clinic vs a decrease from 46% to 42% in the control clinics (P = .01). Emergency department utilization did not differ significantly between the intervention and control clinics, and hospitalizations increased from 26 to 27 visits

  1. Patient-Centered Medical Home Intervention at an Internal Medicine Resident Safety-Net Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Hochman, Michael E.; Asch, Steven; Jibilian, Arek; Chaudry, Bharat; Ben-Ari, Ron; Hsieh, Eric; Berumen, Margaret; Mokhtari, Shahrod; Raad, Mohamad; Hicks, Elisabeth; Sanford, Crystal; Aguirre, Norma; Tseng, Chi-hong; Vangala, Sitaram; Mangione, Carol M.; Goldstein, David A.

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE The patient-centered medical home (PCMH) model holds promise for improving primary care delivery, but it has not been adequately tested in teaching settings. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS We implemented an intervention guided by PCMH principles at a safety-net teaching clinic with resident physician providers. Two similar clinics served as controls. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Using a cross-sectional design, we measured the effect on patient and resident satisfaction using the Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems survey and a validated teaching clinic survey, respectively. Both surveys were conducted at baseline and 1 year after the intervention. We also measured the effect on emergency department and hospital utilization. RESULTS Following implementation of our intervention, the clinic’s score on the National Committee for Quality Assurance’s PCMH certification tool improved from 35 to 53 of 100 possible points, although our clinic did not achieve all must-pass elements to qualify as a PCMH. During the 1-year study period, 4676 patients were exposed to the intervention; 39.9% of these used at least 1 program component. Compared with baseline, patient-reported access and overall satisfaction improved to a greater extent in the intervention clinic, and the composite satisfaction rating increased from 48% to 65% in the intervention clinic vs from 50% to 59% in the control sites (P = .04). The improvements were particularly notable for questions relating to access. For example, satisfaction with urgent appointment scheduling increased from 12% to 53% in the intervention clinic vs from 14% to 18% in the control clinics (P < .001). Resident satisfaction also improved in the intervention clinic: the composite satisfaction score increased from 39% to 51% in the intervention clinic vs a decrease from 46%to 42% in the control clinics (P = .01). Emergency department utilization did not differ significantly between the intervention and

  2. First year medical student attitudes about advocacy in medicine across multiple fields of discipline: analysis of reflective essays

    PubMed Central

    Press, Valerie G.; Fritz, Cassandra D. L.; Vela, Monica B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Advocacy is often described as a pillar of the medical profession. However, the impact of advocacy training on medical students’ identity as advocates in the medical profession is not well-described. Aim/Setting/Participants We sought to introduce an advocacy curriculum to a mandatory Health Care Disparities (HCD) course for 88 first year medical students. Program Description The 2013 HCD added advocacy curriculum that included: guest lecturers’ perspectives on their advocacy experience; reflective essay assignments assessing self-identify as an advocate; advocacy-specific lectures and large group discussions; and participation in small group community projects. Evaluation A mixed methods approached was used to evaluate 88 first year medical students’ advocacy themed reflective essays, independently coded by three investigators, and Likert-response questions were compared to published benchmarked items. The IRB exempted this study. Analysis of student essays revealed that students were better able to identify as an advocate in medicine. The survey also revealed that 86% post-course vs. 73% precourse agreed/strongly agreed with the statement: “I consider myself an advocate” (p=0.006). Discussion Exposing all medical students to advocacy within medicine may help shape and define their perceived professional role. Future work will explore adding advocacy and leadership skill training to the HCD course. PMID:26693136

  3. Caring for patients with kidney disease: shifting the paradigm from evidence-based medicine to patient-centered care.

    PubMed

    O'Hare, Ann M; Rodriguez, Rudolph A; Bowling, Christopher Barrett

    2016-03-01

    The last several decades have witnessed the emergence of evidence-based medicine as the dominant paradigm for medical teaching, research and practice. Under an evidence-based approach, populations rather than individuals become the primary focus of investigation. Treatment priorities are largely shaped by the availability, relevance and quality of evidence and study outcomes and results are assumed to have more or less universal significance based on their implications at the population level. However, population-level treatment goals do not always align with what matters the most to individual patients-who may weigh the risks, benefits and harms of recommended treatments quite differently. In this article we describe the rise of evidence-based medicine in historical context. We discuss limitations of this approach for supporting real-world treatment decisions-especially in older adults with confluent comorbidity, functional impairment and/or limited life expectancy-and we describe the emergence of more patient-centered paradigms to address these limitations. We explain how the principles of evidence-based medicine have helped to shape contemporary approaches to defining, classifying and managing patients with chronic kidney disease. We discuss the limitations of this approach and the potential value of a more patient-centered paradigm, with a particular focus on the care of older adults with this condition. We conclude by outlining ways in which the evidence-base might be reconfigured to better support real-world treatment decisions in individual patients and summarize relevant ongoing initiatives.

  4. The Nexus Between Patient-Centered Care and Complementary Medicine: Allies in the Era of Chronic Disease?

    PubMed

    Foley, Hope; Steel, Amie

    2017-03-03

    Complementary medicine (CM) holds an established place of value for health care consumers around the world. Consumers seek CM specifically for the type of clinical care provided by CM practitioners, which is perceived as holistic and individualized. The holistic approach of CM has been described as patient-centered and there are indeed many parallels between the philosophy of holism and the paradigm of patient-centered care (PCC). In light of the contemporary movement toward PCC as a means of improving health care delivery, it is worth exploring CM as a potential existing resource of PCC. This is of particular interest with consideration to the growing burden of chronic disease, the emphasis of PCC in chronic disease management, and the high representation of chronic disease sufferers among CM users. However, there has been minimal investigation into the question of whether the holistic philosophies of CM are translated by CM practitioners into practical, clinical application. The changing landscape of CM practice necessitates a deeper understanding of the nature of CM clinical care to assess the role of CM in the contemporary health care environment.

  5. Improving patient-centered care: agenda-setting in occupational medicine.

    PubMed

    Kuhle, Carol S; Truitt, Frances; Steffen, Mark; Undavalli, Chaitanya; Wang, Zhen; Montori, Victor M; Murad, Mohammad Hassan

    2013-05-01

    To improve patient satisfaction with care at an occupational medicine clinic by promoting agenda-setting before the visit. We distributed agenda-setting form to 77 randomly selected patients attending an occupational health clinic and used another randomly selected sample of 36 patients as control group. Patients completed a survey regarding the acceptability of this procedure and whether they felt clinicians addressed their important concerns. Most patients found the form helpful (73%) and wanted it offered in future visits (74%). There was no statistically significant difference in terms of the proportion of patients expressing greatest satisfaction by answering, "strongly agree" (intervention [86%], control [97%]; odds ratio, 0.17; 95% confidence interval, 0.02 to 1.38; P = 0.06). Agenda-setting can improve patient experience before occupational visits but does not improve postvisit satisfaction.

  6. Patient-centered Communication

    PubMed Central

    Swenson, Sara L; Buell, Stephanie; Zettler, Patti; White, Martha; Ruston, Delaney C; Lo, Bernard

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate patient preferences for a patient-centered or a biomedical communication style. DESIGN Randomized study. SETTING Urgent care and ambulatory medicine clinics in an academic medical center. PARTICIPANTS We recruited 250 English-speaking adult patients, excluding patients whose medical illnesses prevented evaluation of the study intervention. INTERVENTION Participants watched one of three videotaped scenarios of simulated patient-physician discussions of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Each participant watched two versions of the scenario (biomedical vs. patient-centered communication style) and completed written and oral questionnaires to assess outcome measurements. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Main outcome measures were 1) preferences for a patient-centered versus a biomedical communication style; and 2) predictors of communication style preference. Participants who preferred the patient-centered style (69%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 63 to 75) tended to be younger (82%[51/62] for age < 30; 68%[100/148] for ages 30–59; 55%[21/38] for age > 59; P < .03), more educated (76%[54/71] for postcollege education; 73%[94/128] for some college; 49%[23/47] for high school only; P = .003), use CAM (75%[140/188] vs. 55%[33/60] for nonusers; P = .006), and have a patient-centered physician (88%[74/84] vs. 30%[16/54] for those with a biomedical physician; P < .0001). On multivariate analysis, factors independently associated with preferring the patient-centered style included younger age, use of herbal CAM, having a patient-centered physician, and rating a “doctor's interest in you as a person” as “very important.” CONCLUSIONS Given that a significant proportion of patients prefer a biomedical communication style, practicing physicians and medical educators should strive for flexible approaches to physician-patient communication. PMID:15566435

  7. The relationship between communication scores from the USMLE Step 2 Clinical Skills examination and communication ratings for first-year internal medicine residents.

    PubMed

    Winward, Marcia L; Lipner, Rebecca S; Johnston, Mary M; Cuddy, Monica M; Clauser, Brian E

    2013-05-01

    This study extends available evidence about the relationship between scores on the Step 2 Clinical Skills (CS) component of the United States Medical Licensing Examination and subsequent performance in residency. It focuses on the relationship between Step 2 CS communication and interpersonal skills scores and communication skills ratings that residency directors assign to residents in their first postgraduate year of internal medicine training. It represents the first large-scale evaluation of the extent to which Step 2 CS communication and interpersonal skills scores can be extrapolated to examinee performance in supervised practice. Hierarchical linear modeling techniques were used to examine the relationships among examinee characteristics, residency program characteristics, and residency-director-provided ratings. The sample comprised 6,306 examinees from 238 internal medicine residency programs who completed Step 2 CS for the first time in 2005 and received ratings during their first year of internal medicine residency training. Although the relationship is modest, Step 2 CS communication and interpersonal skills scores predict communication skills ratings for first-year internal medicine residents after accounting for other factors. The results of this study make a reasonable case that Step 2 CS communication and interpersonal skills scores provide useful information for predicting the level of communication skill that examinees will display in their first year of internal medicine residency training. This finding demonstrates some level of extrapolation from the testing context to behavior in supervised practice, thus providing validity-related evidence for using Step 2 CS communication and interpersonal skills scores in high-stakes decisions.

  8. An Exploration of the Relationship between Psychological Capital and Depression among First-Year Doctor of Veterinary Medicine Students.

    PubMed

    Bakker, Dorothy J; Lyons, Sean T; Conlon, Peter D

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the impact of psychological capital on depressive symptoms among Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (DVM) students (n=84) over their first two semesters of studies. Our results indicated elevated rates of depression in both the first and second semesters relative to published norms. Using the typology developed by Hafen, Reisbig, White, and Rush (2008), students were classified as either "adaptive" (i.e., improving depressive symptomatology from semester to semester) or "struggling" (i.e., worsening depressive symptomatology from semester to semester). All four components of psychological capital (i.e., self-esteem, optimism, hope, and resilience) were positively associated with adaptive response to depression. These results are significant, as the components of psychological capital can be learned and strengthened through deliberate interventions, providing tangible guidance for students, faculty, and health professionals in their efforts to improve student wellness.

  9. Developing a patient-centered outcome measure for complementary and alternative medicine therapies II: Refining content validity through cognitive interviews

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    and refinement. In so doing, we provide an innovative model for the development of truly patient-centered outcome measures. Although this instrument was designed and tested in a CAM-specific population, it may be useful in assessing multi-dimensional shifts in well-being across a broader patient population. PMID:22206409

  10. Developing a patient-centered outcome measure for complementary and alternative medicine therapies I: defining content and format

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Patients receiving complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies often report shifts in well-being that go beyond resolution of the original presenting symptoms. We undertook a research program to develop and evaluate a patient-centered outcome measure to assess the multidimensional impacts of CAM therapies, utilizing a novel mixed methods approach that relied upon techniques from the fields of anthropology and psychometrics. This tool would have broad applicability, both for CAM practitioners to measure shifts in patients' states following treatments, and conventional clinical trial researchers needing validated outcome measures. The US Food and Drug Administration has highlighted the importance of valid and reliable measurement of patient-reported outcomes in the evaluation of conventional medical products. Here we describe Phase I of our research program, the iterative process of content identification, item development and refinement, and response format selection. Cognitive interviews and psychometric evaluation are reported separately. Methods From a database of patient interviews (n = 177) from six diverse CAM studies, 150 interviews were identified for secondary analysis in which individuals spontaneously discussed unexpected changes associated with CAM. Using ATLAS.ti, we identified common themes and language to inform questionnaire item content and wording. Respondents' language was often richly textured, but item development required a stripping down of language to extract essential meaning and minimize potential comprehension barriers across populations. Through an evocative card sort interview process, we identified those items most widely applicable and covering standard psychometric domains. We developed, pilot-tested, and refined the format, yielding a questionnaire for cognitive interviews and psychometric evaluation. Results The resulting questionnaire contained 18 items, in visual analog scale format, in which each line was

  11. SMART DOCS: A New Patient-Centered Outcomes and Coordinated-Care Management Approach for the Future Practice of Sleep Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Kushida, Clete A.; Nichols, Deborah A.; Holmes, Tyson H.; Miller, Ric; Griffin, Kara; Cardell, Chia-Yu; Hyde, Pamela R.; Cohen, Elyse; Manber, Rachel; Walsh, James K.

    2015-01-01

    The practice of medicine is currently undergoing a transformation to become more efficient, cost-effective, and patient centered in its delivery of care. The aim of this article is to stimulate discussion within the sleep medicine community in addressing these needs by our approach as well as other approaches to sleep medicine care. The primary goals of the Sustainable Methods, Algorithms, and Research Tools for Delivering Optimal Care Study (SMART DOCS) are: (1) to introduce a new Patient-Centered Outcomes and Coordinated-Care Management (PCCM) approach for the future practice of sleep medicine, and (2) to test the PCCM approach against a Conventional Diagnostic and Treatment Outpatient Medical Care (CONV) approach in a randomized, two-arm, single-center, long-term, comparative effectiveness trial. The PCCM approach is integrated into a novel outpatient care delivery model for patients with sleep disorders that includes the latest technology, allowing providers to obtain more accurate and rapid diagnoses and to make evidence-based treatment recommendations, while simultaneously enabling patients to have access to personalized medical information and reports regarding their diagnosis and treatment so that they can make more informed health care decisions. Additionally, the PCCM approach facilitates better communication between patients, referring primary care physicians, sleep specialists, and allied health professionals so that providers can better assist patients in achieving their preferred outcomes. A total of 1,506 patients 18 y or older will be randomized to either the PCCM or CONV approach and will be followed for at least 1 y with endpoints of improved health care performance, better health, and cost control. Clinical Trials Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02037438. Citation: Kushida CA, Nichols DA, Holmes TH, Miller R, Griffin K, Cardell CY, Hyde PR, Cohen E, Manber R, Walsh JK. SMART DOCS: a new patient-centered outcomes and coordinated

  12. Validation of simulated difficult bag-mask ventilation as a training and evaluation method for first-year internal medicine house staff.

    PubMed

    Pastis, Nicholas J; Doelken, Peter; Vanderbilt, Allison A; Walker, John; Schaefer, John J

    2013-02-01

    The past decade has witnessed the increased use of patient simulation in medical training as a method to teach complex bedside skills. Although effective bag-mask ventilation (BMV) is a critical part of airway management, the quality of training in this skill has been questioned. First-year internal medicine house staff (novices) were used to evaluate a computerized patient simulator as a tool to teach difficult BMV. A novice group and an expert group (certified registered nurse anesthetists and anesthesiologists) were tested to validate the simulator's ability to distinguish between these 2 skill levels. The difference between the novice and expert groups in the ability to perform difficult BMV was statistically significant (P < 0.0001). Brief training for novices led to a 100% pass rate and competence as measured by the simulator. Simulation training was effective in increasing the ability to ventilate a simulated difficult-to-ventilate patient (P < 0.0001). This study suggests that this computerized patient simulator was validated as a simulation model for teaching difficult BMV and differentiating skill levels in BMV. Using the simulator with brief training on difficult BMV allowed new internal medicine house staff to successfully ventilate a simulated difficult patient.

  13. SMART DOCS: a new patient-centered outcomes and coordinated-care management approach for the future practice of sleep medicine.

    PubMed

    Kushida, Clete A; Nichols, Deborah A; Holmes, Tyson H; Miller, Ric; Griffin, Kara; Cardell, Chia-Yu; Hyde, Pamela R; Cohen, Elyse; Manber, Rachel; Walsh, James K

    2015-02-01

    The practice of medicine is currently undergoing a transformation to become more efficient, cost-effective, and patient centered in its delivery of care. The aim of this article is to stimulate discussion within the sleep medicine community in addressing these needs by our approach as well as other approaches to sleep medicine care. The primary goals of the Sustainable Methods, Algorithms, and Research Tools for Delivering Optimal Care Study (SMART DOCS) are: (1) to introduce a new Patient-Centered Outcomes and Coordinated-Care Management (PCCM) approach for the future practice of sleep medicine, and (2) to test the PCCM approach against a Conventional Diagnostic and Treatment Outpatient Medical Care (CONV) approach in a randomized, two-arm, single-center, long-term, comparative effectiveness trial. The PCCM approach is integrated into a novel outpatient care delivery model for patients with sleep disorders that includes the latest technology, allowing providers to obtain more accurate and rapid diagnoses and to make evidence-based treatment recommendations, while simultaneously enabling patients to have access to personalized medical information and reports regarding their diagnosis and treatment so that they can make more informed health care decisions. Additionally, the PCCM approach facilitates better communication between patients, referring primary care physicians, sleep specialists, and allied health professionals so that providers can better assist patients in achieving their preferred outcomes. A total of 1,506 patients 18 y or older will be randomized to either the PCCM or CONV approach and will be followed for at least 1 y with endpoints of improved health care performance, better health, and cost control. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT02037438. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  14. Choice of speciality amongst first-year medical students in the Nelson R. Mandela School of Medicine, University of KwaZulu-Natal

    PubMed Central

    Naidu, Edwin; Naidu, Jesse

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Trends in career choice amongst medical graduates have considerable implications for the percentage of the workforce available for training. Objective To investigate and review factors affecting career choice by undergraduate first-year medical students. Method This was a cross-sectional study using a closed-ended, semi-structured survey instrument. Two hundred and four questionnaires were administered to all first-year medical students at the Nelson R. Mandela School of Medicine in the first term of the 2012 academic session. Results The questionnaire was completed by 167 out of 204 students (81.8% response rate). Most of the respondents were South Africans (91%) and blacks (72%), with a higher proportion of women to men (2:1). The majority (86%) intended to undertake their postgraduate training in surgical specialties (53%), general surgery (50%) and cardiology (46%). Few were interested in an academic career in basic sciences (27.6%), either because they were not interested in research and/or teaching (48%), not clinically-orientated (20%), or found it to be an unattractive choice (12.3%). The top perceived career-related factors favouring choice of speciality were personal interest and benefits to patients as many (83%) respondents still viewed the medical profession as having a bright future in South Africa. Conclusions Our study highlighted the fact that self and patient interests were strong determinants of speciality choices by the students and the role of parents and practice in rural areas were considered least as potential influencing factors. This would appear to be a good indicator that the healthcare sector may be boosted in the future by doctors who are wholeheartedly committed to the service of the communities with the greatest disease burden.

  15. Toward competency-based curricula in patient-centered spiritual care: recommended competencies for family medicine resident education.

    PubMed

    Anandarajah, Gowri; Craigie, Frederic; Hatch, Robert; Kliewer, Stephen; Marchand, Lucille; King, Dana; Hobbs, Richard; Daaleman, Timothy P

    2010-12-01

    Spiritual care is increasingly recognized as an important component of medical care. Although many primary care residency programs incorporate spiritual care into their curricula, there are currently no consensus guidelines regarding core competencies necessary for primary care training. In 2006, the Society of Teachers of Family Medicine's Interest Group on Spirituality undertook a three-year initiative to address this need. The project leader assembled a diverse panel of eight educators with dual expertise in (1) spirituality and health and (2) family medicine. The multidisciplinary panel members represented different geographic regions and diverse faith traditions and were nationally recognized senior faculty. They underwent three rounds of a modified Delphi technique to achieve initial consensus regarding spiritual care competencies (SCCs) tailored for family medicine residency training, followed by an iterative process of external validation, feedback, and consensus modifications of the SCCs. Panel members identified six knowledge, nine skills, and four attitude core SCCs for use in training and linked these to competencies of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. They identified three global competencies for use in promotion and graduation criteria. Defining core competencies in spiritual care clarifies training goals and provides the basis for robust curricula evaluation. Given the breadth of family medicine, these competencies may be adaptable to other primary care fields, to medical and surgical specialties, and to medical student education. Effective training in this area may enhance physicians' ability to attend to the physical, mental, and spiritual needs of patients and better maintain sustainable healing relationships.

  16. Association Between Patient- Centered Medical Home Features and Satisfaction With Family Medicine Residency Training in the US.

    PubMed

    Carney, Patricia A; Waller, Elaine; Dexter, Eve; Marino, Miguel; Rosener, Stephanie E; Green, Larry A; Jones, Geoffrey; M Keister, J Drew; Dostal, Julie A; Jones, Samuel M; Eiff, M Patrice

    2016-11-01

    Primary care residencies are undergoing dramatic changes because of changing health care systems and evolving demands for updated training models. We examined the relationships between residents' exposures to patient-centered medical home (PCMH) features in their assigned continuity clinics and their satisfaction with training. Longitudinal surveys were collected annually from residents evaluating satisfaction with training using a 5-point Likert-type scale (1=very unsatisfied to 5=very satisfied) from 2007 through 2011, and the presence or absence of PCMH features were collected from 24 continuity clinics during the same time period. Odds ratios on residents' overall satisfaction were compared according to whether they had no exposure to PCMH features, some exposure (1-2 years), or full exposure (all 3 or more years). Fourteen programs and 690 unique residents provided data to this study. Resident satisfaction with training was highest with full exposure for integrated case management compared to no exposure, which occurred in 2010 (OR=2.85, 95% CI=1.40, 5.80). Resident satisfaction was consistently statistically lower with any or full exposure (versus none) to expanded clinic hours in 2007 and 2009 (eg, OR for some exposure in 2009 was 0.31 95% CI=0.19, 0.51, and OR for full exposure 0.28 95% CI=0.16, 0.49). Resident satisfaction for many electronic health record (EHR)-based features tended to be significantly lower with any exposure (some or full) versus no exposure over the study period. For example, the odds ratio for resident satisfaction was significantly lower with any exposure to electronic health records in continuity practice in 2008, 2009, and 2010 (OR for some exposure in 2008 was 0.36; 95% CI=0.19, 0.70, with comparable results in 2009, 2010). Resident satisfaction with training was inconsistently correlated with exposure to features of PCMH. No correlation between PCMH exposure and resident satisfaction was sustained over time.

  17. Training family medicine residents to build and remodel a patient centered medical home in Rhode Island: a team based approach to PCMH education.

    PubMed

    Chandran, Rabin; Furey, Christopher; Goldberg, Arnold; Ashley, David; Anandarajah, Gowri

    2014-04-01

    Primary Care practices in the United States are undergoing rapid transformation into Patient Centered Medical Homes (PCMHs), prompting a need to train resident physicians in this new model of primary care. However, few PCMH curricula are described or evaluated in the literature. We describe the development and implementation of an innovative, month-long, team-based, block rotation, integrated into the Brown Family Medicine Residency Program, within the context of statewide PCMH practice transformation in Rhode Island. The PCMH resident team (first-, second- and third-year residents) gain PCMH skills, with progressive levels of responsibility through residency. In addition to traditional supervised direct outpatient care, learning activities include: active participation in PCMH transformation projects, population health level patient management, quality improvement activities, interdisciplinary teamwork, chronic disease management (including leading group medical visits), and PCMH specific didactics paired with weekly projects. This new clinical block rotation and team holds promise as a model to train residents for future PCMH primary care practices.

  18. Patient-centered Radiology.

    PubMed

    Itri, Jason N

    2015-10-01

    Patient-centered care (ie, care organized around the patient) is a model in which health care providers partner with patients and families to identify and satisfy patients' needs and preferences. In this model, providers respect patients' values and preferences, address their emotional and social needs, and involve them and their families in decision making. Radiologists have traditionally been characterized as "doctor-to-doctor" consultants who are distanced from patients and work within a culture that does not value patient centeredness. As medicine becomes more patient driven and the trajectory of health care is toward increasing patient self-reliance, radiologists must change the perception that they are merely consultants and become more active participants in patient care by embracing greater patient interaction. The traditional business model for radiology practices, which devalues interaction between patients and radiologists, must be transformed into a patient-centered model in which radiologists are reintegrated into direct patient care and imaging processes are reorganized around patients' needs and preferences. Expanding radiology's core assets to include direct patient care may be the most effective deterrent to the threat of commoditization. As the assault on the growth of Medicare spending continues, with medical imaging as a highly visible target, radiologists must adapt to the changing landscape by focusing on their most important consumer: the patient. This may yield substantial benefits in the form of improved quality and patient safety, reduced costs, higher-value care, improved patient outcomes, and greater patient and provider satisfaction.

  19. A Randomized Controlled Trial to Decrease Job Burnout in First-Year Internal Medicine Residents Using a Facilitated Discussion Group Intervention.

    PubMed

    Ripp, Jonathan A; Fallar, Robert; Korenstein, Deborah

    2016-05-01

    Background Burnout is common in internal medicine (IM) trainees and is associated with depression and suboptimal patient care. Facilitated group discussion reduces burnout among practicing clinicians. Objective We hypothesized that this type of intervention would reduce incident burnout among first-year IM residents. Methods Between June 2013 and May 2014, participants from a convenience sample of 51 incoming IM residents were randomly assigned (in groups of 3) to the intervention or a control. Twice-monthly theme-based discussion sessions (18 total) led by expert facilitators were held for intervention groups. Surveys were administered at study onset and completion. Demographic and personal characteristics were collected. Burnout and burnout domains were the primary outcomes. Following convention, we defined burnout as a high emotional exhaustion or depersonalization score on the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Results All 51 eligible residents participated; 39 (76%) completed both surveys. Initial burnout prevalence (10 of 21 [48%] versus 7 of 17 [41%], P = .69), incidence of burnout at year end (9 of 11 [82%] versus 5 of 10 [50%], P = .18), and secondary outcomes were similar in intervention and control arms. More residents in the intervention group had high year-end depersonalization scores (18 of 21 [86%] versus 9 of 17 [53%], P = .04). Many intervention residents revealed that sessions did not truly free them from clinical or educational responsibilities. Conclusions A facilitated group discussion intervention did not decrease burnout in resident physicians. Future discussion-based interventions for reducing resident burnout should be voluntary and effectively free participants from clinical duties.

  20. Your Baby's First Year

    MedlinePlus

    ... that you can have the same hopes and dreams for your child born with a cleft as ... teeth and related mouth or jaw structures by artificial devices. PSYCHIATRY –The branch of medicine dealing with ...

  1. Patient-centered Care.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, April

    2009-01-01

    Patient-centered care focuses on the patient and the individual's particular health care needs. The goal of patient-centered health care is to empower patients to become active participants in their care. This requires that physicians, radiologic technologists and other health care providers develop good communication skills and address patient needs effectively. Patient-centered care also requires that the health care provider become a patient advocate and strive to provide care that not only is effective but also safe. For radiologic technologists, patient-centered care encompasses principles such as the as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) concept and contrast media safety. Patient-centered care is associated with a higher rate of patient satisfaction, adherence to suggested lifestyle changes and prescribed treatment, better outcomes and more cost-effective care. This article is a Directed Reading. Your access to Directed Reading quizzes for continuing education credit is determined by your area of interest. For access to other quizzes, go to www.asrt.org/store. According to one theory, most patients judge the quality of their healthcare much like they rate an airplane flight. They assume that the airplane is technically viable and is being piloted by competent people. Criteria for judging a particular airline are personal and include aspects like comfort, friendly service and on-time schedules. Similarly, patients judge the standard of their healthcare on nontechnical aspects, such as a healthcare practitioner's communication and "soft skills." Most are unable to evaluate a practitioner's level of technical skill or training, so the qualities they can assess become of the utmost importance in satisfying patients and providing patient-centered care.(1).

  2. The First Year and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Charles

    2003-01-01

    John Gardner reflects on everything from current efforts to improve the first-year experience to the assessment movement, student expectations of college, professional preparation for student affairs, and more. (Author)

  3. The 2016 Academic Emergency Medicine Consensus Conference, Shared Decision Making in the Emergency Department: Development of a Policy-relevant Patient-centered Research Agenda May 10, 2016, New Orleans, LA.

    PubMed

    Grudzen, Corita R; Anderson, Jana R; Carpenter, Christopher R; Hess, Erik P

    2016-12-01

    Shared decision making in emergency medicine has the potential to improve the quality, safety, and outcomes of emergency department (ED) patients. Given that the ED is the gateway to care for patients with a variety of illnesses and injuries and the safety net for patients otherwise unable to access care, shared decision making in the ED is relevant to numerous disciplines and the interests of the United States (U.S.) public. On May 10, 2016 the 16th annual Academic Emergency Medicine (AEM) consensus conference, "Shared Decision Making: Development of a Policy-Relevant Patient-Centered Research Agenda" was held in New Orleans, Louisiana. During this one-day conference clinicians, researchers, policy-makers, patient and caregiver representatives, funding agency representatives, trainees, and content experts across many areas of medicine interacted to define high priority areas for research in 1 of 6 domains: 1) diagnostic testing; 2) policy, 3) dissemination/implementation and education, 4) development and testing of shared decision making approaches and tools in practice, 5) palliative care and geriatrics, and 6) vulnerable populations and limited health literacy. This manuscript describes the current state of shared decision making in the ED context, provides an overview of the conference planning process, the aims of the conference, the focus of each respective breakout session, the roles of patient and caregiver representatives and an overview of the conference agenda. The results of this conference published in this issue of AEM provide an essential summary of the future research priorities for shared decision making to increase quality of care and patient-centered outcomes. © 2016 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  4. Evaluating Validity Evidence for USMLE Step 2 Clinical Skills Data Gathering and Data Interpretation Scores: Does Performance Predict History-Taking and Physical Examination Ratings for First-Year Internal Medicine Residents?

    PubMed

    Cuddy, Monica M; Winward, Marcia L; Johnston, Mary M; Lipner, Rebecca S; Clauser, Brian E

    2016-01-01

    To add to the small body of validity research addressing whether scores from performance assessments of clinical skills are related to performance in supervised patient settings, the authors examined relationships between United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 2 Clinical Skills (CS) data gathering and data interpretation scores and subsequent performance in history taking and physical examination in internal medicine residency training. The sample included 6,306 examinees from 238 internal medicine residency programs who completed Step 2 CS for the first time in 2005 and whose performance ratings from their first year of residency training were available. Hierarchical linear modeling techniques were used to examine the relationships among Step 2 CS data gathering and data interpretation scores and history-taking and physical examination ratings. Step 2 CS data interpretation scores were positively related to both history-taking and physical examination ratings. Step 2 CS data gathering scores were not related to either history-taking or physical examination ratings after other USMLE scores were taken into account. Step 2 CS data interpretation scores provide useful information for predicting subsequent performance in history taking and physical examination in supervised practice and thus provide validity evidence for their intended use as an indication of readiness to enter supervised practice. The results show that there is less evidence to support the usefulness of Step 2 CS data gathering scores. This study provides important information for practitioners interested in Step 2 CS specifically or in performance assessments of medical students' clinical skills more generally.

  5. Teen Parenting: The First Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCamey, Jody

    This guide for teenage mothers discusses the needs of the mother and her child during the first year of the child's life. Information on the child's and the mother's behavior and emotions just after the child's birth is presented. Also presented is information on the following: procuring items needed for tending the baby; playing; crying; breast…

  6. Teaching Emergency Care to First-Year Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCally, Michael; And Others

    1977-01-01

    At the George Washington University School of Medicine a 52-hour course in emergency care was adapted for first-year medical students from an 81-hour program for training emergency medical technicians. (Author/LBH)

  7. First year results from LOTIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, G. G.; Parks, H. S.; Ables, E.

    1997-11-01

    LOTIS (Livermore Optical Transient Imaging System) is a gamma-ray burst optical couterpart search experiment located near Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in California. The system is linked to the GCN (GRB Coordinates Network) real-time coordinate distribution network and can respond to a burst trigger in 6-15 seconds. LOTIS has a total field-of-view of 17.4 degrees x 17.4 degrees with a completeness sensitivity of mv approximately 11 for a 10 second integration time. Since operations began in October 1996, LOTIS has responded to over 30 GCN/BATSE GRB triggers. Seven of these triggers are considered good events subject to the criteria of clear weather conditions, (lt) 60 S RESPONSE TIME, AND (gt)50% coverage of the final BATSE 3(sigma) error circle. We discuss results from the first year of LOTIS operations with an emphasis on the observations and analysis of GRB 971006 (BATSE trigger 6414) .

  8. Patient-centered care in adult trauma intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Hasse, Gwendolyn L

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to discover unique aspects of caring for adult trauma intensive care unit patients with respect to implementing patient-centered care. The concept of patient-centered care has been discussed since 2000, but the actual implementation is currently becoming the focus of health care. The Institute of Medicine defined patient-centered care as "providing care that is respectful of and responsive to individual patient preferences, needs, and values, and ensuring that patient values guide all clinical decisions" in the 2001 Crossing the Quality Chasm report. Discussion and documentation of patient centered-care of the intensive care trauma patient population are limited and yield no results for publication search. This article explores the concept of delivering patient-centered care specifically in a trauma adult intensive care unit.

  9. Patient-centered healthcare design.

    PubMed

    Stichler, Jaynelle F

    2011-12-01

    Patient-centered care focuses on the patient's and family's experience in the hospital, and the design of the healthcare environment should support the patient-centered care concept. The purpose of this facility design department is to expand nurse leaders' knowledge and competencies in health facility design and enable them to take leadership roles in design efforts. This article focuses on healthcare design guiding principles and features to support organizational cultural initiatives such as patient- and family-centered care and Planetree.

  10. Student perceptions of a patient- centered medical training curriculum

    PubMed Central

    Gallentine, Ashley; Salinas-Miranda, Abraham A.; Shaffer-Hudkins, Emily; Hinojosa, Sara; Monroe, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate a patient-centered medical training curriculum, the SELECT program, through perceptions of the inaugural student cohort. Methods Data were collected from two focus groups conducted in the university setting, comprised of fifteen first-year medical students who participated in the SELECT program during its inaugural year. A questioning protocol was used to guide the focus group discussion, which was transcribed and hand-coded through thematic analyses. Results Various themes related to patient-centered care were identified. Students noted changes in their attitudes towards interacting with patients in an empowering and educative manner as a result of communication and motivational interviewing exercises. Additionally, they recognized certain external, structural barriers as well as internal conflict between pragmatism and emotional intelligence that could potentially hinder patient-centered care. The impact of family dynamics and social support on quality of life and health outcomes was acknowledged. Students also emphasized the value of collaborating with multiple health professionals. Lastly, students provided suggestions for program improvement, namely additional simulations, more education regarding other healthcare professionals’ roles, more standardized experiences, and application of principles to acute and primary care. Conclusions Upon completion of the first year of the SELECT program, students gained an appreciation for patient-centered care and various factors and skills that facilitate such care. Additionally, they experienced a dissonance between didactic concepts from the curriculum and observed medical practices. This study highlights the educational benefits of a patient-centered medical curriculum and provides suggestions for future improvement. PMID:25341218

  11. Investigating First Year Education Students' Stress Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geng, Gretchen; Midford, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigated the stress levels of first-year education students who undertake teaching practicum and theory units during their first year of teacher education program. First, 139 first-year and 143 other years' education students completed the PSS-10 scale, which measures perceived level of stress. Then, 147 first-year education…

  12. Medical humanities as tools for the teaching of patient-centered care.

    PubMed

    Nazario, Rubén J

    2009-10-01

    The Institute of Medicine, in its 2001 report Crossing the Quality Chasm: A New Health System for the 21st Century, highlighted patient-centered care as an area for the development of quality measures. Since then, medical centers across the country have incorporated patient-centered modalities in their healthcare delivery systems. In academic medical centers, interest in patient-centered care has raised the awareness of the interactions between the humanities and medicine. This work aims to define the roles of patient-centered medicine and the medical humanities in the academic medical environment, to establish the shared values between the medical humanities and patient-centered care, and to demonstrate how the medical humanities can be a tool for the teaching of patient-centered care. Copyright 2009 Society of Hospital Medicine

  13. Optimizing health care delivery by integrating workplaces, homes, and communities: how occupational and environmental medicine can serve as a vital connecting link between accountable care organizations and the patient-centered medical home.

    PubMed

    McLellan, Robert K; Sherman, Bruce; Loeppke, Ronald R; McKenzie, Judith; Mueller, Kathryn L; Yarborough, Charles M; Grundy, Paul; Allen, Harris; Larson, Paul W

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, the health care reform discussion in the United States has focused increasingly on the dual goals of cost-effective delivery and better patient outcomes. A number of new conceptual models for health care have been advanced to achieve these goals, including two that are well along in terms of practical development and implementation-the patient-centered medical home (PCMH) and accountable care organizations (ACOs). At the core of these two emerging concepts is a new emphasis on encouraging physicians, hospitals, and other health care stakeholders to work more closely together to better coordinate patient care through integrated goals and data sharing and to create team-based approaches that give a greater role to patients in health care decision-making. This approach aims to achieve better health outcomes at lower cost. The PCMH model emphasizes the central role of primary care and facilitation of partnerships between patient, physician, family, and other caregivers, and integrates this care along a spectrum that includes hospitals, specialty care, and nursing homes. Accountable care organizations make physicians and hospitals more accountable in the care system, emphasizing organizational integration and efficiencies coupled with outcome-oriented, performance-based medical strategies to improve the health of populations. The ACO model is meant to improve the value of health care services, controlling costs while improving quality as defined by outcomes, safety, and patient experience. This document urges adoption of the PCMH model and ACOs, but argues that in order for these new paradigms to succeed in the long term, all sectors with a stake in health care will need to become better aligned with them-including the employer community, which remains heavily invested in the health outcomes of millions of Americans. At present, ACOs are largely being developed as a part of the Medicare and Medicaid systems, and the PCMH model is still gathering

  14. Negotiating the Curriculum: Surviving the First Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poland, Molly

    2013-01-01

    Molly Poland is a first year English and Home Economics teacher who began her career in a small Far North Queensland town. In this article, she writes about her first year teaching and the last year of her degree and the challenges she faced as both teacher and student. Reading Boomer's "Negotiating the Curriculum" forced her to think a…

  15. Negotiating the Curriculum: Surviving the First Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poland, Molly

    2013-01-01

    Molly Poland is a first year English and Home Economics teacher who began her career in a small Far North Queensland town. In this article, she writes about her first year teaching and the last year of her degree and the challenges she faced as both teacher and student. Reading Boomer's "Negotiating the Curriculum" forced her to think a…

  16. Riding the First-Year Roller Coaster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moir, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    A teacher's first year of teaching can feel like a sink-or-swim experience. Instead of making steady progress toward becoming a great teacher, in their first year, many teachers become overwhelmed by the daily demands of their own classrooms. As founder and CEO of New Teacher Center, an organization focused on understanding and meeting the…

  17. Riding the First-Year Roller Coaster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moir, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    A teacher's first year of teaching can feel like a sink-or-swim experience. Instead of making steady progress toward becoming a great teacher, in their first year, many teachers become overwhelmed by the daily demands of their own classrooms. As founder and CEO of New Teacher Center, an organization focused on understanding and meeting the…

  18. Supporting First-Year Writing Development Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, Kerri-Lee

    2006-01-01

    It is imperative to identify the impact of technological advancements on the quality of student learning. This article reports first-year undergraduate students' perceptions of and experiences with a Web-based writing support program. Two research questions guided the study: (1) What is the nature of first-year students' interactions with…

  19. Visiting The Pediatrician: The First Year

    MedlinePlus

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Visiting The Pediatrician: The First Year Page Content Article Body Why does my baby need to see the pediatrician so often? You probably will see more ...

  20. Project Laboratory for First-Year Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planinsic, Gorazd

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports the modification of an existing experimental subject into a project laboratory for first-year physics students studying in the first cycle of university level and at a higher professional level. The subject is aimed at developing important science-related competences and skills through concrete steps under circumstances that are…

  1. Milwaukee Parental Choice Program. First Year Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witte, John F.

    A preliminary evaluation and report were conducted of the Milwaukee (Wisconsin) Public Schools' (MPS) Parental Choice Program (PCP) following its first year of operation. The state legislated program provides an opportunity for students meeting specific criteria to attend private, non-sectarian schools in Milwaukee. A payment from public funds…

  2. Strategies for Teaching First-Year Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roen, Duane, Ed.; Pantoja, Veronica, Ed.; Yena, Lauren, Ed.; Miller, Susan K., Ed.; Waggoner, Eric, Ed.

    This book presents 93 essays that offer guidance, reassurance, and commentary on the many activities leading up to and surrounding classroom instruction in first-year composition. Essays in the book are written by instructors who teach in community colleges, liberal arts colleges, state university systems, and research institutions. The 14 section…

  3. Twelve Steps to a Winning First Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Karen

    2009-01-01

    This article offers 12 steps to jumpstart a new school librarian's career. Being the information specialist will be both challenging and rewarding as one undertakes a myriad of activities. These 12 steps will help a new school librarian's first year successful.

  4. Anti-Semitism in First Year Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Matthew; Myers, Gerald M.

    2011-01-01

    Robert Cohen, Assistant Professor English at Fairbanks University, has just completed a contentious meeting of his First Year Composition class, which had discussed a paper written by one of the students. Joe Anderson's paper contained statements that have been historically used as anti-Semitic slogans. Cohen attempted to avoid embarrassing…

  5. SerVermont--The First Year. 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Cynthia

    SerVermont is a volunteer program for high school students. The program stresses public service in the community and is intended to teach students the value of personal volunteer service to their local communities. During SerVermont's first year of operation, 11 high schools were awarded minigrants to be used in developing programs in which…

  6. Individualized Cooperative Education (First Year). Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains teacher's materials for competencies to be taught to all Oklahoma first-year cooperative education students. Teachers of general cooperative programs (such as individualized cooperative education) may want to use the document as their basic text, but teachers in other vocational areas may prefer to use it as a supplement.…

  7. Sustainability and First-Year Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messineo, Melinda

    2012-01-01

    To truly impact sustainability practices, campuses need to influence the overall campus culture, including that which is fostered through first-year programs. Institutions of higher education have made a commitment to make a difference for sustainability, not only by changing curriculum, but by changing the entire institutional culture. This…

  8. Learning Styles in First Year Medical Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chessell, Gwen

    1986-01-01

    Reports on a study done at Aberdeen University (England) which assessed the learning styles of first-year medical students. Results indicated that these students scored higher than other students in achievement (including study methods and competitiveness) and prediction for success. Includes the instrument used. (TW)

  9. Sustainability and First-Year Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messineo, Melinda

    2012-01-01

    To truly impact sustainability practices, campuses need to influence the overall campus culture, including that which is fostered through first-year programs. Institutions of higher education have made a commitment to make a difference for sustainability, not only by changing curriculum, but by changing the entire institutional culture. This…

  10. What To Expect the First Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Arlene; And Others

    This book is a comprehensive month-by-month guide covering parents' questions about the first year with a new baby. It includes an illustrated baby care primer, a first-aid guide, and recipes. It also contains special sections on the older sibling, selecting the right physician, seasonal concerns and traveling with baby, managing childhood…

  11. The first year of routine Herschel observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-06-01

    MEETING REPORT The successful completion of the first year of routine science operations of ESA's Herschel Space Observatory was marked by a Specialist Discussion Meeting of the RAS held in January 2011. A few of the early science highlights from the mission were presented. Derek Ward-Thompson and David Clements summarize.

