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Sample records for fish consumption methylmercury

  1. Fish consumption, methylmercury and child neurodevelopment.

    PubMed

    Oken, Emily; Bellinger, David C

    2008-04-01

    To summarize recent evidence regarding associations of early life exposure to mercury from maternal fish consumption during pregnancy, thimerosal in vaccines and dental amalgam with child neurodevelopment. Recent publications have built upon previous evidence demonstrating mild detrimental neurocognitive effects from prenatal methylmercury exposure from maternal fish consumption during pregnancy. New studies examining the effects of prenatal fish consumption as well as methylmercury suggest there are benefits from prenatal fish consumption, but also that consumption of fish high in mercury should be avoided. Future studies incorporating information on both the methylmercury and the docosahexaenoic acid contained within fish will help to refine recommendations to optimize outcomes for mothers and children. Additional recent studies have supported the safety of vaccines containing thimerosal and of dental amalgam for repair of dental caries in children. Exposure to mercury may harm child development. Interventions intended to reduce exposure to low levels of mercury in early life must, however, be carefully evaluated in consideration of the potential attendant harm from resultant behavior changes, such as reduced docosahexaenoic acid exposure from lower seafood intake, reduced uptake of childhood vaccinations and suboptimal dental care.

  2. Fish consumption, methylmercury and child neurodevelopment

    PubMed Central

    Oken, Emily; Bellinger, David C.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose of review To summarize recent evidence regarding associations of early life exposure to mercury from maternal fish consumption during pregnancy, thimerosal in vaccines and dental amalgam with child neurodevelopment. Recent findings Recent publications have built upon previous evidence demonstrating mild detrimental neurocognitive effects from prenatal methylmercury exposure from maternal fish consumption during pregnancy. New studies examining the effects of prenatal fish consumption as well as methylmercury suggest there are benefits from prenatal fish consumption, but also that consumption of fish high in mercury should be avoided. Future studies incorporating information on both the methylmercury and the docosahexaenoic acid contained within fish will help to refine recommendations to optimize outcomes for mothers and children. Additional recent studies have supported the safety of vaccines containing thimerosal and of dental amalgam for repair of dental caries in children. Summary Exposure to mercury may harm child development. Interventions intended to reduce exposure to low levels of mercury in early life must, however, be carefully evaluated in consideration of the potential attendant harm from resultant behavior changes, such as reduced docosahexaenoic acid exposure from lower seafood intake, reduced uptake of childhood vaccinations and suboptimal dental care. PMID:18332715

  3. FISH CONSUMPTION, METHYLMERCURY, AND HUMAN HEART DISEASE.

    SciTech Connect

    LIPFERT, F.W.; SULLIVAN, T.M.

    2005-09-21

    Environmental mercury continues to be of concern to public health advocates, both in the U.S. and abroad, and new research continues to be published. A recent analysis of potential health benefits of reduced mercury emissions has opened a new area of public health concern: adverse effects on the cardiovascular system, which could account for the bulk of the potential economic benefits. The authors were careful to include caveats about the uncertainties of such impacts, but they cited only a fraction of the applicable health effects literature. That literature includes studies of the potentially harmful ingredient (methylmercury, MeHg) in fish, as well as of a beneficial ingredient, omega-3 fatty acids or ''fish oils''. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently certified that some of these fat compounds that are primarily found in fish ''may be beneficial in reducing coronary heart disease''. This paper briefly summarizes and categorizes the extensive literature on both adverse and beneficial links between fish consumption and cardiovascular health, which are typically based on studies of selected groups of individuals (cohorts). Such studies tend to comprise the ''gold standard'' of epidemiology, but cohorts tend to exhibit a great deal of variability, in part because of the limited numbers of individuals involved and in part because of interactions with other dietary and lifestyle considerations. Note that eating fish will involve exposure to both the beneficial effects of fatty acids and the potentially harmful effects of contaminants like Hg or PCBs, all of which depend on the type of fish but tend to be correlated within a population. As a group, the cohort studies show that eating fish tends to reduce mortality, especially due to heart disease, for consumption rates up to about twice weekly, above which the benefits tend to level off. A Finnish cohort study showed increased mortality risks in the highest fish-consuming group ({approx}3 times

  4. Methylmercury in fish: a review of residue levels, fish consumption and regulatory action in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Tollefson, L.; Cordle, F.

    1986-09-01

    The dangers associated with the consumption of large amounts of methylmercury in fish are well recognized, and there is some evidence to suggest that methylmercury may be the cause of subtle neurological impairments when ingested at even low to moderate levels, particularly the prenatal and early childhood periods. This concern has prompted a continuing assessment of the risk of methylmercury toxicity among fish consumers in the US as well as other countries. The toxicokinetics of methylmercury in humans are reviewed and used to estimate body burdens associated with toxic effects. To determine seafood consumption patterns among the continental US population the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has analyzed data from a diary study commissioned by the Tuna Research Foundation. Mercury residue levels in domestic fish sampled by the FDA were used to determine the level of exposure to methylmercury. Until evidence is presented that substantially lowers the known body burden of methylmercury which causes toxicity, calculations indicate that the current 1.0 ppm regulatory level provides adequate protection for the average fish consumer, for young children, and for a significant number of consumers exceeding the acceptable daily intake. However, additional studies are being carried out in a continuing process to ensure that safe levels of prenatal exposure to mercury residues in fish are maintained.

  5. Communicating methylmercury risks and fish consumption benefits to vulnerable childbearing populations.

    PubMed

    Kuntz, Sandra W; Ricco, Jason A; Hill, Wade G; Anderko, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Methylmercury is a known neurotoxin especially harmful to the fetus, infant, and child. Preventing exposure to this environmental toxin is best accomplished through consumer messages specifically adapted for local populations. Health care providers play an important role in the dissemination of information. The purpose of this article is to review the benefits and risks of fish consumption and identify strategies for presenting effective risk communication messages to vulnerable groups, particularly women of childbearing age.

  6. New Evidence on Variations of Human Body Burden of Methylmercury from Fish Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Canuel, René; de Grosbois, Sylvie Boucher; Atikessé, Laura; Lucotte, Marc; Arp, Paul; Ritchie, Charles; Mergler, Donna; Chan, Hing Man; Amyot, Marc; Anderson, Robin

    2006-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies commonly use mercury (Hg) level in hair as a valid proxy to estimate human exposure to methylmercury (MeHg) through fish consumption. This study presents the results yielded by a complete data set on fish consumption habits, Hg levels in edible fish resources, and corresponding Hg accumulation in hair, gathered in three distinct communities of eastern Canada. For one of these communities, the average hair Hg concentration was 14 times less than the expected value based on calculated daily oral exposure and current knowledge of MeHg metabolism. This finding could be explained by differences in specific genetic characteristics and/or interactive effects of other dietary components. PMID:16451872

  7. An Approach for Quantitatively Balancing Methylmercury Risk and Omega-3 Benefit in Fish Consumption Advisories

    PubMed Central

    Korn, Leo R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Nearly all fish consumption advisories for methylmercury (MeHg) are based only on risk. There is a need to also address benefits, especially those from polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), in neurodevelopmental function and cardiovascular health. However, because MeHg and PUFA generally act on these same end points, disentangling risk and benefit is challenging. Objectives: We propose an approach for balancing risk and benefit that is based on the use of statistically dissociated measures of risk and benefit. Discussion: Because of mutual coexposure of MeHg and PUFAs in population-based studies and their opposite effect on many of the same end points, MeHg risk and PUFA benefit are tightly linked statistically, which results in mutual (negative) confounding. Thus, neither MeHg risk nor PUFA benefit can be accurately quantified without taking the other into account. A statistical approach that generates unconfounded risk and benefit coefficients for each end point can permit their subsequent recombination to describe the overall risk–benefit profile of each species of fish or fish diet. However, it appears that some end points may be adversely affected by MeHg without experiencing counterbalancing benefit from PUFAs. Such end points may drive consumption advisories and may preclude balancing of risk and benefit on the basis of other end points. Conclusions: Our thinking about fish consumption advisories now recognizes the need to balance risk and benefit. However, although statistical analysis of the appropriate data can eliminate mutual confounding, care is required to address the most sensitive end points that may be sensitive to risk and not benefit. PMID:21543281

  8. Methylmercury exposure and health effects from rice and fish consumption: a review.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Feng, Xinbin; Qiu, Guangle

    2010-06-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is highly toxic, and its principal target tissue in humans is the nervous system, which has made MeHg intoxication a public health concern for many decades. The general population is primarily exposed to MeHg through consumption of contaminated fish and marine mammals, but recent studies have reported high levels of MeHg in rice and confirmed that in China the main human exposure to MeHg is related to frequent rice consumption in mercury (Hg) polluted areas. This article reviews the progress in the research on MeHg accumulation in rice, human exposure and health effects, and nutrient and co-contaminant interactions. Compared with fish, rice is of poor nutritional quality and lacks specific micronutrients identified as having health benefits (e.g., n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid, selenium, essential amino acids). The effects of these nutrients on the toxicity of MeHg should be better addressed in future epidemiologic and clinical studies. More emphasis should be given to assessing the health effects of low level MeHg exposure in the long term, with appropriate recommendations, as needed, to reduce MeHg exposure in the rice-eating population.

  9. Methylmercury Exposure and Health Effects from Rice and Fish Consumption: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ping; Feng, Xinbin; Qiu, Guangle

    2010-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is highly toxic, and its principal target tissue in humans is the nervous system, which has made MeHg intoxication a public health concern for many decades. The general population is primarily exposed to MeHg through consumption of contaminated fish and marine mammals, but recent studies have reported high levels of MeHg in rice and confirmed that in China the main human exposure to MeHg is related to frequent rice consumption in mercury (Hg) polluted areas. This article reviews the progress in the research on MeHg accumulation in rice, human exposure and health effects, and nutrient and co-contaminant interactions. Compared with fish, rice is of poor nutritional quality and lacks specific micronutrients identified as having health benefits (e.g., n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid, selenium, essential amino acids). The effects of these nutrients on the toxicity of MeHg should be better addressed in future epidemiologic and clinical studies. More emphasis should be given to assessing the health effects of low level MeHg exposure in the long term, with appropriate recommendations, as needed, to reduce MeHg exposure in the rice-eating population. PMID:20644695

  10. Balancing the benefits of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and the risks of methylmercury exposure from fish consumption

    PubMed Central

    Mahaffey, Kathryn R; Sunderland, Elsie M; Chan, Hing Man; Choi, Anna L; Grandjean, Philippe; Mariën, Koenraad; Oken, Emily; Sakamoto, Mineshi; Schoeny, Rita; Weihe, Pál; Yan, Chong-Huai; Yasutake, Akira

    2011-01-01

    Fish and shellfish are widely available foods that provide important nutrients, particularly n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), to many populations globally. These nutrients, especially docosahexaenoic acid, confer benefits to brain and visual system development in infants and reduce risks of certain forms of heart disease in adults. However, fish and shellfish can also be a major source of methylmercury (MeHg), a known neurotoxicant that is particularly harmful to fetal brain development. This review documents the latest knowledge on the risks and benefits of seafood consumption for perinatal development of infants. It is possible to choose fish species that are both high in n-3 PUFAs and low in MeHg. A framework for providing dietary advice for women of childbearing age on how to maximize the dietary intake of n-3 PUFAs while minimizing MeHg exposures is suggested. PMID:21884130

  11. High-fish consumption and risk prevention: assessment of exposure to methylmercury in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, C M L; Matos, A I N M; Mateus, M L; Santos, A P M; Batoreu, M C C

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the exposure to methylmercury (MeHg) of potential populations at risk living in Portugal. To ascertain youth exposure, a questionnaire was distributed to 300 students of a middle secondary school in Sesimbra and to 429 students studying in Canecas, selected as the control population. The average number of fish meals consumed by person was 4.1 and 3 per week in Sesimbra and Canecas, respectively. The subpopulations of high intake (PHI) corresponding to those ingesting 7 or more fish meals per week were also analyzed separately, with 17% of the students belonging to the PHI of Sesimbra versus 6.1% in Canecas. Socioeconomic aspects such as relative's professional involvement with fisheries correlated with the higher intakes in Sesimbra. Fish samples were collected in the dock of Sesimbra and total mercury (Hg) was determined by flow injection cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectroscopy (FI-CV-AFS). The mean value found for nonpredators was 0.035 microg/g. Dogfish specimens surpassed the legislated limit for predator species and increased the predators mean to 1 microg/g. The cross-sectional data were integrated with the fish analysis results to estimate the population exposure to MeHg. The indices of risk calculated for youth reached values of 4.5, demonstrating the existence of risk to a part of the population exceeding the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) level mandated by WHO (1.6 microg/kg bw). The results indicate that monitoring of Hg levels in fish is mandatory and counseling should be provided to populations at risk, encouraging them to prevent the risk.

  12. Mercury in women exposed to methylmercury through fish consumption, and in their newborn babies and breast milk

    SciTech Connect

    Skerfving, S.

    1988-10-01

    The presence of methylmercury in fish is a major environmental problem. During the major epidemics of methylmercury poisoning through sea food in Minamata in Japan, and through dressed seed in Iraq, there was a high prevalence of infants, who developed cerebral palsy. This was generally assumed to be due to intrauterine methylmercury poisoning, as it is well known, that methylmercury is transferred through the placenta into the fetus. There is also a possibility that exposure occurred through breast milk, as high levels of mercury in breast milk have been reported in mothers from Minamata. Information on the relationship between methylmercury exposure, mercury levels in blood of mothers and their babies, and levels in breast milk are reported here.

  13. Quantitative Approach for Incorporating Methylmercury Risks and Omega-3 Fatty Acid Benefits in Developing Species-Specific Fish Consumption Advice

    PubMed Central

    Ginsberg, Gary L.; Toal, Brian F.

    2009-01-01

    Background Despite general agreement about the toxicity of methylmercury (MeHg), fish consumption advice remains controversial. Concerns have been raised that negative messages will steer people away from fish and omega-3 fatty acid (FA) benefits. One approach is to provide advice for individual species that highlights beneficial fish while cautioning against riskier fish. Objectives Our goal in this study was to develop a method to quantitatively analyze the net risk/benefit of individual fish species based on their MeHg and omega-3 FA content. Methods We identified dose–response relationships for MeHg and omega-3 FA effects on coronary heart disease (CHD) and neurodevelopment. We used the MeHg and omega-3 FA content of 16 commonly consumed species to calculate the net risk/benefit for each species. Results Estimated omega-3 FA benefits outweigh MeHg risks for some species (e.g., farmed salmon, herring, trout); however, the opposite was true for others (swordfish, shark). Other species were associated with a small net benefit (e.g., flounder, canned light tuna) or a small net risk (e.g., canned white tuna, halibut). These results were used to place fish into one of four meal frequency categories, with the advice tentative because of limitations in the underlying dose–response information. Separate advice appears warranted for the neurodevelopmental risk group versus the cardiovascular risk group because we found a greater net benefit from fish consumption for the cardiovascular risk group. Conclusions This research illustrates a framework for risk/benefit analysis that can be used to develop categories of consumption advice ranging from “do not eat” to “unlimited,” with the caveat that unlimited may need to be tempered for certain fish (e.g., farm-raised salmon) because of other contaminants and end points (e.g., cancer risk). Uncertainties exist in the underlying dose–response relationships, pointing in particular to the need for more research on

  14. Impact of a risk-benefit advisory on fish consumption and dietary exposure to methylmercury in France.

    PubMed

    Verger, P; Houdart, S; Marette, S; Roosen, J; Blanchemanche, S

    2007-08-01

    We designed the CORAI (COnsumer Risk Advisory Inquiry) study to observe consumer reactions' after an advisory revealing risk of methylmercury contamination together with benefits of Long-Chain Poly Unsaturated Fatty Acids of the n-3 variety (LC n-3 PUFA). The message was very close to the ones commonly delivered by national food agencies and included recommendations for women of childbearing age and children below 15 years old. Two groups of subjects including consumers at risk were selected. Participants recorded the frequency of their fish consumption detailed by species for them and their family over a one-month period one month before, a month immediately after and 3 month after the advisory. Results were compared between consumers receiving the advisory and controls. Results show that the message revelation led to a significant decrease in total fish consumption which is greater for children below 6 years old than for the children between 6 and 15 years old and women. The consumption of the most contaminated fish quoted in the advisory, rarely consumed and poorly known by French consumers did not decrease in any group despite the advice to avoid their consumption. The consumption of other fish products quoted in the advisory but frequently consumed and better known, as canned tuna, did decrease and was a major contributor to the overall reduction of exposure for the advised group. Before the information, about 3% of women of childbearing age are exceeding the PTWI for MeHg and both the average and the high percentiles of the exposure to MeHg are decreasing significantly in the advised group. Regarding the number of subjects of the advised group exceeding the PTWI, they were 6, 3 and 2, respectively, in May, June and September. Accompanying questionnaires show that consumers imperfectly memorize most of the fish species quoted in the recommendation. This paper concludes that consumer advisory, which is a major tool for risk management, has a minimal effect

  15. Methods for Individualized Determination of Methylmercury Elimination Rate and De-Methylation Status in Humans Following Fish Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Rand, Mathew D.; Vorojeikina, Daria; van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Jackson, Brian P.; Scrimale, Thomas; Zareba, Grazyna; Love, Tanzy M.; Myers, Gary J.; Watson, Gene E.

    2016-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) exposure via fish in the diet remains a priority public health concern. Individual variation in response to a given MeHg exposure and the biotransformation of MeHg that follows complicate our understanding of this issue. MeHg elimination from the human body occurs slowly (elimination rate (kel) approximately 0.01 day−1 or approximately 70 days half-life [t1/2]) and is a major determinant of the Hg body burden resulting from fish consumption. The underlying mechanisms that control MeHg elimination from the human body remain poorly understood. We describe here improved methods to obtain a MeHg elimination rate via longitudinal Hg analysis in hair using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. We measured MeHg elimination rates in eight individuals following the consumption of 3 fish meals in two 75-day trials separated by a 4-month washout period. In addition, since MeHg biotransformation to inorganic Hg (I-Hg) is associated with Hg excretion, we speciated Hg in feces samples to estimate individual MeHg de-methylation status. We observed a wide range of MeHg elimination rates between individuals and within individuals over time (kel = 0.0163–0.0054 day−1; estimated t1/2 = 42.5–128.3 days). The ratio of MeHg and I-Hg in feces also varied widely among individuals. While the %I-Hg in feces was likely influenced by dental amalgams, findings with subjects who lacked amalgams suggest that faster MeHg elimination is associated with a higher %I-Hg in feces indicating more complete de-methylation. We anticipate these methods will contribute to future investigations of genetic and dietary factors that influence MeHg disposition in people. PMID:26572661

  16. Disparity between state fish consumption advisory systems for methylmercury and US Environmental Protection Agency recommendations: A case study of the south central United States.

    PubMed

    Adams, Kimberly J; Drenner, Ray W; Chumchal, Matthew M; Donato, David I

    2016-01-01

    Fish consumption advisories are used to inform citizens in the United States about noncommercial game fish with hazardous levels of methylmercury (MeHg). The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) suggests issuing a fish consumption advisory when concentrations of MeHg in fish exceed a human health screening value of 300 ng/g. However, states have authority to develop their own systems for issuing fish consumption advisories for MeHg. Five states in the south central United States (Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Oklahoma, and Texas) issue advisories for the general human population when concentrations of MeHg exceed 700 ng/g to 1000 ng/g. The objective of the present study was to estimate the increase in fish consumption advisories that would occur if these states followed USEPA recommendations. The authors used the National Descriptive Model of Mercury in Fish to estimate the mercury concentrations in 5 size categories of largemouth bass-equivalent fish at 766 lentic and lotic sites within the 5 states. The authors found that states in this region have not issued site-specific fish consumption advisories for most of the water bodies that would have such advisories if USEPA recommendations were followed. One outcome of the present study may be to stimulate discussion between scientists and policy makers at the federal and state levels about appropriate screening values to protect the public from the health hazards of consuming MeHg-contaminated game fish.

  17. Disparity between state fish consumption advisory systems for Methylmercury and US Environmental Protection Agency recommendations: a case study of the South Central United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, Kimberly; Drenner, Ray W.; Chumchal, Matthew M.; Donato, David I.

    2015-01-01

    Fish consumption advisories are used to inform citizens in the United States about noncommercial game fish with hazardous levels of methylmercury (MeHg). The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) suggests issuing a fish consumption advisory when concentrations of MeHg in fish exceed a human health screening value of 300 ng/g. However, states have authority to develop their own systems for issuing fish consumption advisories for MeHg. Five states in the south central United States (Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Oklahoma, and Texas) issue advisories for the general human population when concentrations of MeHg exceed 700 ng/g to 1000 ng/g. The objective of the present study was to estimate the increase in fish consumption advisories that would occur if these states followed USEPA recommendations. The authors used the National Descriptive Model of Mercury in Fish to estimate the mercury concentrations in 5 size categories of largemouth bass–equivalent fish at 766 lentic and lotic sites within the 5 states. The authors found that states in this region have not issued site-specific fish consumption advisories for most of the water bodies that would have such advisories if USEPA recommendations were followed. One outcome of the present study may be to stimulate discussion between scientists and policy makers at the federal and state levels about appropriate screening values to protect the public from the health hazards of consuming MeHg-contaminated game fish.

  18. Methods for Individualized Determination of Methylmercury Elimination Rate and De-Methylation Status in Humans Following Fish Consumption.

    PubMed

    Rand, Mathew D; Vorojeikina, Daria; van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Jackson, Brian P; Scrimale, Thomas; Zareba, Grazyna; Love, Tanzy M; Myers, Gary J; Watson, Gene E

    2016-02-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) exposure via fish in the diet remains a priority public health concern. Individual variation in response to a given MeHg exposure and the biotransformation of MeHg that follows complicate our understanding of this issue. MeHg elimination from the human body occurs slowly (elimination rate (kel) approximately 0.01 day(-1) or approximately 70 days half-life [t1/2]) and is a major determinant of the Hg body burden resulting from fish consumption. The underlying mechanisms that control MeHg elimination from the human body remain poorly understood. We describe here improved methods to obtain a MeHg elimination rate via longitudinal Hg analysis in hair using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. We measured MeHg elimination rates in eight individuals following the consumption of 3 fish meals in two 75-day trials separated by a 4-month washout period. In addition, since MeHg biotransformation to inorganic Hg (I-Hg) is associated with Hg excretion, we speciated Hg in feces samples to estimate individual MeHg de-methylation status. We observed a wide range of MeHg elimination rates between individuals and within individuals over time (kel = 0.0163-0.0054 day(-1); estimated t1/2 = 42.5-128.3 days). The ratio of MeHg and I-Hg in feces also varied widely among individuals. While the %I-Hg in feces was likely influenced by dental amalgams, findings with subjects who lacked amalgams suggest that faster MeHg elimination is associated with a higher %I-Hg in feces indicating more complete de-methylation. We anticipate these methods will contribute to future investigations of genetic and dietary factors that influence MeHg disposition in people. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Consumption of freshwater fish by recreational and native freshwater anglers in the upper St-Maurice (Quebec, Canada) and estimation of the intake of methylmercury in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Loranger, S.; Houde, L.; Schetagne, R.

    1995-12-31

    Hydro-Quebec is planning to build two hydroelectric reservoirs in the upper Saint-Maurice River, which would flood about 80% of the surrounding area. The methylmercury (MeHg) content in freshwater fish will therefore tend to increase during the first few years. This development will have a direct impact on the amount of MeHg that the actual users of this river section are exposed to. The objective of this study is to assess the consumption of local fish of these target groups using a Monte-Carlo approach. This study is part of a larger research project aimed at assessing human exposure and the health risks related to MeHg contamination in local fish. The fish consumption rate for recreational freshwater anglers was calculated using the duration of the average annual fishing trip, the average number of catches per species, the average fish weight per species exceeding a specific length of fish usually caught, and the edible portion of fish consumed. This rate was calculated for the native communities based on the total number of meals per year per species, the average fish weight per species, and the edible portion. Based on these calculations, average intake for sport fishermen is estimated at 6.9 g/day (sd = 6.4). This value is 5 to 25 times lower on average than for other North American native communities. However, it must be pointed out that the food habits of the native population were very similar to those of non-native populations; less than 30% of the food comes from traditional sources.

  20. THE COMPETITION BETWEEN METHYLMERCURY RISKS AND OMEGA-3 POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACID BENEFITS: A REVIEW OF CONFLICTING EVIDENCE ON FISH CONSUMPTION AND CARDIOVASCULAR HEALTH.

    SciTech Connect

    LIPFERT, F.W.; SULLIVAN, T.M.

    2006-10-31

    The health concerns of methylmercury (MeHg) contamination of seafood have recently been extended to include cardiovascular effects, especially premature mortality. Although the fatty acids (fish oils) found in most species are thought to confer a wide range of health benefits, especially to the cardiovascular system, some epidemiological studies have suggested that such benefits may be offset by adverse effects of MeHg. This comprehensive review is based on searches of the NIH MEDLINE database and compares and contrasts 145 published studies involving cardiovascular effects and exposures to mercury and other fish contaminants, intake of fatty acids including dietary supplements of fish oils, and rates of seafood consumption. Since few of these studies include adequate simultaneous measurements of all of these potential predictor variables, we summarized their effects separately, across the available studies of each, and then drew conclusions based on the aggregated findings. It is important to realize that studies of seafood consumption encompass the net effects of all of these predictor variables, but that seafood intake studies are rarely supported by human biomarker measurements that reflect the actual uptake of harmful as well as beneficial fish ingredients. As a result, exposure measurement error is an issue when comparing studies and predictor variables. It is also possible that the observed benefits of eating fish may relate more to the characteristics of the consumers than to those of the fish. We found the evidence for adverse cardiovascular effects of MeHg to be sparse and unconvincing. Studies of cardiovascular mortality show net benefits, and the findings of adverse effects are mainly limited to studies Finland at high mercury exposure levels. By contrast, a very consistent picture of beneficial effects is seen for fatty acids, after recognizing the effects of exposure uncertainties and the presence of threshold effects. Studies based on measured

  1. Modeled methylmercury exposure and risk from rice consumption for vulnerable populations in a traditional fish-eating area in China.

    PubMed

    Tong, Yin-Dong; Ou, Lang-Bo; Chen, Long; Wang, Huan-Huan; Chen, Cen; Wang, Xue-Jun; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Qi-Guang

    2015-05-01

    The circulation of rice from contaminated areas could escalate exposure risk from a local problem to a national issue and affect a wider population beyond the region of origin, as confirmed by the "Poison Rice Incident" in May 2013 in Guangzhou, China. In the present study, the authors established a food chain model based on the aquivalence method to identify major sources of methylmercury (MeHg), estimate the levels of MeHg, and quantify exposure to MeHg via rice and aquatic food consumption. Different types of organism samples from the Haihe River also were collected to verify the calculated values. The MeHg intake in pregnant women was 1529.1 ng/d from the aquatic food chain and as high as 2804.0 ng/d from rice, although the intake varied among scenarios. The maximum possible MeHg concentration in the blood of pregnant women was 5.21 µg/L, higher than the threshold value of MeHg recommended by the US Environmental Protection Agency (4.4 µg/L), which indicated that pregnant women could face risk from MeHg exposure. The authors also assessed the risk of MeHg exposure in pregnant women and their breastfed infants using a new index, HQEquivalent . In 4 scenarios, the HQEquivalent indices ranged from 0.42 to 1.18 for pregnant women and from 0.29 to 0.83 for breastfed infants. © 2014 SETAC.

  2. Is susceptibility to prenatal methylmercury exposure from fish consumption non-homogeneous? Tree-structured analysis for the Seychelles Child Development Study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Li-Shan; Myers, Gary J; Davidson, Philip W; Cox, Christopher; Xiao, Fenyuan; Thurston, Sally W; Cernichiari, Elsa; Shamlaye, Conrad F; Sloane-Reeves, Jean; Georger, Lesley; Clarkson, Thomas W

    2007-11-01

    Studies of the association between prenatal methylmercury exposure from maternal fish consumption during pregnancy and neurodevelopmental test scores in the Seychelles Child Development Study have found no consistent pattern of associations through age 9 years. The analyses for the most recent 9-year data examined the population effects of prenatal exposure, but did not address the possibility of non-homogeneous susceptibility. This paper presents a regression tree approach: covariate effects are treated non-linearly and non-additively and non-homogeneous effects of prenatal methylmercury exposure are permitted among the covariate clusters identified by the regression tree. The approach allows us to address whether children in the lower or higher ends of the developmental spectrum differ in susceptibility to subtle exposure effects. Of 21 endpoints available at age 9 years, we chose the Weschler Full Scale IQ and its associated covariates to construct the regression tree. The prenatal mercury effect in each of the nine resulting clusters was assessed linearly and non-homogeneously. In addition we reanalyzed five other 9-year endpoints that in the linear analysis had a two-tailed p-value <0.2 for the effect of prenatal exposure. In this analysis, motor proficiency and activity level improved significantly with increasing MeHg for 53% of the children who had an average home environment. Motor proficiency significantly decreased with increasing prenatal MeHg exposure in 7% of the children whose home environment was below average. The regression tree results support previous analyses of outcomes in this cohort. However, this analysis raises the intriguing possibility that an effect may be non-homogeneous among children with different backgrounds and IQ levels.

  3. Fish consumption and prenatal methylmercury exposure: cognitive and behavioral outcomes in the main cohort at 17 years from the Seychelles child development study.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Philip W; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A; Thurston, Sally W; Huang, Li-Shan; Shamlaye, Conrad F; Gunzler, Douglas; Watson, Gene; van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Zareba, Grazyna; Klein, Jonathan D; Clarkson, Thomas W; Strain, J J; Myers, Gary J

    2011-12-01

    People worldwide depend upon daily fish consumption as a major source of protein and other nutrients. Fish are high in nutrients essential for normal brain development, but they also contain methylmercury (MeHg), a neurotoxicant. Our studies in a population consuming fish daily have indicated no consistent pattern of adverse associations between prenatal MeHg and children's development. For some endpoints we found performance improved with increasing prenatal exposure to MeHg. Follow up studies indicate this association is related to the beneficial nutrients present in fish. To determine if the absence of adverse outcomes and the presence of beneficial associations between prenatal MeHg and developmental outcomes previously reported persists into adolescence. This study was conducted on the Main Cohort of the Seychelles Child Development Study (SCDS). We examined the association between prenatal MeHg exposure and subjects' performance at 17 years of age on 27 endpoints. The test battery included the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT), the Woodcock-Johnson (W-J-II) Achievement Test, subtests of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB), and measures of problematic behaviors. Analyses for all endpoints were adjusted for postnatal MeHg, sex, socioeconomic status, maternal IQ, and child's age at testing and the child's IQ was added for problematic behavioral endpoints. Mean prenatal MeHg exposure was 6.9 ppm. There was no association between prenatal MeHg and 21 endpoints. Increasing prenatal MeHg was associated with better scores on four endpoints (higher W-J-II math calculation scores, reduced numbers of trials on the Intra-Extradimensional Shift Set of the CANTAB), fewer reports of substance use and incidents of and referrals for problematic behaviors in school. Increasing prenatal MeHg was adversely associated with one level of referrals to a school counselor. At age 17 years there was no consistent

  4. Awareness of methylmercury in fish and fish consumption among pregnant and postpartum women and women of childbearing age in the United States.

    PubMed

    Lando, Amy M; Fein, Sara B; Choinière, Conrad J

    2012-07-01

    In 2004, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reissued joint advice recommending that pregnant women, nursing mothers, young children, and women who may become pregnant not consume fish high in mercury such as shark, swordfish, king mackerel, and tilefish, and not consume more than 12 ounces (340.2g) of other lower mercury fish per week. These groups were encouraged to eat up to 12 ounces (340.2g) of low mercury fish per week to get the health benefits of fish. Using a survey of 1286 pregnant women, 522 postpartum women, and a control group of 1349 non-pregnant/non-postpartum women of childbearing age, this study evaluated awareness of mercury as a problem in food and examined fish consumption levels across groups using regression analysis. We also compared awareness of mercury as a problem in food to awareness of Listeria, dioxins and PCBs. We found that the majority of all 3 groups of women were aware of mercury and that nearly all women in all 3 groups limited consumption consistent with the advice; they ate less than 340.2g (12 oz) of fish per week and no high mercury fish. Compared with the control group, pregnant and postpartum women were more likely to be aware of mercury as a problem in food, and pregnant women ate less total fish and were less likely to eat fish, to eat more than 340.2g (12 oz) of fish, and to eat high mercury fish. However, all groups ate much less than the recommended 340.2g (12 oz) of low mercury fish per week for optimum health benefits. Among women who ate fish, the median intake of total fish was 51.6 g/wk (1.8 oz/wk), 71.4 g/wk (2.5 oz/wk), and 85.3 g/wk (3.0 oz/wk) for the pregnant, postpartum, and control groups, respectively. Thus, it appears that the targeted groups of women were more aware of mercury and were eating fish within the FDA/EPA guidelines, but these women may be missing the health benefits to themselves and their children of eating a sufficient amount of fish.

  5. Differences in the responses of three plasma selenium-containing proteins in relation to methylmercury-exposure through consumption of fish/whales.

    PubMed

    Ser, Ping Han; Omi, Sanae; Shimizu-Furusawa, Hana; Yasutake, Akira; Sakamoto, Mineshi; Hachiya, Noriyuki; Konishi, Shoko; Nakamura, Masaaki; Watanabe, Chiho

    2017-02-05

    Putative protective effects of selenium (Se) against methylmercury (MeHg) toxicity have been examined but no conclusion has been reached. We recently reported the lack of serious neurological symptoms in a Japanese fish-eating population with high intakes of MeHg and suggested a potential protective role for Se. Here, relationships between levels of Hg and Se in the blood and plasma samples, with a quantitative evaluation of Se-containing proteins, obtained from this population were examined. While levels of the whole-blood Hg (WB-Hg) and plasma Se (P-Se) showed a positive correlation, stratified analysis revealed that they correlated only in samples with higher (greater than the median) levels of MeHg. A food frequency questionnaire showed that consumption of fish/whales correlated with WB-Hg, but not with P-Se, suggesting that the positive correlation between WB-Hg and P-Se might not be the result of co-intake of these elements from seafood. Speciation of plasma Se revealed the differences in the responses of two plasma selenoproteins, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and selenoprotein P (SePP), in relation to Hg exposure. In the high-Hg group, SePP showed a positive correlation with WB-Hg, but GPx did not. In the low-Hg group, neither SePP nor GPx showed any correlation with WB-Hg. These observations suggest that the increase in P-Se in the high-Hg group might be associated with an increase in SePP, which may, in turn, suggest an increased demand for one or more selenoproteins in various organs, for which SePP supplies the element.

  6. Methylmercury in fish and hair samples from the Balbina Feservoir, Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Kehrig, H A; Malm, O; Akagi, H; Guimarães, J R; Torres, J P

    1998-05-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate methylmercury in fish and human hair samples from an important hydroelectrical reservoir, Balbina (Brazil, Amazon). It presents a quite intense fishing activity and there is no known goldmining activity in its watershed. Fish and human hair were analyzed with a new extraction technique and measured by GC-ECD. Analytical quality was checked through intercomparisons between two laboratories with local samples and certified standards from IAEA. Methylmercury in hair ranged from 2.0 to 21.6 microg . g-1 with a mean of 8.76+/-5.20 microg . g-1 (N=20), while the methylmercury percentages were above 90. Fish presented methylmercury levels ranging from 0.03 to 0.9 microg small middle dot g-1 wet wt with a mean of 0.24+/-0.18 microg small middle dot g-1 wet wt (N=32), which is below the limit established for food by Brazilian legislation (0.5 microg small middle dot g-1 wet wt) and methylmercury mean percentages were above 95%. The total mean daily methylmercury intake ranged from 11 to 55 microg for 70% of the sampled population from the village based on a daily consumption of about 110 g of fish with methylmercury concentrations in the range of 0.1 to 0.5 microg . g-1. This calculation is consistent with methylmercury concentrations in hair samples in the range of 2.6 to 13.1 microg . g-1. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  7. Effects of environmental methylmercury on the health of wild birds, mammals, and fish.

    PubMed

    Scheuhammer, Anton M; Meyer, Michael W; Sandheinrich, Mark B; Murray, Michael W

    2007-02-01

    Wild piscivorous fish, mammals, and birds may be at risk for elevated dietary methylmercury intake and toxicity. In controlled feeding studies, the consumption of diets that contained Hg (as methylmercury) at environmentally realistic concentrations resulted in a range of toxic effects in fish, birds, and mammals, including behavioral, neurochemical, hormonal, and reproductive changes. Limited field-based studies, especially with certain wild piscivorous bird species, e.g., the common loon, corroborated laboratory-based results, demonstrating significant relations between methylmercury exposure and various indicators of methylmercury toxicity, including reproductive impairment. Potential population effects in fish and wildlife resulting from dietary methylmercury exposure are expected to vary as a function of species life history, as well as regional differences in fish-Hg concentrations, which, in turn, are influenced by differences in Hg deposition and environmental methylation rates. However, population modeling suggests that reductions in Hg emissions could have substantial benefits for some common loon populations that are currently experiencing elevated methylmercury exposure. Predicted benefits would be mediated primarily through improved hatching success and development of hatchlings to maturity as Hg concentrations in prey fish decline. Other piscivorous species may also benefit from decreased Hg exposure but have not been as extensively studied as the common loon.

  8. Behavioral teratology of methylmercury in fish

    SciTech Connect

    Weis, P.; Weis, J.S.

    1994-12-31

    Embryos of the mummichog, Fundulus heteroclitus, were exposed to 2, 5, or 10 ug/l methylmercury throughout development. These are concentrations below those that can cause teratological effects. After hatching, larvae were maintained in clean sea water and tested for prey capture ability, using Artemia nauplii as prey. Individual fish larvae were provided with five brine shrimp and their capture times recorded. In all experiments, larvae that had been exposed to 10 ug/l methylmercury initially exhibited slower prey capture ability than the other groups. This is an indication of a subtle functional impairment due to the toxicant (``behavioral teratology``). However, the effect was transitory, and by about one week after hatching the prey capture of these larvae equaled that of the controls and the other treated groups. Growth of these larvae also equaled that of controls and the other groups. The embryonic exposure may have caused retardation of neurological development, which was subsequently compensated for, and therefore no permanent effects were produced. In the field, however, embryos exposed to such toxicants would probably continue to be exposed as larvae, and would not have the opportunity to recover from the effects, but rather might have them reinforced.

  9. Which Fish Should I Eat? Perspectives Influencing Fish Consumption Choices

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Anna L.; Karagas, Margaret R.; Mariën, Koenraad; Rheinberger, Christoph M.; Schoeny, Rita; Sunderland, Elsie; Korrick, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Diverse perspectives have influenced fish consumption choices. Objectives: We summarized the issue of fish consumption choice from toxicological, nutritional, ecological, and economic points of view; identified areas of overlap and disagreement among these viewpoints; and reviewed effects of previous fish consumption advisories. Methods: We reviewed published scientific literature, public health guidelines, and advisories related to fish consumption, focusing on advisories targeted at U.S. populations. However, our conclusions apply to groups having similar fish consumption patterns. Discussion: There are many possible combinations of matters related to fish consumption, but few, if any, fish consumption patterns optimize all domains. Fish provides a rich source of protein and other nutrients, but because of contamination by methylmercury and other toxicants, higher fish intake often leads to greater toxicant exposure. Furthermore, stocks of wild fish are not adequate to meet the nutrient demands of the growing world population, and fish consumption choices also have a broad economic impact on the fishing industry. Most guidance does not account for ecological and economic impacts of different fish consumption choices. Conclusion: Despite the relative lack of information integrating the health, ecological, and economic impacts of different fish choices, clear and simple guidance is necessary to effect desired changes. Thus, more comprehensive advice can be developed to describe the multiple impacts of fish consumption. In addition, policy and fishery management inter-ventions will be necessary to ensure long-term availability of fish as an important source of human nutrition. PMID:22534056

  10. Methylmercury levels in predatory fish species marketed in Canada.

    PubMed

    Forsyth, Don S; Casey, V; Dabeka, R W; McKenzie, A

    2004-09-01

    Mercury was detected in all analysed samples of swordfish, marlin, shark and tuna purchased from major supermarket outlets and fish retailers in three cities across Canada. Total mercury and methylmercury levels ranged up to 3845 and 2346 ng g(-1), respectively. Swordfish contained the highest levels, followed by shark, fresh/frozen tuna and marlin. Levels in canned tuna were considerably less than the other examined samples. Methylmercury was extracted with toluene from enzymatically hydrolysed samples after the addition of sulphuric acid and potassium bromide. An L-cysteine back-extraction was used to separate the methylmercury from most organic co-extractives. Analysis of methylmercury (as methylmercury bromide) was by gas chromatography with pulsed discharge detection.

  11. Effects of methylmercury contained in a diet mimicking the Wayana Amerindians contamination through fish consumption: mercury accumulation, metallothionein induction, gene expression variations, and role of the chemokine CCL2.

    PubMed

    Bourdineaud, Jean-Paul; Laclau, Muriel; Maury-Brachet, Régine; Gonzalez, Patrice; Baudrimont, Magalie; Mesmer-Dudons, Nathalie; Fujimura, Masatake; Marighetto, Aline; Godefroy, David; Rostène, William; Brèthes, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a potent neurotoxin, and human beings are mainly exposed to this pollutant through fish consumption. We addressed the question of whether a diet mimicking the fish consumption of Wayanas Amerindians from French Guiana could result in observable adverse effects in mice. Wayanas adult men are subjected to a mean mercurial dose of 7 g Hg/week/kg of body weight. We decided to supplement a vegetarian-based mice diet with 0.1% of lyophilized Hoplias aimara fish, which Wayanas are fond of and equivalent to the same dose as that afflicting the Wayanas Amerindians. Total mercury contents were 1.4 ± 0.2 and 5.4 ± 0.5 ng Hg/g of food pellets for the control and aimara diets, respectively. After 14 months of exposure, the body parts and tissues displaying the highest mercury concentration on a dry weight (dw) basis were hair (733 ng/g) and kidney (511 ng/g), followed by the liver (77 ng/g). Surprisingly, despite the fact that MeHg is a neurotoxic compound, the brain accumulated low levels of mercury (35 ng/g in the cortex). The metallothionein (MT) protein concentration only increased in those tissues (kidney, muscles) in which MeHg demethylation had occurred. This can be taken as a molecular sign of divalent mercurial contamination since only Hg(2+) has been reported yet to induce MT accumulation in contaminated tissues. The suppression of the synthesis of the chemokine CCL2 in the corresponding knockout (KO) mice resulted in important changes in gene expression patterns in the liver and brain. After three months of exposure to an aimara-containing diet, eight of 10 genes selected (Sdhb, Cytb, Cox1, Sod1, Sod2, Mt2, Mdr1a and Bax) were repressed in wild-type mice liver whereas none presented a differential expression in KO Ccl2(-/-) mice. In the wild-type mice brain, six of 12 genes selected (Cytb, Cox1, Sod1, Sod2, Mdr1a and Bax) presented a stimulated expression, whereas all remained at the basal level of expression in KO Ccl2(-/-) mice. In the

  12. Effects of Methylmercury Contained in a Diet Mimicking the Wayana Amerindians Contamination through Fish Consumption: Mercury Accumulation, Metallothionein Induction, Gene Expression Variations, and Role of the Chemokine CCL2

    PubMed Central

    Bourdineaud, Jean-Paul; Laclau, Muriel; Maury-Brachet, Régine; Gonzalez, Patrice; Baudrimont, Magalie; Mesmer-Dudons, Nathalie; Fujimura, Masatake; Marighetto, Aline; Godefroy, David; Rostène, William; Brèthes, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a potent neurotoxin, and human beings are mainly exposed to this pollutant through fish consumption. We addressed the question of whether a diet mimicking the fish consumption of Wayanas Amerindians from French Guiana could result in observable adverse effects in mice. Wayanas adult men are subjected to a mean mercurial dose of 7 g Hg/week/kg of body weight. We decided to supplement a vegetarian-based mice diet with 0.1% of lyophilized Hoplias aimara fish, which Wayanas are fond of and equivalent to the same dose as that afflicting the Wayanas Amerindians. Total mercury contents were 1.4 ± 0.2 and 5.4 ± 0.5 ng Hg/g of food pellets for the control and aimara diets, respectively. After 14 months of exposure, the body parts and tissues displaying the highest mercury concentration on a dry weight (dw) basis were hair (733 ng/g) and kidney (511 ng/g), followed by the liver (77 ng/g). Surprisingly, despite the fact that MeHg is a neurotoxic compound, the brain accumulated low levels of mercury (35 ng/g in the cortex). The metallothionein (MT) protein concentration only increased in those tissues (kidney, muscles) in which MeHg demethylation had occurred. This can be taken as a molecular sign of divalent mercurial contamination since only Hg2+ has been reported yet to induce MT accumulation in contaminated tissues. The suppression of the synthesis of the chemokine CCL2 in the corresponding knockout (KO) mice resulted in important changes in gene expression patterns in the liver and brain. After three months of exposure to an aimara-containing diet, eight of 10 genes selected (Sdhb, Cytb, Cox1, Sod1, Sod2, Mt2, Mdr1a and Bax) were repressed in wild-type mice liver whereas none presented a differential expression in KO Ccl2−/− mice. In the wild-type mice brain, six of 12 genes selected (Cytb, Cox1, Sod1, Sod2, Mdr1a and Bax) presented a stimulated expression, whereas all remained at the basal level of expression in KO Ccl2−/− mice. In the

  13. Organotropism of methylmercury in fish of the southeastern of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, L S; Almeida, M G; Bastos, W R; Suzuki, M S; Recktenvald, M C N N; Bastos, M T S; Vergílio, C S; de Souza, C M M

    2017-10-01

    This is one of the first studies to evaluate the effect of biometric variables (total length and weight), diet, and abiotic matrices (sediment and water column) on the bioaccumulation of methylmercury in tissues (muscle, liver, and gills) of four fish (two carnivore-invertivores, Pimelodus fur and Pachyurus adspersus; one carnivore-piscivore, Oligosarcus hepsetus; and one omnivore, Pimelodella lateristriga) in the lower section of a river in southeastern Brazil. Samples of fish (n = 120), water (n = 5) and sediment (n = 5) were collected at five sites characterized by pollution with mercury due to the use of organomercury fungicides and stream bed gold mining, commonly carried out in that section of the river in the 1980s. The results show that biometric variables are strongly correlated with methylmercury levels in muscle (r = 0.61, p < 0.0005) of P. fur. As a rule, concentrations of total mercury and methylmercury did not vary considerably between the organs of the species of different food habits, because of the environmental conditions in the study area. Despite the low concentrations of mercury in sediments (<0.05 mg kg(-1) wet. wt), this compartment is a representative source of this pollutant for the organisms investigated, due to the close contact these animals keep with it in view of the low water columns in that section of the river. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Dietary mercury exposure resulted in behavioral differences in mice contaminated with fish-associated methylmercury compared to methylmercury chloride added to diet.

    PubMed

    Bourdineaud, Jean-Paul; Marumoto, Masumi; Yasutake, Akira; Fujimura, Masatake

    2012-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a potent neurotoxin, and humans are mainly exposed to this pollutant through fish consumption. However, in classical toxicological studies, pure methylmercury chloride (MeHgCl) is injected, given to drink or incorporated within feed assuming that its effects are identical to those of MeHg naturally associated to fish. In the present study, we wanted to address the question whether a diet containing MeHg associated to fish could result in observable adverse effects in mice as compared to a diet containing the same concentration of MeHg added pure to the diet and whether beneficial nutriments from fish were able to counterbalance the deleterious effects of fish-associated mercury, if any. After two months of feeding, the fish-containing diet resulted in significant observable effects as compared to the control and MeHg-containing diets, encompassing altered behavioral performances as monitored in a Y-shaped maze and an open field, and an increased dopamine metabolic turnover in hippocampus, despite the fact that the fish-containing diet was enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids and selenium compared to the fish-devoid diets.

  15. Dietary Mercury Exposure Resulted in Behavioral Differences in Mice Contaminated with Fish-Associated Methylmercury Compared to Methylmercury Chloride Added to Diet

    PubMed Central

    Bourdineaud, Jean-Paul; Marumoto, Masumi; Yasutake, Akira; Fujimura, Masatake

    2012-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a potent neurotoxin, and humans are mainly exposed to this pollutant through fish consumption. However, in classical toxicological studies, pure methylmercury chloride (MeHgCl) is injected, given to drink or incorporated within feed assuming that its effects are identical to those of MeHg naturally associated to fish. In the present study, we wanted to address the question whether a diet containing MeHg associated to fish could result in observable adverse effects in mice as compared to a diet containing the same concentration of MeHg added pure to the diet and whether beneficial nutriments from fish were able to counterbalance the deleterious effects of fish-associated mercury, if any. After two months of feeding, the fish-containing diet resulted in significant observable effects as compared to the control and MeHg-containing diets, encompassing altered behavioral performances as monitored in a Y-shaped maze and an open field, and an increased dopamine metabolic turnover in hippocampus, despite the fact that the fish-containing diet was enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids and selenium compared to the fish-devoid diets. PMID:22899888

  16. Fish consumption: recommendations versus advisories, can they be reconciled?

    PubMed

    Smith, Kimberly M; Sahyoun, Nadine R

    2005-02-01

    Consumption of at least two servings of fish per week is recommended by the American Heart Association (AHA) to achieve cardio-protective effects. However, some fish are contaminated with methylmercury, which may counteract the positive effect of the omega-3 fatty acids, and numerous governments have issued advisories for certain fish species. These mixed messages may be a source of confusion to the consumer and to the health professional. This paper reviews whether it is possible to follow the AHA recommendation for fish consumption while avoiding the risks associated with consuming mercury in amounts in excess of government thresholds.

  17. Risks and Benefits of Consumption of Great Lakes Fish

    PubMed Central

    Bhavsar, Satyendra P.; Bowerman, William; Boysen, Eric; Clark, Milton; Diamond, Miriam; Mergler, Donna; Pantazopoulos, Peter; Schantz, Susan; Carpenter, David O.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Beneficial effects of fish consumption on early cognitive development and cardiovascular health have been attributed to the omega-3 fatty acids in fish and fish oils, but toxic chemicals in fish may adversely affect these health outcomes. Risk–benefit assessments of fish consumption have frequently focused on methylmercury and omega-3 fatty acids, not persistent pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls, and none have evaluated Great Lakes fish consumption. Objectives: The risks and benefits of fish consumption have been established primarily for marine fish. Here, we examine whether sufficient data are available to evaluate the risks and benefits of eating freshwater fish from the Great Lakes. Methods: We used a scoping review to integrate information from multiple state, provincial, and federal agency sources regarding the contaminants and omega-3 fatty acids in Great Lakes fish and fish consumers, consumption rates and fish consumption advisories, and health effects of contaminants and omega-3 fatty acids. Data synthesis: Great Lakes fish contain persistent contaminants—many of which have documented adverse health effects —that accumulate in humans consuming them. In contrast, data are sparse on omega-3 fatty acids in the fish and their consumers. Moreover, few studies have documented the social and cultural benefits of Great Lakes fish consumption, particularly for subsistence fishers and native communities. At this time, federal and state/provincial governments provide fish consumption advisories based solely on risk. Conclusions: Our knowledge of Great Lakes fish has critical gaps, particularly regarding the benefits of consumption. A risk–benefit analysis requires more information than is currently available on the concentration of omega-3 fatty acids in Great Lakes fish and their absorption by fish eaters in addition to more information on the social, cultural, and health consequences of changes in the amount of fish consumed. PMID

  18. Risks and benefits of consumption of Great Lakes fish.

    PubMed

    Turyk, Mary E; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Bowerman, William; Boysen, Eric; Clark, Milton; Diamond, Miriam; Mergler, Donna; Pantazopoulos, Peter; Schantz, Susan; Carpenter, David O

    2012-01-01

    Beneficial effects of fish consumption on early cognitive development and cardiovascular health have been attributed to the omega-3 fatty acids in fish and fish oils, but toxic chemicals in fish may adversely affect these health outcomes. Risk-benefit assessments of fish consumption have frequently focused on methylmercury and omega-3 fatty acids, not persistent pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls, and none have evaluated Great Lakes fish consumption. The risks and benefits of fish consumption have been established primarily for marine fish. Here, we examine whether sufficient data are available to evaluate the risks and benefits of eating freshwater fish from the Great Lakes. We used a scoping review to integrate information from multiple state, provincial, and federal agency sources regarding the contaminants and omega-3 fatty acids in Great Lakes fish and fish consumers, consumption rates and fish consumption advisories, and health effects of contaminants and omega-3 fatty acids. Great Lakes fish contain persistent contaminants--many of which have documented adverse health effects--that accumulate in humans consuming them. In contrast, data are sparse on omega-3 fatty acids in the fish and their consumers. Moreover, few studies have documented the social and cultural benefits of Great Lakes fish consumption, particularly for subsistence fishers and native communities. At this time, federal and state/provincial governments provide fish consumption advisories based solely on risk. Our knowledge of Great Lakes fish has critical gaps, particularly regarding the benefits of consumption. A risk-benefit analysis requires more information than is currently available on the concentration of omega-3 fatty acids in Great Lakes fish and their absorption by fish eaters in addition to more information on the social, cultural, and health consequences of changes in the amount of fish consumed.

  19. Methylmercury Poisoning—An Assessment of the Sportfish Hazard in California

    PubMed Central

    Dales, Loring; Kahn, Ephraim; Wei, Eddie

    1971-01-01

    A quantitative assessment of the methylmercury risk in California entails measurement of the contamination distribution, the probability of methylmercury intake and knowledge of the toxicological properties of methylmercury. This article reviews the scientific basis for the California State Task Force's decision to warn the public against excessive consumption of sport fish contaminated by methylmercury. PMID:5544687

  20. Reproductive, developmental, and neurobehavioral effects of methylmercury in fishes.

    PubMed

    Weis, Judith S

    2009-10-01

    In the decades since the Minamata tragedy in Japan, there has been a considerable body of research performed on effects of methylmercury in fishes. The studies have revealed that some of the most sensitive responses seen in fishes are reminiscent of the symptoms experienced by the Minamata victims. This article reviews the literature, with a focus on mercury's effects on fish reproduction (hormone levels, gametogenesis, fertilization success), embryonic development (morphological abnormalities, rate), the development of behavior, and neurobehavioral effects in adults. Both experimental exposures and epidemiological approaches are included. There have been many studies demonstrating delayed effects of mercury exposure in that exposures during one life history stage can produce effects much later during different life history stages. For example, exposure of maturing gametes can result in abnormal embryos, even though the embryos were not themselves exposed to the toxicant. Exposures during sensitive embryonic periods can produce long-lasting effects that can be seen in adult stages. The existence of these manifold delayed effects renders the practice of short-term toxicity testing particularly unhelpful for understanding the effects of this (and other) toxicants.

  1. Neurodevelopmental effects of maternal nutritional status and exposure to methylmercury from eating fish during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Philip W; Strain, J J; Myers, Gary J; Thurston, Sally W; Bonham, Maxine P; Shamlaye, Conrad F; Stokes-Riner, Abbie; Wallace, Julie M W; Robson, Paula J; Duffy, Emeir M; Georger, Lesley A; Sloane-Reeves, Jean; Cernichiari, Elsa; Canfield, Richard L; Cox, Christopher; Huang, Li Shan; Janciuras, Joanne; Clarkson, Thomas W

    2008-09-01

    Fish contain nutrients that promote optimal brain growth and development but also contain methylmercury (MeHg) that can have toxic effects. The present study tested the hypothesis that the intake of selected nutrients in fish or measures of maternal nutritional status may represent important confounders when estimating the effects of prenatal methylmercury exposure on child development. The study took place in the Republic of Seychelles, an Indian Ocean archipelago where fish consumption is high. A longitudinal cohort study design was used. A total of 300 mothers were enrolled early in pregnancy. Nutrients considered to be important for brain development were measured during pregnancy along with prenatal MeHg exposure. The children were evaluated periodically to age 30 months. There were 229 children with complete outcome and covariate data for analysis. The primary endpoint was the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II (BSID-II), administered at 9 and 30 months of age. Combinations of four secondary measures of infant cognition and memory were also given at 5, 9 and 25 months. Cohort mothers consumed an average of 537 g of fish (nine meals containing fish) per week. The average prenatal MeHg exposure was 5.9 ppm in maternal hair. The primary analysis examined the associations between MeHg, maternal nutritional measures and children's scores on the BSID-II and showed an adverse association between MeHg and the mean Psychomotor Developmental Index (PDI) score at 30 months. Secondary analyses of the association between the PDI and only MeHg alone or nutritional factors alone showed only a borderline significant association between MeHg and the PDI at 30 months and no associations with nutritional factors. One experimental measure at 5 months of age was positively associated with iodine status, but not prenatal MeHg exposure. These findings suggest a possible confounding role of maternal nutrition in studies examining associations between prenatal MeHg exposures and

  2. Childhood Fish Consumption and Learning and Behavioral Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Carwile, Jenny L.; Butler, Lindsey J.; Janulewicz, Patricia A.; Winter, Michael R.; Aschengrau, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Fish is a major source of nutrients critical for brain development during early life. The importance of childhood fish consumption is supported by several studies reporting associations of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) supplementation with better behavior and school performance. However, fish may have a different effect than n-3 PUFA alone due to the neurotoxic effects of methylmercury, a frequent contaminant. We investigated associations of childhood fish consumption with learning and behavioral disorders in birth cohort study of the neurotoxic effects of early life exposure to solvent-contaminated drinking water. Childhood (age 7–12 years) fish consumption and learning and behavioral problems were reported in self-administered questionnaires (age 23–41 at questionnaire completion). Fish consumption was not meaningfully associated with repeating a grade, tutoring, attending summer school, special class placement, or low educational attainment. However, participants who ate fish several times a week had an elevated odds of Attention Deficit Disorder/Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (odds ratio: 5.2; 95% confidence interval: 1.5–18) compared to participants who did not eat fish. While these findings generally support the safety of the observed level of fish consumption, the absence of a beneficial effect may be attributed to insufficient fish intake or the choice of relatively low n-3 PUFA fish. PMID:27827868

  3. Methylmercury in a predatory fish (Cichla spp.) inhabiting the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Kehrig, Helena do A; Howard, Bruce M; Malm, Olaf

    2008-07-01

    This research tested whether limnological conditions, biological characteristics of fish and anthropogenic impacts influenced the assimilation of methylmercury into the muscle of a sedentary piscivorous fish, Cichla spp., from three rivers (Negro, Madeira, Tapajós) and two hydroelectric reservoirs (Balbina, Tucuruí) within the Brazilian Amazon. Methylmercury in this fish ranged from 0.04 to 1.43microgg(-1) w.w. across sites. No significant differences were observed in the methylmercury concentrations between males and females, or for different morphotypes of this species. Positive correlations were found between methylmercury and fish body weight. No differences were found between the weight normalized methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations or its percent of total mercury in fish from the three rivers; weight normalized MeHg was highest in one of the two reservoirs. In Rio Tapajós, where gold mining and deforestation cause high water turbidity, fish showed the highest MeHg and concentrations were different across the four sites examined. In all sampling areas, the %MeHg was found to be higher than 70.

  4. Determination of a site-specific reference dose for methylmercury for fish-eating populations.

    PubMed

    Shipp, A M; Gentry, P R; Lawrence, G; Van Landingham, C; Covington, T; Clewell, H J; Gribben, K; Crump, K

    2000-11-01

    methylmercury, the exposures of concern for the Point Comfort site are from the chronic consumption of relatively low concentrations of methylmercury in fish. Since the publication of the USEPA RfD, several analyses of chronic exposure to methylmercury in fish-eating populations have been reported. The purpose of the analysis reported here was to evaluate the possibility of deriving an RfD for methylmercury, specifically for the case of fish ingestion, on the basis of these new studies. In order to better support the risk-management decisions associated with developing a remediation approach for the site in question, the analysis was designed to provide information on the distribution of acceptable ingestion rates across a population, which could reasonably be expected to be consistent with the results of the epidemiological studies of other fish-eating populations. Based on a review of the available literature on the effects of methylmercury, a study conducted with a population in the Seychelles Islands was selected as the critical study for this analysis. The exposures to methylmercury in this population result from chronic, multigenerational ingestion of contaminated fish. This prospective study was carefully conducted and analyzed, included a large cohort of mother-infant pairs, and was relatively free of confounding factors. The results of this study are essentially negative, and a no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) derived from the estimated exposures has recently been used by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) as the basis for a chronic oral minimal risk level (MRL) for methylmercury. In spite of the fact that no statistically significant effects were observed in this study, the data as reported are suitable for dose-response analysis using the BMD method. Evaluation of the BMD method used in this analysis, as well as in the current USEPA RfD, has demonstrated that the resulting 95% lower bound on the 10% benchmark dose (BMDL) represents a

  5. Optimizing conditions for methylmercury extraction from fish samples for GC analysis using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Hajeb, P; Jinap, S; Abu Bakar, F; Bakar, J

    2009-06-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to determine the optimum experimental conditions to extract methylmercury from fish samples for GC analysis. The influence of four variables - acid concentration (3-12 M), cysteine concentration (0.5-2% w/v), solvent volume (3-9 ml) and extraction time (10-30 min) - on recovery of methylmercury was evaluated. The detection limit for methylmercury analysis using a microelectron capture detector was 7 ng g(-1) in fish samples. The mean recovery under optimum conditions was 94%. Experimental data were adequately fitted into a second-order polynomial model with multiple regression coefficients (r(2)) of 0.977. The four variables had a significant effect (p < 0.05) on the recovery of methylmercury from a reference material (BCR-463). Optimum conditions for methylmercury extraction were found using an acid concentration of 12.2 M, cysteine concentration of 2.4%, solvent volume of 1.5 ml and extraction time of 35 min. The validation of the developed method to analyze methylmercury in fish samples exhibited good agreement with mercury content in the samples.

  6. Methylmercury Concentration in Fish and Risk-Benefit Assessment of Fish Intake among Pregnant versus Infertile Women in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hsi, Hsing-Cheng; Hsu, You-Wen; Chang, Tien-Chin; Chien, Ling-Chu

    2016-01-01

    This study examined methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in fish, the daily MeHg exposure dose, and the risk-benefit of MeHg, ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (ω-3 PUFA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) related to fish intake among pregnant and infertile women in Taiwan. The measured MeHg concentrations in fish did not exceed the Codex guideline level of 1 mg/kg. Swordfish (0.28 ± 0.23 mg/kg) and tuna (0.14 ± 0.13 mg/kg) had the highest MeHg concentrations. The MeHg concentration in the hair of infertile women (1.82 ± 0.14 mg/kg) was significantly greater than that of pregnant women (1.24 ± 0.18 mg/kg). In addition, 80% of infertile women and 68% of pregnant women had MeHg concentrations in hair that exceeded the USEPA reference dose (1 mg/kg). The MeHg concentrations in hair were significantly and positively correlated with the estimated daily MeHg exposure dose. Based on the risk-benefit evaluation results, this paper recommends consumption of fish species with a low MeHg concentration and high concentrations of DHA + EPA and ω-3 PUFA (e.g., salmon, mackerel, and greater amberjack).

  7. Methylmercury Concentration in Fish and Risk-Benefit Assessment of Fish Intake among Pregnant versus Infertile Women in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Hsi, Hsing-Cheng; Hsu, You-Wen; Chang, Tien-Chin; Chien, Ling-Chu

    2016-01-01

    This study examined methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in fish, the daily MeHg exposure dose, and the risk–benefit of MeHg, ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (ω-3 PUFA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) related to fish intake among pregnant and infertile women in Taiwan. The measured MeHg concentrations in fish did not exceed the Codex guideline level of 1 mg/kg. Swordfish (0.28 ± 0.23 mg/kg) and tuna (0.14 ± 0.13 mg/kg) had the highest MeHg concentrations. The MeHg concentration in the hair of infertile women (1.82 ± 0.14 mg/kg) was significantly greater than that of pregnant women (1.24 ± 0.18 mg/kg). In addition, 80% of infertile women and 68% of pregnant women had MeHg concentrations in hair that exceeded the USEPA reference dose (1 mg/kg). The MeHg concentrations in hair were significantly and positively correlated with the estimated daily MeHg exposure dose. Based on the risk–benefit evaluation results, this paper recommends consumption of fish species with a low MeHg concentration and high concentrations of DHA + EPA and ω-3 PUFA (e.g., salmon, mackerel, and greater amberjack). PMID:27187161

  8. Role of methylmercury exposure (from fish consumption) on growth and neurodevelopment of children under 5 years of age living in a transitioning (tin-mining) area of the western Amazon, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marques, Rejane C; Dórea, José G; Leão, Renata S; Dos Santos, Verusca G; Bueno, Lucélia; Marques, Rayson C; Brandão, Katiane G; Palermo, Elisabete F A; Guimarães, Jean Remy D

    2012-02-01

    Human occupation of the Amazon region has recently increased, bringing deforestation for agriculture and open-cast mining, activities that cause environmental degradation and pollution. Families of new settlers in mining areas might have a diet less dependent on abundant fish and their children might also be impacted by exposures to mining environments. Therefore, there is compounded interest in assessing young children's nutritional status and neurobehavioral development with regard to family fish consumption. Anthropometric (z-scores, WHO standards) and neurologic [Gesell developmental scores (GDS)] development in 688 preschool children (1-59 months of age) was studied. Overall, the prevalence of malnutrition [i.e., moderate stunting (≤2 H/A-Z), underweight (≤2 W/A-Z), and wasting (≤2 W/H-Z) were respectively 0.3% (n = 2), 1.6% (n = 11), and 2.5% (n = 17). Children's mean hair Hg (HHg) concentration was 2.56 μg/g (SD = 1.67); only 14% of children had HHg concentrations lower than 1 μg/g and 1.7% had ≥5 μg/g. The biomarker of fish consumption was weakly but positively correlated with GDS (Spearman r = 0.080; p = 0.035). In the bivariate model, attained W/H-Z scores were not significantly correlated with GDS. A moderate level of GDS deficits (70-84%) was seen in 20% of children. There was significant correlation between family fish consumption and children's hair Hg (HHg) (Spearman r = 0.1756; p < 0.0001) but no significant correlation between children's HHg and W/H-Z scores. However, the multivariate model showed that breastfeeding, a fish consumption biomarker (HHg), maternal education, and child's age were statistically significant associated with specific domains (language and personal-social) of the Gesell scale. In this mining environment, family fish-eating did not affect children's linear growth, but it showed a positive influence (along with maternal variables) on neurodevelopment. Health hazards attendant on a high prevalence of moderate

  9. Isotope dilution SPME GC/MS for the determination of methylmercury in tuna fish samples.

    PubMed

    Centineo, Giuseppe; Blanco González, Elisa; García Alonso, J Ignacio; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2006-01-01

    The development of a rapid, precise and accurate analytical method for the determination of methylmercury in tuna fish samples is described. The method is based on the use of isotope dilution GC/MS with electron impact ionization, a widespread technique in routine testing laboratories. A certified spike containing (202)Hg-enriched methylmercury was used for the isotope dilution of the samples. After extraction of the methylmercury from the sample, methylmercury was propylated using sodium tetrapropyl borate in SPME vials and the analytes were sampled from the headspace for 15 min. For isotope measurements, the molecular ion (MePrHg(+)) was used in the SIM mode. Five molecular ions were monitored, corresponding to the (198)Hg, (199)Hg, (200)Hg, (201)Hg and (202)Hg isotopes. The detection at masses corresponding to (198)Hg was used to correct for m + 1 contributions of (13)C from the organic groups attached to the mercury atom on the (199)Hg, (200)Hg, (201)Hg and (202)Hg masses with simple mathematical equations, and the concentration of methylmercury was calculated on the basis of the corrected (200)Hg/(202)Hg isotope ratio. The (202)Hg-enriched methylmercury spike was applied, with satisfactory results, to the determination of methylmercury in the certified reference material BCR 464. The method was successfully applied to the determination of methylmercury in tuna fish samples, and the obtained results were included in the CCQM-P39 interlaboratory exercise, organized by the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM, Geel, Belgium) with excellent agreement between our results and the average obtained by the other participants.

