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Sample records for fish oil-enriched drinking

  1. Transcriptomic Analysis of the Effects of a Fish Oil Enriched Diet on Murine Brains

    PubMed Central

    Gautam, Aarti; Miller, Stacy-Ann; Muhie, Seid; Meyerhoff, James; Jett, Marti

    2014-01-01

    The health benefits of fish oil enriched with high omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) are widely documented. Fish oil as dietary supplements, however, show moderate clinical efficacy, highlighting an immediate scope of systematic in vitro feedback. Our transcriptomic study was designed to investigate the genomic shift of murine brains fed on fish oil enriched diets. A customized fish oil enriched diet (FD) and standard lab diet (SD) were separately administered to two randomly chosen populations of C57BL/6J mice from their weaning age until late adolescence. Statistical analysis mined 1,142 genes of interest (GOI) differentially altered in the hemibrains collected from the FD- and SD-fed mice at the age of five months. The majority of identified GOI (∼40%) encodes proteins located in the plasma membrane, suggesting that fish oil primarily facilitated the membrane-oriented biofunctions. FD potentially augmented the nervous system's development and functions by selectively stimulating the Src-mediated calcium-induced growth cascade and the downstream PI3K-AKT-PKC pathways. FD reduced the amyloidal burden, attenuated oxidative stress, and assisted in somatostatin activation—the signatures of attenuation of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and affective disorder. FD induced elevation of FKBP5 and suppression of BDNF, which are often linked with the improvement of anxiety disorder, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Hence we anticipate efficacy of FD in treating illnesses such as depression that are typically triggered by the hypoactivities of dopaminergic, adrenergic, cholinergic, and GABAergic networks. Contrastingly, FD's efficacy could be compromised in treating illnesses such as bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, which are triggered by hyperactivities of the same set of neuromodulators. A more comprehensive investigation is recommended to elucidate the implications of fish oil on disease pathomechanisms, and the result

  2. Transcriptomic analysis of the effects of a fish oil enriched diet on murine brains.

    PubMed

    Hammamieh, Rasha; Chakraborty, Nabarun; Gautam, Aarti; Miller, Stacy-Ann; Muhie, Seid; Meyerhoff, James; Jett, Marti

    2014-01-01

    The health benefits of fish oil enriched with high omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) are widely documented. Fish oil as dietary supplements, however, show moderate clinical efficacy, highlighting an immediate scope of systematic in vitro feedback. Our transcriptomic study was designed to investigate the genomic shift of murine brains fed on fish oil enriched diets. A customized fish oil enriched diet (FD) and standard lab diet (SD) were separately administered to two randomly chosen populations of C57BL/6J mice from their weaning age until late adolescence. Statistical analysis mined 1,142 genes of interest (GOI) differentially altered in the hemibrains collected from the FD- and SD-fed mice at the age of five months. The majority of identified GOI (∼ 40%) encodes proteins located in the plasma membrane, suggesting that fish oil primarily facilitated the membrane-oriented biofunctions. FD potentially augmented the nervous system's development and functions by selectively stimulating the Src-mediated calcium-induced growth cascade and the downstream PI3K-AKT-PKC pathways. FD reduced the amyloidal burden, attenuated oxidative stress, and assisted in somatostatin activation-the signatures of attenuation of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and affective disorder. FD induced elevation of FKBP5 and suppression of BDNF, which are often linked with the improvement of anxiety disorder, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Hence we anticipate efficacy of FD in treating illnesses such as depression that are typically triggered by the hypoactivities of dopaminergic, adrenergic, cholinergic, and GABAergic networks. Contrastingly, FD's efficacy could be compromised in treating illnesses such as bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, which are triggered by hyperactivities of the same set of neuromodulators. A more comprehensive investigation is recommended to elucidate the implications of fish oil on disease pathomechanisms, and the result

  3. Metabolic response to feeding in weight-losing pancreatic cancer patients and its modulation by a fish-oil-enriched nutritional supplement.

    PubMed

    Barber, M D; McMillan, D C; Preston, T; Ross, J A; Fearon, K C

    2000-04-01

    Weight-losing patients with advanced cancer often fail to gain weight with conventional nutritional support. This suboptimal response might be explained, in part, by an increased metabolic response to feeding. It has been suggested that eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) can modify beneficially the metabolic response to cancer. The aim of the present study was to examine the metabolic response to feeding in cancer and the effects of an EPA-enriched oral food supplement on this response. A total of 16 weight-losing, non-diabetic patients with unresectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma and six healthy, weight-stable controls were studied by indirect calorimetry in the fasting and fed states. Body composition was estimated by bioimpedence analysis. Cancer patients were then given a fish-oil-enriched nutritional supplement providing 2 g of EPA and 2550 kJ daily, and underwent repeat metabolic study after 3 weeks of such supplementation. At baseline, resting energy expenditure whether expressed per kg body weight, lean body mass or body cell mass was significantly greater in the cancer patients compared with controls. Fat oxidation was significantly higher in the fasting state in cancer patients [median 1.26 g.kg(-1).min(-1) (interquartile range 0.95-1.38)] than in controls [0.76 g.kg(-1). min(-1) (0.62-0.92); P<0.05]. Over the 4 h feeding period, changes in insulin and glucose concentrations in cancer patients suggested relative glucose intolerance. In response to oral meal feeding, the percentage change in the area under the curve of energy expenditure was significantly lower in the cancer patients [median 7.9% (interquartile range 3.4-9.0)] than in controls [12.6% (9.9-15.1); P<0.01]. After 3 weeks of the EPA-enriched supplement, the body weight of the cancer patients had increased and the energy expenditure in response to feeding had risen significantly [9.6% (6. 3-12.4)], such that it was no different from baseline healthy control values. Similarly, fasting fat oxidation fell

  4. The activity of lysosomal exoglycosidases in serum of alcohol-dependent men supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E.

    PubMed

    Zaniewska, Agnieszka; Borzym-Kluczyk, Malgorzata; Szajda, Slawomir D; Romatowski, Jacek; Gil, Andrzej; Knas, Malgorzata; Dobryniewski, Jacek; Zwierz, Krzysztof

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the activity of the lysosomal exoglycosidases: alpha-mannosidase (MAN), alpha-fucosidase (FUC), and beta-glucuronidase (GLUCUR) in serum of alcohol-dependent men supplemented and not supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E. Serum was collected from eight social drinkers and 16 alcohol-dependent men after a drinking period. The activity of exoglycosidases and the concentration of protein in serum were determined. The increase in specific activity of MAN and GLUCUR was significant in serum of alcohol-dependent men both not supplemented and supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E, in comparison with the specific activity in serum of social drinkers. In serum of alcohol-dependent men treated with borage oil enriched with vitamin E, specific activity of MAN and GLUCUR fluctuated in comparison with alcohol-dependent men not supplemented. Specific activity of FUC in serum of alcohol-dependent men both not supplemented and supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E showed a tendency to increase, in comparison with social drinkers. Specific activity of FUC had a tendency to decrease in serum of alcohol-dependent men supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E, in comparison with alcohol-dependent men not supplemented. Thus, supplementation of alcohol-dependent men after a long-lasting drinking period with borage oil and vitamin E did not change the rate of catabolism of the oligosaccharide chains of glycoconjugates, as evaluated by serum activity of exoglycosidases. PMID:19735195

  5. The activity of lysosomal exoglycosidases in serum of alcohol-dependent men supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E.

    PubMed

    Zaniewska, Agnieszka; Borzym-Kluczyk, Malgorzata; Szajda, Slawomir D; Romatowski, Jacek; Gil, Andrzej; Knas, Malgorzata; Dobryniewski, Jacek; Zwierz, Krzysztof

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the activity of the lysosomal exoglycosidases: alpha-mannosidase (MAN), alpha-fucosidase (FUC), and beta-glucuronidase (GLUCUR) in serum of alcohol-dependent men supplemented and not supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E. Serum was collected from eight social drinkers and 16 alcohol-dependent men after a drinking period. The activity of exoglycosidases and the concentration of protein in serum were determined. The increase in specific activity of MAN and GLUCUR was significant in serum of alcohol-dependent men both not supplemented and supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E, in comparison with the specific activity in serum of social drinkers. In serum of alcohol-dependent men treated with borage oil enriched with vitamin E, specific activity of MAN and GLUCUR fluctuated in comparison with alcohol-dependent men not supplemented. Specific activity of FUC in serum of alcohol-dependent men both not supplemented and supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E showed a tendency to increase, in comparison with social drinkers. Specific activity of FUC had a tendency to decrease in serum of alcohol-dependent men supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E, in comparison with alcohol-dependent men not supplemented. Thus, supplementation of alcohol-dependent men after a long-lasting drinking period with borage oil and vitamin E did not change the rate of catabolism of the oligosaccharide chains of glycoconjugates, as evaluated by serum activity of exoglycosidases.

  6. Olive oil- and fish oil-enriched diets modify plasma lipids and susceptibility of LDL to oxidative modification in free-living male patients with peripheral vascular disease: the Spanish Nutrition Study.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Tortosa, C; López-Pedrosa, J M; Suarez, A; Ros, E; Mataix, J; Gil, A

    1999-07-01

    The present study describes a clinical trial in which Spanish patients suffering from peripheral vascular disease (Fontaine stage II) were given specific lipid supplements. Designed as a longitudinal intervention study, patients were provided with olive oil for 3 months, followed by a 3 month wash-out period, then supplemented with a combination of fish oil and olive oil for the final 3 months. Changes in plasma and lipoprotein fatty acid composition and susceptibility of LDL to in vitro oxidation were examined. Furthermore, lipid-supplement-induced changes in LDL properties were measured as relative electrophoretic mobility and macrophage uptake. In addition, thirteen patients not provided with olive oil and fish oil were included as a control group and twenty healthy age-matched individuals were used as a reference group. A complete clinical study and a nutritional survey concerning food habits and lifestyle were performed every 3 months. Yao indices and claudicometry did not change significantly with dietary intervention although changes in plasma lipid composition suggested an improvement in the condition of the patients. The intake of the fish-oil supplement resulted in significantly increased plasma levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) in comparison with baseline concentrations, olive-oil and control groups. Fish-oil consumption significantly decreased plasma triacylglycerol levels compared with the olive-oil period, control and reference groups. The susceptibility of LDL to Cu-mediated oxidation was lower in the patients consuming olive oil and the fish-oil supplement than in the control group, and the uptake of LDL by macrophages was significantly lower in the group supplemented with fish oil. In conclusion, consumption of olive oil together with a dietary supplement of fish oil may be useful in the nutritional management of patients suffering from peripheral vascular disease in terms of increasing plasma n-3 long

  7. Human exposure to perfluorinated compounds in Catalonia, Spain: contribution of drinking water and fish and shellfish.

    PubMed

    Domingo, José L; Ericson-Jogsten, Ingrid; Perelló, Gemma; Nadal, Martí; Van Bavel, Bert; Kärrman, Anna

    2012-05-01

    In this study, the concentrations of 15 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were analyzed in 30 water samples collected in Catalonia (Spain) at three stages of the drinking water treatment process in several water purification plants. In addition, the concentrations of 13 PFCs were determined in samples of fish and shellfish collected from coastal areas of Catalonia. The intake of PFCs through both pathways, drinking water intake and fish and shellfish consumption, was also estimated. In water samples, the highest mean concentrations corresponded to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) (1.81 and 2.40 ng/L, respectively), whereas perfluorodecanosulfonate (PFDS) and perfluorotetradecanoic acid (PFTDA) were under their respective limits of detection in all analyzed samples. The results show that although the current treatment processes caused slight reductions in PFC concentrations, these processes did not mean significant changes in the amounts of PFCs already contained in the raw water. Among the analyzed PFCs in fish and shellfish, only seven compounds could be detected in at least one composite sample. PFOS showed the highest mean concentration (2.70 ng/g fw), being detected in all species with the exception of mussels. With regard to PFOA (mean, 0.074 ng/g fw), the highest concentrations were detected in prawn and hake (0.098 and 0.091 ng/g fw, respectively). The current exposure to PFCs through consumption of fish and shellfish indicates that it should not be of concern for the consumers. The amounts ingested are well below the recommended tolerable daily intakes, at least for those PFCs for which information is available.

  8. Drinks like a fish: Using zebrafish to understand alcoholic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Howarth, Deanna L.; Passeri, Mike; Sadler, Kirsten C.

    2010-01-01

    Steatosis is the most common consequence of acute alcohol abuse, such as occurs during a drinking binge. Acute alcohol induced steatosis may predispose to more severe hepatic disease. We have developed a model of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) in zebrafish larvae to provide a system in which the genes and pathways that contribute to steatosis can be rapidly identified. Zebrafish larvae represent an attractive vertebrate model for studying acute ALD because they possess the pathways to metabolize alcohol, the liver is mature by 4 days post-fertilization (dpf), and alcohol can be simply added to their water. Exposing 4 dpf zebrafish larvae to 2% ethanol (EtOH) for 32 hours achieves ~80 mM intracellular EtOH and upregulation of hepatic cyp2e1, sod and bip, indicating that EtOH is metabolized and provokes oxidative stress. EtOH-treated larvae develop ALD as demonstrated by hepatomegaly and steatosis. Increased lipogenesis driven by the sterol response element binding protein (SREBP) transcription factors is essential for steatosis associated with chronic alcohol ingestion but it has not been determined if the same pathway is essential for steatosis following a drinking binge. We report that several Srebp target genes are induced in the liver of zebrafish exposed to EtOH. We used fish which harbor a mutation in the gene encoding the membrane bound transcription factor protease 1 (mbtps1; also called site-1 protease) and embryos in which the Srebp cleavage activating protein (scap) is knocked down to determine the requirement of this pathway in acute ALD. We find that both means of blocking Srebp activation prevents steatosis in response to 2% EtOH. Moreover, this is accompanied by the failure to activate several Srebp target genes in response to alcohol. We conclude that Srebps are required for steatosis in response to acute alcohol exposure. Moreover, these data highlight the utility of zebrafish as a useful new vertebrate model to study ALD. PMID:21284674

  9. Botanical oils enriched in n-6 and n-3 FADS2 products are equally effective in preventing atherosclerosis and fatty liver.

    PubMed

    Shewale, Swapnil V; Boudyguina, Elena; Zhu, Xuewei; Shen, Lulu; Hutchins, Patrick M; Barkley, Robert M; Murphy, Robert C; Parks, John S

    2015-06-01

    Echium oil (EO), which is enriched in 18:4 n-3, the immediate product of fatty acid desaturase 2 (FADS2) desaturation of 18:3 n-3, is as atheroprotective as fish oil (FO). The objective of this study was to determine whether botanical oils enriched in the FADS2 products 18:3 n-6 versus 18:4 n-3 are equally atheroprotective. LDL receptor KO mice were fed one of four atherogenic diets containing 0.2% cholesterol and 10% calories as palm oil (PO) plus 10% calories as: 1) PO; 2) borage oil (BO; 18:3 n-6 enriched); 3) EO (18:4 n-3 enriched); or 4) FO for 16 weeks. Mice fed BO, EO, and FO versus PO had significantly lower plasma total and VLDL cholesterol concentrations; hepatic neutral lipid content and inflammation, aortic CE content, aortic root intimal area and macrophage content; and peritoneal macrophage inflammation, CE content, and ex vivo chemotaxis. Atheromas lacked oxidized CEs despite abundant generation of macrophage 12/15 lipooxygenase-derived metabolites. We conclude that botanical oils enriched in 18:3 n-6 and 18:4 n-3 PUFAs beyond the rate-limiting FADS2 enzyme are equally effective in preventing atherosclerosis and hepatosteatosis compared with saturated/monounsaturated fat due to cellular enrichment of ≥20 PUFAs, reduced plasma VLDL, and attenuated macrophage inflammation. PMID:25921305

  10. Botanical oils enriched in n-6 and n-3 FADS2 products are equally effective in preventing atherosclerosis and fatty liver.

    PubMed

    Shewale, Swapnil V; Boudyguina, Elena; Zhu, Xuewei; Shen, Lulu; Hutchins, Patrick M; Barkley, Robert M; Murphy, Robert C; Parks, John S

    2015-06-01

    Echium oil (EO), which is enriched in 18:4 n-3, the immediate product of fatty acid desaturase 2 (FADS2) desaturation of 18:3 n-3, is as atheroprotective as fish oil (FO). The objective of this study was to determine whether botanical oils enriched in the FADS2 products 18:3 n-6 versus 18:4 n-3 are equally atheroprotective. LDL receptor KO mice were fed one of four atherogenic diets containing 0.2% cholesterol and 10% calories as palm oil (PO) plus 10% calories as: 1) PO; 2) borage oil (BO; 18:3 n-6 enriched); 3) EO (18:4 n-3 enriched); or 4) FO for 16 weeks. Mice fed BO, EO, and FO versus PO had significantly lower plasma total and VLDL cholesterol concentrations; hepatic neutral lipid content and inflammation, aortic CE content, aortic root intimal area and macrophage content; and peritoneal macrophage inflammation, CE content, and ex vivo chemotaxis. Atheromas lacked oxidized CEs despite abundant generation of macrophage 12/15 lipooxygenase-derived metabolites. We conclude that botanical oils enriched in 18:3 n-6 and 18:4 n-3 PUFAs beyond the rate-limiting FADS2 enzyme are equally effective in preventing atherosclerosis and hepatosteatosis compared with saturated/monounsaturated fat due to cellular enrichment of ≥20 PUFAs, reduced plasma VLDL, and attenuated macrophage inflammation.

  11. Botanical oils enriched in n-6 and n-3 FADS2 products are equally effective in preventing atherosclerosis and fatty liver

    PubMed Central

    Shewale, Swapnil V.; Boudyguina, Elena; Zhu, Xuewei; Shen, Lulu; Hutchins, Patrick M.; Barkley, Robert M.; Murphy, Robert C.; Parks, John S.

    2015-01-01

    Echium oil (EO), which is enriched in 18:4 n-3, the immediate product of fatty acid desaturase 2 (FADS2) desaturation of 18:3 n-3, is as atheroprotective as fish oil (FO). The objective of this study was to determine whether botanical oils enriched in the FADS2 products 18:3 n-6 versus 18:4 n-3 are equally atheroprotective. LDL receptor KO mice were fed one of four atherogenic diets containing 0.2% cholesterol and 10% calories as palm oil (PO) plus 10% calories as: 1) PO; 2) borage oil (BO; 18:3 n-6 enriched); 3) EO (18:4 n-3 enriched); or 4) FO for 16 weeks. Mice fed BO, EO, and FO versus PO had significantly lower plasma total and VLDL cholesterol concentrations; hepatic neutral lipid content and inflammation, aortic CE content, aortic root intimal area and macrophage content; and peritoneal macrophage inflammation, CE content, and ex vivo chemotaxis. Atheromas lacked oxidized CEs despite abundant generation of macrophage 12/15 lipooxygenase-derived metabolites. We conclude that botanical oils enriched in 18:3 n-6 and 18:4 n-3 PUFAs beyond the rate-limiting FADS2 enzyme are equally effective in preventing atherosclerosis and hepatosteatosis compared with saturated/monounsaturated fat due to cellular enrichment of ≥20 PUFAs, reduced plasma VLDL, and attenuated macrophage inflammation. PMID:25921305

  12. Influence of deep frying on the unsaponifiable fraction of vegetable edible oils enriched with natural antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Orozco, Mara I; Priego-Capote, Feliciano; Luque de Castro, Maria D

    2011-07-13

    The influence of deep frying, mimicked by 20 heating cycles at 180 °C (each cycle from ambient temperature to 180 °C maintained for 5 min), on the unsaponifiable fraction of vegetable edible oils represented by three characteristic families of compounds (namely, phytosterols, aliphatic alcohols, and triterpenic compounds) has been studied. The target oils were extra virgin olive oil (with intrinsic content of phenolic antioxidants), refined sunflower oil enriched with antioxidant phenolic compounds isolated from olive pomace, refined sunflower oil enriched with an autoxidation inhibitor (dimethylpolysiloxane), and refined sunflower oil without enrichment. Monitoring of the target analytes as a function of both heating cycle and the presence of natural antioxidants was also evaluated by comparison of the profiles after each heating cycle. Identification and quantitation of the target compounds were performed by gas cromatography-mass spectrometry in single ion monitoring mode. Analysis of the heated oils revealed that the addition of natural antioxidants could be an excellent strategy to decrease degradation of lipidic components of the unsaponifiable fraction with the consequent improvement of stability.

  13. Phase 1 summaries of radionuclide concentration data for vegetation, river water, drinking water, and fish. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Denham, D.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Hanf, R.W.; Poston, T.M.; Thiede, M.E.; Woodruff, R.K.

    1993-06-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at the Hanford Site since 1944. As part of the HEDR Project, the Environmental Monitoring Data Task (Task 05) staff assemble, evaluate, and summarize key historical measurements of radionuclide concentrations in the environment as a result of Hanford operations. The scope of work performed during Phase I included initiating the search, recovery, and inventory of environmental reports. Summaries of the environmental monitoring data that were recovered and evaluated are presented for specific periods of interest. These periods include vegetation monitoring data (primarily sagebrush) for the years 1945 through 1947, Columbia River water and drinking water monitoring data for the years 1963 through 1966, and fish monitoring data for the years 1964 through 1966. Concern was limited to those radionuclides identified as the most likely major contributors to the dose potentially received by the public during the times of interest: phosphorous-32, copper-64, zinc-65, arsenic-76, and neptunium-239 in Columbia River fish and drinking water taken from the river, and iodine-131 in vegetation. This report documents the achievement of the Phase I objectives of the Environmental Monitoring Data Task.

  14. Camellia Oil-Enriched Diet Attenuates Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Markers in Hypercholesterolemic Subjects.

    PubMed

    Bumrungpert, Akkarach; Pavadhgul, Patcharanee; Kalpravidh, Ruchaneekorn W

    2016-09-01

    Camellia oil is commonly used as an adjuvant in medicine. It is rich in monounsaturated fatty acids, vitamin E, and phytochemicals. The objective of this study was to examine effects of camellia oil consumption on oxidative stress, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) oxidation, and inflammatory markers in hypercholesterolemic subjects. The study design was a randomized, single-blind controlled trial. Women with hypercholesterolemia (n = 50) were randomly divided into two groups. The treatment group (n = 25) was provided camellia oil-enriched diets and the control group (n = 25) was provided diets cooked with soybean oil three meals (45 mL oil) a day for 8 weeks. Biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines were assessed before and the after intervention. Camellia oil consumption significantly decreased malondialdehyde (11.2%; P < .001) whereas glutathione was not changed (P = .382). Moreover, the camellia oil group exhibited a statistically significant decrease in oxidized LDL-C (8.7%; P < .001) compared with the control group. Furthermore, camellia oil consumption significantly decreased high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (12.3%; P < .001) whereas tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 were not different (P = .079; P = .660, respectively) compared with the control group. These data indicate that the consumption of camellia oil-enriched diet could decrease oxidative stress and inflammatory markers in hypercholesterolemic women. Therefore, camellia oil consumption may reduce cardiovascular disease risk factors.

  15. Camellia Oil-Enriched Diet Attenuates Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Markers in Hypercholesterolemic Subjects.

    PubMed

    Bumrungpert, Akkarach; Pavadhgul, Patcharanee; Kalpravidh, Ruchaneekorn W

    2016-09-01

    Camellia oil is commonly used as an adjuvant in medicine. It is rich in monounsaturated fatty acids, vitamin E, and phytochemicals. The objective of this study was to examine effects of camellia oil consumption on oxidative stress, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) oxidation, and inflammatory markers in hypercholesterolemic subjects. The study design was a randomized, single-blind controlled trial. Women with hypercholesterolemia (n = 50) were randomly divided into two groups. The treatment group (n = 25) was provided camellia oil-enriched diets and the control group (n = 25) was provided diets cooked with soybean oil three meals (45 mL oil) a day for 8 weeks. Biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines were assessed before and the after intervention. Camellia oil consumption significantly decreased malondialdehyde (11.2%; P < .001) whereas glutathione was not changed (P = .382). Moreover, the camellia oil group exhibited a statistically significant decrease in oxidized LDL-C (8.7%; P < .001) compared with the control group. Furthermore, camellia oil consumption significantly decreased high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (12.3%; P < .001) whereas tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 were not different (P = .079; P = .660, respectively) compared with the control group. These data indicate that the consumption of camellia oil-enriched diet could decrease oxidative stress and inflammatory markers in hypercholesterolemic women. Therefore, camellia oil consumption may reduce cardiovascular disease risk factors. PMID:27627703

  16. Comparative effects of Citrullus colocynthis, sunflower and olive oil-enriched diet in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats.

    PubMed

    Sebbagh, N; Cruciani-Guglielmacci, C; Ouali, F; Berthault, M-F; Rouch, C; Sari, D Chabane; Magnan, C

    2009-06-01

    Citrullus colocynthis (colocynth) seeds are traditionally used as antidiabetic medication in Mediterranean countries. The present study evaluated the differential effects of diets enriched with C. colocynthis, sunflower or olive oils on the pancreatic beta-cell mass in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in rats. STZ injection induced rapid hyperglycaemia in all animals. However, 2 months later, hyperglycaemia was significantly less pronounced in the rats fed a C. colocynthis oil-enriched diet compared with other rat groups (7.9mM versus 12mM and 16mM with colocynth versus olive and sunflower oils, respectively). Assessment of insulin sensitivity using the homoeostasis model assessment (HOMA) method also indicated less insulin resistance in the rats fed a C. colocynthis oil-enriched diet versus the other rats. Finally, 2 months after STZ injection, the pancreatic beta-cell mass was similar in both the STZ-treated rats fed the colocynth oil-enriched diet and their controls fed the same diet. In contrast, the pancreatic beta-cell mass remained lower in the STZ-induced diabetic rats fed with olive oil- and sunflower oil-enriched diets compared with the C. colocynthis group. We conclude that C. colocynthis oil supplementation may have a beneficial effect by partly preserving or restoring pancreatic beta-cell mass in the STZ-induced diabetes rat model.

  17. THE USE OF SMALL FISH MODELS FOR TOXICITY ASSESSMENTS OF CHEMICAL CONTAINMENTS IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This was an invited presentation. The first part described the results from a short-term carcinogenesis bioassay using medaka, a small aquarium fish. The second part described the development of a long-term multi-endpoint medaka bioassay which could be useful for assessing the ef...

  18. Responsible drinking

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol use disorder - responsible drinking; Drinking alcohol responsibly; Drinking in moderation; Alcoholism - responsible drinking ... If you drink alcohol, health care providers advise limiting how much ... drinking in moderation, or responsible drinking. Responsible ...

  19. Canola engineered with a microalgal polyketide synthase-like system produces oil enriched in docosahexaenoic acid.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Terence A; Bevan, Scott A; Gachotte, Daniel J; Larsen, Cory M; Moskal, William A; Merlo, P A Owens; Sidorenko, Lyudmila V; Hampton, Ronnie E; Stoltz, Virginia; Pareddy, Dayakar; Anthony, Geny I; Bhaskar, Pudota B; Marri, Pradeep R; Clark, Lauren M; Chen, Wei; Adu-Peasah, Patrick S; Wensing, Steven T; Zirkle, Ross; Metz, James G

    2016-08-01

    Dietary omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5) are usually derived from marine fish. Although production of both EPA and DHA has been engineered into land plants, including Arabidopsis, Camelina sativa and Brassica juncea, neither has been produced in commercially relevant amounts in a widely grown crop. We report expression of a microalgal polyketide synthase-like PUFA synthase system, comprising three multidomain polypeptides and an accessory enzyme, in canola (Brassica napus) seeds. This transgenic enzyme system is expressed in the cytoplasm, and synthesizes DHA and EPA de novo from malonyl-CoA without substantially altering plastidial fatty acid production. Furthermore, there is no significant impact of DHA and EPA production on seed yield in either the greenhouse or the field. Canola oil processed from field-grown grain contains 3.7% DHA and 0.7% EPA, and can provide more than 600 mg of omega-3 LC-PUFAs in a 14 g serving. PMID:27398790

  20. Binge Drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP) Injury, Violence & Safety Featured Videos Binge Drinking Binge Drinking A ... Safe Teen Drivers Break the Silence: Stop the Violence Break the Silence: Stop the Violence Binge Drinking ...

  1. Drinking Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... the safest water supplies in the world, but drinking water quality can vary from place to place. It ... water supplier must give you annual reports on drinking water. The reports include where your water came from ...

  2. Binge Drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... soccer team. When Chet saw Dave pound five beers in 30 minutes at two different parties, he ... in 2 weeks. Why Do People Binge Drink? Liquor stores, bars, and alcoholic beverage companies make drinking ...

  3. Fish oil, but not soy bean or olive oil enriched infusion decreases histopathological severity of acute pancreatitis in rats without affecting eicosanoid synthesis.

    PubMed

    Kilian, Maik; Heukamp, Ina; Gregor, Ja Ilja; Schimke, Ingolf; Kristiansen, Glen; Wenger, Frank Axel

    2011-12-01

    Different dietary fatty acids affect eicosanoid metabolism in different ways, thus influencing the pro- and anti-inflammatory balance of prostaglandins and leukotrienes. Therefore, we analyzed the impact of [n-3], [n-6], and [n-9] fatty acids on eicosanoid metabolism and histopathology in acute pancreatitis in rats. Seventy-five male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into five groups (n = 15). Group 1 underwent only laparotomy, while in groups, 2-5 pancreatitis was induced. Groups 1 and 2 were then given saline infusion, groups 3-5 received fat emulsion (group 3: rich in [n-6], group 4: rich in [n-9], group 5: rich in [n-3] fatty acids) for another 18 h. Infusion rich in [n-3] fatty acids significantly decreased histopathological severity of pancreatitis, compared to all other groups. There was no difference concerning the concentrations of prostaglandins and leukotrienes between all groups. Parenteral infusion rich in [n-3] fatty acids reduced histopathological severity of acute pancreatitis in rats without changing eicosanoid metabolism at the endpoint.

  4. Underage Drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... boys binge more than girls. Alcohol use among boys Alcohol use among girls SOURCE: Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality. ... for children to reach these BAC levels. For boys: Ages 9–13: About 3 drinks ... 16–17: About 5 drinks For girls: Ages 9–17: About 3 drinks As children ...

  5. Energy Drinks

    PubMed Central

    Ugochukwu, Chio; Bagot, Kara; Khalili, David; Zaky, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The market and degree of consumption of energy drinks have exponentially expanded while studies that assess their psychological effects and impact on quality of life remain in the early stages, albeit on the rise. This review aims to examine the literature for evidence of the psychological effects of energy drinks and their impact on the sense of well-being and quality of life. Methods: Studies were identified through Pubmed, Medline, and PsycINFO searches from the dates of 1990 to 2011, published in English, using the keywords energy or tonic drinks, psychological effects, caffeine and cognitive functions, mood, sleep, quality of life, well-being, and mental illness. Three authors agreed independently on including 41 studies that met specific selection criteria. Results: The literature reveals that people most commonly consume energy drinks to promote wakefulness, to increase energy, and to enhance the experience of alcohol intoxication. A number of studies reveal that individuals who consume energy drinks with alcohol were more inclined to be involved in risk-taking behaviors. There was also excessive daytime sleepiness the day following energy drink consumption. Contrary to expectations, the impact of energy drinks on quality of life and well-being was equivocal. Conclusions: Energy drinks have mixed psychological and well-being effects. There is a need to investigate the different contexts in which energy drinks are consumed and the impact on mental health, especially in the psychiatrically ill. PMID:22347688

  6. Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    This encyclopedic entry deals with various aspects of microbiology as it relates to drinking water treatment. The use of microbial indicators for assessing fecal contamination is discussed as well as current national drinking water regulations (U.S. EPA) and guidelines proposed ...

  7. WATER, DRINKING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary object of the microbiology of drinking water is to prevent waterborne disease. A drinking-water system can minimize waterborne disease by employing proper treatment and cntrol practices, and by monitoring the effectiveness of these practices. Here, these issues are ad...

  8. College Drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... by another student who has been drinking. 4 Sexual Assault About 97,000 students between the ages of 18 and 24 report experiencing alcohol-related sexual assault or date rape. 4 What is “binge drinking?” ...

  9. Optimized rapeseed oil enriched with healthy micronutrients: a relevant nutritional approach to prevent cardiovascular diseases. Results of the Optim'Oils randomized intervention trial.

    PubMed

    Gladine, Cécile; Combe, Nicole; Vaysse, Carole; Pereira, Bruno; Huertas, Alain; Salvati, Serafina; Rossignol-Castera, Anne; Cano, Noël; Chardigny, Jean-Michel

    2013-03-01

    Rapeseeds are naturally rich in cardioprotective micronutrients but refining leads to substantial losses or the production of undesirable compounds. The Optim'Oils European project proposed innovative refining conditions to produce an optimized rapeseed oil enriched in micronutrients and low in trans linolenic acid. We aimed to investigate cardioprotective properties of this Optimized oil. In a randomized, double-blind, controlled, cross-over study, 59 healthy normolipidaemic men consumed either Optimized or Standard rapeseed oils (20 g/d) and margarines (22 g/d) for 3 weeks. The Optimized oil reduced the trans FA concentration (p=0.009) and increased the contents of alpha-tocopherol (p=0.022) and coenzyme Q10 (p<0.001) in comparison with the Standard oil. Over the 3-week trial, Total-/HDL-cholesterol and LDL-/HDL-cholesterol were increased by 4% (p<0.05) with the Standard oil consumption whereas none of them rose with the Optimized rapeseed oil which increased the HDL-cholesterol and ApoA1 plasma content (+2%, NS and +3%, p<0.05 respectively). The effects observed on the plasma HDL-cholesterol levels (p=0.059), the Total-/HDL-cholesterol ratio (p=0.092), and on the ApoA1 concentrations (p=0.060) suggest an improvement of the cholesterol profile with the Optimized rapeseed oil. Finally, the Optimized oil reduced the plasma content of LDLox (-6%, NS), this effect being significantly different from the Standard oil (p=0.050). In conclusion, reasonable intake of an Optimized rapeseed oil resulting from innovative refining processes and enriched in cardioprotective micronutrients represent a relevant nutritional approach to prevent the risk of cardiovascular diseases by improving the cholesterol profile and reducing LDL oxidation.

  10. Binge Drinking.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, Lorena; Smith, Vincent C

    2015-09-01

    Alcohol is the substance most frequently abused by children and adolescents in the United States, and its use is associated with the leading causes of death and serious injury at this age (ie, motor vehicle accidents, homicides, and suicides). Among youth who drink, the proportion who drink heavily is higher than among adult drinkers, increasing from approximately 50% in those 12 to 14 years of age to 72% among those 18 to 20 years of age. In this clinical report, the definition, epidemiology, and risk factors for binge drinking; the neurobiology of intoxication, blackouts, and hangovers; genetic considerations;and adverse outcomes are discussed. The report offers guidance for the pediatrician. As with any high-risk behavior, prevention plays a more important role than later intervention and has been shown to be more effective. In the pediatric office setting, it is important to ask every adolescent about alcohol use. PMID:26324872

  11. Binge Drinking.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, Lorena; Smith, Vincent C

    2015-09-01

    Alcohol is the substance most frequently abused by children and adolescents in the United States, and its use is associated with the leading causes of death and serious injury at this age (ie, motor vehicle accidents, homicides, and suicides). Among youth who drink, the proportion who drink heavily is higher than among adult drinkers, increasing from approximately 50% in those 12 to 14 years of age to 72% among those 18 to 20 years of age. In this clinical report, the definition, epidemiology, and risk factors for binge drinking; the neurobiology of intoxication, blackouts, and hangovers; genetic considerations;and adverse outcomes are discussed. The report offers guidance for the pediatrician. As with any high-risk behavior, prevention plays a more important role than later intervention and has been shown to be more effective. In the pediatric office setting, it is important to ask every adolescent about alcohol use.

  12. Underage Drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... is dangerous because it Causes many deaths and injuries Can lead to poor decisions about engaging in risky behavior, such as drinking and driving or unprotected sex Increases the risk of physical and sexual assault Can lead to other problems, such as trouble ...

  13. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 17728 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  14. Drinking Water FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... Water & Nutrition Camping, Hiking, Travel Drinking Water Treatment & Sanitation for Backcountry & Travel Use Emergency Disinfection of Drinking ... Drinking Water Healthy Swimming / Recreational Water Global Water, Sanitation, & Hygiene Other Uses of Water Water-related Emergencies & ...

  15. Understanding standard drinks and drinking guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, William C.; Stockwell, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Introduction and Aims For consumers to follow drinking guidelines and limit their risk of negative consequences they need to track their ethanol consumption. This paper reviews published research on the ability of consumers to utilise information about the alcohol content of beverages when expressed in different forms e.g. in standard drinks or units versus percentage alcohol content.. Design and Methods A review of the literature on standard drink definitions and consumer understanding of these, actual drink pouring, use of standard drinks in guidelines and consumer understanding and use of these. Results Standard drink definitions vary across countries and typically contain less alcohol than actual drinks. Drinkers have difficulty defining and pouring standard drinks with over-pouring being the norm such that intake volume is typically underestimated. Drinkers have difficulty using percentage alcohol by volume and pour size information in calculating intake but can effectively utilise standard drink labeling to track intake. Discussion and Conclusions Standard drink labeling is an effective but little used strategy for enabling drinkers to track their alcohol intake and potentially conform to safe or low risk drinking guidelines. PMID:22050262

  16. Binge Drinking Intensity

    PubMed Central

    Esser, Marissa B.; Kanny, Dafna; Brewer, Robert D.; Naimi, Timothy S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Binge drinking (≥4 drinks for women; ≥5 drinks for men, per occasion) is responsible for more than half of the estimated 80,000 U.S. deaths annually and three-quarters of the $223.5 billion in costs in 2006. Binge drinking prevalence is assessed more commonly than binge drinking intensity (i.e., number of drinks consumed per binge episode). Risk of binge drinking–related harm increases with intensity, and thus it is important to monitor. The largest number of drinks consumed is assessed in health surveys, but its usefulness for assessing binge intensity is unknown. Purpose To assess the agreement between two potential measures of binge drinking intensity: the largest number of drinks consumed by binge drinkers (maximum-drinks) and the total number of drinks consumed during their most recent binge episode (drinks-per-binge). Methods Data were analyzed from 7909 adult binge drinkers from 14 states responding to the 2008 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) binge drinking module. Mean and median drinks-per-binge from that module were compared to mean and median maximum-drinks. Analyses were conducted in 2010–2011. Results Mean (8.2) and median (5.9) maximum-drinks were strongly correlated with mean (7.4) and median (5.4) drinks-per-binge (r=0.57). These measures were also strongly correlated across most sociodemographic and drinking categories overall and within states. Conclusions The maximum-drinks consumed by binge drinkers is a practical method for assessing binge drinking intensity and thus can be used to plan and evaluate Community Guide–recommended strategies for preventing binge drinking (e.g., increasing the price of alcoholic beverages and regulating alcohol outlet density). PMID:22608381

  17. Fish Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Fish Allergy KidsHealth > For Parents > Fish Allergy Print A ... From Home en español Alergia al pescado About Fish Allergy A fish allergy is not exactly the ...

  18. One Fish Two Fish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Michele

    1998-01-01

    This activity explains fisheries resource management to seven-year olds. First-grade students learn concepts such as offspring viability, life expectancy, and distribution of species, which help to determine when, where, and how people fish and the importance of fishing responsibly. Lists materials, procedures, and extensions. (SJR)

  19. Defining Risk Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Deborah A.

    2011-01-01

    Many efforts to prevent alcohol-related harm are aimed at reducing risk drinking. This article outlines the many conceptual and methodological challenges to defining risk drinking. It summarizes recent evidence regarding associations of various aspects of alcohol consumption with chronic and acute alcohol-related harms, including mortality, morbidity, injury, and alcohol use disorders, and summarizes the study designs most appropriate to defining risk thresholds for these types of harm. In addition, it presents an international overview of low-risk drinking guidelines from more than 20 countries, illustrating the wide range of interpretations of the scientific evidence related to risk drinking. This article also explores the impact of drink size on defining risk drinking and describes variation in what is considered to be a standard drink across populations. Actual and standard drink sizes differ in the United States, and this discrepancy affects definitions of risk drinking and prevention efforts. PMID:22330212

  20. Increases in Problem Drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Increases in Problem Drinking Alcohol use disorder is becoming more common, a ... the need to better educate people about problem drinking and its treatment. Alcohol use disorder, or AUD, ...

  1. Energy Drinks. Prevention Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2010

    2010-01-01

    High-caffeine soft drinks have existed in the United States since at least the 1980s beginning with Jolt Cola. Energy drinks, which have caffeine as their primary "energy" component, began being marketed as a separate beverage category in the United States in 1997 with the introduction of the Austrian import Red Bull. Energy drink consumption and…

  2. City Fishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Robert E.

    1979-01-01

    A program of supplying opportunities for fishing at locations within and near urban areas was developed. This effort included stocking, management of bodies of water for fishing, and presentation of fishing clinics for urban fishermen. (RE)

  3. Fish Hearing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaxter, J. H. S.

    1980-01-01

    Provides related information about hearing in fish, including the sensory stimulus of sound in the underwater environment, mechanoreceptors in fish, pressure perception and the swimbladder, specializations in sound conduction peculiar to certain fish families. Includes numerous figures. (CS)

  4. Binge drinking in Europe.

    PubMed

    Farke, Walter; Anderson, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Binge drinking is a pattern of heavy drinking which is observed all over Europe. The term Binge drinking implies a lot of different meanings to different people. The most popular definition used for this term is five or more 'standard drinks' in a single occasion. Binge drinking is different from intoxication, although this kind of heavy alcohol consumption can be lead to intoxication. This condition is manifested by different signs, for example slurred speech. Binge drinking is very common among the European population. In 2006 some 80 million Europeans aged 15 plus reported this kind of alcohol consumption patterns. European surveys showed that there is an increase of binge drinking across Europe amongst young people (15-16 years) old since 1995. The consequences of binge drinking contain acute and chronic effects, which are caused by long term alcohol use. The individual risks are brain damage, suicide, sexually transmitted diseases, etc. It has also an impact on harm to others than the drinkers. This includes violence and crime, accidents, etc. Each year in the European Union 2000 homicides are related to heavy drinking. There a lot of effective measures to reduce binge drinking. Strong evidence is shown by drink-driving laws, tax, reduced access to and availability of alcohol, brief interventions such as physician advice and advertising controls. PMID:18173097

  5. Drinking Over the Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Merrill, Jennifer E.; Carey, Kate B.

    2016-01-01

    Many college students drink heavily and experience myriad associated negative consequences. This review suggests that a developmental perspective can facilitate a better understanding of college drinking. Specifically, using an emerging adulthood framework that considers the ongoing role of parents and neurodevelopmental processes can provide insight into why students drink. Most college students drink and tend to drink more and more heavily than their non–college-attending peers. These drinking patterns are affected by environmental and temporal characteristics specific to the college environment, including residential campus living, the academic week, and the academic year. Additional psychosocial factors are of particular relevance to the drinking behavior of college-age people, and include exaggerated peer norms, the development and use of protective behavioral strategies, and mental health considerations. Understanding the unique interaction of person and environment is key to designing prevention/intervention efforts. PMID:27159817

  6. Sports and Energy Drinks: Should Your Child Drink Them?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Sports and Energy Drinks: Should Your Child Drink Them? KidsHealth > For ... a daily multivitamin formulated for kids. previous continue Energy Drinks These are becoming increasingly popular with middle- ...