  12. Nebraska wind resource assessment first year results

    SciTech Connect

    Hurley, P.J.F.; Vilhauer, R.; Stooksbury, D.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the preliminary results from a wind resource assessment program in Nebraska sponsored by the Nebraska Power Association. During the first year the measured annual wind speed at 40 meters ranged from 6.5 - 7.5 m/s (14.6 - 16.8 mph) at eight stations across the state. The site selection process is discussed as well as an overview of the site characteristics at the monitoring locations. Results from the first year monitoring period including data recovery rate, directionality, average wind speeds, wind shear, and turbulence intensity are presented. Results from the eight sites are qualitatively compared with other midwest and west coast locations. 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. SPEAR 3: the First Year of Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Hettel, R.O.; /SLAC

    2006-02-10

    The first electrons were accumulated in the newly completed 3-GeV SPEAR 3 storage ring on December 15, 2003, five days after the beginning of commissioning. By mid-January of 2004, 100 mA were stored, the maximum current allowed in the first phase of SPEAR 3 operation, and ring characterization and tuning continued until early March when the first photon beam line was opened for users. After the first year of operation the SPEAR 3 beam properties and ring performance had been extensively measured. These include micron stability using slow orbit feedback, an emittance coupling of {approx}0.1% and 50-h lifetimes. The performance of SPEAR 3 during its first year of commissioning and operation and the improvement plans are described.

  14. First Year Experience: How We Can Better Assist First-Year International Students in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Zi; Sendall, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    While many American colleges and universities are providing a First Year Experience (FYE) course or program for their first year students, those programs are not often customized to take into account international students' (IS) unique challenges. Using quantitative and qualitative methods, this study evaluated a FYE course that was customized for…

  15. Recursive sequences in first-year calculus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krainer, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    This article provides ready-to-use supplementary material on recursive sequences for a second-semester calculus class. It equips first-year calculus students with a basic methodical procedure based on which they can conduct a rigorous convergence or divergence analysis of many simple recursive sequences on their own without the need to invoke inductive arguments as is typically required in calculus textbooks. The sequences that are accessible to this kind of analysis are predominantly (eventually) monotonic, but also certain recursive sequences that alternate around their limit point as they converge can be considered.

  16. Fermi GBM: Results from the First Year +

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.

    2009-01-01

    Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) has performed well in the first year+. GBM triggers 353 Gamma-ray Bursts (GRBs), 168 SGR events, 18 TGFs, and 1 solar flare to date. Short GRBs appear contracted in time and shifted to higher energy than long GRBs. Pulsed persistent emission from SGR 1550-5418 detected. TGFs are shorter, have higher average photon energies, and much higher count rates than GRBs. GBM monitoring of accreting pulsars provides long-term spin-histories. GBM Earth occultation monitoring complements Swift.

  17. Fermi GBM: Highlights from the First Year

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.

    2009-01-01

    The Fermi Gamma ray Burst Monitor is an all-sky instrument sensitive to photons from about 8 keV to 40 MeV. I will summarize highlights from the first year, including triggered observations of gamma ray bursts, soft gamma ray repeaters, and terrestrial gamma flashes, and observations in the continuous data of X-ray binaries and accreting X-ray pulsars. GBM provides complementary observations to Swift/BAT, observing many of the same sources, but over a wider energy range.

  18. Financial expectations of first-year veterinary students.

    PubMed

    Lim, Christine C; Schulhofer-Wohl, Sam; Root Kustritz, Margaret V; Molgaard, Laura K; Lee, David

    2015-07-15

    To assess student awareness of the financial costs of pursuing a veterinary education, to determine student expectations for financial returns of a veterinary career, and to identify associations between student debt and factors such as future career plans or personality type. Survey. First-year veterinary students at the University of Minnesota College of Veterinary Medicine. In 2013, prior to the first day of class, all incoming first-year students received an email invitation to complete an online survey. The survey contained questions about demographics, current financial situation, current debt, expected debt at graduation, expected annual income following graduation, intent to pursue specialty training, and Myers-Briggs personality type. 72 of 102 (71%) students completed the survey; 65 respondents answered all relevant questions and provided usable data. Student responses for expected debt at graduation were comparable to national averages for veterinary college graduates; responses for expected annual income following graduation were lower than averages for University of Minnesota veterinary college graduates and national averages. However, students predicted even lower annual income if they did not attend veterinary college. Expected debt and expected annual income were not correlated with factors such as personality type or future career plans. Results indicated that first-year veterinary students were aware of the financial costs of their veterinary education and had realistic expectations for future salaries. For typical veterinary students, attending veterinary college appeared to be financially worthwhile, given lower expected earnings otherwise.

  19. Teaching clinical thinking to first-year medical students.

    PubMed

    Fuks, Abraham; Boudreau, Joseph Donald; Cassell, Eric J

    2009-02-01

    The ability to think clearly and critically is necessary to normal human conduct. Particular forms of reasoning characteristic of practitioners of medicine have been studied, but a principled pedagogical framework that also reflects clinical practice has not been delineated. The goals are: identify the principles that underlie the clinical thinking of physicians, develop a pedagogical framework, and design and implement curricular modules for medical students in the first year of their studies. The authors reviewed prior work on clinical thinking of physicians and medical students as well as reflective pieces by seasoned clinicians. They also examined modalities of logic and inference used by physicians and others. The designed modules were implemented at the Faculty of Medicine at McGill University and linked to training in attentive listening and clinical observation. Five core features of a pedagogic framework on clinical thinking were developed and used to design and implement a series of teaching modules for first-year medical students. The core features, and the modules based upon them, can serve for further empirical work on clinical reasoning and lead to modules for advanced students as they progress in their acquisition of expertize.

  20. Facial Experience During the First Year

    PubMed Central

    Rennels, Jennifer L.; Simmons, Rachel E.

    2008-01-01

    Parents of 2-, 5-, 8-, and 11-month-olds used two scales we developed to provide information about their infants’ facial experience with familiar and unfamiliar individuals during one week. Results showed large discrepancies in the race, sex, and age of faces that infants experience during their first year with the majority of their facial experience being with their primary caregiver, females, and other individuals of the same race and age as their primary caregiver. The infant’s age and an unfamiliar individual’s sex were predictive of their time spent interacting with one another. Moreover, an unfamiliar individual’s sex was predictive of the attention infants allocated during social interactions. Differences in frequency and length of interactions with certain types of faces, as well as in infant attention toward certain individuals, all likely contribute to the development of expertise in processing commonly experienced face types and deficiencies in processing less commonly experienced face types. PMID:18554724

  1. First year results from the HAWC observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casanova, Sabrina

    2017-03-01

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov Observatory is an all-sky surveying instrument sensitive to gamma rays and cosmic rays from 100GeV to 100TeV. With its 2sr instantaneous field of view and a duty cycle of > 95%, HAWC is carrying out an unbiased survey of the Northern sky and is monitoring known flaring sources and searching for transients. HAWC operation began mid-2013 with a partially-completed detector. The array was terminated in 2015. We here summarize the status of the observatory, and highlight its first scientific results, resulting from the first year of data taking after completion of the detector. In particular, we will present the HAWC map of the sky at tens of TeV.

  2. Simulation workshops with first year midwifery students.

    PubMed

    Catling, Christine; Hogan, Rosemarie; Fox, Deborah; Cummins, Allison; Kelly, Michelle; Sheehan, Athena

    2016-03-01

    Simulated teaching methods enable a safe learning environment that are structured, constructive and reflective. We prepared a 2-day simulation project to help prepare students for their first clinical practice. A quasi-experimental pre-test - post-test design was conducted. Qualitative data from the open-ended survey questions were analysed using content analysis. Confidence intervals and p-values were calculated to demonstrate the changes in participants' levels of understanding/ability or confidence in clinical midwifery skills included in the simulation. 71 midwifery students participated. Students rated their understanding, confidence, and abilities as higher after the simulation workshop, and higher still after their clinical experience. There were five main themes arising from the qualitative data: having a learning experience, building confidence, identifying learning needs, developing communication skills and putting skills into practise. First year midwifery students felt well prepared for the clinical workplace following the simulation workshops. Self-rated understanding, confidence and abilities in clinical midwifery skills were significantly higher following consolidation during clinical placement. Longitudinal studies on the relationship between simulation activities and student's overall clinical experience, their intentions to remain in midwifery, and facility feedback, would be desirable. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. ISS GN and C - First Year Surprises

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begley, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Assembly of the International Space Station (ISS) began in late 1998 with the joining of the first two US and Russ ian elements. For more than two years, the outpost was served by two Russian Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) systems. The station requires orbital translation and attitude control functions for its 100+ configurations, from the nascent two-module station to the half million kilogram completed station owned and operated by seventeen nations. With the launch of the US Laboratory module in February 2001, the integration of the US GN&C system with its Russian counterpart laid the foundation for such a robust system. In its first year of combined operation, the ISS GN&C system has performed admirably, even better than many expected, but there have been surprises. Loss of command capability, loss of communication between segments, a control system force-fight, and "non-propulsive vents" that weren't - such events have repeatedly underscored the importance of thorough program integration, testing, and operation, both across subsystem boundaries and across international borders.

  4. The 2016 Academic Emergency Medicine Consensus Conference, "Shared Decision Making in the Emergency Department: Development of a Policy-relevant Patient-centered Research Agenda" Diagnostic Testing Breakout Session Report.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Tyler W; Rising, Kristin L; Bellolio, M Fernanda; Hall, M Kennedy; Brody, Aaron; Dodd, Kenneth W; Grieser, Mira; Levy, Phillip D; Raja, Ali S; Self, Wesley H; Weingarten, Gail; Hess, Erik P; Hollander, Judd E

    2016-12-01

    Diagnostic testing is an integral component of patient evaluation in the emergency department (ED). Emergency clinicians frequently use diagnostic testing to more confidently exclude "worst-case" diagnoses rather than to determine the most likely etiology for a presenting complaint. Increased utilization of diagnostic testing has not been associated with reductions in disease-related mortality but has led to increased overall healthcare costs and other unintended consequences (e.g., incidental findings requiring further workup, unnecessary exposure to ionizing radiation or potentially nephrotoxic contrast). Shared decision making (SDM) presents an opportunity for clinicians to discuss the benefits and harms associated with diagnostic testing with patients to more closely tailor testing to patient risk. This article introduces the challenges and opportunities associated with incorporating SDM into emergency care by summarizing the conclusions of the diagnostic testing group at the 2016 Academic Emergency Medicine Consensus Conference on SDM. Three primary domains emerged: 1) characteristics of a condition or test appropriate for SDM, 2) critical elements of and potential barriers to SDM discussions on diagnostic testing, and 3) financial aspects of SDM applied to diagnostic testing. The most critical research questions to improve engagement of patients in their acute care diagnostic decisions were determined by consensus. © 2016 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  5. Why Do First-Year Students of German Lose Motivation during their First Year at University?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busse, Vera

    2013-01-01

    This article explores motivational changes of first-year students enrolled on German degree courses at two major UK universities. It reports on the qualitative data obtained by a longitudinal mixed-methods study, and focuses on the interplay between students' motivation and the higher education learning environment. In particular, the article aims…

  6. Why Do First-Year Students of German Lose Motivation during their First Year at University?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busse, Vera

    2013-01-01

    This article explores motivational changes of first-year students enrolled on German degree courses at two major UK universities. It reports on the qualitative data obtained by a longitudinal mixed-methods study, and focuses on the interplay between students' motivation and the higher education learning environment. In particular, the article aims…

  7. First-Year Seminar Intervention: Enhancing First-Year Mathematics Performance at the University of Johannesburg

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Melanie; Pretorius, Estherna

    2016-01-01

    South Africa has opened up access to higher education over the past 20 years. The massive increase in enrolments (with almost 70% first-generation students) substantially affects progress and graduation rates in Science programmes in higher education. First-year students in Science realise that university mathematics requires knowledge and skills…

  8. First-Year Undergraduate Induction: Who Attends and How Important Is Induction for First Year Attainment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murtagh, S.; Ridley, A.; Frings, D.; Kerr-Pertic, S.

    2017-01-01

    The first year of study in higher education is a time of major transition for students. While the importance of induction has been widely demonstrated, there is evidence to suggest that not all students benefit equally from participation in induction. This study examined attendance rates at induction, the relationship between induction attendance…

  9. Are hookups replacing romantic relationships? A longitudinal study of first-year female college students.

    PubMed

    Fielder, Robyn L; Carey, Kate B; Carey, Michael P

    2013-05-01

    To assess the prevalence and frequency of sexual hookups across the first year of college and to compare rates of hookups and romantic relationship sex. We surveyed 483 first-year female college students (mean age, 18.1 years; range, 18-21 years, 64% white) monthly over the first year of college about the frequency of sexual behavior in the context of hookups and romantic relationships. The prevalence of hookups involving oral or vaginal sex was 34% before college and 40% during the first year, compared with 58% and 56%, respectively, with romantic partners. Fewer than one in five participants (7%-18%) had a sexual hookup each month, whereas 25%-38% had sex in the context of relationships each month. Hooking up varies in frequency over the first year in college, but remains less common than sex in the context of relationships. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Critical thinking in patient centered care.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Shannon H; Overman, Pamela; Forrest, Jane L

    2014-06-01

    Health care providers can enhance their critical thinking skills, essential to providing patient centered care, by use of motivational interviewing and evidence-based decision making techniques. The need for critical thinking skills to foster optimal patient centered care is being emphasized in educational curricula for health care professions. The theme of this paper is that evidence-based decision making (EBDM) and motivational interviewing (MI) are tools that when taught in health professions educational programs can aid in the development of critical thinking skills. This paper reviews the MI and EBDM literature for evidence regarding these patient-centered care techniques as they relate to improved oral health outcomes. Comparisons between critical thinking and EBDM skills are presented and the EBDM model and the MI technique are briefly described followed by a discussion of the research to date. The evidence suggests that EBDM and MI are valuable tools; however, further studies are needed regarding the effectiveness of EBDM and MI and the ways that health care providers can best develop critical thinking skills to facilitate improved patient care outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Patient-Centered Communication: Basic Skills.

    PubMed

    Hashim, M Jawad

    2017-01-01

    Communication skills needed for patient-centered care include eliciting the patient's agenda with open-ended questions, especially early on; not interrupting the patient; and engaging in focused active listening. Understanding the patient's perspective of the illness and expressing empathy are key features of patient-centered communication. Understanding the patient's perspective entails exploring the patient's feelings, ideas, concerns, and experience regarding the impact of the illness, as well as what the patient expects from the physician. Empathy can be expressed by naming the feeling; communicating understanding, respect, and support; and exploring the patient's illness experience and emotions. Before revealing a new diagnosis, the patient's prior knowledge and preferences for the depth of information desired should be assessed. After disclosing a diagnosis, physicians should explore the patient's emotional response. Shared decision making empowers patients by inviting them to consider the pros and cons of different treatment options, including no treatment. Instead of overwhelming the patient with medical information, small chunks of data should be provided using repeated cycles of the "ask-tell-ask" approach. Training programs on patient-centered communication for health care professionals can improve communication skills.

  12. Care team identification in the electronic health record: A critical first step for patient-centered communication.

    PubMed

    Dalal, Anuj K; Schnipper, Jeffrey L

    2016-05-01

    Patient-centered communication is essential to coordinate care and safely progress patients from admission through discharge. Hospitals struggle with improving the complex and increasingly electronic conversation patterns among care team members, patients, and caregivers to achieve effective patient-centered communication across settings. Accurate and reliable identification of all care team members is a precursor to effective patient-centered communication and ideally should be facilitated by the electronic health record. However, the process of identifying care team members is challenging, and team lists in the electronic health record are typically neither accurate nor reliable. Based on the literature and on experience from 2 initiatives at our institution, we outline strategies to improve care team identification in the electronic health record and discuss potential implications for patient-centered communication. Journal of Hospital Medicine 2016;11:381-385. © 2016 Society of Hospital Medicine. © 2016 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  13. How Do Learning Communities Affect First-Year Latino Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huerta, Juan Carlos; Bray, Jennifer J.

    2013-01-01

    Do learning communities with pedagogies of active learning, collaborative learning, and integration of course material affect the learning, achievement, and persistence of first-year Latino university students? The data for this project was obtained from a survey of 1,330 first-year students in the First-Year Learning Community Program at Texas…

  14. Patient-centered care: turning the rhetoric into reality.

    PubMed

    Weissman, Joel S; Millenson, Michael L; Haring, R Sterling

    2017-01-01

    Although patient-centered care (PCC) was proclaimed a core health system aim in a 2001 Institute of Medicine report, it remains one of the most-used and least-understood terms in healthcare. We interviewed leaders at 15 Medicare accountable care organizations (ACOs) across the country that have been the most successful in putting patient-centeredness into actual practice to develop an operational definition. The ACOs we spoke with had a 3-pronged practical approach of: 1) patients as partners, 2) proactive customer-service orientation, and 3) care coordination with a whole-person approach. We believe this framework can serve as a guide as the healthcare system moves "from volume to value" and a true partnership becomes increasingly critical both to patients and the healthcare system as a whole.

  15. First-Year Village: Experimenting with an African Model for First-Year Adjustment and Support in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speckman, McGlory

    2016-01-01

    Predicated on the principles of success and contextuality, this chapter shares an African perspective on a first-year adjustment programme, known as First-Year Village, including its potential and challenges in establishing it.

  16. First-Year Village: Experimenting with an African Model for First-Year Adjustment and Support in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speckman, McGlory

    2016-01-01

    Predicated on the principles of success and contextuality, this chapter shares an African perspective on a first-year adjustment programme, known as First-Year Village, including its potential and challenges in establishing it.

  17. Challenging and Supporting the First-Year Student: A Handbook for Improving the First Year of College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Upcraft, M. Lee, Ed.; Gardner, John N., Ed.; Barefoot, Betsy O., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    An authoritative, comprehensive guide to the first year of college, this book includes the most current information about the policies, strategies, programs, and services designed to help first-year students make a successful transition to college and fulfill their educational and personal goals. Following the introduction, "The First Year of…

  18. Challenging and Supporting the First-Year Student: A Handbook for Improving the First Year of College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Upcraft, M. Lee, Ed.; Gardner, John N., Ed.; Barefoot, Betsy O., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    An authoritative, comprehensive guide to the first year of college, this book includes the most current information about the policies, strategies, programs, and services designed to help first-year students make a successful transition to college and fulfill their educational and personal goals. Following the introduction, "The First Year of…

  19. Anatomy as the Backbone of an Integrated First Year Medical Curriculum: Design and Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klement, Brenda J.; Paulsen, Douglas F.; Wineski, Lawrence E.

    2011-01-01

    Morehouse School of Medicine chose to restructure its first year medical curriculum in 2005. The anatomy faculty had prior experience in integrating courses, stemming from the successful integration of individual anatomical sciences courses into a single course called Human Morphology. The integration process was expanded to include the other…

  20. First-Year Students' Expectations of Interacting with Minority Patients and Colleagues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pico, Elaine; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This survey of 82 first-year medical students at the University of California, Los Angeles, School of Medicine, found that students with more experience working or interacting socially with African Americans or Hispanics were more likely to expect to treat minority patients, practice with minority partners, and reside in predominantly…

  1. Anatomy as the Backbone of an Integrated First Year Medical Curriculum: Design and Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klement, Brenda J.; Paulsen, Douglas F.; Wineski, Lawrence E.

    2011-01-01

    Morehouse School of Medicine chose to restructure its first year medical curriculum in 2005. The anatomy faculty had prior experience in integrating courses, stemming from the successful integration of individual anatomical sciences courses into a single course called Human Morphology. The integration process was expanded to include the other…

  2. First-Year Students' Expectations of Interacting with Minority Patients and Colleagues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pico, Elaine; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This survey of 82 first-year medical students at the University of California, Los Angeles, School of Medicine, found that students with more experience working or interacting socially with African Americans or Hispanics were more likely to expect to treat minority patients, practice with minority partners, and reside in predominantly…

  3. Patient-Centered Care: Depends on the Point of View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorig, Kate

    2012-01-01

    Patient-centered care is now front-and-center in health care reform. The federal government has established the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute to study this new phenomenon and health care delivery systems such as patient-centered medical homes. Where is the health education profession in all of this? Despite what it has to offer, to…

  4. Patient-Centered Care: Depends on the Point of View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorig, Kate

    2012-01-01

    Patient-centered care is now front-and-center in health care reform. The federal government has established the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute to study this new phenomenon and health care delivery systems such as patient-centered medical homes. Where is the health education profession in all of this? Despite what it has to offer, to…

  5. Patient-centered integrated networks of emergency care: consensus-based recommendations and future research priorities.

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Prasanthi; Larkin, Gregory Luke; Rhodes, Karin V; Piazza, Gina; Byczkowski, Terri L; Edwards, Meredith; Baren, Jill M

    2010-12-01

    Patient-centered care is defined by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) as care that is responsive to individual patient needs and values and that guides the treatment decisions. This article is a result of a breakout session of the 2010 Academic Emergency Medicine (AEM) consensus conference and describes the process of developing consensus-based recommendations for providing patient-centered emergency care. The objectives of the working group were to identify and describe the critical gaps in the provision of patient-centered care, develop a consensus-based research agenda, and create a list of future research priorities. Using e-mail and in-person meetings, knowledge gaps were identified in the areas of respect for patient preferences, coordination of clinical care, and communication among health care providers. Four consensus-based recommendations were developed on the following themes: enhancing communication and patient advocacy in emergency departments (EDs), facilitating care coordination after discharge, defining metrics for patient-centered care, and placing the locus of control of medical information into patients' hands. The set of research priorities based on these recommendations was created to promote research and advance knowledge in this dimension of clinical care. 2010 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  6. [Diversification in the first year of food life].

    PubMed

    Silva, Ana Isabel; Aguiar, Hélder Gabriel

    2011-12-01

    Diversifying food during the first year of life is an extremely important step for the adequate nutritional status of infants and their physical and psychological development, functioning as a means of transition from lactation to feed the family. Despite the introduction of food diversification is a necessary step for human development, some issues still exist today, not only for the initiation but also in relation to the proper sequence for the various types of food, causing different perspectives and ways of acting on part of clinicians. To determine the best time for the start of food diversification and the best time to introduce certain foods. Bibliographic search of the literature in English and Portuguese, from January 2004 to May 2010 through Medline / Pubmed sites and Evidence Based Medicine. Twenty-five of fifty-eight articles were selected, given the full availability of publications and relevance to the topic. The food diversification should never start before 17 or after 2 6 weeks. There is no current evidence that delaying the introduction of any antigen after six months reduces the risk of food allergy, asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema, even if there is family history of allergy. It is prudent to avoid the introduction of both prior (less than four months) and late (more than seven months) of gluten and a gradual introduction will reduce the risk of celiac disease, type 1 diabetes and allergy to it. The introduction of fish at one year of age reduces the risk of allergic diseases at age four at the immunological benefits of its early introduction outweigh the risks of sensitization to its antigens. It is important that the onset of food diversification and the introduction of antigens is performed within a specified time interval. It is crucial to implement a healthy diet for the whole family, to the extent that children learn by example.

  7. Student Perceptions of the First Year of Veterinary Medical School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Donald E.

    2002-01-01

    A brief survey was conducted of nearly 900 first-year students in 14 U.S. veterinary medical schools in order to gather impressions of the first year of veterinary medical education. Although some students reported that conditions were stressful, the majority did not feel that they were inordinately so. Overall, most students were quite positive…

  8. First Year Experience Courses. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Based on four studies that meet WWC group design standards, "first year experience courses" were found to have potentially positive effects on credit accumulation, degree attainment (college), and general academic achievement (college) for freshman college students. "First year experience courses", often referred to as college…

  9. First-Year Course Requirements and Retention for Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Community colleges educate a diverse group of students. Effective first-year programs should focus on a variety of interventions that improve learning and retention. Students have academic, intellectual, and social challenges during their community college experience. First-year orientation programs should help students adapt. This article…

  10. First-Year Course Requirements and Retention for Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Community colleges educate a diverse group of students. Effective first-year programs should focus on a variety of interventions that improve learning and retention. Students have academic, intellectual, and social challenges during their community college experience. First-year orientation programs should help students adapt. This article…

  11. The First Year: Just Surviving or Thriving at an HSI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musoba, Glenda Droogsma; Collazo, Charlene; Placide, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Minority retention models have identified student needs that may or may not be addressed by institutional first-year experience (FYE) programming at Hispanic-serving institutions (HSIs). Qualitatively, this study examined Hispanic and Black first-year experiences in an HSI context. Identified themes included sense of belonging, career and major…

  12. Quantitative Literacy Provision in the First Year of Medical Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frith, V.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a description of and motivation for the quantitative literacy (numeracy) intervention in the first year of medical studies at a South African university. This intervention is a response to the articulation gap between the quantitative literacy of many first-year medical students and the demands of their curriculum.…

  13. Determining Classroom Placement for First Year English Language Learner Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peña, Rodrigo H.; Maxwell, Gerri M.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores classroom placement for first year English Language Learner (ELL) students from the perspective of a dual language director and two bilingual education strategists. The study strives to interrogate classroom placement for first year ELL students whose language proficiency level is at beginning level. Through a process of coding…

  14. The Digital Divide and First-Year Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodfellow, Marianne; Wade, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Current cross-campus computing initiatives demand both access and skill in employing technology as a tool for academic success. Consequently, lack of computer skills can affect first-year students' potential for success because many courses assume students are computer literate. In this study, 888 first-year students completed a…

  15. Meeting First-Year Challenges in Reading Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noll, Brandi L.; Lenhart, Lisa A.

    2014-01-01

    The first year of teaching is often the hardest for most beginners as knowledge and skills gained from teacher preparation meet real world challenges. This article follows two teachers into their first year and describes how they adapt and align what they know about reading best practices to their local situations. Two all-too-common challenges…

  16. Situating the Library in the First Year Experience Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bissett, Susan J. C.

    2004-01-01

    John Gardner, of the National Resource Center for The First Year Experience and Students in Transition, addressed academic librarians at the ACRL meeting in Charlotte, North Carolina, in April 2003, urging librarians to become more actively involved in First Year Experience courses. Susan J. C. Bissett responds in this article, citing the…

  17. Student Perceptions of the First Year of Veterinary Medical School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Donald E.

    2002-01-01

    A brief survey was conducted of nearly 900 first-year students in 14 U.S. veterinary medical schools in order to gather impressions of the first year of veterinary medical education. Although some students reported that conditions were stressful, the majority did not feel that they were inordinately so. Overall, most students were quite positive…

  18. A First-Year Course That Teaches Research Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czarneski, Debra

    2013-01-01

    In the Fall semester of 2009, I taught a first-year course that focused on skills required to successfully complete undergraduate research. This paper will discuss the Simpson College first-year course requirements, my course goals, the graph theory topics covered, student feedback, and instructor reflection.

  19. Correlates of Depression in First-Year College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villatte, Aude; Marcotte, Diane; Potvin, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to identify and rank the personal, family-related, social, and academic correlates of depressive symptoms in first-year college students. A questionnaire that included the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) was administered to 389 first-year college students (mean age = 18.9; SD = 3.38; 59.4% female). Eight variables…

  20. A Mathematics Support Programme for First-Year Engineering Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillock, Poh Wah; Jennings, Michael; Roberts, Anthony; Scharaschkin, Victor

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a mathematics support programme at the University of Queensland, targeted at first-year engineering students identified as having a high risk of failing a first-year mathematics course in calculus and linear algebra. It describes how students were identified for the programme and the main features of the programme. The…

  1. Diary of a First-Year Teacher of the Gifted.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Carol

    1986-01-01

    Excerpts are presented from a teacher's diary of her first year of teaching gifted primary grade students. Principles learned over the first year include: (1) lesson planning must be flexible; (2) gifted students prefer subject matter content to brain exercises; and (3) work in the affective domain is as essential as study in the cognitive realm.…

  2. Quantitative Literacy Provision in the First Year of Medical Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frith, V.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a description of and motivation for the quantitative literacy (numeracy) intervention in the first year of medical studies at a South African university. This intervention is a response to the articulation gap between the quantitative literacy of many first-year medical students and the demands of their curriculum.…

  3. Improving the First Year of College: Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Robert S., Ed.

    2005-01-01

    The first year of college represents an enormous milestone in students' lives. Whether attending a four-year or two-year institution of higher education, living on campus or at home, or enrolled in a highly selective school or a college with an open-admissions policy, students are challenged in unique and demanding ways during their first year.…

  4. Meeting First-Year Challenges in Reading Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noll, Brandi L.; Lenhart, Lisa A.

    2014-01-01

    The first year of teaching is often the hardest for most beginners as knowledge and skills gained from teacher preparation meet real world challenges. This article follows two teachers into their first year and describes how they adapt and align what they know about reading best practices to their local situations. Two all-too-common challenges…

  5. A First-Year Course That Teaches Research Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czarneski, Debra

    2013-01-01

    In the Fall semester of 2009, I taught a first-year course that focused on skills required to successfully complete undergraduate research. This paper will discuss the Simpson College first-year course requirements, my course goals, the graph theory topics covered, student feedback, and instructor reflection.

  6. Patient-centered interviewing and student performance in a comprehensive clinical skills examination: is there an association?

    PubMed

    Rouf, Emran; Chumley, Heidi; Dobbie, Alison

    2009-04-01

    Communication skills, including patient-centered interviewing (PCI), have become a major priority for educational and licensing organizations in the United States. While patient-centered interviewing is associated with positive patient outcomes and improved diagnostic accuracy, it is unknown if an association exists between patient-centered interviewing and student performance in high-stakes clinical skills assessment (CSA) examinations. The purpose of this study was to determine if generic communication skills and patient-centered interviewing skills were associated with students' overall student performance on a multi-station clinical skills assessment (CSA) examination. This was a cross-sectional study to assess student performance with standardized patients (SPs). We conducted a retrospective review of 30 videotaped SP encounters of Third year medical students (class of 2006) at the University of Kansas School of Medicine. We measured correlations between observed PCI scores, overall CSA scores and CSA interpersonal and communication (ICS) skills scores of student-SP encounters. PCI scores, as measured with the Four Habits Coding Scheme, a measurement tool of patient-centered communication, were not correlated with either overall CSA scores or ICS scores. Students' PCI scores were lower than the ICS scores (57% vs. 85% of correct items). The students performed poorly (30% mean score of correct items) in eliciting patient perspectives, compared to three other domains (Invest in the beginning, Demonstrate empathy, and Invest in end) of patient-centered interviewing. Our study failed to demonstrate any association between student performance and patient-centered interviewing skills (PCI) in the setting of a comprehensive in-house CSA examination. Third-year medical students in our study did not practice some elements of patient-centered interviewing. Given the increasing importance of patient-centered communication, the high-stakes in-house clinical skills

  7. Patient-oriented Personality Traits of First-year Pharmacy Students

    PubMed Central

    Lauri, Mary-Anne; Lauri, Josef

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine, using the Gordon Personal Profile-Inventory (GPP-I), if the personality traits of first-year pharmacy students match the traits required for patient-centered practice. Methods The GPP-I, which measures the personality traits of ascendency, responsibility, emotional stability, sociability, cautiousness, original thinking, personal relations, and vigor, was administered to incoming pharmacy students at the beginning of their first semester. Results The pharmacy school had attracted students with strong traits of original thinking, followed by personal relations, and vigor. The students, however, were limited in emotional stability and ascendency. Conclusion The pharmacy profession needs to be more proactive in projecting the desired image and communicate its increasingly challenging and patient-oriented practice to attract individuals whose personalities are conducive to current practice models. PMID:20798801

  8. International Perspectives on the First-Year Experience in Higher Education. The First-Year Experience Monograph Series No. 52

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nutt, Diane, Ed.; Calderon, Denis, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    Students around the globe have unique first-year experiences but struggle with many of the same challenges. This monograph focuses on their journeys and provides insights for educators interested in learning about how institutions across the globe provide supports to students dealing with first-year transition issues. Based on the successful…

  9. Do First-Year University Students Know What to Expect from Their First-Year Writing Intensive Course?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien-Moran, Michael; Soiferman, L. Karen

    2010-01-01

    This study involved a one-time survey of first-year undergraduate students at a Canadian University to determine their expectations when beginning a writing intensive course (i.e., the so-called "W" course, which is required of all first-year undergraduates at the University of Manitoba.) In this study, we focused on the University's…

  10. International Perspectives on the First-Year Experience in Higher Education. The First-Year Experience Monograph Series No. 52

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nutt, Diane, Ed.; Calderon, Denis, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    Students around the globe have unique first-year experiences but struggle with many of the same challenges. This monograph focuses on their journeys and provides insights for educators interested in learning about how institutions across the globe provide supports to students dealing with first-year transition issues. Based on the successful…

  11. Predicting prehospital care students' first-year academic performance.

    PubMed

    Madigan, Veronica

    2006-01-01

    To answer two research questions: First, can previously identified factors relating to academic performance be used to predict first-year academic success for students undertaking a newly developed and vocationally oriented prehospital care course delivered in a rural setting? Second, can the study's findings be used to develop appropriate student selection criteria to assist in the admission of students into relevant tertiary studies or the prehospital care industry? A retrospective review of all first-year, on-campus prehospital care students enrolled in a vocational course at a rural Australian university from 1998 to 2001 was conducted. Six predictors of academic performance were examined, namely: University Admission Index (UAI), postsecondary educational qualifications, student entry type (traditional or mature-aged), previous health-related experience, gender, and background (rural or urban). Three dependent variables assessed academic performance: grade point average (GPA) of students who completed all required first-year subjects, GPA of students who completed at least one subject in the first year, and the student's ability to successfully complete the first year. UAI > 50, previous health-related experience, postsecondary educational qualifications, background, student entry type, and gender were all found to be significant predictors of first-year academic performance in selective cohorts. In addition, a combination of predictors produced higher GPAs than did any single predictor. Academic performance of first-year students in the prehospital care discipline can be predicted given the appropriate selection variables. Admission selection can be assisted with the generated Student Selection 001.

  12. MSU Medical Colleges Blended Learning for First Year Science Courses: Uniting Pedagogy to Maximize Experience and Real World Limitations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovell, Kathryn; Vignare, Karen

    2009-01-01

    At Michigan State University the two medical schools, College of Human Medicine (CHM; M.D. degree) and College of Osteopathic Medicine (COM; D.O. degree), have offered the same science courses to first year students for many years. Science departments report to both colleges, and the same faculty can effectively teach the content required in the…

  13. Attitudes of physical therapy students toward patient-centered care, before and after a course in psychosocial aspects of care.

    PubMed

    Ross, Elizabeth Fromm; Haidet, Paul

    2011-12-01

    Patient-centered care is vital in developing the therapeutic relationship. Attitude may be an important measure of student potential for giving patient-centered care. The purpose of this study was to assess attitudes toward patient-centered care in doctor of physical therapy students before and after completion of a course that addresses communication skills and psychosocial aspects of care. In 2009, forty-nine students in the Doctor of Physical Therapy educational program at Duke University took a required course which included recommended elements for teaching patient-centered care. Students completed the Patient-Practitioner Orientation Scale (PPOS) and the Tasks of Medicine Scale (TOMS) twice prior to the course and once at course completion. Demographic data were gathered and students responded to open-ended questions at final survey administration. There were statistically significant differences in student attitudes toward patient-centered care after the educational experience on the PPOS and the TOMS, which were supported by students' written responses. Changes in attitudes toward patient-centered care are possible with educational intervention. The results of this study may help to inform educators of medical professionals about the education of practitioners to develop patient-centered attitudes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. NCORP’s First Year Reviewed | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    By the numbers, the first year of NCI’s Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) has made progress in clinical trials for prevention, control, health-related quality of life, comparative effectiveness and screening; accrual to NCI National Clinical Trials Network treatment and imaging trials; and in new areas of emphasis in cancer care delivery research and cancer disparities research. Infographic Highlight NCORP’s First Year Reviewed |

  15. Evaluating first-year pine seedling survival plateau in Louisiana

    Treesearch

    Puskar N. Khana; Thomas J. Dean; Scott D. Roberts; Donald L. Grebner

    2016-01-01

    First-year seeding survival has been a continuing problem since the start of commercial pine plantation forestry in the 1950s. First-year survival of bare-root loblolly pine seedlings on intensively prepared sites in Louisiana has maintained a survival plateau between 79 to 89 percent with an average of about 82 percent. The specific objectives of this study were to...

  16. The psychiatrist as teacher in primary care residency training: the first year.

    PubMed

    Lazerson, A M

    Increasing development of postgraduate primary care training programs to meet manpower needs is supported by flexibility in the Boards of Internal Medicine and Pediatrics to include experience in psychiatry; with this change, liaison psychiatrists will become progressively more involved and closely integrated into such training. This report outlines the first year experience of a psychiatrist in one innovative three year program in pediatrics and medicine, and describes some common problems and issues, along with teaching goals and some developing methodologies. Although the number of trainees in this first year cohort is small, preliminary results reported by a feedback component of an independent evaluation team attached to the program suggest that the interns are receptive to the psychiatric input and that they consider the initial contribution by psychiatry to have as much usefulness to their training in primary care as the more traditional pediatric and medical components.

  17. [Clinical outcomes: the impact of patient-centered care].

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Huei; Tzeng, Wen-Chii; Chiang, Shang-Lin; Chiang, Li-Chi

    2012-12-01

    An extensive body of literature advocating a "patient-centered" approach to medical care has emerged over the past three decades. This approach is now a mainstream trend in healthcare. Despite its popularity, there remains little consensus regarding the content or definition of patient-centered care. Various quantitative and qualitative research studies have extracted core meanings from "doctor-patient relationship" perspectives and investigated the relationships of these meanings with patient satisfaction, compliance with health promoting behavior, and health status. Mead and Bower's review of the conceptual and empirical literature represented the first attempt to develop a model of the doctor-patient relationship that considered the multiple aspects embraced by the "patient-centered" approach. However, any interpretation of the "patient-centered" concept that fails to consider the perspective of nursing is likely incomplete, as patient-centered care is the essence of nursing. This paper reviewed the concept of "patient-centered care", conducted a systematic review of randomized control trials to explore the effectiveness of patient-centered care, and integrated nursing-related studies that focused on patient-centered care. Our search covered articles published through the end of February 2011 in the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, JBI, MEDLINE, CINAHL, Pubmed, ProQuest, PsycInfo, and CEPS, with 13 relevant articles identified. The majority of trials addressed by these studies demonstrated a positive "patient-centered care" effect on self-care knowledge and skills but a limited/insignificant effect on disease improvement. The reviewed studies used traditional definitions of "patient-centered care" that were inconsistent with the concepts defined by Mead and Bower. Heterogeneities exist between reviewed studies and the lack of related research in Taiwan. We thus integrated outcome indicators related to "patient-centered care". This study may be referenced by

  18. Improving Self-Management Skills Through Patient-Centered Communication.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Kiana R; McMorris, Barbara J; MapelLentz, Sarah; Scal, Peter

    2015-12-01

    We tested relationships between patient-centered communication (PCC), relatedness to health care providers, and autonomy around health care management among youth with and without mobility limitations (MLs) and examined whether the relationship between PCC and autonomy was mediated by how connected youth feel to their health care providers. Stratified multiple regression models were used to examine predicted associations for youth with and without MLs. PCC was significantly associated with relatedness to health care providers and autonomy for managing health care among youth with and without MLs. After controlling for covariates, evidence of mediation was observed among youth without MLs but not for youth with MLs. For youth without MLs, mediation suggests that youth's connection to their health care provider contributes to higher levels of health-related autonomy. For youth with MLs, independent of feeling connected to health care providers, more frequent PCC resulted in higher levels of health-related autonomy. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. First-year dental students' motivation and attitudes for choosing the dental profession.

    PubMed

    Avramova, Nadya; Yaneva, Krassimira; Bonev, Boyko

    2014-01-01

    To determine first-year dental students' current motivation and attitudes for choosing the dental profession at the Faculty of Dental Medicine, Medical University - Sofia, Bulgaria. An anonymous questionnaire, consisting of 12 questions about students' socio-demographic profile and their motivation for choosing dentistry, was administered to 119 first-year dental students at the Faculty of Dental Medicine of the Medical University of Sofia. The study was conducted at the beginning of the 2012-2013 academic year. The data was processed and analyzed with the following software: Microsoft Windows Server 2008 R2; Microsoft SQL Server 2008; Internet Information Server 7.5.; Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010. The majority of the students (73%) were self-motivated for choosing dentistry as a career; 61% of them did not have relatives in the medical profession; 43% chose dental medicine because it is a prestigious, humane and noble profession; 50% - for financial security; 59% - because of the independence that it provides. There were no significant differences in the motivation between males and females. Independence, financial security and 'prestige' were the predominant motivating factors in this group of first-year dental students. Determining the reasons for choosing dentistry has important implications for the selection and training of students as well as for their future job satisfaction. Copyright © 2014 by Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  20. Patient-centered measures for achalasia.

    PubMed

    Harnish, Julie L; Darling, Gail E; Diamant, Nicholas E; Kortan, Paul P; Tomlinson, George A; Deitel, Wayne; Laporte, Audrey; Urbach, David R

    2008-05-01

    Various instruments may be used to measure health-related quality of life in patients with achalasia. We administered four patient-centered measures used for evaluation of achalasia severity [an achalasia severity questionnaire we developed previously, an achalasia symptom checklist, the Gastrointestinal Quality-of-Life Index (GIQLI), and the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form survey (SF-36)] to 25 subjects enrolled in a randomized controlled trial comparing pneumatic dilatation and laparoscopic Heller myotomy. We estimated correlations between the different measures. Twenty-five patients (13 male, 12 female) were studied; 12 were treated by pneumatic dilatation and 13 by laparoscopic myotomy. The average age of patients was 48.5 [range 25-69, standard deviation (SD) 13.7] years. Baseline scores demonstrated a substantial burden of impairment. The mean (SD) score on the achalasia severity measure [ranges from 0 (best) to 100 (worst)] was 62.3 (13.4). The mean (SD) symptom checklist score [ranges from 0 (best) to 36 (worst)] was 23.2 (6.6). The mean (SD) GIQLI [ranges from 0 (worst) to 144 (best)] was 77.04 (19.4). The SF-36 mean (SD) for the physical component score (PCS) was 45.29 (9.21) and the mean for the mental component score (MCS) was 37.61 (14.97). The achalasia severity measure correlated highly with the GIQLI (r = -0.57, p = 0.01), and the symptom checklist (r = 0.65, p = 0.004). The achalasia severity measure correlated well with the SF-36 PCS (r = -0.42, p = 0.039), but not with the MCS (r = -0.14, p = 0.501). Subjects recruited to a randomized controlled trial of achalasia treatment demonstrated impairment in both generic quality-of-life and disease-specific measures. Scores on achalasia-specific measures correlated well with each other, but less well with measures of generic quality-of-life and mental health scales. Because of the multidimensional nature of achalasia, disease-specific measures should be combined with generic health measures for

  1. Factors predictive of depression in first-year college students.

    PubMed

    Brandy, Julie M; Penckofer, Sue; Solari-Twadell, Phyllis A; Velsor-Friedrich, Barbara

    2015-02-01

    Starting college is a challenging time for first-year students and is often accompanied by emotions such as depression, which can negatively affect academic performance and quality of life. This descriptive correlational study examined stress, coping, depressive symptomology, spirituality, and social support in a convenience sample of first-year students (N = 188) from two private colleges. Results indicated that 45% of students demonstrated greater than average levels of stress and 48% reported clinically significant depressive symptomology. Significant relationships existed between depressive symptoms and stress (p < 0.01) and depressive symptoms and social support (p < 0.01). Less social support was associated with more stress (p < 0.01). The results suggested that interventions targeting stress reduction in first-year students should be considered for decreasing depressive symptoms to enhance their college experience. \\

  2. On flipping the classroom in large first year calculus courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungić, Veselin; Kaur, Harpreet; Mulholland, Jamie; Xin, Cindy

    2015-05-01

    Over the course of two years, 2012--2014, we have implemented a 'flipping' the classroom approach in three of our large enrolment first year calculus courses: differential and integral calculus for scientists and engineers. In this article we describe the details of our particular approach and share with the reader some experiences of both instructors and students.