  10. Hair mercury levels in relation to fish consumption in a community of the Moroccan Mediterranean coast.

    PubMed

    Elhamri, Hecham; Idrissi, Larbi; Coquery, Marina; Azemard, Sabine; El Abidi, Abdellah; Benlemlih, Mohamed; Saghi, Mohamed; Cubadda, Francesco

    2007-11-01

    Coastal populations with high seafood consumption in the Mediterranean have a significant exposure to dietary methylmercury, and areas where environmental mercury pollution is an issue due to industrial activities are of special concern. The study was undertaken with the aim of assessing methylmercury exposure through fish consumption in a community of north Morocco and characterizing the relevant health risk. Concentrations of total mercury were determined in human hair, a biomarker of methylmercury exposure, and in locally consumed fish by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Based on consumption frequencies reported by the 108 subjects included in the study the weekly intake of methylmercury was estimated and biomarker data were evaluated in relation to the estimated intake and the sociodemographic characteristics of the population. Multiple regression analysis was employed for the interpretation of hair mercury data in relation to fish consumption frequency, gender and the age of individuals. Mercury concentrations in hair ranged from 0.22 to 9.56 microg g(-1) (geometric mean = 1.79 microg g(-1)) and were closely related to fish intake. Fisherman and their families consumed fish three to five times per week and were the most exposed population subgroup. A high proportion of women of child-bearing age (50%) had relatively high levels of mercury in their hair (3.08-7.88 microg g(-1)).

  11. Neurodevelopmental Effects of Maternal Nutritional Status and Exposure to Methylmercury from Eating Fish during Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Philip W.; Strain, J.J.; Myers, Gary J.; Thurston, Sally W.; Bonham, Maxine P.; Shamlaye, Conrad F.; Stokes-Riner, Abbie; Wallace, Julie M.W.; Robson, Paula J.; Duffy, Emeir M.; Georger, Lesley A.; Sloane-Reeves, Jean; Cernichiari, Elsa; Canfield, Richard L.; Cox, Christopher; Huang, Li Shan; Janciuras, Joanne; Clarkson, Thomas W.

    2008-01-01

    Fish contain nutrients that promote optimal brain growth and development but also contain methylmercury (MeHg) that can have toxic effects. The present study tested the hypothesis that the intake of selected nutrients in fish or measures of maternal nutritional status may represent important confounders when estimating the effects of prenatal methylmercury exposure on child development. The study took place in the Republic of Seychelles, an Indian Ocean archipelago where fish consumption is high. A longitudinal cohort study design was used. A total of 300 mothers were enrolled early in pregnancy. Nutrients considered to be important for brain development were measured during pregnancy along with prenatal MeHg exposure. The children were evaluated periodically to age 30 months. There were 229 children with complete outcome and covariate data for analysis. The primary endpoint was the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II (BSID-II), administered at 9 and 30 months of age. Combinations of four secondary measures of infant cognition and memory were also given at 5, 9 and 25 months. Cohort mothers consumed an average of 537 gm of fish (9 meals containing fish) per week. The average prenatal MeHg exposure was 5.9 ppm in maternal hair. The primary analysis examined the associations between MeHg, maternal nutritional measures and children’s scores on the BSID-II and showed an adverse association between MeHg and the mean Psychomotor Developmental Index (PDI) score at 30 months. Secondary analyses of the association between the PDI and only MeHg alone or nutritional factors alone showed only a borderline significant association between MeHg and the PDI at 30 months and no associations with nutritional factors. One experimental measure at 5 months of age was positively associated with iodine status, but not prenatal MeHg exposure. These findings suggest a possible confounding role of maternal nutrition in studies examining associations between prenatal MeHg exposures and

  12. Neurodevelopment of Amazonian children exposed to ethylmercury (from Thimerosal in vaccines) and methylmercury (from fish).

    PubMed

    Marques, Rejane C; Abreu, Luciana; Bernardi, José V E; Dórea, José G

    2016-08-01

    Few studies have addressed co-occurring methylmercury (MeHg) from maternal origin and ethylmercury (EtHg) from Thimerosal-containing vaccines (TCVs) during infant's neurodevelopment. We studied children (n=1139) from the Western Amazon based on combined (low, intermediate, and high) exposure to chronic MeHg from fish consumption and acute TCV- EtHg. Neurodevelopment outcomes were age of walking and age of talking, and the Bayley Scale of Infant Development (BSID). The Mental Developmental Index (MDI) and Psychomotor Developmental Index (PDI) were measured at six and 24 months of age. Median hair-Hg (HHg) at birth was 6.4µgg(-1) in mothers, and 1.94µgg(-1) in newborns; total (pregnancy and infancy) EtHg exposure ranged from 0 to 187.5µg. The combined (MeHg+EtHg) exposure showed significant differences for MDI but not for PDI; however, there was a significant decrease in both MDI and PDI scores at 24 months. The increase in BSID delays (scores <80) between six and 24 months was not discernible with regards to EtHg or MeHg exposure. We found a statistically significant increase in neurodevelopmental (BSID) delays related to the combined exposure to Hg (MeHg>EtHg). Neurodevelopment delays due to low-doses of organic mercury (albeit undiscernible) are not predictable but can be avoided by choosing low-Hg fish and providing Thimerosal-free vaccines.

  13. Methylmercury in fish from the southern Baltic Sea and coastal lagoons as a function of species, size, and region.

    PubMed

    Polak-Juszczak, Lucyna

    2017-06-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a highly toxic compound that traverses the blood-brain barrier with deleterious effects to the central nervous system. Exposure is generally through the ingestion of contaminated fish. Fish are a main source of MeHg. Goals and methods: The aim of this study was to determine the dependence of MeHg concentrations on fish species and age, the percentage of MeHg in total mercury (THg) and risk assessment depending on the size of fish. Assays of THg and MeHg were performed on the muscle tissues of 18 species of fish. The investigations indicated there were differences in the mercury concentrations depending on fish size. THg and MeHg concentrations in the muscles of fish species that have a wide length distribution were strongly, positively correlated with fish length. However, concentrations of MeHg were strongly, positively correlated with those of THg in all the fish species investigated. Variation in the percentage share of MeHg in THg in the muscles of fish of large sizes was also noted within species, but this correlation was not noted in small-sized fish. The dose of MeHg in small-sized fish species was estimated and the risk posed to consumer health was assessed using mean MeHg concentrations determined for different fish species. For species of fish that occur within a wide length distribution, the dose of MeHg should be assessed separately in different length classes. Fish consumption of small-sized species poses no health risk.

  14. Fish consumption and advisory awareness among expectant women.

    PubMed

    Gliori, Gemma; Imm, Pam; Anderson, Henry A; Knobeloch, Lynda

    2006-03-01

    During the spring of 2003, the Wisconsin Department of Health and Family Services (DHFS) piloted a fish consumption advisory program targeted at pregnant women. Fish consumption recommendations and information about the prenatal effects of methylmercury were illustrated in multilingual posters, brochures, fact cards, and other promotional items. These materials were mailed to Women, Infants and Children (WIC) program providers, local health departments, and medical clinics, along with a cover letter that encouraged them to display the materials in waiting areas and distribute them to new mothers and expectant women who visited their facilities. In August 2003, a survey was mailed to 1000 women who had given birth during the first week of June 2003. The survey was intended to provide an estimate of the number and types of fish meals the women had consumed during pregnancy and evaluate their familiarity with the outreach materials. On average, survey respondents consumed 3 fish meals a month. The most frequently consumed fish were canned tuna and frozen fish. Approximately one third of women knew that older fish and predatory fish have the highest levels of mercury. While almost half of the women were aware of Wisconsin's sport fish advisory, only 13% of them remembered seeing any of the outreach materials.

  15. Dietary exposure of Hong Kong secondary school students to total mercury and methylmercury from fish intake.

    PubMed

    Tang, Anna Shiu Ping; Kwong, Ka Ping; Chung, Stephen Wai Cheung; Ho, Yuk Yin; Xiao, Ying

    2009-01-01

    Fish is the main source of dietary exposure to methylmercury (MeHg), which is a public health concern owing to its potential neurotoxicity. To evaluate the public health risk, this study estimated the total mercury (tHg) and MeHg exposure from fish intake in Hong Kong secondary school students. Median tHg and MeHg concentrations of 280 samples purchased from different commercial outlets (covering 89 species of whole fish and three types of canned tuna), together with the local food consumption data of secondary school students obtained by semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire in 2000, were used to estimate dietary exposure from fish intake for the average and high consumer (95th percentile exposure). For tHg, the median concentration was 63 µg kg(-1) (range 3-1370 µg kg(-1)) and estimated exposures ranged 0.5-0.6 µg kg(-1) body weight (bw) week(-1) for an average consumer and 1.6-1.9 µg kg(-1) bw week(-1) for a high consumer. For MeHg, median concentration was 48 µg kg(-1) (range 3-1010 µg kg(-1)) and estimated dietary exposures were 0.4-0.5 µg kg(-1) bw week(-1) for an average consumer and 1.2-1.4 µg kg(-1) bw week(-1) for a high consumer. These values are below the respective provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) established by the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). The health risk is greater for high consumers since MeHg exposures may approach or exceed the PTWI when other dietary sources are taken into account.

  16. Fish Consumption and Advisory Awareness in the Great Lakes Basin

    PubMed Central

    Imm, Pamela; Knobeloch, Lynda; Anderson, Henry A.; Consortium, the Great Lakes Sport Fish

    2005-01-01

    More than 61 million adults live in the eight U.S. states bordering the Great Lakes. Between June 2001 and June 2002, a population-based, random-digit-dial telephone survey of adults residing in Great Lakes (GL) states was conducted to assess consumption of commercial and sport-caught fish and awareness of state-issued consumption advisories for GL fish. On the basis of the weighted survey data, approximately 84% of the adults living in these states included fish in their diets. Seven percent (an estimated 4.2 million adults) consumed fish caught from the Great Lakes. The percentage of residents who had consumed sport-caught fish (from any water source) varied regionally and was highest among those who lived in Minnesota (44%) and Wisconsin (39%). Consumption of GL sport fish was highest among residents of Michigan (16%) and Ohio (12%). Among residents who had eaten GL fish, awareness of consumption advisories varied by gender and race and was lowest among women (30%) and black residents (15%). However, 70% of those who consumed GL sport-caught fish twice a month or more (an estimated 509,000 adults across all eight states) were aware of the advisories. Findings from this survey indicate that exposure to persistent contaminants found in GL fish is likely limited to a relatively small subpopulation of avid sport-fish consumers. Results also underscore the public health importance of advisories for commercial fish because an estimated 2.9 million adults living in these states consume more than 104 fish meals per year and may be at risk of exceeding the reference doses for methylmercury, polychlorinated biphenyls, and other bioaccumulative contaminants. PMID:16203241

  17. Methylmercury production in the marine water column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topping, G.; Davies, I. M.

    1981-03-01

    Although the biosynthesis of methylmercury in sediments is well established1, this is not necessarily the exclusive natural source of methylmercury entering the marine food chain, particularly commercial fish and shellfish species for human consumption. An examination of mercury levels in freshwater fish2, collected from a lake with a history of industrial mercury contamination, suggested that levels in fish are controlled in part by mercury in suspension and it followed that methylation should occur in the water column. Although methylmercury is present in seawater in coastal areas receiving discharges of waste containing either inorganic mercury3 or methylmercury4 there is no evidence that methylmercury is actually formed in the water column. We now present data which demonstrate that inorganic mercury can be methylated in the water column and we compare this production with that known to occur in marine sediments.

  18. Fish Consumption and Mercury Exposure among Louisiana Recreational Anglers

    PubMed Central

    Lincoln, Rebecca A.; Shine, James P.; Chesney, Edward J.; Vorhees, Donna J.; Grandjean, Philippe; Senn, David B.

    2011-01-01

    Background Methylmercury (MeHg) exposure assessments among average fish consumers in the United States may underestimate exposures among U.S. subpopulations with high intakes of regionally specific fish. Objectives We examined relationships among fish consumption, estimated mercury (Hg) intake, and measured Hg exposure within one such potentially highly exposed group, recreational anglers in the state of Louisiana, USA. Methods We surveyed 534 anglers in 2006 using interviews at boat launches and fishing tournaments combined with an Internet-based survey method. Hair samples from 402 of these anglers were collected and analyzed for total Hg. Questionnaires provided information on species-specific fish consumption during the 3 months before the survey. Results Anglers’ median hair Hg concentration was 0.81 μg/g (n = 398; range, 0.02–10.7 μg/g); 40% of participants had levels >1 μg/g, which approximately corresponds to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s reference dose. Fish consumption and Hg intake were significantly positively associated with hair Hg. Participants reported consuming nearly 80 different fish types, many of which are specific to the region. Unlike the general U.S. population, which acquires most of its Hg from commercial seafood sources, approximately 64% of participants’ fish meals and 74% of their estimated Hg intake came from recreationally caught seafood. Conclusions Study participants had relatively elevated hair Hg concentrations and reported consumption of a wide variety of fish, particularly locally caught fish. This group represents a highly exposed subpopulation with an exposure profile that differs from fish consumers in other regions of the United States, suggesting a need for more regionally specific exposure estimates and public health advisories. PMID:20980220

  19. Ecological risk of methylmercury to piscivorous fish of the Great Lakes region.

    PubMed

    Sandheinrich, Mark B; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Bodaly, R A; Drevnick, Paul E; Paul, Eric A

    2011-10-01

    Contamination of fish populations with methylmercury is common in the region of the Laurentian Great Lakes as a result of atmospheric deposition and methylation of inorganic mercury. Using fish mercury monitoring data from natural resource agencies and information on tissue concentrations injurious to fish, we conducted a screening-level risk assessment of mercury to sexually mature female walleye (Sander vitreus), northern pike (Esox lucius), smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) in the Great Lakes and in interior lakes, impoundments, and rivers of the Great Lakes region. The assessment included more than 43,000 measurements of mercury in fish from more than 2000 locations. Sexually mature female fish that exceeded threshold-effect tissue concentrations of 0.20 μg g(-1) wet weight in the whole body occurred at 8% (largemouth bass) to 43% (walleye) of sites. Fish at 3% to 18% of sites were at risk of injury and exceeded 0.30 μg g(-1) where an alteration in reproduction or survival is predicted to occur. Most fish at increased risk were from interior lakes and impoundments. In the Great Lakes, no sites had sexually mature fish that exceeded threshold-effect concentrations. Results of this screening-level assessment indicate that fish at a substantive number of locations within the Great Lakes region are potentially at risk from methylmercury contamination and would benefit from reduction in mercury concentrations.

  20. Reservoir stratification affects methylmercury levels in river water, plankton, and fish downstream from Balbina hydroelectric dam, Amazonas, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kasper, Daniele; Forsberg, Bruce R; Amaral, João H F; Leitão, Rafael P; Py-Daniel, Sarah S; Bastos, Wanderley R; Malm, Olaf

    2014-01-21

    The river downstream from a dam can be more contaminated by mercury than the reservoir itself. However, it is not clear how far the contamination occurs downstream. We investigated the seasonal variation of methylmercury levels in the Balbina reservoir and how they correlated with the levels encountered downstream from the dam. Water, plankton, and fishes were collected upstream and at sites between 0.5 and 250 km downstream from the dam during four expeditions in 2011 and 2012. Variations in thermal stratification of the reservoir influenced the methylmercury levels in the reservoir and in the river downstream. Uniform depth distributions of methylmercury and oxygen encountered in the poorly stratified reservoir during the rainy season collections coincided with uniformly low methylmercury levels along the river downstream from the dam. During dry season collections, the reservoir was strongly stratified, and anoxic hypolimnion water with high methylmercury levels was exported downstream. Methylmercury levels declined gradually to 200 km downstream. In general, the methylmercury levels in plankton and fishes downstream from the dam were higher than those upstream. Higher methylmercury levels observed 200-250 km downstream from the dam during flooding season campaigns may reflect the greater inflow from tributaries and flooding of natural wetlands that occurred at this time.

  1. Global methylmercury exposure from seafood consumption and risk of developmental neurotoxicity: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Thomas A; Navas-Acien, Ana; Breysse, Patrick N; McGready, John; Fox, Mary A

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine biomarkers of methylmercury (MeHg) intake in women and infants from seafood-consuming populations globally and characterize the comparative risk of fetal developmental neurotoxicity. Methods A search was conducted of the published literature reporting total mercury (Hg) in hair and blood in women and infants. These biomarkers are validated proxy measures of MeHg, a neurotoxin found primarily in seafood. Average and high-end biomarkers were extracted, stratified by seafood consumption context, and pooled by category. Medians for average and high-end pooled distributions were compared with the reference level established by a joint expert committee of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO). Findings Selection criteria were met by 164 studies of women and infants from 43 countries. Pooled average biomarkers suggest an intake of MeHg several times over the FAO/WHO reference in fish-consuming riparians living near small-scale gold mining and well over the reference in consumers of marine mammals in Arctic regions. In coastal regions of south-eastern Asia, the western Pacific and the Mediterranean, average biomarkers approach the reference. Although the two former groups have a higher risk of neurotoxicity than the latter, coastal regions are home to the largest number at risk. High-end biomarkers across all categories indicate MeHg intake is in excess of the reference value. Conclusion There is a need for policies to reduce Hg exposure among women and infants and for surveillance in high-risk populations, the majority of which live in low-and middle-income countries. PMID:24700993

  2. Global methylmercury exposure from seafood consumption and risk of developmental neurotoxicity: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Mary C; Burke, Thomas A; Navas-Acien, Ana; Breysse, Patrick N; McGready, John; Fox, Mary A

    2014-04-01

    To examine biomarkers of methylmercury (MeHg) intake in women and infants from seafood-consuming populations globally and characterize the comparative risk of fetal developmental neurotoxicity. A search was conducted of the published literature reporting total mercury (Hg) in hair and blood in women and infants. These biomarkers are validated proxy measures of MeHg, a neurotoxin found primarily in seafood. Average and high-end biomarkers were extracted, stratified by seafood consumption context, and pooled by category. Medians for average and high-end pooled distributions were compared with the reference level established by a joint expert committee of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO). Selection criteria were met by 164 studies of women and infants from 43 countries. Pooled average biomarkers suggest an intake of MeHg several times over the FAO/WHO reference in fish-consuming riparians living near small-scale gold mining and well over the reference in consumers of marine mammals in Arctic regions. In coastal regions of south-eastern Asia, the western Pacific and the Mediterranean, average biomarkers approach the reference. Although the two former groups have a higher risk of neurotoxicity than the latter, coastal regions are home to the largest number at risk. High-end biomarkers across all categories indicate MeHg intake is in excess of the reference value. There is a need for policies to reduce Hg exposure among women and infants and for surveillance in high-risk populations, the majority of which live in low-and middle-income countries.

  3. Methylmercury and omega-3 fatty acids: co-occurrence of dietary sources with emphasis on fish and shellfish.

    PubMed

    Mahaffey, Kathryn R; Clickner, Robert P; Jeffries, Rebecca A

    2008-05-01

    Despite many claims of broad benefits, especially for in utero development, derived from the consumption of fish as a source of omega-3 fatty acids, individual species of fish and shellfish provide substantially varied levels of these fatty acids. Likewise, mean methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations for fish and shellfish species differ by greater than an order of magnitude. Consideration of within-species variability would increase this variation farther. Exposures to both MeHg and to the omega-3 fatty acids reflect dietary choices including species consumed, frequency of consumption, and portion size. In view of these sources of variability, data on dietary patterns and blood mercury (microg/L) among women of child-bearing age (e.g., 16-49 years) provided an indication of exposures in the United States. Utilizing data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for survey years 1999--2002, calculated consumption of MeHg and omega-3 fatty acids from fish and shellfish have been estimated based on results from 3614 women who provided 30-day dietary recall and 24-hours records. Statistics from NHANES when appropriately weighted are representative of the US population. The association between dietary MeHg from fish and shellfish and dietary fish intake yielded a Pearson correlation of 0.68. The Pearson correlation between estimated 30-day intake from fish/shellfish consumption for omega-3 fatty acids and MeHg was 0.66. Evaluation of the most commonly consumed fish and shellfish species as sources of MeHg and omega-3 fatty acids indicated that salmon followed by shrimp are principal sources of omega-3 fatty acids and are lesser sources of MeHg, in contrast with tuna which provides omega-3 fatty acids, but considerably higher levels of MeHg. These data can be used to guide selection of individual fish and shellfish species that are higher in omega-3 content and low in MeHg concentrations. This more refined dietary approach contrasts with generic

  4. Selenium: Mercury Molar Ratios in Freshwater Fish in the Columbia River Basin: Potential Applications for Specific Fish Consumption Advisories.

    PubMed

    Cusack, Leanne K; Eagles-Smith, Collin; Harding, Anna K; Kile, Molly; Stone, Dave

    2016-12-08

    Fish provide a valuable source of beneficial nutrients and are an excellent source of low fat protein. However, fish are also the primary source of methylmercury exposure in humans. Selenium often co-occurs with mercury and there is some evidence that selenium can protect against mercury toxicity yet States issue fish consumption advisories based solely on the risks that methylmercury pose to human health. Recently, it has been suggested the selenium: mercury molar ratio be considered in risk management. In order for agencies to utilize the ratio to set consumption guidelines, it is important to evaluate the variability in selenium and mercury in different fish species. We examined 10 different freshwater fish species found within the Columbia River Basin in order to determine the inter- and intra-specific variability in the selenium: mercury molar ratios and the selenium health benefit values. We found significant variation in selenium: mercury molar ratios. The mean molar ratios for each species were all above 1:1, ranging from 3.42:1 in Walleye to 27.2:1 in Chinook salmon. There was a positive correlation between both mercury and selenium with length for each fish species apart from yellow perch and rainbow trout. All species had health benefit values greater than 2. We observed considerable variability in selenium: mercury molar ratios within fish species collected in the Columbia River Basin. Although incorporating selenium: mercury molar ratios into fish consumption holds the potential for refining advisories and assessing the risk of methylmercury exposure, the current understanding of how these ratios apply is insufficient, and further understanding of drivers of variability in the ratios is needed.

  5. Selenium: Mercury molar ratios in freshwater fish in the Columbia River Basin: Potential applications for specific fish consumption advisories

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cusack, Leanne K.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Harding, Anna K.; Kile, Molly; Stone, Dave

    2017-01-01

    Fish provide a valuable source of beneficial nutrients and are an excellent source of low fat protein. However, fish are also the primary source of methylmercury exposure in humans. Selenium often co-occurs with mercury and there is some evidence that selenium can protect against mercury toxicity yet States issue fish consumption advisories based solely on the risks that methylmercury pose to human health. Recently, it has been suggested the selenium: mercury molar ratio be considered in risk management. In order for agencies to utilize the ratio to set consumption guidelines, it is important to evaluate the variability in selenium and mercury in different fish species. We examined 10 different freshwater fish species found within the Columbia River Basin in order to determine the inter- and intra-specific variability in the selenium: mercury molar ratios and the selenium health benefit values. We found significant variation in selenium: mercury molar ratios. The mean molar ratios for each species were all above 1:1, ranging from 3.42:1 in Walleye to 27.2:1 in Chinook salmon. There was a positive correlation between both mercury and selenium with length for each fish species apart from yellow perch and rainbow trout. All species had health benefit values greater than 2. We observed considerable variability in selenium: mercury molar ratios within fish species collected in the Columbia River Basin. Although incorporating selenium: mercury molar ratios into fish consumption holds the potential for refining advisories and assessing the risk of methylmercury exposure, the current understanding of how these ratios apply is insufficient, and further understanding of drivers of variability in the ratios is needed.

  6. Methylmercury concentrations in six fish species from two Colombian rivers.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Santiago; Jessick, Ashley M; Palacio, Jaime A; Kolok, Alan S

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether fish collected from the La Miel or Nechí Rivers (Colombia) differed in muscle methyl mercury (meHg) concentration. Two fish from six different species were collected from markets adjacent to each river. Overall, fish collected from the market adjacent to the Nechí River contained higher levels of meHg. This result however is being driven by very high meHg concentrations in four individual fish, three of which are Pimelodid, long-whiskered catfish. These catfish may represent ideal sentinel organism for the detection of meHg contamination in Colombian rivers.

  7. Fish consumption patterns and mercury exposure levels among women of childbearing age in Duval County, Florida.

    PubMed

    Traynor, Sharleen; Kearney, Greg; Olson, David; Hilliard, Aaron; Palcic, Jason; Pawlowicz, Marek

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of fish containing methylmercury can pose serious health concerns including neurotoxic effects in adults and toxicity to the fetuses of mothers exposed during pregnancy. In the study described in this article, the authors examined fish consumption patterns and measured hair mercury levels of women of childbearing age in a coastal county in Florida. Women from the community participated in a risk factor assessment survey (N = 703). Hair samples (n = 698) were collected and analyzed for mercury. The authors identified 74.8% below detection limit; 25.2% had detectable limits of mercury, while 7% exceeded 1 pg/g. Hair mercury levels increased with fish consumption and age. Race, income, and education levels were also associated with increased hair mercury levels. Women of Asian/Pacific Islander origin had the highest levels. Although reported fish consumption exceeded the recommendations for women of childbearing age, the study population had lower mercury levels than other comparative studies in Florida and at national levels.

  8. Methylmercury in fish from Owyhee Reservoir in southeast Oregon: scientific uncertainty and fish advisories.

    PubMed

    Neumann, C M; Kauffman, K W; Gilroy, D J

    1997-10-01

    Data collected during 1987-1994 showed elevated levels of mercury (Hg) in fish tissue from the Owyhee Reservoir in southeastern Oregon. Sixty-five percent of the samples analyzed had total Hg levels exceeding the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) health screening value of 0.6 mg/kg. Eighteen out of 89 (20%) fish tissue samples also had total Hg levels greater than the US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) mercury action level of 1.0 mg/kg. The overall mean Hg content for all fish collected from the reservoir was 0.75 mg/kg wet weight (wet wt.). Fish muscle taken from largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) had the highest mean Hg levels of 0.92, 0.87 and 0.82 mg/kg, respectively. In contrast, rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) had the lowest mean Hg content of 0.37 mg/kg. Increases in total Hg concentrations were found to be positively correlated with size for rainbow trout and yellow perch. A weak but significant correlation was also observed between total mercury content and age for smallmouth bass. Based on these data, in 1994 the Oregon Health Division (OHD) issued a fish consumption advisory for the Owyhee Reservoir using a conservative risk-based approach. The process of defining and communicating these consumption limits is the subject of this paper.

  9. Fish Consumption Patterns and Mercury Advisory Knowledge Among Fishers in the Haw River Basin

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Jill E.; Hoffman, Kate; Wing, Steve; Lowman, Amy

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Fish consumption has numerous health benefits, with fish providing a source of protein as well as omega-3 fatty acids. However, some fish also contain contaminants that can impair human health. In North Carolina, the Department of Health and Human Services has issued fish consumption advisories due to methylmercury contamination in fish. Little is known about local fishers’ consumption patterns and advisory adherence in North Carolina. METHODS We surveyed a consecutive sample of 50 fishers (74.6% positive response rate) who reported eating fish caught from the Haw River Basin or Jordan Lake. They provided information on demographic characteristics, species caught, and the frequency of local fish consumption. Additionally, fishers provided information on their knowledge of fish consumption advisories and the impact of those advisories on their fishing and fish consumption patterns. RESULTS The majority of participants were male (n = 44) and reported living in central North Carolina. Catfish, crappie, sunfish, and large-mouth bass were consumed more frequently than other species of fish. Of the fishers surveyed, 8 reported eating more than 1 fish meal high in mercury per week, which exceeds the North Carolina advisory recommendation. Most participants (n = 32) had no knowledge of local fish advisories, and only 4 fishers reported that advisories impacted their fishing practices. LIMITATIONS We sampled 50 fishers at 11 locations. There is no enumeration of the dynamic population of fishers and no way to assess the representativeness of this sample. CONCLUSIONS Additional outreach is needed to make local fishers aware of fish consumption advisories and the potential health impacts of eating high-mercury fish, which may also contain other persistent and bioaccumulative toxins. PMID:26763238

  10. Fish Consumption Patterns and Mercury Advisory Knowledge Among Fishers in the Haw River Basin.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Jill E; Hoffman, Kate; Wing, Steve; Lowman, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Fish consumption has numerous health benefits, with fish providing a source of protein as well as omega-3 fatty acids. However, some fish also contain contaminants that can impair human health. In North Carolina, the Department of Health and Human Services has issued fish consumption advisories due to methylmercury contamination in fish. Little is known about local fishers' consumption patterns and advisory adherence in North Carolina. We surveyed a consecutive sample of 50 fishers (74.6% positive response rate) who reported eating fish caught from the Haw River Basin or Jordan Lake. They provided information on demographic characteristics, species caught, and the frequency of local fish consumption. Additionally, fishers provided information on their knowledge of fish consumption advisories and the impact of those advisories on their fishing and fish consumption patterns. The majority of participants were male (n = 44) and reported living in central North Carolina. Catfish, crappie, sunfish, and large-mouth bass were consumed more frequently than other species of fish. Of the fishers surveyed, 8 reported eating more than 1 fish meal high in mercury per week, which exceeds the North Carolina advisory recommendation. Most participants (n = 32) had no knowledge of local fish advisories, and only 4 fishers reported that advisories impacted their fishing practices. We sampled 50 fishers at 11 locations. There is no enumeration of the dynamic population of fishers and no way to assess the representativeness of this sample. Additional outreach is needed to make local fishers aware of fish consumption advisories and the potential health impacts of eating high-mercury fish, which may also contain other persistent and bioaccumulative toxins. ©2016 by the North Carolina Institute of Medicine and The Duke Endowment. All rights reserved.

  11. Expansion of methylmercury poisoning outside of Minamata: an epidemiological study on chronic methylmercury poisoning outside of Minamata.

    PubMed

    Ninomiya, T; Ohmori, H; Hashimoto, K; Tsuruta, K; Ekino, S

    1995-07-01

    The first methylmercury poisoning by consumption of fish arose in Minamata, Japan, in 1953. Methylmercury dispersed from Minamata to the Shiranui Sea until 1968. Mercury concentration in the hair of residents on the coast of the Shiranui Sea was 10 to 20 times higher than that in nonpolluted people in Kumamoto Prefecture in 1960. People on the coast of the Shiranui Sea have consumed fish containing low-dose methylmercury without a ban over decades until 1968. We studied the effect of long-term consumption of methylmercury on those people 10 years later after the end of methylmercury dispersion. Our epidemiological study clarified that people in a fishing village (Ooura) on the coast of the Shiranui Sea showed a significantly higher frequency of neurological signs characteristic of methylmercury poisoning (hypoesthesia, ataxia, impairment of hearing, visual change, and dysarthria) in comparison with people in a nonpolluted fishing village (Ichiburi). The neurological disorders were still detected 10 years later in Ooura after the end of methylmercury dispersion from Minamata; hypoesthesia showed the highest frequency in Ooura. These results suggest that people on the coast of the Shiranui Sea were afected by long-term dietary exposure to methylmercury.

  12. Expansion of methylmercury poisoning outside of Minamata: An epidemiological study on chronic methylmercury poisoning outside of Minamata

    SciTech Connect

    Ninomiya, Tadashi; Ohmori, Hiroyuki; Hashimoto, Kiyomi

    1995-07-01

    The first methylmercury poisoning by consumption of fish arose in Minamata, Japan, in 1953. Methylmercury dispersed from Minamata to the to the Shiranui Sea until 1968. Mercury concentration in the hair of residents on the coast of the Shiranui Sea was 10 to 20 times higher than in nonpolluted people in Kumamoto Prefecture in 1960. People on the coast of the Shiranui Sea have consumed fish containing low-dose methylmercury without a ban over decades until 1968. We studied the effect of long-term consumption of methylmercury on those people 10 years later after the end of methylmercury dispersion. Our epidemiological study clarified that people in a fishing village (Ooura) on the coast of the Shiranui Sea showed a significantly higher frequency of neurological signs characteristics of methylmercury poisoning (hypoesthesia, ataxia, impairment of hearing, visual change, and dysarthria) in comparison with people in a nonpolluted fishing village (Ichiburi). The neurological disorders were still detected 10 years later in Ooura after the end of methylmercury dispersion from Minamata: hypoesthesia showed the highest frequency in Ooura. These results suggest that people on the coast of the Shiranui Sea were affected by long-term dietary exposure to methylmercury. 14 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  13. Risk assessment of methyl-mercury intake through cephalopods consumption in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, C; Lourenço, H; Afonso, C; Nunes, M L

    2012-01-01

    The intake of methyl-mercury (methyl-Hg) through the consumption of three common cephalopod species, cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis), squid (Loligo vulgaris) and octopus (Octopus vulgaris), in Portugal as well as the associated probability of exceeding the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) were estimated by combining methyl-Hg contamination levels in these three cephalopods with constructed consumption scenarios and with a hypothesised consumption distribution for the general Portuguese population. It was found that squid presents no serious health concern with respect to methyl-Hg, but cuttlefish and octopus consumption should not exceed two 150 g meals per week. Moreover, the methyl-Hg risk assessment for Portuguese consumers showed no risk concerning the observed cephalopods consumption levels. However, besides methyl-Hg, other toxic metals present in cephalopods, such as cadmium, may be a serious health concern and the methyl-Hg risk can be compounded by the risk of other foods containing significant methyl-Hg levels, especially long-lived sea predators. Accordingly, a cautionary note must be attached to advised maximum consumptions, which may be revised by future studies. Tail estimation (TE) estimator was more accurate for lower probabilities, rendering accurate risk estimations different from zero. However, for higher probabilities, the much simpler plug-in (PI) estimator could be applied. Additionally, limitations of a deterministic approach were identified.

  14. Methylmercury: a new look at the risks.

    PubMed Central

    Mahaffey, K R

    1999-01-01

    In the US, exposure to methylmercury, a neurotoxin, occurs primarily through consumption of fish. Data from recent studies assessing the health impact of methylmercury exposure due to consumption of fish and other sources in the aquatic food web (shellfish, crustacea, and marine mammals) suggest adverse effects at levels previously considered safe. There is substantial variation in human methylmercury exposure based on differences in the frequency and amount of fish consumed and in the fish's mercury concentration. Although virtually all fish and other seafood contain at least trace amounts of methylmercury, large predatory fish species have the highest concentrations. Concerns have been expressed about mercury exposure levels in the US, particularly among sensitive populations, and discussions are underway about the standards used by various federal agencies to protect the public. In the 1997 Mercury Study Report to Congress, the US Environmental Protection Agency summarized the current state of knowledge on methylmercury's effects on the health of humans and wildlife; sources of mercury; and how mercury is distributed in the environment. This article summarizes some of the major findings in the Report to Congress and identifies issues of concern to the public health community. Images p396-a p397-a p399-a p406-a p408-a p410-a PMID:10590759

  15. Total mercury and methylmercury levels in fish from hydroelectric reservoirs in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Ikingura, J R; Akagi, H

    2003-03-20

    Total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) levels have been determined in fish species representing various tropic levels in four major hydroelectric reservoirs (Mtera, Kidatu, Hale-Pangani, Nyumba ya Mungu) located in two distinct geographical areas in Tanzania. The Mtera and Kidatu reservoirs are located along the Great Ruaha River drainage basin in the southern central part of the country while the other reservoirs are located within the Pangani River basin in the north eastern part of Tanzania. Fish mercury levels ranged from 5 to 143 microg/kg (mean 40 microg/kg wet weight) in the Mtera Reservoir, and from 7 to 119 microg/kg (mean 21 microg/kg) in the Kidatu Reservoir downstream of the Great Ruaha River. The lowest THg levels, in the range 1-10 microg/kg (mean 5 microg/kg), were found in fish from the Nyumba ya Mungu (NyM) Reservoir, which is one of the oldest reservoirs in the country. Fish mercury levels in the Pangani and Hale mini-reservoirs, downstream of the NyM Reservoir, were in the order of 3-263 microg/kg, with an average level of 21 microg/kg. These THg levels are among the lowest to be reported in freshwater fish from hydroelectric reservoirs. Approximately 56-100% of the total mercury in the fish was methylmercury. Herbivorous fish species contained lower THg levels than the piscivorous species; this was consistent with similar findings in other fish studies. In general the fish from the Tanzanian reservoirs contained very low mercury concentrations, and differed markedly from fish in hydroelectric reservoirs of similar age in temperate and other regions, which are reported to contain elevated mercury concentrations. The low levels of mercury in the fish correlated with low background concentrations of THg in sediment and flooded soil (mean 2-8 microg/kg dry weight) in the reservoir surroundings. This suggested a relatively clean reservoir environment that has not been significantly impacted by mercury contamination from natural or anthropogenic

  16. Fish consumption recommendations to conform to current advice in regard to mercury intake.

    PubMed

    Vieira, H C; Morgado, F; Soares, A M V M; Abreu, S N

    2015-07-01

    This article reviews fish consumption data, mercury tolerable intake values, and mercury (Hg) content in fish, based on several reports from the Food and Agriculture Organization and European Union. The study assumptions are valid based on the current established USEPA reference dose (RfD). Combining the number of meals (per week), amount of fish ingested (by meal), and levels of MeHg in fish, this study calculates and presents isocurves indicating the maximum number of fishmeal per week without exceeding the USEPA RfD for methylmercury (MeHg). RfD are assumed to be the "exposure dose that is likely to be without deleterious effect even if continued exposure occurs over a lifetime." The study points out that even considering a single 50-g fish meal per week, the USEPA RfD would be exceeded, triggered by values above 0.84 μg g(-1) of MeHg in fish, and this despite being allowed levels up to 1.0 μg g(-1) of MeHg in fish consumption!-Have we a health risk? Fish consumption is expected to be relatively stable, while anthropogenic mercury emissions are expected to stabilize or even to increase beyond current values. How many meals of fish per week can we have, combining the number of fish meals per week, amount of fish ingested by meal, and levels of MeHg in fish?

  17. Determination of methylmercury in fish samples using GC/AA and sodium tetraethylborate derivatization.

    PubMed

    Fischer, R; Rapsomanikis, S; Andreae, M O

    1993-03-15

    A simple technique is described for the rapid determination of methylmercury in fish tissue. Following simple dissolution in methanolic KOH solution, aqueous phase ethylation by derivatization with NaB(C2H5)4, cryogenic trapping on a packed chromatographic column, and GC separation, volatile mercury species are detected by atomic absorption spectrometry. Absolute detection limits are 4 pg of Hg for CH3Hg+ and 75 pg of Hg for labile Hg2+. Concentration detection limits for this optimized procedure are 4 ng of Hg for CH3Hg+ and 75 ng of Hg for labile Hg2+ per gram of pulverized dried fish tissue. Analysis of standard reference materials demonstrates the accuracy, precision, and reproducibility of the analytical method.

  18. Mercury and methylmercury levels in the main traded fish species in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Chung, S W C; Kwong, K P; Tang, A S P; Xiao, Y; Ho, P Y Y

    2008-01-01

    Levels of total mercury (tHg) and mono-methylmercury (MeHg) were measured in 280 different fish, including fresh/frozen raw whole fish of 89 different species and canned tuna fish of three different species, that are traded mainly in Hong Kong, China. These samples were purchased from different commercial outlets between April and August 2007. All samples of raw whole fish were identified at species level by the Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department. The range for tHg and MeHg of all samples were 3-1370 and 3-1010 µg kg(-1), respectively, with medians of 63 and 48 µg kg(-1), respectively. The results show that, according to Hong Kong legislation, the products on the market are generally 'safe'. A total of 277 samples (99?) contained tHg and MeHg below the legal limit of 500 µg kg(-1). The remaining three samples of alfonsino (species: Beryx splendens) were found to contain tHg and MeHg at levels higher than 500 µg kg(-1) (tHg: 609-1370 µg kg(-1); MeHg: 509-1010 µg kg(-1)). The ratios of MeHg to tHg in the different fish species ranged from 0.46 to 0.99.

  19. Ecological and biological determinants of methylmercury accumulation in tropical coastal fish.

    PubMed

    Seixas, Tércia G; Moreira, Isabel; Malm, Olaf; Kehrig, Helena A

    2013-02-01

    This research investigated whether environmental conditions, biological fish characteristics and anthropogenic impacts influenced mercury (Hg) assimilation into the muscle tissue of two fish species from two Brazilian bays, Ilha Grande Bay and Guanabara Bay. Fish and superficial water were collected in different periods. Hg was determined by CV-AAS. Methylmercury (MeHg) was identified and quantified by ECD-GC. Chlorophyll a concentrations in the water column indicated that Ilha Grande Bay and Guanabara Bay were oligotrophic and eutrophic, respectively. Hg in fish ranged from 2.10 to 870.17 μg kg(-1) dry wt. in Ilha Grande Bay and 40.90 to 809.24 μg kg(-1) dry wt. in Guanabara Bay. Slight differences were found between the length-normalized Hg concentrations and its percent of Hg in a voracious predator from the bays. In Guanabara Bay, where the presence of a chlor-alkali plant causes Hg input, the iliophagous fish species showed the highest length-normalized Hg concentrations and the voracious predator the lowest. Iliophagous fish is consumed by voracious predator and, consequently, acts as their MeHg food supply. Iliophagous fish from Ilha Grande Bay presented a higher percent of MeHg (80.0 %) than specimens from Guanabara Bay (54.5 %). This fact suggests that more MeHg was transferred from iliophagous fish to voracious predator in Ilha Grande Bay. At Guanabara Bay, the bioproduction is greater than that at Ilha Grande Bay, presenting the highest biomass in it ecosystem, which may subsequently dilute Hg and reduce its availability to the biota; i.e., influencing in Hg and MeHg availability throughout the food chain. Consequently, more MeHg is available in the aquatic environment of Ilha Grande Bay.

  20. Necrophagy by a benthic omnivore influences biomagnification of methylmercury in fish.

    PubMed

    Bowling, Anna M; Hammerschmidt, Chad R; Oris, James T

    2011-04-01

    Omnivory has an important role in the movement of energy, nutrients, and contaminants between benthic and pelagic food webs. While top-predator fish are known to supplement a mostly piscivorous diet with benthic organisms, a more obscure benthic-pelagic coupling occurs when benthic invertebrates forage on fish carcasses, referred to as necrophagy. The combination of these two benthic-pelagic links, top-predator fish feeding on benthic organisms that have fed on dead fish, can generate a trophic feedback cycle that conserves energy and nutrients and may have implications for biomagnification of methylmercury (MeHg) in fish. We investigated the role of necrophagy by crayfish (Procambarus clarkii), via a trophic feedback cycle, on the biomagnification of MeHg in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), a cosmopolitan top predator fish known to feed on crayfish. Controlled laboratory tests quantified the uptake of MeHg by both organisms from artificial and natural food (whole crayfish or bass tissue). Assimilation efficiency (AE) of MeHg was greater for bass fed crayfish (79±0.5%) than those fed artificial food (60±3%). Furthermore, AE of MeHg was greatest for largemouth bass fed crayfish that fed on MeHg-dosed dead fish (i.e., trophic feedback cycle; 94±17%). A model, parameterized with results of the laboratory experiments, was used to make steady-state projections of MeHg biomagnification factors. Model projections also indicate that MeHg biomagnification would be greatest for largemouth bass from a trophic feedback cycle. These results suggest that food web ecology has an important role in determining MeHg levels in predatory fish and underscore the need for further investigation into the magnitude that necrophagy may affect MeHg biomagnification in aquatic systems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Recent evidence from epidemiological studies on methylmercury toxicity.

    PubMed

    Murata, Katsuyuki; Yoshida, Minoru; Sakamoto, Mineshi; Iwai-Shimada, Miyuki; Yaginuma-Sakurai, Kozue; Tatsuta, Nozomi; Iwata, Toyoto; Karita, Kanae; Nakai, Kunihiko

    2011-09-01

    More than fifty years have passed since the outbreak of Minamata disease, and large-scale methylmercury poisoning due to industrial effluents or methylmercury-containing fungicide intoxication has scarcely happened in developed countries. On the other hand, widespread environmental mercury contamination has occurred in gold and mercury mining areas of developing countries. In this article, we provided an overview of recent studies addressing human health effects of methylmercury, which we searched using the PubMed of the US National Library of Medicine. The following suggestions were obtained for low-level methylmercury exposure: (1) In recent years, the proportion of human studies addressing methylmercury has tended to decrease. (2) Prenatal exposure to methylmercury through fish intake, even at low levels, adversely affects child development after adjusting for polychlorinated biphenyls and maternal fish intake during pregnancy, whereas maternal seafood intake has some benefits. (3) Long-term methylmercury exposure through consumption of fish such as bigeye tuna and swordfish may pose a potential risk of cardiac events involving sympathovagal imbalance. (4) In measuring methylmercury levels in preserved umbilical cord collected from inhabitants born in Minamata areas between 1945 and 1989, the elevated concentrations (≥1 mg/g) were observed mainly in inhabitants born between 1947 and 1968, and the peak coincided with the peak of acetaldehyde production in Minamata. (5) Since some developing countries appear to be in similar situations to Japan in the past, attention should be directed toward early recognition of a risky agent and precautions should be taken against it.

  2. Methylmercury in fish from the South China Sea: geographical distribution and biomagnification.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Aijia; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Zhanzhou; Huang, Liangmin; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2013-12-15

    We conducted a large-scale investigation of methylmercury (MeHg) in a total of 628 marine wild fish covering 46 different species collected from the South China Sea between 2008 and 2009. Biological and ecological characteristics such as size (length and wet weight), feeding habit, habitat, and stable isotope (δ(15)N) were examined to explain MeHg bioaccumulation in marine fish and their geographical distribution. MeHg levels in the muscle tissues of the 628 individuals ranged from 0.010 to 1.811 μg/g dry wt. Log10MeHg concentration was significantly related to their length and wet weight. Feeding habit and habitat were the primary factors influencing MeHg bioaccumulation. Demersal fish were more likely to be contaminated with MeHg than the epipelagic and mesopelagic varieties. Linear relationships were obtained between Log10(MeHg) and δ(15)N only for one location, indicating that biomagnification was site-specific. Results from this study suggest that dietary preference and trophic structure were the main factors affecting MeHg bioaccumulation in marine fish from the South China Sea.

  3. Spatial patterns of methylmercury risks to common loons and piscivorous fish in Canada.

    PubMed

    Depew, David C; Burgess, Neil M; Campbell, Linda M

    2013-11-19

    Deposition of inorganic mercury (Hg) from the atmosphere remains the principle source of Hg contamination for most aquatic ecosystems. Inorganic Hg is readily converted to toxic methylmercury (MeHg) that bioaccumulates in aquatic food webs and may pose a risk to piscivorous fish and wildlife. We conducted a screening-level risk assessment to evaluate the extent of risk to top aquatic piscivores: the common loon (Gavia immer), walleye (Sander vitreus), and northern pike (Esox lucius). Risk quotients (RQs) were calculated on the basis of a dietary Hg exposure indicator (HgPREY) modeled from over 230,000 observations of fish Hg concentrations at over 1900 locations across Canada and dietary Hg exposure screening benchmarks derived specifically for this assessment. HgPREY exceeded benchmark thresholds related to impaired productivity and behavior in adult loons at 10% and 36% of sites, respectively, and exceeded benchmark thresholds for impaired reproduction and health in fishes at 82% and 73% of sites, respectively. The ecozones of southeastern Canada characterized by extensive forest cover, elevated Hg deposition, and poorly buffered soils had the greatest proportion of RQs > 1.0. Results of this assessment suggest that common loons and piscivorous fishes would likely benefit from reductions in Hg deposition, especially in southeastern Canada.

  4. Absence of fractionation of mercury isotopes during trophic transfer of methylmercury to freshwater fish in captivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kwon, Sae Yun; Blum, Joel D.; Carvan, Michael J.; Basu, Niladri; Head, Jessica A.; Madenjian, Charles P.; David, Solomon R.

    2012-01-01

    We performed two controlled experiments to determine the amount of mass-dependent and mass-independent fractionation (MDF and MIF) of methylmercury (MeHg) during trophic transfer into fish. In experiment 1, juvenile yellow perch (Perca flavescens) were raised in captivity on commercial food pellets and then their diet was either maintained on unamended food pellets (0.1 μg/g MeHg) or was switched to food pellets with 1.0 μg/g or 4.0 μg/g of added MeHg, for a period of 2 months. The difference in δ202Hg (MDF) and Δ199Hg (MIF) between fish tissues and food pellets with added MeHg was within the analytical uncertainty (δ202Hg, 0.07 ‰; Δ199Hg, 0.06 ‰), indicating no isotope fractionation. In experiment 2, lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) were raised in captivity on food pellets and then shifted to a diet of bloater (Coregonus hoyi) for 6 months. The δ202Hg and Δ199Hg of the lake trout equaled the isotopic composition of the bloater after 6 months, reflecting reequilibration of the Hg isotopic composition of the fish to new food sources and a lack of isotope fractionation during trophic transfer. We suggest that the stable Hg isotope ratios in fish can be used to trace environmental sources of Hg in aquatic ecosystems.

  5. Absence of fractionation of mercury isotopes during trophic transfer of methylmercury to freshwater fish in captivity

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Sae Yun; Blum, Joel D; Carvan, Michael J; Basu, Niladri; Head, Jessica A; Madenjian, Charles P; David, Solomon R

    2015-01-01

    We performed two controlled experiments to determine the amount of mass-dependent and mass-independent fractionation (MDF and MIF) of methylmercury (MeHg) during trophic transfer into fish. In Experiment 1, juvenile yellow perch (Perca flavescens) were raised in captivity on commercial food pellets and then their diet was either maintained on un-amended food pellets (0.1 µg/g MeHg), or was switched to food pellets with 1.0 µg/g or 4.0 µg/g of added MeHg, for a period of 2 months. The difference in δ202Hg (MDF) and Δ199Hg (MIF) between fish tissues and food pellets with added MeHg were within the analytical uncertainty (δ202Hg; 0.07 ‰, Δ199Hg; 0.06 ‰) indicating no isotope fractionation. In Experiment 2, lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) were raised in captivity on food pellets, and then shifted to a diet of bloater (Coregonus hoyi) for 6 months. The δ202Hg and Δ199Hg of the lake trout equaled the isotopic composition of the bloater after 6 months, reflecting re-equilibration of the Hg isotopic composition of the fish to new food sources and a lack of isotope fractionation during trophic transfer. We suggest that the stable Hg isotope ratios in fish can be used to trace environmental sources of Hg in aquatic ecosystems. PMID:22681311

  6. Absence of fractionation of mercury isotopes during trophic transfer of methylmercury to freshwater fish in captivity.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Sae Yun; Blum, Joel D; Carvan, Michael J; Basu, Niladri; Head, Jessica A; Madenjian, Charles P; David, Solomon R

    2012-07-17

    We performed two controlled experiments to determine the amount of mass-dependent and mass-independent fractionation (MDF and MIF) of methylmercury (MeHg) during trophic transfer into fish. In experiment 1, juvenile yellow perch (Perca flavescens) were raised in captivity on commercial food pellets and then their diet was either maintained on unamended food pellets (0.1 μg/g MeHg) or was switched to food pellets with 1.0 μg/g or 4.0 μg/g of added MeHg, for a period of 2 months. The difference in δ(202)Hg (MDF) and Δ(199)Hg (MIF) between fish tissues and food pellets with added MeHg was within the analytical uncertainty (δ(202)Hg, 0.07 ‰; Δ(199)Hg, 0.06 ‰), indicating no isotope fractionation. In experiment 2, lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) were raised in captivity on food pellets and then shifted to a diet of bloater (Coregonus hoyi) for 6 months. The δ(202)Hg and Δ(199)Hg of the lake trout equaled the isotopic composition of the bloater after 6 months, reflecting reequilibration of the Hg isotopic composition of the fish to new food sources and a lack of isotope fractionation during trophic transfer. We suggest that the stable Hg isotope ratios in fish can be used to trace environmental sources of Hg in aquatic ecosystems.

  7. Poor psychometric scores of children living in isolated riverine and agrarian communities and fish-methylmercury exposure.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Márlon de F; Dórea, José G; Bastos, Wanderley R; Marques, Rejane C; Torres, João P M; Malm, Olaf

    2008-11-01

    Because of heavy dependence on fish, Amazonian riparian communities are chronically exposed to high levels of methylmercury (MeHg). We studied fish-MeHg exposure (total hair-Hg, HHg) as a determinant of neurocognitive scores of children living in two geographically distant, culturally distinct and isolated poor communities of non-urban environments: Amazonian riverines (Riparians, n=38) of the Puruzinho Lake community in the Rio Madeira Basin and rural agrarians from Iúna, Espírito Santo (Agrarians, n=32). Nutritional status was estimated by anthropometry (Z-scores) and individual cognitive abilities were assessed by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III (WISC-III) and the Human Figure Drawings (HFD), both validated versions for Brazilian children. Anthropometric assessment showed slightly elevated Z-scores for the Agrarian children (not statistically significant) but median HHg concentrations were 14.4 and 0.25microgg(-1) respectively for Riparian and Agrarian children (p=0.000). Despite paradoxical MeHg exposures, both groups showed comparable HFD scores but very poor performance in WISC-III test battery; median of sum of WISC-III subtests scores (SigmaTOT) were 17.9 and 28.6 (p<0.000) for Riparian and Agrarian children, respectively (percentage scale). Spearman correlation between nutritional status (attained growth) and psychometric scores were statistically significant between height-for-age Z-score and Object Assembly subtest (r=0.269; p=0.043), SigmaTOT (r=0.319; p=0.016), Performance-IQ (r=0.311; p=0.019) and Perceptual Organization Index scores (r=0.302; p=0.023). In these isolated communities there are stronger determinants of neurocognitive poor performance than MeHg exposure. Global strategies for reducing human exposure to MeHg by curtailing fish consumption are unrealistic options for riverine subsistence populations and are not justifiable to prevent low cognitive scores.

  8. Risk assessment of methylmercury in five European countries considering the national seafood consumption patterns.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Silke; Sioen, Isabelle; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Domingo, José L; Sloth, Jens J; Marques, António; Verbeke, Wim

    2017-06-01

    Although seafood is a nutritious protein source, due to marine environmental pollution, seafood may also be a source of contaminants. The results obtained within the FP7-ECsafeSEAFOOD-project show that among the range of studied environmental contaminants certainly methylmercury (MeHg) requires deeper investigation. This paper presents the results of a probabilistic risk assessment for MeHg based on: (1) primary concentration data, as well as secondary data from published papers, and (2) primary species-specific consumption data collected in five European countries (Belgium, Ireland, Italy, Portugal and Spain). The results indicated that in the southern European countries, larger subgroups of the population (up to 11% in Portugal) are potentially at risk for a MeHg exposure above the Tolerable Weekly Intake (TWI) value, while this risk is much lower in Ireland and Belgium. This research confirms the substantial contribution of tuna to MeHg exposure in each of the countries. Also hake, cod, sea bream, sea bass and octopus are identified as important contributors. From this study, it is concluded that a country-specific seafood consumption advice is needed. Policy makers may adopt the results of this study in order to develop consumer advices that optimise health benefits versus potential health risks by providing species-specific information. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Fish consumption and track to a fish feed formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai-Juan, Soong; Ramli, Razamin; Rahman, Rosshairy Abdul

    2015-12-01

    Strategically located in the equator, Malaysia is blessed with plenty of fish supply. The high demand in fish consumption has helped the development in the fishery industry and provided numerous jobs in the secondary sector, contributing significantly to the nation's income. A survey was conducted to understand the trend of current demands for fish for the purpose of designing a feed formulation, which is still limited in this area of study. Results showed that grouper fish in restaurants commanded a very high price compared to other species of fish. Tiger grouper gained the highest demand in most restaurants, while giant grouper had the highest price in restaurants. Due to the demand and challenges to culture this type of fish, a framework for fish feed formulation is proposed. The formulation framework when materialized could be an alternative to the use of trash fish as the feed for grouper.

  10. What determines fresh fish consumption in Croatia?

    PubMed

    Tomić, Marina; Matulić, Daniel; Jelić, Margareta

    2016-11-01

    Although fresh fish is widely available, consumption still remains below the recommended intake levels among the majority of European consumers. The economic crisis affects consumer food behaviour, therefore fresh fish is perceived as healthy but expensive food product. The aim of this study was to determine the factors influencing fresh fish consumption using an expanded Theory of Planned Behaviour (Ajzen, 1991) as a theoretical framework. The survey was conducted on a heterogeneous sample of 1151 Croatian fresh fish consumers. The study investigated the relationship between attitudes, perceived behavioural control, subjective norm, moral obligation, involvement in health, availability, intention and consumption of fresh fish. Structural Equation Modeling by Partial Least Squares was used to analyse the collected data. The results indicated that attitudes are the strongest positive predictor of the intention to consume fresh fish. Other significant predictors of the intention to consume fresh fish were perceived behavioural control, subjective norm, health involvement and moral obligation. The intention to consume fresh fish showed a strong positive correlation with behaviour. This survey provides valuable information for food marketing professionals and for the food industry in general. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Organotin intake through fish consumption in Finland

    SciTech Connect

    Airaksinen, Riikka; Rantakokko, Panu; Turunen, Anu W.; Vartiainen, Terttu; Vuorinen, Pekka J.; Lappalainen, Antti; Vihervuori, Aune; Mannio, Jaakko; Hallikainen, Anja

    2010-08-15

    Background: Organotin compounds (OTCs) are a large class of synthetic chemicals with widely varying properties. Due to their potential adverse health effects, their use has been restricted in many countries. Humans are exposed to OTCs mostly through fish consumption. Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe OTC exposure through fish consumption and to assess the associated potential health risks in a Finnish population. Methods: An extensive sampling of Finnish domestic fish was carried out in the Baltic Sea and freshwater areas in 2005-2007. In addition, samples of imported seafood were collected in 2008. The chemical analysis was performed in an accredited testing laboratory during 2005-2008. Average daily intake of the sum of dibutyltin (DBT), tributyltin (TBT), triphenyltin (TPhT) and dioctyltin (DOT) ({Sigma}OTCs) for the Finnish population was calculated on the basis of the measured concentrations and fish consumption rates. Results: The average daily intake of {Sigma}OTCs through fish consumption was 3.2 ng/kg bw day{sup -1}, which is 1.3% from the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) of 250 ng/kg bw day{sup -1} set by the European Food Safety Authority. In total, domestic wild fish accounted for 61% of the {Sigma}OTC intake, while the intake through domestic farmed fish was 4.0% and the intake through imported fish was 35%. The most important species were domestic perch and imported salmon and rainbow trout. Conclusions: The Finnish consumers are not likely to exceed the threshold level for adverse health effects due to OTC intake through fish consumption.

  12. National estimation of seafood consumption in Mexico: Implications for exposure to methylmercury and polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Cantoral, Alejandra; Batis, Carolina; Basu, Niladri

    2017-05-01

    Seafood is a good source of Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3-PUFA) but also contains the toxic contaminant methylmercury (MeHg). National estimates of exposure to both compounds through seafood intake in Mexico are not known. The objective of the current study was to describe national seafood consumption habits and to estimate seafood-based exposure to ω3-PUFAs and MeHg. We analyzed data from a 24-h dietary recall extracted from the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey of Mexico (n = 10,096 subjects aged 1y and older). National per capita seafood intake as well as information on age, sex, socioeconomic status, and geographic region was obtained. The contribution of each seafood item to the total MeHg exposure was estimated, as was the balance between estimated exposures to ω3-PUFAs and MeHg. A mean daily seafood intake of 10 g/day was estimated. The top species consumed in decreasing order were: canned tuna, sunfish, shrimp, mullet, carp and schoolshark (constituted 60% of seafood intake). Canned tuna and schoolshark contributed 75% of the population's estimated exposure to MeHg. The best balance of population-level exposures to ω3-PUFAs and MeHg was found in salmon, sardine, trout and anchovies. Environmental dietary exposure to MeHg is a public health concern and thus a good understanding of seafood consumption is needed to create national consumption guidelines. The current study provides nationally-representative data in Mexico from which decisions can be made (e.g., UN Minamata Convention) and future studies conducted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Intra- and inter-specific variability in total and methylmercury bioaccumulation by eight marine fish species from the Azores.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Maria C; Costa, Valentina; Menezes, Gui M; Pinho, Mário R; Santos, Ricardo S; Monteiro, Luís R

    2007-10-01

    We relate fish biological and ecological characteristics to total and organic mercury concentrations to determine whether accumulation is influenced by trophic level, Hg concentration in the diet, and vertical distribution. Levels of total mercury and methylmercury were determined in the muscle tissue of eight species of fish: Pagellus acarne, Trachurus picturatus, Phycis phycis, P. blennoides, Polyprion americanus, Conger conger, Lepidopus caudatus and Mora moro, caught in the Azores. All such fishes are commercially valuable and were selected to include species from a wide range of vertical distributions from epipelagic (<200 m) to mesopelagic (>300 m) environments. Methylmercury was the major form accumulated in all species, comprising an average of 88.1% of total mercury. Concentrations of mercury (total and methylmercury) increased with age, length and weight. Based on data from other studies, mercury concentrations in fish diet were estimated. Mercury levels in food ranged from 0.08 to 0.32 ppm, dry weight. Hg concentrations in the food and in muscle tissue from different species were positively correlated. Total Hg levels in the muscles were approximately nine times those estimated in food. Total mercury concentrations in muscle were positively correlated with both trophic level and median depth. Such enhanced mercury bioaccumulation in relation to depth appears to be determined primarily by concentrations in food and ultimately by water chemistry, which controls mercury speciation and uptake at the base of the food chain.

  14. Environmental Origins of Methylmercury Accumulated in Subarctic Estuarine Fish Indicated by Mercury Stable Isotopes.

    PubMed

    Li, Miling; Schartup, Amina T; Valberg, Amelia P; Ewald, Jessica D; Krabbenhoft, David P; Yin, Runsheng; Balcom, Prentiss H; Sunderland, Elsie M

    2016-11-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) exposure can cause adverse reproductive and neurodevelopmental health effects. Estuarine fish may be exposed to MeHg produced in rivers and their watersheds, benthic sediment, and the marine water column, but the relative importance of each source is poorly understood. We measured stable isotopes of mercury (δ(202)Hg, Δ(199)Hg, and Δ(201)Hg), carbon (δ(13)C), and nitrogen (δ(15)N) in fish with contrasting habitats from a large subarctic coastal ecosystem to better understand MeHg exposure sources. We identify two distinct food chains exposed to predominantly freshwater and marine MeHg sources but do not find evidence for a benthic marine MeHg signature. This is consistent with our previous research showing benthic sediment is a net sink for MeHg in the estuary. Marine fish display lower and less variable Δ(199)Hg values (0.78‰ to 1.77‰) than freshwater fish (0.72‰ to 3.14‰) and higher δ(202)Hg values (marine: 0.1‰ to 0.57‰; freshwater: -0.76‰ to 0.15‰). We observe a shift in the Hg isotopic composition of juvenile and adult rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) when they transition between the freshwater and marine environment as their dominant foraging territory. The Hg isotopic composition of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) indicates they receive most of their MeHg from the marine environment despite a similar or longer duration spent in freshwater regions. We conclude that stable Hg isotopes effectively track fish MeHg exposure sources across different ontogenic stages.

  15. Low-level gestational exposure to mercury and maternal fish consumption: Associations with neurobehavior in early infancy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yingying; Khoury, Jane C; Sucharew, Heidi; Dietrich, Kim; Yolton, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    Studies examining the effects of low-level gestational methylmercury exposure from fish consumption on infant neurobehavioral outcomes in the offspring are limited and inconclusive. Our objective was to examine the effects of low-level gestational exposure to methylmercury on neurobehavioral outcomes in early infancy. We assessed neurobehavior of 344 infants at 5-weeks using the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS). Gestational mercury exposure was measured as whole blood total mercury (WBTHg) in maternal and cord blood. We collected fish consumption information and estimated polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake. We examined the association between gestational mercury exposure and NNNS scales using regression, adjusting for covariates. Geometric mean of maternal and cord WBTHg were 0.64 and 0.72 μg/L, respectively. Most mothers (84%) reported eating fish during pregnancy. Infants with higher prenatal mercury exposure showed increased asymmetric reflexes among girls (p=0.04 for maternal WBTHg and p=0.03 for cord WBTHg), less need for special handling during the assessment (p=0.03 for cord WBTHg) and a trend of better attention (p=0.054 for both maternal WBTHg and cord WBTHg). Similarly, infants born to mothers with higher fish consumption or estimated PUFA intake also had increased asymmetric reflexes and less need for special handling. In models simultaneously adjusted for WBTHg and fish consumption (or PUFA intake), the previously observed WBTHg effects were attenuated; and higher fish consumption (or PUFA intake) was significantly associated with less need for special handling. In a cohort with low level mercury exposure and reporting low fish consumption, we found minimal evidence of mercury associated detrimental effects on neurobehavioral outcomes during early infancy. Higher prenatal mercury exposure was associated with more frequent asymmetric reflexes in girls. In contrast, infants with higher prenatal mercury exposure and those whose mothers

  16. Social communication network analysis of the role of participatory research in the adoption of new fish consumption behaviors.

    PubMed

    Mertens, Frédéric; Saint-Charles, Johanne; Mergler, Donna

    2012-08-01

    The formulation and communication of fish advisories are highly complex because of the potential conflict between the nutritional and toxicological issues associated with fish consumption. Government and organization-sponsored fish advisories have had limited success in changing behaviors. Participatory approaches may enhance the understanding of complex issues and the adoption of new behaviors. Here we used social network analysis to investigate the adoption of dietary changes within the context of a community participatory research project. In the Brazilian Amazon, many communities are highly exposed to methylmercury from fish consumption. A participatory intervention based on dietary changes aimed at reducing methylmercury exposure while maintaining fish consumption was initiated in 1995. In 2001, we collected data on individual participation in the research, on the discussion network regarding mercury issues and on changes in fish consumption from 96 of the 110 village households. More than half of men and women had adopted new fish consumption behavior to reduce mercury exposure. Adoption was associated with participation in the research project for both women and men, and with a higher number of discussion partners about mercury issues for women. Adoption was likewise associated with the presence of a female communication partner in the personal networks of both men and women. At the household level, men and women who considered their spouse as a discussion partner were more likely to adopt than those who did not. Opinion le]adership was associated with change in fish consumption only for women. We discuss the contribution of community participation and communication networks to overcome the difficulties in generating complex messages that take into account both health benefits and risks of fish consumption. We also discuss the relevance of building preventive health programs based on participatory research approaches and the roles and relations specific to

  17. Evaluating microcystin exposure risk through fish consumption

    PubMed Central

    Poste, Amanda E.; Hecky, Robert E.; Guildford, Stephanie J.

    2011-01-01

    Microcystin is a cyanobacterial hepatotoxin that is found worldwide, and poses a serious threat to the ecological communities in which it is found as well as to those who rely on these waters for drinking, sanitation, or as a food source. Microcystin is known to accumulate in fish and other aquatic biota, however the prevalence of microcystin in fish tissue and the human health risks posed by microcystin exposure through fish consumption remain poorly resolved. Here we show that microcystin is pervasive in water and fish from several tropical (Ugandan) and temperate (North American) lakes, including lakes that support some of the largest freshwater fisheries in the world. We establish that fish consumption can be an important and sometimes dominant route of microcystin exposure for humans, and can cause consumers to exceed recommended total daily intake guidelines for microcystin. These results highlight the importance of monitoring microcystin concentrations in fish, and the need to consider potential exposure to microcystin through fish consumption in order to adequately assess human exposure risk. PMID:21671629

  18. Evaluating microcystin exposure risk through fish consumption.

    PubMed

    Poste, Amanda E; Hecky, Robert E; Guildford, Stephanie J

    2011-07-01

    Microcystin is a cyanobacterial hepatotoxin that is found worldwide, and poses a serious threat to the ecological communities in which it is found as well as to those who rely on these waters for drinking, sanitation, or as a food source. Microcystin is known to accumulate in fish and other aquatic biota, however the prevalence of microcystin in fish tissue and the human health risks posed by microcystin exposure through fish consumption remain poorly resolved. Here we show that microcystin is pervasive in water and fish from several tropical (Ugandan) and temperate (North American) lakes, including lakes that support some of the largest freshwater fisheries in the world. We establish that fish consumption can be an important and sometimes dominant route of microcystin exposure for humans, and can cause consumers to exceed recommended total daily intake guidelines for microcystin. These results highlight the importance of monitoring microcystin concentrations in fish, and the need to consider potential exposure to microcystin through fish consumption in order to adequately assess human exposure risk.

