Science.gov

Sample records for fish malachite green

  1. Final report on CCQM-K85: Malachite green in fish tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biesenbruch, Sabine; Hopley, Chris; O'Connor, Gavin; Ellison, Stephen L. R.

    2013-01-01

    During a review of its activities, the organic analysis working group of the consultative committee for amount of substance noted that evidence supporting institute capabilities for providing services supporting the food sector was lacking. A request was made for a proposal of a study that would imply an institute's broader capability for the analysis of trace residues in food. Malachite green is a triphenylmethane dye with powerful antifungal properties. Its presence in food is not permitted and routine monitoring is performed in many regions at the µg/kg level. Its measurement is considered challenging for a number of reasons. Malachite green readily metabolises to leucomalachite green, with the sum of both forms being reported as 'total' malachite green. However, the two compounds have different stability and extraction requirements and often readily interconvert, proving a challenge for the successful quantification of both. The study material was a specially prepared homogenized salmon tissue from fish that had been administered with malachite green. Laboratories were requested to measure malachite green and leucomalachite green with the sum of both being reported and used for this key comparison. All laboratories used liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry with a compound-specific isotope dilution method. Six laboratories participated in the study, with all six providing results for malachite green, leucomalachite green and 'total' malachite green, reported as the sum of the two forms. A number of estimators were proposed for the calculation of the key comparison reference value (KCRV), with the working group deciding on the median and its uncertainty estimate as the most appropriate. This resulted in a KCRV of (9.77 ± 0.35) ng/g. The calculated degrees of equivalence for all laboratories were less than 1 ng/g. This was considered exceptional, especially when the complexity of the matrix, the differential partitioning of the two interconverting compounds

  2. Analytical Methods for Malachite Green : Completion Report : Malachite Green Analysis in Water.

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, John L.; Gofus, Jane E.; Meinertz, Jeffery R.

    1991-06-01

    Malachite green is a known teratogen and therefore its use is limited to nonfood fish under an Investigational New Animal Drug permit (INAD), number 2573. Although a charcoal adsorption column was developed to remove malachite green from hatchery water, INAD compliance requires that the malachite green residue concentrations in any effluent from hatcheries using the chemical be quantified. Therefore, we developed a method for the analysis of malachite green residues in water. Enrichment of the residues of malachite green in water on a diol column followed by High Performance Liquid Chromatographic (HPLC) analysis gives a minimum sensitivity of less than 10 ppb for the chemical. When combined with post-column oxidation using a lead oxide post-column reactor, the procedure can be used for the simultaneous analysis of malachite green in its leuco form, a decomposition product of the dye, as well as its chromatic form. Recovery of the leuco form is pH dependent and water samples should be adjusted to pH 6 to optimize recovery of this form. Water samples spiked with malachite green were concentrated on a diol column followed by elution with 0.05 M p-toluene sulfonic acid in methanol. The methanol elutes were analyzed by HPLC. Pond water samples spiked with malachite green and leuco malachite green yielded average recoveries of 95.4% for malachite green and 57.3% for leuco malachite green. Tap water samples spiked with the carbinol form of malachite green gave average recoveries of 98.6%. The method is very sensitive and is capable of detecting malachite green residues in water at less than 10 ppb. Fish culturists, who cannot find an effective replacement for malachite green, can utilize the method to ensure that their effluents comply with INAD regulations. 13 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  3. Treatment of fish parasites. 9. Effects of a medicated food containing malachite green on Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet, 1876 (Hymenostomatida, Ciliophora) in ornamental fish.

    PubMed

    Schmahl, G; Ruider, S; Mehlhorn, H; Schmidt, H; Ritter, G

    1992-01-01

    For systemic therapy against trophozoites of the skin-inhabiting stage of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis in ornamental fish, the latter were fed medicated food flakes containing malachite green once daily for 1-11 days ad libitum. Naturally or artificially infected cardinal tetras (Paracheirodon axelrodi), blue gouramis (Trichogaster trichopterus), or clown loach (Botia macracantha) were used in the trials. The fish were maintained in aerated 12.5- or 60-1 aquaria at 23 degrees C. Ultrastructural investigations (scanning and transmission electron microscopy) revealed clear deleterious effects of malachite green on the parasitic stages. Following the initial application, the inner membrane of the mitochondria was destroyed. In fish fed for 2 days, aggregation of the mucocysts and polymerization the microtubules within the macronucleus occurred. Finally, the trophozoite's membrane was completely destroyed. In fish fed for 4 days, the medicated food killed all trophozoites of I. multifiliis. Sensitive ornamental fish (e.g., P. axelrodi) showed no adverse effects after they had been fed with only the medicated food flakes for 2 months. Therefore, the oral administration of malachite green using this newly developed medicated food considerably reduces the risk of toxic effects on the fish hosts, which are sometimes caused by malachite green following its application by immersion therapy. The feeding of flakes medicated with malachite green provides and easy-to-handle and highly effective treatment of I. multifiliis in ornamental fish. PMID:1589426

  4. Treatment of fish parasites. 9. Effects of a medicated food containing malachite green on Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet, 1876 (Hymenostomatida, Ciliophora) in ornamental fish.

    PubMed

    Schmahl, G; Ruider, S; Mehlhorn, H; Schmidt, H; Ritter, G

    1992-01-01

    For systemic therapy against trophozoites of the skin-inhabiting stage of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis in ornamental fish, the latter were fed medicated food flakes containing malachite green once daily for 1-11 days ad libitum. Naturally or artificially infected cardinal tetras (Paracheirodon axelrodi), blue gouramis (Trichogaster trichopterus), or clown loach (Botia macracantha) were used in the trials. The fish were maintained in aerated 12.5- or 60-1 aquaria at 23 degrees C. Ultrastructural investigations (scanning and transmission electron microscopy) revealed clear deleterious effects of malachite green on the parasitic stages. Following the initial application, the inner membrane of the mitochondria was destroyed. In fish fed for 2 days, aggregation of the mucocysts and polymerization the microtubules within the macronucleus occurred. Finally, the trophozoite's membrane was completely destroyed. In fish fed for 4 days, the medicated food killed all trophozoites of I. multifiliis. Sensitive ornamental fish (e.g., P. axelrodi) showed no adverse effects after they had been fed with only the medicated food flakes for 2 months. Therefore, the oral administration of malachite green using this newly developed medicated food considerably reduces the risk of toxic effects on the fish hosts, which are sometimes caused by malachite green following its application by immersion therapy. The feeding of flakes medicated with malachite green provides and easy-to-handle and highly effective treatment of I. multifiliis in ornamental fish.

  5. Determination of malachite green in fish based on magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer extraction followed by electrochemiluminescence.

    PubMed

    Huang, Baomei; Zhou, Xibin; Chen, Jing; Wu, Guofan; Lu, Xiaoquan

    2015-09-01

    A novel procedure for selective extraction of malachite green (MG) from fish samples was set up by using magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (MMIP) as the solid phase extraction material followed by electrochemiluminescence (ECL) determination. MMIP was prepared by using Fe3O4 magnetite as magnetic component, MG as template molecule, methacrylic acid (MAA) as functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as crosslinking agent. MMIP was characterized by SEM, TEM, FT-IR, VSM and XRD. Leucomalachite green (LMG) was oxidized in situ to MG by 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone (DDQ). And then MMIP was successfully used to selectively enrich MG from fish samples. Adsorbed MG was desorbed and determined by ECL. Under the optimal conditions, calibration curve was good linear in the range of 0.29-290 μg/kg and the limit of detection (LOD) was 7.3 ng/kg (S/N=3). The recoveries of MMIP extraction were 77.1-101.2%. In addition, MMIP could be regenerated. To the best of our knowledge, MMIP coupling with ECL quenching of Ru(bpy)3(2+)/TPA for the determination of MG has not yet been developed. PMID:26003716

  6. Determination of malachite green in fish based on magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer extraction followed by electrochemiluminescence.

    PubMed

    Huang, Baomei; Zhou, Xibin; Chen, Jing; Wu, Guofan; Lu, Xiaoquan

    2015-09-01

    A novel procedure for selective extraction of malachite green (MG) from fish samples was set up by using magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (MMIP) as the solid phase extraction material followed by electrochemiluminescence (ECL) determination. MMIP was prepared by using Fe3O4 magnetite as magnetic component, MG as template molecule, methacrylic acid (MAA) as functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as crosslinking agent. MMIP was characterized by SEM, TEM, FT-IR, VSM and XRD. Leucomalachite green (LMG) was oxidized in situ to MG by 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone (DDQ). And then MMIP was successfully used to selectively enrich MG from fish samples. Adsorbed MG was desorbed and determined by ECL. Under the optimal conditions, calibration curve was good linear in the range of 0.29-290 μg/kg and the limit of detection (LOD) was 7.3 ng/kg (S/N=3). The recoveries of MMIP extraction were 77.1-101.2%. In addition, MMIP could be regenerated. To the best of our knowledge, MMIP coupling with ECL quenching of Ru(bpy)3(2+)/TPA for the determination of MG has not yet been developed.

  7. Determination of malachite green and crystal violet in processed fish products.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun Bae; Kim, Hee Yun; Jang, Young Mi; Song, Ji Young; Woo, Sung Min; Park, Mi Sun; Lee, Hyun Sook; Lee, Soon Kyu; Kim, Meehye

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents analysis of malachite green (MG) and crystal violet (CV) residues in processed fish products. Samples were homogenized and extracted with ammonium acetate buffer and acetonitrile. The extracted residues were partitioned into dichloromethane, in situ oxidized to chromic forms with 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone, and cleaned up on neutral alumina and propylsulfonic acid cation-exchange solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges. MG and CV were determined at 618 and 588 nm using HPLC with a visible detector (LC-VIS) and confirmed by LC-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). The recoveries were as follows: MG (74.8-83.8%), LMG (80.0-88.4%), CV (68.6-73.9%), and LCV (85.5-90.0%). The method modified in this study has been evaluated by application in-house to a survey of 253 processed fish products. As a result of monitoring, MG and CV were positive in one shrimp and one eel sample, respectively. Our results showed that regular monitoring of these antibiotic residues is recommended for protection of public health. PMID:20544455

  8. Determination of malachite green and crystal violet in processed fish products.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun Bae; Kim, Hee Yun; Jang, Young Mi; Song, Ji Young; Woo, Sung Min; Park, Mi Sun; Lee, Hyun Sook; Lee, Soon Kyu; Kim, Meehye

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents analysis of malachite green (MG) and crystal violet (CV) residues in processed fish products. Samples were homogenized and extracted with ammonium acetate buffer and acetonitrile. The extracted residues were partitioned into dichloromethane, in situ oxidized to chromic forms with 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone, and cleaned up on neutral alumina and propylsulfonic acid cation-exchange solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges. MG and CV were determined at 618 and 588 nm using HPLC with a visible detector (LC-VIS) and confirmed by LC-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). The recoveries were as follows: MG (74.8-83.8%), LMG (80.0-88.4%), CV (68.6-73.9%), and LCV (85.5-90.0%). The method modified in this study has been evaluated by application in-house to a survey of 253 processed fish products. As a result of monitoring, MG and CV were positive in one shrimp and one eel sample, respectively. Our results showed that regular monitoring of these antibiotic residues is recommended for protection of public health.

  9. Rapid analysis of malachite green and leucomalachite green in fish muscles with surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Yu, Wansong; Pei, Lu; Lai, Keqiang; Rasco, Barbara A; Huang, Yiqun

    2015-02-15

    Surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS) coupled with gold nanospheres was applied for rapid analysis of the hazardous substances malachite green (MG) and leucomalachite green (LMG) in fish muscle tissues. The lowest concentration of MG that could be detected was 0.5ngmL(-1) with high linear correlation (R(2)=0.970-0.998) between MG concentration and intensities of characteristic Raman peaks. A simplified sample preparation method taking less than 1h for recovering MG and LMG in fish fillets was developed for SERRS analysis, and 4-8 samples could be handled in parallel. MG and LMG could be detected in extracts of tilapia fish fillets at as low as 2ngg(-1) with SERRS and a simple principle component analysis method. For six other fish species, the lowest detectable concentration of MG ranged from 1ngg(-1) to 10ngg(-1). This study provides a new sensitive approach for the detection of trace amounts of the prohibited drugs MG and LMG in muscle food, which has the potential for rapidly screening a large number of samples. PMID:25236201

  10. Rapid analysis of malachite green and leucomalachite green in fish muscles with surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Yu, Wansong; Pei, Lu; Lai, Keqiang; Rasco, Barbara A; Huang, Yiqun

    2015-02-15

    Surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS) coupled with gold nanospheres was applied for rapid analysis of the hazardous substances malachite green (MG) and leucomalachite green (LMG) in fish muscle tissues. The lowest concentration of MG that could be detected was 0.5ngmL(-1) with high linear correlation (R(2)=0.970-0.998) between MG concentration and intensities of characteristic Raman peaks. A simplified sample preparation method taking less than 1h for recovering MG and LMG in fish fillets was developed for SERRS analysis, and 4-8 samples could be handled in parallel. MG and LMG could be detected in extracts of tilapia fish fillets at as low as 2ngg(-1) with SERRS and a simple principle component analysis method. For six other fish species, the lowest detectable concentration of MG ranged from 1ngg(-1) to 10ngg(-1). This study provides a new sensitive approach for the detection of trace amounts of the prohibited drugs MG and LMG in muscle food, which has the potential for rapidly screening a large number of samples.

  11. Optimization of a liquid chromatographic method for determination of malachite green and its metabolites in fish tissues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plakas, S.M.; ELSaid, K.R.; Stehly, G.R.; Roybal, J.E.

    1995-01-01

    A liquid chromatographic (LC) method was adapted and optimized for the determination of malachite green and its metabolites in fish plasma and muscle, Residues in plasma were extracted with acetonitrile, the extract was evaporated to dryness, and residues were resolubilized for LC analysis, Residues in muscle were extracted with an acetonitrile-acetate buffer mixture, reextracted with acetonitrile, and partitioned into methylene chloride with final cleanup on alumina and propylsulfonic acid solid-phase extraction columns, Residue levels were determined by using an LC cyano column with a PbO2 postcolumn and visible detection (618 nm). Overall mean recoveries of parent malachite green (MG-C) and its major metabolite, leucomalachite green (MG-L), from plasma were 93 and 87%, respectively, at fortification levels ranging from 25 to 250 ppb, Overall mean recoveries of MG-C and MG-L from muscle were 85 and 95%, respectively, at fortification levels ranging from 5 to 100 ppb, Relative standard deviations (RSDs) of recoveries at all fortification levels ranged from 3.9 to 7.0% for plasma and from 2.1 to 5.2% for muscle, The method was applied to incurred residues in tissues sampled from catfish after waterborne exposure to [C-14]MG-C. Mean recoveries of total radioactive residues in plasma and muscle throughout the extraction and cleanup process were 88 and 87%, respectively, and corresponding RSDs for MG-C and MG-L were in the same range as those for fortified tissues, MG-L, was confirmed as the major metabolite of MG-C in catfish.

  12. Quirks of dye nomenclature. 6. Malachite green.

    PubMed

    Cooksey, C J

    2016-08-01

    Malachite green was discovered independently by two researchers in Germany in the 19(th) century and found immediate employment as a dye and a pigment. Subsequently, other uses, such as staining biological specimens, emerged. A much later application was the control of fungal and protozoan infections in fish, for which the dye remains popular, although illegal in many countries owing to a variety of toxicity problems. In solution, malachite green can exist as five different species depending on the pH. The location of the positive charge of the colored cation on a carbon atom or a nitrogen atom is still debated. The original names of this dye, and their origins, are briefly surveyed. PMID:27491273

  13. Quirks of dye nomenclature. 6. Malachite green.

    PubMed

    Cooksey, C J

    2016-08-01

    Malachite green was discovered independently by two researchers in Germany in the 19(th) century and found immediate employment as a dye and a pigment. Subsequently, other uses, such as staining biological specimens, emerged. A much later application was the control of fungal and protozoan infections in fish, for which the dye remains popular, although illegal in many countries owing to a variety of toxicity problems. In solution, malachite green can exist as five different species depending on the pH. The location of the positive charge of the colored cation on a carbon atom or a nitrogen atom is still debated. The original names of this dye, and their origins, are briefly surveyed.

  14. Quantification of malachite green in fish feed utilising liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with a monolithic column.

    PubMed

    Abro, Kamran; Mahesar, Sarfaraz Ahmed; Iqbal, Seema; Perveen, Shahnaz

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a rapid and sensitive method for the quantification of malachite green (MG) in fish feed using LC-ESI-MS/MS with a monolithic column as stationary phase. Fish feed was cleaned using ultrasonic assisted liquid-liquid extraction. The separation was achieved on a Chromolith® Performance RP-18e column (100 × 4.6 mm) using gradient mobile phase composition of methanol and 0.1% formic acid at the flow rate of 1.0 ml min⁻¹. The analyte was ionised using electrospray ionisation in positive mode. Mass spectral transitions were recorded in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode at m/z 329.78 → m/z 314.75 with a collision energy (CE) of 52% for MG. The system suitability responses were calculated for reproducibility tests of the retention time, number of theoretical plates and capacity factor. System validation was evaluated for precision, specificity and linearity of MG. The linearity and calibration graph was plotted in the range of 15.0-250 ng ml⁻¹ with the regression coefficient of >0.997. The lower limits of detection and quantification for MG were 0.55 and 1.44 ng ml⁻¹, respectively, allowing easy determination in fish feed with accuracy evaluated as a percentage recovery of 92.1% and precision determined as % CV of < 5. The method was also extended to the determination of MG in an actual fish feed. The sensitivity and selectivity of LC-ESI-MS/MS using monolithic column offers a valuable alternative to the methodologies currently employed for the quantification of MG in fish feeds.

  15. Lipoproteins binding malachite green to slow the decolorization of malachite green in Pseudomonas sp. JT-1.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun; Li, Liguan; Du, Hongwei; Jiang, Lijuan; Zhang, Qiong; Wei, Zhongbo; Wang, Xiaolin; Xiao, Lin; Yang, Liuyan

    2011-01-01

    Lipoproteins of a malachite green (MG)-decolorizing bacterium Pseudomonas sp. JT-1 could bind MG to form green MG-Lipoproteins complexes, which prevented the decolorization of MG by triphenylmethane reductase.

  16. Fast analysis of malachite green, leucomalachite green, crystal violet and leucocrystal violet in fish tissue based on a modified QuEChERS procedure.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chengyun; Wei, Jie; Dong, Xuefang; Guo, Zhimou; Liu, Mingyang; Liang, Xinmiao

    2014-04-01

    Triphenylmethane dyes malachite green (MG) and crystal violet (CV) have been used as antimicrobial, antiparasitic and antiseptic agents in aquaculture. However, MG and CV, as well as their metabolites leucomalachite green (LMG) and leucocrystal violet (LCV) are potential mutagens and carcinogens. Thus, the efficient determination of dye residues is of great concern. Considering the complexity of the aquatic products, the sample pretreatment is significant for decreasing matrix interference and improving detection sensitivity. In this study, a simple and rapid QuEChERS procedure was developed and combined with HPLC analysis for the simultaneous determination of the four dyes in fish tissue. An XCharge C18 column was applied in HPLC analysis to achieve good peak shape and selectivity. The pretreatment method involved the extraction of dyes from fish tissue and further clean-up with dispersive solid phase extraction (d-SPE) material. The extraction volume, extraction time as well as d-SPE materials were systematically optimized. The results indicated that reversed-phase/strong anion exchange (C18SAX) adsorbent in the d-SPE procedure could effectively improve the recovery compared with conventional C18 or C18 incorporated with primary secondary amine (PSA) material. Under optimized conditions, good linearity was achieved in the concentration range of 0.5-100 mg/L with R2 greater than 0. 998. The recoveries were 73%-91% and the precisions were 0.66%-5.41%. The results demonstrated the feasibility and efficiency of QuEChERS procedure incorporated with HPLC for dye monitoring.

  17. Fast analysis of malachite green, leucomalachite green, crystal violet and leucocrystal violet in fish tissue based on a modified QuEChERS procedure.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chengyun; Wei, Jie; Dong, Xuefang; Guo, Zhimou; Liu, Mingyang; Liang, Xinmiao

    2014-04-01

    Triphenylmethane dyes malachite green (MG) and crystal violet (CV) have been used as antimicrobial, antiparasitic and antiseptic agents in aquaculture. However, MG and CV, as well as their metabolites leucomalachite green (LMG) and leucocrystal violet (LCV) are potential mutagens and carcinogens. Thus, the efficient determination of dye residues is of great concern. Considering the complexity of the aquatic products, the sample pretreatment is significant for decreasing matrix interference and improving detection sensitivity. In this study, a simple and rapid QuEChERS procedure was developed and combined with HPLC analysis for the simultaneous determination of the four dyes in fish tissue. An XCharge C18 column was applied in HPLC analysis to achieve good peak shape and selectivity. The pretreatment method involved the extraction of dyes from fish tissue and further clean-up with dispersive solid phase extraction (d-SPE) material. The extraction volume, extraction time as well as d-SPE materials were systematically optimized. The results indicated that reversed-phase/strong anion exchange (C18SAX) adsorbent in the d-SPE procedure could effectively improve the recovery compared with conventional C18 or C18 incorporated with primary secondary amine (PSA) material. Under optimized conditions, good linearity was achieved in the concentration range of 0.5-100 mg/L with R2 greater than 0. 998. The recoveries were 73%-91% and the precisions were 0.66%-5.41%. The results demonstrated the feasibility and efficiency of QuEChERS procedure incorporated with HPLC for dye monitoring. PMID:25069333

  18. Effects of malachite green on the mRNA expression of detoxification-related genes in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and other major Chinese freshwater fishes.

    PubMed

    Li, Guangyu; Shen, Dan; Liang, Xu-Fang; He, Yan; He, Shan

    2013-03-01

    The use of malachite green (MG) in fish farming is prohibited in China due to its potentially toxicological and carcinogenic nature, but it is still illegally used in some places. The aim of this study was to investigate the time and concentration-dependent responses of xenobiotic metabolizing and detoxification-related genes in diverse fishes exposed to MG both in vivo and in vitro. Experimental fish were administered to two exposure groups of malachite green (MG) (0.10 and 0.50 mg L⁻¹) for 8 h. The hepatocytes isolated from Nile tilapia were incubated with MG (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mg L⁻¹) for 8 and 24 h, respectively. In vivo, exposure to 0.10 and 0.50 mg L⁻¹ MG for 8 h caused significant changes of the detoxification-related genes on the mRNA expression levels. Low-concentration (0.10 mg L⁻¹) level of MG induced significant increase on the mRNA expression level of GSTR gene in Nile tilapia and other fishes. The mRNA expression of grass carp UCP2 was significantly induced when exposed to 0.5 mg L⁻¹ MG. However, the mRNA expression levels of GSTA, CYP1A, and GPX were inhibited significantly by 0.5 mg L⁻¹ MG in Nile tilapia, grass carp, and Taiwan snakehead. In vitro, the significant increase of mRNA expression of these genes was detected after exposure to 0.5 mg L⁻¹ MG (UCP2), and 1.0 mg L⁻¹ MG (CYP1A1, GSTA, GSTR, and UCP2). The induction of hepatic CYP1A1, GSTA, GSTR, and UCP2 in response to MG suggested a potential role of fish CYP1A1, GSTA, GSTR, and UCP2 in MG metabolism.

  19. Incorporation of flow injection analysis with dual-wavelength overlapping resonance Rayleigh scattering for rapid determination of malachite green and its metabolite in fish.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jinghui; Qin, Mingyou; Liu, Shaopu; Liu, Zhongfang; Yang, Jidong; Hu, Xiaoli

    2014-09-15

    A flow injection analysis (FIA) system combined with dual-wavelength overlapping resonance Rayleigh scattering (DWO-RRS) has been established and validated for rapid determination of malachite green (MG) and its metabolite in fish samples. Under experimental condition, MG would react with Erythrosin (Ery) to form ion-association complexes, resulting in the occurrence of two RRS peaks and a dramatic enhancement of RRS intensity. The maximum RRS peaks were located at 286 nm and 337 nm. It is noted that the increments of both of these two peaks were proportional to the concentration of MG. The detection limit of DWO-RRS was 1.5 ng/mL, which was comparable to several reported methods. Moreover, the results of real sample analysis exhibited an acceptable recovery between 97.5% and 103.6%, indicating that the method had good reproducibility.

  20. Incorporation of flow injection analysis with dual-wavelength overlapping resonance Rayleigh scattering for rapid determination of malachite green and its metabolite in fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jinghui; Qin, Mingyou; Liu, Shaopu; Liu, Zhongfang; Yang, Jidong; Hu, Xiaoli

    2014-09-01

    A flow injection analysis (FIA) system combined with dual-wavelength overlapping resonance Rayleigh scattering (DWO-RRS) has been established and validated for rapid determination of malachite green (MG) and its metabolite in fish samples. Under experimental condition, MG would react with Erythrosin (Ery) to form ion-association complexes, resulting in the occurrence of two RRS peaks and a dramatic enhancement of RRS intensity. The maximum RRS peaks were located at 286 nm and 337 nm. It is noted that the increments of both of these two peaks were proportional to the concentration of MG. The detection limit of DWO-RRS was 1.5 ng/mL, which was comparable to several reported methods. Moreover, the results of real sample analysis exhibited an acceptable recovery between 97.5% and 103.6%, indicating that the method had good reproducibility.

  1. Toxicity of formalin, malachite green, and the mixture to four life stages of rainbow trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bills, Terry D.; Advised by: Hosler, Charles F.; Cumming, Kenneth B.; Nord, Richard P.; Senff, Robert E.

    1974-01-01

    Formalin, malachite green, or a mixture of them are utilized in fish culture for control of external parasites of fish and control of fungus on fish and fish eggs. Very little information is available concerning the toxicity of these compounds to fish under laboratory test conditions or the differences in sensitivity to these chemicals at various life stages. This study was designed to 1) determine the toxicity of formalin, malachite green and the mixture to four life stages of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) under various laboratory test conditions, 2) determine the degradation of formalin and malachite green in water, 3) determine the effect of additive toxicity, and 4) determine the differences in sensitivity of two different lots of eggs to the chemicals. The 96-hour LC50 (lethal concentration required to produce 50% mortality) for formalin against rainbow trout in soft water ranged from 580 micrograms/liter for the eyed egg stage to 134 micrograms/liter for the fingerling stage. The 96-hour LC50 for malachite green against rainbow trout in soft water ranged from 2.00 mg/L for the eyed egg stage to 0.0224 mg/L for the fingerling stage. The additive indices for formalin and malachite green when applied in combination show strictly additive toxicity as the ranges overlap zero in all tests. Deactivation indices for formalin and malachite green show essentially no change in toxicity of the solutions to rainbow trout when aged for periods of 1, 2, and 3 weeks.

  2. Determination of malachite green and its leuco form in water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, J.L.; Meinertz, J.R.; Gofus, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    Liquid chromatographic (lc) analysis can detect malachite green residues in water at less than 10 mu-g/l. Water samples were concentrated on disposable diol columns, eluted with 0.05m P-toluene-sulfonic acid in methanol, and determined by reversed-phase lc. When combined with a lead oxide postcolumn reactor, the lc method can simultaneously determine both leuco and chromatic forms of malachite green. Recoveries averaged 95.4% For the chromatic form and 57.3% For the leuco form of malachite green oxalate and leuco malachite green in spiked pond water samples. Recoveries of the carbinol form of malachite green (an equilibrium product of the dye in water) from spiked tap water samples averaged 98.6%. Recoveries of leuco malachite green were low and ph-dependent.

  3. Application of graphene-based solid-phase extraction for ultra-fast determination of malachite green and its metabolite in fish tissues.

    PubMed

    Chen, Linyao; Lu, Yanbin; Li, Shiyao; Lin, Xianjiang; Xu, Zhongming; Dai, Zhiyuan

    2013-11-15

    An ultra-fast analytical protocol using graphene-based solid-phase extraction coupled with ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the rapid determination of malachite green and its metabolite, leucomalachite green in fish tissues has been developed. In the present work, graphene was synthesized and evaluated as novel solid-phase extraction sorbents for the analytes enrichment and clean-up. The target analytes were separated on an ultra-pressure BEH C8 column and quantified by a triple-quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometer in multiple-reaction monitoring mode. The proposed analytical procedures were carefully optimized and validated. The matrix-matched calibration curves were performed at six concentration levels and good linear relationship (R(2)>0.9990) was observed within the range of 0.25-50μgkg(-1). The proposed method has been successfully applied to the analysis of MG and LMG in several fish samples, indicating that graphene was an efficient SPE sorbent for the enrichment of trace residues in food analysis.

  4. Malachite green interferes with postantibiotic recovery of mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Gelman, Ekaterina; McKinney, John D; Dhar, Neeraj

    2012-07-01

    The genus Mycobacterium comprises slow-growing species with generation times ranging from hours to weeks. The protracted incubation time before colonies appear on solid culture medium can result in overgrowth by faster-growing microorganisms. To prevent contamination, the solid media used in laboratories and clinics for cultivation of mycobacteria contain the arylmethane compound malachite green, which has broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. Malachite green has no impact on the plating efficiency of mycobacteria when cells are grown under normal conditions. However, we found that malachite green interfered with colony formation when bacteria were preexposed to antibiotics targeting cell wall biogenesis (isoniazid, ethionamide, ethambutol). This inhibitory effect of malachite green was not observed when bacteria were preexposed to antibiotics targeting cellular processes other than cell wall biogenesis (rifampin, moxifloxacin, streptomycin). Sputum specimens from tuberculosis patients are routinely evaluated on solid culture medium containing high concentrations of malachite green. This practice could lead to underestimation of bacterial loads and overestimation of chemotherapeutic efficacy.

  5. Cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and oxidative stress of malachite green on the kidney and gill cell lines of freshwater air breathing fish Channa striata.

    PubMed

    Majeed, S Abdul; Nambi, K S N; Taju, G; Vimal, S; Venkatesan, C; Hameed, A S Sahul

    2014-12-01

    The cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and oxidative stress of malachite green (MG) was investigated using the fish Channa striata kidney (CSK) and Channa striata gill (CSG) cell lines. Five concentrations ranging from 0.001 to 10 μg mL(-1) were tested in three independent experiments. Cytotoxicity was assessed by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, Rhodamine 123 and Alamar Blue. The mitochondrial changes and apoptosis of MG-exposed cells were observed by Rhodamine 123 and acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) staining, respectively. In vitro potential DNA damaging effect of MG was tested using comet assay. Mitochondrial damage, apoptosis and DNA fragmentation increased in a concentration-dependent manner. Additionally, DNA electrophoretic mobility experiments were carried out to study the binding effect of MG to double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) of cells. DNA shift mobility experiments showed that MG is capable of strongly binding to linear dsDNA causing its degradation. Biochemical parameters such as lipid peroxidation (MDA), catalase (CAT) activity and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels were evaluated after exposure to MG. In CSK and CSG cell lines exposed to MG for 48 h, a significant increase in lipid peroxidation, which might be associated with decreased levels of reduced glutathione and catalase activity in these cell lines (p < 0.001), was observed.

  6. Cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and oxidative stress of malachite green on the kidney and gill cell lines of freshwater air breathing fish Channa striata.

    PubMed

    Majeed, S Abdul; Nambi, K S N; Taju, G; Vimal, S; Venkatesan, C; Hameed, A S Sahul

    2014-12-01

    The cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and oxidative stress of malachite green (MG) was investigated using the fish Channa striata kidney (CSK) and Channa striata gill (CSG) cell lines. Five concentrations ranging from 0.001 to 10 μg mL(-1) were tested in three independent experiments. Cytotoxicity was assessed by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, Rhodamine 123 and Alamar Blue. The mitochondrial changes and apoptosis of MG-exposed cells were observed by Rhodamine 123 and acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) staining, respectively. In vitro potential DNA damaging effect of MG was tested using comet assay. Mitochondrial damage, apoptosis and DNA fragmentation increased in a concentration-dependent manner. Additionally, DNA electrophoretic mobility experiments were carried out to study the binding effect of MG to double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) of cells. DNA shift mobility experiments showed that MG is capable of strongly binding to linear dsDNA causing its degradation. Biochemical parameters such as lipid peroxidation (MDA), catalase (CAT) activity and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels were evaluated after exposure to MG. In CSK and CSG cell lines exposed to MG for 48 h, a significant increase in lipid peroxidation, which might be associated with decreased levels of reduced glutathione and catalase activity in these cell lines (p < 0.001), was observed. PMID:25023653

  7. Biotransformation of Malachite Green by the Fungus Cunninghamella elegans

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Chang-Jun; Doerge, Daniel R.; Cerniglia, Carl E.

    2001-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Cunninghamella elegans ATCC 36112 metabolized the triphenylmethane dye malachite green with a first-order rate constant of 0.029 μmol h−1 (mg of cells)−1. Malachite green was enzymatically reduced to leucomalachite green and also converted to N-demethylated and N-oxidized metabolites, including primary and secondary arylamines. Inhibition studies suggested that the cytochrome P450 system mediated both the reduction and the N-demethylation reactions. PMID:11526047

  8. Biodegradation of malachite green by Ochrobactrum sp.

    PubMed

    Vijayalakshmidevi, S R; Muthukumar, Karuppan

    2014-02-01

    This study presents the biodegradation of malachite green (MG), a triphenylmethane dye, using a novel microorganism isolated from textile effluent contaminated environment. The organism responsible for degradation was identified as Ochrobactrum sp JN214485 by 16S rRNA analysis. The effect of operating parameters such as temperature, pH, immobilized bead loading, and initial dye concentration on % degradation was studied, and their optimal values were found to be 30 °C, 6, 20 g/L and 100 mg/L, respectively. The analysis showed that the extracellular enzymes were responsible for the degradation. The biodegradation of MG was confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopic and FTIR analysis. The phytotoxicity test concluded that the degradation products were less toxic compared to MG. The kinetics of biodegradation was studied and the activation energy was found to be 10.65 kcal/mol.

  9. Uptake, tissue distribution, and metabolism of malachite green in the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plakas, S.M.; El Said, K. R.; Stehly, G.R.; Gingerich, W.H.; Allen, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    The disposition of malachite green was determined in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) after intravascular dosing (0.8 mg . Kg-1) or waterborne exposure (0.8 mg . L-1 for 1 h). After intravascular dosing, mean plasma concentrations of the parent compound exhibited a triphasic decline with a terminal elimination half-life of 6.2 h. Malachite green was rapidly absorbed and concentrated in the tissues during waterborne exposure. The rate of accumulation was directly related to pH of the exposure water. After waterborne exposure, elimination of the parent compound from plasma also was triphasic with a terminal half-life of 4.7 h. In muscle, the half-life of the parent compound was approximately 67 h. Malachite green and its metabolites were widely distributed in all tissues. In fish exposed to C-14-labeled malachite green, total drug equivalent concentrations were highest in abdominal fat and lowest in plasma. Malachite green was rapidly and extensively metabolized to its reduced form, leucomalachite green, which was slowly eliminated from the tissues. Leucomalachite green is an appropriate target analyte for monitoring exposure of channel catfish to this drug.

  10. Biodegradation of malachite green by Brevibacillus laterosporus MTCC 2298.

    PubMed

    Gomare, Sushama S; Parshetti, Ganesh K; Govindwar, Sanjay P

    2009-11-01

    Brevibacillus laterosporus MTCC 2298 was screened for the decolorization of eight triphenylmethane dyes. Decolorization of malachite green was found to be fastest (87% within 3 hours, at the concentration 0.1 g/L) among the screened dyes. Various triphenylmethane dyes showed differential induction patterns of the dye-degrading enzymes. The activities of the laccase, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dichlorophenolindophenol reductase (NADH-DCIP reductase), malachite green reductase, and aminopyrine N-demethylase were increased in the cell-free extract obtained after decolorization of malachite green. Fourier transform infrared spectral analysis indicated formation of N-demethylated products, including primary and secondary aryl amines. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis confirmed the transformation of malachite green into new metabolites rather than its reduced form, leucomalachite green. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis detected new degradation products, such as reduced tetradesmethyl leucomalachite green (m/z 283) and [4-(1-cyclohexyl)-(1'-phenyl)-methyl]-2, 4-hexenoic acid (m/z 282). Complete decolorization of malachite green also was observed by the partially purified laccase from B. laterosporus.

  11. Malachite Green Interferes with Postantibiotic Recovery of Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Gelman, Ekaterina; McKinney, John D.

    2012-01-01

    The genus Mycobacterium comprises slow-growing species with generation times ranging from hours to weeks. The protracted incubation time before colonies appear on solid culture medium can result in overgrowth by faster-growing microorganisms. To prevent contamination, the solid media used in laboratories and clinics for cultivation of mycobacteria contain the arylmethane compound malachite green, which has broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. Malachite green has no impact on the plating efficiency of mycobacteria when cells are grown under normal conditions. However, we found that malachite green interfered with colony formation when bacteria were preexposed to antibiotics targeting cell wall biogenesis (isoniazid, ethionamide, ethambutol). This inhibitory effect of malachite green was not observed when bacteria were preexposed to antibiotics targeting cellular processes other than cell wall biogenesis (rifampin, moxifloxacin, streptomycin). Sputum specimens from tuberculosis patients are routinely evaluated on solid culture medium containing high concentrations of malachite green. This practice could lead to underestimation of bacterial loads and overestimation of chemotherapeutic efficacy. PMID:22526306

  12. Development of a fast ELISA for the specific detection of both leucomalachite green and malachite green

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yousheng; Chen, Li; Hu, Kun; Yu, Wenjuan; Yang, Xianle; Lu, Liqun

    2015-04-01

    Malachite green (MG), a dye, is an antifungal agent that has been used to treat and prevent fish diseases. It is metabolized into reduced leucomalachite green forms (LMG) that may reside in fish muscles for a long period, thus being harmful to human health. The aim of this study was to develop a competitive and direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect MG and LMG specifically. The monoclonal antibody (mAb) to LMG was generated using a hybridoma technique. The obtained mAb showed good cross-reactivity (CR) to malachite green (MG), but not to crystal violet (CV) and Brilliant Green (BG). The mAb was used to develop a fast detecting ELISA of MG and LMG in fish. By introducing the conjugation LMG-HRP, the detection capability was 0.37 ng mL-1 for MG and LMG. The mean recovery from spiked grass carp tissues ranged from 76.2% to 82.9% and the coefficients of variation varied between 1.8% and 7.5%. The stable and efficient monoclonal cell line obtained is a sustainable source of sensitive and specific antibody to MG and LMG.

  13. Determination of adulteration of malachite green in green pea and some prepared foodstuffs by micellar liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ashok, Vipin; Agrawal, Nitasha; Durgbanshi, Abhilasha; Esteve-Romero, Josep; Bose, Devasish

    2014-01-01

    A simple, fast, and robust micellar LC method was developed for the separation and identification of the nonpermitted color malachite green in green pea and some ready-to-eat foodstuffs. Malachite green (4-[(4-dimethylaminophenyl) phenyl-methyl]-N,N-dimethylaniline) is a hazardous dye that is used to treat fungal and protozoan infections in fish and is a common adulterant (coloring agent) in green pea and other green vegetables because of its green color. In the present work, malachite green was determined in various foodstuffs using a direct injection technique on an RP C18 column with isocratic elution. The optimum mobile phase consisted of 0.15 M sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), 6% pentanol buffered at pH 5. Detection was carried out at 620 nm. Malachite green was eluted in 9.2 min without any interference caused by endogenous compounds. Linearities (r > 0.9999), intraday and interday precision (RSD less than 1.00%) in micellar media, and robustness were studied for method validation. LOD and LOQ were 0.10 and 0.25 ppm, respectively. The simplicity of the developed method makes it useful for routine analysis in the area of food QC.

  14. Determination of adulteration of malachite green in green pea and some prepared foodstuffs by micellar liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ashok, Vipin; Agrawal, Nitasha; Durgbanshi, Abhilasha; Esteve-Romero, Josep; Bose, Devasish

    2014-01-01

    A simple, fast, and robust micellar LC method was developed for the separation and identification of the nonpermitted color malachite green in green pea and some ready-to-eat foodstuffs. Malachite green (4-[(4-dimethylaminophenyl) phenyl-methyl]-N,N-dimethylaniline) is a hazardous dye that is used to treat fungal and protozoan infections in fish and is a common adulterant (coloring agent) in green pea and other green vegetables because of its green color. In the present work, malachite green was determined in various foodstuffs using a direct injection technique on an RP C18 column with isocratic elution. The optimum mobile phase consisted of 0.15 M sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), 6% pentanol buffered at pH 5. Detection was carried out at 620 nm. Malachite green was eluted in 9.2 min without any interference caused by endogenous compounds. Linearities (r > 0.9999), intraday and interday precision (RSD less than 1.00%) in micellar media, and robustness were studied for method validation. LOD and LOQ were 0.10 and 0.25 ppm, respectively. The simplicity of the developed method makes it useful for routine analysis in the area of food QC. PMID:25902988

  15. Development of a carbon filter system for removing malachite green from hatchery effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Marking, L.L. ); Leith, D. ); Davis, J. )

    1990-04-01

    The US Fish and Wildlife Service was granted an investigational New Animal Drug permit by the US Food and Drug Administration for the use of malachite green as a fungicide at selected state and federal fish hatcheries. However, the permit required that the fungicide be removed from all treated water after March 1989. A study was designed to (1) determine the type of filter and kind of carbon that was most efficient for removal of malachite green and (2) demonstrate that carbon filters can be used to remove malachite green from water used for egg incubation or to hold adult salmon before spawning. Minicolumn simulation studies showed that 8 {times} 30-mesh granular carbon was effective for continuously removing malachite green from water for 230 d at a flow rate of 500 gal/min and for only 62 d at a flow rate of 1,000 gal/min. The removal capacity at the slower flow rate was 1.1 oz of malachite green per pound of carbon. A filter system that contained 20,000 lb of activated carbon in each of two chambers was effective for removal of malachite green from treated water in adult salmon holding ponds at flows of 500 gal/min (6.4 gal/min per ft{sup 2}) and greater. The removal efficiency was 99.8% after 105 h of operation, and the adsorption capacity of the system was projected to be sufficient for 20 or more years of routine hatchery operation. A filter system that contained 2,000 lb of activated carbon in each of two chambers was effective for removal of malachite green from treated water in salmon egg incubation units at the designated flow rate of 50 gal/min (4.0 gal/min per ft{sup 2}) and also at faster flow rates. Removal efficiency decreased only slightly for faster flows in both filter systems, and the efficiency improved when treated water was passed through two filter chambers in series.

  16. Electrochemical degradation of malachite green using nanoporous carbon paste electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harsini, Muji; Fitria, Faizatul; Pudjiastuti, Pratiwi

    2016-03-01

    Malachite green is a dye which is often used in the textile industry which potentially generates hazardous compound to the environment. Electrochemical degradation is a method that can decipher malachite green into harmless compounds. In this study, nanoporous carbon paste used as the anode and silver wire as the cathode. A number of the sample solution with a certain concentration containing supporting electrolyte inserted into a electrolysis cell, certain potential and current is passed through the electrode into the solution. During the degradation process, the solution stirred by a magnetic stirrer. The results showed that the optimum state of degradation at 10 volts potential with an electrolyte solution of 0.1 M NaCl, pH does not affect the results of degradation. The optimum time to degrade 50 ppm malachite green is 30 to 40 minutes to produce a harmless compound that can be indicated from the impairment COD that up to 95,05%. Results of UV-Vis spectra showed that malachite green has been degraded completely.

  17. Determination of malachite green residues in the eggs, fry, and adult muscle-tissue of rainbow-trout (Oncorhynchus-mykiss)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, John L.; Gofus, J.E.; Meinertz, Jeffery R.

    1994-01-01

    Malachite green, an effective antifungal therapeutant used in fish culture, is a known teratogen. We developed a method to simultaneously detect both the chromatic and leuco forms of malachite green residues in the eggs, fry, and adult muscle tissue of rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss). Homogenates of these tissues were fortified with [c-14] malachite green chloride and extracted with 1% (v/v) acetic acid in acetonitrile or in methanol. The extracts were partitioned with chloroform, dried, redissolved in mobile phase, and analyzed by liquid chromatography (lc) with postcolumn oxidation of leuco malachite green to the chromatic form. Lc fractions were collected every 30 s for quantitation by scintillation counting. Recoveries of total [c-14] malachite green chloride residue were 85 and 98% in eggs fortified with labeled malachite green at concentrations of 0.5 And 1.00 Mug/g, respectively; 68% in fry similarly fortified at a concentration of 0.65 Mug/g; and 66% in muscle homogenate similarly fortified at a level of 1.00 Mug/g. The method was tested under operational conditions by exposing adult rainbow trout to 1.00 Mg/l [c-14] malachite green chloride bath for 1 h. Muscle samples analyzed by sample oxidation and scintillation counting contained 1.3 And 0.5 Mug/g total malachite green chloride residues immediately after exposure and after a 5-day withdrawal period, respectively.

  18. Quantitative Detection of Trace Malachite Green in Aquiculture Water Samples by Extractive Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xiaowei; Yang, Shuiping; Chingin, Konstantin; Zhu, Liang; Zhang, Xinglei; Zhou, Zhiquan; Zhao, Zhanfeng

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to malachite green (MG) may pose great health risks to humans; thus, it is of prime importance to develop fast and robust methods to quantitatively screen the presence of malachite green in water. Herein the application of extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (EESI-MS) has been extended to the trace detection of MG within lake water and aquiculture water, due to the intensive use of MG as a biocide in fisheries. This method has the advantage of obviating offline liquid-liquid extraction or tedious matrix separation prior to the measurement of malachite green in native aqueous medium. The experimental results indicate that the extrapolated detection limit for MG was ~3.8 μg·L(-1) (S/N = 3) in lake water samples and ~0.5 μg·L(-1) in ultrapure water under optimized experimental conditions. The signal intensity of MG showed good linearity over the concentration range of 10-1000 μg·L(-1). Measurement of practical water samples fortified with MG at 0.01, 0.1 and 1.0 mg·L(-1) gave a good validation of the established calibration curve. The average recoveries and relative standard deviation (RSD) of malachite green in lake water and Carassius carassius fish farm effluent water were 115% (6.64% RSD), 85.4% (9.17% RSD) and 96.0% (7.44% RSD), respectively. Overall, the established EESI-MS/MS method has been demonstrated suitable for sensitive and rapid (<2 min per sample) quantitative detection of malachite green in various aqueous media, indicating its potential for online real-time monitoring of real life samples.

  19. Quantitative Detection of Trace Malachite Green in Aquiculture Water Samples by Extractive Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xiaowei; Yang, Shuiping; Chingin, Konstantin; Zhu, Liang; Zhang, Xinglei; Zhou, Zhiquan; Zhao, Zhanfeng

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to malachite green (MG) may pose great health risks to humans; thus, it is of prime importance to develop fast and robust methods to quantitatively screen the presence of malachite green in water. Herein the application of extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (EESI-MS) has been extended to the trace detection of MG within lake water and aquiculture water, due to the intensive use of MG as a biocide in fisheries. This method has the advantage of obviating offline liquid-liquid extraction or tedious matrix separation prior to the measurement of malachite green in native aqueous medium. The experimental results indicate that the extrapolated detection limit for MG was ~3.8 μg·L(-1) (S/N = 3) in lake water samples and ~0.5 μg·L(-1) in ultrapure water under optimized experimental conditions. The signal intensity of MG showed good linearity over the concentration range of 10-1000 μg·L(-1). Measurement of practical water samples fortified with MG at 0.01, 0.1 and 1.0 mg·L(-1) gave a good validation of the established calibration curve. The average recoveries and relative standard deviation (RSD) of malachite green in lake water and Carassius carassius fish farm effluent water were 115% (6.64% RSD), 85.4% (9.17% RSD) and 96.0% (7.44% RSD), respectively. Overall, the established EESI-MS/MS method has been demonstrated suitable for sensitive and rapid (<2 min per sample) quantitative detection of malachite green in various aqueous media, indicating its potential for online real-time monitoring of real life samples. PMID:27529262

  20. Quantitative Detection of Trace Malachite Green in Aquiculture Water Samples by Extractive Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Xiaowei; Yang, Shuiping; Chingin, Konstantin; Zhu, Liang; Zhang, Xinglei; Zhou, Zhiquan; Zhao, Zhanfeng

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to malachite green (MG) may pose great health risks to humans; thus, it is of prime importance to develop fast and robust methods to quantitatively screen the presence of malachite green in water. Herein the application of extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (EESI-MS) has been extended to the trace detection of MG within lake water and aquiculture water, due to the intensive use of MG as a biocide in fisheries. This method has the advantage of obviating offline liquid-liquid extraction or tedious matrix separation prior to the measurement of malachite green in native aqueous medium. The experimental results indicate that the extrapolated detection limit for MG was ~3.8 μg·L−1 (S/N = 3) in lake water samples and ~0.5 μg·L−1 in ultrapure water under optimized experimental conditions. The signal intensity of MG showed good linearity over the concentration range of 10–1000 μg·L−1. Measurement of practical water samples fortified with MG at 0.01, 0.1 and 1.0 mg·L−1 gave a good validation of the established calibration curve. The average recoveries and relative standard deviation (RSD) of malachite green in lake water and Carassius carassius fish farm effluent water were 115% (6.64% RSD), 85.4% (9.17% RSD) and 96.0% (7.44% RSD), respectively. Overall, the established EESI-MS/MS method has been demonstrated suitable for sensitive and rapid (<2 min per sample) quantitative detection of malachite green in various aqueous media, indicating its potential for online real-time monitoring of real life samples. PMID:27529262

  1. Lipoprotein processing is essential for resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to malachite green.

    PubMed

    Banaei, Niaz; Kincaid, Eleanor Z; Lin, S-Y Grace; Desmond, Edward; Jacobs, William R; Ernst, Joel D

    2009-09-01

    Malachite green, a synthetic antimicrobial dye, has been used for over 50 years in mycobacterial culture medium to inhibit the growth of contaminants. The molecular basis of mycobacterial resistance to malachite green is unknown, although the presence of malachite green-reducing enzymes in the cell envelope has been suggested. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of lipoproteins in resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to malachite green. The replication of an M. tuberculosis lipoprotein signal peptidase II (lspA) mutant (DeltalspA::lspAmut) on Middlebrook agar with and without 1 mg/liter malachite green was investigated. The lspA mutant was also compared with wild-type M. tuberculosis in the decolorization rate of malachite green and sensitivity to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) detergent and first-line antituberculosis drugs. The lspA mutant has a 10(4)-fold reduction in CFU-forming efficiency on Middlebrook agar with malachite green. Malachite green is decolorized faster in the presence of the lspA mutant than wild-type bacteria. The lspA mutant is hypersensitive to SDS detergent and shows increased sensitivity to first-line antituberculosis drugs. In summary, lipoprotein processing by LspA is essential for resistance of M. tuberculosis to malachite green. A cell wall permeability defect is likely responsible for the hypersensitivity of lspA mutant to malachite green.

  2. Effect of malachite green toxicity on non target soil organisms.

    PubMed

    Gopinathan, R; Kanhere, J; Banerjee, J

    2015-02-01

    Although malachite green (MG), is banned in Europe and US for its carcinogenic and teratogenic effect, the dye being cheap, is persistently used in various countries for fish farming, silk, dye, leather and textile industries. Current research, however, fails to elucidate adequate knowledge concerning the effects of MG in our ecosystem. In the present investigation, for the first time, an attempt has been made to study the effects of MG on soil biota by testing Bacillus subtilis, Azotobacter chroococcum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Penicillium roqueforti, Eisenia fetida and seeds of three crop plants of different families. Various tests were conducted for determining cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, acute toxicity, morphological and germination effect. Our data confirmed MG toxicity on fungi and bacteria (gram positive and gram negative organisms) showing elevated level of ROS. Genotoxicity caused in the microorganisms was detected by DNA polymorphism and fragmentation. Also, scanning electron microscopy data suggests that the inhibitory effect of MG to these beneficial microbes in the ecosystem might be due to pore formation in the cell and its eventual disruption. Filter paper and artificial soil test conducted on earthworms demonstrated a LC 50 of 2.6 mg cm(-2) and 1.45 mg kg(-1) respectively with severe morphological damage. However, seed germination of Mung bean, Wheat and Mustard was found to be unaffected in presence of MG up to 100 mL(-1) concentration. Thus, understanding MG toxicity in non target soil organisms and emphasis on its toxicological effects would potentially explicate its role as an environmental contaminant. PMID:25462308

  3. Effect of malachite green toxicity on non target soil organisms.

    PubMed

    Gopinathan, R; Kanhere, J; Banerjee, J

    2015-02-01

    Although malachite green (MG), is banned in Europe and US for its carcinogenic and teratogenic effect, the dye being cheap, is persistently used in various countries for fish farming, silk, dye, leather and textile industries. Current research, however, fails to elucidate adequate knowledge concerning the effects of MG in our ecosystem. In the present investigation, for the first time, an attempt has been made to study the effects of MG on soil biota by testing Bacillus subtilis, Azotobacter chroococcum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Penicillium roqueforti, Eisenia fetida and seeds of three crop plants of different families. Various tests were conducted for determining cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, acute toxicity, morphological and germination effect. Our data confirmed MG toxicity on fungi and bacteria (gram positive and gram negative organisms) showing elevated level of ROS. Genotoxicity caused in the microorganisms was detected by DNA polymorphism and fragmentation. Also, scanning electron microscopy data suggests that the inhibitory effect of MG to these beneficial microbes in the ecosystem might be due to pore formation in the cell and its eventual disruption. Filter paper and artificial soil test conducted on earthworms demonstrated a LC 50 of 2.6 mg cm(-2) and 1.45 mg kg(-1) respectively with severe morphological damage. However, seed germination of Mung bean, Wheat and Mustard was found to be unaffected in presence of MG up to 100 mL(-1) concentration. Thus, understanding MG toxicity in non target soil organisms and emphasis on its toxicological effects would potentially explicate its role as an environmental contaminant.

  4. Organic additives stabilize RNA aptamer binding of malachite green.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yubin; Chi, Hong; Wu, Yuanyuan; Marks, Robert S; Steele, Terry W J

    2016-11-01

    Aptamer-ligand binding has been utilized for biological applications due to its specific binding and synthetic nature. However, the applications will be limited if the binding or the ligand is unstable. Malachite green aptamer (MGA) and its labile ligand malachite green (MG) were found to have increasing apparent dissociation constants (Kd) as determined through the first order rate loss of emission intensity of the MGA-MG fluorescent complex. The fluorescent intensity loss was hypothesized to be from the hydrolysis of MG into malachite green carbinol base (MGOH). Random screening organic additives were found to reduce or retain the fluorescence emission and the calculated apparent Kd of MGA-MG binding. The protective effect became more apparent as the percentage of organic additives increased up to 10% v/v. The mechanism behind the organic additive protective effects was primarily from a ~5X increase in first order rate kinetics of MGOH→MG (kMGOH→MG), which significantly changed the equilibrium constant (Keq), favoring the generation of MG, versus MGOH without organic additives. A simple way has been developed to stabilize the apparent Kd of MGA-MG binding over 24h, which may be beneficial in stabilizing other triphenylmethane or carbocation ligand-aptamer interactions that are susceptible to SN1 hydrolysis.

  5. Organic additives stabilize RNA aptamer binding of malachite green.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yubin; Chi, Hong; Wu, Yuanyuan; Marks, Robert S; Steele, Terry W J

    2016-11-01

    Aptamer-ligand binding has been utilized for biological applications due to its specific binding and synthetic nature. However, the applications will be limited if the binding or the ligand is unstable. Malachite green aptamer (MGA) and its labile ligand malachite green (MG) were found to have increasing apparent dissociation constants (Kd) as determined through the first order rate loss of emission intensity of the MGA-MG fluorescent complex. The fluorescent intensity loss was hypothesized to be from the hydrolysis of MG into malachite green carbinol base (MGOH). Random screening organic additives were found to reduce or retain the fluorescence emission and the calculated apparent Kd of MGA-MG binding. The protective effect became more apparent as the percentage of organic additives increased up to 10% v/v. The mechanism behind the organic additive protective effects was primarily from a ~5X increase in first order rate kinetics of MGOH→MG (kMGOH→MG), which significantly changed the equilibrium constant (Keq), favoring the generation of MG, versus MGOH without organic additives. A simple way has been developed to stabilize the apparent Kd of MGA-MG binding over 24h, which may be beneficial in stabilizing other triphenylmethane or carbocation ligand-aptamer interactions that are susceptible to SN1 hydrolysis. PMID:27591602

  6. Potential toxicity and affinity of triphenylmethane dye malachite green to lysozyme.

    PubMed

    Ding, Fei; Li, Xiu-Nan; Diao, Jian-Xiong; Sun, Ye; Zhang, Li; Ma, Lin; Yang, Xin-Ling; Zhang, Li; Sun, Ying

    2012-04-01

    Malachite green is a triphenylmethane dye that is used extensively in many industrial and aquacultural processes, generating environmental concerns and health problems to human being. In this contribution, the complexation between lysozyme and malachite green was verified by means of computer-aided molecular modeling, steady state and time-resolved fluorescence, and circular dichroism (CD) approaches. The precise binding patch of malachite green in lysozyme has been identified from molecular modeling and ANS displacement, Trp-62, Trp-63, and Trp-108 residues of lysozyme were earmarked to possess high-affinity for this dye, the principal forces in the lysozyme-malachite green adduct are hydrophobic and π-π interactions. Steady state fluorescence proclaimed the complex of malachite green with lysozyme yields quenching through static type, which substantiates time-resolved fluorescence measurements that lysozyme-malachite green conjugation formation has an affinity of 10(3)M(-1). Moreover, via molecular modeling and also CD data, we can safely arrive at a conclusion that the polypeptide chain of lysozyme partially destabilized upon complexation with malachite green. The data emerged here will help to further understand the toxicological action of malachite green in human body.

  7. Photoacoustic spectra of malachite green adsorbed on silica gel surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikorska, Anna; Zachara, Stanislaw

    1992-11-01

    Photoacoustic spectra of malachite green adsorbed on silica gel were investigated at high dye concentrations. The measurements were carried out for two markedly differing layer thicknesses of dyed silica. The ratio of maxima of two characteristic dye bands at (lambda) equals 620 nm and (lambda) equals 425 nm was chosen as an indicator of concentration dependent changes in the shapes of the photoacoustic spectra investigated. The comparison of experimental data with the theoretical model implies that the changes observed in the shape of the spectrum result first of all from the mechanism of the signal generation in inhomogeneous medium.

  8. Resonant impulsive-stimulated Raman scattering on malachite green

    SciTech Connect

    Chesnoy, J.; Mokhtari, A.

    1988-10-01

    We have studied in the femtosecond regime the transient dynamics of dichroism (anisotropic absorption), birefringence, and frequency shift induced by an intense femtosecond pump beam in the dye malachite green in solution. Vibrational quantum beats were observed superimposed on the saturated absorption and dispersion signals and quantitatively explained in terms of impulsive-stimulated Raman scattering close to an electronic resonance. The selectivity for observation of the vibrations in the two electronic states is described for the different experimental schemes. We discuss the access to vibrational and electronic dynamics in both ground and excited electronic states and compare the possibilities to those of previous techniques.

  9. Optical properties of (nanometer MCM-41)-(malachite green) composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao-Dong; Zhai, Qing-Zhou; Zou, Ming-Qiang

    2010-11-01

    Nanosized materials loaded with organic dyes are of interest with respect to novel optical applications. The optical properties of malachite green (MG) in MCM-41 are considerably influenced by the limited nanoporous channels of nanometer MCM-41. Nanometer MCM-41 was synthesized by tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as the source of silica and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTMAB) as the template. The liquid-phase grafting method has been employed for incorporation of the malachite green molecules into the channels of nanometer MCM-41. A comparative study has been carried out on the adsorption of the malachite green into modified MCM-41 and unmodified MCM-41. The modified MCM-41 was synthesized using a silylation reagent, trimethychlorosilane (TMSCl), which functionalized the surface of nanometer MCM-41 for proper host-guest interaction. The prepared (nanometer MCM-41)-MG samples have been studied by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, low-temperature nitrogen adsorption-desorption technique at 77 K, Raman spectra and luminescence studies. In the prepared (nanometer MCM-41)-MG composite materials, the frameworks of the host molecular sieve were kept intact and the MG located inside the pores of MCM-41. Compared with the MG, it is found that the prepared composite materials perform a considerable luminescence. The excitation and emission spectra of MG in both modified MCM-41 and unmodified MCM-41 were examined to explore the structural effects on the optical properties of MG. The results of luminescence spectra indicated that the MG molecules existed in monomer form within MCM-41. However, the luminescent intensity of MG incorporated in the modified MCM-41 are higher than that of MG encapsulated in unmodified MCM-41, which may be due to the anchored methyl groups on the channels of the nanometer MCM-41 and the strong host-guest interactions. The steric effect from the pore size of the host materials is significant. Raman

  10. Permanent draft genome of the malachite-green-tolerant bacterium Rhizobium sp. MGL06.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Wang, Runping; Zeng, Runying

    2014-12-01

    Rhizobium sp. MGL06, the first Rhizobium isolate from a marine environment, is a malachite-green-tolerant bacterium with a broader salinity tolerance (range: 0.5% to 9%) than other rhizobia. This study sequences and annotates the draft genome sequence of this strain. Genome sequence information provides a basis for analyzing the malachite green tolerance, broad salinity adaptation, nitrogen fixation properties, and taxonomic classification of the isolate.

  11. Malachite green and chloramphenicol in aquatic products from regions around Dongting Lake in Hunan, China.

    PubMed

    He, Jiang; Cui, Jingzhen

    2016-01-01

    Aquatic products are important sources of animal proteins in human diet, especially in developing countries. As such, the safety of aquatic products is of primary concern. In this study, a standard method is used to detect malachite green (MG) and chloramphenicol (CAP) and to analyse the contents of these banned chemicals in turtle, mandarin fish and grass carp sampled from the region surrounding Dongting Lake area in Hunan, China. Results showed that 10.6% of the samples were MG-positive, most of them turtles. CAP was found in 8.3% of the samples, mostly in mandarin fish. These data indicated that these banned substances are still used in the surveyed area. Hence, adequate strategies must be implemented by the local government to control these banned substances. PMID:26496159

  12. Malachite green and chloramphenicol in aquatic products from regions around Dongting Lake in Hunan, China.

    PubMed

    He, Jiang; Cui, Jingzhen

    2016-01-01

    Aquatic products are important sources of animal proteins in human diet, especially in developing countries. As such, the safety of aquatic products is of primary concern. In this study, a standard method is used to detect malachite green (MG) and chloramphenicol (CAP) and to analyse the contents of these banned chemicals in turtle, mandarin fish and grass carp sampled from the region surrounding Dongting Lake area in Hunan, China. Results showed that 10.6% of the samples were MG-positive, most of them turtles. CAP was found in 8.3% of the samples, mostly in mandarin fish. These data indicated that these banned substances are still used in the surveyed area. Hence, adequate strategies must be implemented by the local government to control these banned substances.