  3. Skills, Learning Styles and Success of First-Year Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldfinch, Judy; Hughes, Moira

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the relationships between students' confidence in their generic skills on entry to university, their learning styles and their academic performance in first year. Research based on a large cohort of Scottish undergraduates found that students generally entered university feeling very confident that they already possessed…

  4. First-Year Composition and the Problem of Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutney, Joshua Peter

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines recent claims that post-secondary student writers underperform because they fail to transfer the skills and knowledge taught in first-year composition courses. My analysis of the scholarship on writing transfer and investigation of the conditions of student writing at one private liberal arts college suggest that there…

  5. Integrated Chemistry and Biology for First-Year College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdella, Beth R. J.; Walczak, Mary M.; Kandl, Kim A.; Schwinefus, Jeffrey J.

    2011-01-01

    A three-course sequence for first-year students that integrates beginning concepts in biology and chemistry has been designed. The first two courses that emphasize chemistry and its capacity to inform biological applications are described here. The content of the first course moves from small to large particles with an emphasis on membrane…

  6. Final Report on the Evaluation of Project Upswing's First Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plantec, P.; And Others

    This technical report describes the evaluation of the first year of Project Upswing, a 2-year experimental study to determine the potential contribution of volunteers in helping young children overcome learning difficulties. The three large groups of first grade children involved received tutoring either from specially trained volunteers,…

  7. Realized Benefits for First-Year Student Peer Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wawrzynski, Matthew R.; Beverly, Andrew M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated student-learning outcomes of college peer educators whose primary responsibility or interest was to address health and safety topics on campus, such as alcohol and illicit drug use, tobacco issues, sexual health and safety issues, nutrition, and violence prevention. Participants included 69 first-year college students who…

  8. Sentence-Combining and Syntactic Maturity in First Year University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, M. F.

    This study assessed the effect of six weeks of sentence-combining activities on the syntactic maturity of first-year university students. The Syntactic Maturity Test (SMT) and a free writing exercise were used as pre/post instruments to determine words-per-T-unit and words-per-clause ratios. Significant results favoring the experimental group were…

  9. The Work Values of First Year Spanish University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortés-Pascual, P. A.; Cano-Escoriaza, J.; Orejudo, S.

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes the work values of 2,951 first-year university students in Spain enrolled in degree programs within the five major areas of university studies. For our research, participants were asked to respond to a Scale of Work Values in which intrinsic, social, and pragmatic extrinsic values as well as extrinsic values related to…

  10. Incorporating a Creative Component in First-Year Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleefeld, John C.; Farnese, Patricia L.

    2015-01-01

    For some students, law school leads to a perception of legal education as favouring technical proficiency and structural similarity over innovation and creativity, leading to disengagement in learning. To address this, we offered a creative option in two first-year law courses, worth 20% of the grade. Students who chose this option created a…

  11. Vocational Electronics First Year Teacher's Guide and Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solanik, Chuck

    This guide is intended to help teachers give preparatory instruction in the development of basic manipulative skills, safety practices, technical knowledge, and related industrial information in order to prepare students for useful employment in the field of electronics. This first-year guide contains 6 units organized in 21 lesson plans. Each…

  12. Helping First-Year Undergraduates Engage in Language Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Mark; Pasamar Márquez, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Adopting an "exploratory action research" design and drawing primarily on a reflective journal and interviews, this study recounts the process of supporting first-year Applied Languages students (learning French, German and Spanish) as they started to engage in language research. Certain challenges they faced in engaging with the…

  13. Freshmen Marketing: A First-Year Experience with Experiential Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Henry

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes an experiential learning activity designed for a New England university freshmen course, BUS101-Marketing First-Year Experience (FYE). The purpose of the activity is to teach basic principles of marketing, develop a general perspective of business, and provide FYE activities that facilitate the college transition. The specific…

  14. Decreasing Authority Dependence during the First Year of College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magolda, Marcia B. Baxter; King, Patricia M.; Taylor, Kari B.; Wakefield, Kerri M.

    2012-01-01

    Annual interviews with 228 students at 6 diverse campuses in the Wabash National Study of Liberal Arts Education reveal 123 students' developmental growth away from authority dependence between the beginning of the first and second years of college. In the first year of college, 86% of participants relied solely on external authorities to define…

  15. 8 Things First-Year Students Fear about College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanley, Mary Kay; Johnston, Julia

    2008-01-01

    There is this little secret college-bound and first-year college students outwardly deny: They are scared sick about going off to college. In the authors' interviews with 175 college students throughout the United States for "Survival Secrets of College Students" (Barron's, 2007) students talked--sometimes painfully--about what they wished they…

  16. The First-Year Experiences of Successful Superintendents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Kerry; Hanna, Shellie L.; Womack, Sid T.

    2012-01-01

    These qualitative case studies give the prospective superintendent a real-life look at life on the other side of the district CEO's desk. Two dozen superintendents reflect upon their first challenges and growth opportunities that arose during that all-important first year. They tell it like it is, no sugar-coating. The experiences they listed, in…

  17. Placement of Students into First-Year Writing Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Norbert; Deess, Perry; Rudniy, Alex; Joshi, Kamal

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to examine concurrent and predictive evidence used in the validation of ACCUPLACER, a purchased test used to place first-year students into writing courses at an urban, public research university devoted to science and technology education. Concurrent evidence was determined by correlations between ACCUPLACER…

  18. High-Impact Practices and the First-Year Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tukibayeva, Malika; Gonyea, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    High-impact practices, programs, and activities where students commit considerable time and effort in different settings can help to define the first-year college experience and are likely to increase success in areas like persistence, deep learning, and self-reported gains.

  19. Building Racial Literacy in First-Year Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sealey-Ruiz, Yolanda

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present a case for building racial literacy in students. The author offers support for her argument by foregrounding a three-month study she conducted in her community college first-year composition (FYC) classroom. She hopes that this article will contribute to the growing body of research that emphasizes the…

  20. Child Nutrition Program Operations Study: First Year Report Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Pierre, Robert; And Others

    Summarizing the first year report of a multi-year study of the Food and Nutrition Service's (Department of Agriculture) Child Nutrition Programs, this report describes the programs and methods of the study. Data were collected through telephone interviews with states and School Food Authorities (SFAs) between 1987 and 1992. Findings from 1987-1988…

  1. Promoting Conceptual Change in First Year Students' Understanding of Evaporation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costu, Bayram; Ayas, Alipasa; Niaz, Mansoor

    2010-01-01

    We constructed the PDEODE (Predict-Discuss-Explain-Observe-Discuss-Explain) teaching strategy, a variant of the classical POE (Predict-Observe-Explain) activity, to promote conceptual change, and investigated its effectiveness on student understanding of the evaporation concept. The sample consisted of 52 first year students in a primary science…

  2. First-Year Student Aspirations: A Multinodal Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grellier, Jane

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the aspirations of first-year university students in a particular socio-geographic context, by juxtaposing this context with those of Western universities in the 1970s. The rhizomatic analysis enables student voices and personal narratives to complement, extend and undercut the words of published researchers and of the…

  3. First-Year Superintendents' Perceptions of Preparation and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quirk, Brady D.

    2012-01-01

    Through this qualitative study, the perceptions of first-year superintendents in Missouri were obtained regarding their graduate preparation program and the types of supports they sought in their new position. The superintendency is a complex role, requiring the school district leader to work within the often-conflicting framework of…

  4. Classroom Motivation: Strategies of First-Year Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newby, Timothy J.

    1991-01-01

    Motivational strategies used by 30 first year elementary school teachers and on-task behaviors of their respective students were monitored. Each teacher used several motivating strategies (concerning getting attention, emphasizing relevance, building confidence, and imposing rewards and punishments). There was a significant positive correlation…

  5. First-Year Athletes' Student Development and Their University Residence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saidla, Debie D.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Investigated relationships between aspects of student athletes' psychosocial development and perceptions of university residence environment. Student athletes (n=53) enrolled in first-year orientation class completed Student Developmental Task and Lifestyle Inventory and University Residence Environment Scale. Findings revealed that student…

  6. Academic Engagement among First-Year College Students: Precollege Antecedents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabowski, Stanislaw; Sessa, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    This study describes how student characteristics and environmental influences experienced in high school (and the interactions among them) impact academic engagement of first-semester college students. Data, collected from 300 first-year students at a single university at two different times, showed that precollege student characteristics of…

  7. First-Year Students' Perspectives on Intercultural Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Amy; Williams, Rhiannon D.; Shaw, Marta A.; Jie, Yiyun

    2014-01-01

    Faculty can play a critical role in supporting students' intercultural development, but studies indicate that instructors report a lack of formal understanding about how to maximize this opportunity. Through the investigation of 115 first-year students' written reflections, this study provides faculty with students' perspectives on intercultural…

  8. Learning Communities and First-Year Programs: Lessons for Planners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, William E.

    2003-01-01

    Bowling Green State University, Ohio, carried out a study of learning communities and first-year programs to determine their success in facilitating student success, increasing engagement, and promoting connections. Findings from 10 learning communities show the overall success of these programs and provide favorable cost estimates. (SLD)

  9. Immigration Reform in Its First Year. CIS Paper 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North, David S.

    This document assesses the preliminary impact of the first year of the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA). The act had three primary goals: (1) to discourage illegal immigration into the United States and to encourage the departure of recent illegal immigrants; (2) to permit the legalization of illegal immigrants who have been in…

  10. Maternal Behavior and Infant Weight Gain in the First Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worobey, John; Lopez, Maria Islas; Hoffman, Daniel J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relative contributions of maternal characteristics and behaviors in predicting infant weight gain over the first year of postpartum life. Design: Longitudinal study of maternal feeding style throughout infancy. Setting: A Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children center. Participants:…

  11. Promoting Conceptual Change in First Year Students' Understanding of Evaporation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costu, Bayram; Ayas, Alipasa; Niaz, Mansoor

    2010-01-01

    We constructed the PDEODE (Predict-Discuss-Explain-Observe-Discuss-Explain) teaching strategy, a variant of the classical POE (Predict-Observe-Explain) activity, to promote conceptual change, and investigated its effectiveness on student understanding of the evaporation concept. The sample consisted of 52 first year students in a primary science…

  12. Challenges of a Successful First-Year Principal in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Charles L.; Garcia, Jose Maria; Gorosave, Gema Lopez

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This case study is an attempt to understand the experience of a school principal, Arnulfo. The research question is: what are the challenges of one first-year school director in Baja California, Mexico? Design/methodology/approach: Arnulfo participated in an interview and five focus groups at the Ensenada State Normal School. He kept a…

  13. Handbook for First Year Experimental Language Development: Book Three.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Queensland Dept. of Education, Brisbane (Australia).

    This publication completes the first year experimental language development program which has been devised for use with young aboriginal children in Queensland. Two sections of suggested activities are included featuring two themes, transport and travel, and the world around us. Suggested activities include oral use of language units, reading,…

  14. Outcomes of Synergetic Peer Assessment: First-Year Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgson, Paula; Chan, Kitty; Liu, Justina

    2014-01-01

    Active participation in learning activities and reviewing assessment activity can facilitate learners engaged in these processes. This case study reports student experiences of the process of peer assessment with teacher guidance in a group project for a first-year nursing course with 153 students. Twenty groups of students were assigned roles in…

  15. Teaching Visual Rhetoric in the First-Year Composition Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Kristen; Lee, Nicholas; Shuman, Dustin

    2010-01-01

    An emphasis on visual rhetoric can be incorporated into a variety of classrooms. This article illustrates teaching visual rhetoric to first-year composition students via interpretation and analysis through a trip to a local art museum for the first essay assignment and through an exploration of photography for the second essay assignment. In the…

  16. First Year Turkish Science Undergraduates' Understandings and Misconceptions of Light

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yalcin, Mehmet; Altun, Sema; Turgut, Umit; Aggul, Fatma

    2009-01-01

    The present study aims to identify first year Turkish Science undergraduates' understandings and misconceptions of the concept of light and its propagation. For this purpose, an instrument composed of four open-ended questions was developed by the researchers. The diagnostic test was piloted with twenty students and modifications were made prior…

  17. Exploratory Students' Experiences with First-Year Academic Advising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Workman, Jamie L.

    2015-01-01

    Six sophomore students who had entered a public midwestern university as undeclared participated in the study. The advisors used a modified form of appreciative advising designed to assist first-year exploratory students. The study was conducted using grounded theory techniques, a phenomenological perspective, and semi-structured interviews. At…

  18. Outcomes of Synergetic Peer Assessment: First-Year Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgson, Paula; Chan, Kitty; Liu, Justina

    2014-01-01

    Active participation in learning activities and reviewing assessment activity can facilitate learners engaged in these processes. This case study reports student experiences of the process of peer assessment with teacher guidance in a group project for a first-year nursing course with 153 students. Twenty groups of students were assigned roles in…

  19. Transformational Leadership: A Practice Needed for First-Year Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinkead, J. Clint

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to explore the multidimensional facets of transformational leadership and the impacts of such leadership on first-year academic success programs at the college level. Specifically, transformational leaders within higher-education organizations must share vision, rally support, and genuinely care about student…

  20. Motivating First-Year University Students by Interdisciplinary Study Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Franziska D.; Dirsch-Weigand, Andrea; Awolin, Malte; Pinkelman, Rebecca J.; Hampe, Manfred J.

    2017-01-01

    In order to increase student commitment from the beginning of students' university careers, the Technische Universität Darmstadt has introduced interdisciplinary study projects involving first-year students from the engineering, natural, social and history, economics and/or human sciences departments. The didactic concept includes sophisticated…

  1. Transitions in First-Year Students' Initial Practice Orientations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Roni; Segal-Engelchin, Dorit; Huss, Efrat

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of the first-year program on the initial practice orientations of 2 distinct, equal-sized clusters of entering BSW students: micro-oriented and macro-oriented students. Results indicate that the proportion of students reporting a micro-practice orientation increased from 53.2% to 62.4% between the beginning and…

  2. Freshmen Marketing: A First-Year Experience with Experiential Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Henry

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes an experiential learning activity designed for a New England university freshmen course, BUS101-Marketing First-Year Experience (FYE). The purpose of the activity is to teach basic principles of marketing, develop a general perspective of business, and provide FYE activities that facilitate the college transition. The specific…

  3. Linguistic Attention in Rhetorical Genre Studies and First Year Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aull, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Since Carolyn Miller's Genre as Social Action, North American Rhetorical Genre Studies (RGS) has facilitated analysis of how typified rhetorical actions constitute the contexts and communities in which writers write. In first-year writing (FYW) specifically, RGS approaches have focused on macro-level textual constructs, like the audience and…

  4. First-Year Students' Perspectives on Intercultural Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Amy; Williams, Rhiannon D.; Shaw, Marta A.; Jie, Yiyun

    2014-01-01

    Faculty can play a critical role in supporting students' intercultural development, but studies indicate that instructors report a lack of formal understanding about how to maximize this opportunity. Through the investigation of 115 first-year students' written reflections, this study provides faculty with students' perspectives on intercultural…

  5. Articulatory Phonetics in the First-Year Spanish Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arteaga, Deborah L.

    2000-01-01

    Reconsiders the general question of the role of articulatory phonetics in the second language (L2) classroom and reviews the phonetic presentation in 10 recent first-year Spanish texts. Proposes a phonetics program based on the notion of a learners' dialect, then measures the phonetics of the textbooks against a learners' dialect. Argues against…

  6. Developmental Reading Learning Communities in the First-Year Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabbert, Ann; Peschka, Corrine; Spradley, Jackie

    2008-01-01

    The University of Texas at El Paso offers over seventy learning communities to first-year students from extremely diverse socioeconomic and educational backgrounds. Ninety percent are Hispanic, 54 percent are first-generation college students, and 59 percent must participate in developmental classes before moving forward with college-level…

  7. I Am Your Child: The First Years Last Forever. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IBM Foundation.

    New research in brain development reveals the vital importance of the relationship between caregiver and child in the critical first years of life. This videotape explores the role of parents in stimulating early childhood development. The approximately 29-minute videotape discusses: (1) attachment and the role of touch in creating a bond between…

  8. Exploring First-Year College Students' Cultural Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tharp, D. Scott

    2017-01-01

    The development of college students' cultural competence is important in an increasingly diverse world. This exploratory, qualitative, action research study examined how 158 first-year students understood and applied core concepts after participating in a standardized diversity and social justice lesson plan designed using transformative education…

  9. Teaching Visual Rhetoric in the First-Year Composition Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Kristen; Lee, Nicholas; Shuman, Dustin

    2010-01-01

    An emphasis on visual rhetoric can be incorporated into a variety of classrooms. This article illustrates teaching visual rhetoric to first-year composition students via interpretation and analysis through a trip to a local art museum for the first essay assignment and through an exploration of photography for the second essay assignment. In the…

  10. Curriculum Guide for Marketing and Distributive Education (First Year).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This curriculum guide consists of materials for use in teaching the first year of a two-year course in marketing and distributive education. Included in the guide are field review information, an introduction, a course outline, unit outlines for use in the first and second semesters of the course, and a bibliography. Topics addressed in the first…

  11. High-Impact Practices and the First-Year Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tukibayeva, Malika; Gonyea, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    High-impact practices, programs, and activities where students commit considerable time and effort in different settings can help to define the first-year college experience and are likely to increase success in areas like persistence, deep learning, and self-reported gains.

  12. On Flipping the Classroom in Large First Year Calculus Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jungic, Veselin; Kaur, Harpreet; Mulholland, Jamie; Xin, Cindy

    2015-01-01

    Over the course of two years, 2012-2014, we have implemented a "flipping" the classroom approach in three of our large enrolment first year calculus courses: differential and integral calculus for scientists and engineers. In this article we describe the details of our particular approach and share with the reader some experiences of…

  13. Building Racial Literacy in First-Year Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sealey-Ruiz, Yolanda

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present a case for building racial literacy in students. The author offers support for her argument by foregrounding a three-month study she conducted in her community college first-year composition (FYC) classroom. She hopes that this article will contribute to the growing body of research that emphasizes the…

  14. Motivating First-Year University Students by Interdisciplinary Study Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Franziska D.; Dirsch-Weigand, Andrea; Awolin, Malte; Pinkelman, Rebecca J.; Hampe, Manfred J.

    2017-01-01

    In order to increase student commitment from the beginning of students' university careers, the Technische Universität Darmstadt has introduced interdisciplinary study projects involving first-year students from the engineering, natural, social and history, economics and/or human sciences departments. The didactic concept includes sophisticated…

  15. Psychosocial Factors Predicting First-Year College Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krumrei-Mancuso, Elizabeth J.; Newton, Fred B.; Kim, Eunhee; Wilcox, Dan

    2013-01-01

    This study made use of a model of college success that involves students achieving academic goals and life satisfaction. Hierarchical regressions examined the role of six psychosocial factors for college success among 579 first-year college students. Academic self-efficacy and organization and attention to study were predictive of first semester…

  16. Blended Learning: The Perceptions of First-Year Geography Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Phillipa; Forer, Pip

    2010-01-01

    Focusing on "Digital Worlds", a first-year geography blended learning course at the University of Auckland, this paper gives voice to the students, examining how they perceived e-learning versus traditional learning mechanisms; how e-learning mechanisms have affected their learning behaviour; and why certain e-learning mechanisms offered…

  17. First Year Mathematics Undergraduates' Settled Images of Tangent Line

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biza, Irene; Zachariades, Theodossios

    2010-01-01

    This study concerns 182 first year mathematics undergraduates' perspectives on the tangent line of function graph in the light of a previous study on Year 12 pupils' perspectives. The aim was the investigation of tangency images that settle after undergraduates' distancing from the notion for a few months and after their participation in…

  18. On Flipping the Classroom in Large First Year Calculus Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jungic, Veselin; Kaur, Harpreet; Mulholland, Jamie; Xin, Cindy

    2015-01-01

    Over the course of two years, 2012-2014, we have implemented a "flipping" the classroom approach in three of our large enrolment first year calculus courses: differential and integral calculus for scientists and engineers. In this article we describe the details of our particular approach and share with the reader some experiences of…

  19. Guided Planning in First-Year Student Teachers' Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilssen, Vivi Lisbeth

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on a cooperating teacher in Norway and her approach to mentoring first-year student teachers in their process of planning the mathematics teaching of third-graders. The purpose of the text is to show how the cooperating teacher's mentoring assists the student teachers' performance in a teaching form that is acknowledged as…

  20. Becoming Warm Demanders: Perspectives and Practices of First Year Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bondy, Elizabeth; Ross, Dorene D.; Hambacher, Elyse; Acosta, Melanie

    2013-01-01

    In the literature on culturally responsive pedagogy "warm demanders" are teachers who embrace values and enact practices that are central to their students' success. Few scholars have examined the experience of novice teachers who attempt to enact this stance. In this study of two first-year, female, European American teachers who attempted to be…

  1. Operating Instructions: Letter to a First Year School Librarian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashworth, Justin

    2006-01-01

    This article presents operational guidelines or instructions to a newly graduated librarian from library school. The author discusses some important factors to consider in the field of library work as a school librarian. He also presents seven strategies to keep in mind for a successful first year for a school librarian: (1) put people first; (2)…

  2. First-Year University Chemistry Textbooks' Misrepresentation of Gibbs Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quilez, Juan

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes the misrepresentation of Gibbs energy by college chemistry textbooks. The article reports the way first-year university chemistry textbooks handle the concepts of spontaneity and equilibrium. Problems with terminology are found; confusion arises in the meaning given to [delta]G, [delta][subscript r]G, [delta]G[degrees], and…

  3. Realized Benefits for First-Year Student Peer Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wawrzynski, Matthew R.; Beverly, Andrew M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated student-learning outcomes of college peer educators whose primary responsibility or interest was to address health and safety topics on campus, such as alcohol and illicit drug use, tobacco issues, sexual health and safety issues, nutrition, and violence prevention. Participants included 69 first-year college students who…

  4. Sense of Belonging and First-Year Academic Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Steve; Zhou, Mingming; Gervan, Ted; Wiebe, Sunita

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we analyze a broad range of factors that affect the sense of belonging of undergraduate students taking a first-year academic literacy course (ALC) at a multicultural, multilingual university in Vancouver, Canada. Students who fail to meet the university's language and literacy requirements are required to pass ALC before they can…

  5. The First Year of College: Understanding Student Persistence in Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayden, Marina Calvet

    This research study aimed to expand our understanding of the factors that influence student persistence in engineering. The unique experiences of engineering students were examined as they transitioned into and navigated their first year of college at a public research university in California. Most students provided similar responses with respect to the way they experienced the transition to college and social life. There was, however, wide student response variation regarding their experience of academic life and academic policies, as well as in their level of pre-college academic preparation and financial circumstances. One key finding was that students' experiences during the first year of college varied widely based on the extent to which they had acquired organizational and learning skills prior to college. The study used a mixed methods approach. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected through an online survey and one-on-one interviews conducted with freshman students near the end of their first year of college. The theoretical foundations of this study included Astin's Theory of Student Involvement and Tinto's Theory of Student Departure. The design of the study was guided by these theories which emphasize the critical importance of student involvement with the academic and social aspects of college during the first year of college.

  6. Psychosocial Factors Predicting First-Year College Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krumrei-Mancuso, Elizabeth J.; Newton, Fred B.; Kim, Eunhee; Wilcox, Dan

    2013-01-01

    This study made use of a model of college success that involves students achieving academic goals and life satisfaction. Hierarchical regressions examined the role of six psychosocial factors for college success among 579 first-year college students. Academic self-efficacy and organization and attention to study were predictive of first semester…

  7. Articulatory Phonetics in the First-Year Spanish Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arteaga, Deborah L.

    2000-01-01

    Reconsiders the general question of the role of articulatory phonetics in the second language (L2) classroom and reviews the phonetic presentation in 10 recent first-year Spanish texts. Proposes a phonetics program based on the notion of a learners' dialect, then measures the phonetics of the textbooks against a learners' dialect. Argues against…

  8. Reflections on a Flipped Classroom in First Year Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Josh

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the efficacy of a flipped classroom model for teaching first year students three-dimensional (3D) animation, and analyses the advantages and disadvantages when compared to traditional teaching mechanisms. In 2015, within the course "Introduction to CGI" at the University of South Australia, two different tutorial…

  9. Reflections on a Flipped Classroom in First Year Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Josh

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the efficacy of a flipped classroom model for teaching first year students three-dimensional (3D) animation, and analyses the advantages and disadvantages when compared to traditional teaching mechanisms. In 2015, within the course "Introduction to CGI" at the University of South Australia, two different tutorial…

  10. First-Year University Students' Understanding of Rate of Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bezuidenhout, Jan

    1998-01-01

    Explores first-year students' understanding of fundamental calculus concepts using written tests and interviews. Analysis of the written and verbal responses to the test items revealed significant misconceptions on which students' mathematical activities were based. Describes some of those misconceptions and errors relating to students'…

  11. Children's Diurnal Cortisol Activity during the First Year of School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Pei-Jung; Lamb, Michael E.; Kappler, Gregor; Ahnert, Lieselotte

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined 4- to 5-year-old British children's diurnal cortisol activity during their first year of school. The children's cortisol was measured before enrollment (baseline), upon enrollment, and both 3 and 6 months after enrollment. On each day, cortisol was sampled four times, providing information about the diurnal amount of…

  12. Accelerating Literacy Program: The First Year 1993-94.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ralph J.

    The 1993-94 school year was the first year of the Accelerating Literacy Program (ALP) of the Austin (Texas) Independent School District. The ALP used a grant from the Texas Education Agency to train elementary educators in the methods of a short-term reading intervention program based on the Reading Recovery/Whole Language theory. A group of 367…

  13. Helping First-Year Undergraduates Engage in Language Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Mark; Pasamar Márquez, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Adopting an "exploratory action research" design and drawing primarily on a reflective journal and interviews, this study recounts the process of supporting first-year Applied Languages students (learning French, German and Spanish) as they started to engage in language research. Certain challenges they faced in engaging with the…

  14. First-Year College Students' Conflict with Religion and Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin-Hansen, Lisa Michelle

    2008-01-01

    This study took place during a First Year Seminar course where 20 incoming college freshmen studied the central topic of the nature of science within the context of biological evolution. The instructor researched students' understandings in the nature of science as they progressed through the course by examining a variety of qualitative and…

  15. Multiple Assessments of a First-Year Seminar Pilot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Andrew; Donahue, Christiane

    2009-01-01

    First-year seminars have become common at liberal arts and other colleges across the United States. An accumulating body of research appears to demonstrate that this curricular element is associated with increased retention of students and is positively correlated with graduation rates, student adjustment and involvement, student satisfaction,…

  16. The First-Year Experiences of Successful Superintendents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Kerry; Hanna, Shellie L.; Womack, Sid T.

    2012-01-01

    These qualitative case studies give the prospective superintendent a real-life look at life on the other side of the district CEO's desk. Two dozen superintendents reflect upon their first challenges and growth opportunities that arose during that all-important first year. They tell it like it is, no sugar-coating. The experiences they listed, in…

  17. Social Expressivity During the First Year of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Givens, David

    1978-01-01

    A number of infantile nonverbal behaviors are listed that can be interpreted as signs of a child's fundamental psychosocial orientations to others during the first year. Ethological studies of child and adult nonverbal communication suggest a considerable degree of neoteny in the human sign system. (SW)

  18. Transitions in First-Year Students' Initial Practice Orientations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Roni; Segal-Engelchin, Dorit; Huss, Efrat

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of the first-year program on the initial practice orientations of 2 distinct, equal-sized clusters of entering BSW students: micro-oriented and macro-oriented students. Results indicate that the proportion of students reporting a micro-practice orientation increased from 53.2% to 62.4% between the beginning and…

  19. First Year Engagement & Retention: A Goal-Setting Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuffley, David; Antonio, Amy

    2013-01-01

    First year students face a daunting range of challenges as they make the transition to university life. Their experiences in the first months of university have a defining influence on their success or otherwise in their studies. The purpose of this paper is to report on the results of a case study that tests the efficacy of a student engagement…

  20. FIRST-YEAR REPORT ON THE HEGELER PROJECT READING STUDY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HUGHES, ANN; THOMAS, NELLIE

    IN SEPTEMBER 1964 THE HEGELER FOUNDATION CONDUCTED A WIDESCALE READING STUDY TO DETERMINE WHETHER OR NOT THE CORRELATED LANGUAGE ARTS PROGRAM BASED ON THE "OPEN COURT BASIC READERS" WOULD PRODUCE SUPERIOR RESULTS IN READING AND WRITING ACHIEVEMENT. THE FIRST-YEAR RESULTS ARE PRESENTED. THIRTY-TWO EXPERIMENTAL CLASSES AND 32 CONTROL…

  1. First Year Engagement & Retention: A Goal-Setting Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuffley, David; Antonio, Amy

    2013-01-01

    First year students face a daunting range of challenges as they make the transition to university life. Their experiences in the first months of university have a defining influence on their success or otherwise in their studies. The purpose of this paper is to report on the results of a case study that tests the efficacy of a student engagement…

  2. An Innovative Learning Model for Computation in First Year Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonkes, E. J.; Loch, B. I.; Stace, A. W.

    2005-01-01

    MATLAB is a sophisticated software tool for numerical analysis and visualization. The University of Queensland has adopted Matlab as its official teaching package across large first year mathematics courses. In the past, the package has met severe resistance from students who have not appreciated their computational experience. Several main…

  3. Influencers of Religious Engagement in the First Year of College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Harold V., III

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors that influence a deepening of students' religious engagement in the first year of college. Recent studies have challenged the findings of more than three decades of research that found attending college leads to a decline in students' religious beliefs and practices. This study extends those recent…

  4. A Review of the AIDP Project After the First Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadbent, William A.

    This document provides an assessment of the progress Leeward Community College has made toward fulfilling the objectives of its five-year 1.4 million dollar Advanced Institutional Development Program (AIDP) grant at the end of the first year of funding. Essentially, the objectives of the project fall into four major program areas: community…

  5. Integrated Chemistry and Biology for First-Year College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdella, Beth R. J.; Walczak, Mary M.; Kandl, Kim A.; Schwinefus, Jeffrey J.

    2011-01-01

    A three-course sequence for first-year students that integrates beginning concepts in biology and chemistry has been designed. The first two courses that emphasize chemistry and its capacity to inform biological applications are described here. The content of the first course moves from small to large particles with an emphasis on membrane…

  6. First-Year Student Aspirations: A Multinodal Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grellier, Jane

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the aspirations of first-year university students in a particular socio-geographic context, by juxtaposing this context with those of Western universities in the 1970s. The rhizomatic analysis enables student voices and personal narratives to complement, extend and undercut the words of published researchers and of the…

  7. An Innovative Learning Model for Computation in First Year Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonkes, E. J.; Loch, B. I.; Stace, A. W.

    2005-01-01

    MATLAB is a sophisticated software tool for numerical analysis and visualization. The University of Queensland has adopted Matlab as its official teaching package across large first year mathematics courses. In the past, the package has met severe resistance from students who have not appreciated their computational experience. Several main…

  8. First Year Turkish Science Undergraduates' Understandings and Misconceptions of Light

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yalcin, Mehmet; Altun, Sema; Turgut, Umit; Aggul, Fatma

    2009-01-01

    The present study aims to identify first year Turkish Science undergraduates' understandings and misconceptions of the concept of light and its propagation. For this purpose, an instrument composed of four open-ended questions was developed by the researchers. The diagnostic test was piloted with twenty students and modifications were made prior…

  9. First-Year University Chemistry Textbooks' Misrepresentation of Gibbs Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quilez, Juan

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes the misrepresentation of Gibbs energy by college chemistry textbooks. The article reports the way first-year university chemistry textbooks handle the concepts of spontaneity and equilibrium. Problems with terminology are found; confusion arises in the meaning given to [delta]G, [delta][subscript r]G, [delta]G[degrees], and…

  10. Law Firm: A First-Year Course on Lawyering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braveman, Daan

    1989-01-01

    An experimental first-year course introducing law students to the law firm addressed: a single issue in contract law from both sides, writing as an advocate, the lawyer's role, legal research methods, the legislative process, the counseling function, the appellate process, and traditional legal writing. An interdisciplinary approach was used. (MSE)

  11. Children's Diurnal Cortisol Activity during the First Year of School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Pei-Jung; Lamb, Michael E.; Kappler, Gregor; Ahnert, Lieselotte

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined 4- to 5-year-old British children's diurnal cortisol activity during their first year of school. The children's cortisol was measured before enrollment (baseline), upon enrollment, and both 3 and 6 months after enrollment. On each day, cortisol was sampled four times, providing information about the diurnal amount of…

  12. Reflective Journal Writing and the First-Year Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everett, Michele C.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, great emphasis has been placed on student success and retention in higher education. To address this issue, many universities' strategic retention programs include first-year seminars. A variety of pedagogical strategies have been employed in these seminars to help students succeed personally, socially and academically. This…

  13. First Year ESL Students Developing Critical Thinking: Challenging the Stereotypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yongyan

    2013-01-01

    Reporting a case study of two high-achieving Chinese students studying at a university in Hong Kong, this paper presents evidence that poses an anti-thesis to the stereotypes of first year university students as holding naïve beliefs about learning and of "Chinese learners" as lacking in critical thinking. Many studies have examined…

  14. Some Mathematical Elements in a First-Year Seminar Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinter, Mike

    2007-01-01

    A first-year seminar general education course provides a good opportunity to search for mathematical topics associated with the popular culture represented in the course's required films and readings. We discuss mathematical connections to several books, including "Life of Pi" and "The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-Time," and to the…

  15. Creating, Implementing and Integrating a First-Year Statistics Requirement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redington, Douglas B.; Russell, R. Alan

    2012-01-01

    We present the process our institution used to create a statistics requirement for almost all incoming first-year students. From conception and planning, to hiring and acceptance by the university community, we offer lessons learned should you consider making such a shift in your own curriculum.

  16. Assessment 101: Assessment Made Easy for First-Year Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Jennifer; Little, Chelsea; Rigney, Rex; Thaler, Anna; Weiderman, Ken; Yorkovich, Ben

    2010-01-01

    This handbook is designed as a quick reference for first-year teachers who find themselves in an assessment driven environment with little experience to help make sense of the language, underlying philosophy, or organizational structure of the assessment system. The handbook begins with advice on developing and evaluating effective learning…

  17. A 3D Approach to First Year English Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeegers, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the suggestive possibilities of an approach to undergraduate English teacher education that the author has called the 3D Approach--Develop professional knowledge, Display professional knowledge, Disseminate professional knowledge--in relation to a number of groups of first year pre-service teachers…

  18. Maternal Behavior and Infant Weight Gain in the First Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worobey, John; Lopez, Maria Islas; Hoffman, Daniel J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relative contributions of maternal characteristics and behaviors in predicting infant weight gain over the first year of postpartum life. Design: Longitudinal study of maternal feeding style throughout infancy. Setting: A Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children center. Participants:…

  19. Vocational Electronics First Year Teacher's Guide and Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solanik, Chuck

    This guide is intended to help teachers give preparatory instruction in the development of basic manipulative skills, safety practices, technical knowledge, and related industrial information in order to prepare students for useful employment in the field of electronics. This first-year guide contains 6 units organized in 21 lesson plans. Each…

  20. Literacy Development in the First Year of Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Susan; Louden, William

    Drawing on the research study, "100 Children Go to School: Connections between Literacy Development in the Prior to School Period and the First Year of Schooling," conducted from 1996-1998 by a team made up of Susan Hill, Barbara Comber, William Louden, Judith Rivalland, and Jo-Anne Reid, this paper discusses the findings of the study,…

  1. First Year Teaching Experiences of Early Childhood Urban Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guyton, Edith

    The first-year teaching experiences of urban teachers were studied to conceptualize the reality faced by urban teachers and to determine the implications of the urban environment for teacher education. Subjects were four graduates of a teacher education program that gave no particular attention to the urban context beyond placement for student…

  2. Motivations for Studying Dentistry Among First-Year Dental Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, R.; Coburn, D.

    1977-01-01

    Reasons for choosing dentistry as a profession were analyzed among first-year dental students at the University of Toronto. An extrinsic motivation, financial reward, was found to be the most widespread, but other widely-chosen motivations were intrinsic, including working with people, stimulating work, and being autonomous. (LBH)

  3. First Year Experience for At-Risk College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Sara; Flynn, Ellen E.; Jemmott, Jill; Oestreicher, Edina

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we explored whether a uniquely designed First Year Experience (FYE) class for newly admitted at-risk college students would increase academic success; help students avoid academic probation; and increase retention for the following semester. Participants included 40 students (75% African Americans, 20% Hispanic Americans, and 5%…

  4. Perioperative Smartphone Apps and Devices for Patient-Centered Care.

    PubMed

    Simpao, Allan F; Lingappan, Arul M; Ahumada, Luis M; Rehman, Mohamed A; Gálvez, Jorge A

    2015-09-01

    Smartphones have grown in ubiquity and computing power, and they play an ever-increasing role in patient-centered health care. The "medicalized smartphone" not only enables web-based access to patient health resources, but also can run patient-oriented software applications and be connected to health-related peripheral devices. A variety of patient-oriented smartphone apps and devices are available for use to facilitate patient-centered care throughout the continuum of perioperative care. Ongoing advances in smartphone technology and health care apps and devices should expand their utility for enhancing patient-centered care in the future.

  5. A national data infrastructure for patient-centered outcomes research.

    PubMed

    Dymek, Christine; Gingold, Janelle; Shanbhag, Avinash; Fridsma, Doug; Yong, Pierre L

    2015-01-01

    Concerted efforts are underway to improve healthcare decision-making through patient-centered outcomes research. These efforts are supported by the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Trust Fund, which was established within the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. This article focuses on describing national data infrastructure efforts that support patient-centered outcomes research. A national data infrastructure has the potential to decrease research costs and improve research throughput. We describe early and current efforts that demonstrated this potential, how the national effort is utilizing the lessons learned from these predecessor efforts and remaining challenges.

  6. Compassion as the foundation of patient-centered care: the importance of compassion in action.

    PubMed

    Frampton, Susan B; Guastello, Sara; Lepore, Michael

    2013-09-01

    The Institute of Medicine defines patient-centered care as "providing care that is respectful of, and responsive to, individual patient preferences, needs and values, and ensuring that patient values guide all clinical decisions." What is missing in this definition is an explicit emphasis on compassion. This perspective article draws on the experience of Planetree (CT, USA), a not-for-profit organization that partners with healthcare establishments to drive adoption of patient-centered care principles and practices by connecting healthcare professionals with the voices and perspectives of the patients and family members who utilize their services. Across hundreds of focus groups facilitated by Planetree, patients and their loved ones emphasize that paramount among their needs, preferences and values are compassionate human interactions. For care to be truly patient-centered, a foundation of compassion is essential. Reports from patients and the media, and research from healthcare systems around the world demonstrate the fallacy of assuming that compassion is a current or prevalent feature of the care experience. Concurrently, a growing evidence base highlights the supreme importance of compassion in driving high-quality, high-value care. However, good intentions are not sufficient for delivering compassionate care. Drawing on the experiences of exemplary patient-centered hospitals (recognized as such following a rigorous culture audit to determine fulfillment of the criteria for formal recognition as a Designated® Patient-Centered Hospital [Planetree]), this paper explores practical approaches for embedding compassion in healthcare delivery and organizational culture to meet patients' expressed desires for empathic and respectful human interactions.

  7. Progress of Ontario's Family Health Team model: a patient-centered medical home.

    PubMed

    Rosser, Walter W; Colwill, Jack M; Kasperski, Jan; Wilson, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    Ontario's Family Health Team (FHT) model, implemented in 2005, may be North America's largest example of a patient-centered medical home. The model, based on multidisciplinary teams and an innovative incentive-based funding system, has been developed primarily from fee-for-service primary care practices. Nearly 2 million Ontarians are served by 170 FHTs. Preliminary observations suggest high satisfaction among patients, higher income and more gratification for family physicians, and trends for more medical students to select careers in family medicine. Popular demand is resulting in expansion to 200 FHTs. We describe the development, implementation, reimbursement plan, and current status of this multidisciplinary model, relating it to the principles of the patient-centered medical home. We also identify its potential to provide an understanding of many aspects of primary care.

  8. Graduate Students in Transition: Assisting Students through the First Year. The First-Year Experience Monograph Series No. 50

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tokuno, Kenneth A. Ed.

    2008-01-01

    On many campuses, graduate students are a prized resource, supporting faculty research and the undergraduate instructional mission. Yet, attrition rates among master's and doctoral students are often alarmingly high. The 50th installment of The First-Year Experience Monograph Series describes the challenges associated with entry into graduate…

  9. Transforming the First Year of College for Students of Color. The First-Year Experience Monograph Series No. 38

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rendon, Laura I., Ed.; Garcia, Mildred, Ed.; Person, Dawn, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    "Transforming the First Year of College for Students of Color" addresses some of the unique challenges and transition issues for African-American, Latino/a, Asian-Pacific American, American Indian/Alaska Native, and multiracial college students. Chapters address specific strategies for working with these student populations to ensure their success…

  10. Transforming the First Year of College for Students of Color. The First-Year Experience Monograph Series No. 38

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rendon, Laura I., Ed.; Garcia, Mildred, Ed.; Person, Dawn, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    "Transforming the First Year of College for Students of Color" addresses some of the unique challenges and transition issues for African-American, Latino/a, Asian-Pacific American, American Indian/Alaska Native, and multiracial college students. Chapters address specific strategies for working with these student populations to ensure their success…

  11. Engagement in the First Year as a Predictor of Academic Achievement and Persistence of First-Year Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlinsog, Jimmie A.

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between engagement in educationally purposeful activities during the first year of college and academic achievement, persistence, and graduation. The study focused on the impacts of engagement on student outcomes related to academic achievement, persistence, and graduation at a comprehensive university located…

  12. Involvement in Campus Activities and the Retention of First-Year College Students. The First-Year Experience Monograph Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skipper, Tracy L., Ed.; Argo, Roxanne, Ed.