  19. Assessment of fish consumption and mercury exposure among pregnant women in Jamaica and Trinidad & Tobago.

    PubMed

    Ricketts, Phylicia; Basu, Niladri; Fletcher, Horace; Voutchkov, Mitko; Bassaw, Bharat

    2016-12-01

    Fish is an essential and traditional element in the diet of most Caribbean people. However it also contains methylmercury which can have severe effects on fetal neurodevelopment. The objective of this study was to assess the fish intake of a selected group of pregnant women from Jamaica and Trinidad & Tobago and evaluate prenatal mercury exposure, using the placenta as a biomarker. Food frequency questionnaires and placental samples were obtained from participating parturients at the time of delivery at the University Hospital of the West Indies in Kingston, Jamaica (N = 100, from November 2012 to March 2013) and the Mt Hope Women's hospital in St Joseph, Trinidad & Tobago (N = 30, in June 2015). The participants were asked to identify the species of fish and the frequency of consumption. Placental samples were analysed for mercury using cold vapour atomic absorption. The fish consumption preferences for pregnant women, varies based on the marine fish catch production of each country. The main fish species that contributed to the highest estimated methylmercury exposure in Jamaica and Trinidad & Tobago were cod and shark, respectively. There was a weak association between maternal fish intake and placental mercury concentrations. The mean placental mercury concentrations in Jamaica and Trinidad & Tobago were 0.74 ± 0.5 μg/kg and 1.46 ± 0.6 μg/kg, wet weight respectively. The results from this study showed an influence of Caribbean fish intake preferences on mercury exposure and thus a recommendation for continuous bio-monitoring for public health purposes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Hair mercury concentrations and fish consumption patterns in Florida residents.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Adam M; Jensen, Emily L; Bossart, Gregory D; Reif, John S

    2014-06-26

    Mercury exposure through the consumption of fish and shellfish represents a significant public health concern in the United States. Recent research has demonstrated higher seafood consumption and subsequent increased risk of methylmercury exposure among subpopulations living in coastal areas. The identification of high concentrations of total mercury in blood and skin among resident Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in the Indian River Lagoon (IRL), a coastal estuary in Florida, alerted us to a potential public health hazard in the contiguous human population. Therefore, we analyzed hair mercury concentrations of residents living along the IRL and ascertained their sources and patterns of seafood consumption. The total mean mercury concentration for 135 residents was 1.53 ± 1.89 µg/g. The concentration of hair mercury among males (2.02 ± 2.38 µg/g) was significantly higher than that for females (0.96 ± 0.74 µg/g) (p < 0.01). Log transformed hair mercury concentration was significantly associated with the frequency of total seafood consumption (p < 0.01). Individuals who reported consuming seafood once a day or more were 3.71 (95% CI 0.84-16.38) times more likely to have a total hair mercury concentration over 1.0 µg/g, which corresponds approximately to the U.S. EPA reference dose, compared to those who consumed seafood once a week or less. Hair mercury concentration was also significantly higher among individuals who obtained all or most of their seafood from local recreational sources (p < 0.01). The elevated human mercury concentrations mirror the elevated concentrations observed in resident dolphins in the same geographical region. The current study is one of the first to apply the concept of a sentinel animal to a contiguous human population.

  1. Hair Mercury Concentrations and Fish Consumption Patterns in Florida Residents

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Adam M.; Jensen, Emily L.; Bossart, Gregory D.; Reif, John S.

    2014-01-01

    Mercury exposure through the consumption of fish and shellfish represents a significant public health concern in the United States. Recent research has demonstrated higher seafood consumption and subsequent increased risk of methylmercury exposure among subpopulations living in coastal areas. The identification of high concentrations of total mercury in blood and skin among resident Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in the Indian River Lagoon (IRL), a coastal estuary in Florida, alerted us to a potential public health hazard in the contiguous human population. Therefore, we analyzed hair mercury concentrations of residents living along the IRL and ascertained their sources and patterns of seafood consumption. The total mean mercury concentration for 135 residents was 1.53 ± 1.89 µg/g. The concentration of hair mercury among males (2.02 ± 2.38 µg/g) was significantly higher than that for females (0.96 ± 0.74 µg/g) (p < 0.01). Log transformed hair mercury concentration was significantly associated with the frequency of total seafood consumption (p < 0.01). Individuals who reported consuming seafood once a day or more were 3.71 (95% CI 0.84–16.38) times more likely to have a total hair mercury concentration over 1.0 µg/g, which corresponds approximately to the U.S. EPA reference dose, compared to those who consumed seafood once a week or less. Hair mercury concentration was also significantly higher among individuals who obtained all or most of their seafood from local recreational sources (p < 0.01). The elevated human mercury concentrations mirror the elevated concentrations observed in resident dolphins in the same geographical region. The current study is one of the first to apply the concept of a sentinel animal to a contiguous human population. PMID:24972033

  2. Cancer mortality in Minamata disease patients exposed to methylmercury through fish diet.

    PubMed

    Kinjo, Y; Akiba, S; Yamaguchi, N; Mizuno, S; Watanabe, S; Wakamiya, J; Futatsuka, M; Kato, H

    1996-09-01

    We report here a historical cohort study on cancer mortality among Minamata disease (MD) patients (n = 1,351) in Kagoshima and Kumamoto Prefectures of Japan. Taking into account their living area, sex, age and fish eating habits, the residents (n = 5,667; 40 years of age or over at 1966) living in coastal areas of Kagoshima, who consumed fish daily, were selected as a reference group from the six-prefecture cohort study conducted by Hirayama et al. The observation periods of the MD patients and of the reference group were from 1973 to 1984 and from 1970 to 1981, respectively. Survival analysis using the Poisson regression model was applied for comparison of mortality between the MD patients and the reference group. No excess of relative risk (RR) adjusted for attained age, sex and follow-up period was observed for mortality from all causes, all cancers, and non-cancers combined. Analysis of site-specific cancers showed a statistically significant decrease in mortality from stomach cancer among MD patients (RR, 0.49; 95% confidence interval, 0.26-0.94). In addition, a statistically significant eight-fold excess risk, based on 5 observed deaths, was noted for mortality from leukemia (RR, 8.35; 95 % confidence interval 1.61-43.3). It is, however, unlikely for these observed risks to be derived from methylmercury exposure only. Further studies are needed to understand the mechanisms involved in the observed risks among MD patients.

  3. Oxygen consumption in weakly electric Neotropical fishes.

    PubMed

    Julian, David; Crampton, William G R; Wohlgemuth, Stephanie E; Albert, James S

    2003-12-01

    Weakly electric gymnotiform fishes with wave-type electric organ discharge (EOD) are less hypoxia-tolerant and are less likely to be found in hypoxic habitats than weakly electric gymnotiforms with pulse-type EOD, suggesting that differences in metabolism resulting from EOD type affects habitat choice. Although gymnotiform fishes are common in most Neotropical freshwaters and represent the dominant vertebrates in some habitats, the metabolic rates of these unique fishes have never been determined. In this study, O(2) consumption rates during EOD generation are reported for 34 gymnotiforms representing 23 species, all five families and 17 (59%) of the 28 genera. Over the size range sampled (0.4 g to 125 g), O(2) consumption of gymnotiform fishes was dependent on body mass, as expected, fitting a power function with a scaling exponent of 0.74, but the O(2) consumption rate was generally about 50% of that expected by extrapolation of temperate teleost metabolic rates to a similar ambient temperature (26 degrees C). O(2) consumption rate was not dependent on EOD type, but maintenance of "scan swimming" (continuous forwards and backwards swimming), which is characteristic only of gymnotiforms with wave-type EODs, increased O(2) consumption 2.83+/-0.49-fold (mean+/-SD). This suggests that the increased metabolic cost of scan swimming could restrict gymnotiforms with wave-type EODs from hypoxic habitats.

  4. A risk-benefit analysis of French high fish consumption: a QALY approach.

    PubMed

    Guevel, Marie-Renée; Sirot, Véronique; Volatier, Jean-Luc; Leblanc, Jean-Charles

    2008-02-01

    The health risk and the nutritional benefit of a food are usually assessed separately. Toxicologists recommend limiting the consumption of certain fish because of methylmercury; while nutritionists recommend eating more oily fish because of omega 3. A common evaluation is imperative to provide coherent recommendations. In order to evaluate the risks along with the benefits related to fish consumption, a common metric based on the quality-adjusted life year (QALY) method has been used. The impact of a theoretical change from a medium n-3 PUFAs intake to a high intake is studied, in terms of the cardiovascular system (CHD mortality, stroke mortality and morbidity) and on fetal neuronal development (IQ loss or gain). This application can be considered as a sensitive analysis of the model used and looks at the impact of changing the dose-response relationships between cardiovascular diseases and n-3 PUFAs intakes. Results show that increasing fish consumption may have a beneficial impact on health. However, the confidence interval of the overall estimation has a negative lower bound, which means that this increase in fish consumption may have a negative impact due to MeHg contamination. Some limits of the QALY approach are identified. The first concerns determination of the dose-response relationships. The second concerns the economic origins of the approach and of individual preferences. Finally, since only one beneficial aspect and one risk element were studied, consideration should be given to how other beneficial and risk components may be integrated in the model.

  5. RISK COMMUNICATION TOOLS FOR FISH CONSUMPTION ADVISORIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In EPA's Mercury Report to Congress an important finding ws that certain populations of subsistence fishermen are at high risk for methyl mercury toxicity because of their high consumption of contaminated fish. Often health risks of Persistent Bioaccumulative Toxicants (PBT) such...

  6. RISK COMMUNICATION TOOLS FOR FISH CONSUMPTION ADVISORIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In EPA's Mercury Report to Congress an important finding ws that certain populations of subsistence fishermen are at high risk for methyl mercury toxicity because of their high consumption of contaminated fish. Often health risks of Persistent Bioaccumulative Toxicants (PBT) such...

  7. Methylmercury exposure in a subsistence fishing community in Lake Chapala, Mexico: an ecological approach

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Elevated concentrations of mercury have been documented in fish in Lake Chapala in central Mexico, an area that is home to a large subsistence fishing community. However, neither the extent of human mercury exposure nor its sources and routes have been elucidated. Methods Total mercury concentrations were measured in samples of fish from Lake Chapala; in sections of sediment cores from the delta of Rio Lerma, the major tributary to the lake; and in a series of suspended-particle samples collected at sites from the mouth of the Lerma to mid-Lake. A cross-sectional survey of 92 women ranging in age from 18-45 years was conducted in three communities along the Lake to investigate the relationship between fish consumption and hair mercury concentrations among women of child-bearing age. Results Highest concentrations of mercury in fish samples were found in carp (mean 0.87 ppm). Sediment data suggest a pattern of moderate ongoing contamination. Analyses of particles filtered from the water column showed highest concentrations of mercury near the mouth of the Lerma. In the human study, 27.2% of women had >1 ppm hair mercury. On multivariable analysis, carp consumption and consumption of fish purchased or captured from Lake Chapala were both associated with significantly higher mean hair mercury concentrations. Conclusions Our preliminary data indicate that, despite a moderate level of contamination in recent sediments and suspended particulate matter, carp in Lake Chapala contain mercury concentrations of concern for local fish consumers. Consumption of carp appears to contribute significantly to body burden in this population. Further studies of the consequences of prenatal exposure for child neurodevelopment are being initiated. PMID:20064246

  8. Awareness and knowledge of methylmercury in fish in the United States.

    PubMed

    Lando, Amy M; Zhang, Yuanting

    2011-04-01

    In the 1970s several states in the Great Lakes region became concerned about mercury contamination in lakes and rivers and were the first to issue local fish consumption advisories. In 2001, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) advised pregnant women, nursing mothers, young children, and women who may become pregnant not to consume shark, swordfish, king mackerel, and tilefish and recommended that these women not exceed 12 ounces of other fish per week. In 2004, FDA reissued this advice jointly with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and modified it slightly to provide information about consumption of canned tuna and more details about consumption of recreationally caught fish. Though several studies have examined consumers' awareness of the joint FDA and EPA advisory as well as different state advisories, few used representative data. We examined the changes in awareness and knowledge of mercury as a problem in fish using the pooled nationally representative 2001 and 2006 Food Safety Surveys (FSS) with sample sizes of 4482 in 2001 and 2275 in 2006. Our results indicated an increase in consumers' awareness of mercury as a problem in fish (69% in 2001 to 80% in 2006, p<.001). In our regression models, we found that in both years, parents having children less than 5 years of age were more aware of mercury in fish and knowledgeable about the information contained in the national advisories about mercury in fish (p<.01) than other adults. In both 2001 and 2006, women of childbearing age (aged 18-45) were less aware and knowledgeable about this information than other women. However, women of all age groups had larger gains in awareness and knowledge than their male counterparts during this time. Participants' race, education, income, region, fish preparation experiences, having a foodborne illness in the past year, and risk perceptions about the safety of food were significant predictors of their awareness and knowledge.

  9. Benefits versus risks associated with consumption of fish and other seafood.

    PubMed

    Bushkin-Bedient, Sheila; Carpenter, David O

    2010-01-01

    Fish provide nutrition for much of the world's population, and when not contaminated with chemicals, fish is a very good food. A major benefit of fish is that they are high in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), low in saturated fat, and they contain other critical nutrients. Much of the benefit of fish consumption derives from their high levels of long chain omega-3 PUFAs, which are produced by aquatic microorganisms and bioconcentrate in the aquatic food supply. The PUFAs are essential, in that humans and other vertebrates are not able to synthesize them and therefore must obtain them from the diet. The PUFAs particularly concentrate in the nervous system, alter immune system function reduce serum triglyceride levels and have been reported to reduce the risk of sudden death after a myocardial infarction. But the problem is that most fish have at least some degree of chemical contamination with methylmercury, (which binds to muscle) and/or with persistent organic pollutants such as dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, chlorinated pesticides (which concentrate in fish fat). These chemicals have adverse effects on nervous system function, modulate the immune system, and are associated with elevations in risk of cardiovascular disease. Thus the question of benefits and risk from fish consumption is complex but very important.

  10. Assessment of dietary fish consumption in pregnancy: comparing one-, four- and thirty-six-item questionnaires.

    PubMed

    Oken, Emily; Guthrie, Lauren B; Bloomingdale, Arienne; Gillman, Matthew W; Olsen, Sjurdur F; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra J; Platek, Deborah N; Bellinger, David C; Wright, Robert O

    2014-09-01

    Fish consumption influences a number of health outcomes. Few studies have directly compared dietary assessment methods to determine the best approach to estimating intakes of fish and its component nutrients, including DHA, and toxicants, including methylmercury. Our objective was to compare three methods of assessing fish intake. We assessed 30 d fish intake using three approaches: (i) a single question on total fish consumption; (ii) a brief comprehensive FFQ that included four questions about fish; and (iii) a focused FFQ with thirty-six questions about different finfish and shellfish. Obstetrics practices in Boston, MA, USA. Fifty-nine pregnant women who consumed ≤2 monthly fish servings. Estimated intakes of fish, DHA and Hg were lowest with the one-question screener and highest with the thirty-six-item fish questionnaire. Estimated intake of DHA with the thirty-six-item questionnaire was 4·4-fold higher (97 v. 22 mg/d), and intake of Hg was 3·8-fold higher (1·6 v. 0·42 μg/d), compared with the one-question screener. Plasma DHA concentration was correlated with fish intake assessed with the one-question screener (Spearman r = 0·27, P = 0·04), but not with the four-item FFQ (r = 0·08, P = 0·54) or the thirty-six-item fish questionnaire (r = 0·01, P = 0·93). In contrast, blood and hair Hg concentrations were similarly correlated with fish and Hg intakes regardless of the assessment method (r = 0·35 to 0·52). A longer questionnaire provides no advantage over shorter questionnaires in ranking intakes of fish, DHA and Hg compared with biomarkers, but estimates of absolute intakes can vary by as much as fourfold across methods.

  11. Overview of modifiers of methylmercury neurotoxicity: chemicals, nutrients, and the social environment.

    PubMed

    Rice, Deborah C

    2008-09-01

    It has been known for decades that methylmercury is a potent neurotoxicant, and that the developing brain is more susceptible to impairment as a result of methylmercury exposure than is the adult. Exposure to methylmercury is exclusively through consumption of fish and marine mammals. In recent years, the potential for protection against methylmercury toxicity by nutrients present in fish, particularly omega-3 fatty acids and selenium, has been explored in both epidemiological and experimental studies. There is evidence from several studies that fish consumption per se and methylmercury body burden act in opposition with regard to neuropsychological outcomes, whereas the evidence for a protective effect of specific nutrients is contradictory in both epidemiological and experimental studies published to date. The potential for methylmercury to interact with other chemicals present in marine food, particularly PCBs, has been explored in both animal models and human studies. Results may be both exposure- and endpoint-dependent. The Seychelles Islands study has explored the potential for the social environment to modify the effects of developmental methylmercury exposure. An understanding of the interactions of the multiple factors that determine the final behavioral outcome of exposure to methylmercury is crucial to risk assessment and risk management decisions.

  12. Great Lakes fish consumption and reproductive outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Dar, E.

    1989-01-01

    This epidemiological investigation determined prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), through contaminated fish consumption, and ascertained reproductive outcomes. Green Bay, Wisconsin was chosen as the study site because it was known for its environmental contamination of PCBs. These chemicals are environmentally stable and persistent, and tend to bioaccumulate up the food chain, with highest levels found in predatory sport fish from Lake Michigan. The Green Bay area provided a population with potential PCB exposure from sport fish consumption. Accidental poisoning incidents showed detrimental reproductive effects of high dose PCB exposures. A Michigan study found significant effects on birth weight and gestational age when mothers consumed two sport fish meals per month. This study population was drawn from women during their first prenatal visit at two Green Bay clinics during a one year period. 1,112 participants completed a self-administered questionnaire. Maternal and cord blood samples were obtained for selected PCB serum analyses. Reproductive outcome measures were abstracted from hospital labor reports. Study results indicated that maternal consumption was correlated to maternal PCB serum levels. Regression techniques estimated significant exposure coefficients for subsets of two birth size parameters. Birth length was positively associated with PCB exposure in shorter mothers. Significant associations of PCB exposure and birth weight percentiles were estimated for two income groups in the urban residence/weight gain less than 34 pounds subset.

  13. A Longitudinal Study of Mercury Exposure Associated with Consumption of Freshwater Fish from a Reservoir in Rural South Central USA

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Zhao; Jim, Rebecca C.; Hatley, Earl L.; Backus, Ann S. N.; Shine, James P.; Spengler, John D.; Schaider, Laurel A.

    2015-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) exposure through fish consumption is a worldwide health concern. Saltwater fish account for most dietary MeHg exposure in the general U.S. population, but less is known about seasonal variations in MeHg exposure and fish consumption among millions of freshwater anglers. This longitudinal study examined associations between MeHg exposure and fish consumption in a rural, low-income population relying on a freshwater reservoir (Oklahoma, USA) for recreational and subsistence fishing. We interviewed 151 participants, primarily anglers and their families, seasonally for one year using 90-day recall food frequency questionnaires to assess general and species-specific fish consumption, and tested hair biomarker samples for total mercury (THghair). Mean THghair was 0.27 μg/g (n=595, range: 0.0044–3.1 μg/g), with 4% of participants above U.S. EPA's guideline for women of childbearing age and children. Mean fish consumption was 58 g/d (95% CI: 49–67 g/d), within the range previously reported for recreational freshwater anglers and above the national average. Unlike the general U.S. population, freshwater species contributed the majority of fish consumption (69%) and dietary Hg exposure (60%) among participants, despite relatively low THg in local fish. THghair increased with fish consumption, age, and education, and was higher among male participants and lowest in winter. Our results suggest that future studies of anglers should consider seasonality in fish consumption and MeHg exposure and include household members who share their catch. Efforts to evaluate benefits of reducing Hg emissions should consider dietary patterns among consumers of fish from local freshwater bodies. PMID:25460632

  14. Awareness and knowledge of methylmercury in fish in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Lando, Amy M.; Zhang, Yuanting

    2011-04-15

    In the 1970s several states in the Great Lakes region became concerned about mercury contamination in lakes and rivers and were the first to issue local fish consumption advisories. In 2001, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) advised pregnant women, nursing mothers, young children, and women who may become pregnant not to consume shark, swordfish, king mackerel, and tilefish and recommended that these women not exceed 12 ounces of other fish per week. In 2004, FDA reissued this advice jointly with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and modified it slightly to provide information about consumption of canned tuna and more details about consumption of recreationally caught fish. Though several studies have examined consumers' awareness of the joint FDA and EPA advisory as well as different state advisories, few used representative data. We examined the changes in awareness and knowledge of mercury as a problem in fish using the pooled nationally representative 2001 and 2006 Food Safety Surveys (FSS) with sample sizes of 4482 in 2001 and 2275 in 2006. Our results indicated an increase in consumers' awareness of mercury as a problem in fish (69% in 2001 to 80% in 2006, p<.001). In our regression models, we found that in both years, parents having children less than 5 years of age were more aware of mercury in fish and knowledgeable about the information contained in the national advisories about mercury in fish (p<.01) than other adults. In both 2001 and 2006, women of childbearing age (aged 18-45) were less aware and knowledgeable about this information than other women. However, women of all age groups had larger gains in awareness and knowledge than their male counterparts during this time. Participants' race, education, income, region, fish preparation experiences, having a foodborne illness in the past year, and risk perceptions about the safety of food were significant predictors of their awareness and knowledge. - Research highlights: {yields} We

  15. Determination of methylmercury in fish using focused microwave digestion following by Cu2+ addition, sodium tetrapropylborate derivatization, n-heptane extraction, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Syr-Song; Chou, Shin-Shou; Hwang, Deng-Fwu

    2004-01-23

    The analytical procedure for analysis of methylmercury in fish was developed. It involves microwave-assisted digestion with alkaline solution (tetramethylammonium hydroxide), addition of Cu2+, aqueous-phase derivatization of methylmercury with sodium tetrapropylborate, and subsequent extraction with n-heptane. The methylmercury derivative was desorbed in the splitless injection port of a gas chromatograph and subsequently analyzed by electron impact mass spectrometry. Optimum conditions allowed sample throughout to be controlled by the instrumental analysis time (near 7 min per sample) but not by the sample preparation step. At the power of 15-30, 45, and 60-75 W, sample preparation time is only 3.5, 2.5, and 1.5 min, respectively. The proposed method was finally validated by the analysis of three biological certified reference materials, BCR CRM 464 tuna fish, NRC DORM-2 dogfish muscle, and NRC DOLT-2 dogfish liver. The detection limit of the overall procedure was found to be 40 ng/g of biological tissue for methylmercury. The recovery of methylmercury was 91.2-95.3% for tuna, 89.3-94.7% for marlin, and 91.7-94.8% for shark, respectively. The detected and certified values of methylmercury of three biological certified reference materials were as follows: 5.34 +/- 0.30 microg/g (mean +/- S.D.) and 5.50 +/- 0.17 microg/g for CRM 464 tuna fish, 4.34 +/- 0.24 and 4.47 +/- 0.32 microg/g for NRC DORM-2 dogfish muscle, and 0.652 +/- 0.053 and 0.693 +/- 0.055 microg/g for NRC DOLT-2 dogfish liver, respectively. It indicated that the method was well available to quantify the methylmercury in fish.

  16. Fishing, fish consumption and advisory awareness among Louisiana's recreational fishers.

    PubMed

    Katner, Adrienne; Ogunyinka, Ebenezer; Sun, Mei-Hung; Soileau, Shannon; Lavergne, David; Dugas, Dianne; Suffet, Mel

    2011-11-01

    This paper presents results from the first known population-based survey of recreational fishers in Louisiana (n=1774). The ultimate goal of this study was to obtain data in support of the development of regional advisories for a high exposure population with unique seafood consumption patterns. Between July and August of 2008, a survey was mailed to a random sample of licensed recreational fishers to characterize local fishing habits, sportfish consumption, and advisory awareness. Eighty-eight percent of respondents reported eating sportfish. Respondents ate an estimated mean of four fish meals per month, of which, approximately half were sportfish. Over half of all sportfish meals (54%) were caught in the Gulf of Mexico or bordering brackish areas. Sportfish consumption varied by license and gender; and was highest among Sportsman's Paradise license holders (2.8±0.2 meals per month), and males (2.2±0.1 meals per month). The most frequently consumed sportfish species were red drum, speckled trout, catfish, bass, crappie and bream. Advisory awareness rates varied by gender, ethnicity, geographic area, license type, age and education; and were lowest among women (53%), African-Americans (43%), fishers from the southeast of Louisiana (50%), holders of Senior Hunting and Fishing licenses (51%), individuals between 15 and 19 years of age (41%), and individuals with less than a high school education (43%). Results were used to identify ways to optimize monitoring, advisory development and outreach activities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Distributions of total mercury and methylmercury in surface sediments and fishes in Lake Shihwa, Korea.

    PubMed

    Oh, Sehee; Kim, Moon-Kyung; Yi, Seung-Muk; Zoh, Kyung-Duk

    2010-02-01

    The concentrations of total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in the sediments of Lake Shihwa, an artificial salt lake in Korea located near two large industrial complexes, were determined to investigate the state of Hg contamination in the lake sediments and the effect of local Hg source. THg and MeHg concentrations in the sediments, monitored for 2 years, ranged from 0.02 to 0.28 microg g(-1) and fish species in this lake ranged from 9.8 to 35 ng g(-1), suggesting that the bioavailability of sediment Hg in the lake may be low. Although the THg concentrations in Lake Shihwa sediment were lower than those in other foreign study sites, they were higher than in neighboring coastal regions, and are constantly increasing. This result indicates that the nearby industrial complexes may be the major source of Hg found in the sediments of Lake Shihwa. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Methylmercury Exposure and Health Effects

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Young-Seoub; Kim, Yu-Mi

    2012-01-01

    Methylmercury is a hazardous substance that is of interest with regard to environmental health, as inorganic mercury circulating in the general environment is dissolved into freshwater and seawater, condensed through the food chain, ingested by humans, and consequently affects human health. Recently, there has been much interest and discussion regarding the toxicity of methylmercury, the correlation with fish and shellfish intake, and methods of long-term management of the human health effects of methylmercury. What effects chronic exposure to a low concentration of methylmercury has on human health remains controversial. Although the possibility of methylmercury poisoning the heart and blood vessel system, the reproductive system, and the immune system is continuously raised and discussed, and the carcinogenicity of methylmercury is also under discussion, a clear conclusion regarding the human health effects according to exposure level has not yet been drawn. The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives proposed to prepare additional fish and shellfish intake recommendations for consumers based on the quantified evaluation of the hazardousness of methylmercury contained in fish and shellfish, methylmercury management in the Korea has not yet caught up with this international trend. Currently, the methylmercury exposure level of Koreans is known to be very high. The starting point of methylmercury exposure management is inorganic mercury in the general environment, but food intake through methylation is the main exposure source. Along with efforts to reduce mercury in the general environment, food intake management should be undertaken to reduce the human exposure to methylmercury in Korea. PMID:23230465

  19. Methylmercury exposure and health effects.

    PubMed

    Hong, Young-Seoub; Kim, Yu-Mi; Lee, Kyung-Eun

    2012-11-01

    Methylmercury is a hazardous substance that is of interest with regard to environmental health, as inorganic mercury circulating in the general environment is dissolved into freshwater and seawater, condensed through the food chain, ingested by humans, and consequently affects human health. Recently, there has been much interest and discussion regarding the toxicity of methylmercury, the correlation with fish and shellfish intake, and methods of long-term management of the human health effects of methylmercury. What effects chronic exposure to a low concentration of methylmercury has on human health remains controversial. Although the possibility of methylmercury poisoning the heart and blood vessel system, the reproductive system, and the immune system is continuously raised and discussed, and the carcinogenicity of methylmercury is also under discussion, a clear conclusion regarding the human health effects according to exposure level has not yet been drawn. The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives proposed to prepare additional fish and shellfish intake recommendations for consumers based on the quantified evaluation of the hazardousness of methylmercury contained in fish and shellfish, methylmercury management in the Korea has not yet caught up with this international trend. Currently, the methylmercury exposure level of Koreans is known to be very high. The starting point of methylmercury exposure management is inorganic mercury in the general environment, but food intake through methylation is the main exposure source. Along with efforts to reduce mercury in the general environment, food intake management should be undertaken to reduce the human exposure to methylmercury in Korea.

  20. Need for improved risk communication of fish consumption advisories to protect maternal and child health: influence of primary informants.

    PubMed

    LePrevost, Catherine E; Gray, Kathleen M; Hernández-Pelletier, Mercedes; Bouma, Brennan D; Arellano, Consuelo; Cope, W Gregory

    2013-04-29

    Fish consumption has established benefits, including the promotion of cardiovascular health and pre- and neonatal brain and eye development, but local freshwater fish may be a source of contaminants that are especially harmful to fetuses and young children, such as the neurotoxic and developmentally toxic methylmercury and polychlorinated biphenyls. Fish consumption advisories may be issued by state health departments to limit human exposure to these and other toxicants. This study examined the efficacy of a sign designed by the North Carolina Division of Public Health that was posted along a reservoir (Badin Lake) in central North Carolina, USA, for increasing anglers' awareness of a fish consumption advisory, with a special focus on anglers who share their catch with women and children. In this study, 109 anglers were interviewed about their awareness of fish consumption advisories in general and their knowledge of the Badin Lake fish advisory in particular. Shore anglers were significantly less likely to be aware of the term "fish consumption advisory" and of the specific advisory for Badin Lake than boat anglers. Although a significant increase in knowledge of the specific fish consumption advisory was found for the entire sample of study participants after the sign intervention, a commensurate increase in knowledge was not found for a subsample of anglers who reported sharing their catch with women and children. Study findings underscore differences in fish consumption advisory awareness among subpopulations. Specifically, the study revealed the importance of characterizing the communication needs of shore anglers and anglers who share their catch with sensitive subpopulations (e.g., women and children) for the creation of more targeted communications of fish consumption advisories.

  1. Trends in blood mercury concentrations and fish consumption among U.S. women of reproductive age, NHANES, 1999-2010.

    PubMed

    Birch, Rebecca Jeffries; Bigler, Jeff; Rogers, John W; Zhuang, Yan; Clickner, Robert P

    2014-08-01

    Consumption of finfish and shellfish is the primary exposure pathway of methylmercury (MeHg) in the US. MeHg exposure in utero is associated with neurodevelopmental and motor function deficits. Regulations and fish advisories may contribute to decreased exposure to mercury over time. Combine fish tissue mercury (FTHg) concentrations and 1999-2010 NHANES blood mercury concentrations and fish consumption data to investigate trends in blood mercury concentrations, fish consumption, and mercury intake in women of reproductive age. Blood MeHg was calculated from the blood total and inorganic concentrations. Dietary datasets were combined to estimate 30-day fish consumption, then combined with FTHg concentrations to estimate mercury intake and mercury concentration in the fish consumed. Non-linear and logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate trends over time. Regression analysis found NHANES 1999-2000 to have higher blood MeHg concentrations than the mean of the later releases (p<0.0001) and a positive quadratic trend since 2000 (p=0.004). No trend was observed in fish consumption amount or mercury intake. A decreasing trend was found in the ratio of mercury intake to fish consumed (p=0.04). The analyses found blood MeHg concentrations in NHANES 1999-2000 to be significantly higher than the mean of the later releases. There was no trend in fish consumption amount across the study period. The analysis found a decreasing trend in the ratio of mercury intake to fish consumed, consistent with women shifting their consumption to fish with lower mercury concentrations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Fish consumption during pregnancy, mercury transfer, and birth weight along the Madeira River Basin in Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Marques, Rejane C; Bernardi, José V E; Dórea, José G; Brandão, Katiane G; Bueno, Lucélia; Leão, Renata S; Malm, Olaf

    2013-05-28

    Birth weight can be a predictor of maternal health issues related to nutrition and environmental contaminants. Total hair mercury (HHg) concentration was studied as an indicator of both fish consumption and methylmercury exposure in mothers (and newborns) living in selected low income areas of the Madeira River basin, Amazonia, Brazil. This cohort study (n = 1,433) consisted of traditional riverines (n = 396), riverines who had moved to urban (n = 676) and rural (n = 67) settings, and tin miner settlers (n = 294). Median maternal HHg was significantly different (p = 0.00001) between riverine (12.1 µg·g-1), rural (7.82 µg·g-1), urban (5.4 µg·g-1), and tin miner (4.5 µg·g-1) groups studied. The same trend (of medians) was observed for newborns' HHg which also showed significant differences between riverine (3.0 µg·g-1), rural (2.0 µg·g-1), urban (1.5 µg·g-1), and tin miner (0.8 µg·g-1) groups. The correlation between maternal and newborn HHg was statistically significant in the riverine (r = 0.8952; p = 0.0001), urban (r = 0.6744; p = 0.0001), and rural (r = 0.8416; p = 0.0001) groups but not in the mother-infant pairs in the tin miner group (r = 0.0638; p = 0.2752). Birth weight was significantly different among groups but did not show a pattern consistent with that of fish consumption (and HHg). A multiple regression analysis showed that only family income and gestational age had a significant impact on birth weight. Maternal HHg is an important biomarker of maternal fish consumption and of methylmercury exposure during pregnancy. However, in these Amazonian groups, only maternal education and gestational age seemed to affect birth weight positively.

  3. Fish Consumption and Hair Mercury Among Asians in Chicago.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Susan; Targos, Loreen; Nagy, Kathryn L; Kearney, Kenneth E; Turyk, Mary

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to characterize the risk for elevated mercury (Hg) from fish consumption among Asians in Chicago. Consumption of fish contaminated with methyl Hg (MeHg) can affect the neurodevelopment in children and cardiovascular disease risk in adults. We collected fish consumption information and hair samples for Hg at two health fairs. We purchased fish from Asian fish markets. Geometric mean hair Hg from 71 participants was 0.58  μg/g, with 28% overall and 29% of women of childbearing age having hair Hg levels at least 1  μg/g; 20% ate fish 4 or more times/wk. Tuna consumption and non-Chinese Asian ethnicity were associated with elevated Hg. Hg levels in purchased fish were generally low. Our study confirms other findings that, compared with estimates of the general US population, Asians are at higher risk of elevated MeHg because of frequent fish consumption.

  4. Fish, a Mediterranean source of n-3 PUFA: benefits do not justify limiting consumption.

    PubMed

    Gil, Angel; Gil, Fernando

    2015-04-01

    Fish is an important source of energy, high-quality proteins, fat, vitamins and minerals. Within lipids, n-3 long-chain PUFA (n-3 LC PUFA), mainly EPA and DHA, play an important role in health promotion and disease prevention. In contrast to the potential health benefits of dietary fish intake, certain chemical pollutants, namely heavy metals and some organic compounds, contained in seafood have emerged as an issue of concern, particularly for frequent fish consumers and sensitive groups of populations. The present review summarises the health benefits and risks of fish consumption. n-3 LC-PUFA are key compounds of cell membranes and play an important role in human health from conception through every stage of human development, maturation and ageing. DHA has a major role in the development of brain and retina during fetal development and the first 2 years of life and positively influences neurodevelopment, mainly visual acuity and cognitive functions. n-3 LC-PUFA are also effective in preventing cardiovascular events (mainly stroke and acute myocardial infarction) especially in persons with high cardiovascular risk. By contrast, there is convincing evidence of adverse neurological/neurodevelopmental outcomes in infants and young children associated with methylmercury exposure during fetal development due to maternal fish consumption during pregnancy. Dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls present in contaminated fish may also develop a risk for both infants and adults. However, for major health outcomes among adults, the vast majority of epidemiological studies have proven that the benefits of fish intake exceed the potential risks with the exception of a few selected species in sensitive populations.

  5. Certification of methylmercury in cod fish tissue certified reference material by species-specific isotope dilution mass spectrometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Inagaki, Kazumi; Kuroiwa, Takayoshi; Narukawa, Tomohiro; Yarita, Takashi; Takatsu, Akiko; Okamoto, Kensaku; Chiba, Koichi

    2008-07-01

    A new cod fish tissue certified reference material, NMIJ CRM 7402-a, for methylmercury analysis was certified by the National Metrological Institute of Japan in the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (NMIJ/AIST). Cod fish was collected from the sea close to Japan. The cod muscle was powdered by freeze-pulverization and was placed into 600 glass bottles (10 g each), which were sterilized with gamma-ray irradiation. The certification was carried out using species-specific isotope dilution gas chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SSID-GC-ICPMS), where (202)Hg-enriched methylmercury (MeHg) was used as the spike compound. In order to avoid any possible analytical biases caused by nonquantitative extraction, degradation and/or formation of MeHg in sample preparations, two different extraction methods (KOH/methanol and HCl/methanol extractions) were performed, and one of these extraction methods utilized two different derivatization methods (ethylation and phenylation). A double ID method was adopted to minimize the uncertainty arising from the analyses. In order to ensure not only the reliability of the analytical results but also traceability to SI units, the standard solution of MeHg used for the reverse-ID was prepared from high-purity MeHg chloride and was carefully assayed as follows: the total mercury was determined by ID-ICPMS following aqua regia digestion, and the ratio of Hg as MeHg to the total Hg content was estimated by GC-ICPMS. The certified value given for MeHg is 0.58 +/- 0.02 mg kg(-1) as Hg.

  6. Fish gall bladder consumption presenting as acute renal failure

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, A; Karnik, ND; Gupta, VA; Hase, NK

    2015-01-01

    A forty two year old male was admitted with history of anuria and breathlessness following consumption of raw rohu fish gall bladder. He had azotemia and required hemodialysis. His renal failure improved over a period of about four weeks. Incidences have been reported from South East Asian countries associating consumption of raw rohu fish gall bladder with acute renal failure. PMID:26440398

  7. Modeling Tribal Exposures to PCBs from Fish Consumption

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies have shown that U.S. population continues to be exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), despite the ban ~40 years ago. Fish intake is a major pathway, especially, for high fish-consumption groups. Exposure assessment and risk management considerations for tribal fish...

  8. Modeling Tribal Exposures to PCBs from Fish Consumption

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies have shown that U.S. population continues to be exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), despite the ban ~40 years ago. Fish intake is a major pathway, especially, for high fish-consumption groups. Exposure assessment and risk management considerations for tribal fish...

  9. Modeling tribal exposures to methyl mercury from fish consumption

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure assessment and risk management considerations for tribal fish consumption are different than for the general U.S. population because of higher fish intake from subsistence fishing and/or from unique cultural practices. This research summarizes analyses of available data ...

  10. Modeling tribal exposures to methyl mercury from fish consumption

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure assessment and risk management considerations for tribal fish consumption are different than for the general U.S. population because of higher fish intake from subsistence fishing and/or from unique cultural practices. This research summarizes analyses of available data ...

  11. Photodegradation of methylmercury in lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seller, P.; Kelly, C. A.; Rudd, J. W. M.; Machutchon, A. R.

    1996-04-01

    METHYLMERCURY can accumulate in fish to concentrations that threaten human health1. Fish methylmercury concentrations are high in many reservoirs2 and acidic lakes3, and also in many remote lakes4,5-a fact that may be related to increased atmospheric deposition of anthropogenically mobilized mercury during the past few decades6. Although sources of methylmercury to lakes and reservoirs are known7, in-lake destruction has not been demonstrated to occur at the low concentrations found in most water bodies. Here we report in situ incubations of lake water that show that methylmercury is decomposed by photo- degradation in surface waters. This process is abiotic and the rate is first-order with respect to methylmercury concentration and the intensity of solar radiation. In our study lake, the calculated annual rates of methylmercury photodegradation are almost double the estimated external inputs of methylmercury from rain, snow, streamflow and land runoff, implying the existence of a large source of methylmercury from bottom sediments. Photodegradation could also be an important process in the mercury cycle of other aquatic systems. This discovery fundamentally changes our understanding of aquatic mercury cycling, and challenges the long-accepted view that microbial demethylation dominates methylmercury degradation in natural fresh waters.

  12. Knowledge and barriers relating to fish consumption in older Australians.

    PubMed

    Grieger, Jessica A; Miller, Michelle; Cobiac, Lynne

    2012-10-01

    Among 854 Australians ≥ 51 years of age, this cross-sectional survey explored knowledge regarding finfish consumption, sources of information on fish and omega 3 fatty acids, what barriers limit finfish consumption and what factors predict its consumption. The survey consisted of a validated quantitative fish frequency questionnaire with additional questions on barriers and knowledge relating to finfish. Twelve percent of respondents consumed oily fish ≥ 2 times per week. Cost was the most frequently (37%) reported barrier for fresh finfish consumption. In multiple regression analysis, respondents' exposure to multiple sources of information (odds ratio (95% confidence interval): 1.135 (1.01, 1.28), who correctly identified the current recommendations for fish consumption; 1.87 (1.13, 3.07), agreed that fish improves general health; 3.57 (1.13, 11.30), and reported fewer barriers towards canned fish consumption; 0.59 (0.41, 0.84) were more likely to consume ≥ 2 servings of fresh finfish per week. Education and health programs need to be readily available highlighting current recommendations for fish consumption and how targets can be achieved. Meal plans with various finfish/seafood and amounts of omega 3 fatty acids required to achieve recommendations, and within a suitable budget, is likely to be an important strategy to target older consumers to increase consumption.

  13. Fish consumption and cardiovascular response during mental stress

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Frequent fish consumption is related to a lower risk of coronary heart disease. However, the physiological mechanisms underlying this cardioprotective effect are as yet unknown. We therefore examined certain cardiovascular physiological variables of fish eaters during rest, whilst conducting mental arithmetic, and during recovery. Findings The participants were 12 fish eaters (eating baked fish more than 3–4 times/week) and 13 controls (eating fish less than 1–2 times/week). Analysis of the collected data revealed that heart rate, blood pressure, and pulse wave velocity were significantly lower and pre-ejection period and baroreflex sensitivity were significantly higher in the fish eaters than in the controls during both rest and mental arithmetic, and that systolic and mean blood pressure recovery from mental arithmetic were faster in the fish eaters than in the controls. Conclusions These findings suggest a possible physiological mechanism that may explain why frequent fish consumption reduces coronary heart disease risk. PMID:22695000

  14. [Methylmercury exposure in the general population; toxicokinetics; differences by gender, nutritional and genetic factors].

    PubMed

    González-Estecha, Montserrat; Bodas-Pinedo, Andrés; Guillén-Pérez, José Jesús; Rubio-Herrera, Miguel Ángel; Ordóñez-Iriarte, José M; Trasobares-Iglesias, Elena M; Martell-Claros, Nieves; Martínez-Álvarez, Jesús Román; Farré-Rovira, Rosaura; Herráiz-Martínez, Miguel Ángel; Martínez-Astorquiza, Txantón; Calvo-Manuel, Elpidio; Sáinz-Martín, María; Bretón-Lesmes, Irene; Prieto-Menchero, Santiago; Llorente-Ballesteros, M Teresa; Martínez-García, M José; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar; García-Donaire, José Antonio; Cuadrado-Cenzual, M Ángeles; Gallardo-Pino, Carmen; Moreno-Rojas, Rafael; Arroyo-Fernández, Manuel; Calle-Pascual, Alfonso

    2014-11-01

    Mercury is an environmental toxicant that causes numerous adverse effects on human health and natural ecosystems. The factors that determine the existance of adverse effects, as well as their severity are, among others: the chemical form of mercury (elemental, inorganic, organic), dosis, age, period of exposure, pathways of exposure and environmental, nutritional and genetic factors. In the aquatic cycle of mercury, once it has been deposited, it is transformed into methylmercury due to the action of certain sulphate-reducing bacteria, which bioaccumulates in the aquatic organisms and moves into the food chain. The methylmercury content of large, long-lived fish such as swordfish, shark, tuna or marlin, is higher. Methylmercury binds to protein in fish and is therefore not eliminated by cleaning or cooking the fish. Fetuses and small children are more vulnerable to the neurotoxic effects of methylmercury from the consumption of contaminated fish. Methylmercury is absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract and crosses the blood-brain barrier and the placenta. The intake of certain dietary components such as polyunsaturated fatty acids, selenium, fiber, thiol compounds, certain phytochemicals and other nutrients can modify methylmercury bioaccesibility and its toxicity. Apart from environmental factors, genetic factors can influence mercury toxicity and explain part of the individual vulnerability. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  15. Determining mercury levels in anchovy and in individuals with different fish consumption habits, together with their neurological effects.

    PubMed

    Çamur, Derya; Güler, Çağatay; Vaizoğlu, Songül Acar; Özdilek, Betül

    2016-07-01

    An increase in enviromental pollution may lead to mercury toxicity of fish origin due to the accumulative nature of methylmercury in fish. The main sources of human exposure to organic mercury compounds are contaminated fish and other seafoods. This descriptive study was planned to determine mercury levels in anchovy and in hair samples from individuals with different fish consumption habits, and to evaluate those individuals in terms of toxic effects. For that purpose, we analyzed 100 anchovies from the Black Sea and 100 anchovies from the Sea of Marmara, and assessed 25 wholesale workers in fish markets and 25 cleaning firm employees from both Ankara and Istanbul. Mercury levels in samples were measured using a cold vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Participants were examined neurologically and mini mental state examination was applied to evaluate their cognitive functions. Mercury levels in fish were found to be below the national and international permitted levels. There was no statistically significant relation between mercury levels and the sea from which fish were caught. Hair mercury levels for all participants were within permitted ranges. However, hair mercury levels in both cities increased significantly with amount and frequency of fish consumption. A significant correlation was determined at correlation analysis between levels of fish consumption and hair mercury levels in the fishmongers and in the entire group (r = 0.32, p = 0.025; r = 0.23, p = 0.023, respectively). Neurological examination results were normal, except for a decrease in deep tendon reflexes in some participants in both cities. There was no correlation between Standardized Mini Mental State Examination results and hair mercury levels. We conclude that establishing a monitoring system for mercury levels in fish and humans will be useful in terms of evaluating potential neurotoxic effects.

  16. Fish consumption patterns and hair mercury levels in children and their mothers in 17 EU countries.

    PubMed

    Castaño, Argelia; Cutanda, Francisco; Esteban, Marta; Pärt, Peter; Navarro, Carmen; Gómez, Silvia; Rosado, Montserrat; López, Ana; López, Estrella; Exley, Karen; Schindler, Birgit K; Govarts, Eva; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Fiddicke, Ulrike; Koch, Holger; Angerer, Jürgen; Den Hond, Elly; Schoeters, Greet; Sepai, Ovnair; Horvat, Milena; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Aerts, Dominique; Joas, Anke; Biot, Pierre; Joas, Reinhard; Jiménez-Guerrero, José A; Diaz, Gema; Pirard, Catherine; Katsonouri, Andromachi; Cerna, Milena; Gutleb, Arno C; Ligocka, Danuta; Reis, Fátima M; Berglund, Marika; Lupsa, Ioana-Rodica; Halzlová, Katarína; Charlier, Corinne; Cullen, Elizabeth; Hadjipanayis, Adamos; Krsková, Andrea; Jensen, Janne F; Nielsen, Jeanette K; Schwedler, Gerda; Wilhelm, Michael; Rudnai, Peter; Középesy, Szilvia; Davidson, Fred; Fischer, Mark E; Janasik, Beata; Namorado, Sónia; Gurzau, Anca E; Jajcaj, Michal; Mazej, Darja; Tratnik, Janja Snoj; Larsson, Kristin; Lehmann, Andrea; Crettaz, Pierre; Lavranos, Giagkos; Posada, Manuel

    2015-08-01

    The toxicity of methylmercury (MeHg) in humans is well established and the main source of exposure is via the consumption of large marine fish and mammals. Of particular concern are the potential neurodevelopmental effects of early life exposure to low-levels of MeHg. Therefore, it is important that pregnant women, children and women of childbearing age are, as far as possible, protected from MeHg exposure. Within the European project DEMOCOPHES, we have analyzed mercury (Hg) in hair in 1799 mother-child pairs from 17 European countries using a strictly harmonized protocol for mercury analysis. Parallel, harmonized questionnaires on dietary habits provided information on consumption patterns of fish and marine products. After hierarchical cluster analysis of consumption habits of the mother-child pairs, the DEMOCOPHES cohort can be classified into two branches of approximately similar size: one with high fish consumption (H) and another with low consumption (L). All countries have representatives in both branches, but Belgium, Denmark, Spain, Portugal and Sweden have twice as many or more mother-child pairs in H than in L. For Switzerland, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovenia and Slovakia the situation is the opposite, with more representatives in L than H. There is a strong correlation (r=0.72) in hair mercury concentration between the mother and child in the same family, which indicates that they have a similar exposure situation. The clustering of mother-child pairs on basis of their fish consumption revealed some interesting patterns. One is that for the same sea fish consumption, other food items of marine origin, like seafood products or shellfish, contribute significantly to the mercury levels in hair. We conclude that additional studies are needed to assess and quantify exposure to mercury from seafood products, in particular. The cluster analysis also showed that 95% of mothers who consume once per week fish only, and no other marine products

  17. Perceived barriers to consumption of fish among Norwegian women.

    PubMed

    Trondsen, Torbjørn; Scholderer, Joachim; Lund, Eiliv; Eggen, Anne E

    2003-12-01

    This study aimed to characterize constraints on consumption of fish perceived by consumers in Norway. A random sample of Norwegian women aged 45-69 years answered a self-administered mail questionnaire in 1996 about eating habits, perceived barriers to fish consumption, socioeconomic status, and questions related to health. Altogether, 9407 women answered the questionnaire (response rate: 52.5%). Data were analyzed by means of logistic regression. Limited supply of fish products that satisfy children's wishes reduce at-home fish consumption. People with health problems and those who wish to lose weight are dissatisfied with the range of products offered in the marketplace. Satisfaction with quality and availability of wild lean codfish, especially in inland regions, is lower than for aqua-cultured fat salmon. Neither income nor education or health factors were significantly associated with consumption levels among those who would like to eat more fish. Higher education and income were associated with increased dissatisfaction about fish consumption, but also with reduced perception of most barriers. It is concluded that improvements in the supply of high-quality fresh and processed fish products that satisfy (a) children's wishes, (b) health-oriented family members, and (c) convenience-oriented consumers, will significantly increase at-home consumption of fish.

  18. KEY COMPARISON: Final report on CCQM-K43.1: As, Hg, Se and methylmercury content in marine fish (swordfish)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuroiwa, Takayoshi; Chiba, Koichi

    2009-01-01

    The comparison CCQM-K43.1, arsenic, mercury, selenium and methylmercury in marine fish (swordfish), was organized by the inorganic analysis working group (IAWG) of CCQM as a subsequent key comparison of CCQM-K43. The National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ) is the coordinating laboratory for this subsequent key comparison. Nine NMIs and one unofficial institute participated in CCQM-K43.1. The data of the unofficial institute were treated as reference data. All participants were allowed to choose the measurands (arsenic, mercury, selenium and methylmercury) of their interest. For measurement of arsenic, mercury and selenium, different measurement methods (IDMS, ICP-MS, AAS and INAA) were used and all participants with one exception used microwave digestion methods. For measurement of methylmercury, all participants used IDMS and different extraction methods (microwave, mechanical shaker and ultrasonic) were used. Most results agreed well with one or two apparent outlier(s) for arsenic and selenium. The agreement of measurement results between NMIs is very good for mercury and methylmercury. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  19. A qualitative exploration of fishing and fish consumption in the Gullah/Geechee culture.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Jamelle H; Friedman, Daniela B; Puett, Robin; Scott, Geoffrey I; Porter, Dwayne E

    2014-12-01

    The Gullah/Geechee (G/G) heritage is rooted in a culture largely dependent on fish and seafood as a primary food source. Research suggests that African-American (AA) fishers in the Southeastern US consume larger amounts of fish, potentially exposing them to higher environmental contaminant levels. This in-depth study was conducted to explore G/G and AA Sea Island attitudes, perceptions, and cultural beliefs about fishing in one urban and two rural South Carolina coastal counties. Results indicated that study participants in rural counties had slightly different perspectives of fishing (e.g. fishing as an essential dietary supplement) than in urban counties where fishing was viewed more as relaxation. Major misperceptions existed in all counties between fish consumption advisories related to pollution versus harvesting restrictions associated with fishing regulations. Providing clear, culturally tailored health messages regarding fish advisories will promote more informed choices about fish consumption that will minimize potential exposures to environmental pollutants.

  20. A quantitative analysis of fish consumption and stroke risk.

    PubMed

    Bouzan, Colleen; Cohen, Joshua T; Connor, William E; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Gray, George M; König, Ariane; Lawrence, Robert S; Savitz, David A; Teutsch, Steven M

    2005-11-01

    Although a rich source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) that may confer multiple health benefits, some fish contain methyl mercury (MeHg), which may harm the developing fetus. U.S. government recommendations for women of childbearing age are to modify consumption of high-MeHg fish to reduce MeHg exposure, while recommendations encourage fish consumption among the general population because of the nutritional benefits. The Harvard Center for Risk Analysis convened an expert panel (see acknowledgements) to quantify the net impact of resulting hypothetical changes in fish consumption across the population. This paper estimates the impact of fish consumption on stroke risk. Other papers quantify coronary heart disease mortality risk and the impacts of both prenatal MeHg exposure and maternal intake of n-3 PUFAs on cognitive development. This analysis identified articles in a recent qualitative literature review that are appropriate for the development of a dose-response relationship between fish consumption and stroke risk. Studies had to satisfy quality criteria, quantify fish intake, and report the precision of the relative risk estimates. The analysis combined the relative risk results, weighting each proportionately to its precision. Six studies were identified as appropriate for inclusion in this analysis, including five prospective cohort studies and one case-control study (total of 24 exposure groups). Our analysis indicates that any fish consumption confers substantial relative risk reduction compared to no fish consumption (12% for the linear model), with the possibility that additional consumption confers incremental benefits (central estimate of 2.0% per serving per week).

  1. Exposures of dental professionals to elemental mercury and methylmercury.

    PubMed

    Goodrich, Jaclyn M; Chou, Hwai-Nan; Gruninger, Stephen E; Franzblau, Alfred; Basu, Niladri

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) exposure, a worldwide public health concern, predominantly takes two forms--methylmercury from fish consumption and elemental Hg from dental amalgam restorations. We recruited 630 dental professionals from an American Dental Association meeting to assess Hg body burden and primary sources of exposure in a dually exposed population. Participants described occupational practices and fish consumption patterns via questionnaire. Hg levels in biomarkers of elemental Hg (urine) and methylmercury (hair and blood) were measured with a Direct Mercury Analyzer-80 and were higher than the general US population. Geometric means (95% CI) were 1.28 (1.19-1.37) μg/l in urine, 0.60 (0.54-0.67) μg/g in hair and 3.67 (3.38-3.98) μg/l in blood. In multivariable linear regression, personal amalgams predicted urine Hg levels along with total years in dentistry, amalgams handled, working hours and sex. Fish consumption patterns predicted hair and blood Hg levels, which were higher among Asians compared with Caucasians. Five species contributed the majority of the estimated Hg intake from fish--swordfish, fresh tuna, white canned tuna, whitefish and king mackerel. When studying populations with occupational exposure to Hg, it is important to assess environmental exposures to both elemental Hg and methylmercury as these constitute a large proportion of total exposure.

  2. Exposures of Dental Professionals to Elemental Mercury and Methylmercury

    PubMed Central

    Goodrich, Jaclyn M.; Chou, Hwai-Nan; Gruninger, Stephen E.; Franzblau, Alfred; Basu, Niladri

    2015-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) exposure, a worldwide public health concern, predominantly takes two forms – methylmercury from fish consumption and elemental Hg from dental amalgam restorations. We recruited 630 dental professionals from an American Dental Association meeting to assess Hg body burden and primary sources of exposure in a dually-exposed population. Participants described occupational practices and fish consumption patterns via questionnaire. Mercury levels in biomarkers of elemental Hg (urine) and methylmercury (hair, blood) were measured with a Direct Mercury Analyzer-80 and were higher than the general U.S. population. Geometric means (95% CI) were 1.28 (1.19–1.37) µg/L in urine, 0.60 (0.54–0.67) µg/g in hair, and 3.67 (3.38–3.98) µg/L in blood. In multivariable linear regression, personal amalgams predicted urine Hg levels along with total years in dentistry, amalgams handled, working hours, and sex. Fish consumption patterns predicted hair and blood Hg levels which were higher among Asians compared with Caucasians. Five species contributed the majority of the estimated Hg intake from fish - swordfish, fresh tuna, white canned tuna, whitefish, and king mackerel. When studying populations with occupational exposure to Hg, it is important to assess environmental exposures to both elemental Hg and methylmercury as these constitute a large proportion of total exposure. PMID:26329138

  3. Acute Renal Failure after Consumption of Fish Gall Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Yu Yao, Bian

    2014-01-01

    A case of acute renal failure after consumption of fish gall bladder as traditional medical remedy is reported. The patient fully recovered with conservative treatment. The risk of acute kidney failure and even multiple organ dysfunction syndrome following ingestion of fish gall bladder is highlighted. PMID:24829840

  4. Marine biogeochemistry: Methylmercury manufacture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cossa, Daniel

    2013-10-01

    The neurotoxin methylmercury can accumulate in marine food webs, contaminating seafood. An analysis of the isotopic composition of fish in the North Pacific suggests that much of the mercury that enters the marine food web originates from low-oxygen subsurface waters.

  5. Certification of methylmercury content in two fresh-frozen reference materials: SRM 1947 Lake Michigan fish tissue and SRM 1974b organics in mussel tissue (Mytilus edulis).

    PubMed

    Davis, W Clay; Christopher, S J; Pugh, Rebecca S; Donard, O F X; Krupp, Eva A; Point, David; Horvat, Milena; Gibicar, D; Kljakovic-Gaspic, Z; Porter, Barbara J; Schantz, Michele M

    2007-04-01

    This paper describes the development of two independent analytical methods for the extraction and quantification of methylmercury from marine biota. The procedures involve microwave extraction, followed by derivatization and either headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) with a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-coated silica fiber or back-extraction into iso-octane. The identification and quantification of the extracted compounds is carried out by capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometric (GC/MS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric (GC/ICP-MS) detection. Both methods were validated for the determination of methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in a variety of biological standard reference materials (SRMs) including fresh-frozen tissue homogenates of SRM 1946 Lake Superior fish tissue and SRM 1974a organics in mussel tissue (Mytilus edulis) and then applied to the certification effort of SRM 1947 Lake Michigan fish tissue and SRM 1974b organics in mussel tissue (Mytilus edulis). While past certifications of methylmercury in tissue SRMs have been based on two independent methods from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and participating laboratories, the methods described within provide improved protocols and will allow future certification efforts to be based on at least two independent analytical methods within NIST.

  6. Mercury concentration in meconium and risk assessment of fish consumption among pregnant women in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chuen-Bin; Yeh, Ching-Ying; Lee, Hung-Chang; Chen, Ming-Jun; Hung, Fang-Yu; Fang, Sheng-Shiung; Chien, Ling-Chu

    2010-01-01

    Meconium is a matrix that can be obtained easily and noninvasively and is useful for detecting antenatal fetal exposure to environmental toxins. Taiwan is an island with high fish consumption, and many pregnant women would like to enjoy the benefits of fish without jeopardizing their health or that of their child. The aim of this study is to assess the mercury concentration in meconium in relation to the health risk of mercury exposure. A total of 198 mother-infant pairs residing in the city of HsinChu were recruited for the study between January 2007 and June 2007. The average mean concentration of mercury in meconium was 79.2+/-7.3 ng g(-1) dry wt We use the Monte Carlo technique to assess the uncertainty in risk assessment and the impact of these uncertainties on the estimation of expected risk of mercury intake from fish in mothers. Based on the FAO/WHO's tolerable daily intake of methylmercury (0.23 microg kg(-1)d(-1)), we found that 17.3% and 14.0% of the daily mercury exposure estimated exceeded the reference dose for foreign-born and Taiwan-born mothers, respectively. We found that the mercury concentration in meconium was much higher than in other studies, except for one study done in Tagum in the Philippines where mercury is used in gold mining. This may be because Asia is the largest emitter of anthropogenic mercury, accounting for 53% of worldwide emissions. Sensitivity analysis suggests that mercury concentration in fish and the rate of ingesting fish may be the key parameters for governments offering risk management guidance to protect the health of mothers and unborn babies.

  7. Issues of Fish Consumption for Cardiovascular Disease Risk Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Raatz, Susan K.; Silverstein, Jeffrey T.; Jahns, Lisa; Picklo, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing fish consumption is recommended for intake of omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids and to confer benefits for the risk reduction of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Most Americans are not achieving intake levels that comply with current recommendations. It is the goal of this review to provide an overview of the issues affecting this shortfall of intake. Herein we describe the relationship between fish intake and CVD risk reduction as well as the other nutritional contributions of fish to the diet. Currently recommended intake levels are described and estimates of fish consumption at a food disappearance and individual level are reported. Risk and benefit factors influencing the choice to consume fish are outlined. The multiple factors influencing fish availability from global capture and aquaculture are described as are other pertinent issues of fish nutrition, production, sustainability, and consumption patterns. This review highlights some of the work that needs to be carried out to meet the demand for fish and to positively affect intake levels to meet fish intake recommendations for CVD risk reduction. PMID:23538940

  8. Consumption of fish: benefits and perceived risk

    SciTech Connect

    Kimbrough, R.D. )

    1991-05-01

    Fish, a useful source of protein, may be polluted by microbes, natural toxins, and/or synthetic chemicals. However, based on a review of the U.S. General Accounting Office, 'There does not appear to be a compelling case to implement a mandatory comprehensive federal seafood inspection program.' Although earlier studies showed higher body burdens of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in populations who consumed a lot of fish from polluted waterways, a recent study refutes these observations. No information is available in the United States on the levels of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in anglers who consume a great deal of fish presumed to be contaminated by these chemicals.23 references.

  9. Fish consumption, fish atopy and related heavy metals in childhood eczema.

    PubMed

    Hon, Kam Lun; Lui, Heike; Wang, Shuxin Susan; Lam, Hugh Simon; Leung, Ting Fan

    2012-09-01

    Due to increasing worldwide water pollution, fish might be a source of excessive zinc, mercury, arsenic or manganese intake. The aim of this study was to evaluate if fish atopy/sensitization and fish consumption behavior are associated with eczema severity and blood levels of the 4 heavy metals.One-hundred and nineteen patients with eczema and 43 patients with miscellaneous non-eczema skin diseases were studied. There were no differences in average weekly fish consumption and blood levels of the 4 heavy metals between eczema and non-eczema groups. Blood levels of these metals were generally within the upper limits of local reference ranges in all these patients. In eczema patients, freshwater fish consumption behavior in days-per-week was correlated with blood arsenic and mercury levels (rho=0.17, p<0.01 for both metals), but not with zinc or manganese. Levels of arsenic and mercury were also correlated with days of seawater fish consumption per week (arsenic: 0.38, mercury: 0.24, p <0.05).Fish sensitization was present in 25% of patients with eczema. Nevertheless, there was no difference in terms of fish consumption behavior, eczema severity, quality of life, and heavy metal levels between eczema patients with or without fish sensitization. We conclude that without exceeding local normal reference ranges, blood arsenic and mercury levels correlated with fish consumption behavior. There is no evidence to suggest that fish sensitization is associated with more severe eczema (bad for eczema), or that patients have milder eczema with more days of fish consumption (good for eczema).

  10. Ultrasensitive and highly selective detection of bioaccumulation of methyl-mercury in fish samples via Ag⁰/Hg⁰ amalgamation.

    PubMed

    Deng, Li; Li, Yan; Yan, Xiuping; Xiao, Jun; Ma, Cheng; Zheng, Jing; Liu, Shaojun; Yang, Ronghua

    2015-02-17

    Methylmercury (CH3Hg(+)), the common organic source of mercury, is well-known as one of the most toxic compounds that is more toxic than inorganic or elemental mercury. In seabeds, the deposited Hg(2+) ions are converted into CH3Hg(+) by bacteria, where they are subsequently consumed and bioaccumulated in the tissue of fish, and finally, to enter the human diet, causing severe health problems. Therefore, sensitive and selective detection of bioaccumulation of CH3Hg(+) in fish samples is desirable. However, selective assay of CH3Hg(+) in the mercury-containing samples has been seriously hampered by the difficulty to distinguish CH3Hg(+) from ionic mercury. We report here that metal amalgamation, a natural phenomenon occurring between mercury atoms and certain metal atoms, combining with DNA-protected silver nanoparticles, can be used to detect CH3Hg(+) with high sensitivity and superior selectivity over Hg(2+) and other heavy metals. In our proposed approach, discrimination between CH3Hg(+) and Hg(2+) ions was realized by forming Ag/Hg amalgam with a CH3Hg(+)-specific scaffold. We have found that Ag/Hg amalgam can be formed on a CH3Hg(+)-specific DNA template between silver atoms and mercury atoms but cannot between silver atoms and CH3Hg(+). With a dye-labeled DNA strand, the sensor can detect CH3Hg(+) down to the picomolar level, which is >125-fold sensitive over Hg(2+). Moreover, the presence of 50-fold Hg(2+) and 10(6)-fold other metal ions do not interfere with the CH3Hg(+) detection. The results shown herein have important implications for the fast, easy, and selective detection and monitoring of CH3Hg(+) in environmental and biological samples.

  11. EPA Office of Water (OW): Fish Consumption Advisories and Fish Tissue Sampling Stations NHDPlus Indexed Datasets

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Fish Consumption Advisories dataset contains information on Fish Advisory events that have been indexed to the EPA Office of Water NHDPlus v2.1 hydrology and stored in the Reach Addressing Database (RAD). NHDPlus is a database that interconnects and uniquely identifies the millions of stream segments or reaches that comprise the Nations' surface water drainage system. NHDPlus provides a national framework for assigning reach addresses to water quality related entities, such as fish advisories locations. Reach addresses establish the locations of these entities relative to one another within the NHD surface water drainage network in a manner similar to street addresses. The assignment of reach addresses is accomplished through a process known as reach indexing. Fish consumption advisories and fish tissue sampling stations are reported to EPA by the states. Sampling stations are the locations where a state has collected fish tissue data for use in advisory determinations. Fish consumption advisory locations are coded onto NHDPlus flowline features to create point and linear events. Fish consumption advisory locations are also coded onto NHDPlus waterbody features to create area events. In addition to NHDPlus-reach indexed data, there may also be custom events (point, line, or area) that are not associated with NHDPlus. Although these Fish consumption advisories are not represented in NHDPlus, the data created for them are in an EPA standard format that is co

  12. Methyl mercury exposure from fish consumption in vulnerable racial/ethnic populations: probabilistic SHEDS-Dietary model analyses using 1999-2006 NHANES and 1990-2002 TDS data.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jianping; Zartarian, Valerie G; Liu, Shi V; Geller, Andrew M

    2012-01-01

    NHANES subjects self-identified as "Asian, Pacific Islander, Native American, or multiracial" (A/P/N/M) have higher levels of blood organic mercury than other racial/ethnic groups; however, the reasons for this have been unclear. This research uses exposure modeling to determine the reasons for elevated blood methylmercury (MeHg) levels, and also extends previous analyses of observed NHANES blood levels. The probabilistic SHEDS-Dietary model was applied, using MeHg fish residue data from FDA's Total Diet Study (1990-2002) combined with NHANES/WWEIA (1999-2006) fish consumption data, to generate exposure estimates by race/ethnicity, age group, and fish type. Statistical analyses of blood methylmercury levels in the (6 times larger) 1999-2006 NHANES data were compared against previous published results for 1999-2002 data. The A/P/N/M group has higher fish intake, modeled MeHg exposures, and blood levels than the general population and other racial/ethnic groups. Tuna, other saltwater fish, and other freshwater fish are key food types driving dietary MeHg exposure. The 1-<3 years-old A/P/N/M group has the highest mean dietary MeHg intake per body weight (0.06 μg/kg/day; ~2.3 times higher than the rest of the population). Fish intake and modeled exposure predictions correlate well with NHANES blood biomarker levels. This study, using the SHEDS-Dietary model with national data, reinforces and expands upon previous observations that dietary exposure via fish consumption is an important route for methylmercury intake by the general population, and especially for racial/ethnic groups with higher fish consumption. These probabilistic dietary modeling approaches could be applied for local populations (e.g., tribes) and other chemicals and foods, if data are available.

  13. Mercury and methylmercury in reservoirs in Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Risch, Martin R.; Fredericksen, Amanda L.

    2015-01-01

    Methylmercury (reported as Hg) in fish-tissue samples collected for the State fish consumption advisory program was used to describe MeHg food-web accumulation and magnification in the reservoirs. The highest percentages of fish-tissue samples with Hg concentrations that exceeded the criterion of 0.30 milligram per kilogram for protection of human health were from Monroe Lake (38 percent) and Patoka Lake (33 percent). A review of the number and size of fish species caught from these two reservoirs resulted in two implications for fish consumption by humans. First, the highest numbers of fish harvested for potential human consumption were species more likely to have MeHg concentrations lower than the human-health criterion (crappie, bluegill, and catfish). Second, although largemouth bass were likely to have MeHg concentrations higher than the human-health criterion, they were caught and released more often than they were harvested. However, the average size largemouth bass (in both reservoirs) and above-average size walleye (in Monroe Lake) that were harvested for potential human consumption were likely to have MeHg concentrations higher than the human-health criterion.

  14. Methylmercury and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... is methylmercury? Methylmercury is a toxic form of mercury found mostly in water, soil, plants and animals. Methylmercury (organic mercury) is different from elemental mercury (thermometers, dental amalgams). ...

  15. Mercury concentrations in fish from Lake Meredith, Texas: implications for the issuance of fish consumption advisories.