  13. Degradation pathway of malachite green in a novel dual-tank photoelectrochemical catalytic reactor.

    PubMed

    Diao, Zenghui; Li, Mingyu; Zeng, Fanyin; Song, Lin; Qiu, Rongliang

    2013-09-15

    A novel dual-tank photoelectrochemical catalytic reactor was designed to investigate the degradation pathway of malachite green. A thermally formed TiO₂/Ti thin film electrode was used as photoanode, graphite was used as cathode, and a saturated calomel electrode was employed as the reference electrode in the reactor. In the reactor, the anode and cathode tanks were connected by a cation exchange membrane. Results showed that the decolorization ratio of malachite green in the anode and cathode was 98.5 and 96.5% after 120 min, respectively. Malachite green in the two anode and cathode tanks was oxidized, achieving the bipolar double effect. Malachite green in both the anode and cathode tanks exhibited similar catalytic degradation pathways. The double bond of the malachite green molecule was attacked by strong oxidative hydroxyl radicals, after which the organic compound was degraded by the two pathways into 4,4-bis(dimethylamino) benzophenone, 4-(dimethylamino) benzophenone, 4-(dimethylamino) phenol, and other intermediate products. Eventually, malachite green was degraded into oxalic acid as a small molecular organic acid, which was degraded by processes such as demethylation, deamination, nitration, substitution, addition, and other reactions.

  14. A study of the interaction between malachite green and lysozyme by steady-state fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Ding, Fei; Liu, Wei; Liu, Feng; Li, Zhi-Yuan; Sun, Ying

    2009-09-01

    The interaction of a N-methylated diaminotriphenylmethane dye, malachite green, with lysozyme was investigated by fluorescence spectroscopic techniques under physiological conditions. The binding parameters have been evaluated by fluorescence quenching methods. The results revealed that malachite green caused the fluorescence quenching of lysozyme through a static quenching procedure. The thermodynamic parameters like DeltaH and DeltaS were calculated to be -15.33 kJ mol(-1) and 19.47 J mol(-1) K(-1) according to van't Hoff equation, respectively, which proves main interaction between malachite green and lysozyme is hydrophobic forces and hydrogen bond contact. The distance r between donor (lysozyme) and acceptor (malachite green) was obtained to be 3.82 nm according to Frster's theory. The results of synchronous fluorescence, UV/vis and three-dimensional fluorescence spectra showed that binding of malachite green with lysozyme can induce conformational changes in lysozyme. In addition, the effects of common ions on the constants of lysozyme-malachite green complex were also discussed.

  15. Treatment of malachite green-containing wastewater using poultry feathers as adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Beak, Mi H; Ijagbemi, Christianah O; Kim, Dong S

    2009-04-01

    The feasibility of using feathers, a waste from poultry as an absorbent for malachite green in dye wastewater was studied. The batch adsorption tests were shown to be influenced by the concentration of the dye, reaction temperature, solution pH, and pre-treatment with ethanol. In order to establish the equilibrium state of the process, a kinetic study was conducted for an optimal practice of adsorption treatment process. The adsorption reached equilibrium within 120 min in the range of dye concentration studied. It was found that the adsorption rate increases especially at low concentrations of dye and the adsorption data fitted well to the first-order reaction kinetics over all dye concentration range. Absolute amount of adsorbed malachite green at equilibrium condition decreased as concentration decreases. Adsorption of malachite green on poultry feathers fitted well to the Langmuir isotherm model. As temperature increases, the adsorbed amount of malachite green at equilibrium also increased, indicating an endothermic adsorption reaction. In addition, the color removal of malachite green rapidly increased with increase in dye's water pH. The pre-treatment of adsorbent with ethanol produced initial slow rate of malachite green removal but after about 100 min of reaction time, same removal rate was observed compare with the untreated feathers.

  16. Persistence of malachite green and leucomalachite green in perch ( Lateolabrax japonicus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Zhijun; Xing, Lihong; Guo, Mengmeng; Wang, Hongyan; Jiang, Yanhua; Li, Zhaoxin; Zhai, Yuxiu

    2011-05-01

    The persistence of malachite green (MG), and its metabolite leucomalachite green (LMG), in fish tissues is still unclear, leading to many trade disputes. In this research, we established and evaluated an HPLC method that could detect MG and LMG simultaneously, and then investigated the persistence of these two toxins in the tissues of juvenile perch ( Lateolabrax japonicus) post sub-chronic MG exposure at 1.0 mg/L. Exposure lasted for 2 h everyday and was repeated six times. The perch were then placed in MG-free seawater for 100 d to eliminate the toxins. Results show that MG accumulated in the tissues, including the gills, liver, muscle, blood and viscera, and then was metabolized rapidly to LMG. The concentrations of these two toxins increased significantly with the accumulation process. In general, the highest concentrations of MG and LMG in all tissue exceeded 1 000 μg/kg, except for MG in the muscle. The order of accumulation levels (highest to lowest) of MG was gill>blood>liver>viscera>muscle, while that of LMG was liver>blood>gill>viscera>muscle. High levels of MG or LMG could persist for several hours but decreased rapidly during the elimination process. The concentration of LMG was much higher than that of MG during the experiment, especially in the gill, liver and blood. Therefore, the three tissues play important roles in toxin accumulation, biotransformation, and elimination. Although the MG and LMG concentrations in muscle were much lower than in other tissues, the content still exceeded the European minimum required performance limit (MRPL), even after 2 400 h (100 d) of elimination. This demonstrates that it is extremely difficult to eliminate MG and LMG from tissues of perch, and therefore use of these toxins is of concern to public health.

  17. A sensitive electrochemical impedance immunosensor for determination of malachite green and leucomalachite green in the aqueous environment.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Dan; Li, Qiangqiang; Pang, Xiumei; Liu, Yue; Wang, Xue; Chen, Gang

    2016-08-01

    Application of malachite green (MG) and leucomalachite green (LMG) in fish farm water causes an environmental problem. This study proposes for the first time a sensitive and convenient electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) method for determining MG and LMG by a bovine serum albumin-decorated gold nanocluster (BSA-AuNC)/antibody composite film-based immunosensor. In order to improve the analytical performance, the glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was modified with 1, 4-phenylenediamine to form a stable layer, and then, BSA-AuNCs were covalently bound to the GCE. An adequate quantity of the polyclonal antibody of LMG was immobilized onto the surface of the BSA-AuNCs by the chemical reaction of EDC/NHS. The sensors can respond to the specific target based on specific covalent bonding. The experimental parameters, such as the pH, incubating concentration, and time, have been investigated and optimized. The calibration curve for LMG was linear in the range of 0.1~10.0 ng/mL with the limit of detection (LOD) 0.03 ng/mL. Furthermore, the sum of MG and LMG was detected in fish farm water by MG reduction. The recovery was between 89.7 % and 99.2 % in spiked samples. The EC sensor method was also compared with the ELISA method and validated by the LC-MS/MS method, which proves its great promise as a field instrument for the rapid monitoring of MG and LMG pollution. Graphical abstract 1, 4-Phenylenediamine and BSA-AuNC/antibody-decorated glassy carbon electrodes have been used for the impedimetric detection of the sum of malachite green and leucomalachite green via specific immuno-binding.

  18. A sensitive electrochemical impedance immunosensor for determination of malachite green and leucomalachite green in the aqueous environment.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Dan; Li, Qiangqiang; Pang, Xiumei; Liu, Yue; Wang, Xue; Chen, Gang

    2016-08-01

    Application of malachite green (MG) and leucomalachite green (LMG) in fish farm water causes an environmental problem. This study proposes for the first time a sensitive and convenient electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) method for determining MG and LMG by a bovine serum albumin-decorated gold nanocluster (BSA-AuNC)/antibody composite film-based immunosensor. In order to improve the analytical performance, the glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was modified with 1, 4-phenylenediamine to form a stable layer, and then, BSA-AuNCs were covalently bound to the GCE. An adequate quantity of the polyclonal antibody of LMG was immobilized onto the surface of the BSA-AuNCs by the chemical reaction of EDC/NHS. The sensors can respond to the specific target based on specific covalent bonding. The experimental parameters, such as the pH, incubating concentration, and time, have been investigated and optimized. The calibration curve for LMG was linear in the range of 0.1~10.0 ng/mL with the limit of detection (LOD) 0.03 ng/mL. Furthermore, the sum of MG and LMG was detected in fish farm water by MG reduction. The recovery was between 89.7 % and 99.2 % in spiked samples. The EC sensor method was also compared with the ELISA method and validated by the LC-MS/MS method, which proves its great promise as a field instrument for the rapid monitoring of MG and LMG pollution. Graphical abstract 1, 4-Phenylenediamine and BSA-AuNC/antibody-decorated glassy carbon electrodes have been used for the impedimetric detection of the sum of malachite green and leucomalachite green via specific immuno-binding. PMID:27277811

  19. Biological decolorization of malachite green by Deinococcus radiodurans R1.

    PubMed

    Lv, Guo-Ying; Cheng, Jian-Hui; Chen, Xiao-Yang; Zhang, Zuo-Fa; Fan, Lei-Fa

    2013-09-01

    Cultures of Deinococcus radiodurans R1 were observed to decolorize malachite green (MG) dye. The effects of various factors on decolorization efficiency were investigated. The optimal decolorization temperature and pH ranges were 25-50°C and 6.0-8.0, respectively. With increasing initial MG concentration, the decolorization efficiency decreased, and the kinetic parameters, R(MG,max) and K(m) were 416.7 mg-MG/g-cell/h and 1033.7 mg/L, respectively. The D. radiodurans R1 cells were capable of tolerating and rapidly degrading high concentrations of the dye. When MG concentration was 200 mg/L, decolorization efficiency was up to 97.2% within 30 min. The intermediate products of MG biodegradation were 4-(dimethylamino)phenol and 4-(dimethylamino)benzophenone, as identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis. Toxicity tests indicated that D. radiodurans R1 did not detoxify an MG solution completely, but clearly reduced its toxicity. This study demonstrated that this strain was an efficient degrader compared to other microorganisms.

  20. Permethylated-β-Cyclodextrin Capped CdTe Quantum Dot and its Sensitive Fluorescence Analysis of Malachite Green.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yujuan; Wei, Jiongling; Wu, Wei; Wang, Song; Hu, Xiaogang; Yu, Ying

    2015-09-01

    In the present work, the CdTe quantum dots were covalently conjugated with permethylated-β-cyclodextrin (OMe-β-CD) using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride as cross-linking reagent. The obtained functional quantum dots (OMe-β-CD/QDs) showed highly luminescent, water solubility and photostability as well as good inclusion ability to malachite green. A sensitive fluorescence method was developed for the analysis of malachite green in different samples. The good linearity was 2.0 × 10(-7)-1.0 × 10(-5) mol/L and the limit of detect was 1.7 × 10(-8) mol/L. The recoveries for three environmental water samples were 92.0-108.2 % with relative standard deviation (RSD) of 0.24-1.87 %, while the recovery for the fish sample was 94.3 % with RSD of 1.04 %. The results showed that the present method was sensitive and convenient to determine malachite green in complex samples. Graphical Abstract The analytical mechanism of OMe-β-CD/QDs and its linear response to MG.

  1. A nanosilver-based spectrophotometric method for determination of malachite green in surface water samples.

    PubMed

    Sahraei, R; Farmany, A; Mortazavi, S S; Noorizadeh, H

    2013-07-01

    A new spectrophotometric method is reported for the determination of nanomolar level of malachite green in surface water samples. The method is based on the catalytic effect of silver nanoparticles on the oxidation of malachite green by hexacyanoferrate (III) in acetate-acetic acid medium. The absorbance is measured at 610 nm with the fixed-time method. Under the optimum conditions, the linear range was 8.0 × 10(-9)-2.0 × 10(-7) mol L(-1) malachite green with a correlation coefficient of 0.996. The limit of detection (S/N = 3) was 2.0 × 10(-9) mol L(-1). Relative standard deviation for ten replicate determinations of 1.0 × 10(-8) mol L(-1) malachite green was 1.86%. The method is featured with good accuracy and reproducibility for malachite green determination in surface water samples without any pre-concentration and separation step.

  2. Intensification of sonochemical degradation of malachite green by bromide ions.

    PubMed

    Moumeni, Ouarda; Hamdaoui, Oualid

    2012-05-01

    Sonochemical oxidation has been investigated as a viable advanced oxidation process (AOP) for the destruction of various pollutants in water. Ultrasonic irradiation generates ()OH radicals that can recombine, react with other gaseous species present in the cavity, or diffuse out of the bubble into the bulk liquid medium where they are able to react with solute molecules. The extent of degradation of an organic dye such as malachite green (MG) is limited by the quantity of hydroxyl radicals diffused from cavitation bubbles. In this work, the effect of bromide ions on sonolytic degradation of MG was investigated. The obtained results clearly demonstrated the considerable enhancement of sonochemical destruction of MG in the presence of bromide. No significant differences were observed in the presence of chloride and sulfate, excluding the salting-out effect. Positive effect of bromide ions, which increases with increasing bromide level and decreasing MG concentration, is due to the generation of dibromine radical anion (Br(2)(-)) formed by reaction of Br(-) with ()OH radicals followed by rapid complexation with another anion. The generated Br(2)(-) radicals, reactive but less than ()OH, are likely able to migrate far from the cavitation bubbles towards the solution bulk and are suitable for degradation of an organic dye such as MG. Additionally, Br(2)(-) radicals undergo radical-radical recombination at a lesser extent than hydroxyl radicals and would be more available than ()OH for substrate degradation, both at the bubble surface and in the solution bulk. This effect compensates for the lower reactivity of Br(2)(-) compared to ()OH toward organic substrate. Addition of bromide to natural and sea waters induces a slight positive effect on MG degradation. In the absence of bromide, ultrasonic treatment for the removal of MG was promoted in complex matrices such as natural and sea waters.

  3. Improved removal of malachite green from aqueous solution using chemically modified cellulose by anhydride.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yanmei; Min, Yinghao; Qiao, Han; Huang, Qi; Wang, Enze; Ma, Tongsen

    2015-03-01

    Cellulose modified with maleic (M) and phthalic (P) anhydride, to be named CMA and CPA, were tested as feasible adsorbents for the removal of malachite green from aqueous solution. At the same time, the uptake ability of natural cellulose was also studied for comparison. The structure of material was characterized by FT-IR and XRD. The effects of solution pH, initial dye concentration, contact time and temperature were investigated in detail by batch adsorption experiments. The kinetic and isotherm studies suggested that the adsorption followed the pseudo-second-order model and Langmuir isotherm. The maximum adsorption capacity on CMA and CPA were 370 mg g(-1) and 111 mg g(-1), respectively. Furthermore, the thermodynamics studies indicated the spontaneous nature of adsorption of malachite green on adsorbents. All the studied results showed that the modified cellulose could be used as effective adsorption material for the removal of malachite green from aqueous solutions. PMID:25542168

  4. Improved removal of malachite green from aqueous solution using chemically modified cellulose by anhydride.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yanmei; Min, Yinghao; Qiao, Han; Huang, Qi; Wang, Enze; Ma, Tongsen

    2015-03-01

    Cellulose modified with maleic (M) and phthalic (P) anhydride, to be named CMA and CPA, were tested as feasible adsorbents for the removal of malachite green from aqueous solution. At the same time, the uptake ability of natural cellulose was also studied for comparison. The structure of material was characterized by FT-IR and XRD. The effects of solution pH, initial dye concentration, contact time and temperature were investigated in detail by batch adsorption experiments. The kinetic and isotherm studies suggested that the adsorption followed the pseudo-second-order model and Langmuir isotherm. The maximum adsorption capacity on CMA and CPA were 370 mg g(-1) and 111 mg g(-1), respectively. Furthermore, the thermodynamics studies indicated the spontaneous nature of adsorption of malachite green on adsorbents. All the studied results showed that the modified cellulose could be used as effective adsorption material for the removal of malachite green from aqueous solutions.

  5. Investigation on the interaction between an antimicrobial in aquaculture, malachite green and hemocyanin from mud crab Scylla paramamosain.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhenxing; Tang, Boping; Zhang, Hongmei

    2015-01-25

    Interaction between malachite green and hemocyanin of crab plays a crucial role in the metabolism, distribution, and efficacy of toxic dyes in aquaculture. The mechanism of interaction between malachite green and Hc from mud crab was studied by using multi-spectral methods and molecular modeling in this work. The spectroscopic and thermodynamic data show that the interaction is a spontaneous process with the estimated enthalpy and entropy changes of -14.85(±1.86) kJ mol(-1) and 30.38(±5.21) J mol(-1) K(-1), respectively. The binding sites of malachite green in hemocyanin mainly locate in the interface of protein. The hydrophobic and electrostatic forces are the primary contributors to the interaction between hemocyanin and malachite green. The results of ultraviolet-vis absorbance, circular dichroism, and synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy suggest that the binding of malachite green to hemocyanin induces some conformational changes of protein. PMID:25128680

  6. Investigation on the interaction between an antimicrobial in aquaculture, malachite green and hemocyanin from mud crab Scylla paramamosain.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhenxing; Tang, Boping; Zhang, Hongmei

    2015-01-25

    Interaction between malachite green and hemocyanin of crab plays a crucial role in the metabolism, distribution, and efficacy of toxic dyes in aquaculture. The mechanism of interaction between malachite green and Hc from mud crab was studied by using multi-spectral methods and molecular modeling in this work. The spectroscopic and thermodynamic data show that the interaction is a spontaneous process with the estimated enthalpy and entropy changes of -14.85(±1.86) kJ mol(-1) and 30.38(±5.21) J mol(-1) K(-1), respectively. The binding sites of malachite green in hemocyanin mainly locate in the interface of protein. The hydrophobic and electrostatic forces are the primary contributors to the interaction between hemocyanin and malachite green. The results of ultraviolet-vis absorbance, circular dichroism, and synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy suggest that the binding of malachite green to hemocyanin induces some conformational changes of protein.

  7. Investigation on the interaction between an antimicrobial in aquaculture, malachite green and hemocyanin from Mud Crab Scylla paramamosain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhenxing; Tang, Boping; Zhang, Hongmei

    2015-01-01

    Interaction between malachite green and hemocyanin of crab plays a crucial role in the metabolism, distribution, and efficacy of toxic dyes in aquaculture. The mechanism of interaction between malachite green and Hc from mud crab was studied by using multi-spectral methods and molecular modeling in this work. The spectroscopic and thermodynamic data show that the interaction is a spontaneous process with the estimated enthalpy and entropy changes of -14.85(±1.86) kJ mol-1 and 30.38(±5.21) J mol-1 K-1, respectively. The binding sites of malachite green in hemocyanin mainly locate in the interface of protein. The hydrophobic and electrostatic forces are the primary contributors to the interaction between hemocyanin and malachite green. The results of ultraviolet-vis absorbance, circular dichroism, and synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy suggest that the binding of malachite green to hemocyanin induces some conformational changes of protein.

  8. Site-Dependent Fluorescence Decay of Malachite Green Doped in Onion Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakatsuka, Hiroki; Sekine, Masaya; Suzuki, Yuji; Hattori, Toshiaki

    1999-03-01

    Time-resolved fluorescence measurements of malachite green dye moleculesdoped in onion cells were carried out.The fluorescence decay time was dependent on the individual cell and on theposition of the dye in a cell, which reflect the microscopic dynamics of each boundsite.Upon cooling, the decay time increased and this increase was accelerated ataround the freezing point of the onion cell.

  9. Solvent dependence of ultrafast ground state recovery of the triphenylmethane dyes, brilliant green and malachite green

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagasawa, Yutaka; Ando, Yoshito; Okada, Tadashi

    1999-10-01

    We have studied femtosecond ground state recovery dynamics of the triphenylmethane dyes brilliant green (BG) and malachite green (MG) by pump-probe spectroscopy at the center wavelength of 635 nm with a time resolution of 33 fs. The ultrafast recovery of the ground state bleach was highly nonexponential and depended on the solvent viscosity, although all time constants were shorter than the solvation times obtained from other measurements. We observed a plateau or a rise component in the signal, which indicates an intermediate state. The rise time showed a viscosity dependence, even in the ultrafast time domain. It should be noted that the decay times were always longer for BG than MG, while the rise time did not show a solute dependence. The torsional motion of the amino-substituted phenyl group may be involved in the ultrafast process to the intermediate state, but lack of a solute dependence indicates that only a small conformational change is involved.

  10. Demonstration [sic] of a System for Removing Malachite Green : Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Marking, Leif L.

    1989-04-01

    Activated carbon has been used effectively to remove tastes, odors, and contaminants from public water supplies. The adsorption efficiency is influenced by the size of carbon granules, flow rate, column depth, and retention time. A study was designed to (1) determine the type of filter and kind of carbon that was most efficient and (2) demonstrate that carbon filters can be used to remove malachite green from water used for egg incubation or to hold adult salmon before spawning. Minicolumn simulation studies showed that 8 /times/ 30 mesh granular carbon manufactured from bituminous coal was effective for continuously removing malachite green from water for 230 days at a flow rate of 500 gpm and for 62 days at a flow rate of 1000 gpm. The removal capacity at the slower flow rate was 69 mg of malachite green per gram of carbon. A filter system that contained 20,000 pounds of activated carbon in each of two chambers was effective for removal of malachite green from treated water in adult salmon holding ponds at flows of 500 gpm and greater. The removal efficiency was 99.8% after 105 hours of operation, and the adsorption capacity of the system was projected to be 20 or more years of routine hatchery operation. A filter system that contained 2000 pounds of activated carbon in each of two chambers was effective for removal of malachite green from treated water in salmon egg incubation units at the designated flow rate of 50 gpm and also at faster flow rates. 14 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Isolation of a malachite green-degrading Pseudomonas sp. MDB-1 strain and cloning of the tmr2 gene.

    PubMed

    Li, Lian-tai; Hong, Qing; Yan, Xin; Fang, Gui-hua; Ali, Shinawar Waseem; Li, Shun-peng

    2009-11-01

    The release of malachite green, a commonly used triphenylmethane dye, into the environment is causing increasing concern due to its toxicity, mutagenicity, and carcinogenicity. A bacterial strain that could degrade malachite green was isolated from the water of an aquatic hatchery. It was identified as a Pseudomonas sp. based on the morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics, as well as the analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence and designated as MDB-1. This strain was capable of degrading both malachite green and leucomalachite green, as well as other triphenylmethane dyes including Crystal Violet and Basic Fuchsin. The gene tmr2, encoding the triphenylmethane reductase from MDB-1, was cloned, sequenced and effectively expressed in E. coli. These results highlight the potential of this bacterium for the bioremediation of aquatic environments contaminated by malachite green.

  12. Enhanced sensitive immunoassay: noncompetitive phage anti-immune complex assay for the determination of malachite green and leucomalachite green.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jie-Xian; Xu, Chao; Wang, Hong; Xiao, Zhi-Li; Gee, Shirley J; Li, Zhen-Feng; Wang, Feng; Wu, Wei-Jian; Shen, Yu-Dong; Yang, Jin-Yi; Sun, Yuan-Ming; Hammock, Bruce D

    2014-08-27

    To develop a more sensitive immunoassay for malachite green (MG) and leucomalachite green (LMG), we identified the immunocomplex binding phage-borne peptides for use in the noncompetitive phage anti-immunocomplex assay (PHAIA). An anti-LMG monoclonal antibody (mAb) was used to select immunocomplex binding peptides from a circular random eight-amino-acid phage-displayed library. After three rounds of panning-elution, five peptides that bound the LMG-mAb immunocomplex were obtained. One of the phage-borne peptide clones that resulted in an assay with the highest sensitivity was chosen for further research. The concentration of LMG producing 50% of the saturated signal and the limit of detection of the assay were 7.02 and 0.55 ng/mL, respectively, with a linear range of 1.35 to 21.56 ng/mL. The PHAIA based on the same antibody was 16 times more sensitive compared to the competitive immunoassay. PHAIA was used to analyze LMG, MG, and two mixtures of spiked fish samples, with validation by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detector. Results showed a good correlation (R(2)LMG = 0.9841; R(2)MG = 0.993; R(2)Mixture = 0.9903) between the data of PHAIA and HPLC, thus the assay was an efficient method for monitoring food safety.

  13. Enhanced Sensitive Immunoassay: Noncompetitive Phage Anti-Immune Complex Assay for the Determination of Malachite Green and Leucomalachite Green

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    To develop a more sensitive immunoassay for malachite green (MG) and leucomalachite green (LMG), we identified the immunocomplex binding phage-borne peptides for use in the noncompetitive phage anti-immunocomplex assay (PHAIA). An anti-LMG monoclonal antibody (mAb) was used to select immunocomplex binding peptides from a circular random eight-amino-acid phage-displayed library. After three rounds of panning-elution, five peptides that bound the LMG–mAb immunocomplex were obtained. One of the phage-borne peptide clones that resulted in an assay with the highest sensitivity was chosen for further research. The concentration of LMG producing 50% of the saturated signal and the limit of detection of the assay were 7.02 and 0.55 ng/mL, respectively, with a linear range of 1.35 to 21.56 ng/mL. The PHAIA based on the same antibody was 16 times more sensitive compared to the competitive immunoassay. PHAIA was used to analyze LMG, MG, and two mixtures of spiked fish samples, with validation by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detector. Results showed a good correlation (R2LMG = 0.9841; R2MG = 0.993; R2Mixture = 0.9903) between the data of PHAIA and HPLC, thus the assay was an efficient method for monitoring food safety. PMID:25077381

  14. Enhanced sensitive immunoassay: noncompetitive phage anti-immune complex assay for the determination of malachite green and leucomalachite green.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jie-Xian; Xu, Chao; Wang, Hong; Xiao, Zhi-Li; Gee, Shirley J; Li, Zhen-Feng; Wang, Feng; Wu, Wei-Jian; Shen, Yu-Dong; Yang, Jin-Yi; Sun, Yuan-Ming; Hammock, Bruce D

    2014-08-27

    To develop a more sensitive immunoassay for malachite green (MG) and leucomalachite green (LMG), we identified the immunocomplex binding phage-borne peptides for use in the noncompetitive phage anti-immunocomplex assay (PHAIA). An anti-LMG monoclonal antibody (mAb) was used to select immunocomplex binding peptides from a circular random eight-amino-acid phage-displayed library. After three rounds of panning-elution, five peptides that bound the LMG-mAb immunocomplex were obtained. One of the phage-borne peptide clones that resulted in an assay with the highest sensitivity was chosen for further research. The concentration of LMG producing 50% of the saturated signal and the limit of detection of the assay were 7.02 and 0.55 ng/mL, respectively, with a linear range of 1.35 to 21.56 ng/mL. The PHAIA based on the same antibody was 16 times more sensitive compared to the competitive immunoassay. PHAIA was used to analyze LMG, MG, and two mixtures of spiked fish samples, with validation by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detector. Results showed a good correlation (R(2)LMG = 0.9841; R(2)MG = 0.993; R(2)Mixture = 0.9903) between the data of PHAIA and HPLC, thus the assay was an efficient method for monitoring food safety. PMID:25077381

  15. Molecular recognition of malachite green by hemoglobin and their specific interactions: insights from in silico docking and molecular spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Peng, Wei; Ding, Fei; Peng, Yu-Kui; Sun, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Malachite green is an organic compound that can be widely used as a dyestuff for various materials; it has also emerged as a controversial agent in aquaculture. Since malachite green is proven to be carcinogenic and mutagenic, it may become a hazard to public health. For this reason, it is urgently required to analyze this controversial dye in more detail. In our current research, the interaction between malachite green and hemoglobin under physiological conditions was investigated by the methods of molecular modeling, fluorescence spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) as well as hydrophobic ANS displacement experiments. From the molecular docking, the central cavity of hemoglobin was assigned to possess high-affinity for malachite green, this result was corroborated by time-resolved fluorescence and hydrophobic ANS probe results. The recognition mechanism was found to be of static type, or rather the hemoglobin-malachite green complex formation occurred via noncovalent interactions such as π-π interactions, hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions with an association constant of 10(4) M(-1). Moreover, the results also show that the spatial structure of the biopolymer was changed in the presence of malachite green with a decrease of the α-helix and increase of the β-sheet, turn and random coil suggesting protein damage, as derived from far-UV CD and three-dimensional fluorescence. Results of this work will help to further comprehend the molecular recognition of malachite green by the receptor protein and the possible toxicological profiles of other compounds, which are the metabolites and ramifications of malachite green.

  16. TSDC and X-ray diffraction analysis of pure and malachite green sensitized polyvinyl carbazole films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Pankaj Kumar; Mishra, Jyoti; Kathal, Rachana; Pandey, Hariom; Khare, P. K.

    2013-02-01

    This paper describes the method for investigating the electrical properties of high solids via the study of thermal relaxation effects and offers an alternative scheme to the conventional bridge methods or the current voltage temperature measurements. For standard TSD experiment, this is comparable to a dielectric loss measurement, the low equivalent frequency and high sensitivity (ability to detect dipole concentration). The activation energies found by initial rise method are 0.31 ± 0.02 eV for pure and 0.43 ± 0.03 eV for malachite green sensitized PVK thermoelectrets. The peak current charges and activation energy associated with the peaks are affected by concentration of malachite green and have been explained in terms of formation of charge transfer complexes and molecular aggregates. The microscopic origin of a given current spectrum is explained by comparing the predictions of the general theories regarding the main polarization processes with the experimental data.

  17. Use of the reaction of malachite green with 11-molybdogermanic heteropolyacid

    SciTech Connect

    Mirzoyan, F.V.; Airiyan, E.K.; Tarayan, V.M.

    1985-05-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation of the interaction of malachite green (MG) with molybdogermanic heteropolyacid (MGA) in a wide range of acidity and concentrations of the reacting componenets in order to establish the optimum conditions of formation and isolation of more highly substituted salts of MGA and to increase the sensitivity of the photometric determination of germanium. It is shown that 11-molybdogermanic acid interacts quantitatively with malachite green in a wide range of acidity, forming three solid phase compounds of different compositions, contining 2, 4, and 8 associated cations of the dye. The compound with composition 8:1 was used to develop a highly sensitive method of determining submicro- and microgram quantities of germanium after its extraction determination in the form of GeC1/sub 4/.

  18. TSDC and X-ray diffraction analysis of pure and malachite green sensitized polyvinyl carbazole films

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, Pankaj Kumar; Kathal, Rachana; Mishra, Jyoti; Pandey, Hariom; Khare, P. K.

    2013-02-05

    This paper describes the method for investigating the electrical properties of high solids via the study of thermal relaxation effects and offers an alternative scheme to the conventional bridge methods or the current voltage temperature measurements. For standard TSD experiment, this is comparable to a dielectric loss measurement, the low equivalent frequency and high sensitivity (ability to detect dipole concentration). The activation energies found by initial rise method are 0.31 {+-} 0.02 eV for pure and 0.43 {+-} 0.03 eV for malachite green sensitized PVK thermoelectrets. The peak current charges and activation energy associated with the peaks are affected by concentration of malachite green and have been explained in terms of formation of charge transfer complexes and molecular aggregates. The microscopic origin of a given current spectrum is explained by comparing the predictions of the general theories regarding the main polarization processes with the experimental data.

  19. New aspects of the ultrafast electronic decay of Malachite Green in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottfried, N. H.; Roither, B.; Scherer, P. O. J.

    1997-02-01

    The triphenyl methane dye Malachite Green was studied in solution by a ultrafast fluorescence upconversion technique. A non-exponential decay was found following electronic excitation of the S(1) state. A novel contribution to the fast component was postulated in the form of a loss of transition intensity following a rotation of the phenyl rings. This notion was verified by a quantum chemical calculation. Also, no evidence for a level crossing of the S(0) and S(1) states was found.

  20. Polyvinyl butyral films containing leuco-malachite green as low-dose dosimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mai, Hoang Hoa; Solomon, H. M.; Taguchi, M.; Kojima, T.

    2008-04-01

    Thin films containing leuco-malachite green (LMG) dye in polyvinyl butyral (PVB) have been developed for dose measurements of a few hundreds Gy level. The film shows significant color change in the visible range, and the sensitivity of the film to absorbed dose was enhanced by addition of chloride-containing compounds, such as chloral hydrate or 2,2,2-trichloroethanol. The film is suitable as dosimeters for dose measurements, e.g. in food irradiation and environmental protection.

  1. Excited state structural dynamics in higher lying electronic states: S2 state of malachite green

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laptenok, Sergey P.; Addison, Kiri; Heisler, Ismael A.; Meech, Stephen R.

    2014-06-01

    The S2 fluorescence of malachite green is measured with sub 100 fs time resolution. Ultrafast spectral dynamics in the S2 state preceding S2 decay are resolved. Measurements in different solvents show that these sub 100 fs dynamics are insensitive to medium polarity and viscosity. They are thus assigned to ultrafast structural evolution between the S2 Franck-Condon and equilibrium configurations.

  2. Photodegradation of malachite green under simulated and natural irradiation: kinetics, products, and pathways.

    PubMed

    Yong, Li; Zhanqi, Gao; Yuefei, Ji; Xiaobin, Hu; Cheng, Sun; Shaogui, Yang; Lianhong, Wang; Qingeng, Wang; Die, Fang

    2015-03-21

    In this work photodegradation rates and pathways of malachite green were studied under simulated and solar irradiation with the goal of assessing the potential of photolysis as a removal mechanism in real aquatic environment. Factors influencing the photodegradation process were investigated, including pH, humic acid, Fe(2+), Ca(2+), HCO3(-), and NO3(-), of which favorable conditions were optimized by the orthogonal array design under simulated sunlight irradiation in the presence of dissolved oxygen. The degradation processes of malachite green conformed to pseudo first-order kinetics and their degradation rate constants were between 0.0062 and 0.4012 h(-1). Under solar irradiation, the decolorization efficiency of most tests can reach almost 100%, and relatively thorough mineralization could be observed. Forty degradation products were detected by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and thirteen small molecular products were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Based on the analyses of the degradation products and calculation of the frontier electron density, the pathways were proposed: decomposition of conjugated structure, N-demethylation reactions, hydroxyl addition reactions, the removal of benzene ring, and the ring-opening reaction. This study has provided a reference, both for photodegradation of malachite green and future safety applications and predictions of decontamination of related triphenylmethane dyes under real conditions. PMID:25497025

  3. Sensitive detection of malachite green and crystal violet by nonlinear laser wave mixing and capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Eric J; Tong, William G

    2016-05-01

    An ultrasensitive label-free antibody-free detection method for malachite green and crystal violet is presented using nonlinear laser wave-mixing spectroscopy and capillary zone electrophoresis. Wave-mixing spectroscopy provides a sensitive absorption-based detection method for trace analytes. This is accomplished by forming dynamic gratings within a sample cell, which diffracts light to create a coherent laser-like signal beam with high optical efficiency and high signal-to-noise ratio. A cubic dependence on laser power and square dependence on analyte concentration make wave mixing sensitive enough to detect molecules in their native form without the use of fluorescent labels for signal enhancement. A 532 nm laser and a 635 nm laser were used for malachite green and crystal violet sample excitation. The use of two lasers of different wavelengths allows the method to simultaneously detect both analytes. Selectivity is obtained through the capillary zone electrophoresis separation, which results in characteristic migration times. Measurement in capillary zone electrophoresis resulted in a limit of detection of 6.9 × 10(-10)M (2.5 × 10(-19) mol) for crystal violet and 8.3 × 10(-11)M (3.0 × 10(-20) mol) for malachite green at S/N of 2.

  4. Photodegradation of malachite green under simulated and natural irradiation: kinetics, products, and pathways.

    PubMed

    Yong, Li; Zhanqi, Gao; Yuefei, Ji; Xiaobin, Hu; Cheng, Sun; Shaogui, Yang; Lianhong, Wang; Qingeng, Wang; Die, Fang

    2015-03-21

    In this work photodegradation rates and pathways of malachite green were studied under simulated and solar irradiation with the goal of assessing the potential of photolysis as a removal mechanism in real aquatic environment. Factors influencing the photodegradation process were investigated, including pH, humic acid, Fe(2+), Ca(2+), HCO3(-), and NO3(-), of which favorable conditions were optimized by the orthogonal array design under simulated sunlight irradiation in the presence of dissolved oxygen. The degradation processes of malachite green conformed to pseudo first-order kinetics and their degradation rate constants were between 0.0062 and 0.4012 h(-1). Under solar irradiation, the decolorization efficiency of most tests can reach almost 100%, and relatively thorough mineralization could be observed. Forty degradation products were detected by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and thirteen small molecular products were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Based on the analyses of the degradation products and calculation of the frontier electron density, the pathways were proposed: decomposition of conjugated structure, N-demethylation reactions, hydroxyl addition reactions, the removal of benzene ring, and the ring-opening reaction. This study has provided a reference, both for photodegradation of malachite green and future safety applications and predictions of decontamination of related triphenylmethane dyes under real conditions.

  5. Sensitive detection of malachite green and crystal violet by nonlinear laser wave mixing and capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Eric J; Tong, William G

    2016-05-01

    An ultrasensitive label-free antibody-free detection method for malachite green and crystal violet is presented using nonlinear laser wave-mixing spectroscopy and capillary zone electrophoresis. Wave-mixing spectroscopy provides a sensitive absorption-based detection method for trace analytes. This is accomplished by forming dynamic gratings within a sample cell, which diffracts light to create a coherent laser-like signal beam with high optical efficiency and high signal-to-noise ratio. A cubic dependence on laser power and square dependence on analyte concentration make wave mixing sensitive enough to detect molecules in their native form without the use of fluorescent labels for signal enhancement. A 532 nm laser and a 635 nm laser were used for malachite green and crystal violet sample excitation. The use of two lasers of different wavelengths allows the method to simultaneously detect both analytes. Selectivity is obtained through the capillary zone electrophoresis separation, which results in characteristic migration times. Measurement in capillary zone electrophoresis resulted in a limit of detection of 6.9 × 10(-10)M (2.5 × 10(-19) mol) for crystal violet and 8.3 × 10(-11)M (3.0 × 10(-20) mol) for malachite green at S/N of 2. PMID:26998858

  6. Green synthesized conditions impacting on the reactivity of Fe NPs for the degradation of malachite green.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lanlan; Luo, Fang; Chen, Zuliang; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravendra

    2015-02-25

    This study investigates green tea extract synthesized conditions impacting on the reactivity of iron nanoparticles (Fe NPs) used for the degradation of malachite green (MG), including the volume ratio of Fe(2+) and tea extract, the solution pH and temperature. Results indicated that the reactivity of Fe NPs increased with higher temperature, but fell with increasing pH and the volume ratio of Fe(2+) and tea extract. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscope (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that Fe NPs were spherical in shape, their diameter was 70-80 nm and they were mainly composed of iron oxide nanoparticles. UV-visible (UV-vis) indicated that reactivity of Fe NPs used in degradation of MG significantly depended on the synthesized conditions of Fe NPs. This was due to their impact on the reactivity and morphology of Fe NPs. Finally, degradation of MG showed that 90.56% of MG was removed using Fe NPs. PMID:25218224

  7. Green synthesized conditions impacting on the reactivity of Fe NPs for the degradation of malachite green.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lanlan; Luo, Fang; Chen, Zuliang; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravendra

    2015-02-25

    This study investigates green tea extract synthesized conditions impacting on the reactivity of iron nanoparticles (Fe NPs) used for the degradation of malachite green (MG), including the volume ratio of Fe(2+) and tea extract, the solution pH and temperature. Results indicated that the reactivity of Fe NPs increased with higher temperature, but fell with increasing pH and the volume ratio of Fe(2+) and tea extract. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscope (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that Fe NPs were spherical in shape, their diameter was 70-80 nm and they were mainly composed of iron oxide nanoparticles. UV-visible (UV-vis) indicated that reactivity of Fe NPs used in degradation of MG significantly depended on the synthesized conditions of Fe NPs. This was due to their impact on the reactivity and morphology of Fe NPs. Finally, degradation of MG showed that 90.56% of MG was removed using Fe NPs.

  8. Green synthesized conditions impacting on the reactivity of Fe NPs for the degradation of malachite green

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Lanlan; Luo, Fang; Chen, Zuliang; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravendra

    2015-02-01

    This study investigates green tea extract synthesized conditions impacting on the reactivity of iron nanoparticles (Fe NPs) used for the degradation of malachite green (MG), including the volume ratio of Fe2+ and tea extract, the solution pH and temperature. Results indicated that the reactivity of Fe NPs increased with higher temperature, but fell with increasing pH and the volume ratio of Fe2+ and tea extract. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscope (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that Fe NPs were spherical in shape, their diameter was 70-80 nm and they were mainly composed of iron oxide nanoparticles. UV-visible (UV-vis) indicated that reactivity of Fe NPs used in degradation of MG significantly depended on the synthesized conditions of Fe NPs. This was due to their impact on the reactivity and morphology of Fe NPs. Finally, degradation of MG showed that 90.56% of MG was removed using Fe NPs.

  9. The effects of cooking on residues of malachite green and leucomalachite green in carp muscles.

    PubMed

    Mitrowska, Kamila; Posyniak, Andrzej; Zmudzki, Jan

    2007-03-14

    The effects of various cooking methods (boiling, baking and microwaving) on residues of malachite green (MG) and its major metabolite, leucomalachite green (LMG), in incurred carp muscles were investigated. Moreover, the stability of MG and LMG standard solutions under boiling in water and in oil was examined. The MG and LMG residues in cooked meat were determined by liquid chromatography with visible and fluorescence detectors. The results showed that in muscles cooked by boiling or baking MG concentration was reduced by 54% in 15 min while LMG was stable in these conditions. By microwave cooking MG residues were reduced by 61% after 1 min. Microwaving was the only method of cooking when a loss of LMG was observed (40% in 1 min). Both MG and LMG standard solutions were stable in boiling water at 100 degrees C. In cooking oil, MG was reduced by 49% after 10 min and less than 3% of the original MG remains after 90 min at 150 degrees C. No losses of LMG were observed over a time period of 120 min in cooking oil at 150 degrees C. Upon increasing the temperature to 210 degrees C and holding for 120 min, MG was rapidly reduced by 97% after 10 min. LMG under the same conditions was reduced by 18% after 10 min. No further loses of MG and LMG were observed after 120 min. The findings of this investigation show that the high temperature does not guarantee a full breakdown of residue of MG and LMG which may occur in carp muscles.

  10. The influence of a solid/liquid interface on the fluorescence kinetics of the triphenylmethane dye malachite green

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, M. A.; Crystall, B.; Rumbles, G.; Porter, G.; Klug, D. R.

    1994-04-01

    Time-resolved fluorescence measurements are reported of a triphenylmethane dye (malachite green), adsorbed at and aqueous/quartz interface, studied by evanescent wave excitation. The importance of internal conversion as the dominant deactivation pathway from the first excited singlet state of malachite green is observed to be greatly reduced for molecules at a solid/liquid interface compared to those in low viscosity solvents. Surface coverage dependent decay kinetics are observed, and at the lowest surface coverages studied, the excited singlet state lifetime of the dye is more than two orders of magnitude greater than the value observed for the dye in aqueous solution. Fluorescence decay kinetics are found to be non mono-exponential under all conditions, and the limitations of simple sum-of-exponentials fitting are discussed in light of other models currently available. It is possible to distinguish at least two populations of malachite green adsorbed at the surface.

  11. Graphene oxide caged in cellulose microbeads for removal of malachite green dye from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaomei; Yu, Hongwen; Yang, Hongjun; Wan, Yuchun; Hu, Hong; Zhai, Zhuang; Qin, Jieming

    2015-01-01

    A simple sol-gel method using non-toxic and cost-effective precursors has been developed to prepare graphene oxide (GO)/cellulose bead (GOCB) composites for removal of dye pollutants. Taking advantage of the combined benefits of GO and cellulose, the prepared GOCB composites exhibit excellent removal efficiency towards malachite green (>96%) and can be reused for over 5 times through simple filtration method. The high-decontamination performance of the GOCB system is strongly dependent on encapsulation amount of GO, temperature and pH value. In addition, the adsorption behavior of this new adsorbent fits well with the Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second-order kinetic model.

  12. A high-dose dosimeter-based polyvinyl chloride dyed with malachite green

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kattan, M.; Daher, Y.; Alkassiri, H.

    2007-07-01

    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) film dyed with malachite green was studied for high-dose radiation dosimetry using visible spectrophotometry. A linear relationship between the relative absorbance and the absorbed dose at the wavelength 628 nm in the range of 0-125 kGy was found. The effect of dose rate, irradiation temperature, film thickness and dye intensity were found not to influence the response. The effects of shelf life and the post-irradiation storage in darkness and indirect daylight conditions on dosimetry performance were discussed.

  13. Excitation energy transfer between erythrosin B and malachite green adsorbed on a microheterogeneous polymer latex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, A. K.

    1995-07-01

    In this article electronic excitation energy transfer between the aggregates of the donor erythrosin B (EB) and the acceptor malachite green (MG) has been studied in polystyrenebutylmethacrylate latex. Steady state flourescence quenching studies reveal that with the increasing latex concentration the rate of quenching decreases initially, attains a minimum and then increases again. Such a behaviour has been attributed to aggregation of the dye molecules at low latex concentration and redistribution at larger latex concentrations. These results illustrate the role of the microenvironment in modifying the energy transfer reaction rates and provides a model system for understanding energy transfer mechanisms in context to photosynthesis in real living systems.

  14. Time-resolved saturated absorption recovery in malachite green-doped xerogel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canva, M.; Le Saux, G.; Georges, P.; Brun, A.; Chaput, F.; Boilot, J. P.

    1991-01-01

    We trapped malachite green dye molecules in a closed-porosity xerogel and measured the absorption recovery time of the S o → S 1 transition around 620 nm using the pump and probe technique with 100 fs pulses. An increase in the sample transmission from 3% to 40% was induced. From the time constants obtained, we deduce that the molecules are held with an apparent viscosity of about 25 cP. The lifetimes measured, the energy used and the transmission variation are such that this doped xerogel could have potential optical applications.

  15. Spectropolarimetric investigation of the photoinduced dichroism and birefringence in malachite green/dichromated gelatin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markova, Bistra; Hristov, Boyan; Todorov, Todor; Nikolova, Ludmila; Stoilov, Georgi

    2009-06-01

    We report a spectropolarimetric investigation of the photoinduced anisotropy in dichromated gelatin films containing the dye malachite green. The investigation is done with a novel Spectral Stokesmeter which measures simultaneously and in real time (20 ms) the spectra of all the Stokes parameters of light in the spectral range 500-750 nm. This made it possible to measure not only the spectrum of the dichroism but also, for the first time to our knowledge, the spectrum of the photoinduced birefringence in these films. The results show that we can measure trustworthy dichroism larger than 0.02 and birefringence larger than 2 × 10-4.

  16. [SERS spectrum recognition for Malachite Green real-time detection in aquaculture used seawater].

    PubMed

    Guo, Shu-Xia; Zhang, Feng-Ling; Gao, Pan; Zeng, Yong-Ming; Chen, Hong-Ju; Liu, Guo-Kun; Wang, Lei

    2014-05-01

    Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is a useful chemical analysis technique for its high sensitivity, which was used for Malachite Green qualitative analysis in real cases in the present article. Automatic recognition algorithms were put forward, which is a combination of three modules, including a robust Fourier transform for background rejection, a principal component analysis based character extraction method and artificial neural networks for classifying. Low-frequency background was rejected by iterative Fourier transform in order to eliminate the effect of variable background. The best principal component combination was obtained according to the Euclidean distances between-class and within-class in the sample space. And a three-layer back-propagating neural network was constructed for classifying. As it was shown, it would both minimize the network and reduce the classifying mistakes from variable baseline and Raman characters of other substances in seawater with best principal component combination. Malachite Green real-time detection in aquaculture used seawater was realized with a lower density limit of 0. 1 microg L-1. Moreover, the method proposed in this article could be extended for other sol analysis based on SERS technique.

  17. Pathway and molecular mechanisms for malachite green biodegradation in Exiguobacterium sp. MG2.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ji'ai; Gao, Feng; Liu, Zhongzhong; Qiao, Min; Niu, Xuemei; Zhang, Ke-Qin; Huang, Xiaowei

    2012-01-01

    Malachite green (MG), N-methylated diaminotriphenylmethane, is one of the most common dyes in textile industry and has also been used as an effective antifungal agent. However, due to its negative impact on the environment and carcinogenic effects to mammalian cells, there is a significant interest in developing microbial agents to degrade this type of recalcitrant molecules. Here, an Exiguobacterium sp. MG2 was isolated from a river in Yunnan Province of China as one of the best malachite green degraders. This strain had a high decolorization capability even at the concentration of 2500 mg/l and maintained its stable activity within the pH range from 5.0 to 9.0. High-pressure liquid chromatography, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were employed to detect the catabolic pathway of MG. Six intermediate products were identified and a potential biodegradation pathway was proposed. This pathway involves a series of reactions of N-demethylation, reduction, benzene ring-removal, and oxidation, which eventually converted N-methylated diaminotriphenylmethane into N, N-dimethylaniline that is the key precursor to MG. Furthermore, our molecular biology experiments suggested that both triphenylmethane reductase gene tmr and cytochrome P450 participated in MG degradation, consistent with their roles in the proposed pathway. Collectively, our investigation is the first report on a biodegradation pathway of triphenylmethane dye MG in bacteria.

  18. Investigation on removal of malachite green using EM based compost as adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Bhagavathi Pushpa, T; Vijayaraghavan, J; Sardhar Basha, S J; Sekaran, V; Vijayaraghavan, K; Jegan, J

    2015-08-01

    The discarded materials from different sources can be utilized as effective materials in wastewater remediation. This proposed study was aimed mainly to investigate the possibility of Effective Microorganisms based compost (EMKC), which is derived from the kitchen solid waste, as a non-conventional low cost adsorbent for the removal of malachite green from aqueous solution. Batch experiments were carried out to evaluate the optimum operating parameters like pH (2-9), initial dye concentration (50-1000mg/L), adsorbent particle size (0.6-2.36mm) and adsorbent dosage (2-12g/L). EMKC recorded maximum uptake of 136.6mg/g of MG at pH 8, initial dye concentration 1000mg/L, adsorbent particle size 1.18mm and adsorbent dosage 4g/L. Two and three parameter adsorption models were employed to describe experimental biosorption isotherm data. The results revealed that the Sips model resulted in better fit than other models. The pseudo-first and -second order models were applied to describe kinetic data, of which the pseudo-second order described experimental data better with high correlation coefficient. This investigation suggested that EMKC could be an effective and low cost material for the removal of malachite green dye from aqueous solution. PMID:25938698

  19. Investigation on removal of malachite green using EM based compost as adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Bhagavathi Pushpa, T; Vijayaraghavan, J; Sardhar Basha, S J; Sekaran, V; Vijayaraghavan, K; Jegan, J

    2015-08-01

    The discarded materials from different sources can be utilized as effective materials in wastewater remediation. This proposed study was aimed mainly to investigate the possibility of Effective Microorganisms based compost (EMKC), which is derived from the kitchen solid waste, as a non-conventional low cost adsorbent for the removal of malachite green from aqueous solution. Batch experiments were carried out to evaluate the optimum operating parameters like pH (2-9), initial dye concentration (50-1000mg/L), adsorbent particle size (0.6-2.36mm) and adsorbent dosage (2-12g/L). EMKC recorded maximum uptake of 136.6mg/g of MG at pH 8, initial dye concentration 1000mg/L, adsorbent particle size 1.18mm and adsorbent dosage 4g/L. Two and three parameter adsorption models were employed to describe experimental biosorption isotherm data. The results revealed that the Sips model resulted in better fit than other models. The pseudo-first and -second order models were applied to describe kinetic data, of which the pseudo-second order described experimental data better with high correlation coefficient. This investigation suggested that EMKC could be an effective and low cost material for the removal of malachite green dye from aqueous solution.

  20. Ocular hazards of the colors used during the festival-of-colors (Holi) in India--malachite green toxicity.

    PubMed

    Velpandian, T; Saha, K; Ravi, A K; Kumari, S S; Biswas, N R; Ghose, S

    2007-01-10

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the nature of the colors used and their toxicity to the eye upon exposure to them during celebration of Holi (our festival-of-colors). Color powders and formulations were procured at random in and around Delhi during the festival. The green/bluish-green colors reported with the higher incidence of ocular toxicity were subjected for further evaluation. Eyewash fluid collected from the patients exposed to the colors was also subjected for analysis. This study was further extended to evaluate the corneal penetration of malachite green using goat cornea in perfusion chamber. In 16/18 color samples collected, malachite green or 4-[(4-dimethylaminophenyl)-phenyl-methyl]-N,N-dimethyl-aniline was detected at different concentrations. In the eyewash fluid of four patients, HPLC estimation confirmed the presence of malachite green at concentrations of 1.3, 0.18, 3.5 and 5.4 microg in 250 ml which was responsible for its reported toxicity. The in vitrotrans-corneal penetration studies did not show any detectable amount of malachite green in effluent fluid-in vitro tissue retention studies revealed that increasing the contact time increases tissue concentration. After 2 min of exposure, the tissue concentration was significantly higher. To conclude, malachite green was extensively used in our festival of Holi and has caused severe ocular irritation with epithelial defect upon exposure, though it did not penetrate through the cornea-further in vitro and in vivo studies are required on colors used in Holi.

  1. Ocular hazards of the colors used during the festival-of-colors (Holi) in India--malachite green toxicity.

    PubMed

    Velpandian, T; Saha, K; Ravi, A K; Kumari, S S; Biswas, N R; Ghose, S

    2007-01-10

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the nature of the colors used and their toxicity to the eye upon exposure to them during celebration of Holi (our festival-of-colors). Color powders and formulations were procured at random in and around Delhi during the festival. The green/bluish-green colors reported with the higher incidence of ocular toxicity were subjected for further evaluation. Eyewash fluid collected from the patients exposed to the colors was also subjected for analysis. This study was further extended to evaluate the corneal penetration of malachite green using goat cornea in perfusion chamber. In 16/18 color samples collected, malachite green or 4-[(4-dimethylaminophenyl)-phenyl-methyl]-N,N-dimethyl-aniline was detected at different concentrations. In the eyewash fluid of four patients, HPLC estimation confirmed the presence of malachite green at concentrations of 1.3, 0.18, 3.5 and 5.4 microg in 250 ml which was responsible for its reported toxicity. The in vitrotrans-corneal penetration studies did not show any detectable amount of malachite green in effluent fluid-in vitro tissue retention studies revealed that increasing the contact time increases tissue concentration. After 2 min of exposure, the tissue concentration was significantly higher. To conclude, malachite green was extensively used in our festival of Holi and has caused severe ocular irritation with epithelial defect upon exposure, though it did not penetrate through the cornea-further in vitro and in vivo studies are required on colors used in Holi. PMID:16904259

  2. Synthesis of iron-based nanoparticles using oolong tea extract for the degradation of malachite green.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lanlan; Weng, Xiulan; Chen, Zuliang; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravendra

    2014-01-01

    Iron-based nanoparticles (OT-FeNP) were synthesized using oolong tea extracts. Their morphology, structure and size were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-visible (UV-vis) and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Formation of FeNP results in mostly spherical particles with diameters ranging from 40 to 50 nm. Degradation of malachite green (MG) using OT-FeNP demonstrated that kinetics fitted well to the pseudo first-order reaction by removing 75.5% of MG (50 mg/L). This indicated that OT-FeNP has the potential to serve as a green nanomaterial for environmental remediation.

  3. Synthesis of iron-based nanoparticles using oolong tea extract for the degradation of malachite green

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Lanlan; Weng, Xiulan; Chen, Zuliang; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravendra

    2014-01-01

    Iron-based nanoparticles (OT-FeNP) were synthesized using oolong tea extracts. Their morphology, structure and size were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-visible (UV-vis) and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Formation of FeNP results in mostly spherical particles with diameters ranging from 40 to 50 nm. Degradation of malachite green (MG) using OT-FeNP demonstrated that kinetics fitted well to the pseudo first-order reaction by removing 75.5% of MG (50 mg/L). This indicated that OT-FeNP has the potential to serve as a green nanomaterial for environmental remediation.

  4. Association of malachite green-positive material with heparan sulfate proteoglycan double tracks in basement membrane of mouse kidney tubules.

    PubMed

    Inoue, S

    1995-03-01

    The presence of lipids in the basement membrane of the mouse kidney tubules was examined by histochemical staining with malachite green. Pieces of mouse kidney cortex were immersed in a fixative containing 3% glutaraldehyde and 0.1% malachite green in 0.067 M sodium cacodylate buffer, pH 6.8, for 18 hr at 4 degrees C. Control tissue was fixed in the same way except that no malachite green was added to the fixative. The tissue pieces were cryoprotected, frozen in Freon 22, and subjected to freeze-substitution in dry acetone containing 1% OsO4. Thin sections of Epon-embedded specimens were observed by electron microscopy at first without uranyl-lead counterstaining. The basement membrane of mouse kidney tubules was positively stained in a pattern composed of an irregular assembly of 5-8-nm wide strands. The nature of these malachite green-positive strands was further examined by counterstaining thin sections with uranyl-lead, and they were identified as 4.5-5-nm wide ribbon-like "double tracks" previously characterized as the form taken by heparan sulfate proteoglycan in basement membranes. It is concluded that lipids are present in the basement membrane of mouse kidney tubules in association with heparan sulfate proteoglycan. PMID:7868858

  5. HPLC Determination and MS Confirmation of Malachite Green, Gentian Violet, and Their Leuco Metabolites in Catfish Muscle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Residues of malachite green (MG), gentian violet (GV), and their leuco metabolites in catfish muscle were individually determined by HPLC using visible and fluorescence detectors. This detection scheme obviated a PbO2 column that converts leuco forms to chromatic forms for visible detection, thus el...

  6. The effect of toxic malachite green on the bacterial community in Antarctic soil and the physiology of malachite green-degrading Pseudomonas sp. MGO.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jaejoon; Seo, Hyoju; Lee, Se Hee; Jeon, Che Ok; Park, Woojun

    2013-05-01

    The effects of malachite green (MG) on the bacterial community in Antarctic soil were assessed. Culture-independent community analysis using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing showed that, in the presence of MG, the relative abundance of Pseudomonas dramatically increased from 2.2 % to 36.6 % (16.6-fold), and Pseudomonas became the predominant genus. The reduction in bacterial biodiversity was demonstrated by diversity indices and rarefaction curves. MG-degrading Pseudomonas sp. MGO was isolated from Antarctic soil. MG tolerance and decolorization activity were confirmed by growth, spectrophotometric, high-performance liquid chromatography, and thin-layer chromatography analyses in high MG concentrations. Our data showed that the decolorization process occurred via biodegradation, while biosorption also occurred after some time during the fed-batch decolorization process. Significant inductions in laccase, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-2,6 dichlorophenol indophenol reductase, and MG reductase activities suggested their involvement in the decolorization process. We also showed that the high tolerance of strain MGO to toxic MG might be mediated by upregulation of oxidative stress defense systems such as superoxide dismutase and protease. Collectively, these results demonstrated the response of the Antarctic soil bacterial community to MG and provided insight into the molecular mechanism of MG-tolerant Pseudomonas strains isolated from Antarctic soil.

  7. Occurrence of residues of the veterinary drug malachite green in eels caught downstream from municipal sewage treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Schuetze, Andrea; Heberer, Thomas; Juergensen, Susanne

    2008-08-01

    Residues of malachite green (MG), a veterinary drug illegally used for the treatment of aquacultured fish, have been found in wild eels caught from surface waters downstream from the sewers of different municipal sewage treatment plants (STPs). MG and its metabolite leucomalachite green (LMG) were detected with total concentrations up to 0.765 microg kg(-1) fresh weight in the tissues of 25 out of 45 eels caught from different lakes, a river and a canal in Berlin, Germany. In all cases, the occurrence of the residues could directly be linked to the presence of discharges by municipal STPs into the receiving surface waters. MG is a multiple-use compound that is also used to color materials. Thus, it appears to be reasonable that the residues of MG found in the eel samples originate from such uses, e.g. by wash off from clothes or paper towels colored with MG. Additional loads from legal uses of MG as veterinary drug for the treatment of ornamental fish (private aquaria) are possible. The results obtained from this study are the first proof of background contaminations of a veterinary drug found in samples of fish not intentionally treated with such agents. MG and LMG are regarded as potential genotoxic carcinogens making it impossible to establish a tolerable daily intake. A margin of exposure (MOE) approach was applied to evaluate the human health risk associated with the consumption of the eels investigated in this study. With a MOE of 3.4 million the chronic risk was classified as being very low. Nevertheless, due to their potential to act as genotoxic carcinogens, any oral exposure to residues of MG and LMG should be avoided. According to European Union law, zero tolerance applies to all residues of MG and LMG found in food for human consumption as MG is not registered for use as veterinary drug. PMID:18602134

  8. Function and dynamics of aptamers: A case study on the malachite green aptamer

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Tianjiao

    2008-01-01

    Aptamers are short single-stranded nucleic acids that can bind to their targets with high specificity and high affinity. To study aptamer function and dynamics, the malachite green aptamer was chosen as a model. Malachite green (MG) bleaching, in which an OH- attacks the central carbon (C1) of MG, was inhibited in the presence of the malachite green aptamer (MGA). The inhibition of MG bleaching by MGA could be reversed by an antisense oligonucleotide (AS) complementary to the MGA binding pocket. Computational cavity analysis of the NMR structure of the MGA-MG complex predicted that the OH- is sterically excluded from the C1 of MG. The prediction was confirmed experimentally using variants of the MGA with changes in the MG binding pocket. This work shows that molecular reactivity can be reversibly regulated by an aptamer-AS pair based on steric hindrance. In addition to demonstrate that aptamers could control molecular reactivity, aptamer dynamics was studied with a strategy combining molecular dynamics (MD) simulation and experimental verification. MD simulation predicted that the MG binding pocket of the MGA is largely pre-organized and that binding of MG involves reorganization of the pocket and a simultaneous twisting of the MGA terminal stems around the pocket. MD simulation also provided a 3D-structure model of unoccupied MGA that has not yet been obtained by biophysical measurements. These predictions were consistent with biochemical and biophysical measurements of the MGA-MG interaction including RNase I footprinting, melting curves, thermodynamic and kinetic constants measurement. This work shows that MD simulation can be used to extend our understanding of the dynamics of aptamer-target interaction which is not evident from static 3D-structures. To conclude, I have developed a novel concept to control molecular reactivity by an aptamer based on steric protection and a strategy to study the dynamics of aptamer-target interaction by combining MD

  9. Biosorption of malachite green by eggshells: mechanism identification and process optimization.

    PubMed

    Podstawczyk, Daria; Witek-Krowiak, Anna; Chojnacka, Katarzyna; Sadowski, Zygmunt

    2014-05-01

    In the present work, eggshells were used to remove a dye (malachite green) from wastewater. The study was focused on identification and describing the binding mechanism of the dye by eggshells in a biosorption process optimized by Response Surface Methodology based on the Box-Behnken Design. The mechanism of biosorption was determined by characterization of the biosorbent before and after biosorption using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller isotherm method, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The second-order polynomial equation and 3D response surface plots were used to quantitatively determine the relationships between dependent and independent variables. The obtained results suggested the mechanism of wastewater treatment that included physical adsorption, alkaline fading phenomenon and microprecipitation. The results of the present study showed that waste eggshells have the potential to be used as an inexpensive but effective biosorbent useful in wastewater treatment.