  7. Antarctic Fishes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastman, Joseph T.; DeVries, Arthur L.

    1986-01-01

    Explains the adaptations to Antarctic waters that Notothenioidei, a group of advanced bony fishes, have exhibited. Discusses the fishes' mechanisms of production of antifreeze properties and their capacities for neutral buoyancy in water. (ML)

  8. Safe drinking water act

    SciTech Connect

    Calabrese, E.J.; Gilbert, C.E. )

    1989-01-01

    This book covers drinking water regulations such as disinfectant by-products, synthetic organics, inorganic chemicals, microbiological contaminants, volatile organic chemicals, radionuclides, fluoride, toxicological approaches to setting new national drinking water regulations, and trihalomethanes. Gives organic and inorganic compounds scheduled to be regulated in 1989 and candidates for the 1990s regulations.

  9. Teenage Drinking and Sociability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruse, Lis-Marie

    1975-01-01

    This study focuses on drinking and the socially associated behavior of young people in discotheques and restaurants serving alcoholic beverages in Helsinki, Finland. Patterns of entering, seating, drinking, contact-making, and social control are discussed with respect to their inter-relationships and sexual differences are noted. (EH)

  10. The Drinking Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poe, Marshall

    2010-01-01

    Americans have been wrestling with college drinking for so long that they've forgotten there was a time when they didn't. Prior to World War II there were a number of "crises" on American campuses--loutish behavior at football games, the introduction of the research-heavy "German Method," the corruption of coeds--but excessive college drinking was…

  11. Quality of Drinking Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    The quality of drinking water has been gaining a great deal of attention lately, especially as water delivery infrastructure continues to age. Particles of various metals such as lead and copper, and other substances like radon and arsenic could be entering drinking water supplies. Spilled-on-the-ground hydrocarbon-based substances are also…

  12. Drinking-water standards

    SciTech Connect

    Munro, N.B.; Travis, C.C.

    1986-08-01

    This paper discussed the revising of the primary and secondary drinking-water regulations by EPA in accordance with the Safe Drinking Water Act. Since consideration of risk is playing an increasing role in setting environmental standards, questions were raised regarding the adequacy of human health protection afforded by some of the existing and proposed standards. 1 table.

  13. Drinking Water and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.

    In response to a provision of the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 which called for a study that would serve as a scientific basis for revising the primary drinking water regulations that were promulgated under the Act, a study of the scientific literature was undertaken in order to assess the implications for human health of the constituents of…

  14. Drinking water microbial myths.

    PubMed

    Allen, Martin J; Edberg, Stephen C; Clancy, Jennifer L; Hrudey, Steve E

    2015-01-01

    Accounts of drinking water-borne disease outbreaks have always captured the interest of the public, elected and health officials, and the media. During the twentieth century, the drinking water community and public health organizations have endeavored to craft regulations and guidelines on treatment and management practices that reduce risks from drinking water, specifically human pathogens. During this period there also evolved misunderstandings as to potential health risk associated with microorganisms that may be present in drinking waters. These misunderstanding or "myths" have led to confusion among the many stakeholders. The purpose of this article is to provide a scientific- and clinically-based discussion of these "myths" and recommendations for better ensuring the microbial safety of drinking water and valid public health decisions.

  15. Soft drinks in schools.

    PubMed

    2004-01-01

    This statement is intended to inform pediatricians and other health care professionals, parents, superintendents, and school board members about nutritional concerns regarding soft drink consumption in schools. Potential health problems associated with high intake of sweetened drinks are 1) overweight or obesity attributable to additional calories in the diet; 2) displacement of milk consumption, resulting in calcium deficiency with an attendant risk of osteoporosis and fractures; and 3) dental caries and potential enamel erosion. Contracts with school districts for exclusive soft drink rights encourage consumption directly and indirectly. School officials and parents need to become well informed about the health implications of vended drinks in school before making a decision about student access to them. A clearly defined, district-wide policy that restricts the sale of soft drinks will safeguard against health problems as a result of overconsumption.

  16. Fish Dishes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derby, Marie

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art project that was inspired by Greek pottery, specifically dishes shaped as fish. Explains that fourth-grade students drew a fish shape that was later used to create their clay version of the fish. Discusses how the students examined the pottery to make decisions about color and design. (CMK)

  17. Underage Drinking and the Drinking Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Main, Carla T.

    2009-01-01

    The problem of underage drinking on college campuses has been brewing for many years to the continued vexation of higher education administrators. In 2008, John McCardell, president emeritus of Middlebury College, began to circulate for signature a public statement among colleagues titled "The Amethyst Initiative," which calls for elected…

  18. Drinking reasons, drinking locations, and automobile accident involvement among collegians.

    PubMed

    Pang, M G; Wells-Parker, E; McMillen, D L

    1989-03-01

    Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the relationship of five drinking reason factors to drinking locations and consumption variables within a random sample of drinking college students surveyed by telephone. Hypotheses relating self-reported accident involvement after drinking and two specific reason factors - Opposite Sex/Drunkenness and Pleasure - were tested. Both Pleasure and Opposite Sex/Drunkenness were directly related to quantity consumed and to drinking in several away-from-home locations. Opposite Sex/Drunkenness reasons and frequency of drinking in cars significantly contributed to identifying males who reported accident involvement following drinking.

  19. Fish Rhabdoviruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kurath, G.; Winton, J.

    2008-01-01

    Many important viral pathogens of fish are members of the family Rhabdoviridae. The viruses in this large group cause significant losses in populations of wild fish as well as among fish reared in aquaculture. Fish rhabdoviruses often have a wide host and geographic range, and infect aquatic animals in both freshwater and seawater. The fish rhabdoviruses comprise a diverse collection of isolates that can be placed in one of two quite different groups: isolates that are members of the established genusNovirhabdovirus, and those that are most similar to members of the genus Vesiculovirus. Because the diseases caused by fish rhabdoviruses are important to aquaculture, diagnostic methods for their detection and identification are well established. In addition to regulations designed to reduce the spread of fish viruses, a significant body of research has addressed methods for the control or prevention of diseases caused by fish rhabdoviruses, including vaccination. The number of reported fish rhabdoviruses continues to grow as a result of the expansion of aquaculture, the increase in global trade, the development of improved diagnostic methods, and heightened surveillance activities. Fish rhabdoviruses serve as useful components of model systems to study vertebrate virus disease, epidemiology, and immunology.

  20. Fish flavor.

    PubMed

    Kawai, T

    1996-02-01

    This article reviews features of flavor in three groups of fishes and summarizes them as follows: (1) fresh saltwater fish are nearly odorless because they contain a small quantity of volatiles; (2 freshwater fish give off pyrrolidine and earthy-odor compounds, which are responsible for their maturity and surrounding water pollution, and (3) euryhaline fish exhibit a variety of unsaturated carbonyls and alcohols derived from enzymatic and nonenzymatic oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PAs). These features are discussed, as are the effects of different enzymatic activities on PA oxidation and the effects of pH on mechanisms of formation of the volatiles. The monotonous volatile constitution of saltwater fish is likely caused by an unknown antioxidation system restraining the fish from oxidizing. The variety of constitution of euryhaline fish, especially that of anadromous fish under spawning conditions, could result from the loss of that system. The thermal environments of heated foods are also reviewed. The basic environment of fish, which allows the formation of flavor compounds, is discussed to confirm the volatiles found in unheated fish.

  1. Myths about drinking alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... to. I spend a lot of time getting alcohol, drinking alcohol, or recovering from the effects of alcohol. ... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Overview of Alcohol Consumption. www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol-health/overview-alcohol- ...

  2. Risks of underage drinking

    MedlinePlus

    Drinking can lead to making decisions that cause harm. Alcohol use means any of the following are more likely to occur: Car crashes Falls, drowning, and other accidents Suicide Violence and homicide Being a victim of violent crime

  3. Dietary Fish Oil Blocks the Microcirculatory Manifestations of Ischemia- Reperfusion Injury in Striated Muscle in Hamsters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehr, Hans-Anton; Hubner, Christoph; Nolte, Dirk; Kohlschutter, Alfried; Messmer, Konrad

    1991-08-01

    Epidemiologic observations and experimental studies have demonstrated a protective effect of dietary fish oil on the clinical manifestations of ischemia-reperfusion injury. To investigate the underlying mechanisms, we used the dorsal skinfold chamber model for intravital fluorescence microscopy of the microcirculation in striated muscle of awake hamsters. In control hamsters (n = 7), reperfusion after a 4-hr pressure-induced ischemia to the muscle tissue elicited the adhesion of fluorescently stained leukocytes to the endothelium of postcapillary venules, capillary obstruction, and the breakdown of endothelial integrity. These microvascular manifestations of ischemia-reperfusion injury were significantly attenuated in animals (n = 7) when fed with a fish oil-enriched diet for 4 weeks prior to the experiments. In leukocyte total lipids, the fish oil diet resulted in a substantial displacement of arachidonic acid, the precursor of the potent adhesionpromoting leukotriene (LT) B_4, by fish oil-derived eicosapentaenoic acid, the precursor of biologically less potent LTB_5, emphasizing the mediator role of LTB_4 in ischemia-reperfusion injury. These results suggest that the preservation of microvascular perfusion by dietary fish oil contributes to its protective effects on the clinical manifestations of ischemia-reperfusion injury.

  4. Perceived consequences of drinking caffeinated beverages.

    PubMed

    Page, R M

    1987-12-01

    A survey of 238 college students indicated that those who prefer to drink caffeine containing drinks maintain different perceptions about the negative and positive consequences of drinking caffeinated drinks from those who do not prefer to drink caffeinated drinks. 154 of the students reported that the last soft drink they consumed was caffeinated.

  5. Dietary fish oil affects monoaminergic neurotransmission and behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Chalon, S; Delion-Vancassel, S; Belzung, C; Guilloteau, D; Leguisquet, A M; Besnard, J C; Durand, G

    1998-12-01

    We studied the effects of a fish oil enriched diet on fatty acid composition of cerebral membranes and on several neurochemical and behavioral variables of monoaminergic function in rats. The frontal cortex, striatum, hippocampus and cerebellum were studied in rats fed fish oil (FPO, 50% salmon oil + 50% palm oil), which provided an (n-6)/(n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratio of 0.14 versus 6. 19 in controls fed a diet containing a mixture of African peanut oil and rapeseed oil. In the FPO group compared to the control group, the major modifications in fatty acid composition of cerebral membranes included the following: higher levels in 22:6(n-3), lower levels in 20:4(n-6) and a significantly greater proportion of phosphatidylserine. Dopamine levels were 40% greater in the frontal cortex of rats fed FPO than from those fed the control diet. In this cerebral region there was also a reduction in monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) activity and greater binding to dopamine D2 receptors. By contrast, a lower binding to dopamine D2 receptors (-7%) was observed in the striatum. Ambulatory activity was also reduced in FPO-fed rats, possibly related to observed changes in striatal dopaminergic receptors. This suggested that the level of (n-6) PUFA, which was considerably lower in the FPO diet than in the control diet, could act on locomotion through an effect on striatal dopaminergic function, whereas the high level of (n-3) PUFA could act on cortical dopaminergic function.

  6. Texture Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Julie

    2007-01-01

    In an effort to provide an opportunity for her first graders to explore texture through an engaging subject, the author developed a three-part lesson that features fish in a mixed-media artwork: (1) Exploring Textured Paint; (2) Creating the Fish; and (3) Role Playing. In this lesson, students effectively explore texture through painting, drawing,…

  7. [Job strain and drinking behavior].

    PubMed

    Yang, M J; Ho, C K; Fan, L R; Yang, M S

    1996-12-01

    The aim of this survey study was to explore the influence of work on individual's drinking behavior. From October 1994 to March 1995, the present researchers implemented a self-administered questionnaire survey on workers in the manufacturing sector in Metropolitan Kaohsiung area, southern Taiwan. Of the 1,117 subjects selected, 668 (61.8%) stated that they had had one or more drinks during the preceding month. The average daily consumption of alcohol was 0.2 +/- 0.9 drinks (with a range of 0 to 12 drinks and a median of 0.02 drinks). In addition, 188 (28.8%) of the subjects reported having experienced drinking-related problems during the preceding month, and 35 respondents (5.2%) gave escape from job stress as the reason for their drinking in the preceding month. The result of multivariate analyses showed that workers who reported less autonomy in their job were more likely to experience drinking-related problems (odds ratio [OR] = 1.3) and to drinking for psychological relief (OR = 1.2); that workers who reported more demanding job conditions were more likely to drink for escape (OR = 2.5) but had lower levels of drinking (t = -2.5, p = 0.01); and that workers who reported high levels of job strain were more likely to experience drinking-related problems and to drink for relief but had lower levels of drinking. The details and implications of this result will be discussed.

  8. [Drinking water in infants].

    PubMed

    Vitoria Miñana, I

    2004-02-01

    We review types of public drinking water and bottled water and provide recommendations on the composition of water for infants. Water used with any of the commercial infant formulas in Spain should contain less than 25 mg/l of sodium. Drinking water must be boiled for a maximum of one minute (at sea level) to avoid excessive salt concentration. Bottled water need not be boiled. Fluoride content in drinking water should be less than 0.3 mg/l in first year of life to prevent dental fluorosis. Nitrate content in water should be less than 25 mg/l to prevent methemoglobinemia. Water with a calcium concentration of between 50 and 100 mg/l is a dietary source of calcium since it provides 24-56 % of the required daily intake in infancy.

  9. [Herbicides in drinking water].

    PubMed

    Funari, E; Sampaolo, A

    1989-01-01

    Toxicological implications due to the use of herbicide-contaminated drinking water, as well as other organic chemicals, are related to their nature and levels. These implications can be defined for each substance on the basis of an adequate evaluation of epidemiological information and experimental data on animals. In this paper, World Health Organization's procedures for establishing guidelines for 11 herbicides widely used in Italy are described. Furthermore, data and information about the use of these herbicides and their levels in Italian drinking-water supplies are also reported and discussed. Finally, factors and conditions responsible for the groundwater contamination by some herbicides in determined areas are presented and discussed.

  10. [Drinking water and parasites].

    PubMed

    Karanis, P; Schoenen, D; Maier, W A; Seitz, H M

    1993-10-01

    Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium parvum, Isospora belli, Balantidium coli, and Microsporidia spp. are cosmopolitan parasites. They often cause diarrheal diseases. The waterborn transmission of all these parasites is possible (41). Surface water supplies used for drinking water are potential sources of contamination. Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. have received great attention in industrialized countries during the last years because they are the etiological agents of waterborne diseases. The life cycles of Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium are described with a special reference to drinking water technologies aimed at removing these parasites. PMID:8253478

  11. One Fish, Two Fish, Redfish, You Fish!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Katherine; Timmons, Maryellen; Medders, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The recreational fishing activity presented in this article provides a hands-on, problem-based experience for students; it unites biology, math, economics, environmental policy, and population dynamics concepts. In addition, the activity allows students to shape environmental policy in a realistic setting and evaluate their peers' work. By…

  12. Fishing Forecasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    ROFFS stands for Roffer's Ocean Fishing Forecasting Service, Inc. Roffer combines satellite and computer technology with oceanographic information from several sources to produce frequently updated charts sometimes as often as 30 times a day showing clues to the location of marlin, sailfish, tuna, swordfish and a variety of other types. Also provides customized forecasts for racing boats and the shipping industry along with seasonal forecasts that allow the marine industry to formulate fishing strategies based on foreknowledge of the arrival and departure times of different fish. Roffs service exemplifies the potential for benefits to marine industries from satellite observations. Most notable results are reduced search time and substantial fuel savings.

  13. Dying To Drink: Confronting Binge Drinking on College Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wechsler, Henry; Wuethrich, Bernice

    This book outlines the toll binge drinking is taking on college campuses and suggests steps that can be taken to take action against the binge drinking that has become part of college culture. The chapters of part 1, "The College Drinking Environment," are: (1) "A Culture of Alcohol"; (2) "Where's the Party?"; (3) "College Sports and Alcohol"; and…

  14. College Drinking - Changing the Culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... about college alcohol policies College Drinking - Changing the Culture This is your one-stop resource for comprehensive ... More about special features College Drinking - Changing the Culture This is your one-stop resource for comprehensive ...

  15. Deciding to quit drinking alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol abuse - quitting drinking; Quitting drinking; Quitting alcohol; Alcoholism - deciding to quit ... pubmed/23698791 . National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol and health. www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol- ...

  16. Fish Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... specific fish used on the label. Read all product labels carefully before purchasing and consuming any item. Ingredients ... Getting Started Newly Diagnosed Emergency Care Plan Food Labels Mislabeled Products Tips for Managing Food Allergies Resources For... Most ...

  17. Fish Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... not eat any fish because they worry about mercury in seafood. Mercury is a metal that, at high levels, can ... many types of seafood have little or no mercury at all. So your risk of mercury exposure ...

  18. Designer Fish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, William R., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Described is an activity in which students are asked to design a fish that would survive in a natural system. A project to computerize the activity is discussed. The development of this artificial intelligence software is detailed. (CW)

  19. How Giraffes Drink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binder, P.-M.; Taylor, Dale L.

    2015-12-01

    Giraffes face unique challenges for drinking due to their long necks. In this article we use evidence from videos, size estimates, and elementary fluid mechanics to make a strong case for a plunger pump mechanism moving water up from their lips to their shoulders.

  20. Drinking among College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabow, Jerome; Duncan-Schill, Marilyn

    1995-01-01

    Reports the results of a study on the ways in which alcohol is built into the social role and social life of college students. Provides direct support for the idea that the patterns of drinking alcoholic beverages are integral to social and structural aspects of college. (LKS)

  1. How Giraffes Drink

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binder, P.-M.; Taylor, Dale T.

    2015-01-01

    Giraffes face unique challenges for drinking due to their long necks. In this article we use evidence from videos, size estimates, and elementary fluid mechanics to make a strong case for a plunger pump mechanism moving water up from their lips to their shoulders.

  2. Governing Adolescent Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvinen, Margaretha; Ostergaard, Jeanette

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between the drinking habits of Danish adolescents and the upbringing ideals and alcohol rules of their parents. It is based on three different data sets: a survey of 2,000 Danish young people born in 1989, a survey with the parents of these young people, and two waves of focus group interviews (in all 28)…

  3. DRINKING WATER ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    According to recent reports by the California Department of Health Services, the State of Maine, and the United State Geological Survey (USGS); the fuel oxygenate methyl teri-butyl ether (MTBE) is present in 5 to 20 percent of the drinking water sources in California and the nort...

  4. Water Fit to Drink.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Edward P.

    The major objective of this module is to help students understand how water from a source such as a lake is treated to make it fit to drink. The module, consisting of five major activities and a test, is patterned after Individualized Science Instructional System (ISIS) modules. The first activity (Planning) consists of a brief introduction and a…

  5. Drinking games adolescents play.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, W

    1990-11-01

    In a study of 1230 Norwegian adolescents aged 14-19, the prevalence of participation in 'drinking games' and the consequences thereof were investigated. The findings indicate that drinking games are very common among Norwegian youth. Further, there is a substantially higher alcohol consumption among those who participate in these games than among other youth, even when we 'control' for other indicators of network 'wetness'. In particular, a high consumption of beer among the boys seems to be connected with these games. It seems reasonable to assume that the drinking games are of importance for many young people, in particular as a means of being accepted by social groups of the same age. The games provide an organized, yet exciting frame around the interaction. It seems reasonable to assume that the participants usually take part in the games as a result of an intention to drink. Even so, it might be argued that the games are probably often more than 'neutral tools' to fulfil this intention: first of all, the games involve intense contact precisely in connection with alcohol consumption. Secondly, we know from previous studies that match rates and role modelling in connection with consumption increase with an increase in the intensity of group member contact. Finally, the individual member loses control and steering of his/her own consumption to a large extent: consumption becomes to a large degree a function of other people's actions and the rules of the game in question. PMID:2285845

  6. Reducing Harms from Youth Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peele, Stanton

    2006-01-01

    American alcohol education and prevention efforts for youth emphasize abstinence. In support of this approach, epidemiologists conclude that early drinking by adolescents increases the lifetime likelihood of alcohol dependence and that overall drinking levels in a society are directly linked to drinking problems. At the same time, cultural,…

  7. REGULATED CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Safe drinking water is critical to protecting human health. More than 260 million Americans rely on the safety of tap water provided by water systems that comply with national drinking water standards. EPA's strategy for ensuring safe drinking water includes four key elements, ...

  8. Drinking Plans and Drinking Outcomes: Examining Young Adults' Weekend Drinking Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trim, Ryan S.; Clapp, John D.; Reed, Mark B.; Shillington, Audrey; Thombs, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    This study examined relationships among drinking intentions, environments, and outcomes in a random sample of 566 undergraduate college students. Telephone interviews were conducted with respondents before and after a single weekend assessing drinking intentions for the coming weekend related to subsequent drinking behaviors. Latent class analyses…

  9. Energy drinks: potions of illusion.

    PubMed

    Bedi, Nidhi; Dewan, Pooja; Gupta, Piyush

    2014-07-01

    Energy drinks are widely consumed by adolescents as these claim to improve performance, endurance and alertness. Recent reports have shown that there are no real health benefits of these drinks. On the contrary, certain adverse effects due to energy drinks have come to the forefront, casting a big question-mark on their safety and utility. This review discusses the present status of energy drinks, their active ingredients and their safety. We conclude that energy drinks, despite having some short pleasant effects, can be harmful for the body and are best avoided.

  10. Energy drinks: potions of illusion.

    PubMed

    Bedi, Nidhi; Dewan, Pooja; Gupta, Piyush

    2014-07-01

    Energy drinks are widely consumed by adolescents as these claim to improve performance, endurance and alertness. Recent reports have shown that there are no real health benefits of these drinks. On the contrary, certain adverse effects due to energy drinks have come to the forefront, casting a big question-mark on their safety and utility. This review discusses the present status of energy drinks, their active ingredients and their safety. We conclude that energy drinks, despite having some short pleasant effects, can be harmful for the body and are best avoided. PMID:25031128

  11. How dogs drink water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gart, Sean; Socha, Jake; Vlachos, Pavlos; Jung, Sunghwan

    2014-11-01

    Animals with incomplete cheeks (i.e. dogs and cats) need to move fluid against gravity into the body by means other than suction. They do this by lapping fluid with their tongue. When a dog drinks, it curls its tongue posteriorly while plunging it into the fluid and then quickly withdraws its tongue back into the mouth. During this fast retraction fluid sticks to the ventral part of the curled tongue and is drawn into the mouth due to inertia. We show several variations of this drinking behavior among many dog breeds, specifically, the relationship between tongue dynamics and geometry, lapping frequency, and dog weight. We also compare the results with the physical experiment of a rounded rod impact onto a fluid surface. Supported by NSF PoLS #1205642.

  12. Drinking Over the Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Windle, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Historical trends in alcohol use among U.S. adolescents, as well as data regarding alcohol-related traffic fatalities among youth, indicate decreases in alcohol use. Nevertheless, alcohol use patterns still indicate high rates of binge drinking and drunkenness and the co-occurrence of alcohol use among youth with risky sexual activity, illicit substance use, and poor school performance. This article discusses unique elements of alcohol use among adolescents relative to adults that pose risks for alcohol misuse and alcohol-related problems. These differences range from patterns of drinking to differential sensitivity to alcohol. Developmental differences between adolescents and adults also are discussed with regard to age-normative developmental tasks and distinctions in brain development that may affect differences in drinking patterns. Epidemiologic findings on sexual-minority youth are provided, as are global trends in alcohol use among early adolescents and youth. It is proposed that using information about differences between youth and adults will be helpful in directing future etiologic and intervention research by capitalizing on unique biological, psychological, and social factors that may affect the success of efforts to reduce alcohol use among early adolescents and youth. PMID:27159816

  13. The renin-angiotensin system and drinking in the euryhaline flounder, Platichthys flesus.

    PubMed

    Carrick, S; Balment, R J

    1983-09-01

    Drinking behaviour and its possible regulation by the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been examined in the euryhaline flounder. Fluid intake was greater in seawater (SW)-adapted than freshwater (FW)-adapted fish, the latter having significantly lower plasma sodium, chloride, and osmotic concentrations. Oesophageal cannulation in SW-adapted fish resulted in further elevation of drinking rates, which increased proportionally with progressive body water loss as measured by the fall in body weight and rise in plasma tonicity. The influence of the RAS on drinking in SW-adapted fish was examined in animals with an intact gastrointestinal tract. Fluid intake fell markedly following administration of the converting enzyme inhibitor, Captopril. Infusions of angiotensin I (AI) and angiotensin II (AII) induced dose-related increments in the rate of drinking. The increased drinking in response to AI was inhibited, however, by the simultaneous administration of Captopril. The results are consistent with the presence in the flounder of the major elements of the RAS, including AI, AII, and a converting enzyme-like substance. The RAS appears to play an important regulatory role in the adaptative drinking behaviour associated with migration of euryhaline teleosts between FW and SW.

  14. [Sugary drinks and glycemia].

    PubMed

    Guerreiro, Susana; Alçada, Manuel; Azevedo, Isabel

    2010-01-01

    Obesity prevalence is increasing all over the world. Most affected are people changing from a traditional lifestyle to an environment with both availability of high energy diet and less physical activity. Glycemic index (GI) is a measure of dietary glycemic carbohydrates, representing their ability to raise blood glucose concentrations. It refers to the postprandial blood glucose response expressed as a percentage of the response to a reference food (glucose or white bread) containing the same carbohydrate content. Given the present high consumption of sugary drinks, the putative contribution of these products to obesity deserves investigation. The aim of this study was to determine the GI of some drinks from the Portuguese market. Postprandial glycemia after ingestion of apple Frutis, peach Frutis, Green tea Frutea, green tea, black tea, lupin infusion, rooibos infusion, raftilose solution or bran solution has been determined for two hours in a caucasian population of young adults of any sex, 17 to 24 years of age. Apple Frutis GI was found to be 54.3, i.e., a low GI; Frutea Green tea had a GI of 64.7, considered as a moderate GI; peach Frutis showed a high GI, 86.6. Green and Black teas as well as rooibos and lupin infusions, all with added glucose (25 g), did not change glycemic response in comparison with the reference solution (water with 25 g glucose). No differences were seen after raftilose and bran solutions by comparison with the reference solution. GI information may help the choice of carbohydrates to include in a healthy diet. Formerly considered as a parameter of interest to diabetic patients, it may actually interest anybody concerned with a healthy diet. This study has been performed by medical and nutritional science students, who observed glycemic excursions in themselves, after drink ingestion. This experiment allowed them to see the impressive rise of glycemia after ingestion of a sugary drink, by comparison with basal levels which would not

  15. Commercial Fishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This document is a curriculum framework for a program in commercial fishing to be taught in Florida secondary and postsecondary institutions. This outline covers the major concepts/content of the program, which is designed to prepare students for employment in occupations with titles such as net fishers, pot fishers, line fishers, shrimp boat…

  16. Gone Fishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson-Demme, Hillary; Kisiel, Jim

    2003-01-01

    Presents a hands-on activity in which students create a model of an ocean ecosystem to gain an understanding of how humans can alter biodiversity through their actions. Uses differing levels of fishing technology to explore the concepts of sustainability and overfishing. (Author/SOE)

  17. Adolescent drinking risks associated with specific drinking contexts

    PubMed Central

    Mair, Christina; Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Gruenewald, Paul J.; Bersamin, Melina; Grube, Joel W.

    2015-01-01

    Background In order to identify drinking contexts towards which prevention efforts should be directed, associations of context-specific alcohol use (past-year frequency of drinking and heavier drinking in the context) with a range of alcohol-related problems were examined in a population sample of adolescents. Methods A sample of youths (ages 15–18) residing in 50 medium-to-large California cities (n=473 drinkers) was obtained. Respondents provided information about seven past-year alcohol-related problems in three domains (physiological consequences, alcohol-related violence, and conflict/trouble) and the number of times in the past year they used six distinct drinking contexts (parties, restaurants/bars, parking lots/street corners, beaches/parks, respondent’s home without parents, someone else’s home without parents). Context-specific dose-response was estimated for each context using censored Tobit models with heteroskedasticity corrections Results Physiological problems were associated with more frequent drinking in five of six contexts. Heavier drinking in restaurants/bars/nightclubs (b=0.22, s.e.=0.10) and someone else’s home without parents (b=0.14, s.e.=0.06) was associated with greater risk of violence. Conflict/trouble was associated with more frequent drinking in parking lots/street corners, declining at higher levels of drinking. Conclusions Certain drinking contexts are related to problems amongst youths, some because they are associated with frequent alcohol consumption and others because they are associated with heavier drinking. Identifying which drinking contexts are related to specific alcohol-related problems and why is an essential component of developing effective preventive interventions. PMID:26208252

  18. Lack of Benefit of Early Intervention with Dietary Flax and Fish Oil and Soy Protein in Orthologous Rodent Models of Human Hereditary Polycystic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Tamio; Devassy, Jessay G; Monirujjaman, Md; Gabbs, Melissa; Aukema, Harold M

    2016-01-01

    Rationale for dietary advice in polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is based in part on animal studies that have examined non-orthologous models with progressive development of cystic disease. Since no model completely mimics human PKD, the purpose of the current studies was to examine the effects of dietary soy protein (compared to casein) or oils enriched in omega-3 fatty acids (fish or flax oil compared to soy oil) on early disease progression in two orthologous models of PKD. The models studied were Pkd2WS25/- mice as a model of autosomal dominant PKD, and PCK rats as a model of autosomal recessive PKD. After 13 weeks of feeding, dietary fish (but not flax) oil resulted in larger kidneys and greater kidney water content in female Pkd2WS25/- compared to control mice. After 12 weeks of feeding male PCK compared to control rats, both fish and flax compared to soy oil resulted in enlarged kidneys and livers, greater kidney water content and higher kidney cyst area in diseased rats. Dietary soy protein compared to casein had no effects in Pkd2WS25/- compared to control mice. In PCK rats, kidney and liver histology were not improved, but lower proteinuria and higher urine pH suggest that soy protein could be beneficial in the long term. Therefore, in contrast to studies in non-orthologous models during the progressive development phase, these studies in orthologous PKD models do not support dietary advice to increase soy protein or oils enriched in omega-3 oils in early PKD. PMID:27213553

  19. Lack of Benefit of Early Intervention with Dietary Flax and Fish Oil and Soy Protein in Orthologous Rodent Models of Human Hereditary Polycystic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Monirujjaman, Md; Gabbs, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    Rationale for dietary advice in polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is based in part on animal studies that have examined non-orthologous models with progressive development of cystic disease. Since no model completely mimics human PKD, the purpose of the current studies was to examine the effects of dietary soy protein (compared to casein) or oils enriched in omega-3 fatty acids (fish or flax oil compared to soy oil) on early disease progression in two orthologous models of PKD. The models studied were Pkd2WS25/- mice as a model of autosomal dominant PKD, and PCK rats as a model of autosomal recessive PKD. After 13 weeks of feeding, dietary fish (but not flax) oil resulted in larger kidneys and greater kidney water content in female Pkd2WS25/- compared to control mice. After 12 weeks of feeding male PCK compared to control rats, both fish and flax compared to soy oil resulted in enlarged kidneys and livers, greater kidney water content and higher kidney cyst area in diseased rats. Dietary soy protein compared to casein had no effects in Pkd2WS25/- compared to control mice. In PCK rats, kidney and liver histology were not improved, but lower proteinuria and higher urine pH suggest that soy protein could be beneficial in the long term. Therefore, in contrast to studies in non-orthologous models during the progressive development phase, these studies in orthologous PKD models do not support dietary advice to increase soy protein or oils enriched in omega-3 oils in early PKD. PMID:27213553

  20. Drinking water and women's health.

    PubMed

    Afzal, Brenda M

    2006-01-01

    Primary health providers in the community must be able to field questions and guide vulnerable populations to informed decisions about drinking water quality and health. This article offers an overview of selected contaminants in drinking water and their possible effects on the health of women over the life span. Historical concerns for drinking water safety, which led to the development of current drinking water regulations, are briefly explored. Several chemical, microbial, and radionuclide contaminants of particular concern to women and children are discussed. Short- and long-term tap water alternatives are suggested for when tap water is deemed unsuitable for use.

  1. STUDIES ON WATER DRINKING

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, C. C.; Hawk, P. B.

    1910-01-01

    The daily drinking of three liters of water with meals, for a period of five days, by a man twenty-two years of age who was in a condition of nitrogen equilibrium through the ingestion of a uniform diet, was productive of the following findings : 1. An increase in body weight, aggregating two pounds in five days. 2. An increased excretion of urinary nitrogen, the excess nitrogen being mainly in the form of urea, ammonia, and creatine. 3. A decreased excretion of creatinine and the coincident appearance of creatine in the urine. The decreased creatinine output is believed to indicate that the copious water drinking has stimulated protein catabolism. The appearance of creatine is considered evidence that the water has caused a partial muscular disintegration resulting in the release of creatine, but not profound enough to yield the total nitrogen content of the muscle. The output of creatine is, therefore, out of all proportion to the increase in the excretion of total nitrogen. 4. An increased output of ammonia which is interpreted as indicating an increased output of gastric juice. 5. A decreased excretion of feces and of fecal nitrogen, the decrease in the excretion of fecal nitrogen being of sufficient magnitude to secure a lowered excretion of both the bacterial and the non-bacterial nitrogen. 6. A decrease in the quantity of bacteria excreted daily. 7. An increase in the percentage of total nitrogen appearing as bacterial nitrogen. 8. A lower creatinine coefficient. 9. A more economical utilization of the protein constituents of the diet. 10. The general conclusion to be reached as the result of this experiment is to the effect that the drinking of a large amount of water with meals was attended by many desirable and by no undesirable features. PMID:19867334

  2. Drinking Patterns, Drinking Expectancies, and Coping after Spinal Cord Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinemann, Allen W.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Drinking patterns, alcohol expectancies, and coping strategies were assessed for 121 persons with recent spinal cord injuries during hospitalization, 3 months after surgery, and 12 months after surgery. Although the rate of heavy drinking decreased, preinjury problem drinkers still had the lowest rate of positive reappraisal, problem solving, and…

  3. Differences in College Student Typical Drinking and Celebration Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodyard, Catherine Dane; Hallam, Jeffrey S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the study was to determine whether students consume alcohol in greater quantities when drinking in celebration of an event or holiday versus typical drinking use. Celebratory occasions include tailgating during football games, holidays, and the beginning and ending of academic semesters. Participants: Traditional…

  4. Fish gelatin.

    PubMed

    Boran, Gokhan; Regenstein, Joe M

    2010-01-01

    Gelatin is a multifunctional ingredient used in foods, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and photographic films as a gelling agent, stabilizer, thickener, emulsifier, and film former. As a thermoreversible hydrocolloid with a narrower gap between its melting and gelling temperatures, both of which are below human body temperature, gelatin provides unique advantages over carbohydrate-based gelling agents. Gelatin is mostly produced from pig skin, and cattle hides and bones. Some alternative raw materials have recently gained attention from both researchers and the industry not just because they overcome religious concerns shared by Jews and Muslims but also because they provide, in some cases, technological advantages over mammalian gelatins. Fish skins from a number of fish species are among the other sources that have been comprehensively studied as sources for gelatin production. Fish skins have a significant potential for the production of high-quality gelatin with different melting and gelling temperatures over a much wider range than mammalian gelatins, yet still have a sufficiently high gel strength and viscosity. Gelatin quality is industrially determined by gel strength, viscosity, melting or gelling temperatures, the water content, and microbiological safety. For gelatin manufacturers, yield from a particular raw material is also important. Recent experimental studies have shown that these quality parameters vary greatly depending on the biochemical characteristics of the raw materials, the manufacturing processes applied, and the experimental settings used for quality control tests. In this review, the gelatin quality achieved from different fish species is reviewed along with the experimental procedures used to determine gelatin quality. In addition, the chemical structure of collagen and gelatin, the collagen-gelatin conversion, the gelation process, and the gelatin market are discussed.

  5. Environmental Predictors of Drinking and Drinking-Related Problems in Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Short, Brian; Wagenaar, Alexander; Toomey, Tracie; Murray, David; Wolfson, Mark; Forster, Jean

    1997-01-01

    Examined relationships among drinking norms, peer alcohol use, alcohol availability, drinking location, alcohol consumption, and drinking-related problems among young adult drinkers (N=3,095). Results show that drinking norms and peer alcohol use influenced alcohol consumption and drinking consequences. Drinking in public contributed to alcohol…

  6. Work experience and drinking behavior: alienation, occupational status, workplace drinking subculture and problem drinking.

    PubMed

    Yang, M J; Yang, M S; Kawachi, I

    2001-07-01

    This study explored the association between alienating job conditions and problem drinking within the context of occupational status and workplace drinking subculture. From December 1994 to March 1995, a questionnaire survey was implemented in the manufactory sector in southern Taiwan. Within the questionnaire, any perceived self-estrangement, powerlessness and social isolation that the individual experienced in his work were measured as the alienating job conditions, and any negative physical, psychological and social consequences the individual experienced during the previous month were considered as affecting problem drinking. Of the 1117 subjects, 668 (61.8%) reported imbibing one or more drinks during the preceding month; the average daily alcohol consumption being 0.2+/-0.9 drinks. In addition, 188 (16.8%) subjects reported having experienced drinking-related problems in the preceding month. Workers with low occupational status were more likely to become problem drinkers when they felt comparatively self-estranged in their work. Further, those with a family history including any habitual drinker or those under more encouraging workplace drinking subculture were more likely to have drinking-related problems. For the prevention of problem-related drinking behavior, the workplace should be considered as the focus of our future intervention and management program.

  7. Ensuring safer drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, J. . Fluid Delivery and Electrical Markets); Higgins, P. )

    1994-09-01

    Today's regulatory environment has led to the proliferation of voluntary consensus standards and certification programs that are important to ensuring safety and health in a number of areas. One such area -- the treatment and delivery of potable water -- is addressed by the Drinking Water Additives Program.'' At the request of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), this program was developed in the mid-1980s by an independent, voluntary consensus standards organization called NSF International (formerly known as the National Sanitation Foundation). This paper explains the need for and the structure of the Drinking Water Additives Program; the rationale for transferring responsibility for its execution from the EPA to the private sector; and the impact of its standards on users, manufacturers, and state and local regulatory bodies. Understanding the additives program is critically important to industry suppliers because, as it continues to gain greater awareness and acceptance, there are a growing number of manufacturers sourcing materials and products primarily from suppliers whose products meet the program's certification requirements.

  8. Lead in School Drinking Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Water Programs.

    Lead levels in school drinking water merit special concern because children are more at risk than adults from exposure to lead. This manual provides ways in which school officials can minimize this risk. It assists administrators by providing: (1) general information on the significance of lead in school drinking water and its effects on children;…

  9. Underage Drinking. Technical Assistance Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Join Together, Boston, MA.

    Underage drinking is a major problem across the country. Many communities are trying to reduce the injuries and deaths that occur as a result of this problem. Community groups have been instrumental in working at the state level to pass stricter laws curbing underage drinking and to tighten the laws that already exist. This paper provides tips and…

  10. Drinking Water Treatability Database (Database)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) will provide data taken from the literature on the control of contaminants in drinking water, and will be housed on an interactive, publicly-available USEPA web site. It can be used for identifying effective treatment processes, rec...

  11. Drinking Styles of College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellott, Ramona N.; Swartz, Jody L.

    1998-01-01

    Seeks to determine whether adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) on college campuses have a more problematic style of drinking compared with non-ACOAs. Results indicate ACOAs endorse more problematic drinking patterns. Discusses implications for counselors who undertake prevention and intervention for ACOA student population. (Author/JDM)

  12. Binge Drinking on College Campuses. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellogg, Karen

    This digest discusses binge drinking on U.S. college campuses. Male binge drinking is defined as five or more drinks in a row one or more times during a 2-week period; female binge drinking is defined as four or more drinks in a row one or more times during a two-week period. A drink is defined as twelve ounces of beer or wine cooler, four ounces…

  13. Caffeinated energy drinks in children

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Ran D.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Question A 14-year-old boy came to my office to discuss his frequent consumption of energy drinks to enhance his performance at school and while playing soccer. What is the recommended use of energy drinks in children and is there any harm in consuming them? Answer Energy drinks are beverages with a high concentration of caffeine and additional stimulants. They are sold in numerous places and are easily accessed by children, adolescents, and young adults. Many reports warn about potential adverse effects associated with their consumption, especially in combination with alcohol among adolescents, and in combination with stimulant medications among children treated for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Children and adolescents should avoid energy drinks, and health care providers should educate youth and their parents about the risks of caffeinated drinks. PMID:24029508

  14. Fish Tales

    SciTech Connect

    McLerran, L.

    2010-07-06

    This talk is about fishing and the friendships that have resulted in its pursuit. It is also about theoretical physics, and the relationship of imagination and fantasy to the establishment of ideas about nature. Fishermen, like theoretical physicists, are well known for their inventive imaginations. Perhaps neither are as clever as sailors, who conceived of the mermaid. If one doubts the power of this fantasy, one should remember the ghosts of the many sailors who drowned pursuing these young nymphs. An extraordinary painting by J. Waterhouse is shown as Fig. 1. The enchantment of a mermaid must reflect an extraordinary excess of imagination on the part of the sailor, perhaps together with an impractical turn of mind. A consummated relationship with a mermaid is after all, by its very nature a fantasy incapable of realization. To a theoretical physicist, she is symbolic of many ideas we develop. There are many truths known to fisherman in which one might also find parallels to the goals of scientists: (1) A fish is the only animal that keeps growing after its death; (2) Nothing makes a fish bigger than almost being caught; (3) ''...of all the liars among mankind, the fisherman is the most trustworthy.'' (William Sherwood Fox, in Silken Lines and Silver Hooks); and (4) Men and fish are alike. They both get into trouble when they open their mouths. These quotes may be interpreted as reflecting skepticism regarding the honesty of fisherman, and probably do not reflect adequate admiration for a creative imagination. Is it fair to criticize a person for believing a falsehood that he or she sincerely believes to be true? The fisherman simultaneously invents the lie, and believes in it himself. The parallel with theoretical physics is perhaps only approximate, although we physicists may invent stories that we come to believe, on some rare occasions our ideas actually correspond to a more or less true descriptions of nature. These minor philosophical differences are not

  15. Are Endocrine Disrupting Compounds a Health Risk in Drinking Water?

    PubMed Central

    Falconer, Ian R.