    PubMed

    McClain, William C; Chumchal, Matthew M; Drenner, Ray W; Newland, Leo W

    2006-12-01

    We examined how length of fish is related to mercury concentrations in muscle tissue of seven species of fish from Lake Meredith, Texas and determined how sex and growth rate are related to mercury concentration in walleye (Sander vitreus). Flathead catfish (Pylodictis olivaris), walleye and white bass (Morone chrysops) had the highest concentrations of mercury and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), river carpsucker (Carpiodes carpio) and gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum) had the lowest concentrations of mercury. Mercury concentrations were positively correlated with total length (TL) of fish for all species except gizzard shad, which exhibited a negative correlation between mercury concentration and TL. Male walleye grew more slowly than females, and males had higher concentrations of mercury than females. We also assessed the differences in fish consumption advisories that would be issued using Texas Department of State Health Services (DSHS) guidelines versus United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) recommendations. Using DSHS guidelines, no fish species in Lake Meredith would be issued a fish consumption advisory. Nevertheless, DSHS has issued an advisory for walleye in Lake Meredith, possibly due to an inadequate sample size of fish. Using USEPA guidelines, a fish consumption advisory would be issued for the largest size class of flathead catfish but no advisory exists for flathead catfish in Lake Meredith. We suggest that when fish in a lake may be contaminated with mercury, all game fish in the lake should be assessed, and mercury advisories should take fish size into account.

  16. Biomarkers of Methylmercury Exposure Immunotoxicity among Fish Consumers in Amazonian Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Fillion, Myriam; Barbosa, Fernando; Shirley, Devon L.; Chine, Chiameka; Lemire, Melanie; Mergler, Donna; Silbergeld, Ellen K.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Mercury (Hg) is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant with neurodevelopmental and immune system effects. An informative biomarker of Hg-induced immunotoxicity could aid studies on the potential contribution to immune-related health effects. Objectives: Our objectives were to test the hypothesis that methylmercury (MeHg) exposures affect levels of serum biomarkers and to examine interactions between Hg and selenium (Se) in terms of these responses. Methods: This cross-sectional epidemiological study assessed adults living along the Tapajós River, a system long affected by MeHg. We measured antinuclear (ANA) and antinucleolar (ANoA) autoantibody levels and eight cytokines in serum samples (n = 232). Total Hg (including MeHg) and Se were measured in blood, plasma, hair, and urine. Results: The median (range) total Hg concentrations were 14.1 μg/g (1.1–62.4), 53.5 μg/L (4.3–288.9), 8.8 μg/L (0.2–40), and 3.0 μg/L (0.2–16.1) for hair, blood, plasma, and urine, respectively. Elevated titers of ANA (but not ANoA) were positively associated with MeHg exposure (log-transformed, for blood and plasma), unadjusted [odds ratio (OR) = 2.6; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1, 6.2] and adjusted for sex and age (OR = 2.9; 95% CI: 1.1, 7.5). Proinflammatory [interleukin (IL)-6 and interferon (IFN)-©], anti-inflammatory (IL-4), and IL-17 cytokine levels were increased with MeHg exposure; however, in the subset of the population with elevated ANA, proinflammatory IL-1®, IL-6, IFN-©, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-〈 and anti-inflammatory (IL-4) cytokine levels were decreased with MeHg exposure. Although Se status was associated with MeHg level (correlation coefficient = 0.86; 95% CI: 0.29, 1.43), Se status was not associated with any changes in ANA and did not modify associations between Hg and ANA titers. Conclusions: MeHg exposure was associated with an increased ANA and changes in serum cytokine profile. Moreover, alterations in serum cytokine profiles

  17. Contaminated fish consumption in California's Central Valley Delta.

    PubMed

    Shilling, Fraser; White, Aubrey; Lippert, Lucas; Lubell, Mark

    2010-05-01

    Extensive mercury contamination and angler selection of the most contaminated fish species coincide in California's Central Valley. This has led to a policy conundrum: how to balance the economic and cultural impact of advising subsistence anglers to eat less fish with the economic cost of reducing the mercury concentrations in fish? State agencies with regulatory and other jurisdictional authority lack sufficient data and have no consistent approach to this problem. The present study focused on a critical and contentious region in California's Central Valley (the Sacramento-San Joaquin Rivers Delta) where mercury concentrations in fish and subsistence fishing rates are both high. Anglers and community members were surveyed for their fish preferences, rates of consumption, the ways that they receive health information, and basic demographic information. The rates of fish consumption for certain ethnicities were higher than the rates used by state agencies for planning pollution remediation. A broad range of ethnic groups were involved in catching and eating fish. The majority of anglers reported catching fish in order to feed to their families, including children and women of child-bearing age. There were varied preferences for receiving health information and no correlation between knowledge of fish contamination and rates of consumption. Calculated rates of mercury intake by subsistence anglers were well above the EPA reference dose. The findings here support a comprehensive policy strategy of involvement of the diverse communities in decision-making about education and clean-up and an official recognition of subsistence fishers in the region. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Consumption of freshwater fish in Kahnawake: risks and benefits.

    PubMed

    Chan, H M; Trifonopoulos, M; Ing, A; Receveur, O; Johnson, E

    1999-02-01

    Kahnawake is a Mohawk community located on the south shore of the Saint Lawrence River near Montreal. A comprehensive study was conducted in 1996-1997 to address the local concern regarding health risks of contaminant exposure associated with freshwater fish consumption. Forty-two participants, including most of the identified active fishermen (n=33), were interviewed. Walleye, perch, bullhead, and smallmouth bass were the species most consumed. Average daily intake of locally caught fish was 23 g/day. Nutrient and contaminant levels of locally collected fish were analyzed. Fish were good sources of protein, polyunsaturated fatty acids (particularly omega-3 fatty acids), calcium, zinc, and iron. Levels of cadmium, lead, arsenic, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and other chlorinated pesticides were at least 10 times lower than the guideline levels. Mercury levels of some predatory fish exceeded the guideline of 0.5 microgram/g. Average daily intakes of all contaminants were below the guideline levels by a factor of 10 except for mercury. Average mercury intake rate was about one-third that of the guideline level (200 micrograms/week). Contrary to residents' perception, Kahnawake fish were not particularly contaminated. In view of the nutritional as well as cultural benefits, fishing and fish consumption may be promoted. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  19. Consumption of freshwater fish in Kahnawake: Risks and benefits

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, H.M.; Trifonopoulos, M.; Ing, A.; Receveur, O.; Johnson, E.

    1999-02-01

    Kahnawake is a Mohawk community located on the south shore of the Saint Lawrence River near Montreal. A comprehensive study was conducted in 1996--1997 to address the local concern regarding health risks of contaminant exposure associated with freshwater fish consumption. Forty-two participants, including most of the identified active fishermen were interviewed. Walleye, perch, bullhead, and smallmouth bass were the species most consumed. Average daily intake of locally caught fish was 23 g/day. Nutrient and contaminant levels of locally collected fish were analyzed. Fish were good sources of protein, polyunsaturated fatty acids, calcium, zinc, and iron. Levels of cadmium, lead, arsenic, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and other chlorinated pesticides were at least 10 times lower than the guideline levels. Mercury levels of some predatory fish exceeded the guideline of 0.5 {micro}g/g. Average daily intakes of all contaminants were below the guideline levels by a factor of 10 except for mercury. Average mercury intake rate was about one-third that of the guideline level. Contrary to residents` perception, Kahnawake fish were not particularly contaminated. In view of the nutritional as well as cultural benefits, fishing and fish consumption may be promoted.

  20. Quantitative risk-benefit analysis of fish consumption for women of child-bearing age in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Chen, M Y Y; Wong, W W K; Chung, S W C; Tran, C H; Chan, B T P; Ho, Y Y; Xiao, Y

    2014-01-01

    Maternal fish consumption is associated with both risks from methylmercury (MeHg) and beneficial effects from omega-3 fatty acids to the developing foetal brain. This paper assessed the dietary exposure to MeHg of women of child-bearing age (20-49 years) in Hong Kong, and conducted risk-benefit analysis in terms of the effects in children's intelligent quotient (IQ) based on local data and the quantitative method derived by the expert consultation of FAO/WHO. Results showed that average and high consumers consume 450 and 1500 g of fish (including seafood) per week, respectively. About 11% of women of child-bearing age had a dietary exposure to MeHg exceeding the PTWI of 1.6 µg kg(-1) bw. In pregnant women MeHg intake may pose health risks to the developing foetuses. For average consumers, eating any of the 19 types of the most commonly consumed fish and seafood during pregnancy would result in 0.79-5.7 IQ points gain by their children. For high consumers, if they only ate tuna during pregnancy, it would cause 2.3 IQ points reduction in their children. The results indicated that for pregnant women the benefit outweighed the risk associated with eating fish if they consume different varieties of fish in moderation.

  1. Biomagnifications of mercury and methylmercury in tuna and mackerel.

    PubMed

    Hajeb, P; Jinap, S; Ahmad, I

    2010-12-01

    Seawater may be contaminated by harmful substances, including toxic elements released by human activities. The present study evaluates the total mercury and methylmercury concentrations and their correlations to fish body size in longtail tuna and short-bodied mackerel from Chendring, Kuantan, at east coast and Kuala Perlis at west costs of Peninsular Malaysia during May to November 2007. Total mercury and methylmercury in muscle tissue of 69 samples of longtail tuna and short-bodied mackerel, ranged from 0.180 to 1.460 μg/g and 0.0.169-0.973 μg/g and 0.251-1.470 μg/g and 0.202-1.352, whereas the methylmercury to total mercury ratio ranged from 70% to 83%, respectively. Samples of both species from the east coast showed higher levels of mercury compared to those from west coast. In all of the locations, significant positive correlations were found between fish body weight and mercury content (R(2) > 0.470). The estimated weekly intake of total mercury and methylmercury from the consumption 66.33 g/week of short-bodied mackerel and 18.34 g/week of longtail tuna (based on local dietry survey) was found to be lower than the maximum limit of 5 and 1.5 μg/kg bodyweight established by FAO/WHO and codex, respectively.

  2. Great Lakes fish consumption advisories: is mercury a concern?

    PubMed

    Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Awad, Emily; Mahon, Chris G; Petro, Steve

    2011-10-01

    The majority of the restrictive fish consumption advisories for the Canadian waters of the Great Lakes issued by the Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Canada based on the most restrictive contaminant, are attributed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins/furans. Mercury currently causes about <1-2.5% and 9-16% of the restrictive advisories for the general population (GP) and sensitive population of children under 15 and women of child-bearing age (SP), respectively (the St. Lawrence River is not considered here). Toxaphene causes minor restrictions. At present it is not clear that if PCBs and dioxins/furans were to decrease below their fish consumption advisory guidelines, current fish mercury levels would replace some, most or all of the consumption restrictions. In order to examine this, location-, species- and size-specific fish consumption advisories were calculated for a "mercury only" scenario by disregarding the presence of the other contaminants. In the absence of other contaminants, mercury would replace some of the current advisories caused by other contaminants; however, the overall advisories would be minimally to moderately restrictive (<1-7% for GP; 13-32% for SP). Almost half of the Great Lake blocks considered here would have more than double the unrestricted consumption advisories than they currently have, with Lake Ontario showing the greatest improvement. Certain size ranges of each species across the main basins of the Canadian waters of the Great Lakes would be deemed safe for unrestricted consumption. However, at least some sizes of a number of species from certain locations of each lake would still have "do not eat" advisories issued for the SP, although these restrictions would be minimal for Lake Erie. These results suggest that the current mercury levels in the Canadian Great Lakes fish are of very minor concern for the GP and of moderate concern for the SP.

  3. Consumption of particulate wastes derived from cage fish farming by aggregated wild fish. An experimental approach.

    PubMed

    Ballester-Moltó, M; Sanchez-Jerez, P; Aguado-Giménez, F

    2017-09-01

    Particulate wastes derived from cage fish farming are a trophic resource used by wild fish. This study assesses waste consumption by wild fish and the impact on the final balance of wastes. Consumption was determined according to the difference between the particulate matter exiting the cages and that reaching 5 m away at three different depths, in the presence and absence of wild fish. Wild fish around the experimental cages were counted during feeding and non-feeding periods. A weighted abundance of 1057 fish 1000 m(-3) consumed 17.75% of the particulate wastes exiting the cages, on average. Consumption was higher below the cages, where waste outflow was greater. However, waste removal by wild fish was noteworthy along the shallow and deep sides of the cages. Wild fish diminished the net particulate wastes by about 14%, transforming them into more easily dispersible and less harmful wastes. This study demonstrates the mitigating potential of wild fish in reducing environmental impact. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Issues of fish consumption for cardiovascular disease risk reduction

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Increasing fish consumption is recommended for intake of omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids and to confer benefits for the risk reduction of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Most Americans are not achieving intake levels that comply with current recommendations. It is the goal of this review to provide an overv...

  5. [Consensus document on the prevention of exposure to methylmercury in Spain].

    PubMed

    González-Estecha, Montserrat; Bodas-Pinedo, Andrés; Guillén-Pérez, José Jesús; Rubio-Herrera, Miguel Ángel; Martínez-Álvarez, Jesús Román; Herráiz-Martínez, Miguel Ángel; Martell-Claros, Nieves; Ordóñez-Iriarte, José M; Sáinz-Martín, María; Farré-Rovira, Rosaura; Martínez-Astorquiza, Txantón; García-Donaire, José Antonio; Calvo-Manuel, Elpidio; Bretón-Lesmes, Irene; Prieto-Menchero, Santiago; Llorente-Ballesteros, M Teresa; Martínez-García, M José; Moreno-Rojas, Rafael; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar; Cuadrado-Cenzual, María Ángeles; Gallardo-Pino, Carmen; Blanco Fuentes, María; Torres-Moreno, Miriam; Trasobares-Iglesias, Elena M; Barceló Martín, Bernardino; Arroyo-Fernández, Manuel; Calle-Pascual, Alfonso

    2014-11-21

    The beneficial effects of fish consumption in both children and adults are well known. However, the intake of methylmercury, mainly from contaminated fish and shellfish, can have adverse health effects. The study group on the prevention of exposure to methylmercury (GEPREM-Hg), made up of representatives from different Spanish scientific societies, has prepared a consensus document in a question and answer format, containing the group's main conclusions, recommendations and proposals. The objective of the document is to provide broader knowledge of factors associated with methylmercury exposure, its possible effects on health among the Spanish population, methods of analysis, interpretation of the results and economic costs, and to then set recommendations for fish and shellfish consumption. The group sees the merit of all initiatives aimed at reducing or prohibiting the use of mercury as well as the need to be aware of the results of contaminant analyses performed on fish and shellfish marketed in Spain. In addition, the group believes that biomonitoring systems should be set up in order to follow the evolution of methylmercury exposure in children and adults and perform studies designed to learn more about the possible health effects of concentrations found in the Spanish population, ta king into account the lifestyle, eating patterns and the Mediterranean diet.

  6. Effects of trophic poisoning with methylmercury on the appetitive elements of the agonistic sequence in fighting-fish (Betta splendens).

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Amauri; de Oliveira, Caio Maximino; Romão, Cynthia Ferreira; de Brito, Thiago Marques; Ventura, Dora Fix

    2007-11-01

    The aggressive display in Betta splendens is particularly prominent, and vital to its adaptation to the environment. Methylmercury is an organic variation of Hg that presents particularly pronounced neuro-behavioral effects. The present experiments aim to test the effect of acute and chronic poisoning with methylmercury on the display in Bettas. The animals were poisoned by trophic means in both experiments (16 ug/kg in acute poisoning; 16 ug/kg/day for chronic poisoning), and tested in agonistic pairs. The total frequency of the display was recorded, analyzing the topography of the agonistic response. The methylmercury seems to present a dose- and detoxification-dependent effect on these responses, with a more pronounced effect on motivity in acute poisoning and on emotionality in the chronic poisoning. It is possible that this effect could be mediated by alteration in the mono-amino-oxidase systems.

  7. Quantification and speciation of mercury and selenium in fish samples of high consumption in Spain and Portugal.

    PubMed

    Cabañero, Ana I; Carvalho, Cristina; Madrid, Yolanda; Batoréu, Camila; Cámara, Carmen

    2005-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) determinations were carried out to evaluate human exposure to those elements through fish consumption in Spain and Portugal. Atomic fluorescence spectroscopy (AFS) was applied in a cold vapor mode for total mercury quantification and was also hyphenated to gas chromatography (GC) to achieve the speciation of organomercurial species in fish samples. The results obtained show the highest concentration of Hg in swordfish and tuna (0.47+/-0.02 and 0.31+/-0.01 microg g-1, respectively), and a much lower concentration in sardine, mackerel shad, and octopus (0.048+/-0.002, 0.033+/-0.001, and 0.024+/-0.001 microg g-1, respectively). The determination of alkyl mercury compounds revealed that 93-98% of mercury in the fish samples was in the organic form. Methylmercury (MeHg) was the only species found in the three fish species with higher mercury content. Total selenium concentration was high in sardine, swordfish, and tuna (0.43+/-0.02, 0.47+/-0.02, and 0.92+/-0.01 microg g-1, respectively), but low in mackerel shad and octopus (0.26+/-0.01 and 0.13+/-0.01 microg g-1, respectively). Speciation of selenium compounds was done by high-performance liquid chromatography in conjunction with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LC-ICP-MS). Selenomethionine (SeMet) was the only selenium compound identified in the fish samples with higher selenium content. Among the fish species studied, sardine had the most favourable Se:Hg and SeMet:MeHg molar ratios; therefore, its consumption seems to be preferable.

  8. Early life residence, fish consumption and risk of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Haraldsdottir, Alfheidur; Steingrimsdottir, Laufey; Valdimarsdottir, Unnur A.; Aspelund, Thor; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Harris, Tamara B.; Launer, Lenore J.; Mucci, Lorelei A.; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Adami, Hans-Olov; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Torfadottir, Johanna E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known about fish intake throughout the life course and the risk of breast cancer. Methods We used data on the first residence of 9,340 women born 1908–1935 in the Reykjavik Study as well as food frequency data for different periods of life from a subgroup of the cohort entering the AGES-Reykjavik Study (n = 2,882). Results During a mean follow-up of 27.3 years, 744 women were diagnosed with breast cancer in the Reykjavik Study. An inverse association of breast cancer was observed among women who lived through the puberty period in coastal villages, compared with women residing in the capital area (HR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.61, 0.99). In the subgroup analysis of this Icelandic population, generally characterized by high fish intake, we found an indication of lower risk of breast cancer among women with high fish consumption (more than 4 portions per week) in adolescence (HR 0.71, 95% CI, 0.44, 1.13) and midlife (HR 0.46, 95% CI, 0.22, 0.97), compared with low consumers (2 portions per week or less). No association was found for fish liver oil consumption in any time period which could be due to lack of a reference group with low omega-3 fatty acids intake in the study group. Conclusion Our findings suggest that very high fish consumption in early to midlife may be associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer. Impact Very high fish consumption in early adulthood to midlife may be associated with decreased risk of breast cancer. PMID:27765796

  9. Persistent Organohalogens in Paired Fish Fillet and Eggs: Implications for Fish Consumption Advisories.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xianming; Gandhi, Nilima; Bhavsar, Satyendra P

    2016-04-13

    Fish consumption is associated with both health benefits from high-quality proteins, minerals, vitamins, and fatty acids and risks from contaminants in fish. Fish consumption advisories are issued by many government agencies to keep exposure to contaminants at a safe level. Such advisories are typically based on fillets and neglect consumption of other fish parts such as eggs by certain subpopulations. To evaluate potential for dietary exposure to toxic organic chemicals via fish eggs, we analyzed polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dlPCBs), and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) in paired fillet and eggs of fish from a tributary to Lake Ontario, one of the North American Great Lakes. All wet weight based concentrations in fish eggs were statistically higher than in the paired fillet samples. In fish eggs, concentrations of Σ14PBDEs, Σ14PCNs, and Σ12dlPCBs were 41-118, 0.3-1.7, and 30-128 ng/g wet weight (ww), respectively; Σ3PCDD/Fs and total (dlPCB+ PCDD/Fs) toxic equivalents (TEQs) were 4-22 and 9-54 pg/g ww, respectively. In fillet samples, Σ14PBDEs, Σ14PCNs, and Σ12dlPCBs were 4-116, 0.05-0.66, and 6-85 ng/g, respectively; Σ3PCDD/Fs and TEQs were 2-10 and 3.4-31 pg/g ww, respectively. In contrast, the fillets had higher lipid normalized concentrations than the paired egg samples, suggesting that these chemicals did not reach equilibrium between the fillets and eggs. Accordingly, measured concentrations in eggs or empirical relationship with fillet rather than prediction from equilibrium partitioning model should be used to evaluate contaminant exposure via consumption of fish eggs. For fatty fish from the lower Great Lakes area, we suggest one fillet meal be reduced from the advised fish consumption frequency for consumptions of 207 ± 37, 39 ± 2, 105 ± 51, and 119 ± 9 g fish eggs of brown trout, Chinook salmon, Coho salmon, and rainbow trout, respectively.

  10. Fish consumption by children in Canada: Review of evidence, challenges and future goals.

    PubMed

    Wine, Osnat; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro R; Buka, Irena S

    2012-05-01

    Fish consumption is of great importance to children's health and is essential for neurodevelopment, which begins in pregnancy and continues throughout early childhood and into adolescence. However, fish consumption presents conflicting health outcomes associated with its nutritional benefits and its adverse contaminant risks, because both avoiding fish as well as the consumption of contaminated fish can potentially harm children. This may be challenging to communicate. The present review was performed to assess the current knowledge and recommendations around 'smart' fish-consumption decisions. Health Canada advises, as well as other advisories and guides, that fish should be consumed for its health benefits, while also informing consumers, especially women and children, to limit certain fish consumption. The current literature must attempt to handle the challenges inherent in communicating the dilemmas of children's fish consumption. Incorporation of new knowledge translation strategies are proposed as a means to raise the level of knowledge about optimal fish consumption practices.

  11. Fish consumption, sleep, daily functioning, and heart rate variability.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Anita L; Dahl, Lisbeth; Olson, Gina; Thornton, David; Graff, Ingvild E; Frøyland, Livar; Thayer, Julian F; Pallesen, Staale

    2014-05-15

    This study investigated the effects of fatty fish on sleep, daily functioning and biomarkers such as heart rate variability (HRV), vitamin D status (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) + docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) in red blood cells. Moreover the relationship among sleep, daily functioning, HRV, vitamin D status, and levels of EPA+DHA was investigated. Ninety-five male forensic patients from a secure forensic inpatient facility in the USA were randomly assigned into a Fish or a Control group. The Fish group received Atlantic salmon three times per week from September to February, and the Control group was provided an alternative meal (e.g., chicken, pork, beef), but with the same nutritional value as their habitual diet, three times per week during the same period. Sleep (sleep latency, sleep efficiency, actual sleep time, and actual wake time), self-perceived sleep quality and daily functioning, as well as vitamin D status, EPA+DHA, and HRV, were assessed pre- and post-intervention period. There was a significant increase in sleep latency from pre- to post-test in the Control group. The Fish group reported better daily functioning than the Control group during post-test. Fish consumption throughout the wintertime had also an effect on resting HRV and EPA+DHA, but not on vitamin D status. However, at post-test, the vitamin D status in the Fish group was still closer to the level regarded as optimal compared to the Control group. Vitamin D status correlated negatively with actual wake time and positively with sleep efficiency during pre-test, as well as positively with daily functioning and sleep quality during post-test. Finally, HRV correlated negatively with sleep latency and positively with daily functioning. Fish consumption seemed to have a positive impact on sleep in general and also on daily functioning, which may be related to vitamin D status and HRV.

  12. [Methylmercury: existing recommendations; methods of analysing and interpreting the results; economic evaluation].

    PubMed

    González-Estecha, Montserrat; Bodas-Pinedo, Andrés; Martínez-García, María José; Trasobares-Iglesias, Elena M; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar; Ordóñez-Iriarte, José María; Llorente-Ballesteros, María Teresa; Prieto-Menchero, Santiago; Guillén-Pérez, José Jesús; Martell-Claros, Nieves; Cuadrado-Cenzual, María Ángeles; Rubio-Herrera, Miguel Ángel; Martínez-Álvarez, Jesús Román; Calvo-Manuel, Elpidio; Farré-Rovira, Rosaura; Herráiz-Martínez, Miguel Ángel; Bretón Lesmes, Irene; García-Donaire, José Antonio; Sáinz-Martín, María; Martínez-Astorquiza, Txantón; Gallardo-Pino, Carmen; Moreno-Rojas, Rafael; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Blanco Fuentes, María; Arroyo-Fernández, Manuel; Calle Pascual, Alfonso

    2014-11-04

    The beneficial effects of fish consumption are well- known. Nevertheless, there is worldwide concern regard methylmercury concentrations in fish, which is why many countries such as the United States, Australia, New Zealand, Canada and numerous European countries have made fish consumption recommendations for their populations, particularly vulnerable groups, in order to México methylmercury intake. Blood and hair are the best biological samples for measuring methylmercury. The most widely-used method to analyse methylmercury is cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry, although there are also direct methods based on the thermal decomposition of the sample. In recent years, the number of laboratories that measure mercury by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry has increased. In addition, the different kinds of mercury can be distinguished by coupling chromatography methods of separation. Laboratories that analyse mercury in biological samples need to participate in external quality control programmes. Even if mercury emissions are reduced, mercury may remain in the environment for many years, so dietary recommendations are fundamental in order to reduce exposure. It is necessary to propose public health measures aimed at decreasing mercury exposure and to evaluate the benefits of such measures from the economic and social standpoints.

  13. The role of consideration set size in explaining fish consumption.

    PubMed

    Rortveit, Asbjorn Warvik; Olsen, Svein Ottar

    2007-07-01

    This study demonstrates the relationship among attitude, knowledge and consideration set size (set size) and how these variables influence consumption frequency of fish. The proposed model was tested with cross-sectional data from a representative study of about 1100 Danish consumers. Structural equation modeling (LISREL) was used in order to simultaneously estimate the strength and direction of all relationships. The results of this study verify consideration set size as a partial mediator between both attitude and frequency and knowledge and frequency. Knowledge is suggested to be more important than attitude in forming the size of the consideration set. The size of the set is positively related to frequency of fish consumption, but with somewhat less direct effect than attitude and knowledge.

  14. Role of self-caught fish in total fish consumption rates for recreational fishermen: Average consumption for some species exceeds allowable intake.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Studies of fish consumption focus on recreational or subsistence fishing, on awareness and adherence to advisories, consumption patterns, and contaminants in fish. Yet the general public obtains their fish from commercial sources. In this paper I examine fish consumption patterns of recreational fishermen in New Jersey to determine: 1) consumption rates for self-caught fish and for other fish, 2) meals consumed per year, 3) average meal size, and average daily intake of mercury, and 4) variations in these parameters for commonly-consumed fish, and different methods of computing intake. Over 300 people were interviewed at fishing sites and fishing clubs along the New Jersey shore. Consumption patterns of anglers varied by species of fish. From 2 to 90 % of the anglers ate the different fish species, and between 9 and 75 % gave fish away to family or friends. Self-caught fish made up 7 to 92 % of fish diets. On average, self-caught fish were eaten for only 2 to 6 months of the year, whereas other fish (commercial or restaurant) were eaten up to 10 months a year. Anglers consumed from 5 to 36 meals of different fish a year, which resulted in intake of mercury ranging from 0.01 to 0.22 ug/kg/day. Average intake of Mako shark, swordfish, and tuna (sushi, canned tuna, self-caught tuna) exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's oral, chronic reference dose for mercury of 0.1 ug/kg/day. However, computing intake using consumption for the highest month results in average mercury intake exceeding the reference dose for striped bass and bluefish as well. These data, and the variability in consumption patterns, have implications for risk assessors, risk managers, and health professionals.

  15. Role of self-caught fish in total fish consumption rates for recreational fishermen: Average consumption for some species exceeds allowable intake

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Studies of fish consumption focus on recreational or subsistence fishing, on awareness and adherence to advisories, consumption patterns, and contaminants in fish. Yet the general public obtains their fish from commercial sources. In this paper I examine fish consumption patterns of recreational fishermen in New Jersey to determine: 1) consumption rates for self-caught fish and for other fish, 2) meals consumed per year, 3) average meal size, and average daily intake of mercury, and 4) variations in these parameters for commonly-consumed fish, and different methods of computing intake. Over 300 people were interviewed at fishing sites and fishing clubs along the New Jersey shore. Consumption patterns of anglers varied by species of fish. From 2 to 90 % of the anglers ate the different fish species, and between 9 and 75 % gave fish away to family or friends. Self-caught fish made up 7 to 92 % of fish diets. On average, self-caught fish were eaten for only 2 to 6 months of the year, whereas other fish (commercial or restaurant) were eaten up to 10 months a year. Anglers consumed from 5 to 36 meals of different fish a year, which resulted in intake of mercury ranging from 0.01 to 0.22 ug/kg/day. Average intake of Mako shark, swordfish, and tuna (sushi, canned tuna, self-caught tuna) exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s oral, chronic reference dose for mercury of 0.1 ug/kg/day. However, computing intake using consumption for the highest month results in average mercury intake exceeding the reference dose for striped bass and bluefish as well. These data, and the variability in consumption patterns, have implications for risk assessors, risk managers, and health professionals. PMID:23914136

  16. Neurophysiologic measures of auditory function in fish consumers: associations with long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and methylmercury

    PubMed Central

    Dziorny, Adam C.; Orlando, Mark S.; Strain, J. J.; Davidson, Philip W.; Myers, Gary J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Determining if associations exist between child neurodevelopment and environmental exposures, especially low level or background ones, is challenging and dependent upon being able to measure specific and sensitive endpoints. Psychometric or behavioral measures of CNS function have traditionally been used in such studies, but do have some limitations. Auditory neurophysiologic measures examine different nervous system structures and mechanisms, have fewer limitations, can more easily by quantified, and might be helpful testing additions. To date, their use in human epidemiological studies has been limited. We reviewed the use of auditory brainstem responses (ABR) and otoacoustic emissions (OAE) in studies designed to determine the relationship of exposures to methyl mercury (MeHg) and nutrients from fish consumption with neurological development. We included studies of experimental animals and humans in an effort to better understand the possible benefits and risks of fish consumption. Objectives We reviewed the literature on the use of ABR and OAE to measure associations with environmental exposures that result from consuming a diet high in fish. We focused specifically on long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) and MeHg. Methods We performed a comprehensive review of relevant studies using web-based search tools and appropriate search terms. Results Gestational exposure to both LCPUFA and MeHg has been reported to influence the developing auditory system. In experimental studies supplemental LCPUFA is reported to prolong ABR latencies and human studies also suggest an association. Experimental studies of acute and gestational MeHg exposure are reported to prolong ABR latencies and impair hair cell function. In humans, MeHg exposure is reported to prolong ABR latencies, but the impact on hair cell function is unknown. Conclusion The auditory system can provide objective measures and may be useful in studying exposures to nutrients and toxicants

  17. Neurophysiologic measures of auditory function in fish consumers: associations with long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and methylmercury.

    PubMed

    Dziorny, Adam C; Orlando, Mark S; Strain, J J; Davidson, Philip W; Myers, Gary J

    2013-09-01

    Determining if associations exist between child neurodevelopment and environmental exposures, especially low level or background ones, is challenging and dependent upon being able to measure specific and sensitive endpoints. Psychometric or behavioral measures of CNS function have traditionally been used in such studies, but do have some limitations. Auditory neurophysiologic measures examine different nervous system structures and mechanisms, have fewer limitations, can more easily be quantified, and might be helpful additions to testing. To date, their use in human epidemiological studies has been limited. We reviewed the use of auditory brainstem responses (ABR) and otoacoustic emissions (OAE) in studies designed to determine the relationship of exposures to methyl mercury (MeHg) and nutrients from fish consumption with neurological development. We included studies of experimental animals and humans in an effort to better understand the possible benefits and risks of fish consumption. We reviewed the literature on the use of ABR and OAE to measure associations with environmental exposures that result from consuming a diet high in fish. We focused specifically on long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) and MeHg. We performed a comprehensive review of relevant studies using web-based search tools and appropriate search terms. Gestational exposure to both LCPUFA and MeHg has been reported to influence the developing auditory system. In experimental studies supplemental LCPUFA is reported to prolong ABR latencies and human studies also suggest an association. Experimental studies of acute and gestational MeHg exposure are reported to prolong ABR latencies and impair hair cell function. In humans, MeHg exposure is reported to prolong ABR latencies, but the impact on hair cell function is unknown. The auditory system can provide objective measures and may be useful in studying exposures to nutrients and toxicants and whether they are associated with children

  18. [Consumption of fish and fishery products in Poland--analysis of benefits and risks].

    PubMed

    Kołodziejczyk, Monika

    2007-01-01

    Fish meat content high nutritive value and essential polyunsaturated fatty acids, while low consumption of fish and fishery products in Poland. Fat meat of Baltic sea fish can also contain higher levels of dioxins and organochlorinated contaminants. Consumption of fish and fishery products in Poland ought to include different species from various catch areas.

  19. Exposure of Arctic populations to methylmercury from consumption of marine food: an updated risk-benefit assessment.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Jens C; Gilman, Andrew P

    2005-04-01

    Recent and powerful epidemiological studies have been used as a basis for revising international and domestic guidelines for human exposure to mercury. Long-range transport of mercury into the Arctic makes some Arctic peoples consuming traditional marine foods, especially newborns, children and pregnant women, very vulnerable to harmful exposures. The WHO, the USEPA and Health Canada have all recently revised their mercury intake guidelines as a result of neurological effects reported in children exposed in utero and adults. Guidance values are equivalent to 0.23 microg/kg-bw/d, 0.1 microg/kg-bw/d and 0.2 microg/kg-bw/d respectively. Differences between the numbers represent slight differences in the uncertainty factors applied, rather than in toxicological interpretation. More recent findings suggest that mercury may also be a factor in ischemic heart disease, which could lower guidance values in the future. Considering the benefits of marine fatty acids (n-3 fatty acids) and guidance that populations consume 300-400g fish/week, consumers face a reality that most open ocean and relatively 'unpolluted' fish species contain levels of mercury that would lead to exposures at current guidance levels. Clearly, there is no more room for further mercury pollution and there is an urgent need for international action to reduce mercury emissions. Concomitantly, while there may be a need for public health authorities to provide consumption advisories to some highly exposed populations, such as in the Arctic, there remains a need to better understand the interactions and benefits associated with marine foods that may reduce health risks associated with low-level mercury exposure.

  20. Determination of methylmercury in fish tissue by gas chromatography with microwave-induced plasma atomic emission spectrometry after derivatization with sodium tetraphenylborate.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, H E; Leonel, L V

    2000-03-01

    The detection of methylmercury species (MeHg) in fish tissue was investigated. Samples were digested with KOH-methanol and acidified prior to extraction with methylene chloride. MeHg was back-extracted from the organic phase into water. An aliquot of this aqueous solution (buffered to pH 5) was subjected to derivatization with sodium tetraphenylborate (NaBPh4) and then extracted with toluene. The organic phase containing MePhHg was injected into a gas chromatograph (GC) which is on-line with a microwave-induced plasma atomic emission spectrometer (MIP-AED). The quantification limit was about 0.6 microg/g and 0.1 microg/g of MeHg (as Hg) for 0.08 g of freeze-dried fish powder and 0.5 g of fresh samples, respectively. Two certified reference materials, CRM 464 (tuna fish) from Community Bureau of Reference-BCR and DORM-2 (dogfish muscle) from National Research Council Canada-NRC were selected for checking the accuracy of the method. This methodology was applied to the determination of MeHg in some kinds of fish from the Carmo river with alluvial gold recovery activities ("garimpos") in Mariana, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

  1. State-level recreational fishing regulations and fish consumption advisories in the United States: identifying opportunities for improved interagency collaboration.

    PubMed

    Love, David C; Hawes, Meagan; Harding, Jamie

    2013-01-01

    Recreational fishing is regulated in 2 broad ways: natural resource-based management of fish stocks referred to here as "catch regulations," and public heath-based fish consumption advisories to reduce risks to humans from exposures to pollutants referred to as "consumption advisories." To examine the extent to which state regulatory agencies present recreational fish catch regulations and consumption advisories together and develop an ecologically based, public health argument for why these fishing regulations and advisories could be joined. State-level catch regulations and consumption advisories were collected from 50 US states and analyzed for a variety of factors. Correlation between catch regulations and consumption advisories, by aquatic animal species and taxonomic family, and by state, were the main outcome measures. State-level catch regulations were strongly predictive of state-level consumption advisories, by species (R = 0.87) or taxonomic family (R = 0.91). Within each state, however, fish catch regulations and consumption advisories were presented together in less than half of fishing guides. Fish advisories and regulations are often produced by separate state regulatory agencies, indicating an opportunity for interagency collaboration to improve health communication messaging regarding recreational fishing and self-caught fish consumption.

  2. [The effects of methylmercury on health in children and adults; national and international studies].

    PubMed

    González-Estecha, Montserrat; Bodas-Pinedo, Andrés; Rubio-Herrera, Miguel Ángel; Martell-Claros, Nieves; Trasobares-Iglesias, Elena M; Ordóñez-Iriarte, José M; Guillén-Pérez, José Jesús; Herráiz-Martínez, Miguel Ángel; García-Donaire, José Antonio; Farré-Rovira, Rosaura; Calvo-Manuel, Elpidio; Martínez-Álvarez, Jesús Román; Llorente-Ballesteros, M Teresa; Sáinz-Martín, María; Martínez-Astorquiza, Txantón; Martínez-García, M José; Bretón Lesmes, Irene; Cuadrado-Cenzual, M Ángeles; Prieto-Menchero, Santiago; Gallardo-Pino, Carmen; Moreno-Rojas, Rafael; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar; Torres-Moreno, Miriam; Arroyo-Fernández, Manuel; Calle-Pascual, Alfonso

    2014-11-01

    The benefit of fish consumption in children and adults is well-known. However, it has been pointed out that excessive methylmercury intake due to consumption of contaminated fish leads to neurological toxicity in children, affecting cognitive function, memory, visual-motor function and language. After the intoxications in Minamata and Iraq, wide-ranging epidemiological studies were carried out in New Zealand, the Faroe Islands and the Seychelles and international recommendations were established for fish consumption in pregnant women and small children. In Spain, the Childhood and Environmental project (INMA, its Spanish acronym) has studied the effects of diet and the environment on fetal and childhood development in different geographic areas of Spain. National and international sudies have demonstrated that mercury concentrations are mainly dependent on fish consumption, although there are variations among countries which can be explained not only by the levels of fish consumption, but also by the type or species of fish that is consumed, as well as other factors. Although the best documented adverse effects of methylmercury are the effects on nervous sytem development in fetuses and newborns, an increasing number of studies indicate that cognitive function, reproduction and, especially, cardiovascular risk in the adult population can also be affected. However, more studies are necessary in order to confirm this and establish the existance of a causal relationship.

  3. Comparison of patterns and knowledge of benefits and warnings of fish consumption between parents and children.

    PubMed

    Herdt-Losavio, Michele L; Lin, Shao; Chen, Ming; Luo, Ming; Tang, Jianzhong; Hwang, Syni-An

    2014-07-01

    We examined generational differences in fish consumption and knowledge of benefits/warnings of fish consumption among parents and children. This cross-sectional study gathered self-administered questionnaire data, including demographics, fish consumption behavior (including specific fish species) and knowledge of fish consumption warnings and benefits. Fish were later grouped into four categories by potential mercury contamination. Descriptive statistics were conducted for all variables comparing all adults and children. Benefit/risk knowledge variables were also descriptively analyzed among parent-child pairs only. Multivariate Poisson regression was conducted on pairs to assess risk factors for children eating higher mercury fish. 421 adults and 207 children (171 adult-child pairs) participated (family response rate: 71%). Slightly more adults (97.6%) ate fish in the last year than children (92.3%); however, there was no difference between consumption of fish by category of potential mercury contamination. Both adults (44%) and children (45%) ate high-mercury fish. In 71% of parent-child pairs, both the parent and the child knew of benefits of consuming fish; only 31% knew of warnings. Parental consumption of high or moderately-high-mercury fish was related to the child's consumption of fish in the same category. Parents and children need additional education to make better choices about fish consumption. Education should target the family and include specifics about benefits and risks.

  4. Prenatal methylmercury exposure and children: neurologic, developmental, and behavioral research.

    PubMed Central

    Myers, G J; Davidson, P W

    1998-01-01

    Mercury is present in the earth's crust and is methylated by bacteria in aquatic environments to methylmercury (MeHg). It is then concentrated by the food chain so predatory fish and sea mammals have the highest levels. Thus, consuming seafood leads to exposure. MeHg readily crosses the placenta and the blood-brain barrier and is neurotoxic. The developing fetal nervous system is especially sensitive to its effects. Prenatal poisoning with high dose MeHg causes mental retardation and cerebral palsy. Lower level exposures from maternal consumption of a fish diet have not been consistently associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. However, most studies have considerable uncertainty associated with their results. Two large controlled longitudinal studies of populations consuming seafood are underway that are likely to determine if any adverse effects can be identified. No adverse associations have been found in the Seychelles, where exposure is mainly from fish consumption. In the Faroe Islands where exposure is primarily from consumption of whale meat and not fish, adverse associations have been reported. The Seychelles population consumes large amounts of marine fish containing MeHg concentrations similar to commercial fish in the United States. Current evidence does not support the hypothesis that consumption of such fish during pregnancy places the fetus at increased neurodevelopmental risk. PMID:9646047

  5. The role of sport-fish consumption advisories in mercury risk communication: a 1998-1999 12-state survey of women age 18-45.

    PubMed

    Anderson, H A; Hanrahan, L P; Smith, A; Draheim, L; Kanarek, M; Olsen, J

    2004-07-01

    mercury and fish-consumption advisories. Most women of childbearing age consume commercial fish and a substantial number also consume sport-caught fish. Despite this potential exposure to dietary mercury, most are unfamiliar with their state's mercury fish-consumption advisory. Most women were aware of the most toxic effects of mercury but less informed about mercury and its relationship to types of fish and fish characteristics. Minorities, women over age 30, family incomes above 25,000 US dollars, and those with some collage education were more likely to be consuming two or more fish-meals per week. Until source control and environmental remediation efforts can reduce the environmental burden of mercury below levels of concern, combined sport and commercial fish consumption advisories will remain the primary means of reducing human exposure to methylmercury. Assuring and assessing the effectiveness of such advisories is paramount. Our survey documents that current efforts to inform vulnerable populations are far from optimal.

  6. Methylmercury in hair fisherman for Turkish coasts

    SciTech Connect

    Vural, N.; Uenlue, H.

    1996-10-01

    Environmental methylmercury mainly arises from the methylation of inorganic mercury. The change in speciation of mercury from inorganic to methylated forms is the first step in the aquatic bioaccumulation processes. The bioconcentration factor of methylmercury in fish tissue to that in water is usually between 10{sup 4} and 10{sup 5}. Among seafood, fish products are the main source of methylmercury absorbed by men from the environment. Since Minimata epidemic health injuries and deaths in relation to mercury pollution, environmental and biological monitoring of inorganic and organic mercury species has gained importance through out the world and many reports have been published on the health effects and biological monitoring of mercury compounds including some Mediterranean countries. This study focuses on methylmercury in hair of fisherman living in different geographical Turkish coasts and relationship to eating fish habit. 17 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  7. Relationship between mercury levels in hair and fish consumption in a population living near a hydroelectric tropical dam.

    PubMed

    Marrugo-Negrete, José Luis; Ruiz-Guzmán, Javier Alonso; Díez, Sergi

    2013-02-01

    In the present study, total mercury (T-Hg) concentrations were assessed in human hair samples (n = 76) and fish muscle (n = 33) collected at Urrá dam, upstream Sinú river, northwestern Colombia. Based on interviews with study participants, weekly intakes of total mercury (WIT-Hg) and methylmercury (WIMeHg) by fish consumption were also estimated. T-Hg concentrations in hair samples ranged from 0.40 to 24.56 μg/g dw. The highest concentrations were recorded in children (CH) (2-15 years old, n = 24) with significant differences (p < 0.05) with respect to women of childbearing age (WCHA) (16-49 years old, n = 29) and the rest of the population (RP) (n = 23), which were not significantly different. The highest T-Hg concentrations in muscle tissue were recorded in the carnivorous fish (0.65-2.25 μg/g wet weight, ww), with significant differences (p < 0.05) compared to non-carnivorous fish (0.16-0.54 μg/g ww). WIT-Hg recorded the highest values in CH (2.18-50.41 μg/kg/week), with significant differences (p < 0.05) with respect to WCHA (2.02-23.54 μg/kg/week) and RP (1.09-24.71 μg/kg/week), which were not significantly different. Correlation analysis showed a significant relationship between weekly fish consumption and hair T-Hg in CH (r = 0.37, p < 0.05) and WCHA (r = 0.44, p < 0.05). This association was also observed with the number of days per week with fish consumption in CH (r = 0.37, p < 0.05) and WCHA (r = 0.45, p < 0.05). These results suggest that Hg exposure in people inhabiting the Urrá dam should be carefully monitored, particularly in vulnerable groups such as CH and WCHA.

  8. Fish consumption in pregnancy, cord blood mercury level and cognitive and psychomotor development of infants followed over the first three years of life: Krakow epidemiologic study.

    PubMed

    Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Perera, Frederica; Jankowski, Jeffery; Rauh, Virginia; Flak, Elzbieta; Caldwell, Kathleen L; Jones, Robert L; Pac, Agnieszka; Lisowska-Miszczyk, Ilona

    2007-11-01

    Although the maternal fish consumption is supposed to have beneficial effects on development of infants, it may be harmful for child cognitive development since fish is a common source of methylmercury. Purpose of the study was to describe the usual pattern of fish consumption during pregnancy in Poland and explain the variability of prenatal mercury exposure due to fish intake by mothers. The other endpoint of the study was the assessment of the cognitive and psychomotor development of infants related to prenatal mercury exposure over the 3-year follow-up. The study sample consisted of 374 infants born at 33-42 weeks of gestation between January 2001 and March 2003 to mothers attending ambulatory prenatal clinics in the first and second trimesters of pregnancy. Total mercury level in whole cord blood was measured and the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID-II) was used to assess the mental (MDI) and psychomotor developmental index (PDI) in children at 12, 24 and 36 months of age. Self-reported weekly amount of fish consumption during the first two trimesters of pregnancy correlated positively with umbilical cord mercury concentrations (r(s)=0.22, p<0.0001). The corresponding correlation coefficient for the fish consumption in the third trimester of pregnancy was 0.21, p<0.0001. There was an inverse association between mercury exposure and both MDI (beta regression coeff.=-2.8, p=0.01) and PDI scores (beta coeff.=-2.3, p=0.04) at 12 months of age. Subsequent BSID-II testing at 24 and 36 months did not confirm significant association between exposure and cognitive or psychomotor function. The estimates of association between mercury prenatal exposure and the development of infants, which were based on the longitudinal analysis of all BSID-II measurements done in the follow-up (generalized estimating equations statistical model) showed that the performance deficit observed at 12 months of age was of border significance.

  9. Fish oil reduces heart rate and oxygen consumption during exercise.

    PubMed

    Peoples, Gregory E; McLennan, Peter L; Howe, Peter R C; Groeller, Herbert

    2008-12-01

    Dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are readily incorporated into heart and skeletal muscle membranes where, in the heart, animal studies show they reduce O2 consumption. To test the hypothesis that omega-3 PUFAs alter O2 efficiency in humans, the effects of fish oil (FO) supplementation on O2 consumption during exercise were evaluated. Sixteen well-trained men (cyclists), randomly assigned to receive 8 x 1 g capsules per day of olive oil (control) or FO for 8 weeks in a double-blind, parallel design, completed the study (control: n = 7, age 27.1 +/- 2.7 years; FO: n = 9, age 23.2 +/- 1.2 years). Subjects used an electronically braked cycle ergometer to complete peak O2 consumption tests (VO 2peak) and sustained submaximal exercise tests at 55% of peak workload (from the VO 2peak test) before and after supplementation. Whole-body O2 consumption and indirect measurements of myocardial O2 consumption [heart rate and rate pressure product (RPP)] were assessed. FO supplementation increased omega-3 PUFA content of erythrocyte cell membranes. There were no differences in VO 2peak (mL kg(-1) min(-1)) (control: pre 66.8 +/- 2.4, post 67.2 +/- 2.3; FO: pre 68.3 +/- 1.4, post 67.2 +/- 1.2) or peak workload after supplementation. The FO supplementation lowered heart rate (including peak heart rate) during incremental workloads to exhaustion (P < 0.05). In addition, the FO supplementation lowered steady-state submaximal exercise heart rate, whole-body O2 consumption, and RPP (P < 0.01). Time to voluntary fatigue was not altered by FO supplementation. This study indicates that FOs may act within the healthy heart and skeletal muscle to reduce both whole-body and myocardial O2 demand during exercise, without a decrement in performance.

  10. MERCURY EXPOSURE FROM FISH CONSUMPTION WITHIN THE JAPANESE AND KOREAN COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Public health guidance pertaining to fish consumption requires that we be cognizant of the health concerns associated with eating contaminated fish and the nutritional benefits obtained from fish consumption. In doing so, a need exists for an improved understanding of the extent ...

  11. MERCURY EXPOSURE FROM FISH CONSUMPTION WITHIN THE JAPANESE AND KOREAN COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Public health guidance pertaining to fish consumption requires that we be cognizant of the health concerns associated with eating contaminated fish and the nutritional benefits obtained from fish consumption. In doing so, a need exists for an improved understanding of the extent ...

  12. Temporal variation of blood and hair mercury levels in pregnancy in relation to fish consumption history in a population living along the St. Lawrence River.

    PubMed

    Morrissette, Joëlle; Takser, Larissa; St-Amour, Genevieve; Smargiassi, Audrey; Lafond, Julie; Mergler, Donna

    2004-07-01

    Fish consumption from the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence River has been decreasing over the last years due to advisories and increased awareness of the presence of several contaminants. Methylmercury (MeHg), a well-established neurotoxicant even at low levels of exposure, bioaccumulates to differing degrees in various fish species and can have serious adverse effects on the development and functioning of the human central nervous system, especially during prenatal exposure. Most studies on MeHg exposure have focussed on high-level consumers from local fish sources, although mercury (Hg) is also present in fresh, frozen, and canned market fish. Moreover, little information exists on the temporal variation of blood and hair Hg in pregnant women, particularly in populations with low levels of Hg. The aim of the present study was to characterize the temporal variation of Hg during pregnancy and to investigate the relation between fish consumption from various sources prior to and during pregnancy and maternal cord blood and mother's hair Hg levels. We recruited 159 pregnant women from Southwest Quebec through two prenatal clinics of the Quebec Public Health System. All women completed two detailed questionnaires concerning their fish consumption (species and frequency) prior to and during pregnancy. The women also provided blood samples for all three trimesters of pregnancy and hair samples after delivery of up to 9 cm in length. Blood and hair Hg levels were analyzed by cold-vapor atomic-absorption and -fluorescence spectrometry methods, respectively. Results showed that maternal blood and hair Hg levels decreased significantly between the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. However, cord blood Hg was significantly higher than maternal blood at birth. Maternal hair was correlated with Hg blood concentration and was highly predictive of the organic fraction in cord blood. A strong dose relation was observed between the frequency of fish consumption before and

  13. Risk assessment of mercury exposure through fish consumption by the riverside people in the Madeira Basin, Amazon, 1991.

    PubMed

    Boischio, A A; Henshel, D S

    1996-01-01

    Aquatic food chain mercury pollution is one of the consequences of the gold rush in the Amazon, which started in the late 1970s. This paper addresses the risks of methylmercury (MeHg) toxicity by a riverside population of heavy fish eaters along the Madeira river, in the Amazon, based on their hair mercury (Hg) concentration. Given the vulnerability of the developing nervous system, NOEL/LOEL values were used based on prenatal (LOELp = 0.7 microgram/ kg bw), and adult and childhood (LOELa = 3 micrograms/kg bw) Hg exposures. Based on hair Hg concentrations, we observed that approximately 95% of infants were at risk of absorbing Hg through the previous placental exposure, and/or by ingesting Hg from mother's milk, and/or fish consumption, at a level as great as the LOELp. The hazard quotient derived from the LOELp for neurobehavioral effects was 64 based on an estimated mean Hg daily intake of 4.5 micrograms/kg bw. Approximately 45% of the mothers of the infants and other women of child bearing age were at risk of ingesting Hg at a level equivalent to the LOELp. This also translates into a derived hazard quotient for neurobehavioral effects of 17 for all potential mothers in the population. The non-infant population at the highest risk was fish-eating children under 5 years old. This sub-population had a mean estimated Hg daily intake of 6.4 micrograms/kg bw. This resulted in a probability that almost 60% of this sub-population ingested Hg at a level equivalent to the LOELa or higher. For this sub-population, there was a hazard quotient of 21. These data strongly indicate that the young children of this riverside fish-eating population may be ingesting Hg doses that have been correlated with neurological damage from Hg poisoning.

  14. Influence of fish size and sex on mercury/PCB concentration: importance for fish consumption advisories.

    PubMed

    Gewurtz, Sarah B; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Fletcher, Rachael

    2011-02-01

    Fish advisories for polychlorinated biphenyls (total-PCBs) and mercury are often given on a length-specific basis and fish sex is usually not considered. The relationship between concentration and length is well established for mercury, however its suitability for total-PCBs and the influence of sex over the large scale covered by most monitoring programs is not well known. Here we use what is perhaps the largest consistent sport fish contaminant dataset to evaluate the relationship between total-PCB/mercury and length and sex. We evaluated seven of the most commonly consumed fishes from the Canadian Great Lakes and two Ontario (Canada) inland lakes. For mercury, the relationship between concentration and length was significant (p<0.05) in most fish species and locations. For total-PCB, this relationship was also generally significant in Chinook salmon and lake trout, which are the species with the most advisories for this compound. In contrast, significant relationships were found less often for whitefish, northern pike, smallmouth bass, walleye, and especially yellow perch. However, mercury usually drives fish consumption advisories for these species. Overall, our results support the protocol of issuing contaminant advice on a length-specific basis in fish monitoring programs with reasonable confidence when at least a moderate number of samples over the natural size range of a species are included in the analysis. Sex differences were common for walleye (males>females, p<0.05) but not other species, suggesting that an equal number of male and female walleye should be used in deriving fish advisories for walleye.

  15. BIRTH DEFECTS RISK ASSOCIATED WITH MATERNAL SPORT FISH CONSUMPTION: POTENTIAL EFFECT MODIFICATION BY SEX OF OFFSPRING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contaminated sport fish consumption may result in exposure to various reproductive and developmental toxicants, including pesticides and other suspected endocrine disruptors. We investigated the relation between maternal sport fish meals and risk of major birth defects among infa...

  16. BIRTH DEFECTS RISK ASSOCIATED WITH MATERNAL SPORT FISH CONSUMPTION: POTENTIAL EFFECT MODIFICATION BY SEX OF OFFSPRING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contaminated sport fish consumption may result in exposure to various reproductive and developmental toxicants, including pesticides and other suspected endocrine disruptors. We investigated the relation between maternal sport fish meals and risk of major birth defects among infa...

  17. Benefits and risks associated with consumption of raw, cooked, and canned tuna (Thunnus spp.) based on the bioaccessibility of selenium and methylmercury.

    PubMed

    Afonso, C; Costa, S; Cardoso, C; Oliveira, R; Lourenço, H M; Viula, A; Batista, I; Coelho, I; Nunes, M L

    2015-11-01

    The Se, Hg, and methylmercury (MeHg) levels in raw, cooked (boiled and grilled), and canned tuna (Thunnus spp.) were determined before and after an in vitro digestion, thereby enabling the calculation of the respective bioaccessibility percentages. A risk-benefit evaluation of raw and canned tuna on the basis of the Se and MeHg data was performed. Selenium bioaccessibility was high in tuna, though slightly lower in canned than in raw products. Mercury levels were high in raw and cooked tuna. Hg bioaccessibility percentages were low (39-48%) in the cooked tuna and even lower (<20%) in canned tuna. For the bioaccessible fraction, all molar Se:MeHg ratios were higher than one (between 10 and 74). A probabilistic assessment of MeHg risk vs Se benefit showed that while a weekly meal of canned tuna presents very low risk, raw, boiled, and grilled tuna consumption should not exceed a monthly meal, at least, for pregnant and nursing women.

  18. Exploring the relationship between convenience and fish consumption: a cross-cultural study.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Svein Ottar; Scholderer, Joachim; Brunsø, Karen; Verbeke, Wim

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of the present study is to explore cultural differences in the meaning of convenience and the relationships between convenience, attitudes and fish consumption in five European countries. The results suggest that the meaning of meal convenience is not culture specific, whilst the absolute levels of convenience orientation and the perceived inconvenience of fish differ between cultures. Convenience orientation was highest in Poland, followed by Spain, and was lowest in the Netherlands. The relationships between convenience orientation and attitudes towards fish, and convenience orientation and fish consumption, were insignificant in most countries. However, convenience orientation was positively related to the perceived inconvenience of fish. Perceived inconvenience of fish was negatively related to both attitudes towards fish and to fish consumption. Together, these results confirm some earlier findings that fish is generally perceived as a relatively inconvenient type of food. This study suggests that convenience orientation can be crucial to understanding food choice or behaviour only when critical mediating constructs are explored.

  19. Fish consumption among women anglers of childbearing age in the Great Lakes region.

    PubMed

    Connelly, Nancy A; Bruce Lauber, T; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Knuth, Barbara A

    2016-10-01

    Fish consumption advisories are issued by the federal government for women of childbearing age (WCBA). These advisories make recommendations about the amount and types of fish that should be consumed to provide the greatest health benefits to women and their children while avoiding risks from chemical contaminants. We used diary methods to study fish consumption patterns of 1395 WCBA in the Great Lakes coastal region who purchased fishing licenses, a group which has significant opportunity to eat larger quantities of fish. Very few members of this group reported exceeding the federal recommendations for total fish consumption (between 3% and 5% depending on assumptions about portion sizes), consumption of canned "white" tuna (0%), or consumption of "do not eat" species (4%). They did report eating more fish on average than recent national study estimates, but they did not report consuming as much fish as is recommended to obtain the greatest health benefits of fish consumption. Only 10-12% of study participants reported eating within the recommended range of 8-12oz. of fish per week, with 84-87% eating less than the recommended amount. Additional efforts are likely needed to encourage WCBA to eat more low-risk fish, even among this group of higher-than-average fish consumers.

  20. Examining the Impact of a Public Health Message on Fish Consumption in Bermuda

    PubMed Central

    McLean Pirkle, Catherine; Peek-Ball, Cheryl; Outerbridge, Eugene; Rouja, Philippe Max

    2015-01-01

    Background In 2003 mean cord blood mercury concentrations in pregnant Bermudian women exceeded levels associated with adverse health outcomes in children. The principal mercury source was local fish species. Public health messages were developed suggesting pregnant women reduce consumption of fish species with higher mercury concentrations (e.g. swordfish), substituting species containing lower mercury concentrations, and elevated omega-3 fatty acids (e.g. anchovies). Recent evidence indicates mercury concentrations in Bermuda’s pregnant women have fallen five- fold. Objectives Assess whether changes in women’s fish eating patterns during pregnancy are consistent with the public health messaging. Determine who is making changes to their diet during pregnancy and why. Methods Mixed methods study with a cross-sectional survey of 121 pregnant women, including 13 opened-ended interviews. Health system, social vulnerability, public health messaging, and socio-demographic variables were characterized and related to changes in fish consumption during pregnancy. Qualitative data were coded according to nutritional advice messages, comprehension of communication strategies, and sources of information. Results 95% of women surveyed encountered recommendations about fish consumption during pregnancy. 75% reported modifying fish eating behaviors because of recommendations. Principal sources of information about fish consumption in pregnancy were health care providers and the Internet. 71% of women reported reducing consumption of large fish species with greater mercury levels, but 60% reported reduced consumption of smaller, low mercury fish. No participant mentioned hearing about the benefits of fish consumption. More frequent exposure to public health messages during pregnancy was associated with lower reported consumption. Bermudian born women were less likely to reduce consumption of large fish species during pregnancy. Conclusions In Bermuda, public health messages

  1. Maternal fish consumption, fetal growth and the risks of neonatal complications: the Generation R Study.

    PubMed

    Heppe, Denise H M; Steegers, Eric A P; Timmermans, Sarah; Breeijen, Hanneke den; Tiemeier, Henning; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

    2011-03-01

    Maternal fish consumption during pregnancy has been suggested to affect birth outcomes. Previous studies mainly focused on birth outcomes and did not study fetal growth during pregnancy. In a prospective cohort study from early pregnancy onwards in The Netherlands, we assessed the associations of first-trimester maternal total-fish, lean-fish, fatty-fish and shellfish consumption with fetal growth characteristics in the second and third trimesters, growth characteristics at birth and the risks of neonatal complications, including pre-term birth, low birth weight and small for gestational age. In total, 3380 mothers completed a 293-item semi-quantitative FFQ to obtain information about fish consumption during the first trimester of pregnancy. Head circumference, femur length and fetal weight were estimated in the second and third trimesters by ultrasound. Information about birth anthropometrics and neonatal complications was available from hospital and midwife registries. Maternal older age, higher educational level, folic acid supplement use, alcohol use and not smoking were associated with higher fish consumption (P < 0·01). After adjustment, we observed no consistent associations of maternal total-fish consumption or specific consumption of lean fish, fatty fish or shellfish with fetal growth characteristics in the second and third trimesters and at birth. Likewise, total-fish consumption or specific consumption of any type of fish was not consistently associated with the risks of neonatal complications. These findings suggest that in a population with a relatively low fish intake, consumption of lean fish, fatty fish or shellfish in the first trimester is not associated with fetal growth or the risks of neonatal complications.

  2. Fish consumption and frying of fish in relation to type 2 diabetes incidence: a prospective cohort study of Swedish men.

    PubMed

    Wallin, Alice; Di Giuseppe, Daniela; Orsini, Nicola; Åkesson, Agneta; Forouhi, Nita G; Wolk, Alicja

    2017-03-01

    Epidemiological evidence on the association between fish consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes is heterogeneous across geographical regions. Differences related to fish consumption pattern could possibly help explain the discrepancy between the findings. We therefore aimed to investigate the association between fish consumption (total, fried, specific fish items) and type 2 diabetes incidence, taking exposure to contaminants present in fish (polychlorinated biphenyls and methyl mercury) into consideration. The population-based Cohort of Swedish Men, including 35,583 men aged 45-79 years, was followed from 1998 to 2012. We estimated hazard ratios (HRs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) using Cox proportional hazards models. During 15 years of follow-up, 3624 incident cases were identified. Total fish consumption (≥4 servings/week vs. <1 serving/week) was not associated with type 2 diabetes in multivariable-adjusted analysis (HR 1.00; 95 % CI 0.85-1.18); however, a statistically non-significant inverse association was observed after adjustment for dietary contaminant exposures (HR 0.79; 95 % CI 0.60-1.04). Fried fish (≥6 servings/month vs. ≤1 servings/month) and shellfish consumption (≥1 serving/week vs. never/seldom) were associated with HRs of 1.14 (95 % CI 1.03-1.31) and 1.21 (95 % CI 1.07-1.36), respectively. We observed no overall association between total fish consumption and type 2 diabetes. The results indicated that dietary contaminants in fish may influence the relationship. Fried fish and shellfish consumption were associated with higher type 2 diabetes incidence. These findings suggest that more specific advice on fish species sub-types (varying in contamination) and preparation methods may be warranted.

  3. Human biomonitoring to optimize fish consumption advice: reducing uncertainty when evaluating benefits and risks.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Scott M; Lynn, Tracey V; Verbrugge, Lori A; Middaugh, John P

    2005-03-01

    National fish consumption advisories that are based solely on assessment of risk of exposure to contaminants without consideration of consumption benefits result in overly restrictive advice that discourages eating fish even in areas where such advice is unwarranted. In fact, generic fish advisories may have adverse public health consequences because of decreased fish consumption and substitution of foods that are less healthy. Public health is on the threshold of a new era for determining actual exposures to environmental contaminants, owing to technological advances in analytical chemistry. It is now possible to target fish consumption advice to specific at-risk populations by evaluating individual contaminant exposures and health risk factors. Because of the current epidemic of nutritionally linked disease, such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, general recommendations for limiting fish consumption are ill conceived and potentially dangerous.

  4. Selenium-mercury relationships in Idaho lake fish versus Northeastern USA lake fish

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methyl-mercury (MeHg) exposure to wildlife and humans occurs primarily through the foodweb, notably fish consumption. Selenium moderates the toxicity of MeHg in all animal models that utilize selenoenzymatic protein synthesis, as do humans. A Se:Hg molar ratio of <1:1 appears to...

  5. Selenium-mercury relationships in Idaho lake fish versus Northeastern USA lake fish

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methyl-mercury (MeHg) exposure to wildlife and humans occurs primarily through the foodweb, notably fish consumption. Selenium moderates the toxicity of MeHg in all animal models that utilize selenoenzymatic protein synthesis, as do humans. A Se:Hg molar ratio of <1:1 appears to...

  6. Urban anglers in the Great Lakes region: Fish consumption patterns, influences, and responses to advisory messages.

    PubMed

    Bruce Lauber, T; Connelly, Nancy A; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Knuth, Barbara A

    2017-07-15

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and many state advisory programs consider urban anglers at high risk of being exposed to contaminants through fish consumption because the urban poor may be dependent on fish they catch for food and lack access to non-contaminated fishing sites. Past research has supported this characterization of urban anglers, but most studies have been site-specific and limited to subsets of urban anglers. We used a mail survey and focus groups to (a) explore how urban anglers living in the Great Lakes region of the United States differed from rural and suburban anglers and (b) characterize their fishing patterns, fish consumption, factors influencing their fish consumption, and response to fish consumption advisory messages. Although we detected some differences between licensed urban, suburban, and rural anglers, their magnitude was not striking. Lower income urban anglers tended to consume less purchased and sport-caught fish than higher income urban anglers and were not at high risk as a group. Nevertheless, focus group data suggested there may be subpopulations of urban anglers, particularly from immigrant populations, that consume higher amounts of potentially contaminated fish. Although urban anglers in general may not require a special approach for communicating fish consumption advice, subpopulations within this group may be best targeted by using community-based programs to communicate fish consumption advice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Higher fish but lower micronutrient intakes: Temporal changes in fish consumption from capture fisheries and aquaculture in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Bogard, Jessica R; Farook, Sami; Marks, Geoffrey C; Waid, Jillian; Belton, Ben; Ali, Masum; Toufique, Kazi; Mamun, Abdulla; Thilsted, Shakuntala H

    2017-01-01

    Malnutrition is one of the biggest challenges of the 21st century, with one in three people in the world malnourished, combined with poor diets being the leading cause of the global burden of disease. Fish is an under-recognised and undervalued source of micronutrients, which could play a more significant role in addressing this global challenge. With rising pressures on capture fisheries, demand is increasingly being met from aquaculture. However, aquaculture systems are designed to maximise productivity, with little consideration for nutritional quality of fish produced. A global shift away from diverse capture species towards consumption of few farmed species, has implications for diet quality that are yet to be fully explored. Bangladesh provides a useful case study of this transition, as fish is the most important animal-source food in diets, and is increasingly supplied from aquaculture. We conducted a temporal analysis of fish consumption and nutrient intakes from fish in Bangladesh, using nationally representative household expenditure surveys from 1991, 2000 and 2010 (n = 25,425 households), combined with detailed species-level nutrient composition data. Fish consumption increased by 30% from 1991-2010. Consumption of non-farmed species declined by 33% over this period, compensated (in terms of quantity) by large increases in consumption of farmed species. Despite increased total fish consumption, there were significant decreases in iron and calcium intakes from fish (P<0.01); and no significant change in intakes of zinc, vitamin A and vitamin B12 from fish, reflecting lower overall nutritional quality of fish available for consumption over time. Our results challenge the conventional narrative that increases in food supply lead to improvements in diet and nutrition. As aquaculture becomes an increasingly important food source, it must embrace a nutrition-sensitive approach, moving beyond maximising productivity to also consider nutritional quality. Doing

  8. Higher fish but lower micronutrient intakes: Temporal changes in fish consumption from capture fisheries and aquaculture in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Farook, Sami; Marks, Geoffrey C.; Waid, Jillian; Belton, Ben; Ali, Masum; Toufique, Kazi; Mamun, Abdulla; Thilsted, Shakuntala H.