  10. Thermodynamics and kinetics of adaptive binding in the malachite green RNA aptamer.

    PubMed

    Da Costa, Jason B; Andreiev, Aurelia I; Dieckmann, Thorsten

    2013-09-24

    Adaptive binding, the ability of molecules to fold themselves around the structure of a ligand and thereby incorporating it into their three-dimensional fold, is a key feature of most RNA aptamers. The malachite green aptamer (MGA) has been shown to bind several closely related triphenyl dyes with planar and nonplanar structures in this manner. Competitive binding studies using isothermal titration calorimetry and stopped flow kinetics have been conducted with the aim of understanding the adaptive nature of RNA-ligand interaction. The results of these studies reveal that binding of one ligand can reduce the ability of the aptamer pocket to adapt to another ligand, even if this second ligand has a significantly higher affinity to the free aptamer. A similar effect is observed in the presence of Mg(2+) ions which stabilize the binding pocket in a more ligand bound-like conformation.

  11. Colorimetric determination of low pH with malachite green. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Cloessner, P.F.; Baumann, E.W.

    1994-04-01

    A spectrophotometric method was developed for determination of concentration-based pH values from 0 to 2 with malachite green indicator. A quadratic model equation was based on the ratio of the absorbances of the peak at 618 nm and the isosbestic point at 518 nm. Normalization to the isosbestic point was used to stabilize the response because the color faded; the useful time interval was within 5 minutes after indicator addition. Model and verification sets agreed within {plus_minus}0.02 pH units between pH 0.3 and 1.8. This excellent precision makes the colorimetric method useful for acid determinations with a relative precision of >{plus_minus}5%. The presence of salts at a salt/acid equivalent ratio >0.l caused a low pH bias.

  12. Adsorption and photocatalytic degradation of malachite green by vanadium doped zinc oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Khezami, L; Taha, Kamal K; Ghiloufi, Imed; El Mir, Lassaad

    2016-01-01

    Herein the degradation of malachite green (MG) dye from aqueous medium by vanadium doped zinc oxide (ZnO:V3%) nanopowder was investigated. The specific surface area and pore volume of the nanopowder was characterized by nitrogen adsorption method. Batch experimental procedures were conducted to investigate the adsorption and photocatalytic degradation of MG dye. Adsorption kinetics investigations were performed by varying the amount of the catalyst and the initial dye concentrations. Adsorption and photocatalytic degradation data were modeled using the Lagergren pseudo-first-order and second-order kinetic equation. The results showed that the ZnO:V3% nanopowder was particularly effective for the removal of MG and data were found to comply with Lagergreen pseudo-first-order kinetic model. PMID:26901732

  13. Use of Enzymatic Bio-Fenton as a New Approach in Decolorization of Malachite Green

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Afzal; Aghbolaghy, Mostafa; Khataee, Alireza; Shoa Bargh, Shabnam

    2012-01-01

    An enzymatic reaction using glucose oxidase was applied for in situ production of hydrogen peroxide for use in simultaneously Fenton's reaction in decolorization of malachite green. It was found that decolorization rate increased by increasing of glucose concentration from 0.2 g/L to 1.5 g/L. Decolorization rate showed different behaviors versus temperature changes. Initial rate of decolorization process was increased by increasing of temperature; after 30 minutes, especially at temperatures above 30°C, the decolorization rate was gradually reduced. The pH value in the reaction media was decreased from natural to about pH = 3 which had synergic effect on the Fenton process by stabilizing of Fe2+ ions. PMID:22649310

  14. Determination of trace amount of formaldehyde base on a bromate-Malachite Green system.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yufang; Chen, Hao; Weng, Chao; Tang, Xiaohui; Zhang, Miaoling; Hu, Tao

    2015-01-25

    A novel catalytic kinetic spectrophotometric method for determination of trace amount of formaldehyde (FA) has been established, based on catalytic effect of trace amount of FA on the oxidation of Malachite Green (MG) by potassium bromate in presence of sulfuric acid medium, and was reported for the first time. The method was monitored by measuring the decrease in absorbance of MG at 617 nm and allowed a precise determination of FA in the range of 0.003-0.08 μg mL(-1), with a limit of detection down to 1 ng mL(-1). The relative standard deviation of 10 replicate measurements was 1.63%. The method developed was approved to be sensitive, selective and accurate, and adopted to determinate free FA in samples directly with good accuracy and reproducibility.

  15. Malachite green decolorization by the filamentous fungus Myrothecium roridum--Mechanistic study and process optimization.

    PubMed

    Jasińska, Anna; Paraszkiewicz, Katarzyna; Sip, Anna; Długoński, Jerzy

    2015-10-01

    The filamentous fungus Myrothecium roridum isolated from a dye-contaminated area was investigated in terms of its use for the treatment of Malachite green (MG). The mechanisms involved in this process were established. Peroxidases and cytochrome P-450 do not mediate MG elimination. The laccase of M. roridum IM 6482 was found to be responsible for the decolorization of 8-11% of MG. Thermostable low-molecular-weight factors (LMWF) resistant to sodium azide were found to be largely involved in dye decomposition. In addition, MG decolorization by M. roridum IM 6482 occurred in a non-toxic manner. Data from antimicrobial tests showed that MG toxicity decreased after decolorization. To optimize the MG decolorization process, the effects of operational parameters (such as the medium pH and composition, process temperature and culture agitation) were examined. The results demonstrate that M. roridum IM 6482 may be used effectively as an alternative to traditional decolorization agents. PMID:26185924

  16. Fe3O4@mesoporous SBA-15: A magnetically recoverable catalyst for photodegradation of malachite green

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliyan, Hamid; Fazaeli, Razieh; Jalilian, Rahil

    2013-07-01

    Surface of mesostructured silica (SBA-15) was modified by immobilizing Fe3O4. This modified-nanosized mesoporous silica Fe3O4@SBA-15 was characterized by FTIR, XRD, BET and SEM. A comparison of the photoefficiency of Fe3O4@SBA-15 toward photodegradation of malachite green (MG) was investigated in a photocatalytic reactor using UV lamp as a light source. The effect of various experimental parameters on the degradation performance of the process was evaluated by examining catalyst dosage, initial dye concentration and pH of the dye solution in the presence of Fe3O4@SBA-15 as photocatalyst. It was found that the photocatalyst exhibited significantly high catalytic stability, and the activity loss is negligible after five MG degradation cycles.

  17. Study of malachite green adsorption by organically modified clay using a batch method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arellano-Cárdenas, Sofía; López-Cortez, Socorro; Cornejo-Mazón, Maribel; Mares-Gutiérrez, Juan Carlos

    2013-09-01

    The adsorption of toxic dye malachite green from aqueous effluents by organically modified clay was studied in a batch system. The organoclay (OC) used was prepared by the intercalation of cationic surfactant hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide in a Mexican montmorillonite. The effects of initial dye concentration, temperature, pH, and contact time were investigated. The OC showed a high dye removal (99.6%) from an initial dye concentration of 60 mg L-1 at pH 6 and 25 °C. The adsorption capacity was independent of pH and increased with the temperature. Equilibrium data were well fitted by Langmuir adsorption model. The rate of sorption was adjusted to a pseudo second-order kinetic model.

  18. Determination of trace amount of formaldehyde base on a bromate-Malachite Green system.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yufang; Chen, Hao; Weng, Chao; Tang, Xiaohui; Zhang, Miaoling; Hu, Tao

    2015-01-25

    A novel catalytic kinetic spectrophotometric method for determination of trace amount of formaldehyde (FA) has been established, based on catalytic effect of trace amount of FA on the oxidation of Malachite Green (MG) by potassium bromate in presence of sulfuric acid medium, and was reported for the first time. The method was monitored by measuring the decrease in absorbance of MG at 617 nm and allowed a precise determination of FA in the range of 0.003-0.08 μg mL(-1), with a limit of detection down to 1 ng mL(-1). The relative standard deviation of 10 replicate measurements was 1.63%. The method developed was approved to be sensitive, selective and accurate, and adopted to determinate free FA in samples directly with good accuracy and reproducibility. PMID:25123939

  19. Graphene oxide caged in cellulose microbeads for removal of malachite green dye from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaomei; Yu, Hongwen; Yang, Hongjun; Wan, Yuchun; Hu, Hong; Zhai, Zhuang; Qin, Jieming

    2015-01-01

    A simple sol-gel method using non-toxic and cost-effective precursors has been developed to prepare graphene oxide (GO)/cellulose bead (GOCB) composites for removal of dye pollutants. Taking advantage of the combined benefits of GO and cellulose, the prepared GOCB composites exhibit excellent removal efficiency towards malachite green (>96%) and can be reused for over 5 times through simple filtration method. The high-decontamination performance of the GOCB system is strongly dependent on encapsulation amount of GO, temperature and pH value. In addition, the adsorption behavior of this new adsorbent fits well with the Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second-order kinetic model. PMID:25441361

  20. Adsorption and photocatalytic degradation of malachite green by vanadium doped zinc oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Khezami, L; Taha, Kamal K; Ghiloufi, Imed; El Mir, Lassaad

    2016-01-01

    Herein the degradation of malachite green (MG) dye from aqueous medium by vanadium doped zinc oxide (ZnO:V3%) nanopowder was investigated. The specific surface area and pore volume of the nanopowder was characterized by nitrogen adsorption method. Batch experimental procedures were conducted to investigate the adsorption and photocatalytic degradation of MG dye. Adsorption kinetics investigations were performed by varying the amount of the catalyst and the initial dye concentrations. Adsorption and photocatalytic degradation data were modeled using the Lagergren pseudo-first-order and second-order kinetic equation. The results showed that the ZnO:V3% nanopowder was particularly effective for the removal of MG and data were found to comply with Lagergreen pseudo-first-order kinetic model.

  1. Malachite green decolorization by the filamentous fungus Myrothecium roridum--Mechanistic study and process optimization.

    PubMed

    Jasińska, Anna; Paraszkiewicz, Katarzyna; Sip, Anna; Długoński, Jerzy

    2015-10-01

    The filamentous fungus Myrothecium roridum isolated from a dye-contaminated area was investigated in terms of its use for the treatment of Malachite green (MG). The mechanisms involved in this process were established. Peroxidases and cytochrome P-450 do not mediate MG elimination. The laccase of M. roridum IM 6482 was found to be responsible for the decolorization of 8-11% of MG. Thermostable low-molecular-weight factors (LMWF) resistant to sodium azide were found to be largely involved in dye decomposition. In addition, MG decolorization by M. roridum IM 6482 occurred in a non-toxic manner. Data from antimicrobial tests showed that MG toxicity decreased after decolorization. To optimize the MG decolorization process, the effects of operational parameters (such as the medium pH and composition, process temperature and culture agitation) were examined. The results demonstrate that M. roridum IM 6482 may be used effectively as an alternative to traditional decolorization agents.

  2. Determination of trace amount of formaldehyde base on a bromate-Malachite Green system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yufang; Chen, Hao; Weng, Chao; Tang, Xiaohui; Zhang, Miaoling; Hu, Tao

    2015-01-01

    A novel catalytic kinetic spectrophotometric method for determination of trace amount of formaldehyde (FA) has been established, based on catalytic effect of trace amount of FA on the oxidation of Malachite Green (MG) by potassium bromate in presence of sulfuric acid medium, and was reported for the first time. The method was monitored by measuring the decrease in absorbance of MG at 617 nm and allowed a precise determination of FA in the range of 0.003-0.08 μg mL-1, with a limit of detection down to 1 ng mL-1. The relative standard deviation of 10 replicate measurements was 1.63%. The method developed was approved to be sensitive, selective and accurate, and adopted to determinate free FA in samples directly with good accuracy and reproducibility.

  3. Quest for the binding mode of malachite green with humic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongmei; Yin, Mingxing; Shi, Jinghua; Wang, Yanqing

    2015-02-01

    The association of malachite green (MG) with humic acid (HA) was investigated by using fluorescence, UV-vis spectroscopy and molecular Modelling method. The fluorescence spectral results indicated that the binding between MG and HA occurred by mainly hydrophobic and electrostatic forces with association constants of KA (298 K) = 6.24 × 105 L/mol and KA (310 K) = 10.20 × 105 L/mol. There were more than one binding sites on HA to bind with MG. The binding sites of MG with HA primarily located at the aromatic rings of HA. MG could enter into the hydrophobic cavities of HA to quench the fluorescence of HA. On the contrary, HA binding caused MG to a coplanar conformation with more extended π bond distribution by π-π stacking interactions. The experiment and calculation data both showed that the hydrophobic binding cavities in HA played a key role in its binding with MG.

  4. High accuracy determination of malachite green and leucomalachite green in salmon tissue by exact matching isotope dilution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hall, Zoe; Hopley, Chris; O'Connor, Gavin

    2008-10-15

    A high accuracy method for the quantification of malachite green (MG) and leucomalachite green (LMG) in salmon is described. Analytical challenges including the effects of analyte instability and matrix suppression were minimised by the use of exact matching isotope dilution mass spectrometry. The developed method included overnight extraction in acidified acetonitrile/ammonium acetate buffer and analysis by LC-MS/MS utilising isotopic internal standards. This method was used to determine the level of MG and LMG in a sample of salmon used in an international inter-comparison organised by the Comité Consultatif pour la Quantité de Matière (CCQM). The sum of MG and LMG was found to be 9.32+/-0.98ngg(-1) at the 95% confidence interval (relative expanded uncertainty 10.5% (k=2)). This encompassed the mean and median of the CCQM inter-comparison.

  5. NTP technical report on the toxicity studies of malachite green chloride and leucomalachite green (CAS Nos. 569-64-2 and 129-73-7) administered in feed to F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice.

    PubMed

    Culp, Sandra J

    2004-06-01

    Malachite green chloride is a triphenylmethane dye used in the fish and dye industries. Leucomalachite green is prepared by the reduction of malachite green chloride. Malachite green chloride was nominated for toxicity and carcinogenicity testing by the Food and Drug Administration and selected by the National Institutes of Environmental Health Sciences for carcinogenicity testing by the National Toxicology Program (NTP) due to the potential for significant worker and consumer exposure and lack of carcinogenicity data. The current 28-day studies were conducted as part of an overall effort by the NTP to determine the toxicity and carcinogenicity of malachite green chloride. Male and female F344/N Nctr BR rats and B6C3F1/Nctr BR (C57BL/6N x C3H/HeN MTV-) mice were exposed to malachite green chloride (95% pure) or leucomalachite green (99% pure) (male rats and female mice only) in feed for 28 days. Animals were evaluated for clinical pathology and histopathology. Genetic toxicity studies formalachite green chloride were conducted in vitro in Salmonella typhimurium and in vivo in rat bone marrow erythrocytes and in mouse peripheral blood erythrocytes. Genetic toxicity studies for leucomalachite green were conducted in vivo in mouse peripheral blood erythrocytes. Groups of eight male and eight female rats and mice were fed diets containing 0, 25, 100, 300, 600, or 1,200 ppm malachite green chloride for 28 days. Additional groups of eight male and eight female rats designated for thyroid hormone assays were fed diets containing 0 or 1,200 ppm malachite green chloride. Groups of eight male rats and eight female mice were fed diets containing 0, 290, 580, or 1,160 ppm leucomalachite green for 28 days. Additional groups of eight male rats designated for thyroid hormone assays were fed diets containing 0 or 1,160 ppm leucomalachite green. All rats and mice survived to the end of the studies. In the malachite green chloride study, the body weight gain of males rats in the 1

  6. Surface-hopping dynamics simulations of malachite green: a triphenylmethane dye.

    PubMed

    Xie, Bin-Bin; Xia, Shu-Hua; Liu, Li-Hong; Cui, Ganglong

    2015-06-01

    Malachite green is a typical triphenylmethane dye widely used in fundamental and industrial research; however, its excited-state relaxation dynamics remains elusive. In this work we simulate its photodynamics from the S2 and S1 states using the fewest-switches surface-hopping scheme. In the S2 photodynamics, the system first relaxes to the S2 minimum, which immediately hops to the S1 state via an S2/S1 conical intersection. In the S1 state, 90% trajectories evolve into a structurally symmetric S1 minimum; the remaining ones proceed toward two propeller-like S1 minima. Two kinds of S1 minima then decay to the S0 state via the S1/S0 conical intersections. The S1 photodynamics is overall similar to the S1 excited-state dynamics as a result of the ultrafast S2 → S1 internal conversion in the S2 photodynamics, but the weights of the trajectories that decay to the S0 state via three different S1/S0 conical intersections are variational. Moreover, the S2 relaxation dynamics mainly happens in a concerted synchronous rotation of three phenyl rings. In comparison, in the S1 relaxation dynamics, the rotations of two aminophenyl rings can proceed in the same and opposite directions. In certain trajectories, only the rotation of an aminophenyl ring is active. On the basis of the results, the S2 and S1 excited-state lifetimes of malachite green in vacuo are calculated to be 424 fs and 1.2 ps, respectively. The present work provides important mechanistic insights for similar triphenylmethane dyes.

  7. Surface-hopping dynamics simulations of malachite green: a triphenylmethane dye.

    PubMed

    Xie, Bin-Bin; Xia, Shu-Hua; Liu, Li-Hong; Cui, Ganglong

    2015-06-01

    Malachite green is a typical triphenylmethane dye widely used in fundamental and industrial research; however, its excited-state relaxation dynamics remains elusive. In this work we simulate its photodynamics from the S2 and S1 states using the fewest-switches surface-hopping scheme. In the S2 photodynamics, the system first relaxes to the S2 minimum, which immediately hops to the S1 state via an S2/S1 conical intersection. In the S1 state, 90% trajectories evolve into a structurally symmetric S1 minimum; the remaining ones proceed toward two propeller-like S1 minima. Two kinds of S1 minima then decay to the S0 state via the S1/S0 conical intersections. The S1 photodynamics is overall similar to the S1 excited-state dynamics as a result of the ultrafast S2 → S1 internal conversion in the S2 photodynamics, but the weights of the trajectories that decay to the S0 state via three different S1/S0 conical intersections are variational. Moreover, the S2 relaxation dynamics mainly happens in a concerted synchronous rotation of three phenyl rings. In comparison, in the S1 relaxation dynamics, the rotations of two aminophenyl rings can proceed in the same and opposite directions. In certain trajectories, only the rotation of an aminophenyl ring is active. On the basis of the results, the S2 and S1 excited-state lifetimes of malachite green in vacuo are calculated to be 424 fs and 1.2 ps, respectively. The present work provides important mechanistic insights for similar triphenylmethane dyes. PMID:25945894

  8. Diphenylmethyl selenocyanate attenuates malachite green induced oxidative injury through antioxidation & inhibition of DNA damage in mice

    PubMed Central

    Das, Jayanta Kumar; Sarkar, Sibani; Hossain, Sk Ugir; Chakraborty, Pramita; Das, Rajat Kumar; Bhattacharya, Sudin

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: Malachite green (MG), an environmentally hazardous material, is used as a non permitted food colouring agent, especially in India. Selenium (Se) is an essential nutritional trace element required for animals and humans to guard against oxidative stress induced by xenobiotic compounds of diverse nature. In the present study, the role of the selenium compound diphenylmethyl selenocyanate (DMSE) was assessed on the oxidative stress (OS) induced by a food colouring agent, malachite green (MG) in vivo in mice. Methods: Swiss albino mice (Mus musculus) were intraperitoneally injected with MG at a standardized dose of 100 μg/ mouse for 30 days. DMSE was given orally at an optimum dose of 3 mg/kg b.w. in pre (15 days) and concomitant treatment schedule throughout the experimental period. The parameters viz. ALT, AST, LPO, GSH, GST, SOD, CAT, GPx, TrxR, CA, MN, MI and DNA damage have been evaluated. Results: The DMSE showed its potential to protect against MG induced hepatotoxicity by controlling the serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate amino transferase (ALT and AST) levels and also ameliorated oxidative stress by modulating hepatic lipid peroxidation and different detoxifying and antioxidative enzymes such as glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and also the selenoenzymes such as glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) and reduced glutathione level which in turn reduced DNA damage. Interpretation & conclusions: The organo-selenium compound DMSE showed significant protection against MG induced heptotoxicity and DNA damage in murine model. Better protection was observed in pretreatment group than in the concomitant group. Further studies need to be done to understand the mechanism of action. PMID:23852297

  9. Analysis of malachite green in aquatic products by carbon nanotube-based molecularly imprinted - matrix solid phase dispersion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Chen, Ligang

    2015-10-01

    A simple method based on matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) using molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) as sorbents for selective extraction of malachite green (MG) from aquatic products was developed. The MIPs were prepared by using carbon nanotube as support, MG as template, methacrylic acid as functional monomer, ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate as crosslinker and methylene chloride as solvent. The MIPs were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and transmission electron microscopy. The isothermal adsorption, kinetics absorption and selective adsorption experiments were carried out. We optimized the extraction conditions as follows: the ratio of MIPs to sample was 2:3, the dispersion time was 15min, washing solvent was 4mL 50% aqueous methanol and elution solvent was 3mL methanol-acetic acid (98: 2, v/v). Once the MSPD process was completed, the MG extracted from aquatic products was determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The detection limit of MG was 0.7μgkg(-1). The relative standard deviations of intra-day and inter-day were obtained in the range of 0.9%-4.7% and 3.4%-9.8%, respectively. In order to evaluate the applicability and reliability of the proposed method, it was applied to determine MG in different aquatic products samples including fish, shrimp, squid and crabs. The satisfied recoveries were in the range of 89.2%-104.6%. The results showed that this method is faster, simpler and makes extraction and purification in the same system.

  10. Analysis of malachite green in aquatic products by carbon nanotube-based molecularly imprinted - matrix solid phase dispersion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Chen, Ligang

    2015-10-01

    A simple method based on matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) using molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) as sorbents for selective extraction of malachite green (MG) from aquatic products was developed. The MIPs were prepared by using carbon nanotube as support, MG as template, methacrylic acid as functional monomer, ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate as crosslinker and methylene chloride as solvent. The MIPs were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and transmission electron microscopy. The isothermal adsorption, kinetics absorption and selective adsorption experiments were carried out. We optimized the extraction conditions as follows: the ratio of MIPs to sample was 2:3, the dispersion time was 15min, washing solvent was 4mL 50% aqueous methanol and elution solvent was 3mL methanol-acetic acid (98: 2, v/v). Once the MSPD process was completed, the MG extracted from aquatic products was determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The detection limit of MG was 0.7μgkg(-1). The relative standard deviations of intra-day and inter-day were obtained in the range of 0.9%-4.7% and 3.4%-9.8%, respectively. In order to evaluate the applicability and reliability of the proposed method, it was applied to determine MG in different aquatic products samples including fish, shrimp, squid and crabs. The satisfied recoveries were in the range of 89.2%-104.6%. The results showed that this method is faster, simpler and makes extraction and purification in the same system. PMID:26319302

  11. Exploring redox-mediating characteristics of textile dye-bearing microbial fuel cells: thionin and malachite green.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bor-Yann; Xu, Bin; Qin, Lian-Jie; Lan, John Chi-Wei; Hsueh, Chung-Chuan

    2014-10-01

    Prior studies indicated that biodecolorized intermediates of azo dyes could act as electron shuttles to stimulate wastewater decolorization and bioelectricity generation (WD&BG) in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). This study tended to explore whether non-azo textile dyes (i.e., thionin and malachite green) could also own such redox-mediating capabilities for WD&BG. Prior findings mentioned that OH and/or NH2 substitute-containing auxochrome compounds (e.g., 2-aminophenol and 1,2-dihydroxybenzene) could effectively mediate electron transport in MFCs for simultaneous WD&BG. This work clearly suggested that the presence of electron-mediating textile dyes (e.g., thionin and malachite green (MG)) in MFCs is promising to stimulate color removal and bioelectricity generation. That is, using MFCs as operation strategy for wastewater biodecolorization is economically promising in industrial applications due to autocatalytic acceleration of electron-flux for WD&BG in MFCs.

  12. Exploring redox-mediating characteristics of textile dye-bearing microbial fuel cells: thionin and malachite green.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bor-Yann; Xu, Bin; Qin, Lian-Jie; Lan, John Chi-Wei; Hsueh, Chung-Chuan

    2014-10-01

    Prior studies indicated that biodecolorized intermediates of azo dyes could act as electron shuttles to stimulate wastewater decolorization and bioelectricity generation (WD&BG) in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). This study tended to explore whether non-azo textile dyes (i.e., thionin and malachite green) could also own such redox-mediating capabilities for WD&BG. Prior findings mentioned that OH and/or NH2 substitute-containing auxochrome compounds (e.g., 2-aminophenol and 1,2-dihydroxybenzene) could effectively mediate electron transport in MFCs for simultaneous WD&BG. This work clearly suggested that the presence of electron-mediating textile dyes (e.g., thionin and malachite green (MG)) in MFCs is promising to stimulate color removal and bioelectricity generation. That is, using MFCs as operation strategy for wastewater biodecolorization is economically promising in industrial applications due to autocatalytic acceleration of electron-flux for WD&BG in MFCs. PMID:25062539

  13. [Validation study of analysis of Malachite green in broiled eels (Kabayaki) by LC-MS/MS].

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Takeshi; Nishikawa, Kiyofumi; Shinozaki, Fumiyoshi; Banno, Yukinori; Kawakami, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    An improved method for analysis of Malachite green (MG) and its metabolite, Leucomalachite green (LMG), in broiled eels without using dichloromethane was developed. This method was evaluated by means of recovery tests according to the guideline for validation of analytical methods by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan. MG and LMG were extracted from spiked samples with acetonitrile and citric acid/disodium hydrogen phosphate buffer solution, and were salted-out with sodium chloride. The acetonitrile layer was dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and purified on C18 and strongly acidic cation exchange columns. MG and LMG in the purified solution were determined quantitatively using LC-MS/MS by the internal standard method with surrogates, MG and LMG labeled with deuterium (MG-d5, LMG-d6). The recovery rates of MG and LMG were 99.2% and 93.6%, respectively. The relative standard deviations of repeatability were 2.2% for MG and 4.4% for LMG, and the relative standard deviations of within-laboratory reproducibility were 3.5% for MG and 5.1% for LMG.

  14. [Validation study of analysis of Malachite green in broiled eels (Kabayaki) by LC-MS/MS].

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Takeshi; Nishikawa, Kiyofumi; Shinozaki, Fumiyoshi; Banno, Yukinori; Kawakami, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    An improved method for analysis of Malachite green (MG) and its metabolite, Leucomalachite green (LMG), in broiled eels without using dichloromethane was developed. This method was evaluated by means of recovery tests according to the guideline for validation of analytical methods by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan. MG and LMG were extracted from spiked samples with acetonitrile and citric acid/disodium hydrogen phosphate buffer solution, and were salted-out with sodium chloride. The acetonitrile layer was dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and purified on C18 and strongly acidic cation exchange columns. MG and LMG in the purified solution were determined quantitatively using LC-MS/MS by the internal standard method with surrogates, MG and LMG labeled with deuterium (MG-d5, LMG-d6). The recovery rates of MG and LMG were 99.2% and 93.6%, respectively. The relative standard deviations of repeatability were 2.2% for MG and 4.4% for LMG, and the relative standard deviations of within-laboratory reproducibility were 3.5% for MG and 5.1% for LMG. PMID:25748983

  15. Rapid detection of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis using the malachite green decolourisation assay.

    PubMed

    Coban, Ahmet Yilmaz; Uzun, Meltem

    2013-12-01

    Early detection of drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates allows for earlier and more effective treatment of patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of the malachite green decolourisation assay (MGDA) in detecting isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RIF) resistance in M. tuberculosis clinical isolates. Fifty M. tuberculosis isolates, including 19 multidrug-resistant, eight INH-resistant and 23 INH and RIF-susceptible samples, were tested. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and agreement of the assay for INH were 92.5%, 91.3%, 92.5%, 91.3% and 92%, respectively. Similarly, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and agreement of the assay for RIF were 94.7%, 100%, 100%, 96.8% and 98%, respectively. There was a major discrepancy in the tests of two isolates, as they were sensitive to INH by the MGDA test, but resistant by the reference method. There was a minor discrepancy in the tests of two additional isolates, as they were sensitive to INH by the reference method, but resistant by the MGDA test. The drug susceptibility test results were obtained within eight-nine days. In conclusion, the MGDA test is a reliable and accurate method for the rapid detection of INH and RIF resistance compared with the reference method and the MGDA test additionally requires less time to obtain results.

  16. Wavelength dependent resonance Raman band intensity of broadband stimulated Raman spectroscopy of malachite green in ethanol.

    PubMed

    Cen, Qiongyan; He, Yuhan; Xu, Mei; Wang, Jingjing; Wang, Zhaohui

    2015-03-21

    Resonance broadband stimulated Raman spectroscopy of malachite green in ethanol has been performed. With a tuning picosecond visible laser source and a broadband Raman probe, the Raman gain and loss spectra have been measured simultaneously. By scanning the Raman pump across the first absorption band of the molecule, we found that the resonant Raman bands could be only seen when the pump laser tuned in the range of the red edge of the S1←S0 transition. Dispersive lineshapes of resonant Raman bands have been observed in the Raman loss spectra, while the line shape is normal (same as spontaneous Raman) in the Raman gain spectra. Although, the resonant bands in the loss spectrum are usually stronger than that in the gain spectrum, the band intensities of both loss and gain linearly increase with the pump energy. The relative magnitude of each corresponding resonant band in the Raman loss and gain varies with the pump wavelength. Mode specified Raman excitation profiles have been obtained through broadband stimulated Raman measurement.

  17. Bioremoval of the synthetic dye malachite green by marine Trichoderma sp.

    PubMed

    Saravanakumar, Kandasamy; Kathiresan, Kandasamy

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, a marine strain of Trichoderma sp was used for degradation of a synthetic dye, malachite green. Individual and interaction effects of the physical and chemical factors that influenced the percentage of dye degradation were tested by response surface methodology. For optimization, enzyme production and dye degradation were assessed under different temperatures (5-40°C), pH values (3-11), yeast extract (5-9 g L(-1)) and incubation period (0-15 days). The optimum conditions found for dye degradation, were 30°C, pH 5.8, 5.81 mg L(-1) yeast extract for an incubation period of 10 days. Whereas for laccase production they were 29°C, pH 5.3, 7.7 mg L(-1) yeast extract for an incubation period of 12 days. It was confirmed that laccase production required the higher nitrogen source. Degradation of dye was confirmed by using analytical techniques such as FTIR, UV-vis spectral and scanning electron microscope analysis. Furthermore, toxicity effect of degraded and undegraded dye solutions was tested with Artemia salina. Hundred percent mortality was observed in undegraded dye solution as against only 2-5% in degraded dye solution. This work proved the potential of marine strain of Trichoderma Hypocrea lixii on dye degradation.

  18. Biosorption of malachite green from aqueous solutions by Pleurotus ostreatus using Taguchi method.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhengsuo; Deng, Hongbo; Chen, Can; Yang, Ying; Xu, Heng

    2014-01-01

    Dyes released into the environment have been posing a serious threat to natural ecosystems and aquatic life due to presence of heat, light, chemical and other exposures stable. In this study, the Pleurotus ostreatus (a macro-fungus) was used as a new biosorbent to study the biosorption of hazardous malachite green (MG) from aqueous solutions. The effective disposal of P. ostreatus is a meaningful work for environmental protection and maximum utilization of agricultural residues.The operational parameters such as biosorbent dose, pH, and ionic strength were investigated in a series of batch studies at 25°C. Freundlich isotherm model was described well for the biosorption equilibrium data. The biosorption process followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Taguchi method was used to simplify the experimental number for determining the significance of factors and the optimum levels of experimental factors for MG biosorption. Biosorbent dose and initial MG concentration had significant influences on the percent removal and biosorption capacity. The highest percent removal reached 89.58% and the largest biosorption capacity reached 32.33 mg/g. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed that the functional groups such as, carboxyl, hydroxyl, amino and phosphonate groups on the biosorbent surface could be the potential adsorption sites for MG biosorption. P. ostreatus can be considered as an alternative biosorbent for the removal of dyes from aqueous solutions.

  19. Laccase-Catalyzed Decolorization of Malachite Green: Performance Optimization and Degradation Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jie; Yang, Xiaodan; Lin, Yonghui; Ng, Tzi Bun; Lin, Juan; Ye, Xiuyun

    2015-01-01

    Malachite green (MG) was decolorized by laccase (LacA) of white-rot fungus Cerrena sp. with strong decolorizing ability. Decolorization conditions were optimized with response surface methodology. A highly significant quadratic model was developed to investigate MG decolorization with LacA, and the maximum MG decolorization ratio of 91.6% was predicted under the conditions of 2.8 U mL-1 LacA, 109.9 mg L-1 MG and decolorization for 172.4 min. Kinetic studies revealed the Km and kcat values of LacA toward MG were 781.9 mM and 9.5 s-1, respectively. UV–visible spectra confirmed degradation of MG, and the degradation mechanism was explored with liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis. Based on the LC-MS spectra of degradation products, LacA catalyzed MG degradation via two simultaneous pathways. In addition, the phytotoxicity of MG, in terms of inhibition on seed germination and seedling root elongation of Nicotiana tabacum and Lactuca sativa, was reduced after laccase treatment. These results suggest that laccase of Cerrena was effective in decolorizing MG and promising in bioremediation of wastewater in food and aquaculture industries. PMID:26020270

  20. Laccase-catalyzed decolorization of malachite green: performance optimization and degradation mechanism.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Yang, Xiaodan; Lin, Yonghui; Ng, Tzi Bun; Lin, Juan; Ye, Xiuyun

    2015-01-01

    Malachite green (MG) was decolorized by laccase (LacA) of white-rot fungus Cerrena sp. with strong decolorizing ability. Decolorization conditions were optimized with response surface methodology. A highly significant quadratic model was developed to investigate MG decolorization with LacA, and the maximum MG decolorization ratio of 91.6% was predicted under the conditions of 2.8 U mL(-1) LacA, 109.9 mg L(-1) MG and decolorization for 172.4 min. Kinetic studies revealed the Km and kcat values of LacA toward MG were 781.9 mM and 9.5 s(-1), respectively. UV-visible spectra confirmed degradation of MG, and the degradation mechanism was explored with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis. Based on the LC-MS spectra of degradation products, LacA catalyzed MG degradation via two simultaneous pathways. In addition, the phytotoxicity of MG, in terms of inhibition on seed germination and seedling root elongation of Nicotiana tabacum and Lactuca sativa, was reduced after laccase treatment. These results suggest that laccase of Cerrena was effective in decolorizing MG and promising in bioremediation of wastewater in food and aquaculture industries.

  1. Determination of malachite green in aquatic products based on magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zheng-zhong; Zhang, Hong-yuan; Peng, Ai-hong; Lin, Yi-dong; Li, Lu; Huang, Zhi-yong

    2016-06-01

    Magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (MMIPs) were synthesized through precipitation polymerization using malachite green (MG) as template, methacrylic acid as monomer, ethylene dimethacrylate as crosslinker, and Fe3O4 magnetite as magnetic component. MMIPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, and vibrating sample magnetometry. Under the optimum condition, the MMIPs obtained exhibited quick binding kinetics and high affinity to MG in the solution. Scatchard plot analysis revealed that the MMIPs contained only one type of binding site with dissociation constant of 24.0 μg mL(-1). The selectivity experiment confirmed that the MMIPs exhibited higher selective binding capacity for MG than its structurally related compound (e.g., crystal violet). As a sorbent for the extraction of MG in sample preparation, MMIPs together with the absorbed analytes could easily be separated from the sample matrix with an external magnet. After elution with methanol/acetic acid (9:1, v/v), MG in the eluent was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with UV detector with recoveries of 94.0-115%. Results indicated that the as-prepared MMIPs are promising materials for MG analysis in aquatic products.

  2. Adsorption of malachite green by magnetic litchi pericarps: A response surface methodology investigation.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hao; Qi, Jinqiu; Jiang, Ruixue; Gao, Yan; Li, Xiaochen

    2015-10-01

    In this work, we synthesized a novel magnetic adsorbent containing litchi pericarps, denoted as MLP, for the removal of malachite green (MG) from solution. The factors influencing MG adsorption, such as contact time, adsorbent dosage, and initial dye concentration, were optimized using the Box-Behnken response surface methodology (RSM). The adsorption isotherms as well as the kinetics and thermodynamics of the adsorption of MG onto MLP are discussed. The results showed that MLP has a maximum adsorption efficiency of 99.5% when the temperature, pH, contact time, adsorbent dosage, and initial MG concentration were optimally set as 25 °C, 6.0, 66.69 min, 5.14 g/L, and 150 mg/L, respectively. The best model to describe this process is the Langmuir isotherm, with the maximum adsorption capacity being 70.42 mg/g. In addition, the kinetics of MG adsorption onto MLP followed a pseudo-second-order model; moreover, thermodynamic analysis suggested that MG adsorption onto MLP is spontaneous and endothermic. Finally, it was found that the new magnetic adsorbent can be separated easily and rapidly from mixed solutions in the presence of an external magnetic field. PMID:26254991

  3. Bioremoval of the synthetic dye malachite green by marine Trichoderma sp.

    PubMed

    Saravanakumar, Kandasamy; Kathiresan, Kandasamy

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, a marine strain of Trichoderma sp was used for degradation of a synthetic dye, malachite green. Individual and interaction effects of the physical and chemical factors that influenced the percentage of dye degradation were tested by response surface methodology. For optimization, enzyme production and dye degradation were assessed under different temperatures (5-40°C), pH values (3-11), yeast extract (5-9 g L(-1)) and incubation period (0-15 days). The optimum conditions found for dye degradation, were 30°C, pH 5.8, 5.81 mg L(-1) yeast extract for an incubation period of 10 days. Whereas for laccase production they were 29°C, pH 5.3, 7.7 mg L(-1) yeast extract for an incubation period of 12 days. It was confirmed that laccase production required the higher nitrogen source. Degradation of dye was confirmed by using analytical techniques such as FTIR, UV-vis spectral and scanning electron microscope analysis. Furthermore, toxicity effect of degraded and undegraded dye solutions was tested with Artemia salina. Hundred percent mortality was observed in undegraded dye solution as against only 2-5% in degraded dye solution. This work proved the potential of marine strain of Trichoderma Hypocrea lixii on dye degradation. PMID:25392801

  4. Biosorption of malachite green from aqueous solutions by Pleurotus ostreatus using Taguchi method

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Dyes released into the environment have been posing a serious threat to natural ecosystems and aquatic life due to presence of heat, light, chemical and other exposures stable. In this study, the Pleurotus ostreatus (a macro-fungus) was used as a new biosorbent to study the biosorption of hazardous malachite green (MG) from aqueous solutions. The effective disposal of P. ostreatus is a meaningful work for environmental protection and maximum utilization of agricultural residues. The operational parameters such as biosorbent dose, pH, and ionic strength were investigated in a series of batch studies at 25°C. Freundlich isotherm model was described well for the biosorption equilibrium data. The biosorption process followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Taguchi method was used to simplify the experimental number for determining the significance of factors and the optimum levels of experimental factors for MG biosorption. Biosorbent dose and initial MG concentration had significant influences on the percent removal and biosorption capacity. The highest percent removal reached 89.58% and the largest biosorption capacity reached 32.33 mg/g. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed that the functional groups such as, carboxyl, hydroxyl, amino and phosphonate groups on the biosorbent surface could be the potential adsorption sites for MG biosorption. P. ostreatus can be considered as an alternative biosorbent for the removal of dyes from aqueous solutions. PMID:24620852

  5. Wavelength dependent resonance Raman band intensity of broadband stimulated Raman spectroscopy of malachite green in ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cen, Qiongyan; He, Yuhan; Xu, Mei; Wang, Jingjing; Wang, Zhaohui

    2015-03-01

    Resonance broadband stimulated Raman spectroscopy of malachite green in ethanol has been performed. With a tuning picosecond visible laser source and a broadband Raman probe, the Raman gain and loss spectra have been measured simultaneously. By scanning the Raman pump across the first absorption band of the molecule, we found that the resonant Raman bands could be only seen when the pump laser tuned in the range of the red edge of the S1←S0 transition. Dispersive lineshapes of resonant Raman bands have been observed in the Raman loss spectra, while the line shape is normal (same as spontaneous Raman) in the Raman gain spectra. Although, the resonant bands in the loss spectrum are usually stronger than that in the gain spectrum, the band intensities of both loss and gain linearly increase with the pump energy. The relative magnitude of each corresponding resonant band in the Raman loss and gain varies with the pump wavelength. Mode specified Raman excitation profiles have been obtained through broadband stimulated Raman measurement.

  6. Adsorption of malachite green by polyaniline-nickel ferrite magnetic nanocomposite: an isotherm and kinetic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Manohar R.; Shrivastava, V. S.

    2014-11-01

    This work deals with the development of an efficient method for the removal of a MG (malachite green) dye from aqueous solution using polyaniline (PANI)-Nickel ferrite (NiFe2O4) magnetic nanocomposite. It is successfully synthesised in situ through self polymerisation of monomer aniline. Adsorptive removal studies are carried out for water soluble MG dye using PANI-Nickel ferrite magnetic nanocomposite in aqueous solution. Different parameters like dose of adsorbent, contact time, different initial conc., and pH have been studied to optimise reaction condition. It is concluded that adsorptive removal by PANI-Nickel ferrite magnetic nanocomposite is an efficient method for removing a MG dye from aqueous solution than work done before. The optimum conditions for the removal of the dye are initial concentration 30 mg l-1, adsorbent dose 5gm l-1 and pH 7. The adsorption capacity is found 4.09 mg g-1 at optimum condition 30 mg l-1. The adsorption followed pseudo-second-order kinetics. The experimental isotherm is found to fit with Langmuir equation. The prepared adsorbent is characterised by techniques SEM, EDS, XRD and VSM.

  7. Adsorption of malachite green by magnetic litchi pericarps: A response surface methodology investigation.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hao; Qi, Jinqiu; Jiang, Ruixue; Gao, Yan; Li, Xiaochen

    2015-10-01

    In this work, we synthesized a novel magnetic adsorbent containing litchi pericarps, denoted as MLP, for the removal of malachite green (MG) from solution. The factors influencing MG adsorption, such as contact time, adsorbent dosage, and initial dye concentration, were optimized using the Box-Behnken response surface methodology (RSM). The adsorption isotherms as well as the kinetics and thermodynamics of the adsorption of MG onto MLP are discussed. The results showed that MLP has a maximum adsorption efficiency of 99.5% when the temperature, pH, contact time, adsorbent dosage, and initial MG concentration were optimally set as 25 °C, 6.0, 66.69 min, 5.14 g/L, and 150 mg/L, respectively. The best model to describe this process is the Langmuir isotherm, with the maximum adsorption capacity being 70.42 mg/g. In addition, the kinetics of MG adsorption onto MLP followed a pseudo-second-order model; moreover, thermodynamic analysis suggested that MG adsorption onto MLP is spontaneous and endothermic. Finally, it was found that the new magnetic adsorbent can be separated easily and rapidly from mixed solutions in the presence of an external magnetic field.

  8. Laccase-catalyzed decolorization of malachite green: performance optimization and degradation mechanism.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Yang, Xiaodan; Lin, Yonghui; Ng, Tzi Bun; Lin, Juan; Ye, Xiuyun

    2015-01-01

    Malachite green (MG) was decolorized by laccase (LacA) of white-rot fungus Cerrena sp. with strong decolorizing ability. Decolorization conditions were optimized with response surface methodology. A highly significant quadratic model was developed to investigate MG decolorization with LacA, and the maximum MG decolorization ratio of 91.6% was predicted under the conditions of 2.8 U mL(-1) LacA, 109.9 mg L(-1) MG and decolorization for 172.4 min. Kinetic studies revealed the Km and kcat values of LacA toward MG were 781.9 mM and 9.5 s(-1), respectively. UV-visible spectra confirmed degradation of MG, and the degradation mechanism was explored with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis. Based on the LC-MS spectra of degradation products, LacA catalyzed MG degradation via two simultaneous pathways. In addition, the phytotoxicity of MG, in terms of inhibition on seed germination and seedling root elongation of Nicotiana tabacum and Lactuca sativa, was reduced after laccase treatment. These results suggest that laccase of Cerrena was effective in decolorizing MG and promising in bioremediation of wastewater in food and aquaculture industries. PMID:26020270

  9. Determination of malachite green in aquatic products based on magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zheng-zhong; Zhang, Hong-yuan; Peng, Ai-hong; Lin, Yi-dong; Li, Lu; Huang, Zhi-yong

    2016-06-01

    Magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (MMIPs) were synthesized through precipitation polymerization using malachite green (MG) as template, methacrylic acid as monomer, ethylene dimethacrylate as crosslinker, and Fe3O4 magnetite as magnetic component. MMIPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, and vibrating sample magnetometry. Under the optimum condition, the MMIPs obtained exhibited quick binding kinetics and high affinity to MG in the solution. Scatchard plot analysis revealed that the MMIPs contained only one type of binding site with dissociation constant of 24.0 μg mL(-1). The selectivity experiment confirmed that the MMIPs exhibited higher selective binding capacity for MG than its structurally related compound (e.g., crystal violet). As a sorbent for the extraction of MG in sample preparation, MMIPs together with the absorbed analytes could easily be separated from the sample matrix with an external magnet. After elution with methanol/acetic acid (9:1, v/v), MG in the eluent was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with UV detector with recoveries of 94.0-115%. Results indicated that the as-prepared MMIPs are promising materials for MG analysis in aquatic products. PMID:26830557

  10. Removal of Malachite Green from aqueous solution using degreased coffee bean.

    PubMed

    Baek, Mi-Hwa; Ijagbemi, Christianah Olakitan; O, Se-Jin; Kim, Dong-Su

    2010-04-15

    This study reports on the feasibility of employing degreased coffee beans (DCB) as adsorbent for Malachite Green (MG) removal in dyeing wastewater. The iodine value (IV), specific surface area (SSA) and porosity of the raw coffee beans (RCB) used in the study increased after the degreasing process, resulting in significant increase in the adsorption of MG onto DCB. Employing a batch experimental set-up, optimum conditions for complete color removal and adsorption of MG by DCB was studied considering parameters such as effect of degreasing process, adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration, reaction temperature and pH. Adsorbed amount of MG by DCB increased with increasing DCB dosage and initial MG concentration. The rate of the adsorption reaction followed the pseudo second-order kinetics with the sorption isotherm well fitted to the Freundlich and the Langmuir isotherm models. Thermodynamic studies revealed that the adsorption processes is spontaneous and endothermic in nature. DCB has potentials for application as adsorbent for the removal of MG from dyeing process wastewater.

  11. Localization of malachite green positive lipids in the matrix of bone nodule formed in vitro.

    PubMed

    Nefussi, J R; Septier, D; Sautier, J M; Forest, N; Goldberg, M

    1992-03-01

    An electron histochemical study was carried out on bone nodules formed in vitro in collagenase-released calvarial cells in order to visualize the lipid components of the extracellular matrix (EM). The malachite green aldehyde fixative technique, which allows both preservation and staining of some phospholipids of the extracellular matrix, was used. Controls were performed on sections demineralized, and then submitted to lipid extraction with a chloroformmethanol mixture (2/1 v/v) and to glycosaminoglycans digestion with 0.5% bovine testicular hyaluronidase to verify specificity for lipid staining. This allowed us to visualize the lipids (1) in the osteoid as granules associated to ribbon-like structures connected to the collagen fibers, (2) as electrondense deposits seen as dots on the outer surface membrane of the matrix vesicles, and (3) in the mineralized matrix as roundish patches formed of needle-shaped materials and at the mineralization front as individual ones. This study demonstrated that at the EM level, the lipids are present in the osteoid at locations very similar to what have been observed for the glycosaminoglycans, and in the mineralized matrix as components of the crystal ghosts.

  12. Determination of residues of three triphenylmethane dyes and their metabolites (malachite green, leuco malachite green, crystal violet, leuco crystal violet, and brilliant green) in aquaculture products by LC/MS/MS: first action 2012.25.

    PubMed

    Hurtaud-Pessel, Dominique; Couëdor, Pierrick; Verdon, Eric; Dowell, Dawn

    2013-01-01

    During the AOAC Annual Meeting held from September 30 to October 3, 2012 in Las Vegas, NV, the Expert Review Panel (ERP) on Veterinary Drug Residues reviewed data for the method for determination of residues of three triphenylmethane dyes and their metabolites (malachite green, leuco malachite green, crystal violet, leuco crystal violet, and brilliant green) in aquaculture products by LC/MS/MS, previously published in the Journal of Chromatography A 1218, 1632-1645 (2006). The method data were reviewed and compared to the standard method performance requirements (SMPRs) found in SMPR 2009.001, published in AOAC's Official Methods of Analysis, 19th Ed. (2012). The ERP determined that the data were acceptable, and the method was approved AOAC Official First Action. The method uses acetonitrile to isolate the analyte from the matrix. Then determination is conducted by LCIMS/MS with positive electrospray ionization. Accuracy ranged from 100.1 to 109.8% for samples fortified at levels of 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, and 2.0 microg/kg. Precision ranged from 2.0 to 10.3% RSD for the intraday samples and 1.9 to 10.6% for the interday samples analyzed over 3 days. The described method is designed to accurately operate in the analytical range from 0.5 to 2 microg/kg, where the minimum required performance limit for laboratories has been fixed in the European Union at 2.0 microg/kg for these banned substances and their metabolites. Upper levels of concentrations (1-100 microg/kg) can be analyzed depending on the different optional calibrations used.

  13. Molecularly imprinted polymer for selective extraction of malachite green from seawater and seafood coupled with high-performance liquid chromatographic determination.

    PubMed

    Lian, Ziru; Wang, Jiangtao

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, a highly selective sample cleanup procedure combining molecular imprinting technique (MIT) and solid-phase extraction (SPE) was developed for the isolation of malachite green in seawater and seafood samples. The molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was prepared using malachite green as the template molecule, methacrylic acid as the functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linking monomer. The imprinted polymer and non-imprinted polymer were characterized by scanning electron microscope and static adsorption experiments. The MIP showed a high adsorption capacity and was used as selective sorbent for the SPE of malachite green. An off-line molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) method followed by high-performance liquid chromatography with diodearray detection for the analysis of malachite green in seawater and seafood samples was also established. Finally, five samples were determined. The results showed that malachite green concentration in one seawater sample was at 1.30 μg L⁻¹ and the RSD (n=3) was 4.15%.

  14. [Fe₃O₄-β-Cyclodextrin Polymer Nano Composites Solid-Phase Extraction-UV-Vis Spectrophotometry for Separation Analysis Malachite Green].

    PubMed

    Feng, Gang; Ping, Wen-hui; Zhu, Xia-shi

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, carboxymethyl-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin polymer modified magnetic particles Fe₃O₄ (CM-HP-β-CD- CP-MNPs) were prepared and applied to magnetic solid phase extraction of malachite green combined with UV-Visible spectrom- etry detection. The synthesized magnetic particles were characterized by element analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectra and transmission electron microscopy. Several variables affecting the extraction and desorption of malachite green such as pH, the amount of adsorbent, the type and volume of eluent, extraction and desorption time, and temperature were investigated. Under the optimum conditions, malachite green could be adsorbed by CM-HP-β-CDCP-MNPs (RE% = 92), and elution by C₂H₅OH (EE% = 90). the preconcentration factor of the proposed method was approximately 7.5, the CM-HP-β-CDCP-MNPs could be used repeatedly for 5 times and offered better recovery. The linear range and detection limit (DL) were found to be 0.08~8.00 µg · mL⁻¹ and 5.6 ng · mL⁻¹ respectively. This technique had been successfully applied to the determination of malachite green in real samples. The inclusion interaction of CM-HP--CDCP-MNPs with malachite green was studied through FTIR.

  15. [Fe₃O₄-β-Cyclodextrin Polymer Nano Composites Solid-Phase Extraction-UV-Vis Spectrophotometry for Separation Analysis Malachite Green].

    PubMed

    Feng, Gang; Ping, Wen-hui; Zhu, Xia-shi

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, carboxymethyl-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin polymer modified magnetic particles Fe₃O₄ (CM-HP-β-CD- CP-MNPs) were prepared and applied to magnetic solid phase extraction of malachite green combined with UV-Visible spectrom- etry detection. The synthesized magnetic particles were characterized by element analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectra and transmission electron microscopy. Several variables affecting the extraction and desorption of malachite green such as pH, the amount of adsorbent, the type and volume of eluent, extraction and desorption time, and temperature were investigated. Under the optimum conditions, malachite green could be adsorbed by CM-HP-β-CDCP-MNPs (RE% = 92), and elution by C₂H₅OH (EE% = 90). the preconcentration factor of the proposed method was approximately 7.5, the CM-HP-β-CDCP-MNPs could be used repeatedly for 5 times and offered better recovery. The linear range and detection limit (DL) were found to be 0.08~8.00 µg · mL⁻¹ and 5.6 ng · mL⁻¹ respectively. This technique had been successfully applied to the determination of malachite green in real samples. The inclusion interaction of CM-HP--CDCP-MNPs with malachite green was studied through FTIR. PMID:27209745

  16. Use of Malachite Green-Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification for Detection of Plasmodium spp. Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Lucchi, Naomi W.; Ljolje, Dragan; Silva-Flannery, Luciana; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam

    2016-01-01

    Malaria elimination efforts are hampered by the lack of sensitive tools to detect infections with low-level parasitemia, usually below the threshold of standard diagnostic methods, microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests. Isothermal nucleic acid amplification assays such as the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), are well suited for field use as they do not require thermal cyclers to run the test. However, the use of specialized equipment, as described by many groups, reduces the versatility of the LAMP technique as a simple tool for use in endemic countries. In this study, the use of the malachite green (MG) dye, as a visual endpoint readout, together with a simple mini heat block was evaluated for the detection of malaria parasites. The assay was performed for 1 hour at 63°C and the results scored by 3 independent human readers. The limit of detection of the assay was determined using well-quantified Plasmodium spp. infected reference samples and its utility in testing clinical samples was determined using 190 pre-treatment specimens submitted for reference diagnosis of imported malaria in the United States. Use of a simplified boil and spin methods of DNA extraction from whole blood and filter paper was also investigated. We demonstrate the accurate and sensitive detection of malaria parasites using this assay with a detection limit ranging between 1–8 parasites/μL, supporting its applicability for the detection of infections with low parasite burden. This assay is compatible with the use of a simple boil and spin sample preparation method from both whole blood and filter papers without a loss of sensitivity. The MG-LAMP assay described here has great potential to extend the reach of molecular tools to settings where they are needed. PMID:26967908

  17. Synthesis of Large Pore Carbon Nanoparticles for Removal of Malachite Green.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Pranav K; Gan, Lihua; Liu, Mingxian

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we have synthesized high surface area and large pore volume carbon nanoparticles (CNP) by a simple and easy sol-gel approach. The sol was prepared by mixing Pluronic F127 and phloroglucinol-terephthalaldehyde in acidic ethanol solution and the gel was formed after the vacuum removal of ethanol. In the sol-gel process, hydrophobic segments of Pluronic F127 forms enhanced hydrogen bonding with trihydroxyl groups of phloroglucinol. A polymeric network of carbon precursor was also prepared by making the interconnectivity between four phloroglucinol and one terephthalaldehyde molecules. After thermal polymerization and carbonization of the gel, the CNP had a very high surface area (1441 m² g⁻¹) and large pore volume (1.7 cm³ g⁻¹) with narrow micropore (1.0 nm) and mesopore (2.3 nm) diameters. The mesopore was developed due to the enhanced hydrogen bonding between Pluronic F127 and phloroglucinol, while the micropores were generated due to hydrocarbon polymeric network of phloroglucinol-terephthalaldehyde. The CNP had a size about ca. 20 nm. The CNP were applied for the removal of the highly hazardous water pollutant malachite green (MG) and achieved a very high adsorption capacity (1892 mg g⁻¹). The commercials powder activated carbon (PAC) was also applied for the removal of MG and achieved an adsorption capacity of PAC was 1390 mg g⁻¹. It believes that shape and size of CNP and PAC played an important role in the adsorptive removal of MG.

  18. Adsorption of malachite green on groundnut shell waste based powdered activated carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Malik, R.; Ramteke, D.S. Wate, S.R.

    2007-07-01

    In the present technologically fast changing situation related to waste management practices, it is desirable that disposal of plant waste should be done in a scientific manner by keeping in view economic and pollution considerations. This is only possible when the plant waste has the potential to be used as raw material for some useful product. In the present study, groundnut shell, an agricultural waste, was used for the preparation of an adsorbent by chemical activation using ZnCl{sub 2} under optimized conditions and its comparative characterisation was conducted with commercially available powdered activated carbon (CPAC) for its physical, chemical and adsorption properties. The groundnut shell based powdered activated carbon (GSPAC) has a higher surface area, iodine and methylene blue number compared to CPAC. Both of the carbons were used for the removal of malachite green dye from aqueous solution and the effect of various operating variables, viz. adsorbent dose (0.1-1 g l{sup -1}), contact time (5-120 min) and adsorbate concentrations (100-200 mg l{sup -1}) on the removal of dye, has been studied. The experimental results indicate that at a dose of 0.5 g l{sup -1} and initial concentration of 100 mg l{sup -1}, GSPAC showed 94.5% removal of the dye in 30 min equilibrium time, while CPAC removed 96% of the dye in 15 min. The experimental isotherm data were analyzed using the linearized forms of Freundlich, Langmuir and BET equations to determine maximum adsorptive capacities. The equilibrium data fit well to the Freundlich isotherm, although the BET isotherm also showed higher correlation for both of the carbons. The results of comparative adsorption capacity of both carbons indicate that groundnut shell can be used as a low-cost alternative to commercial powdered activated carbon in aqueous solution for dye removal.

  19. Electrochemical degradation of malachite green: Multivariate optimization, pathway identification and toxicity analysis.

    PubMed

    Sasidharan Pillai, Indu M; Gupta, Ashok K

    2016-11-01

    Application of a newly developed electrode material, PbO2 coated on mild steel plate (MS-PbO2), for the degradation of malachite green (MG) by photocatalytic oxidation (PCO), electrochemical oxidation (ECO) and photoelectrochemical oxidation (PEC) was explored. PEC performed marginally better at lower current density. However, the performances of PEC and ECO were equally good at higher current densities. One variable at a time optimization was carried out to identify the major parameters influencing ECO. Multivariate optimization was carried out with NaCl concentration, current density and pH as the variables and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency and current efficiency (CE) as the responses. Increasing the current density aided the COD removal efficiency, but decreased the CE. Low NaCl concentration and acidic pH were beneficial for both. The optimum condition for maximizing the COD removal efficiency and CE of MG (50 mg L(-1)) was obtained as NaCl concentration of 1.56 g L(-1), a current density of 1.91 mA cm(-2) and pH 5. The maximum predicted and experimental COD removal efficiencies were 89.41% and 90.8%, and CEs were 21.52% and 21.1%, respectively. Degradation intermediates were identified and a possible pathway of degradation was proposed. Disc inhibition study showed that the degraded samples are non-toxic. The efficacy of the method was tested for treating wastewater collected from dyebath having a COD of about 2000 mg L(-1). COD removal efficiency of greater than 90% was achieved within 12 h at a current density of 7.2 mA cm(-2).

  20. Use of Malachite Green-Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification for Detection of Plasmodium spp. Parasites.

    PubMed

    Lucchi, Naomi W; Ljolje, Dragan; Silva-Flannery, Luciana; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam

    2016-01-01

    Malaria elimination efforts are hampered by the lack of sensitive tools to detect infections with low-level parasitemia, usually below the threshold of standard diagnostic methods, microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests. Isothermal nucleic acid amplification assays such as the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), are well suited for field use as they do not require thermal cyclers to run the test. However, the use of specialized equipment, as described by many groups, reduces the versatility of the LAMP technique as a simple tool for use in endemic countries. In this study, the use of the malachite green (MG) dye, as a visual endpoint readout, together with a simple mini heat block was evaluated for the detection of malaria parasites. The assay was performed for 1 hour at 63°C and the results scored by 3 independent human readers. The limit of detection of the assay was determined using well-quantified Plasmodium spp. infected reference samples and its utility in testing clinical samples was determined using 190 pre-treatment specimens submitted for reference diagnosis of imported malaria in the United States. Use of a simplified boil and spin methods of DNA extraction from whole blood and filter paper was also investigated. We demonstrate the accurate and sensitive detection of malaria parasites using this assay with a detection limit ranging between 1-8 parasites/μL, supporting its applicability for the detection of infections with low parasite burden. This assay is compatible with the use of a simple boil and spin sample preparation method from both whole blood and filter papers without a loss of sensitivity. The MG-LAMP assay described here has great potential to extend the reach of molecular tools to settings where they are needed.

  1. Synthesis of Large Pore Carbon Nanoparticles for Removal of Malachite Green.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Pranav K; Gan, Lihua; Liu, Mingxian

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we have synthesized high surface area and large pore volume carbon nanoparticles (CNP) by a simple and easy sol-gel approach. The sol was prepared by mixing Pluronic F127 and phloroglucinol-terephthalaldehyde in acidic ethanol solution and the gel was formed after the vacuum removal of ethanol. In the sol-gel process, hydrophobic segments of Pluronic F127 forms enhanced hydrogen bonding with trihydroxyl groups of phloroglucinol. A polymeric network of carbon precursor was also prepared by making the interconnectivity between four phloroglucinol and one terephthalaldehyde molecules. After thermal polymerization and carbonization of the gel, the CNP had a very high surface area (1441 m² g⁻¹) and large pore volume (1.7 cm³ g⁻¹) with narrow micropore (1.0 nm) and mesopore (2.3 nm) diameters. The mesopore was developed due to the enhanced hydrogen bonding between Pluronic F127 and phloroglucinol, while the micropores were generated due to hydrocarbon polymeric network of phloroglucinol-terephthalaldehyde. The CNP had a size about ca. 20 nm. The CNP were applied for the removal of the highly hazardous water pollutant malachite green (MG) and achieved a very high adsorption capacity (1892 mg g⁻¹). The commercials powder activated carbon (PAC) was also applied for the removal of MG and achieved an adsorption capacity of PAC was 1390 mg g⁻¹. It believes that shape and size of CNP and PAC played an important role in the adsorptive removal of MG. PMID:27398542

  2. Use of Malachite Green-Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification for Detection of Plasmodium spp. Parasites.