    The chapters of this monograph offer insights into educationally purposeful out-of-class activities and the impact they have on the student experience. It also provides future directions for the campus activities field and identifies ways to improve the educational experience of first-year students to enhance their scholarly experience and to…

  13. Graduate Students in Transition: Assisting Students through the First Year. The First-Year Experience Monograph Series No. 50

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tokuno, Kenneth A. Ed.

    2008-01-01

    On many campuses, graduate students are a prized resource, supporting faculty research and the undergraduate instructional mission. Yet, attrition rates among master's and doctoral students are often alarmingly high. The 50th installment of The First-Year Experience Monograph Series describes the challenges associated with entry into graduate…

  14. Involvement in Campus Activities and the Retention of First-Year College Students. The First-Year Experience Monograph Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skipper, Tracy L., Ed.; Argo, Roxanne, Ed.

    The chapters of this monograph offer insights into educationally purposeful out-of-class activities and the impact they have on the student experience. It also provides future directions for the campus activities field and identifies ways to improve the educational experience of first-year students to enhance their scholarly experience and to…

  15. Health care employee perceptions of patient-centered care.

    PubMed

    Balbale, Salva Najib; Turcios, Stephanie; LaVela, Sherri L

    2015-03-01

    Given the importance of health care employees in the delivery of patient-centered care, understanding their unique perspectives is essential for quality improvement. The purpose of this study was to use photovoice to evaluate perceptions and experiences around patient-centered care among U.S. Veterans Affairs (VA) health care employees. We asked participants to take photographs of salient features in their environment related to patient-centered care. We used the photographs to facilitate dialogue during follow-up interviews. Twelve VA health care employees across two VA sites participated in the project. Although most participants felt satisfied with their work environment and experiences at the VA, they identified several areas for improvement. These included a need for more employee health and wellness initiatives and a need for enhanced opportunities for training and professional growth. Application of photovoice enabled us to learn about employees' unique perspectives around patient-centered care while engaging them in an evaluation of care delivery.

  16. First Year's Experience of the MAClinical Computer Workstations Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stair, Thomas O.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Computerized workstations at a teaching hospital were developed so that physicians in training could integrate and automate some of their information management tasks. The project is part of the National Library of Medicine's Integrated Academic Information Management Systems program at Georgetown University School of Medicine. (Author/MLW)

  17. Microwave signatures of first-year and multiyear sea ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gloersen, P.; Nordberg, P.; Schmugge, T. J.; Wilheit, T. T.; Campbell, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    A combination of remote sensing from an aircraft and simultaneous surface measurements have confirmed the feasibility of identifying old and new sea ice according to its emission of thermal radiation at wavelengths between 0.3 and 3 cm. Emissivity of first-year thick ice with a surface temperature of about 260 K is 0.95 or greater for wavelengths between 0.81 and 11 cm; the emissivity of multiyear ice is 0.8 at 0.81 cm and 0.95 at 11 cm, increasing monotonically in this wave length interval. The ease with which multiyear ice can be distinguished from first-year ice using a passive microwave radiometer is demonstrated by comparing mosaics prepared both from photographs and images of 1.55 cm radiation.

  18. A mathematics support programme for first-year engineering students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillock, Poh Wah; Jennings, Michael; Roberts, Anthony; Scharaschkin, Victor

    2013-10-01

    This article describes a mathematics support programme at the University of Queensland, targeted at first-year engineering students identified as having a high risk of failing a first-year mathematics course in calculus and linear algebra. It describes how students were identified for the programme and the main features of the programme. The success of the programme was evaluated using student feedback as well as a comparison of the performance of students who participated in the support programme with those of a similar background who briefly attended or did not attend the programme. The pass rate in the supported group of regular attendees was 79% compared with 43% and 46% in the briefly supported and unsupported groups, respectively. Both student feedback and statistical data indicate that the programme was highly successful in improving the performance of those who regularly engaged with it.

  19. Oral piercings among first-year university students.

    PubMed

    Ventä, Irja; Lakoma, Ani; Haahtela, Sauli; Peltola, Jaakko; Ylipaavalniemi, Pekka; Turtola, Lauri

    2005-05-01

    The aim of the study was to examine oral piercings among first-year university students. First-year university students in 2002 were invited to a dental examination (n = 234; 49 men and 185 women). Students with piercings formed the study group and the rest served as controls. The methods included decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMF) index, stimulated salivary flow rates, panoramic tomograms, and questionnaires including the Depression Inventory of Beck. Fisher's 2-sided exact test was used for statistical analysis. The prevalence of oral piercings was 3.4%. In the DMF indices, no statistically significant differences existed between the groups. Increased salivary flow rates were noted among students with piercings (63% vs 26%, P < .05). Use of tobacco and illicit drugs, and also depression, were more prevalent in the study group than in the controls. Because of the possibility of oral implications, follow-up of oral piercings is essential.

  20. [Nutrition as indication of first year students' life styles].

    PubMed

    Lisicki, Tomasz

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the research was an attempt to define first year students' attitude towards healthy lifestyle requirements considered among other things in nutritional aspects. The research was based on diagnostics poll method. The materials obtained in course of the research comprises 575 anonymous questionnaires collected among first year students of four Gdańsk universities throughout academic year 2008/2009. The collected material shows that merely 9% of the questioned students eats regularly three essential meals a day. Whereas one out of three respondents (31%) does not quite regularly eat any of aforesaid meals. The students state that the most frequent reasons for the observed situation are those relating to requirements of studies. 79% of students admitted snacking between the meals, 65% of which do so everyday. Nearly half of women (46%) and 37% of men supplement their meals with vitamin pills.

  1. [The epidemiology of ADHD in first-year university students].

    PubMed

    Mortier, P; Demyttenaere, K; Nock, M K; Green, J G; Kessler, R C; Bruffaerts, R

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the epidemiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in university students. To investigate the prevalence of adult ADHD and comorbid psychiatric symptoms and their effect on the academic performance of first-year university students, and to find out to what extent these students make use of the mental health services of the university. All first-year students at the University of Leuven in Belgium were asked to complete a computer-assisted survey with a weighted cross-sectional design (n=4,921, response rate=65.4%). The ADHD of these students was measured with the help of the ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS-6). On the basis of the threshold used, we found that between 1.4 and 8.3% of the entire population of first-year students met the criteria for ADHD. Even after controlling for sociodemographic variables, we found that ADHD was associated with a wide range of emotional problems including suicide attempts (OR=9.10; Cohen's d=0.53), binge eating (OR=5.87; Cohen's d=0.42), or psychotic symptoms (ORS 4.44-4.69; Cohen's d=0.36-0.37). Students with ADHD were 2.46-3.84 times more likely to have a total grading percentage below 50 at the end of the academic year. Current use and lifetime use of the professional mental health services were estimated in the 7.6-15.5% and 26.5-41.5% range, respectively. Adult ADHD is common among first-year university students and is associated with comorbid psychiatric symptoms and poor academic performance. It is therefore surprising that so few students actually receive treatment for their psychiatric and emotional problems.

  2. Institute for Computational Mechanics in Propulsion (ICOMP) first year summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The Institute for Computational Mechanics in Propulsion (ICOMP) in Cleveland, Ohio, is operated jointly by Case Western Reserve University and the NASA Lewis Research Center. The purpose of ICOMP is to develop techniques to improve problem-solving capabilities in all aspects of computational mechanics related to propulsion. The Institute began operation in 1985. Described are the events leading to its formation, its organization and method of operation, and the technical activities of the first year.

  3. New generation Arctic Drilling System: Overview of first year's performance

    SciTech Connect

    Loh, J.K.S.; Cusack, K.P.; Stamberg, J.C.

    1984-05-01

    This paper is a follow-up to OTC 4481: - Kulluk - An Arctic Exploratory Drilling Unit, presented at the 1983 OTC. A comparison between the original design basis of the rig and the first year's operational results is presented. The items compared are the towing performance, mooring system performance, the hull structure, and the drilling system. The towing and mooring system comparisons cover both open water and ice conditions. Ice management by icebreakers and logistics problems are reviewed.

  4. Challenges in validating model results for first year ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melsom, Arne; Eastwood, Steinar; Xie, Jiping; Aaboe, Signe; Bertino, Laurent

    2017-04-01

    In order to assess the quality of model results for the distribution of first year ice, a comparison with a product based on observations from satellite-borne instruments has been performed. Such a comparison is not straightforward due to the contrasting algorithms that are used in the model product and the remote sensing product. The implementation of the validation is discussed in light of the differences between this set of products, and validation results are presented. The model product is the daily updated 10-day forecast from the Arctic Monitoring and Forecasting Centre in CMEMS. The forecasts are produced with the assimilative ocean prediction system TOPAZ. Presently, observations of sea ice concentration and sea ice drift are introduced in the assimilation step, but data for sea ice thickness and ice age (or roughness) are not included. The model computes the age of the ice by recording and updating the time passed after ice formation as sea ice grows and deteriorates as it is advected inside the model domain. Ice that is younger than 365 days is classified as first year ice. The fraction of first-year ice is recorded as a tracer in each grid cell. The Ocean and Sea Ice Thematic Assembly Centre in CMEMS redistributes a daily product from the EUMETSAT OSI SAF of gridded sea ice conditions which include "ice type", a representation of the separation of regions between those infested by first year ice, and those infested by multi-year ice. The ice type is parameterized based on data for the gradient ratio GR(19,37) from SSMIS observations, and from the ASCAT backscatter parameter. This product also includes information on ambiguity in the processing of the remote sensing data, and the product's confidence level, which have a strong seasonal dependency.

  5. Women at the Naval Academy: The First Year of Integration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-02-01

    traditionalism of males of the Class of 1980I toward rights and roles of women in society was evaluated as a function of level of contact with female plebes. A...6pinions about shipboard and other military roles for women . Upperclassmen were # most resistant to the integration of Annapolis (19% were neutral or... women as groups had tended to compete in the first year of integration.__ Excessive publicity -and male resentment were cited by tost female plepes (67

  6. Well-being in first year medical students.

    PubMed

    Zanardelli, Gina; Sim, Wonjin; Borges, Nicole; Roman, Brenda

    2015-02-01

    This study explored the well-being, attitudes toward counseling, willingness to seek counseling, and coping strategies of first year medical students. Gender differences in attitudes toward and willingness to seek counseling were also explored. One hundred five first year medical students (98 % response rate) were administered a 59-item questionnaire about well-being, attitudes toward counseling, willingness to seek counseling, and coping strategies during the first week of medical school. The data were analyzed with hierarchical regression and multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA). Female medical students were less willing to seek counseling and had more negative attitudes toward counseling compared to male medical students. Most students indicated that they chose not to seek counseling because they did not feel a need for it. Three students reported that stigma prevented them from seeking counseling. Unhealthy coping strategies (denial, self-blame, and substance use) were negatively associated with well-being while healthy coping strategies (active coping, emotional support, and instrumental support) did not correlate with well-being. Medical schools should continue efforts to make counseling accessible. Conversations about counseling may help address the more negative attitudes of female students toward counseling, a finding which merits further investigation given that women typically have more positive attitudes toward counseling than men. Use of unhealthy coping strategies can be addressed in classes, clubs, and by advisors and mentors. Limitations of this study include that only first year medical students were surveyed and that it was a cross sectional study.

  7. The CLR/NLM Health Sciences Library Management Intern Program: first year.

    PubMed Central

    Maina, W E; Jenkins, C G; Meakin, F A

    1980-01-01

    The first year of the Health Sciences Library Management Intern Program, funded by the National Library of Medicine and administered by the Council on Library Resources, has recently been completed. This paper discusses the origins of the internship, the selection of the successful applicants, and the motivation of the interns and host directors. The basic components of the intership year are described, and its effects on the host libraries and interns are considered. The immediate future of the internship is outlined, and other methods for training health sciences library administrators are briefly discussed. PMID:7356493

  8. Predictors of implantable cardioverter defibrillator shocks during the first year.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, Cynthia M; Hunziker, Jim

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to predict implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) shocks using demographic and clinical characteristics in the first year after implantation for secondary prevention of cardiac arrest. A prospective design was used to follow 168 first-time ICD recipients over 12 months. Demographic and clinical data were obtained from medical records at the time of ICD insertion. Implantable cardioverter defibrillator shock data were obtained from ICD interrogation reports at hospital discharge, 3, 6, and 12 months. Logistic regression was used to predict ever receiving an ICD shock using background characteristics. Patients received an ICD for secondary prevention of sudden cardiac arrest, they were 64.1 years old, 89% were white, 77% were male, with a mean (SD) ejection fraction of 33.7% (14.1%). The cumulative percentage of ever receiving an ICD shock was 33.3% over 1 year. Three variables predicted shocks in the first year: history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (odds ratio [OR], 4.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-16.4; P = .03), history of congestive heart failure (OR, 3.55; 95% CI, 1.4-9.3; P = .01), and documented ventricular tachycardia (VT) at the time of ICD implant (OR, 10.05; 95% Cl, 1.8-55.4; P = .01). High levels of anxiety approached significance (OR = 2.82; P = .09). The presence of COPD, congestive heart failure, or VT at ICD implant was a significant predictor of receiving an ICD shock in the first year after ICD implantation. Because ICD shocks are distressing, painful, and associated with greater mortality, healthcare providers should focus attention on prevention of shocks by controlling VT, careful management of HF symptoms, reduction of the use of short acting beta agonist medications in COPD, and perhaps recognizing and treating high levels of anxiety.

  9. Does empathy change in first-year dental students?

    PubMed

    Beattie, A; Durham, J; Harvey, J; Steele, J; McHanwell, S

    2012-02-01

    Professionalism is a central tenet of the dental undergraduate curriculum. Dental undergraduate curricula and standards expect the dentist to put the patient's interests first, and in this respect, an important attitude is empathy. This study examined the self-reported empathy levels of first-year dental students before and after an early analytical exposure to behavioural sciences and the clinical encounter. First-year dental undergraduates were given an attitudinal questionnaire to complete before and after the behavioural science course. The questionnaire consisted of the HP version of the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy and the Patient-Practitioner Orientation Scale. Paired non-parametric tests and Spearman's Rho correlations, along with simple descriptive statistics, were used to test the statistical significance of observations. A total of 66 paired questionnaires were returned, giving a response rate of 75%. There were no correlations between age and total mean score of JSPE or PPOS, and no gender differences. There was a significant increase (P<0.01) in empathy as measured by the JSPE between pre- and post-course scores. The PPOS did not record any significant change in the sharing, caring or total scale scores pre- to post-course. The modified JSPE has potential utility in assessing the cognitive-affective aspect of dental students' empathy. Using the JSPE, short-term measurable empathy changes can be detected in first-year dental undergraduates after the structured and assessed analytical introduction to the clinical encounter and environment. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Direct observation of faculty with feedback: an effective means of improving patient-centered and learner-centered teaching skills.

    PubMed

    Regan-Smith, Martha; Hirschmann, Krista; Iobst, William

    2007-01-01

    In 2002 Lehigh Valley Hospital and Health Network Internal Medicine residency program sought to establish a faculty development program for their teaching faculty that emphasized learner-centered teaching of patient-centered care. Medical educators trained in observational research practices shadowed teaching teams for 24 months and observed 24 General Internal Medicine faculty teach on inpatient rounds and provided timely written feedback to faculty. Within 48 hr, faculty received a completed Observation Feedback Sheet and summary comments. Teaching skills were seen to improve over time after feedback was provided and repeat observations occurred. Observation ratings mirrored the results of the established Department of Medicine resident ranking of faculty teaching: Observed faculty receiving feedback improved their ranking, whereas faculty not observed did not. Observation of teaching with written feedback is an effective means of individualizing faculty development and improving learner-centered and microskill teaching of patient-centered care.

  11. Surviving and Thriving Your First Year in Private Practice.

    PubMed

    Schwab, Elizabeth Falk

    2016-11-01

    Taking the leap toward a career as a private practice owner is daunting. When in the initial stages of starting a private practice, I searched for current advice from an audiologist who had recently confronted the same challenges I was about to face. Because of the limited information available, I documented my process in hopes of providing an overview of my startup experience to help others. Included is a timeline of startup tasks and a sample budget to use as a reference. In this chapter, I share my experiences, both the positives and the negatives, and tips with the goal of helping you survive and thrive in your first year in private practice.

  12. [Video-laparoscopic cholecystectomy: first years of experience].

    PubMed

    Guadagno, P; Caracò, C; Candela, G; Conzo, G; Santini, L

    1995-01-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is became the elective operation in the treatment of symptomatic lithiasis of gallbladder, and it represent the surgical choice in 96% of cases. The authors on the base of their first years experience analyzes the results of literature with particular reference to the complications, like lesion of principal biliary tract and of other organs or vessels, underlining how the right selection of patients can be reduce morbidity. In this direction the subdivision of contraindication, in relative and absolute, already described in literature, represent an obliged chose to respect the mini-invasive principle which laparoscopic technique mean.

  13. Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... better. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration is in charge of assuring the safety ... prescription and over-the-counter medicines. Even safe drugs can cause unwanted side effects or interactions with ...

  14. Trends in cancer survivors' experience of patient-centered communication: results from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS).

    PubMed

    Blanch-Hartigan, Danielle; Chawla, Neetu; Moser, Richard P; Finney Rutten, Lila J; Hesse, Bradford W; Arora, Neeraj K

    2016-12-01

    Two Institute of Medicine reports almost a decade apart suggest that cancer survivors often feel "lost in transition" and experience suboptimal quality of care. The six core functions of patient-centered communication: managing uncertainty, responding to emotions, making decisions, fostering healing relationships, enabling self-management, and exchanging information, represent a central aspect of survivors' care experience that has not been systematically investigated. Nationally representative data from four administrations of the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) was merged with combined replicate weights using the jackknife replication method. Linear and logistic regression models were used to assess (1) characteristics of cancer survivors (N = 1794) who report suboptimal patient-centered communication and (2) whether survivors' patient-centered communication experience changed from 2007 to 2013. One third to one half of survivors report suboptimal patient-centered communication, particularly on core functions of providers helping manage uncertainty (48 %) and responding to emotions (49 %). In a fully adjusted linear regression model, survivors with more education (Wald F = 2.84, p = .04), without a usual source of care (Wald F = 11.59, p < .001), and in poorer health (Wald F = 9.08, p < .001) were more likely to report less patient-centered communication. Although ratings of patient-centered communication improved over time (p trend = .04), this trend did not remain significant in fully adjusted models. Despite increased attention to survivorship, many survivors continue to report suboptimal communication with their health care providers. Survivorship communication should include managing uncertainty about future risk and address survivors' emotional needs. Efforts to improve patient-centered communication should focus on survivors without a usual source of care and in poorer health.

  15. Physician gender and patient centered communication: the moderating effect of psychosocial and biomedical case characteristics.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dong Wook; Roter, Debra L; Roh, Yong Kyun; Hahm, Sang Keun; Cho, BeLong; Park, Hoon-Ki

    2015-01-01

    Female physicians have a more patient-centered communication style than their male counterparts; however, few studies have investigated how the biomedical or psychosocial nature of a patient diagnosis might moderate this relationship. Seventy six 3rd year residents (50 male and 26 females) seeking board certification from the Korean Academy of Family Medicine participated in the 2013 Clinical Practice Examination by conducting two simulated patient (SP) interviews, one presenting a largely psychosocial case and the other largely biomedical. The interview recordings were coded with the Roter Interaction Analysis System (RIAS). Female physicians and their SPs engaged in more dialog than male physicians in both cases. Female physicians were more patient-centered than males for the psychosocial case (t = -3.24, P < 0.05), however, their scores did not differ for the biomedical case. In multivariate analysis, a significant interaction between physician gender and case (z = -3.90, P < 0.001) similarly demonstrated greater female patient-centeredness only for the predominantly psychosocial case. Case characteristics moderated the association between physician gender and patient-centeredness. Case characteristics need to be considered in future research on the association of physician gender and the patient-centered communication, as well as in the tailoring of physician communication training. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Psychosocial function in the first year after childhood stroke.

    PubMed

    Greenham, Mardee; Anderson, Vicki; Hearps, Stephen; Ditchfield, Michael; Coleman, Lee; Mackay, Mark T; Monagle, Paul; Gordon, Anne L

    2017-10-01

    Childhood stroke disrupts brain development and emerging neural networks. Motor, cognitive, and language deficits are well recognized, yet little is known about psychosocial function after childhood stroke. This study aims to describe psychosocial function within the first year after childhood stroke, and to identify factors associated with outcome. Thirty-seven children were involved in a prospective, longitudinal study investigating recovery over the first year after childhood stroke. Children's social functioning was assessed at 6-months and 12-months poststroke and psychological function at 12-months poststroke, using standardized measures. Mean social function was poorer at both 6-months and 12-months poststroke, compared to prestroke. Psychological problems were more common than expected, with emotional difficulties and hyperactivity-inattention most significantly affected. Poorer social function was associated with older age at onset, acute neurological impairment, and prestroke social impairment. Social and psychological problems were associated with parent mental health. While not all children are affected, psychosocial impairment affects a significant minority after childhood stroke. Older age at onset, acute neurological impairment, prestroke social problems, and poorer parent mental health were associated with deficits. Identifying early predictors of poorer outcome will facilitate early intervention. Of particular importance is parent mental health, suggesting support for families may improve child outcome. © 2017 Mac Keith Press.

  17. [The evaluation of health condition of first year students].

    PubMed

    Zakharova, R N; Timofeeva, A V; Mikhaĭlova, A E; Tomofeev, L F

    2014-01-01

    The study was organized to evaluate initial health condition and to detect risk factors of chronic diseases in first year students of University. The sampling consisted of 649 students aged from 15 to 30 years (mean age is 18.8 ± 1.5 years). The analysis of total morbidity demonstrated that 46.1% of first year students suffered from chronic diseases. It is noted that diseases of musculo-skeletal system have especially high prevalence in students. The analysis of data of anonymous survey concerning behavioral risk factors established prevalence of tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption and sedentary life-style. Among students, 23.5% of males and 9.3% of females smoked and correspondingly 28.5% and 12.5% took alcoholic drinks. The physical activity of students was insufficient and only one third of respondents follows healthy life-style. The group of healthy students consisted only 18.2% and 81.8% had different deviations i.e. risk factors of development of chronic diseases.

  18. Unintended pregnancy during the first year after breast cancer diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Güth, Uwe; Huang, Dorothy Jane; Bitzer, Johannes; Moffat, Rebecca

    2016-08-01

    Young women experience high levels of anxiety and distress during cancer diagnosis and therapy, and it can be devastating to become pregnant in this vulnerable state. Pregnancy during cancer treatment is strongly discouraged, as radiotherapy and chemotherapy administered during the first trimester of pregnancy result in increased congenital malformations. In this study, we analysed an unselected, consecutive cohort of young breast cancer (BC) patients with regard to unintended pregnancy during the first year after BC diagnosis. We analysed all patients who were ≤40 years of age at initial BC diagnosis (n = 100, mean age at diagnosis: 35.9 years), according to data from the Basel Breast Cancer Database. The frequency of unintended pregnancy was assessed, and particular attention was given to patients' obstetric and reproductive history. Forty-two percent of the cohort (mean age 36.5 years) were identified as not at risk of unintended pregnancy during the first year after BC diagnosis. However, 58% of the cohort (mean age 35.6 years) were using an ineffective contraceptive method and thus were at risk of unintended pregnancy. The rate of unintended pregnancy was 3.5% in this group (two patients). Oncologists should be aware that the use of reliable contraception should be discussed before starting, and also during, adjuvant therapy. Oncologists should consider actively referring young BC patients to a gynaecologist to ensure proper contraceptive counselling.

  19. Sustained Parenting and College Drinking in First-Year Students

    PubMed Central

    Turrisi, Rob; Ray, Anne E.

    2014-01-01

    Research indicates that for many students excessive drinking in college is a continuation of high school drinking tendencies. However, there have been limited theory-driven, systematic interventions targeting students so as to prevent alcohol misuse in their transition to college. Almost all current prevention approaches tend to be focused on younger populations and college-drinking interventions are typically delivered to students when they are already on campus. These analyses draw from a novel program of research involving parents of college freshmen based on the work of Turrisi et al. and focuses on examining: (1) the relationship between parenting and student drinking tendencies during the transitional period between high school and college and into the first year of college, and (2) the mediation process by which sustained parenting throughout the first year is related to college-drinking outcomes and consequences so as to inform future intervention efforts. The empirical evidence from this study suggests that sustained parental efforts have a beneficial effect on reducing high-risk drinking and preventing harm even at this late stage of late adolescent/early adult development. PMID:20213752

  20. Sustained parenting and college drinking in first-year students.

    PubMed

    Turrisi, Rob; Ray, Anne E

    2010-04-01

    Research indicates that for many students excessive drinking in college is a continuation of high school drinking tendencies. However, there have been limited theory-driven, systematic interventions targeting students so as to prevent alcohol misuse in their transition to college. Almost all current prevention approaches tend to be focused on younger populations and college-drinking interventions are typically delivered to students when they are already on campus. These analyses draw from a novel program of research involving parents of college freshmen based on the work of Turrisi et al. [Turrisi et al. [2001] Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 15(4), 366-372; Turrisi, et al. [2009] Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 7, 315-326] and focuses on examining: (1) the relationship between parenting and student drinking tendencies during the transitional period between high school and college and into the first year of college, and (2) the mediation process by which sustained parenting throughout the first year is related to college-drinking outcomes and consequences so as to inform future intervention efforts. The empirical evidence from this study suggests that sustained parental efforts have a beneficial effect on reducing high-risk drinking and preventing harm even at this late stage of late adolescent/early adult development. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Alcohol and cocaine use among first-year college students.

    PubMed

    Canterbury, R J; Gressard, C F; Vieweg, W V; Grossman, S J; Westerman, P S; McKelway, R B

    1991-01-01

    We surveyed 1528 first-year students at the University of Virginia, 1 month after their arrival on campus, who had used alcohol at some time in their lives. Our survey was designed to identify alcohol and cocaine use, and related psychosocial patterns. Men drank more and more often than women. Our data suggest that body weight should be considered in defining those who drink heavily and often. We define 'frequent heavy drinking' as five or more drinks in a row each week for men and three to four drinks or more in a row each week for women. Frequent heavy drinkers, cocaine users, and students with psychosocial problems appeared disproportionately among students planning to join fraternities and sororities. Although first-year students used cocaine infrequently, its users followed the patterns of frequent heavy drinkers. We believe efforts to correct alcohol and cocaine misuse by college students should be directed, in part, at social organizations such as Greek-letter societies. Also, we must attend to psychosocial features that predispose to alcohol and cocaine misuse.

  2. Challenges for the CMS computing model in the first year

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, I.; /Fermilab

    2009-05-01

    CMS is in the process of commissioning a complex detector and a globally distributed computing infrastructure simultaneously. This represents a unique challenge. Even at the beginning there is not sufficient analysis or organized processing resources at CERN alone. In this presentation we discuss the unique computing challenges CMS expects to face during the first year of running and how they influence the baseline computing model decisions. During the early accelerator commissioning periods, CMS will attempt to collect as many events as possible when the beam is on in order to provide adequate early commissioning data. Some of these plans involve overdriving the Tier-0 infrastructure during data collection with recovery when the beam is off. In addition to the larger number of triggered events, there will be pressure in the first year to collect and analyze more complete data formats as the summarized formats mature. The large event formats impact the required storage, bandwidth, and processing capacity across all the computing centers. While the understanding of the detector and the event selections is being improved, there will likely be a larger number of reconstruction passes and skims performed by both central operations and individual users. We discuss how these additional stresses impact the allocation of resources and the changes from the baseline computing model.

  3. "Damaged humanity": the call for a patient-centered medical ethic in the managed care era.

    PubMed

    Churchill, L R

    1997-01-01

    Edmund Pellegrino claims that medical ethics must be derived from a perception of the patient's "damaged humanity," rather than from the self-imposed duties of professionals. This essay explores the meaning and examines the challenges to this patient-centered ethic. Social scientific and bioethical interpretations of medicine constitute one kind of challenge. A more pervasive challenge is the ascendancy of managed care, and especially investor-owned, for-profit managed care. A list of questions addressed to patients, physicians and organizations is offered as one means of assessing this threat and moving toward morally trustworthy relationships.

  4. Anatomy as the backbone of an integrated first year medical curriculum: design and implementation.

    PubMed

    Klement, Brenda J; Paulsen, Douglas F; Wineski, Lawrence E

    2011-01-01

    Morehouse School of Medicine chose to restructure its first year medical curriculum in 2005. The anatomy faculty had prior experience in integrating courses, stemming from the successful integration of individual anatomical sciences courses into a single course called Human Morphology. The integration process was expanded to include the other first year basic science courses (Biochemistry, Physiology, and Neurobiology) as we progressed toward an integrated curriculum. A team, consisting of the course directors, a curriculum coordinator, and the Associate Dean for Educational and Faculty Affairs, was assembled to build the new curriculum. For the initial phase, the original course titles were retained but the lecture order was reorganized around the Human Morphology topic sequence. The material from all four courses was organized into four sequential units. Other curricular changes included placing laboratories and lectures more consistently in the daily routine, reducing lecture time from 120 to 90 minute blocks, eliminating unnecessary duplication of content, and increasing the amount of independent study time. Examinations were constructed to include questions from all courses on a single test, reducing the number of examination days in each block from three to one. The entire restructuring process took two years to complete, and the revised curriculum was implemented for the students entering in 2007. The outcomes of the restructured curriculum include a reduction in the number of contact hours by 28%, higher or equivalent subject examination average scores, enhanced student satisfaction, and a first year curriculum team better prepared to move forward with future integration.

  5. Anatomy as the Backbone of an Integrated First Year Medical Curriculum: Design and Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Klement, Brenda J.; Paulsen, Douglas F.; Wineski, Lawrence E

    2011-01-01

    Morehouse School of Medicine chose to restructure its first year medical curriculum in 2005. The anatomy faculty had prior experience in integrating courses, stemming from the successful integration of individual anatomical sciences courses into a single course called Human Morphology. The integration process was expanded to include the other first year basic science courses (Biochemistry, Physiology, and Neurobiology) as we progressed toward an integrated curriculum. A team, consisting of the course directors, a curriculum coordinator and the Associate Dean for Educational and Faculty Affairs, was assembled to build the new curriculum. For the initial phase, the original course titles were retained but the lecture order was reorganized around the Human Morphology topic sequence. The material from all four courses was organized into four sequential units. Other curricular changes included placing laboratories and lectures more consistently in the daily routine, reducing lecture time from 120 to 90 minute blocks, eliminating unnecessary duplication of content, and increasing the amount of independent study time. Examinations were constructed to include questions from all courses on a single test, reducing the number of examination days in each block from three to one. The entire restructuring process took two years to complete, and the revised curriculum was implemented for the students entering in 2007. The outcomes of the restructured curriculum include a reduction in the number of contact hours by 28%, higher or equivalent subject examination average scores, enhanced student satisfaction, and a first year curriculum team better prepared to move forward with future integration. PMID:21538939

  6. First year medical students' attitude toward anatomical corpse dissection and its relationship with their personality.

    PubMed

    Bob, Mihai HoraŢiu; Popescu, CodruŢa Alina; Suciu, ŞoimiŢa Mihaela; Buzoianu, Anca Dana

    2015-01-01

    Anatomy is an important and intense mandatory course offered during the first year of medical school. Corpse dissection is very important in Anatomy teaching, and first year students will encounter, most likely for the first time, a dead human body during Anatomy labs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anxiety experienced by medical students with no previous corpse dissection background just before, after a week, and then after a month of dissection labs, and to investigate the relationship between students' personality and their attitude towards dissection. 138 first year English Section medical students from the "Iuliu Hatieganu" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Romania, completed a personality inventory, an anxiety scale and a questionnaire to assess their attitudes and reactions to anatomical dissection. The level of anxiety reported by students increased from before the first dissection encounter to after one month of dissection labs. There is a relationship between the Five Factor model of personality and students' attitudes towards dissection. Medical students could be better prepared for their first corpse dissection experience if the preparation before dissection would take in consideration their psychological traits.

  7. Incapacitated and forcible rape of college women: prevalence across the first year.

    PubMed

    Carey, Kate B; Durney, Sarah E; Shepardson, Robyn L; Carey, Michael P

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to document the point and cumulative prevalence of incapacitated rape (IR) and forcible rape (FR) among first-year college women. Female students (N = 483) completed a health questionnaire (1) on arrival on campus; (2) at the end of the fall semester; (3) at the end of the spring semester; and (4) at the end of the summer following their first year of college. Before entering college, 18% reported IR (attempted and/or completed), and 15% reported FR (attempted and/or completed). During the first year of college, 15% reported IR (attempted or completed) and 9% reported FR (attempted or completed). By the start of the second year (lifetime prevalence), 26% and 22% had experienced IR and FR (attempted or completed), respectively. Both incapacitated and forcible sexual assaults and rape have reached epidemic levels among college women. Interventions to address sexual violence on campus are urgently needed. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Consumerism: forcing medical practices toward patient-centered care.

    PubMed

    Ozmon, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    Consumerism has been apart of many industries over the years; now consumerism may change the way many medical practices deliver healthcare. With the advent of consumer-driven healthcare, employers are shifting the decision-making power to their employees. Benefits strategies like health savings accounts and high-deductible insurance plans now allow the patients to control how and where they spend their money on medical care. Practices that seek to attract the more affluent and informed consumers are beginning to institute patient-centered systems designs that invite patients to actively participate in their healthcare. This article will outline the changes in the healthcare delivery system facing medical practices, the importance of patient-centered care, and six strategies to implement to change toward more patient-centered care.

  9. Opportunities for Patient-centered Outcomes Research in Radiology.

    PubMed

    Zygmont, Matthew E; Lam, Diana L; Nowitzki, Kristina M; Burton, Kirsteen R; Lenchik, Leon; McArthur, Tatum A; Sekhar, Aarti K; Itri, Jason N

    2016-01-01

    Recently created in 2010, the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) supports patient-centered comparative effectiveness research with a focus on prioritizing high-impact studies and improving trial design methodology. The Association of University Radiologists Radiology Research Alliance Task Force on patient-centered outcomes research in Radiology aims to review recently funded imaging-centric projects that adhere to the methodologies established by PCORI. We provide an overview of the successful application of PCORI standards to radiology topics, highlight how these methodologies differ from other forms of radiology research, and identify opportunities for new projects as well as potential barriers for involvement. Our hope is that review of specific case examples in radiology will clarify the use and value of PCORI methods mandated and supported nationally by the Affordable Care Act.

  10. Teaching Principles of Patient-Centered Care During Radiology Residency.

    PubMed

    Miller, Matthew M; Slanetz, Priscilla J; Lourenco, Ana P; Eisenberg, Ronald L; Kung, Justin W

    2016-07-01

    Patient-centered healthcare delivery has become increasingly established as a cornerstone of quality medical care, but teaching these principles in a radiology residency setting is often difficult and ineffective in a traditional lecture format. We developed a novel educational session in which actual patient letters about a healthcare provider are used to facilitate a case-based discussion of key principles of patient-centered care. A novel patient letter-facilitated, case-based session was conducted at two different university-based teaching institutions. Prior to the educational session, patient letters introducing the principles of patient-centered care were distributed to residents for review. During the session, radiology-specific cases were discussed in the context of the principles introduced by the letters. A post-session survey was administered to evaluate the efficacy and usefulness of the session. Forty-six of the 61 session attendees (75%) completed the post session survey. Most respondents (93%) preferred this case-based, interactive session to a typical didactic session. A majority of the residents indicated that both the patient letters (64%) and radiology specific cases (73%) helped them think differently about how they interact with patients. They indicated that the session enhanced their understanding of professionalism (3.7 out of 5.0 [95% CI 3.4-4.0]) and increased their motivation to become more patient-centered (3.0 out of 4.0 [95% CI 2.8-3.3]). Our findings suggest that patient letter-facilitated, case-based sessions may influence resident attitudes regarding the principles of patient-centered care and may help to increase resident motivation to become more patient-centered in their own practice. Copyright © 2016 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessment of Research Interests of First-Year Osteopathic Medical Students.

    PubMed

    Carter, John; McClellan, Nicholas; McFaul, Derek; Massey, Blaine; Guenther, Elisabeth; Kisby, Glen

    2016-07-01

    According to a 2014 survey, 59% of students entering allopathic medical school reported previous research experience. However, limited data exist on the amount of research experience that students have before entering osteopathic medical school. A strong understanding of the research skills and level of interest of first-year osteopathic medical students is essential for developing research programs at osteopathic medical schools. Limited data exist on the amount of research experience that students have before starting osteopathic medical school. A strong understanding of the research skills and level of interest of first-year medical students is essential for developing research programs at osteopathic medical schools. To determine the amount of previous research experience of first-year osteopathic medical students, their level of interest in participating in research during medical school, the factors influencing their interest in research, and their research fields of interest. First-year osteopathic medical students (class of 2019) at the Western University of Health Sciences, College of Osteopathic Medicine of the Pacific in Pomona, California (WesternU/COMP), and Pacific-Northwest in Lebanon, Oregon (WesternU/COMP-Northwest), campuses were surveyed about their previous research experiences and whether they were interested in participating in research during medical school. Surveys were administered through an anonymous online portal. Responses were evaluated for evidence of interest in conducting research. Of the 346 osteopathic medical students invited to participate in the study, the response rate was 77% (N=266). A total of 167 from WesternU/COMP and 99 from the WesternU/COMP-Northwest responded. More than 215 students (81%) reported they had participated in research before entering medical school. In addition, 200 students (75%) either expressed a strong interest in participating in research during medical school or were currently conducting research

  12. Relationship between anticipatory socialization experiences and first-year veterinary students' career interests.

    PubMed

    Kedrowicz, April A; Fish, Richard E; Hammond, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to explore first-year veterinary students' anticipatory socialization-life, education, and social experiences that assist in preparation for professional occupations-and determine what relationship exists between those experiences and career interests. Seventy-three first-year veterinary students enrolled in the Careers in Veterinary Medicine course completed the Veterinary Careers survey. Results show that students' anticipatory vocational socialization experiences are significantly related to their stated career interests. The career interests with the highest percentage of students expressing "a great deal of interest" included specialty private practice (37%), research and teaching in an academic setting (33%), and international veterinary medicine (31%). The career interests with the highest percentage of students expressing "no interest at all" included the military (50%), equine private practice (42%), and the pharmaceutical industry (41%). Less than half of the students (42%) stated that they reconsidered their career path after the first semester of veterinary school, but the majority (87%) developed a better understanding of how to pursue a nontraditional career path should they choose to do so.

  13. Knowledge loss of medical students on first year basic science courses at the University of Saskatchewan.

    PubMed

    D'Eon, Marcel F

    2006-01-14

    Many senior undergraduate students from the University of Saskatchewan indicated informally that they did not remember much from their first year courses and wondered why we were teaching content that did not seem relevant to later clinical work or studies. To determine the extent of the problem a course evaluation study that measured the knowledge loss of medical students on selected first year courses was conducted. This study replicates previous memory decrement studies with three first year medicine basic science courses, something that was not found in the literature. It was expected that some courses would show more and some courses would show less knowledge loss. In the spring of 2004 over 20 students were recruited to retake questions from three first year courses: Immunology, physiology, and neuroanatomy. Student scores on the selected questions at the time of the final examination in May 2003 (the 'test') were compared with their scores on the questions 10 or 11 months later (the 're-test') using paired samples t -tests. A repeated-measures MANOVA was used to compare the test and re-test scores among the three courses. The re-test scores were matched with the overall student ratings of the courses and the student scores on the May 2003 examinations. A statistically significant main effect of knowledge loss (F = 297.385; p < .001) and an interaction effect by course (F = 46.081; p < .001) were found. The students' scores in the Immunology course dropped 13.1%, 46.5% in Neuroanatomy, and 16.1% in physiology. Bonferroni post hoc comparisons showed a significant difference between Neuroanatomy and Physiology (mean difference of 10.7, p = .004). There was considerable knowledge loss among medical students in the three basic science courses tested and this loss was not uniform across courses. Knowledge loss does not seem to be related to the marks on the final examination or the assessment of course quality by the students.

  14. Wabash River coal gasification repowering project -- first year operation experience

    SciTech Connect

    Troxclair, E.J.; Stultz, J.

    1997-12-31

    The Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project (WRCGRP), a joint venture between Destec Energy, Inc. and PSI Energy, Inc., began commercial operation in November of 1995. The Project, selected by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) under the Clean Coal Program (Round IV) represents the largest operating coal gasification combined cycle plant in the world. This Demonstration Project has allowed PSI Energy to repower a 1950`s vintage steam turbine and install a new syngas fired combustion turbine to provide 262 MW (net) of electricity in a clean, efficient manner in a commercial utility setting while utilizing locally mined high sulfur Indiana bituminous coal. In doing so, the Project is also demonstrating some novel technology while advancing the commercialization of integrated coal gasification combined cycle technology. This paper discusses the first year operation experience of the Wabash Project, focusing on the progress towards achievement of the demonstration objectives.

  15. Perceived sources of stress among first-year medical students.

    PubMed

    Coburn, D; Jovaisas, A V

    1975-06-01

    A survey of first-year medical students at the University of Toronto shows that academic factors are viewed as the most stressful and social factors as the least stressful. Among anticipated sources of stress those dealing with perceived failure are highly stressful, and those dealing with sexual aspects of the doctor-patient relationship are much less so. Factor analysis reveals that sources of stress are multidimensional rather than unidimensional. Particular socio-demographic antecedent variables are much more highly correlated with stress than are others. In particular, it is found that students in subgroups differing from "mainstream" students feel more stress than their mainstream counterparts. Feelings of stress are also found to be positively related to possible consequences of stress, such as frequency of thinking about dropping out and to number of days off school because of illness.

  16. THE OREGON HEALTH INSURANCE EXPERIMENT: EVIDENCE FROM THE FIRST YEAR*

    PubMed Central

    Finkelstein, Amy; Taubman, Sarah; Wright, Bill; Bernstein, Mira; Gruber, Jonathan; Newhouse, Joseph P.; Allen, Heidi; Baicker, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    In 2008, a group of uninsured low-income adults in Oregon was selected by lottery to be given the chance to apply for Medicaid. This lottery provides an opportunity to gauge the effects of expanding access to public health insurance on the health care use, financial strain, and health of low-income adults using a randomized controlled design. In the year after random assignment, the treatment group selected by the lottery was about 25 percentage points more likely to have insurance than the control group that was not selected. We find that in this first year, the treatment group had substantively and statistically significantly higher health care utilization (including primary and preventive care as well as hospitalizations), lower out-of-pocket medical expenditures and medical debt (including fewer bills sent to collection), and better self-reported physical and mental health than the control group. PMID:23293397

  17. First-Year College Students' Conflict with Religion and Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin-Hansen, Lisa Michelle

    2008-04-01

    This study took place during a First Year Seminar course where 20 incoming college freshmen studied the central topic of the nature of science within the context of biological evolution. The instructor researched students’ understandings in the nature of science as they progressed through the course by examining a variety of qualitative and quantitative data including class writings, pre- and post-test selected items from the VOSTS (Views on Science-Technology-Society), and interviews. The intended outcomes of the course were to reduce the number of student misconceptions in the nature of science and to ease student apprehension when learning about evolution. Data were analyzed to determine whether students were moving toward a more generally accepted idea of the nature of science or toward another type of misconception.