    2017-01-01

    Malnutrition is one of the biggest challenges of the 21st century, with one in three people in the world malnourished, combined with poor diets being the leading cause of the global burden of disease. Fish is an under-recognised and undervalued source of micronutrients, which could play a more significant role in addressing this global challenge. With rising pressures on capture fisheries, demand is increasingly being met from aquaculture. However, aquaculture systems are designed to maximise productivity, with little consideration for nutritional quality of fish produced. A global shift away from diverse capture species towards consumption of few farmed species, has implications for diet quality that are yet to be fully explored. Bangladesh provides a useful case study of this transition, as fish is the most important animal-source food in diets, and is increasingly supplied from aquaculture. We conducted a temporal analysis of fish consumption and nutrient intakes from fish in Bangladesh, using nationally representative household expenditure surveys from 1991, 2000 and 2010 (n = 25,425 households), combined with detailed species-level nutrient composition data. Fish consumption increased by 30% from 1991–2010. Consumption of non-farmed species declined by 33% over this period, compensated (in terms of quantity) by large increases in consumption of farmed species. Despite increased total fish consumption, there were significant decreases in iron and calcium intakes from fish (P<0.01); and no significant change in intakes of zinc, vitamin A and vitamin B12 from fish, reflecting lower overall nutritional quality of fish available for consumption over time. Our results challenge the conventional narrative that increases in food supply lead to improvements in diet and nutrition. As aquaculture becomes an increasingly important food source, it must embrace a nutrition-sensitive approach, moving beyond maximising productivity to also consider nutritional quality

  9. Methylmercury risk and awareness among American Indian women of childbearing age living on an inland northwest reservation

    SciTech Connect

    Kuntz, Sandra W.; Hill, Wade G.; Linkenbach, Jeff W.; Lande, Gary; Larsson, Laura

    2009-08-15

    American Indian women and children may be the most overrepresented among the list of disparate populations exposed to methylmercury. American Indian people fish on home reservations where a state or tribal fishing license (a source of advisory messaging) is not required. The purpose of this study was to examine fish consumption, advisory awareness, and risk communication preferences among American Indian women of childbearing age living on an inland Northwest reservation. For this cross-sectional descriptive study, participants (N=65) attending a Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) clinic were surveyed between March and June 2006. An electronic questionnaire adapted from Anderson et al. (2004) was evaluated for cultural acceptability and appropriateness by tribal consultants. Regarding fish consumption, approximately half of the women surveyed (49%) indicated eating locally caught fish with the majority signifying they consumed medium- and large-size fish (75%) that could result in exposure to methylmercury. In addition, a serendipitous discovery indicated that an unanticipated route of exposure may be fish provided from a local food bank resulting from sportsman's donations. The majority of women (80%) were unaware of tribal or state fish advisory messages; the most favorable risk communication preference was information coming from doctors or healthcare providers (78%). Since the population consumes fish and has access to locally caught potentially contaminated fish, a biomonitoring study to determine actual exposure is warranted.

  10. Inter-household and intra-household patterns of fish and meat consumption in fishing communities in two states in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Gomna, Ahmed; Rana, Krishen

    2007-01-01

    Fish is generally regarded as a primary source of protein for many poor African fishing communities. The present study compared the relative importance of fish as a high-quality dietary protein source with meat in fishing communities in two states in Nigeria. Fifty fishing households in which active fishing was the primary activity and fifty non-fishing households (agriculture being stated as primary activity) in traditional fishing communities were randomly selected in the coastal state of Lagos and the inland state of Niger. A simple weighing balance was designed and given to each household to measure fish or meat entering the household for consumption. A comparison of consumption using this method against the 24h recall method revealed that the recall method accounted for only one third of actual fish consumed. Overall, the price of fish was higher and consumption lower in Lagos compared with Niger State. At the household level in both states, the consumption of fish in fishing households was twice that of non-fishing households, whereas meat consumption was similar. A total of thirty-nine different fish species were consumed, with Tilapia contributing 24% by weight of the fish consumed. In both states, beef was the most frequently consumed meat, followed by goat meat. The study revealed a high preference for fresh fish. The highest fish consumption occurred in March, corresponding to the period of lowest meat consumption. On a unit weight basis, heads of households consumed 59% more fish than their wives or children.

  11. A quantitative risk-benefit analysis of changes in population fish consumption.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Joshua T; Bellinger, David C; Connor, William E; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Lawrence, Robert S; Savitz, David A; Shaywitz, Bennett A; Teutsch, Steven M; Gray, George M

    2005-11-01

    Although a rich source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) that may confer multiple health benefits, some fish contain methyl mercury (MeHg), which may harm the developing fetus. U.S. government recommendations for women of childbearing age are to modify consumption of high-MeHg fish, while recommendations encourage fish consumption among the general population because of nutritional benefits. To investigate the aggregate impacts of hypothetical shifts in fish consumption, the Harvard Center for Risk Analysis convened an expert panel (see acknowledgements). Effects investigated include prenatal cognitive development, coronary heart disease mortality, and stroke. Substitution of fish with high MeHg concentrations with fish containing less MeHg among women of childbearing age yields substantial developmental benefits and few negative impacts. However, if women instead decrease fish consumption, countervailing risks substantially reduce net benefits. If other adults (mistakenly and inappropriately) also reduce their fish consumption, the net public health impact is negative. Although high compliance with recommended fish consumption patterns can improve public health, unintended shifts in consumption can lead to public health losses. Risk managers should investigate and carefully consider how populations will respond to interventions, how those responses will influence nutrient intake and contaminant exposure, and how these changes will affect aggregate public health.

  12. Too much of a good thing? Update on fish consumption and mercury exposure.

    PubMed

    Levenson, Cathy W; Axelrad, Donald M

    2006-03-01

    While there is a significant amount of data showing health benefits of increased fish consumption, there are conflicting reports about the cardiovascular risks of mercury in seafood. A recent long-term study attempted to resolve this controversy, providing an opportunity to balance recommendations from the US Environmental Protection Agency for mercury with those from the American Heart Association for fish consumption.

  13. Paternal Lake Ontario fish consumption and risk of conception delay, New York state angler cohort

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, G.M.; Mendola, P.; Vena, J.E.; Kostyniak, P.; Greizerstein, H.; Olson, J.; Stephen, F.D.; Sever, L.E.

    1999-02-01

    The aquatic ecosystems of the Great Lakes are contaminated with a variety of compounds, some of which are considered reproductive toxicants. Few studies of paternal fish consumption and reproductive endpoints have been undertaken and serve as the impetus for study. Standardized telephone interviews were conducted with 2,445 female members of the New York State Angler Cohort (82% response) to update reproductive profiles and to ascertain specific information on time-to-pregnancy (TTP). The study sample includes women with a known TTP and paternal fish consumption data (n = 785). Conception delay was defined as more than 12 cycles of unprotected intercourse to achieve pregnancy. Paternal fish consumption was assessed by three measures: frequency of Lake Ontario sport fish meals in 1991, numbers of years eating fish, and estimated PCB exposure from fish consumption. Adjusted ORs for number of fish meals, based on logistic regression, ranged from 0.69 to 0.80; from 0.61 to .82 for number of years eating fish; and from 0.44 to 1.14 for quartiles of estimated PCB exposure from fish consumption. All confidence intervals included one. These findings suggest that, based on paternal self-reports, Lake Ontario fish consumption does not increase the risk of conception delay.

  14. Paternal Lake Ontario fish consumption and risk of conception delay, New York State Angler Cohort.

    PubMed

    Buck, G M; Mendola, P; Vena, J E; Sever, L E; Kostyniak, P; Greizerstein, H; Olson, J; Stephen, F D

    1999-02-01

    The aquatic ecosystems of the Great Lakes are contaminated with a variety of compounds, some of which are considered reproductive toxicants. Few studies of paternal fish consumption and reproductive endpoints have been undertaken and serve as the impetus for study. Standardized telephone interviews were conducted with 2445 female members of the New York State Angler Cohort (82% response) to update reproductive profiles and to ascertain specific information on time-to-pregnancy (TTP). The study sample includes women with a known TTP and paternal fish consumption data (n=785). Conception delay was defined as more than 12 cycles of unprotected intercourse to achieve pregnancy. Paternal fish consumption was assessed by three measures: frequency of Lake Ontario sport fish meals in 1991, numbers of years eating fish, and estimated PCB exposure from fish consumption. Adjusted ORs for number of fish meals, based on logistic regression, ranged from 0.69 to 0.80; from 0.61 to 0.82 for number of years eating fish; and from 0.44 to 1.14 for quartiles of estimated PCB exposure from fish consumption. All confidence intervals included one. These findings suggest that, based on paternal self-reports, Lake Ontario fish consumption does not increase the risk of conception delay.

  15. Levels of nutrients in relation to fish consumption among older male anglers in Wisconsin

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Krista Y.; Thompson, Brooke A.; Werner, Mark; Malecki, Kristen; Imm, Pamela; Anderson, Henry A.

    2016-01-01

    Fish are an important source of nutrients including omega-3 fatty acids, which may reduce risk of adverse health outcomes such as cardiovascular disease; however, fish may also contain significant amounts of environmental pollutants. The Wisconsin Departments of Health Services and Natural Resources developed a survey instrument, along with a strategy to collect human biological samples to assess the risks and benefits associated with long-term fish consumption among older male anglers in Wisconsin. The target population was men aged 50 years and older, who fish Wisconsin waters and live in the state of Wisconsin. Participants provided blood and hair samples and completed a detailed (paper) questionnaire, which included questions on basic demographics, health status, location of catch and species of fish caught/eaten, consumption of locally caught and commercially purchased fish, and awareness and source of information for local and statewide consumption guidelines. Biological samples were used to assess levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA); vitamin D; and selenium in blood. Quantile regression analysis was used to investigate the associations between biomarker levels and self-reported consumption of fish from the Great Lakes and other areas of concern, other locally caught fish, and commercially purchased fish (meals per year). Respondents were largely non-Hispanic white men in their 60’s with at least some college education, and about half were retired. Fish consumption was high (median of 54.5 meals per year), with most fish meals coming from locally-caught fish. Multivariate regression models showed that the effect of supplement use was much greater than that of fish consumption, on nutrient levels, although consumption of fish from the Great Lakes and areas of concern was significantly associated with higher levels of vitamin D even after controlling for supplement usage. PMID:26296180

  16. Consensus document on the prevention of methylmercury exposure in Spain: Study group for the prevention of Me-Hg exposure in Spain (GEPREM-Hg).

    PubMed

    González-Estecha, Montserrat; Bodas-Pinedo, Andrés; Guillén-Pérez, José Jesús; Rubio-Herrera, Miguel Ángel; Martínez-Álvarez, Jesús Román; Herráiz-Martínez, Miguel Ángel; Martell-Claros, Nieves; Ordóñez-Iriarte, José M; Sáinz-Martín, María; Farré-Rovira, Rosaura; Martínez-Astorquiza, Txantón; García-Donaire, José Antonio; Calvo-Manuel, Elpidio; Bretón-Lesmes, Irene; Prieto-Menchero, Santiago; Llorente-Ballesteros, M Teresa; Martínez-García, M José; Moreno-Rojas, Rafael; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar; Cuadrado-Cenzual, M Ángeles; Gallardo-Pino, Carmen; Fuentes, María Blanco; Torres-Moreno, Miriam; Trasobares-Iglesias, Elena M; Martín, Bernardino Barceló; Arroyo-Fernández, Manuel; Calle-Pascual, Alfonso

    2015-10-01

    The beneficial effects of fish consumption in both children and adults are well known. However, the intake of methylmercury, mainly from contaminated fish and shellfish, can have adverse health effects. The study group on the prevention of exposure to methylmercury (GEPREM-Hg), made up of representatives from different Spanish scientific societies, has prepared a consensus document in a question and answer format, containing the group's main conclusions, recommendations and proposals. The objective of the document is to provide broader knowledge of factors associated with methylmercury exposure, its possible effects on health amongst the Spanish population, methods of analysis, interpretation of the results and economic costs, and to then set recommendations for fish and shellfish consumption. The group sees the merit of all initiatives aimed at reducing or prohibiting the use of mercury as well as the need to be aware of the results of contaminant analyses performed on fish and shellfish marketed in Spain. In addition, the group believes that biomonitoring systems should be set up in order to follow the evolution of methylmercury exposure in children and adults and perform studies designed to learn more about the possible health effects of concentrations found in the Spanish population, taking into account the lifestyle, eating patterns and the Mediterranean diet.

  17. The past and future of fish consumption: Can supplies meet healthy eating recommendations?

    PubMed

    Thurstan, Ruth H; Roberts, Callum M

    2014-12-15

    In many developed countries fish and shellfish are increasingly promoted as healthy alternatives to other animal protein. We analysed how much fish was available to UK and global populations after accounting for processing losses, and compared this to recommended levels of fish consumption. In 2012, UK domestic fish landings per capita fell 81% below the recommended intake, although declines were masked by increased imports and aquaculture from the 1970s onwards. Global wild fish supply per capita declined by 32% from its peak in 1970. However, overall fish supplies per capita increased by 10% over the same period due to rapidly expanding aquaculture production. Whilst aquaculture has so far prevented a downturn in global fish supplies, many developed nations continue to aspire to consume more fish than they produce. Until demand is balanced with sustainable methods of production governments should consider carefully the social and environmental implications of greater fish consumption.

  18. Fish consumption pattern among adults of different ethnics in Peninsular Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Nurul Izzah; Wan Mahiyuddin, Wan Rozita; Tengku Mohamad, Tengku Rozaina; Ling, Cheong Yoon; Daud, Siti Fatimah; Hussein, Nasriyah Che; Abdullah, Nor Aini; Shaharudin, Rafiza; Sulaiman, Lokman Hakim

    2016-01-01

    Background Understanding different patterns of fish consumption is an important component for risk assessment of contaminants in fish. A few studies on food consumption had been conducted in Malaysia, but none of them focused specifically on fish consumption. The objectives of this study were to document the meal pattern among three major ethnics in Malaysia with respect to fish/seafood consumption, identify most frequently consumed fish and cooking method, and examine the influence of demographic factors on pattern of fish consumption among study subjects. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted between February 2008 and May 2009 to investigate patterns of fish consumption among Malaysian adults in Peninsular Malaysia. Adults aged 18 years and above were randomly selected and fish consumption data were collected using a 3-day prospective food diary. Results A total of 2,675 subjects, comprising male (44.2%) and female (55.7%) participants from major ethnics (Malays, 76.9%; Chinese, 14.7%; Indians, 8.3%) with a mean age of 43.4±16.2 years, were involved in this study. The results revealed 10 most frequently consumed marine fish in descending order: Indian mackerel, anchovy, yellowtail and yellow-stripe scads, tuna, sardines, torpedo scad, Indian and short-fin scads, pomfret, red snapper, and king mackerel. Prawn and squid were also among the most preferred seafood by study subjects. The most frequently consumed freshwater fish were freshwater catfish and snakehead. The most preferred cooking style by Malaysians was deep-fried fish, followed by fish cooked in thick and/or thin chili gravy, fish curry, and fish cooked with coconut milk mixed with other spices and flavorings. Overall, Malaysians consumed 168 g/day fish, with Malay ethnics’ (175±143 g/day) consumption of fish significantly (p<0.001) higher compared with the other two ethnic groups (Chinese=152±133 g/day, Indians=136±141 g/day). Conclusion Fish consumption was significantly associated with

  19. Somatosensory disturbance by methylmercury exposure.

    PubMed

    Takaoka, Shigeru; Kawakami, Yoshinobu; Fujino, Tadashi; Oh-ishi, Fumihiro; Motokura, Fukuo; Kumagai, Yoshio; Miyaoka, Tetsu

    2008-05-01

    Minamata disease is methylmercury poisoning from consuming fish and shellfish contaminated by industrial waste. The polluted seafood was widely consumed in the area around Minamata, but many individuals were never examined for or classified as having Minamata disease. Following the determination of the Supreme Court of Japan in October 2004 that the Japanese Government was responsible for spreading Minamata disease, over 13,000 residents came forward to be examined for Minamata disease. We studied 197 residents from the Minamata area who had a history of fish consumption during the polluted period to determine the importance of sensory symptoms and findings in making a diagnosis of Minamata disease. We divided the exposed subjects into non-complicated (E) and complicated (E+N) groups based on the absence or presence of other neurological or neurologically related disorders and compared them to residents in control area (C) after matching for age and sex. We quantitatively measured four somatosensory modalities (minimal tactile sense by Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments, vibration sense, position sense, and two-point discrimination) and did psychophysical tests of fine-surface-texture discrimination. Subjective complaints were higher in groups E and E+N than C. Over 90% of E+N and E subjects displayed a sensory disturbance on conventional neurological examination and 28% had visual constriction. About 50% of the E and E +N groups had upper and lower extremity ataxia and about 70% had truncal ataxia. The prevalence of these neurological findings was significantly higher in exposed subjects than controls. All sensory modalities were impaired in the E and E+N groups. All four quantitatively measured sensory modalities were correlated. The prevalence of complaints, neurological findings, and sensory impairment was similar or a little worse in group E+N than in group E. We conclude that sensory symptoms and findings are important in making the diagnosis of Minamata disease

  20. Total mercury and methylmercury in fish fillets, water, and bed sediments from selected streams in the Delaware River basin, New Jersery, New York, and Pennsylvania, 1998-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brightbill, Robin A.; Riva-Murray, Karen; Bilger, Michael D.; Byrnes, John D.

    2004-01-01

    Within the Delaware River Basin, fish-tissue samples were analyzed for total mercury (tHg). Water and bed-sediment samples were analyzed for tHg and methylmercury (MeHg), and methylation efficiencies were calculated. This study was part of a National Mercury Pilot Program conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The Delaware River Basin was chosen because it is part of the USGS National Water-Quality Assessment Program that integrates physical, chemical, and biological sampling efforts to determine status and trends in surface-water and ground-water resources. Of the 35 sites in the study, 31 were sampled for fish. The species sampled at these sites include smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), the target species, and where smallmouth bass could not be collected, brown trout (Salmo trutta), chain pickerel (Esox niger), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), and rock bass (Ambloplites rupestris). There were a total of 32 fish samples; 7 of these exceeded the 0.3 ?g/g (micrograms per gram) wet-weight mercury (Hg) concentration set for human health by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and 27 of these exceeded the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service criteria of 0.1 ?g/g wet weight for the protection of fish-eating birds and wildlife. Basinwide analysis of Hg in fish, water, and bed sediment showed tHg concentration in fillets correlated positively with population density, urban land cover, and impervious land surface. Negative correlations included wetland land cover, septic density, elevation, and latitude. Smallmouth bass from the urban sites had a higher median concentration of tHg than fish from agricultural, low intensity-agricultural, or forested sites. Concentrations of tHg and MeHg in water were higher in samples from the more urbanized areas of the basin and were positively correlated with urbanization and negatively correlated with forested land cover. Methylation efficiency of water was negatively correlated with urbanization. Bed

  1. Administration of dietary fish oil capsules in healthy middle-aged Japanese men with a high level of fish consumption.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, N; Watanabe, Y; Kumagai, M; Fujimoto, K

    2009-01-01

    The nutritional effects of fish oil, which is rich in the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, have been reported. In this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study, we evaluated the effects of dietary fish oil capsules on the hematological parameters of healthy middle-aged Japanese men with a high level of fish oil consumption. Over a 4-week period, subjects were administered five fish oil or olive oil (placebo) capsules with every meal (1,260 mg eicosapentaenoic acid and 540 mg docosahexaenoic acid/day). There was a 4-week washout period between the treatment phases. The results did not demonstrate a decrease in plasma triacylglycerol, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and whole-blood viscosity. Further, no changes in the fatty acid composition of plasma and erythrocyte phospholipids were noted. These results suggested that the supplementation of fish oil might be effective only for those subjects who have a lower level of fish oil consumption.

  2. A regional mass balance of methylmercury in San Francisco Bay, California, USA.

    PubMed

    Yee, Donald; McKee, Lester J; Oram, John J

    2011-01-01

    The San Francisco Bay (California, USA) is a water body listed as impaired because of Hg contamination in sport fish for human consumption, as well as possible effects on resident wildlife. A legacy of Hg mining in local watersheds and Hg used in Au mining in the Sierra Nevada (USA) has contributed to contamination seen in the bay, with additional more recent and ongoing inputs from various sources. Methylmercury is the species of Hg most directly responsible for contamination in biota, so better understanding of its sources, loads, and processes was sought to identify the best means to reduce impacts. A regional scale model of San Francisco Bay was developed to characterize major methylmercury inputs and processes. The model was used to evaluate the potential impact of uncertainties in estimates for methylmercury loading pathways and environmental processes, identify major data gaps, and explore management prospects for reducing methylmercury contamination. External loading pathways considered in the mass balance include methylmercury loads entering via atmospheric deposition to the bay surface, and discharges from the Sacramento/San Joaquin Delta, local watersheds, municipal wastewater, and fringing wetlands. Internal processes considered include exchange between bed and suspended sediments and the water column, in situ production and demethylation, biological uptake, and losses via hydrologic transport to the ocean through the Golden Gate. In situ sediment methylation and demethylation were dominant sources and losses determining ambient steady-state concentrations in the model, with changes in external loads and export causing smaller changes. Better information on methylation and demethylation is thus most critical to improving understanding of methylmercury balances and management. © 2010 SETAC.

  3. Long term neurocognitive impact of low dose prenatal methylmercury exposure in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Lam, Hugh Simon; Kwok, Ka Ming; Chan, Peggy Hiu Ying; So, Hung Kwan; Li, Albert Martin; Ng, Pak Cheung; Fok, Tai Fai

    2013-04-01

    International studies suggest that low dose prenatal methylmercury exposure (>29 nmol/L) has long-term adverse neurocognitive effects. There is evidence that the majority of children in Hong Kong exceed this level as a result of high fish consumption of mothers during pregnancy. To study whether there are any associations between low-dose prenatal methylmercury exposure and neurocognitive outcomes in Hong Kong children. All 1057 children from the original birth cohort were eligible for entry into the study, except children with conditions that would affect neurocognitive development, but were unrelated to methylmercury exposure. Subjects were assessed by a wide panel of tests covering a broad range of neurocognitive functions: Hong Kong Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (HK-WISC), Hong Kong List Learning Test (HKLLT), Tests of Everyday Attention for Children (TEACH), Boston Naming Test, and Grooved Pegboard Test. 608 subjects were recruited (median age 8.2 years, IQR 7.3, 8.8; 53.9% boys). After correction by confounders including child age and sex, multivariate analysis showed that cord blood mercury concentration was significantly associated with three subtests: Picture Arrangement of HK-WISC (coefficient -0.944, P=0.049) and Short and Long Delay Recall Difference of the HKLLT (coefficient -1.087, P=0.007 and coefficient -1.161, P=0.005, respectively), i.e., performance worsened with increasing prenatal methylmercury exposure in these subtests. Small, but statistically significant adverse associations between prenatal methylmercury exposure and long-term neurocognitive effects (a visual sequencing task and retention ability of verbal memory) were found in our study. These effects are compatible with findings of studies with higher prenatal methylmercury exposure levels and suggest that safe strategies to further reduce exposure levels in Hong Kong are desirable. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Vitamin A intoxication from reef fish liver consumption in Bermuda.

    PubMed

    Dewailly, E; Rouja, P; Schultz, E; Julien, P; Tucker, T

    2011-09-01

    We report three historical cases of severe vitamin A intoxication in anglers who had consumed reef fish liver caught in Bermuda. The subsequent analyses of 35 fish livers from seven different fish species revealed that very high concentrations of vitamin A exist in tropical fish liver, even in noncarnivorous fish species. Large variations in concentrations were observed between specimens and between species. The angling population and (especially) pregnant women should be advised of this potential health threat.

  5. Raw fish consumption in liver fluke endemic areas in rural southern Laos.

    PubMed

    Xayaseng, Vilavanh; Phongluxa, Khampheng; van Eeuwijk, Peter; Akkhavong, Kongsap; Odermatt, Peter

    2013-08-01

    Consumption of raw or insufficiently cooked fish is a major public health concern in Southeast Asia, and in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR), in particular. We aimed to assess the knowledge, attitudes, perceptions and practices of villagers in liver fluke endemic areas related to raw fish preparation, consumption and its health consequences. In February 2010, eight focus group discussions (FGDs, 35 men and 37 women total) and direct observations were conducted in four randomly selected villages in Saravane District, Saravane Province (Lao PDR). FGDs distilled the knowledge, attitudes, perceptions and practices of adult community members on raw fish preparation, consumption and its consequences for health. Conversations were transcribed from notes and tape-recorders. MaxQDA software was used for content analysis. Knowledge regarding the health effects of raw fish consumption was heterogeneous. Some participants did not associate liver fluke infection with any ill health, while others linked it to digestive problems. Participants also associated vegetables and tree leave consumption with liver fluke infection. The majority of FGD participants considered fish flesh that had been prepared with weaver ant extract to be safe for consumption. Visual appearance, taste, smell and personal preference were given as reasons for consuming raw fish dishes. Moreover, participants considered it a traditional way of food preparation, practiced for generations in Laos. Ten different fish dishes that use raw or fermented fish were identified. All FGD participants reported consuming dishes with raw fish. This study reveals a low degree of knowledge among local people on the health risks related to frequent consumption of raw or insufficiently cooked fish. Fish dishes were considered to be 'well-prepared' (that is, 'cooked') even though the fish had not been heated. In future, successful health education campaigns will have to address the specific knowledge, attitudes

  6. Fish and fish-liver oil consumption in adolescence and midlife and risk of CHD in older women

    PubMed Central

    Haraldsdottir, Alfheidur; Torfadottir, Johanna E; Valdimarsdottir, Unnur A; Aspelund, Thor; Harris, Tamara B; Launer, Lenore J; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Steingrimsdottir, Laufey

    2017-01-01

    Objective To study the association of fish and fish-liver oil consumption across the lifespan with CHD later in life among Icelandic women, with special emphasis on the effects of consumption in adolescence. Design Prevalence association study. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and 95 % confidence intervals of CHD according to fish or fish-liver oil exposure. Models were adjusted for age, education, concurrent diet and other known risk factors. Setting The study was nested within the AGES-Reykjavik Study, conducted in Reykjavik, Iceland. Subjects Participants were 3326 women aged 66–96 years, with available information on CHD status at entry to the study and information on fish and fish-liver oil consumption during midlife and adolescence. Dietary habits were assessed retrospectively using a validated FFQ. Results CHD was identified in 234 (7·9 %) women. Compared with women with no intake of fish-liver oil in adolescence or midlife, women who consumed fish-liver oil at least three times weekly in adolescence or in midlife had a decreased risk of CHD (OR = 0·62; 95 % CI 0·45, 0·85 and OR = 0·68; 95 % CI 0·50, 0·94, respectively). No associations were observed between fish intake (>2 portions/week v. ≤2 portions/week) in adolescence or midlife and CHD in this population with high fish intake. Conclusions Fish-liver oil consumption, from early life, may reduce the risk of CHD in older women. Lifelong nutrition may be of importance in the prevention of CHD in older women. PMID:25882499

  7. Methylmercury Poisoning in Iraq

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakir, F.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Discusses incidence of methylmercury poisoning throughout the world with increasing industrial and agricultural use of mercury compounds. Describes recent epidemic in Iraq resulting from use of wheat treated with methylmercurial fungicide. New data are presented on the toxicity of methylmercury and its metabolic fate in the human body. (JR)

  8. Methylmercury Poisoning in Iraq

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakir, F.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Discusses incidence of methylmercury poisoning throughout the world with increasing industrial and agricultural use of mercury compounds. Describes recent epidemic in Iraq resulting from use of wheat treated with methylmercurial fungicide. New data are presented on the toxicity of methylmercury and its metabolic fate in the human body. (JR)

  9. Unveiling the neurotoxicity of methylmercury in fish (Diplodus sargus) through a regional morphometric analysis of brain and swimming behavior assessment.

    PubMed

    Puga, Sónia; Pereira, Patrícia; Pinto-Ribeiro, Filipa; O'Driscoll, Nelson J; Mann, Erin; Barata, Marisa; Pousão-Ferreira, Pedro; Canário, João; Almeida, Armando; Pacheco, Mário

    2016-11-01

    The current study aims to shed light on the neurotoxicity of MeHg in fish (white seabream - Diplodus sargus) by the combined assessment of: (i) MeHg toxicokinetics in the brain, (ii) brain morphometry (volume and number of neurons plus glial cells in specific brain regions) and (iii) fish swimming behavior (endpoints associated with the motor performance and the fear/anxiety-like status). Fish were surveyed for all the components after 7 (E7) and 14 (E14) days of dietary exposure to MeHg (8.7μgg(-1)), as well as after a post-exposure period of 28days (PE28). MeHg was accumulated in the brain of D. sargus after a short time (E7) and reached a maximum at the end of the exposure period (E14), suggesting an efficient transport of this toxicant into fish brain. Divalent inorganic Hg was also detected in fish brain along the experiment (indicating demethylation reactions), although levels were 100-200 times lower than MeHg, which pinpoints the organic counterpart as the great liable for the recorded effects. In this regard, a decreased number of cells in medial pallium and optic tectum, as well as an increased hypothalamic volume, occurred at E7. Such morphometric alterations were followed by an impairment of fish motor condition as evidenced by a decrease in the total swimming time, while the fear/anxiety-like status was not altered. Moreover, at E14 fish swam a greater distance, although no morphometric alterations were found in any of the brain areas, probably due to compensatory mechanisms. Additionally, although MeHg decreased almost two-fold in the brain during post-exposure, the levels were still high and led to a loss of cells in the optic tectum at PE28. This is an interesting result that highlights the optic tectum as particularly vulnerable to MeHg exposure in fish. Despite the morphometric alterations reported in the optic tectum at PE28, no significant changes were found in fish behavior. Globally, the effects of MeHg followed a multiphasic profile, where

  10. Public awareness of mercury in fish: analysis of public awareness and assessment of fish consumption in vermont.

    PubMed

    Damsky, William E; Duncan, Elizabeth; Flanagan, Noreen; Fromhold, Karen; Dung, Hyunh; Meyer, Russell; Sax, Jordan; Delaney, Thomas; Bress, William; Hoffman-Contois, Razelle; Carney, Jan K

    2009-11-16

    Exposure to mercury from environmental sources, such as fish consumption, poses potential health risks to the public. The state of Vermont has developed educational brochures and posters displaying safe fish consumption guidelines in order to educate the public regarding mercury exposure through fish. In this study, a group of medical students from the University of Vermont College of Medicine, in partnership with the Vermont Department of Health, conducted a study in Chittenden County, Vermont in order to assess both fish consumption practices and overall awareness of such safe eating guidelines and mercury advisories. A total of 166 Vermont residents were surveyed during a six week period. The results of this survey suggest that in Chittenden county of Vermont, these educational efforts are markedly successful, with 48% of respondents being specifically aware of the safe eating guidelines. Further, these results suggest that 61% of those respondents that reported low monthly canned tuna consumption had a decreased their consumption in response to the safe eating guidelines. last, a series of specific, yet widely applicable recommendations are presented for future public educational efforts regarding mercury exposure through fish consumption.

  11. Reducing uncertainty in risk modeling for methylmercury exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Ponce, R.; Egeland, G.; Middaugh, J.; Lee, R.

    1995-12-31

    The biomagnification and bioaccumulation of methylmercury in marine species represents a challenge for risk assessment related to the consumption of subsistence foods in Alaska. Because of the profound impact that food consumption advisories have on indigenous peoples seeking to preserve a way of life, there is a need to reduce uncertainty in risk assessment. Thus, research was initiated to reduce the uncertainty in assessing the health risks associated with the consumption of subsistence foods. Because marine subsistence foods typically contain elevated levels of methylmercury, preliminary research efforts have focused on methylmercury as the principal chemical of concern. Of particular interest are the antagonistic effects of selenium on methylmercury toxicity. Because of this antagonism, methylmercury exposure through the consumption of marine mammal meat (with high selenium) may not be as toxic as comparable exposures through other sources of dietary intake, such as in the contaminated bread episode of Iraq (containing relatively low selenium). This hypothesis is supported by animal experiments showing reduced toxicity of methylmercury associated with marine mammal meat, by the antagonistic influence of selenium on methylmercury toxicity, and by negative clinical findings in adult populations exposed to methylmercury through a marine diet not subject to industrial contamination. Exploratory model development is underway to identify potential improvements and applications of current deterministic and probabilistic models, particularly by incorporating selenium as an antagonist in risk modeling methods.

  12. Perceptions of health risks and benefits associated with fish consumption among Russian consumers.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Heleen; Fischer, Arnout R H; Honkanen, Pirjo; Frewer, Lynn J

    2011-04-01

    Knowledge about differences in consumer perceptions of health risks and benefits related to fish consumption is important for the development of targeted health interventions associated with dietary choice. The purpose of this study is to identify individual differences in Russian consumers according to their perceptions of health risks and benefits associated with fish consumption. By application of a cluster analysis on perceptions of personal risks and benefits associated with the consumption of fish, four groups of Russian consumers were classified as: very positive; positive; moderately positive; and 'high risk-high benefit' about the healthiness of fish consumption. Differences in perceptions of personal risks and benefits across consumers were related to self-reported fish consumption, optimism about personal risks and benefits, and optimism about personal knowledge about risks and benefits. Implications for the development of targeted health interventions to influence perceptions of risks and benefits associated with fish consumption, and ultimately fish consumption, are discussed. It is concluded that optimism regarding perceptions and knowledge of health risks, and health benefits should be taken into account when developing interventions aimed at consumer health.

  13. Fish consumption does not prevent increase in waist circumference in European women and men.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, Marianne U; Due, Karen M; Dethlefsen, Claus; Halkjaer, Jytte; Holst, Claus; Forouhi, Nita G; Tjønneland, Anne; Boeing, Heiner; Buijsse, Brian; Palli, Domenico; Masala, Giovanna; Du, Huaidong; van der A, Daphne L; Wareham, Nicholas J; Feskens, Edith J M; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Overvad, Kim

    2012-09-01

    Fish consumption is the major dietary source of EPA and DHA, which according to rodent experiments may reduce body fat mass and prevent obesity. However, human studies have suggested that fish consumption has no appreciable association with body-weight gain. We investigated the associations between fish consumption and subsequent change in waist circumference. Sex, age and waist circumference at enrolment were considered as potential effect modifiers. Women and men (n 89 432) participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) were followed for a median of 5·5 years. Mixed-effect linear regression was used to investigate the associations between fish consumption and subsequent change in waist circumference. Among all participants, the average annual change in waist circumference was - 0·01 cm/10 g higher total fish consumption per d (95 % CI - 0·01, 0·00) and - 0·01 cm/10 g higher fatty fish consumption per d (95 % CI - 0·02, - 0·01), after adjustment for potential confounders. Lean fish consumption was not associated with change in waist circumference. Adjustment for potential over- or underestimation of fish consumption measurements did not systematically change the observed associations, but the 95 % CI became slightly wider. The results in subgroups from analyses stratified by sex, age or waist circumference at enrolment were not systematically different. In conclusion, the present study suggests that fish consumption does not prevent increase in waist circumference.

  14. Methylmercury risk assessment issues

    SciTech Connect

    Lipfert, F.W.; Saroff, L.

    1996-07-01

    This paper reviews the general background of health risks associated with mercury (Hg), primarily methylmercury (MeHg), with a view towards application to advanced technologies that could reduce any contributions from coal combustion. The need for accurate assessment of such risks is discussed, since Hg is now widely dispersed in the environment and cannot easily be eliminated. The primary pathway of MeHg intake is through eating contaminated fish. The issues of concern include identification of critical health outcomes (various neurological indices) and their confounding factors, accurate assessment of MeHg intake rates, and appropriate use of dose-response functions. Ultimately, such information will be used to evaluate alternative coal combustion systems.

  15. Expanding perceptions of subsistence fish consumption: evidence of high commercial fish consumption and dietary mercury exposure in an urban coastal community.

    PubMed

    Holloman, Erica L; Newman, Michael C

    2012-02-01

    Through collaborative partnerships established between current researchers and The Moton Community House (a local community center), African American women (ages 16-49yrs) from the Southeast Community of Newport News, Virginia, USA were surveyed to assess the reproducibility and consistency of fish consumption patterns (ingestion rates, exposure frequencies, weight, and fish consumption rates) derived from a community-specific fish consumption survey. Women were also surveyed to assess the reliability of the survey responses, and to estimate daily mercury intake. Fish consumption patterns were reproducible and the survey responses were reliable. Comparison between years revealed that fish consumption patterns remained consistent over time. In addition, the high fish consumption rate estimated in 2008 (147.8g/day; 95% CI: 117.6-185.8g/day) was confirmed with a rate (134.9g/day; 95% CI: 88-207g/day) not materially different and still considerably higher than mean fish consumption rates reported for U.S. women. Daily mercury intake rates were estimated using consumption data from 2008 and three consumption scenarios (canned white, canned light, and no tuna) due to confirmed differences in mercury concentration between canned white and light tuna. Arithmetic mean daily mercury intake rates were 0.284μg/kg bw/day (95% CI: 0.229-0.340μg/kg bw/day) using canned white tuna, 0.212μg/kg bw/day (95% CI: 0.165-0.259μg/kg bw/day) using light tuna, and 0.197μg/kg bw/day (95% CI: 0.151-0.243μg/kg bw/day) using no tuna. Approximately 58%-73% of the daily mercury intake rates for African American women in the Southeast Community exceeded US EPA's oral reference dose (RfD) of 0.10μg/kg bw/day for mercury. In addition, 2% of the rates exceeded a level (1.00μg/kg bw/day) documented to produce adverse health effects. Past and current investigations confirmed that even though women in this community were not subsistence fishers, they are subsistence fish consumers.

  16. Hematological findings in neotropical fish Hoplias malabaricus exposed to subchronic and dietary doses of methylmercury, inorganic lead, and tributyltin chloride.

    PubMed

    Oliveira Ribeiro, C A; Filipak Neto, F; Mela, M; Silva, P H; Randi, M A F; Rabitto, I S; Alves Costa, J R M; Pelletier, E

    2006-05-01

    Hematological indices are gaining general acceptance as valuable tools in monitoring various aspects the health of fish exposed to contaminants. In this work some effects of methyl mercury (MeHg), inorganic lead (Pb2+), and tributyltin (TBT) in a tropical fish species were evaluated by hematological methods after a trophic exposition at a subchronic level. Forty-two mature individuals of the freshwater top predator fish Hoplias malabaricus were exposed to trophic doses (each 5 days) of MeHg (0.075 microg g(-1)), Pb2+ (21 microg g(-1)), and TBT (0.3 microg g(-1)) using young fish Astyanax sp. as prey vehicle. After 14 successive doses over 70 days, blood was sampled from exposed and control groups to evaluate hematological effects of metals on erythrocytes, total leukocytes and differential leukocytes counts, hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, and red blood cell indices mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). Transmission electron microscopy and image analysis of erythrocytes were also used to investigate some morphometric parameters. Results show no significant effects in MCH and MCHC for all tested metals, but differences were found in erythrocytes, hemoglobin, hematocrit, MCV, and white blood cells counts. The number of leukocytes was increased in the presence of MeHg, suggesting effects on the immune system. Also the MCV increased in individuals exposed to MeHg. No ultrastructural damages were observed in red blood cells but the image analysis using light microscopy revealed differences in area, elongation, and roundness of erythrocytes from individuals exposed to Pb2+ and TBT but not in the group exposed to MeHg. The present work shows that changes in hematological and blood indices could highlight some barely detectable metal effects in fish after laboratory exposure to contaminated food, but their application in field biomonitoring using H. malabaricus will need more detailed

  17. Fish consumption behavior and rates in native and non-native people in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Batang, Zenon; Alikunhi, Nabeel; Al-Jahdali, Ramzi; Al-Jebreen, Dalal; Aziz, Mohammed A. M.; Al-Suwailem, Abdulaziz

    2015-01-01

    Fish are a healthy source of protein and nutrients, but contaminants in fish may provide health risks. Determining the risk from contaminants in fish requires site-specific information on consumption patterns. We examine consumption rates for resident and expatriates in the Jeddah region of Saudi Arabia, by species of fish and fishing location. For Saudis, 3.7 % of males and 4.3 % of females do not eat fish; for expatriates, the percent not eating fish is 6.6 % and 6.1 % respectively. Most people eat fish at home (over 90 %), and many eat fish at restaurants (65 % and 48 %, respectively for Saudis and expatriates). Fish eaten at home comes from local fish markets, followed by supermarkets. Saudis included fish in their diets at an average of 1.4±1.2 meals/week at home and 0.8±0.7 meals/week at restaurants, while expats ate 2.0±1.7 meals/week at home and 1.1±1.1 meals/week in restaurants. Overall, Saudis ate 2.2 fish meals/week, while expats ate 3.1 meals/week. Grouper (Epinephelus and Cephalopholis) were eaten by 72% and 60% respectively. Plectropomus pessuliferus was the second favorite for both groups and Hipposcarus harid and Lethrinus lentjan were in 3rd and 4th place in terms of consumption. Average meal size was 68 g for Saudis and 128 g for expatriates. These data can be used by health professionals, risk assessors, and environmental regulators to examine potential risk from contaminants in fish, and to compare consumption rates with other sites. PMID:24926920

  18. Estimates of fish consumption rates for consumers of bought and self-caught fish in Connecticut, Florida, Minnesota, and North Dakota.

    PubMed

    Moya, Jacqueline; Itkin, Cheryl; Selevan, Sherry G; Rogers, John W; Clickner, Robert P

    2008-09-15

    Fish consumption rates derived from national surveys may not accurately reflect consumption rates in a particular population such as recreational anglers. Many state and local health agencies in the U.S. have conducted area-specific surveys to study fish consumption patterns in local populations, assess exposure to environmental contaminants, or evaluate compliance with fish advisories. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has analyzed the raw data from fish consumption surveys in Florida, Connecticut, Minnesota, and North Dakota for the purpose of deriving distributions of fish consumption rates and studying the variables that may be more predictive of high-end consumers. Distributions of fish consumption for different age cohorts, ethnic groups, socioeconomic statuses, types of fish (i.e., freshwater, marine, estuarine), and source of fish (i.e., store-bought versus self-caught) were derived. Consumption of fish and shellfish for those who consume both caught and bought fish is higher than those who reported eating only bought or only self-caught. Mean fish consumption per kilogram of body weight ranged from 0.11 g/kg-day to 2.3 g/kg-day. The highest values were observed in Florida for children 1<6 years of age. The Florida data show a statistically significant increase in the percentage of the population reporting fish and shellfish consumption with an increase in household income and education. This trend was not observed in the other states.

  19. Public health benefits and risks of fish consumption: current scientific evidence v. media coverage.

    PubMed

    Pasquaré, Federico A; Bettinetti, Roberta; Fumagalli, Sonia; Vignati, Davide A

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate if and how the current degree of scientific uncertainty about the safety of fish consumption is incorporated at the media level. We used a dedicated software (TalTac®) to investigate the content of 169 news articles related to ‘mercury and fish consumption’ that appeared from 1990 to 2010 in the two Italian broadsheets with the highest circulation figures, in order to identify journalistic frames used in the coverage of benefits v. risks associated with fish consumption. Hypotheses were made on how the public might change fish consumption patterns as a result of media coverage. Italy. The two newspapers have different agendas in covering the issue. La Repubblica appears to support the view that, besides health benefits, there may be risks associated with fish consumption, while Corriere della Sera emphasizes health benefits more than possible risks. Depending on the preferred information source, the public could: (i) reduce its fish intake; (ii) increase its fish intake; or (iii) become confused about the problem and sceptical towards the media, as a result of conflicting journalistic frames. The Italian media, in cooperation with scientists, public health nutritionists and dietitians, should place more emphasis on the existence of a few fish species with high to very high Hg levels and relatively low contents of beneficial n-3 fatty acids (e.g. swordfish and shark). This would enable consumers to make more educated purchasing decisions to maximize the benefits of n-3 intake while reducing possible risks from consuming Hg-contaminated fish.

  20. Hematological findings in neotropical fish Hoplias malabaricus exposed to subchronic and dietary doses of methylmercury, inorganic lead, and tributyltin chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira Ribeiro, C.A. . E-mail: ciro@ufpr.br; Filipak Neto, F.; Mela, M.; Silva, P.H.; Randi, M.A.F.; Rabitto, I.S.; Alves Costa, J.R.M.; Pelletier, E.

    2006-05-15

    Hematological indices are gaining general acceptance as valuable tools in monitoring various aspects the health of fish exposed to contaminants. In this work some effects of methyl mercury (MeHg), inorganic lead (Pb{sup 2+}), and tributyltin (TBT) in a tropical fish species were evaluated by hematological methods after a trophic exposition at a subchronic level. Forty-two mature individuals of the freshwater top predator fish Hoplias malabaricus were exposed to trophic doses (each 5 days) of MeHg (0.075 {mu}g g{sup -1}), Pb{sup 2+} (21 {mu}g g{sup -1}), and TBT (0.3 {mu}g g{sup -1}) using young fish Astyanax sp. as prey vehicle. After 14 successive doses over 70 days, blood was sampled from exposed and control groups to evaluate hematological effects of metals on erythrocytes, total leukocytes and differential leukocytes counts, hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, and red blood cell indices mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). Transmission electron microscopy and image analysis of erythrocytes were also used to investigate some morphometric parameters. Results show no significant effects in MCH and MCHC for all tested metals, but differences were found in erythrocytes, hemoglobin, hematocrit, MCV, and white blood cells counts. The number of leukocytes was increased in the presence of MeHg, suggesting effects on the immune system. Also the MCV increased in individuals exposed to MeHg. No ultrastructural damages were observed in red blood cells but the image analysis using light microscopy revealed differences in area, elongation, and roundness of erythrocytes from individuals exposed to Pb{sup 2+} and TBT but not in the group exposed to MeHg. The present work shows that changes in hematological and blood indices could highlight some barely detectable metal effects in fish after laboratory exposure to contaminated food, but their application in field biomonitoring using H

  1. Bioaccumulation and trophic transfer of methylmercury in Long Island Sound.

    PubMed

    Hammerschmidt, Chad R; Fitzgerald, William F

    2006-10-01

    Humans are exposed to methylmercury (MeHg) principally by consumption of marine fish. The coastal zone supports the majority of marine fish production, and may therefore be an important source of MeHg to humans; however, little is known about the bioaccumulation of MeHg in near-shore marine ecosystems. We examined MeHg in microseston, zooplankton, a decapod crustacean, and four representative species of finfish that differ in trophic status and/or prey selection in Long Island Sound (LIS), a large coastal embayment in the northeastern United States. MeHg biomagnifies in LIS; levels in microseston were 10(4.2) greater than those in water and 2.3-fold less than zooplankton. MeHg concentrations were related positively to fish length for each species, but often varied considerably among larger individuals. This may be due to differences in the past dietary MeHg exposure of these fish, some of which are migratory. Sedimentary production and mobilization can account for most of the MeHg in microseston of LIS, and by extension, other near-shore locations. Hence, much of the MeHg in higher trophic levels of coastal marine ecosystems, including fishes destined for human consumption, may be attributed to net sedimentary production and dietary bioaccumulation.

  2. PARENTAL CONSUMPTION OF CONTAMINATED SPORT FISH FROM LAKE ONTARIO AND PREDICTED FECUNDABILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wildlife studies suggest that consumption of contaminated fish from the Great Lakes may expose humans to polychlorinated biphenyls and persistent chlorinated pesticides. To assess whether time to pregnancy or fecundability is affected, we conducted a telephone survey in 1993 with...

  3. PARENTAL CONSUMPTION OF CONTAMINATED SPORT FISH FROM LAKE ONTARIO AND PREDICTED FECUNDABILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wildlife studies suggest that consumption of contaminated fish from the Great Lakes may expose humans to polychlorinated biphenyls and persistent chlorinated pesticides. To assess whether time to pregnancy or fecundability is affected, we conducted a telephone survey in 1993 with...

  4. Omega-3 fatty acids and the benefits of fish consumption: is all that glitters gold?

    PubMed

    Domingo, José L

    2007-10-01

    In recent years, a number of studies have clearly remarked the nutritional benefits of fish consumption: proteins, vitamins, minerals, and especially omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which may protect against several adverse health effects, including coronary heart disease mortality and stroke. However, some concerns about potential health risks derived from the environmental contaminants found in fish have been also raised. Therefore, balancing adequately the risks and benefits of fish consumption is currently a nutritional/environmental health key issue. In this paper, the most recent available scientific information concerning this issue is reviewed. It is concluded that although it seems evident that fish must be an important part of a balanced diet, to choose the most suitable species in terms of levels of PUFAs and pollutants, the frequency of consumption, and the meal size are essential aspects to balance benefits and risks of a regular consumption.

  5. Mercury concentrations in fish from Lake Mead, USA, related to fish size, condition, trophic level, location, and consumption risk.

    PubMed

    Cizdziel, J V; Hinners, T A; Pollard, J E; Heithmar, E M; Cross, C L

    2002-10-01

    Total mercury (Hg) concentrations were determined in the skeletal muscle of 339 fish collected during the fall of 1998 and spring of 1999 from Lake Mead, USA, the nation's largest human-made reservoir. Five species of fish representing a range of trophic levels and the lake's principal game fishes were studied. Hg generally increased with trophic level and fish size. Median Hg concentrations (ng/g wet mass) were 277 in striped bass, 168 in channel catfish, 160 in largemouth bass, 75 in bluegill, and 8 in blue tilapia. Overall, fish from Las Vegas Bay and Boulder Basin had the lowest Hg concentrations, possibly a result of biodilution in this biologically productive area. In general, fish-mercury advisories might include a warning about consuming fillet from emaciated fish, based on the finding that Hg concentrations in 59 striped bass (captured during a scarce-food season) correlated inversely ( r = -0.89, p < 0.001) with a fish nutritional-status factor. This is consistent with starvation-concentration, whereby Hg in fish muscle is lost at a slower rate than the muscle mass. The median concentration found for 139 striped bass corresponds to a recommended risk-based consumption limit of three 8-oz. (227-g) meals per month for a 70-kg adult. Finally, this paper serves as a useful archive for future research and long-term studies of Hg in Lake Mead fish.

  6. Fish consumption and risk of rheumatoid arthritis: a dose-response meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Di Giuseppe, Daniela; Crippa, Alessio; Orsini, Nicola; Wolk, Alicja

    2014-09-30

    The association between fish consumption and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is unclear. The aim of this paper was to summarize the available evidence on the association between fish consumption and risk of RA using a dose-response meta-analysis. Relevant studies were identified by a search of MEDLINE and EMBASE through December 2013, with no restrictions. A random-effects dose-response meta-analysis was conducted to combine study specific relative risks. Potential non-linear relation was investigated using restricted cubic splines. A stratified analysis was conducted by study design. Seven studies (four case-controls and three prospective cohorts) involving a total of 174 701 participants and 3346 cases were included in the meta-analysis. For each one serving per week increment in fish consumption, the relative risk (RR) of RA was 0.96 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.91 to 1.01). Results did not change when stratifying by study design. No heterogeneity or publication bias was observed. When fish consumption was modeled using restricted cubic splines, the risk of RA was 20 to 24% lower for 1 up to 3 servings per week of fish (RR =0.76, 95% CI: 0.57 to 1.02) as compared to never consumption. Results from this dose-response meta-analysis showed a non-statistically significant inverse association between fish consumption and RA.

  7. Exposure assessment for trace elements from consumption of marine fish in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Agusa, Tetsuro; Kunito, Takashi; Sudaryanto, Agus; Monirith, In; Kan-Atireklap, Supawat; Iwata, Hisato; Ismail, Ahmad; Sanguansin, Joompol; Muchtar, Muswerry; Tana, Touch Seang; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2007-02-01

    Concentrations of 20 trace elements were determined in muscle and liver of 34 species of marine fish collected from coastal areas of Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand. Large regional difference was observed in the levels of trace elements in liver of one fish family (Carangidae): the highest mean concentration was observed in fish from the Malaysian coastal waters for V, Cr, Zn, Pb and Bi and those from the Java Sea side of Indonesia for Sn and Hg. To assess the health risk to the Southeast Asian populations from consumption of fish, intake rates of trace elements were estimated. Some marine fish showed Hg levels higher than the guideline values by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). This suggests that consumption of these fish may be hazardous to the people.

  8. Neurobehavioral effects of developmental methylmercury exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, S.G.; Grant-Webster, K.S.

    1995-09-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a global environmental problem and is listed by the International Program of Chemical Safety as one of the six most dangerous chemicals in the world`s environment. Human exposure to MeHg primarily occurs through the consumption of contaminated food such as fish, although catastrophic exposures due to industrial pollution have occurred. The fetus is particularly sensitive to MeHg exposure and adverse effects on infant development have been associated with levels of exposure that result in few, if any, signs of maternal clinical illness or toxicity. High levels of prenatal exposure in humans result in neurobehavioral effects such as cerebral palsy and severe mental retardation. Prenatal exposure to MeHg in communities with chronic low-level exposure is related to decreased birthweight and early sensorimotor dysfunction such as delayed onset of walking. Neurobehavioral alterations have also been documented in studies with non human primates and rodents. Available information on the developmental neurotoxic effects of MeHg, particularly the neurobehavioral effects, indicates that the fetus and infant are more sensitive to adverse effects of MEHg. It is therefore recommended that pregnant women and women of childbearing age be strongly advised to limit their exposure to potential sources of MeHg. Based on results from human and animal studies on the developmental neurotoxic effects of methylmercury, the accepted reference dose should be lowered to 0.025 to 0.06 MeHg {mu}g/kg/day. Continued research on the neurotoxic effects associated with low level developmental exposure is needed. 107 refs., 3 tabs.

  9. Neurobehavioral effects of developmental methylmercury exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, S G; Grant-Webster, K S

    1995-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a global environmental problem and is listed by the International Program of Chemical Safety as one of the six most dangerous chemicals in the world's environment. Human exposure to MeHg primarily occurs through the consumption of contaminated food such as fish, although catastrophic exposures due to industrial pollution have occurred. The fetus is particularly sensitive to MeHg exposure and adverse effects on infant development have been associated with levels of exposure that result in few, if any, signs of maternal clinical illness or toxicity. High levels of prenatal exposure in humans result in neurobehavioral effects such as cerebral palsy and severe mental retardation. Prenatal exposure to MeHg in communities with chronic low-level exposure is related to decreased birthweight and early sensorimotor dysfunction such as delayed onset of walking. Neurobehavioral alterations have also been documented in studies with nonhuman primates and rodents. Available information on the developmental neurotoxic effects of MeHg, particularly the neurobehavioral effects, indicates that the fetus and infant are more sensitive to adverse effects of MeHg. It is therefore recommended that pregnant women and women of childbearing age be strongly advised to limit their exposure to potential sources of MeHg. Based on results from human and animal studies on the developmental neurotoxic effects of methylmercury, the accepted reference dose should be lowered to 0.025 to 0.06 MeHg microgram/kg/day. Continued research on the neurotoxic effects associated with low level developmental exposure is needed. PMID:8549462

  10. Fishing, consumption, and risk perception in fisherfolk along an east coast estuary

    SciTech Connect

    Burger, J.; Sanchez, J.; Gochfeld, M.

    1998-04-01

    Increasingly public and governmental agencies are concerned about the safety of fish and shellfish that recreational fishermen consume. Fishing behavior, consumption patterns, and risk perceptions were examined for people fishing and crabbing in Barnegat Bay, NJ. Women fished in significantly larger groups than men, and their groups included more children. Subjects fished an average of seven times per month and crabbed three times per month; they caught fish on most outings, and 80% ate their catch. Subjects consumed fish an average of five times a month, eating just under 10 oz (ca. 280 g) per meal. Only 25% of the fish consumed by women, and 49% of the fish consumed by men, are self-caught. Nearly 90% of the people believe the fish and crabs from Barnegat Bay are safe to eat, although about 40% have heard some warnings about their safety. Most people heard about advisories from newspapers or television. Most subjects believe that saltwater fish are safer than freshwater fish and that fish they catch themselves or buy in a bay store are safer than those from a supermarket. People generally do not have a clear understanding of the relationship between contaminants and fish size or trophic level, suggesting an avenue for risk reduction.

  11. Sport fish consumption and body burden levels of chlorinated hydrocarbons: a study of Wisconsin anglers

    SciTech Connect

    Fiore, B.J.; Anderson, H.A.; Hanrahan, L.P.; Olson, L.J.; Sonzogni, W.C.

    1989-03-01

    Sport-caught fish consumption is the major source of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) exposure for the general population. To assess this and 2,2'-bis-(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene (DDE) exposure, we surveyed 801 Wisconsin anglers for fishing and consumption habits and comprehension of and compliance with the Wisconsin fish consumption health advisory. The mean annual number of sport-caught fish meals was 18. Seventy-two percent of anglers were familiar with the health advisory and 57% had changed their fishing or fish consumption habits as a result of the advisory. The mean PCB serum congener sum level for 192 anglers was 2.2 micrograms/l (range = nondetectable to 27.1 micrograms/l); mean DDE was 6.3 micrograms/l (range = nondetectable to 40.0 micrograms/l). Statistically significant positive Spearman correlations were observed between sport-caught fish meals and PCB and DDE sera levels (R = .21 and .14, respectively) and between kilograms of fish caught and PCB sera levels (R = .25). These results demonstrate that anglers may provide a population for assessment of PCBs and DDE associated morbidity and mortality.

  12. The relationship between fish consumption and disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Tedeschi, Sara K; Bathon, Joan M; Giles, Jon T; Lin, Tzu-Chieh; Yoshida, Kazuki; Solomon, Daniel H

    2017-06-21

    To assess whether more frequent fish consumption is associated with lower RA disease activity scores among participants in an RA cohort. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis using baseline data from participants in the Evaluation of Subclinical Cardiovascular Disease and Predictors of Events in RA (ESCAPE-RA) cohort study. Frequency of fish consumption was assessed by a baseline food frequency questionnaire assessing usual diet in the past year. Multivariable, total energy-adjusted linear regression models provided effect estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for frequency of fish consumption (never to <1/month, 1/month to <1/week, 1/week, and ≥2/week) on baseline DAS28-CRP. We also estimated the difference in DAS28-CRP associated with increasing fish consumption by one serving per week. Among 176 participants, median DAS28-CRP was 3.5 (interquartile range 2.9-4.3). In an adjusted linear regression model, subjects consuming fish ≥2 times/week had a significantly lower DAS28-CRP compared with subjects who ate fish never to <1/month (difference -0.49 [95% CI -0.97, -0.02]). For each additional serving of fish per week, DAS28-CRP was significantly reduced by 0.18 (95% CI -0.35, -0.004). Our findings suggest that higher intake of fish may be associated with lower disease activity in RA patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017, American College of Rheumatology.

  13. Sport-caught fish consumption and conception delay in licensed Michigan anglers

    SciTech Connect

    Courval, J.M.; DeHoog, J.V.; Stein, A.D.; Tay, E.M.; He, J.; Paneth, N.; Humphrey, H.E.B.

    1999-02-01

    Between 1993 and 1995, the authors surveyed 4,931 licensed anglers aged 17--34 years residing in 10 Michigan counties bordering a Great Lake. Responses were received from 1,443 anglers and 844 of their partners. Lifetime sport-caught fish consumption was estimated as the number of sport-caught fish meals consumed in the previous 12 months times years since 1970 in which sport-caught fish were consumed. Analysis was restricted to currently married couples. Conception delay was reported by 13% of both men and women. Among men, the unadjusted odds ratios (OR) for conception delay were 1.2, 1.3, and 2.0 across the three increasing levels of sport-caught fish consumption compared to none (trend test P = 0.06). After adjustment for age, race, region of Michigan, household income, educational attainment, smoking, alcohol consumption, and partner`s sport fish consumption, the OR for conception delay in men were 1.4, 1.8, and 2.8, respectively. In women, unadjusted OR for conception delay were 0.9, 1.0, and 1.4 with increasing sport-caught fish consumption (trend test P = 0.35). With the same covariates and the sport-caught fish consumption of the woman`s partner included in the model, the OR were 0.8, 0.8, and 1.0, respectively. These data suggest a modest association, in men only, of sport-caught fish consumption with risk of conception delay.

  14. How can more women of childbearing age be encouraged to follow fish consumption recommendations?

    PubMed

    Connelly, Nancy A; Lauber, T Bruce; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Knuth, Barbara A

    2014-11-01

    Several studies show that most women do not consume enough fish during pregnancy (and afterward) to derive the maximum health benefits for themselves and their babies, according to the USDA guidelines. We engaged in a two-part study to better understand what might be done to encourage women of childbearing age to eat healthy fish-a mail survey of women who recently gave birth in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Pennsylvania, and six focus groups with women of childbearing age living in the Great Lakes region. Similar to other studies, we found that many women changed their behavior and consumed less fish during pregnancy than before. Most women reported receiving information, primarily during pregnancy, about the types of fish and how much fish to eat. As a result, increasing access to information during pregnancy likely would not result in increasing many women's fish consumption. Based on our examination of factors influencing women to try to follow the recommendations, the strongest connection with trying to follow the recommendations was receiving enough information to decide and believing that eating fish was good for the baby. Focus group participants also reported that messages about the specific health benefits of fish consumption for their children were particularly influential. These findings suggest that refining messages through testing might be a valuable approach toward increasing women's consumption of less-contaminated fish.

  15. Balancing the risks and the benefits of local fish consumption in Bermuda.

    PubMed

    Dewailly, E; Rouja, P; Dallaire, R; Pereg, D; Tucker, T; Ward, J; Weber, J P; Maguire, J S; Julien, P

    2008-11-01

    Fish consumption today is widely recognized as highly beneficial since it constitutes a good source of several essential nutrients, such as selenium and polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA). However, fish can also contain contaminants such as mercury, which make the consumer, especially pregnant women, confused about the risk-benefit balance associated with fish consumption. This is particularly true for tropical fish species for which little information is available. We have previously reported that some Bermudian neonates had elevated mercury in their umbilical blood compared with international guidelines. The objective of this study was to give precise and balanced information on the content of mercury, selenium and PUFA in the most consumed fish species in Bermuda. In 2003 and 2006, a total of 307 fish were collected from 43 fish species and 351 samples were analysed (305 flesh samples, 44 liver samples, one roe and one fat sample) by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) (metals) and high-resolution gas chromatography (HRGC) (fatty acids). Results show that mercury varies among species from 0.03 to 3.3 microg g(-1) and that it is possible for at-risk groups such as pregnant women to make informed choices concerning fish consumption, e.g. maximizing fish species rich in nutrients and low in mercury.

  16. A quantitative analysis of fish consumption and coronary heart disease mortality.

    PubMed

    König, Ariane; Bouzan, Colleen; Cohen, Joshua T; Connor, William E; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Gray, George M; Lawrence, Robert S; Savitz, David A; Teutsch, Steven M

    2005-11-01

    Although a rich source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) that may confer multiple health benefits, some fish contain methyl mercury (MeHg), which may harm the developing fetus. U.S. government recommendations for women of childbearing age are to modify consumption of high-MeHg fish to reduce MeHg exposure, while recommendations encourage fish consumption among the general population because of the nutritional benefits. The Harvard Center for Risk Analysis convened an expert panel (see acknowledgements) to quantify the net impact of resulting hypothetical changes in fish consumption across the population. This paper estimates the impact of fish consumption on coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality and nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI). Other papers quantify stroke risk and the impacts of both prenatal MeHg exposure and maternal intake of n-3 PUFAs on cognitive development. This analysis identified articles in a recent qualitative review appropriate for the development of a dose-response relationship. Studies had to satisfy quality criteria, quantify fish intake, and report the precision of the relative risk estimates. Relative risk results were averaged, weighted proportionately by precision. CHD risks associated with MeHg exposure were reviewed qualitatively because the available literature was judged inadequate for quantitative analysis. Eight studies were identified (29 exposure groups). Our analysis estimated that consuming small quantities of fish is associated with a 17% reduction in CHD mortality risk, with each additional serving per week associated with a further reduction in this risk of 3.9%. Small quantities of fish consumption were associated with risk reductions in nonfatal MI risk by 27%, but additional fish consumption conferred no incremental benefits.

  17. Fish consumption and polyunsaturated fatty acids in relation to psychological distress

    PubMed Central

    Suominen-Taipale, Anna Liisa; Turunen, Anu W; Partonen, Timo; Kaprio, Jaakko; Männistö, Satu; Montonen, Jukka; Jula, Antti; Tiittanen, Pekka; Verkasalo, Pia K

    2010-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that high fish consumption improves mental well-being. The aim of this study was to assess whether high fish consumption or omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake was associated with reduced self-reported psychological distress. Methods We used three cross-sectional data sets, the nationwide Health 2000 Survey (n = 5840), the Fishermen Study on Finnish fishermen and their family members (n = 1282) and the Finntwin16 Study on young adults (n = 4986). Data were based on self-administered questionnaires, interviews, health examinations and blood samples. Psychological distress was measured using the 12-item and 21-item General Health Questionnaires (GHQs). Fish consumption was measured by a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ, g/day) and independent frequency questions (times/month). Dietary intake (g/day) and serum concentrations (% from fatty acids) of PUFAs were determined. Relationships were analysed using regression analysis. Results Regardless of the measure, fish consumption and omega-3 PUFA dietary intake were not associated with distress in any of the data sets. In contrast to the hypothesis, high serum docosahexaenoic acid was associated with high distress in the Fisherman Study men. Some non-linear associations were detected between serum omega-3 PUFAs or fish consumption (times/month) and distress. In the Fishermen Study, the associations were modified by alcohol consumption, smoking and physical activity. Conclusions Our results do not support the hypothesis that fish consumption or omega-3 PUFA intake are associated with reduced psychological distress in the general population or in a population with high fish consumption. PMID:20156998

  18. Consumption of PCB-contaminated sport fish and risk of spontaneous fetal death

    SciTech Connect

    Mendola, P.; Buck, G.M.; Vena, J.E.; Zielezny, M.; Sever, L.E.

    1995-05-01

    Spontaneous fetal death has been observed among various mammalian species after exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Our exposure-based cohort study assessed the relationship between consumption of PCB-contaminated Lake Ontario sport fish and spontaneous fetal death using 1820 multigravid fertile women from the 1990-1991 New York State Angler Cohort Study. Fish consumption data were obtained from food frequency questionnaires and history of spontaneous fetal death from live birth certificates. Analyses were stratified by number of prior pregnancies and controlled for smoking and maternal age. No significant increases in risk for fetal death were observed across four measures of exposure: a lifetime estimate of PCB exposure based on species-specific PCB levels; the number of years of fish consumption; kilograms of sport fish consumed in 1990-1991; and a lifetime estimate of kilograms eaten. A slight risk reduction was seen for women with two prior pregnancies at the highest level of PCB exposure (odds ratio = 0.36; 95% CI, 0.14-0.92) and for women with three or more prior pregnancies with increasing years of fish consumption (odds ratio = 0.97; 95% CI, 0.94-0.99). These findings suggest that consumption of PCB-contaminated sport fish does not increase the risk of spontaneous fetal death. 50 refs., 2 tabs.

  19. Consumption of PCB-contaminated sport fish and risk of spontaneous fetal death.

    PubMed Central

    Mendola, P; Buck, G M; Vena, J E; Zielezny, M; Sever, L E

    1995-01-01

    Spontaneous fetal death has been observed among various mammalian species after exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Our exposure-based cohort study assessed the relationship between consumption of PCB-contaminated Lake Ontario sport fish and spontaneous fetal death using 1820 multigravid fertile women from the 1990-1991 New York State Angler Cohort Study. Fish consumption data were obtained from food frequency questionnaires and history of spontaneous fetal death from live birth certificates. Analyses were stratified by number of prior pregnancies and controlled for smoking and maternal age. No significant increases in risk for fetal death were observed across four measures of exposure: a lifetime estimate of PCB exposure based on species-specific PCB levels; the number of years of fish consumption; kilograms of sport fish consumed in 1990-1991; and a lifetime estimate of kilograms eaten. A slight risk reduction was seen for women with two prior pregnancies at the highest level of PCB exposure (odds ratio = 0.36; 95% CI, 0.14-0.92) and for women with three or more prior pregnancies with increasing years of fish consumption (odds ratio = 0.97; 95% CI, 0.94-0.99). These findings suggest that consumption of PCB-contaminated sport fish does not increase the risk of spontaneous fetal death. PMID:7656880

  20. Fish consumption and the risk of gastric cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Gastric cancer is the fourth most frequently occurring malignancy after lung, breast, and colorectal cancer, and the second most common cause of death from cancer worldwide. Epidemiologic studies have examined the possible association between fish consumption and gastric cancer, but the results were inconclusive. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the association between fish intake and the risk of gastric cancer. Methods PubMed was searched for studies published in English-language journals from 1991 through 2009. We identified 17 epidemiologic studies (15 case-control and 2 cohort studies) that included relative risks (RRs) or odds ratios (ORs) estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of the relationship between gastric cancer and fish consumption. Data were extracted using standardized data forms. Summary RRs or ORs for the highest versus non/lowest fish consumption levels were calculated using random-effects model. Heterogeneity among studies was examined using Q and I2 statistics. Results In this study, 5,323 cases of gastric cancer and over 130,000 non-cases were included. The combined results from all studies indicated that the association between high fish consumption and reduced gastric cancer risk was not statistically insignificant (RR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.71-1.07). Conclusions Current evidence indicated that the association between fish consumption and risk of gastric cancer remains unclear. PMID:21247502

  1. Traditional living in the Amazon: Extended breastfeeding, fish consumption, mercury exposure and neurodevelopment.

    PubMed

    Marques, Rejane C; Abreu, Luciana; Bernardi, José V E; Dórea, José G

    2016-07-01

    Features of traditional living in the Amazon Basin (high fish consumption and long breastfeeding) are likely to expose children to Mercury (Hg). To study neurodevelopment in 690 children in relation to prolonged breastfeeding and mercury exposure. Three groups of breastfeeding children were formed: Group 1 (breastfed for 6 months), Group 2 (7-12 months) and Group 3 (extending up to 24 months). Neurodevelopment was assessed as age of walking, age of talking and the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-BSID. Mercury exposure was assessed from Thimerosal-containing vaccines and fish consumption from hair Hg (HHg). HHg increased in children and decreased in mothers at 24 months. Frequency of fish consumption was significantly correlated with maternal HHg at birth (Spearman's r = 0.8583; p = 0.0001); likewise, there was a significant correlation between duration of breastfeeding and children's HHg (Spearman's r = 0.15; p = 0.0018). Extended breastfeeding did not influence the Mental Development Index-MDI or Psychomotor Development Index-PDI, but maternal education and HHg (marker of fish consumption) interacted positively and significantly with both. Frequency of maternal fish consumption and education had a positive association with BSID scores; it is speculated that maternal education and nutrients in fish have an opposing effect on Hg exposure.