    2006-01-01

    There has been a great deal of international discussion on the nature and relevance of endocrine disrupting compounds in the environment. Changes in reproductive organs of fish and mollusks have been demonstrated in rivers downstream of sewage discharges in Europe and in North America, which have been attributed to estrogenic compounds in the effluent. The anatomical and physiological changes in the fauna are illustrated by feminization of male gonads. The compounds of greatest hormonal activity in sewage effluent are the natural estrogens 17β-estradiol, estrone, estriol and the synthetic estrogen ethinylestradiol. Androgens are also widely present in wastewaters. Investigations of anthropogenic chemical contaminants in freshwaters and wastewaters have shown a wide variety of organic compounds, many of which have low levels of estrogenic activity. In many highly populated countries the drinking water is sourced from the same rivers and lakes that are the recipients of sewage and industrial discharge. The River Thames which flows through London, England, has overall passed through drinking water and sewage discharge 5 times from source to mouth of the river. Under these types of circumstance, any accumulation of endocrine disrupting compounds from sewage or industry potentially affects the quality of drinking water. Neither basic wastewater treatment nor basic drinking water treatment will eliminate the estrogens, androgens or detergent breakdown products from water, due to the chemical stability of the structures. Hence a potential risk to health exists; however present data indicate that estrogenic contamination of drinking water is very unlikely to result in physiologically detectable effects in consumers. Pesticide, detergent and industrial contamination remain issues of concern. As a result of this concern, increased attention is being given to enhanced wastewater treatment in locations where the effluent is directly or indirectly in use for drinking water. In

  16. Are endocrine disrupting compounds a health risk in drinking water?

    PubMed

    Falconer, Ian R

    2006-06-01

    There has been a great deal of international discussion on the nature and relevance of endocrine disrupting compounds in the environment. Changes in reproductive organs of fish and mollusks have been demonstrated in rivers downstream of sewage discharges in Europe and in North America, which have been attributed to estrogenic compounds in the effluent. The anatomical and physiological changes in the fauna are illustrated by feminization of male gonads. The compounds of greatest hormonal activity in sewage effluent are the natural estrogens 17Beta-estradiol, estrone, estriol and the synthetic estrogen ethinylestradiol. Androgens are also widely present in wastewaters. Investigations of anthropogenic chemical contaminants in freshwaters and wastewaters have shown a wide variety of organic compounds, many of which have low levels of estrogenic activity. In many highly populated countries the drinking water is sourced from the same rivers and lakes that are the recipients of sewage and industrial discharge. The River Thames which flows through London, England, has overall passed through drinking water and sewage discharge 5 times from source to mouth of the river. Under these types of circumstance, any accumulation of endocrine disrupting compounds from sewage or industry potentially affects the quality of drinking water. Neither basic wastewater treatment nor basic drinking water treatment will eliminate the estrogens, androgens or detergent breakdown products from water, due to the chemical stability of the structures. Hence a potential risk to health exists; however present data indicate that estrogenic contamination of drinking water is very unlikely to result in physiologically detectable effects in consumers. Pesticide, detergent and industrial contamination remain issues of concern. As a result of this concern, increased attention is being given to enhanced wastewater treatment in locations where the effluent is directly or indirectly in use for drinking water

  17. Drinking Motives Among HIV Primary Care Patients

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Jennifer C.; Aharonovich, Efrat; O’Leary, Ann; Wainberg, Milton; Hasin, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Heavy drinking among individuals with HIV is associated with poor medication adherence and other health problems. Understanding reasons for drinking (drinking motives) in this population is therefore important and could inform intervention. Using concepts of drinking motives from previous alcohol research, we assessed these motives and drinking in 254 HIV-positive primary care patients (78.0% male; 94.5% African American or Hispanic) prior to their participation in an alcohol intervention trial. Three motives had good factor structure and internal consistency: “drinking to cope with negative affect”, “drinking for social facilitation” (both associated with heavier drinking), and “drinking due to social pressure” (associated with less drinking). Drinking motives may provide important content for alcohol intervention; clinical trials could indicate whether inclusion of such content improves intervention efficacy. Discussing motives in session could help providers assist clients in better managing psychological and social aspects of their lives without reliance on alcohol. PMID:24165984

  18. When you are drinking too much - tips for cutting back

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol - drinking too much; Alcohol use disorder - drinking too much; Alcohol abuse - drinking too much; Risky drinking - cutting back ... This can help you cut back on your alcohol use. Keep track of how much you drink ...

  19. [Energy drinks: an unknown risk].

    PubMed

    Petit, Aymeric; Levy, Fanny; Lejoyeux, Michel; Reynaud, Michel; Karila, Laurent

    2012-05-01

    The term "energy drink" designates "any product in the form of a drink or concentrated liquid, which claims to contain a mixture of ingredients having the property to raise the level of energy and vivacity". The main brands, Red Bull, Dark Dog, Rockstar, Burn, and Monster, are present in food stores, sports venues, and bars among other soft drinks and fruit juices. Their introduction into the French market raised many reluctances, because of the presence of taurine, caffeine and glucuronolactone. These components present in high concentrations, could be responsible for adverse effects on health. The association of energy drinks and spirits is widely found among adolescents and adults who justify drinking these mixed drinks by their desire to drink more alcohol while delaying drunkenness. Given the importance of the number of incidents reported among the energy drinks consumers, it seemed appropriate to make a synthesis of available data and to establish causal links between the use of these products and the development of health complications. For a literature review, we selected scientific articles both in English and French published between 2001 and 2011 by consulting the databases Medline, Embase, PsycINFO and Google Scholar. The words used alone or in combination are "energy dinks", "caffeine", "taurine", "toxicity", "dependence". An occasional to a moderate consumption of these drinks seems to present little risk for healthy adults. However, excessive consumption associated with the use of alcohol or drugs in amounts that far exceed the manufacturers recommended amount, could be responsible for negative consequences on health, particularly among subjects with cardiovascular disease. PMID:22730801

  20. Adjunctive alcohol drinking in humans.

    PubMed

    Doyle, T F; Samson, H H

    1988-01-01

    In an attempt to validate the animal model of adjunctive ethanol drinking in people, human subjects were allowed access to ad lib beer while playing a game that delivered monetary reinforcements on a FI schedule. Subjects exposed to a longer FI schedule drank significantly more than those exposed to a shorter schedule, confirming the prediction made by the animal model. A pattern of ingestion characteristic of adjunctive drinking was also observed in the longer FI condition, providing evidence that ethanol drinking in humans can be schedule-induced. PMID:3249751

  1. Fishing amplifies forage fish population collapses.

    PubMed

    Essington, Timothy E; Moriarty, Pamela E; Froehlich, Halley E; Hodgson, Emma E; Koehn, Laura E; Oken, Kiva L; Siple, Margaret C; Stawitz, Christine C

    2015-05-26

    Forage fish support the largest fisheries in the world but also play key roles in marine food webs by transferring energy from plankton to upper trophic-level predators, such as large fish, seabirds, and marine mammals. Fishing can, thereby, have far reaching consequences on marine food webs unless safeguards are in place to avoid depleting forage fish to dangerously low levels, where dependent predators are most vulnerable. However, disentangling the contributions of fishing vs. natural processes on population dynamics has been difficult because of the sensitivity of these stocks to environmental conditions. Here, we overcome this difficulty by collating population time series for forage fish populations that account for nearly two-thirds of global catch of forage fish to identify the fingerprint of fisheries on their population dynamics. Forage fish population collapses shared a set of common and unique characteristics: high fishing pressure for several years before collapse, a sharp drop in natural population productivity, and a lagged response to reduce fishing pressure. Lagged response to natural productivity declines can sharply amplify the magnitude of naturally occurring population fluctuations. Finally, we show that the magnitude and frequency of collapses are greater than expected from natural productivity characteristics and therefore, likely attributed to fishing. The durations of collapses, however, were not different from those expected based on natural productivity shifts. A risk-based management scheme that reduces fishing when populations become scarce would protect forage fish and their predators from collapse with little effect on long-term average catches.

  2. Fishing amplifies forage fish population collapses

    PubMed Central

    Essington, Timothy E.; Moriarty, Pamela E.; Froehlich, Halley E.; Hodgson, Emma E.; Koehn, Laura E.; Oken, Kiva L.; Siple, Margaret C.; Stawitz, Christine C.

    2015-01-01

    Forage fish support the largest fisheries in the world but also play key roles in marine food webs by transferring energy from plankton to upper trophic-level predators, such as large fish, seabirds, and marine mammals. Fishing can, thereby, have far reaching consequences on marine food webs unless safeguards are in place to avoid depleting forage fish to dangerously low levels, where dependent predators are most vulnerable. However, disentangling the contributions of fishing vs. natural processes on population dynamics has been difficult because of the sensitivity of these stocks to environmental conditions. Here, we overcome this difficulty by collating population time series for forage fish populations that account for nearly two-thirds of global catch of forage fish to identify the fingerprint of fisheries on their population dynamics. Forage fish population collapses shared a set of common and unique characteristics: high fishing pressure for several years before collapse, a sharp drop in natural population productivity, and a lagged response to reduce fishing pressure. Lagged response to natural productivity declines can sharply amplify the magnitude of naturally occurring population fluctuations. Finally, we show that the magnitude and frequency of collapses are greater than expected from natural productivity characteristics and therefore, likely attributed to fishing. The durations of collapses, however, were not different from those expected based on natural productivity shifts. A risk-based management scheme that reduces fishing when populations become scarce would protect forage fish and their predators from collapse with little effect on long-term average catches. PMID:25848018

  3. Fish tapeworm infection

    MedlinePlus

    Fish tapeworm infection is an intestinal infection with the tapeworm parasite found in fish. ... The fish tapeworm ( Diphyllobothrium latum ) is the largest parasite that infects humans. Humans become infected when they eat raw ...

  4. Got a Sick Fish?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Welfare Veterinary Careers Public Health Got a sick fish? Fish with disease can show a variety of signs. If you notice your pet fish having any unusual disease signs, contact your veterinarian ...

  5. "Binge" Drinking: Not the Word of Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodhart, Fern Walter; Lederman, Linda C.; Stewart, Lea P.; Laitman, Lisa

    2003-01-01

    Educators and researchers strive to use terms that reflect a replicable measure of behavior. A term commonly used to describe drinking of a problematic nature is "binge drinking". Binge drinking defines behavior by a number of drinks of an alcoholic beverage consumed in a space of time. The authors argue that the term does not describe drinking…

  6. Drinking Age 21: Facts, Myths and Fictions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This document presents justification for a legal drinking age of 21 in all states. The introduction reviews the history of the raising and lowering of the drinking age and the rise in highway accidents and deaths resulting from lowered drinking ages. The federal response of mandating a 21-year-old drinking age for states with the threat of loss of…

  7. Maori Identification, Drinking Motivation and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Dave; Ebbett, Erin

    2010-01-01

    Research examining the relationships among Maori cultural identification, drinking behaviour, drinking motivation and mental health is almost non-existent. A review of literature suggests that stronger Maori identification could be associated with lower alcohol consumption on a typical occasion, less frequent drinking, drinking to enhance mood or…

  8. Rethinking Drinking: Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... What's "at-risk" or "heavy" drinking? What's the harm? What are the risks? What are symptoms of ... use disorder. The higher alcohol levels can also harm the liver, heart, and brain without the person ...

  9. The Influence of Parental and Peer Drinking Behaviors on Underage Drinking and Driving by Young Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Lening; Wieczorek, William F.; Welte, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Studies have consistently found that parental and peer drinking behaviors significantly influence adolescent drinking behavior and that adolescent drinking has a significant effect on their drinking-and-driving behavior. Building upon these studies, the present article assesses whether parental and peer drinking behaviors have direct…

  10. Personality, Alcohol Use, and Drinking Motives: A Comparison of Independent and Combined Internal Drinking Motives Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Abby L.; Flett, Gordon L.

    2009-01-01

    It is well-established that coping and enhancement drinking motives predict college student drinking and that personality traits predict drinking motives. Little is known, however, about personality and drinking patterns among individuals who drink for both enhancement and coping reasons. University students in the current study completed…

  11. Fish mycobacteriosis (Tuberculosis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parisot, T.J.; Wood, J.W.

    1959-01-01

    The etiologic agent for the bacterial disease, "fish tuberculosis" (more correctly "mycobacteriosis"), was first observed in carp in 189& from a pond in France. Subsequently similar agents have been isolated from or observed in fish in fresh water, salt water, and brackish water, in fish in aquaria, hatcheries, and natural habitat~ (wild populations of fish). The disease has been recognized as an important infection among hatchery reared salmonid fishes on the West Coast of the United States, and in aquarium fishes such as the neon tetra, the Siamese fighting fish, and in salt water fish held in zoological displays.

  12. Drinking Water Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, ShaTerea R.

    2004-01-01

    This summer I had the opportunity to work in the Environmental Management Office (EMO) under the Chemical Sampling and Analysis Team or CS&AT. This team s mission is to support Glenn Research Center (GRC) and EM0 by providing chemical sampling and analysis services and expert consulting. Services include sampling and chemical analysis of water, soil, fbels, oils, paint, insulation materials, etc. One of this team s major projects is the Drinking Water Project. This is a project that is done on Glenn s water coolers and ten percent of its sink every two years. For the past two summers an intern had been putting together a database for this team to record the test they had perform. She had successfully created a database but hadn't worked out all the quirks. So this summer William Wilder (an intern from Cleveland State University) and I worked together to perfect her database. We began be finding out exactly what every member of the team thought about the database and what they would change if any. After collecting this data we both had to take some courses in Microsoft Access in order to fix the problems. Next we began looking at what exactly how the database worked from the outside inward. Then we began trying to change the database but we quickly found out that this would be virtually impossible.

  13. Drinking water disinfection byproducts: review and approach to toxicity evaluation.

    PubMed Central

    Boorman, G A

    1999-01-01

    There is widespread potential for human exposure to disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in drinking water because everyone drinks, bathes, cooks, and cleans with water. The need for clean and safe water led the U.S. Congress to pass the Safe Drinking Water Act more than 20 years ago in 1974. In 1976, chloroform, a trihalomethane (THM) and a principal DBP, was shown to be carcinogenic in rodents. This prompted the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) in 1979 to develop a drinking water rule that would provide guidance on the levels of THMs allowed in drinking water. Further concern was raised by epidemiology studies suggesting a weak association between the consumption of chlorinated drinking water and the occurrence of bladder, colon, and rectal cancer. In 1992 the U.S. EPA initiated a negotiated rulemaking to evaluate the need for additional controls for microbial pathogens and DBPs. The goal was to develop an approach that would reduce the level of exposure from disinfectants and DBPs without undermining the control of microbial pathogens. The product of these deliberations was a proposed stage 1 DBP rule. It was agreed that additional information was necessary on how to optimize the use of disinfectants while maintaining control of pathogens before further controls to reduce exposure beyond stage 1 were warranted. In response to this need, the U.S. EPA developed a 5-year research plan to support the development of the longer term rules to control microbial pathogens and DBPs. A considerable body of toxicologic data has been developed on DBPs that occur in the drinking water, but the main emphasis has been on THMs. Given the complexity of the problem and the need for additional data to support the drinking water DBP rules, the U.S. EPA, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, and the U.S. Army are working together to develop a comprehensive biologic and mechanistic DBP database. Selected DBPs will be tested using 2-year toxicity and

  14. Drinking water disinfection byproducts: review and approach to toxicity evaluation.

    PubMed

    Boorman, G A

    1999-02-01

    There is widespread potential for human exposure to disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in drinking water because everyone drinks, bathes, cooks, and cleans with water. The need for clean and safe water led the U.S. Congress to pass the Safe Drinking Water Act more than 20 years ago in 1974. In 1976, chloroform, a trihalomethane (THM) and a principal DBP, was shown to be carcinogenic in rodents. This prompted the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) in 1979 to develop a drinking water rule that would provide guidance on the levels of THMs allowed in drinking water. Further concern was raised by epidemiology studies suggesting a weak association between the consumption of chlorinated drinking water and the occurrence of bladder, colon, and rectal cancer. In 1992 the U.S. EPA initiated a negotiated rulemaking to evaluate the need for additional controls for microbial pathogens and DBPs. The goal was to develop an approach that would reduce the level of exposure from disinfectants and DBPs without undermining the control of microbial pathogens. The product of these deliberations was a proposed stage 1 DBP rule. It was agreed that additional information was necessary on how to optimize the use of disinfectants while maintaining control of pathogens before further controls to reduce exposure beyond stage 1 were warranted. In response to this need, the U.S. EPA developed a 5-year research plan to support the development of the longer term rules to control microbial pathogens and DBPs. A considerable body of toxicologic data has been developed on DBPs that occur in the drinking water, but the main emphasis has been on THMs. Given the complexity of the problem and the need for additional data to support the drinking water DBP rules, the U.S. EPA, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, and the U.S. Army are working together to develop a comprehensive biologic and mechanistic DBP database. Selected DBPs will be tested using 2-year toxicity and

  15. The risks of drinking water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichhardt, Tony

    1984-04-01

    Three researchers from the Energy and Environmental Policy Center at Harvard University have come up with a new method of calculating the risk from contaminants in drinking water, one that they believe takes into account some of the uncertainties in pronouncing water safe or dangerous to drink. The new method concentrates on the risk of cancer, which authors Edmund Crouch, Richard Wilson, and Lauren Zeise believe has not been properly considered in establishing drinking water standards.Writing in the December 1983 issue of Water Resources Research, the authors state that “current [drinking water] standards for a given chemical or class of chemicals do not account for the presence of other pollutants” that could combine to create dangerous substances. According to Wilson, “Over a hundred industrial pollutants and chlorination byproducts have been found in various samples of drinking water, some of which are known carcinogens, others suspected carcinogens.” The same chlorine that solves one major health problem—the threat of bacterial disease—can thus contribute to another, according to the authors, by increasing the long-term risk of cancer. The largest risks are due to halomethanes such as chloroform and bromoform, produced as chlorine reacts with organic matter in drinking water.

  16. Fluoride Content in Alcoholic Drinks.

    PubMed

    Goschorska, Marta; Gutowska, Izabela; Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena; Rać, Monika Ewa; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the role of alcoholic drinks as a potential source of dietary fluoride by means of measuring fluoride levels in selected alcoholic drinks available on the Polish market that are also diverse in terms of the percentage content of ethanol. The study was conducted on 48 types of drinks with low, medium, and high alcohol content available on the Polish market and offered by various manufacturers, both Polish and foreign. Fluoride concentrations in individual samples were measured by potentiometric method with a fluoride ion-selective electrode. The highest fluoride levels were determined in the lowest percentage drinks (less than 10 % v/v ethanol), with the lowest fluoride levels observed in the highest percentage drinks (above 40 % v/v ethanol). In terms of types of alcoholic drinks, the highest fluoride levels were determined in beers and wines, while the lowest levels were observed in vodkas. These data confirm the fact that alcoholic beverages need to be considered as a significant source of fluoride delivered into the body. PMID:26475300

  17. The equal right to drink.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Laura A

    2014-11-01

    The starting place for this essay is Knupfer and Room's insight that more restrictive norms around drinking and intoxication tend to be selectively applied to the economically dependent segments of society, such as women. However, since these authors wrote in 1964, women in the US and many other societies around the globe have experienced rising economic independence. The essay considers how the moral categories of acceptable drinking and drunkenness may have shifted alongside women's rising economic independence, and looks at evidence on the potential consequences for women's health and wellbeing. I argue that, as women have gained economic independence, changes in drinking norms have produced two different kinds of negative unintended consequences for women at high and low extremes of economic spectrum. As liberated women of the middle and upper classes have become more economically equal to men, they have enjoyed the right to drink with less restraint. For them, alongside the equal right to drink has come greater equality in exposure to alcohol-attributable harms, abuse and dependence. I further suggest that, as societies become more liberated, the economic dependency of low-income women is brought into greater question. Under such conditions, women in poverty-particularly those economically dependent on the state, such as welfare mothers-have become subject to more restrictive norms around drinking and intoxication, and more punitive social controls.

  18. The equal right to drink.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Laura A

    2014-11-01

    The starting place for this essay is Knupfer and Room's insight that more restrictive norms around drinking and intoxication tend to be selectively applied to the economically dependent segments of society, such as women. However, since these authors wrote in 1964, women in the US and many other societies around the globe have experienced rising economic independence. The essay considers how the moral categories of acceptable drinking and drunkenness may have shifted alongside women's rising economic independence, and looks at evidence on the potential consequences for women's health and wellbeing. I argue that, as women have gained economic independence, changes in drinking norms have produced two different kinds of negative unintended consequences for women at high and low extremes of economic spectrum. As liberated women of the middle and upper classes have become more economically equal to men, they have enjoyed the right to drink with less restraint. For them, alongside the equal right to drink has come greater equality in exposure to alcohol-attributable harms, abuse and dependence. I further suggest that, as societies become more liberated, the economic dependency of low-income women is brought into greater question. Under such conditions, women in poverty-particularly those economically dependent on the state, such as welfare mothers-have become subject to more restrictive norms around drinking and intoxication, and more punitive social controls. PMID:25303360

  19. Drinking identity as a mediator of the relationship between drinking motives and weekly alcohol consumption among heavy drinking undergraduate students

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Dawn W.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The present study assessed relationships among social, coping, enhancement, and conformity drinking motives and weekly alcohol consumption by considering drinking identity as a mediator of this relationship. Methods Participants were 260 heavy drinking undergraduate students (81% female; Mage = 23.45; SD = 5.39) who completed a web-based survey. Results Consistent with expectations, findings revealed significant direct effects of motives on drinking identity for all four models. Further, significant direct effects emerged for drinking identity on weekly drinking. Results partially supported predictions that motives would have direct effects on drinks per week; total effects of motives on drinking emerged for all models but direct effects of motives on weekly drinking emerged for only enhancement motives. There were significant indirect effects of motives on weekly drinking through drinking identity for all four models. Conclusions Findings supported hypotheses that drinking identity would mediate the relationship between drinking motives and alcohol consumption. These examinations have practical utility and may inform development and implementation of interventions and programs targeting alcohol misuse among heavy drinking undergraduate students. PMID:25127197

  20. Drinking before Drinking: Pre-gaming and Drinking Games in Mandated Students

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, Kelly E.; Hustad, John T. P.; Barnett, Nancy P.; Tevyaw, Tracy O'Leary; Kahler, Christopher W.

    2007-01-01

    Pre-gaming, the practice of consuming alcohol before attending a social function, has not received as much research attention as drinking games among college students. This study investigated the prevalence of both pre-gaming and drinking game participation in a sample of mandated students (N = 334) who had been referred for an alcohol violation. Approximately one-third (31%) of the sample reported pre-gaming on the night of their referral event. Pre-gaming was associated with higher estimated blood alcohol content on that night, along with a greater history of pre-gaming and taking greater responsibility for the incident. A higher proportion of the students (48.7%) reported playing drinking games on the event night and reported the event to be less aversive than non-players. Neither drinking games nor pre-gaming was consistently related to recent alcohol consumption or problems, nor did they frequently occur together on the event night. Pre-gaming was a unique predictor of intoxication on the night of the referral, and drinking games were not. Therefore, pre-gaming and drinking games appear to be distinct activities. This research suggests methods of prevention for both activities as well as promising research directions for future research. PMID:17574344

  1. Drinking motives as moderators of the effect of ambivalence on drinking and alcohol-related problems

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Dawn W.; Neighbors, Clayton; Prokhorov, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The current study seeks to evaluate relationships between drinking motives and alcohol-related ambivalence in the prediction of problem drinking. We expected that: 1) main effects would emerge such that alcohol-related ambivalence would be positively associated with peak drinking and problems; drinking motives would be positively associated with drinking and problems, and 2) interactions would emerge between motives and ambivalence in predicting problematic drinking such that drinking motives would be positively associated with peak drinking and problems, especially among those high in ambivalence over drinking. Six hundred sixty-nine undergraduate students (mean age = 22.95, SD = 5.47, 82.22% female) completed study materials. Results showed that consistent with expectations, ambivalence was positively associated with peak drinking and problems. Further, consistent with expectations, drinking motives were positively associated with peak drinking and problems. Additionally, ambivalence was positively associated with drinking motives. Significant interactions emerged between drinking motives (social and coping) and ambivalence when predicting peak drinking and alcohol-related problems. These findings highlight the importance of considering motives in the relationship between ambivalence and drinking. Clinical implications include the need for tailoring interventions to target individual difference factors that increase risk for heavy drinking and associated problems. This is especially important among college students who may be at risk for problematic behavior. PMID:24094922

  2. Event Specific Drinking Among College Students

    PubMed Central

    Neighbors, Clayton; Atkins, David C.; Lewis, Melissa A.; Lee, Christine M.; Kaysen, Debra; Mittmann, Angela; Fossos, Nicole; Rodriguez, Lindsey M.

    2011-01-01

    College represents a period of risk for heavy drinking and experiencing unwanted consequences associated with drinking. Previous research has identified specific events including holidays (e.g., New Years), school breaks (e.g., Spring Break) and personally relevant events (e.g., 21st birthdays) that are associated with elevated risk of heavy drinking and negative alcohol-related consequences. The systematic evaluation of relative risk offers insights into event specific drinking and an empirical basis upon which to consider allocation of limited prevention resources. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to provide a comparative index of drinking across a wide range of holidays and compare holiday drinking to 21st birthday drinking. Participants were 1,124 students (55% female) who had turned 21 within the previous three weeks in 2008 and provided 90-day retrospective reports of their drinking using the Timeline Follow-back. Results based on a hurdle mixed model for blood alcohol content (BAC) revealed several holidays that stand out for elevated drinking, including New Year’s Eve and July 4th, whereas other holidays appear more similar to weekend drinking, such as Spring Break (approximately last week of March) and graduation (mid-June). Drinking on holidays or special days was substantially lower than drinking on 21st birthdays. Results are discussed in terms of practical applications for targeted intervention efforts on college campuses toward specific events where elevated drinking is known to occur. PMID:21639597

  3. Does Knowledge of College Drinking Policy Influence Student Binge Drinking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Warren A.; Singleton, Edward; McMillan, Tiffany B.; Perrino, Carrol S.

    2005-01-01

    The authors explored alcohol policies at 5 historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) to gain an understanding of how students' awareness of these policies might correlate with campus binge drinking rates. Findings indicated that male students who reported being unaware of certain alcohol policies were more likely to report binge…

  4. Longitudinal associations between attitudes towards binge drinking and alcohol-free drinks, and binge drinking behavior in adolescence.

    PubMed

    van der Zwaluw, Carmen S; Kleinjan, Marloes; Lemmers, Lex; Spijkerman, Renske; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2013-05-01

    Alcohol attitudes are often considered an important predecessor of drinking behavior, although the literature is equivocal. Lately, attention has turned to enhancing positive cognitions on alcoholic-free drinks to discourage heavy drinking. The current study was the first to longitudinally examine associations between attitudes towards binge drinking and alcohol-free drinks and binge drinking behavior in a cross-lagged path model in Mplus. Participants were 293 adolescents (131 boys, M(age)=16.1 years) who filled in two online questionnaires with a six-month interval. Binge drinking behavior and attitudes towards binge drinking and alcohol-free drinks were all significantly correlated at both waves. The multivariate model, however, showed that only higher levels of binge drinking at T1 were prospectively related to more positive binge drinking attitudes at T2, and not vice versa. Analyses were controlled for sex, educational level, and age. Findings discard the Theory of Planned Behavior, but rather seem consistent with the Theory of Cognitive Dissonance, i.e., adolescents may adapt their cognitions to their behavior. More longitudinal research with several time points and over a longer period of time is needed to further examine the development of attitudes and drinking behavior. PMID:23435271

  5. Effects of saline drinking water on early gosling development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stolley, D.S.; Bissonette, J.A.; Kadlec, J.A.; Coster, D.

    1999-01-01

    Relatively high levels of saline drinking water may adversely affect the growth, development, and survival of young waterfowl. Saline drinking water was suspect in the low survival rate of Canada goose (Branta canadensis) goslings at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge (FSNWR) in western Utah. Hence, we investigated the effects of saline drinking water on the survival and growth of captive, wild-strain goslings from day 1-28 following hatch. We compared survival and growth (as measured by body mass, wing length, and culmen length) between a control group on tap water with a mean specific conductivity of 650 ??S/cm, and 2 saline water treatments: (1) intermediate level (12,000 ??S/cm), and (2) high level (18,000 ??S/cm). Gosling mortality occurred only in the 18,000 ??S/cm treatment group (33%; n = 9). Slopes of regressions of mean body mass, wing length, and culmen length on age were different from each other (P < 0.05), except for culmen length for the intermediate and high treatment levels. We predict that free-ranging wild goslings will experience mortality at even lower salinity levels than captive goslings because of the combined effects of depressed growth and environmental stresses, including hot desert temperatures and variable food quality over summer.

  6. Talking to your teen about drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... use - teenager; Alcohol abuse - teenager; Problem drinking - teenager; Alcoholism - teenager; Underage drinking - teenager ... pubmed/20385640 . National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and American Academy of Pediatrics. Alcohol screening and ...

  7. Eliminate Sweetened Drinks, Cut Kids' Sugar Intake

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_161163.html Eliminate Sweetened Drinks, Cut Kids' Sugar Intake Average U.S. child consumes about 80 grams ... Looking for the quickest way to cut added sugar from your kid's diet? Eliminate sugar-sweetened drinks, ...

  8. Lead and Drinking Water from Private Wells

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nutrition Camping, Hiking, Travel Drinking Water Treatment and Sanitation for Backcountry & Travel Use Emergency Disinfection of Drinking ... Uses of Water WASH-related Emergencies & Outbreaks Water, Sanitation, & Environmentally-related Hygiene Related Sites Get Email Updates ...

  9. Giardia and Drinking Water from Private Wells

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nutrition Camping, Hiking, Travel Drinking Water Treatment and Sanitation for Backcountry & Travel Use Emergency Disinfection of Drinking ... Uses of Water WASH-related Emergencies & Outbreaks Water, Sanitation, & Environmentally-related Hygiene Related Sites Get Email Updates ...

  10. Women Reaching Equality in Dubious Habit: Drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... in Dubious Habit: Drinking Females also closing the gender gap on health problems from alcohol consumption To ... said. To track trends in drinking between the genders, Slade and his colleagues pooled data from more ...

  11. Prepartying, Drinking Games, and Extreme Drinking among College Students: A Daily-Level Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Fairlie, Anne M.; Maggs, Jennifer L.; Lanza, Stephanie T.

    2014-01-01

    Daily data collected over 14 consecutive days were used to examine whether extreme drinking was more likely on days college students reported prepartying (i.e., drinking before going out) or playing drinking games in a multi-ethnic sample of college seniors (analysis subsample: N=399; 57% women; M age=21.48 years, SD=.40). Multilevel modeling with drinking occasions at Level 1 (1265 drinking days) nested within persons at Level 2 (399 drinkers) were used to predict four extreme drinking behavior outcomes at the daily level: consuming at least 8/10 (women/men) drinks, reaching an estimated blood alcohol concentration (eBAC) of .16% or greater, drinking enough to stumble, and drinking enough to pass out. Prepartying only (29% of drinking days) was more common than playing drinking games only (10%) or engaging in both behaviors on the same day (13%). Odds of extreme drinking were greater among students who frequently engaged in prepartying (ORs: 1.86-2.58) and drinking games (ORs: 1.95-4.16), except prepartying frequency did not predict drinking enough to pass out. On days students prepartied (ORs: 1.58-2.02) and on days they played drinking games (ORs: 1.68-1.78), odds of extreme drinking were elevated, except drinking games did not predict eBAC of .16% or greater. Extreme drinking is attributable to both person-level characteristics (e.g., preparty frequency) and specific drinking behaviors on a given day. Prepartying and drinking games confer elevated risk of extreme drinking and are important targets in alcohol interventions for college seniors. PMID:25437263

  12. Examining Drinking Patterns and High-Risk Drinking Environments among College Athletes at Different Competition Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marzell, Miesha; Morrison, Christopher; Mair, Christina; Moynihan, Stefanie; Gruenewald, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined drinking patterns of three different college student groups: (a) intercollegiate athletes, (b) intramural/club athletes, and (c) nonathletes. Additionally, we investigated whether a relationship exists between drinking setting and risk of increased drinking. We analyzed data on the athletic involvement, drinking behaviors, and…

  13. Alcohol Impairment and Social Drinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Marsha E.

    Cognitive abilities of social drinkers are generally thought to be affected by alcohol only during acute intoxication, but several studies suggest that sober-state performance may be affected by the quantity of alcohol consumed per drinking episode. Although the findings regarding sober-state mental deficits in social drinkers are inconclusive,…

  14. Decisional Balance and Collegiate Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgen, Keith; Gunneson, Lauren

    2008-01-01

    The study examined the perceived benefits and costs of alcohol use among undergraduates (N=462) perceiving their drinking as normal or abnormal as well as those undergraduates who met or did not meet the DSM-IV-TR criteria for an alcohol disorder. A 2x2 MANOVA and univariate analyses on the benefits (pros) and costs (cons) scales of the Alcohol…

  15. Uranium in Kosovo's drinking water.

    PubMed

    Berisha, Fatlume; Goessler, Walter

    2013-11-01

    The results of this paper are an initiation to capture the drinking water and/or groundwater elemental situation in the youngest European country, Kosovo. We aim to present a clear picture of the natural uranium concentration in drinking water and/or groundwater as it is distributed to the population of Kosovo. Nine hundred and fifty-one (951) drinking water samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The results are the first countrywide interpretation of the uranium concentration in drinking water and/or groundwater, directly following the Kosovo war of 1999. More than 98% of the samples had uranium concentrations above 0.01 μg L(-1), which was also our limit of quantification. Concentrations up to 166 μg L(-1) were found with a mean of 5 μg L(-1) and median 1.6 μg L(-1) were found. Two point six percent (2.6%) of the analyzed samples exceeded the World Health Organization maximum acceptable concentration of 30 μg L(-1), and 44.2% of the samples exceeded the 2 μg L(-1) German maximum acceptable concentrations recommended for infant food preparations.

  16. 30 CFR 75.1718 - Drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drinking water. 75.1718 Section 75.1718 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1718 Drinking water. An adequate supply of potable water shall be provided for drinking purposes in the active workings of the mine, and such...

  17. 30 CFR 75.1718 - Drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drinking water. 75.1718 Section 75.1718 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1718 Drinking water. An adequate supply of potable water shall be provided for drinking purposes in the active workings of the mine, and such...

  18. 30 CFR 75.1718 - Drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drinking water. 75.1718 Section 75.1718 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1718 Drinking water. An adequate supply of potable water shall be provided for drinking purposes in the active workings of the mine, and such...

  19. 30 CFR 75.1718 - Drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drinking water. 75.1718 Section 75.1718 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1718 Drinking water. An adequate supply of potable water shall be provided for drinking purposes in the active workings of the mine, and such...

  20. 30 CFR 75.1718 - Drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drinking water. 75.1718 Section 75.1718 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1718 Drinking water. An adequate supply of potable water shall be provided for drinking purposes in the active workings of the mine, and such...

  1. THE DRINKING WATER TREATABILITY DATABASE (Slides)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) assembles referenced data on the control of contaminants in drinking water, housed on an interactive, publicly-available, USEPA web site (www.epa.gov/tdb). The TDB is of use to drinking water utilities, treatment process design engin...

  2. THE DRINKING WATER TREATABILITY DATABASE (Conference Paper)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) assembles referenced data on the control of contaminants in drinking water, housed on an interactive, publicly-available, USEPA web site (www.epa.gov/tdb). The TDB is of use to drinking water utilities, treatment process design engin...

  3. 21st Birthday Drinking: Extremely Extreme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutledge, Patricia C.; Park, Aesoon; Sher, Kenneth J.

    2008-01-01

    Despite public recognition of the hazards of 21st birthday drinking, there is little empirical information concerning its prevalence, severity, and risk factors. Data from a sample of 2,518 college students suggest that 21st birthday drinking poses an extreme danger: (a) 4 of every 5 participants (83%) reported drinking to celebrate, (b) birthday…

  4. Energy Drink Use Among Ohio Appalachian Smokers.

    PubMed

    Davison, Genevieve; Shoben, Abigail; Pasch, Keryn E; Klein, Elizabeth G

    2016-10-01

    Caffeine-containing energy drinks have emerged as a public health concern due to their association with caffeine toxicity and alcohol use. Despite the fact that previous research has linked caffeine use in the form of coffee drinking to smoking, there is little research examining the association between energy drinks and smoking. The present study examines demographic and behavioral factors associated with energy drink use among a sample of rural Ohio Appalachian smokers. It was hypothesized that male gender, young age (21-30 years.) and alcohol use would be associated with energy drink use. A sample of adult smokers (n = 298) from Ohio Appalachian counties were interviewed regarding demographic and behavioral factors. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between these factors and energy drink use. Seventy percent of Ohio Appalachian smokers studied had ever used an energy drink and 40 % had used an energy drink in the past month. Young age, male gender, and single marital status were associated with higher odds of ever having used an energy drink. Young age, and binge drinking were associated with higher odds of past 30-day use while abstinence from drinking was associated with lower odds of past 30-day use. Ohio Appalachian adult smokers had higher rates of energy drink use compared to previous estimates of ever or past month use found in other studies. The combined use of caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol warrants attention due to potential for health risk.

  5. Teen Tipplers: America's Underage Drinking Epidemic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.

    In preparing for this report, surveys and focus groups were conducted with adults (N=900), with or without children under the legal drinking age, to determine their attitudes, views, and thoughts regarding the problem of underage drinking. The survey was designed to identify opportunities for civic engagement on the issue of underage drinking and…

  6. Energy Drink Use Among Ohio Appalachian Smokers.

    PubMed

    Davison, Genevieve; Shoben, Abigail; Pasch, Keryn E; Klein, Elizabeth G

    2016-10-01

    Caffeine-containing energy drinks have emerged as a public health concern due to their association with caffeine toxicity and alcohol use. Despite the fact that previous research has linked caffeine use in the form of coffee drinking to smoking, there is little research examining the association between energy drinks and smoking. The present study examines demographic and behavioral factors associated with energy drink use among a sample of rural Ohio Appalachian smokers. It was hypothesized that male gender, young age (21-30 years.) and alcohol use would be associated with energy drink use. A sample of adult smokers (n = 298) from Ohio Appalachian counties were interviewed regarding demographic and behavioral factors. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between these factors and energy drink use. Seventy percent of Ohio Appalachian smokers studied had ever used an energy drink and 40 % had used an energy drink in the past month. Young age, male gender, and single marital status were associated with higher odds of ever having used an energy drink. Young age, and binge drinking were associated with higher odds of past 30-day use while abstinence from drinking was associated with lower odds of past 30-day use. Ohio Appalachian adult smokers had higher rates of energy drink use compared to previous estimates of ever or past month use found in other studies. The combined use of caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol warrants attention due to potential for health risk. PMID:26879965

  7. 49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 173.218 Section 173.218... Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) Except as provided in Column (7) of the HMT in § 172.101 of this subchapter, fish meal or fish scrap, containing at least 6%, but not more than 12% water, is authorized...

  8. 49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 173.218 Section 173.218... Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) Except as provided in Column (7) of the HMT in § 172.101 of this subchapter, fish meal or fish scrap, containing at least 6%, but not more than 12% water, is authorized...

  9. 49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 173.218 Section 173.218... Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) Except as provided in Column (7) of the HMT in § 172.101 of this subchapter, fish meal or fish scrap, containing at least 6%, but not more than 12% water, is authorized...

  10. 49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 173.218 Section 173.218... Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) Except as provided in Column (7) of the HMT in § 172.101 of this subchapter, fish meal or fish scrap, containing at least 6%, but not more than 12% water, is authorized...

  11. 49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 173.218 Section 173.218... Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) Except as provided in Column (7) of the HMT in § 172.101 of this subchapter, fish meal or fish scrap, containing at least 6%, but not more than 12% water, is authorized...