  18. First year results of the High Altitude Water Cherenkov observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carramiñana, Alberto

    2016-10-01

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) γ-ray observatory is a wide field of view (1.8 Sr) and high duty cycle (> 95% up-time) detector of unique capabilities for the study of TeV gamma-ray sources. Installed at an altitude of 4100m in the Northern slope of Volcan Sierra Negra, Puebla, by a collaboration of about thirty institutions of Mexico and the United States, HAWC has been in full operations since March 2015, surveying 2/3 of the sky every sidereal day, monitoring active galaxies and mapping sources in the Galactic Plane to a detection level of 1 Crab per day. This contribution summarizes the main results of the first year of observations of the HAWC γ-ray observatory.

  19. PTSD symptom courseduring the first year of college

    PubMed Central

    Read, Jennifer P.; Bachrach, Rachel L.; Wright, Aidan G.C.; Colder, Craig R.

    2015-01-01

    In this study we examined patterns of transition in posttraumatic stress symptoms over the first year of college. We also examined two factors that might predict these transitions, trauma exposure and alcohol involvement. Matriculating students (N=944; 65% female) completed assessments of PTSD, trauma exposure, and alcohol use and consequences multiple times in their freshman year. Three symptom classes (No Symptoms, Moderate Symptoms, and Severe Symptoms) were identified. Examination of transitions from one status to another was conducted with latent transition analysis (LTA). These models revealed considerable variability in the course of PTSD symptoms. The most common pattern was resolution, yet a significant portion of students showed other patterns. Symptom worsening was more commonly observed in the second semester. Trauma exposure had a deleterious effect on PTSD symptom change trajectories, as did alcohol involvement, though less consistently so. Interventions that focus on the timing and correlates of symptom progression may benefit college students with posttraumatic distress. PMID:26828977

  20. German contribution to the validation of SCIAMACHY - the first year

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bramstedt, K.; Kirchhoff, B.

    2003-04-01

    An adequate validation of SCIAMACHY data products is a prerequisite for a successful completion of the SCIAMACHY mission. The German validation team, consisting of 23 different projects with more than 60 scientists, contributes with a wide range of instrument types as important part of the international validation community. A global network of ground-based stations with DOAS, FTIR, microwave instruments and ozone sondes has been build. Satellite inter-comparisons utilize the measurements of independent space-born sensors. Balloon-borne instruments participate in the Envisat Stratospheric Aircraft and Balloon validation campaigns and the German FALCON research aircraft has undertaken large flights from the Arctic to the Tropics. Here an overview of the GERMAN activities during the first year of SCIAMACHY lifetime is given.

  1. Figures and First Years: Examining first-year Calculus I student ability to incorporate figures into technical reports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonacci, Nathan; Rogers, Michael; Pfaff, Thomas

    This three-year study focused on first-year Calculus I students and their abilities to incorporate figures into technical reports. Students were handed guidelines as part of their Multidisciplinary Sustainability Education Module meant to aid them in crafting effective figures. Figure-specific questionnaires were added in the class to gain insight into the quantitative literacy skills students possessed both before starting their course and after its completion. Reviews of the figures in 78 technical reports written by 106 students showed repeated failure to refer to figures in discussion sections and use them in evidence-based arguments. Analysis of quantitative literacy skills revealed that the students could both read and interpret figures, suggesting that issues with literacy were not the main contributor to the sub-par graphs.

  2. Electronic health communication: an educational application for this principle of the Patient-centered Medical Home.

    PubMed

    Barnhart, Amber; Lausen, Harald; Smith, Tracey; Lopp, Lauri

    2010-05-01

    The Patient-centered Medical Home (PCMH) relies on comprehensive, consistent, and accessible communication for the patient with all members of their health care team. "E-medicine" and health information technology (HIT) create many new possibilities in addition to standard face-to-face encounters. There is interest by both physicians and patients for enhanced access through electronic communication. However, there is little published literature regarding specific educational programs for medical professionals using electronic communication with patients. Faculty in a required 6-week family medicine clerkship developed, implemented, and evaluated an electronic health communication curriculum. This curriculum consists of a didactic session on electronic health communication including anticipated errors of communication and common clinical pitfalls. Each clerkship student receives a weekly e-mail from a standardized patient centered on a clinical question. Additionally, each e-mail contains a different communication challenge or predicted error. Students receive feedback each week on the e-mails and are evaluated with an objective structured clinical exam (OSCE) during the final week. The results of the weekly e-mails and the final OSCE show that students improve overall but continue to make predicted errors in communication despite didactic instruction and actual practice. These results reinforce the need for medical student education on electronic health communication with patients.

  3. A conceptual framework for patient-centered fertility treatment.

    PubMed

    Duthie, Elizabeth A; Cooper, Alexandra; Davis, Joseph B; Schoyer, Katherine D; Sandlow, Jay; Strawn, Estil Y; Flynn, Kathryn E

    2017-09-07

    Patient-centered care is a pillar of quality health care and is important to patients experiencing infertility. In this study we used empirical, in-depth data on couples' experiences of infertility treatment decision making to inform and revise a conceptual framework for patient-centered fertility treatment that was developed based on health care professionals' conceptualizations of fertility treatment, covering effectiveness, burden, safety, and costs. In this prospective, longitudinal mixed methods study, we collected data from both members (separately) of 37 couples who scheduled an initial consult with a reproductive specialist. Data collection occurred 1 week before the initial consultation, 1 week after the initial consultation, and then roughly 2, 4, 8, and 12 months later. Data collection included semi-structured qualitative interviews, self-reported questionnaires, and medical record review. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and content analyzed in NVivo. A single coder analyzed all transcripts, with > 25% of transcripts coded by a second coder to ensure quality control and consistency. Content analysis of the interview transcripts revealed 6 treatment dimensions: effectiveness, physical and emotional burden, time, cost, potential risks, and genetic parentage. Thus, the revised framework for patient-centered fertility treatment retains much from the original framework, with modification to one dimension (from safety to potential risks) and the addition of two dimensions (time and genetic parentage). For patients and their partners making fertility treatment decisions, tradeoffs are explicitly considered across dimensions as opposed to each dimension being considered on its own. Patient-centered fertility treatment should account for the dimensions of treatment that patients and their partners weigh when making decisions about how to add a child to their family. Based on the lived experiences of couples seeking specialist medical care for

  4. Case studies of first-year critical science teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Love, Kurt A.

    Brent Davis and Dennis Sumara (1997) performed a study of themselves and another professor who took a sabbatical to work in an elementary school for a year. Their intentions, as professors focused on cognition, was to create a change in teaching practices throughout the school that aligned more closely with social cognitive research. However, their experiences did not go as planned. Each found that he could not just simply bring their philosophies into their classrooms independent of the sociocultural context of the school. They found very quickly that none of them could act as fully autonomous agents. They described their experiences as being part of the sociocultural fabric of the school because each of their teaching practices changed in ways that they did not anticipate and in ways that were not philosophically aligned. However, they also found that this was a two-way relationship. They were not describing completely deterministic experiences. Davis and Sumara described observing colleagues changing their practices in ways that did incorporate some of the philosophies that they espoused during their tenure at the elementary school. They explain their experience as one where they were pushed and pulled by the sociocultural context and they also pushed and pulled on the sociocultural context. This dissertation focuses on three first-year science teachers (a 4 th grade teacher and two high school science teachers) who identified as wanting to bring critical, feminist, and ecojustice perspectives into their teaching practices. Each enacts these practices much differently in the context of the sociocultural contexts of their own schools, and often changed their teaching practices in ways that seemed to more closely align with those contexts. Each of the three dealt with external and internal hegemonic pressures that caused them to align more closely with their contexts. The philosophical foundations of their sociocultural contexts were manifested externally through

  5. A career exploration assignment for first-year pharmacy students.

    PubMed

    Sholy, Lydia; Zeenny, Rony

    2013-11-12

    To develop, implement, and assess student-learning outcomes from an assignment designed to expose first-year pharmacy students (P1) to a wide range of pharmacy career pathways. Students enrolled in a required Pharmacy Practice and Ethics course at the Lebanese American University chose 1 pharmacist career to investigate from a suggested list of 28 career pathways. Students completed a literature review on the selected career, interviewed a pharmacist practicing that career path in Lebanon, wrote a paper, and prepared and delivered a summary presentation to their classmates about the career pathway. Students peer evaluated their classmates after each presentation. More than 85% of the students scored ≥70% on the assignment based on their achievement of student learning outcomes. Responses on an anonymous questionnaire showed that more than 94.6% of students were satisfied with the extent to which the course allowed them to meet the established learning outcomes. A career exploration assignment provided pharmacy students with an opportunity to widen their knowledge and understanding of the different career pathways that are available for them.

  6. Prevalence of oral Candida in the first year of life.

    PubMed

    Stecksén-Blicks, C; Granström, E; Silfverdal, S A; West, C E

    2015-09-01

    Colonisation of the gastrointestinal tract is influenced by primary microbial exposure and bioactive factors in breastmilk. The aim was to explore the prevalence of oral Candida in the first year of life in relation to selected exposures. Oral Candida was studied in 100 healthy infants at 4 and 8 weeks, 3, 6 and 12 months of age and related to delivery mode, birth weight, infant health and feeding, antibiotics, antimycotics, steroids and probiotics in mother and infant, living conditions, maternal smoking and infections The association between lactoferrin and antisecretory factor in breastmilk and maternal serum haemoglobin, transferrin, and ferritin levels in relation to oral Candida was also explored. About 11% to 15% of the infants had oral Candida at the respective age. Colonisation was fairly stable until 6 months of age. There was no conclusive impact of the investigated exposures at entry. Infants with a furry pet at home had a lower frequency of Candida at 3 months, (P < 0.05) whereas all but one colonised infant had older siblings at 12 months (P < 0.01). Lactoferrin in breastmilk was negatively associated with colonisation at 6 months of age. It is concluded that 11 to 15% had oral Candida. Exposure to furry pets and siblings impacted oral Candida.

  7. A wellness program for first year medical students.

    PubMed

    McGrady, Angele; Brennan, Julie; Lynch, Denis; Whearty, Kary

    2012-12-01

    Entering medical students experience distress symptoms due to the demands of the intensive curriculum, adjustment to new environments and increased responsibilities. The purpose of this controlled, randomized study was to determine the effects of a structured wellness program on measures of anxiety, depression and frequency of acute illness in 449 first year medical students. The effects of eight sessions of stress management were compared to a wait list control group. High risk students were identified based on scores on psychological inventories and number of recent life events (WLE). Results showed that depression, anxiety scores and frequency of acute illness were higher in women than in men, and were higher in students with multiple life events. Significant decreases were observed in depression in the intervention group students when WLE was the covariate (p = .045). Further, the high risk group showed consistently lower depression scores after the intervention compared to high risk wait list controls (p = .003), and these changes were maintained at the end of school year. There were no significant changes in anxiety or frequency of acute illness. Wellness programs can be implemented in medical school and may be particularly useful for entering students with elevated psychological distress.

  8. Childcare patterns of mothers of twins during the first year.

    PubMed

    Robin, M; Corroyer, D; Casati, I

    1996-05-01

    This study aims to describe the ways in which mothers of twins organize their childcare activities during the first year after a twin birth and to determine what factors might affect these mothering practices. The mother's physical and psychological state, support and help from the father and others in the surroundings, and the type of twinship were among the factors studied. Data on the organization of feeding, sleeping and waking routines were gathered from 51 families. A correspondence analysis and a cluster analysis showed that twin mothering practices can be described along two dimensions: individualized care vs collective care, and level of organization of daily routines. The mother's state of fatigue only partially accounts for the different types of maternal behavior. Likewise, the presence of several caregivers does not lead to greater individualization in care routines. Nor does there seem to be a clear link between the type of maternal behaviour and the type of twinship. The discussion deals with the mother's emotional investment, her personal capacity for adjusting to the "triadic motherhood' process, and the nature of the father's involvement in that process. Another consideration is the impact of the type of childcare pattern on twin development.

  9. Program plan, and request for reprogramming first year funds

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-10

    In June of 1992, the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded assistance Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) for the Environmental Hazards Assessment Program, The first year of the program is primarily a planning year. We have aggressively pursued input into the EHAP program to begin to understand where our efforts fit within other efforts underway nationally. We have also begun some direct activities at MUSC to begin the program. Part of this report is devoted to informing DOE of what we have accomplished so far this year. In our efforts to plan, we have identified several changes in emphasis for the program. These changes affect the original plan in terms of projected milestones and budget allocations. Part of this report describes these changes and describes the proposed changes to the budget. We are not requesting additional funds for this year. Simply, we are requesting some change in allocations to budget categories. Therefore, our report to DOE is a combination status report, program plan, and request for reallocation of budget.

  10. A Career Exploration Assignment for First-Year Pharmacy Students

    PubMed Central

    Zeenny, Rony

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To develop, implement, and assess student-learning outcomes from an assignment designed to expose first-year pharmacy students (P1) to a wide range of pharmacy career pathways. Design. Students enrolled in a required Pharmacy Practice and Ethics course at the Lebanese American University chose 1 pharmacist career to investigate from a suggested list of 28 career pathways. Students completed a literature review on the selected career, interviewed a pharmacist practicing that career path in Lebanon, wrote a paper, and prepared and delivered a summary presentation to their classmates about the career pathway. Students peer evaluated their classmates after each presentation. Assessment. More than 85% of the students scored ≥70% on the assignment based on their achievement of student learning outcomes. Responses on an anonymous questionnaire showed that more than 94.6% of students were satisfied with the extent to which the course allowed them to meet the established learning outcomes. Conclusion. A career exploration assignment provided pharmacy students with an opportunity to widen their knowledge and understanding of the different career pathways that are available for them. PMID:24249857

  11. Particle pressures in fluidized beds. First year annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, C.S.; Rahman, K.; Hu, X.; Jin, C.; Potapov, A.V.

    1992-09-01

    This is an experimental project to make detailed measurements of the particle pressures generated in fluidized beds. The focus lies in two principle areas: (1) the particle pressure distribution around single bubbles rising in a two-dimensional gas-fluidized bed and (2) the particle pressures measured in liquid-fluidized beds. This first year has largely been to constructing the experiments The design of the particle pressure probe has been improved and tested. A two-dimensional gas-fluidized bed has been constructed in order to measure the particle pressure generated around injected bubbles. The probe is also being adapted to work in a liquid fluidized bed. Finally, a two-dimensional liquid fluidized bed is also under construction. Preliminary measurements show that the majority of the particle pressures are generated in the wake of a bubble. However, the particle pressures generated in the liquid bed appear to be extremely small. Finally, while not directly associated with the particle pressure studies, some NERSC supercomputer time was granted alongside this project. This is being used to make large scale computer simulation of the flow of granular materials in hoppers.

  12. Hospitalization in children during the first year after kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Arbus, G S; Sullivan, E K; Tejani, A

    1993-10-01

    Length of hospital stay post-renal transplant was investigated in 2171 North American pediatric patients. Hospitalization for those surviving one year with a functioning graft was 28.8 versus 36.0 days (P < 0.05) for living donor (LD) compared with cadaveric donor (CAD) recipients during the first year post-transplant. Significantly prolonged hospital stays were recorded for LD recipients who (a) were less than one-year-old, (b) were receiving prophylactic ALG/OKT3, and (c) had a history of prior dialysis, and for CAD recipients who (a) were non-White and (b) received kidneys with cold ischemic times over 24 hours. In period II (2 to 6 months post-transplant), 51% and 68% of LD and CAD recipients, respectively were hospitalized while the corresponding values were 27% or 31% in period III (7 to 12 months post-transplant). Hospitalization was due mainly to graft loss or rejection episodes. Prolonged hospital stay coupled with poor graft survival might help to determine which aspects of the clinical practice of transplanting children warrant changes.

  13. Developing information literacy with first year oral health students.

    PubMed

    Ford, P J; Foxlee, N; Green, W

    2009-02-01

    In this time of rapid expansion of the scientific knowledge base, subject matter runs the risk of becoming outdated within a relatively short time. Instead of adding more content to already crowded curricula, the focus should be on equipping students to adapt to their changing world. The ability to access, evaluate and apply new knowledge for the benefit of patients has been acknowledged as an important goal for dental education. Information literacy is key to achieving this. An information literacy programme for first year oral health students was instituted. This was integrated within a biosciences course and linked with its assessment. Small group instruction reinforced by the use of a tailored online Assignment Guide was used in the context of a specific task. Effectiveness was measured in terms of assessment outcome, processes used and student experience. Twenty-seven students participated in the intervention which was effective in enhancing foundation literacy skills and confidence of students in accessing and evaluating information sources in the context of a clinical problem. Improvement in higher level literacy skills required to articulate this information in the synthesis of a scientific review was not demonstrated. Integration of this information literacy programme within the learning activities and assessment of a basic sciences course resulted in significantly enhanced information literacy skills. As this is highly relevant for higher education students in general, the wider promotion of information literacy should be encouraged.

  14. Physics from the first year of H1 at HERA

    SciTech Connect

    Kiesling, C.

    1994-12-01

    In this report the author summarizes the results from the H1 experiment at HERA, using the data from the first year of running, 1992, when an integrated luminosity of 25 nb{sup {minus}1} has been recorded. These results include photoproduction, the measurement of the deep inelastic scattering, both for neutral current reactions and the search for physics beyond the Standard Model. Apart from the measurement of a moderate rise in the total photoproduction cross section, clear evidence is seen for hard interactions in single particle spectra and jet production, requiring a {open_quotes}resolved{close_quotes} photon as expected in QCD. The investigation of the global properties of hadronic final states in deep inelastic scattering demonstrates the need for further improvement of present QCD models. Evidence is found for a class of events with diffractive characteristics, exhibiting a large gap of hadronic energy flow about the proton direction. The proton structure function F{sub 2}{sup p}(x, Q{sup 2}) has been measured for neutral current events for Bjorken x in the range 10{sup {minus}4} - 10{sup {minus}2} and Q{sup 2} > 5 GeV{sup 2}, showing a steep rise towards small x. Furthermore, using 1993 data, a measurement of the cross section for charged current events is presented, clearly demonstrating, for the first time, the propagator effect of the W boson. Finally, new limits on leptoquarks, leptogluons, and excited electrons have been determined.

  15. Mentoring for first year medical students: humanising medical education.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Arati; Singh, Navjeevan; Dhaliwal, Upreet

    2013-01-01

    New entrants are vulnerable to the challenges of the medical course; mentoring programmes are known to offer support. This paper evaluated the experiences of students and faculty enrolled in a new mentoring programme. After needs analysis of students and faculty, a small-group mentoring programme for new medical students was initiated. Fifty-five volunteer faculty mentors were allocated two-three students each. At year-end, feedback using an open-ended questionnaire, revealed that there was no contact in one-third of the cases; the commonest reasons cited were lack of mentee initiative, time and commitment. Supportive mentors were appreciated. Over 95% of respondents believed that mentoring was a good idea; many believed the mentee benefitted; mentors also reported improved communication and affective skills; 60 (77.0%) mentees wanted to mentor new students the following year. Thus, mentoring of first-year students by faculty was effective, when contact occurred, in making the mentee feel supported. Mentoring may be a means of honing the affective domain and humanitarian instincts of medical faculty and students.

  16. Performance of battery charge controllers: First year test report

    SciTech Connect

    Dunlop, J. ); Bower, W. ); Harrington, S. )

    1991-01-01

    The results of the first year of an evaluation of charge controllers for stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) systems are presented. The objectives of the test program are to positively influence the development of battery charge controllers for stand-alone PV applications and to develop design and application criteria that will improve PV system reliability and battery performance. Future goals are to expand the evaluation program to include various battery technologies and controller algorithms. Also, the information is being communicated to manufacturers to aid in the design of more effective and reliable charge controllers for PV systems. Eight different models of small (nominal 10 amp) charge controllers are being subjected to a comprehensive evaluation. These evaluations include operational tests in identical stand-alone PV systems and environmental and electrical cycling tests. Selected custom tests are also performed on the controllers to determine the response to transients, installation requirements and system design compatibilities. Data presented in this paper include measured electrical characteristics of the controllers, temperature effects on set points, and operational performance in PV systems both in the lab and in the field. A comparison is presented for four different charge controller algorithms which include array-shunt, series-interrupting, series-linear constant-voltage and series-linear-multistep constant-current. 9 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Speech rehabilitation during the first year after total laryngectomy.

    PubMed

    Singer, Susanne; Wollbrück, Dorit; Dietz, Andreas; Schock, Juliane; Pabst, Friedemann; Vogel, Hans-Joachim; Oeken, Jens; Sandner, Annett; Koscielny, Sven; Hormes, Karl; Breitenstein, Kerstin; Richter, Heike; Deckelmann, Andreas; Cook, Sarah; Fuchs, Michael; Meuret, Sylvia

    2013-11-01

    Gaining a new voice is one of the major aims after total laryngectomy. The objective of this study was to describe the process and results of speech rehabilitation during the first year after surgery. Speech intelligibility was measured 6 months (n = 273) and 1 year (n = 225) after total laryngectomy. Objective (23.4 to 47.5 points, p < .0001) and subjective (51.6 to 64.7 points, p < .0001) speech intelligibility improved between 6 months and 1 year after total laryngectomy. Patients who used tracheoesophageal puncture (TEP) had the best results in speech intelligibility 6 months and 1 year after total laryngectomy. In all, 12% of the patients who used TEP initially no longer used it 1 year later. Patients who had received rehabilitation had better objective speech intelligibility than those who did not. Speech improves considerably between 6 months and 1 year after total laryngectomy. Nonattendance of rehabilitation is associated with a worse functional outcome in speech rehabilitation. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. [Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in first year university students].

    PubMed

    Girotto, C A; Vacchino, M N; Spillmann, C A; Soria, J A

    1996-12-01

    The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and their relation to a self-reported family history of disease was examined in 3,357 first year university students of Mar del Plata University (Argentine). The prevalence of family disease was 27.5% for hypercholesterolemia, 42.1% for hypertension, 26.9% for diabetes mellitus, 27.2% for obesity and 42.1% for cardiovascular disease. The percentual of 80.7% of the population surveyed showed at least one of these diseases in their previous family history. The prevalence of hypertension (systolic blood pressure levels > or = 140 mmHg) or/and diastolic blood pressure levels > or = 90 mmHg) was 7.0%. Hypertension was related to Body Mass Index (BMI), male sex and age. The percentual of 14.4% presented hypercholesterolemia (> or = 210 mg/dl), which was associated with age, BMI and family history of obesity and hypercholesterolemia. Nine hundred and eleven subjects (27.1%) were smokers. Differences related to sex were not found. Smoking was positively related to age and the career they had chosen. The examination detected one hundred and twenty-three (3.7%) students with cardiac problems. This was associated with a family history of cardiovascular disease. Preventive measures were suggested.

  19. Experiences of pediatric oncology nurses: the first year of hire.

    PubMed

    Linder, Lauri

    2009-01-01

    As the number of specialty pediatric oncology units increases, many units are hiring increasing numbers of newly graduated registered nurses. Intense specialty training and an emotionally demanding work environment place new nurses at risk for job frustration and early job resignation. The purpose of this study is to investigate experiences of pediatric oncology nurses during their first year of hire using a phenomenological approach. Participants were 6 nurses employed on an inpatient pediatric oncology unit in a tertiary care center located in the Intermountain West. A purposive sampling approach was used. Data were collected via semistructured interviews, which were analyzed for specific statements and themes providing description and meaning to nurses' experiences. Eleven themes in the categories of professional role development, a unique practice, and personal reflection were identified. Practice implications include supporting new nurses beyond the acquisition of skills and knowledge and including opportunities for personal reflection as part of the orientation experience. Successful role development is essential to ensure the retention of new pediatric oncology nurses as well as their future achievements within the subspecialty.

  20. Use of Sleep Aids During the First Year of Life

    PubMed Central

    Burnham, Melissa M.; Goodlin-Jones, Beth L.; Gaylor, Erika E.; Anders, Thomas F.

    2005-01-01

    Objective. In an attempt to foster self-soothing during the night, a novel sleep aid infused with maternal odor was introduced to 4 groups of infants ranging in age from 3 to 12 months. Infants’ use of parent-provided sleep aids also was examined. Methodology. Nighttime sleep and waking behaviors were videotaped for 2 consecutive nights on 3 occasions over a 3-month interval. Using all-night video recording, the study examined the infant’s use of a novel sleep aid and parent-provided sleep aids during sleep onset and after nighttime awakenings. Results. Results indicated that infants of different ages differed in the types of sleep aids used when falling asleep either at the beginning of the night or after awakenings in the middle of the night. More 3-month-olds used their thumbs/fingers/hands, whereas more 6-month-olds used soft objects. The 6-month-olds were most likely to use the novel sleep aid. Almost all of the infants at all 4 ages used some type of object during the night. Intra-individual analyses showed that infants tended to change their pattern of sleep aid use over the 3-month study period. Conclusions. The data provide evidence that infants during the first year of life use sleep aids frequently and interchangeably rather than a specific favorite object. PMID:11927702

  1. How we Know: Spectroscopy in the First Year and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ooms, Kristopher J.

    2015-06-01

    Chemical educators face the never ending challenge of showing students that the content written in their textbook arises from a rich interplay of experimentation, imagination and a desire to understand and impact the world. We have found that asking three simple questions - What do we know, How do we know it, Why do we care - is an effective strategy to guide the content and pedagogy within our chemistry classes. Of these three questions What we know is the most thoroughly covered and with the growing use of rich context teaching, the Why we care is becoming more central to our chemistry teaching. How are we doing on telling students How we know? Spectroscopy is at the core of our ability to answer questions about how we know things about the molecular world. Yet the teaching of spectroscopy is not a central part of student's early chemistry learning, often being left to the later stages of degrees and courses. For example, a brief look at common North American general chemistry text books reveals almost no discussion of spectroscopic techniques and their centrality to understanding chemistry. In this talk I will discuss efforts to bring spectroscopy into the first year course and some of the repercussions this has for the whole chemistry undergraduate curriculum. The goal is to make students better aware of where the ideas in chemistry arise from, the strengths and weaknesses of spectroscopic experiments, and how our models of the molecular world are built on rigorous experimentation.

  2. Ten Cool Things Seen in the First Year of LRO

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    Mountains on the Moon On the Earth, we are taught that mountains form over millions of years, the result of gradual shifting and colliding plates. On the moon however, the situation is quite different. Even the largest lunar mountains were formed in minutes or less as asteroids and comets slammed into the surface at tremendous velocities, displacing and uplifting enough crust to create peaks that easily rival those found on Earth. On a few occasions in the past year, NASA has tilted the angle of LRO to do calibrations and other tests. In such cases the camera has the opportunity to gather oblique images of the lunar surface like the one featured here of Cabeus Crater providing a dramatic view of the moon's mountainous terrain. Cabeus Crater is located near the lunar south pole and contains the site of the LCROSS mission's impact. Early measurements by several instruments on LRO were used to guide the decision to send LCROSS to Cabeus. During the LCROSS impact LRO was carefully positioned to observe both the gas cloud generated in the impact, as well as the heating at the impact site. Credit: NASA/Goddard/Arizona State University To see the other nine images go to: www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/LRO/news/first-year.html NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is home to the nation's largest organization of combined scientists, engineers and technologists that build spacecraft, instruments and new technology to study the Earth, the sun, our solar system, and the universe.

  3. Teaching professionalism to first year medical students using video clips.

    PubMed

    Shevell, Allison Haley; Thomas, Aliki; Fuks, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    Medical schools are confronted with the challenge of teaching professionalism during medical training. The aim of this study was to examine medical students' perceptions of using video clips as a beneficial teaching tool to learn professionalism and other aspects of physicianship. As part of the longitudinal Physician Apprenticeship course at McGill University, first year medical students viewed video clips from the television series ER. The study used qualitative description and thematic analysis to interpret responses to questionnaires, which explored the educational merits of this exercise. Completed questionnaires were submitted by 112 students from 21 small groups. A major theme concerned the students' perceptions of the utility of video clips as a teaching tool, and consisted of comments organized into 10 categories: "authenticity and believability", "thought provoking", "skills and approaches", "setting", "medium", "level of training", "mentorship", "experiential learning", "effectiveness" and "relevance to practice". Another major theme reflected the qualities of physicianship portrayed in video clips, and included seven categories: "patient-centeredness", "communication", "physician-patient relationship", "professionalism", "ethical behavior", "interprofessional practice" and "mentorship". This study demonstrated that students perceived the value of using video clips from a television series as a means of teaching professionalism and other aspects of physicianship.

  4. The First-Year Seminar: Designing, Implementing, and Assessing Courses to Support Student Learning and Success: Volume Five: Assessing the First-Year Seminar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Daniel B.

    2012-01-01

    "The First-Year Seminar: Designing, Implementing, and Assessing Courses to Support Student Learning and Success," a five-volume series, is designed to assist educators who are interested in launching a first-year seminar or revamping an existing program. Each volume examines a different aspect of first-year seminar design or…

  5. SMART-1 celebrates its first year in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-09-01

    The ion engine went into action three days after launch and slowly placed SMART-1 safely above the radiation belts that surround the Earth. From there, SMART-1 started spiralling around our planet to eventually come closer, through ever wider orbits, to the so-called ‘Moon capture’ point. During this transfer phase, the ion engine fired its thrusters for periods of several days to progressively raise its apogee (the maximum altitude of its orbit) to the orbit of the Moon. So far, the SMART-1 ion engine has operated for about 3300 hours and covered a distance of some 78 million kilometres, with only 52 kilograms of propellant. With this successful demonstration, SMART-1 is paving the way for future deep-space missions, using a solar- electric engine as primary propulsion. It will be applied to long, energy-demanding interplanetary missions in the Solar System, reducing the size and cost of propulsion systems, while increasing manoeuvrability and the mass available for scientific instrumentation. ESA plans to use primary solar-electric propulsion for its future BepiColombo and Solar Orbiter missions. During its first year in space, SMART-1 has also successfully tested new space communication techniques. For the first time, SMART-1 has used very short radio waves (called Ka band at 32 Gigahertz, with the KaTE instrument) to communicate with Earth. These enable far more information to be transmitted over deep space than the commonly used frequencies and in a shorter period of time. Another SMART-1 achievement is the successful testing of a laser communication link experiment with ESA’s optical ground station in Tenerife, Canary Islands in February of this year. This laser technology, in which Europe is a leader, has already been applied to telecommunications satellites, but this was the first time a laser link had been used to communicate with a distant, rapidly moving spacecraft. Both techniques will be crucial for future science missions where huge amounts of

  6. The First Year of Cassini RADAR Observations of Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elachi, C.; Lorenz, R. D.

    2005-12-01

    Titan`s atmosphere is essentially transparent to Radar, making it an ideal technique to study Titan`s surface. Cassini`s Titan Radar Mapper operates as a passive radiometer, scatterometer, altimeter, and synthetic aperture radar (SAR). Here we review data from four fly-bys in the first year of Cassini`s tour (Ta: October 2004, T3: February 2005, T7: September 2005, and T8: October 2005.) Early SAR images from Ta and T3 (showing < 3% of Titan`s surface) reveal that Titan is geologically young and complex (see Elachi et al., 2005, Science 13, 970-4). Significant variations were seen between the range of features seen in the Ta swath (centered at ~50N, 80W) and T3 (~ 30N, 70W) : the large-scale radiometric properties also differed, with T3 being radar-brighter. A variety of features have been identified in SAR, including two large impact craters, cryovolcanic flows and a probable volcanic dome. Dendritic and braided radar-bright sinuous channels, some 180km long, are evidence of fluvial activity. `Cat scratches`, arrays of linear dark features seem most likely to be Aeolian. Radar provides unique topographic information on Titan`s landscape e.g. the depth of the 80km crater observed in T3 can be geometrically determined to be around 1300m deep. Despite the shallow large-scale slopes indicated in altimetry to date, many small hills are seen in T3. Scatterometry and radiometry maps provide large-scale classification of surface types and polarization and incidence angle coverage being assembled will constrain dielectric and scattering properties of the surface. Judging from the TA/T3 diversity, we expect further variations in the types and distribution of surface materials and geologic features in T7, which spans a wide range of Southern latitudes. T8 SAR will cover a near-equatorial dark region, including the landing site of the Huygens probe.

  7. Pneumonia and wheezing in the first year: An international perspective.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Marcos, Luis; Mallol, Javier; Solé, Dirceu; Brand, Paul L P; Martinez-Torres, Antonela; Sanchez-Solis, Manuel

    2015-12-01

    The relationship between pneumonia and recurrent wheezing (RW) and the factors associated to pneumonia in wheezing and non-wheezing infants have not been compared between affluent and non-affluent populations. The International Study of Wheezing in Infants (EISL) is a large population-based cross-sectional study carried out in Latin America (LA) and Europe (EU). We used a validated questionnaire for identifying wheeze in the first year of life. The questionnaire also inquired about pneumonia diagnosis, together with other potentially related factors. Associations between both conditions and between potential risk/protective factors for pneumonia were tested by random-effects logit model and adjusting for all factors found previously associated to RW in this cohort. Pneumonia and RW were strongly associated to each other in LA and EU (aOR 5.42; 95%CI: 4.87-6.04 and aOR 13.99; 95%CI: 9.61-20.36, respectively). Infant eczema was the most consistent risk factor of pneumonia in both continents, in the whole population and also among wheezers and non-wheezers (aOR ranging from 1.30; 95%CI: 1.11-1.52 to 2.65; 95%CI: 1.68-4.18); while breast feeding for at least 3 months was the most consistent protective factor (aOR ranging from 0.60; 95%CI: 0.51-0.71 to 0.76; 95%CI: 0.69-0.84). Factors associated to pneumonia were similar between continents among wheezers, but differed considerably among non-wheezers. Pneumonia and RW are associated conditions sharing many risk/protective factors in EU and LA among wheezing infants, but not among non-wheezing infants. The association between pneumonia and RW could be due to shared pathophysiology or by diagnostic confusion between the two conditions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Correlates of smokeless tobacco use among first year college students

    PubMed Central

    Spangler, John; Song, Eunyoung; Pockey, Jessica; Sutfin, Erin L; Reboussin, Beth A; Wagoner, Kimberly; Wolfson, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Objective Smokeless tobacco (SLT) use is associated with specific adverse health effects. Knowledge of student tobacco use, including SLT, may guide inquiry into other risky health behaviors, and provide opportunities for health education of students. Design An incentivized email invitation to complete a web-based survey was sent to students at 11 colleges and universities in North Carolina and Virginia. Methods In autumn 2010, emails were sent to all first-year students (n=29,536) at 11 colleges and universities in North Carolina and Virginia, inviting them to participate in a brief web-based survey to be used to establish a cohort for the parent study evaluating tobacco use over 4 years. Survey items elicited demographic characteristics, tobacco use and other health behaviors. Results A total of 10,520 (36%) students responded. Past 30 day smoking and SLT use were 12% and 3%, respectively. Logistic regression analysis revealed that male gender (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] = 11.6, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 8.16–16.59); current smoking (AOR = 5.5, 95% CI = 4.21–7.10), ever use of alcoholic energy drinks (AOR = 4.8, 95% CI = 3.63–6.43), and ≥ 5 days vs. < 3 days of physical activity a week (AOR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.07–2.01) predicted risk of past 30 day SLT use. Conclusion While SLT use is relatively uncommon, knowledge of significant correlations between student tobacco use, including SLT and other risky health behaviors, might guide clinicians' inquiry and provide opportunities for health education of students. PMID:25484378

  9. Near-Earth Asteroid Tracking (NEAT): First Year Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helin, E. F.; Rabinowitz, D. L.; Pravdo, S. H.; Lawrence, K. J.

    1997-07-01

    The successful detection of Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs) has been demonstrated by the Near-Earth Asteroid Tracking (NEAT) program at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory during its first year of operation. The NEAT CCD camera system is installed on the U. S. Air Force 1-m GEODSS telescope in Maui. Using state-of-the-art software and hardware, the system initiates nightly transmitted observing script from JPL, moves the telescopes for successive exposures of the selected fields, detects moving objects as faint as V=20.5 in 40 s exposures, determines their astrometric positions, and downloads the data for review at JPL in the morning. The NEAT system is detecting NEAs larger than 200m, comets, and other unique objects at a rate competitive with current operating systems, and bright enough for important physical studies on moderate-sized telescopes. NEAT has detected over 10,000 asteroids over a wide range of magnitudes, demonstrating the excellent capability of the NEAT system. Fifty-five percent of the detections are new objects and over 900 of them have been followed on a second night to receive designation from the Minor Planet Center. 14 NEAs (9 Amors, 4 Apollos, and 1 Aten) have been discovered since March 1996. Also, 2 long period comets and 1996 PW, an asteroidal object with an orbit of a long-period comet, with an eccentricity of 0.992 and orbital period of 5900 years. Program discoveries will be reviewed along with analysis of results pertaining to the discovery efficiency, distribution on the sky, range of orbits and magnitudes. Related abstract: Lawrence, K., et al., 1997 DPS

  10. Peer assessment among first year medical students in anatomy.

    PubMed

    Spandorfer, John; Puklus, Tanya; Rose, Victoria; Vahedi, Mithaq; Collins, Lauren; Giordano, Carolyn; Schmidt, Richard; Braster, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Peer assessment has been shown to be an effective tool to promote professionalism in medical students. Peer assessment may be particularly useful in anatomy dissection laboratory as the required close collaboration and long hours of anatomy laboratory provide students insights into their peers' work habits and interpersonal skills. The objective of this study was to quantitatively and qualitatively analyze the use of a validated peer assessment tool in Gross Anatomy. Students in a first year medical school class evaluated three members of their dissection group using an online survey tool. The mid-course and end-of-course evaluation included open-ended comments, as well as a five-point scale that measured three work habits, two interpersonal attributes and one overall score. All 267 students completed the assignment. The overall score and four of the five other assessed categories showed significant improvement from the mid- to end-of-course evaluations. Quantitative and qualitative data also revealed significant improvement among the students who received the lowest mid-course assessments. Seventy-six percent of the class agreed with the statement: "Based on the feedback I received, I made a change in how I worked with or taught my peers." The use of this peer assessment tool used by students in anatomy was associated with improvements in work habits and interpersonal attributes, particularly by the cohort of students who received the lowest mid-course feedback. Peer assessment offers students an opportunity to improve their interpersonal skills and work habits. © 2013 American Association of Anatomists.

  11. The OCC NOAA Data Commons: First Year Experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flamig, Z.; Patterson, M.; Wells, W.; Grossman, R.

    2016-12-01

    The Open Commons Consortium (OCC) is one of the five "Data Alliance" anchoring institutions in the NOAA Big Data Project (BDP) that was announced on April 21st, 2015. This study will present lessons learned from the first year of the BDP. The project so far has set up a pilot data commons with some initial datasets and established a digital ID service. Demonstrations on how to work with the digital ID service and the NEXRAD radar data will be shown. The proof of concept for the OCC NOAA Data Commons was established using the level 2 NEXRAD data made available to the BDP partners. Approximately 50 TiB of NEXRAD data representing the year 2015 was incorporated into the data commons. The digital ID service supports a common persistent data ID that can access data from across multiple data locations. Using this digital ID service allows users to access the NEXRAD data from their choice of the OCC NOAA Data Commons or from Amazon's NEXRAD data holdings in the same manner. To demonstrate the concept further, a sample Jupyter notebook was created to utilize the data. The notebook, which uses the Py-ART package, creates an animated loop of the NEXRAD data showing a Mayfly hatch in Wisconsin during June 2015. The notebook also demonstrates how to do a basic quality control procedure on the radar data, in this instance to remove meteorological echoes in favor of showcasing the biological scatters. For grantees on the Open Science Data Cloud there are additional premade resources available such as virtual machine images preloaded with the tools needed to access the NEXRAD data.

  12. Journey to Motherhood in the First Year After Child Birth

    PubMed Central

    Javadifar, Nahid; Majlesi, Fereshteh; Nikbakht, Alireza; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Montazeri, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Child bearing is a period of psychological challenges that must be viewed in a social context. This study reports the maternal transition from the perspective of Iranian first-time mothers in the first year after childbirth. Materials and methods: Qualitative method was chosen for explanation of mothers’ individual experiences of motherhood.26 first-time mothers (aged 18-35 years old with various socio-economic status) who had delivered between 0-1 year prior to the interviews participated in the study.Data were collected through in-depth semi-structured interviews and interview transcripts were analyzed using the constant comparison method. Results: The core category was called "Regaining advanced balance." There were several themes within this category: "internal conflicts", "encounter and interaction" and "internalization". They felt unpreparedness, lack of control over their lives, incomplete maternal feelings and unstable relation to their husbands and others. Within the first postpartum days and weeks a sort of attachment develops between mother and child as the mother starts to attain a better understanding of maternal feelings; she begins to accept the child as an independent identity and reconstructs herself. As the attachment to child deepens, the mother feels control over the affairs. She realizes a kind of development and integration in herself which specifically stems from becoming a mother and attempts to strengthen family bonds. Conclusion: Through the expression of new mothers’ experiences toward motherhood, healthcare providers can reach a better perception of the emotional and psychological changes as well as the various aspects of mothers’ acceptance of their maternal role and helps a better preparation and presentation of effective training programs for mothers and families. PMID:28101116

  13. Examining the first year of Medicines Use Review services provided by pharmacists in New Zealand: 2008.

    PubMed

    Lee, Evan; Braund, Rhiannon; Tordoff, June

    2009-04-24

    To determine where in New Zealand collaborative Medication Use Review and Adherence Support (MUR) services were provided by pharmacists, to identify the processes involved, and pharmacists' perceptions of the service. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey was undertaken of 68 of 71 MUR accredited pharmacists that were contactable in May 2008. Fifty-four (79%) of the 68 accredited pharmacists completed the survey. Services were provided in 5/21 (24%) district health boards (DHBs) by 39 pharmacists from 33/897 (3.7%) pharmacies. The eligibility criteria for patients were highly consistent across the DHBs. The median time for pharmacists conducting their initial MUR consultation was 57 minutes. All pharmacists perceived this service to be highly (93%) or moderately valuable (7%) to patients. The main limitations to providing this service were identified as 'no current contract with funders', 'insufficient time', and 'personal circumstances'. By May 2008, collaborative medication review services (MURs) were provided in five DHBs by 39 pharmacists. Limited time since launch and the need for local contract negotiations may have contributed to current participation rates. Studies should be undertaken as the service grows to establish the stakeholders' perceptions of the service, and the impact of MURs on the health outcomes of patients.