  2. An empirical model for estimating annual consumption by freshwater fish populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liao, H.; Pierce, C.L.; Larscheid, J.G.

    2005-01-01

    Population consumption is an important process linking predator populations to their prey resources. Simple tools are needed to enable fisheries managers to estimate population consumption. We assembled 74 individual estimates of annual consumption by freshwater fish populations and their mean annual population size, 41 of which also included estimates of mean annual biomass. The data set included 14 freshwater fish species from 10 different bodies of water. From this data set we developed two simple linear regression models predicting annual population consumption. Log-transformed population size explained 94% of the variation in log-transformed annual population consumption. Log-transformed biomass explained 98% of the variation in log-transformed annual population consumption. We quantified the accuracy of our regressions and three alternative consumption models as the mean percent difference from observed (bioenergetics-derived) estimates in a test data set. Predictions from our population-size regression matched observed consumption estimates poorly (mean percent difference = 222%). Predictions from our biomass regression matched observed consumption reasonably well (mean percent difference = 24%). The biomass regression was superior to an alternative model, similar in complexity, and comparable to two alternative models that were more complex and difficult to apply. Our biomass regression model, log10(consumption) = 0.5442 + 0.9962??log10(biomass), will be a useful tool for fishery managers, enabling them to make reasonably accurate annual population consumption predictions from mean annual biomass estimates. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  3. Umbilical cord blood and placental mercury, selenium and selenoprotein expression in relation to maternal fish consumption

    PubMed Central

    Gilman, Christy L.; Soon, Reni; Sauvage, Lynnae; Ralston, Nicholas V.C.; Berry, Marla J.

    2015-01-01

    Seafood is an important source of nutrients for fetal neurodevelopment. Most individuals are exposed to the toxic element mercury through seafood. Due to the neurotoxic effects of mercury, United States government agencies recommend no more than 340 g (12 oz) per week of seafood consumption during pregnancy. However, recent studies have shown that selenium, also abundant in seafood, can have protective effects against mercury toxicity. In this study, we analyzed mercury and selenium levels and selenoprotein mRNA, protein, and activity in placenta of a cohort of women in Hawaii in relation to maternal seafood consumption assessed with dietary surveys. Fish consumption resulted in differences in mercury levels in placenta and cord blood. When taken as a group, those who consumed no fish exhibited the lowest mercury levels in placenta and cord blood. However, there were numerous individuals who either had higher mercury with no fish consumption or lower mercury with high fish consumption, indicating a lack of correlation. Placental expression of selenoprotein mRNAs, proteins and enzyme activity was not statistically different in any region among the different dietary groups. While the absence of seafood consumption correlates with lower average placental and cord blood mercury levels, no strong correlations were seen between seafood consumption or its absence and the levels of either selenoproteins or selenoenzyme activity. PMID:25744505

  4. Umbilical cord blood and placental mercury, selenium and selenoprotein expression in relation to maternal fish consumption.

    PubMed

    Gilman, Christy L; Soon, Reni; Sauvage, Lynnae; Ralston, Nicholas V C; Berry, Marla J

    2015-04-01

    Seafood is an important source of nutrients for fetal neurodevelopment. Most individuals are exposed to the toxic element mercury through seafood. Due to the neurotoxic effects of mercury, United States government agencies recommend no more than 340g (12oz) per week of seafood consumption during pregnancy. However, recent studies have shown that selenium, also abundant in seafood, can have protective effects against mercury toxicity. In this study, we analyzed mercury and selenium levels and selenoprotein mRNA, protein, and activity in placenta of a cohort of women in Hawaii in relation to maternal seafood consumption assessed with dietary surveys. Fish consumption resulted in differences in mercury levels in placenta and cord blood. When taken as a group, those who consumed no fish exhibited the lowest mercury levels in placenta and cord blood. However, there were numerous individuals who either had higher mercury with no fish consumption or lower mercury with high fish consumption, indicating a lack of correlation. Placental expression of selenoprotein mRNAs, proteins and enzyme activity was not statistically different in any region among the different dietary groups. While the absence of seafood consumption correlates with lower average placental and cord blood mercury levels, no strong correlations were seen between seafood consumption or its absence and the levels of either selenoproteins or selenoenzyme activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Human exposure to methylmercury from crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) in China.

    PubMed

    Peng, Qian; Greenfield, Ben K; Dang, Fei; Zhong, Huan

    2016-02-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) accumulation in aquatic food raises global concerns about human exposure to MeHg. Crayfish is the world's third largest farmed crustacean species and a favorite aquatic food in many countries. However, human health hazard due to MeHg exposure via crayfish consumption is unclear, partly because appropriate survey data are lacking. We report on mercury concentrations and speciation in edible tail muscle of crayfish collected from restaurants in 23 Chinese cities. On average, MeHg constituted 99.1 % of mercury in tail muscle, and MeHg concentrations were comparable with those reported for fish in China. Variation in MeHg concentrations was not attributable to broad geographic region (i.e., provinces) or tail length. For different populations, potential health risk (characterized by hazard quotient or HQ) of MeHg exposure through crayfish consumption depended largely on crayfish consumption rates. In particular, a health hazard (HQ > 1) was found for high-rate consumers (i.e., 95 %ile or higher) in some cities in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River (MLYR), during the peak consumption season. Our results suggest that more attention should be paid to dietary MeHg intake via crayfish consumption in China, particularly for communities with high consumption in MLYR.

  6. Association between Maternal Fish Consumption and Gestational Weight Gain: Influence of Molecular Genetic Predisposition to Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Sofus C.; Ängquist, Lars; Laurin, Charles; Morgen, Camilla S.; Jakobsen, Marianne U.; Paternoster, Lavinia; Smith, George Davey; Olsen, Sjurdur F.; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Nohr, Ellen A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Studies suggest that fish consumption can restrict weight gain. However, little is known about how fish consumption affects gestational weight gain (GWG), and whether this relationship depends on genetic makeup. Objective To examine the association between fish consumption and GWG, and whether this relationship is dependent on molecular genetic predisposition to obesity. Design A nested case-cohort study based on the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) sampling the most obese women (n = 990) and a random sample of the remaining participants (n = 1,128). Replication of statistically significant findings was attempted in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) (n = 4,841). We included 32 body mass index (BMI) associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 5 SNPs found associated with GWG. BMI associated SNPs were combined in a genetic risk score (GRS). Associations between consumption of fish, GRS or individual variants and GWG were analysed, and interactions between fish and the GRS or individual variants were examined. Results In the DNBC, each portion/week (150 g) of fatty fish was associated with a higher GWG of 0.58 kg (95% CI: 0.16, 0.99, P<0.01). For total fish and lean fish, similar patterns were observed, but these associations were not statistically significant. We found no association between GRS and GWG, and no interactions between GRS and dietary fish on GWG. However, we found an interaction between the PPARG Pro12Ala variant and dietary fish. Each additional Pro12Ala G-allele was associated with a GWG of -0.83 kg (95% CI: -1.29, -0.37, P<0.01) per portion/week of dietary fish, with the same pattern for both lean and fatty fish. In ALSPAC, we were unable to replicate these findings. Conclusion We found no consistent evidence of association between fish consumption and GWG, and our results indicate that the association between dietary fish and GWG has little or no dependency on GRS or individual SNPs. PMID:26930408

  7. Association between Maternal Fish Consumption and Gestational Weight Gain: Influence of Molecular Genetic Predisposition to Obesity.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Sofus C; Ängquist, Lars; Laurin, Charles; Morgen, Camilla S; Jakobsen, Marianne U; Paternoster, Lavinia; Smith, George Davey; Olsen, Sjurdur F; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Nohr, Ellen A

    2016-01-01

    Studies suggest that fish consumption can restrict weight gain. However, little is known about how fish consumption affects gestational weight gain (GWG), and whether this relationship depends on genetic makeup. To examine the association between fish consumption and GWG, and whether this relationship is dependent on molecular genetic predisposition to obesity. A nested case-cohort study based on the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) sampling the most obese women (n = 990) and a random sample of the remaining participants (n = 1,128). Replication of statistically significant findings was attempted in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) (n = 4,841). We included 32 body mass index (BMI) associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 5 SNPs found associated with GWG. BMI associated SNPs were combined in a genetic risk score (GRS). Associations between consumption of fish, GRS or individual variants and GWG were analysed, and interactions between fish and the GRS or individual variants were examined. In the DNBC, each portion/week (150 g) of fatty fish was associated with a higher GWG of 0.58 kg (95% CI: 0.16, 0.99, P<0.01). For total fish and lean fish, similar patterns were observed, but these associations were not statistically significant. We found no association between GRS and GWG, and no interactions between GRS and dietary fish on GWG. However, we found an interaction between the PPARG Pro12Ala variant and dietary fish. Each additional Pro12Ala G-allele was associated with a GWG of -0.83 kg (95% CI: -1.29, -0.37, P<0.01) per portion/week of dietary fish, with the same pattern for both lean and fatty fish. In ALSPAC, we were unable to replicate these findings. We found no consistent evidence of association between fish consumption and GWG, and our results indicate that the association between dietary fish and GWG has little or no dependency on GRS or individual SNPs.

  8. Fish consumption and resilience to depression in Japanese company workers: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Eisho; Nishi, Daisuke; Matsuoka, Yutaka

    2015-05-26

    Depression is a common disorder that is influenced by psychosocial factors in the workplace. Increasing resilience, the ability to cope with stress in the face of adversity, is considered an important strategy to prevent depression. It has been suggested that consumption of fish, which is a major source of long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA), may prevent depression. However, associations between depression, resilience, and fish consumption have not been documented. The aim of the study is to investigate the association between fish consumption and resilience to depression. Participants were 527 Japanese employees at three worksites of a large company. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale was administered to assess depressive symptoms, and the 14-item Resilience Scale (RS-14) was administered to assess resilience. A self-report questionnaire extracted from the Food Frequency Questionnaire was used to measure fish consumption frequency. Regression analyses were conducted to assess a mediation model based on a statistical analysis framework defined by Baron and Kenny. The indirect association of resilience was calculated with the bootstrapping method. Each analysis was adjusted by age, sex, marital status, work position, and educational background. The association between fish consumption frequency and total CES-D score was significant (B=-0.94; p=0.011). The association between fish consumption frequency and total RS-14 score was significant (B=1.4; p=0.010), as was association total RS-14 score and the total CES-D score (B=-0.34; p<0.001). When controlling for total RS-14 score, there was no longer a significant association between fish consumption frequency and total CES-D score. The bootstrapping results revealed that significant indirect association though fish consumption frequency and total CES-D score (bias corrected and accelerated confidence interval=-0.83 to -0.13; 95% confidence interval) through total RS-14

  9. IRIS Summary and Supporting Documents for Methylmercury ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In January 2001, U.S. EPA finalized the guidance for methylmercury in the water quality criteria for states and authorized tribes. The links below take you to the best resources for this guidance. This final Guidance for Implementing the January 2001 Methylmercury Water Quality Criterion provides technical guidance to states and authorized tribes on how they may want to use the January 2001 fish tissue-based recommended water quality criterion for methylmercury in surface water protection programs (e.g., TMDLs, NPDES permitting). The guidance addresses questions related to water quality standards adoption (e.g., site-specific criteria, variances), assessments, monitoring, TMDLs, and NPDES permitting. The guidance consolidates existing EPA guidance where relevant to mercury.

  10. Changes in Meat/Poultry/Fish Consumption in Australia: From 1995 to 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Sui, Zhixian; Raubenheimer, David; Cunningham, Judy; Rangan, Anna

    2016-11-24

    The purpose of the study was to examine temporal changes in meat/poultry/fish consumption patterns between 1995 and 2011-2012 in the Australian population. Meat/poultry/fish consumption from all food sources, including recipes, was analysed by gender, age group, and socio-economic status using 24-h recall data from the 1995 National Nutrition Survey (n = 13,858) and the 2011-2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (n = 12,153). The overall proportion of people consuming meat/poultry/fish remained stable (91.7% versus 91.3%, p = 0.55), but a shift in the type of meat consumed was observed. Red meat, including beef and lamb, was consumed by fewer people over the time period (from 56% to 49%), whereas poultry consumption increased (from 29% to 38%). Amounts of all meat/poultry/fish consumed were reportedly higher in 2011-2012 compared with 1995. This resulted in similar (red meat, and processed meat) or slightly higher (poultry, and fish) per-capita intakes in 2011-2012. The magnitude of change of consumption varied between children and adults, and by gender. Monitoring trends in consumption is particularly relevant to policy makers, researchers and other health professionals for the formulation of dietary recommendations and estimation of potential health outcomes.

  11. Changes in Meat/Poultry/Fish Consumption in Australia: From 1995 to 2011–2012

    PubMed Central

    Sui, Zhixian; Raubenheimer, David; Cunningham, Judy; Rangan, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine temporal changes in meat/poultry/fish consumption patterns between 1995 and 2011–2012 in the Australian population. Meat/poultry/fish consumption from all food sources, including recipes, was analysed by gender, age group, and socio-economic status using 24-h recall data from the 1995 National Nutrition Survey (n = 13,858) and the 2011–2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (n = 12,153). The overall proportion of people consuming meat/poultry/fish remained stable (91.7% versus 91.3%, p = 0.55), but a shift in the type of meat consumed was observed. Red meat, including beef and lamb, was consumed by fewer people over the time period (from 56% to 49%), whereas poultry consumption increased (from 29% to 38%). Amounts of all meat/poultry/fish consumed were reportedly higher in 2011–2012 compared with 1995. This resulted in similar (red meat, and processed meat) or slightly higher (poultry, and fish) per-capita intakes in 2011–2012. The magnitude of change of consumption varied between children and adults, and by gender. Monitoring trends in consumption is particularly relevant to policy makers, researchers and other health professionals for the formulation of dietary recommendations and estimation of potential health outcomes. PMID:27886131

  12. Combining the role of convenience and consideration set size in explaining fish consumption in Norway.

    PubMed

    Rortveit, Asbjorn Warvik; Olsen, Svein Ottar

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore how convenience orientation, perceived product inconvenience and consideration set size are related to attitudes towards fish and fish consumption. The authors present a structural equation model (SEM) based on the integration of two previous studies. The results of a SEM analysis using Lisrel 8.72 on data from a Norwegian consumer survey (n=1630) suggest that convenience orientation and perceived product inconvenience have a negative effect on both consideration set size and consumption frequency. Attitude towards fish has the greatest impact on consumption frequency. The results also indicate that perceived product inconvenience is a key variable since it has a significant impact on attitude, and on consideration set size and consumption frequency. Further, the analyses confirm earlier findings suggesting that the effect of convenience orientation on consumption is partially mediated through perceived product inconvenience. The study also confirms earlier findings suggesting that the consideration set size affects consumption frequency. Practical implications drawn from this research are that the seafood industry would benefit from developing and positioning products that change beliefs about fish as an inconvenient product. Future research for other food categories should be done to enhance the external validity.

  13. Characterization factors for water consumption and greenhouse gas emissions based on freshwater fish species extinction.

    PubMed

    Hanafiah, Marlia M; Xenopoulos, Marguerite A; Pfister, Stephan; Leuven, Rob S E W; Huijbregts, Mark A J

    2011-06-15

    Human-induced changes in water consumption and global warming are likely to reduce the species richness of freshwater ecosystems. So far, these impacts have not been addressed in the context of life cycle assessment (LCA). Here, we derived characterization factors for water consumption and global warming based on freshwater fish species loss. Calculation of characterization factors for potential freshwater fish losses from water consumption were estimated using a generic species-river discharge curve for 214 global river basins. We also derived characterization factors for potential freshwater fish species losses per unit of greenhouse gas emission. Based on five global climate scenarios, characterization factors for 63 greenhouse gas emissions were calculated. Depending on the river considered, characterization factors for water consumption can differ up to 3 orders of magnitude. Characterization factors for greenhouse gas emissions can vary up to 5 orders of magnitude, depending on the atmospheric residence time and radiative forcing efficiency of greenhouse gas emissions. An emission of 1 ton of CO₂ is expected to cause the same impact on potential fish species disappearance as the water consumption of 10-1000 m³, depending on the river basin considered. Our results make it possible to compare the impact of water consumption with greenhouse gas emissions.

  14. Fish consumption and contaminant exposure among Montreal-area sportfishers: Pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Kosatsky, T. |; Przybysz, R.; Shatenstein, B.; Weber, J.P.; Armstrong, B.

    1999-02-01

    A 1995 pilot study assessed sport fish consumption and contaminant exposure among Montreal-area residents fishing the frozen St. Lawrence river. Interviews conducted among 223 ice fishers met on-site were used to create an index of estimated exposure to fish-borne contaminants. A second-stage assessment of sport fish consumption and tissue contaminant burdens included 25 interviewees at the highest level of estimated contaminant exposure and 15 low-exposure fishers. High-level fisher-consumers reported eating 0.92 {+-} 0.99 sport fish meals/week during the previous 3 weeks compared to 0.38 {+-} 0.21 for the low-level group. Based on the product of consumption frequency times mass of sport fish meals consumed, high-level consumers ate a mean of 18.3 kg of sport fish annually versus 3.3 kg for the low-level consumers. Tissue contaminant assessments showed significant groupwise differences: 0--1 cm hair mercury, lipid-adjusted plasma PCB congeners, and lipid-adjusted plasma DDE. No participant had a hair mercury or plasma DDE concentration above Health Canada recommendations but 2/25 high-level participants had plasma Aroclor 1260 concentrations above recommended limits.

  15. Reappraisal of somatosensory disorders in methylmercury poisoning.

    PubMed

    Ninomiya, Tadashi; Imamura, Keiko; Kuwahata, Misako; Kindaichi, Michiaki; Susa, Mari; Ekino, Shigeo

    2005-01-01

    The first well-documented methylmercury (MeHg) poisoning by consumption of fish arose in Minamata, Japan in 1953. MeHg had dispersed from Minamata to the Shiranui Sea. The temporal changes in MeHg in the umbilical cords indicate that residents living around that Sea had been exposed to low-dose MeHg through fish consumption for about 20 years (at least from 1950 to 1968). They have complained of paresthesia at the distal parts of the extremities and around the lip even 30 years after the cessation of exposure to anthropogenic MeHg. The thresholds of touch and two-point discrimination of those residents and Minamata disease (MD) patients were examined using the quantifiable instruments. They could perceive the stimulation of touch although their touch thresholds significantly increased in comparison to those of the control people. Their touch thresholds increased at the proximal extremities and the trunks as well as at the distal extremities. The evenly distributed increases at both distal and proximal parts revealed that the persistent somatosensory disturbances were not caused by the injuries to their peripheral nerves. The thresholds of two-point discrimination, which are associated with the function of the somatosensory cortex, increased at both forefingers and the lip in both groups. Taking into consideration that, the apraxia limb kinetics, astereognosis and disorder of active sensation, which are all associated with damage to the somatosensory cortex, were detected, it is proposed that the persisting somatosensory disorders after discontinuation of exposure to MeHg were induced by diffuse damage to the somatosensory cortex.

  16. Mercury, arsenic and selenium exposure levels in relation to fish consumption in the Mediterranean area.

    PubMed

    Miklavčič, Ana; Casetta, Anica; Snoj Tratnik, Janja; Mazej, Darja; Krsnik, Mladen; Mariuz, Marika; Sofianou, Katia; Spirić, Zdravko; Barbone, Fabio; Horvat, Milena

    2013-01-01

    In order to assess mercury (Hg), selenium (Se) and arsenic (As) exposure in the Mediterranean area, total mercury (THg), monomethylmercury (MeHg), Se and As levels were measured in umbilical cord blood and breast milk from Italian (n=900), Slovenian (n=584), Croatian (n=234) and Greek (n=484) women. THg, MeHg, As, and Se levels were also determined in blood samples of the same mothers from Italy and Croatia. In addition, THg and MeHg were determined in the same women's hair from all the countries involved in this study and As and Se levels were determined in the mother's urine samples from Italy, Croatia and Greece. Besides recording the consumption of other food items, the frequencies of fish consumption were assessed by detailed food frequency questionnaires, since fish represents an important source of Hg, Se and As in humans. The highest levels of THg and As were found in cord blood (Med((THg))=5.8 ng/g; Med((As))=3.3 ng/g) and breast milk (Med((THg))=0.6 ng/g; Med((As))=0.8 ng/g) from Greek women, while the highest Se levels were found in cord blood (Med=113 ng/g) from Italy. Significant linear correlations were found between Hg, Se and As in blood, cord blood and breast milk. In addition, significant relations were found between the frequencies of total fish consumption and biomarkers of As, MeHg and Se exposure, with the strongest Spearman rank coefficients between frequencies of total fish consumption and THg levels in cord blood (r(s)=0.442, p<0.001) or THg levels in hair (r(s)=0.421, p<0.001), and between frequencies of total fish consumption and As levels in cord blood (r(s)=0.350, p<0.001). The differences in Hg and As exposure between countries were probably due to different amounts of fish consumption and the consumption of different species of fish of different origin, while the highest Se levels in women from Italy were probably the consequence of the more frequent consumption of different non specific food items. Moreover, fish consumption, the

  17. Are Fish Consumption Advisories for the Great Lakes Adequately Protective against Chemical Mixtures?

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, Nilima; Drouillard, Ken G.; Arhonditsis, George B.; Gewurtz, Sarah B.; Bhavsar, Satyendra P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The North American Great Lakes are home to > 140 types of fish and are famous for recreational and commercial fishing. However, the presence of toxic substances has resulted in the issuance of fish consumption advisories that are typically based on the most restrictive contaminant. Objectives: We investigated whether these advisories, which typically neglect the existence of a mixture of chemicals and their possible additive adverse effects, are adequately protective of the health of humans consuming fish from the Canadian waters of the Great Lakes. Methods: Using recent fish contaminant monitoring data collected by the government of Ontario, Canada, we simulated advisories using most-restrictive-contaminant (one-chem) and multi-contaminant additive effect (multi-chem) approaches. The advisories from the two simulations were compared to determine if there is any deficiency in the currently issued advisories. Results: Approximately half of the advisories currently issued are potentially not adequately protective. Of the four Great Lakes studied, the highest percentage of advisories affected are in Lake Ontario if an additive effect is considered. Many fish that are popular for consumption, such as walleye, salmon, bass and trout, would have noticeably more stringent advisories. Conclusions: Improvements in the advisories may be needed to ensure that the health of humans consuming fish from the Great Lakes is protected. In this region, total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and mercury are the major contaminants causing restrictions on consuming fish, whereas dioxins/furans, toxaphene, and mirex/photomirex are of minor concern. Regular monitoring of most organochlorine pesticides and metals in fish can be discontinued. Citation: Gandhi N, Drouillard KG, Arhonditsis GB, Gewurtz SB, Bhavsar SP. 2017. Are fish consumption advisories for the Great Lakes adequately protective against chemical mixtures? Environ Health Perspect 125:586–593;

  18. DOE/FDA/EPA: Workshop on methylmercury and human health

    SciTech Connect

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Saroff, L.; Bolger, M.; Cicmanec, J.; Durkee, S.

    1994-12-31

    In the US the general population is exposed to methylmercury (MeHg) principally through the consumption of fish. There is continuing discussion about the sources of this form of mercury (Hg), the magnitudes and trends in exposures to consumers, and the significance of the sources and their contributions to human health. In response to these discussions, the US Department of Energy, the US Food and Drug Administration, and the US Environmental Protection Agency cosponsored a two-day workshop to discuss data and methods available for characterizing the risk to human health presented by MeHg. This workshop was attended by 45 individuals representing various Federal and state organizations and interested stakeholders. The agenda covered: Agency interests; probabilistic approach to risk assessment; emission sources; atmospheric transport; biogeochemical cycling; exposure assessment; health effects of MeHg; and research needs.

  19. Meat and fish consumption and cancer in Canada.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jinfu; La Vecchia, Carlo; DesMeules, Marie; Negri, Eva; Mery, Les

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we examined the association between meat and fish intake and the risk of various cancers. Mailed questionnaires were completed by 19,732 incident, histologically confirmed cases of cancer of the stomach, colon, rectum, pancreas, lung, breast, ovary, prostate, testis, kidney, bladder, brain, non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL), and leukemia and 5,039 population controls between 1994 and 1997 in 8 Canadian provinces. Measurement included information on socioeconomic status, lifestyle habits, and diet. A 69-item food frequency questionnaire provided data on eating habits 2 yr before data collection. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were derived through unconditional logistic regression. Total meat and processed meat were directly related to the risk of stomach, colon, rectum, pancreas, lung, breast (mainly postmenopausal), prostate, testis, kidney, bladder, and leukemia. Red meat was significantly associated with colon, lung (mainly in men), and bladder cancer. No relation was observed for cancer of the ovary, brain, and NHL. No consistent excess risk emerged for fish and poultry, which were inversely related to the risk of a number of cancer sites. These findings add further evidence that meat, specifically red and processed meat, plays an unfavorable role in the risk of several cancers. Fish and poultry appear to be favorable diet indicators.

  20. Is it appropriate to composite fish samples for mercury trend monitoring and consumption advisories?

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Nilima; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Gewurtz, Sarah B; Drouillard, Ken G; Arhonditsis, George B; Petro, Steve

    2016-03-01

    Monitoring mercury levels in fish can be costly because variation by space, time, and fish type/size needs to be captured. Here, we explored if compositing fish samples to decrease analytical costs would reduce the effectiveness of the monitoring objectives. Six compositing methods were evaluated by applying them to an existing extensive dataset, and examining their performance in reproducing the fish consumption advisories and temporal trends. The methods resulted in varying amount (average 34-72%) of reductions in samples, but all (except one) reproduced advisories very well (96-97% of the advisories did not change or were one category more restrictive compared to analysis of individual samples). Similarly, the methods performed reasonably well in recreating temporal trends, especially when longer-term and frequent measurements were considered. The results indicate that compositing samples within 5cm fish size bins or retaining the largest/smallest individuals and compositing in-between samples in batches of 5 with decreasing fish size would be the best approaches. Based on the literature, the findings from this study are applicable to fillet, muscle plug and whole fish mercury monitoring studies. The compositing methods may also be suitable for monitoring Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in fish. Overall, compositing fish samples for mercury monitoring could result in a substantial savings (approximately 60% of the analytical cost) and should be considered in fish mercury monitoring, especially in long-term programs or when study cost is a concern.

  1. Fish Consumption Moderates Depressive Symptomatology in Elderly Men and Women from the IKARIA Study

    PubMed Central

    Chrysohoou, Christina; Tsitsinakis, George; Siassos, Gerassimos; Psaltopoulou, Theodora; Galiatsatos, Nikos; Metaxa, Vasiliki; Lazaros, George; Miliou, Antigoni; Giakoumi, Evaggelia; Mylonakis, Charalambos; Zaromytidou, Marina; Economou, Evaggelos; Triantafyllou, Georgia; Pitsavos, Christos; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2011-01-01

    Background. The aim was to examine the association of depressive symptoms with fish eating habits, in elderly individuals. Methods. From June to October of 2009, we studied 330 men and 343 women, aged 65 to 100 years, permanent inhabitants of Ikaria Island. Among several characteristics, depression was assessed with the Geriatric Depression scale (GDS range 0–15), while dietary habits through a valid semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Results. Women had significantly higher values of the GDS compared to men (4.8 ± 3.5 versus 3.3 ± 3.1, P = .001). Participants in the upper tertile of depression scale ate less frequent fish and consumed higher quantities of alcohol, compared to those in the lowest tertile (all P < .05). Regarding fish consumption, 50% of the individuals reported consuming 1-2 times weekly, 32% 3 to 5 times weekly, 11% 2-3 times monthly, while the rest reported rare (4.5%) and everyday (1.2%) consumption. Logistic regression showed that increased fish consumption (>3 times/week versus never/rare) was inversely associated with the odds of having GDS greater the median value (i.e., 4) (odds  ratio = 0.34, 95% CI: 0.19, 0.61), after controlling for several cofounders. Conclusion. Frequent fish consumption in elderly seems to moderate depression mood. PMID:21197433

  2. Development of a single-meal fish consumption advisory for methyl mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Ginsberg, G.L.; Toal, B.F.

    2000-02-01

    Methyl mercury (meHg) contamination of fish is the leading cause of fish consumption advisories in the US. These advisories have focused upon repeated or chronic exposure, whereas risks during pregnancy may also exist from a single-meal exposure if the fish tissue concentration is high enough. In this study, acute exposure to meHg from a single fish meal was analyzed by using the one-compartment meHg biokinetic model to predict maternal hair concentrations. These concentrations were evaluated against the mercury hair concentration corresponding to the US Environmental Protection Agency's reference dose (RfD), which is intended to protect against neurodevelopmental effects. The one-compartment model was validated against blood concentrations from three datasets in which human subjects ingested meHg in fish, either as a single meal or multiple meals. Model simulations of the single-meal scenario at different fish meHg concentrations found that concentrations of 2.0 ppm or higher can be associated with maternal hair concentrations elevated above the RfD level for days to weeks during gestation. A single-meal fish concentration cutoff of {ge} 2.0 ppm is an important consideration, especially because this single high exposure event might be in addition to a baseline meHg body burden from other types of fish consumption. This type of single-meal advisory requires that fish sampling programs provide data for individual rather than composited fish, and take into account seasonal differences that may exist in fish concentrations.

  3. Fish consumption and risk of gastrointestinal cancers: A meta-analysis of cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiao-Feng; Zou, Jian; Dong, Jie

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To assess quantitatively the relationship between fish intake and the incidence of gastrointestinal cancers in a meta-analysis of cohort studies. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, Science Citation Index Expanded, and the bibliographies of retrieved articles. Prospective cohort studies were included if they reported relative risks (RRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of various cancers with respect to fish intake. When RRs were not available in the published article, they were computed from the exposure distributions. Two investigators extracted the data independently and discrepancies were resolved by discussion with a third investigator. We performed random-effect meta-analyses and meta-regressions of study-specific incremental estimates to determine the risk of cancer associated with a 20-g/d increment of fish consumption. RESULTS: Forty-two studies, comprising 27 independent cohorts, met our inclusion criteria. The studies included 2325040 participants and 24115 incident cases of gastrointestinal cancer, with an average follow-up of 13.6 years. Compared with individuals who did not eat, or seldom ate, fish, the pooled RR of gastrointestinal cancers was 0.93 (95%CI: 0.88-0.98) for regular fish consumers, 0.94 (0.89-0.99) for low to moderate fish consumers, and 0.91 (0.84-0.97) for high fish consumers. Overall, a 20-g increase in fish consumption per day was associated with a 2% reduced risk of gastrointestinal cancers (RR = 0.98; 95%CI: 0.96-1.01). In subgroup analyses, we noted that fish consumption was associated with reduced risk of colorectal (RR = 0.93; 95%CI: 0.87-0.99; P < 0.01), esophageal (RR = 0.91; 95%CI: 0.83-0.99; P < 0.05) and hepatocellular cancers (RR = 0.71; 95%CI: 0.48-0.95; P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis suggested that fish consumption may reduce total gastrointestinal cancer incidence. Inverse relationships were also detected between fish consumption and specific types of cancers. PMID:25386090

  4. The Effect of Fish Consumption on Blood Mercury Levels of Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Euy Hyuk; Kwon, Ja Young; Kim, Sang Wun; Park, Yong Won

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the relationship between average fish consumption, as well as the type of fish consumed and levels of mercury in the blood of pregnant women. We also performed follow-up studies to determine if blood mercury levels were decreased after counseling and prenatal education. To examine these potential relationships, pregnant women were divided into two groups: a study group was educated to restrict fish intake, whereas a control group did not receive any prenatal education regarding fish consumption. We measured blood mercury level and performed follow-up studies during the third trimester to examine any differences between the two groups. Out of the 63 pregnant women who participated in our study, we performed follow-up studies with 19 pregnant women from the study group and 12 pregnant women from control group. The average initial blood mercury level of both groups was 2.94 µg/L, with a range of 0.14 to 10.75 µg/L. Blood mercury level in the group who ate fish more than four times per month was significantly higher than that of the group who did not consume fish (p = 0.02). In follow-up studies, blood mercury levels were decreased in the study group but slightly increased in the control group (p = 0.014). The maternal blood mercury level in late pregnancy was positively correlated with mercury levels of cord blood (r = 0.58, p = 0.047), which was almost twice the level found in maternal blood. Pregnant women who consume a large amount of fish may have high blood mercury levels. Further, cord blood mercury levels were much higher than that of maternal blood. Because the level of fish intake appears to influence blood mercury level, preconceptual education might be necessary in order decrease fish consumption. PMID:17066506

  5. Hair mercury levels in pregnant women in Mahshahr, Iran: fish consumption as a determinant of exposure.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Zohreh; Esmaili-Sari, Abbas

    2010-09-15

    MeHg is a well-documented neurotoxicant even at low levels of exposure. Developing brain, in particular, is vulnerable to that. Through bioaccumulating to differing degrees in various fish species, it can have serious adverse effects on the development and functioning of the human central nervous system, especially during prenatal exposure. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate mercury concentration in hair samples of pregnant women living in Mahshahr located in Khuzestan province, Iran. It assessed the association between fish consumption and specific characteristics that can influence exposure. From April to June 2008, 149 pregnant women were invited to participate in this study. An interview administered questionnaire was used to collect information about age, body weight, height, fish (fresh, canned and shrimp) consumption, pregnancy stage, residence duration, education level, family income and number of dental amalgam fillings. The obtained results showed that the geometric mean and range for hair total Hg concentration was 3.52 microg/g (0.44-53.56 microg/g). About 5.4% of mothers had hair total Hg levels in excess of 10 microg/g. Maternal hair mercury level was less than threshold level of WHO (5 microg/g). As expected, there was a clear increase in hair Hg with reported fresh marine fish consumption (p=0.04). The highest mean for hair mercury level in a group who consumed fish several times per week, was 4.93 microg/g. Moreover, a significant effect of age and residential time on Hg concentration in the hair of the women was found. Pregnant women in Mahshahr consumed large amounts of fish; consequently, most of their offspring were prenatally exposed to moderately high levels of mercury. The results found suggest that pregnant women should decrease their fish consumption.

  6. Fish consumption in infancy and development of allergic disease up to age 12 y.

    PubMed

    Magnusson, Jessica; Kull, Inger; Rosenlund, Helen; Håkansson, Niclas; Wolk, Alicja; Melén, Erik; Wickman, Magnus; Bergström, Anna

    2013-06-01

    Fish intake in infancy has been associated with reduced risk of allergic disease in early childhood, but it is unknown whether this effect remains as children grow older. We studied the possible effect of fish consumption in infancy on prevalent and incident allergic disease up to the age of 12 y. A total of 3285 children from a prospective Swedish birth cohort (Children, Asthma, Milieu, Stockholm, Epidemiology) were included in the current analyses. At 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 y, parental questionnaires were used to obtain information on lifestyle factors, environmental exposures, and symptoms of allergic disease. The frequency of fish intake in infancy was assessed in the 1-y questionnaire. Serum immunoglobulin (Ig) E concentrations associated with common allergens were obtained at age 8 y. Generalized estimating equations and multivariate logistic regression were used to examine associations between fish consumption in infancy and prevalent and incident allergic disease at ages 1-12 y, including sensitization and IgE-associated disease at age 8 y. At 1 y of age, 80% of the children consumed fish regularly (ie, ≥2 times/mo). From 1 to 12 y of age, regular fish consumption in infancy reduced overall risks of prevalent and incident allergic disease [adjusted OR (95% CI) after restriction to children without early symptoms of allergic disease was 0.74 (0.60, 0.90) (P = 0.003) for prevalent rhinitis and 0.78 (0.63, 0.97) (P = 0.028) for prevalent eczema. Regular fish consumption in infancy may reduce risk of allergic disease up to age 12 y.

  7. Consumption dynamics of the adult piscivorous fish community in Spirit Lake, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liao, H.; Pierce, C.L.; Larscheid, J.G.

    2004-01-01

    At Spirit Lake, one of Iowa's most important fisheries, walleye Sander vitreus (formerly Stizostedion vitreum) is one of the most popular species with anglers. Despite a century of walleye stocking and management in Spirit Lake, walleye growth rate, size structure, and angler harvest continue to decline. Our purpose was to determine the magnitude and dynamics of walleye population consumption relative to those of other piscivorous species in Spirit Lake, which would allow managers to judge the feasibility of increasing the abundance, growth rate, and size structure of the walleye population. We quantified food consumption by the adult piscivorous fish community in Spirit Lake over a 3-year period. Data on population dynamics, diet, energy density, and water temperature from 1995 to 1997 were used in bioenergetics models to estimate total consumption by walleye, yellow perch Perca flavescens, smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, black crappie Pomoxis nigromaculatus, and northern pike Esox lucius. Estimated annual consumption by the piscivorous community varied roughly fourfold, ranging from 154,752 kg in 1995 to 662,776 kg in 1997. Walleyes dominated total consumption, accounting for 68, 73, and 90% (1995-1997, respectively) of total food consumption. Walleyes were also the dominant consumers of fish, accounting for 76, 86, and 97% of piscivorous consumption; yellow perch followed, accounting for 16% of piscivorous consumption in 1995 and 12% in 1996. Yellow perch were the predominant fish prey species in all 3 years, accounting for 68, 52, and 36% of the total prey consumed. Natural reproduction is weak, so high walleye densities are maintained by intensive stocking. Walleye stocking drives piscivorous consumption in Spirit Lake, and yearly variation in the cannibalism of stocked walleye fry may be an important determinant of walleye year-class strength and angler success. Reducing walleye stocking intensity, varying stocking

  8. Hair mercury (signature of fish consumption) and cardiovascular risk in Munduruku and Kayabi Indians of Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Dórea, José G; de Souza, Jurandir R; Rodrigues, Patricia; Ferrari, Iris; Barbosa, Antonio C

    2005-02-01

    Fish is an important natural resource in the diet of inhabitants of the Amazon rain forest and a marker of its consumption (hair Hg) was used to compare selected cardiovascular risk parameters between tribes of Eastern Amazonia. Three Munduruku (Terra Preta, Kaburua, Cururu) villages and one Kayabi village at the banks of head rivers (Tapajos, Tropas, Kabitutu, Cururu, Curuzinho, Teles Pires) of the Tapajos Basin were studied in relation to fish Hg concentrations, mercury in hair (fish consumption) and erythrocytes, body mass index (height/weight, kg/cm2), and blood pressure. The mean fish Hg concentrations were higher in predatory (578.6 ng/g) than in nonpredatory species (52.8 ng/g). Overall only 26% of fish Hg concentrations were above 500 ng/g, and only 11% were above 1000 ng/g. There was no systematic trend in fish Hg concentrations from rivers with a history of gold-mining activities. The biomarker of fish consumption (hair Hg) was significantly associated with erythrocyte-Hg (r=0.5181; P=0.0001) and was significantly higher in Kayabi (12.7 microg/g) than in the Munduruku (3.4 microg/g). Biomarker-assessed fish consumption rate was higher in the Kayabi (110 g/day) than in the Munduruku villages (30 g/day). Although no significant differences in body mass index (BMI) were observed between tribes, there was a trend of lower increase in blood pressure with age among the higher fish consumers (Kayabi). Summary clinical evaluation did not detect neurologic complaints compatible with Hg intoxication (paraparesis, numbness, tremor, balancing failure), but endemic tropical diseases such as clinical history of malaria showed a high prevalence (55.4%). Fish is an abundant natural resource, important in the Indian diet, that has been historically consumed without perceived problems and can easily be traced through hair Hg. The exposure to freshwater fish monomethyl mercury is less of an issue than endemic infectious diseases such as malaria and lack of basic medical

  9. Fish Consumption in Connecticut, Florida, Minnesota, and North Dakota (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In August 2013, EPA announced the availability of the final report,Fish Consumption in Connecticut, Florida, Minnesota, and North Dakota. Many state and local health agencies throughout the United States conduct area-specific surveys that monitor and evaluate contaminant ...

  10. Environmental Health Risk Communication: Assessing Levels of Fish-Consumption Literacy among Selected Southeast Asians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratnapradipa, Dhitinut; Getz, Thomas D.; Zarcadoolas, Christina; Panzara, Anthony D.; Esposito, Valerie; Wodika, Alicia B.; Caron, Colleen; Migliore, Beverly; Quilliam, Daniela N.

    2010-01-01

    Limited resources have led to a lack of comprehensive state outreach strategies that are geared for non-English speaking constituencies. The investigators worked with Southeast Asian communities in Rhode Island to determine perceptions and levels of trust with various health authorities providing health messaging about fish-consumption practices.…

  11. Group B Streptococcus Sequence Type 283 Disease Linked to Consumption of Raw Fish, Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Rajendram, Priyanka; Mar Kyaw, Win; Ho, Hanley; Chen, Wen Kai; Lin, Raymond; Pratim, De Partha; Badaruddin, Hishamuddin; Ang, Brenda; Barkham, Timothy; Chow, Angela

    2016-01-01

    An outbreak of invasive group B Streptococcus (GBS) disease occurred in Singapore in mid-2015. We conducted a case–control study of 22 adults with invasive GBS infections during June 21–November 21, 2015. Consumption of raw fish was strongly associated with invasive sequence type 283 infections, but not with non–sequence type 283 infections. PMID:27767905

  12. Fish Consumption in Connecticut, Florida, Minnesota, and North Dakota (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In August 2013, EPA announced the availability of the final report,Fish Consumption in Connecticut, Florida, Minnesota, and North Dakota. Many state and local health agencies throughout the United States conduct area-specific surveys that monitor and evaluate contaminant ...

  13. Environmental Health Risk Communication: Assessing Levels of Fish-Consumption Literacy among Selected Southeast Asians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratnapradipa, Dhitinut; Getz, Thomas D.; Zarcadoolas, Christina; Panzara, Anthony D.; Esposito, Valerie; Wodika, Alicia B.; Caron, Colleen; Migliore, Beverly; Quilliam, Daniela N.

    2010-01-01

    Limited resources have led to a lack of comprehensive state outreach strategies that are geared for non-English speaking constituencies. The investigators worked with Southeast Asian communities in Rhode Island to determine perceptions and levels of trust with various health authorities providing health messaging about fish-consumption practices.…

  14. A nutritional dilemma: fish consumption, mercury exposure and growth of children in Amazonian Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Benefice, Eric; Monrroy, Selma J Luna; Rodriguez, Ronald W Lopez

    2008-12-01

    To study associations between nutritional status and mercury exposure among communities of the Beni River. Cross-sectional survey of mothers and their children from 15 riverside Amerindian communities in the Beni River valley (Amazonian Bolivia). Hair mercury content (H-Hg) served as a bioindicator of mercury exposure. A total of 556 people were measured. Anthropometric indices of nutrition were calculated after measurements of stature, weight, arm circumference and subcutaneous fat folds. Indicators of lifestyle were collected: subsistence activity, fish consumption and ethnicity. The median of H-Hg was equal to 4.0 microg/g (CI 95%: 3.6 approximately 4.4). There existed a significant relationship between H-Hg and nutritional indices in 5- to 10-year-old children (F = 12.1; p < 0.0001) but not in other age groups. Fishing activity, fish consumption and ethnicity had an effect upon the variance of H-Hg. Positive relationships between nutritional status and H-Hg may be related to the high nutritional value of fish. Among women, the relationship between H-Hg and nutritional status was negative (F = 7.1; p < 0.001), but this disappeared when ethnicity and subsistence activity were taken into account. In these Amazonian communities, recommendations aimed at lowering fish consumption to prevent mercury exposure should be balanced against nutritional advantages conferred upon growing children.

  15. Planktivory in the changing Lake Huron zooplankton community: Bythotrephes consumption exceeds that of Mysis and fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bunnell, D.B.; Davis, B.M.; Warner, D.M.; Chriscinske, M.A.; Roseman, E.F.

    2011-01-01

    Oligotrophic lakes are generally dominated by calanoid copepods because of their competitive advantage over cladocerans at low prey densities. Planktivory also can alter zooplankton community structure. We sought to understand the role of planktivory in driving recent changes to the zooplankton community of Lake Huron, a large oligotrophic lake on the border of Canada and the United States. We tested the hypothesis that excessive predation by fish (rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax, bloater Coregonus hoyi) and invertebrates (Mysis relicta, Bythotrephes longimanus) had driven observed declines in cladoceran and cyclopoid copepod biomass between 2002 and 2007. We used a field sampling and bioenergetics modelling approach to generate estimates of daily consumption by planktivores at two 91-m depth sites in northern Lake Huron, U.S.A., for each month, May-October 2007. Daily consumption was compared to daily zooplankton production. Bythotrephes was the dominant planktivore and estimated to have eaten 78% of all zooplankton consumed. Bythotrephes consumption exceeded total zooplankton production between July and October. Mysis consumed 19% of all the zooplankton consumed and exceeded zooplankton production in October. Consumption by fish was relatively unimportant - eating only 3% of all zooplankton consumed. Because Bythotrephes was so important, we explored other consumption estimation methods that predict lower Bythotrephes consumption. Under this scenario, Mysis was the most important planktivore, and Bythotrephes consumption exceeded zooplankton production only in August. Our results provide no support for the hypothesis that excessive fish consumption directly contributed to the decline of cladocerans and cyclopoid copepods in Lake Huron. Rather, they highlight the importance of invertebrate planktivores in structuring zooplankton communities, especially for those foods webs that have both Bythotrephes and Mysis. Together, these species occupy the epi-, meta- and

  16. Are Fish Consumption Advisories for the Great Lakes Adequately Protective against Chemical Mixtures?

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Nilima; Drouillard, Ken G; Arhonditsis, George B; Gewurtz, Sarah B; Bhavsar, Satyendra P

    2017-04-01

    The North American Great Lakes are home to > 140 types of fish and are famous for recreational and commercial fishing. However, the presence of toxic substances has resulted in the issuance of fish consumption advisories that are typically based on the most restrictive contaminant. We investigated whether these advisories, which typically neglect the existence of a mixture of chemicals and their possible additive adverse effects, are adequately protective of the health of humans consuming fish from the Canadian waters of the Great Lakes. Using recent fish contaminant monitoring data collected by the government of Ontario, Canada, we simulated advisories using most-restrictive-contaminant (one-chem) and multi-contaminant additive effect (multi-chem) approaches. The advisories from the two simulations were compared to determine if there is any deficiency in the currently issued advisories. Approximately half of the advisories currently issued are potentially not adequately protective. Of the four Great Lakes studied, the highest percentage of advisories affected are in Lake Ontario if an additive effect is considered. Many fish that are popular for consumption, such as walleye, salmon, bass and trout, would have noticeably more stringent advisories. Improvements in the advisories may be needed to ensure that the health of humans consuming fish from the Great Lakes is protected. In this region, total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and mercury are the major contaminants causing restrictions on consuming fish, whereas dioxins/furans, toxaphene, and mirex/photomirex are of minor concern. Regular monitoring of most organochlorine pesticides and metals in fish can be discontinued.

  17. Probabilistic framework for assessing the arsenic exposure risk from cooked fish consumption.

    PubMed

    Ling, Min-Pei; Wu, Chiu-Hua; Chen, Szu-Chieh; Chen, Wei-Yu; Chio, Chia-Pin; Cheng, Yi-Hsien; Liao, Chung-Min

    2014-12-01

    Geogenic arsenic (As) contamination of groundwater is a major ecological and human health problem in southwestern and northeastern coastal areas of Taiwan. Here, we present a probabilistic framework for assessing the human health risks from consuming raw and cooked fish that were cultured in groundwater As-contaminated ponds in Taiwan by linking a physiologically based pharmacokinetics model and a Weibull dose-response model. Results indicate that As levels in baked, fried, and grilled fish were higher than those of raw fish. Frying resulted in the greatest increase in As concentration, followed by grilling, with baking affecting the As concentration the least. Simulation results show that, following consumption of baked As-contaminated fish, the health risk to humans is <10(-6) excess bladder cancer risk level for lifetime exposure; as the incidence ratios of liver and lung cancers are generally acceptable at risk ranging from 10(-6) to 10(-4), the consumption of baked As-contaminated fish is unlikely to pose a significant risk to human health. However, contaminated fish cooked by frying resulted in significant health risks, showing the highest cumulative incidence ratios of liver cancer. We also show that males have higher cumulative incidence ratio of liver cancer than females. We found that although cooking resulted in an increase for As levels in As-contaminated fish, the risk to human health of consuming baked fish is nevertheless acceptable. We suggest the adoption of baking as a cooking method and warn against frying As-contaminated fish. We conclude that the concentration of contaminants after cooking should be taken into consideration when assessing the risk to human health.

  18. Consumer perception versus scientific evidence about health benefits and safety risks from fish consumption.

    PubMed

    Verbeke, Wim; Sioen, Isabelle; Pieniak, Zuzanna; Van Camp, John; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2005-06-01

    To investigate the gap between consumer perception and scientific evidence related to health benefits and safety risks from fish consumption. Consumer perceptions from a cross-sectional survey in March 2003 in Belgium were compared with scientific evidence based on a literature review. A quota sampling procedure was used with age as quota control variable. Subjects completed a self-administered questionnaire including health benefit beliefs from fish, fish content and effect beliefs for nutrients and harmful substances. Adults (n=429), who were the main person responsible for food purchasing in the household (284 women; 145 men), aged 18-83 years, from different regional, education, family size and income groups. Fish is predominantly perceived as a healthy food that reduces risk for coronary heart disease, which corroborates scientific evidence. This perception is stronger among women than among men. In contrast with scientific evidence, 46% of the consumers believe that fish contains dietary fibre, whereas less than one-third is aware that fish contains omega-3 fatty acids and that this nutrient has a positive impact on human health. The gap between perception and evidence is larger among consumers with lower education. In general, consumers are better aware of the content and effect of harmful substances than of nutrients in fish. Despite conclusive evidence about the content and positive effect of omega-3 fatty acids in fish, related consumer awareness and beliefs are poor and often wrong. This study exemplifies the need for nutrition education and more effective communication about the health benefits of fish consumption.

  19. Exploratory assessment of fish consumption among Asian-origin sportfishers on the St. Lawrence River in the Montreal region

    SciTech Connect

    Shatenstein, B. |; Kosatsky, T.; Tapia, M.; Nadon, S.; Leclerc, B.S.

    1999-02-01

    An exploratory survey was undertaken in the fall 1995 open-water fishing seasons with nine Bangladeshi and nine Vietnamese-origin sportfishers. A 70-item instrument assessing sportfishing practices and fish consumption habits was administered by dietitians in participants` homes. Two 24-h diet recalls and a fish consumption calendar permitted the assessment of fish intake in the overall dietary context. Annually, Bangladeshi fishers consumed 46.8 {+-} 25.6 sportfish meals, and Vietnamese fishers ate 40.7 {+-} 35.1 meals. Consumption of sportfish taken from the St. Lawrence River has the potential both for dietary benefit and for hazardous chemical exposure.

  20. Fish Consumption, Low-Level Mercury, Lipids, and Inflammatory Markers in Children

    PubMed Central

    Gump, Brooks B.; MacKenzie, James A.; Dumas, Amy K.; Palmer, Christopher D.; Parsons, Patrick J.; Segu, Zaneer M.; Mechref, Yehia S.; Bendinskas, Kestutis

    2011-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that consuming fish has numerous health benefits, including a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. However, fish is also the primary source of human exposure to mercury (Hg). In a cross-sectional study of 9–11 year old children (N = 100), we measured fish consumption, blood lipids, total blood Hg, diurnal salivary cortisol (4 samples collected throughout the day), and performed a proteomic analysis of serum proteins using spectral count shotgun proteomics. Children that consumed fish had a significantly more atheroprotective lipid profile but higher levels of blood Hg relative to children that did not consume fish. Although the levels of blood Hg were very low in these children (M = 0.77 μg/L; all but 1 participant had levels below 3.27 μg/L), increasing blood Hg was significantly associated with blunted diurnal cortisol levels. Blood Hg was also significantly associated with acute-phase proteins suggesting systemic inflammation, and several of these proteins were found to significantly reduce the association between Hg and diminished cortisol when included in the model. This study of a pediatric population is the first to document an association between blood Hg, systemic inflammation, and endocrine disruption in humans, in a pediatric sample. Without a better understanding of the long-term consequences of an atheroprotective lipid profile relative to blunted diurnal cortisol and systemic inflammation, a determination of the risk-benefit ratio for fish consumption by children is not possible. PMID:22030286

  1. Fish consumption, low-level mercury, lipids, and inflammatory markers in children.

    PubMed

    Gump, Brooks B; MacKenzie, James A; Dumas, Amy K; Palmer, Christopher D; Parsons, Patrick J; Segu, Zaneer M; Mechref, Yehia S; Bendinskas, Kestutis G

    2012-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that consuming fish has numerous health benefits, including a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. However, fish is also the primary source of human exposure to mercury (Hg). In a cross-sectional study of 9-11 year old children (N=100), we measured fish consumption, blood lipids, total blood Hg, diurnal salivary cortisol (4 samples collected throughout the day), and performed a proteomic analysis of serum proteins using spectral count shotgun proteomics. Children who consumed fish had a significantly more atheroprotective lipid profile but higher levels of blood Hg relative to children that did not consume fish. Although the levels of blood Hg were very low in these children (M=0.77 μg/L; all but 1 participant had levels below 3.27 μg/L), increasing blood Hg was significantly associated with blunted diurnal cortisol levels. Blood Hg was also significantly associated with acute-phase proteins suggesting systemic inflammation, and several of these proteins were found to significantly reduce the association between Hg and diminished cortisol when included in the model. This study of a pediatric population is the first to document an association between blood Hg, systemic inflammation, and endocrine disruption in humans. Without a better understanding of the long-term consequences of an atheroprotective lipid profile relative to blunted diurnal cortisol and systemic inflammation, a determination of the risk-benefit ratio for fish consumption by children is not possible.

  2. Guidelines for Eating Fish that Contain Mercury

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn about how to minimize exposure to methylmercury while eating fish. Read about fish advisories, how to use them to consume fish safely, and use the national fish advisories locator to find them in an area near you.

  3. High rate of prey consumption in a small predatory fish on coral reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feeney, W. E.; Lönnstedt, O. M.; Bosiger, Y.; Martin, J.; Jones, G. P.; Rowe, R. J.; McCormick, M. I.

    2012-09-01

    Small piscivores are regarded as important regulators of the composition of coral reef fish communities, but few studies have investigated their predatory ecology or impact on assemblages of juvenile fishes. This study investigated the foraging ecology of a common coral reef predator, the dottyback Pseudochromis fuscus, using underwater focal animal observations. Observations were conducted at two times of year: the summer, when recruit fishes were an available food item and winter, when remaining juveniles had outgrown vulnerability to P. fuscus. During the summer, P. fuscus directed 76% of its strikes at invertebrates and 24% at recruiting juvenile fishes. When striking at fishes, P. fuscus exhibited two distinct feeding modes: an ambush (26% successful) and a pursuit mode (5% successful). Predator activity in the field peaked at midday, averaging 2.5 captures h-1 of juvenile fishes. Monitoring of activity and foraging in the laboratory over 24-h periods found that P. fuscus was a diurnal predator and was active for 13 h d-1 during the summer. The number of hours during which foraging was recorded differed greatly among individuals ( n = 10), ranging from 4 to 13 h. The number of predatory strikes did not increase with standard length, but the success rate and consumption rate of juvenile fishes did increase with size. Estimated hourly mortality on juvenile fish ranged from 0.49 fish h-1 in small P. fuscus individuals (30-39 mm standard length, SL; equating to 6.3 per 13 h day) to 2.4 fish h-1 in large P. fuscus individuals (55-65 mm SL; 30.6 per 13 h day). During the winter, P. fuscus struck at invertebrates with a similar rate to the summer period. These observations of the predatory ecology of P. fuscus support the hypothesis that in coral reef systems, small piscivores, because of their high metabolism and activity, are probably important regulators of coral reef fish community composition.

  4. Perceptions of the risks and benefits of fish consumption: Individual choices to reduce risk and increase health benefits

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Studies of fish consumption often focus on awareness of and adherence to advisories, how much fish people eat, and contaminant levels in those fish. This paper examines knowledge and accuracy of risks and benefits of fish consumption among fishers and other recreationists in the New York Bight, indicative of whether they could make sound dietary decisions. While most respondents knew about health risks (70%) and benefits (94%) of consuming fish, far fewer could name specific risks and benefits. Less than 25% of respondents mentioned mercury and less than 15% mentioned that pregnant women and children were at risk. Far fewer people mentioned polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Nearly 70% said it was healthy to eat fish, and 45% were aware that fish were rich in healthful oils. Despite the lack of details about what specific risks and benefits of fish, well over a third did not feel they needed more information. Other respondents had basic questions, but did not pose specific questions about the fish they caught or ate that would have clarified their individual risk-balancing decisions. Knowledge of which fish were high in contaminants did not match the mercury or PCB levels in those fish. There was a disconnect between the information base about specific risks and benefits of fish consumption, levels of mercury and PCBs in fish, and the respondent’s desire for more information. These data indicate that respondents did not have enough accurate information about contaminants in fish to make informed risk-balancing decisions. PMID:19193369

  5. Benchmark concentrations for methylmercury obtained from the Seychelles Child Development Study.

    PubMed Central

    Crump, K S; Van Landingham, C; Shamlaye, C; Cox, C; Davidson, P W; Myers, G J; Clarkson, T W

    2000-01-01

    Methylmercury is a neurotoxin at high exposures, and the developing fetus is particularly susceptible. Because exposure to methylmercury is primarily through fish, concern has been expressed that the consumption of fish by pregnant women could adversely affect their fetuses. The reference dose for methylmercury established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency was based on a benchmark analysis of data from a poisoning episode in Iraq in which mothers consumed seed grain treated with methylmercury during pregnancy. However, exposures in this study were short term and at much higher levels than those that result from fish consumption. In contrast, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) based its proposed minimal risk level on a no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) derived from neurologic testing of children in the Seychelles Islands, where fish is an important dietary staple. Because no adverse effects from mercury were seen in the Seychelles study, the ATSDR considered the mean exposure in the study to be a NOAEL. However, a mean exposure may not be a good indicator of a no-effect exposure level. To provide an alternative basis for deriving an appropriate human exposure level from the Seychelles study, we conducted a benchmark analysis on these data. Our analysis included responses from batteries of neurologic tests applied to children at 6, 19, 29, and 66 months of age. We also analyzed developmental milestones (age first walked and first talked). We explored a number of dose-response models, sets of covariates to include in the models, and definitions of background response. Our analysis also involved modeling responses expressed as both continuous and quantal data. The most reliable analyses were considered to be represented by 144 calculated lower statistical bounds on the benchmark dose (BMDLs; the lower statistical bound on maternal mercury hair level corresponding to an increase of 0.1 in the probability of an adverse response

  6. Association Between Fish Oil Consumption and the Incidence of Mental Health Issues Among Active Duty Military Personnel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited ASSOCIATION BETWEEN FISH OIL...REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN FISH OIL CONSUMPTION AND THE INCIDENCE OF MENTAL HEALTH ISSUES...Health Related Behaviors Survey of Active Duty Military Personnel, we analyze the association between fish oil consumption and mental health outcomes

  7. Maternal fish consumption and infant birth size and gestation: New York State Angler Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Buck, Germaine M; Tee, Grace P; Fitzgerald, Edward F; Vena, John E; Weiner, John M; Swanson, Mya; Msall, Michael E

    2003-06-02

    The scientific literature poses a perplexing dilemma for pregnant women with respect to the consumption of fish from natural bodies of water. On one hand, fish is a good source of protein, low in fat and a rich source of other nutrients all of which have presumably beneficial effects on developing embryos and fetuses. On the other hand, consumption of fish contaminated with environmental toxicants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been associated with decrements in gestation and birth size. 2,716 infants born between 1986-1991 to participants of the New York State Angler Cohort Study were studied with respect to duration of maternal consumption of contaminated fish from Lake Ontario and its tributaries and gestation and birth size. Hospital delivery records (maternal and newborn) were obtained for 92% of infants for the ascertainment of gestation (weeks), birth size (weight, length, chest, and head circumference) and other known determinants of fetal growth (i.e., maternal parity, history of placental infarction, uterine bleeding, pregnancy loss or cigarette smoking and infant's race, sex and presence of birth defect). Duration of maternal fish consumption prior to the index infant's birth was categorized as: none; 1-2, 3-7, 8+ years, while birth weight (in grams), birth length (in centimeters), and head and chest circumference (in centimeters) were left as continuous variables in multiple linear regression models. Birth size percentiles, ponderal indices and head to chest circumference ratios were computed to further assess proportionality and birth size in relation to gestational age. Analysis of variance failed to identify significant mean differences in gestation or any measure of birth size in relation to duration of maternal lifetime fish consumption. Multiple linear regressions identified gestational age, male sex, number of daily cigarettes, parity and placental infarction, as significant determinants of birth size. The results support the

  8. Consumption of rainbow smelt by walleye and salmonine fishes in eastern Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Einhouse, D.W.; Bur, M.T.; Cornelius, F.C.; Kenyon, R.; Madenjian, C.P.; Rand, P.S.; Sztramko, K.L.; Witzel, L.D.; Munawar, M.; Edsall, T.; Munawar, I.F.

    1999-01-01

    At present, rainbow smelt appear to represent a key component of the eastern Lake Erie fish community as they are the dominant prey for virtually every open water predator, and are harvested directly by an important Ontario commercial fishery. In response to concern over the status of rainbow smelt in eastern Lake Erie, our objective was to quantify some primary top down forces of rainbow smelt mortality that include walleyes (Stizostedion vitreum), five stocked salmonine fishes, and the commercial fishery. This objective was to satisfy a need to understand whether consumption by the major fish predators was significant relative to the measured commercial harvest of rainbow smelt. Achieving this knowledge may provide fisheries managers with an improved basis for managing the rainbow smelt resource through adjustments to stocking policies and/or commercial fishing quotas.

  9. Methylmercury concentrations in broiler's meat and hen's meat and eggs

    SciTech Connect

    Kambamanoli-Dimou, A. ); Kilikidis, S.; Kamarianos, A. )

    1989-05-01

    The concentration of mercury in food has been considered to present the greatest toxicological danger to the average citizen. The presence of mercury in foods has been reported in several studies. Much of the research has been carried out on total mercury concentration in foods and not on methylmercury concentration and as it is known methylmercury is the most dangerous form of mercury. Methylmercury, which is highly resistant to biodegradation, can be synthesized from any other form of mercury in the aquatic biosphere, can be bioconcentrated in the aquatic food chain and through fish-meals can be transported and concentrated in animals and their products. Such food chains, together with the various terrestrial food chains would represent a serious risk for man. This study was undertaken to determine the methylmercury levels in broiler's meat, hen's meat and eggs.

  10. Fish Consumption and Premenstrual Syndrome and Dysphoric Disorder in Japanese Collegiate Athletes.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Takashi; Imoto, Yoko; Nagasawa, Hiroyo; Takeshita, Atsuko; Shiina, Masami

    2016-08-01

    To determine the specific characteristics of premenstrual syndrome (PMS)/premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) in Japanese collegiate athletes, with a focus on their fish consumption. Cross-sectional study. A university in Osaka, the largest city in western Japan. The participants were 312 female collegiate students. The study group was composed of 200 students who were members of sport clubs, and the control (nonathletes) group was composed of 112 members of cultural clubs. Premenstrual symptoms and social activities. The prevalence of moderate to severe PMS and PMDD in the study group was the same as in nonathletes. The prominent feature of premenstrual symptoms in athletes was that the severities of 'physical symptoms' and 'performance in training or competition' were much greater than those of nonathletes (P = .003 and P = .002, Mann-Whitney U test). There was a greater effect of PMS and PMDD on athletes, affecting their physical symptoms and performance compared with nonathletes. In terms of dietary habits, 'fish or dried fish' consumption was associated with a decreased risk of poor performance in athletes (odds ratio, 0.61; 95% confidence interval, 0.40-0.92). The results from this study indicate that fish consumption might be positively associated with the relief of PMS/PMDD-induced athletic disturbance. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Seasonal consumption of Hemimysis anomala by fish in southeastern Lake Ontario, 2009-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lantry, B.F.; Gumtow, C.F.; Walsh, M.G.; Weidel, B.C.; Boscarino, B.T.; Rudstam, L. G.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the seasonal occurrence of Hemimysis anomala in the diets of fish that prey on macroinvertebrates at two sites with established Hemimysis populations east of Oswego, NY, during 2009-2010. In 2009, we examined 320 stomachs from 10 species and found Hemimysis only in alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus), rockbass (Ambloplites rupestris), and yellow perch (Perca flavescens). Of those species, alewife consumed Hemimysis most frequently and it represented a greater proportion of their diets. During 2009, the dry weight composition of Hemimysis in alewife diets varied seasonally between <1% in June, 5% in July, 98.5% in August, and 18.8% in September. In contrast, we examined 667 stomachs from 15 species in 2010 and observed Hemimysis in only one alewife and two rockbass stomachs. For alewife from September 2009, we found no relationship between predator size and the number of Hemimysis consumed, or between the presence of Hemimysis in fish diets and the presence of other diet taxa or diet diversity. Fish diets collected as bycatch from other assessments revealed large numbers of Hemimysis in fishes that had not previously been observed consuming Hemimysis in Lake Ontario, including cisco (Coregonus artedi) and white perch (Morone americana). Our results indicate Hemimysis consumption by nearshore fish can be high, but that it is variable across seasons and years, and may be most prevalent in fish that feed up in the water column, at or near dark, and have the ability to consume swift moving prey like Mysis diluviana or small fish.

  12. Fish consumption and contaminant exposure among Montreal-area sportfishers: pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kosatsky, T; Przybysz, R; Shatenstein, B; Weber, J P; Armstrong, B

    1999-02-01

    A 1995 pilot study assessed sport fish consumption and contaminant exposure among Montreal-area residents fishing the frozen St. Lawrence River. Interviews conducted among 223 ice fishers met on-site were used to create an index of estimated exposure to fish-borne contaminants. A second-stage assessment of sport fish consumption and tissue contaminant burdens included 25 interviewees at the highest level of estimated contaminant exposure (of 38, or 66% of those solicited) and 15 low-exposure fishers (of 41, or 37% of those solicited). High-level fisher-consumers reported eating 0. 92+/-0.99 sport fish meals/week during the previous 3 weeks compared to 0.38+/-0.21 (P<0.05) for the low-level group. Based on the product of consumption frequency times mass of sport fish meals consumed, high-level consumers ate a mean of 18.3 kg of sport fish annually versus 3.3 kg for the low-level consumers. Tissue contaminant assessments showed significant (P<0.05) groupwise differences: 0-1 cm hair mercury (median 0.73 microgram/g for the high versus 0.23 microgram/g for the low group), lipid-adjusted plasma PCB congeners (Aroclor 1260: median 0.77 microgram/g versus 0.47 microgram/g), and lipid-adjusted plasma DDE (median 0.35 microgram/g versus 0.26 microgram/g). No participant had a hair mercury or plasma DDE concentration above Health Canada recommendations but 2/25 high-level participants (8%) had plasma Aroclor 1260 concentrations above recommended limits. The results of this pilot study suggest that a small number of Montreal-area sportfishers consume their catch as often as three times weekly and that those consuming sport fish frequently have significantly higher tissue levels of mercury, PCBs, and DDE than do infrequent consumers. On the other hand, compared to other groups in Quebec, such as the Inuit or commercial fishers on the North Shore of the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Montreal-area sportfishers eat less fish and have lower tissue concentrations of fish

  13. Effects of Great Lakes fish consumption on brain PCB pattern, concentration, and progressive-ratio performance

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, P.; Pagano, J.; Sargent, D.; Darvill, T.; Lonky, E.; Reihman, J.