  12. Fishing for Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Bruce

    1994-01-01

    Teaching students to fish not only develops a lifetime leisure skill but also leads to an understanding of aquatic ecosystems and encourages student connection with the natural environment. Addresses educational benefits of incorporating fishing into environmental education and describes how two fishing programs successfully met objectives of…

  13. Correlates of college student binge drinking.

    PubMed Central

    Wechsler, H; Dowdall, G W; Davenport, A; Castillo, S

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study examines the individual correlates of college student binge drinking. METHODS. Questionnaires were completed by a representative national sample (n = 17,592) of students on 140 campuses in 1993. Binge drinking was defined as five or more drinks per episode for men and as four or more drinks per episode for women. RESULTS. Overall, 44% of the students (50% of the men and 39% of the women) binged. While demographic factors such as sex and race were significantly related to binge drinking, prior binging in high school was crucial, suggesting that for many students, binge drinking begins before college. The strongest predictors of college binge drinking were residence in a fraternity or sorority, adoption of a party-centered life-style, and engagement in other risky behaviors. CONCLUSIONS. Interventions must be targeted at high school binge drinking as well as at several characteristics of college life--most notably fraternity residence. Legal drinking age fails to predict binge drinking, raising questions about the effectiveness of the legal minimum drinking age of 21 in college alcohol policies. PMID:7604914

  14. Development of a Database of the Fluoride Content of Selected Drinks and Foods in the UK.

    PubMed

    Zohoori, F Vida; Maguire, Anne

    2016-01-01

    It is important to monitor systemic fluoride (F) intake from foods, drinks and inadvertent toothpaste ingestion in order to minimise the risk of dental fluorosis while maximising caries prevention. In the UK, an F database containing the F content of commercially available foods and drinks was compiled from 518 products analysed using an acid-diffusion method and F-ion-selective electrode. The individual products analysed ranged from <0.01 µg F/100 g for butter/margarine (miscellaneous foods group) to 1,054.20 µg F/100 g for canned sardines (fish group). These findings, along with the wide range of F contents found within the food groups, highlight the need for comprehensive F content labelling of food and drink products. PMID:27241725

  15. Addition of aspirin to a fish oil-rich diet decreases inflammation and atherosclerosis in ApoE-null mice.

    PubMed

    Sorokin, Alexander V; Yang, Zhi-Hong; Vaisman, Boris L; Thacker, Seth; Yu, Zu-Xi; Sampson, Maureen; Serhan, Charles N; Remaley, Alan T

    2016-09-01

    Aspirin (ASA) is known to alter the production of potent inflammatory lipid mediators, but whether it interacts with omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) from fish oil to affect atherosclerosis has not been determined. The goal was to investigate the impact of a fish oil-enriched diet alone and in combination with ASA on the production of lipid mediators and atherosclerosis. ApoE(-/-) female mice were fed for 13weeks one of the four following diets: omega-3 FA deficient (OD), omega-3 FA rich (OR) (1.8g omega-3 FAs/kg·diet per day), omega-3 FA rich plus ASA (ORA) (0.1g ASA/kg·diet per day) or an omega-3 FA deficient plus ASA (ODA) with supplement levels equivalent to human doses. Plasma lipids, atherosclerosis, markers of inflammation, hepatic gene expression and aortic lipid mediators were determined. Hepatic omega-3 FAs were markedly higher in OR (9.9-fold) and ORA (7-fold) groups. Mice in both OR and ORA groups had 40% less plasma cholesterol in very low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein fractions, but aortic plaque area formation was only significantly lower in the ORA group (5.5%) compared to the OD group (2.5%). Plasma PCSK9 protein levels were approximately 70% lower in the OR and ORA groups. Proinflammatory aortic lipid mediators were 50%-70% lower in the ODA group than in the OD group and more than 50% lower in the ORA group. In summary, less aortic plaque lesions and aortic proinflammatory lipid mediators were observed in mice on the fish oil diet plus ASA vs. just the fish oil diet. PMID:27394692

  16. Fish allergy: in review.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Michael F; Lopata, Andreas L

    2014-06-01

    Globally, the rising consumption of fish and its derivatives, due to its nutritional value and divergence of international cuisines, has led to an increase in reports of adverse reactions to fish. Reactions to fish are not only mediated by the immune system causing allergies, but are often caused by various toxins and parasites including ciguatera and Anisakis. Allergic reactions to fish can be serious and life threatening and children usually do not outgrow this type of food allergy. The route of exposure is not only restricted to ingestion but include manual handling and inhalation of cooking vapors in the domestic and occupational environment. Prevalence rates of self-reported fish allergy range from 0.2 to 2.29 % in the general population, but can reach up to 8 % among fish processing workers. Fish allergy seems to vary with geographical eating habits, type of fish processing, and fish species exposure. The major fish allergen characterized is parvalbumin in addition to several less well-known allergens. This contemporary review discusses interesting and new findings in the area of fish allergy including demographics, novel allergens identified, immunological mechanisms of sensitization, and innovative approaches in diagnosing and managing this life-long disease. PMID:23440653

  17. Repeated Binge-Like Ethanol Drinking Alters Ethanol Drinking Patterns and Depresses Striatal GABAergic Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Mark V; Carlson, Verginia C Cuzon; Sherazee, Nyssa; Sprow, Gretchen M; Bock, Roland; Thiele, Todd E; Lovinger, David M; Alvarez, Veronica A

    2014-01-01

    Repeated cycles of binge alcohol drinking and abstinence are key components in the development of dependence. However, the precise behavioral mechanisms underlying binge-like drinking and its consequences on striatal synaptic physiology remain unclear. In the present study, ethanol and water drinking patterns were recorded with high temporal resolution over 6 weeks of binge-like ethanol drinking using the ‘drinking in the dark' (DID) protocol. The bottle exchange occurring at the beginning of each session prompted a transient increase in the drinking rate that might facilitate the acquisition of ethanol binge-like drinking. Ethanol drinking mice also displayed a ‘front-loading' behavior, in which the highest rate of drinking was recorded during the first 15 min. This rate increased over weeks and paralleled the mild escalation of blood ethanol concentrations. GABAergic and glutamatergic transmission in the dorsal striatum were examined following DID. Spontaneous glutamatergic transmission and the density of dendritic spines were unchanged after ethanol drinking. However, the frequency of GABAA receptor-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic currents was depressed in medium spiny neurons of ethanol drinking mice. A history of ethanol drinking also increased ethanol preference and altered the acute ethanol effects on GABAergic transmission differentially in dorsolateral and dorsomedial striatum. Together, the study shows that the bottle exchange during DID promotes fast, voluntary ethanol drinking and that this intermittent pattern of ethanol drinking causes a depression of GABAergic transmission in the dorsal striatum. PMID:23995582

  18. The temporal "pulse" of drinking: Tracking 5 years of binge drinking in emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Reich, Richard R; Cummings, Jenna R; Greenbaum, Paul E; Moltisanti, Allison J; Goldman, Mark S

    2015-08-01

    Binge drinking is associated with clinically significant individual-level and public health consequences. The topography of binge drinking may influence the emergence of consequences, but studies of topography require a higher level of temporal resolution than is typically available in epidemiological research. To address topography across the 5 "peak" years of binge drinking (18 to 23 years), we assessed daily binge drinking via successive 90-day timeline follow-back interviews of 645 young adults (resulting in almost 700,000 data points). Results showed a weekend "pulse" of binge drinking that remained consistent across the entire 5 year span, with occasional holiday-based perturbations. Two-part latent growth curve modeling applied to this dataset showed that the often-observed decrease in drinking associated with "maturing out" was due more to decreased participation in binge drinking occasions, rather than to amounts consumed when drinking (intensity). Similarly, the number of binge drinkers varied by day of the week, but the intensity of binge drinking, for those drinking, varied little by day of the week. This approach also showed distinctive predictors for participation and intensity; baseline expectancies and sociability accounted for individual differences in participation, whereas impulsivity-sensation seeking predicted intensity. Individual patterns of binge drinking participation and intensity also predicted drinking consequences over the 5 years of the study. Given these results, binge drinking patterns may serve as a useful phenotype for future research on pathological drinking. PMID:25961813

  19. The Temporal “Pulse” of Drinking: Tracking Five Years of Binge Drinking in Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Reich, Richard R.; Cummings, Jenna R.; Greenbaum, Paul E.; Moltisanti, Allison J.; Goldman, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Binge drinking is associated with clinically significant individual-level and public health consequences. The topography of binge drinking may influence the emergence of consequences but studies of topography require a higher level of temporal resolution than is typically available in epidemiological research. To address topography across the five “peak” years of binge drinking (18 to 23 years), we assessed daily binge drinking via successive 90-day Timeline Follow back interviews of 645 young adults (resulting in almost 700,000 data points). Results showed a weekend “pulse” of binge drinking that remained consistent across the entire five year span, with occasional holiday-based perturbations. Two-part latent growth curve (LGC) modeling applied to this dataset showed that the often-observed decrease in drinking associated with “maturing out” was due more to decreased participation in binge drinking occasions, rather than to amounts consumed when drinking (intensity). Similarly, the number of binge drinkers varied by day of the week, but the intensity of binge drinking, for those drinking, varied little by day of the week. This approach also showed distinctive predictors for participation and intensity; baseline expectancies and sociability accounted for individual differences in participation, whereas impulsivity-sensation seeking predicted intensity. Individual patterns of binge drinking participation and intensity also predicted drinking consequences over the 5 years of the study. Given these results, binge drinking patterns may serve as a useful phenotype for future research on pathological drinking. PMID:25961813

  20. Fish community results

    SciTech Connect

    Hickman, G.D.; Scott, E.M. Jr.; Brown, A.M.

    1991-05-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) operates 9 reservoirs on the Tennessee River and 37 reservoirs on its tributaries. TVA is committed to maintaining the health of aquatic resources created when the reservoir system was built. To that end, TVA in cooperation with Valley states, operates a water resource monitoring program that includes physical, chemical, and biological data collection components. Biological monitoring will target the following selected elements within three zones of the reservoir (inflow, transition, and forebay): Sediment/Water-column Acute Toxicity Screening, Benthic macroinvertebrates, and Fish. Reservoir fisheries monitoring is divided into the following activities: Fish Biomass, Fish Tissue Contamination, Fish Community Monitoring, and Fish Health Assessment. This report presents the results of fish community monitoring and fish health assessments.

  1. Carbohydrate drinks and cycling performance.

    PubMed

    Bacharach, D W; von Duvillard, S P; Rundell, K W; Meng, J; Cring, M R; Szmedra, L; Castle, J M

    1994-06-01

    We compared the effects of similarly tasting orange flavored drinks containing 0% (P), 6.4% (E1), and 10% (E2) carbohydrate (CHO) using 12 well-trained cyclists (VO2max = 5.0 l/min-1) on metabolic responses to exercise (EX) and a sprint type performance ride (PR). Each subject completed 3 separate 2 h EX bouts at 65% VO2max followed by a PR identified as the time in sec to complete 500 revolutions at a constant belt resistance of 29.4 N (ANOVA*). The CHO feedings or placebo of 3 ml/kg body weight were given double blind and counter-balanced at 0 min and every 20 min thereafter during EX. Blood samples were drawn and core temperature (Tr) was recorded at 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min of EX and 1 min post PR. Blood samples were analyzed for glucose (G) and lactate [LA-]. Blood G at 0 min were similar; however, at 120 min, G was 3.96 mM for P*, 4.57 mM for E1, and 4.77 mM for E2. Blood [LA-] remained similar throughout EX averaging (P, 2.6 mM; E1, 2.9 mM; E2, 2.5 mM). Tr at 120 min was also similar (P, 38.5 degrees C; E1, 38.6 degrees C; E2, 38.3 degrees C). Mean PR times for P(264.4 s)**, E1 (255.3 s)*, E2 (252.4 s)* indicate consumption of a CHO drink during EX improves PR. Furthermore, a 10% CHO drink improves PR more than a 6.4% CHO drink.

  2. Drinking water aluminum and bioavailability

    SciTech Connect

    Reiber, S.H.; Kukull, W.; Standish-Lee, P.

    1995-05-01

    This article discusses chemical considerations relative to aluminum uptake in the body and reviews aluminum concentrations, species, and distribution in natural and treated waters. The issues of bioavailability and the likelihood that aluminum in drinking water is more readily assimilated than other forms of aluminum is reviewed and rejected based on issues of solubility and likely chemical transformations that take place in the human gut.

  3. Cleaning Up Our Drinking Water

    SciTech Connect

    Manke, Kristin L.

    2007-08-01

    Imagine drinking water that you wring out of the sponge you’ve just used to wash your car. This is what is happening around the world. Rain and snow pass through soil polluted with pesticides, poisonous metals and radionuclides into the underground lakes and streams that supply our drinking water. “We need to understand this natural system better to protect our groundwater and, by extension, our drinking water,” said Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s Applied Geology and Geochemistry Group Manager, Wayne Martin. Biologists, statisticians, hydrologists, geochemists, geologists and computer scientists at PNNL work together to clean up contaminated soils and groundwater. The teams begin by looking at the complexities of the whole environment, not just the soil or just the groundwater. PNNL researchers also perform work for private industries under a unique use agreement between the Department of Energy and Battelle, which operates the laboratory for DOE. This research leads to new remediation methods and technologies to tackle problems ranging from arsenic at old fertilizer plants to uranium at former nuclear sites. Our results help regulators, policy makers and the public make critical decisions on complex environmental issues.

  4. Drinking water for the future.

    PubMed

    Okun, D A

    1976-07-01

    The Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 represents an important step in improving the quality of public water supply in the United States. However, it fails to address two important problems: (1) The 1970 Public Health Service Community Water Supply Survey revealed that small public water supply systems often deliver poor quality water. The Act does not assure that these supplies will now receive appropriate attention; furthermore, the Act does not address the needs of the 50 million people not now served by public water systems; (2) About one-third of our population draws its drinking waters from polluted sources. The decisions to use these low cost sources were made generations ago when consumers could be protected from water-borne infectious disease. A new problem has now arisen--the presence of numerous synthetic organic chemicals of uncertain health consequence, not removed by conventional water treatment. The Act does not address this problem. Regionalization and the integration of water resource and water pollution control authorities are proposed as a reasonable solution to these problems. The development of dual water supply systems in order to conserve scarce pure water sources for human consumption appears to be a feasible way to avoid using polluted waters for drinking. The development of dual supplies would be enhanced by regionalization and integration of water authorities. PMID:937609

  5. Cholesterol Oxidation in Fish and Fish Products.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Natalie Marinho; Sampaio, Geni Rodrigues; Ferreira, Fernanda Silva; Labre, Tatiana da Silva; Torres, Elizabeth Aparecida Ferraz da Silva; Saldanha, Tatiana

    2015-12-01

    Fish and fish products are important from a nutritional point of view due to the presence of high biological value proteins and the high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially those of the n-3 series, and above all eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. However, these important food products also contain significant amounts of cholesterol. Although cholesterol participates in essential functions in the human body, it is unstable, especially in the presence of light, oxygen, radiation, and high temperatures that can cause the formation of cholesterol oxidation products or cholesterol oxides, which are prejudicial to human health. Fish processing involves high and low temperatures, as well as other methods for microbiological control, which increases shelf life and consequently added value; however, such processes favor the formation of cholesterol oxidation products. This review brings together data on the formation of cholesterol oxides during the preparation and processing of fish into food products which are recognized and recommended for their nutritional properties.

  6. Fish elevator and method of elevating fish

    DOEpatents

    Truebe, Jonathan; Drooker, Michael S.

    1984-01-01

    A means and method for transporting fish from a lower body of water to a higher body of water. The means comprises a tubular lock with a gated entrance below the level of the lower body of water through which fish may enter the lock and a discharge passage above the level of the upper body of water. The fish raising means in the lock is a crowder pulled upward by a surface float as water from the upper body of water gravitationally flows into the closed lock filling it to the level of the upper body. Water is then pumped into the lock to raise the level to the discharge passage. The crowder is then caused to float upward the remaining distance through the water to the level of the discharge passage by the introduction of air into a pocket on the underside of the crowder. The fish are then automatically discharged from the lock into the discharge passage by the out of water position of the crowder. The movement of the fish into the discharge passage is aided by the continuous overflow of water still being pumped into the lock. A pipe may be connected to the discharge passage to deliver the fish to a selected location in the upper body of water.

  7. Why fishes have a fish shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eloy, Christophe; Schouveiler, Lionel

    2010-11-01

    The relation between form and function for elongated swimmers is revisited by solving a multi-objective optimization problem. We consider elongated fishes of varying elliptic cross-section whose motion is prescribed by a time-periodic curvature. The two semi-axes of the cross-section, the curvature amplitude and phase are assumed to vary continuously along the fish length. Hydrodynamic forces acting on such fishes are modeled in the elongated-body limit by considering both reactive and resistive forces. Applying Newton's second law, the heave and pitch amplitude and phase, as well as the swimming velocity can be found. The total power needed can also be calculated yielding the swimming efficiency. The multi-objective optimization consists in finding the fish shape and associated motion which corresponds to maximum efficiency, maximum velocity or any trade-off between the two. This optimization problem is solved using a genetic algorithm whose principle is to start with an initial random population and to evolve it by mutation and selection. We find that the most efficient shape resembles existing fishes and arguments are given to explain the relation between this particular fish form and performance.

  8. Drink refusal self-efficacy and implicit drinking identity: an evaluation of moderators of the relationship between self-awareness and drinking behavior.

    PubMed

    Foster, Dawn W; Neighbors, Clayton; Young, Chelsie M

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the roles of drink refusal self-efficacy (DRSE), implicit drinking identity, and self-awareness in drinking. Self-awareness (assessed by public and private self-consciousness), DRSE, and implicit drinking identity (measured via an implicit association test; IAT) were expected to interact in predicting self-reported drinking. This research was designed to consider mixed findings related to self-awareness and drinking. Hypotheses were: 1) alcohol-related outcomes would be negatively associated with self-awareness; 2) implicit drinking identity would moderate the association between self-awareness and alcohol consumption; and 3) this association would depend on whether participants were higher or lower in drink refusal self-efficacy. Participants included 218 undergraduate students. Results revealed that drinking behavior was not associated with self-awareness but was positively associated with implicit drinking identity. Of the four drinking variables (peak drinking, drinking frequency, drinks per week, and alcohol-related problems), only alcohol-related problems were positively associated with self-awareness. Furthermore, a significant two-way interaction emerged between private (but not public) self-consciousness and drinking identity to predict drinking. Consistent with expectations, three-way interactions emerged between self-awareness, implicit drinking identity, and DRSE in predicting drinking. For participants low in DRSE: 1) high implicit drinking identity was associated with greater drinking frequency when private self-consciousness was low; and 2) high implicit drinking identity was associated with greater drinks per week and peak drinks when public self-consciousness was low. This suggests that alcohol-related IATs may be useful tools in predicting drinking, particularly among those low in self-awareness and DRSE.

  9. Social motives for drinking in students should not be neglected in efforts to decrease problematic drinking.

    PubMed

    Van Damme, J; Maes, L; Clays, E; Rosiers, J F M T; Van Hal, G; Hublet, A

    2013-08-01

    High heavy drinking prevalence persists in students. Recently, drinking motivation received a lot of attention as an important determinant. Enhancement and coping motives are mostly positively related and conformity motives are mostly negatively related with heavy drinking. Relations are less clear for social motives. This study aimed at gaining more insight in the role of drinking motives in heavy drinking students. Overall, 15 897 Belgian university and college students (mean age: 20.7, SD = 2.6) anonymously participated in an online survey. Logistic regressions tested relationships between motives and problematic drinking (>weekly drinking, ≥monthly binge drinking and being at risk for problematic drinking by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test [AUDIT]). Social motives had the highest prevalence, followed by enhancement, coping and conformity motives. Men engaged more in problematic drinking and reported more motives, except for coping. Enhancement, coping and social-motivated students have higher chances for problematic drinking, while the opposite is true for conformity-motivated students. Although this study found a similar ranking of motives as in other studies, a relationship between problematic drinking and all motives, including social motives, was revealed. This might indicate the different functions of social motives in heavy drinking in different cultures/sub-populations and countries. This finding is relevant for the development of interventions. PMID:23487559

  10. Binge drinking among Brazilians: Higher drinking frequency increases related problems.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Daniel Sócrates; Sanchez, Zila M; Zaleski, Marcos; Palhares Alves, Hamer Nastasy; Pinsky, Ilana; Caetano, Raul; Laranjeira, Ronaldo Ramos

    2014-05-14

    Abstract Aims: To correlate binge drinking (BD) with alcohol-related problems (ARP) in the Brazilian population. Methods: A representative cross-sectional survey was conducted in 143 Brazilian cities. Associations between the frequencies of BD and ARP were gathered using an ordered logit regression model. Results: Higher BD frequencies significantly increased the chance of injury in accidents, job loss, and involvement in intense arguments and assaults over the year. High frequency in BD increases the odds of all ARP. Conclusion: There is a dose-response association between the frequency BD and ARP and is therefore a possible target for public prevention policies. PMID:24829095

  11. Immunostimulants in fish diets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gannam, A.L.; Schrock, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    Various immunostimulants and their methods of application in fish culture are examined in this review. Important variables such as life stage and innate disease resistance of the fish; immunostimulant used, its structure and mode of action; and the fish's environment are discussed. Conflicting results have been published about the efficacy of immunostimulants in fish diets. Some researchers have had positive responses demonstrated as increased fish survival, others have not. Generally, immunostimulants enhance individual components of the non-specific immune response but that does not always translate into increased fish survival. In addition, immunostimulants fed at too high a dose or for too long can be immunosuppressive. [Article copies available for a fee from The Haworth Document Delivery Service: 1-800-342-9678. E-mail address: getinfo@haworthpressinc.com ].

  12. Fish and shellfish allergy.

    PubMed

    Wild, Laurianne G; Lehrer, Samuel B

    2005-01-01

    Fish and shellfish are important in the American diet and economy. Nearly $27 billion are spent each year in the United States on seafood products. Fish and shellfish are also important causes of food hypersensitivity. In fact, shellfish constitute the number one cause of food allergy in the American adult. During the past decade, much has been learned about allergens in fish and shellfish. The major allergens responsible for cross-reactivity among distinct species of fish and amphibians are parvalbumins. The major shellfish allergen has been identified as tropomyosin. Many new and important potential cross-reacting allergens have been identified within the fish family and between shellfish, arachnids, and insects. Extensive research is currently underway for the development of safer and more effective methods for the diagnosis and management of fish and shellfish hypersensitivity.

  13. Drinking in snakes: resolving a biomechanical puzzle.

    PubMed

    Cundall, David; Brainerd, Elizabeth L; Constantino, Joseph; Deufel, Alexandra; Grapski, Douglas; Kley, Nathan J

    2012-03-01

    Snakes have long been thought to drink with a two-phase buccal-pump mechanism, but observations that some snakes can drink without sealing the margins of their mouths suggest that buccal pumping may not be the only drinking mechanism used by snakes. Here, we report that some snakes appear to drink using sponge-like qualities of specific regions of the oropharyngeal and esophageal mucosa and sponge-compressing functions of certain muscles and bones of the head. The resulting mechanism allows them to transport water upward against the effects of gravity using movements much slower than those of many other vertebrates. To arrive at this model, drinking was examined in three snake species using synchronized ciné and electromyographic recordings of muscle activity and in a fourth species using synchronized video and pressure recordings. Functional data were correlated with a variety of anatomical features to test specific predictions of the buccal-pump model. The anatomical data suggest explanations for the lack of conformity between a buccal-pump model of drinking and the performance of the drinking apparatus in many species. Electromyographic data show that many muscles with major functions in feeding play minor roles in drinking and, conversely, some muscles with minor roles in feeding play major roles in drinking. Mouth sealing by either the tongue or mental scale, previously considered critical to drinking in snakes, is incidental to drinking performance in some species. The sponge mechanism of drinking may represent a macrostomatan exaptation of mucosal folds, the evolution of which was driven primarily by the demands of feeding.

  14. Underage drinking: an evolutionary concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Jones, Sandra N; Waite, Roberta L

    2013-09-01

    Underage drinking is a major cause of morbidity and mortality for American youths and young adults. The negative consequences of underage drinking range from academic problems to intentional and unintentional injuries, acts directed toward self or others, and death. Nurses, regardless of practice settings, are on the frontline of defense. The take-home message is to delay/deter the first drink of alcohol.

  15. Parents' rules about underage drinking: a qualitative study of why parents let teens drink.

    PubMed

    Friese, Bettina; Grube, Joel W; Moore, Roland S; Jennings, Vanessa K

    2012-01-01

    Results from a qualitative study with parents about underage drinking are presented. Semistructured interviews (n = 44) were conducted with parents of teens to investigate whether and why parents permit underage drinking. Parents had three primary reasons for allowing underage drinking: deliberate, spontaneous, and harm reduction. Deliberate reasons included passing on knowledge about drinking responsibly and appreciating alcohol. Parents also spontaneously decided to let their teen drink. Some of these spontaneous situations involved feeling pressure from other adults to let their teen drink. Another reason was a desire to reduce potential harm. Parents feared that forbidding underage drinking would harm their relationship with their teen and potentially lead to drunk driving. Prevention efforts aimed at parents should take into account parents' motivations to let teens drink.

  16. EPA’s Drinking Water Treatability Database: A Tool for All Drinking Water Professionals

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) is being developed by the USEPA Office of Research and Development to allow drinking water professionals and others to access referenced information gathered from thousands of literature sources and assembled on one site. Currently, ...

  17. Drinking water standards and regulations. Manual for 1977-1986

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L.K.; Wang, M.H.S.

    1987-01-15

    The following eight important documents are compiled for Drinking Water Standards and Regulations: (1) EPA Interim Primary Drinking Water Standards; (2) EPA Guidelines establishing Test Procedures for the Analysis of Pollutants Under the Clean Water Act; (3) Massachusetts Dept. of Environmental Quality Engineering, Interpretation of Results of Water Supply Analysis; (4) Thompson, J.C., Updating the Safe Drinking Water Act and the Drinking Water Regulations; (5) Lists of Acceptable Drinking Water Additives; (6) Title XIV of the Public Health Service Act (The Safe Drinking Water Act); (7) Standards for Quality of Public Drinking Water--Connecticut; (8) New York State Sanitary Code of Drinking Water Supplies (Including Drinking Water Standards).

  18. Fish and wildlife surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Poston, T.M.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the monitoring of radioactive contaminants in fish and wildlife species that inhabit the Colombia River and Hanford Site. Wildlife have access to areas of the Site containing radioactive contamination, and fish can be exposed to contamination in spring water entering the river along the shoreline. Therefore, samples are collected at various locations annually, generally during the hunting or fishing season, for selected species.

  19. Can Soft Drink Taxes Reduce Population Weight?

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Jason M.; Frisvold, David

    2009-01-01

    Soft drink consumption has been hypothesized as one of the major factors in the growing rates of obesity in the US. Nearly two-thirds of all states currently tax soft drinks using excise taxes, sales taxes, or special exemptions to food exemptions from sales taxes to reduce consumption of this product, raise revenue, and improve public health. In this paper, we evaluate the impact of changes in state soft drink taxes on body mass index (BMI), obesity, and overweight. Our results suggest that soft drink taxes influence BMI, but that the impact is small in magnitude. PMID:20657817

  20. Ensuring the Public's Drinking-Water Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, James H.

    1978-01-01

    Some questions are answered concerning the justification, intent, and purpose of the Safe Drinking Water Act's regulations. Some points, previously misinterpreted, are placed in clear perspective. (BB)

  1. Can Soft Drink Taxes Reduce Population Weight?

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Jason M; Frisvold, David; Tefft, Nathan

    2010-01-01

    Soft drink consumption has been hypothesized as one of the major factors in the growing rates of obesity in the US. Nearly two-thirds of all states currently tax soft drinks using excise taxes, sales taxes, or special exemptions to food exemptions from sales taxes to reduce consumption of this product, raise revenue, and improve public health. In this paper, we evaluate the impact of changes in state soft drink taxes on body mass index (BMI), obesity, and overweight. Our results suggest that soft drink taxes influence BMI, but that the impact is small in magnitude.

  2. Drinking water regulations and health advisories

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The report provides maximum contaminant level of goals, maximum contaminant levels, reference doses, and drinking water equivalent levels for over 250 organic and inorganic chemicals, radionuclides, and microbes.

  3. [Helminths of Antarctic fishes].

    PubMed

    Rocka, Anna

    2008-01-01

    Antarctic fishes are represented by sharks, skates (Chondrichthyes) and bony fishes (Teleostei). Teleosts play an important role in the completion of life cycles of many helminth species. They serve as either definitive or intermediate and paratenic hosts. Chondrichthyes are definitive hosts only. Seventy three helminth species occur as the adult stage in fishes: Digenea (45), Cestoda (14), Nematoda (6), Acanthocephala (8), Also, 11 larval stages of Cestoda (7) and Nematoda (4) are known, together with 7 species of Acanthocephala in the cystacanth stage. One digenean species, Otodistomum cestoides, matures in skates. Among cestodes maturing in fishes only one, Parabothriocephalus johnstoni, occurs in a bony fish, Macrourus whitsoni. Antarctic Chondrichthyes are not infected with nematodes and acanthocephalans. Cestode larvae from teleosts belong to Tetraphyllidea (parasites of skates), and Tetrabothriidae and Diphyllobothriidae (parasites of birds and mammals). Larval nematodes represent Anisakidae, parasites of fishes, birds and mammals. Acanthocephalan cystacanths mature in pinnipeds and birds. The majority of parasites maturing in Antarctic fishes are endemics. Only 4 digenean and one nematode species, Hysterothylacium aduncum, are cosmopolitan. All acanthocephalans, almost all digeneans, the majority of cestodes and some nematodes occur mainly or exclusively in benthic fishes. Specificity of the majority of helminths utilizing teleosts as intermediate and/or paratenic hosts is low. Among parasites using fishes as definitive hosts, all Cestoda, most Digenea and Nematoda, and almost all Acanthocephala have a range of hosts restricted to one order or even to 1-2 host species. PMID:18664106

  4. Indirect Effect of Social Support for Drinking on Drinking Outcomes: The Role of Motivation*

    PubMed Central

    Hunter-Reel, Dorian; McCrady, Barbara S.; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Epstein, Elizabeth E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study tested an integrated relapse model drawing hypotheses from both interpersonal and intra-individual relapse models. It was hypothesized that the relationships between alcohol-specific social support (support for drinking and support for not drinking) and drinking outcomes would be partially mediated by motivation. Method: Participants were 158 women with alcohol use disorders participating in two linked randomized controlled trials. One trial compared standard individual cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for alcohol use disorders with female-specific CBT for alcohol use disorders; the other compared alcohol behavioral couple therapy with blended individual CBT and alcohol behavioral couple therapy. Measures included the Important People Interview to measure social-support variables, the Timeline Followback to measure drinking variables, and the Stages of Change Readiness and Treatment Eagerness Scale to measure motivation. Results: Results of structural equation modeling suggested a mediational role of motivation in the relationship between support for drinking and drinking frequency. Individuals with more network support for drinking at baseline had less motivation for abstinence at the end of treatment, which predicted drinking frequency over the 6 months after treatment. The indirect effect of baseline support for drinking on 6-month follow-up drinking frequency was statistically significant. A similar, although only marginally significant, pattern was found for the relationship between support for not drinking and drinking frequency. Individuals with more social network for not drinking at baseline had more motivation at the end of treatment at the trend level, which in turn predicted 6-month follow-up drinking frequency. The indirect effect of baseline support for not drinking on 6-month follow-up drinking frequency trended toward significance. Conclusions: This study offers preliminary evidence that motivation is one mechanism by which

  5. Fungi contamination of drinking water.

    PubMed

    Al-Gabr, Hamid Mohammad; Zheng, Tianling; Yu, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic fungi commonly infest various aqueous environments and play potentially crucial roles in nutrient and carbon cycling. Aquatic fungi also interact with other organisms to influence food web dynamics. In recent decades, numerous studies have been conducted to address the problem of microorganism contamination of water. The major concern has been potential effects on human health from exposure to certain bacteria, viruses, and protozoa that inhabit water and the microbial metabolites,pigments, and odors which are produced in the water, and their effects on human health and animals. Fungi are potentially important contaminants because they produce certain toxic metabolites that can cause severe health hazards to humans and animals. Despite the potential hazard posed by fungi, relatively few studies on them as contaminants have been reported for some countries.A wide variety of fungi species have been isolated from drinking water, and some of them are known to be strongly allergenic and to cause skin irritation, or immunosuppression in immunocompromised individuals (e.g., AIDS, cancer, or organ transplant patients). Mycotoxins are naturally produced as secondary metabolites by some fungi species, and exposure of humans or animals to them can cause health problems. Such exposure is likely to occur from dietary intake of either food,water or beverages made with water. However, mycotoxins, as residues in water,may be aerosolized when showering or when being sprayed for various purposes and then be subject to inhalation. Mycotoxins, or at least some of them, are regarded to be carcinogenic. There is also some concern that toxic mycotoxins or other secondary metabolites of fungi could be used by terrorists as a biochemical weapon by adding amounts of them to drinking water or non drinking water. Therefore, actions to prevent mycotoxin contaminated water from affecting either humans or animals are important and are needed. Water treatment plants may serve to partially

  6. Naphthalene: Drinking water health advisory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    The Drinking Water Health Advisory, Office of Water, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, has issued its report on the chemical, naphthalene. Naphthalene is used in the manufacture of phthalic and anthranilic acids and other derivatives, and in making dyes; in the manufacture of resins, celluloid, lampblack and smokeless gunpowder; and as moth repellant, insecticide, anthelmintic, vermicide, and intestinal antiseptic. The report covers the following areas: the occurrence of the chemical in the environment; its environmental fate; the chemical's absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion in the human body; and its health effects on humans and animals, including its mutagenicity and carcinogenicity characteristics. Also included is the quantification of its toxicological effects.

  7. Through the Drinking Glass: An Analysis of the Cultural Meanings of College Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Andy Soon Leong

    2012-01-01

    College drinking and its adverse consequences on students' health and safety are important public health concerns in the USA. Thus far, there is little attention on exploring and addressing the cultural dimensions of college drinking. This study examines the construction of meaning of drinking among students to understand their perspectives of the…

  8. A Drop to Drink. . .A Report on the Quality of Our Drinking Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tait, Jack

    Basic information about the quality of our nation's drinking water is contained in this brochure. Written for the general public to familiarize them with the situation, it will also help them evaluate the state of the nation's drinking water as well as that of their own communities. The need to assure reliable sources of healthful drinking water…

  9. The Disparity between Social Drinking Motives and Social Outcomes: A New Perspective on College Student Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Allison M.; Brown, B. Bradford; Moreno, Megan A.

    2013-01-01

    Students report drinking for social reasons, yet the social benefits of alcohol use are less understood. Associations between social drinking motives, drinking behaviors, and college friendships were examined via in-person interviews with 72 college freshmen from a large Mid-western University. Consistent with previous research, social drinking…

  10. Parents' Rules about Underage Drinking: A Qualitative Study of Why Parents Let Teens Drink

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friese, Bettina; Grube, Joel W.; Moore, Roland S.; Jennings, Vanessa K.

    2012-01-01

    Results from a qualitative study with parents about underage drinking are presented. Semistructured interviews (n = 44) were conducted with parents of teens to investigate whether and why parents permit underage drinking. Parents had three primary reasons for allowing underage drinking: deliberate, spontaneous, and harm reduction. Deliberate…

  11. Social anxiety symptoms and drinking behaviors among college students: the mediating effects of drinking motives.

    PubMed

    Villarosa, Margo C; Madson, Michael B; Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Noble, Jeremy J; Mohn, Richard S

    2014-09-01

    The impact of social anxiety on negative alcohol-related behaviors among college students has been studied extensively. Drinking motives are considered the most proximal indicator of college student drinking behavior. The current study examined the mediating role of drinking motives in the relationship that social anxiety symptoms have with problematic (alcohol consumption, harmful drinking, and negative consequences) and safe (protective behavioral strategies) drinking behaviors. Participants were 532 undergraduates who completed measures of social anxiety, drinking motives, alcohol use, harmful drinking patterns, negative consequences of alcohol use, and protective behavioral strategy use. Our results show that students with higher levels of social anxiety symptoms who were drinking for enhancement motives reported more harmful drinking and negative consequences, and used fewer protective behavioral strategies. Thus, students who were drinking to increase their positive mood were participating in more problematic drinking patterns compared with students reporting fewer social anxiety symptoms. Further, conformity motives partially mediated the relationship between social anxiety symptoms and negative consequences. Thus, students with more symptoms of social anxiety who were drinking in order to be accepted by their peers were more likely than others to experience negative consequences. Clinical and research implications are discussed.

  12. Heavy Drinking on College Campuses: No Reason to Change Minimum Legal Drinking Age of 21

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saylor, Drew K.

    2011-01-01

    The recent Amethyst Initiative argues that a minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) of 21 has created a culture of heavy alcohol use on college campuses by making drinking clandestine and extreme. This group and others argue that lowering the MLDA will reduce the problem of "binge drinking" on college campuses. However, such a policy change would…

  13. Turning 21 and the Associated Changes in Drinking and Driving after Drinking among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fromme, Kim; Wetherill, Reagan R.; Neal, Dan J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined drinking and driving after drinking before and after turning 21. Participants: Participants were drawn from first time college students who were taking part in a 4-year longitudinal study of alcohol use and behavioral risks. Methods: Web-based longitudinal surveys collected data on drinking and driving after…

  14. Comparing the AUDIT and 3 Drinking Indices as Predictors of Personal and Social Drinking Problems in Freshman First Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hare, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The current study of 376 college freshman adjudicated the first time for breaking university drinking rules tested the predictive power of four alcohol consumption and problem drinking indices--recent changes in drinking (the Alcohol Change Index: ACI), heavy drinking, binge drinking index, and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT)…

  15. DHA-containing oilseed: a timely solution for the sustainability issues surrounding fish oil sources of the health-benefitting long-chain omega-3 oils.

    PubMed

    Kitessa, Soressa M; Abeywardena, Mahinda; Wijesundera, Chakra; Nichols, Peter D

    2014-05-22

    Benefits of long-chain (≥C20) omega-3 oils (LC omega-3 oils) for reduction of the risk of a range of disorders are well documented. The benefits result from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); optimal intake levels of these bioactive fatty acids for maintenance of normal health and prevention of diseases have been developed and adopted by national and international health agencies and science bodies. These developments have led to increased consumer demand for LC omega-3 oils and, coupled with increasing global population, will impact on future sustainable supply of fish. Seafood supply from aquaculture has risen over the past decades and it relies on harvest of wild catch fisheries also for its fish oil needs. Alternate sources of LC omega-3 oils are being pursued, including genetically modified soybean rich in shorter-chain stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4ω3). However, neither oils from traditional oilseeds such as linseed, nor the SDA soybean oil have shown efficient conversion to DHA. A recent breakthrough has seen the demonstration of a land plant-based oil enriched in DHA, and with omega-6 PUFA levels close to that occurring in marine sources of EPA and DHA. We review alternative sources of DHA supply with emphasis on the need for land plant oils containing EPA and DHA.

  16. DHA-Containing Oilseed: A Timely Solution for the Sustainability Issues Surrounding Fish Oil Sources of the Health-Benefitting Long-Chain Omega-3 Oils

    PubMed Central

    Kitessa, Soressa M.; Abeywardena, Mahinda; Wijesundera, Chakra; Nichols, Peter D.

    2014-01-01

    Benefits of long-chain (≥C20) omega-3 oils (LC omega-3 oils) for reduction of the risk of a range of disorders are well documented. The benefits result from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); optimal intake levels of these bioactive fatty acids for maintenance of normal health and prevention of diseases have been developed and adopted by national and international health agencies and science bodies. These developments have led to increased consumer demand for LC omega-3 oils and, coupled with increasing global population, will impact on future sustainable supply of fish. Seafood supply from aquaculture has risen over the past decades and it relies on harvest of wild catch fisheries also for its fish oil needs. Alternate sources of LC omega-3 oils are being pursued, including genetically modified soybean rich in shorter-chain stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4ω3). However, neither oils from traditional oilseeds such as linseed, nor the SDA soybean oil have shown efficient conversion to DHA. A recent breakthrough has seen the demonstration of a land plant-based oil enriched in DHA, and with omega-6 PUFA levels close to that occurring in marine sources of EPA and DHA. We review alternative sources of DHA supply with emphasis on the need for land plant oils containing EPA and DHA. PMID:24858407

  17. DHA-containing oilseed: a timely solution for the sustainability issues surrounding fish oil sources of the health-benefitting long-chain omega-3 oils.

    PubMed

    Kitessa, Soressa M; Abeywardena, Mahinda; Wijesundera, Chakra; Nichols, Peter D

    2014-05-01

    Benefits of long-chain (≥C20) omega-3 oils (LC omega-3 oils) for reduction of the risk of a range of disorders are well documented. The benefits result from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); optimal intake levels of these bioactive fatty acids for maintenance of normal health and prevention of diseases have been developed and adopted by national and international health agencies and science bodies. These developments have led to increased consumer demand for LC omega-3 oils and, coupled with increasing global population, will impact on future sustainable supply of fish. Seafood supply from aquaculture has risen over the past decades and it relies on harvest of wild catch fisheries also for its fish oil needs. Alternate sources of LC omega-3 oils are being pursued, including genetically modified soybean rich in shorter-chain stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4ω3). However, neither oils from traditional oilseeds such as linseed, nor the SDA soybean oil have shown efficient conversion to DHA. A recent breakthrough has seen the demonstration of a land plant-based oil enriched in DHA, and with omega-6 PUFA levels close to that occurring in marine sources of EPA and DHA. We review alternative sources of DHA supply with emphasis on the need for land plant oils containing EPA and DHA. PMID:24858407

  18. The Big Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLisle, Rebecca; Hargis, Jace

    2005-01-01

    The Killer Whale, Shamu jumps through hoops and splashes tourists in hopes for the big fish, not because of passion, desire or simply the enjoyment of doing so. What would happen if those fish were obsolete? Would this killer whale be able to find the passion to continue to entertain people? Or would Shamu find other exciting activities to do…

  19. Folkbiology of Freshwater Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medin, Douglas L.; Ross, Norbert O.; Atran, Scott; Cox, Douglas; Coley, John; Proffitt, Julia B.; Blok, Sergey

    2006-01-01

    Cross-cultural comparisons of categorization often confound cultural factors with expertise. This paper reports four experiments on the conceptual behavior of Native American and majority-culture fish experts. The two groups live in the same general area and engage in essentially the same set of fishing-related behaviors. Nonetheless, cultural…

  20. Stress in Fish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stress in fish involves a condition disruptive of physiological homeostasis that occurs in response to unfavorable external influences and is capable of adversely affecting fish. Any stimulus that provokes stress responses is known as a stressor, disrupting a stable condition and causing a response....

  1. PARASITES OF FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The intent of this chapter is to describe the parasites of importance to fishes maintained and used in laboratory settings. In contrast to the frist edition, the focus will be only on those parasites that pose a serious threat to or are common in fishes held in these confined en...

  2. Summer Fish Camp.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remick, Dennis; Pulu, Tupou L.

    The booklet presents a description and illustrates, with photographs, the Eskimo lifestyle and the kinds of activities that occur at a summer fish camp on the Yukon River. Eleven suggested activities are listed for the teacher to present when using the booklet. Activities include studying the map of Alaska; tracing the life cycle of the fish;…

  3. An Amazing Fish Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Null, Elisabeth Higgins

    2001-01-01

    Caught up in the entrepreneurial thrill of launching a new industry, high-school students in an economically distressed fishing village in Maine are playing a vital research-and-development role in partnership with their community. The result is a sophisticated aquaculture center for raising several species of fish in a laboratory setting. (MLH)

  4. Older Adults and Drinking | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking Older Adults and Drinking Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of ... quickly than when they were younger. Drinking puts older adults at greater risk for falls, car crashes, and ...

  5. THE EPIDEMIOLOGY OF CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS OF DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory



    A number of chemical contaminants have been identified in drinking water. These contaminants reach drinking water supplies from various sources, including municipal and industrial discharges, urban and rural run-off, natural geological formations, drinking water distrib...

  6. Helping a loved one with a drinking problem

    MedlinePlus

    ... 000815.htm Helping a loved one with a drinking problem To use the sharing features on this ... worse, not better, if you wait. When is Drinking a Problem? Drinking problems are not measured by ...

  7. Acculturation stress and drinking problems among urban heavy drinking Latinos in the Northeast.

    PubMed

    Lee, Christina S; Colby, Suzanne M; Rohsenow, Damaris J; López, Steven R; Hernández, Lynn; Caetano, Raul

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between the level of acculturation and acculturation stress and the extent to which each predicts problems related to drinking. Hispanics who met criteria for hazardous drinking completed measures of acculturation, acculturation stress, and drinking problems. Sequential multiple regression was used to determine whether the levels of self-reported acculturation stress predicted concurrent alcohol problems after controlling for the predictive value of the acculturation level. Acculturation stress accounted for a significant variance in drinking problems, while adjusting for acculturation, income, and education. Choosing to drink in response to acculturation stress should be an intervention target with Hispanic heavy drinkers.

  8. Antimicrobial Peptides from Fish

    PubMed Central

    Masso-Silva, Jorge A.; Diamond, Gill

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are found widely distributed through Nature, and participate in the innate host defense of each species. Fish are a great source of these peptides, as they express all of the major classes of AMPs, including defensins, cathelicidins, hepcidins, histone-derived peptides, and a fish-specific class of the cecropin family, called piscidins. As with other species, the fish peptides exhibit broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, killing both fish and human pathogens. They are also immunomodulatory, and their genes are highly responsive to microbes and innate immuno-stimulatory molecules. Recent research has demonstrated that some of the unique properties of fish peptides, including their ability to act even in very high salt concentrations, make them good potential targets for development as therapeutic antimicrobials. Further, the stimulation of their gene expression by exogenous factors could be useful in preventing pathogenic microbes in aquaculture. PMID:24594555

  9. Quantification of alcohol drinking patterns in mice.

    PubMed

    Eisenhardt, Manuela; Leixner, Sarah; Spanagel, Rainer; Bilbao, Ainhoa

    2015-11-01

    The use of mice in alcohol research provides an excellent model system for a better understanding of the genetics and neurobiology of alcohol addiction. Almost 60 years ago, alcohol researchers began to test strains of mice for alcohol preference and intake. In particular, various voluntary alcohol drinking paradigms in the home cage were developed. In mouse models of voluntary oral alcohol consumption, animals have concurrent access to water and either one or several concentrated alcohol solutions in their home cages. Although these models have high face validity, many experimental conditions require a more precise monitoring of alcohol consumption in mice in order to capture the role of specific strains or genes, or any other manipulation on alcohol drinking behavior. Therefore, we have developed a fully automated, highly precise monitoring system for alcohol drinking in mice in the home cage. This system is now commercially available. We show that this drinkometer system allows for detecting differences in drinking behavior (i) in transgenic mice, (ii) following alcohol deprivation, and (iii) following stress applications that are usually not detected by classical home-cage drinking paradigms. In conclusion, our drinkometer system allows disturbance-free and high resolution monitoring of alcohol drinking behavior. In particular, micro-drinking and circadian drinking patterns can be monitored in genetically modified and inbred strains of mice after environmental and pharmacological manipulation, and therefore this system represents an improvement in measuring behavioral features that are of relevance for the development of alcohol use disorders.