    PubMed

    Lucchi, Naomi W; Ljolje, Dragan; Silva-Flannery, Luciana; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam

    2016-01-01

    Malaria elimination efforts are hampered by the lack of sensitive tools to detect infections with low-level parasitemia, usually below the threshold of standard diagnostic methods, microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests. Isothermal nucleic acid amplification assays such as the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), are well suited for field use as they do not require thermal cyclers to run the test. However, the use of specialized equipment, as described by many groups, reduces the versatility of the LAMP technique as a simple tool for use in endemic countries. In this study, the use of the malachite green (MG) dye, as a visual endpoint readout, together with a simple mini heat block was evaluated for the detection of malaria parasites. The assay was performed for 1 hour at 63°C and the results scored by 3 independent human readers. The limit of detection of the assay was determined using well-quantified Plasmodium spp. infected reference samples and its utility in testing clinical samples was determined using 190 pre-treatment specimens submitted for reference diagnosis of imported malaria in the United States. Use of a simplified boil and spin methods of DNA extraction from whole blood and filter paper was also investigated. We demonstrate the accurate and sensitive detection of malaria parasites using this assay with a detection limit ranging between 1-8 parasites/μL, supporting its applicability for the detection of infections with low parasite burden. This assay is compatible with the use of a simple boil and spin sample preparation method from both whole blood and filter papers without a loss of sensitivity. The MG-LAMP assay described here has great potential to extend the reach of molecular tools to settings where they are needed. PMID:26967908

  3. Electrochemical degradation of malachite green: Multivariate optimization, pathway identification and toxicity analysis.

    PubMed

    Sasidharan Pillai, Indu M; Gupta, Ashok K

    2016-11-01

    Application of a newly developed electrode material, PbO2 coated on mild steel plate (MS-PbO2), for the degradation of malachite green (MG) by photocatalytic oxidation (PCO), electrochemical oxidation (ECO) and photoelectrochemical oxidation (PEC) was explored. PEC performed marginally better at lower current density. However, the performances of PEC and ECO were equally good at higher current densities. One variable at a time optimization was carried out to identify the major parameters influencing ECO. Multivariate optimization was carried out with NaCl concentration, current density and pH as the variables and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency and current efficiency (CE) as the responses. Increasing the current density aided the COD removal efficiency, but decreased the CE. Low NaCl concentration and acidic pH were beneficial for both. The optimum condition for maximizing the COD removal efficiency and CE of MG (50 mg L(-1)) was obtained as NaCl concentration of 1.56 g L(-1), a current density of 1.91 mA cm(-2) and pH 5. The maximum predicted and experimental COD removal efficiencies were 89.41% and 90.8%, and CEs were 21.52% and 21.1%, respectively. Degradation intermediates were identified and a possible pathway of degradation was proposed. Disc inhibition study showed that the degraded samples are non-toxic. The efficacy of the method was tested for treating wastewater collected from dyebath having a COD of about 2000 mg L(-1). COD removal efficiency of greater than 90% was achieved within 12 h at a current density of 7.2 mA cm(-2). PMID:27419534

  4. Adsorption of malachite green on groundnut shell waste based powdered activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Malik, R; Ramteke, D S; Wate, S R

    2007-01-01

    In the present technologically fast changing situation related to waste management practices, it is desirable that disposal of plant waste should be done in a scientific manner by keeping in view economic and pollution considerations. This is only possible when the plant waste has the potential to be used as raw material for some useful product. In the present study, groundnut shell, an agricultural waste, was used for the preparation of an adsorbent by chemical activation using ZnCl2 under optimized conditions and its comparative characterisation was conducted with commercially available powdered activated carbon (CPAC) for its physical, chemical and adsorption properties. The groundnut shell based powdered activated carbon (GSPAC) has a higher surface area, iodine and methylene blue number compared to CPAC. Both of the carbons were used for the removal of malachite green dye from aqueous solution and the effect of various operating variables, viz. adsorbent dose (0.1-1 g l(-1)), contact time (5-120 min) and adsorbate concentrations (100-200 mg l(-1)) on the removal of dye, has been studied. The experimental results indicate that at a dose of 0.5 g l(-1) and initial concentration of 100 mg l(-1), GSPAC showed 94.5% removal of the dye in 30 min equilibrium time, while CPAC removed 96% of the dye in 15 min. The experimental isotherm data were analyzed using the linearized forms of Freundlich, Langmuir and BET equations to determine maximum adsorptive capacities. The equilibrium data fit well to the Freundlich isotherm, although the BET isotherm also showed higher correlation for both of the carbons. The results of comparative adsorption capacity of both carbons indicate that groundnut shell can be used as a low-cost alternative to commercial powdered activated carbon in aqueous solution for dye removal.

  5. Application of ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted extraction of malachite green and crystal violet from water samples.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhanqi; Liu, Tingfeng; Yan, Xiaoju; Sun, Cheng; He, Huan; Yang, Shaogui

    2013-03-01

    A simple, environment friendly and efficient technique, ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted extraction was first used to determine malachite green and crystal violet (CV) from water samples coupled to HPLC. The key parameters influencing extraction efficiency were investigated, such as the type of ionic liquids, the volume of ionic liquid, extraction time, and so on. Under the optimum conditions, good reproducibility of the extraction performance was obtained (RSD, 1.0% for malachite green (MG) and 5.9% for CV, n = 5). Good linearity (0.10-25 μg L(-1)) was observed with correlation coefficients between 0.9991 and 0.9964. The detection limits of MG and CV were 0.080 and 0.030 μg L(-1), respectively. The proposed method had been successfully applied to determine MG and CV in real water samples with recoveries ranging from 95.4 to 102.8%. Compared with the previous technologies, the proposed method required less extraction time (2 min), and provided lower detection limits and higher enrichment factors. Moreover, there were no volatile and hazardous organic solvents released. Based on these simple, environment friendly, rapid, and highly efficient results, the proposed approach provides a new and promising alternative for simultaneously extracting trace amounts of MG and CV from water.

  6. Biodegradation of malachite green by Pseudomonas sp. strain DY1 under aerobic condition: characteristics, degradation products, enzyme analysis and phytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Du, Lin-Na; Wang, Sheng; Li, Gang; Wang, Bing; Jia, Xiao-Ming; Zhao, Yu-Hua; Chen, Yun-Long

    2011-03-01

    Malachite green (MG), a widely-used and recalcitrant dye, has been confirmed to be carcinogenic and mutagenic against many organisms. The main objective of this study is to investigate the capability of Pseudomonas sp. strain DY1 to decolorize MG, and to explore the possible mechanism. The results showed that this strain demonstrated high decolorizing capability (90.3-97.2%) at high concentrations of MG (100-1,000 mg/l) under shaking condition within 24 h. In static conditions, lower but still effective decolorization (78.9-84.3%) was achieved. The optimal pH and temperature for the decolorization was pH 6.6 and 28-30°C, respectively. Mg(2+) and Mn(2+) (1 mM) were observed to significantly enhance the decolorization. The intermediates of the MG degradation under aerobic condition identified by UV-visible, GC-MS and LC-MS analysis included malachite green carbinol, (dimethyl amino-phenyl)-phenyl-methanone, N,N-dimethylaniline, (methyl amino-phenyl)-phenyl-methanone, (amino phenyl)-phenyl methanone and di-benzyl methane. The enzyme analysis indicated that Mn-peroxidase, NADH-DCIP and MG reductase were involved in the biodegradation of MG. Moreover, phytotoxicity of MG and detoxification for MG by the strain were observed. Therefore, this strain could be potentially used for bioremediation of MG.

  7. An enzyme-free strategy for ultrasensitive detection of adenosine using a multipurpose aptamer probe and malachite green.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hui; Wang, Yong-Sheng; Tang, Xian; Zhou, Bin; Xue, Jin-Hua; Liu, Hui; Liu, Shan-Du; Cao, Jin-Xiu; Li, Ming-Hui; Chen, Si-Han

    2015-08-01

    We report on an enzyme-free and label-free strategy for the ultrasensitive determination of adenosine. A novel multipurpose adenosine aptamer (MAAP) is designed, which serves as an effective target recognition probe and a capture probe for malachite green. In the presence of adenosine, the conformation of the MAAP is converted from a hairpin structure to a G-quadruplex. Upon addition of malachite green into this solution, a noticeable enhancement of resonance light scattering was observed. The signal response is directly proportional to the concentration of adenosine ranging from 75 pM to 2.2 nM with a detection limit of 23 pM, which was 100-10,000 folds lower than those obtained by previous reported methods. Moreover, this strategy has been applied successfully for detecting adenosine in human urine and blood samples, further proving its reliability. The mechanism of adenosine inducing MAAP to form a G-quadruplex was demonstrated by a series of control experiments. Such a MAAP probe can also be used to other strategies such as fluorescence or spectrophotometric ones. We suppose that this strategy can be expanded to develop a universal analytical platform for various target molecules in the biomedical field and clinical diagnosis. PMID:26320800

  8. Removal of malachite green dye from aqueous solution using mesoporous silica synthesized from 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekka, Basanti; Nayak, Soumitra Ranjan; Dash, Priyabrat; Patel, Raj Kishore

    2016-04-01

    In this research, mesoporous silica was synthesized via a modified sol-gel route using 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride and was employed to remove malachite green (MG) dye from aqueous solution. Subsequently, this material was characterized and identified by different techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), N2 adsorption-desorption method, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and thermosgravimetric analysis (TGA). Unique properties such as high surface area and pore diameter, in addition to highly reactive atoms and presence of various functional groups make the mesoporous silica possible for efficient removal of malachite green (MG). In batch experimental set-up, optimum conditions for quantitative removal of MG by mesoporous silica was attained by varying different variables such as adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration, contact time, and pH. Optimum values were set as pH of 8.0, 0.5 g of adsorbent at contact time of 120 min. The adsorption of MG follows the pseudo-second-order rate equation. Equilibrium data fitted well with the Freundlich model at all amount of adsorbent, while maximum adsorption capacity was 5.981 mg g-1 for 0.5 g mesoporous silica synthesized in IL.

  9. An enzyme-free strategy for ultrasensitive detection of adenosine using a multipurpose aptamer probe and malachite green.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hui; Wang, Yong-Sheng; Tang, Xian; Zhou, Bin; Xue, Jin-Hua; Liu, Hui; Liu, Shan-Du; Cao, Jin-Xiu; Li, Ming-Hui; Chen, Si-Han

    2015-08-01

    We report on an enzyme-free and label-free strategy for the ultrasensitive determination of adenosine. A novel multipurpose adenosine aptamer (MAAP) is designed, which serves as an effective target recognition probe and a capture probe for malachite green. In the presence of adenosine, the conformation of the MAAP is converted from a hairpin structure to a G-quadruplex. Upon addition of malachite green into this solution, a noticeable enhancement of resonance light scattering was observed. The signal response is directly proportional to the concentration of adenosine ranging from 75 pM to 2.2 nM with a detection limit of 23 pM, which was 100-10,000 folds lower than those obtained by previous reported methods. Moreover, this strategy has been applied successfully for detecting adenosine in human urine and blood samples, further proving its reliability. The mechanism of adenosine inducing MAAP to form a G-quadruplex was demonstrated by a series of control experiments. Such a MAAP probe can also be used to other strategies such as fluorescence or spectrophotometric ones. We suppose that this strategy can be expanded to develop a universal analytical platform for various target molecules in the biomedical field and clinical diagnosis.

  10. Rhizobium marinum sp. nov., a malachite-green-tolerant bacterium isolated from seawater.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Wang, Run-Ping; Ren, Chong; Lai, Qi-Liang; Zeng, Run-Ying

    2015-12-01

    A motile, Gram-stain-negative, non-pigmented bacterial strain, designated MGL06T, was isolated from seawater of the South China Sea on selection medium containing 0.1 % (w/v) malachite green. Strain MGL06T showed highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Rhizobium vignae CCBAU 05176T (97.2 %), and shared 93.2-96.9 % with the type strains of other recognized Rhizobium species. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA and housekeeping gene sequences showed that strain MGL06T belonged to the genus Rhizobium. Mean levels of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain MGL06T and R. vignae CCBAU 05176T, Rhizobium huautlense S02T and Rhizobium alkalisoli CCBAU 01393T were 20 ± 3, 18 ± 2 and 14 ± 3 %, respectively, indicating that strain MGL06T was distinct from them genetically. Strain MGL06T did not form nodules on three different legumes, and the nodD and nifH genes were also not detected by PCR or based on the draft genome sequence. Strain MGL06T contained Q-10 as the predominant ubiquinone. The major fatty acid was C18 : 1ω7c/C18 : 1ω6c with minor amounts of C19 : 0 cyclo ω8c, C16 : 0 and C18 : 1ω7c 11-methyl. Polar lipids of strain MGL06T included unknown glycolipids, phosphatidylcholine, aminolipid, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, an unknown polar lipid and aminophospholipid. Based on its phenotypic and genotypic data, strain MGL06T represents a novel species of the genus Rhizobium, for which the name Rhizobium marinum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MGL06T ( = MCCC 1A00836T = JCM 30155T).

  11. Rhizobium marinum sp. nov., a malachite-green-tolerant bacterium isolated from seawater.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Wang, Run-Ping; Ren, Chong; Lai, Qi-Liang; Zeng, Run-Ying

    2015-12-01

    A motile, Gram-stain-negative, non-pigmented bacterial strain, designated MGL06T, was isolated from seawater of the South China Sea on selection medium containing 0.1 % (w/v) malachite green. Strain MGL06T showed highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Rhizobium vignae CCBAU 05176T (97.2 %), and shared 93.2-96.9 % with the type strains of other recognized Rhizobium species. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA and housekeeping gene sequences showed that strain MGL06T belonged to the genus Rhizobium. Mean levels of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain MGL06T and R. vignae CCBAU 05176T, Rhizobium huautlense S02T and Rhizobium alkalisoli CCBAU 01393T were 20 ± 3, 18 ± 2 and 14 ± 3 %, respectively, indicating that strain MGL06T was distinct from them genetically. Strain MGL06T did not form nodules on three different legumes, and the nodD and nifH genes were also not detected by PCR or based on the draft genome sequence. Strain MGL06T contained Q-10 as the predominant ubiquinone. The major fatty acid was C18 : 1ω7c/C18 : 1ω6c with minor amounts of C19 : 0 cyclo ω8c, C16 : 0 and C18 : 1ω7c 11-methyl. Polar lipids of strain MGL06T included unknown glycolipids, phosphatidylcholine, aminolipid, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, an unknown polar lipid and aminophospholipid. Based on its phenotypic and genotypic data, strain MGL06T represents a novel species of the genus Rhizobium, for which the name Rhizobium marinum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MGL06T ( = MCCC 1A00836T = JCM 30155T). PMID:26374202

  12. Efficient removal of malachite green dye using biodegradable graft copolymer derived from amylopectin and poly(acrylic acid).

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Amit Kumar; Pal, Aniruddha; Ghorai, Soumitra; Mandre, N R; Pal, Sagar

    2014-10-13

    This article reports on the application of a high performance biodegradable adsorbent based on amylopectin and poly(acrylic acid) (AP-g-PAA) for removal of toxic malachite green dye (MG) from aqueous solution. The graft copolymer has been synthesized and characterized using various techniques including FTIR, GPC, SEM and XRD analyses. Biodegradation study suggests that the co-polymer is biodegradable in nature. The adsorbent shows excellent potential (Qmax, 352.11 mg g(-1); 99.05% of MG has been removed within 30 min) for removal of MG from aqueous solution. It has been observed that point to zero charge (pzc) of graft copolymer plays significant role in adsorption efficacy. The adsorption kinetics and isotherm follow pseudo-second order and Langmuir isotherm models, respectively. Thermodynamics parameters suggest that the process of dye uptake is spontaneous. Finally desorption study shows excellent regeneration efficiency of adsorbent.

  13. Novel guar gum/Al2O3 nanocomposite as an effective photocatalyst for the degradation of malachite green dye.

    PubMed

    Pathania, Deepak; Katwal, Rishu; Sharma, Gaurav; Naushad, Mu; Khan, Mohammad Rizwan; Al-Muhtaseb, Ala'a H

    2016-06-01

    Guar gum/Al2O3 (GG/AO) nanocomposite was prepared using simple and cost effective sol-gel method. This nanocomposite was characterized by several analytical techniques viz. scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal analysis (TGA/DTA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis). The FTIR analysis confirmed that GG/AO composite material was formed. TEM images inferred the particle size in the range between 20 and 45nm. GG/AO nanocomposite exhibited good photocatalytic performance for malachite green (MG) dye (dye initial concentration 1.5×10(-5)M) degradation from aqueous phase. The adsorption followed by photocatalysis and coupled adsorption/photocatalysis reaction achieved about 80% and 90% degradation of MG dye under solar irradiation. Antibacterial test showed the excellent activity of GG/AO nanocomposite against Staphylococcus aureus.

  14. Malachite green bioremoval by a newly isolated strain Citrobacter sedlakii RI11; enhancement of the treatment by biosurfactant addition.

    PubMed

    Mnif, Inès; Fendri, Raouia; Ghribi, Dhouha

    2015-01-01

    Citrobacter sedlackii RI11, isolated from acclimated textile effluent after selective enrichment on synthetic dyes, was assessed for malachite green (MG) biotreatment potency. Results indicate that this bacterium has potential for use in effective treatment of MG contaminated wastewaters under shaking conditions at neutral and alkaline pH value, characteristic of typical textile effluents. Also, the newly isolated strain can tolerate higher doses of dye and decolorize up to 1,000 mg/l of dye. When used as microbial surfactant to enhance MG biodecolorization, Bacillus subtilis SPB1-derived lipopeptide accelerated the decolorization rate and maximized the decolorization efficiency at an optimal concentration of biosurfactant of about 0.075%. Studies ensured that MG removal by this strain could be due to biodegradation and/or adsorption. Results on germination potencies of different seeds using the treated dyes under different conditions favor the use of SPB1 biosurfactant for the treatment of MG. PMID:26465297

  15. Malachite green bioremoval by a newly isolated strain Citrobacter sedlakii RI11; enhancement of the treatment by biosurfactant addition.

    PubMed

    Mnif, Inès; Fendri, Raouia; Ghribi, Dhouha

    2015-01-01

    Citrobacter sedlackii RI11, isolated from acclimated textile effluent after selective enrichment on synthetic dyes, was assessed for malachite green (MG) biotreatment potency. Results indicate that this bacterium has potential for use in effective treatment of MG contaminated wastewaters under shaking conditions at neutral and alkaline pH value, characteristic of typical textile effluents. Also, the newly isolated strain can tolerate higher doses of dye and decolorize up to 1,000 mg/l of dye. When used as microbial surfactant to enhance MG biodecolorization, Bacillus subtilis SPB1-derived lipopeptide accelerated the decolorization rate and maximized the decolorization efficiency at an optimal concentration of biosurfactant of about 0.075%. Studies ensured that MG removal by this strain could be due to biodegradation and/or adsorption. Results on germination potencies of different seeds using the treated dyes under different conditions favor the use of SPB1 biosurfactant for the treatment of MG.

  16. Novel guar gum/Al2O3 nanocomposite as an effective photocatalyst for the degradation of malachite green dye.

    PubMed

    Pathania, Deepak; Katwal, Rishu; Sharma, Gaurav; Naushad, Mu; Khan, Mohammad Rizwan; Al-Muhtaseb, Ala'a H

    2016-06-01

    Guar gum/Al2O3 (GG/AO) nanocomposite was prepared using simple and cost effective sol-gel method. This nanocomposite was characterized by several analytical techniques viz. scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal analysis (TGA/DTA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis). The FTIR analysis confirmed that GG/AO composite material was formed. TEM images inferred the particle size in the range between 20 and 45nm. GG/AO nanocomposite exhibited good photocatalytic performance for malachite green (MG) dye (dye initial concentration 1.5×10(-5)M) degradation from aqueous phase. The adsorption followed by photocatalysis and coupled adsorption/photocatalysis reaction achieved about 80% and 90% degradation of MG dye under solar irradiation. Antibacterial test showed the excellent activity of GG/AO nanocomposite against Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:26944664

  17. Post-column reaction for simultaneous analysis of chromatic and leuco forms of malachite green and crystal violet by high-performance liquid chromatography with photometric detection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, J.L.; Meinertz, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    The chromatic and leuco forms of malachite green and crystal violet were readily separated and detected by a sensitive and selective high-performance liquid chromatographic procedure. The chromatic and leuco forms of the dyes were separated within 11 min on a C18 column with a mobile phase of 0.05 M sodium acetate and 0.05 M acetic acid in water (19%) and methanol (81%). A reaction chamber, containing 10% PbO2 in Celite 545, was placed between the column and the spectrophotometric detector to oxidize the leuco forms of the dyes to their chromatic forms. Chromatic and leuco malachite green were quantified by their absorbance at 618 nm; and chromatic and leuco Crystal Violet by their absorbance at 588 nm. Detection limits for chromatic and leuco forms of both dyes ranged from 0.12 to 0.28 ng. A linear range of 1 to 100 ng was established for both forms of the dyes.

  18. Equilibrium, kinetics and mechanism modeling and simulation of basic and acid dyes sorption onto jute fiber carbon: Eosin yellow, malachite green and crystal violet single component systems.

    PubMed

    Porkodi, K; Vasanth Kumar, K

    2007-05-01

    Batch experiments were carried out for the sorption of eosin yellow, malachite green and crystal violet onto jute fiber carbon (JFC). The operating variables studied are the initial dye concentration, initial solution pH, adsorbent dosage and contact time. Experimental equilibrium data were fitted to Freundlich, Langmuir and Redlich-Peterson isotherm by non-linear regression method. Langmuir isotherm was found to be the optimum isotherm for eosin yellow/JFC system and Freundlich isotherm was found to be the optimum isotherm for malachite green/JFC and crystal violet/JFC system at equilibrium conditions. The sorption capacities of eosin yellow, malachite green and crystal violet onto JFC according to Langmuir isotherm were found to 31.49 mg/g, 136.58 mg/g, 27.99 mg/g, respectively. A single stage batch adsorber was designed for the adsorption of eosin yellow, malachite green and crystal violet onto JFC based on the optimum isotherm. A pseudo second order kinetic model well represented the kinetic uptake of dyes studied onto JFC. The pseudo second order kinetic model successfully simulated the kinetics of dye uptake process. The dye sorption process involves both surface and pore diffusion with predominance of surface diffusion at earlier stages. A Boyd plot confirms the external mass transfer as the rate limiting step in the dye sorption process. The influence of initial dye concentration on the dye sorption process was represented in the form of dimensionless mass transfer numbers (Sh/Sc(0.33)) and was found to be agreeing with the expression:

  19. A possible role of Aspergillus niger mitochondrial cytochrome c in malachite green reduction under calcium chloride stress.

    PubMed

    Gomaa, Ola M; Selim, Nabila S; Linz, John E

    2013-01-01

    In previous work, decolorization of malachite green (MG) was studied in Aspergillus niger in the presence and absence of calcium chloride stress. Decolorization took place within 24 h, and a signal transduction process that initiated MG decolorization was suggested to be involved. In the present study, further investigation of the relationship between calcium chloride stress and enhanced MG biodegradation was conducted at the sub-cellular level. MG-NADH reductase activity, a key enzyme in MG decolorization, was produced as decolorization commenced, and enzyme activity increased threefold upon exposure to calcium chloride. Inhibitors of cytochrome p450, Ca(2+) channel activity as well as activity of the signaling protein phosphoinositide 3-kinase were tested. All three activities were inhibited to different extents resulting in reduced MG decolorization. Spectral analysis of the mitochondrial fraction showed a heme signal at 405 nm and A405/A280 ratio that is characteristic of the porphoryin ring of cytochromes. There were no peaks detected for cytochromes a or b, but a shoulder appearing at 550 nm was observed, which suggested that cytochrome c is involved; the absorbance for cytochrome c doubled after calcium chloride stress supporting this idea. MG decolorization took place via a series of demethylation steps, and cytotoxicity analysis revealed a decrease in the toxicity associated with generation of leucomalachite green.

  20. Malachite green mediates homodimerization of antibody VL domains to form a fluorescent ternary complex with singular symmetric interfaces.

    PubMed

    Szent-Gyorgyi, Chris; Stanfield, Robyn L; Andreko, Susan; Dempsey, Alison; Ahmed, Mushtaq; Capek, Sarah; Waggoner, Alan S; Wilson, Ian A; Bruchez, Marcel P

    2013-11-15

    We report that a symmetric small-molecule ligand mediates the assembly of antibody light chain variable domains (VLs) into a correspondent symmetric ternary complex with novel interfaces. The L5* fluorogen activating protein is a VL domain that binds malachite green (MG) dye to activate intense fluorescence. Crystallography of liganded L5* reveals a 2:1 protein:ligand complex with inclusive C2 symmetry, where MG is almost entirely encapsulated between an antiparallel arrangement of the two VL domains. Unliganded L5* VL domains crystallize as a similar antiparallel VL/VL homodimer. The complementarity-determining regions are spatially oriented to form novel VL/VL and VL/ligand interfaces that tightly constrain a propeller conformer of MG. Binding equilibrium analysis suggests highly cooperative assembly to form a very stable VL/MG/VL complex, such that MG behaves as a strong chemical inducer of dimerization. Fusion of two VL domains into a single protein tightens MG binding over 1000-fold to low picomolar affinity without altering the large binding enthalpy, suggesting that bonding interactions with ligand and restriction of domain movements make independent contributions to binding. Fluorescence activation of a symmetrical fluorogen provides a selection mechanism for the isolation and directed evolution of ternary complexes where unnatural symmetric binding interfaces are favored over canonical antibody interfaces. As exemplified by L5*, these self-reporting complexes may be useful as modulators of protein association or as high-affinity protein tags and capture reagents.

  1. Comparative analysis and validation of the malachite green assay for the high throughput biochemical characterization of terpene synthases.

    PubMed

    Vardakou, Maria; Salmon, Melissa; Faraldos, Juan A; O'Maille, Paul E

    2014-01-01

    Terpenes are the largest group of natural products with important and diverse biological roles, while of tremendous economic value as fragrances, flavours and pharmaceutical agents. Class-I terpene synthases (TPSs), the dominant type of TPS enzymes, catalyze the conversion of prenyl diphosphates to often structurally diverse bioactive terpene hydrocarbons, and inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi). To measure their kinetic properties, current bio-analytical methods typically rely on the direct detection of hydrocarbon products by radioactivity measurements or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In this study we employed an established, rapid colorimetric assay, the pyrophosphate/malachite green assay (MG), as an alternative means for the biochemical characterization of class I TPSs activity.•We describe the adaptation of the MG assay for turnover and catalytic efficiency measurements of TPSs.•We validate the method by direct comparison with established assays. The agreement of k cat/K M among methods makes this adaptation optimal for rapid evaluation of TPSs.•We demonstrate the application of the MG assay for the high-throughput screening of TPS gene libraries.

  2. Reusable nanosilver-coated magnetic particles for ultrasensitive SERS-based detection of malachite green in water samples.

    PubMed

    Song, Dan; Yang, Rong; Wang, Chongwen; Xiao, Rui; Long, Feng

    2016-03-11

    A novel nanosilver-deposited silica-coated Fe3O4 magnetic particle (Fe3O4@SiO2@Ag) with uniform size, good SERS activity and magnetic responsiveness was synthesized using amination polymer. The Fe3O4@SiO2@Ag magnetic particles have been successfully applied for ultrasensitive SERS detection of malachite green (MG) in water samples. The mechanism is that MG can be adsorbed on the silver surface of nanosilver-coated magnetic particles via one nitrogen atom, and the Raman signal intensity of MG is significantly enhanced by the nanosilver layer formed on the magnetic particles. The developed sensing system exhibited a sensitive response to MG in the range of 10 fM to 100 μM with a low limit of detection (LOD) 2 fM under optimal conditions. The LOD was several orders of magnitude lower than those of other methods. This SERS-based sensor showed good reproducibility and stability for MG detection. The silver-coated magnetic particles could easily be regenerated as SERS substrates only using low pH solution for multiple sensing events. The recovery of MG added to several water samples at different concentrations ranged from 90% to 110%. The proposed method facilitates the ultrasensitive analysis of dyes to satisfy the high demand for ensuring the safety of water sources.

  3. Reusable nanosilver-coated magnetic particles for ultrasensitive SERS-based detection of malachite green in water samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Dan; Yang, Rong; Wang, Chongwen; Xiao, Rui; Long, Feng

    2016-03-01

    A novel nanosilver-deposited silica-coated Fe3O4 magnetic particle (Fe3O4@SiO2@Ag) with uniform size, good SERS activity and magnetic responsiveness was synthesized using amination polymer. The Fe3O4@SiO2@Ag magnetic particles have been successfully applied for ultrasensitive SERS detection of malachite green (MG) in water samples. The mechanism is that MG can be adsorbed on the silver surface of nanosilver-coated magnetic particles via one nitrogen atom, and the Raman signal intensity of MG is significantly enhanced by the nanosilver layer formed on the magnetic particles. The developed sensing system exhibited a sensitive response to MG in the range of 10 fM to 100 μM with a low limit of detection (LOD) 2 fM under optimal conditions. The LOD was several orders of magnitude lower than those of other methods. This SERS-based sensor showed good reproducibility and stability for MG detection. The silver-coated magnetic particles could easily be regenerated as SERS substrates only using low pH solution for multiple sensing events. The recovery of MG added to several water samples at different concentrations ranged from 90% to 110%. The proposed method facilitates the ultrasensitive analysis of dyes to satisfy the high demand for ensuring the safety of water sources.

  4. Reusable nanosilver-coated magnetic particles for ultrasensitive SERS-based detection of malachite green in water samples

    PubMed Central

    Song, Dan; Yang, Rong; Wang, Chongwen; Xiao, Rui; Long, Feng

    2016-01-01

    A novel nanosilver-deposited silica-coated Fe3O4 magnetic particle (Fe3O4@SiO2@Ag) with uniform size, good SERS activity and magnetic responsiveness was synthesized using amination polymer. The Fe3O4@SiO2@Ag magnetic particles have been successfully applied for ultrasensitive SERS detection of malachite green (MG) in water samples. The mechanism is that MG can be adsorbed on the silver surface of nanosilver-coated magnetic particles via one nitrogen atom, and the Raman signal intensity of MG is significantly enhanced by the nanosilver layer formed on the magnetic particles. The developed sensing system exhibited a sensitive response to MG in the range of 10 fM to 100 μM with a low limit of detection (LOD) 2 fM under optimal conditions. The LOD was several orders of magnitude lower than those of other methods. This SERS-based sensor showed good reproducibility and stability for MG detection. The silver-coated magnetic particles could easily be regenerated as SERS substrates only using low pH solution for multiple sensing events. The recovery of MG added to several water samples at different concentrations ranged from 90% to 110%. The proposed method facilitates the ultrasensitive analysis of dyes to satisfy the high demand for ensuring the safety of water sources. PMID:26964502

  5. Ultra-high adsorption capacity of zeolitic imidazole framework-67 (ZIF-67) for removal of malachite green from water.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kun-Yi Andrew; Chang, Hsuan-Ang

    2015-11-01

    Zeolitic imidazole frameworks (ZIFs), a new class of adsorbents, are proposed to adsorb Malachite Green (MG) in water. Particularly, ZIF-67 was selected owing to its stability in water and straightforward synthesis. The as-synthesized ZIF-67 was characterized and used to adsorb MG from water. Factors affecting the adsorption capacity were investigated including mixing time, temperature, the presence of salts and pH. The kinetics, adsorption isotherm and thermodynamics of the MG adsorption to ZIF-67 were also studied. The adsorption capacity of ZIF-67 for MG could be as high as 2430mgg(-1) at 20°C, which could be improved at the higher temperatures. Such an ultra-high adsorption capacity of ZIF-67 was almost 10-times of those of conventional adsorbents, including activated carbons and biopolymers. A mechanism for the high adsorption capacity was proposed and possibly attributed to the π-π stacking interaction between MG and ZIF-67. ZIF-67 also could be conveniently regenerated by washing with ethanol and the regeneration efficiency could remain 95% up to 4 cycles of the regeneration. ZIF-67 was also able to remove MG from the aquaculture wastewater, in which MG can be typically found. These features enable ZIF-67 to be one of the most effective and promising adsorbent to remove MG from water.

  6. Batch removal of malachite green from aqueous solutions by adsorption on oil palm trunk fibre: equilibrium isotherms and kinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Hameed, B H; El-Khaiary, M I

    2008-06-15

    Oil palm trunk fibre (OPTF)--an agricultural solid waste--was used as low-cost adsorbent to remove malachite green (MG) from aqueous solutions. The operating variables studied were contact time, initial dye concentration, and solution pH. Equilibrium adsorption data were analyzed by three isotherms, namely the Freundlich isotherm, the Langmuir isotherm, and the multilayer adsorption isotherm. The best fit to the data was obtained with the multilayer adsorption. The monolayer adsorption capacity of OPTF was found to be 149.35 mg/g at 30 degrees C. Adsorption kinetic data were modeled using the Lagergren pseudo-first-order, Ho's pseudo-second-order and Elovich models. It was found that the Lagergren's model could be used for the prediction of the system's kinetics. The overall rate of dye uptake was found to be controlled by external mass transfer at the beginning of adsorption, then for initial MG concentrations of 25, 50, 100, 150, and 300 mg/L the rate-control changed to intraparticle diffusion at a later stage, but for initial MG concentrations 200 and 250 mg/L no evidence was found of intraparticle diffusion at any period of adsorption. It was found that with increasing the initial concentration of MG, the pore-diffusion coefficient increased while the film-diffusion coefficient decreased. PMID:18022316

  7. Enhancing adsorption capacity of toxic malachite green dye through chemically modified breadnut peel: equilibrium, thermodynamics, kinetics and regeneration studies.

    PubMed

    Chieng, Hei Ing; Lim, Linda B L; Priyantha, Namal

    2015-01-01

    Breadnut skin, in both its unmodified (KS) and base-modified (BM-KS) forms, was investigated for its potential use as a low-cost adsorbent for the removal of toxic dye, malachite green (MG). Characterization of the adsorbents was carried out using scanning electron microscope, X-ray fluorescence and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy. Batch adsorption experiments, carried out under optimized conditions, for the adsorption of MG were fitted using five isotherm models (Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushkevich, Temkin and Sips) and six error functions to determine the best-fit model. The adsorption capacity was greatly enhanced when breadnut skin was chemically modified with NaOH, leading to an adsorption capacity of 353.0 mg g(-1), that was far superior to most reported adsorbents for the removal of MG. Thermodynamics studies indicated that the adsorption of MG was spontaneous on KS and BM-KS, and the reactions were endothermic and exothermic, respectively. Kinetics studies showed that both followed the pseudo-second order. Regeneration experiments on BM-KS indicated that its adsorption capacity was still maintained at>90% even after five cycles. It can be concluded that NaOH-modified breadfruit skin has great potential to be utilized in real-life application as a low-cost adsorbent for the removal of MG in wastewater treatment.

  8. Ultra-high adsorption capacity of zeolitic imidazole framework-67 (ZIF-67) for removal of malachite green from water.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kun-Yi Andrew; Chang, Hsuan-Ang

    2015-11-01

    Zeolitic imidazole frameworks (ZIFs), a new class of adsorbents, are proposed to adsorb Malachite Green (MG) in water. Particularly, ZIF-67 was selected owing to its stability in water and straightforward synthesis. The as-synthesized ZIF-67 was characterized and used to adsorb MG from water. Factors affecting the adsorption capacity were investigated including mixing time, temperature, the presence of salts and pH. The kinetics, adsorption isotherm and thermodynamics of the MG adsorption to ZIF-67 were also studied. The adsorption capacity of ZIF-67 for MG could be as high as 2430mgg(-1) at 20°C, which could be improved at the higher temperatures. Such an ultra-high adsorption capacity of ZIF-67 was almost 10-times of those of conventional adsorbents, including activated carbons and biopolymers. A mechanism for the high adsorption capacity was proposed and possibly attributed to the π-π stacking interaction between MG and ZIF-67. ZIF-67 also could be conveniently regenerated by washing with ethanol and the regeneration efficiency could remain 95% up to 4 cycles of the regeneration. ZIF-67 was also able to remove MG from the aquaculture wastewater, in which MG can be typically found. These features enable ZIF-67 to be one of the most effective and promising adsorbent to remove MG from water. PMID:25697373

  9. Enhancing adsorption capacity of toxic malachite green dye through chemically modified breadnut peel: equilibrium, thermodynamics, kinetics and regeneration studies.

    PubMed

    Chieng, Hei Ing; Lim, Linda B L; Priyantha, Namal

    2015-01-01

    Breadnut skin, in both its unmodified (KS) and base-modified (BM-KS) forms, was investigated for its potential use as a low-cost adsorbent for the removal of toxic dye, malachite green (MG). Characterization of the adsorbents was carried out using scanning electron microscope, X-ray fluorescence and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy. Batch adsorption experiments, carried out under optimized conditions, for the adsorption of MG were fitted using five isotherm models (Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushkevich, Temkin and Sips) and six error functions to determine the best-fit model. The adsorption capacity was greatly enhanced when breadnut skin was chemically modified with NaOH, leading to an adsorption capacity of 353.0 mg g(-1), that was far superior to most reported adsorbents for the removal of MG. Thermodynamics studies indicated that the adsorption of MG was spontaneous on KS and BM-KS, and the reactions were endothermic and exothermic, respectively. Kinetics studies showed that both followed the pseudo-second order. Regeneration experiments on BM-KS indicated that its adsorption capacity was still maintained at>90% even after five cycles. It can be concluded that NaOH-modified breadfruit skin has great potential to be utilized in real-life application as a low-cost adsorbent for the removal of MG in wastewater treatment. PMID:25409587

  10. Photocatalytic degradation of Reactive Black 5 and Malachite Green with ZnO and lanthanum doped nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneva, N.; Bojinova, A.; Papazova, K.

    2016-02-01

    Here we report the preparation of ZnO particles with different concentrations of La3+ doping (0, 0.5 and 1 wt%) via sol-gel method. The nanoparticles are synthesized directly from Zn(CH3COO)2.2H2O in the presence of 1-propanol and triethylamine at 80°C. The conditions are optimized to obtain particles of uniform size, easy to isolate and purify. The nanoparticles are characterized by SEM, XRD and UV-Vis analysis. The photocatalytic properties of pure and La-doped ZnO are studied in the photobleaching of Malachite Green (MG) and Reactive Black 5 (RB5) dyes in aqueous solutions upon UV illumination. It is observed that the rate constant increases with the La loading up to 1 wt%. The doping helps to achieve complete mineralization of MG within a short irradiation time. 1 wt% La-doped ZnO nanoparticles show highest photocatalytic activity. The La3+ doped ZnO particles degrade faster RB5 than MG. The reason is weaker N=N bond in comparison with the C-C bond between the central carbon atom and N,N-dimethylaminobenzyl in MG. The as-prepared ZnO particles can find practical application in photocatalytic purification of textile wastewaters.

  11. Photodegradation of malachite green dye catalyzed by Keggin-type polyoxometalates under visible-light irradiation: Transition metal substituted effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chun-Guang; Zheng, Ting; Liu, Shuang; Zhang, Han-Yu

    2016-04-01

    In the present paper, Keggin-type polyoxometalates (POMs) (NH4)3[PW12O40] and its mono-transition-metal-substituted species (NH4)5[{PW11O39}MII(H2O)] (M = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn) have been synthesized and used as photocatalyst to activate O2 for the degradation of dye molecule under visible-light irradiation. Because of the strong adsorption on the surface of POM catalyst, malachite green (MG) molecule was employed as a molecular probe to test their photocatalytic activity. The photodegradation study shows that introduction of transition metal ion leads to an increase in the degradation of MG in the following order: Mn < Fe < Co < [PW12O40]3- < Ni < Cu < Zn, which indicates that the photocatalytic activity of these POMs is sensitive to the transition metal substituted effects. Electronic structure analysis based on the density functional theory calculations shows that a moderate decrease of oxidizing ability of POM catalyst may improve the photocatalytic activity in the degradation of dye molecule under visible-light irradiation. Meanwhile, intermediate products about the photocatalytic oxidation of MG molecule were proposed on the basis of gas chromatograph mass spectrometer analysis.

  12. Optimization of process variables by response surface methodology for malachite green dye removal using lime peel activated carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Mohd Azmier; Afandi, Nur Syahidah; Bello, Olugbenga Solomon

    2015-04-01

    This study investigates the adsorptive removal of malachite green (MG) dye from aqueous solutions using chemically modified lime-peel-based activated carbon (LPAC). The adsorbent prepared was characterized using FTIR, SEM, Proximate analysis and BET techniques, respectively. Central composite design (CCD) in response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the adsorption process. The effects of three variables: activation temperature, activation time and chemical impregnation ratio (IR) using KOH and their effects on percentage of dye removal and LPAC yield were investigated. Based on CCD design, quadratic models and two factor interactions (2FI) were developed correlating the adsorption variables to the two responses. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to judge the adequacy of the model. The optimum conditions of MG dye removal using LPAC are: activation temperature (796 °C), activation time (1.0 h) and impregnation ratio (2.6), respectively. The percentage of MG dye removal obtained was 94.68 % resulting in 17.88 % LPAC yield. The percentage of error between predicted and experimental results for the removal of MG dye is 0.4 %. Model prediction was in good agreement with experimental results and LPAC was found to be effective in removing MG dye from aqueous solution.

  13. Effect of COOH-functionalized SWCNT addition on the electrical and photovoltaic characteristics of Malachite Green dye based photovoltaic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, S.; Manik, N. B.

    2014-12-01

    We report the effect of COOH-functionalized single walled carbon nanotubes (COOH-SWCNT) on the electrical and photovoltaic characteristics of Malachite Green (MG) dye based photovoltaic cells. Two different types of photovoltaic cells were prepared, one with MG dye and another by incorporating COOH-SWCNT with this dye. Cells were characterized through different electrical and photovoltaic measurements including photocurrent measurements with pulsed radiation. From the dark current—voltage (I-V) characteristic results, we observed a certain transition voltage (Vth) for both the cells beyond which the conduction mechanism of the cells change sharply. For the MG dye, Vth is 3.9 V whereas for COOH-SWCNT mixed with this dye, Vth drops to 2.7 V. The device performance improves due to the incorporation of COOH-SWCNT. The open circuit voltage and short circuit current density change from 4.2 to 97 mV and from 108 to 965 μA/cm2 respectively. Observations from photocurrent measurements show that the rate of growth and decay of the photocurrent are quite faster in the presence of COOH-SWCNT. This observation indicates a faster charge separation processes due to the incorporation of COOH-SWCNT in the MG dye cells. The high aspect ratio of COOH-SWCNT allows efficient conduction pathways for the generated charge carriers.

  14. Reusable nanosilver-coated magnetic particles for ultrasensitive SERS-based detection of malachite green in water samples.

    PubMed

    Song, Dan; Yang, Rong; Wang, Chongwen; Xiao, Rui; Long, Feng

    2016-01-01

    A novel nanosilver-deposited silica-coated Fe3O4 magnetic particle (Fe3O4@SiO2@Ag) with uniform size, good SERS activity and magnetic responsiveness was synthesized using amination polymer. The Fe3O4@SiO2@Ag magnetic particles have been successfully applied for ultrasensitive SERS detection of malachite green (MG) in water samples. The mechanism is that MG can be adsorbed on the silver surface of nanosilver-coated magnetic particles via one nitrogen atom, and the Raman signal intensity of MG is significantly enhanced by the nanosilver layer formed on the magnetic particles. The developed sensing system exhibited a sensitive response to MG in the range of 10 fM to 100 μM with a low limit of detection (LOD) 2 fM under optimal conditions. The LOD was several orders of magnitude lower than those of other methods. This SERS-based sensor showed good reproducibility and stability for MG detection. The silver-coated magnetic particles could easily be regenerated as SERS substrates only using low pH solution for multiple sensing events. The recovery of MG added to several water samples at different concentrations ranged from 90% to 110%. The proposed method facilitates the ultrasensitive analysis of dyes to satisfy the high demand for ensuring the safety of water sources. PMID:26964502

  15. Effect of metanil yellow and malachite green on DNA synthesis in N-nitrosodiethylamine induced preneoplastic rat livers.

    PubMed

    Sundarrajan, M; Prabhudesai, S; Krishnamurthy, S C; Rao, K V

    2001-09-01

    Metanil yellow (MY) and malachite green (MG) are textile dyes, which, despite the ban occurs unsrupulously as food colouring agents. Accordingly they constitute a serious public health hazard and are of sufficient environmental concern. We have earlier reported that both MY and MG have tumor enhancing effects on the development of hepatic preneoplastic lesions induced by N-nitrosodiethylamine in rats. In order to understand the possible mechanisms by which MY and MG enhance tumor development, in this study we have tested the effects of MY and MG on DNA synthesis and PCNA expression in preneoplastic hepatic lesions during N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN) induced hepatocarcinogenesis in male Wistar (WR) rats. Rats were administered 200 ppm DEN through drinking water for a period of one month. Administration of DEN for a period of one month showed an upregulation of cell cycle regulatory proteins namely cyclin D1, CDK4, cyclin E and CDK2. Accordingly, in other experiments, the animals were further administered MY and MG for a period of one month following one month DEN treatment. The effects of MY and MG were monitored on the basis of cell proliferation markers--DNA synthesis and PCNA expression both by immunohistochemical and immunoblotting. Following DEN administration, MY, MG and PB showed stimulation of DNA synthesis and increased PCNA expression when compared with either the corresponding controls or only DEN treated animals. In the present study, enhancing effect of MY, MG and PB on the cell proliferation markers during DEN-induced hepatic preneoplasia in rats was observed.

  16. Magnetic solid-phase extraction for determination of the total malachite green, gentian violet and leucomalachite green, leucogentian violet in aquaculture water by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jiao; Wei, Daqiao; Yang, Yaling

    2016-06-01

    In this study, magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotube nanoparticles were synthesized and used as the adsorbent for the sums of malachite green, gentian violet and leucomalachite green, leucogentian violet in aquaculture water samples followed by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. This method was based on in situ reduction of chromic malachite green, gentian violet to colorless leucomalachite green, leucogentian violet with potassium borohydride, respectively. The obtained adsorbent combines the advantages of carbon nanotubes and Fe3 O4 nanoparticles in one material for separation and preconcentration of the reductive dyes in aqueous media. The structure and properties of the prepared nanoparticles were characterized by transmission and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The main parameters affecting the adsorption recoveries were investigated and optimized, including reducing agent concentration, type and amount of sorbent, sample pH, and eluting conditions. Under the optimum conditions, the limits of detection in this method were 0.22 and 0.09 ng/mL for malachite green and gentian violet, respectively. Product recoveries ranged from 87.0 to 92.8% with relative standard deviations from 4.6 to 5.9%. The results indicate that the sorbent is a suitable material for the removal and concentration of triphenylmethane dyes from polluted environmental samples. PMID:27120413

  17. Magnetic solid-phase extraction for determination of the total malachite green, gentian violet and leucomalachite green, leucogentian violet in aquaculture water by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jiao; Wei, Daqiao; Yang, Yaling

    2016-06-01

    In this study, magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotube nanoparticles were synthesized and used as the adsorbent for the sums of malachite green, gentian violet and leucomalachite green, leucogentian violet in aquaculture water samples followed by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. This method was based on in situ reduction of chromic malachite green, gentian violet to colorless leucomalachite green, leucogentian violet with potassium borohydride, respectively. The obtained adsorbent combines the advantages of carbon nanotubes and Fe3 O4 nanoparticles in one material for separation and preconcentration of the reductive dyes in aqueous media. The structure and properties of the prepared nanoparticles were characterized by transmission and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The main parameters affecting the adsorption recoveries were investigated and optimized, including reducing agent concentration, type and amount of sorbent, sample pH, and eluting conditions. Under the optimum conditions, the limits of detection in this method were 0.22 and 0.09 ng/mL for malachite green and gentian violet, respectively. Product recoveries ranged from 87.0 to 92.8% with relative standard deviations from 4.6 to 5.9%. The results indicate that the sorbent is a suitable material for the removal and concentration of triphenylmethane dyes from polluted environmental samples.

  18. Organic nanoparticles of malachite green with enhanced far-red emission: size-dependence of particle rigidity.

    PubMed

    Funada, Tomohito; Hirose, Takuya; Tamai, Naoto; Yao, Hiroshi

    2015-04-28

    In tracing the biological processes using fluorescent probes, it is desirable to shift the excitation/emission energy to a far-red/near-infrared (FR/NIR) region. In this study, we successfully synthesize FR fluorescent organic nanoparticles via ion-association between the malachite green (MG) cations and tetrakis(4-fluorophenyl)borate (TFPB) anions in the presence of a neutral stabilizing polymer. Binding of MG with TFPB results in the prominent appearance of an absorption band that can be assigned to an H-aggregate of MG. The fluorescence intensity as well as the fluorescence lifetime shows a significant increase with a decrease in the nanoparticle size. Since the MG dye is known as a local viscosity or environmental rigidity probe showing a rotational friction dependence of the excited state lifetime, we find that the rigidity of the organic nanoparticle is strongly size-dependent; that is, the smaller the size of the nanoparticle, the greater the rigidity of the nanoparticle. We also reveal that surface regions of the ion-based organic nanoparticles are more rigid than inner regions. The presence of H-aggregates that are almost non-fluorescent is the major origin of aggregation-caused quenching (ACQ) and still avoids the enhancement of the fluorescence quantum yield of the MG nanoparticles, so we develop a new approach to prevent H-aggregation inside the nanoparticle by incorporating photochemically inert, bulky phosphonium cations, which results in a 430-fold enhancement of its fluorescence yield. We believe that such a methodology will open up an avenue in the development of new types of fluorescent nanomaterials for many applications.

  19. Fast removal of malachite green dye using novel superparamagnetic sodium alginate-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Abbas; Daemi, Hamed; Barikani, Mehdi

    2014-08-01

    In this study, superparamagnetic sodium alginate-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles (Alg-Fe3O4) as a novel magnetic adsorbent were prepared by in situ coprecipitation method, in which Fe3O4 nanoparticles were precipitated from FeCl3 and FeCl2 under alkaline medium in the presence of sodium alginate. The Alg-Fe3O4 nanoparticles were used for removal of malachite green (MG) from aqueous solutions using batch adsorption technique. The characterization of synthesized nanoparticles was performed using XRD, FTIR, TEM, TGA and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) techniques. FTIR analysis of synthesized nanoparticles provided the evidence that sodium alginate was successfully coated on the surface of Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The FT-IR and TGA characterization showed that the Alg-Fe3O4 nanoparticles contained about 14% (w/w) of sodium alginate. Moreover, TEM analysis indicated that the average diameter of the Alg-Fe3O4 nanoparticles was about 12nm. The effects of adsorbent dosage, pH and temperature were investigated on the adsorption properties of MG onto Alg-Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The equilibrium adsorption data were modeled using the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The maximum adsorption capacity obtained from Langmuir isotherm equation was 47.84mg/g. The kinetics of adsorption of MG onto Alg-Fe3O4 nanoparticles were investigated using the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models. The results showed that the adsorption of MG onto nanoparticles followed pseudo-second-order kinetic model.

  20. Biochemical and biophysical response to calcium chloride stress in Aspergillus niger and its role in malachite green degradation.

    PubMed

    Gomaa, Ola M; Selim, Nabila S; Linz, John E

    2013-04-01

    Filamentous fungi show great promise in remediation of environmental contaminants such as industrial dyes. In the current study, Aspergillus niger (Genbank ID: JF437542) decolorized 82 % of the test dye malachite green (MG; 50 mg/l) during cultivation for 24 h. The organism decolorized only 6 % of the MG at higher concentration (250 mg MG/l) during the same time period and growth was inhibited at this higher MG concentration. Exposing A. niger to different types of stress resulted in variable impacts on ability to decolorize MG. CaCl2 had the largest positive impact on decolorization. A. niger cultures treated with CaCl2 (1 M) decolorized 46 % of the MG (250 mg/l) in 1 h compared to 6 % in untreated control cultures. CaCl2 also increased catalase production in A. niger which strongly supported a direct relationship between stress response and decolorizing ability. Spectrophotometric measurement confirmed MG decolorization while Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy suggested that biodegradation of MG occurred. Cultures treated with CaCl2 accumulated fewer toxic MG by-products than untreated cultures. CaCl2-induced stress increased the permeability and conductivity of the fungal cell membrane. An observed increase in medium [H(+)] also suggested a change in Ca(2+)/H(+) exchange capacity in the fungal cell. Calcium ions had a pronounced effect on membrane properties and this may have had an important impact on signal transduction. We conclude that A. niger decolorizes MG and that CaCl2 enhances this process; the CaCl2 effect appears to be associated with stress response.

  1. Design of binary SnO2-CuO nanocomposite for efficient photocatalytic degradation of malachite green dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Aniket; Rout, Lipeeka; Achary, L. Satish Kumar; Mohanty, Anurag; Marpally, Jyoshna; Chand, Pradyumna Kumar; Dash, Priyabrat

    2016-04-01

    Semiconductor mediated photocatalysis has got enormous consideration as it has shown immense potential in addressing the overall energy and environmental issues. To overcome the earlier drawbacks concerning quick charge recombination and limited visible-light absorption of semiconductor photocatalysts, numerous methods have been produced in the past couple of decades and the most broadly utilized one is to develop the photocatalytic heterojunctions. In our work, a series of SnO2-CuO nanocomposites of different compositions were synthesized by a combustion method and have been investigated in detail by various characterization techniques, such as wide angle X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The results revealed that the crystal structure and optical properties of the nanocomposites were almost same for all the compositions. FE-SEM images showed that the shape of SnO2-CuO was spherical in nature and the 1: 1 Sn/Cu sample had a well-proportioned morphology. The malachite green dye was used for the photocatalytic studies in a photoreactor and monitored with a UV-visible spectrometer for different composition ratio of metal (Sn: Cu) such as 1:1, 1:2, 2:1, 1:0.5 and 0.5:1. The 1:1 ratio nanocomposite showed excellent photocatalytic degradation of 96 % compared to pure SnO2 and CuO. The mechanism of degradation and charge separation ability of the nanocomposite are also explored using photocurrent measurement study.

  2. Organic nanoparticles of malachite green with enhanced far-red emission: size-dependence of particle rigidity.

    PubMed

    Funada, Tomohito; Hirose, Takuya; Tamai, Naoto; Yao, Hiroshi

    2015-04-28

    In tracing the biological processes using fluorescent probes, it is desirable to shift the excitation/emission energy to a far-red/near-infrared (FR/NIR) region. In this study, we successfully synthesize FR fluorescent organic nanoparticles via ion-association between the malachite green (MG) cations and tetrakis(4-fluorophenyl)borate (TFPB) anions in the presence of a neutral stabilizing polymer. Binding of MG with TFPB results in the prominent appearance of an absorption band that can be assigned to an H-aggregate of MG. The fluorescence intensity as well as the fluorescence lifetime shows a significant increase with a decrease in the nanoparticle size. Since the MG dye is known as a local viscosity or environmental rigidity probe showing a rotational friction dependence of the excited state lifetime, we find that the rigidity of the organic nanoparticle is strongly size-dependent; that is, the smaller the size of the nanoparticle, the greater the rigidity of the nanoparticle. We also reveal that surface regions of the ion-based organic nanoparticles are more rigid than inner regions. The presence of H-aggregates that are almost non-fluorescent is the major origin of aggregation-caused quenching (ACQ) and still avoids the enhancement of the fluorescence quantum yield of the MG nanoparticles, so we develop a new approach to prevent H-aggregation inside the nanoparticle by incorporating photochemically inert, bulky phosphonium cations, which results in a 430-fold enhancement of its fluorescence yield. We believe that such a methodology will open up an avenue in the development of new types of fluorescent nanomaterials for many applications. PMID:25823740

  3. Degradation and detoxification of the triphenylmethane dye malachite green catalyzed by crude manganese peroxidase from Irpex lacteus F17.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xueting; Zheng, Jinzhao; Lu, Yongming; Jia, Rong

    2016-05-01

    Malachite green (MG), a recalcitrant, carcinogenic, and mutagenic triphenylmethane dye, was decolorized and detoxified using crude manganese peroxidase (MnP) prepared from the white rot fungus Irpex lacteus F17. In this study, the key factors (pH, temperature, MG, Mn(2+), H2O2, MnP) in these processes were investigated. Under optimal conditions, 96 % of 200 mg L(-1) of MG was decolorized when 66.32 U L(-1) of MnP was added for 1 h. The K m, V max, and k cat values were 109.9 μmol L(-1), 152.8 μmol L(-1) min(-1), and 44.5 s(-1), respectively. The decolorization of MG by MnP followed first-order reaction kinetics with a kinetic rate constant of 0.0129 h(-1). UV-vis and UPLC analysis revealed degradation of MG. Furthermore, seven different intermediates formed during the MnP treatment of 0.5 h were identified by LC-TOF-MS. These degradation products were generated via two different routes by either N-demethylation of MG or the oxidative cleavage of the C-C double bond in MG. Based on ecotoxicity analyses performed on bacteria and algae, it was confirmed that MG metabolites produced by the MnP-catalyzed system were appreciably less toxic than the parent compound. These studies indicate the potential use of this enzyme system in the clean-up of aquatic and terrestrial environments.

  4. Degradation and detoxification of the triphenylmethane dye malachite green catalyzed by crude manganese peroxidase from Irpex lacteus F17.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xueting; Zheng, Jinzhao; Lu, Yongming; Jia, Rong

    2016-05-01

    Malachite green (MG), a recalcitrant, carcinogenic, and mutagenic triphenylmethane dye, was decolorized and detoxified using crude manganese peroxidase (MnP) prepared from the white rot fungus Irpex lacteus F17. In this study, the key factors (pH, temperature, MG, Mn(2+), H2O2, MnP) in these processes were investigated. Under optimal conditions, 96 % of 200 mg L(-1) of MG was decolorized when 66.32 U L(-1) of MnP was added for 1 h. The K m, V max, and k cat values were 109.9 μmol L(-1), 152.8 μmol L(-1) min(-1), and 44.5 s(-1), respectively. The decolorization of MG by MnP followed first-order reaction kinetics with a kinetic rate constant of 0.0129 h(-1). UV-vis and UPLC analysis revealed degradation of MG. Furthermore, seven different intermediates formed during the MnP treatment of 0.5 h were identified by LC-TOF-MS. These degradation products were generated via two different routes by either N-demethylation of MG or the oxidative cleavage of the C-C double bond in MG. Based on ecotoxicity analyses performed on bacteria and algae, it was confirmed that MG metabolites produced by the MnP-catalyzed system were appreciably less toxic than the parent compound. These studies indicate the potential use of this enzyme system in the clean-up of aquatic and terrestrial environments. PMID:26846235

  5. Heterologous Expression of Phanerochaete chrysoporium Glyoxal Oxidase and its Application for the Coupled Reaction with Manganese Peroxidase to Decolorize Malachite Green

    PubMed Central

    Son, Yu-Lim; Kim, Hyoun-Young; Thiyagarajan, Saravanakumar; Xu, Jing Jing

    2012-01-01

    cDNA of the glx1 gene encoding glyoxal oxidase (GLX) from Phanerochaete chrysosporium was isolated and expressed in Pichia pastoris. The recombinant GLX (rGLX) produces H2O2 over 7.0 nmol/min/mL using methyl glyoxal as a substrate. Use of rGLX as a generator of H2O2 improved the coupled reaction with recombinant manganese peroxidase resulting in decolorization of malachite green up to 150 µM within 90 min. PMID:23323052

  6. Application of Micro-cloud point extraction for spectrophotometric determination of Malachite green, Crystal violet and Rhodamine B in aqueous samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasemi, Elham; Kaykhaii, Massoud

    2016-07-01

    A novel, green, simple and fast method was developed for spectrophotometric determination of Malachite green, Crystal violet, and Rhodamine B in water samples based on Micro-cloud Point extraction (MCPE) at room temperature. This is the first report on the application of MCPE on dyes. In this method, to reach the cloud point at room temperature, the MCPE procedure was carried out in brine using Triton X-114 as a non-ionic surfactant. The factors influencing the extraction efficiency were investigated and optimized. Under the optimized condition, calibration curves were found to be linear in the concentration range of 0.06-0.60 mg/L, 0.10-0.80 mg/L, and 0.03-0.30 mg/L with the enrichment factors of 29.26, 85.47 and 28.36, respectively for Malachite green, Crystal violet, and Rhodamine B. Limit of detections were between 2.2 and 5.1 μg/L.

  7. Application of Micro-cloud point extraction for spectrophotometric determination of Malachite green, Crystal violet and Rhodamine B in aqueous samples.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, Elham; Kaykhaii, Massoud

    2016-07-01

    A novel, green, simple and fast method was developed for spectrophotometric determination of Malachite green, Crystal violet, and Rhodamine B in water samples based on Micro-cloud Point extraction (MCPE) at room temperature. This is the first report on the application of MCPE on dyes. In this method, to reach the cloud point at room temperature, the MCPE procedure was carried out in brine using Triton X-114 as a non-ionic surfactant. The factors influencing the extraction efficiency were investigated and optimized. Under the optimized condition, calibration curves were found to be linear in the concentration range of 0.06-0.60mg/L, 0.10-0.80mg/L, and 0.03-0.30mg/L with the enrichment factors of 29.26, 85.47 and 28.36, respectively for Malachite green, Crystal violet, and Rhodamine B. Limit of detections were between 2.2 and 5.1μg/L.

  8. Application of Micro-cloud point extraction for spectrophotometric determination of Malachite green, Crystal violet and Rhodamine B in aqueous samples.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, Elham; Kaykhaii, Massoud

    2016-07-01

    A novel, green, simple and fast method was developed for spectrophotometric determination of Malachite green, Crystal violet, and Rhodamine B in water samples based on Micro-cloud Point extraction (MCPE) at room temperature. This is the first report on the application of MCPE on dyes. In this method, to reach the cloud point at room temperature, the MCPE procedure was carried out in brine using Triton X-114 as a non-ionic surfactant. The factors influencing the extraction efficiency were investigated and optimized. Under the optimized condition, calibration curves were found to be linear in the concentration range of 0.06-0.60mg/L, 0.10-0.80mg/L, and 0.03-0.30mg/L with the enrichment factors of 29.26, 85.47 and 28.36, respectively for Malachite green, Crystal violet, and Rhodamine B. Limit of detections were between 2.2 and 5.1μg/L. PMID:27085294

  9. DC conduction mechanism and dielectric properties of Poly (methyl methacrylate)/Poly (vinyl acetate) blends doped and undoped with malachite green

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd-El Kader, F. H.; Osman, W. H.; Hafez, R. S.