    2000-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of consumption of Great Lakes fish on progressive ratio performance, and on the pattern and concentrations of brain polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene (DDE), and mirex in the rat. Adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a 30% diet of either Lake Ontario salmon (LAKE), Pacific Ocean salmon, or lab chow control for 20 or 65 days. Following the treatment regimen, half the rats from each group were sacrificed immediately for gas chromatographic analysis of organochlorine contaminants, and the other half were tested on a multiple fixed-ratio-progressive-ratio reinforcement schedule and then sacrificed for analysis. Consumption of Lake Ontario fish resulted in significantly higher levels of brain PCBs, DDE, and mirex relative to controls, but still well within human exposure ranges. Consumption of Lake Ontario fish for 20 or 65 days produced an average brain PCB concentration of 457 and 934 ng/g fat, respectively. Consumption of laboratory rat chow or Pacific Ocean salmon for 20 or 65 days produced an average brain PCB concentration of 240, 464, and 441 ng/g fat, respectively. Moreover, both LAKE-fed groups showed a much more heavily chlorinated pattern of brain PCBs than all control groups, as evidenced by both significant increases in the most heavily chlorinated PCB congeners and significant increases in the average chlorine biphenyl.

  14. Mercury in fish tissue of Idaho lakes vs. those of the Northeastern United States as it relates to the moderating effects of selenium

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary methyl-mercury (MeHg) exposure mode to wildlife and humans is through the consumption of aquatic organisms, particulary fish. Selenium has been demonstrated to moderate the toxicity of MeHg in every test animal type examined to date. A molar ratio of Se:Hg >1 appear...

  15. Mercury in fish tissue of Idaho lakes vs. those of the Northeastern United States as it relates to the moderating effects of selenium

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary methyl-mercury (MeHg) exposure mode to wildlife and humans is through the consumption of aquatic organisms, particulary fish. Selenium has been demonstrated to moderate the toxicity of MeHg in every test animal type examined to date. A molar ratio of Se:Hg >1 appear...

  16. Fishing, fish consumption, and awareness about warnings in a university community in central New Jersey in 2007, and comparisons with 2004

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Fish are a healthy source of protein, but the risks from consuming fish have become a national concern. Over the past 7 years, there have been a number of national advisories regarding saltwater fish. Fish consumption patterns and public knowledge about advisories and warnings have been examined for at-risk populations, but there is little information about the latter for a general population, or of temporal trends in such information acquisition. Information about the benefits and health risks of consuming fish, health warnings from the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and the Food and Drug Administration, belief in these warnings, and trust in different sources of information were examined in a sample of 460 people within a university community in central New Jersey in 2007. The null hypothesis of no differences in fishing, consumption, and knowledge about advisories as a function of age, gender, ethnicity, and education was tested. In 2007, only 30% of the study population fished, and 83% of the study population ate fish, either commercial or self-caught. There were differences in fishing behavior, consumption patterns, and awareness of advisories as a function of gender, ethnicity, age, and education. Most notably, nearly twice as many men as women fished, Whites fished more and Blacks and Indian/Pakistanis fished less than other ethnic groups, and people aged 23–35 fished more than did others. About 8% of fish meals were from self-caught fish, 32% were eaten in restaurants, and 60% were of fish bought in stores and cooked at home. Men ate more meals of self-caught fish than did females, and Asians ate more meals of fish in restaurants, and Blacks ate more meals of store-bought fish than other ethnic groups. The total number of fish meals consumed per month increased significantly with age. Overall, more people had heard about the benefits (92%) than the risks (78%) of fish consumption. When asked whom they trust for information about health

  17. Fishing, fish consumption, and awareness about warnings in a university community in central New Jersey in 2007, and comparisons with 2004.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna

    2008-09-01

    Fish are a healthy source of protein, but the risks from consuming fish have become a national concern. Over the past 7 years, there have been a number of national advisories regarding saltwater fish. Fish consumption patterns and public knowledge about advisories and warnings have been examined for at-risk populations, but there is little information about the latter for a general population, or of temporal trends in such information acquisition. Information about the benefits and health risks of consuming fish, health warnings from the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and the Food and Drug Administration, belief in these warnings, and trust in different sources of information were examined in a sample of 460 people within a university community in central New Jersey in 2007. The null hypothesis of no differences in fishing, consumption, and knowledge about advisories as a function of age, gender, ethnicity, and education was tested. In 2007, only 30% of the study population fished, and 83% of the study population ate fish, either commercial or self-caught. There were differences in fishing behavior, consumption patterns, and awareness of advisories as a function of gender, ethnicity, age, and education. Most notably, nearly twice as many men as women fished, Whites fished more and Blacks and Indian/Pakistanis fished less than other ethnic groups, and people aged 23-35 fished more than did others. About 8% of fish meals were from self-caught fish, 32% were eaten in restaurants, and 60% were of fish bought in stores and cooked at home. Men ate more meals of self-caught fish than did females, and Asians ate more meals of fish in restaurants, and Blacks ate more meals of store-bought fish than other ethnic groups. The total number of fish meals consumed per month increased significantly with age. Overall, more people had heard about the benefits (92%) than the risks (78%) of fish consumption. When asked whom they trust for information about health

  18. Effects of zinc on fin regeneration in the mummichog, Fundulus heteroclitus, and its interaction with methylmercury

    SciTech Connect

    Weis, P.; Weis, J.S.

    1980-01-01

    Methylmercury has been found to retard fin regeneration in the marsh killifish, Fundulus confluentus, and striped mullet, Mugil cephalus. Cadmium, which also retarded fin regeneration in killifhsh interacted antagonistically with methylmercury so that fish exposed simultaneously to the two metals exhibited growth rates comparable to controls. Current studies on the effects of zinc on regeneration in the mummichog, F. heteroclitus, and the effects of combinations of methylmercury and zinc on this process, are reported. The data indicate that in F. heteroclitus, zinc can accelerate regenerative growth, and, by so doing, can counteract the retarding effects of methylmercury. In this species, the regeneration rate of controls was similar in 3% and 1% salinity, and the methylmercury retarded growth at both salinities. This is in contrast to F. confluentus in which decreased salinities depressed the regeneration rate, thus masking the effects of methylmercury in water of .9% salinity.

  19. Anisakis simplex: the high prevalence in Madrid (Spain) and its relation with fish consumption.

    PubMed

    Puente, Pilar; Anadón, Ana M; Rodero, Marta; Romarís, Fernanda; Ubeira, Florencio M; Cuéllar, Carmen

    2008-02-01

    Anisakiosis is a nematodosis with high prevalence in Spain. In this work we (a) investigated whether a recently introduced ELISA of Anisakis simplex-specific IgE in serum suffers from cross-reactivity with other common allergens; (b) used this assay to obtain an estimate of the prevalence of A. simplex-specific IgE in the population of Madrid; and (c) related positivity to fish consumption habits. No evidence of cross-reactivity between the ELISA and other allergens was found. The prevalence of positivity was 12.4% (11.7% among healthy subjects and 16% among patients with non-digestive non-allergic pathologies). All interviewed subjects reported consumption of uncooked fish (known to be the most likely source of infection); in addition, positivity was more prevalent among subjects who habitually consumed fresh and possibly undercooked fish than among those who generally consumed frozen fish or boiled or baked fish. These results are discussed in relation to the much lower prevalence observed in Galicia (N.W. Spain).

  20. CREATION OF A GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM TO IDENTIFY AT-RISK POPULATIONS IN NEW JERSEY AND NEW YORK FOR CONSUMPTION OF CONTAMINATED FISH AND SEAFOOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Project Objective: To identify at-risk populations, particularly women of child bearing years and young children, for consumption of contaminated fish and seafood via the use of geographically and demographically defined seafood consumption patterns and fish/seafood contaminatio...

  1. CREATION OF A GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM TO IDENTIFY AT-RISK POPULATIONS IN NEW JERSEY AND NEW YORK FOR CONSUMPTION OF CONTAMINATED FISH AND SEAFOOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Project Objective: To identify at-risk populations, particularly women of child bearing years and young children, for consumption of contaminated fish and seafood via the use of geographically and demographically defined seafood consumption patterns and fish/seafood contaminatio...

  2. Fish and rapeseed oil consumption in infants and mothers: dietary habits and determinants in a nationwide sample in Germany.

    PubMed

    Stimming, Madlen; Mesch, Christina M; Kersting, Mathilde; Libuda, Lars

    2015-10-01

    Fish and rapeseed oil are major sources of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) in complementary food, but little is known about current consumption in Germany. We conducted a nationwide consumer survey to assess the consumption habits of fish and rapeseed oil and their determining factors in 985 mother-child dyads in Germany. One-fourth of infants ate fish as often as recommended, i.e. at least once per week. Half of the mothers stated that they mainly used rapeseed oil for self-prepared and/or commercial vegetable-potato-meat meals. In contrast, mothers more frequently met recommendations for fish consumption (41 %), but used rapeseed oil (34 %) less often for their own nutrition. Maternal eating behaviour was the most important predictor for both of these n-3 PUFA rich foods in infants' nutrition. In contrast to infants' fish consumption, rapeseed oil intake in infancy was found to be influenced by some further factors, i.e. mothers' social class and omega-3 knowledge, which were also key determinants of mothers' own fish and rapeseed oil consumption. To promote fish with complementary feeding, programs should focus on families whose mothers rarely eat fish. Nutritional campaigns to improve omega-3 knowledge-especially focusing on lower social classes-could be effective in increasing rapeseed oil consumption, although these programs should be combined with environmental improvements as it has been already started through the use of rapeseed oil in commercial baby jars.

  3. Rapid extraction and reverse phase-liquid chromatographic separation of mercury(II) and methylmercury in fish samples with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric detection applying oxygen addition into plasma.

    PubMed

    Döker, Serhat; Boşgelmez, İffet İpek

    2015-10-01

    A simple and sensitive procedure was developed for extraction and speciation of mercury in fish. Species separation was accomplished with reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) hyphenated to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Oxygen addition into plasma allowed use of organic-rich mobile phase, achieving species separation in 4 min. Mercury species extraction was achieved by microwave exposure for 2 min at mild conditions (60°C, pH 2.0), avoiding necessity of neutralizing sample prior to injection in HPLC, and reducing number of sample preparation steps, analytical source of errors and inter conversion of species. Limit of detection for entire procedure was found to be 0.2 and 0.1 ng g(-1) for mercuric ion and methylmercury, respectively. The method was applied to certified reference materials (TORT-2 and DORM-2) and commercialized fish samples (Mullus barbatus, Sparus aurata, Trachurus mediterraneus, Mugil soiuy, Dicentrarchus labrax, and Pomatomus saltatrix) from Black Sea.

  4. Fish intake, contaminants, and human health: evaluating the risks and the benefits.

    PubMed

    Mozaffarian, Dariush; Rimm, Eric B

    2006-10-18

    Fish (finfish or shellfish) may have health benefits and also contain contaminants, resulting in confusion over the role of fish consumption in a healthy diet. We searched MEDLINE, governmental reports, and meta-analyses, supplemented by hand reviews of references and direct investigator contacts, to identify reports published through April 2006 evaluating (1) intake of fish or fish oil and cardiovascular risk, (2) effects of methylmercury and fish oil on early neurodevelopment, (3) risks of methylmercury for cardiovascular and neurologic outcomes in adults, and (4) health risks of dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls in fish. We concentrated on studies evaluating risk in humans, focusing on evidence, when available, from randomized trials and large prospective studies. When possible, meta-analyses were performed to characterize benefits and risks most precisely. Modest consumption of fish (eg, 1-2 servings/wk), especially species higher in the n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), reduces risk of coronary death by 36% (95% confidence interval, 20%-50%; P<.001) and total mortality by 17% (95% confidence interval, 0%-32%; P = .046) and may favorably affect other clinical outcomes. Intake of 250 mg/d of EPA and DHA appears sufficient for primary prevention. DHA appears beneficial for, and low-level methylmercury may adversely affect, early neurodevelopment. Women of childbearing age and nursing mothers should consume 2 seafood servings/wk, limiting intake of selected species. Health effects of low-level methylmercury in adults are not clearly established; methylmercury may modestly decrease the cardiovascular benefits of fish intake. A variety of seafood should be consumed; individuals with very high consumption (> or =5 servings/wk) should limit intake of species highest in mercury levels. Levels of dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls in fish are low, and potential carcinogenic and other effects are outweighed by potential

  5. Fish oil consumption prevents glucose intolerance and hypercorticosteronemy in footshock-stressed rats

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Environmental stress plays an important role in the development of glucose intolerance influencing lipid and glucose metabolism through sympathetic nervous system, cytokines and hormones such as glucocorticoids, catecholamines and glucagon. Otherwise, fish oil prevents glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. Although the mechanisms involved are not fully understood, it is known that sympathetic and HPA responses are blunted and catecholamines and glucocorticoids concentrations can be modulated by fish consumption. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether fish oil, on a normal lipidic diet: 1) could prevent the effect of footshock-stress on the development of glucose intolerance; 2) modified adiponectin receptor and serum concentration; and 3) also modified TNF-α, IL-6 and interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels in adipose tissue and liver. The study was performed in thirty day-old male Wistar randomly assigned into four groups: no stressed (C) and stressed (CS) rats fed with control diet, and no stressed (F) and stressed (FS) rats fed with a fish oil rich diet. The stress was performed as a three daily footshock stress sessions. Results Body weight, carcass fat and protein content were not different among groups. FS presented a reduction on the relative weight of RET. Basal serum glucose levels were higher in CS and FS but 15 min after glucose load just CS remained with higher levels than other groups. Serum corticosterone concentration was increased in CS, this effect was inhibited in FS. However, 15 min after footshock-stress, corticosterone levels were similar among groups. IL-6 was increased in EPI of CS but fish oil consumption prevented IL-6 increase in FS. Similar levels of TNF-α and IL-10 in RET, EPI, and liver were observed among groups. Adipo R1 protein concentration was not different among groups. Footshock-stress did not modify AdipoR2 concentration, but fish oil diet increases AdipoR2 protein concentration. Conclusions Footshock

  6. Polychlorinated biphenyls and omega-3 fatty acid exposure from fish consumption, and thyroid cancer among New York anglers.

    PubMed

    Haslam, Alyson; Robb, Sara Wagner; Bonner, Matthew R; Lindblad, William; Allegra, Joey; Shen, Ye; Vena, John E

    2016-03-01

    Fish from the Great Lakes contain polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) which have been shown to disrupt endocrine function and mimic thyroid hormones, but they also contain beneficial omega-3 fatty acids that may offer protection against endocrine cancers. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Lake Ontario fish consumption and the estimated consumption of PCBs and omega-3 fatty acids on the risk of thyroid cancer in a group of sport fishermen. Anglers from the New York State Angler Cohort Study were followed for cancer incidence from 1991-2008. Twenty-seven cases of incident thyroid cancer and 108 controls were included in the analyses. Total estimated fish consumption, estimated omega-3 fatty acid consumption, and estimated PCB consumption from Lake Ontario fish were examined for an association with the incidence of thyroid cancer, while matching on sex, and controlling for age and smoking status. Results from logistic regression indicate no significant associations between fish consumption, short-term estimated omega-3 fatty acids, or estimated PCB consumption from Great Lakes fish and the development of thyroid cancer, but it was suggested that long-term omega-3 fatty acid from Great Lakes fish may be protective of the development of thyroid cancer. In conclusion, fish consumption, with the possible concomitant PCBs, from the Great Lakes does not appear to increase the risk of thyroid cancer in New York anglers. Further research is needed in order to separate the individual health effects of PCBs from omega-3 fatty acids contained within the fish.

  7. Fish consumption in a sample of people in Bandar Abbas, Iran: application of the theory of planned behavior.

    PubMed

    Aghamolaei, Teamur; Sadat Tavafian, Sedigheh; Madani, Abdoulhossain

    2012-09-01

    This study aimed to apply the conceptual framework of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to explain fish consumption in a sample of people who lived in Bandar Abbass, Iran. We investigated the role of three traditional constructs of TPB that included attitude, social norms, and perceived behavioral control in an effort to characterize the intention to consume fish as well as the behavioral trends that characterize fish consumption. Data were derived from a cross-sectional sample of 321 subjects. Alpha coefficient correlation and linear regression analysis were applied to test the relationships between constructs. The predictors of fish consumption frequency were also evaluated. Multiple regression analysis revealed that attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control significantly predicted intention to eat fish (R2 = 0.54, F = 128.4, P < 0.001). Multiple regression analysis for the intention to eat fish and perceived behavioral control revealed that both factors significantly predicted fish consumption frequency (R2 = 0.58, F = 223.1, P < 0.001). The results indicated that the models fit well with the data. Attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control all had significant positive impacts on behavioral intention. Moreover, both intention and perceived behavioral control could be used to predict the frequency of fish consumption.

  8. Mercury and other trace elements in Ohio River fish collected near coal-fired power plants: Interspecific patterns and consideration of consumption risks.

    PubMed

    Reash, Robin J; Brown, Lauren; Merritt, Karen

    2015-07-01

    Many coal-fired electric generating facilities in the United States are discharging higher loads of Hg, Se, and other chemicals to receiving streams due to the installation of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) air pollution control units. There are regulatory concerns about the potential increased uptake of these bioaccumulative trace elements into food webs. We evaluated the concentrations of As, total Hg (THg), methylmercury (MeHg), and Se in Ohio River fish collected proximal to coal-fired power plants, of which 75% operate FGD systems. Fillet samples (n = 50) from 6 fish species representing 3 trophic levels were analyzed. Geometric mean fillet concentrations of THg (wet wt), MeHg (wet wt), and Se (dry wt) in 3 species were 0.136, 0.1181, and 3.19 mg/kg (sauger); 0.123, 0.1013, and 1.56 mg/kg (channel catfish); and 0.127, 0.0914, and 3.30 mg/kg (hybrid striped bass). For all species analyzed, only 3 fillet samples (6% of total) had MeHg concentrations that exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) human health criterion (0.3 mg/kg wet wt); all of these were freshwater drum aged ≥ 19 y. None of the samples analyzed exceeded the USEPA proposed muscle and whole body Se thresholds for protection against reproductive effects in freshwater fish. All but 8 fillet samples had a total As concentration less than 1.0 mg/kg dry wt. Mean Se health benefit values (HBVSe ) for all species were ≥ 4, indicating that potential Hg-related health risks associated with consumption of Ohio River fish are likely to be offset by adequate Se concentrations. Overall, we observed no measurable evidence of enhanced trace element bioaccumulation associated with proximity to power plant FGD facilities, however, some enhanced bioaccumulation could have occurred in the wastewater mixing zones. Furthermore, available evidence indicates that, due to hydraulic and physical factors, the main stem Ohio River appears to have low net Hg methylation potential.

  9. Estimating Consumption to Biomass Ratio in Non-Stationary Harvested Fish Populations

    PubMed Central

    Wiff, Rodrigo; Roa-Ureta, Ruben H.; Borchers, David L.; Milessi, Andrés C.; Barrientos, Mauricio A.

    2015-01-01

    The food consumption to biomass ratio (C) is one of the most important population parameters in ecosystem modelling because its quantifies the interactions between predator and prey. Existing models for estimating C in fish populations are per-recruit cohort models or empirical models, valid only for stationary populations. Moreover, empirical models lack theoretical support. Here we develop a theory and derive a general modelling framework to estimate C in fish populations, based on length frequency data and the generalised von Bertalanffy growth function, in which models for stationary populations with a stable-age distributions are special cases. Estimates using our method are compared with estimates from per-recruit cohort models for C using simulated harvested fish populations of different lifespans. The models proposed here are also applied to three fish populations that are targets of commercial fisheries in southern Chile. Uncertainty in the estimation of C was evaluated using a resampling approach. Simulations showed that stationary and non-stationary population models produce different estimates for C and those differences depend on the lifespan, fishing mortality and recruitment variations. Estimates of C using the new model exhibited smoother inter-annual variation in comparison with a per-recruit model estimates and they were also smaller than C predicted by the empirical equations in all population assessed. PMID:26528721

  10. A framework and information needs for the management of the risks from consumption of self-caught fish.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

    2006-06-01

    Governmental agencies deal with the potential risk from consuming fish contaminated with toxic chemicals by issuing fish consumption advisories. Yet such advisories are often ignored by the general public, who continue to fish and consume self-caught fish that are the subject of advisories and are from contaminated waters. Further, people are often unaware of specific warnings (which species to avoid, who is vulnerable, when they are vulnerable). In this paper we propose a more inclusive framework for examining consumption behavior of self-caught fish and identify information needs for effective communication. We include not only the usual variables that are used for calculating risk from fish consumption (meal frequency, meal size, contaminant levels) but also other aspects of behavior that contribute to risk. These include attitudes (trust, risk aversion, environmental concerns), behavior (sources of information, cultural mores, personal preferences), exposure (physical proximity, ingestion rates, bioavailability, target tissues), contaminant levels, individual host differences, and hazards (levels of contaminants). We suggest that attitudes and behavior shape risk as much as exposure and hazards and that all four of these factors must be considered in risk management. Factors such as gender, age, pregnancy status, and nutrition all influence who is at risk, while other consumption factors affect these at-risk populations, including meals/week, meal size, cooking method, fish species and sizes eaten, and years of fish consumption. Similarly, contaminant levels in fish vary by fish species, fish size and age, part of the fish, and collection location. Elucidating the risk to individual consumers involves integrating this range of factors, and managing the risk likewise involves incorporating these factors. We suggest that development of appropriate advisories and compliance with advisories will occur only if managers, risk assessors, and public policy makers

  11. [Nutritional characterization of produced fish for human consumption in Bucaramanga, Colombia].

    PubMed

    Perea, Aide; Gómez, Elieth; Mayorga, Yamile; Triana, Cora Yohanna

    2008-03-01

    This research involves the nutritional characterization of the most commonly cultivated fish in the region. The species under study were: Rainbow trout (Salmo gairdnerii), tilapia roja (Oreocliromis sp), cachama blanca (Piaractus brachypomus), bocachico (Prochilodus reticulatus magdalenae) and catfish (Pseudoplatystoma faciatum). A sea fish, coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), was used as reference because it is the imported species most used in the region, and it also contains n-3 fatty acids. For each fish sample moisture, ash, protein content, total fat, minerals (iron, calcium and phosphorous) and a fatty acid profile were determined. Results show a total protein content in between 16.4 and 22.6 g/100 g fillet for fresh water fish. Total fat amounts for trout are the highest (8.1 g/100 g fillet), while catfish has the lowest fat content (0.4 g/100 g fillet). Trout was found to be the most important source of n-3 fatty acids (EPA+DHA) and phosphorous, with values ranging from 0.25% to 0.52%, and 250 to 346 mg/100 g fillet, respectively. Catfish and trout exhibited the highest iron content, with values ranging from 3 to 6mg/100 g fillet. Salmon, on the other hand, showed a high n-3 fatty acid content of 1.16% to 2.25%, when compared to fresh water fish. Calcium content is low in all species under scrutiny. Fresh water fish, other than trout, show no significant amount of n-3 fatty acids. However, all of them are a good source of protein. The obtained results allowed to determine the profile of oily acids of produced fish for human consumption in the region, demonstrating that the trout is the species with major quantity of oily acids n-3 specially DHA and of the minerals the phosphorus. Other species (kinds) catfish, bocachico, tilapia and cachama, are not a source of oily acids n-3, but they are an important source of protein.

  12. Fish Consumption and Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Relation to Depressive Episodes: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Suominen-Taipale, Anna Liisa; Partonen, Timo; Turunen, Anu W.; Männistö, Satu; Jula, Antti; Verkasalo, Pia K.

    2010-01-01

    High fish consumption and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake are suggested to benefit mental well-being but the current evidence is conflicting. Our aim was to evaluate whether a higher level of fish consumption, a higher intake of omega-3 PUFAs, and a higher serum concentration of omega-3 PUFAs link to a lower 12-month prevalence of depressive episodes. We used data from the nationwide Health 2000 Survey (n = 5492) and the Fishermen Study on Finnish professional fishermen and their family members (n = 1265). Data were based on questionnaires, interviews, health examinations, and blood samples. Depressive episodes were assessed with the M-CIDI (the Munich version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview) and a self-report of two CIDI probe questions, respectively. Fish consumption was measured by a food frequency questionnaire (g/day) and independent frequency questions (times/month). Dietary intake (g/day) and serum concentrations (% from fatty acids) of PUFAs were determined. Fish consumption was associated with prevalence of depressive episodes in men but not in women. The prevalence of depressive episodes decreased from 9% to 5% across the quartiles of fish consumption (g/day) in men of the Health 2000 Survey (p for linear trend = 0.01), and from17% to 3% across the quartiles of fish consumption (times/month) in men of the Fishermen Study (p for linear trend = 0.05). This association was modified by lifestyle; in the Health 2000 Survey a higher level of fish consumption was related to a lower prevalence of depressive episodes in men who consumed the most alcohol, were occasional or former smokers, or had intermediate physical activity. The associations between depressive episodes and the intake or serum concentrations of omega-3 PUFAs were not consistent. In men, fish consumption appears as a surrogate for underlying but unidentified lifestyle factors that protect against depression. PMID:20479881

  13. Good fish/bad fish: a composite benefit-risk by dose curve.

    PubMed

    Gochfeld, Michael; Burger, Joanna

    2005-08-01

    Balancing risks and benefits of fish consumption is now a high visibility public health topic. Many studies identify health benefits of eating fish, both for prenatal development and adult cardiovascular conditions, partly attributed to omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids or PUFAs). Many reports raise concerns about methylmercury and polychlorinated biphenyl effects on the developing fetal brain (although adults, too, can manifest methylmercury effects). Most reports and advisories focus on recreational or subsistence fish, but the vast majority of people obtain most or all of their fish from commercial sources. Our analysis of the nine most common fish in New Jersey markets, yielded a weighted average methylmercury concentration of 0.23 ug/g (ppm wet weight). There are great disparities in the amount and distribution of both PUFAs and contaminants) in different fish species. Recognizing that both benefits and harm must be related to dose, we propose a compound dose-response curve, currently based on limited data, to identify a zone of benefit, above the benefit threshold and below the harm threshold. The duration of pregnancy and birth weight improve at a benefit threshold of about 8-15 g/day maternal fish intake. Meta-analyses reveal adult cardiovascular benefits around 7.5-22.5 g/day bracket (assuming an 8 ounce/227 g typical meal), yielding a midpoint also at 15 g/day, but this is an artifact of the intake stratification. Benefit asymptotes are harder to extract, but are above 45 g/day, and in some studies exceed 100g/day. Using the EPA Reference Dose of 0.1 ug/kg day as a methylmercury threshold, The fish intake threshold for harm converts to 27 g/day (for a selection of common commercial fish averaging 0.23 ppm MeHg) to 65 g/day for someone choosing fish low in MeHg (0.1 ppm). However, these are worst case thresholds since the RfD includes uncertainty factors. Some people eat much more than 65 g/day. The shape of the dose-benefit and dose-harm curves

  14. Fish consumption and socio-economic factors among residents of Arkhangelsk city and the rural Nenets autonomous area.

    PubMed

    Petrenya, Natalia; Dobrodeeva, Liliya; Brustad, Magritt; Bichkaeva, Fatima; Menshikova, Elena; Lutfalieva, Gulnara; Poletaeva, Anna; Repina, Veronika; Cooper, Marie; Odland, Jon Øyvind

    2011-02-01

    The urban Russian and the rural Indigenous populations in the Russian European North have different lifestyles, living conditions and food supplies. The objective of this study was to investigate and compare fish consumption in relation to the socio-economic characteristics of 2 communities in Arkhangelsk County. A cross-sectional study. In total, 166 adults (83.1% women) from Arkhangelsk city and 134 adults (80.6% women) from the village of Nelmin-Nos (of which 88.9% are Indigenous people, Nenets), in the Nenets Autonomous Area (NAO), attended a health screening. The screening included a physical examination, blood sampling and a questionnaire. The populations studied had different socio-economic characteristics. In the rural NAO group, education levels were lower, the number of full-time employees was less, the percentage of persons with low monthly income was higher and the number of children per household was higher when compared to the Arkhangelsk group. The median total fish intake was 48.8 g/day for Arkhangelsk city and 27.1 g/day for Nelmin-Nos (p=0.009). Locally caught whitefish constituted a major part of the total fish consumption in Nelmin-Nos, while lean marine fish species were rarely eaten. Cod and cod-family fish species were often consumed by residents of Arkhangelsk city (p < 0.001). Fish consumption was positively related to monthly income. The frequency of fishing in the respondents from the Nelmin-Nos group predicted their fish consumption. Monthly income had a significant influence on fish intake in both study populations from Northern Russia. Fishing seems to be an important factor for predicting fish consumption in the residents of the rural NAO.

  15. Socio-demographic influences on trends of fish consumption during later adult life in the Whitehall II study.

    PubMed

    Akbaraly, Tasnime N; Brunner, Eric J

    2008-11-01

    Our aim was to investigate how socio-demographic factors influence trends and age-related trajectories of fish consumption. We examined consumption of total, fried and recommended fish (white and oily fish, and shellfish) in the Whitehall II study over 11 years in participants aged 39-59 years at phase 3. The cohort included 8358 British civil servants who completed a FFQ at phase 3 (1991-3), phase 5 (1997-9, n 5430) and phase 7 (2002-4, n 5692). Occupational grade, ethnicity, marital and retirement status were collected at each phase. To analyse changes in age-related trends of fish intake over time according to socio-demographic characteristics, we applied a random mixed-effect model. Over the follow-up a significant increase in consumption of 'recommended' (mean: 1.85 to 2.22 portions/week) and total fish (mean: 2.32 to 2.65 portions/week) and a decreasing trend in fried-fish intake (mean: 0.47 to 0.43 portions/week) was observed. Recommended, fried and total fish consumption differed by occupational status, ethnicity, marital status and sex. The trend of age-related fish intake diverged significantly by ethnicity. In South Asian participants (n 432), slope of recommended-fish consumption was significantly higher compared with white participants (0.077 v. 0.025 portions/week per year). For black participants (n 275) slope of fried-fish intake was significantly higher compared with white participants (0.0052 v. - 0.0025 portions/week per year). In terms of public health, our descriptive and analytical work allows detailed understanding of the impact of socio-demographic factors on fish intake and its age-related trends. Such information is valuable for food policies that seek to promote health equity.

  16. Fish consumption and its possible preventive role on the development and prevalence of metabolic syndrome - a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Tørris, Christine; Molin, Marianne; Cvancarova Småstuen, Milada

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) has a huge impact on public health, and today lifestyle interventions remain the primary mode for MetS therapy. It is therefore important to elucidate the possible preventive effects of diet and foods, and their MetS-related health implications. To examine how fish consumption affects the development and prevalence of MetS, we systematically reviewed cross-sectional, prospective cohort, and intervention studies conducted among adults (humans) and, reporting consumption of fish or seafood as being related to MetS (prevalence or incidence), where MetS was defined via an established definition. The literature search in PubMed identified 502 citations, and after screening, 49 full-text articles were retrieved and assessed for eligibility. After excluding duplicates and those not meeting the inclusion criteria, seven studies from Croatia, Finland, France, Iceland, Iran, Korea, and US were included. Four studies (one follow-up and three cross-sectional) found associations between fish consumption and MetS (three among men, and one among women), suggesting that fish consumption may prevent or improve metabolic health and have a protective role in MetS prevention. This protective role might be related to gender, and men may benefit more from the consumption of fish. However, lack of controlling for potential confounders may also inflict the results. Additional research is required to further explore fish consumption and its potential role in improving or reversing MetS and its components.

  17. Methylmercury (MeHg)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Methylmercury ( MeHg ) ; CASRN 22967 - 92 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarci

  18. Human exposure to mercury in a compact fluorescent lamp manufacturing area: By food (rice and fish) consumption and occupational exposure.

    PubMed

    Liang, Peng; Feng, Xinbin; Zhang, Chan; Zhang, Jin; Cao, Yucheng; You, Qiongzhi; Leung, Anna Oi Wah; Wong, Ming-Hung; Wu, Sheng-Chun

    2015-03-01

    To investigate human Hg exposure by food consumption and occupation exposure in a compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) manufacturing area, human hair and rice samples were collected from Gaohong town, Zhejiang Province, China. The mean values of total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in local cultivated rice samples were significantly higher than in commercial rice samples which indicated that CFL manufacturing activities resulted in Hg accumulation in local rice samples. For all of the study participants, significantly higher THg concentrations in human hair were observed in CFL workers compared with other residents. In comparison, MeHg concentrations in human hair of residents whose diet consisted of local cultivated rice were significantly higher than those who consumed commercial rice. These results demonstrated that CFL manufacturing activities resulted in THg accumulation in the hair of CFL workers. However, MeHg in hair were mainly affected by the sources of rice of the residents.

  19. Trophic transfer efficiency of methylmercury and inorganic mercury to lake trout Salvelinus namaycush from its prey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenijian, C.P.; David, S.R.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.

    2012-01-01

    Based on a laboratory experiment, we estimated the net trophic transfer efficiency of methylmercury to lake trout Salvelinus namaycush from its prey to be equal to 76.6 %. Under the assumption that gross trophic transfer efficiency of methylmercury to lake trout from its prey was equal to 80 %, we estimated that the rate at which lake trout eliminated methylmercury was 0.000244 day−1. Our laboratory estimate of methylmercury elimination rate was 5.5 times lower than the value predicted by a published regression equation developed from estimates of methylmercury elimination rates for fish available from the literature. Thus, our results, in conjunction with other recent findings, suggested that methylmercury elimination rates for fish have been overestimated in previous studies. In addition, based on our laboratory experiment, we estimated that the net trophic transfer efficiency of inorganic mercury to lake trout from its prey was 63.5 %. The lower net trophic transfer efficiency for inorganic mercury compared with that for methylmercury was partly attributable to the greater elimination rate for inorganic mercury. We also found that the efficiency with which lake trout retained either methylmercury or inorganic mercury from their food did not appear to be significantly affected by the degree of their swimming activity.

  20. Trophic transfer efficiency of methylmercury and inorganic mercury to lake trout Salvelinus namaycush from its prey.

    PubMed

    Madenjian, C P; David, S R; Krabbenhoft, D P

    2012-08-01

    Based on a laboratory experiment, we estimated the net trophic transfer efficiency of methylmercury to lake trout Salvelinus namaycush from its prey to be equal to 76.6 %. Under the assumption that gross trophic transfer efficiency of methylmercury to lake trout from its prey was equal to 80 %, we estimated that the rate at which lake trout eliminated methylmercury was 0.000244 day(-1). Our laboratory estimate of methylmercury elimination rate was 5.5 times lower than the value predicted by a published regression equation developed from estimates of methylmercury elimination rates for fish available from the literature. Thus, our results, in conjunction with other recent findings, suggested that methylmercury elimination rates for fish have been overestimated in previous studies. In addition, based on our laboratory experiment, we estimated that the net trophic transfer efficiency of inorganic mercury to lake trout from its prey was 63.5 %. The lower net trophic transfer efficiency for inorganic mercury compared with that for methylmercury was partly attributable to the greater elimination rate for inorganic mercury. We also found that the efficiency with which lake trout retained either methylmercury or inorganic mercury from their food did not appear to be significantly affected by the degree of their swimming activity.

  1. Local Understanding of Fish Consumption Advisory Risks in Michigan's Upper Peninsula: The Role of Structure, Culture, and Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habron, Geoffrey; Barbier, Melanie; Kinnunen, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    Fish consumption advisories fail to adequately help communities address the benefits and risks of eating potentially contaminated fish. We engaged community members and relevant institutions in identifying and implementing more effective risk communication in Michigan's rural Upper Peninsula. In 2004-2005, we collected data in four Michigan…

  2. Local Understanding of Fish Consumption Advisory Risks in Michigan's Upper Peninsula: The Role of Structure, Culture, and Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habron, Geoffrey; Barbier, Melanie; Kinnunen, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    Fish consumption advisories fail to adequately help communities address the benefits and risks of eating potentially contaminated fish. We engaged community members and relevant institutions in identifying and implementing more effective risk communication in Michigan's rural Upper Peninsula. In 2004-2005, we collected data in four Michigan…

  3. Influence of bioaccessibility of total mercury, methyl-mercury and selenium on the risk/benefit associated to the consumption of raw and cooked blue shark (Prionace glauca).

    PubMed

    Matos, J; Lourenço, H M; Brito, P; Maulvault, A L; Martins, L L; Afonso, C

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to identify the benefit and risk associated with raw and cooked blue shark consumption taking into account the bioaccessibility of Se, Hg and MeHg, by using in vitro digestion method. Selenium, Hg and MeHg levels were higher in cooked samples, particularly in grilled blue shark. Whereas Se bioaccessibility was above 83% in grilled samples, Hg and MeHg bioaccessibility was lower in grilled samples with values near 50%. In addition, all Se-Health Beneficial Values were negative and the molar MeHg:Se ratios were higher than one. The risk-benefit assessment yielded a maximum consumption of one yearly meal for raw or cooked blue shark, thus emphasizing the need to recommend the consumption of a wider variety of seafood species in a balanced and healthy diet.

  4. Methylmercury production in estuarine sediments: role of organic matter

    PubMed Central

    Schartup, Amina T.; Mason, Robert P.; Balcom, Prentiss H.; Hollweg, Terill A.; Chen, Celia Y.

    2013-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) affects wildlife and human health mainly through marine fish consumption. In marine systems, MeHg is formed from inorganic mercury (HgII) species primarily in sediments then accumulates and biomagnifies in the food web. Most of the fish consumed in the US are from estuarine and marine systems highlighting the importance of understanding MeHg formation in these productive regions. Sediment organic matter has been shown to limit mercury methylation in estuarine ecosystems, as a result it is often described as the primary control over MeHg production. In this paper, we explore the role of organic matter by looking at the effects of its changing sediment concentrations on the methylation rates across multiple estuaries. We measured sedimentary MeHg production at eleven estuarine sites that were selected for their contrasting biogeochemical characteristics, mercury (Hg) content, and location in the Northeastern US (ME, NH, CT, NY, and NJ). Sedimentary total Hg concentrations ranged across five orders of magnitude, increasing in concentration from the pristine, sandy sediments of Wells (ME), to industrially contaminated areas like Portsmouth (NH) and Hackensack (NJ). We find that methylation rates are the highest at locations with high Hg content (relative to carbon), and that organic matter does not hinder mercury methylation in estuaries. PMID:23194318

  5. Ranking the contributions of commercial fish and shellfish varieties to mercury exposure in the United States: implications for risk communication.

    PubMed

    Groth, Edward

    2010-04-01

    Fish and shellfish have important nutritional benefits, and US per capita seafood consumption has increased substantially since 2002. Recent research has reinforced concerns about adverse effects of methylmercury exposure, suggesting that methylmercury doses associated with typical US rates of fish consumption may pose measurable risks, with no threshold. These converging trends create a need to improve risk communication about fish consumption and mercury. The analysis performed here identifies the relative importance of different fish and shellfish as sources of mercury in the US seafood supply and proposes improved consumer advice, so that the public can benefit from fish consumption while minimizing mercury exposure. I have quantified contributions to total mercury in the US seafood supply by 51 different varieties of fish and shellfish, then ranked and sorted the 51 varieties in terms of relative impact. Except for swordfish, most fish with the highest mercury levels are relatively minor contributors to total inputs. Tuna (canned light, canned albacore and fresh/frozen varieties) accounts for 37.4 percent of total mercury inputs, while two-thirds of the seafood supply and nine of the 11 most heavily consumed fish and shellfish are low or very low in mercury. Substantial improvement in risk communication about mercury in fish and seafood is needed; in particular, several population subsets need better guidance to base their seafood choices more explicitly on mercury content. I have sorted the 51 seafood varieties into six categories based on mercury levels, as a framework for improving risk communication in this regard.

  6. Contamination of fish in UK fresh water systems: risk assessment for human consumption.

    PubMed

    Rose, Martin; Fernandes, Alwyn; Mortimer, David; Baskaran, Christina

    2015-03-01

    There is growing evidence that more people in the UK are consuming fish taken from inland waterways. This may be partly due to the increased numbers of migrants from Eastern Europe where this is part of traditional culture and partly because of a desire to try new foods encouraged by celebrity chefs. Fish can bioaccumulate environmental contaminants and so could contribute a significant amount to dietary exposure to these chemicals. This study examined the changing habits of anglers and consumers and characterised a range of existing and emerging contaminants in freshwater fish species with a view to determining current levels of occurrence and possible risk from consumption. The project was conducted in two stages. The first stage included (a) a study that identified freshwater systems that are contaminated either by anthropogenic activity or as a result of the geology of the area; and (b) socioeconomic research to assess the consumption habits of the public, particularly anglers, with respect to fish and shellfish from unmanaged inland waterways. Based on the outcome from the first stage, specific rivers and other inland waterways were chosen for investigation, along with the range of contaminants to be included in the analytical programme. Predicted contamination levels and prevalence of anglers were among the factors taken into consideration. The second stage of the project involved sampling and analysis of fish taken from selected locations on the chosen waterways. A range of fish species from a variety of inland water habitats were obtained. These were analysed for the following contaminants: heavy metals, chlorinated dioxins (PCDD/Fs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), brominated dioxins (PBDD/Fs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), OC pesticides, organotin compounds and organo-fluorine compounds. Legal limits for contaminants apply only to food traded commercially, but some samples

  7. Total mercury, methylmercury, and selected elements in soils of the Fishing Brook watershed, Hamilton County, New York, and the McTier Creek watershed, Aiken County, South Carolina, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodruff, Laurel G.; Cannon, William F.; Knightes, Christopher D.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Bradley, Paul M.; Burns, Douglas A.; Brigham, Mark E.; Lowery, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Mercury is an element of on-going concern for human and aquatic health. Mercury sequestered in upland and wetland soils represents a source that may contribute to mercury contamination in sensitive ecosystems. An improved understanding of mercury cycling in stream ecosystems requires identification and quantification of mercury speciation and transport dynamics in upland and wetland soils within a watershed. This report presents data for soils collected in 2008 from two small watersheds in New York and South Carolina. In New York, 163 samples were taken from multiple depths or soil horizons at 70 separate locations near Fishing Brook, located in Hamilton County. At McTier Creek, in Aiken County, South Carolina, 81 samples from various soil horizons or soil depths were collected from 24 locations. Sample locations within each watershed were selected to characterize soil geochemistry in distinct land-cover compartments. Soils were analyzed for total mercury, selenium, total and carbonate carbon, and 42 other elements. A subset of the samples was also analyzed for methylmercury.

  8. Assessment of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate and Perfluorooctanoic Acid Exposure Through Fish Consumption in Italy.

    PubMed

    Barbarossa, Andrea; Gazzotti, Teresa; Farabegoli, Federica; Mancini, Francesca R; Zironi, Elisa; Busani, Luca; Pagliuca, Giampiero

    2016-09-20

    Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are pollutants of anthropic origin with possible side effects on human health. Diet, and in particular fish and seafood, is considered the major intake pathway for humans. The present study investigated the levels of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) contamination in twenty-five samples of fresh fillet of five widely consumed fish species purchased from large retailers in Italy, to be used for an estimation of the Italian population exposure to these contaminants. PFOS and PFOA were found in all samples, at concentrations up to 1896 (mean=627 ng/kg) and 487 ng/kg (mean = 75 ng/kg), respectively, confirming the role of fish as high contributor to human exposure. However, a remarkable inter-species variability was observed, and multiple factors were suggested as potentially responsible for such differences, suggesting that the preferential consumption of certain species could likely increase the intake, and thus the exposure. The exposure estimates for both average and high fish consumers resulted far below the tolerable daily intakes for PFOS and PFOA in all age groups, confirming the outcomes of EFSA's scientific report. In particular, the calculated total dietary exposure for the 95(th) percentile consumers belonging to the toddler age class, the most exposed group, resulted equal to 9.72 ng/kg body weight (BW)/day for PFOS and 8.39 ng/kg BW/day for PFOA.

  9. Assessment of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate and Perfluorooctanoic Acid Exposure Through Fish Consumption in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Barbarossa, Andrea; Gazzotti, Teresa; Farabegoli, Federica; Mancini, Francesca R.; Zironi, Elisa; Busani, Luca; Pagliuca, Giampiero

    2016-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are pollutants of anthropic origin with possible side effects on human health. Diet, and in particular fish and seafood, is considered the major intake pathway for humans. The present study investigated the levels of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) contamination in twenty-five samples of fresh fillet of five widely consumed fish species purchased from large retailers in Italy, to be used for an estimation of the Italian population exposure to these contaminants. PFOS and PFOA were found in all samples, at concentrations up to 1896 (mean=627 ng/kg) and 487 ng/kg (mean = 75 ng/kg), respectively, confirming the role of fish as high contributor to human exposure. However, a remarkable inter-species variability was observed, and multiple factors were suggested as potentially responsible for such differences, suggesting that the preferential consumption of certain species could likely increase the intake, and thus the exposure. The exposure estimates for both average and high fish consumers resulted far below the tolerable daily intakes for PFOS and PFOA in all age groups, confirming the outcomes of EFSA’s scientific report. In particular, the calculated total dietary exposure for the 95th percentile consumers belonging to the toddler age class, the most exposed group, resulted equal to 9.72 ng/kg body weight (BW)/day for PFOS and 8.39 ng/kg BW/day for PFOA. PMID:28058243

  10. Fish for Dinner? Balancing Risks, Benefits, and Values in Formulating Food Consumption Advice.

    PubMed

    Rideout, Karen; Kosatsky, Tom

    2017-03-17

    Many and complex factors underlie seemingly simple decisions about what to eat. This is particularly so for foods such as fish, which present consumers with both risks and benefits. Advice about what type of and how much fish to consume is abundant, but that advice is often confusing or contradictory, reflecting the differing mandates and orientations of those advising. We survey a range of issues that can and should be incorporated into dietary advice, and offer tools for health agencies tasked with providing it. We argue that risks and benefits should not be limited to direct physical health. Rather, socioeconomic and community factors, unintended or indirect effects, and nonhuman-health outcomes such as animal welfare and planetary health should also be considered and weighed. We provide examples of existing fish consumption guidance to highlight the conflicting messages that emerge when different sources of advice with singular aims of avoiding risk, gaining nutritional benefit, or sustaining fish populations are juxtaposed. We then offer tools borrowed from health and other fields to guide health agencies toward developing more comprehensive advice and targeting that advice for specific populations.

  11. Lake Michigan fish consumption as a source of polychlorinated biphenyls in human cord serum, maternal serum, and milk

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, P.M.; Jacobson, S.W.; Fein, G.; Jacobson, J.L.; Price, H.

    1983-03-01

    Reported consumption of Lake Michigan sport fish was examined in relation to the levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in biological samples provided by a sample of maternity patients. Fish consumption was correlated with PCB levels in maternal serum and milk but not in cord serum. PCB levels in serum increased with age, but were unrelated to social class, parity, or weight. Women who breast fed consumed as much fish as women who did not and their maternal and cord sera PCB levels were similar.

  12. Lake trout consumption and recent changes in the fish assemblage of Flaming Gorge Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Yule, D.L. ); Luecke, C. )

    1993-11-01

    Bioenergetics modeling was used to quantify the consumption dynamics of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in Flaming Gorge Reservoir, Utah-Wyoming. Analysis of diet and population estimates of different size-classes of lake trout indicated that kokanees Oncorhynchus nerka made up the greatest proportion of prey biomass. Examination of growth rates of forage fish and predator-prey size ratios indicated that Utah chub Gila atraria were more vulnerable than kokanees to lake trout predation. Utah chub grow slower than kokanees and thus were susceptible to piscivores over a longer age span. The authors conclude the kokanees will make up an even large proportion of the pelagic fish assemblage of Flaming Gorge Reservoir in future years. 44 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Total and organic mercury in ten fish species for human consumption from the Mexican Pacific.

    PubMed

    Ruelas-Inzunza, J; Hernández-Osuna, J; Páez-Osuna, F

    2011-06-01

    Total mercury and organic mercury were measured in ten fish species from the Mexican Pacific ocean to have a general view on the ratio of total mercury-organic mercury and potential implications on human health. Highest concentration of total mercury was recorded in muscle tissue of Carcharhinus leucas (0.62 μg g⁻¹ wet weight). Organic mercury was more concentrated in Haemulon sexfasciatum (0.4 μg g⁻¹ wet weight). Percentages of organic mercury ranged from 33 to 100%. Hazard indices associated to organic mercury and average fish consumption in Mexico ranged from 0.25 in Lutjanus colorado to 1.65 in Haemulon sexfasciatum.

  14. Quinalphos induced alteration in respiratory rate and food consumption of freshwater fish Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Muttappa, K; Reddy, H R V; Rajesh, Mridula; Padmanabha, A

    2014-03-01

    Acute toxicity of commercial grade organophosphate insecticide, quinalphos (25% emulsified concentration) to common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was tested through bioassay. The acute toxicity of quinalphos to the fingerlings exposed for 96 hr was found to be 2.75 ppm. For sub lethal toxicity study, the fish were exposed to two concentration viz., 1/10th of LC50 (0.275 ppm) and 1/5th of LC50 (0.55 ppm) along with lethal concentration (2.75 ppm) as reference for 48 hr. The carps were under stress and mortality was insignificant in both sub lethal and lethal concentrations. However, considerable variation in respiration rate and food consumption rate was observed in both lethal and sublethal concentrations. The alteration observed in the physiological condition may be a consequence of impaired oxidative metabolism and elevated physiological stress by fish against quinalphos.

  15. Fish consumption as a driver of risk-management decisions and human health-based water quality criteria.

    PubMed

    Judd, Nancy; Lowney, Yvette; Anderson, Paul; Baird, Suzanne; Bay, Steven M; Breidt, Jay; Buonanduci, Michele; Dong, Zhao; Essig, Don; Garry, Michael R; Jim, Rebecca C; Kirkwood, Gemma; Moore, Shelly; Niemi, Cheryl; O'Rourke, Rory; Ruffle, Betsy; Schaider, Laurel A; Vidal-Dorsch, Doris E

    2015-11-01

    The use and interpretation of fish consumption surveys and interviews, the application of fish consumption rates for sediment evaluation and cleanup, and the development of human health water quality criteria (HH WQC) are complex and interrelated issues. The present article focuses on these issues using examples from the United States, although the issues may be relevant for other countries. Some key considerations include the fact that there are many types of fish consumption surveys (e.g., 24-h recall surveys, food frequency questionnaires, creel surveys), and these surveys have different advantages and limitations. Identification of target populations for protection, identification of the species and quantities of fish consumed, and determination of bioaccumulation assumptions are important factors when developing water quality and sediment screening levels and standards. Accounting for the cultural importance of fish consumption for some populations is an even more complex element. Discussions about HH WQC often focus only on the fish consumption rate and may not have broad public input. Some states are trying to change this through extensive public participation efforts and use of probabilistic approaches to derive HH WQC. Finally, there are limits to what WQC can achieve. Solutions beyond the establishment of WQC that target toxics reduction from other sources may provide the greatest improvements to water quality and reductions in human health risks in the future.

  16. [Microcosm Simulation Study and Methylmercury Forming Mechanism at Landscape Water of City].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-hong; Si, You-bin; Guo, Zi-wei; Du, Cheng-zhu; Zhu, Cong-cong

    2016-04-15

    Mercury is harmful to the environment, which has gradually become one of the research hotspots. Sediments, as a main repository of pollutants, have an important impact on water quality and the internal organisms, which deserves our research. In this paper, we focused on Hefei landscape water sediment and tried to investigate the status of inorganic mercury and methylmercury pollutions in the sediment. To study the conversion process from inorganic mercury to methylmercury and their enrichment levels and mechanism, we established the ecological chain of "sediment-water-grass-fish" through analog microcosm examination. The results were as follows: from ten water and sediment samples in Hefei landscape water sediment, we found that the contents of inorganic mercury and methylmercury ranged 11.74-13.12 µg · kg⁻¹ and 0.37-2.23 µg · kg⁻¹, respectively. The microcosm examination showed that: with increasing culture time, inorganic mercury in sediments gradually decreased. There was a phenomenon that the content of methylmercury increased at first and then decreased to reach the balance later. Both the inorganic mercury and methylmercury in water change showed an increasing trend. The enrichment contents of inorganic mercury in Egeria densa Planch, and golden mandarin fish (Siniperca scherzeri Steindachner) were low while their enrichment of methylmercury could he great. In addition, we found that both the bioaccumulation ability and the enrichment coefficient of methylmercury in the body of golden mandarin fish were the maximum during the same period.

  17. Re-evaluation of the reference dose for methylmercury and assessment of current exposure levels

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, A.H. )

    1993-06-01

    Methylmercury (Me-Hg) is widely distributed through freshwater and saltwater food chains and human consumption of fish and shellfish has lead to widespread exposure. Both the US EPA Reference Dose (0.3 [mu]g/kg/day) and the FAO/WHO Permissible Tolerable Weekly Intake (3.3 [mu]g/kg/week) are currently based on the prevention of paraesthesia in adult and older children. However, Me-Hg exposure in utero is known to result in a range of developmental neurologic effects including clinical CNS symptoms and delayed onset of walking. Based on a critical review of development toxicity data from human and animal studies, it is concluded that current guidelines for the prevention of paraesthesia are not adequate to address developmental effects. A dose of 0.07 [mu]g/kg/day is suggested as the best estimate of a potential reference dose for developmental effects. Data on nationwide fish consumption rates and Me-Hg levels in fish/seafood weighted by proportion of the catch intended for human consumption are analyzed in a Monte Carlo simulation to derive a probability distribution of background Me-Hg exposure. While various uncertainties in the toxicologic and exposure data limit the precision with which health risk can be estimated, this analysis suggests that at current levels of Me-Hg exposure, a significant fraction of women of childbearing age have exposures above this suggested reference dose.

  18. Fish consumption among young overweight European adults and compliance to varying seafood content in four weight loss intervention diets.

    PubMed

    Thorsdottir, I; Birgisdottir, Be; Kiely, M; Martinez, Ja; Bandarra, Nm

    2009-05-01

    Fish is considered an important part of a healthy diet and is frequently recommended as a main course at least twice a week. To study the frequency of fish consumption among young overweight European adults and their compliance to varying seafood consumption in weight loss intervention diets. After meeting the inclusion criteria, the subject's seafood intake was evaluated. Subjects were randomly assigned into four groups and were advised energy-restricted diets for 8 weeks, including no seafood (control), cod, salmon or fish oil. A validated FFQ was used to evaluate the consumption of seafood at baseline, midpoint and endpoint, and long-chain n-3 fatty acids in blood erythrocytes were measured. Iceland, Ireland and Spain. The sample (n 324); 20-40-year-olds with BMI = 27.5-32.5 kg/m2; 85 % participated. At baseline, 34 % of the participants reported eating fish at least twice a week as the main course. During the intervention, six participants reported that they did not finish their fish portions, 15 % of the participants consumed small amount of fish additional to the study protocol in weeks 1-4 and 23 % in weeks 5-8 (P = 0.010). Changes in erythrocyte long-chain n-3 fatty acids confirmed good compliance, with increases in the salmon (P < 0.001) and fish oil (P < 0.001) groups, smaller increase in the cod group (P = 0.037) and decrease in the control group (P = 0.030). Frequency of fish consumption among 66 % of young European overweight adults is lower than frequently recommended. Compliance to varying seafood consumption was good. Therefore, including more fish in the diet of this group should be encouraged.

  19. Losses of immunoreactive parvalbumin amacrine and immunoreactive alphaprotein kinase C bipolar cells caused by methylmercury chloride intoxication in the retina of the tropical fish Hoplias malabaricus.

    PubMed

    Bonci, D M O; Lima, S M A de; Grötzner, S R; Ribeiro, C A Oliveira; Hamassaki, D E; Ventura, D F

    2006-03-01

    To quantify the effects of methylmercury (MeHg) on amacrine and on ON-bipolar cells in the retina, experiments were performed in MeHg-exposed groups of adult trahiras (Hoplias malabaricus) at two dose levels (2 and 6 microg/g, ip). The retinas of test and control groups were processed by mouse anti-parvalbumin and rabbit anti-alphaprotein kinase C (alphaPKC) immunocytochemistry. Morphology and soma location in the inner nuclear layer were used to identify immunoreactive parvalbumin (PV-IR) and alphaPKC (alphaPKC-IR) in wholemount preparations. Cell density, topography and isodensity maps were estimated using confocal images. PV-IR was detected in amacrine cells in the inner nuclear layer and in displaced amacrine cells from the ganglion cell layer, and alphaPKC-IR was detected in ON-bipolar cells. The MeHg-treated group (6 microg/g) showed significant reduction of the ON-bipolar alphaPKC-IR cell density (mean density = 1306 +/- 393 cells/mm2) compared to control (1886 +/- 892 cells/mm2; P < 0.001). The mean densities found for amacrine PV-IR cells in MeHg-treated retinas were 1040 +/- 56 cells/mm2 (2 microg/g) and 845 +/- 82 cells/mm2 (6 microg/g), also lower than control (1312 +/- 31 cells/mm2; P < 0.05), differently from the data observed in displaced PV-IR amacrine cells. These results show that MeHg changed the PV-IR amacrine cell density in a dose-dependent way, and reduced the density of alphaKC-IR bipolar cells at the dose of 6 microg/g. Further studies are needed to identify the physiological impact of these findings on visual function.

  20. Blood mercury levels and fish consumption in pregnancy: Risks and benefits for birth outcomes in a prospective observational birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Caroline M; Golding, Jean; Emond, Alan M

    2016-08-01

    To avoid exposure to mercury, government advice on fish consumption during pregnancy includes information on fish species to avoid and to limit, while encouraging consumption of least two portions of fish per week. Some women may, however, chose to avoid fish completely during pregnancy despite potential benefits to the fetus. Our aims were to evaluate the effects of blood mercury levels in pregnant women on birth outcomes in the UK, and to compare outcomes in those who ate fish with those who did not. Pregnant women were enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Whole blood samples for singleton pregnancies with a live birth were analysed for Hg by inductively coupled plasma dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometry (n=4044). Fish intake was determined by a food frequency questionnaire during pregnancy. Data collected on the infants included anthropometric variables and gestational age at delivery. Regression models were adjusted for covariates using SPSS v23. There were no significant associations of maternal blood Hg level with birthweight, head circumference or crown-heel length in adjusted linear regression models. Similarly, there were no increased odds of low birthweight or preterm delivery in adjusted logistic regression models. When the models were repeated after stratification into fish-eaters and there were no associations except for a negative association with birthweight in non-fish-eaters (unstandardised B coefficient -58.4 (95% confidence interval -113.8, -3.0) g, p=0.039). Moderate mercury levels in pregnancy were not associated with anthropometric variables, or on the odds of low birthweight or preterm birth. Fish consumption may have a protective effect on birthweight. Consumption of fish in line with government guidelines during pregnancy should be encouraged. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  1. Before You're Pregnant - Methylmercury

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products ... Note on Fish Advice On January 18, 2017, FDA and EPA issued final advice regarding fish consumption. This advice is geared toward helping women who ...

  2. Intake of chemical contaminants through fish and seafood consumption by children of Catalonia, Spain: health risks.

    PubMed

    Martí-Cid, Roser; Bocio, Ana; Llobet, Juan M; Domingo, José L

    2007-10-01

    The intake of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated diphenylethers (PCDEs), hexachlorobenzene, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons through fish and seafood consumption by children of Catalonia, Spain, was assessed. In 2005, samples of the 14 most consumed marine species in Catalonia were randomly acquired in various cities of the country. Analysis of the above chemical contaminants were determined according to the appropriate analytical techniques and the daily intakes were estimated. For most pollutants, intake was higher in boys than in girls. Average exposure of children to contaminants through fish and seafood consumption did not exceed the respective tolerable daily intake of those pollutants for which it has been already established (metals, PCDD/Fs plus dioxin-like PCBs, HCB, and PAHs). In relation to body weight, intake by children of most contaminants was higher than that found for other age groups of the general population of Catalonia.

  3. Negative Confounding by Essential Fatty Acids in Methylmercury Neurotoxicity Associations

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Anna L; Mogensen, Ulla B.; Bjerve, Kristian S.; Debes, Frodi; Weihe, Pal; Grandjean, Philippe; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben

    2014-01-01

    Background Methylmercury, a worldwide contaminant of fish and seafood, can cause adverse effects on the developing nervous system. However, long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in seafood provide beneficial effects on brain development. Negative confounding will likely result in underestimation of both mercury toxicity and nutrient benefits unless mutual adjustment is included in the analysis. Methods We examined these associations in 176 Faroese children, in whom prenatal methylmercury exposure was assessed from mercury concentrations in cord blood and maternal hair. The relative concentrations of fatty acids were determined in cord serum phospholipids. Neuropsychological performance in verbal, motor, attention, spatial, and memory functions was assessed at 7 years of age. Multiple regression and structural equation models (SEMs) were carried out to determine the confounder-adjusted associations with methylmercury exposure. Results A short delay recall (in percent change) in the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) was associated with a doubling of cord blood methylmercury (−18.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] = −36.3, −1.51). The association became stronger after the inclusion of fatty acid concentrations in the analysis (−22.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] = −39.4, −4.62). In structural equation models, poorer memory function (corresponding to a lower score in the learning trials and short delay recall in CVLT) was associated with a doubling of prenatal exposure to methylmercury after the inclusion of fatty acid concentrations in the analysis (−1.94, 95% CI = −3.39, −0.49). Conclusions Associations between prenatal exposure to methylmercury and neurobehavioral deficits in memory function at school age were strengthened after fatty acid adjustment, thus suggesting that n-3 fatty acids need to be included in analysis of similar studies to avoid underestimation of the associations with methylmercury exposure. PMID:24561639

  4. The many faces of methylmercury poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Elhassani, S.B.

    1982-10-01

    Methylmercury (MM) is a very potent neurotoxic agent. Its role in polluting the environment is well documented. A vast amount of study over the past several decades has finally provided insight into many aspects of its effect. Exposure to MM may be through ingestion of poisoned fish or inadvertent misuse of grain treated with the poison as a fungicide. Major epidemics have occurred in Japan (Fetal Minamata disease), Iraq, Pakistan, Guatemala, and Ghana. Sporadic incidences have occurred in the United States and Canada. There is no effective antidote to counteract the effect of MM on the central nervous system, although the information documented should provide hope for more effective therapy in acute cases.

  5. Mercury in scalp hair near the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) in relation to high fish consumption.

    PubMed

    Vieira, H C; Morgado, F; Soares, A M V M; Abreu, S N

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential risk of mercury contamination near the Mid-Atlantic Ridge relating total mercury (THg) concentrations in the human scalp hair (n = 110) and high fish consumption levels. THg was quantified in human scalp hair, and volunteers were questioned about age, gender, and smoking habits being subsequently grouped in categories based on the individual average intake of fish meals per week. THg concentrations ([THg]) in hair samples ranged from 0.05 to 2.24 μg g(-1), and significant differences were found according to age (p < 0.05) and also among volunteers presenting different fish consumption rates (p < 0.001) being the highest [THg] observed on the adult population and also on volunteers that indicated consuming five or more meals of fish per week. Results indicate a pattern of increased mercury accumulation with increasing fish consumption. Despite mercury availability and a potential mercury intake of up to seven times, the WHO provisional tolerable weekly intake of mercury value, in consequence of high fish consumption, mercury concentrations in scalp hair are comparatively low regarding recommended levels by WHO.

  6. Higher oily fish consumption in late pregnancy is associated with reduced aortic stiffness in the child at age 9 years

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Jennifer; Hanson, Mark; Peebles, Charles; Davies, Lucy; Inskip, Hazel; Robinson, Sian; Calder, Philip C.; Cooper, Cyrus; Godfrey, Keith M.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Higher pulse wave velocity (PWV) reflects increased arterial stiffness and is an established cardiovascular risk marker associated with lower long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake in adults. Experimentally, maternal fatty acid intake in pregnancy has lasting effects on offspring arterial stiffness. Objective To examine the association between maternal consumption of oily fish, a source of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, in pregnancy and child's aortic stiffness age 9 years. Methods and Results In a mother-offspring study (Southampton Women's Survey) the child's descending aorta PWV was measured at age 9 years using velocity-encoded phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging and related to maternal oily fish consumption assessed prospectively during pregnancy. Higher oily fish consumption in late pregnancy was associated with lower childhood aortic PWV (sex-adjusted β=-0.084 m/s/ portion/week, [95% CI -0.137 to -0.031], p=0.002, n=226). Mother’s educational attainment was independently associated with child’s PWV. PWV was not associated with the child’s current oily fish consumption. Conclusions Level of maternal oily fish consumption in pregnancy may influence child’s large artery development, with potential long-term consequences for later cardiovascular risk. PMID:25700036

  7. Birth defects risk associated with maternal sport fish consumption: potential effect modification by sex of offspring.

    PubMed

    Mendola, Pauline; Robinson, Luther K; Buck, Germaine M; Druschel, Charlotte M; Fitzgerald, Edward F; Sever, Lowell E; Vena, John E

    2005-02-01

    Contaminated sport fish consumption may result in exposure to various reproductive and developmental toxicants, including pesticides and other suspected endocrine disruptors. We investigated the relation between maternal sport fish meals and risk of major birth defects among infants born to members of the New York State (NYS) Angler Cohort between 1986 and 1991 (n=2237 births). Birth defects (n=125 cases) were ascertained from both newborn medical records and the NYS Congenital Malformations Registry. For sport fish meals eaten during pregnancy, the odds ratio (OR) for all major malformations combined was slightly elevated for < or =1 meal/month (OR=1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.84, 1.89) and > or =2 meals/month (OR=1.51, CI=0.74, 3.09), with no meals during pregnancy as the reference category. Higher ORs were consistently observed among male offspring compared with females. For > or =2 meals/month, the risk for males was significantly elevated (males: OR=3.01, CI: 1.2, 7.5; females: OR=0.73, CI: 0.2, 2.4). Exposure during pregnancy and effect modification by infants sex could be important considerations for future studies of birth outcomes associated with endocrine disruptors.

  8. Dietary omega-3 fatty acids and fish consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Djoussé, Luc; Gaziano, J Michael; Buring, Julie E; Lee, I-Min

    2011-01-01

    Although dietary omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids may confer some cardiovascular benefits, it is unclear whether these nutrients may also unfavorably affect risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). We evaluated whether dietary omega-3 fatty acids and fish consumption were associated with increased risk of T2D. This was a prospective study of 36,328 women (mean age: 54.6 y) who participated in the Women's Health Study and who were followed from 1992 to 2008. Incident T2D was self-reported and validated primarily through the collection of supplementary information from participants. Information on omega-3 and fish intakes was obtained by using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. We used Cox proportional hazard models to estimate adjusted relative risks. During an average follow-up of 12.4 y, 2370 women developed T2D. Marine but not plant-based omega-3 fatty acids were positively associated with incident T2D. From the lowest to highest quintiles of marine omega-3 intake, the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (95% CIs) for T2D were 1.0 (referent), 1.17 (1.03, 1.33), 1.20 (1.05, 1.38), 1.46 (1.28, 1.66), and 1.44 (1.25, 1.65), respectively (P for trend < 0.0001). A similar association was observed with fish intake, but additional adjustment for docosahexaenoic acid led to the elimination of the association. The relation between marine omega-3 fatty acids and T2D was observed in hypertensive and nonhypertensive subjects and in women who reported infrequent fish consumption. Our data suggest an increased risk of T2D with the intake of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, especially with higher intakes (≥ 0.20 g omega-3/d or ≥ 2 servings of fish/d). The Women's Health Study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00000479.

  9. Oxygen consumption rate v. rate of energy utilization of fishes: a comparison and brief history of the two measurements.