  10. MINI PILOT PLANT FOR DRINKING WATER RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Water Supply & Water Resources Division (WSWRD) has constructed 2 mini-pilot plant systems used to conduct drinking water research. These two systems each have 2 parallel trains for comparative research. The mini-pilot plants are small conventional drinking water treatment ...

  11. Drinking Water: A Community Action Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Susan, Ed.; And Others

    While much of the drinking water in the United States is safe for consumption, protecting its quality and assuring its availability are becoming increasingly difficult. This booklet is written for individuals and groups who are concerned about the drinking water in their communities. It provides a general introduction to the complex issues of…

  12. Teenage Drinking in Rural Middle Tennessee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mookherjee, Harsha N.

    1984-01-01

    Investigated the extent to which alcoholic beverages are consumed by high school teenagers (N=622) in rural communities of middle Tennessee. Results showed that about 63 percent of the subjects do drink alcoholic beverages, and that most of the drinking is done in the company of friends. (LLL)

  13. Monitoring of Microbes in Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Internationally there is a move towards managing the provision of safe drinking water by direct assessment of the performance of key pathogen barriers (critical control points), rather than end point testing (i.e. in drinking water). For fecal pathogens that breakthrough the vari...

  14. Palatability, Familiarity, and Underage, Immoderate Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemon, Jim; Stevenson, Richard; Gates, Peter; Copeland, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Data gathered in a study of palatability ("liking") and familiarity ratings of alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages by 350 subjects from 12 to 30 years of age included the usual number of drinks consumed. Blind ratings of palatability and familiarity for the beverages were tested for association with immoderate drinking (more than four for males,…

  15. Middle School Drinking: Who, Where, and when

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kristen G.; Brown, Sandra A.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this research was to describe the most common drinking situations for young adolescents (N = 1171; 46.6% girls), as well as determine predictors of their drinking in the seventh and eighth grades. Middle school students most frequently drank at parties with three to four teens, in their home or at a friend's home, and reported…

  16. DRINKING WATER ARSENIC AND PERINATAL OUTCOMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Drinking Water Arsenic and Perinatal Outcomes
    DT Lobdell, Z Ning, RK Kwok, JL Mumford, ZY Liu, P Mendola

    Many studies have documented an association between drinking water arsenic (DWA) and cancer, vascular diseases, and dermatological outcomes, but few have investigate...

  17. Drinking Attitudes and Behavior of Incoming Freshmen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Deborah H.; Sedlacek, William E.

    An anonymous questionnaire on demographic characteristics, alcohol usage and drinking attitudes, and college-related attitudes was administered to 466 incoming freshmen (236 males, 230 females) at the University of Maryland, College Park. Fifty-five percent of all freshmen reported having taken their first drink with friends by age 15; 10 percent…

  18. Predictors of Undergraduate Student Binge Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strano, Donald A.; Cuomo, Michael J.; Venable, Riley H.

    2004-01-01

    The relative importance of a number of predictors of binge drinking and of high- versus low-frequency binge drinking among undergraduate students was studied. Findings demonstrated that race, class, fraternity or sorority membership, use of other drugs in the past 30 days, positive alcohol expectancies, perception of minimal risk, perception that…

  19. Social pressures to drink or drink a little more: the Nigerian experience

    PubMed Central

    Ibanga, Akanidomo K J; Adetula, Victor A. O.; Dagona, Zubairu K

    2009-01-01

    This study set out to investigate the pressures experienced by different individuals to drink, or drink a little more than intended, by someone who drinks or drinks more than they do. A total of 2099 Nigerian adults between the ages of 18 and 65 years were randomly sampled. The frequency with which they experienced such other drinkers encouraging them to drink or drink more than intended from various sources was examined. Logistic regression was used to identify significant individual predictors of receiving pressure by sources of influence. Focus group discussions were also held to examine how these pressures are applied in various settings. Results indicated that male friends or acquaintances were the sources respondents reported influenced them the most to drink or drink more. Significant predictors of pressure varied by source but tended to include religion (5 of 6 sources) and gender (3 of 6). Results showed that pressure to drink or drink a little more was seen to come more from males than from females. It raises the need to have a better knowledge of these factors, particularly as they may relate to heavy or problematic drinking, and their implications for prevention and treatment. PMID:20651928

  20. Energy drinks, soft drinks, and substance use among US secondary school students

    PubMed Central

    Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M.; O’Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Examine energy drink/shot and regular and diet soft drink use among US secondary school students in 2010–2011, and associations between such use and substance use. Methods We used self-reported data from cross-sectional surveys of nationally representative samples of 8th, 10th, and 12th grade students and conducted multivariate analyses examining associations between beverage and substance use controlling for individual and school characteristics. Results Approximately 30% of students reported consuming energy drinks or shots; more than 40% reported daily regular soft drink use, and about 20% reported daily diet soft drink use. Beverage consumption was strongly and positively associated with past 30-day alcohol, cigarette, and illicit drug use. The observed associations between energy drinks and substance use were significantly stronger than those between regular or diet soft drinks and substance use. Conclusions This correlational study indicates that adolescent consumption of energy drinks/shots is wide-spread, and that energy drink users report heightened risk for substance use. This study does not establish causation between the behaviors. Education for parents and prevention efforts among adolescents should include education on the masking effects of caffeine in energy drinks on alcohol- and other substance-related impairments, and recognition that some groups (such as high sensation-seeking youth) may be particularly likely to consume energy drinks and to be substance users. PMID:24481080

  1. Drinking histories of fatally injured drivers

    PubMed Central

    Baker, S; Braver, E; Chen, L; Li, G; Williams, A

    2002-01-01

    Context: About 30% of drivers killed in crashes have high blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) of 0.10+ g/dl. There is a question about whether these drivers primarily are problem drinkers who chronically drink and drive—the so-called hard core drinking drivers. Objective: To investigate drinking histories of fatally injured drivers in relation to their BACs. Design and participants: Retrospective cohort study of 818 fatally injured drivers who were included in the 1993 National Mortality Followback Survey (a national sample of US deaths in which next of kin were interviewed) and whose BACs were recorded by the Fatality Analysis Reporting System, a census of US traffic deaths. Main outcome measure: Problem drinking indicators. Results: At least one indicator of potential problem drinking, primarily heavy drinking, was reported for 68% of drivers with very high BACs (0.15+ g/dl), 41% with BACs of 0.10–0.14 g/dl, 32% with BACs of 0.01–0.09 g/dl, and 7% with zero BACs. Spouses provided more credible responses than other relatives: they were more likely to report at least occasional drinking and driving among deceased drivers with high BACs. For the most direct signs of problem drinking (described as a problem drinker during the last month of life or frequently driving after having five or more drinks), spousal reports suggested the prevalence of problem drinking among drivers with very high BACs was 22% (having both indicators), 32% (frequently driving after having five or more drinks), 44% (described as problem drinker), or 57% (having either indicator). Conclusions: Drivers with BACs of 0.10+ g/dl were far more likely than sober drivers to be described as having markers of problem drinking. However, many did not have indicators suggestive of problem drinking. In addition to programs focused on repeat offenders or problem drinkers, countermeasures such as sobriety checkpoints that target a broader spectrum of drinking drivers are appropriate. PMID:12226120

  2. Calorie Restriction on Drinking Days: An Examination of Drinking Consequences Among College Students

    PubMed Central

    Giles, Steven M.; Champion, Heather; Sutfin, Erin L.; McCoy, Thomas P.; Wagoner, Kimberly G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study examined the association between restricting calories on intended drinking days and drunkenness frequency and alcohol-related consequences. Participants Participants included a random sample of 4,271 undergraduate college students from 10 universities. Methods Students completed a web-based survey regarding their high-risk drinking behaviors and calorie restriction on intended drinking days. Results Thirty-nine percent of past 30-day drinkers reported restricting calories on days they planned to drink alcohol, of which 67% restricted because of weight concerns. Restricting calories on drinking days was associated with greater odds of getting drunk in a typical week. Women who restricted were more likely to report memory loss, being injured, being taken advantage of sexually and having unprotected sex while drinking. Men were more likely to get into a physical fight. Conclusions These results highlight the importance of considering weight control behaviors in the examination of high-risk college drinking. PMID:19433398

  3. Within treatment drinking and surreptitious drinking during brief substance abuse treatment.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Damon; Hirschman, Richard

    2006-01-01

    This project examined the frequency of within treatment drinking and surreptitious drinking among patients who attended a brief substance abuse treatment program that mandated within treatment abstinence. We defined surreptitious drinking as within treatment drinking that is kept hidden from treatment staff. Data for this project came from the anonymous exit surveys of 275 patients. Forty-eight patients (17.45%) indicated that they engaged in within treatment drinking at least once. Forty-one of those patients (87%) kept the drinking hidden from treatment staff. The most common reason for patients keeping their drinking hidden was a fear of discharge from treatment. Within treatment drinkers were compared to within treatment abstainers in the extent to which their treatment was coerced, the extent to which treatment was perceived as helpful, and their posttreatment intentions for substance use and follow-up care. Differences between these two groups, and their implications, are discussed.

  4. New approaches to safe drinking water.

    PubMed

    Barron, Gerald; Buchanan, Sharunda; Hase, Denise; Mainzer, Hugh; Ransom, Montrece McNeill; Sarisky, John

    2002-01-01

    Up to half the population of some states in the United States drink water from small systems not regulated by the Safe Drinking Water Act. The quality of the drinking water from these systems is generally unknown and may be suspect. In many jurisdictions, private wells are the primary source of water. In some instances, construction of wells may have met regulatory requirements but may not have adequately prevented disease transmission. Anecdotal information, periodic water-borne outbreaks, and recent well surveys suggest that there are public health concerns associated with these and similar systems. This article provides an assessment of the need for governmental oversight (regulatory and non-regulatory) of drinking water supplies, describes how a "systems-based" approach might be used to evaluate water supply systems and to identify and prevent possible contamination, and presents case studies describing the systems-based approach as well as a comprehensive approach to environmental health that includes drinking water regulation. PMID:12508511

  5. Safe drinking water: the toxicologist's approach.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, F X

    2000-01-01

    The production of adequate and safe drinking water is a high priority issue for safeguarding the health and well-being of humans all over the world. Traditionally, microbiological quality of drinking water has been the main concern, but over the last decades the attention of the general public and health officials on the importance of chemical quality and the threat of chemical pollutants have increased with the increase of our knowledge on the hazards of chemical substances. There are many sources of contamination of drinking water. Broadly they can be divided into two categories: contaminants originating from surface and groundwater, and contaminants used or formed during the treatment and distribution of drinking water. Contaminants in surface and groundwater can range from natural substances such as arsenic and manganese leaching from soil, to contaminants introduced by human activities, such as run-off from agricultural activities, controlled discharge from sewage treatment works and industrial plants, and uncontrolled discharges or leakage from landfill sites and from chemical accidents. Disinfectants and disinfectant by-products are well known contaminants resulting from the processes used by the drinking water industry for the treatment and distribution of water. The basic question in the production of drinking water is how to rid drinking water of potentially dangerous microorganisms and chemicals without introducing new hazards that might pose new and different threats to human health. It is the responsibility of toxicologists to provide risk assessments for chemical pollutants and to derive guidelines or standards for drinking water quality below which no significant health risk is encountered, to assure consumers that drinking water is safe and can be consumed without any risk. This paper will focus on the toxicological procedures used by the World Health Organization to derive guideline values for chemical compounds in drinking water, and will touch

  6. Injuring potential of drinking glasses.

    PubMed

    Sterzik, Vera; Kneubuehl, Beat P; Ropohl, Dirk; Bohnert, Michael

    2008-08-01

    At a party of a sports club, an argument started between two groups of young men, in the course of which one of the persons involved threw a beer glass hitting a young man of the other group, who collapsed with a profusely bleeding wound. Although resuscitation measures were initiated immediately, the victim died at the scene due to exsanguination from the completely severed left external carotid artery in combination with the aspiration of blood. Tests with drinking glasses thrown at a skull-neck model suggested that an undamaged beer glass thrown at the head of the victim could not cause the fatal injuries on the neck because of its splintering behaviour. In fact, it seemed that the beer glass had been damaged prior to throwing it and that its sharp edges perforated the skin on hitting the neck. PMID:18524515

  7. Open-hole fishing

    SciTech Connect

    Pietrobono, J.T.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports on losing equipment in the hole that is one of the most expensive and potentially dangerous things that can go wrong in drilling a well. Drilling must come to a halt until the equipment is recovered, or the hole must be sidetracked. The well also can become hard to control with essential tools out of reach, increasing the risk of a blowout. Fishing, or recovering lost or stuck equipment in the hole, is therefore a critical procedure at any drilling operation. Fishing can be divided into two broad categories: open hole and cased hole. a major difference between the two is timing: open-hole fishing is done as the well is being drilled, whereas cased-hole fishing is performed during production or well workover. Fishing techniques and types of equipment used also vary between the tow. This lesson describes some of the basic techniques and tools used in open-hole fishing-that is, retrieving fish from a hole that is being drilled but is not yet cased.

  8. Early detection of non-native fishes using fish larvae

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our objective was to evaluate the use of fish larvae for early detection of non-native fishes, comparing traditional and molecular taxonomy approaches to investigate potential efficiencies. Fish larvae present an interesting opportunity for non-native fish early detection. First,...

  9. Which Fish Should I Eat? Perspectives Influencing Fish Consumption Choices

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Anna L.; Karagas, Margaret R.; Mariën, Koenraad; Rheinberger, Christoph M.; Schoeny, Rita; Sunderland, Elsie; Korrick, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Diverse perspectives have influenced fish consumption choices. Objectives: We summarized the issue of fish consumption choice from toxicological, nutritional, ecological, and economic points of view; identified areas of overlap and disagreement among these viewpoints; and reviewed effects of previous fish consumption advisories. Methods: We reviewed published scientific literature, public health guidelines, and advisories related to fish consumption, focusing on advisories targeted at U.S. populations. However, our conclusions apply to groups having similar fish consumption patterns. Discussion: There are many possible combinations of matters related to fish consumption, but few, if any, fish consumption patterns optimize all domains. Fish provides a rich source of protein and other nutrients, but because of contamination by methylmercury and other toxicants, higher fish intake often leads to greater toxicant exposure. Furthermore, stocks of wild fish are not adequate to meet the nutrient demands of the growing world population, and fish consumption choices also have a broad economic impact on the fishing industry. Most guidance does not account for ecological and economic impacts of different fish consumption choices. Conclusion: Despite the relative lack of information integrating the health, ecological, and economic impacts of different fish choices, clear and simple guidance is necessary to effect desired changes. Thus, more comprehensive advice can be developed to describe the multiple impacts of fish consumption. In addition, policy and fishery management inter-ventions will be necessary to ensure long-term availability of fish as an important source of human nutrition. PMID:22534056

  10. Fishing for Seeds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science and Children, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Describes a method to collect seeds that are dispersed from weeds while avoiding some outdoor hazards such as rough terrain or animals. Describes a plan for creating a weed fishing pole and includes a materials list. (SAH)

  11. All fish for China?

    PubMed

    Villasante, Sebastián; Rodríguez-González, David; Antelo, Manel; Rivero-Rodríguez, Susana; de Santiago, José A; Macho, Gonzalo

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we examine the effect of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) on the level of fish intake in China in comparison with the rest of the world. We also analyse the origin and destination of China's seafood products in order to understand the main patterns during the last decades. The results show that in the 1961-2011 period the rate of growth of the GDP in China doubled that of other developing regions, while the daily fish intake of China increased fourfold, making China the largest fish consumer in the world. Given the size and scale of China's role in production, consumption, and global transformation of seafood markets, China is shaping a new era of industrialization in the history of the fishing industry.

  12. CONTAMINANTS IN FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to determine inorganic and organic contaminant concentrations in edible tissue of fish collected from eight coastal areas receiving wastewater discharges and from two reference locations. Trace metal residues were statistically similar regardless ...

  13. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... By Syndrome Life Cycle Impacts Human Health Wildlife Ecosystems Socioeconomic Freshwater Regions Distribution - U.S. Distribution - World Maps ... Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning Cyanobacteria Medical Community ... Fish Poisoning Causative organisms: Gambierdiscus ...

  14. Dehydrofreezing of Fish I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozima, Tsuneo

    Recently, new method of removing water from perishable food were developed using dehydration sheet with material having high osmotic pressure and absorbent polymer. Dehydration sheet consist of mixture of sugar dehydrolysate and absorbent polymer covered with sem-permeable membrane, and can remove water in liquid state by contact with perishable food. Dehydration rate of fish using with dehydration sheet varied depending on species, their shape, and ambient temperature etc. Fish were dehydrated with dehydration sheet at low temperature as 0 - 5 C and frozen in cold storage room. Dehydrofrozen fish were kept it's high quality and freshness after thawing, ATPase activity of fish muscle was kept at high level after dehydrofreezing in the case of cod and alaska pollack, and flesh color of farming salmon was kept after thawing.

  15. A critical review of measures to reduce radioactive doses from drinking water and consumption of freshwater foodstuffs.

    PubMed

    Smith, J T; Voitsekhovitch, O V; Håkanson, L; Hilton, J

    2001-01-01

    Following a radioactive fallout event, there are a number of possible intervention measures to reduce radioactive doses to the public via the surface water pathway. We have critically reviewed the options available to decision-makers in the event of radioactive contamination of surface waters. We believe that the most effective and viable measures to reduce radioactivity in drinking water are those which operate at the water treatment and distribution stage. Intervention measures to reduce concentrations of radioactivity in rivers and reservoirs are expected to be much less viable and efficient at reducing doses via the drinking water pathway. Bans on consumption of freshwater fish can be effective, but there are few viable measures to reduce radioactivity in fish prior to the preparation stage. Lake liming and biomanipulation have been found to be ineffective for radiocaesium, although the addition of potassium to lakewaters appears promising in some situations. Lake liming may be effective in reducing radiostrontium in fish, though this has not, to our knowledge, been tested. De-boning fish contaminated by strontium is probably the most effective food preparation measure, but salting and freezing can also reduce radiocaesium concentrations in fish. The provision of accurate information to the public is highlighted as a key element of countermeasure implementation.

  16. Chemical Contamination of California Drinking Water

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Hanafi H.; Jackson, Richard J.; Spath, David P.; Book, Steven A.

    1987-01-01

    Drinking water contamination by toxic chemicals has become widely recognized as a public health concern since the discovery of 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane in California's Central Valley in 1979. Increased monitoring since then has shown that other pesticides and industrial chemicals are present in drinking water. Contaminants of drinking water also include naturally occurring substances such as asbestos and even the by-products of water chlorination. Public water systems, commercially bottled and vended water and mineral water are regulated, and California is also taking measures to prevent water pollution by chemicals through various new laws and programs. PMID:3321714

  17. [Microbiology of ground water and drinking water].

    PubMed

    Dott, W; Frank, C; Kämpfer, P; Tuschewitzki, G J; Wernicke, F

    1986-10-01

    Groundwater has been considered a safe source for drinking water protected against surface contamination. However, a number of reports about chemical and microbiological contamination have disproved this assumption. Besides hygienical monitoring, little is known about the microbiology of ground- and drinking water. The purpose of this paper is to give a review about the main fields of investigation concerning microbial activity in ground- and drinking-water-action. The hygienical relevant topics are: survival and transport of microorganisms, microbiological degradation of organic pollutants, turn-over of nitrogen compounds, oxidation and reduction of iron and manganese and development of methods for microbiological water examination.

  18. The relative safety of Hawaii's drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Au, L.K. Office, Honolulu, HI )

    1991-03-01

    There are two types of drinking water sources: groundwater and surface water (the latter includes catchment of rain). Surface water runs over the surface of the earth in rivers and watercourses, or is stored in lakes and reservoirs. groundwater is water that is stored below ground level; it feeds artesian wells and springs. It is important to remember that untreated groundwater may not be the same thing as treated drinking water. A contaminant in groundwater represents a threat to a drinking water source but not necessarily a threat to health, if the contaminant's concentration is decreased before it becomes available as potable.

  19. The relative safety of Hawaii's drinking water.

    PubMed

    Au, L K

    1991-03-01

    There are two types of drinking water sources: groundwater and surface water (the latter includes catchment of rain). Surface water runs over the surface of the earth in rivers and watercourses, or is stored in lakes and reservoirs. groundwater is water that is stored below ground level; it feeds artesian wells and springs. It is important to remember that untreated groundwater may not be the same thing as treated drinking water. A contaminant in groundwater represents a threat to a drinking water source but not necessarily a threat to health, if the contaminant's concentration is decreased before it becomes available as potable.

  20. USEPA Drinking Water Laboratory Certification Program

    SciTech Connect

    Feige, M.A.; Madding, C.; Glick, E.M. )

    1993-09-01

    The Drinking Water Laboratory Certification Program has been in existence since 1943 and was adopted by the Drinking Water Program in 1978 under the authority given the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) by the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). Both USEPA and the states are looking for ways to make the program efficient in the face of dwindling resources. Recent discussions concerning the certification program have included major new approaches. With impending reauthorization of the SDWA and the changing needs of the certification community, the program could be significantly modified.

  1. T Cells in Fish

    PubMed Central

    Nakanishi, Teruyuki; Shibasaki, Yasuhiro; Matsuura, Yuta

    2015-01-01

    Cartilaginous and bony fish are the most primitive vertebrates with a thymus, and possess T cells equivalent to those in mammals. There are a number of studies in fish demonstrating that the thymus is the essential organ for development of T lymphocytes from early thymocyte progenitors to functionally competent T cells. A high number of T cells in the intestine and gills has been reported in several fish species. Involvement of CD4+ and CD8α+ T cells in allograft rejection and graft-versus-host reaction (GVHR) has been demonstrated using monoclonal antibodies. Conservation of CD4+ helper T cell functions among teleost fishes has been suggested in a number studies employing mixed leukocyte culture (MLC) and hapten/carrier effect. Alloantigen- and virus-specific cytotoxicity has also been demonstrated in ginbuna and rainbow trout. Furthermore, the important role of cell-mediated immunity rather than humoral immunity has been reported in the protection against intracellular bacterial infection. Recently, the direct antibacterial activity of CD8α+, CD4+ T-cells and sIgM+ cells in fish has been reported. In this review, we summarize the recent progress in T cell research focusing on the tissue distribution and function of fish T cells. PMID:26426066

  2. Fish cardiovascular physiology and disease.

    PubMed

    Sherrill, Johanna; Weber, E Scott; Marty, Gary D; Hernandez-Divers, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Fish patients with cardiovascular disorders present a challenge in terms of diagnostic evaluation and therapeutic options. Veterinarians can approach these cases in fish using methods similar to those employed for other companion animals. Clinicians who evaluate and treat fish in private, aquarium, zoologic, or aquaculture settings need to rely on sound clinical judgment after thorough historical and physical evaluation. Pharmacokinetic data and treatments specific to cardiovascular disease in fish are limited; thus, drug types and dosages used in fish are largely empiric. Fish cardiovascular anatomy, physiology, diagnostic evaluation, monitoring, common diseases, cardiac pathologic conditions, formulary options, and comprehensive references are presented with the goal of providing fish veterinarians with clinically relevant tools.

  3. 30 CFR 71.601 - Drinking water; quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... drinking water provided shall conform to the Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards, 42 CFR part 72... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 71.601 Section 71.601... Water § 71.601 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions...

  4. 30 CFR 71.603 - Drinking water; dispensing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drinking water; dispensing requirements. 71.603... COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.603 Drinking water; dispensing requirements. (a) Water shall be dispensed through a drinking fountain or from a water storage container with an adequate supply of...

  5. 30 CFR 71.603 - Drinking water; dispensing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drinking water; dispensing requirements. 71.603... COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.603 Drinking water; dispensing requirements. (a) Water shall be dispensed through a drinking fountain or from a water storage container with an adequate supply of...

  6. 30 CFR 71.601 - Drinking water; quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... drinking water provided shall conform to the Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards, 42 CFR part 72... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 71.601 Section 71.601... Water § 71.601 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions...

  7. 30 CFR 71.603 - Drinking water; dispensing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drinking water; dispensing requirements. 71.603... COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.603 Drinking water; dispensing requirements. (a) Water shall be dispensed through a drinking fountain or from a water storage container with an adequate supply of...

  8. 30 CFR 71.601 - Drinking water; quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... drinking water provided shall conform to the Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards, 42 CFR part 72... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 71.601 Section 71.601... Water § 71.601 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions...

  9. 30 CFR 71.601 - Drinking water; quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... drinking water provided shall conform to the Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards, 42 CFR part 72... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 71.601 Section 71.601... Water § 71.601 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions...

  10. 30 CFR 71.603 - Drinking water; dispensing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drinking water; dispensing requirements. 71.603... COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.603 Drinking water; dispensing requirements. (a) Water shall be dispensed through a drinking fountain or from a water storage container with an adequate supply of...

  11. 30 CFR 71.601 - Drinking water; quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... drinking water provided shall conform to the Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards, 42 CFR part 72... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 71.601 Section 71.601... Water § 71.601 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions...

  12. 30 CFR 71.603 - Drinking water; dispensing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drinking water; dispensing requirements. 71.603... COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.603 Drinking water; dispensing requirements. (a) Water shall be dispensed through a drinking fountain or from a water storage container with an adequate supply of...

  13. Young people, alcohol, and designer drinks: quantitative and qualitative study.

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, K.; MacKintosh, A. M.; Hastings, G.; Wheeler, C.; Watson, J.; Inglis, J.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the appeal of "designer drinks" to young people. DESIGN: Qualitative and quantitative research comprising group discussions and questionnaire led interviews with young people accompanied by a self completion questionnaire. SETTINGS: Argyll and Clyde Health Board area, west Scotland. SUBJECTS: Eight groups aged 12-17 years; 824 aged 12-17 recruited by multistage cluster probability sample from the community health index. RESULTS: Young people were familiar with designer drinks, especially MD 20/20 and leading brands of strong white cider. Attitudes towards these drinks varied quite distinctly with age, clearly reflecting their attitudes towards and motivations for drinking in general. The brand imagery of designer drinks-in contrast with that of more mainstream drinks-matched many 14 and 15 year olds' perceptions and expectations of drinking. Popularity of designer drinks peaked between the ages of 13 and 16 while more conventional drinks showed a consistent increase in popularity with age. Consumption of designer drinks tended to be in less controlled circumstances and was associated with heavier alcohol intake and greater drunkenness. CONCLUSIONS: Designer drinks are a cause for concern. They appeal to young people, often more so than conventional drinks, and are particularly attractive to 14-16 year olds. Consumption of designer drinks is also associated with drinking in less controlled environments, heavier drinking, and greater drunkenness. There is a need for policy debate to assess the desirability of these drinks and the extent to which further controls on their marketing are required. PMID:9040387

  14. A Practical Guide to Preventing and Dispersing Underage Drinking Parties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This guide describes the role of enforcement and community organizations or groups in preventing underage drinking parties and how to safely disperse them. It describes the problem of underage drinking, in general, and youth-drinking parties in particular. It provides step-by-step information on how to address underage drinking parties and how to…

  15. The role of drinks in tooth surface loss.

    PubMed

    Rees, J S

    2004-01-01

    This paper outlines the current knowledge about the interaction between various groups of drinks and tooth surface loss. It begins by examining how the erosive effects of drinks are assessed in the laboratory and clinically. It then surveys the current erosive effects of various groups of drinks, including carbonated drinks, mineral waters, alcopops, ciders, beers, wine and fruit teas. PMID:15376715

  16. Wide Variation in Understanding about What Constitutes "Binge-Drinking"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Richard; French, David P.; Sniehotta, Falko F.

    2010-01-01

    Two studies investigated undergraduates' knowledge of the UK government recommendations about binge drinking and sensible drinking, and also examined how labelling oneself as a binge drinker is associated with binge drinking perceptions. In Study 1, 325 undergraduates reported how many units constitute binge drinking, and labelled themselves as a…

  17. Increasing self-drinking for children with feeding disorders.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Kathryn M; Volkert, Valerie M; Zeleny, Jason R

    2015-01-01

    Children with feeding disorders often do not self-drink without treatment. Unfortunately, the literature on self-drinking is scarce. We evaluated differential positive reinforcement to increase self-drinking for 2 children with feeding disorders. Results showed that differential positive reinforcement with tangible items increased self-drinking for both children in the absence of nonremoval of the cup. PMID:25931021

  18. A Hierarchy of 21st Birthday Drinking Norms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Megan E.; Neighbors, Clayton; Lee, Christine M.

    2012-01-01

    The present paper offers preliminary evidence for a hierarchical organization of normative social influences on 21st birthday drinking. In recent years, 21st birthday celebratory drinking has received increasing attention, due largely to the propagation of dangerous and sometimes fatal drinking traditions, such as attempting to drink one shot for…

  19. Increasing self-drinking for children with feeding disorders.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Kathryn M; Volkert, Valerie M; Zeleny, Jason R

    2015-01-01

    Children with feeding disorders often do not self-drink without treatment. Unfortunately, the literature on self-drinking is scarce. We evaluated differential positive reinforcement to increase self-drinking for 2 children with feeding disorders. Results showed that differential positive reinforcement with tangible items increased self-drinking for both children in the absence of nonremoval of the cup.

  20. Drinking Water: Health Hazards Still Not Resolved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Nicholas

    1977-01-01

    Despite the suggested link between cancer deaths and drinking obtained from the Mississippi River, New Orleans still treats its water supply in the same manner as before the Environmental Defense Fund's epidemiological study. (BT)

  1. Drinking water safely during cancer treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... it down the drain or use it to water your plants or your garden. ... Disease Control and Prevention. A guide to drinking water treatment technologies for household use. Updated March 14, 2014. ...

  2. Tea drinking and cancer risk: epidemiologic evidence

    PubMed

    Chow; Blot; McLaughlin

    1999-04-01

    Tea and tea compounds have been shown to inhibit carcinogenic processes in experimental animals, raising the possibility that tea drinking may lower cancer risk in humans. However, epidemiologic studies have produced inconsistent evidence on the relation between tea drinking and cancer risk. Ecological data show considerable international variation in tea consumption but relatively small differences in cancer rates. Results from case-control and cohort studies also are inconclusive. Nevertheless, high consumption of tea has been linked to a reduced risk of digestive tract cancers in a number of epidemiologic studies. A lack of detailed information on duration and amount of tea drinking, a narrow range of tea intake in some study populations, inadequate control for confounding, and potential biases in recall and reporting of tea drinking patterns in case-control studies may have contributed to the diverse findings. Further research is needed before definitive conclusions on tea's impact upon cancer risk in humans can be reached. PMID:10202387

  3. OVERVIEW OF RADIONUCLIDES IN DRINKING WATER SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Invited presentation at the 2007 National Rural Water Association National Conference, Philadelphia, PA, September 23-26, 2007. The presentation reviews the chemistry of radium and uranium in drinking water sources, treatment options, and guidelines for disposal. Presentation giv...

  4. Calorie count - sodas and energy drinks

    MedlinePlus

    ... in each. Calorie count - sodas and energy drinks BEVERAGE SERVING SIZE CALORIES Soda 7 Up 12 oz. ... SN, PhD, Wolfson JA, Vine S, Wang YC. Diet-beverage consumption and caloric intake among US: adults, overall ...

  5. THE FATE OF FLUOROSILICATE DRINKING WATER ADDITIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Periodically, the EPA reexamines its information on regulated drinking water contaminants to deterime if further study is required. Fluoride is one such contaminant undergoing review. The chemical literature indicates that some deficiencies exist in our understanding of the spe...

  6. Heavy Drinking Might Harm the Lungs

    MedlinePlus

    ... drink at least once a month had less nitric oxide in their exhaled breath than non-drinkers. Binge- ... heavy drinkers consumed, the lower the level of nitric oxide. Nitric oxide helps protect the lungs against certain ...

  7. Drinking Water (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    MedlinePlus

    ... water. A Guide to Drinking Water Treatment and Sanitation for Backcountry & Travel Use (Centers for Disease Control ... runoff is and its hazardous effects on the environment. Commercially Bottled Water (Centers for Disease Control and ...

  8. Vaccination against Fowlpox virus via drinking water.

    PubMed

    Ariyoshi, Rikako; Takase, Kozo; Matsuura, Yuichi; Deguchi, Kazuhiro; Ginnaga, Akihiro; Fujikawa, Hideo

    2003-10-01

    The oral vaccination against Fowlpox was investigated via drinking water containing the F132-c strain of Fowlpox virus to be effective even though the vaccine virus-titer was 10(4) TCID (50)/dose each time. When the virus-titer of the F132-c strain was 10(4-5 )TCID(50)/dose per single drinking water vaccination, 90% or more of chickens were not protected, however, they were protected when vaccinated twice via drinking water. A weak immune response occurred by a slight infection after the first vaccination, and due to memory cells, a booster could work well after the second vaccination. These results suggest the possibility of reducing both the amount of virus required for a vaccine via drinking water and the labor cost in the field.

  9. ALTERNATIVE DISINFECTANTS FOR DRINKING WATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    During a one-year study at Jefferson Parish, Louisiana the chemical, microbiological, and mutagenic effects of using the major drinking water disinfectants (chlorine, chlorine dioxide, chloramine, ozone) were evaluated. ests were performed on samples collected from various treatm...

  10. Gastric Emptying Rates for Selected Athletic Drinks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyle, Edward F.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The intent of this research was to compare the rate of gastric emptying of three commercially available athletic drinks with water and, in doing so, to determine their relative contributions of water, electrolytes, and carbohydrate to the body. (JD)

  11. Drinking and driving among high school students.

    PubMed

    Williams, A F; Lund, A K; Preusser, D F

    1986-06-01

    A questionnaire survey of high school students conducted in 1983 provided information on their self-reported drinking and driving practices. By age 15 the majority reported drinking alcoholic beverages. By age 17 half or more of the males and one-third of the females reported driving after drinking at least once in the past month. About one-quarter of the students estimated that six or more cans of beer would be required to make someone an unsafe driver. Reported frequency of driving after drinking was associated with less time spent on homework and poorer academic performance, working part time, greater participation in social activities, less perceived parental influence regarding their travel, owning a car, driving high mileage, speeding, and having crashes and violations. PMID:3744616

  12. Drinking Water Program 1992 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, B.D.; Peterson-Wright, L.J.

    1993-08-01

    EG&G Idaho, Inc., initiated a monitoring program for drinking water in 1988 for the US Department of Energy at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. EG&G Idaho structured this monitoring program to ensure that they exceeded the minimum regulatory requirements for monitoring drinking water. This program involves tracking the bacteriological, chemical, and radiological parameters that are required for a {open_quotes}community water system{close_quotes} (maximum requirements). This annual report describes the drinking water monitoring activities conducted at the 17 EG&G Idaho operated production wells and 11 distribution systems. It also contains all of the drinking water parameters that were detected and the regulatory limits that were exceeded during 1992. In addition, ground water quality is discussed as it relates to contaminants identified at the wellhead for EG&G Idaho production wells.

  13. Ritual Black Drink consumption at Cahokia

    PubMed Central

    Crown, Patricia L.; Emerson, Thomas E.; Gu, Jiyan; Hurst, W. Jeffrey; Pauketat, Timothy R.; Ward, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    Chemical analyses of organic residues in fragments of pottery from the large site of Cahokia and surrounding smaller sites in Illinois reveal theobromine, caffeine, and ursolic acid, biomarkers for species of Ilex (holly) used to prepare the ritually important Black Drink. As recorded during the historic period, men consumed Black Drink in portions of the American Southeast for ritual purification. This first demonstrated discovery of biomarkers for Ilex occurs in beaker vessels dating between A.D. 1050 and 1250 from Cahokia, located far north of the known range of the holly species used to prepare Black Drink during historic times. The association of Ilex and beaker vessels indicates a sustained ritual consumption of a caffeine-laced drink made from the leaves of plants grown in the southern United States. PMID:22869743

  14. Breastfeeding FAQs: Your Eating and Drinking Habits

    MedlinePlus

    ... What to Say Vaccines: Which Ones & When? Smart School Lunches Emmy-Nominated Video "Cerebral Palsy: Shannon's Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Breastfeeding FAQs: Your Eating and Drinking Habits KidsHealth > For ...

  15. Ritual Black Drink consumption at Cahokia.

    PubMed

    Crown, Patricia L; Emerson, Thomas E; Gu, Jiyan; Hurst, W Jeffrey; Pauketat, Timothy R; Ward, Timothy

    2012-08-28

    Chemical analyses of organic residues in fragments of pottery from the large site of Cahokia and surrounding smaller sites in Illinois reveal theobromine, caffeine, and ursolic acid, biomarkers for species of Ilex (holly) used to prepare the ritually important Black Drink. As recorded during the historic period, men consumed Black Drink in portions of the American Southeast for ritual purification. This first demonstrated discovery of biomarkers for Ilex occurs in beaker vessels dating between A.D. 1050 and 1250 from Cahokia, located far north of the known range of the holly species used to prepare Black Drink during historic times. The association of Ilex and beaker vessels indicates a sustained ritual consumption of a caffeine-laced drink made from the leaves of plants grown in the southern United States.

  16. Radon in private drinking water wells.

    PubMed

    Otahal, P; Merta, J; Burian, I

    2014-07-01

    At least 10% of inhabitants in the Czech Republic are supplied with water from private sources (private wells, boreholes). With the increasing cost of water, the number of people using their own sources of drinking water will be likely to increase. According to the Decree of the State Office for Nuclear Safety about the Radiation Protection 307/2002 as amended by Decree 499/2005, the guideline limit for the supplied drinking water ('drinking water for public supply') for radon concentration is 50 Bq·l(-1). This guideline does not apply to private sources of drinking water. Radon in water influences human health by ingestion and also by inhalation when radon is released from water during showering and cooking. This paper presents results of measurements of radon concentrations in water from private wells in more than 300 cases. The gross concentration of alpha-emitting radionuclides and the concentrations of radium and uranium were also determined. PMID:24714110

  17. Drowning the pain: Intimate partner violence, and drinking to cope prospectively predict problem drinking

    PubMed Central

    Øverup, Camilla S.; DiBello, Angelo M.; Brunson, Julie A.; Acitelli, Linda K.; Neighbors, Clayton

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the longitudinal association among drinking problems, drinking to cope, and degree of intimate partner violence (IPV). Two competing models were tested; the first model posited that drinking to cope leads to greater drinking problems and this subsequently leads to more violence in the relationship (an intoxication-violence model). The second model speculated that violence in the relationship leads to drinking to cope, which in turn leads to greater drinking problems (a self-medication model). Eight hundred and eighteen undergraduate students at a large north-western university participated in the study over a two year period, completing assessments of IPV, alcohol related problems and drinking to cope at five time points over a two year period as part of a larger social norms intervention study. Analyses examined two competing models; Analyses indicated there was support for the self-mediation model, whereby people who have experienced violence have more drinking problems later, and this association is temporally mediated by drinking to cope. PMID:25452060

  18. Drinking reasons, alcohol consumption levels, and drinking locations among drunken drivers.

    PubMed

    Snow, R W; Wells-Parker, E

    1986-06-01

    In a DUI offender sample, four drinking reason factors are regressed on alcohol consumption variables and frequency of drinking in seven types of locations. Drinking for "pleasure" and "opposite sex/drunkenness" reasons are associated with both quantity consumed per occasion and away-from-home locations such as automobiles, bars, and parties, suggesting high traffic accident risk. "Escapism" reasons are related to quantity consumed per occasion, but are only weakly associated with specific locations; and "sociability" reasons are associated with drinking in friends' homes, but are not related to high consumption levels. Implications for DUI countermeasures are discussed.

  19. Times to drink: cross-cultural variations in drinking in the rhythm of the week

    PubMed Central

    Room, Robin; Mäkelä, Pia; Benegal, Vivek; Greenfield, Thomas K.; Hettige, Siri; Tumwesigye, Nazarius M.; Wilsnack, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The time of drinking in terms of daytime versus evening and weekday versus weekend is charted for regular drinkers in 14 countries in Europe, Asia, Latin America, Africa and Oceania. Methods national or regional adult population surveys from the GENACIS project. Results: The weekly rhythm of drinking varies greatly between societies. Drinking was generally more likely after 5 pm and on weekends. To this extent, alcohol consumption is now regulated by a universal clock. The relation of time of day and of the week of drinking to problems from drinking varied between societies. Drinking at specific times was more likely to predict problems among men than women, though for men the particular time varied, while weekday evenings were the most problematic time for women. The relation of drinking at a particular time to problems in part reflected that heavy drinkers were more likely to be drinking at that time. Conclusions There are commonalities across cultures in drinking by time of day and day of the week, but the implications of the timing for alcohol-related problems are fairly culture-specific. PMID:21553132

  20. Marital Quality and Congruent Drinking*

    PubMed Central

    HOMISH, GREGORY G.; LEONARD, KENNETH E.

    2006-01-01

    Objective This research considered whether changes in marital quality over the early years of marriage were related to patterns of alcohol use among three groups of couples: congruent nondrinkers, congruent drinkers who usually drank with their spouses and congruent drinkers who usually drank apart from their spouses. Method Newlywed couples (N = 418) were assessed for marital satisfaction and drinking behaviors and then were reassessed at their first and second anniversaries, Cross-sectional analyses compared couples at each assessment mid multilevel modeling assessed changes in marital satisfaction over time. Results At each assessment, husbands and wives who usually drank with their partners reported greater levels of marital satisfaction. Over time, marital satisfaction declined for both husbands and wives. When we assessed changes in mental quality based on the three groups, husbands in each group experienced similar declines in marital quality. Among wives, however, the rate of decline was not the same. Although wives in the nondrinking group and wives who usually drank with their husbands had similar initial marital satisfaction, the nondrinkers experienced a greater decline in marital satisfaction than the wives who drank with their husbands. The rate of change for the wives in the nondrinking group was quite similar to wives who more often drank apart from their spouses. Conclusion These findings suggest that alcohol use may be a part of the couple’s socializing and may increase interaction, thereby increasing marital satisfaction. PMID:16240556

  1. HPLC Determination of Taurine in Sports Drinks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orth, Dale L.

    2001-06-01

    The amino acid taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) is present as a nutritional supplement in many sports drinks. An experiment, suitable for a junior-senior level instrumental analysis course, is described to measure the amount of taurine in these sports drinks. A pre-column derivatization with Sanger's reagent, 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene, is followed by an HPLC separation utilizing a gradient elution, and detection at 360 nm.

  2. Integrating Underage Drinking and Drug Use Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfsberg, Jeffrey S.

    2006-01-01

    During the year 2004, 20% of eighth-graders and 60.3% of twelfth-graders reported that they had gotten drunk at least once over the course of just one year, according to the National Institute of Drug Abuse (NIDA). Of the 10.7 million underage youth who drink, 7.2 million or 31% of all high school students binge drink with a frequency of at least…

  3. Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the food and drink industries of the European community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passant, Neil R.; Richardson, Stephen J.; Swannell, Richard P. J.; Gibson, N.; Woodfield, M. J.; van der Lugt, Jan Pieter; Wolsink, Johan H.; Hesselink, Paul G. M.