  14. An Elective Course for First-Year Students Based on the "New England Journal of Medicine."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Owen W.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A course to develop medical students' capacity to read medical journal articles critically is described. The course's background, organization, and aims; faculty members' impressions of the course; and students' responses to an evaluation questionnaire are discussed. (MLW)

  15. Infection-related hospitalizations in the first year after inflammatory bowel disease diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Ko, Michael Kwan-Lung; Ng, Siew C; Mak, Lung-Yi; Li, Michael K; Lo, Fu Hang; Ng, Carmen Ka Man; Lao, Wai Cheung; Tsang, Steve; Chan, Kam Hon; Hui, Yee Tak; Shan, Edwin Hok Shing; Loo, Ching Kong; Hui, Aric J; To, Wai Pan; Hung, Ivan F; Leung, Wai K

    2016-09-01

    With the rapid increase in the incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in Asia, the natural course of the early phase of disease in these patients remains poorly defined. This study aimed to determined the incidence and characteristics of infection-related hospitalization in the first year in patients newly diagnosed with IBD in Hong Kong SAR, China. Patients newly diagnosed with IBD and enrolled in the territory-wide Hong Kong IBD Registry were identified. Details of their hospitalization within the first 12 months after diagnosis were retrieved and analyzed. Altogether 433 newly diagnosed IBD patients were enrolled, including 188 with Crohn's disease (CD), 230 with ulcerative colitis (UC) and 15 with IBD-unclassified (IBD-U). Among them, 110 (25.4%) had at least one unscheduled hospitalization in the first year and 34 (7.9%) had infection-related hospitalization, leading to 43 (23.4%) of total hospitalizations. Gastrointestinal tract (30.2%), respiratory tract (34.9%) and skin and soft tissues (11.6%) were the most common sites of infection. Bacterial and viral infections accounted for 46.7% and 20.8% of hospitalizations for infection, respectively. Common identified pathogens included Clostridium difficile (16.3%) and Cytomegalovirus (11.6%). Multivariate analysis found that patient's age (odds ratio [OR] 1.03, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.06) and the presence of comorbidity (OR 2.32, 95% CI 1.05-5.13) were significantly associated with hospitalization from infection in IBD patients. Infection-related hospitalizations were found in 7.9% of newly diagnosed IBD patients within the first year after diagnosis in Hong Kong, which accounted for about one-quarter of all unscheduled hospitalizations. Elder patients with concurrent illnesses were at higher risk. © 2016 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons

  16. Risk factors for wheezing in the first year of life.

    PubMed

    Chong Neto, Herberto José; Rosário, Nelson Augusto

    2008-01-01

    To assess risk factors for wheezing in infants in southern Brazil. Cross-sectional study using a standardized and validated questionnaire (Estudio Internacional de Sibilancias en Lactantes, EISL, or International Study of Wheezing in Infants). Parents of infants aged 12-15 months who attended 35 of 107 health centers between August 2005 and December 2006 for regular immunization were interviewed. The association between wheezing and factors studied was made using a prevalence ratio (PR) and confidence interval of 95% (95%CI) to perform a univariate analysis. Factors associated with wheezing in the bivariate analysis were studied using Poisson regression. Three thousand and three parents of infants filled out the questionnaire. The risk factors were male gender (PR = 1.14; 95%CI 1.05-1.24), history of asthma in the family [mother (PR = 1.18; 95%CI 1.04-1.33); father (PR = 1.20; 95%CI 1.05-1.39); siblings (PR = 1.23; 95%CI 1.08-1.42)], other pets in the home during pregnancy (PR = 1.28; 95%CI 1.07-1.53), age when child started daycare [0-3 months (PR = 1.15; 95%CI 0.98-1.34); 4-6 months (PR = 1.39; 95%CI 1.24-1.55); 7-12 months (PR = 1.20; 95%CI 1.07-1.35)], six or more episodes of cold (PR = 1.32; 95%CI 1.21-1.44), personal history of dermatitis (PR = 1.09; 95%CI 1.003-1.19), and mold in the home (PR = 1.14; 95%CI 1.04-1.24). Up-to-date immunization (PR = 0.79; 95%CI 0.63-0.98) and bathroom in the home (PR = 0.83; 95%CI 0.68-1.01) were protective factors. Independent risk factors for wheezing in the first year of life are also known risks for asthma in children and adolescents. These data are useful to predict the diagnosis of asthma and to promote its prevention (when applicable).

  17. First year physics practicals in distance education in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cilliers, Johanna Albertha

    Although the merits of practical work in physics is often questioned, it remains part of physics curricula word- wide. In distance education the incorporation of practical work into the curriculum is considerably complicated by the unique logistics of the setting and the high cost involved. The research reported in this thesis emanated from the need to improve the practical work module for first year physics at the University of South Africa, one of the largest distance education universities in the world. Specifically, the home-based component which, up to the commencement of the research had been entirely text-based, needed to be addressed. To this end it was necessary to identify a valid and attainable set of objectives and to determine the characteristics, abilities and needs of the students in the target group. A survey polling the viewpoints of South African physics lecturers and students about the objectives of practical work was conducted and an extensive student profile comprising a biographic, cognitive and affective component was compiled. Biographically, the target group is unique in the sense that it consists mainly of adult learners, a large percentage of whom study in a second language. The cognitive component of the profile covered aptitude, proficiency in English, mathematics and the integrated science process skills and level of cognitive development, all of which were investigated for possible influence on performance in practical work. On an affective level, students displayed a very positive attitude towards practical work, seated mainly in their need for concrete exploration of the theory. A practical work module structured around an experiential learning cycle adapted to the distance education environment was subsequently designed. The study material developed for the module comprised an interactive study guide on data processing and experimental procedure, a home experiment kit with accompanying workbook and a laboratory manual. From the

  18. Launching PCORnet, a national patient-centered clinical research network

    PubMed Central

    Fleurence, Rachael L; Curtis, Lesley H; Califf, Robert M; Platt, Richard; Selby, Joe V; Brown, Jeffrey S

    2014-01-01

    The Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) has launched PCORnet, a major initiative to support an effective, sustainable national research infrastructure that will advance the use of electronic health data in comparative effectiveness research (CER) and other types of research. In December 2013, PCORI's board of governors funded 11 clinical data research networks (CDRNs) and 18 patient-powered research networks (PPRNs) for a period of 18 months. CDRNs are based on the electronic health records and other electronic sources of very large populations receiving healthcare within integrated or networked delivery systems. PPRNs are built primarily by communities of motivated patients, forming partnerships with researchers. These patients intend to participate in clinical research, by generating questions, sharing data, volunteering for interventional trials, and interpreting and disseminating results. Rapidly building a new national resource to facilitate a large-scale, patient-centered CER is associated with a number of technical, regulatory, and organizational challenges, which are described here. PMID:24821743

  19. An assisted living facility curriculum to introduce geriatrics to first-year medical students.

    PubMed

    Tong, Iris L; Dodd, Kimberly A; Warrier, Sarita S; Pugliese, Louis J; McMackin, Naomi Y; Taylor, Julie Scott

    2015-01-01

    Many U.S. medical schools have developed curricula in geriatric medicine to address the growing older adult population. At our university, the authors have integrated an assisted living facility (ALF) program into a required first-year clinical skills course. During the 2011 to 2012 academic year, an electronic survey was distributed to 109 first-year medical students prior to and after the program. Eighty-eight percent and 85% of students completed the pre- and postintervention survey, respectively. Students reported a positive attitude toward caring for older adults (92.5% post- vs. 80.2% preintervention), an understanding of the medical and social needs of older adults (89.2% post- vs. 38.5% preintervention), an acquisition of the skills to assess the health of older adults (71% post- vs. 14.5% preintervention), and an understanding of ALFs as nonmedical supportive housing (92.5% post- vs. 70.8% preintervention). The authors' curriculum offers an innovative method to integrate geriatrics education early in medical education and to involve medical students in their community.

  20. Oncology nurse communication barriers to patient-centered care.

    PubMed

    Wittenberg-Lyles, Elaine; Goldsmith, Joy; Ferrell, Betty

    2013-04-01

    Although quality communication has been identified as a necessary component to cancer care, communication skills training programs have yet to focus on the unique role of nurses. This study explored communication barriers as reported by seven nurse managers to better identify communication skills needed for oncology nurses to practice patient-centered care. Thematic analysis of transcripts was used to identify barriers to patient and family communication and desirable patient-centered nursing communication skills. Overall, the nurse managers reported that nurses experience patient and family communication difficulties as a result of inconsistent messages to patients and family from other healthcare staff. Physician assumptions about nursing left nurses feeling uncomfortable asking for clarification, creating a barrier to team communication processes. Patient-centered communication and care cannot be actualized for nurses unless team roles are clarified and nurses receive training in how to communicate with physicians, patients, and family. Therefore, the authors of this article created the COMFORT communication training protocol, and key concepts and resources for nurse communication training through COMFORT are detailed in this article.

  1. Patient-centered outcomes research to improve asthma outcomes.

    PubMed

    Anise, Ayodola; Hasnain-Wynia, Romana

    2016-12-01

    The Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute is funding 8 comparative effectiveness research projects to improve patient-centered outcomes for African American and Hispanic/Latino patients with uncontrolled asthma. These projects aim to compare multilevel interventions with known efficacy at the community, home, and health system levels to enhance patient and clinician uptake of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's National Asthma Education Prevention Program guidelines and improve outcomes. The National Asthma Education Prevention Program guidelines provide clinicians with a range of acceptable approaches for the diagnosis and management of asthma and define general practices that meet the needs of most patients. Yet disparities in asthma care and outcomes remain pervasive for African Americans and Hispanics/Latinos. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute AsthmaNet consortium has identified several top research priorities for pediatric and adult populations, including a recommendation to examine tailored approaches based on race/ethnicity. In addition, the guidelines emphasize the need for studies that focus on multicomponent interventions recognizing that single interventions are generally ineffective. This article will describe the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute-funded asthma projects and how they are individually and collectively addressing evidence gaps in asthma care by focusing on multicomponent and tailored approaches for improving outcomes and reducing disparities for African American and Hispanic/Latino patients. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Patient-Centered Outcomes in Older Adults with Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Wendy R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Older adults have the highest incidence of new-onset epilepsy, yet there is a lack of self-management interventions to ensure that this population achieves desirable outcomes. In order to develop patient-centered interventions for older adults with epilepsy, self-management outcomes of importance to these patients must first be explored. The purpose of this study was to describe what outcomes older adults diagnosed with epilepsy late in life hope to achieve in self-managing their condition. Method Qualitative description was used. 20 older adults took part in semi-structured interviews. Data were analyzed using conventional content analysis. Results Six themes emerged--Maintaining Normalcy, We Want to be Involved, Well-Equipped, Seizure Freedom, Fitting Epilepsy in with Other Conditions, Incongruence with Provider Goals. Conclusion These results add to the extant literature, and provide knowledge on which patient-centered epilepsy self-management interventions can be developed. In addition, these results can inform the development of a patient-centered outcome measure for older adults with epilepsy. Such a measure could be used in conjunction with existing measures related to disease status (seizure frequency, etc.) to ensure that outcomes pertinent to both patients and providers are targeted and measured. PMID:24838071

  3. Teaching patient-centered care to pharmacy students.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Alina Martínez

    2011-02-01

    The concepts of pharmaceutical care are distinctively different from the responsibilities of dispensing pharmacists and in accordance with the standards of practice of other professionals in the health care system. By taking direct responsibility for individual patient's medication-related needs, pharmacists can make unique contribution to the outcome of medication therapy and to their patients' quality of life. If the pharmacists are to contribute effectively to the new patient-centered pharmaceutical practice they must have the opportunity to acquire the new knowledge and skills required for their new role. To do this they must become life-long learners, one of the roles of the new pharmacist. Therefore, an important outcome for pharmacy education is to perform graduates capable to provide patient-centered pharmaceutical services. The purpose of this paper is to stimulate reflection on the relevance of teaching patient-centered care to pharmacy students, consistent with the practice of pharmaceutical care as a current trend in the pharmacy practice.

  4. Predicting Community College Student Success by Participation in a First-Year Experience Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Andy Franklin

    2013-01-01

    A first-year experience is a collaborative effort of many initiatives, with varying names that have the greatest impact on student success during the first year of college. A first-year experience course, a feature of the first-year experience, is an intervention program designed to increase student academic performance and integration (Braxton…

  5. Predicting Community College Student Success by Participation in a First-Year Experience Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Andy Franklin

    2013-01-01

    A first-year experience is a collaborative effort of many initiatives, with varying names that have the greatest impact on student success during the first year of college. A first-year experience course, a feature of the first-year experience, is an intervention program designed to increase student academic performance and integration (Braxton…

  6. Patient-Centered Communication and Health Assessment with Youth

    PubMed Central

    Munro, Michelle L.; Darling-Fisher, Cynthia S.; Ronis, David L.; Villarruel, Antonia M.; Pardee, Michelle; Faleer, Hannah; Fava, Nicole M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Patient-centered communication is the hallmark of care that incorporates the perspective of patients to provide tailored care that meets their needs and desires. However, at this time there has been limited evaluation of patient-provider communication involving youth. Objectives This manuscript will report on results from secondary analysis of data obtained during a participatory research-based randomized control trial designed to test a sexual risk event history calendar intervention with youth to address the following research questions: (a) Based on the event history calendar’s (EHC) inclusion of contextual factors, does the EHC demonstrate improved communication outcomes (i.e., amount, satisfaction, mutuality, client involvement, client satisfaction, patient-provider interaction, and patient-centeredness) when compared to the Guidelines for Adolescent Preventive Services (GAPS) tool? and (b) How do patients and providers describe the characteristics of each tool in regards to patient-centered communication? Method This report will utilize a sequential explanatory mixed methods approach to evaluate communication. A split plot design with one between factor (i.e., communication structure between EHC and GAPS) and one within factor (i.e., time between pretest and posttest) was used for analyses of data collection from male and female youth (n=186) and providers (n=9). Quantitative analysis of survey data evaluated changes in communication from pre-test to post-test. Qualitative data collected from open-ended questions, audio-taped visits, and exit interviews was employed to enhance interpretation of quantitative findings. Results Patient-centered communication using assessment tools (EHC and GAPS) with youth demonstrated improved communication outcomes both quantitatively and qualitatively. Additional analyses with subgroups of males and Arab-Americans demonstrated better post-intervention scores among the EHC group in certain aspects of communication

  7. Knowledge loss of medical students on first year basic science courses at the university of Saskatchewan

    PubMed Central

    D'Eon, Marcel F

    2006-01-01

    Background Many senior undergraduate students from the University of Saskatchewan indicated informally that they did not remember much from their first year courses and wondered why we were teaching content that did not seem relevant to later clinical work or studies. To determine the extent of the problem a course evaluation study that measured the knowledge loss of medical students on selected first year courses was conducted. This study replicates previous memory decrement studies with three first year medicine basic science courses, something that was not found in the literature. It was expected that some courses would show more and some courses would show less knowledge loss. Methods In the spring of 2004 over 20 students were recruited to retake questions from three first year courses: Immunology, physiology, and neuroanatomy. Student scores on the selected questions at the time of the final examination in May 2003 (the 'test') were compared with their scores on the questions 10 or 11 months later (the 're-test') using paired samples t -tests. A repeated-measures MANOVA was used to compare the test and re-test scores among the three courses. The re-test scores were matched with the overall student ratings of the courses and the student scores on the May 2003 examinations. Results A statistically significant main effect of knowledge loss (F = 297.385; p < .001) and an interaction effect by course (F = 46.081; p < .001) were found. The students' scores in the Immunology course dropped 13.1%, 46.5% in Neuroanatomy, and 16.1% in physiology. Bonferroni post hoc comparisons showed a significant difference between Neuroanatomy and Physiology (mean difference of 10.7, p = .004). Conclusion There was considerable knowledge loss among medical students in the three basic science courses tested and this loss was not uniform across courses. Knowledge loss does not seem to be related to the marks on the final examination or the assessment of course quality by the students

  8. Underserved patients' perspectives on patient-centered primary care: does the patient-centered medical home model meet their needs?

    PubMed

    Mead, Holly; Andres, Ellie; Regenstein, Marsha

    2014-02-01

    The patient-centered medical home (PCMH) has gained significant interest as a delivery system model that can improve health care quality while reducing costs. This study uses focus groups to investigate underserved, chronically ill patients' preferences for care and develops a patient-centered framework of priorities. Seven major priorities were identified: (a) communication and partnership, (b) affordable care, (c) coordinated care, (d) personal responsibility, (e) accessible care, (f) education and support resources, and (g) the essential role of nonphysician providers in supporting their care. Using the framework, we analyzed the PCMH joint principals as developed by U.S. medical societies to identify where the PCMH model could be improved to better meet the needs of these patients. Four of the seven patient priorities were identified as not present in or supported by current PCMH joint principles. The study discusses how the PCMH model can better address the needs of low-income, disadvantaged patients.

  9. An evidence-based patient-centered method makes the biopsychosocial model scientific.

    PubMed

    Smith, Robert C; Fortin, Auguste H; Dwamena, Francesca; Frankel, Richard M

    2013-06-01

    To review the scientific status of the biopsychosocial (BPS) model and to propose a way to improve it. Engel's BPS model added patients' psychological and social health concerns to the highly successful biomedical model. He proposed that the BPS model could make medicine more scientific, but its use in education, clinical care, and, especially, research remains minimal. Many aver correctly that the present model cannot be defined in a consistent way for the individual patient, making it untestable and non-scientific. This stems from not obtaining relevant BPS data systematically, where one interviewer obtains the same information another would. Recent research by two of the authors has produced similar patient-centered interviewing methods that are repeatable and elicit just the relevant patient information needed to define the model at each visit. We propose that the field adopt these evidence-based methods as the standard for identifying the BPS model. Identifying a scientific BPS model in each patient with an agreed-upon, evidence-based patient-centered interviewing method can produce a quantum leap ahead in both research and teaching. A scientific BPS model can give us more confidence in being humanistic. In research, we can conduct more rigorous studies to inform better practices. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Ontario pharmacists practicing in family health teams and the patient-centered medical home.

    PubMed

    Dolovich, Lisa

    2012-04-01

    The patient-centered medical home (PCMH) approach continues to gather momentum in the United States and Canada as a broad approach to reform the delivery of the complete primary care system. The family health team (FHT) model implemented in Ontario, Canada, best mirrors the PCMH approach of the United States. The integration of pharmacists as key members of the health care team providing on-site, in-office coordinated care to FHT patients was included from the start of planning the FHT model and represents a substantial opportunity for pharmacists to realize their professional vision. Several research projects in Canada and elsewhere have contributed to providing evidence to support the integration of pharmacists into primary care practice sites. Two major research programs, the Seniors Medication Assessment Research Trial (SMART) cluster randomized controlled trial and the Integrating Family Medicine and Pharmacy to Advance Primary Care Therapeutics (IMPACT) multipronged demonstration project made substantial contributions to evidence-informed policy decisions supporting the integration of pharmacists into FHTs. These projects can provide useful information to support the integration of pharmacists into the PCMH and to encourage further research to better measure the effect of the pharmacist from the holistic patient-centered perspective.

  11. Finding Common Ground: Interprofessional Collaborative Practice Competencies in Patient-Centered Medical Homes.

    PubMed

    Swihart, Diana

    2016-01-01

    The patient-centered medical home model is predicated on interprofessional collaborative practice and team-based care. While information on the roles of various providers is increasingly woven into the literature, the competencies of those providers have been generally profession-specific. In 2011, the Interprofessional Education Collaborative comprising the American Association of Colleges of Nursing, the American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine, the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy, the American Dental Education Association, the Association of American Medical Colleges, and the Association of Schools of Public Health sponsored an expert panel of their members to identify and develop 4 domains of core competencies needed for a successful interprofessional collaborative practice: (1) Values/Ethics for Interprofessional Practice; (2) Roles/Responsibilities; (3) Interprofessional Communication; and (4) Teams and Teamwork. Their findings and recommendations were recorded in their Core Competencies for Interprofessional Collaborative Practice: Report of an Expert Panel. This article explores these 4 domains and how they provide common ground for team-based care within the context of the medical home model approach to patient-centered primary care.

  12. [Evaluation of the patient centered clinical relationship: analysis of psychometric properties using the CICAA scale].

    PubMed

    Gavilán Moral, Enrique; Ruiz Moral, Roger; Perula de Torres, Luis Angel; Parras Rejano, Juan Manuel

    2010-03-01

    To analyse the psychometric properties by a scale for evaluating patient centered clinical communication. Validation and observational study of a measurement tool. Health centres and hospital outpatient clinics. Three researchers independently evaluated video recorded interviews of different sub-samples: health professionals (family medicine medical residents, family doctors, specialist care physicians, and primary care nurses), actual patients who consulted for chronic or acute health problems, and standardised patients. Dimensionality (exploratory factor analysis), internal consistency (alpha de Cronbach), intra- and inter-observer agreement (Kappa index, intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC], generalisability), sensitivity to change (Student t test) and convergent validity with the GATHA questionnaire (Pearson correlation coefficient). Six factors have been identified that explain 66.0% of the variance. The overall internal consistency of the test was alpha=0.94. The overall intra-observer agreement, measured with the ICC, varied between 0.94 and 0.97, whilst the inter-observer was between 0.82-0.90. The number of completed questionnaires required for the evaluator to obtain adequate reproducibility (generalisability) varied between 6 and 12. Statistical significance was not obtained when testing the sensitivity to change. The CICAA scale and the GATHA questionnaire had a correlation of 0.67. The CICAA scale is a generic patient centered clinical communication evaluation tool that may be used in different clinical contexts and situations, since it has shown to be reliable, valid and efficient. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  13. Knowledge about and attitude towards science of first year medical students.

    PubMed

    Vodopivec, Ivana; Vujaklija, Ana; Hrabak, Maja; Lukić, Ivan Kresimir; Marusić, Ana; Marusić, Matko

    2002-02-01

    To assess the knowledge about and attitude towards science of students entering medical school, and to find out whether these parameters are influenced by their high school education, sex, place of residence, and rank achieved on the admission test. A total of 193 (82%) students who enrolled at the Zagreb University School of Medicine in 2001 filled out an anonymous questionnaire at their first lecture. The questionnaire consisted of demographic data, 20 statements on science adapted to a 1-5 Likert scale, and 8 multiple-choice test questions on knowledge of scientific research. The students knowledge of scientific research was poor (out of 8 answers, 2.2 +/- 1.2 were correct) in spite of their positive attitude towards science (75 +/- 11 on a 20-100 scale). Higher ranking students at the admission test showed more positive attitude (Spearmans rho=-0.157, p=0.003). There was no interdependence between other personal data (sex, high school, and place of residence) and opinion/knowledge about science. In Croatia, first-year medical students are not familiar with basic facts about the scientific methods and communication in medicine, but they have positive attitude towards scientific research. The only factor associated with more positive attitude towards science is higher rank at the admission test.

  14. Tobacco Smoking Habits Among First Year Medical Students, University of Prishtina, Kosovo: Cross-sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Çuperjani, Frederik; Elezi, Shkëlzen; Lila, Albert; Daka, Qëndresë; Dakaj, Qëndrim; Gashi, Sanije

    2015-06-01

    Tobacco smoking remains the leading causes of preventable morbidity and mortality in the world, requiring intensified national and international public health response. World Health Organization (WHO) has urged health professional organizations to encourage and support their members to be models for not using tobacco products and promote tobacco-free culture. Healthcare students are the future authority of the health society, they are in a position to play a vital role and have impact on social norms related to smoking. To determine the prevalence of tobacco smoking among healthcare students of Medical Faculty, University of Prishtina in Kosovo, so that recommendations can be made for its cessation among healthcare providers and thereafter the community. Descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted using self-administrated questionnaire prepared for this purpose. A total of 284 first year healthcare students of Medical Faculty, University of Prishtina in Kosovo were enrolled in the study. The data were analyzed using SPSS 22. All respondents completed the questionnaire, giving a response rate of 100% (general medicine=180, dentistry = 104). The prevalence of students who have ever smoked was 53.2%. However, only 8.9% (9.1% M vs. 8.7% F) of the general medicine students and 5.8% (4.8% M vs. 6.5% F) of dentistry students declared that smoke tobacco every day. Overall, the research shows that the prevalence of occasional smokers among medical students in Kosova is quite high.

  15. Attitudes of First-year Medical Students Toward the Confidentiality of Computerized Patient Records

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Luke; Domm, Jennifer A.; Konikoff, Michael R.; Miller, Randolph A.

    1999-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the attitudes of students entering medical school toward the confidentiality of computerized medical records. Design: First-year medical students at the Vanderbilt University School of Medicine responded to a series of questions about a hypothetic breach of patient's privacy through a computerized patient record system. Measurements: The individual authors independently grouped the blinded responses according to whether they were consistent with then-current institutional policy. These preliminary groupings were discussed, and final categorizations were made by consensus. Results: While most students had a sense of what was right and wrong in absolute terms, half the class suggested at least one course of action that was deemed to be inconsistent with institutional policies. Conclusions: The authors believe that medical schools should directly address ethical and legal issues related to the use of computers in clinical practice as an integral part of medical school curricula. Several teaching approaches can facilitate a greater awareness of the issues surrounding technology and medicine. PMID:9925228

  16. Are patient-centered care values as reflected in teaching scenarios really being taught when implemented by teaching faculty? A discourse analysis on an Indonesian medical school's curriculum

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background According to The Indonesian Medical Council, 2006, Indonesian competence-based medical curriculum should be oriented towards family medicine. We aimed to find out if the educational goal of patient-centered care within family medicine (comprehensive care and continuous care) were adequately transferred from the expected curriculum to implemented curriculum and teaching process. Methods Discourse analysis was done by 3 general practitioners of scenarios and learning objectives of an Indonesian undergraduate medical curriculum. The coders categorized those sentences into two groups: met or unmet the educational goal of patient-centered care. Results Text analysis showed gaps in patient-centered care training between the scenarios and the learning objectives which were developed by both curriculum committee and the block planning groups and the way in which the material was taught. Most sentences in the scenarios were more relevant to patient-centered care while most sentences in the learning objectives were more inclined towards disease-perspectives. Conclusions There is currently a discrepancy between expected patient-centered care values in the scenario and instructional materials that are being used. PMID:21513582

  17. The Patient-Centered Medical Home: Preparation of the Workforce, More Questions than Answers.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, P Preston; Klink, Kathleen; Gilman, Stuart; Green, Larry A; Phillips, Russell S; Shipman, Scott; Keahey, David; Rugen, Kathryn; Davis, Molly

    2015-07-01

    As American medicine continues to undergo significant transformation, the patient-centered medical home (PCMH) is emerging as an interprofessional primary care model designed to deliver the right care for patients, by the right professional, at the right time, in the right setting, for the right cost. A review of local, state, regional and national initiatives to train professionals in delivering care within the PCMH model reveals some successes, but substantial challenges. Workforce policy recommendations designed to improve PCMH effectiveness and efficiency include 1) adoption of an expanded definition of primary care, 2) fundamental redesign of health professions education, 3) payment reform, 4) responsiveness to local needs assessments, and 5) systems improvement to emphasize quality, population health, and health disparities.

  18. National Lipid Association Recommendations for Patient-Centered Management of Dyslipidemia: Part 2.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Terry A; Maki, Kevin C; Orringer, Carl E; Jones, Peter H; Kris-Etherton, Penny; Sikand, Geeta; La Forge, Ralph; Daniels, Stephen R; Wilson, Don P; Morris, Pamela B; Wild, Robert A; Grundy, Scott M; Daviglus, Martha; Ferdinand, Keith C; Vijayaraghavan, Krishnaswami; Deedwania, Prakash C; Aberg, Judith A; Liao, Katherine P; McKenney, James M; Ross, Joyce L; Braun, Lynne T; Ito, Matthew K; Bays, Harold E; Brown, W Virgil; Underberg, James A

    2015-01-01

    An Expert Panel convened by the National Lipid Association previously developed a consensus set of recommendations for the patient-centered management of dyslipidemia in clinical medicine (part 1). These were guided by the principle that reducing elevated levels of atherogenic cholesterol (non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol) reduces the risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. This document represents a continuation of the National Lipid Association recommendations developed by a diverse panel of experts who examined the evidence base and provided recommendations regarding the following topics: (1) lifestyle therapies; (2) groups with special considerations, including children and adolescents, women, older patients, certain ethnic and racial groups, patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus, patients with rheumatoid arthritis, and patients with residual risk despite statin and lifestyle therapies; and (3) strategies to improve patient outcomes by increasing adherence and using team-based collaborative care. Copyright © 2015 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The role of patient-centered care in nursing.

    PubMed

    Flagg, Amanda J

    2015-03-01

    Patient-centered care (PCC) has become a key focus in the delivery of health care. It is necessary to gain some perspective of its fit into nursing, which has become physically and mentally demanding in the care of diverse populations. Although there is no agreed-upon definition or classification, there are several key aspects that work with PCC that are discussed in detail. This article provides more clarity to the role of nursing using several aspects of PCC in its many forms to improve the quality of care provided in a way that is both manageable and safe.

  20. A patient-centered approach to nurse orientation.

    PubMed

    Bumgarner, S D; Biggerstaff, G H

    2000-01-01

    An orientation pathway was developed using a patient-centered approach. The pathway provides a guide or "road map" for the preceptor and new nurse to care for high-volume patient populations in medical and surgical units. Benefits include application of the nursing process, promotion of critical thinking skills, reduction of reality shock, and improvement in job satisfaction and retention. This article describes the rationale behind the approach and its application to nurse orientation. Steps in the process are described. Staff development educators can use the steps to develop orientation pathways for other practice settings.

  1. Invited lectures related to patient-centered outcomes research.

    PubMed

    Hache, Manon; Kazim, Robert

    2012-10-01

    The third PANDA symposium on Anesthesia and Neurodevelopment in Children included a session on Patient Centered Outcomes Research. Three speakers were invited to discuss SmartTots, a private-public partnership between IARS and FDA, Wake Up Safe, a patient safety organization and lastly, NICHD/NIH funding for training in research. The session provided information related to ongoing efforts to improve outcome and safety of anesthesia care in children and introduced potential sources and mechanisms of federal and non-federal funding for research related to anesthetic neurotoxicity in the developing brain.

  2. Service-Learning and the First-Year Experience: Preparing Students for Personal Success and Civic Responsibility. The First-Year Experience Monograph Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zlotkowski, Edward, Ed.

    This collection presents essays on service-learning and its role in the education of first-year college students. Following a preface by John N. Gardner and an introduction by Edward Zlotkowski, the chapters of section 1, "Making the Case for Service-Learning in the First Year of College," are: (1) "High School Service-Learning and the Preparation…

  3. Examining the Academic Performance and Retention of First-Year Students in Living-Learning Communities and First-Year Experience Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdie, John R., II; Rosser, Vicki J.

    2011-01-01

    Institutional data were used to examine the grades and retention of first-year students in 2 types of living learning communities--Academic Theme Floors (ATFs) and Freshman Interest Groups (FIGs)--and a First-Year Experience (FYE) course. Multiple regression revealed students in FIGs earned nominally higher GPAs (standardized [beta] = 0.02, p less…

  4. Examining the Academic Performance and Retention of First-Year Students in Living-Learning Communities and First-Year Experience Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdie, John R., II; Rosser, Vicki J.

    2011-01-01

    Institutional data were used to examine the grades and retention of first-year students in 2 types of living learning communities--Academic Theme Floors (ATFs) and Freshman Interest Groups (FIGs)--and a First-Year Experience (FYE) course. Multiple regression revealed students in FIGs earned nominally higher GPAs (standardized [beta] = 0.02, p less…

  5. Resource planning for patient-centered, collaborative care.

    PubMed

    Wasson, John H; Ahles, Tim; Johnson, Debbie; Kabcenell, Andrea; Lewis, Ann; Godfrey, Margie M

    2006-01-01

    In this article, we use self-reported information from 13,271 older adults and the results from several controlled trials to construct a planned-care management strategy that cuts across diseases and conditions and also addresses health disparities attributed to low socioeconomic status. Three strata result from the interaction of patients' financial status, the presence or absence of bothersome pain and psychosocial problems, and their confidence with self-care. A majority of ambulatory patients generally fall in the first stratum. More resources are required in the 2 remaining strata to attain patient-centered, collaborative care. Because the planned-care management strategy is behaviorally sophisticated, it is likely to be more efficient and effective than strategies based on concepts of disease management that focus on either a single disease or groupings of patients who are "high utilizers" of healthcare. We conclude that modern technologies and related approaches make resource planning for patient-centered, collaborative care feasible and desirable.

  6. A patient-centered perspective on cancer survivorship.

    PubMed

    Zebrack, Brad

    2015-04-15

    Survivorship is a complicated notion because people often confuse a process of survivorship with a mythic identity of being a cancer survivor. This confusion may be a distraction to addressing the real-life struggles and challenges experienced by all people diagnosed with cancer. A more expansive perspective of survivorship, one that attends to patients' physical, psychological, social, spiritual, and existential challenges throughout a continuum of care, would be more in line with what is known empirically about people's experiences with cancer. In an effort to gain a patient-centered perspective on cancer, and one that emphasizes multiple dimensions of cancer survivorship, the author reports findings from a non-scientific social media poll (via Facebook and personal emails) in which survivors and colleagues working in the field of cancer survivorship answered the question: What does cancer survivorship mean to you? The comments are enlightening and useful for guiding the development of a patient-centered, and, thus, more comprehensive, approach to caring for people affected by cancer.

  7. Patient-Centered Tools for Medication Information Search

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Lauren; Feiner, Steven; Elhadad, Noémie; Vawdrey, David; Tran, Tran H.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research focused on online health information seeking highlights a heavy reliance on general-purpose search engines. However, current general-purpose search interfaces do not necessarily provide adequate support for non-experts in identifying suitable sources of health information. Popular search engines have recently introduced search tools in their user interfaces for a range of topics. In this work, we explore how such tools can support non-expert, patient-centered health information search. Scoping the current work to medication-related search, we report on findings from a formative study focused on the design of patient-centered, medication-information search tools. Our study included qualitative interviews with patients, family members, and domain experts, as well as observations of their use of Remedy, a technology probe embodying a set of search tools. Post-operative cardiothoracic surgery patients and their visiting family members used the tools to find information about their hospital medications and were interviewed before and after their use. Domain experts conducted similar search tasks and provided qualitative feedback on their preferences and recommendations for designing these tools. Findings from our study suggest the importance of four valuation principles underlying our tools: credibility, readability, consumer perspective, and topical relevance. PMID:28163972

  8. Patient-Centered Tools for Medication Information Search.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Lauren; Feiner, Steven; Elhadad, Noémie; Vawdrey, David; Tran, Tran H

    2014-05-20

    Recent research focused on online health information seeking highlights a heavy reliance on general-purpose search engines. However, current general-purpose search interfaces do not necessarily provide adequate support for non-experts in identifying suitable sources of health information. Popular search engines have recently introduced search tools in their user interfaces for a range of topics. In this work, we explore how such tools can support non-expert, patient-centered health information search. Scoping the current work to medication-related search, we report on findings from a formative study focused on the design of patient-centered, medication-information search tools. Our study included qualitative interviews with patients, family members, and domain experts, as well as observations of their use of Remedy, a technology probe embodying a set of search tools. Post-operative cardiothoracic surgery patients and their visiting family members used the tools to find information about their hospital medications and were interviewed before and after their use. Domain experts conducted similar search tasks and provided qualitative feedback on their preferences and recommendations for designing these tools. Findings from our study suggest the importance of four valuation principles underlying our tools: credibility, readability, consumer perspective, and topical relevance.

  9. Patient-centered communication in digital medical encounters.

    PubMed

    Alpert, Jordan M; Dyer, Karen E; Lafata, Jennifer Elston

    2017-10-01

    Patients are increasingly using the secure messaging function available through online patient portals to communicate with their health care providers, yet little is known about the characteristics of conversations that occur. The goal of this study is to describe the types of messages initiated by patients communicating via patient portals and to assess whether providers employ patient-centered strategies in their electronic responses. A total of 193 messages from 58 message threads between patients and providers were collected during a one-week period in a large health care system. Content analysis of patient messages was conducted and deductive analysis of provider responses was employed for two types of patient-centered communication, provider use of supportive talk and partnership building. Patients sent nearly double the number of messages compared to providers (65% versus 35%). Patient messages expressed concern, sought medical solutions and requested assistance with administrative tasks. Over half (53.4%) of provider replies did not contain language reflective of either partnership building or supportive talk. Partnership building language and supportive talk occurred at lower rates than documented in the literature on in-person encounters. This may represent a lost opportunity to strengthen the patient-provider relationship. As secure messaging is increasingly utilized as a form of patient-provider communication, it is important to understand how aspects of this communication channel, including the patient-centeredness of the language used by providers, impact patient-provider relationships and patient outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Part II: preparing and assessing first-year radiology resident on-call readiness technical implementation.

    PubMed

    Yam, Chun-Shan; Kruskal, Jonathan; Pedrosa, Ivan; Kressel, Herbert

    2006-06-01

    The effectiveness of using a Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM)-based interactive examination system in evaluating the readiness of first year radiology residents before taking overnight call in the emergency department (ED) was reported in part I of this article. This report describes technical aspects for the design and implementation of this system. The examination system consists of two modules: Data Collection and Image Viewing. The Data Collection module was a personal computer (PC)-based DICOM storage server based on a free public domain software package, the Mallinckrodt Central Test Node. The Image Viewing module was a Java-based DICOM viewer created using another freeware package: zDicom ActiveX component. The examination takes place once a year at the end of the first 6-month rotation. Cases selected for the examination were actual clinical cases according to the American Society of Emergency Radiology core curriculum. In the 3-hour timed examination, each resident was required to read the cases and provide clinical findings and recommendations. Upper-level residents also participated in the examination to serve as a control. Answers were scored by two staff radiologists. We have been using this examination system successfully in our institution since 2003 to evaluate the readiness of the first-year residents before they take overnight call in the ED. This report describes a step-by-step procedure for implementing this system into a PC-based platform. This DICOM viewing software is available as freeware to other academic radiology institutions. The total cost for implementing this system is approximately 2000 US dollars.

  11. The Impact of First-Year Seminars on College Students' Life-Long Learning Orientations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padgett, Ryan D.; Keup, Jennifer R.; Pascarella, Ernest T.

    2013-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from the Wabash National Study of Liberal Arts Education, this study measured the impact of first-year seminars on college students' life-long learning orientations. The findings suggest that first-year seminars enhance students' life-long learning orientations and that the effect of first-year seminars is mediated through…

  12. Readiness and Expectations Questionnaire: A Cross-Cultural Measurement Instrument for First-Year University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, Ellen; Andre, Stefanie; Suhre, Cor

    2013-01-01

    The readiness and expectations questionnaire (REQ) assesses first-year students' expectations and preparedness for their first year in university. This measurement instrument is useful for educational policy and curriculum development; it can also be used to predict the outcomes of the first year of college. This instrument was initially developed…

  13. Information Literacy in the Lab: Graduate Teaching Experiences in First-Year Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lantz, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The author interviewed 10 graduate teaching assistants leading lab sessions for first-year biology about how they introduce students to scientific literature. Qualitative data analysis of the interview transcripts revealed that both first-year students and graduate teaching assistants (many of whom are first-year teachers) struggle with…

  14. The Impact of First-Year Seminars on College Students' Life-Long Learning Orientations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padgett, Ryan D.; Keup, Jennifer R.; Pascarella, Ernest T.

    2013-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from the Wabash National Study of Liberal Arts Education, this study measured the impact of first-year seminars on college students' life-long learning orientations. The findings suggest that first-year seminars enhance students' life-long learning orientations and that the effect of first-year seminars is mediated through…

  15. Engaging and Empowering First-Year Students through Curriculum Design: Perspectives from the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bovill, Catherine; Bulley, Cathy J.; Morss, Kate

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing value being placed on engaging and empowering first-year students and first-year curriculum design is a key driver and opportunity to ensure early enculturation into successful learning at university. This paper summarises the literature on first-year curriculum design linked to student engagement and empowerment. We present…

  16. The First Year at University: Giving Social Capital a Sporting Chance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budgen, Fiona; Main, Susan J.; Callcot, Deborah; Hamlet, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    The first year of university has been identified as an area of interest and concern for several decades because, for many students, their first year at university is also their last. The researchers developed a program based on a Sports Education model to influence the engagement and retention of first year students. The program sought to build…

  17. Understanding Weight Management Perceptions in First-Year College Students Using the Health Belief Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Das, Bhibha M.; Evans, Ellen M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine weight management barriers, using the Health Belief Model, in first-year college students. Participants: First-year college students (n = 45), with data collected in April, May, and November 2013. Methods: Nominal group technique sessions (n = 8) were conducted. Results: First-year students recognize benefits to weight…

  18. Understanding Weight Management Perceptions in First-Year College Students Using the Health Belief Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Das, Bhibha M.; Evans, Ellen M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine weight management barriers, using the Health Belief Model, in first-year college students. Participants: First-year college students (n = 45), with data collected in April, May, and November 2013. Methods: Nominal group technique sessions (n = 8) were conducted. Results: First-year students recognize benefits to weight…

  19. An Interdisciplinary Study of the SARS Virus: A One-Semester First-Year Seminar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ealy, Julie; Dorward, Adrienne

    2005-01-01

    The rationale for the first-year seminar is to introduce freshmen to the university. The basic components of a first-year seminar are academic integrity, skill development, a sense of community, active and collaborative learning strategies, and technology. All freshmen must take a first-year seminar that consists primarily of freshmen, although…

  20. Readiness and Expectations Questionnaire: A Cross-Cultural Measurement Instrument for First-Year University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, Ellen; Andre, Stefanie; Suhre, Cor

    2013-01-01

    The readiness and expectations questionnaire (REQ) assesses first-year students' expectations and preparedness for their first year in university. This measurement instrument is useful for educational policy and curriculum development; it can also be used to predict the outcomes of the first year of college. This instrument was initially developed…

  1. Engaging and Empowering First-Year Students through Curriculum Design: Perspectives from the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bovill, Catherine; Bulley, Cathy J.; Morss, Kate

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing value being placed on engaging and empowering first-year students and first-year curriculum design is a key driver and opportunity to ensure early enculturation into successful learning at university. This paper summarises the literature on first-year curriculum design linked to student engagement and empowerment. We present…

  2. Purposeful Engagement of First-Year Division I Student-Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comeaux, Eddie; Speer, Laura; Taustine, Maria; Harrison, C. Keith

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which transitioning, first-year student-athletes engage in educationally sound activities in college. The sample included 147 revenue and nonrevenue first-year student-athletes who were surveyed at four large Division 1-A universities. Findings revealed that revenue and nonrevenue first-year student athletes…

  3. Information Literacy in the Lab: Graduate Teaching Experiences in First-Year Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lantz, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The author interviewed 10 graduate teaching assistants leading lab sessions for first-year biology about how they introduce students to scientific literature. Qualitative data analysis of the interview transcripts revealed that both first-year students and graduate teaching assistants (many of whom are first-year teachers) struggle with…

  4. First-Year Students' Expectations of Conduct and Consequence: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crance Gutmann, Gina-Lyn

    2008-01-01

    Research on first-year students' expectations about college has explored areas of academic and social expectations, but not first-year college students' expectations about judicial conduct and consequence. The purpose of this study was to empirically explore two questions: what are first year students' expectations about campus conduct and…

  5. Cruising Composition Texts: Negotiating Sexual Difference in First-Year Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marinara, Martha; Alexander, Jonathan; Banks, William P.; Blackmon, Samantha

    2009-01-01

    The article describes and analyzes the exclusion of LGBT content in composition courses by reporting on a study of how queerness is (and is not) incorporated into first-year writing courses. The authors critically examine the presence or absence of LGBT issues in first-year composition readers; offer analyses of how some first-year readers handle…

  6. An Interdisciplinary Study of the SARS Virus: A One-Semester First-Year Seminar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ealy, Julie; Dorward, Adrienne

    2005-01-01

    The rationale for the first-year seminar is to introduce freshmen to the university. The basic components of a first-year seminar are academic integrity, skill development, a sense of community, active and collaborative learning strategies, and technology. All freshmen must take a first-year seminar that consists primarily of freshmen, although…

  7. First-Year Students' Expectations of Conduct and Consequence: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crance Gutmann, Gina-Lyn

    2008-01-01

    Research on first-year students' expectations about college has explored areas of academic and social expectations, but not first-year college students' expectations about judicial conduct and consequence. The purpose of this study was to empirically explore two questions: what are first year students' expectations about campus conduct and…

  8. Randomized trial of a patient-centered hospital unit.

    PubMed

    Martin, D P; Diehr, P; Conrad, D A; Davis, J H; Leickly, R; Perrin, E B

    1998-06-01

    Patient-centered hospital units have grown out of the national trend to greater consumerism, but few of these units have been evaluated rigorously. We used a randomized controlled trial to compare patient outcomes on the Planetree Model Hospital Unit with other medical-surgical units in the hospital. Planetree patients were significantly more satisfied than controls with their hospital stay, the unit's environment and nursing care, but did not differ in ratings of physician care. Planetree patients reported more involvement in their care while hospitalized and higher satisfaction with the education they received. There were few differences between Planetree and controls in health behaviors. While Planetree patients reported better mental health status and role functioning after discharge, their health status was similar to controls after 3 to 6 months. There were no differences in length of stay and charges for the index hospitalization, readmissions or outpatient care during the following year.