    PubMed

    Nelson, J A

    2016-01-01

    Accounting for energy use by fishes has been taking place for over 200 years. The original, and continuing gold standard for measuring energy use in terrestrial animals, is to account for the waste heat produced by all reactions of metabolism, a process referred to as direct calorimetry. Direct calorimetry is not easy or convenient in terrestrial animals and is extremely difficult in aquatic animals. Thus, the original and most subsequent measurements of metabolic activity in fishes have been measured via indirect calorimetry. Indirect calorimetry takes advantage of the fact that oxygen is consumed and carbon dioxide is produced during the catabolic conversion of foodstuffs or energy reserves to useful ATP energy. As measuring [CO2 ] in water is more challenging than measuring [O2 ], most indirect calorimetric studies on fishes have used the rate of O2 consumption. To relate measurements of O2 consumption back to actual energy usage requires knowledge of the substrate being oxidized. Many contemporary studies of O2 consumption by fishes do not attempt to relate this measurement back to actual energy usage. Thus, the rate of oxygen consumption (M˙O2 ) has become a measurement in its own right that is not necessarily synonymous with metabolic rate. Because all extant fishes are obligate aerobes (many fishes engage in substantial net anaerobiosis, but all require oxygen to complete their life cycle), this discrepancy does not appear to be of great concern to the fish biology community, and reports of fish oxygen consumption, without being related to energy, have proliferated. Unfortunately, under some circumstances, these measures can be quite different from one another. A review of the methodological history of the two measurements and a look towards the future are included.

  10. Meat and fish consumption and risk of lung cancer: A case-control study in Galicia, Spain.

    PubMed

    Dosil-Díaz, O; Ruano-Ravina, A; Gestal-Otero, J J; Barros-Dios, J M

    2007-07-08

    Diet is one of the elements that may influence the development of lung cancer. To ascertain the relationship between meat and fish consumption and the appearance of this disease, a case-control study was conducted on a population in Galicia (NW Spain), with a sample of 295 cases and 322 controls. All cases had histologic confirmation, and controls were individuals who were attending the hospital to undergo trivial surgery. All subjects were over 35, and sampling was based on sex frequency. Frequent consumption of meat seemed to have a protective effect, with an OR of 0.24 (95% CI 0.11-0.50), an effect that was maintained for pork consumption (OR 0.35; 95% CI 0.18-0.67). In contrast, consumption of fish showed an association with lung cancer, with an OR of 1.67 (95% CI 0.99-2.81), an association that extended to both white (OR 1.61 95% CI 0.93-2.79) and blue fish (OR 2.03 95% CI 1.23-3.34). Consumption of meat seems to reduce the risk of lung cancer, whereas consumption of fish could exert an influence by increasing the risk of this disease.

  11. Human milk as a source of methylmercury exposure in infants

    SciTech Connect

    Grandjean, P. ); Jorgensen, P.J. ); Weihe, P. )

    1994-01-01

    As methylmercury is excreted in human milk and infants are particularly susceptible to toxicity due to this compound, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the possible transfer of methylmercury to infants via breast-feeding. In a community with a high intake of seafood, 583 children from a birth cohort were followed. The duration of nursing was recorded, and hair samples were obtained for mercury analysis at approximately 12 months of age. The hair mercury concentrations increased with the length of the nursing period, and those nursed throughout the first year showed the highest geometric mean (9.0 nmol/g or 1.8 [mu]g/g). Human milk therefore seems to be an important source of methylmercury exposure in infants. As increasing time interval from weaning to hair sample collection was not associated with any detectable decrease in mercury concentrations. A slow or absent elimination of methylmercury during the first year after birth could explain this finding. In certain fishing communities, infants nursed for long periods may be at increased risk of developing methylmercury toxicity. 25 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Human Milk as a Source of Methylmercury Exposure in Infants.

    PubMed Central

    Grandjean, P; Jørgensen, PJ; Weihe, P

    1994-01-01

    As methylmercury is excreted in human milk and infants are particularly susceptible to toxicity due to this compound, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the possible transfer of methylmercury to infants via breast-feeding. In a community with a high intake of seafood, 583 children from a birth cohort were followed. The duration of nursing was recorded, and hair samples were obtained for mercury analysis at approximately 12 months of age. The hair mercury concentrations increased with the length of the nursing period, and those nursed throughout the first year showed the highest geometric mean (9.0 nmol/g or 1.8 microg/g). Human milk therefore seems to be an important source of methylmercury exposure in infants. An increasing time interval from weaning to hair sample collection was not associated with any detectable decrease in mercury concentrations. A slow or absent elimination of methylmercury during the first year after birth could explain this finding. In certain fishing communities, infants nursed for long periods may be at increased risk of developing methylmercury toxicity. Images p74-a Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:9719671

  13. Fish Consumption and Age-Related Macular Degeneration Incidence: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review of Prospective Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wei; Wu, Yan; Meng, Yi-Fang; Xing, Qian; Tao, Jian-Jun; Lu, Jiong

    2016-01-01

    The association between fish consumption and risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is still unclear. The aim of the current meta-analysis and systematic review was to quantitatively evaluate findings from observational studies on fish consumption and the risk of AMD. Relevant studies were identified by searching electronic databases (Medline and EMBASE) and reviewing the reference lists of relevant articles up to August, 2016. Prospective cohort studies that reported relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the link between fish consumption and risk of AMD were included. A total of 4202 cases with 128,988 individuals from eight cohort studies were identified in the current meta-analysis. The meta-analyzed RR was 0.76 (95% CI, 0.65–0.90) when any AMD was considered. Subgroup analyses by AMD stages showed that fish consumption would reduce the risk of both early (RR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.72–0.96) and late (RR; 0.76; 95% CI, 0.60–0.97) AMD. When stratified by the follow-up duration, fish consumption was a protective factor of AMD in both over 10 years (n = 5; RR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.67–0.97) and less than 10 years (n = 3; RR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.51 to 0.97) follow-up duration. Stratified analyses by fish type demonstrated that dark meat fish (RR, 0.68, 95% CI, 0.46–0.99), especially tuna fish (RR, 0.58; 95% CI, 95% CI, 0.47–0.71) intake was associated with reduced AMD risk. Evidence of a linear association between dose of fish consumption and risk of AMD was demonstrated. The results of this meta-analysis demonstrated that fish consumption can reduce AMD risk. Advanced, well-designed, randomized clinical trials are required in order to validate the conclusions in this study. PMID:27879656

  14. Involvement of reactive oxygen species derived from mitochondria in neuronal injury elicited by methylmercury

    PubMed Central

    Ishihara, Yasuhiro; Tsuji, Mayumi; Kawamoto, Toshihiro; Yamazaki, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Methylmercury induces oxidative stress and subsequent neuronal injury. However, the mechanism by which methylmercury elicits reactive oxygen species (ROS) production remains under debate. In this study, we investigated the involvement of mitochondrial ROS in methylmercury-induced neuronal cell injury using human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y-derived ρ0 cells, which have a deletion of mitochondrial DNA and thus decreased respiratory activity. SH-SY5Y cells were cultured for 60 days in the presence of ethidium bromide to produce ρ0 cells. Our ρ0 cells showed decreases in the cytochrome c oxidase expression and activity as well as oxygen consumption compared with original SH-SY5Y cells. Methylmercury at a concentration of 1 µM induced cell death with oxidative stress in original SH-SY5Y cells, but not ρ0 cells, indicating that ρ0 cells are resistant to methylmercury-induced oxidative stress. ρ0 cells also showed tolerance against hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion, suggesting that ρ0 cells are resistant to total ROS. These data indicate that mitochondrial ROS are clearly involved in oxidative stress and subsequent cell death induced by methylmercury. Considering that the dominant mechanism of ROS generation elicited by methylmercury is due to direct antioxidant enzyme inhibition, mitochondria might play a role in amplifying ROS in methylmercury-induced neurotoxicity. PMID:27895385

  15. Anthropogenic debris in seafood: Plastic debris and fibers from textiles in fish and bivalves sold for human consumption.

    PubMed

    Rochman, Chelsea M; Tahir, Akbar; Williams, Susan L; Baxa, Dolores V; Lam, Rosalyn; Miller, Jeffrey T; Teh, Foo-Ching; Werorilangi, Shinta; Teh, Swee J

    2015-09-24

    The ubiquity of anthropogenic debris in hundreds of species of wildlife and the toxicity of chemicals associated with it has begun to raise concerns regarding the presence of anthropogenic debris in seafood. We assessed the presence of anthropogenic debris in fishes and shellfish on sale for human consumption. We sampled from markets in Makassar, Indonesia, and from California, USA. All fish and shellfish were identified to species where possible. Anthropogenic debris was extracted from the digestive tracts of fish and whole shellfish using a 10% KOH solution and quantified under a dissecting microscope. In Indonesia, anthropogenic debris was found in 28% of individual fish and in 55% of all species. Similarly, in the USA, anthropogenic debris was found in 25% of individual fish and in 67% of all species. Anthropogenic debris was also found in 33% of individual shellfish sampled. All of the anthropogenic debris recovered from fish in Indonesia was plastic, whereas anthropogenic debris recovered from fish in the USA was primarily fibers. Variations in debris types likely reflect different sources and waste management strategies between countries. We report some of the first findings of plastic debris in fishes directly sold for human consumption raising concerns regarding human health.

  16. Anthropogenic debris in seafood: Plastic debris and fibers from textiles in fish and bivalves sold for human consumption

    PubMed Central

    Rochman, Chelsea M.; Tahir, Akbar; Williams, Susan L.; Baxa, Dolores V.; Lam, Rosalyn; Miller, Jeffrey T.; Teh, Foo-Ching; Werorilangi, Shinta; Teh, Swee J.

    2015-01-01

    The ubiquity of anthropogenic debris in hundreds of species of wildlife and the toxicity of chemicals associated with it has begun to raise concerns regarding the presence of anthropogenic debris in seafood. We assessed the presence of anthropogenic debris in fishes and shellfish on sale for human consumption. We sampled from markets in Makassar, Indonesia, and from California, USA. All fish and shellfish were identified to species where possible. Anthropogenic debris was extracted from the digestive tracts of fish and whole shellfish using a 10% KOH solution and quantified under a dissecting microscope. In Indonesia, anthropogenic debris was found in 28% of individual fish and in 55% of all species. Similarly, in the USA, anthropogenic debris was found in 25% of individual fish and in 67% of all species. Anthropogenic debris was also found in 33% of individual shellfish sampled. All of the anthropogenic debris recovered from fish in Indonesia was plastic, whereas anthropogenic debris recovered from fish in the USA was primarily fibers. Variations in debris types likely reflect different sources and waste management strategies between countries. We report some of the first findings of plastic debris in fishes directly sold for human consumption raising concerns regarding human health. PMID:26399762

  17. Assessment of health risk related to the ingestion of trace metals through fish consumption in Todos os Santos Bay.

    PubMed

    de Santana, Carolina Oliveira; de Jesus, Taíse Bomfim; de Aguiar, Willian Moura; de Jesus Sant'anna Franca-Rocha, Washington; Soares, Carlos Alberto Caroso

    2017-05-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the concentration of trace elements (As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) in the muscle of carnivorous fish species from three different areas of Todos os Santos Bay (BTS), Bahia State, Brazil. Trace elements were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), and consumption rates advisory for minimizing chronic systemic effects in children and adults were estimated. As concentrations in fish samples from Jiribatuba were higher than legal limits set by FAO, and Cd concentrations in fish from Iguape Bay were high in comparison with FAO and EC. This study provides information about the fish consumption limits, considering the elements concentrations observed in the analyses, in particular As and Cd, necessary for minimizing potential health risks.

  18. Mercury speciation in piscivorous fish from mining-impacted reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuwabara, J.S.; Arai, Y.; Topping, B.R.; Pickering, I.J.; George, G.N.

    2007-01-01

    Guadalupe Reservoir (GUA), California, and Lahontan Reservoir (LAH), Nevada, U.S. are both affected either directly or indirectly by the legacy of gold and silver mining in the Sierra Nevada during the nineteenth century. Analysis of total mercury in fish from these lentic systems consistently indicate elevated concentrations (>1 ??g??g-1 wet weight; hereinafter, all concentrations are reported as wet weight unless indicated otherwise) well above the U.S. Environmenal Protection Agency's human consumption advisory level for fish (<0.3 ??g??g-1). Replicate X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analyses on largemouth bass and hybrid striped bass from GUA and LAH were performed to determine predominant chemical species of mercury accumulated by these high-trophic-level piscivores that are exposed to elevated mercury through trophic transfer in mining-impacted lentic systems. Despite distinct differences in mercury source, the proximity of the source, and concentrations of complexing ligands, results of XANES analysis clearly indicated that mercury accumulated in these individual fish from the two reservoirs were dominated by methylmercury cysteine complexes. These findings are consistent with results from commercial fish species inhabiting marine environments which are presumed to include differing mercury sources (e.g., atmospheric, hydrothermal, or benthic). The dominance of methylmercury cysteine complexes in muscle tissues of fish obtained from such contrasting environments and exposure conditions suggests that a generic toxicological model for the consumption of fish could be applicable over a wide range of ecologic settings. ?? 2007 American Chemical Society.

  19. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Fish Consumption Advisories: Modeling Prenatal, Postnatal, and Childhood Exposures to Persistent Organic Pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Binnington, Matthew J.; Quinn, Cristina L.; McLachlan, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Because human exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) occurs mainly through ingestion of contaminated food, regulatory bodies issue dietary consumption advisories to describe safe intake levels for food items of concern, particularly fish. Objectives: Our study goal was to estimate the effectiveness of fish consumption advisories in reducing exposure of infants and children to POPs. Methods: We used the time-variant mechanistic model CoZMoMAN to estimate and compare prenatal, postnatal, and childhood exposure to polychlorinated biphenyl congener PCB-153 under different scenarios of maternal guideline adherence for both hypothetical constant and realistic time-variant chemical emissions. The scenarios differed in terms of length of compliance (1 vs. 5 years), extent of fish substitution (all vs. half), and replacement diet (uncontaminated produce vs. beef). We also estimated potential exposure reductions for a range of theoretical chemicals to explore how guideline effectiveness varies with a chemical’s partitioning and degradation properties. Results: When assuming realistic time periods of advisory compliance, our findings suggest that temporarily eliminating or reducing maternal fish consumption is largely ineffective in reducing pre- and postnatal exposure to substances with long elimination half-lives in humans, especially during periods of decreasing environmental emissions. Substituting fish with beef may actually result in higher exposure to certain groups of environmental contaminants. On the other hand, advisories may be highly effective in reducing exposure to substances with elimination half-lives in humans shorter than the length of compliance. Conclusions: Our model estimates suggest that fish consumption advisories are unlikely to be effective in reducing prenatal, postnatal, and childhood exposures to compounds with long elimination half-lives in humans. Citation: Binnington MJ, Quinn CL, McLachlan MS, Wania F. 2014. Evaluating

  20. Increased Plasma Levels of Chemoresistance-Inducing Fatty Acid 16:4(n-3) After Consumption of Fish and Fish Oil.

    PubMed

    Daenen, Laura G M; Cirkel, Geert A; Houthuijzen, Julia M; Gerrits, Johan; Oosterom, Ilse; Roodhart, Jeanine M L; van Tinteren, Harm; Ishihara, Kenji; Huitema, Alwin D R; Verhoeven-Duif, Nanda M; Voest, Emile E

    2015-06-01

    the recommended daily amount of 10 mL of fish oil was administered to healthy volunteers, rises in plasma 16:4(n-3) levels were observed, reaching up to 20 times the baseline levels. Herring and mackerel contained high levels of 16:4(n-3) in contrast to salmon and tuna. Consumption of fish with high levels of 16:4(n-3) also resulted in elevated plasma levels of 16:4(n-3). All tested fish oils and herring and mackerel fishes contained relevant levels of fatty acid 16:4(n-3), a fatty acid with chemotherapy-negating effects in preclinical models. After ingestion of these fish oils or fishes, 16:4(n-3) was rapidly taken up in the plasma of human volunteers. Until further data become available, fish oil and fish containing high levels of 16:4(n-3) may best be avoided on the days surrounding chemotherapy.

  1. [Effect of a nutrition education intervention on consumption of fruits, vegetables and fish in families of prescholers and scholers].

    PubMed

    Fretes, Gabriela; Salinas, Judith; Vio, Fernando

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the impact of a nutrition education intervention on fruits, vegetables and fish consumption in pre-school and school age children families, through a three months education intervention with a pre-post evaluation in 27 intervened families and 32 controls from public schools in Santiago, Chile. A food-frequency questionnaire on fruits, vegetables and fish, and a survey on food and nutrition knowledge, attitudes and practices were applied to children and their parents. The intervention consisted in six 90 minutes cooking workshops, including the utilization of videos and photovoice for those who cooked in the families. Results showed a significant more consumption of fruits, vegetables and fish in the intervened than in the control group (test de Kolmogorov-Smirnov, test de Wilcoxon, p < 0.05). Comparing pre-post consumption by group, significance differences were for the intervened group in all cases. (test de Wilcoxon for paired samples, p < 0.05). In parents, fruit consumption increased 135.8 g, vegetables 19.5 g, and fish 10,2 g per day. In children, the increase in fruits was 92.1 g, vegetables 65.9, and fish 5.2 g per day. All the intervened families (n = 22) introduced a significant healthy food improvement at home. Results showed that it is possible to change food habits in families with the implementation of a nutrition education intervention including cooking workshops, videos and photovoice.

  2. Zooplankton mortality in 3D ecosystem modelling considering variable spatial-temporal fish consumptions in the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maar, Marie; Rindorf, Anna; Møller, Eva Friis; Christensen, Asbjørn; Madsen, Kristine S.; van Deurs, Mikael

    2014-05-01

    We tested the feasibility of imposing mesozooplankton mortality into a 3D model based on estimated consumption rates of the dominant planktivorous fish in the North Sea-Kattegat area. The spatial biomass distribution of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus), horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus), Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus), sandeel (Ammodytidae) and European sprat (Sprattus sprattus) was derived from quarterly scientific trawl surveys and Danish commercial catches. Spatio-temporal indices of mortality were created based on the estimated biomasses and ingestion rates from the literature. The fish larvae grazing pressure was obtained from a spatial, size-based larval community model. In this model, larvae, herring and sandeel were the most important fish predators on mesozooplankton, but these groups had different spatial and temporal (seasonal) distributions. Fish larvae were particularly dominant in the eastern and southern areas in early summer. Herring and sandeel had the highest consumption in the central and north-western areas and were more important in late summer. The fish index changed the perceived annual, seasonal and spatial patterns in modelled mesozooplankton biomass, production and mortality. In the present study, the index was kept relatively simple and can be further developed with respect to the description of fish as well carnivorous zooplankton ingestion rates. The data input required to create the fish index is (i) planktivorous fish stock biomasses and (ii) relative fish spawning distribution information and (iii) physics (ocean currents and temperatures) for the region and situation of interest. The fish index seems promising as a realistic mortality term for lower trophic levels in 3D ecosystem models in areas with available data on fish stocks to improve management of marine resources.

  3. Developmental neurotoxicity: methylmercury and prenatal exposure protection in the context of the Minamata Convention.

    PubMed

    Boischio, Ana

    2015-09-01

    Mercury is a global pollutant of public environmental health concern due to its long-range atmospheric distribution, environmental distribution, and neurotoxic effects. Following biological methylation, methylmercury (MeHg) can be un-evenly bioaccumulated within aquatic food chains. Fish consumption can be a significant route of human exposure to MeHg. MeHg exposure in the prenatal stage, at relatively low levels, has recently been established as harmful during neurological development, potentially leading to intellectual disability. The Minamata Convention on Mercury is a global agreement, currently under ratification, to protect human health and the environment from anthropogenic emissions and releases of mercury and mercury compounds. The resolution regarding the role of the World Health Organization and ministries of health in the implementation of the Convention includes protection of human health from critical exposures to MeHg. Riverside populations living in areas with artisanal small-scale gold mining, and relying heavily on fish consumption, have been identified as the most vulnerable population in terms of MeHg exposure and developmental neurotoxicity. This article focuses on the proper design and dissemination of fish advisories within the context of implementation of the Convention.

  4. Ratiometric Photoacoustic Molecular Imaging for Methylmercury Detection in Living Subjects.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Wang, Sheng; Ma, Ying; Lin, Jing; Wang, Hai-Yan; Gu, Yueqing; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Huang, Peng

    2017-02-22

    Photoacoustic molecular imaging is an emerging and promising diagnostic tool for heavy metal ions detection. Methylmercury (MeHg(+) ) is one of the most potent neurotoxins, which damages the brain and nervous system of human beings through fish consumption. The development of a selective and sensitive method for MeHg(+) detection is highly desirable. In this Communication, we develope a chemoselective photoacoustic sensor (LP-hCy7) composed of the liposome (LP) and MeHg(+) -responsive near-infrared (NIR) cyanine dye (hCy7) for MeHg(+) detection within living subjects, such as zebrafish and mouse. The as-prepared LP-hCy7 nanoprobe displays unique dual-shift NIR absorbance peaks and produces a normalized turn-on response after the reaction of MeHg(+) and hCy7 through a mercury-promoted cyclization reaction. The absorbance intensities of LP-hCy7 nanoprobe at 690 and 860 nm are decreased and increased, respectively. The ratiometric photoacoustic signal (PA860/PA690) is noticeably increased in the presence of MeHg(+) . These findings not only provide a ratiometric photoacoustic molecular imaging probe for the detection of metal ions in vivo, but also provides a tool for spectroscopic photoacoustic molecular imaging.

  5. Alcohol consumption and risky sexual behaviour in the fishing communities: evidence from two fish landing sites on Lake Victoria in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Tumwesigye, Nazarius M; Atuyambe, Lynn; Wanyenze, Rhoda K; Kibira, Simon Ps; Li, Qing; Wabwire-Mangen, Fred; Wagner, Glenn

    2012-12-11

    The fishing communities are among population groups that are most at risk of HIV infection, with some studies putting the HIV prevalence at 5 to 10 times higher than in the general population. Alcohol consumption has been identified as one of the major drivers of the sexual risk behaviour in the fishing communities. This paper investigates the relationship between alcohol consumption patterns and risky behaviour in two fishing communities on Lake Victoria. Face-to-face interviews were conducted among 303 men and 172 women at the fish landing sites; categorised into fishermen, traders of fish or fish products and other merchandise, and service providers such as casual labourers and waitresses in bars and hotels, including 12 female sexual workers. Stratified random sampling methodology was used to select study units. Multivariable analysis was conducted to assess independent relationship between alcohol consumption and sexual risky behaviour. Measures of alcohol consumption included the alcohol use disorder test score (AUDIT), having gotten drunk in previous 30 days, drinking at least 2 times a week while measures for risky behaviour included engaging in transactional sex, inconsistent condom use, having sex with non-regular partner and having multiple sexual partners. The level of harmful use of alcohol in the two fishing communities was quite high as 62% of the male and 52% of the female drinkers had got drunk in previous 30 days. The level of risky sexual behaviour was equally high as 63% of the men and 59% of the women had unprotected sex at last sexual event. Of the 3 occupations fishermen had the highest levels of harmful use of alcohol and risky sexual behaviour followed by service providers judging from values of most indicators. The kind of alcohol consumption variables correlated with risky sexual behaviour variables, varied by occupation. Frequent alcohol consumption, higher AUDIT score, having got drunk, longer drinking hours and drinking any day of

  6. Persistent halogenated compounds in aquaculture environments of South China: implications for global consumers' health risk via fish consumption.

    PubMed

    Yu, Huan-Yun; Zhang, Bao-Zhong; Giesy, John P; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2011-10-01

    This study examined the potential sources of persistent halogenated compounds (PHCs), including organochlorine pesticides, mainly DDXs (sum of o,p'- and p,p'-DDT, -DDD, and -DDE and p,p'-DDMU) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers, to typical aquaculture environments of South China, determined the relative importance of gill diffusion and fish feeding for exposure of fish to these contaminants and assessed potential health risk for global consumers via consumption of fish from South China. Fish feed is generally a direct and important source of PHCs in both freshwater and seawater aquaculture. In addition, gill diffusion is the predominant uptake route for PHCs (except p,p'-DDMU, o,p'-DDD and -DDT) in farmed freshwater fish, whereas accumulation from the diet is the major route for farmed marine fish. Risks to health of global consumers via consumption of fish from South China are minimal. However, increased risk can be foreseen due to continuous use of brominated fire retardants and electronic waste importation to China.

  7. Diet and lifestyle factors associated with fish consumption in men and women: a study of whether gender differences can result in gender-specific confounding.

    PubMed

    Wennberg, Maria; Tornevi, Andreas; Johansson, Ingegerd; Hörnell, Agneta; Norberg, Margareta; Bergdahl, Ingvar A

    2012-12-04

    Fish consumption and intake of omega-3 fatty acids from fish are associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease. However, a prospective study from northern Sweden showed that high consumption of fish is associated with an increased risk of stroke in men, but not in women. The current study aimed to determine if fish consumption is differently related to lifestyle in men compared with women in northern Sweden. Lifestyle information on 32,782 men and 34,866 women (aged 30-60 years) was collected between 1992 and 2006 within the Västerbotten Intervention Programme (a health intervention in northern Sweden). Spearman correlations coefficients (Rs) were calculated between self-reported consumption of fish and other food items. Lifestyle variables were compared between fish consumption categories. Fish consumption was positively associated with other foods considered healthy (e.g., root vegetables, lettuce/cabbage/spinach/broccoli, chicken, and berries; Rs = 0.21-0.30), as well as with other healthy lifestyle factors (e.g., exercise and not smoking) and a higher educational level, in both men and women. The only gender difference found, concerned the association between fish consumption and alcohol consumption. Men who were high consumers of fish had a higher intake of all types of alcohol compared with low to moderate fish consumers. For women, this was true only for wine. Except for alcohol, the association between fish consumption and healthy lifestyle did not differ between men and women in northern Sweden. It is important to adjust for other lifestyle variables and socioeconomic variables in studies concerning the effect of fish consumption on disease outcome.

  8. Diet and lifestyle factors associated with fish consumption in men and women: a study of whether gender differences can result in gender-specific confounding

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Fish consumption and intake of omega-3 fatty acids from fish are associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease. However, a prospective study from northern Sweden showed that high consumption of fish is associated with an increased risk of stroke in men, but not in women. The current study aimed to determine if fish consumption is differently related to lifestyle in men compared with women in northern Sweden. Methods Lifestyle information on 32,782 men and 34,866 women (aged 30–60 years) was collected between 1992 and 2006 within the Västerbotten Intervention Programme (a health intervention in northern Sweden). Spearman correlations coefficients (Rs) were calculated between self-reported consumption of fish and other food items. Lifestyle variables were compared between fish consumption categories. Results Fish consumption was positively associated with other foods considered healthy (e.g., root vegetables, lettuce/cabbage/spinach/broccoli, chicken, and berries; Rs = 0.21-0.30), as well as with other healthy lifestyle factors (e.g., exercise and not smoking) and a higher educational level, in both men and women. The only gender difference found, concerned the association between fish consumption and alcohol consumption. Men who were high consumers of fish had a higher intake of all types of alcohol compared with low to moderate fish consumers. For women, this was true only for wine. Conclusions Except for alcohol, the association between fish consumption and healthy lifestyle did not differ between men and women in northern Sweden. It is important to adjust for other lifestyle variables and socioeconomic variables in studies concerning the effect of fish consumption on disease outcome. PMID:23210480

  9. Is the fresh water fish consumption a significant determinant of the internal exposure to perfluoroalkylated substances (PFAS)?

    PubMed

    Denys, Sébastien; Fraize-Frontier, Sandrine; Moussa, Oumar; Le Bizec, Bruno; Veyrand, Bruno; Volatier, Jean-Luc

    2014-12-01

    PFAS are man-made compounds that are highly spread in the environment. Human dietary exposure to such contaminants is of high concern as they may accumulate in the food chain. Different studies already demonstrated the importance of the fish consumption in the dietary exposure of these molecules and the potential increase of internal doses of PFAS following the consumption of PFAS. However, so far few study aimed to study the link between the consumption of fresh water fishes and the internal exposure to PFAS. Objectives of this study were (i) to estimate the internal exposure of populations that are potentially high consumers of fresh water fishes and (ii) to determine whether the consumption of fish caught from fresh water is a significant determinant of the internal exposure of PFAS. In this work, a large sample of adult freshwater anglers from the French metropolitan population (478 individuals) was constituted randomly from participants lists of anglers associations. Questionnaires provided social and demographic information and diet information for each subject. In addition, analyses of blood serum samples provided the internal concentration of 14 PFAS. The survey design allowed to extrapolate the data obtained on the 478 individuals to the freshwater angler population. Descriptive data regarding internal levels of PFAS were discussed at the population level, whereas identification of the determinants were done at the 478 individuals level as sufficient contrast was required in terms of fresh water fish consumption. Only molecules for which the detection frequency were above 80% in blood were considered, i.e., PFOS, PFOA, PFHxS, PFNA, PFHpS, and PFDA. Distribution profiles showed log-normal distribution and PFOS and PFOA were the main contributors of the PFAS sum. For PFOS, the results obtained on the 478 individuals showed that upper percentiles were higher as compared to upper percentiles obtained on occidental general population. This confirmed an over

  10. The Consumption of Breakfast, Fish and/or Caffeine does not Predict Study Progress in Adult Distance Education.

    PubMed

    Gijselaers, Hieronymus J M; Kirschner, Paul A; de Groot, Renate H M

    2016-10-06

    Consumption of breakfast, fish, or caffeine are each separately often investigated in relation to learning performance in traditional education, but not in distance education (DE). The objective of this study was to investigate whether the relations between the consumption of breakfast, fish, and/or caffeine on the one hand and learning performance on the other are also found in DE students. This population is different from traditional students and characterized by a different profile in terms of age, personal and work responsibilities as well as other demographics. In an observational longitudinal study, the consumption of breakfast, fish, and caffeine of 1157 DE students (18-76 years old, mean 35.8±11.1 years) was used to predict learning performance using multiple regression analysis. In an online digital survey, university students provided information about their consumption of these nutritional measures and on important covariates. Learning performance, measured as study progress (i.e., the number of successfully completed modules), was evaluated objectively after 14 months. Results showed that adding the consumption of breakfast, fish, and caffeine to the covariate model did not fit the data better, χ(2) (3, N = 1155) = 3.287, p = 0.35. This means that neither the consumption of breakfast nor fish nor caffeine predicted study progress in adults participating in DE. This study is important as it is the first to report on these relations in this specific age group and educational setting, which is increasingly important due to the increased preference for this type of education.

  11. Selenium and mercury molar ratios in saltwater fish from New Jersey: Individual and species variability complicate use in human health fish consumption advisories☆

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Balancing risk versus benefits to humans and other organisms from consuming fish is a national concern in the USA, as well as in many other parts of the world. Protecting public health is both a federal and state responsibility, and states respond by issuing fish consumption advisories, particularly for mercury. Recently it has been emphasized that the protective role of selenium against mercury toxicity depends on their molar ratios, which should be evaluated as an indication of selenium’s protective capacity, and incorporated in risk assessments for fish consumption. However, there is no single “protective” ratio agreed upon. In this paper we examine the selenium:mercury (Se:Hg) molar ratios in a wide range of saltwater fish caught and eaten by recreational fishers along the New Jersey coast. We were particularly interested in interspecific and intraspecific variability, and whether the molar ratios were consistent within a species, allowing for its use in managing risk. The selenium–mercury molar ratio showed significant variation among and within fish species. The molar ratio decreased with the size of the fish species, decreased with the mercury levels, and within a fish species, the selenium:mercury ratio decreased with fish size. As an essential element, selenium undergoes some homeostatic regulation, but it is also highly toxic. Within species, mercury level tends to increase with size, accounting for the negative relationship between size and ratio. This variability may make it difficult to use the selenium:mercury molar ratio in risk assessment, risk management, and risk communication at this time, and more information is needed on how mercury and selenium actually interact and on the relationship between the molar ratios and health outcomes. PMID:22405995

  12. The influence of external subsidies on diet, growth and Hg concentrations of freshwater sport fish: implications for management and fish consumption advisories.

    PubMed

    Lepak, Jesse M; Hooten, Mevin B; Johnson, Brett M

    2012-10-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination in sport fish is a global problem. In freshwater systems, food web structure, sport fish sex, size, diet and growth rates influence Hg bioaccumulation. Fish stocking is a common management practice worldwide that can introduce external energy and contaminants into freshwater systems. Thus, stocking can alter many of the factors that influence Hg concentrations in sport fish. Here we evaluated the influence of external subsidies, in the form of hatchery-raised rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss on walleye Sander vitreus diet, growth and Hg concentrations in two freshwater systems. Stocking differentially influenced male and female walleye diets and growth, producing a counterintuitive size-contamination relationship. Modeling indicated that walleye growth rate and diet were important explanatory variables when predicting Hg concentrations. Thus, hatchery contributions to freshwater systems in the form of energy and contaminants can influence diet, growth and Hg concentrations in sport fish. Given the extensive scale of fish stocking, and the known health risks associated with Hg contamination, this represents a significant issue for managers monitoring and manipulating freshwater food web structures, and policy makers attempting to develop fish consumption advisories to protect human health in stocked systems.

  13. The influence of external subsidies on diet, growth and Hg concentrations of freshwater sport fish: implications for management and fish consumption advisories

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lepak, J.M.; Hooten, M.B.; Johnson, B.M.

    2012-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination in sport fish is a global problem. In freshwater systems, food web structure, sport fish sex, size, diet and growth rates influence Hg bioaccumulation. Fish stocking is a common management practice worldwide that can introduce external energy and contaminants into freshwater systems. Thus, stocking can alter many of the factors that influence Hg concentrations in sport fish. Here we evaluated the influence of external subsidies, in the form of hatchery-raised rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss on walleye Sander vitreus diet, growth and Hg concentrations in two freshwater systems. Stocking differentially influenced male and female walleye diets and growth, producing a counterintuitive size-contamination relationship. Modeling indicated that walleye growth rate and diet were important explanatory variables when predicting Hg concentrations. Thus, hatchery contributions to freshwater systems in the form of energy and contaminants can influence diet, growth and Hg concentrations in sport fish. Given the extensive scale of fish stocking, and the known health risks associated with Hg contamination, this represents a significant issue for managers monitoring and manipulating freshwater food web structures, and policy makers attempting to develop fish consumption advisories to protect human health in stocked systems.

  14. Assessing exposure risks for freshwater tilapia species posed by mercury and methylmercury.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yi-Hsien; Lin, Yi-Jun; You, Shu-Han; Yang, Ying-Fei; How, Chun Ming; Tseng, Yi-Ting; Chen, Wei-Yu; Liao, Chung-Min

    2016-08-01

    Waterborne and dietborne exposures of freshwater fish to mercury (Hg) in the forms of inorganic (Hg(II)) and organic (methylmercury or MeHg) affect their growth, development, and reproduction. However, an integrated mechanistic risk model framework to predict the impact of Hg(II)/MeHg on freshwater fish is lacking. Here, we integrated biokinetic, physiological and biogeographic data to calibrate and then establish key risk indices-hazardous quotient and exceedance risk-for freshwater tilapia species across geographic ranges of several major rivers in Taiwan. We found that Hg(II) burden was highest in kidney followed by gill, intestine, liver, blood, and muscle. Our results showed that Hg was less likely to pose mortality risk (mortality rate less than 5 %) for freshwater tilapia species. However, Hg is likely to pose the potential hazard to aquatic environments constrained by safety levels for aquatic organisms. Sensitivity analysis showed that amount of Hg accumulated in tilapia was most influenced by sediment uptake rate. Our approach opens up new possibilities for predicting future fish population health with the impacts of continued Hg exposure to provide information on which fish are deemed safe for human consumption.

  15. Bioavailability of methylmercury to Sacramento blackfish (Orthodon microlepidotus): Dissolved organic carbon effects

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, M.H.; Cech, J.J. Jr.; Lagunas-Solar, M.C.

    1998-04-01

    The effect of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) on methylmercury (MeHg) uptake across the gills of Sacramento blackfish (Orthodon microlepidotus) was investigated using the Hg-203 radioisotope. The efficiency of fish gills in extracting MeHg from water was measured using a McKim-type fish respirometer that separated exposure water from expired water. Blackfish gill ventilation and oxygen consumption rates remained constant, while Me{sup 203}Hg uptake was decreased significantly in the presence of DOC. Mean Me{sup 203}Hg extraction efficiency, uptake rate constant, and blood to inspired water ratio decreased 78%, 73%, and 63%, respectively, with 2 mg C/L of DOC, and 85%, 82%, and 70% with 5 mg C/L DOC, compared to the Me{sup 203}Hg reference treatment group. Because respiratory parameters remained unchanged, reductions in Me{sup 203}Hg uptake indicate strong interactions between DOC and Me{sup 203}Hg Methyl{sup 203}Hg levels in fish gills, kidney, and spleen from 2 and 5 mg C/L were significantly lower than those observed from the reference treatment group. These reductions in uptake (bioavailability) support the hypothesis that trans-gill transport of Me{sup 203}Hg is inhibited when it is complexed by DOC in the aqueous medium, decreasing Me{sup 203}Hg uptake and accumulation in fish organs.

  16. Accumulation of dietary methylmercury in the testes of the adult brown norway rat: Impaired testicular and epididymal function

    SciTech Connect

    Friedmann, A.S.; Chen, H.; Zirkin, B.R.; Rabuck, L.D.

    1998-05-01

    The widespread consumption of fish containing elevated concentrations of methylmercury has prompted concern over the health effects of such a diet. Previous studies with rodents have indicated that exposure to dietary mercury (Hg) impairs male reproductive health. However, adverse effects were observed following doses in the range of milligrams per kilogram of body weight, whereas typical human consumption in the United States is in the range of micrograms per kilogram of body weight. This study examined the effects of dietary Hg on male rats using levels of the metal that are more similar to those typically consumed by humans. For 19 weeks, adult male Brown Norway rats were administered methylmercury twice weekly at 0.8, 8.0, or 80 {micro}g/kg. Intratesticular testosterone levels in the high-dose group were reduced by 44$, suggesting that steroidogenesis in these animals was dramatically impaired. Although sperm production was not significantly affected, numbers of sperm in the cauda epididymides of the high-dose group were reduced by 17%. Furthermore, there was a negative correlation between fertility and testicular Hg content. These results raise the possibility that exposure to Hg at levels consumed by humans may result in steroidogenic impairment, reduced sperm counts, and fertility problems.

  17. Perinatal Consumption of Thiamine-Fortified Fish Sauce in Rural Cambodia: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, Kyly C; Karakochuk, Crystal D; Kroeun, Hou; Hampel, Daniela; Sokhoing, Ly; Chan, Benny B; Borath, Mam; Sophonneary, Prak; McLean, Judy; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Lynd, Larry D; Li-Chan, Eunice C Y; Kitts, David D; Allen, Lindsay H; Green, Timothy J

    2016-10-03

    Infantile beriberi, a potentially fatal disease caused by thiamine deficiency, remains a public health concern in Cambodia and regions where thiamine-poor white rice is a staple food. Low maternal thiamine intake reduces breast milk thiamine concentrations, placing breastfed infants at risk of beriberi. To determine if consumption of thiamine-fortified fish sauce yields higher erythrocyte thiamine diphosphate concentrations (eTDP) among lactating women and newborn infants and higher breast milk thiamine concentrations compared with a control sauce. In this double-blind randomized clinical trial, 90 pregnant women were recruited in the Prey Veng province, Cambodia. The study took place between October 2014 and April 2015. Women were randomized to 1 of 3 groups (n = 30) for ad libitum fish sauce consumption for 6 months: control (no thiamine), low-concentration (2 g/L), or high-concentration (8 g/L) fish sauce. Maternal eTDP was assessed at baseline (October 2014) and endline (April 2015). Secondary outcomes, breast milk thiamine concentration and infant eTDP, were measured at endline. Women's mean (SD) age and gestational stage were 26 (5) years and 23 (7) weeks, respectively. April 2015 eTDP was measured among 28 women (93%), 29 women (97%), and 23 women (77%) in the control, low-concentration, and high-concentration groups, respectively. In modified intent-to-treat analysis, mean baseline-adjusted endline eTDP was higher among women in the low-concentration (282nM; 95% CI, 235nM to 310nM) and high-concentration (254nM; 95% CI, 225nM to 284nM) groups compared with the control group (193nM; 95% CI, 164nM to 222M; P < .05); low-concentration and high-concentration groups did not differ (P = .19). Breast milk total thiamine concentrations were 14.4 μg/dL for the control group (95% CI, 12.3 μg/dL to 16.5 μg/dL) (to convert to nanomoles per liter, multiply by 29.6); 20.7 μg/dL for the low-concentration group (95% CI, 18.6 μg/dL to 22.7 μg/dL ); and 17

  18. Concomitant consumption of lycopene and fish oil inhibits tumor growth and progression in a mouse xenograft model of colon cancer

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Our previous report showed that concomitant supplementation of lycopene and eicosa-pentaenoic acid synergistically inhibited the proliferation of human colon cancer HT-29 cells in vitro. To validate our findings, the present study investigated whether consumption of lycopene and fish oil would help ...

  19. Healthy Eating and Barriers Related to Social Class. The case of vegetable and fish consumption in Norway.

    PubMed

    Skuland, Silje Elisabeth

    2015-09-01

    The article examines the constraints on healthy eating by exploring whether barriers such as taste, competence, time, price, quality and limited selection reduce consumption of vegetables and fish among Norwegians. In order to understand the socio-economic gradient of healthy diets, the study examines how these barriers are related to specific class positions. Regular consumption of both fish and vegetables are recommended by health authorities, and they are broadly perceived as healthy foods by Norwegians. Nevertheless, more than half of the population consumes vegetables less frequently than daily, and the average consumption of fish is far below the recommended two to three dinner portions of fish on a weekly basis. Informed by Bourdieu's theories of social class, this article argues for two overarching barriers related to food consumption, food knowledge and perceived food quality by consumers, and it finds that barriers are tied to scarcity of cultural, economic and social capital. A survey of 2000 respondents subjected to multiple linear regression analysis and factor analysis (PCA) provides the evidence for this study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fish consumption among pregnant women in London, Ontario: associations with socio-demographic and health and lifestyle factors.

    PubMed

    Sontrop, Jessica M; Campbell, M Karen; Evers, Susan E; Speechley, Kathy N; Avison, William R

    2007-01-01

    Intake of fish and omega-3 fatty acids is inversely related to adverse health outcomes; however, these relationships may be confounded by socio-economic status and health behaviours. This study's purpose was to describe the socio-demographic, health and lifestyle correlates of fish consumption among pregnant women. Pregnant women (n=2394) completed a telephone interview between 10-22 weeks' gestation (London, Ontario, 2002-5) containing questions on socio-demographic, health and lifestyle variables; dietary intake was measured using a 106-item validated food-frequency questionnaire. Unadjusted and adjusted risk ratios were obtained using a modified Poisson regression model. Infrequent fish consumption, <1/week, was reported by 32% of women. After adjusting for age and education, infrequent fish consumption was associated with education consumption of vegetables and fruit (RR=1.60; 95% CI 1.42-1.79), milk products (RR=1.19; 95% CI 1.05-1.36), and meat and alternatives (RR=1.89; 95% CI 1.69-2.12). Compared to frequent fish consumers, infrequent fish consumers were less likely to be moderate drinkers prior to pregnancy (RR=0.85; 95% CI 0.75-0.96). Infrequent fish consumption was associated with lower socio-economic status and variables indicative of a less healthy lifestyle; these variables may act as confounders in studies evaluating fish consumption and health outcomes.

  1. Mercury concentrations and omega-3 fatty acids in fish and shrimp: Preferential consumption for maximum health benefits.

    PubMed

    Smith, Katrina L; Guentzel, Jane L

    2010-09-01

    The consumption of fish and shrimp containing omega-3 fatty acids can result in protective health effects including a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke, and diabetes. These protective effects may be decreased by the presence of mercury in the muscle tissue of fish and shellfish. Mercury can increase the risk of cardiovascular problems and impede neurological development. The objective of this project was to determine appropriate consumption amounts of selected fish species and shrimp based on mercury levels and recommended intake levels of omega-3 fatty acids. Species that are high in omega-3s and low in mercury include salmon, trout, and shrimp. Species with both high levels of mercury and omega-3 fatty acids include tuna, shark, and halibut, swordfish, and sea bass.

  2. Meat and fish consumption and the risk of renal cell carcinoma in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Rohrmann, Sabine; Linseisen, Jakob; Overvad, Kim; Lund Würtz, Anne Mette; Roswall, Nina; Tjonneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Racine, Antoine; Bastide, Nadia; Palli, Domenico; Agnoli, Claudia; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Weikert, Steffen; Steffen, Annika; Kühn, Tilman; Li, Kuanrong; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Peppa, Eleni; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Peeters, Petra H M; Hjartåker, Anette; Skeie, Guri; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Jakszyn, Paula; Dorronsoro, Miren; Barricarte, Aurelio; Santiuste de Pablos, Carmen; Molina-Montes, Esther; de la Torre, Ramón Alonso; Ericson, Ulrika; Sonestedt, Emily; Johansson, Mattias; Ljungberg, Börje; Freisling, Heinz; Romieu, Isabelle; Cross, Amanda J; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Riboli, Elio; Boeing, Heiner

    2015-03-01

    Renal cell cancer (RCC) incidence varies worldwide with a higher incidence in developed countries and lifestyle is likely to contribute to the development of this disease. We examined whether meat and fish consumption were related to the risk of RCC in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). The analysis included 493,179 EPIC participants, recruited between 1992 and 2000. Until December 2008, 691 RCC cases have been identified. Meat and fish consumption was assessed at baseline using country-specific dietary assessment instruments; 24-hour recalls were applied in an 8% subsample for calibration purposes. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Women with a high consumption of red meat (HR = 1.36, 95% CI 1.14-1.62; calibrated, per 50 g/day) and processed meat (HR = 1.78, 95% CI 1.05-3.03; calibrated, per 50 g/day) had a higher risk of RCC, while no association existed in men. For processed meat, the association with RCC incidence was prominent in premenopausal women and was lacking in postmenopausal women (p interaction = 0.02). Neither poultry nor fish consumption were statistically significantly associated with the risk of RCC. The results show a distinct association of red and processed meat consumption with incident RCC in women but not in men. A biological explanation for these findings remains unclear.

  3. The Transtheoretical model for fruit, vegetable and fish consumption: associations between intakes, stages of change and stage transition determinants

    PubMed Central

    De Vet, Emely; de Nooijer, Jascha; de Vries, Nanne K; Brug, Johannes

    2006-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular diseases are caused by multiple behavioral factors, including different dietary factors. We examined to what extent fruit, vegetable and fish consumption are related, and whether behavioral determinants vary across these dietary behaviors from a Transtheoretical model perspective. Methods Data were collected among 1142 participants (T0; response rate 46%) selected from an Internet panel, who were followed-up one-week later (T1; N = 1055, response rate 92%). Mean age was 35.4 (SD = 11.9) years, 35% was male, and most respondents were of Dutch origin (90%). Of the respondents, 13%, 44% and 43% had a low, medium or high level of education, respectively. Electronic questionnaires assessed fruit, vegetable and fish intake (food frequency questionnaires), stages of change, decisional balance and self-efficacy, for each of these three behaviors. Results Stages of change and (changes in) fruit, vegetable and fish intake were only weakly associated; decisional balance and self-efficacy were more strongly associated. Some presumed predictors of stage transitions were similar for fruit, vegetable, and fish intake, i.e., strong pros predicted progress out of precontemplators and low self-efficacy predicted relapse from action/maintenance for all behaviors. However, progress out of contemplation and out of preparation showed different patterns for fruit, vegetable and fish intake. Conclusion The weak associations between intakes and potential determinants for fruit, vegetable, and fish consumption do not warrant an integrated dietary change approach targeting the same determinants for each behavior. PMID:16784520

  4. Potential human health risk assessment of trace metals via the consumption of marine fish in Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Naji, Abolfazl; Khan, Farhan R; Hashemi, Seyed Hassan

    2016-08-15

    This study was carried out to evaluate the concentration of trace metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in the muscle of four fish species from the Persian Gulf. Trace metals were analyzed using atomic absorption spectroscopy and consumption rates advisory for minimizing chronic systemic effects in children and adults were estimated. The metals concentrations in analyzed fish samples were lower than legal limits. Cadmium target hazard quotient values suggested that the threshold to avoid the potential risk for children health is an exposure level lower than 3 meals per week. Hazard index values based on four metals (not including Pb) for the child age class were higher than those of the adult age class, suggesting that children may suffer from a higher health risk. This study provides information about the consumption limits of certain metals, in particular Cd, necessary for minimizing potential health risks resulting from human consumption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Vitamin D status in a rural population of northern Norway with high fish liver consumption.

    PubMed

    Brustad, M; Sandanger, T; Aksnes, L; Lund, E

    2004-09-01

    To assess vitamin D status and the impact of three fish meals consisting of cod liver and fresh cod-liver oil on the plasma level of vitamin D metabolites in an area with high consumption of cod liver and cod-liver oil. Experimental field study. Thirty-two volunteers from the Skjervøy (70 degrees N) municipality in northern Norway were recruited to consume three traditional mølje meals, consisting of cod, cod liver, fresh cod-liver oil and hard roe, in one week. The liver and fresh cod-liver oil consumed by the participants were weighed and recorded. Blood samples were collected before the first meal, and subsequently 12 h and 4 days after the last meal. The blood samples were analysed for the vitamin D metabolites 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D). All participants answered a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire, which was used to estimate usual daily nutrient intake. The study was carried out in the last part of March 2001. The median daily vitamin D intake estimated from the questionnaire was 9.9 microg. The proportion of subjects with baseline 25(OH)D level below 50 nmol l(-1) was 15.4% and none were below 37.5 nmol l(-1). Only "mølje consumption" and "time spent in daylight" were significantly associated with baseline log 25(OH)D. The mean total intake of vitamin D in the three servings was 272 microg (standard deviation 94 microg), ranging from 142 to 434 microg. Relative to baseline plasma concentration, the mean level of 25(OH)D decreased slightly in both post-consumption samples (P< or =0.03), while 1,25(OH)2D peaked 12 h after the final meal (P=0.03). Three mølje meals provided, on average, an amount of vitamin D equal to 54 times the recommended daily dose. Subjects with food consumption habits that included frequent mølje meals during the winter sustained satisfactory vitamin D levels in their blood, in spite of the long "vitamin D winter" (i.e. absence of ultraviolet-induced vitamin D production in

  6. Association between Fish Consumption and Prefrontal Function during a Cognitive Task in Male Japanese Workers: A Multi-Channel Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study.

    PubMed

    Pu, Shenghong; Nakagome, Kazuyuki; Yamada, Takeshi; Matsumura, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Katsutoshi; Kaneko, Koichi; Kurosawa, Yoichi

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between fish consumption and prefrontal function during a cognitive task in male Japanese workers. The study included 208 male workers who underwent medical health examinations 3 months after a change in their work assignment. We measured the hemoglobin concentration changes in the prefrontal region during working memory tasks using 52-channel near-infrared spectroscopy. The frequency of fish consumption was calculated on the basis of the subjects' self-reported customary intake frequency over the previous 3 months. A significant positive relationship was observed between fish consumption and left dorsolateral prefrontal function during a working memory task. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report an association between fish consumption and functional cortical activity with an ample sample size, suggesting that fish consumption modulates functional activity in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.

  7. Association between Fish Consumption and Prefrontal Function during a Cognitive Task in Male Japanese Workers: A Multi-Channel Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Shenghong; Nakagome, Kazuyuki; Yamada, Takeshi; Matsumura, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Katsutoshi; Kaneko, Koichi; Kurosawa, Yoichi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between fish consumption and prefrontal function during a cognitive task in male Japanese workers. The study included 208 male workers who underwent medical health examinations 3 months after a change in their work assignment. We measured the hemoglobin concentration changes in the prefrontal region during working memory tasks using 52-channel near-infrared spectroscopy. The frequency of fish consumption was calculated on the basis of the subjects’ self-reported customary intake frequency over the previous 3 months. A significant positive relationship was observed between fish consumption and left dorsolateral prefrontal function during a working memory task. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report an association between fish consumption and functional cortical activity with an ample sample size, suggesting that fish consumption modulates functional activity in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. PMID:25919586

  8. Mercury exposure and source tracking in distinct marine-caged fish farm in southern China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoyu; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2017-01-01

    Coasts of South China have experienced an unprecedented growth in its marine-caged fish industry. We analyzed mercury concentrations and stable mercury isotope ratios in fourteen fish species from two cage-cultured farms in Southern China. Total mercury concentrations of all species were lower than the human health screening values, but the human exposures through consumption of several carnivorous fish exceeded the USEPA's reference dose. Isotopic compositions in the sediment (δ(202)Hg: -1.45‰ to -1.23‰; Δ(199)Hg: -0.04‰ to -0.01‰) suggested that mercury in these farms were from coal combustion and industrial inputs. Commercial food pellets and fresh fish viscera provided the major sources of methylmercury to the farmed fish and dominated their mercury isotopic signatures. Non-carnivorous fish presented lower δ(202)Hg and Δ(199)Hg values than the carnivorous fish. Using a mixing model, we demonstrated that the majority of mercury in non-carnivorous species came from pellets and in carnivorous fish came from combined diets of pellets and viscera. Meanwhile, methylmercury concentrations and % methylmercury in the fish were positively correlated with δ(202)Hg values but not with Δ(199)Hg values, mainly because fish eating similar feeds maintained similar Δ(199)Hg values. Environmental influences of cage farming such as fish feces and uneaten viscera that continuously provide organic mercury to the environments need to be considered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluating risk communication about fish consumption advisories: efficacy of a brochure versus a classroom lesson in Spanish and English.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; McDermott, Melanie Hughes; Chess, Caron; Bochenek, Eleanor; Perez-Lugo, Marla; Pflugh, Kerry Kirk

    2003-08-01

    Presentation format can influence the way target audiences understand risk-related information. Brochures or fish fact sheets are the methods traditionally used by state agencies to inform the public about fish consumption advisories and the risks from consuming fish. This study examines the efficacy of presenting information about the risks from consuming contaminated fish and shellfish in two different formats: a brochure and classroom presentation. The two instruments were developed and tested in Spanish and English, reflecting the local ethnic composition in the Newark Bay Complex. The instruments were tested on women of child-bearing age at the Women, Infants, and Children Center in Elizabeth, New Jersey. Detailed diagrams were used in both presentations, including contaminated fish species, fish preparation methods, and food chain bioaccumulation and transmission to the fetus. There were few language-related differences in the efficacy of the classroom lesson, and the main ideas were understood by both groups. Where there were significant differences in understanding about the risks from consuming fish or crabs from the contaminated waters of Newark Bay, in all cases the women exposed to the classroom lesson had a better understanding than those who read the brochure. Ninety-six percent of the women who heard the lesson understood that it was unsafe to eat fish from the port, compared to 72% of those reading the brochure. Both formats succeeded in imparting information to most women about the area under advisories, the fish species under advisories, and transmission of toxins to the fetus. Information on fish preparation was recalled less clearly, partly because women were asked to relate methods to reduce the risk from consuming fish from 11 presented, and most recalled only two or three of the list. The advantages and disadvantages of conducting short classes to women of child-bearing age are discussed.

  10. Density, growth and annual food consumption of gobiid fish in the saline Lake Grevelingen, The Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doornbos, G.; Twisk, F.

    Within the scope of a study of the carbon budget of the 108 km 2 saline Lake Grevelingen, investigations were made on density, mortality, growth and food consumption of the main gobiid fish during the period 1980 to 1982. In August 1980 the O-group of Pomatoschistus minutus was estimated at 424 million individuals (on average 3.9 fishes per m 2) with a biomass of 203 tons FW. In 1981 and 1982 peak numbers were less high. O-group P. microps accounted for 282 million individuals (2.6 fishes per m 2) and 133 tons FW in September 1981. By far the highest density was found in the 0 to 0.6 m zone, 15 common gobies per m 2 (7 g FW·m -2). With approximately 5.1 million individuals (13 tons FW) Gobius niger was most abundant in 1982. For adult G. niger a monthly mortality of 27% was estimated. Mortality rates in P. minutus and P. microps were found to be fairly constant over the year. The estimated rates of annual mortality of 99.9% (˜46% per month) and 99.996% (˜57% per month), respectively, appear to be much higher than recorded for estuarine populations. Approximately 60% of the decline in numbers of demersal gobiid fish could be accounted for by the predation of two species of flatfish and two species of piscivorous birds. Young of the year of over 20 mm total length of both species were first caught in June. At the end of the first growing season, the average length and weight of P. microps was 39 mm and 0.6 g FW. In their second year they attained an average size of 51 mm. In O-group P. minutus, the 1980 and 1981 year classes reached an average length of 45 mm and 57 mm, respectively. In their second year, however, the difference disappeared and the mean length in both classes approximated 62 mm. Juvenile G. niger were first caught in August at a length of approximately 3.5 cm. They attained an average size of 4 to 5 cm in the first year, 8 to 8.5 cm in the second and 11 to 12.5 cm in the third year. The maximum production of P. minutus and P. microps, although

  11. Consumptive effects of fish reduce wetland crayfish recruitment and drive species turnover.

    PubMed

    Kellogg, Christopher M; Dorn, Nathan J

    2012-04-01

    Predators and dry-disturbances have pronounced effects on invertebrate communities and can deterministically affect compositional turnover between discrete aquatic habitats. We examined the effect of sunfish (Lepomis spp.) predators on two native crayfish, Procambarus alleni and P. fallax, that regionally coexist in an expansive connected wetland in order to test the hypotheses that sunfish predation limits crayfish recruitment (both species) and that it disproportionately affects P. alleni, the species inhabiting temporary wetlands. In replicate vegetated wetlands (18.6 m(2)), we quantified summertime crayfish recruitment and species composition across an experimental gradient of sunfish density. Separately, we quantified effects of sunfish on crayfish growth, conducted a complimentary predation assay in mesocosms, and compared behavior of the two crayfish. Sunfish reduced P. alleni summertime recruitment by >99% over the full sunfish gradient, and most of the effect was caused by low densities of sunfish (0.22-0.43 m(-2)). P. alleni dominated wetlands with few or no sunfish, but the composition shifted towards P. fallax dominance in wetlands with abundant sunfish. P. fallax survived better than P. alleni over 40 h in smaller mesocosms stocked with warmouth. Sunfish reduced P. fallax recruitment 62% in a second wetland experiment, but growth rates of caged crayfish (both species) were unaffected by sunfish presence, suggesting predatory effects were primarily consumptive. Consistent with life histories of relatively fish-sensitive invertebrates, P. alleni engaged in more risky behaviors in the laboratory. Our results indicate that sunfish predators limit recruitment of both species, but disproportionately remove the more active and competitively dominant P. alleni. Spatially and temporally variable dry-disturbances negatively co-varying with sunfish populations allow for regional coexistence of these two crayfish and may release populations of either species from

  12. Metabolism, food consumption and growth of plaice ( Pleuronectes platessa) and flounder ( Platichthys flesus) in relation to fish size and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonds, M.; Cronie, R.; Vethaak, A. D.; Van Der Puyl, P.

    Daily rates of oxygen consumption, food consumption and growth of plaice ( Pleuronectes platessa) and flounder ( Platichthys flesus) have been measured in the laboratory at various constant temperatures. Oxygen consumption was related to body weight of the fish as a power function, with a weight exponent of between 0.71 and 0.85. No significant effects of temperature or feeding on this exponent were found. Flounder showed a significantly higher metabolic rate and a higher temperature coefficient for metabolism than plaice. Maximum daily rates of food consumption and the weight increment of fish fed with excess rations of fresh mussel meat could also be related to fish weights by means of power functions. For plaice these exponents decreased from about 0.9 at low temperatures (2-6 C°) to about 0.7 at high temperatures (18-22°C). Such a temperature effect on the weight exponent indicates that small juvenile fish eat more and grow faster at higher temperatures than do large older fish, and that large fish do better at low temperatures. After scaling of daily food consumption and growth in proportion to metabolic weights of the fish (W 0.78), feeding and growth at different fish sizes and temperatures can be compared and temperature-growth rate models can be used for investigations of feeding in natural populations. Compared to plaice, young flounder ate more and grew faster at higher temperatures (> 14°C). This may partly explain the preference of flounder for the shallower parts of coastal areas and estuaries, where summer temperatures and food densities are higher. Energy budgets of young plaice and flounder fed with excess rations of mussel meat indicate that at least 29% of the food energy is used for metabolism while about 37% of the food energy is converted into growth. The net conversion efficiency was estimated at 0.45 for food and growth in units of ash-free dry weight, and at 0.53 for food and growth in energy units. Analysis of the energy budget showed

  13. Fish consumption and plasma levels of organochlorines in a female population in Northern Norway.

    PubMed

    Furberg, Anne-Sofie; Sandanger, Torkjel; Thune, Inger; Burkow, Ivan C; Lun, Eiliv

    2002-02-01

    Increased cancer incidence and mortality have been found among humans exposed to high levels of organochlorines (OCs), either accidentally or as industrial workers. In order to assess levels of OCs in Norwegian women north of the Arctic Circle and validate self-reported fish consumption as a surrogate measure of organochlorine body burden, concentrations of seven polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners [IUPAC Nos. CB-105, CB-118, CB-138 (+ CB-163), CB-153, CB-180, CB-183, CB-187], beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (beta-HCH), 2,2'-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and cis- and trains-chlordane (c-CD and t-CD) were examined in plasma samples of middle-aged women attending for health screening. Altogether, 47 of those invited (81%) completed a questionnaire and donated a suitable blood sample. The ability of questionnaire data to predict plasma levels of OCs was tested in linear and logistic regression analyses. Measured plasma concentrations were in the range reported for the general female population of other Western countries and the relative amounts of PCBs were similar to the circumpolar pattern. Intake of seagulls' eggs was a predictor of PCB congeners CB-138 (+CB-163) (p<0.05) and CB-153 (p<0.01). No other food category was positively associated with any compound. In contrast, duration of residence in the study municipality, body mass index (BMI) and lifetime lactation (months) were the best univariate predictors. There was an increase in beta-HCH, p,p'-DDE and most of the PCBs (p<0.05 for all) with increasing length of time a subject had lived in the municipality. BMI was a positive predictor for beta-HCH (OR=3.10, 95% CI 1.50-6.43, per 5 kgm(-2)), chlordane (OR=2.13, 95% CI 1.12-4.05, per 5 kgm(-2)) and CB-105 and CB-153 (p<0.05 for both). Lactation was negatively associated with all OCs (p<0.05), except chlordane and two of the PCB congeners. Time living in the municipality and lactation explained 34%, of the variance in concentration of total

  14. Deposition and cycling of sulfur controls mercury accumulation in Isle Royale fish

    SciTech Connect

    Paul E. Drevnick; Donald E. Canfield; Patrick R. Gorski

    2007-11-01

    Mercury contamination of fish is a global problem. Consumption of contaminated fish is the primary route of methylmercury exposure in humans and is detrimental to health. Newly mandated reductions in anthropogenic mercury emissions aim to reduce atmospheric mercury deposition and thus mercury concentrations in fish. However, factors other than mercury deposition are important for mercury bioaccumulation in fish. In the lakes of Isle Royale, U.S.A., reduced rates of sulfate deposition since the Clean Air Act of 1970 have caused mercury concentrations in fish to decline to levels that are safe for human consumption, even without a discernible decrease in mercury deposition. Therefore, reductions in anthropogenic sulfur emissions may provide a synergistic solution to the mercury problem in sulfate-limited freshwaters. 71 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Meat and fish consumption and risk of pancreatic cancer: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Rohrmann, Sabine; Linseisen, Jakob; Nöthlings, Ute; Overvad, Kim; Egeberg, Rikke; Tjønneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Cottet, Vanessa; Pala, Valeria; Tumino, Rosario; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Vineis, Paolo; Boeing, Heiner; Pischon, Tobias; Grote, Verena; Teucher, Birigit; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Crowe, Francesca L; Goufa, Ioulia; Orfanos, Philippos; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Jeurnink, Suzanne M; Siersema, Peter D; Peeters, Petra H M; Brustad, Magritt; Engeset, Dagrun; Skeie, Guri; Duell, Eric J; Amiano, Pilar; Barricarte, Aurelio; Molina-Montes, Esther; Rodríguez, Laudina; Tormo, María-José; Sund, Malin; Ye, Weimin; Lindkvist, Björn; Johansen, Dorthe; Ferrari, Pietro; Jenab, Mazda; Slimani, Nadia; Ward, Heather; Riboli, Elio; Norat, Teresa; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas

    2013-02-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth most common cause of cancer death worldwide with large geographical variation, which implies the contribution of diet and lifestyle in its etiology. We examined the association of meat and fish consumption with risk of pancreatic cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). A total of 477,202 EPIC participants from 10 European countries recruited between 1992 and 2000 were included in our analysis. Until 2008, 865 nonendocrine pancreatic cancer cases have been observed. Calibrated relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed using multivariable-adjusted Cox hazard regression models. The consumption of red meat (RR per 50 g increase per day = 1.03, 95% CI = 0.93-1.14) and processed meat (RR per 50 g increase per day = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.71-1.23) were not associated with an increased pancreatic cancer risk. Poultry consumption tended to be associated with an increased pancreatic cancer risk (RR per 50 g increase per day = 1.72, 95% CI = 1.04-2.84); however, there was no association with fish consumption (RR per 50 g increase per day = 1.22, 95% CI = 0.92-1.62). Our results do not support the conclusion of the World Cancer Research Fund that red or processed meat consumption may possibly increase the risk of pancreatic cancer. The positive association of poultry consumption with pancreatic cancer might be a chance finding as it contradicts most previous findings.

  16. Double-crested cormorant studies at Little Galloo Island, Lake Ontario in 2008: Diet composition, fish consumption and the efficacy of management activities in reducing fish predation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, James H.; McCullough, Russell D.; Farquhar, James F.

    2008-01-01

    The year 2008 marked the seventeenth consecutive year of study of the food habits and fish consumption of LGI cormorants, and represented the tenth consecutive year evaluating the efficacy of management activities to control the reproductive success of cormorants nesting at LGI. The program consists mainly of spraying cormorant eggs with oil as well as the culling of adult and immature birds.This paper reports the findings of work carried outin 2008 at LGI.

  17. Exposure to hexachlorobenzene through fish and seafood consumption in Catalonia, Spain.

    PubMed

    Falcó, Gemma; Llobet, Juan M; Bocio, Ana; Domingo, José L

    2008-01-25

    The concentrations of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were analyzed by HRGC/HRMS in 42 composite samples of the 14 most consumed marine species (sardine, tuna, anchovy, mackerel, swordfish, salmon, hake, red mullet, sole, cuttlefish, squid, clam, mussel, and shrimp) in Catalonia, Spain. The daily intake of HCB associated with this consumption was also estimated for four age groups of the population of Catalonia: children, adolescents, adults and seniors, which were in turn divided according to sex. The highest HCB levels were found in salmon and mackerel: 1.68 and 0.80 ng/g of wet weight, respectively, whereas the lowest HCB levels were found in cuttlefish, mussel, and shrimp (0.02, 0.03, and 0.04 ng/g of wet weight, respectively). In general terms, these results are within the range of data reported in recent years by a number of authors. The highest and lowest HCB intake (ng/day) corresponded to female adults (13.3) and girls (4.0), respectively. For most age/sex groups, salmon and sole were the species showing the highest contribution to HCB intake. When HCB intake was calculated according to the average body weight of the individuals in each group, the highest and lowest values corresponded to boys (0.32 ng/kg/day) and female adolescents (0.14 ng/kg/day). For all groups, HCB intake from fish and seafood consumption was considerably lower than the WHO tolerable daily intake (TDI), for non-cancer effects and for neoplastic effects in humans.

  18. Cognitive performance in older adults is inversely associated with fish consumption but not erythrocyte membrane n-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Danthiir, Vanessa; Hosking, Diane; Burns, Nicholas R; Wilson, Carlene; Nettelbeck, Ted; Calvaresi, Eva; Clifton, Peter; Wittert, Gary A

    2014-03-01

    Higher n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and fish intake may help maintain cognitive function in older age. However, evidence is inconsistent; few studies have examined the relation in cognitively healthy individuals across numerous cognitive domains, and none to our knowledge have considered lifetime fish intake. We examined associations between multiple domains of cognition and erythrocyte membrane n-3 PUFA proportions and historical and contemporary fish intake in 390 normal older adults, analyzing baseline data from the Older People, Omega-3, and Cognitive Health trial. We measured n-3 PUFA in erythrocyte membranes, and we assessed historical and contemporary fish intake by food-frequency questionnaires. We assessed cognitive performance on reasoning, working memory, short-term memory, retrieval fluency, perceptual speed, simple/choice reaction time, speed of memory-scanning, reasoning speed, inhibition, and psychomotor speed. Cognitive outcomes for each construct were factor scores from confirmatory factor analysis. Multiple linear regression models controlled for a number of potential confounding factors, including age, education, sex, apolipoprotein E-ε 4 allele, physical activity, smoking, alcohol intake, socioeconomic variables, and other health-related variables. Higher erythrocyte membrane eicosapaentonoic acid proportions predicted slower perceptual and reasoning speed in females, which was attenuated once current fish intake was controlled. No other associations were present between n-3 PU