    Estimates were made of the amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released into the atmosphere as a result of the industrial manufacture and processing of food and drink in the European Community. The estimates were based on a review of literature sources, industrial and government contacts and recent measurements. Data were found on seven food manufacturing sectors (baking, vegetable oil extraction, solid fat processing, animal rendering, fish meal processing, coffee production and sugar beet processing) and three drink manufacturing sectors (brewing, spirit production and wine making). The principle of a data quality label is advocated to illustrate the authors' confidence in the data, and to highlight areas for further research. Emissions of ethanol from bread baking and spirit maturation were found to be the principle sources. However, significant losses of hexane and large quantities of an ill-defined mixture of partially oxidized hydrocarbons were noted principally from seed oil extraction and the drying of plant material, respectively. This latter mixture included low molecular weight aldehydes, carboxylic acids, ketones, amines and esters. However, the precise composition of many emissions were found to be poorly understood. The total emission from the food and drink industry in the EC was calculated as 260 kt yr -1. However, many processes within the target industry were found to be completely uncharacterized and therefore not included in the overall estimate (e.g. soft drink manufacture, production of animal food, flavourings, vinegar, tea, crisps and other fried snacks). Moreover, the use of data quality labels illustrated the fact that many of our estimates were based on limited data. Hence, further emissions monitoring is recommended from identified sources (e.g. processing of sugar beet, solid fat and fish meal) and from uncharacterized sources.

  4. Integration of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Legionella pneumophila in drinking water biofilms grown on domestic plumbing materials.

    PubMed

    Moritz, Miriam M; Flemming, Hans-Curt; Wingender, Jost

    2010-06-01

    Drinking water biofilms were grown on coupons of plumbing materials, including ethylene-propylene-diene-monomer (EPDM) rubber, silane cross-linked polyethylene (PE-X b), electron-ray cross-linked PE (PE-X c) and copper under constant flow-through of cold tap water. After 14 days, the biofilms were spiked with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Legionella pneumophila and Enterobacter nimipressuralis (10(6) cells/mL each). The test bacteria were environmental isolates from contamination events in drinking water systems. After static incubation for 24 h, water flow was resumed and continued for 4 weeks. Total cell count and heterotrophic plate count (HPC) of biofilms were monitored, and P. aeruginosa, L. pneumophila and E. nimipressuralis were quantified, using standard culture-based methods or culture-independent fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). After 14 days total cell counts and HPC values were highest on EPDM followed by the plastic materials and copper. P. aeruginosa and L. pneumophila became incorporated into drinking water biofilms and were capable to persist in biofilms on EPDM and PE-X materials for several weeks, while copper biofilms were colonized only by L. pneumophila in low culturable numbers. E. nimipressuralis was not detected in any of the biofilms. Application of the FISH method often yielded orders of magnitude higher levels of P. aeruginosa and L. pneumophila than culture methods. These observations indicate that drinking water biofilms grown under cold water conditions on domestic plumbing materials, especially EPDM and PE-X in the present study, can be a reservoir for P. aeruginosa and L. pneumophila that persist in these habitats mostly in a viable but non-culturable state. PMID:20556878

  5. Fishing down the largest coral reef fish species.

    PubMed

    Fenner, Douglas

    2014-07-15

    Studies on remote, uninhabited, near-pristine reefs have revealed surprisingly large populations of large reef fish. Locations such as the northwestern Hawaiian Islands, northern Marianas Islands, Line Islands, U.S. remote Pacific Islands, Cocos-Keeling Atoll and Chagos archipelago have much higher reef fish biomass than islands and reefs near people. Much of the high biomass of most remote reef fish communities lies in the largest species, such as sharks, bumphead parrots, giant trevally, and humphead wrasse. Some, such as sharks and giant trevally, are apex predators, but others such as bumphead parrots and humphead wrasse, are not. At many locations, decreases in large reef fish species have been attributed to fishing. Fishing is well known to remove the largest fish first, and a quantitative measure of vulnerability to fishing indicates that large reef fish species are much more vulnerable to fishing than small fish. The removal of large reef fish by fishing parallels the extinction of terrestrial megafauna by early humans. However large reef fish have great value for various ecological roles and for reef tourism.

  6. Fishing down the largest coral reef fish species.

    PubMed

    Fenner, Douglas

    2014-07-15

    Studies on remote, uninhabited, near-pristine reefs have revealed surprisingly large populations of large reef fish. Locations such as the northwestern Hawaiian Islands, northern Marianas Islands, Line Islands, U.S. remote Pacific Islands, Cocos-Keeling Atoll and Chagos archipelago have much higher reef fish biomass than islands and reefs near people. Much of the high biomass of most remote reef fish communities lies in the largest species, such as sharks, bumphead parrots, giant trevally, and humphead wrasse. Some, such as sharks and giant trevally, are apex predators, but others such as bumphead parrots and humphead wrasse, are not. At many locations, decreases in large reef fish species have been attributed to fishing. Fishing is well known to remove the largest fish first, and a quantitative measure of vulnerability to fishing indicates that large reef fish species are much more vulnerable to fishing than small fish. The removal of large reef fish by fishing parallels the extinction of terrestrial megafauna by early humans. However large reef fish have great value for various ecological roles and for reef tourism. PMID:24889317

  7. Cross-sectional study on parental pro-drinking practices and adolescent alcohol drinking in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Au, Wing Man; Ho, Sai Yin; Wang, Man Ping; Lo, Wing Sze; Tin, Sze Pui Pamela; Huang, Rong; Lam, Tai Hing

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the association between parental pro-drinking practices (PPDPs) and alcohol drinking in Hong Kong Chinese adolescents. Design A cross-sectional study. Setting 4 randomly selected secondary schools in Hong Kong. Participants 1738 students (mean age 14.6 years ±2.0, boys 67.8%). Main outcome measures Drinking status, drinking intention and exposure to 9 PPDPs (eg, seeing parents drunk, helping parents buy alcohol, encouraged to drink by parents) were reported by students. Logistic regression was used to compute adjusted ORs (AORs) of drinking and intention to drink by each PPDP and the number of PPDPs (0, 1–2, 3–4, 5 or above), adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, parental drinking and school clustering. Results Nearly half (48.6%) of the students were ever-drinkers, 16.2% drank monthly (at least once per month) and 40.3% intended to drink in the next 12 months. Most PPDPs were significantly associated with ever drinking (AORs 1.40–6.20), monthly drinking (AORs 1.12–8.20) and intention to drink (AORs 1.40–5.02). Both ever and monthly drinking were most strongly associated with parental training of drinking capacity (ability to drink more without getting drunk) with AORs of 6.20 and 8.20 (both p<0.001), respectively. Adolescent drinking intention was most strongly associated with parental encouragement of drinking and training of drinking capacity with AORs of 3.19 and 5.02 (both p<0.001), respectively. Conclusions Exposure to PPDPs was associated with ever drinking, monthly drinking and drinking intention in Hong Kong Chinese adolescents. More studies, especially prospective studies, should be conducted to confirm these results, followed by interventional studies. PMID:26839012

  8. Investigation of Drinking Water Quality in Kosovo

    PubMed Central

    Berisha, Fatlume; Goessler, Walter

    2013-01-01

    In the recent years, not much environmental monitoring has been conducted in the territory of Kosovo. This study represents the first comprehensive monitoring of the drinking water situation throughout most of the territory of Kosovo. We present the distribution of major and minor trace elements in drinking water samples from Kosovo. During our study we collected 951 samples from four different sources: private-bored wells; naturally flowing artesian water; pumped-drilled wells; and public water sources (tap water). The randomly selected drinking water samples were investigated by routine water analyses using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) for 32 elements (Li, Be, B, Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Rb, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, Te, Ba, Tl, Pb, Bi, Th, U). Even though there are set guidelines for elemental exposure in drinking water worldwide, in developing countries, such as Kosovo, the lack of monitoring drinking water continues to be an important health concern. This study reports the concentrations of major and minor elements in the drinking water in Kosovo. Additionally, we show the variation of the metal concentration within different sources. Of the 15 regulated elements, the following five elements: Mn, Fe, Al, Ni, As, and U were the elements which most often exceeded the guidelines set by the EU and/or WHO. PMID:23509472

  9. Energy Drinks: Implications for the Breastfeeding Mother.

    PubMed

    Thorlton, Janet; Ahmed, Azza; Colby, David A

    2016-01-01

    Breastfeeding women may experience disrupted sleep schedules and be tempted to turn to popular energy drinks to reduce fatigue and enhance alertness, prompting the question: What are the maternal and child health implications for breastfeeding mothers consuming energy drinks? Caffeine and vitamin-rich energy drinks contain a variety of herbal ingredients and vitamins; however, ingredient amounts may not be clearly disclosed on product labels. Interactions between herbal ingredients and caffeine are understudied and not well defined in the literature. Some infants can be sensitive to caffeine and display increased irritability and sleep disturbances when exposed to caffeine from breastmilk. Breastfeeding women who consume energy drinks may be ingesting herbal ingredients that have not undergone scientific evaluation, and if taking prenatal vitamins, may unknowingly exceed the recommended daily intake. Caffeinated products are marketed in newer ways, fueling concerns about health consequences of caffeine exposure. We present implications associated with consumption of caffeine and vitamin-rich energy drinks among breastfeeding women. Product safety, labeling, common ingredients, potential interactions, and clinical implications are discussed. Healthcare providers should encourage breastfeeding women to read product labels for ingredients, carbohydrate content, serving size, and to discourage consumption of energy drinks when breastfeeding and/or taking prenatal vitamins, to avoid potential vitamin toxicity.

  10. Investigation of drinking water quality in Kosovo.

    PubMed

    Berisha, Fatlume; Goessler, Walter

    2013-01-01

    In the recent years, not much environmental monitoring has been conducted in the territory of Kosovo. This study represents the first comprehensive monitoring of the drinking water situation throughout most of the territory of Kosovo. We present the distribution of major and minor trace elements in drinking water samples from Kosovo. During our study we collected 951 samples from four different sources: private-bored wells; naturally flowing artesian water; pumped-drilled wells; and public water sources (tap water). The randomly selected drinking water samples were investigated by routine water analyses using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) for 32 elements (Li, Be, B, Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Rb, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, Te, Ba, Tl, Pb, Bi, Th, U). Even though there are set guidelines for elemental exposure in drinking water worldwide, in developing countries, such as Kosovo, the lack of monitoring drinking water continues to be an important health concern. This study reports the concentrations of major and minor elements in the drinking water in Kosovo. Additionally, we show the variation of the metal concentration within different sources. Of the 15 regulated elements, the following five elements: Mn, Fe, Al, Ni, As, and U were the elements which most often exceeded the guidelines set by the EU and/or WHO.

  11. Risk management for assuring safe drinking water.

    PubMed

    Hrudey, Steve E; Hrudey, Elizabeth J; Pollard, Simon J T

    2006-12-01

    Millions of people die every year around the world from diarrheal diseases much of which is caused by contaminated drinking water. By contrast, drinking water safety is largely taken for granted by many citizens of affluent nations. The ability to drink water that is delivered into households without fear of becoming ill may be one of the key defining characteristics of developed nations in relation to the majority of the world. Yet there is well-documented evidence that disease outbreaks remain a risk that could be better managed and prevented even in affluent nations. A detailed retrospective analysis of more than 70 case studies of disease outbreaks in 15 affluent nations over the past 30 years provides the basis for much of our discussion [Hrudey, S.E. and Hrudey, E.J. Safe Drinking Water--Lessons from Recent Outbreaks in Affluent Nations. London, UK: IWA Publishing; 2004.]. The insights provided can assist in developing a better understanding within the water industry of the causes of drinking water disease outbreaks, so that more effective preventive measures can be adopted by water systems that are vulnerable. This preventive feature lies at the core of risk management for the provision of safe drinking water.

  12. Energy Drinks: Implications for the Breastfeeding Mother.

    PubMed

    Thorlton, Janet; Ahmed, Azza; Colby, David A

    2016-01-01

    Breastfeeding women may experience disrupted sleep schedules and be tempted to turn to popular energy drinks to reduce fatigue and enhance alertness, prompting the question: What are the maternal and child health implications for breastfeeding mothers consuming energy drinks? Caffeine and vitamin-rich energy drinks contain a variety of herbal ingredients and vitamins; however, ingredient amounts may not be clearly disclosed on product labels. Interactions between herbal ingredients and caffeine are understudied and not well defined in the literature. Some infants can be sensitive to caffeine and display increased irritability and sleep disturbances when exposed to caffeine from breastmilk. Breastfeeding women who consume energy drinks may be ingesting herbal ingredients that have not undergone scientific evaluation, and if taking prenatal vitamins, may unknowingly exceed the recommended daily intake. Caffeinated products are marketed in newer ways, fueling concerns about health consequences of caffeine exposure. We present implications associated with consumption of caffeine and vitamin-rich energy drinks among breastfeeding women. Product safety, labeling, common ingredients, potential interactions, and clinical implications are discussed. Healthcare providers should encourage breastfeeding women to read product labels for ingredients, carbohydrate content, serving size, and to discourage consumption of energy drinks when breastfeeding and/or taking prenatal vitamins, to avoid potential vitamin toxicity. PMID:26909852

  13. A Longitudinal Study of the Effects of Coping Motives, Negative Affect and Drinking Level on Drinking Problems among College Students

    PubMed Central

    Armeli, Stephen; Dranoff, Erik; Tennen, Howard; Austad, Carol Shaw; Fallahi, Carolyn R.; Raskin, Sarah; Wood, Rebecca; Pearlson, Godfrey

    2014-01-01

    We examined among college students the interactive effects of drinking to cope motivation, anxiety and depression symptoms, and drinking level in predicting drinking-related problems. Using an Internet-based survey, participants (N = 844, 53% women) first reported on their drinking motives and monthly for up to 3 months, they reported on their drinking level, anxiety, depression and DRPs. We found a 3-way interaction between drinking to cope motivation and average levels of drinking and anxiety (but not depression) in predicting drinking-related problems. Specifically, among individuals with stronger drinking to cope motives, higher mean levels of anxiety were associated with a stronger positive association between mean drinking levels and drinking-related problems. We did not find 3-way interactions in the models examining monthly changes in anxiety, depression and drinking in predicting monthly drinking-related problems. However, individuals high in drinking to cope motivation showed a stronger positive association between changes in drinking level and drinking-related problems. The results are discussed in terms of mechanisms related to attention-allocation and self-control resource depletion. PMID:24552203

  14. [Radioactivity in Harz area drinking water after Chernobyl].

    PubMed

    Hennighausen, R H

    1999-11-01

    After the reactor accident in Chernobyl on April 26th, 1986 drinking water pollution was in Lower Saxony a problem in the Harz mountains. With the rainout of the radioactive clouds radioactivity came into the water-barrages, brooks und pools for drinking water supply. Good drinking water management supervised by the district community physician limited radioactive nuclides in drinking water. Drinking water path was approximately only 5% of the exposure to radioactive nuclides in the Harz region due to Chernobyl in 1986.

  15. Exploring novel hormones essential for seawater adaptation in teleost fish.

    PubMed

    Takei, Yoshio

    2008-05-15

    Marine fish are dehydrated in hyperosmotic seawater (SW), but maintain water balance by drinking surrounding SW if they are capable of excreting the excess ions, particularly Na(+) and Cl(-), absorbed with water by the intestine. An integrative approach is essential for understanding the mechanisms for SW adaptation, in which hormones play pivotal roles. Comparative genomic analyses have shown that hormones that have Na(+)-extruding and vasodepressor properties are greatly diversified in teleost fish. Physiological studies at molecular to organismal levels have revealed that these diversified hormones are much more potent and efficacious in teleost fish than in mammals and are important for survival in SW and for maintenance of low arterial pressure in a gravity-free aquatic environment. This is typified by the natriuretic peptide (NP) family, which is diversified into seven members (ANP, BNP, VNP and CNP1, 2, 3 and 4) and exerts potent hyponatremic and vasodepressor actions in marine fish. Another example is the guanylin family, which consists of three paralogs (guanylin, uroguanylin and renoguanylin), and stimulates Cl(-) secretion into the intestinal lumen and activates the absorptive-type Na-K-2Cl cotransporter by local luminocrine actions. The most recent addition is the adrenomedullin (AM) family, which has five members (AM1, 2, 3, 4 and 5), with AM2 and AM5 showing the most potent or efficacious vasodepressor and osmoregulatory effects among known hormones in teleost fish. Accumulating evidence strongly indicates that members of these diversified hormone families play essential roles in SW adaptation in teleost fish. In this short review, the author has attempted to propose a novel approach for identification of new hormones that are important for SW adaptation using comparative genomic and functional studies. The author has also suggested potential hormone families that are diversified in teleost fish and appear to be involved in SW adaptation through their

  16. Exploring novel hormones essential for seawater adaptation in teleost fish.

    PubMed

    Takei, Yoshio

    2008-05-15

    Marine fish are dehydrated in hyperosmotic seawater (SW), but maintain water balance by drinking surrounding SW if they are capable of excreting the excess ions, particularly Na(+) and Cl(-), absorbed with water by the intestine. An integrative approach is essential for understanding the mechanisms for SW adaptation, in which hormones play pivotal roles. Comparative genomic analyses have shown that hormones that have Na(+)-extruding and vasodepressor properties are greatly diversified in teleost fish. Physiological studies at molecular to organismal levels have revealed that these diversified hormones are much more potent and efficacious in teleost fish than in mammals and are important for survival in SW and for maintenance of low arterial pressure in a gravity-free aquatic environment. This is typified by the natriuretic peptide (NP) family, which is diversified into seven members (ANP, BNP, VNP and CNP1, 2, 3 and 4) and exerts potent hyponatremic and vasodepressor actions in marine fish. Another example is the guanylin family, which consists of three paralogs (guanylin, uroguanylin and renoguanylin), and stimulates Cl(-) secretion into the intestinal lumen and activates the absorptive-type Na-K-2Cl cotransporter by local luminocrine actions. The most recent addition is the adrenomedullin (AM) family, which has five members (AM1, 2, 3, 4 and 5), with AM2 and AM5 showing the most potent or efficacious vasodepressor and osmoregulatory effects among known hormones in teleost fish. Accumulating evidence strongly indicates that members of these diversified hormone families play essential roles in SW adaptation in teleost fish. In this short review, the author has attempted to propose a novel approach for identification of new hormones that are important for SW adaptation using comparative genomic and functional studies. The author has also suggested potential hormone families that are diversified in teleost fish and appear to be involved in SW adaptation through their

  17. Cowlitz Falls Fish Passage.

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The upper Cowlitz was once home to native salmon and steelhead. But the combined impacts of overharvest, farming, logging and road building hammered fish runs. And in the 1960s, a pair of hydroelectric dams blocked the migration path of ocean-returning and ocean-going fish. The lower Cowlitz still supports hatchery runs of chinook, coho and steelhead. But some 200 river miles in the upper river basin--much of it prime spawning and rearing habitat--have been virtually cut off from the ocean for over 26 years. Now the idea is to trap-and-haul salmon and steelhead both ways and bypass previously impassable obstacles in the path of anadromous fish. The plan can be summarized, for the sake of explanation, in three steps: (1) trap and haul adult fish--collect ocean-returning adult fish at the lowermost Cowlitz dam, and truck them upstream; (2) reseed--release the ripe adults above the uppermost dam, and let them spawn naturally, at the same time, supplement these runs with hatchery born fry that are reared and imprinted in ponds and net pens in the watershed; (3) trap and haul smolts--collection the new generation of young fish as they arrive at the uppermost Cowlitz dam, truck them past the three dams, and release them to continue their downstream migration to the sea. The critical part of any fish-collection system is the method of fish attraction. Scientists have to find the best combination of attraction system and screens that will guide young fish to the right spot, away from the turbine intakes. In the spring of 1994 a test was made of a prototype system of baffles and slots on the upriver face of the Cowlitz Falls Dam. The prototype worked at 90% efficiency in early tests, and it worked without the kind of expensive screening devices that have been installed on other dams. Now that the success of the attraction system has been verified, Harza engineers and consultants will design and build the appropriate collection part of the system.

  18. Fish robotics and hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauder, George

    2010-11-01

    Studying the fluid dynamics of locomotion in freely-swimming fishes is challenging due to difficulties in controlling fish behavior. To provide better control over fish-like propulsive systems we have constructed a variety of fish-like robotic test platforms that range from highly biomimetic models of fins, to simple physical models of body movements during aquatic locomotion. First, we have constructed a series of biorobotic models of fish pectoral fins with 5 fin rays that allow detailed study of fin motion, forces, and fluid dynamics associated with fin-based locomotion. We find that by tuning fin ray stiffness and the imposed motion program we can produce thrust both on the fin outstroke and instroke. Second, we are using a robotic flapping foil system to study the self-propulsion of flexible plastic foils of varying stiffness, length, and trailing edge shape as a means of investigating the fluid dynamic effect of simple changes in the properties of undulating bodies moving through water. We find unexpected non-linear stiffness-dependent effects of changing foil length on self-propelled speed, and as well as significant effects of trailing edge shape on foil swimming speed.

  19. Immunity to Fish Rhabdoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Laing, Kerry J.; Winton, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Members of the family Rhabdoviridae are single-stranded RNA viruses and globally important pathogens of wild and cultured fish and thus relatively well studied in their respective hosts or other model systems. Here, we review the protective immune mechanisms that fish mount in response to rhabdovirus infections. Teleost fish possess the principal components of innate and adaptive immunity found in other vertebrates. Neutralizing antibodies are critical for long-term protection from fish rhabdoviruses, but several studies also indicate a role for cell-mediated immunity. Survival of acute rhabdoviral infection is also dependent on innate immunity, particularly the interferon (IFN) system that is rapidly induced in response to infection. Paradoxically, rhabdoviruses are sensitive to the effects of IFN but virulent rhabdoviruses can continue to replicate owing to the abilities of the matrix (M) protein to mediate host-cell shutoff and the non‑virion (NV) protein to subvert programmed cell death and suppress functional IFN. While many basic features of the fish immune response to rhabdovirus infections are becoming better understood, much less is known about how factors in the environment affect the ecology of rhabdovirus infections in natural populations of aquatic animals. PMID:22355456

  20. Immunity to fish rhabdoviruses.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Maureen K; Laing, Kerry J; Winton, James R

    2012-01-01

    Members of the family Rhabdoviridae are single-stranded RNA viruses and globally important pathogens of wild and cultured fish and thus relatively well studied in their respective hosts or other model systems. Here, we review the protective immune mechanisms that fish mount in response to rhabdovirus infections. Teleost fish possess the principal components of innate and adaptive immunity found in other vertebrates. Neutralizing antibodies are critical for long-term protection from fish rhabdoviruses, but several studies also indicate a role for cell-mediated immunity. Survival of acute rhabdoviral infection is also dependent on innate immunity, particularly the interferon (IFN) system that is rapidly induced in response to infection. Paradoxically, rhabdoviruses are sensitive to the effects of IFN but virulent rhabdoviruses can continue to replicate owing to the abilities of the matrix (M) protein to mediate host-cell shutoff and the non‑virion (NV) protein to subvert programmed cell death and suppress functional IFN. While many basic features of the fish immune response to rhabdovirus infections are becoming better understood, much less is known about how factors in the environment affect the ecology of rhabdovirus infections in natural populations of aquatic animals.

  1. Immunity to fish rhabdoviruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Laing, Kerry J.; Winton, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Members of the family Rhabdoviridae are single-stranded RNA viruses and globally important pathogens of wild and cultured fish and thus relatively well studied in their respective hosts or other model systems. Here, we review the protective immune mechanisms that fish mount in response to rhabdovirus infections. Teleost fish possess the principal components of innate and adaptive immunity found in other vertebrates. Neutralizing antibodies are critical for long-term protection from fish rhabdoviruses, but several studies also indicate a role for cell-mediated immunity. Survival of acute rhabdoviral infection is also dependent on innate immunity, particularly the interferon (IFN) system that is rapidly induced in response to infection. Paradoxically, rhabdoviruses are sensitive to the effects of IFN but virulent rhabdoviruses can continue to replicate owing to the abilities of the matrix (M) protein to mediate host-cell shutoff and the non-virion (NV) protein to subvert programmed cell death and suppress functional IFN. While many basic features of the fish immune response to rhabdovirus infections are becoming better understood, much less is known about how factors in the environment affect the ecology of rhabdovirus infections in natural populations of aquatic animals.

  2. Underage drinking: prevalence and risk factors associated with drinking experiences among Argentinean children.

    PubMed

    Pilatti, Angelina; Godoy, Juan Carlos; Brussino, Silvina; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence and predictors of alcohol drinking behavior in children. Data were obtained from 367 children, aged 8-12 years (M = 10.44 years, SD = 1.21 years; 61.9% female) from the city of Córdoba, Argentina. Several scales were used to assess risk factors, including personality traits, alcohol expectancy (i.e., beliefs about the consequences of using alcohol), and perceived peer alcohol use, for alcohol drinking and alcohol drinking experiences. Hierarchical regression analysis was used to determine the contribution of multiple risk factors to the quantity of alcohol consumed. The results showed that 58% of the children had tasted alcohol, and approximately one-third drank alcohol again after the first drinking experience. Twelve-year-old children had a significantly higher prevalence of tasting and drinking alcohol and a significantly greater frequency and quantity of alcohol consumed than younger children. Eighty percent of the children who liked alcohol during their first drinking experience reported that they drank alcohol again. Among the children who did not like alcohol during their first drinking experience, only 31% drank alcohol again. Underage drinking usually occurred under adult supervision in family settings when parents or other relatives allowed them to drink or were aware of their children's drinking. The hierarchical regression analysis showed that being older and male, having more peers that drink alcohol, having higher levels of extroversion, and having alcohol expectancy for social facilitation increased the risk for greater alcohol use. The final model explained 33% of the total variance.

  3. Dynamite fishing in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Slade, Lorna M; Kalangahe, Baraka

    2015-12-30

    Fishing using explosives is common in Tanzanian waters; it is considered to be more widely practised now than at any other point in history. Mwambao Coastal Community Network, a Tanzanian NGO carried out a multi-stakeholder consultation in April 2014 initiated through the concern of private investors and tourism operators. Consultations were held with villagers, fisheries officers, government officers, hoteliers, dive operators, fish processors, NGOs and other key individuals, and shed some light on key factors enabling this practice to flourish. Key areas identified for attention include engendering political will at all levels, upholding of the law through a non-corrupt enforcement and judicial system, and defining clear roles and responsibilities for monitoring and surveillance. The work identified other successful initiatives which have tackled this pervasive practice including projects that build local capacity for marine governance, villages that have declared themselves intolerant of blast-fishing, and private-public partnerships for patrol and protection. PMID:26475022

  4. Claudins in teleost fishes

    PubMed Central

    Kolosov, Dennis; Bui, Phuong; Chasiotis, Helen; Kelly, Scott P

    2013-01-01

    Teleost fishes are a large and diverse animal group that represent close to 50% of all described vertebrate species. This review consolidates what is known about the claudin (Cldn) family of tight junction (TJ) proteins in teleosts. Cldns are transmembrane proteins of the vertebrate epithelial/endothelial TJ complex that largely determine TJ permeability. Cldns achieve this by expressing barrier or pore forming properties and by exhibiting distinct tissue distribution patterns. So far, ~63 genes encoding for Cldn TJ proteins have been reported in 16 teleost species. Collectively, cldns (or Cldns) are found in a broad array of teleost fish tissues, but select genes exhibit restricted expression patterns. Evidence to date strongly supports the view that Cldns play a vital role in the embryonic development of teleost fishes and in the physiology of tissues and organ systems studied thus far. PMID:24665402

  5. Dynamite fishing in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Slade, Lorna M; Kalangahe, Baraka

    2015-12-30

    Fishing using explosives is common in Tanzanian waters; it is considered to be more widely practised now than at any other point in history. Mwambao Coastal Community Network, a Tanzanian NGO carried out a multi-stakeholder consultation in April 2014 initiated through the concern of private investors and tourism operators. Consultations were held with villagers, fisheries officers, government officers, hoteliers, dive operators, fish processors, NGOs and other key individuals, and shed some light on key factors enabling this practice to flourish. Key areas identified for attention include engendering political will at all levels, upholding of the law through a non-corrupt enforcement and judicial system, and defining clear roles and responsibilities for monitoring and surveillance. The work identified other successful initiatives which have tackled this pervasive practice including projects that build local capacity for marine governance, villages that have declared themselves intolerant of blast-fishing, and private-public partnerships for patrol and protection.

  6. The welfare of fish.

    PubMed

    Iwama, George K

    2007-05-01

    Our interactions with fish cover a wide range of activities including enjoying them as pets to consuming them as food. I propose that we confine the consideration of the welfare of fish to their physiology, and not join the discussion on whether fish can feel pain and suffering, as humans. A significant proportion of the papers on animal welfare center on whether non-human animals can feel pain, and suffer as humans. This is a question that never can be answered unequivocally. The premise of the present paper is that we have an ethical responsibility to respect the life and wellbeing of all organisms. Thus, we should concentrate on the behavioural, physiological, and cellular indicators of their well-being and attempt to minimize a state of stress in the animals that we have in our care or influence. PMID:17578254

  7. Fish stem cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ni; Li, Zhendong; Hong, Yunhan

    2011-04-13

    Stem cells have the potential for self-renewal and differentiation. First stem cell cultures were derived 30 years ago from early developing mouse embryos. These are pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells. Efforts towards ES cell derivation have been attempted in other mammalian and non-mammalian species. Work with stem cell culture in fish started 20 years ago. Laboratory fish species, in particular zebrafish and medaka, have been the focus of research towards stem cell cultures. Medaka is the second organism that generated ES cells and the first that gave rise to a spermatogonial stem cell line capable of test-tube sperm production. Most recently, the first haploid stem cells capable of producing whole animals have also been generated from medaka. ES-like cells have been reported also in zebrafish and several marine species. Attempts for germline transmission of ES cell cultures and gene targeting have been reported in zebrafish. Recent years have witnessed the progress in markers and procedures for ES cell characterization. These include the identification of fish homologs/paralogs of mammalian pluripotency genes and parameters for optimal chimera formation. In addition, fish germ cell cultures and transplantation have attracted considerable interest for germline transmission and surrogate production. Haploid ES cell nuclear transfer has proven in medaka the feasibility of semi-cloning as a novel assisted reproductive technology. In this special issue on "Fish Stem Cells and Nuclear Transfer", we will focus our review on medaka to illustrate the current status and perspective of fish stem cells in research and application. We will also mention semi-cloning as a new development to conventional nuclear transfer.

  8. Fish hematology and associated disorders.

    PubMed

    Grant, Krystan R

    2015-01-01

    Fish health is a growing concern as pets, education, and aquaculture evolves. For the veterinary staff, fish handling, diagnostics, medicine, and surgery may require specialized training and equipment in comparison with terrestrial and arboreal animals, simply because of their aquatic nature and diversity. Fish hematology is one diagnostic tool that may not require additional equipment, may be inexpensive, and provide useful information in guiding treatment options. Challenges involving hematology may include handling and restraint, venipuncture, evaluation, and interpretation. In this article, strategies for these challenges are discussed for teleost (bony fish) and elasmobranch (cartilaginous fish) fish types.

  9. Fish Hematology and Associated Disorders.

    PubMed

    Grant, Krystan R

    2015-09-01

    Fish health is a growing concern as pets, education, and aquaculture evolves. For the veterinary staff, fish handling, diagnostics, medicine, and surgery may require specialized training and equipment in comparison with terrestrial and arboreal animals, simply because of their aquatic nature and diversity. Fish hematology is one diagnostic tool that may not require additional equipment, may be inexpensive, and provide useful information in guiding treatment options. Challenges involving hematology may include handling and restraint, venipuncture, evaluation, and interpretation. In this article, strategies for these challenges are discussed for teleost (bony fish) and elasmobranch (cartilaginous fish) fish types.

  10. Simultaneous RNA-DNA FISH.

    PubMed

    Lai, Lan-Tian; Meng, Zhenyu; Shao, Fangwei; Zhang, Li-Feng

    2016-01-01

    A highly useful tool for studying lncRNAs is simultaneous RNA-DNA FISH, which reveals the localization and quantitative information of RNA and DNA in cellular contexts. However, a simple combination of RNA FISH and DNA FISH often generates disappointing results because the fragile RNA signals are often damaged by the harsh conditions used in DNA FISH for denaturing the DNA. Here, we describe a robust and simple RNA-DNA FISH protocol, in which amino-labeled nucleic acid probes are used for RNA FISH. The method is suitable to detect single-RNA molecules simultaneously with DNA.

  11. They Drink How Much and Where? Normative Perceptions by Drinking Contexts and Their Association to College Students'Alcohol Consumption*

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Melissa A.; Litt, Dana M.; Blayney, Jessica A.; Lostutter, Ty W.; Granato, Hollie; Kilmer, Jason R.; Lee, Christine M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Prior research has shown that normative perceptions of others’ drinking behavior strongly relates to one's own drinking behavior. Most research examining the perceived drinking of others has generally focused on specificity of the normative referent (i.e., gender, ethnicity). The present study expands the research literature on social norms by examining normative perceptions by various drinking contexts. Specifically, this research aimed to determine if college students overestimate peer drinking by several drinking contexts (i.e., bar, fraternity/sorority party, non-fraternity/sorority party, sporting event) and to examine whether normative perceptions for drinking by contexts relate to one's own drinking behavior specific to these contexts. Method: Students (N= 1,468; 56.4% female) participated in a web-based survey by completing measures assessing drinking behavior and perceived descriptive drinking norms for various contexts. Results: Findings demonstrated that students consistently overestimated the drinking behavior for the typical same-sex student in various drinking contexts, with the most prominent being fraternity/sorority parties. In addition, results indicated that same-sex normative perceptions for drinking by contexts were associated with personal drinking behavior within these contexts. Conclusions: Results stress the importance of specificity of social norms beyond those related to the normative referent. Clinical implications are discussed in terms of preventions and intervention efforts as well as risks associated with drinking in a novel context. PMID:21906511

  12. Heavy Episodic Drinking on College Campuses: Does Changing the Legal Drinking Age Make a Difference?*

    PubMed Central

    Rasul, Jawaid W.; Rommel, Robert G.; Jacquez, Geoffrey M.; Fitzpatrick, Ben G.; Ackleh, Azmy S.; Simonsen, Neal; Scribner, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This article extends the compartmental model previously developed by Scribner et al. in the context of college drinking to a mathematical model of the consequences of lowering the legal drinking age. Method: Using data available from 32 U.S. campuses, the analyses separate underage and legal age drinking groups into an eight-compartment model with different alcohol availability (wetness) for the underage and legal age groups. The model evaluates the likelihood that underage students will incorrectly perceive normative drinking levels to be higher than they actually are (i.e., misperception) and adjust their drinking accordingly by varying the interaction between underage students in social and heavy episodic drinking compartments. Results: The results evaluate the total heavy episodic drinker population and its dependence on the difference in misperception, as well as its dependence on underage wetness, legal age wetness, and drinking age. Conclusions: Results suggest that an unrealistically extreme combination of high wetness and low enforcement would be needed for the policies related to lowering the drinking age to be effective. PMID:21138707

  13. Predictors of heavy drinking and drinking problems over the first 4 years of marriage.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Kenneth E; Homish, Gregory G

    2008-03-01

    This study investigated the factors predictive of heavy drinking and drinking problems over the early years of marriage, focusing on premarital drinking and the relatively stable individual risk and protective factors that were present prior to marriage and on social-interpersonal factors that may change or emerge over marriage. Newlywed couples were assessed at the time of marriage and at the 1st, 2nd, and 4th anniversaries with respect to frequency of heavy drinking and the extent of drinking problems and a variety of factors that have been found to be predictive of adult alcohol problems. The results indicated that antisocial characteristics, family history of alcoholism, negative affect, and alcohol expectancies were related to heavy drinking and alcohol problems at the time of marriage. Changes after marriage were predicted by the drinking of one's partner and of one's peers and by alcohol expectancies for social/physical pleasure for both men and women. In addition, the quality of the marriage was longitudinally protective from the experience of alcohol problems for both men and women, although it was not related to changes in heavy drinking.

  14. Extension of the simulated drinking game procedure to multiple drinking games.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Jennifer M; Leon, Matthew R; Correia, Christopher J

    2011-08-01

    The present study extended the Simulated Drinking Game Procedure (SDGP) to obtain information about different types of drinking games. Phase I participants (N = 545) completed online screening questionnaires assessing substance use and drinking game participation. Participants who met the selection criteria for Phase II (N = 92) participated in laboratory sessions that consisted of three different periods of drinking game play. Sixty-two percent (N = 57) of the sample was female. Data from these sessions was used to estimate the peak Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) a participant would achieve if they consumed alcohol while participating in the SDGP. Total consumption and estimated BAC varied as a function of game type. The total consumption and estimated BAC obtained while playing Beer Pong and Memory varied significantly as a function of group. Total ounces consumed while playing Three Man varied significantly as a function of group; however, the variation in estimated BAC obtained while playing Three Man was not significant. Results indicated that estimated BACs were higher for female participants across game type. Previous experience playing the three drinking games had no impact on total drink consumption or estimated BAC obtained while participating in the SDGP. The present study demonstrated that the SDGP can be used to generate estimates of how much alcohol is consumed and the associated obtained BAC during multiple types of drinking games. In order to fully examine whether previous experience factors in to overall alcohol consumption and BAC, future research should extend the SDGP to incorporate laboratory administration of alcohol during drinking game participation.

  15. Personality-Targeted Interventions Delay the Growth of Adolescent Drinking and Binge Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrod, Patricia J.; Castellanos, Natalie; Mackie, Clare

    2008-01-01

    Background: Personality factors are implicated in the vulnerability to adolescent alcohol misuse. This study examined whether providing personality-targeted interventions in early adolescence can delay drinking and binge drinking in high-risk youth. Methods: A randomised control trial was carried out with 368 adolescents recruited from years 9 and…

  16. Drinking, binge drinking, and other drug use among southwestern undergraduates: three-year trends.

    PubMed

    Bennett, M E; Miller, J H; Woodall, W G

    1999-05-01

    This study examined substance use patterns and consequences in college students over a three year period. Students were surveyed at a large, southwestern university, allowing for a diverse sample that included a large percentage of minority respondents. Students (total N = 2710) in 1994, 1995, and 1996 responded anonymously to the Core Survey of Alcohol and Drugs. Over 80% of students at each time point were current drinkers, and over one-third at each time period reported binge drinking. Binge drinking was associated with greater weekly drinking and with a range of negative consequences. Underage drinking was prevalent at all time points, and underage drinkers reported drinking in a range of on- and off-campus situations. Hispanic students reported higher rates of binge drinking than other ethnic groups. Nonwhite, non-Hispanic students reported greater rates of abstinence than other students. Although other drug use was much less prevalent, drug use in combination with drinking was associated with more problematic patterns of drinking and more negative consequences. Results are discussed in terms of implications for interventions with college students. PMID:10395164

  17. To drink or not to drink: Motives and expectancies for use and nonuse in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Grunwald, Ilan; Bekman, Nicole; Brown, Sandra A.; Grant, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    Drinking motives have a prominent role in cognitive models of adolescent and adult alcohol decision-making (Cooper, Russell, Skinner, & Windle, 1992; Cooper, 1994). The complementary construct of motivation not to drink has received less attention (Epler, Sher & Piasecki, 2009). We examined how abstinence motives interacted with drinking motives and alcohol expectancies to predict alcohol consumption in samples of US high school students (N > 2,500). Nondrinking motives predicted lower rates of lifetime and current alcohol use. Motives not to drink interacted with specific drinking motives, like social and coping motives, and alcohol expectancies to predict certain aspects of drinking behavior. For example, motives not to drink had the greatest impact on youth with weaker social motivations. Findings highlight the distinction between motives not to drink and other alcohol-related cognitions in predicting adolescent alcohol consumption. This work not only supports the utility of this construct in developing models of youth alcohol-related decision-making but also has implications for prevention programming. PMID:21665373

  18. Binge Drinking and Drinking and Driving among South Korean International College Students in the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sa, J.; Seo, D.-C.; Nelson, T. F.; Lohrmann, D. K.; Ellis, N. T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate two risky behaviours (i.e. binge drinking and drinking and driving) and their individual- and college-level correlates among South Korean international college students in the USA Design: Cross-sectional online survey (student response rate = 41.6%). Setting: South Korean college students (N = 1201) were recruited from 52…

  19. Renal effects of uranium in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Kurttio, Päivi; Auvinen, Anssi; Salonen, Laina; Saha, Heikki; Pekkanen, Juha; Mäkeläinen, Ilona; Väisänen, Sari B; Penttilä, Ilkka M; Komulainen, Hannu

    2002-04-01

    Animal studies and small studies in humans have shown that uranium is nephrotoxic. However, more information about its renal effects in humans following chronic exposure through drinking water is required. We measured uranium concentrations in drinking water and urine in 325 persons who had used drilled wells for drinking water. We measured urine and serum concentrations of calcium, phosphate, glucose, albumin, creatinine, and beta-2-microglobulin to evaluate possible renal effects. The median uranium concentration in drinking water was 28 microg/L (interquartile range 6-135, max. 1,920 microg/L) and in urine 13 ng/mmol creatinine (2-75), resulting in the median daily uranium intake of 39 microg (7-224). Uranium concentration in urine was statistically significantly associated with increased fractional excretion of calcium and phosphate. Increase of uranium in urine by 1 microg/mmol creatinine increased fractional excretion of calcium by 1.5% [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.6-2.3], phosphate by 13% (1.4-25), and glucose excretion by 0.7 micromol/min (-0.4-1.8). Uranium concentrations in drinking water and daily intake of uranium were statistically significantly associated with calcium fractional excretion, but not with phosphate or glucose excretion. Uranium exposure was not associated with creatinine clearance or urinary albumin, which reflect glomerular function. In conclusion, uranium exposure is weakly associated with altered proximal tubulus function without a clear threshold, which suggests that even low uranium concentrations in drinking water can cause nephrotoxic effects. Despite chronic intake of water with high uranium concentration, we observed no effect on glomerular function. The clinical and public health relevance of the findings are not easily established, but our results suggest that the safe concentration of uranium in drinking water may be within the range of the proposed guideline values of 2-30 microg/L.