  9. A special issue on the patient-centered medical home.

    PubMed

    Blount, Alexander

    2010-12-01

    This special issue on the Patient-Centered Medical Home (PCMH) reflects its times. At the present time, the PCMH is an aspirational model with a few pilots functioning well around the country. How long the current period of idealism, fueled by the energy of early adopters, the consensus of diverse stakeholders, and the dollars of the Affordable Care Act will continue is anybody's guess. Representing the thinking of some of the best minds in the field, the articles in this issue have an aspirational and idealistic tone as much as a descriptive and analytic one. A year ago the balance would have been tipped more toward idealism and model building and a year from now it would, in all likelihood, tip more toward model description and analysis. The authors in this volume have been personally responsible for helping to move behavioral health to a more central position in the PCMH model.

  10. [Fusing empowerment concept into patient-centered collaborative care model].

    PubMed

    Wu, Chia-Chen; Lin, Chiu-Chu

    2014-12-01

    Chronic diseases are incurable, long-term illnesses. To improve quality of life, patients with chronic diseases must adjust their own personal lifestyle to cope with their diseases and eventually learn to achieve a balance between disease control and daily life. Therefore, self-management necessarily plays a key role in chronic disease management. Different from physician-centered healthcare, the self-management practiced by chronic disease patients is more patient-centered with a greater emphasis on active patient participation. The main goal of this article is to elucidate the essence of the empowerment concept. An example of diabetes care, this article introduces a detailed five-step application as a basic model for incorporating the empowerment concept into the healthcare of patients with chronic disease. The author suggests that healthcare providers apply the empowerment model in clinical practice to assist patients to maintain an optimal balance between their health status and personal lives.

  11. Implementing the patient-centered medical home in residency education.

    PubMed

    Doolittle, Benjamin R; Tobin, Daniel; Genao, Inginia; Ellman, Matthew; Ruser, Christopher; Brienza, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, physician groups, government agencies and third party payers in the United States of America have promoted a Patient-centered Medical Home (PCMH) model that fosters a team-based approach to primary care. Advocates highlight the model's collaborative approach where physicians, mid-level providers, nurses and other health care personnel coordinate their efforts with an aim for high-quality, efficient care. Early studies show improvement in quality measures, reduction in emergency room visits and cost savings. However, implementing the PCMH presents particular challenges to physician training programs, including institutional commitment, infrastructure expenditures and faculty training. Teaching programs must consider how the objectives of the PCMH model align with recent innovations in resident evaluation now required by the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) in the US. This article addresses these challenges, assesses the preliminary success of a pilot project, and proposes a viable, realistic model for implementation at other institutions.

  12. Reflective practice: providing safe quality patient-centered pain management.

    PubMed

    Sherwood, Gwen; McNeill, Jeanette

    2017-02-02

    Effective pain management continues to baffle clinicians in spite of numerous evidence-based guidelines and standards, focused clinical interventions and standardized assessments. Reflective practice is a mindful approach to practice that grounds clinicians in the moment with the individual patient to ask questions and then to listen to the patient's message about their pain experience. Reflective practice helps meld theoretical knowledge with lessons from experience to rethink mechanistic responses to patient pain. The subjective nature of pain means no two patients have the same experience, and, evidence based best practices are to be applied within the patient's preferences and context. The paper uses a case study to illustrate how to apply reflective practice to integrate the interprofessional quality and safety competencies to provide patient-centered pain management. Applying reflective questions throughout the care experience by all members of the healthcare team provides a mindful approach that focuses care on the individual patient.

  13. Qualitative Methods in Patient-Centered Outcomes Research.

    PubMed

    Vandermause, Roxanne; Barg, Frances K; Esmail, Laura; Edmundson, Lauren; Girard, Samantha; Perfetti, A Ross

    2017-02-01

    The Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI), created to fund research guided by patients, caregivers, and the broader health care community, offers a new research venue. Many (41 of 50) first funded projects involved qualitative research methods. This study was completed to examine the current state of the science of qualitative methodologies used in PCORI-funded research. Principal investigators participated in phenomenological interviews to learn (a) how do researchers using qualitative methods experience seeking funding for, implementing and disseminating their work; and (b) how may qualitative methods advance the quality and relevance of evidence for patients? Results showed the experience of doing qualitative research in the current research climate as "Being a bona fide qualitative researcher: Staying true to research aims while negotiating challenges," with overlapping patterns: (a) researching the elemental, (b) expecting surprise, and (c) pushing boundaries. The nature of qualitative work today was explicitly described and is rendered in this article.

  14. Accessing patient-centered care using the advanced access model.

    PubMed

    Tantau, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Waits and delays for healthcare are legendary. These delays are not only frustrating and potentially hazardous for patients and providers but also represent significant cost to office practices. The traditional medical model that defines urgent care versus routine care is a vain and futile attempt to sort demand. This approach is at constant odds with patients' definition of urgency. Trusting patients to determine when and how they want to access care makes sense from a customer service perspective. If approached systematically using the principles of Advanced Access, patient demand patterns can be tracked to forecast demand. These demand patterns become the template for deploying the resources necessary to meet patients' needs. Although not a simple journey, the transformation to Advanced Access provides an entree to patient-centered care where patients can say, "I get exactly the care I want and need, when I want and need it."

  15. Teaching a sonographically guided invasive procedure to first-year medical students using a novel finger transducer.

    PubMed

    Benninger, Brion; Corbett, Rebecca; Delamarter, Taylor

    2013-04-01

    The exposure to ultrasound technology in medicine is increasing at multiple training levels. Ultrasound transducers have evolved to provide higher-resolution imaging for more accurate structural identification, with few improvements in ease of use. This study investigated a novel finger ultrasound transducer used by first-year medical students conducting structural identification and practicing an invasive procedure. A literature search was conducted on texts, specialty journals, and websites regarding the anatomy of internal jugular and subclavian vein central line placement with sonographic guidance and the use of a finger transducer. First-year medical students performed timed sonographically guided cannulation on the internal jugular and subclavian veins on a phantom torso and identified the internal jugular and subclavian veins on a healthy volunteer using the finger transducer and a conventional transducer. After exposure to both transducers, a survey was taken regarding transducer preference. The literature search revealed no studies comparing finger and classic transducers or sonographically guided central line techniques being conducted by first-year medical students. The students identified and cannulated the internal jugular and subclavian veins using both transducers. Survey results revealed that 70% of the students preferred the finger transducer. This study showed that first-year medical students could interpret sonographic anatomy while conducting a clinical procedure. The finger transducer proved successful in structure identification and was preferred to the classic transducer because of its combined tactile presence. This pilot study of a novel finger transducer showed the benefits of combining palpatory skills with ultrasound technology in teaching first-year medical students to perform invasive procedures.

  16. Seizure frequency and patient-centered outcome assessment in epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyunmi; Hamberger, Marla J; Munger Clary, Heidi; Loeb, Rebecca; Onchiri, Frankline M; Baker, Gus; Hauser, W Allen; Wong, John B

    2014-08-01

    Seizure frequency represents a commonly assessed epilepsy status, but in the context of the growing trend toward patient-centered care, we examined the adequacy of seizure frequency as a measure of epilepsy status as perceived by the patient. Between 2006 and 2008, we assessed seizure frequency, mood, and preference-based health-related quality of life (HRQOL) measured with the visual analog scale metric in 182 adult patients sampled consecutively. Using nonparametric tests and Monte Carlo computer simulations, we analyzed the relationship between preference-based HRQOL and seizure frequency, and using regression analyses, we tested for significant predictors of preference-based HRQOL. Only patients who had been seizure-free for >1 year had significantly higher preference-based HRQOL (p < 0.0001) than those who experienced any recurrent seizure, regardless of their seizure frequency. Among patients with recurrent seizures, preference-based HRQOL and seizure frequency were not monotonically, linearly related. For patients with similar seizure frequency, preference-based HRQOL varied substantially with large overlaps in preference-based HRQOL across different seizure frequency categories. The Monte Carlo simulation found that seizure frequency was a poor predictor of preference-based HRQOL about one third of the time. The presence of depressive symptoms was an independent predictor of preference-based HRQOL measure, accounting for 33.5% of the variation in scores between patients. Our findings highlight the importance of attaining complete seizure freedom and the substantial variation in preference-based HRQOL among patients with similar seizure frequencies. To improve assessment of patient-centered outcomes in epilepsy, we encourage adding direct measurement of preference-based HRQOL into clinical care. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 International League Against Epilepsy.

  17. Defining and Measuring the Patient-Centered Medical Home

    PubMed Central

    Nutting, Paul A.; Miller, William L.; Jaén, Carlos R.; Crabtree, Benjamin F.; Flocke, Susan A.; Gill, James M.

    2010-01-01

    The patient-centered medical home (PCMH) is four things: 1) the fundamental tenets of primary care: first contact access, comprehensiveness, integration/coordination, and relationships involving sustained partnership; 2) new ways of organizing practice; 3) development of practices’ internal capabilities, and 4) related health care system and reimbursement changes. All of these are focused on improving the health of whole people, families, communities and populations, and on increasing the value of healthcare. The value of the fundamental tenets of primary care is well established. This value includes higher health care quality, better whole-person and population health, lower cost and reduced inequalities compared to healthcare systems not based on primary care. The needed practice organizational and health care system change aspects of the PCMH are still evolving in highly related ways. The PCMH will continue to evolve as evidence comes in from hundreds of demonstrations and experiments ongoing around the country, and as the local and larger healthcare systems change. Measuring the PCMH involves the following:Giving primacy to the core tenets of primary careAssessing practice and system changes that are hypothesized to provide added valueAssessing development of practices’ core processes and adaptive reserveAssessing integration with more functional healthcare system and community resourcesEvaluating the potential for unintended negative consequences from valuing the more easily measured instrumental features of the PCMH over the fundamental relationship and whole system aspectsRecognizing that since a fundamental benefit of primary care is its adaptability to diverse people, populations and systems, functional PCMHs will look different in different settings.Efforts to transform practice to patient-centered medical homes must recognize, assess and value the fundamental features of primary care that provide personalized, equitable health care and foster

  18. Patient-centered care: the key to cultural competence.

    PubMed

    Epner, D E; Baile, W F

    2012-04-01

    Much of the early literature on 'cultural competence' focuses on the 'categorical' or 'multicultural' approach, in which providers learn relevant attitudes, values, beliefs, and behaviors of certain cultural groups. In essence, this involves learning key 'dos and don'ts' for each group. Literature and educational materials of this kind focus on broad ethnic, racial, religious, or national groups, such as 'African American', 'Hispanic', or 'Asian'. The problem with this categorical or 'list of traits' approach to clinical cultural competence is that culture is multidimensional and dynamic. Culture comprises multiple variables, affecting all aspects of experience. Cultural processes frequently differ within the same ethnic or social group because of differences in age cohort, gender, political association, class, religion, ethnicity, and even personality. Culture is therefore a very elusive and nebulous concept, like art. The multicultural approach to cultural competence results in stereotypical thinking rather than clinical competence. A newer, cross cultural approach to culturally competent clinical practice focuses on foundational communication skills, awareness of cross-cutting cultural and social issues, and health beliefs that are present in all cultures. We can think of these as universal human beliefs, needs, and traits. This patient centered approach relies on identifying and negotiating different styles of communication, decision-making preferences, roles of family, sexual and gender issues, and issues of mistrust, prejudice, and racism, among other factors. In the current paper, we describe 'cultural' challenges that arise in the care of four patients from disparate cultures, each of whom has advanced colon cancer that is no longer responding to chemotherapy. We then illustrate how to apply principles of patient centered care to these challenges.

  19. The patient-centered medical home and health information technology.

    PubMed

    Leventhal, Teri; Taliaferro, J Peyton; Wong, Kenneth; Hughes, Cortney; Mun, Seong

    2012-03-01

    To demonstrate that concepts of patient-centeredness and technology-centeredness must work together within the context of the transformation to the patient-centered medical home (PCMH), a primary care model that emphasizes coordinated, comprehensive, accessible, and cost-effective care. Information in this article was gathered from a workshop on the Medical Home in Alexandria, VA in June 2010 that brought together civilian and military medical providers, researchers, and other stakeholders in PCMH to discuss their experiences in transitioning from traditional primary care to PCMH in addition to a literature review of articles from medical journals. Patient-centeredness is often only vaguely defined as being in opposition to provider-centered or technology-centered. Our analysis shows that focusing on either technological improvements or enhancing patient-centered care will not improve the fragmented healthcare system in the United States. We argue that these two concepts are not incompatible as sometimes believed, but rather it is critical that we recognize they must work together in routine practices in order to truly improve the state of healthcare. Health information technology (HIT) supports many of the core principles of PCMH, but there are still several challenges as not all technologies have functionalities yet that facilitate the model. We suggest patient-centeredness be one of the main concepts that drives the redesign and implementation of new health technologies in primary care. It is no longer about just implementing new technologies; these technologies must enhance patient-provider relationships, communication, access, and patients' engagement in their own care.

  20. Evaluation of Patient Centered Medical Home Practice Transformation Initiatives

    PubMed Central

    Crabtree, Benjamin F.; Chase, Sabrina M.; Wise, Christopher G.; Schiff, Gordon D.; Schmidt, Laura A.; Goyzueta, Jeanette R.; Malouin, Rebecca A.; Payne, Susan M. C.; Quinn, Michael T.; Nutting, Paul A.; Miller, William L.; Jaén, Carlos Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Background The patient-centered medical home (PCMH) has become a widely cited solution to the deficiencies in primary care delivery in the United States. To achieve the magnitude of change being called for in primary care, quality improvement interventions must focus on whole-system redesign, and not just isolated parts of medical practices. Methods Investigators participating in 9 different evaluations of Patient Centered Medical Home implementation shared experiences, methodological strategies, and evaluation challenges for evaluating primary care practice redesign. Results A year-long iterative process of sharing and reflecting on experiences produced consensus on 7 recommendations for future PCMH evaluations: (1) look critically at models being implemented and identify aspects requiring modification; (2) include embedded qualitative and quantitative data collection to detail the implementation process; (3) capture details concerning how different PCMH components interact with one another over time; (4) understand and describe how and why physician and staff roles do, or do not evolve; (5) identify the effectiveness of individual PCMH components and how they are used; (6) capture how primary care practices interface with other entities such as specialists, hospitals, and referral services; and (7) measure resources required for initiating and sustaining innovations. Conclusions Broad-based longitudinal, mixed-methods designs that provide for shared learning among practice participants, program implementers, and evaluators are necessary to evaluate the novelty and promise of the PCMH model. All PCMH evaluations should as comprehensive as possible, and at a minimum should include a combination of brief observations and targeted qualitative interviews along with quantitative measures. PMID:21079525

  1. Defining and measuring the patient-centered medical home.

    PubMed

    Stange, Kurt C; Nutting, Paul A; Miller, William L; Jaén, Carlos R; Crabtree, Benjamin F; Flocke, Susan A; Gill, James M

    2010-06-01

    The patient-centered medical home (PCMH) is four things: 1) the fundamental tenets of primary care: first contact access, comprehensiveness, integration/coordination, and relationships involving sustained partnership; 2) new ways of organizing practice; 3) development of practices' internal capabilities, and 4) related health care system and reimbursement changes. All of these are focused on improving the health of whole people, families, communities and populations, and on increasing the value of healthcare. The value of the fundamental tenets of primary care is well established. This value includes higher health care quality, better whole-person and population health, lower cost and reduced inequalities compared to healthcare systems not based on primary care. The needed practice organizational and health care system change aspects of the PCMH are still evolving in highly related ways. The PCMH will continue to evolve as evidence comes in from hundreds of demonstrations and experiments ongoing around the country, and as the local and larger healthcare systems change. Measuring the PCMH involves the following: Giving primacy to the core tenets of primary care. Assessing practice and system changes that are hypothesized to provide added value Assessing development of practices' core processes and adaptive reserve. Assessing integration with more functional healthcare system and community resources. Evaluating the potential for unintended negative consequences from valuing the more easily measured instrumental features of the PCMH over the fundamental relationship and whole system aspects. Recognizing that since a fundamental benefit of primary care is its adaptability to diverse people, populations and systems, functional PCMHs will look different in different settings. Efforts to transform practice to patient-centered medical homes must recognize, assess and value the fundamental features of primary care that provide personalized, equitable health care and foster

  2. Patient Centered Communication During Primary Care Visits for Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Benjamin P.; Duberstein, Paul R.; Epstein, Ron; Fiscella, Kevin; Kravitz, Richard L.

    2009-01-01

    Background Patient Centered Communication (PCC) is associated with more appropriate treatment of depression in primary care. In part a function of patient presentation, little is known about other influences on PCC. We investigated whether PCC was also influenced by personality dispositions of primary care providers (PCPs), independent of patient presentation. Methods 46 PCPs completed personality scales from the NEO-Personality Inventory, Revised and provided care to 88 Standardized Patients (SPs) presenting with either major depression or adjustment disorder with comorbid musculoskeletal symptoms, either making or not making a medication request. Coders scored each visit using the Measure of Patient Centered Communication, assessing physicians’ ability to explore the patient’s illness experience (component 1), understand the patient’s psychosocial context (component 2), and involve the patient in collaborative discussions of treatment (component 3). Results Adjusting for physician demographics, training, and patient presentation, physicians who were more open to feelings explored the patient’s experience of illness more (p = .05). More dutiful, or rule-bound physicians engaged in greater exploration of the patient’s psychosocial and life circumstances (p = .04), but involved the patient less in treatment discussions (p = .03), as did physicians reporting more anxious vulnerability (p = .03). Physician demographics, training, and patient presentation explained 4-7% of variance in MPCC components, with personality explaining an additional 4-7% of the variance. Conclusion Understanding of personality dispositions which promote or detract from PCC may help medical educators better identify trainees of varying aptitude, addressing individual training needs in a tailored fashion. PMID:18665060

  3. Patient-centered communication and health assessment with youth.

    PubMed

    Martyn, Kristy K; Munro, Michelle L; Darling-Fisher, Cynthia S; Ronis, David L; Villarruel, Antonia M; Pardee, Michelle; Faleer, Hannah E; Fava, Nicole M

    2013-01-01

    Patient-centered communication is fundamental to individualizing healthcare, but there has been limited evaluation of provider communication with youth. The aim was to compare communication outcomes after use of an event history calendar (EHC) and Guidelines for Adolescent Preventive Services (GAPS) to structure interactions during a clinic visit. Patient and provider descriptions of EHC and GAPS communication experiences were also obtained. This is a secondary analysis of data obtained during a randomized controlled trial. A sequential explanatory mixed-methods approach was used. A split-plot design with one between factor (EHC, GAPS) and one within factor (pretest, posttest) was used for the quantitative portion. Qualitative data were collected from open-ended questions, audiotaped visits, and exit interviews. Providers (n = 9) at three clinics were assigned at random and trained to implement either the EHC or GAPS protocol. Male and female youth (n = 186) were randomly assigned to the EHC or GAPS intervention. Before their clinic visit, youth completed assessments of past communication experiences with healthcare providers (pretest); communication during the current visit was assessed immediately after the visit (posttest). Communication outcomes from pretest to posttest improved for youth in both the EHC and GAPS groups. Post hoc subgroup analysis suggested that men and Arab Americans derived more benefit from the EHC intervention in some aspects of communication. Qualitatively, the EHC group identified improved outcomes in validating patient perspective, being viewed in context, reaching a shared understanding of needs and preferences, and being helped to share power in the healthcare interaction. EHC and GAPS provided effective frameworks for structuring communication during a clinic visit. Compared with GAPS, the integrated time-linked assessment captured by the EHC enhanced patient-centered communication in select groups.

  4. Learning approaches as predictors of academic performance in first year health and science students.

    PubMed

    Salamonson, Yenna; Weaver, Roslyn; Chang, Sungwon; Koch, Jane; Bhathal, Ragbir; Khoo, Cheang; Wilson, Ian

    2013-07-01

    To compare health and science students' demographic characteristics and learning approaches across different disciplines, and to examine the relationship between learning approaches and academic performance. While there is increasing recognition of a need to foster learning approaches that improve the quality of student learning, little is known about students' learning approaches across different disciplines, and their relationships with academic performance. Prospective, correlational design. Using a survey design, a total of 919 first year health and science students studying in a university located in the western region of Sydney from the following disciplines were recruited to participate in the study - i) Nursing: n = 476, ii) Engineering: n = 75, iii) Medicine: n = 77, iv) Health Sciences: n = 204, and v) Medicinal Chemistry: n = 87. Although there was no statistically significant difference in the use of surface learning among the five discipline groups, there were wide variations in the use of deep learning approach. Furthermore, older students and those with English as an additional language were more likely to use deep learning approach. Controlling for hours spent in paid work during term-time and English language usage, both surface learning approach (β = -0.13, p = 0.001) and deep learning approach (β = 0.11, p = 0.009) emerged as independent and significant predictors of academic performance. Findings from this study provide further empirical evidence that underscore the importance for faculty to use teaching methods that foster deep instead of surface learning approaches, to improve the quality of student learning and academic performance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. French mirror site of the NPAC visible human viewer: first year evaluation.

    PubMed

    Voiglio, E J; Frattini, B; Romeuf, D; Morin, A; Neidhardt, J P; Laville, M

    1999-01-01

    The NPAC visible human viewer (NPAC VHV), graphical interface written in JAVA, freely accessible by the Web, allows the display of anatomic cross-sections of the Visible Human Project developed by the National Library of Medicine. In April 1997, the Medical Media Library of Lyons undertook the construction of a French-language mirror site of the NPAC VHV. The aim of this work is to evaluate first year utilisation of this site. From May 1st, 1997 to April 30th, 1998, the mirror site was consulted 34,752 times. In 45.14% of cases, the request came from France, in 4.42% of cases from Belgium, in 3.98% from Canada and in 2.12% from Switzerland. Other connections came either from a country responsible for fewer than 1% of connections or from unidentified computers. Data analysis showed a peak of connections between 15:00 and 17:00, and an increased number of connections from September to March 1998. The NPAC VHV is housed in 5 sites in the world. It is a software very simple to use. As the figures have no legends, it is more appropriate for group teaching than for self-teaching.

  6. Improving the Informed Consent Conversation: A Standardized Checklist that Is Patient Centered, Quality Driven, and Legally Sound.

    PubMed

    Ripley, Beth A; Tiffany, David; Lehmann, Lisa S; Silverman, Stuart G

    2015-11-01

    The informed consent conversation is a key component of patient-centered medicine, a concept that emphasizes the importance of patients actively participating in their care. Studies reveal that many informed consent conversations throughout medical practice lack essential elements and leave patients' needs unmet. This review addresses these deficiencies, discusses solutions, and introduces a standardized checklist that values the patient's role in shared decision making during the informed consent conversation. The checklist could be particularly helpful to interventional radiologists and other consulting physicians who usually obtain informed consent early in their encounters with patients.

  7. Quantitative analysis of a Māori and Pacific admission process on first-year health study.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Elana; Wikaire, Erena; Jiang, Yannan; McMillan, Louise; Loto, Robert; Airini; Reid, Papaarangi

    2015-11-03

    Universities should provide flexible and inclusive selection and admission policies to increase equity in access and outcomes for indigenous and ethnic minority students. This study investigates an equity-targeted admissions process, involving a Multiple Mini Interview and objective testing, advising Māori and Pacific students on their best starting point for academic success towards a career in medicine, nursing, health sciences and pharmacy. All Māori and Pacific Admission Scheme (MAPAS) interviewees enrolled in bridging/foundation or degree-level programmes at the University of Auckland were identified (2009 to 2012). Generalised linear regression models estimated the predicted effects of admission variables (e.g. MAPAS Maths Test; National Certificate in Educational Achievement (NCEA) Rank Score; Any 2 Sciences; Followed MAPAS Advice) on first year academic outcomes (i.e. Grade Point Average (GPA) and Passes All Courses) adjusting for MAPAS interview year, gender, ancestry and school decile. 368 First Year Tertiary (bridging/foundation or degree-level) and 242 First Year Bachelor (degree-level only) students were investigated. NCEA Rank Score (estimate 0.26, CI: 0.18-0.34, p< 0.0001); MAPAS Advice Followed (1.26, CI: 0.18-1.34, p = 0.0002); Exposure to Any 2 Sciences (0.651, CI: 0.15-1.15, p = 0.012); and MAPAS Mathematics Test (0.14, CI: 0.02-0.26, p = 0.0186) variables were strongly associated with an increase in First Year Tertiary GPA. The odds of passing all courses in First Year Tertiary study was 5.4 times higher for students who Followed MAPAS Advice (CI: 2.35-12.39; p< 0.0001) and 2.3 times higher with Exposure to Any Two Sciences (CI: 1.15-4.60; p = 0.0186). First Year Bachelor students who Followed MAPAS Advice had an average GPA that was 1.1 points higher for all eight (CI: 0.45-1.73; p = 0.0009) and Core 4 courses (CI: 0.60-2.04; p = 0.0004). The MAPAS admissions process was strongly associated with positive academic

  8. An assessment of patient-based and practice infrastructure-based measures of the patient-centered medical home: do we need to ask the patient?

    PubMed

    Gray, Bradley Michael; Weng, Weifeng; Holmboe, Eric S

    2012-02-01

    To examine the importance of patient-based measures and practice infrastructure measures of the patient-centered medical home (PCMH). A total of 3,671 patient surveys of 202 physicians completing the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) 2006 Comprehensive Care Practice Improvement Module and 14,457 patient chart reviews from 592 physicians completing ABIM's 2007 Diabetes and Hypertension Practice Improvement Module. We estimated the association of patient-centered care and practice infrastructure measures with patient rating of physician quality. We then estimated the association of practice infrastructure and patient rating of care quality with blood pressure (BP) control. Patient-centered care measures dominated practice infrastructure as predictors of patient rating of physician quality. Having all patient-centered care measures in place versus none was associated with an absolute 75.2 percent increase in the likelihood of receiving a top rating. Both patient rating of care quality and practice infrastructure predicted BP control. Receiving a rating of excellent on care quality from all patients was associated with an absolute 4.2 percent improvement in BP control. For reaching the maximum practice-infrastructure score, this figure was 4.5 percent. Assessment of physician practices for PCMH qualification should consider both patient based patient-centered care measures and practice infrastructure measures. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  9. Development and validation of a patient-centered knowledge scale for left ventricular assist device placement

    PubMed Central

    Kostick, Kristin M.; Minard, Charles G.; Wilhelms, L.A.; Delgado, Estevan; Abraham, Mackenzie; Bruce, Courtenay R.; Estep, Jerry D.; Loebe, Matthias; Volk, Robert J.; Blumenthal-Barby, J.S.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND A central tenet of patient-centered health care advocated by the Institute of Medicine and the American Medical Association is to enhance informed decision-making in a way that incorporates patient values, knowledge and beliefs. Achievement of this goal is constrained by a lack of validated measures of patients’ knowledge needs. METHODS In this study we present a comprehensive and valid methodology for developing a clinically informed and patient centered measure of knowledge about left ventricular assist device (LVAD) therapy to facilitate discussion and measure candidate understanding of treatment options. Using structured interviews with patients, caregivers, candidates for LVAD treatment (New York Heart Association Class III and IV) and expert clinicians (n = 71), we identified top patient decisional needs and perspectives on essential knowledge needs for informed decision-making. From this list, we generated 20 knowledge scale question items to refine in cognitive interviews (n = 5) with patients and patient consultants. RESULTS Good internal consistency and reliability of the knowledge scale (Cronbach’s α = 0.81) was seen in 30 LVAD patients and candidates. Knowledge was higher among patients currently with LVADs than candidates, regardless of receiving standard education (with education: 69.9 vs 50.1, adjusted p = 0.02; without education: 69.9 vs 37.6, adjusted p < 0.001). CONCLUSION The LVAD knowledge scale may be useful in clinical settings to identify gaps in knowledge among patient candidates considering LVAD treatment, and to better tailor education and discussion with patients and their caregivers, and to enhance informed decision-making before treatment decisions are made. PMID:26922278

  10. Implementing the Patient-Centered Medical Home: Observation and Description of the National Demonstration Project

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Elizabeth E.; Nutting, Paul A.; Crabtree, Benjamin F.; Stange, Kurt C.; Miller, William L.; Jaén, Carlos Roberto

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE We provide an overall description of the National Demonstration Project (NDP) intervention to transform family practices into patient-centered medical homes. METHODS An independent evaluation team used multiple data sources and methods to describe the design and implementation of the NDP. These included direct observation of the implementation team and project meetings, site visits to practices, depth interviews with practice members and implementation team members, access to practice communications (eg, telephone calls, e-mails), and public domain materials (eg, the NDP Web site). RESULTS The American Academy of Family Physicians created a new division called TransforMED, which launched the 24-month NDP in June 2006. From 337 family medicine practices completing an extensive online application, 36 were selected and randomized to a facilitated group, which received tailored, intensive assistance and services from TransforMED, or a self-directed group, which received very limited assistance. Three facilitators from diverse backgrounds in finance, practice management, and organizational psychology used multiple practice change strategies including site visits, e-mails, metrics, and learning sessions. The self-directed practices worked primarily on their own, but self-organized a retreat midway through the project. The intervention model for the project evolved to be consistent with the emerging national consensus principles of the patient-centered medical home. The independent evaluation team studied the NDP and provided ongoing feedback to inform the implementation process. CONCLUSIONS The NDP illustrates that complex practice change interventions must combine flexibility in the intervention model, implementation strategy, and the evaluation, in order to maximize ongoing learning. PMID:20530392

  11. A patient-centered health care delivery system by a university obstetrics and gynecology department.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Garland D; Nelson-Becker, Carolyn; Hannigan, Edward V; Berenson, Abbey B; Hankins, Gary D V

    2005-01-01

    At the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, we developed an off-site clinic system that offers a wide array of services to low-income women and their infants over a large geographic area. These clinics strove toward cultural sensitivity and competency. This patient-centered approach was well accepted and appreciated by our patients. The clinics offered unique, value-added services including combined location with other needed services, on-site laboratory and antepartum testing, the option for delivery at the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston in a Birth Center by certified nurse midwives from the clinics, 2 high-level ultrasound "hub" centers in the outlying region that offer level II ultrasound and maternal-fetal medicine specialist consultation on site, and linkage of all sites to our electronic medical record, telemedicine, and telegenetics consultation. We also developed an off-site domiciliary facility at the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston. From 1989 to 2004, our clinics grew from 12 to 38 (now serving 123 Texas counties). Annual patient visits increased from approximately 34,000 to 342,926. Deliveries at the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston grew from 3,959 in 1990 to an estimated 6,400 in 2004. Underscoring this increase was the probable loss of at least 1,500 deliveries to local hospitals that had previously denied or discouraged admission to Medicaid-eligible pregnant women. Many women chose to deliver in our hospital even although they had to travel a longer distance to reach our facility. Our experience has shown that patient-centered care can be a viable business strategy to maintain and expand patient volumes and will work even where there are serious geographic disadvantages.

  12. Health IT-Enabled Care Coordination: A National Survey of Patient-Centered Medical Home Clinicians.

    PubMed

    Morton, Suzanne; Shih, Sarah C; Winther, Chloe H; Tinoco, Aldo; Kessler, Rodger S; Scholle, Sarah Hudson

    2015-01-01

    Health information technology (IT) offers promising tools for improving care coordination. We assessed the feasibility and acceptability of 6 proposed care coordination objectives for stage 3 of the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services electronic health record incentive program (Meaningful Use) related to referrals, notification of care from other facilities, patient clinical summaries, and patient dashboards. We surveyed physician-owned and hospital/health system-affiliated primary care practices that achieved patient-centered medical home recognition and participated in the Meaningful Use program, and community health clinics with patient-centered medical home recognition (most with certified electronic health record systems). The response rate was 35.1%. We ascertained whether practices had implemented proposed objectives and perceptions of their importance. We analyzed the association of organizational and contextual factors with self-reported use of health IT to support care coordination activities. Although 78% of the 350 respondents viewed timely notification of hospital discharges as very important, only 48.7% used health IT systems to accomplish this task. The activity most frequently supported by health IT was providing clinical summaries to patients, in 76.6% of practices; however, merely 47.7% considered this activity very important. Greater use of health IT to support care coordination activities was positively associated with the presence of a nonclinician responsible for care coordination and the practice's capacity for systematic change. Even among practices having a strong commitment to the medical home model, the use of health IT to support care coordination objectives is not consistent. Health IT capabilities are not currently aligned with clinicians' priorities. Many practices will need financial and technical assistance for health IT to enhance care coordination. © 2015 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  13. Unannounced standardized patient assessment of the roter interaction analysis system: the challenge of measuring patient-centered communication.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Saul J; Schwartz, Alan; Cyrus, Kali; Binns-Calvey, Amy; Weaver, Frances M; Sharma, Gunjan; Yudkowsky, Rachel

    2013-02-01

    Despite wide-spread endorsement of patient-centered communication (PCC) in health care, there has been little evidence that it leads to positive change in health outcomes. The lack of correlation may be due either to an overestimation of the value of PCC or to a measurement problem. If PCC measures do not capture elements of the interaction that determine whether the resulting care plan is patient-centered, they will confound efforts to link PCC to outcomes. To evaluate whether one widely used measure of PCC, the Roter Interaction Analysis System (RIAS), captures patient-centered care planning. RIAS was employed in the coding of unannounced standardized patient (USP) encounters that were scripted so that the failure to address patient contextual factors would result in an ineffective plan of care. The design enabled an assessment of whether RIAS can differentiate between communication behavior that does and does not result in a care plan that takes into account a patient's circumstances and needs. Eight actors role playing four scripted cases (one African American and one Caucasian for each case) in 399 visits to 111 internal medicine attending physicians. RIAS measures included composites for physician utterance types and (in separate models) two different previously applied RIAS patient-centeredness summary composites. The gold standard comparison measure was whether the physician's treatment plan, as abstracted from the visit note, successfully addressed the patient's problem. Mixed effects regression models were used to evaluate the relationship between RIAS measures and USP measured performance, controlling for a variety of design features. None of the RIAS measures of PCC differentiated encounters in which care planning was patient-centered from care planning in which it was not. RIAS, which codes each utterance during a visit into mutually exclusive and exhaustive categories, does not differentiate between conversations leading to and not leading to care

  14. Patient-Centered Organizational Statements: Merely Rhetoric? A Survey of Health Care Leaders.

    PubMed

    Nelson, William A; Forcino, Rachel C; Elwyn, Glyn

    2017-09-26

    Health care organizations have embraced the concept of patient-centered care, but there is concern that the mere inclusion of those words in mission and value statements does not equate to implementation at the health care delivery level. Despite initiatives to align the patient-clinician encounter with broader patient-centered values, there have been mixed results, often creating a gap between practice and the organization's stated position. This preliminary study aims to assess the extent to which patient-centered values are reflected in actual patient care. The survey was sent electronically to Dartmouth's Masters in Health Care Delivery Science alumni, leaders in health care management. A majority of 49 survey respondents acknowledged the importance of patient-centered values to their organizations. However, 90% of respondents identified a gap between patient-centered values and day-to-day patient care. Thematic analysis of respondent comments showed a misalignment of organizational incentives with patient-centered care, a lack of leadership priority given to patient-centered values, and a failure to clearly define patient-centered values. Quantitative and qualitative data indicated that patient-centered statements represented rhetoric rather than the reality of patient care. Consistently achieving patient-centered care will require leaders to adopt a systematic approach to move beyond rhetoric.

  15. Computer literacy among first year medical students in a developing country: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Ranasinghe, Priyanga; Wickramasinghe, Sashimali A; Pieris, Wa Rasanga; Karunathilake, Indika; Constantine, Godwin R

    2012-09-14

    The use of computer assisted learning (CAL) has enhanced undergraduate medical education. CAL improves performance at examinations, develops problem solving skills and increases student satisfaction. The study evaluates computer literacy among first year medical students in Sri Lanka. The study was conducted at Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka between August-September 2008. First year medical students (n = 190) were invited for the study. Data on computer literacy and associated factors were collected by an expert-validated pre-tested self-administered questionnaire. Computer literacy was evaluated by testing knowledge on 6 domains; common software packages, operating systems, database management and the usage of internet and E-mail. A linear regression was conducted using total score for computer literacy as the continuous dependant variable and other independent covariates. Sample size-181 (Response rate-95.3%), 49.7% were Males. Majority of the students (77.3%) owned a computer (Males-74.4%, Females-80.2%). Students have gained their present computer knowledge by; a formal training programme (64.1%), self learning (63.0%) or by peer learning (49.2%). The students used computers for predominately; word processing (95.6%), entertainment (95.0%), web browsing (80.1%) and preparing presentations (76.8%). Majority of the students (75.7%) expressed their willingness for a formal computer training programme at the faculty.Mean score for the computer literacy questionnaire was 48.4 ± 20.3, with no significant gender difference (Males-47.8 ± 21.1, Females-48.9 ± 19.6). There were 47.9% students that had a score less than 50% for the computer literacy questionnaire. Students from Colombo district, Western Province and Student owning a computer had a significantly higher mean score in comparison to other students (p < 0.001). In the linear regression analysis, formal computer training was the strongest predictor of computer literacy (β = 13

  16. Computer literacy among first year medical students in a developing country: A cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The use of computer assisted learning (CAL) has enhanced undergraduate medical education. CAL improves performance at examinations, develops problem solving skills and increases student satisfaction. The study evaluates computer literacy among first year medical students in Sri Lanka. Methods The study was conducted at Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka between August-September 2008. First year medical students (n = 190) were invited for the study. Data on computer literacy and associated factors were collected by an expert-validated pre-tested self-administered questionnaire. Computer literacy was evaluated by testing knowledge on 6 domains; common software packages, operating systems, database management and the usage of internet and E-mail. A linear regression was conducted using total score for computer literacy as the continuous dependant variable and other independent covariates. Results Sample size-181 (Response rate-95.3%), 49.7% were Males. Majority of the students (77.3%) owned a computer (Males-74.4%, Females-80.2%). Students have gained their present computer knowledge by; a formal training programme (64.1%), self learning (63.0%) or by peer learning (49.2%). The students used computers for predominately; word processing (95.6%), entertainment (95.0%), web browsing (80.1%) and preparing presentations (76.8%). Majority of the students (75.7%) expressed their willingness for a formal computer training programme at the faculty. Mean score for the computer literacy questionnaire was 48.4 ± 20.3, with no significant gender difference (Males-47.8 ± 21.1, Females-48.9 ± 19.6). There were 47.9% students that had a score less than 50% for the computer literacy questionnaire. Students from Colombo district, Western Province and Student owning a computer had a significantly higher mean score in comparison to other students (p < 0.001). In the linear regression analysis, formal computer training was the strongest predictor of

  17. Learning-based deformable image registration for infant MR images in the first year of life.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shunbo; Wei, Lifang; Gao, Yaozong; Guo, Yanrong; Wu, Guorong; Shen, Dinggang

    2017-01-01

    Many brain development studies have been devoted to investigate dynamic structural and functional changes in the first year of life. To quantitatively measure brain development in such a dynamic period, accurate image registration for different infant subjects with possible large age gap is of high demand. Although many state-of-the-art image registration methods have been proposed for young and elderly brain images, very few registration methods work for infant brain images acquired in the first year of life, because of (a) large anatomical changes due to fast brain development and (b) dynamic appearance changes due to white-matter myelination. To address these two difficulties, we propose a learning-based registration method to not only align the anatomical structures but also alleviate the appearance differences between two arbitrary infant MR images (with large age gap) by leveraging the regression forest to predict both the initial displacement vector and appearance changes. Specifically, in the training stage, two regression models are trained separately, with (a) one model learning the relationship between local image appearance (of one development phase) and its displacement toward the template (of another development phase) and (b) another model learning the local appearance changes between the two brain development phases. Then, in the testing stage, to register a new infant image to the template, we first predict both its voxel-wise displacement and appearance changes by the two learned regression models. Since such initializations can alleviate significant appearance and shape differences between new infant image and the template, it is easy to just use a conventional registration method to refine the remaining registration. We apply our proposed registration method to align 24 infant subjects at five different time points (i.e., 2-week-old, 3-month-old, 6-month-old, 9-month-old, and 12-month-old), and achieve more accurate and robust registration

  18. A Student-Led Introduction to Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Health for First-Year Medical Students.

    PubMed

    Grosz, Andrea M; Gutierrez, Daniel; Lui, Andrea A; Chang, Julia J; Cole-Kelly, Kathy; Ng, Henry

    2017-01-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals face significant health disparities. This is in part because many physicians are not sensitive to, and/or are underprepared to address, LGBT-specific concerns. To help meet this need, we, a group of second- and fourth-year medical students with faculty oversight, organized a session on LGBT health for first-year medical students. The three second-year and one fourth-year student authors designed a mandatory session for the 167 first-years at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine in Cleveland, OH. The 2-hour session consisted of a student-delivered presentation, a patient panel, and a small-group session. Students' LGBT health knowledge and confidence in providing care were assessed anonymously before and after the session, and individuals' pre- and post-session assessments were paired using student-generated identifiers. A total of 73 complete, matched pre-/post-session assessments were received. Students' familiarity with LGBT terminology and demographics increased significantly after the session. Students' perceived preparedness and comfort in providing LGBT-specific care significantly improved in most areas as well. Students strongly praised the session, in particular the patient panel. A student-led educational session on LGBT health can effectively improve first-year medical students' LGBT knowledge and confidence to provide care.

  19. Behavioral assessment of language brain processing in the first year of life.

    PubMed

    Guzzetta, Francesco

    2014-09-01

    An up-to-date review of the behavioral assessments of language development in the first year of life is reported. After recalling the anatomical bases of the early development of the auditory system, the different stages of language development during the first year of life are considered: discrimination, transition and perception. The different kinds of behavioral assessment during the course of the first year are then described by stressing their indications and limitations.