    2013-01-01

    Cast thin films of Poly (methyl methacrylate)/Poly (vinyl acetate) blends of different concentrations undoped and doped with malachite green have been prepared and subjected to both dc electrical conduction and dielectric spectroscopy measurements. The analysis of dc electrical conduction data showed that the space charge limited current mechanism has been dominant for Poly (vinyl acetate) while Schottky-Richardson conduction mechanism prevailed for the Poly (methyl methacrylate) and blended samples. The values of field lowering constant β and the thermal activation energy ΔE involved in the dc conduction were reported, which provide another support for the suggested Schottky-Richardson mechanism. The increase in current for the blend sample doped with malachite green has been attributed to the formation of charge transfer complexes inside the polyblend matrix. The dielectric constant as a function of temperature for all samples have been calculated which are affected by the composition ratio and the addition of dye. The relaxation peak that appeared in the dielectric loss curve at 347 K for the doped blend sample is related to local dipoles that are present in the dye material. The obtained relaxation process spectra present in the investigated samples were analyzed with the well-known model of Havriliak-Negami.

  10. Photocatalytic performance of Sn-doped TiO{sub 2} nanostructured thin films for photocatalytic degradation of malachite green dye under UV and VIS-lights

    SciTech Connect

    Sayilkan, F.; Asiltuerk, M.; Tatar, P.; Kiraz, N.; Sener, S.; Arpac, E.; Sayilkan, H.

    2008-01-08

    Sn-doped and undoped nano-TiO{sub 2} particles have been synthesized by hydrotermal process without acid catalyst at 225 deg. C in 1 h. Nanostructure-TiO{sub 2} based thin films, contain at different solid ratio of TiO{sub 2} in coating, have been prepared on glass surfaces by spin-coating technique. The structure, surface morphology and optical properties of the thin films and the particles have been investigated by element analysis and XRD, BET and UV/VIS/NIR techniques. The photocatalytic performance of the films was tested for degradation of malachite green dye in solution under UV and VIS-lights. The results showed that the hydrothermally synthesized nano-TiO{sub 2} particles are fully anatase crystalline form and are easily dispersed in water, the coated surfaces have nearly super-hydrophilic properties and, the doping of transition metal ion efficiently improved the photocatalytic performance of the TiO{sub 2} thin film. The results also proved that malachite green is decomposed catalytically due to the pseudo first-order reaction kinetics.

  11. Overexpression of G1/S cyclins and PCNA and their relationship to tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation during tumor promotion by metanil yellow and malachite green.

    PubMed

    Sundarrajan, M; Fernandis, A Z; Subrahmanyam, G; Prabhudesai, S; Krishnamurthy, S C; Rao, K V

    2000-07-27

    Metanil yellow (MY) and Malachite green (MG) are textile dyes, which, despite the ban, occur unscrupulously as food colouring agents. Accordingly they constitute a serious public health hazard and are of sufficient environmental concern. We have earlier reported that both MY and MG have tumor promoting effects on the development of hepatic preneoplastic lesions induced by N-nitrosodiethylamine in rats. In order to understand the possible mechanism(s) by which metanil yellow (MY) and malachite green (MG) promotes liver tumor development, we have studied the tyrosine phosphorylation and protein phosphatases during tumor promotion. We have also investigated the possible overexpression of G1/S cyclins and PCNA during tumor promotion by MY and MG. The present investigation indicates that enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation is associated with no change in levels of tyrosine protein phosphatases. We have also observed an increase in the expression of PCNA and G1/S cyclins during tumor promotion. These factors collectively may contribute to the abnormal cell proliferation during tumor promotion by MY and MG.

  12. Green copper pigments biodegradation in cultural heritage: from malachite to moolooite, thermodynamic modeling, X-ray fluorescence, and Raman evidence.

    PubMed

    Castro, Kepa; Sarmiento, Alfredo; Martínez-Arkarazo, Irantzu; Madariaga, Juan Manuel; Fernández, Luis Angel

    2008-06-01

    Moolooite (copper oxalate), a very rare compound, was found as a degradation product from the decay of malachite in several specimens of Cultural Heritage studied. Computer simulations, based on heterogeneous chemical equilibria, support the transformation of malachite to moolooite through the intermediate copper basic sulfates or copper basic chlorides, depending on the presence of available free sulfate or chloride anions in the chemical system. Raman and X-ray fluorescence spectral evidence found during the analysis of the three case studies investigated supported the model predictions. According to the study, the presence of lichens and other microorganisms might be responsible for the decay phenomena. This work tries to highlight the importance of biological attack on specimens belonging to Cultural Heritage and to demonstrate the consequences of oxalic acid, excreted by some of these microorganisms, on the conservation and preservation of artwork.

  13. Surfactant-free synthesis of octahedral ZnO/ZnFe2O4 heterostructure with ultrahigh and selective adsorption capacity of malachite green.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jue; Zeng, Min; Yu, Ronghai

    2016-01-01

    A new octahedral ZnO/ZnFe2O4 heterostructure has been fabricated through a facile surfactant-free solvothermal method followed by thermal treatment. It exhibits a record-high adsorption capacity (up to 4983.0 mg·g(-1)) of malachite green (MG), which is a potentially harmful dye in prevalence and should be removed from wastewater and other aqueous solutions before discharging into the environment. The octahedral ZnO/ZnFe2O4 heterostructure also demonstrates strong selective adsorption towards MG from two kinds of mixed solutions: MG/methyl orange (MO) and MG/rhodamine B (RhB) mixtures, indicating its promise in water treatment.

  14. Central composite design and genetic algorithm applied for the optimization of ultrasonic-assisted removal of malachite green by ZnO Nanorod-loaded activated carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaedi, M.; Azad, F. Nasiri; Dashtian, K.; Hajati, S.; Goudarzi, A.; Soylak, M.

    2016-10-01

    Maximum malachite green (MG) adsorption onto ZnO Nanorod-loaded activated carbon (ZnO-NR-AC) was achieved following the optimization of conditions, while the mass transfer was accelerated by ultrasonic. The central composite design (CCD) and genetic algorithm (GA) were used to estimate the effect of individual variables and their mutual interactions on the MG adsorption as response and to optimize the adsorption process. The ZnO-NR-AC surface morphology and its properties were identified via FESEM, XRD and FTIR. The adsorption equilibrium isotherm and kinetic models investigation revealed the well fit of the experimental data to Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second-order kinetic model, respectively. It was shown that a small amount of ZnO-NR-AC (with adsorption capacity of 20 mg g- 1) is sufficient for the rapid removal of high amount of MG dye in short time (3.99 min).

  15. Surfactant-free synthesis of octahedral ZnO/ZnFe2O4 heterostructure with ultrahigh and selective adsorption capacity of malachite green

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jue; Zeng, Min; Yu, Ronghai

    2016-01-01

    A new octahedral ZnO/ZnFe2O4 heterostructure has been fabricated through a facile surfactant-free solvothermal method followed by thermal treatment. It exhibits a record-high adsorption capacity (up to 4983.0 mg·g−1) of malachite green (MG), which is a potentially harmful dye in prevalence and should be removed from wastewater and other aqueous solutions before discharging into the environment. The octahedral ZnO/ZnFe2O4 heterostructure also demonstrates strong selective adsorption towards MG from two kinds of mixed solutions: MG/methyl orange (MO) and MG/rhodamine B (RhB) mixtures, indicating its promise in water treatment. PMID:27142194

  16. Surfactant-free synthesis of octahedral ZnO/ZnFe2O4 heterostructure with ultrahigh and selective adsorption capacity of malachite green

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jue; Zeng, Min; Yu, Ronghai

    2016-05-01

    A new octahedral ZnO/ZnFe2O4 heterostructure has been fabricated through a facile surfactant-free solvothermal method followed by thermal treatment. It exhibits a record-high adsorption capacity (up to 4983.0 mg·g‑1) of malachite green (MG), which is a potentially harmful dye in prevalence and should be removed from wastewater and other aqueous solutions before discharging into the environment. The octahedral ZnO/ZnFe2O4 heterostructure also demonstrates strong selective adsorption towards MG from two kinds of mixed solutions: MG/methyl orange (MO) and MG/rhodamine B (RhB) mixtures, indicating its promise in water treatment.

  17. Compression mechanism of subpicosecond pulses by malachite green dye in passively mode-locked rhodamine 6G/DODCI CW dye lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, A.; Hara, M.; Kobayashi, H.; Takemura, H.; Tanaka, S.

    1983-04-01

    The pulse width compression effect of a malachite green (MG) dye upon subpicosecond pulses has been experimentally investigated in a CW passively mode-locked rhodamine 6G/DODCI dye laser. The pulse width reduces as MG concentration increases, and reaches 0.34 ps at 1.5 X 10/sup -6/ M. By adding the MG dye, good mode locking is achieved in a rather wide pumping-power range. A computer simulation of pulse growth has also been carried out by using simple rate equations, in which the fast-recovery component of loss due to the MG dye is taken into account. The simulated results can explain some experimental results qualitatively such as pulse width compression and pumping-power restriction. The pulse width compression results essentially from the fast recovery of cavity loss caused by the MG dye.

  18. Photo-triggered release from liposomes without membrane solubilization, based on binding to poly(vinyl alcohol) carrying a malachite green moiety.

    PubMed

    Uda, Ryoko M; Kato, Yutaka; Takei, Michiko

    2016-10-01

    When working with liposomes analogous to cell membranes, it is important to develop substrates that can regulate interactions with the liposome surface in response to light. We achieved a photo-triggered release from liposomes by using a copolymer of poly(vinyl alcohol) carrying a malachite green moiety (PVAMG). Although PVAMG is a neutral polymer under dark conditions, it is photoionized upon exposure to UV light, resulting in the formation of a cationic site for binding to liposomes with a negatively charged surface. Under UV irradiation, PVAMG showed effective interaction with liposomes, releasing the encapsulated compound; however, this release was negligible under dark conditions. The poly(vinyl alcohol) moiety of PVAMG played an important role in the photo-triggered release. This release was caused by membrane destabilization without lipid solubilization. We also investigated different aspects of liposome/PVAMG interactions, including PVAMG-induced fusion between the liposomes and the change in the liposome morphologies.

  19. Central composite design and genetic algorithm applied for the optimization of ultrasonic-assisted removal of malachite green by ZnO Nanorod-loaded activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Ghaedi, M; Azad, F Nasiri; Dashtian, K; Hajati, S; Goudarzi, A; Soylak, M

    2016-10-01

    Maximum malachite green (MG) adsorption onto ZnO Nanorod-loaded activated carbon (ZnO-NR-AC) was achieved following the optimization of conditions, while the mass transfer was accelerated by ultrasonic. The central composite design (CCD) and genetic algorithm (GA) were used to estimate the effect of individual variables and their mutual interactions on the MG adsorption as response and to optimize the adsorption process. The ZnO-NR-AC surface morphology and its properties were identified via FESEM, XRD and FTIR. The adsorption equilibrium isotherm and kinetic models investigation revealed the well fit of the experimental data to Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second-order kinetic model, respectively. It was shown that a small amount of ZnO-NR-AC (with adsorption capacity of 20mgg(-1)) is sufficient for the rapid removal of high amount of MG dye in short time (3.99min).

  20. Central composite design and genetic algorithm applied for the optimization of ultrasonic-assisted removal of malachite green by ZnO Nanorod-loaded activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Ghaedi, M; Azad, F Nasiri; Dashtian, K; Hajati, S; Goudarzi, A; Soylak, M

    2016-10-01

    Maximum malachite green (MG) adsorption onto ZnO Nanorod-loaded activated carbon (ZnO-NR-AC) was achieved following the optimization of conditions, while the mass transfer was accelerated by ultrasonic. The central composite design (CCD) and genetic algorithm (GA) were used to estimate the effect of individual variables and their mutual interactions on the MG adsorption as response and to optimize the adsorption process. The ZnO-NR-AC surface morphology and its properties were identified via FESEM, XRD and FTIR. The adsorption equilibrium isotherm and kinetic models investigation revealed the well fit of the experimental data to Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second-order kinetic model, respectively. It was shown that a small amount of ZnO-NR-AC (with adsorption capacity of 20mgg(-1)) is sufficient for the rapid removal of high amount of MG dye in short time (3.99min). PMID:27318150

  1. Photo-triggered release from liposomes without membrane solubilization, based on binding to poly(vinyl alcohol) carrying a malachite green moiety.

    PubMed

    Uda, Ryoko M; Kato, Yutaka; Takei, Michiko

    2016-10-01

    When working with liposomes analogous to cell membranes, it is important to develop substrates that can regulate interactions with the liposome surface in response to light. We achieved a photo-triggered release from liposomes by using a copolymer of poly(vinyl alcohol) carrying a malachite green moiety (PVAMG). Although PVAMG is a neutral polymer under dark conditions, it is photoionized upon exposure to UV light, resulting in the formation of a cationic site for binding to liposomes with a negatively charged surface. Under UV irradiation, PVAMG showed effective interaction with liposomes, releasing the encapsulated compound; however, this release was negligible under dark conditions. The poly(vinyl alcohol) moiety of PVAMG played an important role in the photo-triggered release. This release was caused by membrane destabilization without lipid solubilization. We also investigated different aspects of liposome/PVAMG interactions, including PVAMG-induced fusion between the liposomes and the change in the liposome morphologies. PMID:27434159

  2. Surfactant-free synthesis of octahedral ZnO/ZnFe2O4 heterostructure with ultrahigh and selective adsorption capacity of malachite green.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jue; Zeng, Min; Yu, Ronghai

    2016-01-01

    A new octahedral ZnO/ZnFe2O4 heterostructure has been fabricated through a facile surfactant-free solvothermal method followed by thermal treatment. It exhibits a record-high adsorption capacity (up to 4983.0 mg·g(-1)) of malachite green (MG), which is a potentially harmful dye in prevalence and should be removed from wastewater and other aqueous solutions before discharging into the environment. The octahedral ZnO/ZnFe2O4 heterostructure also demonstrates strong selective adsorption towards MG from two kinds of mixed solutions: MG/methyl orange (MO) and MG/rhodamine B (RhB) mixtures, indicating its promise in water treatment. PMID:27142194

  3. Isotherm and kinetics study of malachite green adsorption onto copper nanowires loaded on activated carbon: artificial neural network modeling and genetic algorithm optimization.

    PubMed

    Ghaedi, M; Shojaeipour, E; Ghaedi, A M; Sahraei, Reza

    2015-05-01

    In this study, copper nanowires loaded on activated carbon (Cu-NWs-AC) was used as novel efficient adsorbent for the removal of malachite green (MG) from aqueous solution. This new material was synthesized through simple protocol and its surface properties such as surface area, pore volume and functional groups were characterized with different techniques such XRD, BET and FESEM analysis. The relation between removal percentages with variables such as solution pH, adsorbent dosage (0.005, 0.01, 0.015, 0.02 and 0.1g), contact time (1-40min) and initial MG concentration (5, 10, 20, 70 and 100mg/L) was investigated and optimized. A three-layer artificial neural network (ANN) model was utilized to predict the malachite green dye removal (%) by Cu-NWs-AC following conduction of 248 experiments. When the training of the ANN was performed, the parameters of ANN model were as follows: linear transfer function (purelin) at output layer, Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm (LMA), and a tangent sigmoid transfer function (tansig) at the hidden layer with 11 neurons. The minimum mean squared error (MSE) of 0.0017 and coefficient of determination (R(2)) of 0.9658 were found for prediction and modeling of dye removal using testing data set. A good agreement between experimental data and predicted data using the ANN model was obtained. Fitting the experimental data on previously optimized condition confirm the suitability of Langmuir isotherm models for their explanation with maximum adsorption capacity of 434.8mg/g at 25°C. Kinetic studies at various adsorbent mass and initial MG concentration show that the MG maximum removal percentage was achieved within 20min. The adsorption of MG follows the pseudo-second-order with a combination of intraparticle diffusion model. PMID:25699703

  4. Isotherm and kinetics study of malachite green adsorption onto copper nanowires loaded on activated carbon: artificial neural network modeling and genetic algorithm optimization.

    PubMed

    Ghaedi, M; Shojaeipour, E; Ghaedi, A M; Sahraei, Reza

    2015-05-01

    In this study, copper nanowires loaded on activated carbon (Cu-NWs-AC) was used as novel efficient adsorbent for the removal of malachite green (MG) from aqueous solution. This new material was synthesized through simple protocol and its surface properties such as surface area, pore volume and functional groups were characterized with different techniques such XRD, BET and FESEM analysis. The relation between removal percentages with variables such as solution pH, adsorbent dosage (0.005, 0.01, 0.015, 0.02 and 0.1g), contact time (1-40min) and initial MG concentration (5, 10, 20, 70 and 100mg/L) was investigated and optimized. A three-layer artificial neural network (ANN) model was utilized to predict the malachite green dye removal (%) by Cu-NWs-AC following conduction of 248 experiments. When the training of the ANN was performed, the parameters of ANN model were as follows: linear transfer function (purelin) at output layer, Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm (LMA), and a tangent sigmoid transfer function (tansig) at the hidden layer with 11 neurons. The minimum mean squared error (MSE) of 0.0017 and coefficient of determination (R(2)) of 0.9658 were found for prediction and modeling of dye removal using testing data set. A good agreement between experimental data and predicted data using the ANN model was obtained. Fitting the experimental data on previously optimized condition confirm the suitability of Langmuir isotherm models for their explanation with maximum adsorption capacity of 434.8mg/g at 25°C. Kinetic studies at various adsorbent mass and initial MG concentration show that the MG maximum removal percentage was achieved within 20min. The adsorption of MG follows the pseudo-second-order with a combination of intraparticle diffusion model.

  5. Isotherm and kinetics study of malachite green adsorption onto copper nanowires loaded on activated carbon: Artificial neural network modeling and genetic algorithm optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaedi, M.; Shojaeipour, E.; Ghaedi, A. M.; Sahraei, Reza

    2015-05-01

    In this study, copper nanowires loaded on activated carbon (Cu-NWs-AC) was used as novel efficient adsorbent for the removal of malachite green (MG) from aqueous solution. This new material was synthesized through simple protocol and its surface properties such as surface area, pore volume and functional groups were characterized with different techniques such XRD, BET and FESEM analysis. The relation between removal percentages with variables such as solution pH, adsorbent dosage (0.005, 0.01, 0.015, 0.02 and 0.1 g), contact time (1-40 min) and initial MG concentration (5, 10, 20, 70 and 100 mg/L) was investigated and optimized. A three-layer artificial neural network (ANN) model was utilized to predict the malachite green dye removal (%) by Cu-NWs-AC following conduction of 248 experiments. When the training of the ANN was performed, the parameters of ANN model were as follows: linear transfer function (purelin) at output layer, Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm (LMA), and a tangent sigmoid transfer function (tansig) at the hidden layer with 11 neurons. The minimum mean squared error (MSE) of 0.0017 and coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.9658 were found for prediction and modeling of dye removal using testing data set. A good agreement between experimental data and predicted data using the ANN model was obtained. Fitting the experimental data on previously optimized condition confirm the suitability of Langmuir isotherm models for their explanation with maximum adsorption capacity of 434.8 mg/g at 25 °C. Kinetic studies at various adsorbent mass and initial MG concentration show that the MG maximum removal percentage was achieved within 20 min. The adsorption of MG follows the pseudo-second-order with a combination of intraparticle diffusion model.

  6. Tumor promotion by metanil yellow and malachite green during rat hepatocarcinogenesis is associated with dysregulated expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sanjay; Sundarrajan, Monisha; Rao, K V K

    2003-01-01

    Metanil yellow (MY) and malachite green (MG) are textile dyes, which, despite a ban, are used as food-coloring agents. MY and MG have promoter effects on the development of hepatic preneoplastic lesions induced by N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN). Tumor-promoting agents are not mutagenic but may alter the expression of genes whose products are associated with hyper-proliferation, tissue remodeling, and inflammation. Cell cycle controls normally function to ensure the integrity of the genome and arrest of cells at G1/S or G2/M checkpoints until all the prerequisite events are completed. In order to understand the mechanism(s) of tumor promotion by MY and MG, we have studied the levels of PCNA, a marker of cell proliferation and cell cycle regulatory proteins, cyclin D1, and its associated kinase, cdk4, cyclin B1, and associated kinase, cdc2. Immunohistochemical staining showed an elevated level of PCNA in animals administered MY and MG subsequent to DEN treatment. Western and Northern blot hybridization showed an increased expression of both cyclin D1 and its associated kinase cdk4, and cyclin B1 and its associated kinase cdc2, in livers of rats administered MY and MG after administration of DEN as compared to untreated or DEN controls. The increased level of mRNA was due to the increased rate of transcription of these genes as studied by run-on transcription assay. These data obtained by the in vivo model of liver tumor development provide strong evidence for a link between dysregulation of the two critical checkpoints of the cell cycle as one of the possible mechanism(s) during tumor promotion by malachite green and metanil yellow.

  7. A chemometric-assisted method for the simultaneous determination of malachite green and crystal violet in water based on absorbance-pH data generated by a homemade pH gradient apparatus.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shuling; Yuan, Xuejie; Yang, Jing; Yuan, Jintao; Shi, Jiahua; Wang, Yali; Chen, Yuewen; Gao, Shufang

    2015-01-01

    An attractive method of generating second-order data was developed by a dropping technique to generate pH gradient simultaneously coupled with diode-array spectrophotometer scanning. A homemade apparatus designed for the pH gradient. The method and the homemade apparatus were used to simultaneously determine malachite green (MG) and crystal violet (CV) in water samples. The absorbance-pH second-order data of MG or CV were obtained from the spectra of MG or CV in a series of pH values of HCl-KCl solution. The second-order data of mixtures containing MG and CV that coexisted with interferents were analyzed using multidimensional partial least-squares with residual bilinearization. The method and homemade apparatus were used to simultaneously determine MG and CV in fish farming water samples and in river ones with satisfactory results. The presented method and the homemade apparatus could serve as an alternative tool to handle some analysis problems. PMID:26057094

  8. A chemometric-assisted method for the simultaneous determination of malachite green and crystal violet in water based on absorbance-pH data generated by a homemade pH gradient apparatus.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shuling; Yuan, Xuejie; Yang, Jing; Yuan, Jintao; Shi, Jiahua; Wang, Yali; Chen, Yuewen; Gao, Shufang

    2015-01-01

    An attractive method of generating second-order data was developed by a dropping technique to generate pH gradient simultaneously coupled with diode-array spectrophotometer scanning. A homemade apparatus designed for the pH gradient. The method and the homemade apparatus were used to simultaneously determine malachite green (MG) and crystal violet (CV) in water samples. The absorbance-pH second-order data of MG or CV were obtained from the spectra of MG or CV in a series of pH values of HCl-KCl solution. The second-order data of mixtures containing MG and CV that coexisted with interferents were analyzed using multidimensional partial least-squares with residual bilinearization. The method and homemade apparatus were used to simultaneously determine MG and CV in fish farming water samples and in river ones with satisfactory results. The presented method and the homemade apparatus could serve as an alternative tool to handle some analysis problems.

  9. Purification and characterization of a temperature- and pH-stable laccase from the spores of Bacillus vallismortis fmb-103 and its application in the degradation of malachite green.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chong; Zhang, Shuang; Diao, Hanwen; Zhao, Haizhen; Zhu, Xiaoyu; Lu, Fengxia; Lu, Zhaoxin

    2013-06-12

    Malachite green residue can affect aquaculture food safety. Bioremediation of contaminated water by enzyme treatment is an environmentally friendly and economical way to remove contaminating substances. In the present study, a temperature- and pH-stable laccase was purified from the spores of Bacillus ballismortis fmb-103 and was used to degrade malachite green. The laccase from fmb-103 (fmb-L103) was purified 15.2-fold to homogeneity (389.9 mU/mg protein with respect to ABTS as a substrate) by precipitation with 30-80% (NH4)2SO4, DEAE-Sephadex A-50 ion exchange chromatography, and Sephadex G-100 chromatography. fmb-L103 is a nonblue laccase with a molecular weight of 55.0 kDa and Cu content of 2.5 (mol:mol). fmb-L103 retained more than 50% activity after 10 h at 70 °C and demonstrated broad pH stability in both acidic and alkaline conditions. The effects of inhibitors and metal ions on fmb-L103 activity were also examined. A kinetic study revealed that ABTS was a suitable substrate with a Km of 22.7 μmol and a Vmax of 3.32 μmol/mL/min. fmb-L103 can efficiently degrade malachite green after a 48 h treatment period in combination with a mediator, without the appearance of leucomalachite green.

  10. Determination of multi-residue for malachite green, gentian violet and their metabolites in aquatic products by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Long, Chaoyang; Mai, Zhibin; Yang, Yingfen; Zhu, Binghui; Xu, Xiumin; Lu, Lin; Zou, Xiaoyong

    2009-03-20

    A sorbent was synthesized and investigated for molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE). Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) were synthesized via precipitation polymerization procedure, where methacrylic acid (MAA) was used as functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EDMA) as cross-linking agent. The imprinting effect and selectivity of the MISPE were evaluated by elution experiments. The resulting MISPE showed high extraction selectivity to malachite green, gentian violet and their metabolites, which may be caused by both the ion exchange and the hydrophobic interactions. The determination of multi-residue for malachite green, gentian violet and their metabolites in aquatic products by HPLC coupled with MISPE was also investigated. The mean recoveries calculated by solvent calibration curve for malachite green (MG), gentian violet (GV), leucomalachite green (LMG) and leucogentian violet (LGV) were from 89.8% to 99.1% for grass carp, 90.6% to 101.2% for shrimp and 91.3% to 96.3% for shellfish. The decision limit (CCalpha) and the detection capability (CCbeta) obtained for MG, GV, LMG and LGV were in the range of 0.11-0.14 and 0.19-0.24 microg kg(-1) for grass carp, shrimp and shellfish. The MISPE was successfully used off-line for the determination of MG, GV and their metabolites in aquatic products.

  11. Co-immobilization of laccase and mediator through a self-initiated one-pot process for enhanced conversion of malachite green.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hongfei; Huang, Wenguang; Yang, Hua; Zhang, Shujuan

    2016-06-01

    Laccase is a green biocatalyst. It works with molecular oxygen and produces water as the only by-product. However, its practical application is far less than satisfactory due to the low stability/poor reusability of free laccase and the potential secondary pollution caused by dissolved mediators. To address those bottlenecks in laccase-based catalysis, a novel biocatalyst (Immo-LMS) was fabricated by simultaneously immobilizing both laccase and a mediator (acetylacetone, abbreviated as AA) into a hydrogel through the laccase-AA initiated polymerization. This self-initiated immobilization process avoided the forced conformational change of laccase in the passive embedding to pre-existing carriers. Resulting from the effective cooperation of laccase and AA, the Immo-LMS had the highest substrate conversion quantity to malachite green, followed by the sole immobilized laccase and the immobilized laccase with an external mediator. Besides the improved activity, the Immo-LMS showed enhanced stability. The good performance of the Immo-LMS suggests that the co-immobilization of laccase and mediator through the self-initiated one-pot process was a promising strategy for the immobilization of laccase, which is expected to be helpful to cut down the running cost as well as the potential toxicity that come from mediators in the practical application of laccase.

  12. Co-immobilization of laccase and mediator through a self-initiated one-pot process for enhanced conversion of malachite green.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hongfei; Huang, Wenguang; Yang, Hua; Zhang, Shujuan

    2016-06-01

    Laccase is a green biocatalyst. It works with molecular oxygen and produces water as the only by-product. However, its practical application is far less than satisfactory due to the low stability/poor reusability of free laccase and the potential secondary pollution caused by dissolved mediators. To address those bottlenecks in laccase-based catalysis, a novel biocatalyst (Immo-LMS) was fabricated by simultaneously immobilizing both laccase and a mediator (acetylacetone, abbreviated as AA) into a hydrogel through the laccase-AA initiated polymerization. This self-initiated immobilization process avoided the forced conformational change of laccase in the passive embedding to pre-existing carriers. Resulting from the effective cooperation of laccase and AA, the Immo-LMS had the highest substrate conversion quantity to malachite green, followed by the sole immobilized laccase and the immobilized laccase with an external mediator. Besides the improved activity, the Immo-LMS showed enhanced stability. The good performance of the Immo-LMS suggests that the co-immobilization of laccase and mediator through the self-initiated one-pot process was a promising strategy for the immobilization of laccase, which is expected to be helpful to cut down the running cost as well as the potential toxicity that come from mediators in the practical application of laccase. PMID:26971065

  13. A hybrid model of support vector regression with genetic algorithm for forecasting adsorption of malachite green onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes: central composite design optimization.

    PubMed

    Ghaedi, M; Dashtian, K; Ghaedi, A M; Dehghanian, N

    2016-05-11

    The aim of this work is the study of the predictive ability of a hybrid model of support vector regression with genetic algorithm optimization (GA-SVR) for the adsorption of malachite green (MG) onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Various factors were investigated by central composite design and optimum conditions was set as: pH 8, 0.018 g MWCNTs, 8 mg L(-1) dye mixed with 50 mL solution thoroughly for 10 min. The Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and D-R isothermal models are applied to fitting the experimental data, and the data was well explained by the Langmuir model with a maximum adsorption capacity of 62.11-80.64 mg g(-1) in a short time at 25 °C. Kinetic studies at various adsorbent dosages and the initial MG concentration show that maximum MG removal was achieved within 10 min of the start of every experiment under most conditions. The adsorption obeys the pseudo-second-order rate equation in addition to the intraparticle diffusion model. The optimal parameters (C of 0.2509, σ(2) of 0.1288 and ε of 0.2018) for the SVR model were obtained based on the GA. For the testing data set, MSE values of 0.0034 and the coefficient of determination (R(2)) values of 0.9195 were achieved.

  14. Manganese peroxidase h4 isozyme mediated degradation and detoxification of triarylmethane dye malachite green: optimization of decolorization by response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Saravanakumar, Thiyagarajan; Palvannan, Thayumanavan; Kim, Dae-Hyuk; Park, Seung-Moon

    2013-11-01

    A cDNA encoding for manganese peroxidase isozyme H4 (MnPH4), isolated from Phanerochaete chrysosporium, was expressed in Pichia pastoris, under the control of alcohol oxidase I promoter. The recombinant MnPH4 was efficiently secreted onto media supplemented with hemin at a maximum concentration of 500 U/L, after which purified rMnPH4 was used to decolorize the triarylmethane dye malachite green (MG). Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize three different operational parameters for the decolorization of MG. RSM showed that the optimized variables of enzyme (0.662 U), MnSO4 (448 μM), and hydrogen peroxide (159 μM) decolorized 100 mg/L of MG completely at 3 h. Additionally, UV-VIS spectra, high-performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry analysis confirmed the degradation of MG by the formation of main metabolites 4-dimethylamino-benzophenone hydrate, N, N-dimethylaniline (N,N-dimethyl-benzenamine), and methylbenzaldehyde. Interestingly, it was found that rMnPH4 mediates hydroxyl radical attack on the central carbon of MG. Finally, rMnPH4 degraded MG resulted in the complete removal of its toxicity, which was checked under in vitro conditions.

  15. Optimization of the combined ultrasonic assisted/adsorption method for the removal of malachite green by gold nanoparticles loaded on activated carbon: experimental design.

    PubMed

    Roosta, M; Ghaedi, M; Shokri, N; Daneshfar, A; Sahraei, R; Asghari, A

    2014-01-24

    The present study was aimed to experimental design optimization applied to removal of malachite green (MG) from aqueous solution by ultrasound-assisted removal onto the gold nanoparticles loaded on activated carbon (Au-NP-AC). This nanomaterial was characterized using different techniques such as FESEM, TEM, BET, and UV-vis measurements. The effects of variables such as pH, initial dye concentration, adsorbent dosage (g), temperature and sonication time on MG removal were studied using central composite design (CCD) and the optimum experimental conditions were found with desirability function (DF) combined response surface methodology (RSM). Fitting the experimental equilibrium data to various isotherm models such as Langmuir, Freundlich, Tempkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich models show the suitability and applicability of the Langmuir model. Kinetic models such as pseudo -first order, pseudo-second order, Elovich and intraparticle diffusion models applicability was tested for experimental data and the second-order equation and intraparticle diffusion models control the kinetic of the adsorption process. The small amount of proposed adsorbent (0.015 g) is applicable for successful removal of MG (RE>99%) in short time (4.4 min) with high adsorption capacity (140-172 mg g(-1)).

  16. Removal of malachite green dye from wastewater by different organic acid-modified natural adsorbent: kinetics, equilibriums, mechanisms, practical application, and disposal of dye-loaded adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hou; Yuan, Xingzhong; Zeng, Guangming; Leng, Lijian; Peng, Xin; Liao, Kailingli; Peng, Lijuan; Xiao, Zhihua

    2014-10-01

    Natural adsorbent (Cinnamomum camphora sawdust) modified by organic acid (oxalic acid, citric acid, and tartaric acid) was investigated as a potential adsorbent for the removal of hazardous malachite green (MG) dye in aqueous media in a batch process. The extent of MG adsorption onto modified sawdust increased with increasing organic acid concentrations, pH, contact time, and temperature but decreased with increasing adsorbent dosage and ionic strength. Kinetic study indicated that the pseudo-second-order kinetic model could best describe the adsorption kinetics of MG. Equilibrium data were found to fit well with the Langmuir model, and the maximum adsorption capacity of the three kinds of organic acid-modified sawdust was 280.3, 222.8, and 157.5 mg/g, respectively. Thermodynamic parameters suggested that the sorption of MG was an endothermic process. The adsorption mechanism, the application of adsorbents in practical wastewater, the prediction of single-stage batch adsorption system, and the disposal of depleted adsorbents were also discussed.

  17. Photoinduced conformational changes in DNA by poly(vinyl alcohol) carrying a malachite green moiety for protecting DNA against attack by nuclease.

    PubMed

    Uda, Ryoko M; Matsui, Takashi

    2015-11-14

    Light is a highly advantageous means of specific cell targeting. Though targeted gene delivery is an important characteristic of an ideal delivery vehicle, there has been little effort to develop a photoresponsive vector. Among nonviral vectors, cationic substances interact effectively with negatively charged DNA. With this property in mind, we designed copolymers of poly(vinyl alcohol) carrying a malachite green moiety (PVAMG) with different molecular weights. Though PVAMG has no affinity for DNA in the absence of light, it undergoes photoionization in the presence of light to afford cationic DNA binding sites. The DNA-PVAMG complex was investigated with respect to DNA conformational changes and its protective nature, which are important properties for nonviral vectors. PVAMG irradiation promoted DNA conformational transitions from coils to partial globules to compacted globules. The complex had a protective effect against DNase I after PVAMG irradiation, while DNA was degraded under dark conditions. The effect on DNA transition and the protective nature were sensitive to the molecular weight of PVAMG. The data regarding binding constants and binding mode provided insight into the structure of the DNA-PVAMG complex. To withstand DNase I attacks, complexation results in the compaction of DNA, which is further covered with PVAMG.

  18. Photoinduced conformational changes in DNA by poly(vinyl alcohol) carrying a malachite green moiety for protecting DNA against attack by nuclease.

    PubMed

    Uda, Ryoko M; Matsui, Takashi

    2015-11-14

    Light is a highly advantageous means of specific cell targeting. Though targeted gene delivery is an important characteristic of an ideal delivery vehicle, there has been little effort to develop a photoresponsive vector. Among nonviral vectors, cationic substances interact effectively with negatively charged DNA. With this property in mind, we designed copolymers of poly(vinyl alcohol) carrying a malachite green moiety (PVAMG) with different molecular weights. Though PVAMG has no affinity for DNA in the absence of light, it undergoes photoionization in the presence of light to afford cationic DNA binding sites. The DNA-PVAMG complex was investigated with respect to DNA conformational changes and its protective nature, which are important properties for nonviral vectors. PVAMG irradiation promoted DNA conformational transitions from coils to partial globules to compacted globules. The complex had a protective effect against DNase I after PVAMG irradiation, while DNA was degraded under dark conditions. The effect on DNA transition and the protective nature were sensitive to the molecular weight of PVAMG. The data regarding binding constants and binding mode provided insight into the structure of the DNA-PVAMG complex. To withstand DNase I attacks, complexation results in the compaction of DNA, which is further covered with PVAMG. PMID:26339777

  19. Photocatalytic mineralization study of malachite green on the surface of Mn-doped BiOCl activated by visible light under ambient condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pare, Brijesh; Sarwan, Bhawna; Jonnalagadda, S. B.

    2011-10-01

    Manganese doped BiOCl has been synthesized by hydrolysis method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron micrographs (SEM) and diffusive reflectance spectra (DRS) methods. Interesting results have been obtained from diffusive reflectance spectra. XRD results show a decrease in the lattice parameter for Mn-doped BiOCl and UV-vis measurement reveals that there is a shift in the optical absorption edge toward higher wavelength, which indicates a decrease in the band gap upon Mn doping. The increased photocatalytic activity in degradation of malachite green dye by Mn-doped BiOCl might be due to increase in life time of photogenerated electrons and holes due to scavenging of electrons by Mn, charging the particle surface due to electron on the surface, which enhances the adsorption of dye molecules, or/and decreased crystallite size. The effect of key operating parameters have also been investigated. Complete mineralization has been confirmed by COD analysis. An assumptive reaction mechanism has also been proposed.

  20. Optimization of the combined ultrasonic assisted/adsorption method for the removal of malachite green by gold nanoparticles loaded on activated carbon: Experimental design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roosta, M.; Ghaedi, M.; Shokri, N.; Daneshfar, A.; Sahraei, R.; Asghari, A.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed to experimental design optimization applied to removal of malachite green (MG) from aqueous solution by ultrasound-assisted removal onto the gold nanoparticles loaded on activated carbon (Au-NP-AC). This nanomaterial was characterized using different techniques such as FESEM, TEM, BET, and UV-vis measurements. The effects of variables such as pH, initial dye concentration, adsorbent dosage (g), temperature and sonication time on MG removal were studied using central composite design (CCD) and the optimum experimental conditions were found with desirability function (DF) combined response surface methodology (RSM). Fitting the experimental equilibrium data to various isotherm models such as Langmuir, Freundlich, Tempkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich models show the suitability and applicability of the Langmuir model. Kinetic models such as pseudo -first order, pseudo-second order, Elovich and intraparticle diffusion models applicability was tested for experimental data and the second-order equation and intraparticle diffusion models control the kinetic of the adsorption process. The small amount of proposed adsorbent (0.015 g) is applicable for successful removal of MG (RE > 99%) in short time (4.4 min) with high adsorption capacity (140-172 mg g-1).

  1. Equilibrium uptake, sorption dynamics, process optimization, and column operations for the removal and recovery of malachite green from wastewater using activated carbon and activated slag

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, V.K.; Srivastava, S.K.; Mohan, D.

    1997-06-01

    The waste slurry generated in fertilizer plants and slag (blast furnace waste) have been converted into low-cost adsorbents, activated carbon and activated slag, respectively, and these are utilized for the removal of malachite green (a basic dye) from wastewater. In the batch experiments, parameters studied include the effect of pH, sorbent dosage, adsorbate concentration, temperature, and contact time. Kinetic studies have been performed to have an idea of the mechanistic aspects and to obtain the thermodynamic parameters of the process. The uptake of the dye is greater on carbonaceous material than on activated slag. Sorption data have been correlated with both Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models. The presence of anionic surfactants does not affect the uptake of dye significantly. The mass transfer kinetic approach has been applied for the determination of various parameters necessary for the designing of fixed-bed contactors. Chemical regeneration has been achieved with acetone in order to recover the loaded dye and restore the column to its original capacity without dismantling the same.

  2. A hybrid model of support vector regression with genetic algorithm for forecasting adsorption of malachite green onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes: central composite design optimization.

    PubMed

    Ghaedi, M; Dashtian, K; Ghaedi, A M; Dehghanian, N

    2016-05-11

    The aim of this work is the study of the predictive ability of a hybrid model of support vector regression with genetic algorithm optimization (GA-SVR) for the adsorption of malachite green (MG) onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Various factors were investigated by central composite design and optimum conditions was set as: pH 8, 0.018 g MWCNTs, 8 mg L(-1) dye mixed with 50 mL solution thoroughly for 10 min. The Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and D-R isothermal models are applied to fitting the experimental data, and the data was well explained by the Langmuir model with a maximum adsorption capacity of 62.11-80.64 mg g(-1) in a short time at 25 °C. Kinetic studies at various adsorbent dosages and the initial MG concentration show that maximum MG removal was achieved within 10 min of the start of every experiment under most conditions. The adsorption obeys the pseudo-second-order rate equation in addition to the intraparticle diffusion model. The optimal parameters (C of 0.2509, σ(2) of 0.1288 and ε of 0.2018) for the SVR model were obtained based on the GA. For the testing data set, MSE values of 0.0034 and the coefficient of determination (R(2)) values of 0.9195 were achieved. PMID:27119755

  3. A rapid molecular diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis by colorimetric malachite green-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) combined with an FTA card as a direct sampling tool.

    PubMed

    Nzelu, Chukwunonso O; Cáceres, Abraham G; Guerrero-Quincho, Silvia; Tineo-Villafuerte, Edwin; Rodriquez-Delfin, Luis; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Uezato, Hiroshi; Katakura, Ken; Gomez, Eduardo A; Guevara, Angel G; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Kato, Hirotomo

    2016-01-01

    Leishmaniasis remains one of the world's most neglected diseases, and early detection of the infectious agent, especially in developing countries, will require a simple and rapid test. In this study, we established a quick, one-step, single-tube, highly sensitive loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid detection of Leishmania DNA from tissue materials spotted on an FTA card. An FTA-LAMP with pre-added malachite green was performed at 64°C for 60min using a heating block and/or water bath and DNA amplification was detected immediately after incubation. The LAMP assay had high detection sensitivity down to a level of 0.01 parasites per μl. The field- and clinic-applicability of the colorimetric FTA-LAMP assay was demonstrated with 122 clinical samples collected from patients suspected of having cutaneous leishmaniasis in Peru, from which 71 positives were detected. The LAMP assay in combination with an FTA card described here is rapid and sensitive, as well as simple to perform, and has great potential usefulness for diagnosis and surveillance of leishmaniasis in endemic areas. PMID:26516109

  4. Application of Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindley (Loquat) seed biomass as a new biosorbent for the removal of malachite green from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Aksakal, Ozkan; Ucun, Handan; Kaya, Yusuf

    2009-01-01

    A new biosorbent, Eriobotrya japonica (loquat) seed biomass, has been investigated in order to remove malachite green (MG) from aqueous solutions. The factors affecting the biosorption process such as adsorbent dosage, pH of the solution and contact time were studied. The results showed that as the dose of loquat seed increased, the percentage of MG biosorption decreased accordingly. The experimental data suggested that the maximum pH for efficient biosorption of MG was 5.0. The biosorption process was relatively fast and equilibrium was achieved after about 60 min. Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherm models were used for adsorption equilibrium data and based on the Langmuir isotherm plots the maximum bisorption capacity (Q(max)) value was calculated to be 57.47 mg/g at 20 degrees C. The biosorption kinetics was determined by fitting pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models to the experimental data, with the second-order model providing the best description of MG biosorption onto loquat seed. Various thermodynamic parameters such as free energy change DeltaG(0), enthalpy of sorption DeltaH(0) and entropy DeltaS(0) were estimated. The positive value of DeltaH(0) and negative values of DeltaG(0) show the sorption process is endothermic and spontaneous. The positive value of DeltaS(0) shows the increased randomness at the solid-liquid interface during the biosorption of dyes onto loquat seed.

  5. Highly efficient removal of Malachite green from water by a magnetic reduced graphene oxide/zeolitic imidazolate framework self-assembled nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Kun-Yi Andrew; Lee, Wei-Der

    2016-01-01

    Compared to the relatively low adsorption capacities of conventional adsorbents for Malachite Green (MG) (i.e., ∼500 mg g-1), zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF) appears to be a promising adsorbent considering its significantly high adsorption capacity (i.e., >2000 mg g-1). Nevertheless, using such a nano-scale ZIF material for adsorption may lead to secondary contamination from the release of nanomaterials to the environment. Thus, ZIF has to be recovered conveniently to prevent the secondary contamination and facilitate the separation of adsorbent from water after adsorption. To this end, in this study ZIF nanocrystals were loaded on the sheet-like magnetic reduced graphene oxide (MRGO) to form a self-assembled MRGO/ZIF. The self-assembly of MRGO/ZIF was achieved possibly via the electrostatic attraction and the π-π stacking interaction between MRGO and ZIF. The resultant MRGO/ZIF exhibited an ultra-high adsorption capacity for MG (∼3000 mg g-1). The adsorption kinetics, isotherm, activation and thermodynamics were also determined. Other factors affecting the adsorption were examined including temperature, pH and co-existing ions/compound. To demonstrate that MRGO/ZIF can be recovered and reused, a multiple-cycle of MG adsorption using the regenerated MRGO/ZIF was revealed and the recyclability remained highly efficient and stable. The highly-effective, recoverable and re-usable features enable MRGO/ZIF a promising adsorbent to remove MG from water.

  6. A rapid molecular diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis by colorimetric malachite green-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) combined with an FTA card as a direct sampling tool.

    PubMed

    Nzelu, Chukwunonso O; Cáceres, Abraham G; Guerrero-Quincho, Silvia; Tineo-Villafuerte, Edwin; Rodriquez-Delfin, Luis; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Uezato, Hiroshi; Katakura, Ken; Gomez, Eduardo A; Guevara, Angel G; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Kato, Hirotomo

    2016-01-01

    Leishmaniasis remains one of the world's most neglected diseases, and early detection of the infectious agent, especially in developing countries, will require a simple and rapid test. In this study, we established a quick, one-step, single-tube, highly sensitive loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid detection of Leishmania DNA from tissue materials spotted on an FTA card. An FTA-LAMP with pre-added malachite green was performed at 64°C for 60min using a heating block and/or water bath and DNA amplification was detected immediately after incubation. The LAMP assay had high detection sensitivity down to a level of 0.01 parasites per μl. The field- and clinic-applicability of the colorimetric FTA-LAMP assay was demonstrated with 122 clinical samples collected from patients suspected of having cutaneous leishmaniasis in Peru, from which 71 positives were detected. The LAMP assay in combination with an FTA card described here is rapid and sensitive, as well as simple to perform, and has great potential usefulness for diagnosis and surveillance of leishmaniasis in endemic areas.

  7. A novel "dual-potential" electrochemiluminescence aptasensor array using CdS quantum dots and luminol-gold nanoparticles as labels for simultaneous detection of malachite green and chloramphenicol.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiaobin; Gan, Ning; Zhang, Huairong; Yan, Qing; Li, Tianhua; Cao, Yuting; Hu, Futao; Yu, Hongwei; Jiang, Qianli

    2015-12-15

    A novel type of "dual-potential" electrochemiluminescence (ECL) aptasensor array was fabricated on a homemade screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) for simultaneous detection of malachite green (MG) and chloramphenicol (CAP) in one single assay. The SPCE substrate consisted of a common Ag/AgCl reference electrode, carbon counter electrode and two carbon working electrodes (WE1 and WE2). In the system, CdS quantum dots (QDs) were modified on WE1 as cathode ECL emitters and luminol-gold nanoparticles (L-Au NPs) were modified on WE2 as anode ECL emitters. Then the MG aptamer complementary strand (MG cDNA) and CAP aptamer complementary strand (CAP cDNA) were attached on CdS QDs and L-Au NPs, respectively. The cDNA would hybridize with corresponding aptamer that was respectively tagged with cyanine dye (Cy5) (as quenchers of CdS QDs) and chlorogenic acid (CA) (as quenchers of l-Au NPs) using poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) as a bridging agent. PEI could lead to a large number of quenchers on the aptamer, which increased the quenching efficiency. Upon MG and CAP adding, the targets could induce strand release due to the highly affinity of analytes toward aptamers. Meanwhile, it could release the Cy5 and CA, which recovered cathode ECL of CdS QDs and anode ECL of L-Au NPs simultaneously. This "dual-potential" ECL strategy could be used to detect MG and CAP with the linear ranges of 0.1-100 nM and 0.2-150 nM, with detection limits of 0.03 nM and 0.07 nM (at 3sB), respectively. More importantly, this designed method was successfully applied to determine MG and CAP in real fish samples and held great potential in the food analysis. PMID:26190470

  8. A novel "dual-potential" electrochemiluminescence aptasensor array using CdS quantum dots and luminol-gold nanoparticles as labels for simultaneous detection of malachite green and chloramphenicol.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiaobin; Gan, Ning; Zhang, Huairong; Yan, Qing; Li, Tianhua; Cao, Yuting; Hu, Futao; Yu, Hongwei; Jiang, Qianli

    2015-12-15

    A novel type of "dual-potential" electrochemiluminescence (ECL) aptasensor array was fabricated on a homemade screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) for simultaneous detection of malachite green (MG) and chloramphenicol (CAP) in one single assay. The SPCE substrate consisted of a common Ag/AgCl reference electrode, carbon counter electrode and two carbon working electrodes (WE1 and WE2). In the system, CdS quantum dots (QDs) were modified on WE1 as cathode ECL emitters and luminol-gold nanoparticles (L-Au NPs) were modified on WE2 as anode ECL emitters. Then the MG aptamer complementary strand (MG cDNA) and CAP aptamer complementary strand (CAP cDNA) were attached on CdS QDs and L-Au NPs, respectively. The cDNA would hybridize with corresponding aptamer that was respectively tagged with cyanine dye (Cy5) (as quenchers of CdS QDs) and chlorogenic acid (CA) (as quenchers of l-Au NPs) using poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) as a bridging agent. PEI could lead to a large number of quenchers on the aptamer, which increased the quenching efficiency. Upon MG and CAP adding, the targets could induce strand release due to the highly affinity of analytes toward aptamers. Meanwhile, it could release the Cy5 and CA, which recovered cathode ECL of CdS QDs and anode ECL of L-Au NPs simultaneously. This "dual-potential" ECL strategy could be used to detect MG and CAP with the linear ranges of 0.1-100 nM and 0.2-150 nM, with detection limits of 0.03 nM and 0.07 nM (at 3sB), respectively. More importantly, this designed method was successfully applied to determine MG and CAP in real fish samples and held great potential in the food analysis.

  9. Visual endpoint detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 using isothermal Genome Exponential Amplification Reaction (GEAR) assay and malachite green.

    PubMed

    Jothikumar, Prithiviraj; Narayanan, Jothikumar; Hill, Vincent R

    2014-03-01

    Rapid and specific detection methods for bacterial agents in drinking water are important for disease prevention and responding to suspected contamination events. In this study, an isothermal Genome Exponential Amplification Reaction (GEAR) assay for Escherichia coli O157:H7 was designed specifically to recognize a 199-bp fragment of the lipopolysaccharide gene (rfbE) for rapid testing of water samples. The GEAR assay was found to be specific for E. coli O157:H7 using 10 isolates of E. coli O157:H7 and a panel of 86 bacterial controls. The GEAR assay was performed at a constant temperature of 65°C using SYTO 9 intercalating dye. Detection limits were determined to be 20 CFU for the GEAR assay. When SYTO 9 fluorescence was measured using a real-time PCR instrument, the assay had the same detection limit as when malachite green was added to the reaction mix and a characteristic blue color was visually observed in positive reactions. The study also found that 50 and 20 CFU of E. coli O157:H7 seeded into 100-liter of tap water could be detected by the GEAR assays after the sample was concentrated by hollow-fiber ultrafiltration (HFUF) and approximately 10% of HFUF concentrate was cultured using trypticase soy broth-novobiocin. When applied to 19 surface water samples collected from Tennessee and Kentucky, the GEAR assay and a published real-time PCR assay both detected E. coli O157:H7 in two of the samples. The results of this study indicate that the GEAR assay can be sensitive for rapid detection of E. coli O157:H7 in water samples using fluorometric instruments and visual endpoint determination.

  10. Environmentally stable adsorbent of tetrahedral silica and non-tetrahedral alumina for removal and recovery of malachite green dye from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Kannan, Chellapandian; Sundaram, Thiravium; Palvannan, Thayumanavan

    2008-08-30

    The conventional adsorbents like activated carbon, agricultural wastes, molecular sieves, etc., used for dye adsorption are unstable in the environment for long time, and hence the adsorbed dyes again gets liberated and pollute the environment. To avoid this problem, environmentally stable adsorbent of silica and alumina should be employed for malachite green adsorption. The adsorbents were characterized by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) to confirm the tetrahedral framework of silica and non-tetrahedral framework of alumina. The adsorption equilibrium of dye on alumina and silica were 4 and 5h, respectively, this less adsorption time on alumina might be due to the less activation energy on alumina (63.46 kJ mol(-1)) than silica (69.93 kJ mol(-1)). Adsorption increased with increase of temperature on silica, in alumina, adsorption increased up to 60 degrees C, and further increase of temperature decreased the adsorption due to the structural change of non-tetrahedral alumina in water. The optimum pH for dye adsorption on alumina was 5 and silica was 6. The dye adsorptions on both adsorbents followed pseudo-second-order kinetics. The adsorption well matched with Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms and found that adsorption capacity on alumina was more than silica. The thermodynamic studies proved that the adsorption was endothermic and chemisorptions (DeltaH degrees >40 kJ mol(-1)) on alumina and silica. Recovery of dye on alumina and silica were studied from 30 to 90 degrees C and observed that 52% of dye was recovered from alumina and only 3.5% from silica. The less recovery on silica proved the strong adsorption of dye on silica than alumina. PMID:18289784

  11. Surface activity of solutes in hydroxypropionitrile studied by He(I) photoelectron spectroscopy - EGG lecithin, sodium oleate, malachite green and tris-(dioxa-3,6-heptyl)amine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballard, R. E.; Jones, Jimmy; Read, Derek; Inchley, Andrew

    1986-07-01

    We have used He(I) photoelectron spectroscopy to measure the percent surface coverage for substances dissolved in hydroxypropionitrile, HO(CH 2) 2CN. The concentration at which 100% surface coverage is achieved, C100, is an inverse measure of surface activity. Measured values of log 10( C100), with C100 in molarity units, in hydroxypropionitrile at 20°C are (in order of diminishing surface activity): -3.85 (egg lecithin), -2.85 (sodium oleate), -0.64 (malachite green hydroxide), and 0.34 [tris(dioxa-3,6-heptyl)amine].

  12. A versatile SERS-based immunoassay for immunoglobulin detection using antigen-coated gold nanoparticles and malachite green-conjugated protein A/G

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) immunoassay for antibody detection in serum is described in the present work. The developed assay is conducted in solution and utilizes Au nanoparticles coated with the envelope (E) protein of West Nile Virus (WNV) as the SERS-active substrate and malachite...

  13. The blue-green blood plasma of marine fish.

    PubMed

    Fang, L S; Bada, J L

    1990-01-01

    1. The blue-green coloration of the blood plasma in some marine fishes, which is attributed to a protein bound tetrapyrrol (biliverdin), is an anomaly in vertebrates. 2. Recent studies have shown that biliverdin not only occurs in many fish, but is also present in the blood of tobacco hornworm, the wings of moth and butterfly, the shell of bird eggs, the serum and egg of frog, the placenta of dog and in the blood of humans suffering from hepatic diseases. 3. In this review, we begin with a historical account of the description of the presence of blue-green blood plasma in fish, and then consider the biochemistry, metabolism, physiology, and the ecological implications of biliverdin in fish. 4. A comparative description of the occurrence of biliverdin in fish and other animals is presented. 5. The mechanism of accumulation of biliverdin in fish blood and its evolutionary significance are also considered. It is suggested that this process may serve as a useful model for further research on bile pigment metabolism in other animals.

  14. River and fish pollution in Malaysia: A green ergonomics perspective.

    PubMed

    Poon, Wai Ching; Herath, Gamini; Sarker, Ashutosh; Masuda, Tadayoshi; Kada, Ryohei

    2016-11-01

    Human activities, such as industrial, agricultural, and domestic pursuits, discharge effluents into riverine ecological systems that contains aquatic resources, such as fish, which are also used by humans. We conducted case studies in Malaysia to investigate the impacts of these human activities on water and fish resources, as well as on human well-being from an ergonomics perspective. This research shows that a green ergonomics approach can provide us with useful insights into sustainable relationships between humans and ecology in facilitating human well-being in consideration of the overall performance of the social-ecological system. Heavy metal concentrations contained in the effluents pollute river water and contaminate fish, eventually creating significant health risks and economic costs for residents, including the polluters. The study suggests a number of policy interventions to change human behavior and achieve greater collaboration between various levels of government, academia, civil society, and businesses to help establish sustainable relationships between humans and ecology in Malaysia.

  15. River and fish pollution in Malaysia: A green ergonomics perspective.

    PubMed

    Poon, Wai Ching; Herath, Gamini; Sarker, Ashutosh; Masuda, Tadayoshi; Kada, Ryohei

    2016-11-01

    Human activities, such as industrial, agricultural, and domestic pursuits, discharge effluents into riverine ecological systems that contains aquatic resources, such as fish, which are also used by humans. We conducted case studies in Malaysia to investigate the impacts of these human activities on water and fish resources, as well as on human well-being from an ergonomics perspective. This research shows that a green ergonomics approach can provide us with useful insights into sustainable relationships between humans and ecology in facilitating human well-being in consideration of the overall performance of the social-ecological system. Heavy metal concentrations contained in the effluents pollute river water and contaminate fish, eventually creating significant health risks and economic costs for residents, including the polluters. The study suggests a number of policy interventions to change human behavior and achieve greater collaboration between various levels of government, academia, civil society, and businesses to help establish sustainable relationships between humans and ecology in Malaysia. PMID:26911247

  16. Fish community responses to green tides in shallow estuarine and coastal areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Luherne, E.; Réveillac, E.; Ponsero, A.; Sturbois, A.; Ballu, S.; Perdriau, M.; Le Pape, O.

    2016-06-01

    All over the world, numerous bays and estuarine systems that are known to shelter essential fish habitats are experiencing proliferations of green macroalgae known as green tides. Although the processes that enhance green tides in response to nutrient enrichment are well known, their consequences for ecological communities -especially for ichthyofauna- remain poorly studied. To estimate these consequences, this analysis focused on the two types of shallow systems that are experiencing green tides: sandy beaches and estuarine mudflats. In these two systems, macroalgae proliferation and fish community were surveyed along seasonal cycles at control and impacted sites that shared similar physico-chemical parameters and sediment structure. To analyse the consequences of green tides on the fish community, a Before-After Control-Impact approach was used. This approach reveals no difference between fish communities at the control and impacted sites before the macroalgal bloom. Then, it underlines an influence of green tides on the fish community, and this influence varies according to the composition, density and duration of the macroalgal bloom. Indeed, when intertidal systems experienced short proliferation and/or weak density, green tides did not seem to impact the fish community. However, when green macroalgae proliferated in large quantities and/or when the proliferation lasted for long periods, the fish community was significantly affected. These modifications in the fish community led to a significant decrease in fish species diversity and density until fish disappeared from impacted sites at high proliferations. Furthermore, the response of fish species to green tides differed according to their functional guilds. Negative consequences for benthic and marine juvenile fish species were beginning at low proliferations, whereas for pelagic fish species they occurred only at high proliferations. Thus, green tides significantly affect fish habitat suitability because

  17. Multiplug filtration cleanup method with multi-walled carbon nanotubes for the analysis of malachite green, diethylstilbestrol residues, and their metabolites in aquatic products by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yuhong; Zhang, Jingru; Li, Yanjie; Han, Yongtao; Zou, Nan; Jiang, Yanbin; Shan, Jihao; Pan, Canping

    2016-08-01

    The food safety supervision in aquatic products has raised public concern in recent years. In this study, a liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous quantification and identification of four residues of the ever widely used analytes (including malachite green, leucomalachite green, diethylstilbestrol, and dienestrol) in aquaculture samples was developed. For sample preparation, a modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) method was used, which was initially developed for pesticide residue analysis. For cleanup procedure, low-temperature cleanup method was combined with multiplug filtration cleanup (m-PFC) method based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The volume of water, extraction solvent, cleanup sorbents, and m-PFC procedure were optimized for carp, striped bass, and giant salamander matrices. It was validated by analyzing four residues in each matrix spiked at three concentration levels of 0.5, 5, and 50 μg/kg (n = 5). The method was successfully validated according to the 2002/657/EC guidelines. After optimization, spike recoveries were within 73-106 % and <15 % relative standard deviations (RSDs) for all analytes in the tested matrices. Limits of quantification (LOQs) for the proposed method ranged from 0.10 to 0.50 μg/kg. Matrix-matched calibrations were performed with the coefficients of determination >0.998 between concentration levels of 0.5 and 200 μg/kg. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of residues in market samples. Graphical abstract Flow chart of multi-plug filtration cleanup combined with low-temperature cleanup method. PMID:27311954

  18. Multiplug filtration cleanup method with multi-walled carbon nanotubes for the analysis of malachite green, diethylstilbestrol residues, and their metabolites in aquatic products by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yuhong; Zhang, Jingru; Li, Yanjie; Han, Yongtao; Zou, Nan; Jiang, Yanbin; Shan, Jihao; Pan, Canping

    2016-08-01

    The food safety supervision in aquatic products has raised public concern in recent years. In this study, a liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous quantification and identification of four residues of the ever widely used analytes (including malachite green, leucomalachite green, diethylstilbestrol, and dienestrol) in aquaculture samples was developed. For sample preparation, a modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) method was used, which was initially developed for pesticide residue analysis. For cleanup procedure, low-temperature cleanup method was combined with multiplug filtration cleanup (m-PFC) method based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The volume of water, extraction solvent, cleanup sorbents, and m-PFC procedure were optimized for carp, striped bass, and giant salamander matrices. It was validated by analyzing four residues in each matrix spiked at three concentration levels of 0.5, 5, and 50 μg/kg (n = 5). The method was successfully validated according to the 2002/657/EC guidelines. After optimization, spike recoveries were within 73-106 % and <15 % relative standard deviations (RSDs) for all analytes in the tested matrices. Limits of quantification (LOQs) for the proposed method ranged from 0.10 to 0.50 μg/kg. Matrix-matched calibrations were performed with the coefficients of determination >0.998 between concentration levels of 0.5 and 200 μg/kg. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of residues in market samples. Graphical abstract Flow chart of multi-plug filtration cleanup combined with low-temperature cleanup method.