  20. Renal effects of uranium in drinking water.

    PubMed Central

    Kurttio, Päivi; Auvinen, Anssi; Salonen, Laina; Saha, Heikki; Pekkanen, Juha; Mäkeläinen, Ilona; Väisänen, Sari B; Penttilä, Ilkka M; Komulainen, Hannu

    2002-01-01

    Animal studies and small studies in humans have shown that uranium is nephrotoxic. However, more information about its renal effects in humans following chronic exposure through drinking water is required. We measured uranium concentrations in drinking water and urine in 325 persons who had used drilled wells for drinking water. We measured urine and serum concentrations of calcium, phosphate, glucose, albumin, creatinine, and beta-2-microglobulin to evaluate possible renal effects. The median uranium concentration in drinking water was 28 microg/L (interquartile range 6-135, max. 1,920 microg/L) and in urine 13 ng/mmol creatinine (2-75), resulting in the median daily uranium intake of 39 microg (7-224). Uranium concentration in urine was statistically significantly associated with increased fractional excretion of calcium and phosphate. Increase of uranium in urine by 1 microg/mmol creatinine increased fractional excretion of calcium by 1.5% [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.6-2.3], phosphate by 13% (1.4-25), and glucose excretion by 0.7 micromol/min (-0.4-1.8). Uranium concentrations in drinking water and daily intake of uranium were statistically significantly associated with calcium fractional excretion, but not with phosphate or glucose excretion. Uranium exposure was not associated with creatinine clearance or urinary albumin, which reflect glomerular function. In conclusion, uranium exposure is weakly associated with altered proximal tubulus function without a clear threshold, which suggests that even low uranium concentrations in drinking water can cause nephrotoxic effects. Despite chronic intake of water with high uranium concentration, we observed no effect on glomerular function. The clinical and public health relevance of the findings are not easily established, but our results suggest that the safe concentration of uranium in drinking water may be within the range of the proposed guideline values of 2-30 microg/L. PMID:11940450

  1. Interior below decks in fish hold looking forward. Fish hatch ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior below decks in fish hold looking forward. Fish hatch opening is at upper left, ceiling planks and knees at center and right. - Purse Seiner SHENANDOAH, Gig Harbor Peninsula Historical Society and Museum, Gig Harbor, Pierce County, WA

  2. Fish consumption and track to a fish feed formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai-Juan, Soong; Ramli, Razamin; Rahman, Rosshairy Abdul

    2015-12-01

    Strategically located in the equator, Malaysia is blessed with plenty of fish supply. The high demand in fish consumption has helped the development in the fishery industry and provided numerous jobs in the secondary sector, contributing significantly to the nation's income. A survey was conducted to understand the trend of current demands for fish for the purpose of designing a feed formulation, which is still limited in this area of study. Results showed that grouper fish in restaurants commanded a very high price compared to other species of fish. Tiger grouper gained the highest demand in most restaurants, while giant grouper had the highest price in restaurants. Due to the demand and challenges to culture this type of fish, a framework for fish feed formulation is proposed. The formulation framework when materialized could be an alternative to the use of trash fish as the feed for grouper.

  3. Ontogeny of osmoregulation in postembryonic fish: a review.

    PubMed

    Varsamos, Stamatis; Nebel, Catherine; Charmantier, Guy

    2005-08-01

    Salinity and its variations are among the key factors that affect survival, metabolism and distribution during the fish development. The successful establishment of a fish species in a given habitat depends on the ability of each developmental stage to cope with salinity through osmoregulation. It is well established that adult teleosts maintain their blood osmolality close to 300 mosM kg(-1) due to ion and water regulation effected at several sites: tegument, gut, branchial chambers, urinary organs. But fewer data are available in developing fish. We propose a review on the ontogeny of osmoregulation based on studies conducted in different species. Most teleost prelarvae are able to osmoregulate at hatch, and their ability increases in later stages. Before the occurrence of gills, the prelarval tegument where a high density of ionocytes (displaying high contents of Na+/K+-ATPase) is located appears temporarily as the main osmoregulatory site. Gills develop gradually during the prelarval stage along with the numerous ionocytes they support. The tegument and gill Na+/K+-ATPase activity varies ontogenetically. During the larval phase, the osmoregulatory function shifts from the skin to the gills, which become the main osmoregulatory site. The drinking rate normalized to body weight tends to decrease throughout development. The kidney and urinary bladder develop progressively during ontogeny and the capacity to produce hypotonic urine at low salinity increases accordingly. The development of the osmoregulatory functions is hormonally controlled. These events are inter-related and are correlated with changes in salinity tolerance, which often increases markedly at the metamorphic transition from larva to juvenile. In summary, the ability of ontogenetical stages of fish to tolerate salinity through osmoregulation relies on integumental ionocytes, then digestive tract development and drinking rate, developing branchial chambers and urinary organs. The physiological

  4. Ontogeny of osmoregulation in postembryonic fish: a review.

    PubMed

    Varsamos, Stamatis; Nebel, Catherine; Charmantier, Guy

    2005-08-01

    Salinity and its variations are among the key factors that affect survival, metabolism and distribution during the fish development. The successful establishment of a fish species in a given habitat depends on the ability of each developmental stage to cope with salinity through osmoregulation. It is well established that adult teleosts maintain their blood osmolality close to 300 mosM kg(-1) due to ion and water regulation effected at several sites: tegument, gut, branchial chambers, urinary organs. But fewer data are available in developing fish. We propose a review on the ontogeny of osmoregulation based on studies conducted in different species. Most teleost prelarvae are able to osmoregulate at hatch, and their ability increases in later stages. Before the occurrence of gills, the prelarval tegument where a high density of ionocytes (displaying high contents of Na+/K+-ATPase) is located appears temporarily as the main osmoregulatory site. Gills develop gradually during the prelarval stage along with the numerous ionocytes they support. The tegument and gill Na+/K+-ATPase activity varies ontogenetically. During the larval phase, the osmoregulatory function shifts from the skin to the gills, which become the main osmoregulatory site. The drinking rate normalized to body weight tends to decrease throughout development. The kidney and urinary bladder develop progressively during ontogeny and the capacity to produce hypotonic urine at low salinity increases accordingly. The development of the osmoregulatory functions is hormonally controlled. These events are inter-related and are correlated with changes in salinity tolerance, which often increases markedly at the metamorphic transition from larva to juvenile. In summary, the ability of ontogenetical stages of fish to tolerate salinity through osmoregulation relies on integumental ionocytes, then digestive tract development and drinking rate, developing branchial chambers and urinary organs. The physiological

  5. Poor adjustment to college life mediates the relationship between drinking motives and alcohol consequences: a look at college adjustment, drinking motives, and drinking outcomes.

    PubMed

    LaBrie, Joseph W; Ehret, Phillip J; Hummer, Justin F; Prenovost, Katherine

    2012-04-01

    The current study examined whether the relationship between drinking motives and alcohol-related outcomes was mediated by college adjustment. Participants (N=253) completed an online survey that assessed drinking motives, degree of both positive and negative college adjustment, typical weekly drinking, and past month negative alcohol-related consequences. Structural equation modeling examined negative alcohol consequences as a function of college adjustment, drinking motives, and weekly drinking behavior in college students. Negative college adjustment mediated the relationship between coping drinking motives and drinking consequences. Positive college adjustment was not related to alcohol consumption or consequences. Positive reinforcement drinking motives (i.e. social and enhancement) not only directly predicted consequences, but were partially mediated by weekly drinking and degree of negative college adjustment. Gender specific models revealed that males exhibited more variability in drinking and their positive reinforcement drinking motives were more strongly associated with weekly drinking. Uniquely for females, coping motives were directly and indirectly (via negative adjustment) related to consequences. These findings suggest that interventions which seek to decrease alcohol-related risk may wish to incorporate discussions about strategies for decreasing stress and increasing other factors associated with better college adjustment.

  6. Expressive writing as a brief intervention for reducing drinking intentions.

    PubMed

    Young, Chelsie M; Rodriguez, Lindsey M; Neighbors, Clayton

    2013-12-01

    The present study examined the effectiveness of expressive writing in reducing drinking behavior. We expected that students prompted to write about negative drinking experiences would show greater decreases in future drinking intentions compared to the neutral and the positive writing conditions. We also expected that decreases in drinking intentions following the writing prompts might differ based on current drinking and AUDIT scores. Participants included 200 (76% female) undergraduates who completed measures of their current drinking behavior. They were then randomly assigned to either write about: a time when they had a lot to drink that was a good time (Positive); a time when they had a lot to drink that was a bad time (Negative); or their first day of college (Neutral), followed by measures assessing intended drinking over the next three months. Results revealed that participants intended to drink significantly fewer drinks per week and engage in marginally fewer heavy drinking occasions after writing about a negative drinking occasion when compared to control. Interactions provided mixed findings suggesting that writing about a positive event was associated with higher drinking intentions for heavier drinkers. Writing about a negative event was associated with higher intentions among heavier drinkers, but lower intentions among those with higher AUDIT scores. This research builds on previous expressive writing interventions by applying this technique to undergraduate drinkers. Preliminary results provide some support for this innovative strategy but also suggest the need for further refinement, especially with heavier drinkers.

  7. Expressive writing as a brief intervention for reducing drinking intentions.

    PubMed

    Young, Chelsie M; Rodriguez, Lindsey M; Neighbors, Clayton

    2013-12-01

    The present study examined the effectiveness of expressive writing in reducing drinking behavior. We expected that students prompted to write about negative drinking experiences would show greater decreases in future drinking intentions compared to the neutral and the positive writing conditions. We also expected that decreases in drinking intentions following the writing prompts might differ based on current drinking and AUDIT scores. Participants included 200 (76% female) undergraduates who completed measures of their current drinking behavior. They were then randomly assigned to either write about: a time when they had a lot to drink that was a good time (Positive); a time when they had a lot to drink that was a bad time (Negative); or their first day of college (Neutral), followed by measures assessing intended drinking over the next three months. Results revealed that participants intended to drink significantly fewer drinks per week and engage in marginally fewer heavy drinking occasions after writing about a negative drinking occasion when compared to control. Interactions provided mixed findings suggesting that writing about a positive event was associated with higher drinking intentions for heavier drinkers. Writing about a negative event was associated with higher intentions among heavier drinkers, but lower intentions among those with higher AUDIT scores. This research builds on previous expressive writing interventions by applying this technique to undergraduate drinkers. Preliminary results provide some support for this innovative strategy but also suggest the need for further refinement, especially with heavier drinkers. PMID:24064189

  8. Ethnic Drinking Cultures, Gender, and Socioeconomic Status in Asian American and Latino Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Won Kim; Caetano, Raul

    2014-01-01

    Background Heterogeneity in drinking across national groups is well-documented, but what explains such heterogeneity is less clear. To improve understanding of the underlying cultural conditions that may lead to diverse drinking outcomes, we investigate whether three dimensions of ethnic drinking culture (EDC)—alcohol consumption level, drinking prevalence, and detrimental drinking pattern (DDP) in the country of origin (COO)—are significantly associated with alcohol consumption in Asian Americans and Latina/os, and whether the associations vary by gender and socioeconomic status as assessed by educational level. Methods A nationally-representative sample of 1,012 Asian American and 4,831 Latino adults extracted from the Wave 2 National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) data was used. A series of multiple logistic and linear regression models were fitted separately for Asian Americans and for Latina/os. Analyses were also stratified by gender and educational level. Results Overall, the associations between EDC variables and drinking outcomes were more pronounced for all Asian Americans than for all Latina/os, for males than for females among Asian Americans, and for Latinas than for Latinos. In analyses simultaneously stratifying on gender and education level, however, there was a clear pattern of COO DDP associated with heavier drinking and alcohol consumption volume only for Latinos without a college degree. Conclusions Ethnic drinking cultures may influence drinking in Asian American and Latino subgroups, albeit to a varying degree. Low-SES Latinos may be at disproportionate risk of harmful drinking patterns pervasive in their country of origin. Future research might investigate the complex interplay between socioeconomic disadvantage and cultural conditions to inform targeted interventions for subgroups at high risk of alcohol-related harms. PMID:25581659

  9. Drinking behaviours and blood alcohol concentration in four European drinking environments: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Reducing harm in drinking environments is a growing priority for European alcohol policy yet few studies have explored nightlife drinking behaviours. This study examines alcohol consumption and blood alcohol concentration (BAC) in drinking environments in four European cities. Methods A short questionnaire was implemented among 838 drinkers aged 16-35 in drinking environments in four European cities, in the Netherlands, Slovenia, Spain and the UK. Questions included self-reported alcohol use before interview and expected consumption over the remainder of the night. Breathalyser tests were used to measured breath alcohol concentration (converted to BAC) at interview. Results Most participants in the Dutch (56.2%), Spanish (59.6%) and British (61.4%) samples had preloaded (cf Slovenia 34.8%). In those drinking < 3 h at interview, there were no differences in BAC by gender or nationality. In UK participants, BAC increased significantly in those who had been drinking longer, reaching 0.13% (median) in females and 0.17% in males drinking > 5 h. In other nationalities, BAC increases were less pronounced or absent. High BAC (> 0.08%) was associated with being male, aged > 19, British and having consumed spirits. In all cities most participants intended to drink enough alcohol to constitute binge drinking. Conclusions Different models of drinking behaviour are seen in different nightlife settings. Here, the UK sample was typified by continued increases in inebriation compared with steady, more moderate intoxication elsewhere. With the former being associated with higher health risks, European alcohol policy must work to deter this form of nightlife. PMID:22151744

  10. Antioxidant activity of oregano, parsley, and olive mill wastewaters in bulk oils and oil-in-water emulsions enriched in fish oil.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Alvarez, D; Giuffrida, F; Golay, P A; Cotting, C; Lardeau, A; Keely, Brendan J

    2008-08-27

    The antioxidant activity of oregano, parsley, olive mill wastewaters (OMWW), Trolox, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was evaluated in bulk oils and oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions enriched with 5% tuna oil by monitoring the formation of hydroperoxides, hexanal, and t-t-2,4-heptadienal in samples stored at 37 degrees C for 14 days. In bulk oil, the order of antioxidant activity was, in decreasing order (p < 0.05), OMWW > oregano > parsley > EDTA > Trolox. The antioxidant activity in o/w emulsion followed the same order except that EDTA was as efficient an antioxidant as OMWW. In addition, the total phenolic content, the radical scavenging properties, the reducing capacity, and the iron chelating activity of OMWW, parsley, and oregano extracts were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau, oxygen radical absorbance capacity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and iron(II) chelating activity assays, respectively. The antioxidant activity of OMWW, parsley, and oregano in food systems was related to their total phenolic content and radical scavenging capacity but not to their ability to chelate iron in vitro. OMWW was identified as a promising source of antioxidants to retard lipid oxidation in fish oil-enriched food products.

  11. Antioxidant activity of oregano, parsley, and olive mill wastewaters in bulk oils and oil-in-water emulsions enriched in fish oil.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Alvarez, D; Giuffrida, F; Golay, P A; Cotting, C; Lardeau, A; Keely, Brendan J

    2008-08-27

    The antioxidant activity of oregano, parsley, olive mill wastewaters (OMWW), Trolox, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was evaluated in bulk oils and oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions enriched with 5% tuna oil by monitoring the formation of hydroperoxides, hexanal, and t-t-2,4-heptadienal in samples stored at 37 degrees C for 14 days. In bulk oil, the order of antioxidant activity was, in decreasing order (p < 0.05), OMWW > oregano > parsley > EDTA > Trolox. The antioxidant activity in o/w emulsion followed the same order except that EDTA was as efficient an antioxidant as OMWW. In addition, the total phenolic content, the radical scavenging properties, the reducing capacity, and the iron chelating activity of OMWW, parsley, and oregano extracts were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau, oxygen radical absorbance capacity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and iron(II) chelating activity assays, respectively. The antioxidant activity of OMWW, parsley, and oregano in food systems was related to their total phenolic content and radical scavenging capacity but not to their ability to chelate iron in vitro. OMWW was identified as a promising source of antioxidants to retard lipid oxidation in fish oil-enriched food products. PMID:18636737

  12. Fish and fish oil in health promotion and disease prevention

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fish is an important dietary component due to its contribution of valuable nutrients. In addition to the high quality protein and micronutrients provided, fish is the primary source of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids which are found in oils of ‘fatty’ cold water fish. Biomedical evidence supports th...

  13. Fish Commoditization: Sustainability Strategies to Protect Living Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Mimi E.; Pitcher, Tony J.

    2012-01-01

    The impacts of early fishing on aquatic ecosystems were minimal, as primitive technologies were used to harvest fish primarily for food. As fishing technology grew more sophisticated and human populations dispersed and expanded, local economies transitioned from subsistence to barter and trade. Expanded trade networks and mercantilization led to…

  14. Dehydration-induced drinking in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    The human tendency to experience a delay in rehydration (involuntary dehydration) after fluid loss is considered. The two primary factors contributing to involuntary dehydration are probably upright posture, and extracellular fluid and electrolyte loss by sweating from exercise and heat exposure. First, as the plasma sodium and osmotic concentrations remain virtually unchanged for supine to upright postural changes, the major stimuli for drinking appear to be associated with the hypovolemia and increase in the renin-angiotension system. Second, voluntary drinking during the heat experiments was 146% greater than in cool experiments; drinking increased by 109% with prior dehydration as opposed to normal hydration conditions; and drinking was increased by 41% after exercise as compared with the resting condition. Finally, it is concluded that the rate of sweating and the rate of voluntary fluid intake are highly correlated, and that the dispogenic factors of plasma volume, osmolality, and plasma renin activity are unrelated to sweat rate, but are likely to induce drinking in humans.

  15. Caffeinated Energy Drinks -- A Growing Problem

    PubMed Central

    Reissig, Chad J.; Strain, Eric C.; Griffiths, Roland R.

    2009-01-01

    Since the introduction of Red Bull in Austria in 1987 and in the United States in 1997, the energy drink market has grown exponentially. Hundreds of different brands are now marketed, with caffeine content ranging from a modest 50 mg to an alarming 505 mg per can or bottle. Regulation of energy drinks, including content labeling and health warnings differs across countries, with some of the most lax regulatory requirements in the U.S. The absence of regulatory oversight has resulted in aggressive marketing of energy drinks, targeted primarily toward young males, for psychoactive, performance-enhancing and stimulant drug effects. There are increasing reports of caffeine intoxication from energy drinks, and it seems likely that problems with caffeine dependence and withdrawal will also increase. In children and adolescents who are not habitual caffeine users, vulnerability to caffeine intoxication may be markedly increased due to an absence of pharmacological tolerance. Genetic factors may also contribute to an individual’s vulnerability to caffeine related disorders including caffeine intoxication, dependence, and withdrawal. The combined use of caffeine and alcohol is increasing sharply, and studies suggest that such combined use may increase the rate of alcohol-related injury. Several studies suggest that energy drinks may serve as a gateway to other forms of drug dependence. Regulatory implications concerning labeling and advertising, and the clinical implications for children and adolescents are discussed. PMID:18809264

  16. Energy drinks and adolescents: what's the harm?

    PubMed

    Harris, Jennifer L; Munsell, Christina R

    2015-04-01

    Concerns about potential dangers from energy drink consumption by youth have been raised by health experts, whereas energy drink manufacturers claim these products are safe and suitable for marketing to teens. This review summarizes the evidence used to support both sides of the debate. Unlike most beverage categories, sales of energy drinks and other highly caffeinated products continue to grow, and marketing is often targeted to youth under the age of 18 years. These products pose a risk of caffeine toxicity when consumed by some young people, and there is evidence of other troubling physiological and behavioral effects associated with their consumption by youth. The US Food and Drug Administration has indicated it will reexamine the safety of caffeine in the food supply; however, more research is needed to better understand youth consumption of energy drinks and caffeine in general, as well as the long-term effects on health. Meanwhile, policymakers and physician groups have called on energy drink manufacturers to take voluntary action to reduce the potential harm of their products, including placing restrictions on marketing to youth under the age of 18 years. Additional regulatory and legislative options are also being discussed.

  17. Heavy Drinking and Suicide in Russia

    PubMed Central

    Pridemore, William Alex

    2006-01-01

    Russian levels of alcohol consumption and suicide are among the highest in the world. While observers have long suspected an association between the two, they were unable to investigate this hypothesis until recently due to past Soviet secrecy and thus a lack of data. This study took advantage of the newly available data during the post-Soviet era to examine the cross-sectional association between heavy drinking and suicide mortality in Russia. Aggregate mortality data for the Russian regions (n = 78) for the year 2000 were used to measure heavy drinking and suicide rates. Government data were used to control for the regional economic situation and strength of social institutions. Ordinary Least Squares regression was employed to estimate the effect of a proxy for heavy drinking on overall and sex-specific age-adjusted suicide rates. The results showed a positive and significant association between the two, and the association held for overall, male and female rates. These results not only confirmed an association between heavy drinking and suicide in Russia, but when compared to findings from previous studies of other countries they led to the hypothesis that a nation’s beverage preference may be as important as its wet/dry drinking culture in its sensitivity of suicide rates to alcohol consumption. PMID:17160138

  18. Caffeinated energy drinks--a growing problem.

    PubMed

    Reissig, Chad J; Strain, Eric C; Griffiths, Roland R

    2009-01-01

    Since the introduction of Red Bull in Austria in 1987 and in the United States in 1997, the energy drink market has grown exponentially. Hundreds of different brands are now marketed, with caffeine content ranging from a modest 50 mg to an alarming 505 mg per can or bottle. Regulation of energy drinks, including content labeling and health warnings differs across countries, with some of the most lax regulatory requirements in the U.S. The absence of regulatory oversight has resulted in aggressive marketing of energy drinks, targeted primarily toward young males, for psychoactive, performance-enhancing and stimulant drug effects. There are increasing reports of caffeine intoxication from energy drinks, and it seems likely that problems with caffeine dependence and withdrawal will also increase. In children and adolescents who are not habitual caffeine users, vulnerability to caffeine intoxication may be markedly increased due to an absence of pharmacological tolerance. Genetic factors may also contribute to an individual's vulnerability to caffeine-related disorders including caffeine intoxication, dependence, and withdrawal. The combined use of caffeine and alcohol is increasing sharply, and studies suggest that such combined use may increase the rate of alcohol-related injury. Several studies suggest that energy drinks may serve as a gateway to other forms of drug dependence. Regulatory implications concerning labeling and advertising, and the clinical implications for children and adolescents are discussed. PMID:18809264

  19. Differences in Weekday versus Weekend Drinking among Nonstudent Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lau-Barraco, Cathy; Braitman, Abby L.; Linden-Carmichael, Ashley N.; Stamates, Amy L.

    2016-01-01

    The current investigation sought to examine “day of the week” drinking of an at-risk sample of nonstudent emerging adults and whether specific factors are associated with differential drinking patterns. Our study aims were to: (1) identify differences in weekday versus weekend drinking, (2) examine specific expectancies (i.e., sociability, tension reduction) and demographic factors (e.g., age, sex) as relating to weekend versus weekday drinking after controlling for harmful drinking and holiday drinking. Participants were 238 (63.4% men, 35.7% women; M age = 21.92 years) heavy drinking noncollege-attenders recruited from the community. They reported daily drinking for the previous 30 days and completed measures of harmful drinking, alcohol expectancies, and demographic information. Results showed that more drinks were consumed on the weekends (i.e., Thursday to Saturday) than weekdays, with 63% of drinks consumed on weekends. Multilevel modeling analyses indicated that weekday drinking was associated with tension reduction expectancies, social expectancies, sex, and age. Weekend drinking increases were related to social expectancies but not tension reduction expectancies. Our final model indicated that, after controlling for the effect of holiday drinking, the within-person weekday/weekend distinction explained 18% of the total variance. In general, our findings highlight the importance of alcohol expectancies and drinking contexts in understanding the drinking behaviors of nonstudents. The differential role of tension reduction and social facilitation expectancies on drinking throughout the week imply different cognitive pathways are involved in weekday versus weekend drinking and both types of expected alcohol effects should be targets of risk-reduction efforts with nonstudent drinkers. PMID:26901592

  20. Differences in weekday versus weekend drinking among nonstudent emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Lau-Barraco, Cathy; Braitman, Abby L; Linden-Carmichael, Ashley N; Stamates, Amy L

    2016-04-01

    In the current investigation, we sought to examine "day-of-the-week" drinking of an at-risk sample of nonstudent emerging adults and whether specific factors are associated with differential drinking patterns. Our study aims were to (a) identify differences in weekday versus weekend drinking, and (b) examine specific expectancies (i.e., sociability, tension reduction) and demographic factors (e.g., age, sex) relating to weekend versus weekday drinking after controlling for harmful drinking and holiday drinking. Participants were heavy-drinking noncollege attenders recruited from the community (N = 238; 63.4% men, 35.7% women; M age = 21.92 years). They reported daily drinking for the previous 30 days and completed measures of harmful drinking, alcohol expectancies, and demographic information. Results showed that more drinks were consumed on the weekends (i.e., Thursday to Saturday) than weekdays, with 63% of drinks consumed on weekends. Multilevel modeling analyses indicated that weekday drinking was associated with tension-reduction expectancies, social expectancies, sex, and age. Weekend-drinking increases were related to social expectancies, but not tension-reduction expectancies. Our final model indicated that, after controlling for the effect of holiday drinking, the within-person weekday-weekend distinction explained 18% of the total variance. In general, our findings highlight the importance of alcohol expectancies and drinking contexts in understanding the drinking behaviors of nonstudents. The differential role of tension-reduction and social-facilitation expectancies on drinking throughout the week imply that different cognitive pathways are involved in weekday versus weekend drinking, and both types of expected alcohol effects should be targets of risk-reduction efforts with nonstudent drinkers. PMID:26901592

  1. Factors associated with heavy drinking among off-reserve First Nations and Métis youth and adults: Evidence from the 2012 Canadian Aboriginal Peoples Survey.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Christopher J; Cooke, Martin; Leatherdale, Scott T

    2016-06-01

    Objective . Aboriginal people in Canada are at higher risk to heavy alcohol consumption than are other Canadians. The objective of this study was to examine a set of culturally specific correlates of heavy drinking among First Nations and Métis youth and adults. Methods . Demographic, geographic, socioeconomic and health-related variables were also considered. Data were used from Statistics Canada's 2012 Aboriginal Peoples Survey to predict heavy drinking among 14,410 First Nations and Métis 15years of age and older. Separate sets of binary sequential logistic regression models were estimated for youth and adults. Results . Among youth, those who had hunted, fished or trapped within the last year were more likely to be heavy drinkers. In addition, current smokers and those who most frequently participated in sports were at higher odds of heavy alcohol consumption. Among adults, respondents who had hunted, fished or trapped within the last year were more likely to drink heavily. On the other hand, those who had made traditional arts or crafts within the last year were less likely to drink heavily. Conclusions . Men, younger adults, smokers, those who were unmarried, those who had higher household incomes, and those who had higher ratings of self-perceived health were more likely to be heavy drinkers. Efforts aimed at reducing the prevalence of heavy drinking among this population may benefit from considering culturally specific factors, in addition to demographic variables and co-occurring health-risk behaviors. PMID:26861752

  2. Fish and shellfish allergy.

    PubMed

    Thalayasingam, Meera; Lee, Bee-Wah

    2015-01-01

    Fish and shellfish consumption has increased worldwide, and there are increasing reports of adverse reactions to fish and shellfish, with an approximate prevalence of 0.5-5%. Fish allergy often develops early in life, whilst shellfish allergy tends to develop later, from adolescence onwards. Little is known about the natural history of these allergies, but both are thought to be persistent. The clinical manifestations of shellfish allergy, in particular, may vary from local to life-threatening 'anaphylactic' reactions within an individual and between individuals. Parvalbumin and tropomyosin are the two major allergens, but several other allergens have been cloned and described. These allergens are highly heat and biochemically stable, and this may in part explain the persistence of these allergies. Diagnosis requires a thorough history, skin prick and in-vitro-specific IgE tests, and oral challenges may be needed for diagnostic confirmation. Strict avoidance of these allergens is the current standard of clinical care for allergic patients, and when indicated, an anaphylactic plan with an adrenaline auto-injector is prescribed. There are no published clinical trials evaluating specific oral immunotherapy for fish or shellfish allergy.

  3. FishTraits Database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Angermeier, Paul L.; Frimpong, Emmanuel A.

    2009-01-01

    The need for integrated and widely accessible sources of species traits data to facilitate studies of ecology, conservation, and management has motivated development of traits databases for various taxa. In spite of the increasing number of traits-based analyses of freshwater fishes in the United States, no consolidated database of traits of this group exists publicly, and much useful information on these species is documented only in obscure sources. The largely inaccessible and unconsolidated traits information makes large-scale analysis involving many fishes and/or traits particularly challenging. FishTraits is a database of >100 traits for 809 (731 native and 78 exotic) fish species found in freshwaters of the conterminous United States, including 37 native families and 145 native genera. The database contains information on four major categories of traits: (1) trophic ecology, (2) body size and reproductive ecology (life history), (3) habitat associations, and (4) salinity and temperature tolerances. Information on geographic distribution and conservation status is also included. Together, we refer to the traits, distribution, and conservation status information as attributes. Descriptions of attributes are available here. Many sources were consulted to compile attributes, including state and regional species accounts and other databases.

  4. Ooey, Gooey, Fish Guts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmons, Maryellen

    2004-01-01

    Fish dissections are a great way to introduce the concepts of food webs, predator-prey relationships, and ecosystems, but these labs are expensive, messy, smelly, and require a lot of supervision because of the tools involved. The author has developed an inexpensive, safe, and clean alternative where students "dissect" simulated fish…

  5. If the Fish Stinks....

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meltzer, Milton

    1998-01-01

    Describes how the proverb, "When the fish stinks, say that it stinks" permeates the author's writing of biographies of well-known American "heroes" for young readers. Points out the writer's obligation to illuminate both the negative and positive character and behavior of the people he or she writes about, offering examples from the author's…

  6. Yet Another Fish Tale?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lalasz, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Last month the "Rocky Mountain News" reported that a survey by an emeritus professor at University of Colorado Boulder found that only 23 of 825 faculty members on the campus were registered Republicans. But on his "New York Times" blog, Stanley Fish brushed off the survey's significance from a familiarly Fishian stance. A faculty's political…

  7. Truck-Drivin' Fish?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, AnnMarie

    2001-01-01

    Presents an art activity that enables first-grade students to learn about color mixing by driving toys trucks through paint. Explains that the students created rainbow fish and drew the background with crayons. States that this activity demonstrates how to utilize nontraditional tools or objects when creating art. (CMK)

  8. Fish out of Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartorius, Tara Cady

    1998-01-01

    Highlights the life of Leonard Koscianski, an artist who focuses on revealing the inner life of the human heart and mind in his artwork. Includes four lesson plans for grades ranging from 2 through 12: philosophy, psychology, language arts, and visual arts. Provides a copy and background about Koscianski's painting "Red Fish." (CMK)

  9. Hydrodynamics of fossil fishes

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Thomas; Altringham, John; Peakall, Jeffrey; Wignall, Paul; Dorrell, Robert

    2014-01-01

    From their earliest origins, fishes have developed a suite of adaptations for locomotion in water, which determine performance and ultimately fitness. Even without data from behaviour, soft tissue and extant relatives, it is possible to infer a wealth of palaeobiological and palaeoecological information. As in extant species, aspects of gross morphology such as streamlining, fin position and tail type are optimized even in the earliest fishes, indicating similar life strategies have been present throughout their evolutionary history. As hydrodynamical studies become more sophisticated, increasingly complex fluid movement can be modelled, including vortex formation and boundary layer control. Drag-reducing riblets ornamenting the scales of fast-moving sharks have been subjected to particularly intense research, but this has not been extended to extinct forms. Riblets are a convergent adaptation seen in many Palaeozoic fishes, and probably served a similar hydrodynamic purpose. Conversely, structures which appear to increase skin friction may act as turbulisors, reducing overall drag while serving a protective function. Here, we examine the diverse adaptions that contribute to drag reduction in modern fishes and review the few attempts to elucidate the hydrodynamics of extinct forms. PMID:24943377

  10. The Last Fish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollack, Susan

    1995-01-01

    Describes the collapse of Newfoundland's once immense northern-cod fishery in 1992 from the perspective of a family fisherman who has become an environmental activist. Discusses failures in environmental management including the overfishing of shared resources encouraged by the Canadian government and hastened by international fishing fleets and…

  11. Fish-induced keriorrhea.

    PubMed

    Ling, Ka Ho; Nichols, Peter D; But, Paul Pui-Hay

    2009-01-01

    Many deep-sea fishes store large amounts of wax esters in their body for buoyancy control. Some of them are frequently caught as by-catch of tuna and other fishes. The most noteworthy ones include escolar and oilfish. The accumulation of the indigestible wax esters in the rectum through consumption of these fish engenders discharges or leakage per rectum as orange or brownish green oil, but without noticeable loss of water. This physiological response is called keriorrhea, which is variously described as "oily diarrhea," "oily orange diarrhea," or "orange oily leakage" by the mass media and bloggers on the internet. Outbreaks of keriorrhea have been repeatedly reported across continents. Additional symptoms including nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, and diarrhea were complained by the victims. They are probably due to anxiety or panic when suffering from keriorrhea. Escolar and oilfish are banned from import and sale in Italy, Japan, and South Korea. Rapid detection of the two fishes is imperative to ensure proper labeling and safeguarding of the public before and after any keriorrhea outbreak.

  12. Hydrodynamics of fossil fishes.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Thomas; Altringham, John; Peakall, Jeffrey; Wignall, Paul; Dorrell, Robert

    2014-08-01

    From their earliest origins, fishes have developed a suite of adaptations for locomotion in water, which determine performance and ultimately fitness. Even without data from behaviour, soft tissue and extant relatives, it is possible to infer a wealth of palaeobiological and palaeoecological information. As in extant species, aspects of gross morphology such as streamlining, fin position and tail type are optimized even in the earliest fishes, indicating similar life strategies have been present throughout their evolutionary history. As hydrodynamical studies become more sophisticated, increasingly complex fluid movement can be modelled, including vortex formation and boundary layer control. Drag-reducing riblets ornamenting the scales of fast-moving sharks have been subjected to particularly intense research, but this has not been extended to extinct forms. Riblets are a convergent adaptation seen in many Palaeozoic fishes, and probably served a similar hydrodynamic purpose. Conversely, structures which appear to increase skin friction may act as turbulisors, reducing overall drag while serving a protective function. Here, we examine the diverse adaptions that contribute to drag reduction in modern fishes and review the few attempts to elucidate the hydrodynamics of extinct forms. PMID:24943377

  13. Miniature sonar fish tag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovelady, R. W.; Ferguson, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    Self-powered sonar device may be implanted in body of fish. It transmits signal that can be detected with portable tracking gear or by automatic detection-and-tracking system. Operating life of over 4000 hours may be expected. Device itself may be used almost indefinitely.

  14. Puffer fish poisoning.

    PubMed Central

    Field, J

    1998-01-01

    Regarded by many as a delicacy, puffer fish (Lagocephalus scleratus) is a lethal source of food poisoning with a high mortality. It contains tetrodotoxin which can cause death by muscular paralysis, respiratory depression, and circulatory failure. A case of mild intoxication is reported and the literature reviewed. Images p336-a PMID:9785165

  15. Colwater fish in rivers

    EPA Science Inventory

    A standard sampling protocol to assess the fish assemblages and abundances in large, coldwater rivers is most accurate and precise if consistent gears and levels of effort are used at each site. This requires thorough crew training, quality control audits, and replicate sampling...

  16. Sediment bioaccumulation testing with fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mac, Michael J.; Schmitt, Christopher J.; Burton, G. Allen

    1992-01-01

    In this chapter, we discuss methods for conducting bioaccumulation bioassays with fish; the advantages and disadvantages of using fish rather than invertebrates; and problems associated with bioaccumulation testing, with a special emphasis on statistical treatment.

  17. Mobile sailing robot for automatic estimation of fish density and monitoring water quality

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The paper presents the methodology and the algorithm developed to analyze sonar images focused on fish detection in small water bodies and measurement of their parameters: volume, depth and the GPS location. The final results are stored in a table and can be exported to any numerical environment for further analysis. Material and method The measurement method for estimating the number of fish using the automatic robot is based on a sequential calculation of the number of occurrences of fish on the set trajectory. The data analysis from the sonar concerned automatic recognition of fish using the methods of image analysis and processing. Results Image analysis algorithm, a mobile robot together with its control in the 2.4 GHz band and full cryptographic communication with the data archiving station was developed as part of this study. For the three model fish ponds where verification of fish catches was carried out (548, 171 and 226 individuals), the measurement error for the described method was not exceeded 8%. Summary Created robot together with the developed software has features for remote work also in the variety of harsh weather and environmental conditions, is fully automated and can be remotely controlled using Internet. Designed system enables fish spatial location (GPS coordinates and the depth). The purpose of the robot is a non-invasive measurement of the number of fish in water reservoirs and a measurement of the quality of drinking water consumed by humans, especially in situations where local sources of pollution could have a significant impact on the quality of water collected for water treatment for people and when getting to these places is difficult. The systematically used robot equipped with the appropriate sensors, can be part of early warning system against the pollution of water used by humans (drinking water, natural swimming pools) which can be dangerous for their health. PMID:23815984

  18. Will increasing alcohol availability by lowering the minimum legal drinking age decrease drinking and related consequences among youths?

    PubMed

    Wechsler, Henry; Nelson, Toben F

    2010-06-01

    Alcohol use health consequences are considerable; prevention efforts are needed, particularly for adolescents and college students. The national minimum legal drinking age of 21 years is a primary alcohol-control policy in the United States. An advocacy group supported by some college presidents seeks public debate on the minimum legal drinking age and proposes reducing it to 18 years. We reviewed recent trends in drinking and related consequences, evidence on effectiveness of the minimum legal drinking age of 21 years, research on drinking among college students related to the minimum legal drinking age, and the case to lower the minimum legal drinking age. Evidence supporting the minimum legal drinking age of 21 years is strong and growing. A wide range of empirically supported interventions is available to reduce underage drinking. Public health professionals can play a role in advocating these interventions.

  19. Will Increasing Alcohol Availability By Lowering the Minimum Legal Drinking Age Decrease Drinking and Related Consequences Among Youths?

    PubMed Central

    Wechsler, Henry

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol use health consequences are considerable; prevention efforts are needed, particularly for adolescents and college students. The national minimum legal drinking age of 21 years is a primary alcohol-control policy in the United States. An advocacy group supported by some college presidents seeks public debate on the minimum legal drinking age and proposes reducing it to 18 years. We reviewed recent trends in drinking and related consequences, evidence on effectiveness of the minimum legal drinking age of 21 years, research on drinking among college students related to the minimum legal drinking age, and the case to lower the minimum legal drinking age. Evidence supporting the minimum legal drinking age of 21 years is strong and growing. A wide range of empirically supported interventions is available to reduce underage drinking. Public health professionals can play a role in advocating these interventions. PMID:20395573

  20. Evaluation of Fluoride Retention Due to Most Commonly Consumed Estuarine Fishes Among Fish Consuming Population of Andhra Pradesh as a Contributing Factor to Dental Fluorosis: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Ganta, Shravani; Nagaraj, Anup; Pareek, Sonia; Sidiq, Mohsin; Singh, Kushpal; Vishnani, Preeti

    2015-01-01

    Background Fluoride in drinking water is known for both beneficial and detrimental effects on health. The principal sources of fluoride include water, some species of vegetation, certain edible marine animals, dust and industrial processes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the fluoride retention of most commonly consumed estuarine fishes among fish consuming population of Andhra Pradesh. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the amount of fluoride retention due to ten most commonly consumed estuarine fishes as a contributing factor to Fluorosis by SPADNS Spectrophotometric method. The presence and severity of dental fluorosis among fish consuming population was recorded using Community Fluorosis Index. Statistical analysis was done using MedCalc v12.2.1.0 software. Results For Sea water fishes, the fluoride levels in bone were maximum in Indian Sardine (4.22 ppm). Amongst the river water fishes, the fluoride levels in bone were maximum in Catla (1.51 ppm). Also, the mean total fluoride concentrations of all the river fishes in skin, muscle and bone were less (0.86 ppm) as compared to the sea water fishes (2.59 ppm). It was unveiled that sea fishes accumulate relatively large amounts of Fluoride as compared to the river water fishes. The mean Community Fluorosis Index was found to be 1.06 amongst a sampled fish consuming population. Evaluation by Community Index for Dental fluorosis (CFI) suggested that fluorosis is of medium public health importance. Conclusion It was analysed that bone tends to accumulate more amount of fluoride followed by muscle and skin which might be due to the increased permeability and chemical trapping of fluoride inside the tissues. The amount of fluoride present in the fishes is directly related to the severity of fluorosis amongst fish consuming population, suggesting fishes as a contributing factor to fluorosis depending upon the dietary consumption. PMID:26266208

  1. Problem: Thirst, Drinking Behavior, and Involuntary Dehydration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1992-01-01

    The phenomenon of involuntary dehydration, the delay in full restoration of a body water deficit by drinking, has been described extensively but relatively little is known about its physiological mechanism. It occurs primarily in humans when they are exposed to various stresses including exercise, environmental heat and cold, altitude, water immersion, dehydration, and perhaps microgravity, singly and in various combinations. The level of involuntary dehydration is approximately proportional to the degree of total stress imposed on the body. Involuntary dehydration appears to be controlled by more than one factor including social customs that influence what is consumed, the capacity and rate of fluid absorption from the gastrointestinal system, the level of cellular hydration involving the osmotic-vasopressin interaction with sensitive cells or structures in the central nervous system, and, to a lesser extent, hypovolemic-angiotensin II stimuli. Since humans drink when there is no apparent physiological stimulus, the psychological component should always be considered when investigating the total mechanisms for drinking.

  2. Microbial ecology of drinking water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Berry, David; Xi, Chuanwu; Raskin, Lutgarde

    2006-06-01

    The supply of clean drinking water is a major, and relatively recent, public health milestone. Control of microbial growth in drinking water distribution systems, often achieved through the addition of disinfectants, is essential to limiting waterborne illness, particularly in immunocompromised subpopulations. Recent inquiries into the microbial ecology of distribution systems have found that pathogen resistance to chlorination is affected by microbial community diversity and interspecies relationships. Research indicates that multispecies biofilms are generally more resistant to disinfection than single-species biofilms. Other recent findings are the increased survival of the bacterial pathogen Legionella pneumophila when present inside its protozoan host Hartmannella vermiformis and the depletion of chloramine disinfectant residuals by nitrifying bacteria, leading to increased overall microbial growth. Interactions such as these are unaccounted for in current disinfection models. An understanding of the microbial ecology of distribution systems is necessary to design innovative and effective control strategies that will ensure safe and high-quality drinking water. PMID:16701992

  3. Pollution of drinking water with nitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Cabel, B.; Kozicki, R.; Lahl, U.; Podbielshi, A.; Stachel, B.; Struss, S.

    1982-01-01

    The main sources of nitrate in man are food and drinking water. The legislature in West Germany intends to lower the permitted level of nitrate in drinking water from the present 90 mg/l to 50 mg/l in 1982. The European Community has issued a directive that recommends a level of only 25 mg/l, and for babies 10 mg/l nitrate should not be exceeded. At present, nitrate cannot be removed from raw water at an acceptable cost. The problem of high nitrate content is mainly one of drinking water generation from ground water. Several analyses indicate rising concentrations of nitrate in ground water in different regions of West Germany, especially in the last few years. The following sources of nitrate-contamination of ground water aquifers in West are discussed: natural sources; over-manuring of agricultural areas with natural organic fertilizers; over-manuring of agricultural areas with synthetic fertilizers.

  4. National drinking water program redirection strategy

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-07

    During 1995, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) conducted an extensive reassessment of its drinking water protection program in response to a number of issues which were being raised within the Agency, by a wide range of interested parties, and by Congress. The purpose of the reassessment was to assist the Agency in; formulation comprehensive redirection objectives that can serve to guide Agency activities related to drinking water; identifying and implementing high-priority activities that will maximize risk reduction; realigning resources within the Office of Water`s Drinking Water Program at EPA headquarters to support as many of the activities as possible; and utilizing improved coordination with other Agency offices and the Regions to support the redirection effort. This document is intended for public comment.