  20. Why Patient Centered Care Coordination Is Important in Developing Countries?

    PubMed Central

    Luna, D.; Marcelo, A.; Househ, M.; Mandirola, H.; Curioso, W.; Pazos, P.; Villalba, C.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Patient Centered Care Coordination (PCCC) focuses on the patient health care needs. PCCC involves the organization, the patients and their families, that must coordinate resources in order to accomplish the goals of PCCC. In developing countries, where disparities are frequent, PCCC could improve clinical outcomes, costs and patients satisfaction. Objective the IMIA working group Health Informatics for Development analyzes the benefits, identifies the barriers and proposes strategies to reach PCCC. Methods Discussions about PCCC emerged from a brief guide that posed questions about what is PCCC, why consider PCCC important, barriers to grow in this direction and ask about resources considered relevant in the topic. Results PCCC encompasses a broad definition, includes physical, mental, socio-environmental and self care. Even benefits are proved, in developing countries the lack of a comprehensive and integrated healthcare network is one of the main barriers to reach this objective. Working hard to reach strong health policies, focus on patients, and optimizing the use of resources could improve the performance in the devolvement of PCCC programs. International collaboration could bring benefits. We believe information IT, and education in this field will play an important role in PCCC. Conclusion PCCC in developing countries has the potential to improve quality of care. Education, IT, policies and cultural issues must be addressed in an international collaborative context in order to reach this goal. PMID:26123907

  1. Deliberative Engagement Methods for Patient-Centered Outcomes Research.

    PubMed

    Morain, Stephanie R; Whicher, Danielle M; Kass, Nancy E; Faden, Ruth R

    2017-04-03

    There is growing emphasis on eliciting and incorporating stakeholder perspectives into health research and public policy development. The deliberative engagement session (DES) method provides one approach to elicit informed preferences from patients and other stakeholders on policy issues. DES involves day-long interaction with participants, including short plenary presentations followed by small group discussion. While interest in DES methods is expanding, practical guidance for researchers on this method remains limited. In this paper, we describe the DES method and its contemporary relevance for health policy research, illustrate how to conduct a DES using an example of a recent patient-centered outcomes research (PCOR) study with which we were involved, and discuss strengths and challenges of using this approach. DES methods generate rich data, reduce the risk of eliciting uniformed preferences or non-attitudes, and increase the likelihood of eliciting informed, reflective preferences. However, they are resource-intensive, and thus generally require trading away a larger, more representative sample. Despite these limitations, the DES method, when carefully designed, is well-suited for engaging stakeholders in research on complex health policy issues.

  2. An analytics approach to designing patient centered medical homes.

    PubMed

    Ajorlou, Saeede; Shams, Issac; Yang, Kai

    2015-03-01

    Recently the patient centered medical home (PCMH) model has become a popular team based approach focused on delivering more streamlined care to patients. In current practices of medical homes, a clinical based prediction frame is recommended because it can help match the portfolio capacity of PCMH teams with the actual load generated by a set of patients. Without such balances in clinical supply and demand, issues such as excessive under and over utilization of physicians, long waiting time for receiving the appropriate treatment, and non-continuity of care will eliminate many advantages of the medical home strategy. In this paper, by using the hierarchical generalized linear model with multivariate responses, we develop a clinical workload prediction model for care portfolio demands in a Bayesian framework. The model allows for heterogeneous variances and unstructured covariance matrices for nested random effects that arise through complex hierarchical care systems. We show that using a multivariate approach substantially enhances the precision of workload predictions at both primary and non primary care levels. We also demonstrate that care demands depend not only on patient demographics but also on other utilization factors, such as length of stay. Our analyses of a recent data from Veteran Health Administration further indicate that risk adjustment for patient health conditions can considerably improve the prediction power of the model.

  3. Patient-centered appointment scheduling using agent-based simulation.

    PubMed

    Turkcan, Ayten; Toscos, Tammy; Doebbeling, Brad N

    2014-01-01

    Enhanced access and continuity are key components of patient-centered care. Existing studies show that several interventions such as providing same day appointments, walk-in services, after-hours care, and group appointments, have been used to redesign the healthcare systems for improved access to primary care. However, an intervention focusing on a single component of care delivery (i.e. improving access to acute care) might have a negative impact other components of the system (i.e. reduced continuity of care for chronic patients). Therefore, primary care clinics should consider implementing multiple interventions tailored for their patient population needs. We collected rapid ethnography and observations to better understand clinic workflow and key constraints. We then developed an agent-based simulation model that includes all access modalities (appointments, walk-ins, and after-hours access), incorporate resources and key constraints and determine the best appointment scheduling method that improves access and continuity of care. This paper demonstrates the value of simulation models to test a variety of alternative strategies to improve access to care through scheduling.

  4. Patient-Centered Appointment Scheduling Using Agent-Based Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Turkcan, Ayten; Toscos, Tammy; Doebbeling, Brad N.

    2014-01-01

    Enhanced access and continuity are key components of patient-centered care. Existing studies show that several interventions such as providing same day appointments, walk-in services, after-hours care, and group appointments, have been used to redesign the healthcare systems for improved access to primary care. However, an intervention focusing on a single component of care delivery (i.e. improving access to acute care) might have a negative impact other components of the system (i.e. reduced continuity of care for chronic patients). Therefore, primary care clinics should consider implementing multiple interventions tailored for their patient population needs. We collected rapid ethnography and observations to better understand clinic workflow and key constraints. We then developed an agent-based simulation model that includes all access modalities (appointments, walk-ins, and after-hours access), incorporate resources and key constraints and determine the best appointment scheduling method that improves access and continuity of care. This paper demonstrates the value of simulation models to test a variety of alternative strategies to improve access to care through scheduling. PMID:25954423

  5. Patient-Centered Pharmacy Services: A Descriptive Report.

    PubMed

    McKain, Melanie; O'Neil, Christine K

    2015-11-01

    This paper describes a proactive, patient-centered, interprofessional approach to medication review in a long-term care facility. Clinical pharmacy services were provided to residents in multiple high-risk areas including transition of care; medication reconciliation; monitoring of infectious disease, pain, anticoagulation, psychotropic drugs, and falls; and requested consults for any change in condition. Process outcomes were evaluated, specifically the number of patients reviewed, number and type of recommendations made, and acceptance rate of recommendations by physicians; 1,333 medication regimen reviews were conducted. A total of 274 recommendations were made, and 56 recommendations were excluded as "lost to follow-up" because the recommendation was not acknowledged by the physician. Of the 218 acknowledged recommendations, 157 (72%) were accepted. Collective workload statistics suggest that the service identified and eliminated potential drugrelated problems such as inappropriate medications, drug interactions, and discrepancies during medication reconciliation. The large number of reviews conducted in a short time period show that there is a need for regular pharmacist review.

  6. Mental Health Recovery in the Patient-Centered Medical Home

    PubMed Central

    Aarons, Gregory A.; O’Connell, Maria; Davidson, Larry; Groessl, Erik J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the impact of transitioning clients from a mental health clinic to a patient-centered medical home (PCMH) on mental health recovery. Methods. We drew data from a large US County Behavioral Health Services administrative data set. We used propensity score analysis and multilevel modeling to assess the impact of the PCMH on mental health recovery by comparing PCMH participants (n = 215) to clients receiving service as usual (SAU; n = 22 394) from 2011 to 2013 in San Diego County, California. We repeatedly assessed mental health recovery over time (days since baseline assessment range = 0–1639; mean = 186) with the Illness Management and Recovery (IMR) scale and Recovery Markers Questionnaire. Results. For total IMR (log-likelihood ratio χ2[1] = 4696.97; P < .001) and IMR Factor 2 Management scores (log-likelihood ratio χ2[1] = 7.9; P = .005), increases in mental health recovery over time were greater for PCMH than SAU participants. Increases on all other measures over time were similar for PCMH and SAU participants. Conclusions. Greater increases in mental health recovery over time can be expected when patients with severe mental illness are provided treatment through the PCMH. Evaluative efforts should be taken to inform more widespread adoption of the PCMH. PMID:26180945

  7. Mental Health Recovery in the Patient-Centered Medical Home.

    PubMed

    Sklar, Marisa; Aarons, Gregory A; O'Connell, Maria; Davidson, Larry; Groessl, Erik J

    2015-09-01

    We examined the impact of transitioning clients from a mental health clinic to a patient-centered medical home (PCMH) on mental health recovery. We drew data from a large US County Behavioral Health Services administrative data set. We used propensity score analysis and multilevel modeling to assess the impact of the PCMH on mental health recovery by comparing PCMH participants (n = 215) to clients receiving service as usual (SAU; n = 22,394) from 2011 to 2013 in San Diego County, California. We repeatedly assessed mental health recovery over time (days since baseline assessment range = 0-1639; mean = 186) with the Illness Management and Recovery (IMR) scale and Recovery Markers Questionnaire. For total IMR (log-likelihood ratio χ(2)[1] = 4696.97; P < .001) and IMR Factor 2 Management scores (log-likelihood ratio χ(2)[1] = 7.9; P = .005), increases in mental health recovery over time were greater for PCMH than SAU participants. Increases on all other measures over time were similar for PCMH and SAU participants. Greater increases in mental health recovery over time can be expected when patients with severe mental illness are provided treatment through the PCMH. Evaluative efforts should be taken to inform more widespread adoption of the PCMH.

  8. Facial rehabilitation: a neuromuscular reeducation, patient-centered approach.

    PubMed

    Vanswearingen, Jessie

    2008-05-01

    Individuals with facial paralysis and distorted facial expressions and movements secondary to a facial neuromotor disorder experience substantial physical, psychological, and social disability. Previously, facial rehabilitation has not been widely available or considered to be of much benefit. An emerging rehabilitation science of neuromuscular reeducation and evidence for the efficacy of facial neuromuscular reeducation, a process of facilitating the return of intended facial movement patterns and eliminating unwanted patterns of facial movement and expression, may provide patients with disorders of facial paralysis or facial movement control opportunity for the recovery of facial movement and function. We provide a brief overview of the scientific rationale for facial neuromuscular reeducation in the structure and function of the facial neuromotor system, the neuropsychology of facial expression, and relations among expressions, movement, and emotion. The primary purpose is to describe principles of neuromuscular reeducation, assessment and outcome measures, approach to treatment, the process, including surface-electromyographic biofeedback as an adjunct to reeducation, and the goal of enhancing the recovery of facial expression and function in a patient-centered approach to facial rehabilitation.

  9. The Patient-Centered Medical Home and Patient Experience

    PubMed Central

    Martsolf, Grant R; Alexander, Jeffrey A; Shi, Yunfeng; Casalino, Lawrence P; Rittenhouse, Diane R; Scanlon, Dennis P; Shortell, Stephen M

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between practices' reported use of patient-centered medical home (PCMH) processes and patients' perceptions of their care experience. Data Source Primary survey data from 393 physician practices and 1,304 patients receiving care in those practices. Study Design This is an observational, cross-sectional study. Using standard ordinary least-squares and a sample selection model, we estimated the association between patients' care experience and the use of PCMH processes in the practices where they receive care. Data Collection We linked data from a nationally representative survey of individuals with chronic disease and two nationally representative surveys of physician practices. Principal Findings We found that practices' use of PCMH processes was not associated with patient experience after controlling for sample selection as well as practice and patient characteristics. Conclusions In our study, which was large, but somewhat limited in its measures of the PCMH and of patient experience, we found no association between PCMH processes and patient experience. The continued accumulation of evidence related to the possibilities of the PCMH, how PCMH is measured, and how the impact of PCMH is gauged provides important information for health care decision makers. PMID:22670806

  10. Patient opinion regarding patient-centered medical home fundamentals.

    PubMed

    Wexler, Randell K; King, Dana E; Andrews, Mark

    2012-04-01

    Although conceptually there is agreement on how the Patient-Centered Medical Home (PCMH) should be organized, there is little information regarding which PCMH components are the most important to patients. An anonymous, voluntary survey was administered to patients at three US academic medical centers. Questions sought opinions regarding the National Committee for Quality Assurance's key components and essential elements of the PCMH. Analysis of the survey responses was conducted using SAS version 9.1. A total of 780 surveys were returned. Patients expressed believing strongly that the ability to coordinate care, help patients to manage their own disease, and track laboratory results were the most important aspects of a PCMH office. There were no differences in response to the survey according to age, sex, race, or site. Patients listed care coordination, patient self-management, and improved access to care as the top priority attributes of a PCMH. Patients were consistent in their opinions that care coordination, access, and patient self-management were the most important elements of a PCMH.

  11. Introducing a buddying scheme for first year pre-registration students.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Anne

    Student buddying schemes have been found to be helpful for a variety of different university students. This article describes a scheme where first year pre-registration child nursing students are buddied with second-year students, which was first initiated in the academic year 2012/2013. The first year students were aware that peer support was available but contact was only maintained by a minority of students. At present it is uncertain what impact the scheme has had on attrition figures, particularly in the first year. Initial evaluation indicates that students found the scheme helpful and would like it to continue to be available to first-year students.

  12. Designing a New Physics Laboratory Programme for First-Year Engineering Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkup, L.; Johnson, S.; Hazel, E.; Cheary, R. W.; Green, D. C.; Swift, P.; Holliday, W.

    1998-01-01

    Explores the issue of physics laboratory work for engineering students and discusses the design, implementation, and evaluation of a laboratory program developed for first year engineering students. (DDR)

  13. A Student Evaluation of Molecular Modeling in First Year College Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ealy, Julie B.

    1999-01-01

    Evaluates first-year college students' perceptions of molecular modeling. Examines the effectiveness, integration with course content, interests, benefits, advantages, and disadvantages of molecular modeling. (Author/CCM)

  14. A Student Evaluation of Molecular Modeling in First Year College Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ealy, Julie B.

    1999-01-01

    Evaluates first-year college students' perceptions of molecular modeling. Examines the effectiveness, integration with course content, interests, benefits, advantages, and disadvantages of molecular modeling. (Author/CCM)

  15. Predicting success among first-year engineering students at the Rand Afrikaans University.

    PubMed

    Maree, Jacobus G; Pretorius, Anlia; Eiselen, Riëtte J

    2003-10-01

    160 first-year students in the Engineering Faculty at the Rand Afrikaans University completed the Study Orientation Questionnaire in Mathematics and the Senior Aptitude Test Advanced. 100 students who passed and 40 who failed the first year scored significantly differently on three subtests, Calculations, Study attitude in mathematics, and Problem-solving behaviour in mathematics. Step-wise linear regression showed a combination of three fields, namely, Calculations, Study attitude in mathematics, and Mathematics anxiety, contributed significantly (R2=25.8%) towards predicting the first-year aggregate score of first-year engineering students.

  16. The Test of Logical Thinking as a predictor of first-year pharmacy students' performance in required first-year courses.

    PubMed

    Etzler, Frank M; Madden, Michael

    2014-08-15

    To investigate the correlation of scores on the Test of Logical Thinking (TOLT) with first-year pharmacy students' performance in selected courses. The TOLT was administered to 130 first-year pharmacy students. The examination was administered during the first quarter in a single session. The TOLT scores correlated with grades earned in Pharmaceutical Calculations, Physical Pharmacy, and Basic Pharmacokinetics courses. Performance on the TOLT has been correlated to performance in courses that required the ability to use quantitative reasoning to complete required tasks. In the future, it may be possible to recommend remediation, retention, and/or admission based in part on the results from the TOLT.

  17. Assessment of first-year medical students' perceptions of teaching and learning through team-based learning sessions.

    PubMed

    Obad, Adam S; Peeran, Ahmed A; Shareef, Mohammad Abrar; Alsheikh, Wissal J; Kalagi, Dana A; AlAmodi, Abdulhadi A; Khan, Tehreem A; Shaikh, Abdul Ahad; Ganguly, Paul; Yaqinuddin, Ahmed

    2016-12-01

    Team-based learning (TBL) is an emerging teaching and learning strategy being employed in medical schools. The College of Medicine at Alfaisal University has adopted a TBL approach as an instructional method for first-year medical students. The aim of the present study was to describe the TBL method employed at Alfaisal University College of Medicine and to assess first-year medical students' perceptions of this learning modality for the anatomy- and physiology-based blocks/courses in organ systems form of curriculum. A five-point Likert scale questionnaire was structured based on Kirkpatrick's theory and assessed three major domains: reaction, learning, and behavior. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and Cronbach's α-coefficient tests were used to assess the validity and reliability of the construct, respectively. CFA showed an adequate validity of the survey and Cronbach's α revealed an acceptable internal uniformity (0.69). A total of 185 respondents rated reaction, learning, and behavior toward introduction of TBL as 3.53 ± 1.01, 3.59 ± 1.12, and 3.57 ± 1.12, respectively. Excellent students rated TBL highly in all major domains compared with borderline students (reaction, behavior, and learning domains with P values of <0.049, <0.035, and <0.031, respectively). Students who had prior teamwork experience rated TBL higher in terms of their learning experience compared with those who were rarely involved in team work. This study demonstrated that Alfaisal University first-year medical students perceived TBL positively as a teaching and learning strategy for functional anatomy, and prior involvement in teamwork and academic performance correlates with higher ratings of TBL.

  18. Encouraging Critical Clinical Thinking (CCT) Skills in First-Year Veterinary Students.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Duncan C; McNeil, Leslie Klis; Schaeffe, David J; Mills, Eric M

    2017-01-01

    First-year didactic course instructors at the University of Illinois College of Veterinary Medicine leverage earlier clinical rotation experiences with weekly "Clinical Correlations" exercises to provide early exposure to critical clinical thinking (CCT). This study evaluated the efficacy of individual and paired group exercises on CCT development. Before and after instruction, the Cornell Critical Thinking Test (Level Z) (CCTTZ) was administered. Based on the hypothesis that students with higher scores would coach lower-scoring colleagues during group exercises, heterogeneous groups with similar mean scores were established for the year. Students completed 14 individual and paired group exercises over 6 months. Exercises were designed to increase in complexity and decline in scaffolding. Seven of the exercises were cases using the Applied Learning Platform (ALP) at http://www.whenknowingmatters.com . Student analyses were scored according to a six-category critical-thinking rubric using a 5-point scale. Consistent with our hypothesis, individual and group rubric scores increased significantly, plateauing near the end of the year. Contrary to our hypothesis, mean overall CCTTZ scores did not change, but there was a small statistically significant increase in the ability to assess the validity of an argument. Student attitudes were mixed. Positive comments focused on reinforcement of prior didactic instruction, while negative comments focused on preparation time needed to conduct research on clinical concepts, and on a lack of explicit evaluation by summative examinations. Nonetheless, end-of-year GPAs correlated linearly with cumulative individual rubric scores. In summary, the value of early curriculum CCT training was confirmed when discipline-specific criteria were applied.

  19. Exploring first-year undergraduate medical students' self-directed learning readiness to physiology.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Reem Rachel; Fisher, Murray; Kamath, Asha; Izzati, T Aizan; Nabila, Saidatul; Atikah, Nik Nur

    2011-12-01

    Medical students are expected to possess self-directed learning skills to pursue lifelong learning. Previous studies have reported that the readiness for self-directed learning depends on personal attributes as well as the curriculum followed in institutions. Melaka Manipal Medical College of Manipal University (Karnataka, India) offers a Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) twinning program that is of 5 yr in duration. Keeping in mind the amount of time that the curriculum has devoted for self-directed learning, we explored the self-directed learning readiness of first-year MBBS students (n = 130) using a self-directed learning readiness scale (SDLRS) and explored the correlation between SDLRS scores of high achievers, medium achievers, and low achievers with their academic performance in physiology examinations. Students were requested to respond to each item of the SDLRS on a Likert scale. Median scores of the three scales of the SDLRS were compared across the three groups of students using a Kruskall-Wallis test. SDLRS scores of the students (n = 130) were correlated with their marks in theory papers of first, second, and third block-end examinations using Spearmann's correlation coefficient. The mean item score for desire for learning was found to be higher followed by self-control and self-management. Data analyses showed significantly high (P < 0.03) median scores for self-control for high achievers compared with medium and low achievers. Between the groups, high achievers had a higher score for all the three scales of the SDLRS followed by low and medium achievers. SDLRS scores and academic performance of the three groups of students were found to exhibit a weak correlation. This study threw light on the fact that despite having a high desire for learning and ability of self-control, students need to be supported in their self-management skills.

  20. Developing Effective Guidelines for Faculty Teaching First-Year University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Irene; Leslie, Donald; Moore, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    First-year university students are a diverse group of individuals with various abilities and needs. Failure of the university and its teaching faculty to meet the needs of first-year students may result in abandonment of the pursuit of a degree. This project informs instructors about the practices that strengthen a learning-centred approach and…

  1. Exploring Collaboratively Written L2 Texts among First-Year Learners of German in Google Docs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Zsuzsanna

    2016-01-01

    Grounded in research on collaborative writing and computer-mediated writing the present study examines the computer-mediated collaborative writing process among first-year learners of German as a second language (L2) at a US university. The data come from 28 first-year learners of German at a US university, who wrote hypothesized endings to a…

  2. First-Year Students' Loss Experiences and Institutional Belongingness in the Transition to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Karen; Servaty-Seib, Heather L.

    2016-01-01

    First-year students' transition experiences are often considered to involve losses; however, few scholars have intentionally defined or offered measures to assess these losses. The aims of this study were to use the Perceived Impact of Life Events Scale (PILES) to identify the loss domains that traditional-age, first-year college students (N =…

  3. Beginning Secondary Science Teachers in Different Induction Programmes: The First Year of Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luft, Julie A.

    2009-01-01

    While it is generally acknowledged that the first years of teaching are the most difficult, little is known about the development of subject matter specialists during this period. In order to add to the knowledge in this area, the present study explores the first year of 114 secondary science teachers as they participate in one of four different…

  4. Making the Grade: Understanding Learning and Grade Orientations of First-Year Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purcell, Jennifer M.

    2009-01-01

    First-year undergraduate students enter college with varying expectations, motivations, and goals and are being bombarded with messages about the importance of grades, sometimes to the detriment of learning. This descriptive, cross-sectional study employs LOGO II to describe the learning and grade orientations of first-year students and identify…

  5. "MathePraxis"--Connecting First-Year Mathematics with Engineering Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harterich, Jorg; Kiss, Christine; Rooch, Aeneas; Monnigmann, Martin; Darup, Moritz Schulze; Span, Roland

    2012-01-01

    First-year engineering students often complain about their mathematics courses as the significance of the difficult and abstract calculus to their field of study remains unclear. We report on the project "MathePraxis", a feasibility study which was designed as a means to give first-year students some impression about the use of…

  6. Leading Learning: First-Year Principals' Reflections on Instructional Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Doherty, Ann; Ovando, Martha N.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the instructional leadership perceptions of four first-year principals. Findings illuminate five themes drawn from the data: definitions of instructional leadership, challenges that first-year principals faced, how these principals addressed these challenges, how the novice principals plan to enact their…

  7. The Impact of Mentor Leadership Styles on First-Year Adult Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith Staley, Charlesetta

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative study explored the leadership styles of mentors for retained first-year adult students to analyze whether the prevalent style had a higher impact on first-year adult student retention. The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) 5x was used to collect data on the mentors' leadership styles from the perspective of retained…

  8. An Investigation into the Understanding and Skills of First-Year Electrical Engineering Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smaill, C. R.; Rowe, G. B.; Godfrey, E.; Paton, R. O.

    2012-01-01

    In response to demands from industry and the profession for more graduates, first-year engineering numbers have grown considerably over the last decade, matched by an increasing diversity of academic backgrounds. In order to support first-year students effectively, and ensure the courses they take remain appropriately pitched, the academic…

  9. Challenging the First Year of College: Old Models and New Imperatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Shala A.; Mehaffy, George L.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter argues that the first year of college needs to be reconsidered. The authors offer, as an alternative, a new kind of course, one created by groups of faculty members from different campuses, multidisciplinary in focus, delivered in a blended format, focused on civic outcomes, and intended primarily for first-year students.

  10. Suggestions for Implementing First Year Experience Learning Communities in Teacher Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hintz, Kathryn; Genareo, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    This article describes the creation of a First Year Experience learning community in a teacher education program. The First Year Experience model was adopted by the university because of declining enrollment, retention, and graduation rates and has been generally successful in the education department. With little information available for teacher…

  11. The First Year Experience in Australian Universities: Findings from Two Decades, 1994-­2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baik, Chi; Naylor, Ryan; Arkoudis, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    This report provides an analysis of trends over a twenty year period in the attitudes and experiences of first year students in Australian universities. It is based on the national survey of first year students undertaken by the Melbourne Centre for the Study of Higher Education at five-yearly intervals since 1994. Dramatic changes have taken…

  12. A Flipped First-Year Digital Circuits Course for Engineering and Technology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yelamarthi, Kumar; Drake, Eron

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a flipped and improved first-year digital circuits (DC) course that incorporates several active learning strategies. With the primary objective of increasing student interest and learning, an integrated instructional design framework is proposed to provide first-year engineering and technology students with practical knowledge…

  13. Developing the Inner Teacher: Guiding the Reflective Practice of First Year Preservice Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penn-Edwards, Sorrel; Donnison, Sharn; Albion, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    First year Australian Initial Teacher Education students are at a high risk of not completing their studies, particularly in the transition into their tertiary studies in first year, and then if achieving graduation, many are likely to leave the profession in the early years. While the reasons vary, it is known that early departure from a career…

  14. College First-Year Seminars: What Are We Doing, What Should We Be Doing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Karen M.; Reynolds, Ralph E.; Perkins-Auman, Peggy G.

    2014-01-01

    The modern concept of first-year seminars was introduced in 1972. Ninety-four percent of America's accredited 4-year colleges and universities offered a seminar by 2002. "First-year seminar" defines a fairly diverse instructional construct, but the goal remains to improve student retention rates. Research trends indicate a positive and…

  15. Motivational Project-Based Laboratory for a Common First Year Electrical Engineering Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nedic, Zorica; Nafalski, Andrew; Machotka, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Over the past few years many universities worldwide have introduced a common first year for all engineering disciplines. This is despite the opinion of many academics that large classes have negative effects on the learning outcomes of first year students. The University of South Australia is also faced with low motivation amongst engineering…

  16. Impacting Information Literacy Learning in First-Year Seminars: A Rubric-Based Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, M. Sara; Booth, Char; Stone, Sean; Tagge, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    The authors conducted a rubric assessment of information literacy (IL) skills in research papers across five undergraduate first-year seminar programs to explore the question "What impact does librarian intervention in first-year courses have on IL performance in student work?" Statistical results indicate that students in courses with…

  17. From Tununak to Beaufort: Taking a Critical Inquiry Stance as a First Year Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fecho, Bob; Price, Kim; Read, Chris

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors show how two first year teachers a continent apart--Kim in the village of Tununak on the Bering Sea in Alaska and Chris in Beaufort, South Carolina, on the Atlantic Ocean--were able to take inquiry stances on their classrooms. In particular, through analysis of e-mails written in Chris' and Kim's first years of…

  18. Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD): The First-Year Postsecondary Educational Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shook Torres, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    This study utilized a qualitative case study interview methodology to explore the transition to postsecondary education and first-year postsecondary educational experiences of four students with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). This research provided a comprehensive understanding of the first-year postsecondary educational experience of the…

  19. "MathePraxis"--Connecting First-Year Mathematics with Engineering Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harterich, Jorg; Kiss, Christine; Rooch, Aeneas; Monnigmann, Martin; Darup, Moritz Schulze; Span, Roland

    2012-01-01

    First-year engineering students often complain about their mathematics courses as the significance of the difficult and abstract calculus to their field of study remains unclear. We report on the project "MathePraxis", a feasibility study which was designed as a means to give first-year students some impression about the use of…

  20. Embedding Information Literacy in a First-Year Business Undergraduate Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Robin; Becker, Karen; Clark, Lynette; Collins, Sue

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on a project to embed information literacy skills development in a first-year undergraduate business course at an Australian university. In accordance with prior research suggesting that first-year students are over-confident about their skills, the project used an optional online quiz to allow students to pre-test their…

  1. Career Self-Appraisals and Educational Aspirations of Diverse First-Year College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gasser, Courtney E.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the career, social, and academic self-appraisals and educational aspirations of first-year college students of diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds. Participants included 72 first-year students of Black, Asian, and White ethnicities. Career self-appraisals were significantly different for Black and Asian students when compared to…

  2. Learning Communities: Foundations for First-Year Students' Development of Pluralistic Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soria, Krista M.; Mitchell, Tania D.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations between first-year undergraduates' (n = 1,701) participation in learning communities and their development of leadership and multicultural competence. The sample included first-year students who were enrolled at six large, public research universities in 2012 and completed the Student…

  3. Exploring Collaboratively Written L2 Texts among First-Year Learners of German in Google Docs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Zsuzsanna

    2016-01-01

    Grounded in research on collaborative writing and computer-mediated writing the present study examines the computer-mediated collaborative writing process among first-year learners of German as a second language (L2) at a US university. The data come from 28 first-year learners of German at a US university, who wrote hypothesized endings to a…

  4. Peer and Self-Assessment in the First Year of University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nulty, Duncan D.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature about peer and self-assessment in university courses from the point of view of their use, and the suitability of their use, in the first year of university study. The paper is divided into three parts. The first part argues that although first-year students are involved in many of the studies that report on the…

  5. Intellectual Curiosity in Action: A Framework to Assess First-Year Seminars in Liberal Arts Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, Kenneth H.; Longest, Kyle C.; Barnett, Jenna C.

    2014-01-01

    Fostering students' intellectual curiosity is a common goal of first-year seminar programs--especially in liberal arts settings. The authors propose an alternative method to assess this ambiguous, value-laden concept. Relying on data gathered from pre- and posttest in-depth interviews of 34 students enrolled in first-year seminars, they construct…

  6. Advocating for First-Year Students: A Study of the Micropolitics of Leadership and Organizational Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anttonen, Ralph G.; Chaskes, Jay

    2002-01-01

    Surveyed recipients of the Outstanding First-Year Student Advocate award given annually by the National Resource Center for The First-Year Student Experience and Students in Transition and Houghton Mifflin Company. Found that advocates played politics, worked across boundaries, had well-articulated plans, co-opted the opposition, tackled tough…

  7. The Synergy of and Readiness for High-Impact Practices during the First Year of College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Michele JoAnn; Schmidt, Lauren

    2017-01-01

    Students often participate in a myriad of academic support programs offered during the first year of college. This study is an investigation of the effects of participation in multiple high-impact educational practices on academic success outcomes (cumulative GPAs and persistence rates) among 2,028 first-year students. Results suggest that the…

  8. Reinventing First-Year Composition at the First Land-Grant University: A Cautionary Tale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Margaret Baker; Birmingham, Elizabeth; Zachry, Mark

    1997-01-01

    Examines the restructuring of first-year composition at Iowa State University. Discusses the exodus of tenure-track faculty from first-year composition in the late 1970's and early 1980's; why upper administration is now mandating tenure-track faculty's return; why the department of English is cooperating; and potential risks in cooperating or not…

  9. Peer Mentoring to Develop Psychological Literacy in First-Year and Graduating Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Lorelle J.; Chester, Andrea; Xenos, Sophie; Elgar, Karen

    2013-01-01

    First- and final-year undergraduate students have unique transition issues. To support both the transition of first-year students into the program, and the transition of third-year students out of the program and into the workforce or further study, a face-to-face peer mentoring program was embedded into the first-year psychology curricula at RMIT…

  10. Fostering First-Year Students' Engagement and Well-Being through Visual Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everett, Michele C.

    2017-01-01

    This article reports on a qualitative study that explored the learning outcomes from an innovative instructional method, visual narratives, used in a first-year seminar. Fifty-three students enrolled in a mandatory first semester student success course were instructed to use visual images to tell the story of the first-year experience. Data…

  11. Promoting a Deliberative and Active Citizenry: Developing Traditional First Year College Student Political Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroup, John T.; Bunting, Hadley; Dodson, Kyle; Horne, Miriam; Portilla, Julian

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we examine the impact of a curriculum designed to increase first year college student political engagement. We used a staggered implementation design in which eight classes of traditional first year college students in were taught a political engagement curriculum by two instructors. The results confirm the positive impact of the…

  12. Making the Grade: Understanding Learning and Grade Orientations of First-Year Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purcell, Jennifer M.

    2009-01-01

    First-year undergraduate students enter college with varying expectations, motivations, and goals and are being bombarded with messages about the importance of grades, sometimes to the detriment of learning. This descriptive, cross-sectional study employs LOGO II to describe the learning and grade orientations of first-year students and identify…

  13. The Role of Preceptors in First-Year Student Engagement in Introductory Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Katherine A.; Voelker, Joseph C.

    2008-01-01

    The preceptor program at the University of Hartford was designed to increase engagement among first-year students and to provide role-modeling opportunities for upper-class students. Data from the first two years of the program were examined. In the first year, 611 undergraduate students in 40 introductory-level courses (26 with preceptors, 14…

  14. Exploring Characteristics of Retained First-Year Students Enrolled in Non-Proximal Distance Learning Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillstock, Laurie G.; Havice, Pamela A.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored pre- and post-admission characteristics of retained first-year students enrolled in non-proximal distance learning programs within public, 2-year colleges. Five pre-admission and six post-admission characteristics were explored. The sample for this study consisted of 197 first-year students enrolled in non-proximal distance…

  15. Adjustment to College in Nonresidential First-Year Students: The Roles of Stress, Family, and Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gefen, Dalia R.; Fish, Marian C.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored factors related to college adjustment in nonresidential first-year students. It was hypothesized that stress, family functioning, and coping strategies would predict academic, personal-emotional, and social adjustment in addition to institutional attachment. The sample comprised 167 first-year college students (ages 18-23)…

  16. Improving the Retention of First-Year College Students: A Temporal Model of Assessment and Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Hall P.; Davidson, William B.

    2015-01-01

    This investigation sought to determine when colleges should conduct assessments to identify first-year students at risk of dropping out. Thirty-five variables were used to predict the persistence of 2,024 first-year students from four universities in the southeastern United States. The predictors were subdivided into groups according to when they…

  17. Challenging the First Year of College: Old Models and New Imperatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Shala A.; Mehaffy, George L.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter argues that the first year of college needs to be reconsidered. The authors offer, as an alternative, a new kind of course, one created by groups of faculty members from different campuses, multidisciplinary in focus, delivered in a blended format, focused on civic outcomes, and intended primarily for first-year students.

  18. Curricular Infusion and High-Risk Drinking among First-Year Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayhew, Matthew J.; Klein, Sara; Behringer, Laurie Bartell; Ulrich, Anastasia Stacy; Caldwell, Rebecca J.; Hourigan, Aimee

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the curricular contexts effective at reducing high-risk drinking behaviors among 206 first-year undergraduate students. Results showed that infusing alcohol prevention messages into curricular content presented to first-year students who lived and studied together may have helped curb their high-risk drinking behaviors. This…

  19. Career Self-Appraisals and Educational Aspirations of Diverse First-Year College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gasser, Courtney E.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the career, social, and academic self-appraisals and educational aspirations of first-year college students of diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds. Participants included 72 first-year students of Black, Asian, and White ethnicities. Career self-appraisals were significantly different for Black and Asian students when compared to…

  20. Novices "In Story": What First-Year Teachers' Narratives Reveal about the Shady Corners of Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orland-Barak, Lily; Maskit, Ditza

    2011-01-01

    In a national contest of story writing in Israel, first-year teachers from all educational sectors were invited to write a story that mirrors their first year of teaching experience. The narrative analysis of the stories sheds light on the hostile and adverse sides of teaching, surfacing novices' sense of impotence in their capacity to act. The…

  1. Study of Differentiated Teaching Methods Used by First-Year Special Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renick, Patricia R.

    This study seeks to determine whether first-year special educators use their knowledge of differentiated teaching strategies in their classrooms. It also seeks to understand what conditions within school systems support or hinder attempts by special educators to implement these strategies. Participants in the study included four first-year special…

  2. One-Year Prevalence Rates of Major Depressive Disorder in First-Year University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, E. Lisa; McLeod, Peter J.; Gleich, Stephen S.; Hand, Denise

    2006-01-01

    First-year university students may be more at risk for experiencing Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) than the general population given associated risk factors of this age range. A two-phase procedure was used to estimate the one-year prevalence rate of MDD and comorbid Major Anxiety Disorders among first-year university students at a small Canadian…

  3. First-Year Teachers' Support Networks: Intentional Professional Networks and Diverse Professional Allies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker-Doyle, Kira J.

    2012-01-01

    In this article the author describes a mixed-methods study of first-year urban teachers' social support networks. Social Network Analysis (SNA) data on the support networks of 24 first-year teachers provided a background context and framework for the case study analysis of 4 of the teachers. Findings of the analysis identified 2 important networks…

  4. First-Year Student Motivations for Service-Learning: An Application of the Volunteer Functions Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearl, Andrew J.; Christensen, Robert K.

    2017-01-01

    This study extends a line of research focused on motivational factors that contribute to first-year students' reasons for engaging in service-learning. Among first-year students, altruistically-motivated students (Christensen, Stritch, Kellough, & Brewer, 2015) and minority students (Pearl & Christensen, 2016) were not only more…

  5. The Impact of Mentor Leadership Styles on First-Year Adult Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith Staley, Charlesetta

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative study explored the leadership styles of mentors for retained first-year adult students to analyze whether the prevalent style had a higher impact on first-year adult student retention. The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) 5x was used to collect data on the mentors' leadership styles from the perspective of retained…

  6. Efficacy of Participating in a First-Year Seminar on Student Satisfaction and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendel, Darwin D.

    2007-01-01

    Improving the first-year experience has been part of a broader set of initiatives to respond to concerns about undergraduate education (Astin, Keup, & Lindholm, 2002). This research examined the efficacy of a first-year seminar on student satisfaction and retention at a Research Extensive, urban and public land-grant university. This study…

  7. The Multimedia CD as a New Approach to First-Year Reading Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanger, Kerran L.; Ramsey, Janet E.; Merberg, Eileen Naughton

    2008-01-01

    Buffalo State College's search for a text for its common first-year reading program ended not in the selection of a book but in the creation of a multimedia CD. The CD guides discussion in first-year classrooms throughout the year, resulting in a meaningful intellectual experience for the school's diverse mix of students, faculty, and staff. The…

  8. "Freeing Students to Do Their Best": Examining Writing in First-Year Seminars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thaiss, Chris; Moloney, Kara; Chaozon-Bauer, Pearl

    2016-01-01

    First-Year Seminars (FYS) are among the high-impact practices described by AAC&U. We studied the long-standing First-Year Seminar Program at our public research university for the ways in which writing assignments--individualized for each seminar--help faculty and students achieve program objectives in critical and analytical thinking, the…

  9. Studio Design Work in First Year Architectural Education. Advisory Centre Occasional Papers in University Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claridge, Philip George Brian

    A course for first-year architectural students is described. The approach concentrated on developing an understanding of the nature of design activity through exploration of the kind of thinking that may be applied in order to improve the first-year studio work. The course is based on the following premises: (1) it is possible and educationally…

  10. Stand age affects fertilizer nitrogen response in first-year corn following alfalfa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The amount of N that alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) provides to subsequent first-year corn (Zea mays L.) depends, in part, on the age of alfalfa at termination. Our objective was to determine how alfalfa stand age affects N availability and fertilizer N requirements for first-year corn. Fertilizer N w...

  11. Enhancing Student Engagement in Large, Non-Disciplinary First Year Survey Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Annabelle; Koh, Ernest

    2012-01-01

    Large first year survey units pose unique challenges to both teachers and learners. Survey units are designed to deliver non-disciplinary specific knowledge about a given subject to a wide audience of learners. However, first year students in these units often find that they are unable to identify the architecture of such units, and are hence…

  12. The First Year Out: Understanding American Teens after High School. Morality and Society Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clydesdale, Tim

    2007-01-01

    Wild parties, late nights, and lots of sex, drugs, and alcohol. Many assume these are the things that define an American teenager's first year after high school. But the reality is really quite different. As Tim Clydesdale reports in "The First Year Out", teenagers generally manage the increased responsibilities of everyday life immediately after…

  13. An Investigation of First-Year Engineering Student and Instructor Perspectives of Learning Analytics Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, David B.; Brozina, Cory; Novoselich, Brian

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates how first-year engineering undergraduates and their instructors describe the potential for learning analytics approaches to contribute to student success. Results of qualitative data collection in a first-year engineering course indicated that both students and instructors\temphasized a preference for learning analytics…

  14. Academic Achievement in First-Year University: Who Maintains Their High School Average?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wintre, Maxine Gallander; Dilouya, Barry; Pancer, S. Mark; Pratt, Michael W.; Birnie-Lefcovitch, Shelly; Polivy, Janet; Adams, Gerald

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigates the characteristics which differentiate between first-year university students who maintain their high school averages (Maintainers: n = 165) and those whose averages decrease at least one letter grade (Decliners: n = 435). The 600 students entered first year at one of six Canadian Universities, which varied in size…

  15. Interventions to Improve Teaching and Learning in First Year Mathematics Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelbrecht, Johann; Harding, Ansie

    2015-01-01

    In keeping with the national mandate of increasing graduates in the sciences in South Africa, a concerted effort in improving the first year experience becomes imperative. First year mathematics courses commonly provide the base knowledge necessary for progression in different degree programmes at university. Success in mathematics courses…

  16. Measuring, Monitoring and Managing the Psychological Well-Being of First Year University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Richard; Bewick, Bridgette M.; Barkham, Michael; Bradley, Margaret; Audin, Kerry

    2006-01-01

    This paper profiles the psychological well-being of students in their initial year of university. There were three aims: to measure the impact of arrival at university on the psychological well-being of first year students, to monitor (i.e. profile) the shape of psychological well-being across the first year, and to investigate how students manage…

  17. Perceptions of Teachers in Their First Year of School Restructuring: Failure to Make Adequate Yearly Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moser, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    The 2007-2008 school year marked the first year Florida's Title I schools that did not made Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) for five consecutive years entered into restructuring as mandated by the "No Child Left Behind Act" of 2001. My study examines the perceptions of teacher entering into their first year of school restructuring due to…

  18. Embedding Information Literacy in a First-Year Business Undergraduate Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Robin; Becker, Karen; Clark, Lynette; Collins, Sue

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on a project to embed information literacy skills development in a first-year undergraduate business course at an Australian university. In accordance with prior research suggesting that first-year students are over-confident about their skills, the project used an optional online quiz to allow students to pre-test their…

  19. The Effect of Secondary School Study Skills Preparation on First-Year University Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, Ellen P. W. A.; Suhre, Cor J. M.

    2010-01-01

    Although many studies have revealed the importance of study skills for students' first-year performance and college retention, the extent of the impact of study skills preparation on students' academic achievement is less clear. This paper explores the impact of pre-university study skills preparation on students' first-year study experiences,…

  20. Interventions to Improve Teaching and Learning in First Year Mathematics Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelbrecht, Johann; Harding, Ansie

    2015-01-01

    In keeping with the national mandate of increasing graduates in the sciences in South Africa, a concerted effort in improving the first year experience becomes imperative. First year mathematics courses commonly provide the base knowledge necessary for progression in different degree programmes at university. Success in mathematics courses…