  19. In vitro effectiveness of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (APDT) using a 660 nm laser and malachite green dye in Staphylococcus aureus biofilms arranged on compact and cancellous bone specimens.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Luciano Pereira; da Silva, Francine Cristina; Nader, Sumaia Alves; Meira, Giselle Andrade; Viana, Magda Souza

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro effectiveness of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (APDT) using a 660 nm visible laser combined with malachite green (MG) dye in the inactivation of Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) biofilms formed within compact and cancellous bone specimens. Specimens of 80 compact bones and 80 cancellous bones were contaminated with a standard suspension of S. aureus and incubated for 14 days at 37 °C to allow for the formation of biofilms. The specimens were divided into the following groups (n = 10) according to the treatment conditions: PS-L - (control - no treatment), PS+L - (only MG for 5 min), PS-L + 90 (only laser irradiation for 90 s), PS-L + 180 (only laser irradiation for 180 s), PS-L + 300 (only laser irradiation for 300 s), APDT90 (APDT for 90 s), APDT180 (APDT for 180 s), and APDT300 (APDT for 300 s). The findings were statistically analyzed using an ANOVA 5%. All of the experimental groups were significantly different from the control group for both the compact and cancellous bone specimens. The compact bone specimens that received APDT treatment (for either 90, 180, or 300 s) showed reductions in the log10 CFU/ml of S. aureus by a magnitude of 4 log10. Cancellous bone specimens treated with 300 s of APDT showed the highest efficacy, and these specimens had a reduction in S. aureus CFU/ml by a factor of 3 log10. APDT treatment using these proposed parameters in combination with MG was effective at inactivating S. aureus biofilms in compact and cancellous bone specimens.

  20. No More Green Thumbs!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bland, Judith A.

    1977-01-01

    An alternative method of bacterial spore staining using malachite green is described. This technique is designed to save time and expense by a less messy procedure. Advantages and adaptations of the technique are also given. (MR)

  1. Behavioral Response of Reef Fish and Green Sea Turtles to Midfrequency Sonar.

    PubMed

    Watwood, Stephanie L; Iafrate, Joseph D; Reyier, Eric A; Redfoot, William E

    2016-01-01

    There is growing concern over the potential effects of high-intensity sonar on wild fish populations and commercial fisheries. Acoustic telemetry was employed to measure the movements of free-ranging reef fish and sea turtles in Port Canaveral, FL, in response to routine submarine sonar testing. Twenty-five sheepshead (Archosargus probatocephalus), 28 gray snapper (Lutjanus griseus), and 29 green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) were tagged, with movements monitored for a period of up to 4 months using an array of passive acoustic receivers. Baseline residency was examined for fish and sea turtles before, during, and after the test event. No mortality of tagged fish or sea turtles was evident from the sonar test event. There was a significant increase in the daily residency index for both sheepshead and gray snapper at the testing wharf subsequent to the event. No broad-scale movement from the study site was observed during or immediately after the test.

  2. Behavioral Response of Reef Fish and Green Sea Turtles to Midfrequency Sonar.

    PubMed

    Watwood, Stephanie L; Iafrate, Joseph D; Reyier, Eric A; Redfoot, William E

    2016-01-01

    There is growing concern over the potential effects of high-intensity sonar on wild fish populations and commercial fisheries. Acoustic telemetry was employed to measure the movements of free-ranging reef fish and sea turtles in Port Canaveral, FL, in response to routine submarine sonar testing. Twenty-five sheepshead (Archosargus probatocephalus), 28 gray snapper (Lutjanus griseus), and 29 green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) were tagged, with movements monitored for a period of up to 4 months using an array of passive acoustic receivers. Baseline residency was examined for fish and sea turtles before, during, and after the test event. No mortality of tagged fish or sea turtles was evident from the sonar test event. There was a significant increase in the daily residency index for both sheepshead and gray snapper at the testing wharf subsequent to the event. No broad-scale movement from the study site was observed during or immediately after the test. PMID:26611089

  3. Drainage development of the Green River Basin in southwestern Wyoming and its bearing on fish biogeography, neotectonics, and paleoclimates.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, W.R.

    1985-01-01

    The Upper Green River flows southward out of the Green River Basin through a series of deep canyons across the Uinta Mountains in a course that post-dates the deposition of the Bishop Conglomerate (Oligocene). After the Eocene lakes disappeared, drainage was generally eastward across the present Continental Divide, until the Green River was captured near Green River, Wyo. by south-flowing drainage in middle Pleistocene time, ca., 600 kyr ago. Capture of the Upper Green River as recently as middle Pleistocene time, if a valid hypothesis, must take into account the marked differences between the endemic and indigenous fish fauna of the Green River and that of the North Platte. -from Author

  4. Detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in green mussels (Perna viridis) from shell-fish markets of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Srisuphanunt, M; Wiwanitkit, Viroj; Saksirisampant, W; Karanis, P

    2009-09-01

    Mussels filter large volumes of water and can concentrate pathogenic organisms, which may act as potential vehicles of transmission to the consumer. A survey study was carried out to investigate the presence of Cryptosporidium protozoan parasites in green mussels (Perna viridis), the smussles pecies most destined for consumption in Thailand. In total, 56 samples were examined from Bangkok (n = 24) and Samut Prakan (n = 32) a wholesale shell-fish markets located at the mouth of the Chao Phraya River. The market for green mussels was closed to the mussel culture placed along the coastal line and this localization may have significant economical impact if the mussels' cultures are found contaminated. Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected by the immunofluorescence antibody method (IFA) in 12.5% of the samples examined. The detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in green mussels' population of Samut Prakan was higher (15.6%) than in Bangkok market (8.3%). These differences in positive samples from the two locations may be caused by physical, ecological and anthropogenic conditions. This could relay to different contamination levels of marine water by Cryptosporidium oocysts and consequently to contamination of harvested shellfish populations. The results demonstrate that the Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were found indigenous in mussels from the coastal line of Thailand, indicating that mussels may act as a reservoir of Cryptosporidium foodborne infections for humans. PMID:19839271

  5. Detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in green mussels (Perna viridis) from shell-fish markets of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Srisuphanunt, M; Wiwanitkit, Viroj; Saksirisampant, W; Karanis, P

    2009-09-01

    Mussels filter large volumes of water and can concentrate pathogenic organisms, which may act as potential vehicles of transmission to the consumer. A survey study was carried out to investigate the presence of Cryptosporidium protozoan parasites in green mussels (Perna viridis), the smussles pecies most destined for consumption in Thailand. In total, 56 samples were examined from Bangkok (n = 24) and Samut Prakan (n = 32) a wholesale shell-fish markets located at the mouth of the Chao Phraya River. The market for green mussels was closed to the mussel culture placed along the coastal line and this localization may have significant economical impact if the mussels' cultures are found contaminated. Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected by the immunofluorescence antibody method (IFA) in 12.5% of the samples examined. The detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in green mussels' population of Samut Prakan was higher (15.6%) than in Bangkok market (8.3%). These differences in positive samples from the two locations may be caused by physical, ecological and anthropogenic conditions. This could relay to different contamination levels of marine water by Cryptosporidium oocysts and consequently to contamination of harvested shellfish populations. The results demonstrate that the Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were found indigenous in mussels from the coastal line of Thailand, indicating that mussels may act as a reservoir of Cryptosporidium foodborne infections for humans.

  6. Synthesis of Copper Pigments, Malachite and Verdigris: Making Tempera Paint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Sally D.; Rutkowsky, Susan A.; Mahon, Megan L.; Halpern, Erica M.

    2011-01-01

    Malachite and verdigris, two copper-based pigments, are synthesized in this experiment intended for use in a general chemistry laboratory. The preparation of egg tempera paint from malachite is also described. All procedures can be done with a magnetic stir plate, standard glassware present in any first-year laboratory, and household chemicals.…

  7. The potential for human exposure, direct and indirect, to the suspected carcinogenic triphenylmethane dye Brilliant Green from green paper towels.

    PubMed

    Oplatowska, Michalina; Donnelly, Ryan F; Majithiya, Rita J; Glenn Kennedy, D; Elliott, Christopher T

    2011-08-01

    Triphenylmethanes - Malachite Green (MG), Crystal Violet (CV) and Brilliant Green (BG) are dyes with known genotoxic and carcinogenic properties. Apart from being illegally used in aquaculture for treatment of fish diseases they are also applied in industry such as paper production to colour paper towels widely used in hospitals, factories and other locations for hand drying after washing. The present study provides evidence that the triphenylmethane dye (BG) present in green paper towels can migrate through the skin even when the exposure time is short (30-300 s). The transfer of the dye from the towel to food (fish) was also studied and a high amount of colour was found to migrate during overnight exposure. The risk to humans associated with these two dye transfer studies was assessed using a 'margin of exposure approach' on the basis of the toxicological data available for the closely related dye MG and its metabolite Leucomalachite Green. The data indicated that the risk associated with the use of triphenylmethane containing paper towels is of a similar proportion to the risk associated with consumption of fish contaminated with these dyes due to the illegal application in aquaculture. PMID:21596089

  8. Green Tea Increases the Concentration of Total Mercury in the Blood of Rats following an Oral Fish Tissue Bolus

    PubMed Central

    Janle, Elsa M.; Freiser, Helene; Manganais, Christopher; Chen, Tzu-Ying; Craig, Bruce A.; Santerre, Charles R.

    2015-01-01

    Fish has many health benefits but is also the most common source of methylmercury. The bioavailability of methylmercury in fish may be affected by other meal components. In this study, the effect of green tea on the bioavailability of methylmercury from an oral bolus of fish muscle tissue was studied in rats and compared to a water treated control group and a group treated with meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), a compound used medically to chelate mercury. Rats were given a single oral dose of fish tissue via gavage and one of the treatments. Rats were given access to food for 3 h at 12 h intervals. They were dosed with each of the treatments with each meal. Blood samples were collected for 95 hours. Green tea significantly increased the concentration of total mercury in blood relative to the control, whereas DMSA significantly decreased it. In addition, feeding caused a slight increase in blood mercury for several meals following the initial dose. PMID:26301246

  9. Green Tea Increases the Concentration of Total Mercury in the Blood of Rats following an Oral Fish Tissue Bolus.

    PubMed

    Janle, Elsa M; Freiser, Helene; Manganais, Christopher; Chen, Tzu-Ying; Craig, Bruce A; Santerre, Charles R

    2015-01-01

    Fish has many health benefits but is also the most common source of methylmercury. The bioavailability of methylmercury in fish may be affected by other meal components. In this study, the effect of green tea on the bioavailability of methylmercury from an oral bolus of fish muscle tissue was studied in rats and compared to a water treated control group and a group treated with meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), a compound used medically to chelate mercury. Rats were given a single oral dose of fish tissue via gavage and one of the treatments. Rats were given access to food for 3 h at 12 h intervals. They were dosed with each of the treatments with each meal. Blood samples were collected for 95 hours. Green tea significantly increased the concentration of total mercury in blood relative to the control, whereas DMSA significantly decreased it. In addition, feeding caused a slight increase in blood mercury for several meals following the initial dose. PMID:26301246

  10. Hydrogen peroxide as a fungicide for fish culture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, V.K.; Rach, J.J.; Schreier, T.M.

    1994-01-01

    Antifungal agents are needed to maintain healthy stocks of fish in the intensive culture systems currently employed in fish hatcheries. Malachite green has been the most widely used antifungal agent; however, its potential for producing teratology in animals and fish precludes further use in fish culture. Preliminary studies at the National Fisheries Research Center, La Crosse, WI, USA (La Crosse Center) indicate that hydrogen peroxide is effective for control of Saprolegnia sp. fungus on incubating eggs of rainbow trout. It is also effective against a wide variety of other organisms such as bacteria, yeasts, viruses, and spores, and has been proposed as a treatment for sea lice on salmon. Hydrogen peroxide and its primary decomposition products, oxygen and water, are not systemic poisons and are considered environmentally compatible. In response to a petition from the La Crosse Center, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently classified hydrogen peroxide as a 'low regulatory priority' when used for control of fungus on fish and fish eggs. Preliminary tests conducted at the La Crosse Center suggest that prophylactic treatments of 250 to 500 ppm (based on 100% active ingredient) for 15 minutes every other day will inhibit fungal infections on healthy rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) eggs. This treatment regime also seems to inhibit fungal development and increase hatching success among infected eggs. Efficacy and safety of hydrogen peroxide as a fungicide for fish are currently being evaluated.

  11. Preliminary investigations of hydrogen peroxide treatment of selected ornamental fishes and efficacy against external bacteria and parasites in green swordtails.

    PubMed

    Russo, Riccardo; Curtis, Eric W; Yanong, Roy P E

    2007-06-01

    The objectives of these preliminary studies were to evaluate the use of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) for the treatment of selected species of ornamental fishes and its efficacy in treating external bacteria and parasites. In the first part of the study, fish of five species (serpae tetra Hyphessobrycon eques (also known as Serpa tetra H. serpae), tiger barb Puntius tetrazona, blue gourami Trichogaster trichopterus, suckermouth catfish Hypostomus plecostomus, and green swordtail Xiphophorus hellerii) were exposed to H2O2 for 1 h at concentrations between 6 and 34 mg/L or for 24 h at concentrations between 1 and 6 mg/L. The results were species specific: green swordtails tolerated all of the treatments, serpae tetras and tiger barbs were sensitive only to the highest concentration, and mortalities of suckermouth catfish and blue gourami were recorded in every treatment. In the second part of the study, clinically healthy green swordtails and fish infested with external motile rod-shaped bacteria (i.e., Ichthyobodo spp., Trichodina spp., and Gyrodactylus spp.) were treated with several concentrations of H2O2. A single H2O2 treatment of 3.1 mg/L or more for 1 h effectively eliminated external bacteria, concentrations of 6.5 mg/L or more appeared to effectively kill Ichthyobodo spp., and none of the treatments tested was effective against Trichodina spp. or Gyrodactylus spp. These preliminary findings suggest that H2O2 is effective for treating certain external bacterial infections and flagellate infestations in some species of ornamental fish at the dosages tested. Other treatment regimens may need to be tested for effectiveness against Trichodina spp. and Dactylogyrus spp.

  12. The first report on some toxic effects of green scat, Scatophagus argus an Iranian Persian Gulf venomous fish.

    PubMed

    Ghafari, Seyedeh Maryam; Jamili, Shahla; Bagheri, Kamran Pooshang; Ardakani, Esmat Mirabzadeh; Fatemi, Mohamad Reza; Shahbazzadeh, Fahimeh; Shahbazzadeh, Delavar

    2013-05-01

    Green scat namely as Scatophagus argus is a venomous aquarium fish belonging to Scatophagidae family. It can induce painful wounds in injured hand with partial paralysis to whom that touch the spines. Dorsal and ventral rough spines contain cells that produce venom with toxic activities. According to unpublished data collected from local hospitals in southern coastal region of Iran, S. argus is reported as a venomous fish. Envenomation induces clinical symptoms such as local pain, partial paralysis, erythema and itching. In the present study green scat (spotted scat) was collected from Persian Gulf coastal waters. SDS-PAGE indicated 12 distinct bands in the venom ranged between 7 and 250 kDa. The crude venom had hemolytic activity on human erythrocytes (1%) with an LC100 (Lytic Concentration) of about 1.7 μg. The crude venom can release 813 μg protein from 0.5% casein. Phospholipase C activity was recorded at 3.125 μg of total venom. Our findings showed that the edematic activity remained over 24 h after injection. The results demonstrated that crude venom extracted from Iranian coastal border has different toxic and enzymatic activities. This study is pending to further investigation on animal model regarding protein purification and in vivo studies.

  13. Copper Metal from Malachite Circa 4000 B.C.E.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yee, Gordon T.; Eddleton, Jeannine E.; Johnson, Cris E.

    2004-01-01

    The feasibility of the laboratory production of copper metal from a readily available, naturally occurring mineral malachite utilizing techniques that are consistent with the time period of around 4000 B.C.E. is presented. The starting materials are inexpensive and convenient and the procedure involves no hazardous reagents and produces no…

  14. Multiple origins of the green-sensitive opsin genes in fish.

    PubMed

    Register, E A; Yokoyama, R; Yokoyama, S

    1994-09-01

    Vertebrate opsins are divided into four major groups: RH1 (rhodopsins), RH2 (rhodopsinlike with various absorption sensitivities), SWS (short-wavelength sensitive), and LWS/MWS (long and middle-wavelength sensitive) groups. The green opsin genes (g101Af and g103Af) in a Mexican characin Astyanax fasciatus belong to the LWS/MWS group, whereas those in goldfish belong to the RH2 group (Yokoyama 1994, Mol Biol Evol 11:32-39). A newly isolated opsin gene (rh11Af) from A. fasciatus contains five exons and four introns, spanning 4.2 kilobases from start to stop codons. This gene is most closely related to the two green opsin genes of goldfish and belongs to the RH2 group. In the LWS/MWS group, gene duplication of the ancestral red and green opsin genes predates the speciation between A. fasciatus and goldfish, suggesting that goldfish also has an additional gene which is orthologous to g101Af and g103Af.

  15. Potential effects of four Flaming Gorge Dam hydropower operational scenarios on the fishes of the Green River, Utah and Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Hlohowskyj, I.; Hayse, J.W.

    1995-09-01

    Aerial videography and modeling were used to evaluate the impacts of four hydropower operational scenarios at Flaming Gorge Dam, Utah, on trout and native fishes in the Green River, Utah and Colorado. The four operational scenarios studied were year-round high fluctuations, seasonally adjusted high fluctuations, seasonally adjusted moderate fluctuations, and seasonally adjusted steady flows. Impacts on trout were evaluated by examining differences among scenarios in the areas of inundated substrates that serve as spawning and feeding habitat. All scenarios would provide at least 23 acres per mile of habitat for spawning and food production; seasonally adjusted operations would provide additional areas during periods of sustained high release. Seasonally adjusted high fluctuations would increase inundated areas by 12 to 26% for a short period in winter and spring, but food production and reproduction would not be expected to increase. Seasonally adjusted moderate fluctuations and steady flows would produce similar increases in area, but the longer period of inundation could also result in increased food production and provide additional spawning sites for trout. Impacts on native fishes were assessed by examining daily changes in backwater nursery areas. Compared with year-round high fluctuations, the daily changes in backwater area would decrease by about 47, 89, and 100% under the seasonally adjusted high fluctuation, moderate fluctuation, and steady flow scenarios, respectively. Similarly, daily stage fluctuations during the nursery period would decrease by 72, 89, and 100% under the seasonally adjusted high fluctuation, moderate fluctuation, and steady flow scenarios, respectively. These reductions in daily fluctuations in backwater area and stage would improve conditions in nursery habitats and could in turn improve recruitment and overwinter survival. Introduced fish species could also benefit from the seasonally adjusted operational scenarios.

  16. Green pigments of the Pompeian artists' palette

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliatis, Irene; Bersani, Danilo; Campani, Elisa; Casoli, Antonella; Lottici, Pier Paolo; Mantovan, Silvia; Marino, Iari-Gabriel; Ospitali, Francesca

    2009-08-01

    Green colored samples on wall paintings and green powder from a pigment pot found in Pompeii area are investigated by micro-Raman, FT-IR and, for one sample, SEM-EDX. To obtain the green color, green earths and malachite were used, together with mixture of Egyptian blue and yellow ochre. The mineralogical identification of the green earths has been attempted through the comparison of the vibrational features, discriminating between celadonite and glauconite spectra. Traces of a modern synthetic pigment containing copper phthalocyanine were found in a fresco fragment.

  17. Microgeographic population structure of green swordail fish: genetic differentiation despite abundant migration.

    PubMed

    Tatarenkov, A; Healey, C I M; Avise, J C

    2010-01-01

    Swordtails (Xiphophorus; Poeciliidae) have figured prominently in research on fish mating behaviours, sexual selection, and carcinogenesis, but their population structures and dispersal patterns have been relatively neglected. Using nine microsatellite loci, we estimated genetic differentiation in Xiphophorus helleri within and between adjacent streams in Belize. The genetic data were complemented by a tagging study of movement within one stream. In the absence of physical dispersal barriers (waterfalls), population structure followed an isolation by distance (IBD) pattern. Genetic differentiation (F(ST) up to 0.07) was significant between and within creeks, despite high dispersal in the latter as judged by the tagging data. Such heterogeneity apparently was a result of genetic drift in local demes, due to small population sizes and highly skewed paternity. The IBD pattern was interrupted by waterfalls, boosting F(ST) above 0.30 between adjacent samples across these barriers. Overall, our results are helpful in understanding the interplay of evolutionary forces and population dynamics in a small fish living in a changeable habitat. PMID:20015140

  18. Microgeographic population structure of green swordail fish: genetic differentiation despite abundant migration.

    PubMed

    Tatarenkov, A; Healey, C I M; Avise, J C

    2010-01-01

    Swordtails (Xiphophorus; Poeciliidae) have figured prominently in research on fish mating behaviours, sexual selection, and carcinogenesis, but their population structures and dispersal patterns have been relatively neglected. Using nine microsatellite loci, we estimated genetic differentiation in Xiphophorus helleri within and between adjacent streams in Belize. The genetic data were complemented by a tagging study of movement within one stream. In the absence of physical dispersal barriers (waterfalls), population structure followed an isolation by distance (IBD) pattern. Genetic differentiation (F(ST) up to 0.07) was significant between and within creeks, despite high dispersal in the latter as judged by the tagging data. Such heterogeneity apparently was a result of genetic drift in local demes, due to small population sizes and highly skewed paternity. The IBD pattern was interrupted by waterfalls, boosting F(ST) above 0.30 between adjacent samples across these barriers. Overall, our results are helpful in understanding the interplay of evolutionary forces and population dynamics in a small fish living in a changeable habitat.

  19. Effects of twenty-five compounds on four species of aquatic fungi (Saprolegniales) pathogenic to fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bailey, T.A.

    1984-01-01

    Four species of aquatic fungi (Achlya flagellata, A. racemosa, Saprolegnia hypogyna, and S. megasperma) were exposed to 25 chemicals representing seven classes of compounds for 15 and 60 min, in an effort to identify potential fungicidal agents for use in fish culture. The antifungal activity of each chemical was compared with that of malachite green, a reference compound with known fungicidal properties but not registered for fishery use. Six compounds which inhibited fungal growth on artificial media at concentrations of < 100 mg/l (listed in order of decreasing antifungal activity) were the cationics Du-terA? and copper oxychloride sulfate, the amine LesanA?, the amide BAS-389-O1F and the cationics CuprimyxinA? and RoccalA? II. Certain chemicals from these classes of compounds may have promise as aquatic fungicides.

  20. Maximum sustainable speed, energetics and swimming kinematics of a tropical carangid fish, the green jack Caranx caballus.

    PubMed

    Dickson, K A; Donley, J M; Hansen, M W; Peters, J A

    2012-06-01

    Maximum sustained swimming speeds, swimming energetics and swimming kinematics were measured in the green jack Caranx caballus (Teleostei: Carangidae) using a 41 l temperature-controlled, Brett-type swimming-tunnel respirometer. In individual C. caballus [mean ±s.d. of 22·1 ± 2·2 cm fork length (L(F) ), 190 ± 61 g, n = 11] at 27·2 ± 0·7° C, mean critical speed (U(crit)) was 102·5 ± 13·7 cm s⁻¹ or 4·6 ± 0·9 L(F) s⁻¹. The maximum speed that was maintained for a 30 min period while swimming steadily using the slow, oxidative locomotor muscle (U(max,c)) was 99·4 ± 14·4 cm s⁻¹ or 4·5 ± 0·9 L(F) s⁻¹. Oxygen consumption rate (M in mg O₂ min⁻¹) increased with swimming speed and with fish mass, but mass-specific M (mg O₂ kg⁻¹ h⁻¹) as a function of relative speed (L(F) s⁻¹) did not vary significantly with fish size. Mean standard metabolic rate (R(S) ) was 170 ± 38 mg O₂ kg⁻¹ h⁻¹, and the mean ratio of M at U(max,c) to R(S) , an estimate of factorial aerobic scope, was 3·6 ± 1·0. The optimal speed (U(opt) ), at which the gross cost of transport was a minimum of 2·14 J kg⁻¹ m⁻¹, was 3·8 L(F) s⁻¹. In a subset of the fish studied (19·7-22·7 cm L(F) , 106-164 g, n = 5), the swimming kinematic variables of tailbeat frequency, yaw and stride length all increased significantly with swimming speed but not fish size, whereas tailbeat amplitude varied significantly with speed, fish mass and L(F) . The mean propulsive wavelength was 86·7 ± 5·6 %L(F) or 73·7 ± 5·2 %L(T) . Mean ±s.d. yaw and tailbeat amplitude values, calculated from lateral displacement of each intervertebral joint during a complete tailbeat cycle in three C. caballus (19·7, 21·6 and 22·7 cm L(F) ; 23·4, 25·3 and 26·4 cm L(T) ), were 4·6 ± 0·1 and 17·1 ± 2·2 %L(T) , respectively. Overall, the sustained swimming performance, energetics, kinematics, lateral displacement and intervertebral bending angles measured in C. caballus

  1. The rate of predation by fishes on hatchlings of the green turtle ( Chelonia mydas)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyuris, E.

    1994-07-01

    This study addresses the need for empirical data on the survival of sea turtle hatchlings after entry into the sea by (1) developing a method for measuring marine predation; (2) estimating predation rates while crossing the reef; and (3) investigating the effect of environmental variables on predation rates. Predation rates were quantified by following individual hatchlings, tethered by a 10m monofilament nylon line, as they swam from the water's edge towards the reef crest. Predation rates under particular combinations of environmental variables (tide, time of day, and moon phase) were measured in separate trials. Predation rates varied among trials from 0 to 85% with a mean of 31% (SE=2.5%). The simplest logistic regression model that explained variation in predation contained tide and moon phase as predictor variables. The results suggest that noctural emergence from the nest is a behavioral adaptation to minimize exposure to the heat of the day rather than a predator-escape mechanism. For the green turtle populations breeding in eastern Australia, most first year mortality is caused by predation while crossing the reef within the first hour of entering the sea.

  2. New Approaches for Controlling Saprolegnia parasitica, the Causal Agent of a Devastating Fish Disease.

    PubMed

    Earle, Gregory; Hintz, William

    2014-12-01

    Pathogenic oomycetes have the ability to infect a wide range of plant and animal hosts and are responsible for a number of economically important diseases. Saprolegniasis, a disease affecting fish eggs and juvenile fish in hatcheries worldwide, is caused by the pathogenic oomycete Saprolegnia parasitica. This disease presents as greyish-white patches of filamentous mycelium on the body or fins of fish and is associated with tissue damage leading to death of the animal. Traditionally, saprolegniasis was controlled using Malachite green; however, this chemical was banned in 2002 due to its carcinogenic and toxicological effects. As a direct result of this ban, there has been a recent resurgence of saprolegniasis in the aquaculture industry, leading to economic losses world-wide. Hence, there is an urgent need to find alternative methods to control this pathogen. We discuss the use of molecular approaches for the study of saprolegniasis, which are anticipated to enable the development of effective fish vaccines and the potential for the development of new methods to control this devastating disease.

  3. New Approaches for Controlling Saprolegnia parasitica, the Causal Agent of a Devastating Fish Disease

    PubMed Central

    Earle, Gregory; Hintz, William

    2014-01-01

    Pathogenic oomycetes have the ability to infect a wide range of plant and animal hosts and are responsible for a number of economically important diseases. Saprolegniasis, a disease affecting fish eggs and juvenile fish in hatcheries worldwide, is caused by the pathogenic oomycete Saprolegnia parasitica. This disease presents as greyish-white patches of filamentous mycelium on the body or fins of fish and is associated with tissue damage leading to death of the animal. Traditionally, saprolegniasis was controlled using Malachite green; however, this chemical was banned in 2002 due to its carcinogenic and toxicological effects. As a direct result of this ban, there has been a recent resurgence of saprolegniasis in the aquaculture industry, leading to economic losses world-wide. Hence, there is an urgent need to find alternative methods to control this pathogen. We discuss the use of molecular approaches for the study of saprolegniasis, which are anticipated to enable the development of effective fish vaccines and the potential for the development of new methods to control this devastating disease. PMID:27073602

  4. Screening fungicides for use in fish culture: Evaluation of the agar plug transfer, cellophane transfer, and agar dilution methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bailey, Tom A.

    1983-01-01

    The reliability, reproducibility, and usefulness of three screening methods -- the cellophane transfer, the agar plug transfer, and the agar dilution -- to screen aquatic fungicides were evaluated. Achlya flagellata and Saprolegnia hypogyna were exposed to 1, 10, and 100 mg/L of malachite green to test each method. The cellophane transfer and agar plug transfer techniques had similar reliability and reproducibility in rating fungicidal activity, and were both superior to the agar dilution technique. The agar plug transfer and agar dilution techniques adequately projected in vivo activity of malachite green, but the cellophane transfer technique overestimated its activity. Overall, the agar plug transfer technique most accurately rated the activity of malachite green and was the easiest test to perform. It therefore appears to be the method of choice for testing aquatic fungicides.

  5. Fluorescence screening of leucomalachite green and leucogentian violet residues in catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The tripheylmethane dyes malachite green (MG) and gentian violet (GV) are effective fungicides, ectoparasiticides and disinfectants in aquaculture. This practice may leave toxic residues in seafood which is not allowed by FDA and many regulatory agencies worldwide. In this work, residues of their me...

  6. Structural characterization of malachite-like coprecipitated precursors of binary CuO-ZnO catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Porta, P.; De Rossi, S.; Ferraris, G.; Lo Jacono, M.; Minelli, G.; Moretti, G.

    1988-02-01

    Copper and zinc hydroxycarbonates with Cu/Zn atomic ratios of 100/0, 92/8, 85/15, 77/23, 67/33, and 50/50 were prepared by the coprecipitation method. The samples with the ratios 100/0, 92/8 and 85/15 were monophasic with the monoclinic P2/sub 1//a malachite structure, whereas the richer zinc samples contained in addition to the malachite phase the orthorhombic B22/sub 1/2 aurichalcite, whose concentration was very low in the 77/23 specimen but increased continuously with zinc content. The amount of aurichalcite in the biphasic powders has been estimated by means of quantitative X-ray diffraction and differential thermal analysis. With only those X-ray reflections belonging to the malachite structure taken into account, the unit cell constants for all the solid solution hydroxycarbonates have been determined, showing that as a whole the cell volume of malachite decreases continuously with increasing zinc content. This result is related, as shown also by DTA measurements and thermochemical literature data, to an increasing stability of compounds richer in zinc, to increasing covalent effects, and/or to less octahedral site distortion around the metal atoms when zinc substitutes for Cu/sup 2 +/ ions in the malachite lattice. Magnetic susceptibility and thermogravimetric measurements together with diffuse reflectance spectra are also presented and discussed.

  7. Lowered Risk of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma and Intake of Plant Vitamin, Fresh Fish, Green Tea and Coffee: A Case-Control Study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Wan-Lun; Pan, Wen-Harn; Chien, Yin-Chu; Yu, Kelly J.; Cheng, Yu-Juen; Chen, Jen-Yang; Liu, Mei-Ying; Hsu, Mow-Ming; Lou, Pei-Jen; Chen, I-How; Yang, Czau-Siung; Hildesheim, Allan; Chen, Chien-Jen

    2012-01-01

    Background A case-control study was conducted to evaluate the role of adult diet on nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in Taiwan. Methods A total of 375 incident NPC cases and 327 controls matched to the cases on sex, age, and residence were recruited between July 1991 and December 1994. A structured questionnaire inquiring complete dietary history, socio-demographic characteristics, and other potential confounding factors was used in the personal interview. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to estimate multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (ORadj) with 95% confidence interval (CI) after accounting for known risk factors. Results Fresh fish (ORadj, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.38–0.83 for the highest vs. lowest tertile of intake), green tea (ORadj, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.40–0.91 for drinking ≥1 times/week vs. never) and coffee (ORadj, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.37–0.85 for drinking ≥0.5 times/week vs. never) were inversely associated with the NPC risk. No association with NPC risk was observed for the intake of meats, salted fish, fresh vegetables, fruits and milk. Intake of vitamin A from plant sources was associated with a decreased NPC risk (ORadj, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.41–0.94 for the highest vs. lowest tertile). Conclusion The study findings suggest that certain adult dietary patterns might protect against the development of NPC. PMID:22848600

  8. Accumulation of PCBs and Hg by fish and earthworms during field and laboratory exposures to Green Bay sediments. Administrative report

    SciTech Connect

    Mac, M.J.; Edsall, C.C.; Hesselberg, R.J.

    1985-11-01

    To determine whether the laboratory bioassay of Mac et al. (1984) was indeed predictive of the potential accumulation in an area with contaminated sediments, the authors conducted a field exposure of caged test organisms in lower Green Bay and a laboratory bioassay of sediments collected from the same area. The authors believe the results of this study provides an initial indication that the levels of bioaccumulation of contaminants from sediments in the laboratory are similar to what may be found in the natural environment, thus indicating potential predictive capability of the laboratory bioassay. The study further demonstrated the importance of sediment contact to the bioaccumulation process, even under conditions where significant bioaccumulation from water alone occurred.

  9. Maintaining population persistence in the face of an extremely altered hydrograph: implications for three sensitive fishes in a tributary of the Green River, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bottcher, Jared L.

    2009-01-01

    The ability of an organism to disperse to suitable habitats, especially in modified and fragmented systems, determines individual fitness and overall population viability. The bluehead sucker (Catostomus discobolus), flannelmouth sucker (Catostomus latipinnis), and roundtail chub (Gila robusta) are three species native to the upper Colorado River Basin that now occupy only 50% of their historic range. Despite these distributional declines, populations of all three species are present in the San Rafael River, a highly regulated tributary of the Green River, Utah, providing an opportunity for research. Our goal was to determine the timing and extent of movement, habitat preferences, and limiting factors, ultimately to guide effective management and recovery of these three species. In 2007-2008, we sampled fish from 25 systematically selected, 300-m reaches in the lower 64 km of the San Rafael River, spaced to capture the range of species, life-stages, and habitat conditions present. We implanted all target species with a passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag, installed a passive PIT tag antennae, and measured key habitat parameters throughout each reach and at the site of native fish capture. We used random forest modeling to identify and rank the most important abiotic and biotic predictor variables, and reveal potential limiting factors in the San Rafael River. While flannelmouth sucker were relatively evenly distributed within our study area, highest densities of roundtail chub and bluehead sucker occurred in isolated, upstream reaches characterized by complex habitat. In addition, our movement and length-frequency data indicate downstream drift of age-0 roundtail chub, and active upstream movement of adult flannelmouth sucker, both from source populations, providing the lower San Rafael River with colonists. Our random forest analysis highlights the importance of pools, riffles, and distance-to-source populations, suggesting that bluehead sucker and roundtail

  10. In vitro and in vivo assessment of the effect of antiprotozoal compounds isolated from Psoralea corylifolia against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis in fish

    PubMed Central

    Song, Kaige; Ling, Fei; Huang, Aiguo; Dong, Wenjing; Liu, Guanglu; Jiang, Chao; Zhang, Qizhong; Wang, Gaoxue

    2015-01-01

    Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, an external fish parasite, often causes significant economic damage to the aquaculture industry. Since the use of malachite green was banned, the search of alternative substance to control I. multifiliis infections becomes stringent. In present study, in vitro and in vivo anti-ich efficacies of isopsoralen and psoralidin, two active compounds isolated from methanol extract of Psoralea corylifolia by bioassay-guided fractionation based on the efficacy of anti-ich encysted tomonts, were evaluated. In vitro antiprotozoal efficacy of psoralidin is much better than that of isopsoralen. Psoralidin can kill all theronts at concentrations of 0.8 mg/L or more during 4 h exposure; and terminate reproduction of I. multifiliis post 6 h exposure of protomonts to 0.9 mg/L and encysted tomonts to 1.2 mg/L. In vivo trials showed that 5 h exposure of infected fish to 2.5 mg/L of psoralidin significantly reduced the number of theronts released from tomonts. Furthermore, we observed that a part of protomonts, collected from infected fish post treatment, presented characteristic morphological changes of apoptosis after staining with Annexin V-EGFP/propidium iodide, indicating the possible mechanism of psoralidin against I. multifiliis trophont in situ. On the basis of these results, psoralidin can be used as a potential lead compound for the development of commercial drug against I. multifiliis. PMID:26042195

  11. Black, green, and red abalones. Species profiles: life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Pacific Southwest. )

    SciTech Connect

    Ault, J.S.

    1985-03-01

    Black, green, and red abalones (Haliotis cracherodii, H. fulgens, and H. rufescens, respectivley) are of commercial and ecological importance and are distributed widely along the California coast. The abalones are morphologically similar; species are distinguished by particular shell sculpture, color, and body characteristics. Their latitudinal and bathymetric distribution is stratified and most closely related to temperature. Small juveniles eat mainly microflora; adults eat primarily drift macro-algae, preferring specific brown or red algae, when available. Spawning occurs during summer; gonad ripening depends on food quality and quantity and water temperature. Larvae are lecithotrophic and remain planktonic for periods of 5 to 14 days after hatching; settling is substrate specific. Postlarvae and adults require hard substrate for attachment. Juveniles are cryptic, adults usually more exposed. Growth rates are similar, although maximum size varies with species. Increases in shell length and body weight correlate positively with food abundance and temperature. Below depths of 6 m, sea urchins are major competitors for food and space. Predation by invertebrates is low. Decreased abalone production from central California is associated with range expansion and increased predation by sea otters, the major source of abalone mortality. General declines in California landings are due to mortality from improper picking and replacement, habitat degradation, and perhaps overfishing. Commercial and sport diving efforts have increased sharply, whereas annual landings of abalones declined from 1965 to 1982.

  12. ATPase activity measurement of DNA replicative helicase from Bacillus stearothermophilus by malachite green method.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mu; Wang, Ganggang

    2016-09-15

    The DnaB helicase from Bacillus stearothermophilus (DnaBBst) was a model protein for studying the bacterial DNA replication. In this work, a non-radioactive method for measuring ATPase activity of DnaBBst helicase was described. The working parameters and conditions were optimized. Furthermore, this method was applied to investigate effects of DnaG primase, ssDNA and helicase loader protein (DnaI) on ATPase activity of DnaBBst. Our results showed this method was sensitive and efficient. Moreover, it is suitable for the investigation of functional interaction between DnaB and related factors.

  13. ATPase activity measurement of DNA replicative helicase from Bacillus stearothermophilus by malachite green method.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mu; Wang, Ganggang

    2016-09-15

    The DnaB helicase from Bacillus stearothermophilus (DnaBBst) was a model protein for studying the bacterial DNA replication. In this work, a non-radioactive method for measuring ATPase activity of DnaBBst helicase was described. The working parameters and conditions were optimized. Furthermore, this method was applied to investigate effects of DnaG primase, ssDNA and helicase loader protein (DnaI) on ATPase activity of DnaBBst. Our results showed this method was sensitive and efficient. Moreover, it is suitable for the investigation of functional interaction between DnaB and related factors. PMID:27372608

  14. Production of F1 Offspring with Vitrified Sperm from a Live-Bearing Fish, the Green Swordtail Xiphophorus hellerii

    PubMed Central

    Cuevas-Uribe, Rafael; Yang, Huiping; Daly, Jonathan; Savage, Markita G.; Walter, Ronald B.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This study reports the first production of offspring with vitrified sperm from a live-bearing fish Xiphophorus hellerii. The overall goal of this study was to develop streamlined protocols for integration into a standardized approach for vitrification of aquatic species germplasm. The objectives were to (1) estimate acute toxicity of cryoprotectants, (2) evaluate vitrification solutions, (3) compare different thawing methods, (4) evaluate membrane integrity of post-thaw sperm vitrified in different cryoprotectants, and (5) evaluate the fertility of vitrified sperm. Nine cryoprotectants and two commercial vitrification additives were tested for acute toxicity and glass forming ability, alone and in combination. Two vitrification solutions, 40% glycerol (Gly) and 20% Gly+20% ethylene glycol (EG) in 500 mOsmol/kg Hanks' balanced salt solution (HBSS), were selected for vitrification of 10 μL sperm samples using inoculating loops plunged into liquid nitrogen. Samples were thawed at 24°C (one loop in 5 μL of HBSS or three loops in 500 μL of HBSS). Samples thawed in 500 μL were concentrated by centrifugation (1000 g for 5 min at 4°C) into 5 μL for artificial insemination. Offspring were produced from virgin females inseminated with sperm vitrified with 20% Gly+20% EG and concentrated by centrifugation. PMID:21883000

  15. Spin excitations in the two-dimensional strongly coupled dimer system malachite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canévet, E.; Fâk, B.; Kremer, R. K.; Chun, J. H.; Enderle, M.; Gordon, E. E.; Bettis, J. L.; Whangbo, M.-H.; Taylor, J. W.; Adroja, D. T.

    2015-02-01

    The mineral malachite, Cu 2(OD )2CO 3, has a quantum spin-liquid ground state and no long-range magnetic order down to at least T =0.4 K. Inelastic neutron scattering measurements show that the excitation spectrum consists of dispersive gapped singlet-triplet excitations, characteristic of spin-1/2 dimer-forming Heisenberg antiferromagnets. We identify a distinct two-dimensional dimerized coupling scheme with strong interdimer coupling J'/J1≈0.3 that places malachite between strongly coupled alternating chains, square lattice antiferromagnets, and infinite-legged ladders. The geometry of the interaction scheme resembles the staggered dimer lattice, which may allow unconventional quantum criticality.

  16. On-line Raman spectroscopy of calcite and malachite during irradiation with swift heavy ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dedera, Sebastian; Burchard, Michael; Glasmacher, Ulrich A.; Schöppner, Nicole; Trautmann, Christina; Severin, Daniel; Romanenko, Anton; Hubert, Christian

    2015-12-01

    A new on-line Raman System, which was installed at the M3-beamline at the UNILAC, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung Darmstadt was used for first "in situ" spectroscopic measurements. Calcite and malachite samples were irradiated in steps between 1 × 109 and 1 × 1012 ions/cm2 with Au ions (calcite) and Xe ions (malachite) at an energy of 4.8 MeV/u. After irradiation, calcite revealed a new Raman band at 437 cm-1 and change of the full width at half maximum for the 1087 cm-1 Raman band. The Raman bands of malachite change significantly with increasing fluence. Up to a fluence of 7 × 1010 ions/cm2, all existing bands decrease in intensity. Between 8 × 1010 and 1 × 1011 ions/cm2 a broad Cu2O band between 110 and 220 cm-1 occurs, which superimposes the pre-existing Raman bands. Additionally, a new broad band between 1000 and 1750 cm-1 is formed, which is interpreted as a carbon coating. In contrast to the Cu2O band, the carbon band vanished when further irradiating the sample. The installations as well as first in situ measurements at room temperature are presented.

  17. Determination of leucomalachite green, leucocrystal violet and their chromic forms using excitation-emission matrix fluorescence coupled with second-order calibration after dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.

    PubMed

    Ju, Saiqin; Deng, Jian; Cheng, Jianlin; Xiao, Ni; Huang, Kaihui; Hu, Canhui; Zhao, Haiqing; Xie, Jin; Zhan, Xiaozhu

    2015-10-15

    A novel spectrofluorimetric method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of leucomalachite green (LMG), leucocrystal violet (LCV), malachite green (MG) and crystal violet (CV) by combining the sensitivity of molecular fluorescence and the selectivity of the second-order calibration. Residues of LMG, LCV, MG and CV were simultaneously extracted from fish and shrimp muscle with acetonitrile. The non-fluorescent CV and MG were then reduced to the corresponding fluorescent LMG and LCV by reacting with sodium borohydride. After preconcentration with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction technique, the extracts were analyzed by using excitation-emission matrix fluorescence coupled with second-order calibration methods based on parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) and alternating trilinear decomposition (ATLD) algorithms. The limits of detection obtained were 2.21-2.65 ng g(-1) by PARAFAC and 2.30-2.86 ng g(-1) by ATLD, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied to simultaneous determination of the four analytes in grass carp and shrimp samples with recoveries of 90.53-103.03% for PARAFAC and 90.40-102.75% for ATLD. The accuracy of this novel method was also verified by high performance liquid chromatography. PMID:25952896

  18. Trace determination of antibacterial pharmaceuticals in fishes by microwave-assisted extraction and solid-phase purification combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Huang, Peiting; Zhao, Pan; Dai, Xinpeng; Hou, Xiaohong; Zhao, Longshan; Liang, Ning

    2016-02-01

    A novel pretreatment method involving microwave-assisted extraction and solid-phase purification combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (MAE-SPP-DLLME) followed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) was established for the simultaneous determination of six antibacterial pharmaceuticals including metronidazole, tinidazole, chloramphenicol, thiamphenicol, malachite green and crystal violet. The conditions of MAE were optimized using an orthogonal design and the optimal conditions were found to be 8mL for acetonitrile, 50°C for 5min. Then, neutral alumina column was employed in the solid-phase purification. Finally, the critical parameters affecting DLLME, including selection of extraction and dispersive solvent, adjustment of pH, salt concentration, extraction time, were investigated by single factor study. Under optimum conditions, good linearities (r>0.9991) and satisfied recoveries (Recoveries>87.0%, relative standard deviation (RSD)<6.3%) were observed for all of the target analytes. The limits of detection and quantification were 4.54-101.3pgkg(-1) and 18.02-349.1pgkg(-1), respectively. Intra-day and inter-day RSDs were all lower than 3.6%. An obvious reduction in matrix effect was observed by this method compared with microwave assisted extraction followed by purification. The established method was sensitive, rapid, accurate and employable to simultaneously determine target analytes in farmed fish, river fish and marine fish. PMID:26773891

  19. Trace determination of antibacterial pharmaceuticals in fishes by microwave-assisted extraction and solid-phase purification combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Huang, Peiting; Zhao, Pan; Dai, Xinpeng; Hou, Xiaohong; Zhao, Longshan; Liang, Ning

    2016-02-01

    A novel pretreatment method involving microwave-assisted extraction and solid-phase purification combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (MAE-SPP-DLLME) followed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) was established for the simultaneous determination of six antibacterial pharmaceuticals including metronidazole, tinidazole, chloramphenicol, thiamphenicol, malachite green and crystal violet. The conditions of MAE were optimized using an orthogonal design and the optimal conditions were found to be 8mL for acetonitrile, 50°C for 5min. Then, neutral alumina column was employed in the solid-phase purification. Finally, the critical parameters affecting DLLME, including selection of extraction and dispersive solvent, adjustment of pH, salt concentration, extraction time, were investigated by single factor study. Under optimum conditions, good linearities (r>0.9991) and satisfied recoveries (Recoveries>87.0%, relative standard deviation (RSD)<6.3%) were observed for all of the target analytes. The limits of detection and quantification were 4.54-101.3pgkg(-1) and 18.02-349.1pgkg(-1), respectively. Intra-day and inter-day RSDs were all lower than 3.6%. An obvious reduction in matrix effect was observed by this method compared with microwave assisted extraction followed by purification. The established method was sensitive, rapid, accurate and employable to simultaneously determine target analytes in farmed fish, river fish and marine fish.

  20. Fish Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Fish Allergy KidsHealth > For Parents > Fish Allergy Print A ... From Home en español Alergia al pescado About Fish Allergy A fish allergy is not exactly the ...

  1. Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  2. One-step green synthesis of high uniform SERS substrate based on Au nanoparticles grown on Ge wafer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Juhong; Zhu, Feng; Wang, Yan; Wang, Tao

    2015-05-01

    Highly sensitive, large-area and uniform surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates based on gold nanoparticles grown on Ge wafer have been fabricated by a one-step green reaction. The results showed that these substrates exhibited admirable performance in the low concentration detection (1 × 10-7 M) of Rhodamine 6G with the enhancement factor of 4.5 × 106 and remarkable uniformity with relative standard deviation less than 8%. The uniform enhancement was also obtained in the aqueous detection of malachite green. During the experiments, the Raman spectra were recorded in the solution to pursue the uniformity, reproducibility and stability of signals.

  3. One Fish Two Fish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Michele

    1998-01-01

    This activity explains fisheries resource management to seven-year olds. First-grade students learn concepts such as offspring viability, life expectancy, and distribution of species, which help to determine when, where, and how people fish and the importance of fishing responsibly. Lists materials, procedures, and extensions. (SJR)

  4. Investigation of Leaching Kinetics of Copper from Malachite Ore in Ammonium Nitrate Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekmekyapar, Ahmet; Aktaş, Evrim; Künkül, Asim; Demirkiran, Nizamettin

    2012-08-01

    The production of metallic copper from low-grade copper ores is generally carried out by hydrometallurgical methods. Leaching is the first prerequisite of any hydrometallurgical process. Solutions containing ammonia may allow for selective leaching of the copper from the ore. In this study, the leaching kinetics of malachite, which is an oxidized copper ore, in ammonium nitrate solutions was examined. The effects of some experimental parameters on the leaching process were investigated, and a kinetic model to represent the effects of these parameters on the leaching rate was developed. It was determined that the leaching rate increased with increasing solution concentration, temperature, and agitation speed, as well as decreasing particle size. It was found that the leaching reaction followed the mixed kinetic controlled model, which includes two different leaching processes including the surface chemical reaction (303 K to 323 K [30 °C to 50 °C]) and diffusion through a porous product layer (323 K to 343 K [50 °C to 70 °C]). The activation energies of these sequential steps were determined to be 95.10 and 29.50 kJ/mol, respectively.

  5. Sugar digestion efficiencies of Gurney's sugarbirds, malachite sunbirds, and black sunbirds.

    PubMed

    Downs, C T

    1997-01-01

    This study determined the interaction between energy assimilation and digestive constraints on the foraging behaviour of nectarivorous Gurney's sugarbirds (Promerops gurneyi), black sunbirds (Nectarinia amethystina), and malachite sunbirds (Nectarinia famosa) in the laboratory. Rates of sugar intake and consumption, transit time, and the concentration of sugar in the excreta were measured when birds were fed 0.25 mol L-1 sucrose, 0.73 mol L-1 sucrose, and 0.73 mol L-1 glucose. For each species, intake rates by volume were greater at low sugar concentrations, such that energy intakes per 90 min were similar, irrespective of diet, which supports the idea of regulated energy intake for these nectarivorous birds. All species were efficient at energy extraction, excreting 1% or less sucrose equivalent irrespective of the initial sugar concentration of each diet. Transit times of solutions ingested increased with an increase in sugar concentration. Birds maximized energy assimilation on high- and low-energy nectar diets by having high extraction efficiencies and short transit times. Sugarbird and sunbird foraging behaviours may be limited by digestive processes and the cost of carrying high-energy reserves as nectar sugar concentration increases.

  6. City Fishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Robert E.

    1979-01-01

    A program of supplying opportunities for fishing at locations within and near urban areas was developed. This effort included stocking, management of bodies of water for fishing, and presentation of fishing clinics for urban fishermen. (RE)

  7. Fish Hearing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaxter, J. H. S.

    1980-01-01

    Provides related information about hearing in fish, including the sensory stimulus of sound in the underwater environment, mechanoreceptors in fish, pressure perception and the swimbladder, specializations in sound conduction peculiar to certain fish families. Includes numerous figures. (CS)

  8. Analysis of mutations and bone marrow micronuclei in Big Blue rats fed leucomalachite green.

    PubMed

    Manjanatha, M G; Shelton, S D; Bishop, M; Shaddock, J G; Dobrovolsky, V N; Heflich, R H; Webb, P J; Blankenship, L R; Beland, F A; Greenlees, K J; Culp, S J

    2004-03-22

    Leucomalachite green (LMG) is the major metabolite of malachite green (MG), a triphenylmethane dye that has been used widely as an antifungal agent in the fish industry. Concern over MG and LMG is due to the potential for consumer exposure, suggestive evidence of tumor promotion in rodent liver, and suspicion of carcinogenicity based on structure-activity relationships. In order to evaluate the risks associated with exposure to LMG, female Big Blue rats were fed up to 543 ppm LMG; groups of these rats were killed after 4, 16, or 32 weeks of exposure and evaluated for genotoxicity. We previously reported that this treatment resulted in a dose-dependent induction of liver DNA adducts, and that the liver lacI mutant frequency (MF) was increased, but only in rats fed 543 ppm LMG for 16 weeks. In the present study, we report the results from lymphocyte Hprt mutant assays and bone marrow micronucleus assays performed on these same rats. In addition, we have determined the types of lacI mutations induced in the rats fed 543 ppm LMG for 16 weeks and the rats fed control diet. No significant increases in the frequency of micronuclei or Hprt mutants were observed for any of the doses or time points assayed. Molecular analysis of 80 liver lacI mutants from rats fed 543 ppm LMG for 16 weeks revealed that 21% (17/80) were clonal in origin and that most (55/63) of the independent mutations were base pair substitutions. The predominant type of mutation was G:C --> A:T transition (31/63) and the majority (68%) of these involved CpG sites. When corrected for clonality, the 16-week lacI mutation frequency (36 +/- 10) x 10(-6) in treated rats was not significantly different from the clonally corrected control frequency (17 +/- 9 x 10(-6); P = 0.06). Furthermore, the lacI mutational spectrum in treated rats was not significantly different from that found for control rats (P = 0.09). Taken together, these data indicate that the DNA adducts produced by LMG in female rats do not result

  9. Green Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung-Ho

    Today, the environment has become a main subject in lots of science disciplines and the industrial development due to the global warming. This paper presents the analysis of the tendency of Green Architecture in France on the threes axes: Regulations and Approach for the Sustainable Architecture (Certificate and Standard), Renewable Materials (Green Materials) and Strategies (Equipments) of Sustainable Technology. The definition of 'Green Architecture' will be cited in the introduction and the question of the interdisciplinary for the technological development in 'Green Architecture' will be raised up in the conclusion.

  10. Antarctic Fishes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastman, Joseph T.; DeVries, Arthur L.

    1986-01-01

    Explains the adaptations to Antarctic waters that Notothenioidei, a group of advanced bony fishes, have exhibited. Discusses the fishes' mechanisms of production of antifreeze properties and their capacities for neutral buoyancy in water. (ML)

  11. Fish Dishes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derby, Marie

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art project that was inspired by Greek pottery, specifically dishes shaped as fish. Explains that fourth-grade students drew a fish shape that was later used to create their clay version of the fish. Discusses how the students examined the pottery to make decisions about color and design. (CMK)

  12. Code Green.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMinn, John

    2002-01-01

    Assesses the integrated approach to green design in the new Computer Science Building at Toronto's York University. The building design fulfills the university's demand to combine an energy efficient design with sustainability. Floor and site plans are included. (GR)

  13. Green Infrastructure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Large paved surfaces keep rain from infiltrating the soil and recharging groundwater supplies. Alternatively, Green infrastructure uses natural processes to reduce and treat stormwater in place by soaking up and storing water. These systems provide many environmental, social, an...

  14. Green Roofs

    SciTech Connect

    2004-08-01

    A New Technology Demonstration Publication Green roofs can improve the energy performance of federal buildings, help manage stormwater, reduce airborne emissions, and mitigate the effects of urban heat islands.

  15. Green Coffee

    MedlinePlus

    ... orange in combination with caffeine or caffeine-containing herbs can increase blood pressure and heart rate in ... serious heart problems. Avoid this combination.Caffeine-containing herbs and supplementsUsing green coffee along with other caffeine- ...

  16. Evaluation of continuous 4 day exposure to peracetic acid as a treatment for Ichthyophthirius multifiliis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The parasitic ciliate Ichthyophthirius multifiliis infests all species of freshwater fish and can cause severe economic losses in fish breeding. The most effective treatment, malachite green, has been banned in Europe and North America for use in food-fish production. Peracetic acid (PAA) was foun...

  17. Fish Rhabdoviruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kurath, G.; Winton, J.

    2008-01-01

    Many important viral pathogens of fish are members of the family Rhabdoviridae. The viruses in this large group cause significant losses in populations of wild fish as well as among fish reared in aquaculture. Fish rhabdoviruses often have a wide host and geographic range, and infect aquatic animals in both freshwater and seawater. The fish rhabdoviruses comprise a diverse collection of isolates that can be placed in one of two quite different groups: isolates that are members of the established genusNovirhabdovirus, and those that are most similar to members of the genus Vesiculovirus. Because the diseases caused by fish rhabdoviruses are important to aquaculture, diagnostic methods for their detection and identification are well established. In addition to regulations designed to reduce the spread of fish viruses, a significant body of research has addressed methods for the control or prevention of diseases caused by fish rhabdoviruses, including vaccination. The number of reported fish rhabdoviruses continues to grow as a result of the expansion of aquaculture, the increase in global trade, the development of improved diagnostic methods, and heightened surveillance activities. Fish rhabdoviruses serve as useful components of model systems to study vertebrate virus disease, epidemiology, and immunology.

  18. Fish flavor.

    PubMed

    Kawai, T

    1996-02-01

    This article reviews features of flavor in three groups of fishes and summarizes them as follows: (1) fresh saltwater fish are nearly odorless because they contain a small quantity of volatiles; (2 freshwater fish give off pyrrolidine and earthy-odor compounds, which are responsible for their maturity and surrounding water pollution, and (3) euryhaline fish exhibit a variety of unsaturated carbonyls and alcohols derived from enzymatic and nonenzymatic oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PAs). These features are discussed, as are the effects of different enzymatic activities on PA oxidation and the effects of pH on mechanisms of formation of the volatiles. The monotonous volatile constitution of saltwater fish is likely caused by an unknown antioxidation system restraining the fish from oxidizing. The variety of constitution of euryhaline fish, especially that of anadromous fish under spawning conditions, could result from the loss of that system. The thermal environments of heated foods are also reviewed. The basic environment of fish, which allows the formation of flavor compounds, is discussed to confirm the volatiles found in unheated fish.

  19. Clotrimazole as a Potent Agent for Treating the Oomycete Fish Pathogen Saprolegnia parasitica through Inhibition of Sterol 14α-Demethylase (CYP51)

    PubMed Central

    Warrilow, Andrew G. S.; Hull, Claire M.; Rolley, Nicola J.; Parker, Josie E.; Nes, W. David; Smith, Stephen N.

    2014-01-01

    A candidate CYP51 gene encoding sterol 14α-demethylase from the fish oomycete pathogen Saprolegnia parasitica (SpCYP51) was identified based on conserved CYP51 residues among CYPs in the genome. It was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, purified, and characterized. Lanosterol, eburicol, and obtusifoliol bound to purified SpCYP51 with similar binding affinities (Ks, 3 to 5 μM). Eight pharmaceutical and six agricultural azole antifungal agents bound tightly to SpCYP51, with posaconazole displaying the highest apparent affinity (Kd, ≤3 nM) and prothioconazole-desthio the lowest (Kd, ∼51 nM). The efficaciousness of azole antifungals as SpCYP51 inhibitors was confirmed by 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) of 0.17 to 2.27 μM using CYP51 reconstitution assays. However, most azole antifungal agents were less effective at inhibiting S. parasitica, Saprolegnia diclina, and Saprolegnia ferax growth. Epoxiconazole, fluconazole, itraconazole, and posaconazole failed to inhibit Saprolegnia growth (MIC100, >256 μg ml−1). The remaining azoles inhibited Saprolegnia growth only at elevated concentrations (MIC100 [the lowest antifungal concentration at which growth remained completely inhibited after 72 h at 20°C], 16 to 64 μg ml−1) with the exception of clotrimazole, which was as potent as malachite green (MIC100, ∼1 μg ml−1). Sterol profiles of azole-treated Saprolegnia species confirmed that endogenous CYP51 enzymes were being inhibited with the accumulation of lanosterol in the sterol fraction. The effectiveness of clotrimazole against SpCYP51 activity (IC50, ∼1 μM) and the concentration inhibiting the growth of Saprolegnia species in vitro (MIC100, ∼1 to 2 μg ml−1) suggest that clotrimazole could be used against Saprolegnia infections, including as a preventative measure by pretreatment of fish eggs, and for freshwater-farmed fish as well as in leisure activities. PMID:25085484

  20. Fish-induced keriorrhea.

    PubMed

    Ling, Ka Ho; Nichols, Peter D; But, Paul Pui-Hay

    2009-01-01

    Many deep-sea fishes store large amounts of wax esters in their body for buoyancy control. Some of them are frequently caught as by-catch of tuna and other fishes. The most noteworthy ones include escolar and oilfish. The accumulation of the indigestible wax esters in the rectum through consumption of these fish engenders discharges or leakage per rectum as orange or brownish green oil, but without noticeable loss of water. This physiological response is called keriorrhea, which is variously described as "oily diarrhea," "oily orange diarrhea," or "orange oily leakage" by the mass media and bloggers on the internet. Outbreaks of keriorrhea have been repeatedly reported across continents. Additional symptoms including nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, and diarrhea were complained by the victims. They are probably due to anxiety or panic when suffering from keriorrhea. Escolar and oilfish are banned from import and sale in Italy, Japan, and South Korea. Rapid detection of the two fishes is imperative to ensure proper labeling and safeguarding of the public before and after any keriorrhea outbreak.

  1. Green foot.

    PubMed

    LeFeber, W P; Golitz, L E

    1984-07-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa may infect the skin surface, nails, hair follicles, or deeper tissues. We report a 13-year-old male with an asymptomatic green discoloration of the toenails and sole of the right foot. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was cultured from the shoe, but not from the discolored skin. We suspect that constant wearing of occlusive, rubber-soled, basketball shoes associated with hyperhidrosis allowed colonization of his shoe with pseudomonas. This case is unique in that colonization resulted in a green color of the foot not associated with infection of the skin.

  2. Going Green.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the benefits that schools and universities can gain by adopting environmentally sensitive practices in their design and operations. Includes resources for locating additional information about green schools and a list of 11 features that represent a comprehensive, sustainable school. (GR)

  3. Green Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozlowski, David, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses "going green" concept in school-building design, its cost-savings benefits through more efficient energy use, and its use by the State University of New York at Buffalo as solution to an energy retrofit program. Examples are provided of how this concept can be used, even for small colleges without large capital budgets, and how it can…

  4. Green Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2009-01-01

    In the world of higher education, even the most ambitious sustainability plans often begin with tiny steps taken by individual departments. Michael Crowley, a program manager for Environmental Health & Engineering (EH&E) and former assistant director of the Harvard (Massachusetts) Green Campus Initiative, explains that going for small wins through…

  5. Buying Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layng, T. V. Joe

    2010-01-01

    In "Buying Green," Joe Layng recognizes that, like all choices we make, our decisions as consumers are more likely to be influenced by their short-term consequences for us as individuals (price, quality) than they are by their long-term consequences for society (environmental impact). He believes that the equation can be tilted in favor of greener…

  6. Green pioneers.

    PubMed

    Trueland, Jennifer

    The government has set tough targets for the NHS in England to reduce its carbon footprint. In this article, nurses and managers at Nottinghamshire Healthcare NHS Trust explain how a programme of 'greening' initiatives - including a trial of electric cars for community staff - have slashed the trust's CO2 output.

  7. Think green.

    PubMed

    Serb, Chris

    2008-08-01

    Hospitals typically don't come to mind when you think about cutting-edge environmental programs, but that's changing. Rising energy costs, the need to replace older facilities, and a growing environmental consciousness have spurred hospitals nationwide to embrace a green ideology. The executive suite is a vocal and active player in these efforts. PMID:19062433

  8. Green pioneers.

    PubMed

    Trueland, Jennifer

    The government has set tough targets for the NHS in England to reduce its carbon footprint. In this article, nurses and managers at Nottinghamshire Healthcare NHS Trust explain how a programme of 'greening' initiatives - including a trial of electric cars for community staff - have slashed the trust's CO2 output. PMID:23763098

  9. Going Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witkowsky, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    Going green saves money and can even make money. Sustainable practices promote better health, less absenteeism, and more productivity. They also attract students, who are paying increasing attention to schools' environmental policies. Beyond being the smart thing to do, administrators at the University of Washington say repeatedly, it's the right…

  10. Green Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2008-01-01

    More and more people are viewing the world through green-tinted glasses, and those ideas about making school and university facilities more environmentally friendly suddenly are appearing to be prudent and responsible. Among the groups that have been advocating for environmentally friendly school design for years are the Collaborative for High…

  11. Think green.

    PubMed

    Serb, Chris

    2008-08-01

    Hospitals typically don't come to mind when you think about cutting-edge environmental programs, but that's changing. Rising energy costs, the need to replace older facilities, and a growing environmental consciousness have spurred hospitals nationwide to embrace a green ideology. The executive suite is a vocal and active player in these efforts.

  12. Texture Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Julie

    2007-01-01

    In an effort to provide an opportunity for her first graders to explore texture through an engaging subject, the author developed a three-part lesson that features fish in a mixed-media artwork: (1) Exploring Textured Paint; (2) Creating the Fish; and (3) Role Playing. In this lesson, students effectively explore texture through painting, drawing,…

  13. One Fish, Two Fish, Redfish, You Fish!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Katherine; Timmons, Maryellen; Medders, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The recreational fishing activity presented in this article provides a hands-on, problem-based experience for students; it unites biology, math, economics, environmental policy, and population dynamics concepts. In addition, the activity allows students to shape environmental policy in a realistic setting and evaluate their peers' work. By…

  14. Fishing Forecasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    ROFFS stands for Roffer's Ocean Fishing Forecasting Service, Inc. Roffer combines satellite and computer technology with oceanographic information from several sources to produce frequently updated charts sometimes as often as 30 times a day showing clues to the location of marlin, sailfish, tuna, swordfish and a variety of other types. Also provides customized forecasts for racing boats and the shipping industry along with seasonal forecasts that allow the marine industry to formulate fishing strategies based on foreknowledge of the arrival and departure times of different fish. Roffs service exemplifies the potential for benefits to marine industries from satellite observations. Most notable results are reduced search time and substantial fuel savings.

  15. Genomics and Mapping of Teleostei (Bony Fish)

    PubMed Central

    2003-01-01

    Until recently, the Human Genome Project held centre stage in the press releases concerning sequencing programmes. However, in October 2001, it was announced that the Japanese puffer fish (Takifugu rubripes, Fugu) was the second vertebrate organism to be sequenced to draft quality. Briefly, the spotlight was on fish genomes. There are currently two other fish species undergoing intensive sequencing, the green spotted puffer fish (Tetraodon nigroviridis) and the zebrafish (Danio rerio). But this trio are, in many ways, atypical representations of the current state of fish genomic research. The aim of this brief review is to demonstrate the complexity of fish as a group of vertebrates and to publicize the ‘lesser-known’ species, all of which have something to offer. PMID:18629122

  16. Green toxicology.

    PubMed

    Maertens, Alexandra; Anastas, Nicholas; Spencer, Pamela J; Stephens, Martin; Goldberg, Alan; Hartung, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Historically, early identification and characterization of adverse effects of industrial chemicals was difficult because conventional toxicological test methods did not meet R&D needs for rapid, relatively inexpensive methods amenable to small amounts of test material. The pharmaceutical industry now front-loads toxicity testing, using in silico, in vitro, and less demanding animal tests at earlier stages of product development to identify and anticipate undesirable toxicological effects and optimize product development. The Green Chemistry movement embraces similar ideas for development of less toxic products, safer processes, and less waste and exposure. Further, the concept of benign design suggests ways to consider possible toxicities before the actual synthesis and to apply some structure/activity rules (SAR) and in silico methods. This requires not only scientific development but also a change in corporate culture in which synthetic chemists work with toxicologists. An emerging discipline called Green Toxicology (Anastas, 2012) provides a framework for integrating the principles of toxicology into the enterprise of designing safer chemicals, thereby minimizing potential toxicity as early in production as possible. Green Toxicology`s novel utility lies in driving innovation by moving safety considerations to the earliest stage in a chemical`s lifecycle, i.e., to molecular design. In principle, this field is no different than other subdisciplines of toxicology that endeavor to focus on a specific area - for example, clinical, environmental or forensic toxicology. We use the same principles and tools to evaluate an existing substance or to design a new one. The unique emphasis is in using 21st century toxicology tools as a preventative strategy to "design out" undesired human health and environmental effects, thereby increasing the likelihood of launching a successful, sustainable product. Starting with the formation of a steering group and a series of workshops

  17. EVALUATION OF FISH SAMPLING DESIGNS FOR COASTAL WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because no objective assessment of fish sampling methodologies has been completed for Great Lakes coastal wetlands we evaluated catches from several techniques and studies to determine the most effecive combinations for these habitats. Data from six underdeveloped sites in Green ...

  18. EVALUATION OF FISH SAMPLING DESIGNS FOR COASTAL WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because no objective assessment of fish sampling methodologies has been completed for Great Lakes coastal wetlands we evaluated catches from several techniques and studies to determine the most effective combinations for these habitats. Data from six underdeveloped sites in Green...

  19. Fish Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... specific fish used on the label. Read all product labels carefully before purchasing and consuming any item. Ingredients ... Getting Started Newly Diagnosed Emergency Care Plan Food Labels Mislabeled Products Tips for Managing Food Allergies Resources For... Most ...

  20. Fish Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... not eat any fish because they worry about mercury in seafood. Mercury is a metal that, at high levels, can ... many types of seafood have little or no mercury at all. So your risk of mercury exposure ...

  1. Designer Fish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, William R., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Described is an activity in which students are asked to design a fish that would survive in a natural system. A project to computerize the activity is discussed. The development of this artificial intelligence software is detailed. (CW)

  2. Spectral and spatial selectivity of luminance vision in reef fish.

    PubMed

    Siebeck, Ulrike E; Wallis, Guy Michael; Litherland, Lenore; Ganeshina, Olga; Vorobyev, Misha

    2014-01-01

    Luminance vision has high spatial resolution and is used for form vision and texture discrimination. In humans, birds and bees luminance channel is spectrally selective-it depends on the signals of the long-wavelength sensitive photoreceptors (bees) or on the sum of long- and middle-wavelength sensitive cones (humans), but not on the signal of the short-wavelength sensitive (blue) photoreceptors. The reasons of such selectivity are not fully understood. The aim of this study is to reveal the inputs of cone signals to high resolution luminance vision in reef fish. Sixteen freshly caught damselfish, Pomacentrus amboinensis, were trained to discriminate stimuli differing either in their color or in their fine patterns (stripes vs. cheques). Three colors ("bright green", "dark green" and "blue") were used to create two sets of color and two sets of pattern stimuli. The "bright green" and "dark green" were similar in their chromatic properties for fish, but differed in their lightness; the "dark green" differed from "blue" in the signal for the blue cone, but yielded similar signals in the long-wavelength and middle-wavelength cones. Fish easily learned to discriminate "bright green" from "dark green" and "dark green" from "blue" stimuli. Fish also could discriminate the fine patterns created from "dark green" and "bright green". However, fish failed to discriminate fine patterns created from "blue" and "dark green" colors, i.e., the colors that provided contrast for the blue-sensitive photoreceptor, but not for the long-wavelength sensitive one. High resolution luminance vision in damselfish, Pomacentrus amboinensis, does not have input from the blue-sensitive cone, which may indicate that the spectral selectivity of luminance channel is a general feature of visual processing in both aquatic and terrestrial animals.

  3. Green Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Patten, John

    2013-12-31

    Green Manufacturing Initiative (GMI): The initiative provides a conduit between the university and industry to facilitate cooperative research programs of mutual interest to support green (sustainable) goals and efforts. In addition to the operational savings that greener practices can bring, emerging market demands and governmental regulations are making the move to sustainable manufacturing a necessity for success. The funding supports collaborative activities among universities such as the University of Michigan, Michigan State University and Purdue University and among 40 companies to enhance economic and workforce development and provide the potential of technology transfer. WMU participants in the GMI activities included 20 faculty, over 25 students and many staff from across the College of Engineering and Applied Sciences; the College of Arts and Sciences' departments of Chemistry, Physics, Biology and Geology; the College of Business; the Environmental Research Institute; and the Environmental Studies Program. Many outside organizations also contribute to the GMI's success, including Southwest Michigan First; The Right Place of Grand Rapids, MI; Michigan Department of Environmental Quality; the Michigan Department of Energy, Labor and Economic Growth; and the Michigan Manufacturers Technical Center.

  4. A simple experiment that demonstrates the ``green flash''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courtial, Johannes

    2012-11-01

    The green flash occurs when, under certain atmospheric conditions, the top segment of the low sun is visibly green. It is surrounded—in at least a few minds—by an air of mystery. I describe a simple experiment that demonstrates different aspects of the green flash. The experiment uses an odd-shaped, water-filled, fish tank to simulate the refractive properties of the atmosphere; milk powder added to the water mimicks the atmosphere's scattering properties. A circular white-light source is viewed through the fish tank and the combination of refraction and scattering makes one end of the light source look green. The setup also allows experimentation with mirage effects, thereby drawing attention to their often neglected contribution to the green flash.

  5. Green synthesis of iron nanoparticles by various tea extracts: Comparative study of the reactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Lanlan; Weng, Xiulan; Chen, Zuliang; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravendra

    2014-09-01

    Iron nanoparticles (Fe NPs) are often synthesized using sodium borohydride with aggregation, which is a high cost process and environmentally toxic. To address these issues, Fe NPs were synthesized using green methods based on tea extracts, including green, oolong and black teas. The best method for degrading malachite green (MG) was Fe NPs synthesized by green tea extracts because it contains a high concentration of caffeine/polyphenols which act as both reducing and capping agents in the synthesis of Fe NPs. These characteristics were confirmed by a scanning electron microscope (SEM), UV-visible (UV-vis) and specific surface area (BET). To understand the formation of Fe NPs using various tea extracts, the synthesized Fe NPs were characterized by SEM, X-ray energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). What emerged were different sizes and concentrations of Fe NPs being synthesized by tea extracts, leading to various degradations of MG. Furthermore, kinetics for the degradation of MG using these Fe NPs fitted well to the pseudo first-order reaction kinetics model with more than 20 kJ/mol activation energy, suggesting a chemically diffusion-controlled reaction. The degradation mechanism using these Fe NPs included adsorption of MG to Fe NPs, oxidation of iron, and cleaving the bond that was connected to the benzene ring.

  6. Green synthesis of iron nanoparticles by various tea extracts: comparative study of the reactivity.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lanlan; Weng, Xiulan; Chen, Zuliang; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravendra

    2014-09-15

    Iron nanoparticles (Fe NPs) are often synthesized using sodium borohydride with aggregation, which is a high cost process and environmentally toxic. To address these issues, Fe NPs were synthesized using green methods based on tea extracts, including green, oolong and black teas. The best method for degrading malachite green (MG) was Fe NPs synthesized by green tea extracts because it contains a high concentration of caffeine/polyphenols which act as both reducing and capping agents in the synthesis of Fe NPs. These characteristics were confirmed by a scanning electron microscope (SEM), UV-visible (UV-vis) and specific surface area (BET). To understand the formation of Fe NPs using various tea extracts, the synthesized Fe NPs were characterized by SEM, X-ray energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). What emerged were different sizes and concentrations of Fe NPs being synthesized by tea extracts, leading to various degradations of MG. Furthermore, kinetics for the degradation of MG using these Fe NPs fitted well to the pseudo first-order reaction kinetics model with more than 20 kJ/mol activation energy, suggesting a chemically diffusion-controlled reaction. The degradation mechanism using these Fe NPs included adsorption of MG to Fe NPs, oxidation of iron, and cleaving the bond that was connected to the benzene ring.

  7. Green Phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Vijay; Chakradhar, R. P. S.; Rao, J. L.; Dhoble, S. J.; Kim, S. H.

    2014-11-01

    Manganese-doped LaMgAl11O19 powder has been prepared by an easy combustion method. Powder x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy have been used to characterize the as-prepared phosphor. The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum of LaMgAl11O19:Mn2+ phosphor exhibits six-line hyperfine structure centered at g ≈ 1.973. The number of spins participating in resonance ( N) and the paramagnetic susceptibility ( χ) for the resonance signal at g ≈ 1.973 have been calculated as a function of temperature. The photoluminescence spectrum exhibits green emission at 516 nm, which is attributed to 4T1 → 6A1 transition of Mn2+ ions. From EPR and luminescence studies, it is observed that Mn2+ ions occupy Mg2+ sites and Mn2+ ions are located at tetrahedral sites in the prepared phosphors.

  8. Bio-inspired sustainable and green synthesis of plasmonic Ag/AgCl nanoparticles for enhanced degradation of organic compound from aqueous phase.

    PubMed

    Devi, Th Babita; Ahmaruzzaman, M

    2016-09-01

    In the current study, we report the utilization of the biogenic potential of Benincasa hispida (ash gourd) peel extract for the synthesis of Ag embedded AgCl nanoparticles nanoparticles (Ag/AgCl NPs) without the use of any external organic solvents. The appearance of dark brown color from the pale yellow color confirmed the formation of Ag/AgCl nanoparticles which was further validated by absorbance peak using UV-visible spectroscopy. The phytochemicals (flavones) present in the B. hispida peel extract acts as a reducing/stabilizing agents. The morphology and size of the synthesized NPs were characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), selected area electron microscope (SAED) and high resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM). FT-IR spectra of the B. hispida peel extract and after the development of nanoparticles are determined to identify the functional groups responsible for the conversion of metal ions to metal nanoparticles. The synthesized nanoparticles showed an excellent photocatalytic property in the degradation of toxic dye like malachite green oxalate under sunlight irradiation. For the first time, malachite green oxalate dye was degraded by Ag/AgCl nanoparticles under sunlight irradiation. PMID:27246560

  9. Bio-inspired sustainable and green synthesis of plasmonic Ag/AgCl nanoparticles for enhanced degradation of organic compound from aqueous phase.

    PubMed

    Devi, Th Babita; Ahmaruzzaman, M

    2016-09-01

    In the current study, we report the utilization of the biogenic potential of Benincasa hispida (ash gourd) peel extract for the synthesis of Ag embedded AgCl nanoparticles nanoparticles (Ag/AgCl NPs) without the use of any external organic solvents. The appearance of dark brown color from the pale yellow color confirmed the formation of Ag/AgCl nanoparticles which was further validated by absorbance peak using UV-visible spectroscopy. The phytochemicals (flavones) present in the B. hispida peel extract acts as a reducing/stabilizing agents. The morphology and size of the synthesized NPs were characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), selected area electron microscope (SAED) and high resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM). FT-IR spectra of the B. hispida peel extract and after the development of nanoparticles are determined to identify the functional groups responsible for the conversion of metal ions to metal nanoparticles. The synthesized nanoparticles showed an excellent photocatalytic property in the degradation of toxic dye like malachite green oxalate under sunlight irradiation. For the first time, malachite green oxalate dye was degraded by Ag/AgCl nanoparticles under sunlight irradiation.

  10. Commercial Fishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This document is a curriculum framework for a program in commercial fishing to be taught in Florida secondary and postsecondary institutions. This outline covers the major concepts/content of the program, which is designed to prepare students for employment in occupations with titles such as net fishers, pot fishers, line fishers, shrimp boat…

  11. Gone Fishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson-Demme, Hillary; Kisiel, Jim

    2003-01-01

    Presents a hands-on activity in which students create a model of an ocean ecosystem to gain an understanding of how humans can alter biodiversity through their actions. Uses differing levels of fishing technology to explore the concepts of sustainability and overfishing. (Author/SOE)

  12. Additive and subtractive coherence peaks in pump and probe experiments with high repetition rate fs laser pulses in a flowing malachite green solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watermann, V.; Waltinger, T.; Eichler, H. J.

    1995-02-01

    Pump and probe absorption bleaching experiments with femtosecond laser pulses in a flowing dye solution lead to a coherence peak or coherence dip at zero time delay. The size and sign of this peak are strongly affected by the flow velocity of the solution. Experimental results are in good agreement with a two-wave mixing theory, which takes pump and probe coupling by an absorption and a temperature grating into account.

  13. [Spectral analysis of green pigments of painting and colored drawing in northern Chinese ancient architectures].

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Qin; Yan, Jing; Fan, Xiao-Lei; Ma, Tao

    2010-02-01

    It is important to identify pigments of painting and colored drawing in ancient architectures in order to restore and conserve them. The components of green pigments were detected with X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX). Twenty-seven samples were collected from painting and colored drawing in northern Chinese ancient architectures in Beijing, Shanxi province and Gansu province. The experiment results showed that emerald green [CuCH3COO]2 x Cu(AsO2)2], a complex of copper aceto-arsenite pigment, had been used as the colored component in fifteen samples, whereas organic materials synthesized in the rest. However, in all samples there were no malachite and atacamite, green pigments commonly used in ancient time a long time ago. These two pigments have been found in Qin Shihuang's Terracotta Army and the wall paintings at Mogao Grettoes, Dunhuang, and some other famous wall paintings and color pottery figurines. However, emerald green was used many years later. It was reported that emerald green was synthesized by Germany in 1814 and had been widely used in China as watercolor on pith paper works and on scroll paintings since the 1850s. Because painting and colored drawing in ancient architectures stands outside, under sunlight and rain, it must be repaired and repainted in less than fifty years. Therefore, it is not surprising that emerald green was used in them. In recent years, artificial organic materials are increasingly used in painting and colored drawing in ancient architectures. From experiments it was also showed that in the same recolored painting and colored drawing, organic materials are usually in the later layers, but emerald green is in the earlier layers. This work supplies a lot of data for the purpose of selecting restoration materials and identifying painting and colored drawing in ancient architectures with a new method.

  14. [Spectral analysis of green pigments of painting and colored drawing in northern Chinese ancient architectures].

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Qin; Yan, Jing; Fan, Xiao-Lei; Ma, Tao

    2010-02-01

    It is important to identify pigments of painting and colored drawing in ancient architectures in order to restore and conserve them. The components of green pigments were detected with X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX). Twenty-seven samples were collected from painting and colored drawing in northern Chinese ancient architectures in Beijing, Shanxi province and Gansu province. The experiment results showed that emerald green [CuCH3COO]2 x Cu(AsO2)2], a complex of copper aceto-arsenite pigment, had been used as the colored component in fifteen samples, whereas organic materials synthesized in the rest. However, in all samples there were no malachite and atacamite, green pigments commonly used in ancient time a long time ago. These two pigments have been found in Qin Shihuang's Terracotta Army and the wall paintings at Mogao Grettoes, Dunhuang, and some other famous wall paintings and color pottery figurines. However, emerald green was used many years later. It was reported that emerald green was synthesized by Germany in 1814 and had been widely used in China as watercolor on pith paper works and on scroll paintings since the 1850s. Because painting and colored drawing in ancient architectures stands outside, under sunlight and rain, it must be repaired and repainted in less than fifty years. Therefore, it is not surprising that emerald green was used in them. In recent years, artificial organic materials are increasingly used in painting and colored drawing in ancient architectures. From experiments it was also showed that in the same recolored painting and colored drawing, organic materials are usually in the later layers, but emerald green is in the earlier layers. This work supplies a lot of data for the purpose of selecting restoration materials and identifying painting and colored drawing in ancient architectures with a new method. PMID:20384144

  15. Green nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Geoff B.

    2011-10-01

    Nanotechnology, in particular nanophotonics, is proving essential to achieving green outcomes of sustainability and renewable energy at the scales needed. Coatings, composites and polymeric structures used in windows, roof and wall coatings, energy storage, insulation and other components in energy efficient buildings will increasingly involve nanostructure, as will solar cells. Nanostructures have the potential to revolutionize thermoelectric power and may one day provide efficient refrigerant free cooling. Nanomaterials enable optimization of optical, opto-electrical and thermal responses to this urgent task. Optical harmonization of material responses to environmental energy flows involves (i) large changes in spectral response over limited wavelength bands (ii) tailoring to environmental dynamics. The latter includes engineering angle of incidence dependencies and switchable (or chromogenic) responses. Nanomaterials can be made at sufficient scale and low enough cost to be both economic and to have a high impact on a short time scale. Issues to be addressed include human safety and property changes induced during manufacture, handling and outdoor use. Unexpected bonuses have arisen in this work, for example the savings and environmental benefits of cool roofs extend beyond the more obvious benefit of reduced heat flows from the roof into the building.

  16. Fish gelatin.

    PubMed

    Boran, Gokhan; Regenstein, Joe M

    2010-01-01

    Gelatin is a multifunctional ingredient used in foods, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and photographic films as a gelling agent, stabilizer, thickener, emulsifier, and film former. As a thermoreversible hydrocolloid with a narrower gap between its melting and gelling temperatures, both of which are below human body temperature, gelatin provides unique advantages over carbohydrate-based gelling agents. Gelatin is mostly produced from pig skin, and cattle hides and bones. Some alternative raw materials have recently gained attention from both researchers and the industry not just because they overcome religious concerns shared by Jews and Muslims but also because they provide, in some cases, technological advantages over mammalian gelatins. Fish skins from a number of fish species are among the other sources that have been comprehensively studied as sources for gelatin production. Fish skins have a significant potential for the production of high-quality gelatin with different melting and gelling temperatures over a much wider range than mammalian gelatins, yet still have a sufficiently high gel strength and viscosity. Gelatin quality is industrially determined by gel strength, viscosity, melting or gelling temperatures, the water content, and microbiological safety. For gelatin manufacturers, yield from a particular raw material is also important. Recent experimental studies have shown that these quality parameters vary greatly depending on the biochemical characteristics of the raw materials, the manufacturing processes applied, and the experimental settings used for quality control tests. In this review, the gelatin quality achieved from different fish species is reviewed along with the experimental procedures used to determine gelatin quality. In addition, the chemical structure of collagen and gelatin, the collagen-gelatin conversion, the gelation process, and the gelatin market are discussed.

  17. Green synthesis, spectroscopic investigation and photocatalytic activity of lead nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Elango, Ganesh; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana

    2015-03-15

    Most of researcher focused their research towards synthesize of nanoparticles by the method of applied chemical method which was one of the costliest method. We have focused cheapest and simplest method for the synthesizing of lead nanoparticles (Pb-NPs) using cocos nucifera L extract. The methanolic extract of cocos nucifera L was efficiently used as a reducing agent for synthesizing Pb-NPs. On treatment of lead acetate with cocos nucifera coir extracts, stable Pb-NPs were formed. The synthesized Pb-NPs were further confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Energy Dispersive (EDAX) analysis. The secondary metabolites present in methanolic extract which can mainly act as a reducing and capping agents for the formation of Pb-NPs were identified by GC-MS. Anti-microbial activity for Pb-NPs against four pathogenic strain's such as Staphylococcus aureus, Escheria coli, Staphylococcus epidermis and Bacillus subtilis. Result states that Pb-NPs size was 47 nm and also shows good activity against S. aureus. Further we report on photocatalytic absorption of malachite green dye processed in short UV wavelength at 254 nm. UV spectral analysis showed peak absorbance at 613 nm with special reference to the excitation of surfaces plasmon vibration by Pb-NPs. PMID:25574657

  18. Green synthesis, spectroscopic investigation and photocatalytic activity of lead nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elango, Ganesh; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana

    2015-03-01

    Most of researcher focused their research towards synthesize of nanoparticles by the method of applied chemical method which was one of the costliest method. We have focused cheapest and simplest method for the synthesizing of lead nanoparticles (Pb-NPs) using cocos nucifera L extract. The methanolic extract of cocos nucifera L was efficiently used as a reducing agent for synthesizing Pb-NPs. On treatment of lead acetate with cocos nucifera coir extracts, stable Pb-NPs were formed. The synthesized Pb-NPs were further confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Energy Dispersive (EDAX) analysis. The secondary metabolites present in methanolic extract which can mainly act as a reducing and capping agents for the formation of Pb-NPs were identified by GC-MS. Anti-microbial activity for Pb-NPs against four pathogenic strain's such as Staphylococcus aureus, Escheria coli, Staphylococcus epidermis and Bacillus subtilis. Result states that Pb-NPs size was 47 nm and also shows good activity against S. aureus. Further we report on photocatalytic absorption of malachite green dye processed in short UV wavelength at 254 nm. UV spectral analysis showed peak absorbance at 613 nm with special reference to the excitation of surfaces plasmon vibration by Pb-NPs.

  19. Multi-dye residue analysis of triarylmethane, xanthene, phenothiazine and phenoxazine dyes in fish tissues by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Reyns, Tim; Belpaire, Claude; Geeraerts, Caroline; Van Loco, Joris

    2014-03-15

    Beside the possible illegal use of malachite green in aquaculture, other familiar dyes could also been applied by fraudulent producers due to their antiseptic and antibacterial activity. In this contribution, a new sensitive multi-residue method was developed to determine triarylmethane, xanthene, phenothiazine and phenoxazine dyes in fish by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Samples were extracted with acetonitrile, followed by an oxidation step using 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyanobenzoquinone. Further clean-up was performed by tandem solid phase extraction using weak and strong cation exchange cartridges. Extracts were analysed by UPLC-MS(n) operating in the positive electrospray ionisation mode (ESI+). The fourteen dyes were separated within only 12min on a C18 BEH column using 1mM ammonium acetate in water at pH 4.5 and acetonitrile as mobile phases at a flowrate of 0.4mLmin(-1). The presented method was validated as defined by the European Union and scientific literature. Good linearity (R ≥0.99 and goodness-of-fit (g) ≤10%) was achieved over the tested concentration range (0.25-2ngg(-1)). Limit of quantification was 0.25ngg(-1) for all dyes, with a signal-to-noise ratio of at least 10/1. This is at least 5 to 10 times lower than previous published methods. Limits of detection were all <0.1ngg(-1). Precision and trueness fell within the criteria requested by the EC requirements for this concentration range. Decision limit (CCα) and detection capability (CCβ) were all <1 and <0.25ngg(-1), respectively. Due to background levels of the xanthene dyes, the two rhodamine dyes could only be determined above 0.75ngg(-1). For these dyes, the method can only be used for screening purposes. To show the applicability of the method, a monitoring study was performed to investigate the occurrence of artificial dyes in wildlife European eel in Flemish rivers. PMID:24583201

  20. Multi-dye residue analysis of triarylmethane, xanthene, phenothiazine and phenoxazine dyes in fish tissues by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Reyns, Tim; Belpaire, Claude; Geeraerts, Caroline; Van Loco, Joris

    2014-03-15

    Beside the possible illegal use of malachite green in aquaculture, other familiar dyes could also been applied by fraudulent producers due to their antiseptic and antibacterial activity. In this contribution, a new sensitive multi-residue method was developed to determine triarylmethane, xanthene, phenothiazine and phenoxazine dyes in fish by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Samples were extracted with acetonitrile, followed by an oxidation step using 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyanobenzoquinone. Further clean-up was performed by tandem solid phase extraction using weak and strong cation exchange cartridges. Extracts were analysed by UPLC-MS(n) operating in the positive electrospray ionisation mode (ESI+). The fourteen dyes were separated within only 12min on a C18 BEH column using 1mM ammonium acetate in water at pH 4.5 and acetonitrile as mobile phases at a flowrate of 0.4mLmin(-1). The presented method was validated as defined by the European Union and scientific literature. Good linearity (R ≥0.99 and goodness-of-fit (g) ≤10%) was achieved over the tested concentration range (0.25-2ngg(-1)). Limit of quantification was 0.25ngg(-1) for all dyes, with a signal-to-noise ratio of at least 10/1. This is at least 5 to 10 times lower than previous published methods. Limits of detection were all <0.1ngg(-1). Precision and trueness fell within the criteria requested by the EC requirements for this concentration range. Decision limit (CCα) and detection capability (CCβ) were all <1 and <0.25ngg(-1), respectively. Due to background levels of the xanthene dyes, the two rhodamine dyes could only be determined above 0.75ngg(-1). For these dyes, the method can only be used for screening purposes. To show the applicability of the method, a monitoring study was performed to investigate the occurrence of artificial dyes in wildlife European eel in Flemish rivers.

  1. Fish Tales

    SciTech Connect

    McLerran, L.

    2010-07-06

    This talk is about fishing and the friendships that have resulted in its pursuit. It is also about theoretical physics, and the relationship of imagination and fantasy to the establishment of ideas about nature. Fishermen, like theoretical physicists, are well known for their inventive imaginations. Perhaps neither are as clever as sailors, who conceived of the mermaid. If one doubts the power of this fantasy, one should remember the ghosts of the many sailors who drowned pursuing these young nymphs. An extraordinary painting by J. Waterhouse is shown as Fig. 1. The enchantment of a mermaid must reflect an extraordinary excess of imagination on the part of the sailor, perhaps together with an impractical turn of mind. A consummated relationship with a mermaid is after all, by its very nature a fantasy incapable of realization. To a theoretical physicist, she is symbolic of many ideas we develop. There are many truths known to fisherman in which one might also find parallels to the goals of scientists: (1) A fish is the only animal that keeps growing after its death; (2) Nothing makes a fish bigger than almost being caught; (3) ''...of all the liars among mankind, the fisherman is the most trustworthy.'' (William Sherwood Fox, in Silken Lines and Silver Hooks); and (4) Men and fish are alike. They both get into trouble when they open their mouths. These quotes may be interpreted as reflecting skepticism regarding the honesty of fisherman, and probably do not reflect adequate admiration for a creative imagination. Is it fair to criticize a person for believing a falsehood that he or she sincerely believes to be true? The fisherman simultaneously invents the lie, and believes in it himself. The parallel with theoretical physics is perhaps only approximate, although we physicists may invent stories that we come to believe, on some rare occasions our ideas actually correspond to a more or less true descriptions of nature. These minor philosophical differences are not

  2. Great Lakes fish consumption and reproductive outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Dar, E.

    1989-01-01

    This epidemiological investigation determined prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), through contaminated fish consumption, and ascertained reproductive outcomes. Green Bay, Wisconsin was chosen as the study site because it was known for its environmental contamination of PCBs. These chemicals are environmentally stable and persistent, and tend to bioaccumulate up the food chain, with highest levels found in predatory sport fish from Lake Michigan. The Green Bay area provided a population with potential PCB exposure from sport fish consumption. Accidental poisoning incidents showed detrimental reproductive effects of high dose PCB exposures. A Michigan study found significant effects on birth weight and gestational age when mothers consumed two sport fish meals per month. This study population was drawn from women during their first prenatal visit at two Green Bay clinics during a one year period. 1,112 participants completed a self-administered questionnaire. Maternal and cord blood samples were obtained for selected PCB serum analyses. Reproductive outcome measures were abstracted from hospital labor reports. Study results indicated that maternal consumption was correlated to maternal PCB serum levels. Regression techniques estimated significant exposure coefficients for subsets of two birth size parameters. Birth length was positively associated with PCB exposure in shorter mothers. Significant associations of PCB exposure and birth weight percentiles were estimated for two income groups in the urban residence/weight gain less than 34 pounds subset.

  3. Photooxidative Death in Blue-Green Algae

    PubMed Central

    Abeliovich, A.; Shilo, M.

    1972-01-01

    When incubated in the light under 100% oxygen, wild-type blue-green algae (Anacystis nidulans, Synechococcus cedrorum) die out rapidly at temperatures of 4 to 15 C, and at 35 C (or at 26 C in the case of S. cedrorum) in the absence of CO2. Photosynthesis is impaired in these cells long before they die. Blocking of photosystem II at high temperatures in the presence of CO2 sensitizes the algae to photooxidative death. Photooxidative death and bleaching of photosynthetic pigments are separable phenomena. Photooxidative conditions were demonstrated in Israeli fish ponds using A. nidulans as the test organism during dense summer blooms, when dissolved CO2 is low, and in winter, when water temperatures generally drop below 15 C. This finding suggests that photooxidative death may be responsible for the sudden decomposition of blue-green blooms in summer, and may be a factor in the absence of blue-green blooms in winter. PMID:4626540

  4. Fishing amplifies forage fish population collapses.

    PubMed

    Essington, Timothy E; Moriarty, Pamela E; Froehlich, Halley E; Hodgson, Emma E; Koehn, Laura E; Oken, Kiva L; Siple, Margaret C; Stawitz, Christine C

    2015-05-26

    Forage fish support the largest fisheries in the world but also play key roles in marine food webs by transferring energy from plankton to upper trophic-level predators, such as large fish, seabirds, and marine mammals. Fishing can, thereby, have far reaching consequences on marine food webs unless safeguards are in place to avoid depleting forage fish to dangerously low levels, where dependent predators are most vulnerable. However, disentangling the contributions of fishing vs. natural processes on population dynamics has been difficult because of the sensitivity of these stocks to environmental conditions. Here, we overcome this difficulty by collating population time series for forage fish populations that account for nearly two-thirds of global catch of forage fish to identify the fingerprint of fisheries on their population dynamics. Forage fish population collapses shared a set of common and unique characteristics: high fishing pressure for several years before collapse, a sharp drop in natural population productivity, and a lagged response to reduce fishing pressure. Lagged response to natural productivity declines can sharply amplify the magnitude of naturally occurring population fluctuations. Finally, we show that the magnitude and frequency of collapses are greater than expected from natural productivity characteristics and therefore, likely attributed to fishing. The durations of collapses, however, were not different from those expected based on natural productivity shifts. A risk-based management scheme that reduces fishing when populations become scarce would protect forage fish and their predators from collapse with little effect on long-term average catches.

  5. Fishing amplifies forage fish population collapses

    PubMed Central

    Essington, Timothy E.; Moriarty, Pamela E.; Froehlich, Halley E.; Hodgson, Emma E.; Koehn, Laura E.; Oken, Kiva L.; Siple, Margaret C.; Stawitz, Christine C.

    2015-01-01

    Forage fish support the largest fisheries in the world but also play key roles in marine food webs by transferring energy from plankton to upper trophic-level predators, such as large fish, seabirds, and marine mammals. Fishing can, thereby, have far reaching consequences on marine food webs unless safeguards are in place to avoid depleting forage fish to dangerously low levels, where dependent predators are most vulnerable. However, disentangling the contributions of fishing vs. natural processes on population dynamics has been difficult because of the sensitivity of these stocks to environmental conditions. Here, we overcome this difficulty by collating population time series for forage fish populations that account for nearly two-thirds of global catch of forage fish to identify the fingerprint of fisheries on their population dynamics. Forage fish population collapses shared a set of common and unique characteristics: high fishing pressure for several years before collapse, a sharp drop in natural population productivity, and a lagged response to reduce fishing pressure. Lagged response to natural productivity declines can sharply amplify the magnitude of naturally occurring population fluctuations. Finally, we show that the magnitude and frequency of collapses are greater than expected from natural productivity characteristics and therefore, likely attributed to fishing. The durations of collapses, however, were not different from those expected based on natural productivity shifts. A risk-based management scheme that reduces fishing when populations become scarce would protect forage fish and their predators from collapse with little effect on long-term average catches. PMID:25848018

  6. Fish tapeworm infection

    MedlinePlus

    Fish tapeworm infection is an intestinal infection with the tapeworm parasite found in fish. ... The fish tapeworm ( Diphyllobothrium latum ) is the largest parasite that infects humans. Humans become infected when they eat raw ...

  7. Got a Sick Fish?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Welfare Veterinary Careers Public Health Got a sick fish? Fish with disease can show a variety of signs. If you notice your pet fish having any unusual disease signs, contact your veterinarian ...

  8. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Video Gallery

    The CAFE Green Flight Challenge sponsored by Google will be held at the CAFE Foundation Flight Test Center at Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. The Green Flight Challeng...

  9. Blue-green algae

    MedlinePlus

    “Blue-green algae” describes a large and diverse group of simple, plant-like organisms found in salt water and some large fresh water lakes. Blue-green algae products are used for many conditions, but so ...

  10. Fish mycobacteriosis (Tuberculosis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parisot, T.J.; Wood, J.W.

    1959-01-01

    The etiologic agent for the bacterial disease, "fish tuberculosis" (more correctly "mycobacteriosis"), was first observed in carp in 189& from a pond in France. Subsequently similar agents have been isolated from or observed in fish in fresh water, salt water, and brackish water, in fish in aquaria, hatcheries, and natural habitat~ (wild populations of fish). The disease has been recognized as an important infection among hatchery reared salmonid fishes on the West Coast of the United States, and in aquarium fishes such as the neon tetra, the Siamese fighting fish, and in salt water fish held in zoological displays.

  11. What Is Green?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pokrandt, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Green is a question with varying answers and sometimes no answer at all. It is a question of location, resources, people, environment, and money. As green really has no end point, a teacher's goal should be to teach students to question and consider green. In this article, the author provides several useful metrics to help technology teachers…

  12. Public Libraries Going Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    Going green is now a national issue, and patrons expect their library to respond in the same way many corporations have. Libraries are going green with logos on their Web sites, programs for the public, and a host of other initiatives. This is the first book to focus strictly on the library's role in going green, helping you with: (1) Collection…

  13. Show Me the Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norbury, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Gone are the days when green campus initiatives were a balm to the soul and a drain on the wallet. Today's environmental initiatives are all about saving lots of green--in every sense of the word. The environmental benefits of green campus projects--whether wind turbines or better insulation--are pretty clear. Unfortunately, in today's…

  14. The Green Man

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson-Newlin, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The Jolly Green Giant. Robin Hood. The Bamberg Cathedral. Tales of King Arthur. Ecology. What do they have in common? What legends and ancient myths are shrouded in the tales of the Green Man? Most often perceived as an ancient Celtic symbol as the god of spring and summer, the Green Man disappears and returns year after year, century after…

  15. In the Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Education officials used to debate whether they could afford to pursue green design and construction. Now the green movement has gained a foothold not just in education, but in society at large, and the prevailing attitude seems to have shifted. Can schools afford "not" to go green? As budgets are slashed repeatedly, education administrators must…

  16. EPA's Green Roof Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a presentation on the basics of green roof technology. The presentation highlights some of the recent ORD research projects on green roofs and provices insight for the end user as to the benefits for green roof technology. It provides links to currently available EPA re...

  17. Promoting green engineering through green chemistry.

    PubMed

    Kirchhoff, Mary M

    2003-12-01

    The decisions made by chemists in designing chemical products and processes directly impactthe options available to engineers. The physical and chemical properties of a material, for example, dictate the type of reactor that must be used in a given process. The task of the engineer is simplified when chemists design products and processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances. Green chemistry provides a foundation on which to build green engineering. This paper highlights green chemistry technologies that minimize the need for engineering safeguards in the areas of feedstocks, reagents, solvents, and syntheses. PMID:14700319

  18. Evaluation of medicated feeds with antiparasitical and immune-enhanced Chinese herbal medicines against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) is a widespread ciliated ectoparasite and results in severe economic loss in the aquaculture industry. Since malachite green was banned for using in food fish due to its carcinogenic and teratogenic effects on human, the search of alternative drug to treat I. multi...

  19. New insights into the red and green pigments in the illuminated foral charter of Setubal (1515) by combined use of μ-Raman and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra, M.; Carvalho, M. L.; Le Gac, A.; Manso, M.; Mortari, C.; Longelin, S.; Pessanha, S.

    2016-03-01

    The richly decorated foral charter attributed by D. Manuel I of Portugal, in 1515, to the village of Setubal, was studied using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence spectrometry and Raman micro-spectroscopy. An in situ characterization of the pigments used in the production of this masterpiece showed a very different pigment palette choice when compared to other similar Manueline charters. The red and green pigments are particularly puzzling, as the widely used mercury- and copper-based pigments, vermillion and malachite, respectively, were not found in the illuminated frontispiece. Instead, the cheaper lead-based pigment minium was used in the King's flag, while a mixture of copper sulfates was found for the green color, identified by means of micro-Raman spectroscopy. This result led to a new look at the conception that only one Royal workshop existed for the elaboration of Manueline foral charters.

  20. Selective Preservation of Fossil Ghost Fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meacham, Amanda

    2016-04-01

    A unique type of fossil fish preservation has been discovered in the Angelo Member (Fossil Lake) of the Green River Formation. The Angelo Member is a predominately evaporative deposit dominated by dolomite, but contains facies of fossiliferous laminated calcimicrite. Fossil fish occurring in two beds conspicuously lack bones. Fish in the lower bed are only preserved as organic material, including skin, pigments, and eyes. Fish in the upper bed have three-dimensional etching where bones once existed but also contain skin, pigments, and eyes. The top third of the upper bed often contains calcite crystals that are pseudomorphs after trona and possibly halite. Preliminary mineralogical analysis and mapping of evaporate facies suggests that this unique preservation may be related to lake geochemical conditions, such as high pH and alkalinity. To our knowledge, this is the first time this type of preservation has been observed and studied. Fossils and sediments within these beds are being studied both vertically and laterally through the one-meter thick sequence containing the fossil fish using XRD, isotopic, SEM, thin section, and total organic carbon analysis. Nine quarries, 0.5-1 meter square, were excavated for both fossils and rock samples along with 17 additional rock sample locations across an approximately 25-kilometer square region. This investigation has the capability of reconstructing the paleoenvironment and lake chemistry of Fossil Lake during the deposition of the "ghost-fish" beds and solving the mystery of the "missing bones" and the unusual process of preservation.

  1. Aegle marmelos Mediated Green Synthesis of Different Nanostructured Metal Hexacyanoferrates: Activity against Photodegradation of Harmful Organic Dyes.

    PubMed

    Jassal, Vidhisha; Shanker, Uma; Kaith, B S

    2016-01-01

    Prussian blue analogue potassium metal hexacyanoferrate (KMHCF) nanoparticles Fe4[Fe(CN)6]3 (FeHCF), K2Cu3[Fe(CN)6]2 (KCuHCF), K2Ni[Fe(CN)6]·3H2O (KNiHCF), and K2Co[Fe(CN)6] (KCoHCF) have been synthesized using plant based biosurfactant Aegle marmelos (Bael) and water as a green solvent. It must be emphasized here that no harmful reagent or solvent was used throughout the study. Plant extracts are easily biodegradable and therefore do not cause any harm to the environment. Hence, the proposed method of synthesis of various KMHCF nanoparticles followed a green path. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). MHCF nanoparticles were used for the photocatalytic degradation of toxic dyes like Malachite Green (MG), Eriochrome Black T (EBT), Methyl Orange (MO), and Methylene Blue (MB). Under optimized reaction conditions, maximum photocatalytic degradation was achieved in case of KCuHCF nanoparticles mediated degradation process (MG: 96.06%, EBT: 83.03%, MB: 94.72%, and MO: 63.71%) followed by KNiHCF (MG: 95%, EBT: 80.32%, MB: 91.35%, and MO: 59.42%), KCoHCF (MG: 91.45%, EBT: 78.84%, MB: 89.28%, and MO: 58.20%). PMID:27034896

  2. Aegle marmelos Mediated Green Synthesis of Different Nanostructured Metal Hexacyanoferrates: Activity against Photodegradation of Harmful Organic Dyes

    PubMed Central

    Jassal, Vidhisha; Kaith, B. S.

    2016-01-01

    Prussian blue analogue potassium metal hexacyanoferrate (KMHCF) nanoparticles Fe4[Fe(CN)6]3 (FeHCF), K2Cu3[Fe(CN)6]2 (KCuHCF), K2Ni[Fe(CN)6]·3H2O (KNiHCF), and K2Co[Fe(CN)6] (KCoHCF) have been synthesized using plant based biosurfactant Aegle marmelos (Bael) and water as a green solvent. It must be emphasized here that no harmful reagent or solvent was used throughout the study. Plant extracts are easily biodegradable and therefore do not cause any harm to the environment. Hence, the proposed method of synthesis of various KMHCF nanoparticles followed a green path. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). MHCF nanoparticles were used for the photocatalytic degradation of toxic dyes like Malachite Green (MG), Eriochrome Black T (EBT), Methyl Orange (MO), and Methylene Blue (MB). Under optimized reaction conditions, maximum photocatalytic degradation was achieved in case of KCuHCF nanoparticles mediated degradation process (MG: 96.06%, EBT: 83.03%, MB: 94.72%, and MO: 63.71%) followed by KNiHCF (MG: 95%, EBT: 80.32%, MB: 91.35%, and MO: 59.42%), KCoHCF (MG: 91.45%, EBT: 78.84%, MB: 89.28%, and MO: 58.20%). PMID:27034896

  3. Identification of green pigments from fragments of Roman mural paintings of three Roman sites from north of Germania Superior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debastiani, Rafaela; Simon, Rolf; Goettlicher, Joerg; Heissler, Stefan; Steininger, Ralph; Batchelor, David; Fiederle, Michael; Baumbach, Tilo

    2016-10-01

    Roman mural green pigment painting fragments from three Roman sites in the north of the Roman province Germania Superior: Koblenz Stadtwald Remstecken (KOSR), Weißenthurm " Am guten Mann" (WEIS) and Mendig Lungenkärchen (MELU), dating from second and third centuries AD were analyzed. The experiments were performed nondestructively using synchrotron-based scanning macro-X-ray fluorescence (SR-MA-XRF), synchrotron-based scanning micro-X-ray fluorescence (SR-μ-XRF), synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction (SR-XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. Correlation between SR-MA-XRF, SR-μ-XRF elemental map distributions and optical images of scanned areas was mainly found for the elements Ca, Fe and K. With XRF, Fe and K were identified correlated with green pigment, but in samples from two sites, Mendig Lungenkärchen and Weißenthurm " Am guten Mann", also Cu was detected in minor concentration. The results of SR-XRD and Raman spectroscopy were limited to one sample from Weißenthurm " Am guten Mann". In this sample, green earth and calcium carbonate were identified by SR-XRD and, additionally, malachite by Raman spectroscopy.

  4. 76 FR 57717 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ... California Central Valley steelhead associated with capture by rotary screw trap, handling, anesthetization... involve fish capture by gillnet and genetic analysis of trapped fish gut contents of various prey items... green sturgeon associated with capture by gill net, handling (removal from net, length measurement,...

  5. Fish hosts for glochidia of the endangered freshwater mussel Lampsilis higginsi Lea (Bivalvia: Unionidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waller, D.L.; Holland Bartels, L. E.

    1988-01-01

    Laboratory tests of nine species of fish as hosts for glochidia of Lampsilis higginsi Lea indicated that four species were fully suitable: largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides Lacepede), smallmouth bass (M. dolomieui Lacepede), walleye (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum Mitchill), and yellow perch (Perca flavescens Mitchill). Juvenile L. higginsi also developed on green sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus Rafinesque) but some fish sloughed their infections prematurely.

  6. 78 FR 24382 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-25

    ... distribution and diversity of anadromous fish species in water bodies adjacent to and within the county's levee... management practice program and establish in-water work windows that would minimize effects on listed fish... pacificus): Threatened southern (S). Green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris): Threatened southern...

  7. Green Cleaning Label Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balek, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Green cleaning plays a significant and supportive role in helping education institutions meet their sustainability goals. However, identifying cleaning products, supplies and equipment that truly are environmentally preferable can be daunting. The marketplace is inundated with products and services purporting to be "green" or environmentally…

  8. Lighting: Green Light.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maniccia, Dorine

    2003-01-01

    Explains that by using sustainable (green) building practices, schools and universities can make their lighting systems more efficient, noting that embracing green design principles can help schools attract students. Discusses lighting-control technologies (occupancy sensing technology, daylighting technology, and scheduling based technologies),…

  9. Greening the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Norma Velia

    2011-01-01

    Because educators vicariously touch the future through their students, the author believes that they sometimes have the uncanny ability to see the future. One common future forecast is the phenomenal growth of green jobs in the emerging green economy, leading to the creation of the "Reach of the Sun" Solar Energy Academy at La Mirada High School…

  10. Green Buildings and Health.

    PubMed

    Allen, Joseph G; MacNaughton, Piers; Laurent, Jose Guillermo Cedeno; Flanigan, Skye S; Eitland, Erika Sita; Spengler, John D

    2015-09-01

    Green building design is becoming broadly adopted, with one green building standard reporting over 3.5 billion square feet certified to date. By definition, green buildings focus on minimizing impacts to the environment through reductions in energy usage, water usage, and minimizing environmental disturbances from the building site. Also by definition, but perhaps less widely recognized, green buildings aim to improve human health through design of healthy indoor environments. The benefits related to reduced energy and water consumption are well-documented, but the potential human health benefits of green buildings are only recently being investigated. The objective of our review was to examine the state of evidence on green building design as it specifically relates to indoor environmental quality and human health. Overall, the initial scientific evidence indicates better indoor environmental quality in green buildings versus non-green buildings, with direct benefits to human health for occupants of those buildings. A limitation of much of the research to date is the reliance on indirect, lagging and subjective measures of health. To address this, we propose a framework for identifying direct, objective and leading "Health Performance Indicators" for use in future studies of buildings and health. PMID:26231502

  11. Green Infrastructure 101

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green Infrastructure 101 • What is it? What does it do? What doesn’t it do? • Green Infrastructure as a stormwater and combined sewer control • GI Controls and Best Management Practices that make sense for Yonkers o (Include operations and maintenance requirements for each)

  12. 10 Paths to Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2008-01-01

    Some institutions may feel comfortable with a few baby steps into the green world, while others may be ready to commit totally to environmental consciousness. Here, the author discusses 10 areas in which educators and administrators can beef up their green portfolio. These areas are in: alternative fuel, bikes/walking, water, education tools,…

  13. Custodial Operations: Green & Sustainable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, J. Kirk

    2008-01-01

    Custodial Operations can have a significant impact on institutional green and sustainable goals if given the proper support and challenge. This article describes the green and sustainable custodial operations in place at Carleton College in Northfield, Minnesota. The article reviews the college's sustainable efforts on biodegradables, packaging,…

  14. Green Building Research Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Sailor, David Jean

    2013-12-29

    This project provided support to the Green Building Research Laboratory at Portland State University (PSU) so it could work with researchers and industry to solve technical problems for the benefit of the green building industry. It also helped to facilitate the development of PSU’s undergraduate and graduate-level training in building science across the curriculum.

  15. Sowing Green Seeds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yingjun, Chen; Jianzhuang, Rong

    2004-01-01

    This article deals with the development of environmental education Hunan Yueyang Middle School Number One. Famous for its beautiful environment and lush green trees, the school has won titles such as "park" unit, "garden" school, "green school" and "National Advanced Unit for Environmental Education." In order to popularize scientific knowledge of…

  16. Green Buildings and Health.

    PubMed

    Allen, Joseph G; MacNaughton, Piers; Laurent, Jose Guillermo Cedeno; Flanigan, Skye S; Eitland, Erika Sita; Spengler, John D

    2015-09-01

    Green building design is becoming broadly adopted, with one green building standard reporting over 3.5 billion square feet certified to date. By definition, green buildings focus on minimizing impacts to the environment through reductions in energy usage, water usage, and minimizing environmental disturbances from the building site. Also by definition, but perhaps less widely recognized, green buildings aim to improve human health through design of healthy indoor environments. The benefits related to reduced energy and water consumption are well-documented, but the potential human health benefits of green buildings are only recently being investigated. The objective of our review was to examine the state of evidence on green building design as it specifically relates to indoor environmental quality and human health. Overall, the initial scientific evidence indicates better indoor environmental quality in green buildings versus non-green buildings, with direct benefits to human health for occupants of those buildings. A limitation of much of the research to date is the reliance on indirect, lagging and subjective measures of health. To address this, we propose a framework for identifying direct, objective and leading "Health Performance Indicators" for use in future studies of buildings and health.

  17. Green Chemistry and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hjeresen, Dennis L.; Schutt, David L.; Boese, Janet M.

    2000-01-01

    Many students today are profoundly interested in the sustainability of their world. Introduces Green Chemistry and its principles with teaching materials. Green Chemistry is the use of chemistry for pollution prevention and the design of chemical products and processes that are environmentally benign. (ASK)

  18. The Green Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huke, Robert E.

    1985-01-01

    Modern agriculture's green revolution refers to a complex package that includes improved seeds and a wide range of efficient management practices. The genetic history of and technological developments that led to the green revolution are described, and its impact discussed. (RM)

  19. A Green Clean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kravitz, Robert

    2006-01-01

    In the professional cleaning industry, green cleaning has been much discussed in the past few years. Usually, the information pertains to the many reasons why a green cleaning program should be started, the steps involved to get the program off the ground, and the potential benefits. However, although many facility managers and school…

  20. Green tea in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Pazyar, Nader; Feily, Amir; Kazerouni, Afshin

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this brief review is to summarize all in vitro, in vivo, and controlled clinical trials on green tea preparations and their uses in dermatology. An extensive literature search was carried out to identify in vivo and in vitro studies as well as clinical trials. Twenty studies were assessed and the results suggest that oral administration of green tea can be effective in the scavenging of free radicals, cancer prevention, hair loss, and skin aging plus protection against the adverse effects associated with psoralen-UV-A therapy. Topical application of green tea extract should be potentially effective for atopic dermatitis, acne vulgaris, rosacea, androgenetic alopecia, hirsutism, keloids, genital warts, cutaneous leishmaniasis, and candidiosis. There are promising results with the use of green tea for several dermatologic conditions; however, the efficacy of oral and topical green tea has not always been confirmed. PMID:23346663

  1. Green tea in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Pazyar, Nader; Feily, Amir; Kazerouni, Afshin

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this brief review is to summarize all in vitro, in vivo, and controlled clinical trials on green tea preparations and their uses in dermatology. An extensive literature search was carried out to identify in vivo and in vitro studies as well as clinical trials. Twenty studies were assessed and the results suggest that oral administration of green tea can be effective in the scavenging of free radicals, cancer prevention, hair loss, and skin aging plus protection against the adverse effects associated with psoralen-UV-A therapy. Topical application of green tea extract should be potentially effective for atopic dermatitis, acne vulgaris, rosacea, androgenetic alopecia, hirsutism, keloids, genital warts, cutaneous leishmaniasis, and candidiosis. There are promising results with the use of green tea for several dermatologic conditions; however, the efficacy of oral and topical green tea has not always been confirmed.

  2. Building the green way.

    PubMed

    Lockwood, Charles

    2006-06-01

    Just five or six years ago, the term "green building" evoked visions of barefoot, tie-dyed, granola-munching denizens. There's been a large shift in perception. Of course, green buildings are still known for conserving natural resources by, for example, minimizing on-site grading, using alternative materials, and recycling construction waste. But people now see the financial advantages as well. Well-designed green buildings yield lower utility costs, greater employee productivity, less absenteeism, and stronger attraction and retention of workers than standard buildings do. Green materials, mechanical systems, and furnishings have become more widely available and considerably less expensive than they used to be-often cheaper than their standard counterparts. So building green is no longer a pricey experiment; just about any company can do it on a standard budget by following the ten rules outlined by the author. Reliable building-rating systems like the U.S. Green Building Council's rigorous Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) program have done much to underscore the benefits of green construction. LEED evaluates buildings and awards points in several areas, such as water efficiency and indoor environmental quality. Other rating programs include the UK's BREEAM (Building Research Establishment's Environmental Assessment Method) and Australia's Green Star. Green construction is not simply getting more respect; it is rapidly becoming a necessity as corporations push it fully into the mainstream over the next five to ten years. In fact, the author says, the owners of standard buildings face massive obsolescence. To avoid this problem, they should carry out green renovations. Corporations no longer have an excuse for eschewing environmental and economic sustainability. They have at their disposal tools proven to lower overhead costs, improve productivity, and strengthen the bottom line.

  3. 49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 173.218 Section 173.218... Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) Except as provided in Column (7) of the HMT in § 172.101 of this subchapter, fish meal or fish scrap, containing at least 6%, but not more than 12% water, is authorized...

  4. 49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 173.218 Section 173.218... Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) Except as provided in Column (7) of the HMT in § 172.101 of this subchapter, fish meal or fish scrap, containing at least 6%, but not more than 12% water, is authorized...

  5. 49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 173.218 Section 173.218... Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) Except as provided in Column (7) of the HMT in § 172.101 of this subchapter, fish meal or fish scrap, containing at least 6%, but not more than 12% water, is authorized...

  6. 49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 173.218 Section 173.218... Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) Except as provided in Column (7) of the HMT in § 172.101 of this subchapter, fish meal or fish scrap, containing at least 6%, but not more than 12% water, is authorized...

  7. 49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 173.218 Section 173.218... Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) Except as provided in Column (7) of the HMT in § 172.101 of this subchapter, fish meal or fish scrap, containing at least 6%, but not more than 12% water, is authorized...

  8. Going Green: Greening Your Marketing Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germain, Carol Anne

    2009-01-01

    There is no doubt that the "Going Green" movement is in full swing. With global warming and other ecological concerns, people are paying closer attention to environmental issues and striving to live in a more sustainable world. For libraries, this is a perfect opportunity to be active in a campus-wide program and simultaneously promote library…

  9. Collection Development "Green Business": The Green Capitalist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagan, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The "greening" of corporate behemoths like Wal-Mart, DuPont, and Toyota has received much media attention in recent years. But consider small businesses: according to the U.S. Small Business Administration, of the estimated 27 million firms in the United States, 99.7 percent have fewer than 500 employees, 97.5 percent have fewer than 20, and more…

  10. Fishing for Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Bruce

    1994-01-01

    Teaching students to fish not only develops a lifetime leisure skill but also leads to an understanding of aquatic ecosystems and encourages student connection with the natural environment. Addresses educational benefits of incorporating fishing into environmental education and describes how two fishing programs successfully met objectives of…

  11. Evidence for leptin expression in fishes.

    PubMed

    Johnson, R M; Johnson, T M; Londraville, R L

    2000-06-01

    Tissues from bony fish were screened with anti-mouse leptin antibodies to detect the presence of the fat-regulating hormone in fishes. Low molecular-weight (16 kDa) immunoreactive bands were detected in blood, brain, heart and liver of green sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus), bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), white crappie (Pomonix annularis), channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). To further verify that we had identified leptin, the response of fish "leptin" was measured in fed and fasted green sunfish. Fed sunfish had approximately threefold higher concentration of leptin in blood than did fasted sunfish (fed vs. fasted; 0.599 +/- 0.03 microg/microl vs. 0.196 +/- 0.04 microg/microl; P > F = 0.0001), which is consistent with mammalian models of leptin function. Brain leptin concentration is also positively correlated with percent body fat in white crappie and bluegill. Based upon electrophoretic mobility, immunoreactivity, response to fasting, and correlation with adiposity, we believe we have the first evidence for leptin expression in an ectotherm.

  12. Fish allergy: in review.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Michael F; Lopata, Andreas L

    2014-06-01

    Globally, the rising consumption of fish and its derivatives, due to its nutritional value and divergence of international cuisines, has led to an increase in reports of adverse reactions to fish. Reactions to fish are not only mediated by the immune system causing allergies, but are often caused by various toxins and parasites including ciguatera and Anisakis. Allergic reactions to fish can be serious and life threatening and children usually do not outgrow this type of food allergy. The route of exposure is not only restricted to ingestion but include manual handling and inhalation of cooking vapors in the domestic and occupational environment. Prevalence rates of self-reported fish allergy range from 0.2 to 2.29 % in the general population, but can reach up to 8 % among fish processing workers. Fish allergy seems to vary with geographical eating habits, type of fish processing, and fish species exposure. The major fish allergen characterized is parvalbumin in addition to several less well-known allergens. This contemporary review discusses interesting and new findings in the area of fish allergy including demographics, novel allergens identified, immunological mechanisms of sensitization, and innovative approaches in diagnosing and managing this life-long disease. PMID:23440653

  13. White is green

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glicksman, Hal

    1998-12-01

    Green is the center of the visible spectrum and the hue to which we are most sensitive. In RGB color, green is 60 percent of white. When we look through a prism at a white square, as Goethe did, we see white between yellow and cyan, just where green appears in the spectrum of Newton. Additional arguments were published previously and appear at www.csulb.edu/-percept, along with the Percept color chart of the hue/value relationships. A new argument, derived from the perception of leaves, is presented here. The Percept color chart transformed into a color wheel is also presented.

  14. Green Light Pulse Oximeter

    DOEpatents

    Scharf, John Edward

    1998-11-03

    A reflectance pulse oximeter that determines oxygen saturation of hemoglobin using two sources of electromagnetic radiation in the green optical region, which provides the maximum reflectance pulsation spectrum. The use of green light allows placement of an oximetry probe at central body sites (e.g., wrist, thigh, abdomen, forehead, scalp, and back). Preferably, the two green light sources alternately emit light at 560 nm and 577 nm, respectively, which gives the biggest difference in hemoglobin extinction coefficients between deoxyhemoglobin, RHb, and oxyhemoglobin, HbO.sub.2.

  15. Fish community results

    SciTech Connect

    Hickman, G.D.; Scott, E.M. Jr.; Brown, A.M.

    1991-05-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) operates 9 reservoirs on the Tennessee River and 37 reservoirs on its tributaries. TVA is committed to maintaining the health of aquatic resources created when the reservoir system was built. To that end, TVA in cooperation with Valley states, operates a water resource monitoring program that includes physical, chemical, and biological data collection components. Biological monitoring will target the following selected elements within three zones of the reservoir (inflow, transition, and forebay): Sediment/Water-column Acute Toxicity Screening, Benthic macroinvertebrates, and Fish. Reservoir fisheries monitoring is divided into the following activities: Fish Biomass, Fish Tissue Contamination, Fish Community Monitoring, and Fish Health Assessment. This report presents the results of fish community monitoring and fish health assessments.

  16. Cholesterol Oxidation in Fish and Fish Products.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Natalie Marinho; Sampaio, Geni Rodrigues; Ferreira, Fernanda Silva; Labre, Tatiana da Silva; Torres, Elizabeth Aparecida Ferraz da Silva; Saldanha, Tatiana

    2015-12-01

    Fish and fish products are important from a nutritional point of view due to the presence of high biological value proteins and the high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially those of the n-3 series, and above all eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. However, these important food products also contain significant amounts of cholesterol. Although cholesterol participates in essential functions in the human body, it is unstable, especially in the presence of light, oxygen, radiation, and high temperatures that can cause the formation of cholesterol oxidation products or cholesterol oxides, which are prejudicial to human health. Fish processing involves high and low temperatures, as well as other methods for microbiological control, which increases shelf life and consequently added value; however, such processes favor the formation of cholesterol oxidation products. This review brings together data on the formation of cholesterol oxides during the preparation and processing of fish into food products which are recognized and recommended for their nutritional properties.

  17. Green Supercomputing at Argonne

    SciTech Connect

    Pete Beckman

    2009-11-18

    Pete Beckman, head of Argonne's Leadership Computing Facility (ALCF) talks about Argonne National Laboratory's green supercomputing—everything from designing algorithms to use fewer kilowatts per operation to using cold Chicago winter air to cool the machine more efficiently.

  18. The Green Revolution Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbridge, Stuart

    1985-01-01

    The Green Revolution game helps college students learn about agrarian change in which people use science to transform nature. The rational and basic objectives of the game are discussed, and the game's strengths and weaknesses are examined. (RM)

  19. Expanding the Green Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellor, John W.; Riely, Frank Z.

    1989-01-01

    Described are some of the successes of the Green Revolution in third-world nations. Discussed are research priorities; misconceptions; and improvements in management skills, training and education, infrastructure, and international trade. (CW)

  20. Fish elevator and method of elevating fish

    DOEpatents

    Truebe, Jonathan; Drooker, Michael S.

    1984-01-01

    A means and method for transporting fish from a lower body of water to a higher body of water. The means comprises a tubular lock with a gated entrance below the level of the lower body of water through which fish may enter the lock and a discharge passage above the level of the upper body of water. The fish raising means in the lock is a crowder pulled upward by a surface float as water from the upper body of water gravitationally flows into the closed lock filling it to the level of the upper body. Water is then pumped into the lock to raise the level to the discharge passage. The crowder is then caused to float upward the remaining distance through the water to the level of the discharge passage by the introduction of air into a pocket on the underside of the crowder. The fish are then automatically discharged from the lock into the discharge passage by the out of water position of the crowder. The movement of the fish into the discharge passage is aided by the continuous overflow of water still being pumped into the lock. A pipe may be connected to the discharge passage to deliver the fish to a selected location in the upper body of water.

  1. Why fishes have a fish shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eloy, Christophe; Schouveiler, Lionel

    2010-11-01

    The relation between form and function for elongated swimmers is revisited by solving a multi-objective optimization problem. We consider elongated fishes of varying elliptic cross-section whose motion is prescribed by a time-periodic curvature. The two semi-axes of the cross-section, the curvature amplitude and phase are assumed to vary continuously along the fish length. Hydrodynamic forces acting on such fishes are modeled in the elongated-body limit by considering both reactive and resistive forces. Applying Newton's second law, the heave and pitch amplitude and phase, as well as the swimming velocity can be found. The total power needed can also be calculated yielding the swimming efficiency. The multi-objective optimization consists in finding the fish shape and associated motion which corresponds to maximum efficiency, maximum velocity or any trade-off between the two. This optimization problem is solved using a genetic algorithm whose principle is to start with an initial random population and to evolve it by mutation and selection. We find that the most efficient shape resembles existing fishes and arguments are given to explain the relation between this particular fish form and performance.

  2. Parádsasvárite, a new member of the malachite-rosasite group from Parádsasvár, Mátra Mountains, Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fehér, Béla; Szakáll, Sándor; Zajzon, Norbert; Mihály, Judith

    2015-08-01

    Parádsasvárite (IMA No. 2012-077) was found in the Nagy-Lápafő area, Parádsasvár, Mátra Mountains, Hungary. It forms pale beige, globular aggregates up to 0.2 mm in diameter on calcite. Associated secondary minerals are smithsonite, hemimorphite, hydrozincite, aurichalcite and rosasite. The mineral was formed as an alteration product of sphalerite and chalcopyrite in a carbonate-rich environment. Parádsasvárite is translucent with a weakly vitreous, dull or silky lustre and white streak. Its Mohs hardness is about 2-3, cleavage and parting were not observed. It is brittle; the fracture is finely fibrous. Average of nine electron-microprobe analyses gave ZnO 58.08, CuO 12.60, PbO 1.27, CO2 (calc.) 19.50, H2O (calc.) 7.94, total 99.39 wt.%, corresponding to the empirical formula (Zn0.62Cu0.36Pb0.01)Σ0.99Zn1.00(CO3)(OH)2. The seven strongest lines in the X-ray powder diffraction pattern are [dhkl in Å (Iobs %, hkl)] 6.054 (67, 200), 5.085 (100, 210), 3.703 (87, 310 and 220), 3.021 (25, 400 and 130), 2.971 (25, -211 and 001), 2.603 (62, -221) and 2.539 (36, 420). According to its X-ray powder diffraction data and chemical formula, parádsasvárite belongs to the malachite-rosasite group and it is isostructural with rosasite. It is monoclinic, space group P21/ a, a = 12.92(1), b = 9.372(7), c = 3.159(4) Å, β = 110.4(1)°, V = 358.5(5) Å3, Z = 4.

  3. [Microcystin contamination of fish on Poyang Lake in Jiangxi province].

    PubMed

    Xu, Haibin; Sun, Ming; Sui, Haixia; Li, Jianping; Yan, Weixing

    2003-05-01

    In order to investigate the level of microcystin contamination of fish and its dynamic change in fish body, samples of freshwater as well as fish were collected from Poyang lake in Jiangxi province in July and October in 2000 respectively. Microcystin were tested for all samples via ELISA method. The results showed that: all freshwater samples collected in July and October contained blue-green alga and it has become a dominant alga. Microsystin content was higher in freshwater collected in October than that of in July. The average content level of microcystin in freshwater of river bank and Yongxiu river was 888.8 ng/ml, being ten times higher than that of water of Bang lake 1, Bang lake 2 and Big lake pool (83.6 pg/ml). The highest level of microcystin was 1036.9 pg/ml in freshwater of Yongxiu river. Microcystin could be detected in all samples of fish muscle and fish liver. The level of microcystin in muscle of fish collected in October was 1.2 to 2.0 times higher of that collected in July, and microcystin in liver of fish collected in October was 2.0 to 20 times higher of that collected in July. The average level of microcystin in fish liver in river bank and Yongxiu river was 27.2 ng/g, being significantly higher than that of in Bang lake1, Bang lake 2 and Big lake pool (2.8 ng/g).

  4. Beta vulgaris aided green synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles and their luminescence, photocatalytic and antioxidant properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavan Kumar, M. A.; Suresh, D.; Nagabhushana, H.; Sharma, S. C.

    2015-06-01

    Multifunctional zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO Nps) were synthesized by solution combustion synthesis using beetroots ( Beta vulgaris). The structure and morphology of the product were studied by powder X-ray diffraction, UV-visible spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. XRD studies indicate the formation of Nps with hexagonal wurtzite structure having crystallite sizes in the range of ˜ 52-76 nm. The UV-visible spectrum of Nps shows maximum absorption at 373 nm. The SEM analysis indicates the formation of porous, sponge-like agglomerated structures. Very interesting room temperature luminescence phenomena were observed with violet, green and red emissions upon exciting the ZnO Nps at 378 nm. This phenomenon could be due to oxygen vacancy and ZnO interstitial defects. ZnO Nps effectively degrade malachite green (MG) and methylene blue (MB) dyes in the presence of UV light. Nps show good antioxidant activity by scavenging 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals. The study successfully demonstrates simple, economical and ecofriendly methods of synthesis of multifunctional ZnO Nps. Nps may be used as good color tunable phosphor materials. The method demonstrated in this study is suggested as an effective replacement for the hazardous chemical methods of production of zinc oxide nanoparticles.

  5. FISH and immunofluorescence staining in Chlamydomonas.

    PubMed

    Uniacke, James; Colón-Ramos, Daniel; Zerges, William

    2011-01-01

    Here we describe how to use fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence staining to determine the in situ distributions of specific mRNAs and proteins in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. This unicellular eukaryotic green alga is a major model organism in cell biological research. Chlamydomonas is well suited for these approaches because one can determine the cytological location of fluorescence signals within a characteristic cellular anatomy relative to prominent cytological markers. Moreover, FISH and IF staining offer practical alternatives to techniques involving fluorescent proteins, which are difficult to express and detect in Chlamydomonas. The main goal of this review is to describe these powerful tools and to facilitate their routine use in Chlamydomonas research.

  6. Immunostimulants in fish diets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gannam, A.L.; Schrock, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    Various immunostimulants and their methods of application in fish culture are examined in this review. Important variables such as life stage and innate disease resistance of the fish; immunostimulant used, its structure and mode of action; and the fish's environment are discussed. Conflicting results have been published about the efficacy of immunostimulants in fish diets. Some researchers have had positive responses demonstrated as increased fish survival, others have not. Generally, immunostimulants enhance individual components of the non-specific immune response but that does not always translate into increased fish survival. In addition, immunostimulants fed at too high a dose or for too long can be immunosuppressive. [Article copies available for a fee from The Haworth Document Delivery Service: 1-800-342-9678. E-mail address: getinfo@haworthpressinc.com ].

  7. Fish and shellfish allergy.

    PubMed

    Wild, Laurianne G; Lehrer, Samuel B

    2005-01-01

    Fish and shellfish are important in the American diet and economy. Nearly $27 billion are spent each year in the United States on seafood products. Fish and shellfish are also important causes of food hypersensitivity. In fact, shellfish constitute the number one cause of food allergy in the American adult. During the past decade, much has been learned about allergens in fish and shellfish. The major allergens responsible for cross-reactivity among distinct species of fish and amphibians are parvalbumins. The major shellfish allergen has been identified as tropomyosin. Many new and important potential cross-reacting allergens have been identified within the fish family and between shellfish, arachnids, and insects. Extensive research is currently underway for the development of safer and more effective methods for the diagnosis and management of fish and shellfish hypersensitivity.

  8. EGCG assisted green synthesis of ZnO nanopowders: Photodegradative, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh, D.; Udayabhanu; Nethravathi, P. C.; Lingaraju, K.; Rajanaika, H.; Sharma, S. C.; Nagabhushana, H.

    2015-02-01

    Zinc oxide nanopowders were synthesized by solution combustion method using Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) a tea catechin as fuel. The structure and morphology of the product was characterized by Powder X-ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, photoluminescence and UV-Visible spectroscopy. The nanopowders (Nps) were subjected to photocatalytic and biological activities such as antimicrobial and antioxidant studies. PXRD patterns demonstrate that the formed product belongs to hexagonal wurtzite system. SEM images show that the particles are agglomerated to form sponge like structure and the average crystallite sizes were found to be ∼10-20 nm. PL spectra exhibit broad and strong peak at 590 nm due to the Zn-vacancies, and O-vacancies. The prepared ZnO Nps exhibit excellent photocatalytic activity for the photodegradation of malachite green (MG) and methylene blue (MB) indicating that the ZnO NPs are potential photocatalytic semiconductor materials. ZnO NPs exhibit significant bactericidal activity against Klebsiella aerogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus using the agar well diffusion method. Furthermore, the ZnO nano powders show good antioxidant activity by potentially scavenging DPPH radicals. The study successfully demonstrates synthesis of ZnO NPs by simple ecofriendly route employing EGCG as fuel that exhibit superior photodegradative, antibacterial and antioxidant activities.

  9. Fish and wildlife surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Poston, T.M.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the monitoring of radioactive contaminants in fish and wildlife species that inhabit the Colombia River and Hanford Site. Wildlife have access to areas of the Site containing radioactive contamination, and fish can be exposed to contamination in spring water entering the river along the shoreline. Therefore, samples are collected at various locations annually, generally during the hunting or fishing season, for selected species.

  10. [Helminths of Antarctic fishes].

    PubMed

    Rocka, Anna

    2008-01-01

    Antarctic fishes are represented by sharks, skates (Chondrichthyes) and bony fishes (Teleostei). Teleosts play an important role in the completion of life cycles of many helminth species. They serve as either definitive or intermediate and paratenic hosts. Chondrichthyes are definitive hosts only. Seventy three helminth species occur as the adult stage in fishes: Digenea (45), Cestoda (14), Nematoda (6), Acanthocephala (8), Also, 11 larval stages of Cestoda (7) and Nematoda (4) are known, together with 7 species of Acanthocephala in the cystacanth stage. One digenean species, Otodistomum cestoides, matures in skates. Among cestodes maturing in fishes only one, Parabothriocephalus johnstoni, occurs in a bony fish, Macrourus whitsoni. Antarctic Chondrichthyes are not infected with nematodes and acanthocephalans. Cestode larvae from teleosts belong to Tetraphyllidea (parasites of skates), and Tetrabothriidae and Diphyllobothriidae (parasites of birds and mammals). Larval nematodes represent Anisakidae, parasites of fishes, birds and mammals. Acanthocephalan cystacanths mature in pinnipeds and birds. The majority of parasites maturing in Antarctic fishes are endemics. Only 4 digenean and one nematode species, Hysterothylacium aduncum, are cosmopolitan. All acanthocephalans, almost all digeneans, the majority of cestodes and some nematodes occur mainly or exclusively in benthic fishes. Specificity of the majority of helminths utilizing teleosts as intermediate and/or paratenic hosts is low. Among parasites using fishes as definitive hosts, all Cestoda, most Digenea and Nematoda, and almost all Acanthocephala have a range of hosts restricted to one order or even to 1-2 host species. PMID:18664106

  11. Green Clay Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velde, B.

    2003-12-01

    Color is a problem for scientific study. One aspect is the vocabulary one used to describe color. Mint green, bottle green, and Kelly green are nice names but not of great utility in that people's physical perception of color is not always the same. In some industries, such as colored fabric manufacture, current use is to send a set of standard colors which are matched by the producer. This is similar to the use of the Munsell color charts in geology. None of these processes makes use of physical optical spectral studies. The reason is that they are difficult to obtain and interpret. For a geologist, color is very important but we rarely have the possibility to standardize the method of our color perception. One reason is that color is both a reflective and transmission phenomenon. The thickness of the sample is critical to any transmission characteristics. Hence, a field color determination is different from one made by using a petrographic microscope. Green glauconite in a hand specimen is not the same color in 30 μm thick thin section seen with a microscope using transmitted light.A second problem is that color in a spectral identification is the result of several absorption emissions,with overlapping signal, forming a complicated spectrum. Interpretation depends very greatly on the spectrum of the light source and the conditions of transmission-reflection of the sample. As a result, for this text, we will not attempt to analyze the physical aspect of green in green clays. In the discussion which follows, reference is made concerning color, to thin section microscopic perception.Very briefly, green clay minerals are green, because they contain iron. This is perhaps not a great revelation to mineralogists, but it is the key to understanding the origin and stability of green clay minerals. In fact, iron can color minerals either red or green or in various shades of orange and brown. The color most likely depends upon the relative abundance of the iron ion valence

  12. Evaluation of fast green FCF dye for non-lethal detection of integumental injuries in juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Diane G; Conway, Carla M; Applegate, LynnMarie J

    2009-04-01

    A rapid staining procedure for detection of recent skin and fin injuries was tested in juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Immersion of anesthetized fish for 1 min in aerated aqueous solutions of the synthetic food dye fast green FCF (Food Green 3) at concentrations of 0.1 to 0.5% produced consistent and visible staining of integumental injuries. A 0.1% fast green concentration was satisfactory for visual evaluation of injuries, whereas a 0.5% concentration was preferable for digital photography. A rinsing procedure comprised of two 30 s rinses in fresh water was most effective for removal of excess stain after exposure of fish. Survival studies in fresh water and seawater and histopathological analyses indicated that short exposures to aqueous solutions of fast green were non-toxic to juvenile Chinook salmon. In comparisons of the gross and microscopic appearance of fish exposed to fast green at various times after injury, the dye was observed only in areas of the body where epidermal disruption was present as determined by scanning electron microscopy. No dye was observed in areas where epidermal integrity had been restored. Further comparisons showed that fast green exposure produced more consistent and intense staining of skin injury sites than a previously published procedure using trypan blue. Because of its relatively low cost, ease of use and the rapid and specific staining of integumental injuries, fast green may find widespread application in fish health and surface injury evaluations.

  13. Evaluation of fast green FCF dye for non-lethal detection of integumental injuries in juvenile chinook salmon oncorhynchus tshawytscha

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, D.G.; Conway, C.M.; Applegate, L.M.J.

    2009-01-01

    A rapid staining procedure for detection of recent skin and fin injuries was tested in juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Immersion of anesthetized fish for 1 min in aerated aqueous solutions of the synthetic food dye fast green FCF (Food Green 3) at concentrations of 0.1 to 0.5% produced consistent and visible staining of integumental injuries. A 0.1% fast green concentration was satisfactory for visual evaluation of injuries, whereas a 0.5% concentration was preferable for digital photography. A rinsing procedure comprised of two 30 s rinses in fresh water was most effective for removal of excess stain after exposure of fish. Survival studies in fresh water and seawater and histopathological analyses indicated that short exposures to aqueous solutions of fast green were non-toxic to juvenile Chinook salmon. In comparisons of the gross and microscopic appearance of fish exposed to fast green at various times after injury, the dye was observed only in areas of the body where epidermal disruption was present as determined by scanning electron microscopy. No dye was observed in areas where epidermal integrity had been restored. Further comparisons showed that fast green exposure produced more consistent and intense staining of skin injury sites than a previously published procedure using trypan blue. Because of its relatively low cost, ease of use and the rapid and specific staining of integumental injuries, fast green may find widespread application in fish health and surface injury evaluations. ?? Inter-Research 2009.

  14. Green Logistics Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yoon S.; Oh, Chang H.

    Nowadays, environmental management becomes a critical business consideration for companies to survive from many regulations and tough business requirements. Most of world-leading companies are now aware that environment friendly technology and management are critical to the sustainable growth of the company. The environment market has seen continuous growth marking 532B in 2000, and 590B in 2004. This growth rate is expected to grow to 700B in 2010. It is not hard to see the environment-friendly efforts in almost all aspects of business operations. Such trends can be easily found in logistics area. Green logistics aims to make environmental friendly decisions throughout a product lifecycle. Therefore for the success of green logistics, it is critical to have real time tracking capability on the product throughout the product lifecycle and smart solution service architecture. In this chapter, we introduce an RFID based green logistics solution and service.

  15. The Big Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLisle, Rebecca; Hargis, Jace

    2005-01-01

    The Killer Whale, Shamu jumps through hoops and splashes tourists in hopes for the big fish, not because of passion, desire or simply the enjoyment of doing so. What would happen if those fish were obsolete? Would this killer whale be able to find the passion to continue to entertain people? Or would Shamu find other exciting activities to do…

  16. Folkbiology of Freshwater Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medin, Douglas L.; Ross, Norbert O.; Atran, Scott; Cox, Douglas; Coley, John; Proffitt, Julia B.; Blok, Sergey

    2006-01-01

    Cross-cultural comparisons of categorization often confound cultural factors with expertise. This paper reports four experiments on the conceptual behavior of Native American and majority-culture fish experts. The two groups live in the same general area and engage in essentially the same set of fishing-related behaviors. Nonetheless, cultural…

  17. Stress in Fish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stress in fish involves a condition disruptive of physiological homeostasis that occurs in response to unfavorable external influences and is capable of adversely affecting fish. Any stimulus that provokes stress responses is known as a stressor, disrupting a stable condition and causing a response....

  18. PARASITES OF FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The intent of this chapter is to describe the parasites of importance to fishes maintained and used in laboratory settings. In contrast to the frist edition, the focus will be only on those parasites that pose a serious threat to or are common in fishes held in these confined en...

  19. Summer Fish Camp.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remick, Dennis; Pulu, Tupou L.

    The booklet presents a description and illustrates, with photographs, the Eskimo lifestyle and the kinds of activities that occur at a summer fish camp on the Yukon River. Eleven suggested activities are listed for the teacher to present when using the booklet. Activities include studying the map of Alaska; tracing the life cycle of the fish;…

  20. An Amazing Fish Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Null, Elisabeth Higgins

    2001-01-01

    Caught up in the entrepreneurial thrill of launching a new industry, high-school students in an economically distressed fishing village in Maine are playing a vital research-and-development role in partnership with their community. The result is a sophisticated aquaculture center for raising several species of fish in a laboratory setting. (MLH)

  1. Green Supercomputing at Argonne

    ScienceCinema

    Beckman, Pete

    2016-07-12

    Pete Beckman, head of Argonne's Leadership Computing Facility (ALCF) talks about Argonne National Laboratory's green supercomputing—everything from designing algorithms to use fewer kilowatts per operation to using cold Chicago winter air to cool the machine more efficiently. Argonne was recognized for green computing in the 2009 HPCwire Readers Choice Awards. More at http://www.anl.gov/Media_Center/News/2009/news091117.html Read more about the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility at http://www.alcf.anl.gov/

  2. Apollo 15 green glasses.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ridley, W. I.; Reid, A. M.; Warner, J. L.; Brown, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    The samples analyzed include 28 spheres, portions of spheres, and angular fragments from soil 15101. Emerald green glasses from other soils are identical to those from 15101. The composition of the green glass is unlike that of any other major lunar glass group. The Fe content is comparable to that in mare basalts, but Ti is much lower. The Mg content is much higher than in most lunar materials analyzed to date, and the Cr content is also high. The low Al content is comparable to that of mare basalt glasses.

  3. Antimicrobial Peptides from Fish

    PubMed Central

    Masso-Silva, Jorge A.; Diamond, Gill

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are found widely distributed through Nature, and participate in the innate host defense of each species. Fish are a great source of these peptides, as they express all of the major classes of AMPs, including defensins, cathelicidins, hepcidins, histone-derived peptides, and a fish-specific class of the cecropin family, called piscidins. As with other species, the fish peptides exhibit broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, killing both fish and human pathogens. They are also immunomodulatory, and their genes are highly responsive to microbes and innate immuno-stimulatory molecules. Recent research has demonstrated that some of the unique properties of fish peptides, including their ability to act even in very high salt concentrations, make them good potential targets for development as therapeutic antimicrobials. Further, the stimulation of their gene expression by exogenous factors could be useful in preventing pathogenic microbes in aquaculture. PMID:24594555

  4. Small nonnative fishes as predators of larval razorback suckers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carpenter, J.; Mueller, G.A.

    2008-01-01

    The razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus), an endangered big-river fish of the Colorado River basin, has demonstrated no sustainable recruitment in 4 decades, despite presence of spawning adults and larvae. Lack of adequate recruitment has been attributed to several factors, including predation by nonnative fishes. Substantial funding and effort has been expended on mechanically removing nonnative game fishes, typically targeting large predators. As a result, abundance of larger predators has declined, but the abundance of small nonnative fishes has increased in some areas. We conducted laboratory experiments to determine if small nonnative fishes would consume larval razorback suckers. We tested adults of three small species (threadfin shad, Dorosoma petenense; red shiner, Cyprinella lutrensis; fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas) and juveniles of six larger species (common carp, Cyprinus carpio; yellow bullhead, Ameiurus natalis; channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus; rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss; green sunfish, Lepomis cyanellus; bluegill, L. macrochirus). These nonnative fishes span a broad ecological range and are abundant within the historical range of the razorback sucker. All nine species fed on larval razorback suckers (total length, 9-16 mm). Our results suggest that predation by small nonnative fishes could be responsible for limiting recovery of this endangered species.

  5. Relation of urbanization to stream fish assemblages and species traits in nine metropolitan areas of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Larry R.; Gregory, M. Brian; May, Jason T.

    2009-01-01

    We examined associations of fish assemblages and fish traits with urbanization and selected environmental variables in nine major United States metropolitan areas. The strongest relations between fishes and urbanization occurred in the metropolitan areas of Atlanta, Georgia; Birmingham, Alabama; Boston, Massachusetts; and Portland, Oregon. In these areas, environmental variables with strong associations (rs ≥ 0.70) with fish assemblages and fish traits tended to have strong associations with urbanization. Relations of urbanization with fish assemblages and fish traits were weaker in Denver, Colorado; Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas; Milwaukee-Green Bay, Wisconsin; and Raleigh, North Carolina. Environmental variables associated with fishes varied among the metropolitan areas. The metropolitan areas with poor relations may have had a limited range of possible response because of previous landscape disturbances. Given the complexities of urban landscapes in different metropolitan areas, our results indicate that caution is warranted when generalizing about biological responses to urbanization.

  6. Sensitivity of juvenile striped bass to chemicals used in aquaculture

    SciTech Connect

    Bills, T.D.; Marking, L.L.; Howe, G.E.

    1993-01-01

    Efforts to restore anadromous striped bass (Morone saxatilis) populations by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and other agencies over the past 20 years have concentrated on hatchery culture to supplement dwindling natural reproduction. Adult fish captured for artificial spawning are stressed by handling and crowding in rearing ponds and are often exposed to therapeutants, anesthetics, disinfectants, and herbicides used in fish culture. The authors determined the toxicity of 17 fishery chemicals (chloramine-T, erythromycin, formalin, Hyamine 3500, Roccal, malachite green, sulfamerazine, benzocaine, etomidate, Finquel (MS-222), metomidate, quinaldine sulfate, chlorine, potassium permanganate, Aquazine, copper sulfate, and Rodeo) to striped bass fry (average weight = 1 g) in reconstituted water (total hardness 40 mg/L) at 12 degrees C. The 96-h LC50's (concentration calculated to produce 50% mortality in a population) ranged from 0.129 mg/L for malachite green to 340 mg/L for erythromycin.

  7. Green tea (Camellia sinensis) administration induces expression of immune relevant genes and biochemical parameters in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Nootash, Shahab; Sheikhzadeh, Najmeh; Baradaran, Behzad; Oushani, Ali Khani; Maleki Moghadam, Mohammad Reza; Nofouzi, Katayoon; Monfaredan, Amir; Aghebati, Leili; Zare, Fatemeh; Shabanzadeh, Sadigheh

    2013-12-01

    Present study elucidates the efficacy of green tea (Camellia sinensis) on growth performance, immune and antioxidant systems and cytokine gene expression in rainbow trout tissues. Green tea was supplemented at 20, 100, and 500 mg kg(-1) diet and fed to fish (average weight: 23.5 g) for 35 days. No remarkable changes in growth performance were observed among all test groups. Lower lipid peroxidation product and higher superoxide dismutase activity were noted in fish received the medium dose of green tea. Significant increase in serum bactericidal activity and total protein were recorded in all treatment groups. All doses of green tea up-regulated Interleukin-1β transcription in the spleen, while Interleukin-1β mRNA level decreased significantly in the kidney of low dose of green tea. Interleukin-6 mRNA level was up-regulated in the spleen of high dose of green tea and liver of middle and high doses of green tea. High dose and medium dose of green tea up-regulated the interleukin-8 transcription in the kidney and liver, respectively. Meanwhile, green tea inhibited the production of interleukin-10 in all treatment groups compared with control group. Medium dose of green tea up-regulated tumor necrosis factor-α transcription in all fish tissues, while high dose and low dose of green tea enhanced tumor necrosis factor-α mRNA levels in the kidney and spleen, respectively. Present study suggests that green tea especially at 100 mg kg(-1) feed may effectively enhance the antioxidant system and immune system in rainbow trout.

  8. Raising a "Green Generation"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leger-Ferraro, Susan

    2010-01-01

    These days, "going green" is at the forefront of conversation in political, entertainment, and corporate circles. Yet to truly impact change, future generations must carry the torch of transformation. To ensure success, adults need to begin the practices with the fertile minds of young children in early education. Practicing sustainability is not…

  9. A Green Role Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Paul J.

    2008-01-01

    Building a new green campus and adopting a philosophy of sustainability is exciting, but if not done properly, it is not always the wisest decision. As one considers the education, health, and safety of a campus community, along with its business objectives, one may discover that there are numerous ways to make the campus more sustainable without…

  10. News: Green Chemistry & Technology

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of 21 articles focused on different features of green chemistry in a recent issue of Chemical Reviews. Topics extended over a wide range to include the design of sustainable synthetic processes to biocatalysis. A selection of perspectives follows as part of this colu

  11. The Green Team

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jahnigen, Charlie

    2006-01-01

    As interest in green building grows, much discussion has focused on aligning a project with the principles of Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certification: (1) cost savings through energy and water conservation; (2) improved worker productivity; (3) health, insurance and risk-management benefits; and (4) enhanced building…

  12. The Green Obligation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Cameron

    2007-01-01

    As the green movement grows, studies provide conclusive evidence about the benefits of environmentally conscious practices indoors and outdoors. Schools are no exception. Many of these studies demonstrate how poor indoor air quality (IAQ) in schools adversely affects many of the nation's 55 million students with health problems such as asthma and…

  13. The Green Hunter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Ed

    1991-01-01

    Environmentalists who oppose hunting have little understanding of the sport, its ethics and regulations, and its immense role in wildlife conservation. "Green" hunting involves not only the hunter's methods but also his perceptions of the hunt as a cultural or spiritual experience. (SV)

  14. Putting on the green

    EPA Science Inventory

    The green chemistry movement is scrutinized for marks of tangible success in this short perspective. Beginning with the easily identified harm of the Union Carbide Bhopal, India disaster and the concerns of Love Canal site in Niagara Falls, NY the public can begin to more easily ...

  15. Brassica greens herbicide screening

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to screen herbicides for potential use in brassica greens. Plots were in a RBD with 4 replications. The study was direct seeded on May 19, 2009 with a seeding rate of 272,000 seeds/acre (‘Savanna’ mustard). Treatments included trifluralin PPI + DCPA pre-emergence ap...

  16. Toward Green Challenge Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Karl E.

    1999-01-01

    Designing environmentally friendly challenge courses involves considering factors such as clearing, trees versus poles, soil erosion and compaction, toilet design, waste disposal, and carrying capacity. Strategies used in "green development" such as systems thinking, solution multipliers, and brainstorming with stakeholders could promote challenge…

  17. Green Schools: Electric Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demski, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    A student committee whose main duty is changing light bulbs may sound like the punch line to a bad joke, but as the students and faculty at Montgomery County Public Schools (MCPS) in Rockville, MD, know, changing a light bulb is no laughing matter. As part of the district's green initiative, all standard incandescent and fluorescent light bulbs…

  18. Green Supercomputing at Argonne

    ScienceCinema

    Pete Beckman

    2016-07-12

    Pete Beckman, head of Argonne's Leadership Computing Facility (ALCF) talks about Argonne National Laboratory's green supercomputing—everything from designing algorithms to use fewer kilowatts per operation to using cold Chicago winter air to cool the machine more efficiently.

  19. The Green Bank Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prestage, R. M.; Constantikes, K. T.; Hunter, T. R.; King, L. J.; Lacasse, R. J.; Lockman, F. J.; Norrod, R. D.

    2009-08-01

    The Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory is the world's premiere single-dish radio telescope operating at centimeter to long millimeter wavelengths. This paper describes the history, construction, and main technical features of the telescope.

  20. Green chemistry metrics

    EPA Science Inventory

    Synthetic chemists have always had an objective to achieve reliable and high-yielding routes to the syntheses of targeted molecules. The importance of minimal waste generation has emphasized the use of green chemistry principles and sustainable development. These directions lead ...

  1. Elements of Green.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turckes, Steven; Engelbrecht, Kathie

    2002-01-01

    Discusses incorporating green design into school construction, asserting that schools can improve their impact on the environment and reduce their operating costs while educating people about the value of sustainable design. Addresses energy reduction (including daylighting), site design for low environmental impact, flexible design, indoor air…

  2. Lean Green Machines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villano, Matt

    2011-01-01

    Colleges and universities have been among the leaders nationwide in adopting green initiatives, partly due to their demographics, but also because they are facing their own budget pressures. Virtualization has become the poster child of many schools' efforts, because it provides significant bang for the buck. However, more and more higher…

  3. EPA NRMRL green Infrastructure research

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green Infrastructure is an engineering approach to wet weather flow management that uses infiltration, evapotranspiration, capture and reuse to better mimic the natural drainage processes than traditional gray systems. Green technologies supplement gray infrastructure to red...

  4. Green tea: potential health benefits.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Craig; Segre, Tiffany

    2009-04-01

    Green tea has been used widely and in high doses for centuries as a health tonic in many societies. Evidence suggests that green tea is effective for treating genital warts. There is some supportive evidence for the use of green tea in cancer prevention. Drinking green tea is associated with a decrease in all-cause mortality, but not in cancer-related mortality. Small clinical studies have found that green tea may also be helpful in losing and managing weight, and lowering cholesterol. Epidemiologic evidence suggests that green tea may prevent stroke and cardiovascular disease. Green tea appears to be safe, although there have been case reports of hepatotoxicity possibly related to a specific extract in pill or beverage form. Green tea seems to be a low-risk complementary therapy for a number of conditions, but more studies are needed.

  5. Open-hole fishing

    SciTech Connect

    Pietrobono, J.T.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports on losing equipment in the hole that is one of the most expensive and potentially dangerous things that can go wrong in drilling a well. Drilling must come to a halt until the equipment is recovered, or the hole must be sidetracked. The well also can become hard to control with essential tools out of reach, increasing the risk of a blowout. Fishing, or recovering lost or stuck equipment in the hole, is therefore a critical procedure at any drilling operation. Fishing can be divided into two broad categories: open hole and cased hole. a major difference between the two is timing: open-hole fishing is done as the well is being drilled, whereas cased-hole fishing is performed during production or well workover. Fishing techniques and types of equipment used also vary between the tow. This lesson describes some of the basic techniques and tools used in open-hole fishing-that is, retrieving fish from a hole that is being drilled but is not yet cased.

  6. The green highway forum

    SciTech Connect

    2006-07-01

    In late 2004, as part of American Coal Ash Association's (ACAA) strategic planning process, a plan was approved by its Board of Directors implementing a 'green highways' concept which emphasized use of coal combustion products (CCPs) in highways in a variety of ways including being used alone, in combination with other forms of CCPs, and combined with non ash materials. The incentives behind the developed concept were the derived advantages from beneficial technical economic and environmental impacts. Although the primary use of fly ash is concrete, other forms of CCPs could be considered for more non-traditional highway applications. For example, these might include soils stabilization, binders for in-place pavement recycling, use in flowable fills, aggregates, source materials for structural fills and embankments, components in manufactured soils, and for granular base courses beneath pavements. At this same time, unknown to ACCA, EPA Region 3 in Philadelphia was working with the Wetlands and Watershed Work Group, a non-profit organization involved in wetlands policy and management along with the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) on their own Green Highways initiative. These groups were planning a conference, the 'Green Highway Forum'. This was held in College Park, Maryland at the University of Maryland, Nov 8-10 2005. At the conference a draft 'roadmap' was presented as a guide to executive level participants bringing the diverse viewpoints of many agencies and interest groups together. Ten guiding principals were considered. The 'Green Highways' is a new effort to recognize the 'greenness' of many projects already completed and those to be initiated. 2 photos.

  7. "Green" School Programs. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, J. Howard

    2009-01-01

    What are "Green School" programs and how do they benefit students, teachers and the community? Green School programs seek to weave concepts of sustainability and environmental awareness into the social and academic culture of the school community. Green schools are high performance facilities that have been designed, built, renovated operated or…

  8. It's Not Easy Building Green.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    Discusses green buildings, facilities designed, constructed, and operated in an environmentally friendly and resource-efficient way. Discusses reasons for campuses to "go green," the "shades of green" or variations in environmental-friendliness, certification through the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) rating system, financial…

  9. Green Roofs for Stormwater Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project evaluated green roofs as a stormwater management tool. Results indicate that the green roofs are capable of removing 40% of the annual rainfall volume from a roof through retention and evapotranspiration. Rainfall not retained by green roofs is detained, effectively...

  10. Greening from the Top Down.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberndorfer, Erica

    2002-01-01

    Green roofs, with their topsoil and plants, improve insulation, filter air, reduce water runoff, and provide habitat for urban wildlife. They are compatible with schools because they save energy; schools' flat roofs are conducive to greening; and green roofs can be outdoor classrooms for botany, ecology, and energy efficiency. Although scarce in…

  11. Green Schools on Ordinary Budgets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    Some in the green building industry have spoken for some time now of green buildings not needing to cost more. Jason McLennan in his 2004 book "The Philosophy of Sustainable Design" discusses not falling into the "green is always more" syndrome. He goes on to explain the concept of tunneling through the cost barrier. A 2007 cost study by the…

  12. Early detection of non-native fishes using fish larvae

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our objective was to evaluate the use of fish larvae for early detection of non-native fishes, comparing traditional and molecular taxonomy approaches to investigate potential efficiencies. Fish larvae present an interesting opportunity for non-native fish early detection. First,...

  13. Which Fish Should I Eat? Perspectives Influencing Fish Consumption Choices

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Anna L.; Karagas, Margaret R.; Mariën, Koenraad; Rheinberger, Christoph M.; Schoeny, Rita; Sunderland, Elsie; Korrick, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Diverse perspectives have influenced fish consumption choices. Objectives: We summarized the issue of fish consumption choice from toxicological, nutritional, ecological, and economic points of view; identified areas of overlap and disagreement among these viewpoints; and reviewed effects of previous fish consumption advisories. Methods: We reviewed published scientific literature, public health guidelines, and advisories related to fish consumption, focusing on advisories targeted at U.S. populations. However, our conclusions apply to groups having similar fish consumption patterns. Discussion: There are many possible combinations of matters related to fish consumption, but few, if any, fish consumption patterns optimize all domains. Fish provides a rich source of protein and other nutrients, but because of contamination by methylmercury and other toxicants, higher fish intake often leads to greater toxicant exposure. Furthermore, stocks of wild fish are not adequate to meet the nutrient demands of the growing world population, and fish consumption choices also have a broad economic impact on the fishing industry. Most guidance does not account for ecological and economic impacts of different fish consumption choices. Conclusion: Despite the relative lack of information integrating the health, ecological, and economic impacts of different fish choices, clear and simple guidance is necessary to effect desired changes. Thus, more comprehensive advice can be developed to describe the multiple impacts of fish consumption. In addition, policy and fishery management inter-ventions will be necessary to ensure long-term availability of fish as an important source of human nutrition. PMID:22534056

  14. Fishing for Seeds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science and Children, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Describes a method to collect seeds that are dispersed from weeds while avoiding some outdoor hazards such as rough terrain or animals. Describes a plan for creating a weed fishing pole and includes a materials list. (SAH)

  15. All fish for China?

    PubMed

    Villasante, Sebastián; Rodríguez-González, David; Antelo, Manel; Rivero-Rodríguez, Susana; de Santiago, José A; Macho, Gonzalo

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we examine the effect of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) on the level of fish intake in China in comparison with the rest of the world. We also analyse the origin and destination of China's seafood products in order to understand the main patterns during the last decades. The results show that in the 1961-2011 period the rate of growth of the GDP in China doubled that of other developing regions, while the daily fish intake of China increased fourfold, making China the largest fish consumer in the world. Given the size and scale of China's role in production, consumption, and global transformation of seafood markets, China is shaping a new era of industrialization in the history of the fishing industry.

  16. CONTAMINANTS IN FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to determine inorganic and organic contaminant concentrations in edible tissue of fish collected from eight coastal areas receiving wastewater discharges and from two reference locations. Trace metal residues were statistically similar regardless ...

  17. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... By Syndrome Life Cycle Impacts Human Health Wildlife Ecosystems Socioeconomic Freshwater Regions Distribution - U.S. Distribution - World Maps ... Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning Cyanobacteria Medical Community ... Fish Poisoning Causative organisms: Gambierdiscus ...

  18. Dehydrofreezing of Fish I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozima, Tsuneo

    Recently, new method of removing water from perishable food were developed using dehydration sheet with material having high osmotic pressure and absorbent polymer. Dehydration sheet consist of mixture of sugar dehydrolysate and absorbent polymer covered with sem-permeable membrane, and can remove water in liquid state by contact with perishable food. Dehydration rate of fish using with dehydration sheet varied depending on species, their shape, and ambient temperature etc. Fish were dehydrated with dehydration sheet at low temperature as 0 - 5 C and frozen in cold storage room. Dehydrofrozen fish were kept it's high quality and freshness after thawing, ATPase activity of fish muscle was kept at high level after dehydrofreezing in the case of cod and alaska pollack, and flesh color of farming salmon was kept after thawing.

  19. Food and feeding of fish in Hartwell Reservoir tailwater, Georgia-South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barwick, D. Hugh; Hudson, Patrick L.

    1985-01-01

    Food of silver redhorse (Moxostoma anisurum), redbreast sunfish (Lepomis auritus), green sunfish (L. cyanellus), and bluegills (L. macrochirus) was examined to determine whether or not these fish in the Hartwell Reservoir tailwater (Savannah River, Georgia-South Carolina) ate organisms entrained from the reservoir or displaced from the tailwater during water releases associated with the production of hydropower. These fish fed primarily on aquatic insects, crayfish, and terrestrial organisms originating from the tailwater. Major periods of feeding occurred during nongeneration.

  20. T Cells in Fish

    PubMed Central

    Nakanishi, Teruyuki; Shibasaki, Yasuhiro; Matsuura, Yuta

    2015-01-01

    Cartilaginous and bony fish are the most primitive vertebrates with a thymus, and possess T cells equivalent to those in mammals. There are a number of studies in fish demonstrating that the thymus is the essential organ for development of T lymphocytes from early thymocyte progenitors to functionally competent T cells. A high number of T cells in the intestine and gills has been reported in several fish species. Involvement of CD4+ and CD8α+ T cells in allograft rejection and graft-versus-host reaction (GVHR) has been demonstrated using monoclonal antibodies. Conservation of CD4+ helper T cell functions among teleost fishes has been suggested in a number studies employing mixed leukocyte culture (MLC) and hapten/carrier effect. Alloantigen- and virus-specific cytotoxicity has also been demonstrated in ginbuna and rainbow trout. Furthermore, the important role of cell-mediated immunity rather than humoral immunity has been reported in the protection against intracellular bacterial infection. Recently, the direct antibacterial activity of CD8α+, CD4+ T-cells and sIgM+ cells in fish has been reported. In this review, we summarize the recent progress in T cell research focusing on the tissue distribution and function of fish T cells. PMID:26426066

  1. Magnetic fields of green.

    PubMed

    Branton, Scott; Lile, Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    By incorporating even the basic elements of a more environmentally friendly, "green"construction and design in an MRI setting can create a safer, more pleasant space for the patients and staff, better images, and operational cost savings. Using building systems that have reduced amounts of steel can decrease construction time, increase thermal insulation, and reduce the weight of the structure meaning less energy required to transport and install. HVAC systems and lighting design can also play a major role in creating a "green"MRI suite. LEED certification places a focus on quality of the built environment, life cycle cost, and a productive indoor environment, as well as impact on the exterior environment. An LEED certified building considers costs and benefits for the lifetime of the building. PMID:22043731

  2. Green biorefinery - Industrial implementation.

    PubMed

    Kamm, B; Schönicke, P; Hille, Ch

    2016-04-15

    Oil refineries currently generate a multitude of products for almost every sphere of life at very high efficiency. However, fossil raw materials are just available in limited quantities. The development of comparable BIOREFINERIES is necessary to make a variety of competitive biological products regarding their equivalent products based on fossil raw materials. The product range of a biorefinery comprises products that can be manufactured on the basis of crude oil, as well as such products that cannot be produced on the basis of crude oil (Kamm, Gruber, & Kamm, 2011). GREEN BIOREFINERIES [GBR's] are complex systems of sustainable, environment- and resource-friendly technologies for a comprehensive material and energy use or recovery of renewable raw materials in form of green and waste biomasses from a sustainable land use as target (Kamm et al., 2009; Digman, Runge, Shinners, & Hatfield, 2013). PMID:26675876

  3. Magnetic fields of green.

    PubMed

    Branton, Scott; Lile, Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    By incorporating even the basic elements of a more environmentally friendly, "green"construction and design in an MRI setting can create a safer, more pleasant space for the patients and staff, better images, and operational cost savings. Using building systems that have reduced amounts of steel can decrease construction time, increase thermal insulation, and reduce the weight of the structure meaning less energy required to transport and install. HVAC systems and lighting design can also play a major role in creating a "green"MRI suite. LEED certification places a focus on quality of the built environment, life cycle cost, and a productive indoor environment, as well as impact on the exterior environment. An LEED certified building considers costs and benefits for the lifetime of the building.

  4. Green biorefinery - Industrial implementation.

    PubMed

    Kamm, B; Schönicke, P; Hille, Ch

    2016-04-15

    Oil refineries currently generate a multitude of products for almost every sphere of life at very high efficiency. However, fossil raw materials are just available in limited quantities. The development of comparable BIOREFINERIES is necessary to make a variety of competitive biological products regarding their equivalent products based on fossil raw materials. The product range of a biorefinery comprises products that can be manufactured on the basis of crude oil, as well as such products that cannot be produced on the basis of crude oil (Kamm, Gruber, & Kamm, 2011). GREEN BIOREFINERIES [GBR's] are complex systems of sustainable, environment- and resource-friendly technologies for a comprehensive material and energy use or recovery of renewable raw materials in form of green and waste biomasses from a sustainable land use as target (Kamm et al., 2009; Digman, Runge, Shinners, & Hatfield, 2013).

  5. Detection of Adult Green Sturgeon Using Environmental DNA Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bergman, Paul S.; Schumer, Gregg; Blankenship, Scott; Campbell, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) is an emerging sampling method that has been used successfully for detection of rare aquatic species. The Identification of sampling tools that are less stressful for target organisms has become increasingly important for rare and endangered species. A decline in abundance of the Southern Distinct Population Segment (DPS) of North American Green Sturgeon located in California’s Central Valley has led to its listing as Threatened under the Federal Endangered Species Act in 2006. While visual surveys of spawning Green Sturgeon in the Central Valley are effective at monitoring fish densities in concentrated pool habitats, results do not scale well to the watershed level, providing limited spatial and temporal context. Unlike most traditional survey methods, environmental DNA analysis provides a relatively quick, inexpensive tool that could efficiently monitor the presence and distribution of aquatic species. We positively identified Green Sturgeon DNA at two locations of known presence in the Sacramento River, proving that eDNA can be effective for monitoring the presence of adult sturgeon. While further study is needed to understand uncertainties of the sampling method, our study represents the first documented detection of Green Sturgeon eDNA, indicating that eDNA analysis could provide a new tool for monitoring Green Sturgeon distribution in the Central Valley, complimenting traditional on-going survey methods. PMID:27096433

  6. Detection of Adult Green Sturgeon Using Environmental DNA Analysis.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Paul S; Schumer, Gregg; Blankenship, Scott; Campbell, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) is an emerging sampling method that has been used successfully for detection of rare aquatic species. The Identification of sampling tools that are less stressful for target organisms has become increasingly important for rare and endangered species. A decline in abundance of the Southern Distinct Population Segment (DPS) of North American Green Sturgeon located in California's Central Valley has led to its listing as Threatened under the Federal Endangered Species Act in 2006. While visual surveys of spawning Green Sturgeon in the Central Valley are effective at monitoring fish densities in concentrated pool habitats, results do not scale well to the watershed level, providing limited spatial and temporal context. Unlike most traditional survey methods, environmental DNA analysis provides a relatively quick, inexpensive tool that could efficiently monitor the presence and distribution of aquatic species. We positively identified Green Sturgeon DNA at two locations of known presence in the Sacramento River, proving that eDNA can be effective for monitoring the presence of adult sturgeon. While further study is needed to understand uncertainties of the sampling method, our study represents the first documented detection of Green Sturgeon eDNA, indicating that eDNA analysis could provide a new tool for monitoring Green Sturgeon distribution in the Central Valley, complimenting traditional on-going survey methods. PMID:27096433

  7. Detection of Adult Green Sturgeon Using Environmental DNA Analysis.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Paul S; Schumer, Gregg; Blankenship, Scott; Campbell, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) is an emerging sampling method that has been used successfully for detection of rare aquatic species. The Identification of sampling tools that are less stressful for target organisms has become increasingly important for rare and endangered species. A decline in abundance of the Southern Distinct Population Segment (DPS) of North American Green Sturgeon located in California's Central Valley has led to its listing as Threatened under the Federal Endangered Species Act in 2006. While visual surveys of spawning Green Sturgeon in the Central Valley are effective at monitoring fish densities in concentrated pool habitats, results do not scale well to the watershed level, providing limited spatial and temporal context. Unlike most traditional survey methods, environmental DNA analysis provides a relatively quick, inexpensive tool that could efficiently monitor the presence and distribution of aquatic species. We positively identified Green Sturgeon DNA at two locations of known presence in the Sacramento River, proving that eDNA can be effective for monitoring the presence of adult sturgeon. While further study is needed to understand uncertainties of the sampling method, our study represents the first documented detection of Green Sturgeon eDNA, indicating that eDNA analysis could provide a new tool for monitoring Green Sturgeon distribution in the Central Valley, complimenting traditional on-going survey methods.

  8. Fish cardiovascular physiology and disease.

    PubMed

    Sherrill, Johanna; Weber, E Scott; Marty, Gary D; Hernandez-Divers, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Fish patients with cardiovascular disorders present a challenge in terms of diagnostic evaluation and therapeutic options. Veterinarians can approach these cases in fish using methods similar to those employed for other companion animals. Clinicians who evaluate and treat fish in private, aquarium, zoologic, or aquaculture settings need to rely on sound clinical judgment after thorough historical and physical evaluation. Pharmacokinetic data and treatments specific to cardiovascular disease in fish are limited; thus, drug types and dosages used in fish are largely empiric. Fish cardiovascular anatomy, physiology, diagnostic evaluation, monitoring, common diseases, cardiac pathologic conditions, formulary options, and comprehensive references are presented with the goal of providing fish veterinarians with clinically relevant tools.

  9. Green chemistry: development trajectory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moiseev, I. I.

    2013-07-01

    Examples of applications of green chemistry methods in heavy organic synthesis are analyzed. Compounds, which can be produced by the processing of the biomass, and the criteria for the selection of the most promising products are summarized. The current status of the ethanol production and processing is considered. The possibilities of the use of high fatty acid triglycerides, glycerol, succinic acid, and isoprene are briefly discussed. The bibliography includes 67 references.

  10. Underwater green laser vibrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antończak, Arkadiusz J.; Kozioł, Paweł; Wąż, Adam T.; Sotor, Jarosław Z.; Dudzik, Grzegorz; Kaczmarek, Paweł R.; Abramski, Krzysztof M.

    2012-06-01

    We have developed a laser vibrometer based on an monolithic single-frequency green laser operating at 532 nm. This wavelength can be particularly useful in the case of underwater vibrometry, especially with regard to the minimum of water absorption for this wavelength range (blue-green window). Using polarizing optics, we proposed a configuration that allows the elimination of parasitic reflections at the air-glass-water boundary. A measurement of heterodyne signals as a mixing result of scattered and reference beams has been performed. The study was conducted in aqueous medium for the scattering waterproof paper and retro-reflective surface. In both configurations we have obtained signals with a relatively high S/N ratio > 20 dB (for scattering surface) and > 31 dB (for retro-reflective tape) with the Resolution Bandwidth RBW 10 kHz for a vibrometer output power of 5 mW and the distance to the moving object 1.2 m (including 0.3 m in air). In our opinion, laser Doppler vibrometry LDV based on high-performance single frequency solid-state lasers with a wavelength range corresponding to the blue-green window allows effective measurement of vibration in the underwater environment.

  11. INL Green Building Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Jennifer Dalton

    2005-05-01

    Green buildings, also known as sustainable buildings, resource efficient buildings, and high performance buildings, are structures that minimize the impact on the environment by using less energy and water, reducing solid waste and pollutants, and limiting the depletion of natural resources. As Idaho National Laboratory (INL) becomes the nation’s premier nuclear energy research laboratory, the physical infrastructure will be established to help accomplish the mission. This infrastructure, particularly the buildings, should incorporate green design features in order to be environmentally responsible and reflect an image of progressiveness and innovation to the public and prospective employees. With this in mind, the recommendations described in this strategy are intended to form the INL foundation for green building standards. The recommendations in this strategy are broken down into three levels: Baseline Minimum, Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)Certification, and Innovative. Baseline Minimum features should be included in all new occupied buildings no matter what the purpose or size. These features do not require significant research, design, or capital costs and yet they can reduce Operation and Maintenance (O&M) costs and produce more environmentally friendly buildings. LEED Certification features are more aggressive than the Baseline Minimums in that they require documentation, studies, and/or additional funding. Combined with the Baseline Minimums, many of the features in this level will need to be implemented to achieve the goal of LEED certification. LEED Silver certification should be the minimum goal for all new buildings (including office buildings, laboratories, cafeterias, and visitor centers) greater than 25,000 square feet or a total cost of $10 million. Innovative features can also contribute to LEED certification, but are less mainstream than those listed in the previous two levels. These features are identified as areas where

  12. ZEBRA MUSSEL COLONIZATION OF RUSTY CRAYFISH IN GREEN BAY, LAKE MICHIGAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    In August, 1995 six rusty crayfish colonized with zebra mussels were captured in small-meshed fyke-nets sets set apart as of a fish sampling effort at Peter's Marsh and Long-Tail Point Wetland in lower Green Bay. Mussels colonized virtually all areas of the crayfish bodies, but ...

  13. Fishing down the largest coral reef fish species.

    PubMed

    Fenner, Douglas

    2014-07-15

    Studies on remote, uninhabited, near-pristine reefs have revealed surprisingly large populations of large reef fish. Locations such as the northwestern Hawaiian Islands, northern Marianas Islands, Line Islands, U.S. remote Pacific Islands, Cocos-Keeling Atoll and Chagos archipelago have much higher reef fish biomass than islands and reefs near people. Much of the high biomass of most remote reef fish communities lies in the largest species, such as sharks, bumphead parrots, giant trevally, and humphead wrasse. Some, such as sharks and giant trevally, are apex predators, but others such as bumphead parrots and humphead wrasse, are not. At many locations, decreases in large reef fish species have been attributed to fishing. Fishing is well known to remove the largest fish first, and a quantitative measure of vulnerability to fishing indicates that large reef fish species are much more vulnerable to fishing than small fish. The removal of large reef fish by fishing parallels the extinction of terrestrial megafauna by early humans. However large reef fish have great value for various ecological roles and for reef tourism.

  14. Fishing down the largest coral reef fish species.

    PubMed

    Fenner, Douglas

    2014-07-15

    Studies on remote, uninhabited, near-pristine reefs have revealed surprisingly large populations of large reef fish. Locations such as the northwestern Hawaiian Islands, northern Marianas Islands, Line Islands, U.S. remote Pacific Islands, Cocos-Keeling Atoll and Chagos archipelago have much higher reef fish biomass than islands and reefs near people. Much of the high biomass of most remote reef fish communities lies in the largest species, such as sharks, bumphead parrots, giant trevally, and humphead wrasse. Some, such as sharks and giant trevally, are apex predators, but others such as bumphead parrots and humphead wrasse, are not. At many locations, decreases in large reef fish species have been attributed to fishing. Fishing is well known to remove the largest fish first, and a quantitative measure of vulnerability to fishing indicates that large reef fish species are much more vulnerable to fishing than small fish. The removal of large reef fish by fishing parallels the extinction of terrestrial megafauna by early humans. However large reef fish have great value for various ecological roles and for reef tourism. PMID:24889317

  15. Green Chemistry Metrics with Special Reference to Green Analytical Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Tobiszewski, Marek; Marć, Mariusz; Gałuszka, Agnieszka; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    The concept of green chemistry is widely recognized in chemical laboratories. To properly measure an environmental impact of chemical processes, dedicated assessment tools are required. This paper summarizes the current state of knowledge in the field of development of green chemistry and green analytical chemistry metrics. The diverse methods used for evaluation of the greenness of organic synthesis, such as eco-footprint, E-Factor, EATOS, and Eco-Scale are described. Both the well-established and recently developed green analytical chemistry metrics, including NEMI labeling and analytical Eco-scale, are presented. Additionally, this paper focuses on the possibility of the use of multivariate statistics in evaluation of environmental impact of analytical procedures. All the above metrics are compared and discussed in terms of their advantages and disadvantages. The current needs and future perspectives in green chemistry metrics are also discussed. PMID:26076112

  16. Green Chemistry Metrics with Special Reference to Green Analytical Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Tobiszewski, Marek; Marć, Mariusz; Gałuszka, Agnieszka; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2015-06-12

    The concept of green chemistry is widely recognized in chemical laboratories. To properly measure an environmental impact of chemical processes, dedicated assessment tools are required. This paper summarizes the current state of knowledge in the field of development of green chemistry and green analytical chemistry metrics. The diverse methods used for evaluation of the greenness of organic synthesis, such as eco-footprint, E-Factor, EATOS, and Eco-Scale are described. Both the well-established and recently developed green analytical chemistry metrics, including NEMI labeling and analytical Eco-scale, are presented. Additionally, this paper focuses on the possibility of the use of multivariate statistics in evaluation of environmental impact of analytical procedures. All the above metrics are compared and discussed in terms of their advantages and disadvantages. The current needs and future perspectives in green chemistry metrics are also discussed.

  17. Green leaves are the stuff of life.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    Children, pregnant women, nursing mothers, and the elderly need to eat dark green leafy vegetables. These vegetables provide vitamin A which prevents night blindness and increases resistance to illness. The vitamin is also transferred to babies in breast milk; so mothers, in particular, need to consume these vegetables. Vitamin A is also contained in squash, sweet potatoes, carrots, mangoes, milk, eggs, and liver. Iron, which prevents tiredness and weakness, is found in meat, peas, beans, spinach, cassava leaves, and pumpkin leaves. Folic acid, which is necessary for healthy blood, is also found in dark green leafy vegetables. Pregnant women and the elderly especially need it. Protein is needed by all. Children need it for growth. Sources include meat, fish, eggs, milk, and cheese. However, protein is also found in dark green leafy vegetables, which can be grown or foraged, when the aforementioned sources are in short supply. Cultivated vegetable sources of protein include spinach, leeks, and the leaves of okra, cassava, papaya, hot peppers, beets, taro, and sweet potatoes. Wild vegetable sources are also available; however, care must be taken concerning plants that are poisonous or bitter. Some may require special preparation before eating. Vitamins and minerals escape with cooking, so a lid should be used and the time allotted should be as short as possible. Cooking water may be used for stew or soup, except when the leaves are poisonous before they are cooked (An example of this is cassava.). Children should begin eating these vegetables as soon as they stop breastfeeding. The vegetables can be mashed, ground, sieved or pureed in order for the children to eat them.

  18. Fish-protection devices at unscreened water diversions can reduce entrainment: evidence from behavioural laboratory investigations

    PubMed Central

    Poletto, Jamilynn B.; Cocherell, Dennis E.; Mussen, Timothy D.; Ercan, Ali; Bandeh, Hossein; Kavvas, M. Levent; Cech, Joseph J.; Fangue, Nann A.

    2015-01-01

    Diversion (i.e. extraction) of water from rivers and estuaries can potentially affect native wildlife populations if operation is not carefully managed. For example, open, unmodified water diversions can act as a source of injury or mortality to resident or migratory fishes from entrainment and impingement, and can cause habitat degradation and fragmentation. Fish-protection devices, such as exclusion screens, louvres or sensory deterrents, can physically or behaviourally deter fish from approaching or being entrained into water diversions. However, empirical assessment of their efficacy is often lacking or is investigated only for particular economically or culturally important fishes, such as salmonids. The Southern population of anadromous green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris) is listed as threatened in California, and there is a high density of water diversions located within their native range (the Sacramento–San Joaquin watershed). Coupled with their unique physiology and behaviour compared with many other fishes native to California, the green sturgeon is susceptible to entrainment into diversions and is an ideal species with which to study the efficacy of mitigation techniques. Therefore, we investigated juvenile green sturgeon (188–202 days post-hatch) in the presence of several fish-protection devices to assess behaviour and entrainment risk. Using a large experimental flume (∼500 kl), we found that compared with an open diversion pipe (control), the addition of a trash-rack box, louvre box, or perforated cylinder on the pipe inlet all significantly reduced the proportion of fish that were entrained through the pipe (P = 0.03, P = 0.028, and P = 0.028, respectively). Likewise, these devices decreased entrainment risk during a single movement past the pipe by between 60 and 96%. These fish-protection devices should decrease the risk of fish entrainment during water-diversion activities. PMID:27293725

  19. Cowlitz Falls Fish Passage.

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The upper Cowlitz was once home to native salmon and steelhead. But the combined impacts of overharvest, farming, logging and road building hammered fish runs. And in the 1960s, a pair of hydroelectric dams blocked the migration path of ocean-returning and ocean-going fish. The lower Cowlitz still supports hatchery runs of chinook, coho and steelhead. But some 200 river miles in the upper river basin--much of it prime spawning and rearing habitat--have been virtually cut off from the ocean for over 26 years. Now the idea is to trap-and-haul salmon and steelhead both ways and bypass previously impassable obstacles in the path of anadromous fish. The plan can be summarized, for the sake of explanation, in three steps: (1) trap and haul adult fish--collect ocean-returning adult fish at the lowermost Cowlitz dam, and truck them upstream; (2) reseed--release the ripe adults above the uppermost dam, and let them spawn naturally, at the same time, supplement these runs with hatchery born fry that are reared and imprinted in ponds and net pens in the watershed; (3) trap and haul smolts--collection the new generation of young fish as they arrive at the uppermost Cowlitz dam, truck them past the three dams, and release them to continue their downstream migration to the sea. The critical part of any fish-collection system is the method of fish attraction. Scientists have to find the best combination of attraction system and screens that will guide young fish to the right spot, away from the turbine intakes. In the spring of 1994 a test was made of a prototype system of baffles and slots on the upriver face of the Cowlitz Falls Dam. The prototype worked at 90% efficiency in early tests, and it worked without the kind of expensive screening devices that have been installed on other dams. Now that the success of the attraction system has been verified, Harza engineers and consultants will design and build the appropriate collection part of the system.

  20. Fish robotics and hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauder, George

    2010-11-01

    Studying the fluid dynamics of locomotion in freely-swimming fishes is challenging due to difficulties in controlling fish behavior. To provide better control over fish-like propulsive systems we have constructed a variety of fish-like robotic test platforms that range from highly biomimetic models of fins, to simple physical models of body movements during aquatic locomotion. First, we have constructed a series of biorobotic models of fish pectoral fins with 5 fin rays that allow detailed study of fin motion, forces, and fluid dynamics associated with fin-based locomotion. We find that by tuning fin ray stiffness and the imposed motion program we can produce thrust both on the fin outstroke and instroke. Second, we are using a robotic flapping foil system to study the self-propulsion of flexible plastic foils of varying stiffness, length, and trailing edge shape as a means of investigating the fluid dynamic effect of simple changes in the properties of undulating bodies moving through water. We find unexpected non-linear stiffness-dependent effects of changing foil length on self-propelled speed, and as well as significant effects of trailing edge shape on foil swimming speed.