  5. PNNL Tests Fish Passage System

    SciTech Connect

    Colotelo, Alison

    2015-03-13

    Scientists from PNNL are testing a fish transportation system developed by Whooshh Innovations. The Whooshh system uses a flexible tube that works a bit like a vacuum, guiding fish over hydroelectric dams or other structures. Compared to methods used today, this system could save money while granting fish quicker, safer passage through dams and hatcheries.

  6. 50 CFR 404.10 - Commercial fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... NOAA regulations at 50 CFR part 665, subpart E as necessary. (2) Total landings for each fishing year... MONUMENT § 404.10 Commercial fishing. (a) Lobster fishing. Any commercial lobster fishing permit is...

  7. Effect of Environmental Factors on Cyanobacterial Abundance and Cyanotoxins Production in Natural and Drinking Water, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Affan, Abu; Khomavis, Hisham S; Al-Harbi, Salim Marzoog; Haque, Mahfuzul; Khan, Saleha

    2015-02-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms commonly appear during the summer months in ponds, lakes and reservoirs in Bangladesh. In these areas, fish mortality, odorous water and fish and human skin irritation and eye inflammation have been reported. The influence of physicochemical factors on the occurrence of cyanobacteria and its toxin levels were evaluated in natural and drinking water in Bangladesh. A highly sensitive immunosorbent assay was used to detect microcystins (MCs). Cyanobacteria were found in 22 of 23 samples and the dominant species were Microcystis aeruginosa, followed by Microcystisflosaquae, Anabeana crassa and Aphanizomenon flosaquae. Cyanobacterial abundance varied from 39 to 1315 x 10(3) cells mL(-1) in natural water and 31 to 49 x 10(3) cells mL(-1) in tap water. MC concentrations were 25-82300 pg mL(-1) with the highest value measured in the fish research pond, followed by Ishakha Lake. In tap water, MC concentrations ranged from 30-32 pg mL(-1). The correlation between nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) concentration and cyanobacterial cell abundance was R2 = 0.62 while that between cyanobacterial abundance and MC concentration was R2 = 0.98. The increased NO3-N from fish feed, organic manure, poultry and dairy farm waste and fertilizer from agricultural land eutrophicated the water bodies and triggered cyanobacterial bloom formation. The increased amount of cyanobacteria produced MCs, subsequently reducing the water quality. PMID:26364354

  8. Effect of Environmental Factors on Cyanobacterial Abundance and Cyanotoxins Production in Natural and Drinking Water, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Affan, Abu; Khomavis, Hisham S; Al-Harbi, Salim Marzoog; Haque, Mahfuzul; Khan, Saleha

    2015-02-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms commonly appear during the summer months in ponds, lakes and reservoirs in Bangladesh. In these areas, fish mortality, odorous water and fish and human skin irritation and eye inflammation have been reported. The influence of physicochemical factors on the occurrence of cyanobacteria and its toxin levels were evaluated in natural and drinking water in Bangladesh. A highly sensitive immunosorbent assay was used to detect microcystins (MCs). Cyanobacteria were found in 22 of 23 samples and the dominant species were Microcystis aeruginosa, followed by Microcystisflosaquae, Anabeana crassa and Aphanizomenon flosaquae. Cyanobacterial abundance varied from 39 to 1315 x 10(3) cells mL(-1) in natural water and 31 to 49 x 10(3) cells mL(-1) in tap water. MC concentrations were 25-82300 pg mL(-1) with the highest value measured in the fish research pond, followed by Ishakha Lake. In tap water, MC concentrations ranged from 30-32 pg mL(-1). The correlation between nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) concentration and cyanobacterial cell abundance was R2 = 0.62 while that between cyanobacterial abundance and MC concentration was R2 = 0.98. The increased NO3-N from fish feed, organic manure, poultry and dairy farm waste and fertilizer from agricultural land eutrophicated the water bodies and triggered cyanobacterial bloom formation. The increased amount of cyanobacteria produced MCs, subsequently reducing the water quality.

  9. Doctors' drinking habits and consumption of alcohol.

    PubMed

    Juntunen, J; Asp, S; Olkinuora, M; Aärimaa, M; Strid, L; Kauttu, K

    1988-10-15

    Alcohol consumption and drinking habits among Finnish doctors were studied as part of a survey of stress and burnout. A questionnaire containing 99 questions or groups of questions was sent to all 3496 practising doctors aged under 66 randomly selected from the registry of the Finnish Medical Association. Altogether 2671 doctors (76%) responded; this sample was representative of the Finnish medical profession. The average weekly consumption of alcohol during the past year and various aspects of drinking behaviour were assessed, and the presence or absence of symptoms and diseases often encountered among heavy drinkers and addicts was determined. The data were analysed separately for men and women, for those aged less than or equal to 40 and greater than 40, and for the men with high and low alcohol consumption and with high and low scores on the index of drinking habits. Selected variables related to work, stress, and coping were correlated with alcohol consumption and drinking behaviour. The median consumption of alcohol among male doctors was 4876 g (6.2 litres) and among female doctors 2226 g (2.8 litres) of absolute alcohol per person per year and was higher in those aged over 40. Beer was most commonly drunk by men and wine by women. Increased alcohol consumption was associated with older age, disappointment with career, heavy smoking, use of benzodiazepines, stress and burnout symptoms, suicidal thoughts, general dissatisfaction, and diseases related to alcohol. Drinking habits were heavier among doctors working in community health centres, those taking long sick leaves, younger doctors disappointed with their careers or the atmosphere at work, and older doctors immersed in their work. Alcohol consumption among doctors seems to be higher than that of the general population in Finland, and heavy drinking seems to be associated with stress and burnout. PMID:3142564

  10. Blackout Drinking Predicts Sexual Revictimization in a College Sample of Binge-Drinking Women

    PubMed Central

    Valenstein-Mah, Helen; Larimer, Mary; Zoellner, Lori; Kaysen, Debra

    2016-01-01

    Sexual victimization is prevalent on U.S. college campuses. Some women experience multiple sexual victimizations with heightened risk among those with prior victimization histories. One risk factor for sexual revictimization is alcohol use. Most research has focused on associations between alcohol consumption and revictimization. The current study’s objective was to understand potential mechanisms by which drinking confers risk for revictimization. We hypothesized that specific drinking consequences would predict risk for revictimization above and beyond the quantity of alcohol consumed. There were 162 binge-drinking female students (mean age = 20.21 years, 71.3% White, 36.9% juniors) from the University of Washington who were assessed for baseline victimization (categorized as childhood vs. adolescent victimization), quantity of alcohol consumed, and drinking consequences experienced, then assessed 30 days later for revictimization. There were 40 (24.6%) women who were revictimized in the following 30 days. Results showed that blackout drinking at baseline predicted incapacitated sexual revictimization among women previously victimized as adolescents, after accounting for quantity of alcohol consumed (OR = 1.79, 95% CI [1.07, 3.01]). Other drinking consequences were not strongly predictive of revictimization. Adolescent sexual victimization was an important predictor of sexual revictimization in college women; blackout drinking may confer unique risk for revictimization. PMID:26401899

  11. Blackout Drinking Predicts Sexual Revictimization in a College Sample of Binge-Drinking Women.

    PubMed

    Valenstein-Mah, Helen; Larimer, Mary; Zoellner, Lori; Kaysen, Debra

    2015-10-01

    Sexual victimization is prevalent on U.S. college campuses. Some women experience multiple sexual victimizations with heightened risk among those with prior victimization histories. One risk factor for sexual revictimization is alcohol use. Most research has focused on associations between alcohol consumption and revictimization. The current study's objective was to understand potential mechanisms by which drinking confers risk for revictimization. We hypothesized that specific drinking consequences would predict risk for revictimization above and beyond the quantity of alcohol consumed. There were 162 binge-drinking female students (mean age = 20.21 years, 71.3% White, 36.9% juniors) from the University of Washington who were assessed for baseline victimization (categorized as childhood vs. adolescent victimization), quantity of alcohol consumed, and drinking consequences experienced, then assessed 30 days later for revictimization. There were 40 (24.6%) women who were revictimized in the following 30 days. Results showed that blackout drinking at baseline predicted incapacitated sexual revictimization among women previously victimized as adolescents, after accounting for quantity of alcohol consumed (OR = 1.79, 95% CI [1.07, 3.01]). Other drinking consequences were not strongly predictive of revictimization. Adolescent sexual victimization was an important predictor of sexual revictimization in college women; blackout drinking may confer unique risk for revictimization.

  12. Blackout Drinking Predicts Sexual Revictimization in a College Sample of Binge-Drinking Women.

    PubMed

    Valenstein-Mah, Helen; Larimer, Mary; Zoellner, Lori; Kaysen, Debra

    2015-10-01

    Sexual victimization is prevalent on U.S. college campuses. Some women experience multiple sexual victimizations with heightened risk among those with prior victimization histories. One risk factor for sexual revictimization is alcohol use. Most research has focused on associations between alcohol consumption and revictimization. The current study's objective was to understand potential mechanisms by which drinking confers risk for revictimization. We hypothesized that specific drinking consequences would predict risk for revictimization above and beyond the quantity of alcohol consumed. There were 162 binge-drinking female students (mean age = 20.21 years, 71.3% White, 36.9% juniors) from the University of Washington who were assessed for baseline victimization (categorized as childhood vs. adolescent victimization), quantity of alcohol consumed, and drinking consequences experienced, then assessed 30 days later for revictimization. There were 40 (24.6%) women who were revictimized in the following 30 days. Results showed that blackout drinking at baseline predicted incapacitated sexual revictimization among women previously victimized as adolescents, after accounting for quantity of alcohol consumed (OR = 1.79, 95% CI [1.07, 3.01]). Other drinking consequences were not strongly predictive of revictimization. Adolescent sexual victimization was an important predictor of sexual revictimization in college women; blackout drinking may confer unique risk for revictimization. PMID:26401899

  13. Anencephalus, drinking water, geomagnetism and cosmic radiation.

    PubMed

    Archer, V E

    1979-01-01

    The mortality rates from anencephalus from 1950-1969 in Canadian cities are shown to be strongly correlated with city growth rate and with horizontal geomagnetic flux, which is directly related to the intensity of cosmic radiation. They are also shown to have some association with the magnesium content of drinking water. Prior work with these data which showed associations with magnesium in drinking water, mean income, latitude and longitude was found to be inadequate because it dismissed the observed geographic associations as having little biological meaning, and because the important variables of geomagnetism and city growth rate were overlooked. PMID:433919

  14. Developmental issues in underage drinking research.

    PubMed

    To better understand underage drinking and how it can be prevented, research is being conducted in a wide variety of disciplines--focusing on aspects such as risk and protective factors, biological processes underlying human development, and the impact of socioenvironmental and pharmacologic influences on these mechanisms. This article examines underage drinking from a developmental perspective, which seeks to identify critical developmental periods during which interventions may be especially useful. These critical periods can provide key opportunities to redirect the course of development and alter the life course trajectory of the individual.

  15. Frequency of Fish Intake and Diabetes among Adult Indians

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Sutapa; Millett, Christopher; Subramanian, S. V.; Ebrahim, Shah

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Recent studies have shown that the choice of foods plays a role in diabetes prevention. However, little empirical evidence on this association exists in developing countries. We aimed to examine the association between frequency of fish intake and self-reported diabetes status among adult men and women in India. Methods: Analysis of cross-sectional data from participants in India's third National Family Health Survey conducted during 2005–2006 was performed. Associations between fish intake, determined by frequency of consumption (daily, weekly, occasionally, and never), and self-reported diabetes were estimated using multivariable-adjusted models in 99,574 women, 56,742 men, and 39,257 couples aged 20–49 years after adjusting for frequency of consumption of other food items, body mass index (BMI) status, tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, watching television, age, education, living standard of the household, and place of residence. Results: After adjustment for other dietary, lifestyle, and socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, odds of diabetes were 2 times higher (odds ratio [OR]: 2.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.59–2.57; p < 0.0001) among those who reported consuming fish daily compared to those who never consumed fish. Weekly fish intake was also associated with a higher odds of having diabetes (OR: 1.55; 95% CI, 1.25–1.93; p < 0.0001). The adjusted effect of daily fish intake on diabetes was greater among men (OR: 2.46; 95% CI, 1.66–3.65) than among women (OR: 1.72; 95% CI, 1.26–2.33). In cross-spousal sensitivity analysis, the odds of a husband having diabetes was also associated with wife's daily/weekly consumption of fish (OR: 1.36; 95% CI, 0.92–2.01) and the odds of a wife having diabetes was also associated with husband's daily/weekly consumption of fish (OR: 1.21; 95% CI, 0.87–1.68). Conclusions: In a large nationally representative sample of adult men and women in India, daily or weekly fish intake was

  16. Metazoan Parasites of Antarctic Fishes.

    PubMed

    Oğuz, Mehmet Cemal; Tepe, Yahya; Belk, Mark C; Heckmann, Richard A; Aslan, Burçak; Gürgen, Meryem; Bray, Rodney A; Akgül, Ülker

    2015-06-01

    To date, there have been nearly 100 papers published on metazoan parasites of Antarctic fishes, but there has not yet been any compilation of a species list of fish parasites for this large geographic area. Herein, we provide a list of all documented occurrences of monogenean, cestode, digenean, acanthocephalan, nematode, and hirudinean parasites of Antarctic fishes. The list includes nearly 250 parasite species found in 142 species of host fishes. It is likely that there are more species of fish parasites, which are yet to be documented from Antarctic waters.

  17. A new approach to evaluating the toxicity and genotoxicity of disinfected drinking water.

    PubMed

    Monarca, Silvano; Zani, Claudia; Richardson, Susan D; Thruston, Alfred D; Moretti, Massimo; Feretti, Donatella; Villarini, Milena

    2004-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the formation of toxic and genotoxic compounds in surface drinking waters treated with two widely used disinfectants, sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) and chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)), and a new disinfectant, peracetic acid (PAA). For this purpose a pilot plant was set up to add these biocides continuously to pre-filtered lake water flowing into three different basins. During three seasonal experiments, short-term in vivo tests (with plant, fish and molluscs) and in vitro tests (with bacteria, yeast and human cells) were carried out to evaluate the formation of genotoxic disinfection by-products (DBPs). Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to identify DBPs produced during the different treatments, microbiological analyses were performed to test the biocidal activity of the disinfectants, and chemical analyses were carried out to evaluate the quality of the water. The pilot drinking water plant under study was useful in studying the toxicity and genotoxicity of disinfected drinking water with this combined chemical/biotoxicological approach. This paper describes the setting up of the pilot plant and sets out/reports the results of the microbiological and chemical analyses.

  18. Regulatory Considerations to Ensure Clean and Safe Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Federal drinking water regulations are based on risk assessment of human health effects and research conducted on source water, treatment technologies, residuals, and distribution systems. The book chapter summarizes the role that EPA research plays in ensuring pure drinking wat...

  19. 6 Million Americans Drink Water Tainted with Toxic Chemicals

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_160327.html 6 Million Americans Drink Water Tainted With Toxic Chemicals: Report Many systems contain ... unsafe levels of dangerous chemicals in their drinking water that may trigger a host of health problems, ...

  20. Alcohol Overdose: The Dangers of Drinking Too Much

    MedlinePlus

    ... The Dangers of Drinking Too Much Print version Alcohol Overdose: The Dangers of Drinking Too Much Celebrating ... excess. And the results can be deadly. Identifying Alcohol Poisoning Critical Signs and Symptoms of Alcohol Poisoning ...

  1. Drinking to Excess: Recognize and Treat Alcohol Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... disclaimer . Subscribe Drinking to Excess Recognize and Treat Alcohol Problems Some people enjoy an occasional glass of ... while watching a football game. Most people drink alcohol moderately, within their limits. Others overdo it occasionally. ...

  2. An Environmental Assessment of United States Drinking Water Watersheds

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an emerging recognition that natural lands and their conservation are important elements of a sustainable drinking water infrastructure. We conducted a national, watershed-level environmental assessment of drinking water watersheds using data on land cover, hydrography a...

  3. TV Ratings for Parents Let Violence, Drinking Slip Through

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_160553.html TV Ratings for Parents Let Violence, Drinking Slip Through Industry guidelines often misleading, study ... don't always reflect the true amount of violence, smoking and drinking in TV shows, a new ...

  4. Water Treatment: Can You Purify Water for Drinking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Mary E.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a three-day mini unit on purification of drinking water that uses the learning cycle approach. Demonstrates the typical technology that water companies use to provide high-quality drinking water. (JRH)

  5. Development and Validation of the College Drinking Influences Survey

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Celia B.; Fried, Adam L.; Anushko, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Objective The authors developed and validated measures of college drinking expectations, psychosocial influences, and values. Participants Freshmen at college entry (N = 320) and the end of freshman year (N = 420) participated. Methods The College Drinking Influences Survey, administered in paper and Web-based versions, consists of 3 distinct scales: (1) the College Drinking Expectations Scale assesses expectations for drinking norms and consequences; (2) the Psychosocial Drinking Inventory evaluates social influences, stress, and sensation seeking; and (3) the Drinking Values Scale assesses drinking decisions based on personal choice, social responsibility, and institutional obligation. Results Factor analysis, interitem reliability, and correlations with existing instruments demonstrated validity and reliability. Differences between the sexes were in predicted directions, and multiple regression using subscale scores as predictors accounted for significant variance in drinking behaviors across the freshman year. Conclusions Data support the usefulness of the scales for identifying student alcohol risk and protective factors. PMID:18089502

  6. RESPONDING TO THREATS AND INCIDENTS OF INTENTIONAL DRINKING WATER CONTAMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    All drinking water systems have some degree of vulnerability to contamination, and analysis shows that it is possible to contaminate drinking water at levels causing varying degrees of harm. Furthermore, experience indicates that the threat of contamination, overt or circumstant...

  7. Characteristics of older at-risk drinkers who drive after drinking and those who do not drive after drinking

    PubMed Central

    Sanna, Maija B.; Tuqan, Alia T.; Goldsmith, Jeff S.; Law, Malena S.; Ramirez, Karina D.; Liao, Diana H.; Moore, Alison A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe and compare characteristics of older adults who drive after drinking and those who do not, whether an intervention addressing at-risk drinking reduces risk among those reporting driving after drinking, and reasons reported for driving after drinking. Methods Secondary data analysis of a randomized trial testing the efficacy of a multifaceted intervention to reduce at-risk drinking among adults with a mean age of 68 years in primary care (N=631). Results Almost a quarter of at-risk drinkers reported driving after drinking (N=154). Compared to those who did not drive after drinking, those who did were more likely to be younger, male and working. They consumed a higher average number of drinks per week, had more reasons they were considered at-risk drinkers, and were more likely to meet at-risk drinking criteria due to amount of drinking and binge drinking. Those driving after drinking at baseline reduced the frequency of this behavior at 3- and 12-months and there were no statistically significant differences in the proportions of persons still engaging in driving after drinking among those who were assigned to intervention or control groups. Reasons for driving after drinking included not thinking it was a problem and having to get home. Conclusions Driving after drinking is common in this population of older, at-risk drinkers recruited in primary care settings, and, like younger adults, men and those reporting binge drinking are more likely to engage in this behavior. Given this behavior is dangerous and the population of older adults is fast growing, interventions addressing driving after drinking are needed. PMID:24874549

  8. CDC Vital Signs: Binge Drinking a Serious, Under-Recognized Problem Among Women and Girls

    MedlinePlus

    ... Underage drinking is affected by exposure to alcohol marketing. Underage drinking is also influenced by adult drinking, ... alcohol use. Reporting on youth exposure to alcohol marketing because it influences underage drinking. We know what ...

  9. Consumers’ Attitude Towards Fish Meat

    PubMed Central

    Passantino, Annamaria; Longo, Sabrina; Voslářová, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The overall aim of this paper is to show the factors that may affect consumers’ attitude towards farmed fish products. Consumers ask new products on the basis of different quality attributes: stability, safety, composition, better health effects, environment protection, etc. Different and controversial opinions on farmed and wild fish are also explored by literature review. The authors pay attention also to fish welfare as an emerging issue and effective information about fish products as a factor exerting a positive influence on consumers’ decision of purchase. Some relevant legislative notes on the paper’s topics are also cited. The qualitative aspects of aquaculture fish and the consumers’ demand and choice need further studies, according to some factors, such as the changing consumers’ attitudes towards fish products, the different fish quality perception and the development in the aquaculture systems. PMID:27800359

  10. Automatic electronic fish tracking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osborne, P. W.; Hoffman, E.; Merriner, J. V.; Richards, C. E.; Lovelady, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    A newly developed electronic fish tracking system to automatically monitor the movements and migratory habits of fish is reported. The system is aimed particularly at studies of effects on fish life of industrial facilities which use rivers or lakes to dump their effluents. Location of fish is acquired by means of acoustic links from the fish to underwater Listening Stations, and by radio links which relay tracking information to a shore-based Data Base. Fish over 4 inches long may be tracked over a 5 x 5 mile area. The electronic fish tracking system provides the marine scientist with electronics which permit studies that were not practical in the past and which are cost-effective compared to manual methods.

  11. Independent and interactive effects of plant sterols and fish oil n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on the plasma lipid profile of mildly hyperlipidaemic Indian adults.

    PubMed

    Khandelwal, Shweta; Demonty, Isabelle; Jeemon, Panniyammakal; Lakshmy, Ramakrishnan; Mukherjee, Rajat; Gupta, Ruby; Snehi, Uma; Niveditha, Devasenapathy; Singh, Yogendra; van der Knaap, Henk C M; Passi, Santosh J; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Reddy, K Srinath

    2009-09-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the independent and interactive effects of a once-a-day yoghurt drink providing 2 g plant sterols/d and capsules providing 2 g fish oil n-3 long-chain (LC) PUFA/d on plasma lipids, apolipoproteins and LDL particle size. Following a 2-week run-in period, 200 mildly hypercholesterolaemic Indian adults aged 35-55 years were randomised into one of four groups of a 2 x 2 factorial, double-blind controlled trial. The 4-week treatments consisted of (1) control yoghurt drink and control capsules, (2) control yoghurt drink and fish oil capsules, (3) plant sterol-enriched yoghurt drink and control capsules, or (4) plant sterol-enriched yoghurt drink and fish oil capsules. Blood was drawn before and after the 4-week intervention. Changes in health status, lifestyle and dietary habits, and daily compliance were recorded. The main effects of plant sterols were a 4.5 % reduction in LDL-cholesterol and a 15 % reduction in TAG without a significant change in HDL-cholesterol. Overall, fish oil n-3 LC-PUFA did not significantly affect cholesterol concentrations but reduced TAG by 15 % and increased HDL-cholesterol by 5.4 %. The combination significantly lowered TAG by 15 % v. control. No significant interaction between plant sterols and n-3 LC-PUFA was observed on plasma cholesterol concentrations. In conclusion, once-a-day intake of 2 g plant sterols/d in a yoghurt drink, 2 g fish oil n-3 LC-PUFA/d in capsules, and their combination had beneficial effects on the lipid profile of mildly hypercholesterolaemic Indian adults. The potent hypotriacylglycerolaemic effect of plant sterols observed in the present study and this population warrants additional investigation. PMID:19296875

  12. Beyond Biodiversity: Fish Metagenomes

    PubMed Central

    Ardura, Alba; Planes, Serge; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Biodiversity and intra-specific genetic diversity are interrelated and determine the potential of a community to survive and evolve. Both are considered together in Prokaryote communities treated as metagenomes or ensembles of functional variants beyond species limits. Many factors alter biodiversity in higher Eukaryote communities, and human exploitation can be one of the most important for some groups of plants and animals. For example, fisheries can modify both biodiversity and genetic diversity (intra specific). Intra-specific diversity can be drastically altered by overfishing. Intense fishing pressure on one stock may imply extinction of some genetic variants and subsequent loss of intra-specific diversity. The objective of this study was to apply a metagenome approach to fish communities and explore its value for rapid evaluation of biodiversity and genetic diversity at community level. Here we have applied the metagenome approach employing the Barcoding target gene COI as a model sequence in catch from four very different fish assemblages exploited by fisheries: freshwater communities from the Amazon River and northern Spanish rivers, and marine communities from the Cantabric and Mediterranean seas. Treating all sequences obtained from each regional catch as a biological unit (exploited community) we found that metagenomic diversity indices of the Amazonian catch sample here examined were lower than expected. Reduced diversity could be explained, at least partially, by overexploitation of the fish community that had been independently estimated by other methods. We propose using a metagenome approach for estimating diversity in Eukaryote communities and early evaluating genetic variation losses at multi-species level. PMID:21829636

  13. Visualization on fish's wake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xuemin; Lu, Xiyun; Yin, Xiezhen

    2002-05-01

    In this paper an experiment on wake of Goldfish swimming unrestricted was conducted in a water tunnel. Method of color liquid was used to visualize the wake. Results show that there is reverse Karman vortex street in symmetrical plane of the wake and the Strouhal frequency of the fish is in the range 0.25-0.35. A 3D vortex ring chain model was presented.

  14. Beyond biodiversity: fish metagenomes.

    PubMed

    Ardura, Alba; Planes, Serge; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Biodiversity and intra-specific genetic diversity are interrelated and determine the potential of a community to survive and evolve. Both are considered together in Prokaryote communities treated as metagenomes or ensembles of functional variants beyond species limits.Many factors alter biodiversity in higher Eukaryote communities, and human exploitation can be one of the most important for some groups of plants and animals. For example, fisheries can modify both biodiversity and genetic diversity (intra specific). Intra-specific diversity can be drastically altered by overfishing. Intense fishing pressure on one stock may imply extinction of some genetic variants and subsequent loss of intra-specific diversity. The objective of this study was to apply a metagenome approach to fish communities and explore its value for rapid evaluation of biodiversity and genetic diversity at community level. Here we have applied the metagenome approach employing the barcoding target gene coi as a model sequence in catch from four very different fish assemblages exploited by fisheries: freshwater communities from the Amazon River and northern Spanish rivers, and marine communities from the Cantabric and Mediterranean seas.Treating all sequences obtained from each regional catch as a biological unit (exploited community) we found that metagenomic diversity indices of the Amazonian catch sample here examined were lower than expected. Reduced diversity could be explained, at least partially, by overexploitation of the fish community that had been independently estimated by other methods.We propose using a metagenome approach for estimating diversity in Eukaryote communities and early evaluating genetic variation losses at multi-species level.

  15. Learning guide for state/local drinking water agreements

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The 1986 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act mandated sweeping changes in the scope and costs of state drinking water programs. Some states are maximizing available resources by relying on local governments to carry out some of their drinking water responsibilities. The guidebook was developed to provide states and local governments using this approach with practical advice and suggestions about formal agreements related to Safe Drinking Water Act responsibilities.

  16. ONE FISH, TWO FISH, RED FISH, BLUE FISH: THE FISH QUALITY INDEX AS A RISK COMMUNICATION TOOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many people are at high risk for methyl mercury toxicity because of their consumption of contaminated fish. Often health risks of Persistent Bioaccumulative Toxicants (PT) such as methyl mercury, PCBs or Dioxins are underestimated because of their amplification in the food chain ...

  17. Fish Synucleins: An Update.

    PubMed

    Toni, Mattia; Cioni, Carla

    2015-11-01

    Synucleins (syns) are a family of proteins involved in several human neurodegenerative diseases and tumors. Since the first syn discovery in the brain of the electric ray Torpedo californica, members of the same family have been identified in all vertebrates and comparative studies have indicated that syn proteins are evolutionary conserved. No counterparts of syns were found in invertebrates suggesting that they are vertebrate-specific proteins. Molecular studies showed that the number of syn members varies among vertebrates. Three genes encode for α-, β- and γ-syn in mammals and birds. However, a variable number of syn genes and encoded proteins is expressed or predicted in fish depending on the species. Among biologically verified sequences, four syn genes were identified in fugu, encoding for α, β and two γ (γ1 and γ2) isoforms, whereas only three genes are expressed in zebrafish, which lacks α-syn gene. The list of "non verified" sequences is much longer and is often found in sequence databases. In this review we provide an overview of published papers and known syn sequences in agnathans and fish that are likely to impact future studies in this field. Indeed, fish models may play a key role in elucidating some of the molecular mechanisms involved in physiological and pathological functions of syn proteins. PMID:26528989

  18. Fish Synucleins: An Update.

    PubMed

    Toni, Mattia; Cioni, Carla

    2015-11-01

    Synucleins (syns) are a family of proteins involved in several human neurodegenerative diseases and tumors. Since the first syn discovery in the brain of the electric ray Torpedo californica, members of the same family have been identified in all vertebrates and comparative studies have indicated that syn proteins are evolutionary conserved. No counterparts of syns were found in invertebrates suggesting that they are vertebrate-specific proteins. Molecular studies showed that the number of syn members varies among vertebrates. Three genes encode for α-, β- and γ-syn in mammals and birds. However, a variable number of syn genes and encoded proteins is expressed or predicted in fish depending on the species. Among biologically verified sequences, four syn genes were identified in fugu, encoding for α, β and two γ (γ1 and γ2) isoforms, whereas only three genes are expressed in zebrafish, which lacks α-syn gene. The list of "non verified" sequences is much longer and is often found in sequence databases. In this review we provide an overview of published papers and known syn sequences in agnathans and fish that are likely to impact future studies in this field. Indeed, fish models may play a key role in elucidating some of the molecular mechanisms involved in physiological and pathological functions of syn proteins.

  19. Assessment of elemental contaminants in water and fish samples from Aba river.

    PubMed

    Alinnor, I J

    2005-03-01

    The elemental contaminants in water and fish samples from Aba river were studied. The elements studied were Zn, Ni, As, Hg, Co and Mn. Three water samples and three samples of different fish species were collected from different locations in the river. The water and fish samples were analysed for elemental contaminants using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The elemental toxicants Zn and Mn were identified in appreciable amounts in fresh fish species namely, Lates niloticus and Oriochronis niloticus, of mean values 8.012 ppm and 0.861 ppm, respectively. The analysis also shows arsenic concentration of mean value 0.01 ppm in Lates niloticus. The analysis of frozen fish samples purchased from the Waterside market located near the river shows Ni and Hg levels of mean values 0.83 ppm and 0.02 ppm, respectively. The levels of elemental contaminants As, Zn, Hg and Mn from the water samples have mean values 0.082 ppm, 11.284 ppm, 0.201 ppm and 1.024 ppm, respectively. There are five industries that discharge waste products into Aba river. In view of this, there is a need to determine the level of pollution of the river, since the inhabitants depend on the river for their drinking water, fishing and other domestic uses. This study is aimed at determining the level of heavy metal toxicants in fish and water samples from the river. The effect of these elemental contaminants and the associated health hazards were examined.

  20. Binge Drinking and the Independent School Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baggish, Rosemary; Wells, Peter

    2013-01-01

    When questioned about illegal, mood-altering substance use, 15,743 high school students surveyed in the last three years with the "Independent School Health Check" said alcohol is most commonly used. For the 30 days prior to filling out the survey, 33.9 percent of the students reported drinking, and 24.2 percent reported binge drinking…

  1. Microfiltration and Ultrafiltration Membranes for Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article provides a concise and abbreviated summary of AWWA Manual of Practice M53, Microfiltration and Ultrafiltration Membranes for Drinking Water, to serve as a quick point of reference. For convenience, the article’s organization matches that of M53, as follows: • wate...

  2. Topography of Drinking and Reinforcement from Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sandra A.

    Affective and physiological responses, interpersonal interaction, and alcohol consumption have been significantly correlated with cognitive factors in defining the behavioral effects of alcohol. To investigate alcohol reinforcement expectancies at the abusive end of the drinking continuum, 305 male and female adult alcoholics enrolled in alcohol…

  3. Salience of Alcohol Expectancies and Drinking Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Finetta L.

    1997-01-01

    Investigated whether the prediction of drinking might be enhanced by considering salience of alcohol expectancies rather than mere endorsement. Hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated that expectancy salience significantly improved the prediction of total alcohol consumption above and beyond the effects of expectancy endorsement. Expectancy…

  4. REMOVAL OF RADIUM FROM DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes processes for removal of radium from drinking water. Ion exchange, including strong acid and weak acid resin, is discussed. Both processes remove better than 95 percent of the radium from the water. Weak acid ion exchange does not add sodium to the water...

  5. ASBESTOS IN DRINKING WATER PERFORMANCE EVALUATION STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Performance evaluations of laboratories testing for asbestos in drinking water according to USEPA Test Method 100.1 or 100.2 are complicated by the difficulty of providing stable sample dispersions of asbestos in water. Reference samples of a graduated series of chrysotile asbes...

  6. ASBESTOS IN DRINKING WATER PERFORMANCE EVALUATION STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Performance evaluations of laboratories testing for asbestos in drinking water according to USEPA Test Method 100.1 or 100.2 are complicated by the difficulty of providing stable sample dispersions of asbestos in water. Reference samples of a graduated series of chrysotile asbest...

  7. Stability of florfenicol in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Hayes, John M; Eichman, Jonathan; Katz, Terry; Gilewicz, Rosalia

    2003-01-01

    Florfenicol, a broad-spectrum antibiotic, is being developed for veterinary application as an oral concentrate intended for dilution with drinking water. When a drug product is dosed via drinking water in a farm setting, a number of variables, including pH, chlorine content, hardness of the water used for dilution, and container material, may affect its stability, leading to a decrease in drug potency. The stability of florfenicol after dilution of Florfenicol Drinking Water Concentrate Oral Solution, 23 mg/mL, with drinking water was studied. A stability-indicating, validated liquid chromatographic method was used to evaluate florfenicol stability at 25 degrees C at 5, 10, and 24 h after dilution. The results indicate that florfenicol is stable under a range of simulated field conditions, including various pipe materials and conditions of hard or soft and chlorinated or nonchlorinated water at low or high pH. Significant degradation (> 10%) was observed only for isolated combinations in galvanized pipes. Analysis indicated that the florfenicol concentration in 8 of the 12 water samples stored in galvanized pipes remained above 90% of the initial concentration (100 mg/L) for 24 h after dilution.

  8. MUTAGENICITY OF DRINKING WATER FOLLOWING DISINFECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many drinking water utilities in the USA are considering alternatives to chlorine for disinfection in order to comply with federal regulations regarding disinfection by-products. An evaluation is thus needed of the potential risks associated with the use of alternative disinfecta...

  9. Emerging Contaminants in the Drinking Water Cycle.

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the past decade, the scientific community and general public have become increasingly aware of the potential for the presence of unregulated, and generally unmonitored contaminants, found at low concentrations (sub-g/L) in surface, ground and drinking water. The most common...

  10. Compliance Monitoring of Drinking Water Supplies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haukebo, Thomas; Bernius, Jean

    1977-01-01

    The most frequent testing required under the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 is for turbidity and coliform. Free chlorine residual testing can be substituted for part of the coliform requirement. Described are chemical procedures for performing this test. References are given. (Author/MA)

  11. Treatment Strategies for Lead in Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lead pipes are capable of lasting hundreds of years. Conservatively, there are over 12 million, still serving drinking water in the US. Probably, this is a substantial underestimate. Leaded solder joining copper pipe abounds. Leaded brasses have dominated the materials used for...

  12. Small Drinking Water Systems Research and Development

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the United States, there are 152,002 public water systems (PWS) in operation. Of these, 97% are considered small systems under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA)—meaning they serve 10,000 or fewer people. While many of these small systems consistently provide safe, relia...

  13. Drinking Water. The Food Guide Pyramid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Helen

    This booklet for young children is part of a series that supports national science standards related to physical health and nutrition, describing and illustrating the importance of drinking water. Colorful photographs support early readers in understanding the text. The repetition of words and phrases helps early readers learn new words. The book…

  14. Lead in the School's Drinking Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Water Programs.

    The purpose of this manual is to assist school officials by providing information on the effects of lead in school drinking water on children, how to detect the presence of lead, how to reduce the lead, and how to provide training for sampling and remedial programs. A protocol is provided for procedures to determine the location and source of lead…

  15. Predicting underage drinking and driving behaviors.

    PubMed

    Grube, J W; Voas, R B

    1996-12-01

    A social-psychological model of underage drinking and driving (DUI) and riding with drinking drivers (RWDD) was tested with data from a random digit dial telephone survey of 706 16-20-year-old drivers from seven western states in the United States. Consistent with the model, a structural equations analysis indicated that DUI and RWDD were primarily predicted by (a) expectancies regarding the physical risks of DUI, (b) normative beliefs about the extent to which friends would disapprove of DUI, (c) control beliefs about the ease or difficulty of avoiding DUI and RWDD and (d) drinking. Expectancies concerning enforcement had a significant effect on RWDD, but not on DUI. Among the background and environmental variables included in the analysis, only night-time driving and age had significant direct effects on DUI and RWDD. Drinking and involvement in risky driving had indirect effects on DUI and RWDD that were mediated through expectancies and normative beliefs. Males, European Americans, Latinos, respondents who drove more frequently and respondents who were less educated held beliefs that were more favorable toward DUI and RWDD, drank more and engaged more frequently in risky driving. As a result, such individuals may be at greater risk for DUI and RWDD. PMID:8997765

  16. [Pollution of drinking water by tetrachloroethylene].

    PubMed

    Möse, J R; Wilfinger, G; Zeichen, R

    1985-06-01

    At the end of the year 1983 and at the beginning of 1984, groundwater contamination with tetrachloroethylene was discovered south of Graz. Many wells showed an elevated concentration of tetrachloroethylene. 1210 persons living in this area were examined. As tetrachloroethylene may cause liver damage, screening tests were carried out in order to detect pathological liver function tests (LFT), such as gamma-GT elevation. In most cases, initially elevated LFT could be attributed to alcohol abuse. After thorough medical examinations, two cases remained unclear; later on, however, the initially elevated LFT could no longer be detected. This is a certain indication that there was some type of stress on the liver shortly before the blood sample was taken. In all other cases of liver disease, the causes could be determined. The pollution of drinking water was not the cause of pathological LFT. Nevertheless, the inhabitants of this region will receive drinking water from the public water supply for safety reasons. However, one thing that needs to be stated very clearly is that these findings which fortunately show no detrimental effect due to the pollution of drinking water, do not allow any conclusions concerning the possibility of injury to health, i.e. they do not preclude possible impairment of health as a consequence of prolonged consumption of the polluted drinking water.

  17. 'The English Drink a Lot of Tea!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taborn, Stretton

    1981-01-01

    Presents statistics on the most commonly held stereotypes in Germany of Britain and the British including drinking a lot of tea, eating bacon and eggs for breakfast, consumption of whiskey and beer, and the occurrence of fog in England. Suggests these stereotypes were developed in the early 1950s and are not as prevalent today. (BK)

  18. Perceived agricultural runoff impact on drinking water.

    PubMed

    Crampton, Andrea; Ragusa, Angela T

    2014-09-01

    Agricultural runoff into surface water is a problem in Australia, as it is in arguably all agriculturally active countries. While farm practices and resource management measures are employed to reduce downstream effects, they are often either technically insufficient or practically unsustainable. Therefore, consumers may still be exposed to agrichemicals whenever they turn on the tap. For rural residents surrounded by agriculture, the link between agriculture and water quality is easy to make and thus informed decisions about water consumption are possible. Urban residents, however, are removed from agricultural activity and indeed drinking water sources. Urban and rural residents were interviewed to identify perceptions of agriculture's impact on drinking water. Rural residents thought agriculture could impact their water quality and, in many cases, actively avoided it, often preferring tank to surface water sources. Urban residents generally did not perceive agriculture to pose health risks to their drinking water. Although there are more agricultural contaminants recognised in the latest Australian Drinking Water Guidelines than previously, we argue this is insufficient to enhance consumer protection. Health authorities may better serve the public by improving their proactivity and providing communities and water utilities with the capacity to effectively monitor and address agricultural runoff.

  19. CONTROL OF ZOONOTIC DISEASES IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    For over a century, the process of providing hygienically safe drinking water has focused on utilizing treatment processes to provide barriers to the passage of infectious disease-causing organisms to humans. This concept is often considered the cornerstone of sanitary engineerin...

  20. [Drinking water decontamination with isolative sorbent disinfectants].

    PubMed

    Krasnov, M S

    2004-01-01

    Drinking water can be decontaminated with the use of isolative sorbent disinfectants. Consideration of the effectiveness of water disinfectants and the sorptive power of porous materials against bacteria and viruses attested to the favour of iodine and silver-containing disinfectants and their compositions on porous aggressive carriers to be employed in extreme conditions such as on board crewed space vehicles.

  1. DRINKING WATER FROM AGRICULTURALLY CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sharp increases in fertilizer and pesticide use throughout the 1960s and 1970s along with generally less attachment to soil particles may result in more widespread contamination of drinking water supplies. he purpose of this study was to highlight the use of agricultural chemical...

  2. Heavy drinking on college campuses: no reason to change minimum legal drinking age of 21.

    PubMed

    Saylor, Drew K

    2011-01-01

    The recent Amethyst Initiative argues that a minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) of 21 has created a culture of heavy alcohol use on college campuses by making drinking clandestine and extreme. This group and others argue that lowering the MLDA will reduce the problem of "binge drinking" on college campuses. However, such a policy change would remove one of the most researched and supported policies in the nation's alcohol control arsenal. There is little evidence that other interventions or policies are capable of working on the same broad level as MLDA 21, and there could also be a deleterious ripple effect in related legislation because MLDA 21 works in conjunction with other drinking laws. In addition, historic and international experiences with a lowered MLDA indicate there are serious social and public health consequences. Instead of removing efficacious interventions, we must remain committed to implementing and enforcing evidence-based practices and legislation.

  3. Drinking water regulations under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Fact sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    The fact sheet describes the requirements covered under the 1986 amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act. Levels of various contaminants (including radio nuclides) are explained. Also discussed are the Surface Water Treatment Rule and the Total Coliforms Rule.

  4. The drinking partnership and marital satisfaction: The longitudinal influence of discrepant drinking

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Kenneth E.

    2008-01-01

    The objective was to determine whether discrepancies between husbands’ and wives’ past year heavy drinking predicted decreased marital satisfaction over time. Participants were recruited at the time they applied for their marriage licenses (N= 634). Couples completed questionnaires about their alcohol use and marital satisfaction at the time of marriage, and again at their first and second anniversaries. Generalized estimating equation models were used to evaluate the association between discrepancies in husbands’ and wives’ heavy drinking in the year prior to marriage and marital satisfaction at the first wedding anniversary and the association between discrepancies in heavy alcohol use in the first year of marriage and marital satisfaction at the second wedding anniversary. In these prospective time-lagged analyses, discrepancies in husbands’ and wives’ heavy drinking predicted decreased marital satisfaction over time while controlling for heavy drinking. Over time, these couples may be at greater risk for decreased marital functioning that may lead to relationship dissolution. PMID:17295562

  5. Social Context of Drinking and Alcohol Problems among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Kenneth H.; Arria, Amelia M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Wish, Eric D.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine how social contexts of drinking are related to alcohol use disorders, other alcohol-related problems, and depression among college students. Methods: Logistic regression models controlling for drinking frequency measured the association between social context and problems, among 728 current drinkers. Results: Drinking for…

  6. The Role of Alcohol Advertising in Excessive and Hazardous Drinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkin, Charles K.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Examined the influence of advertising on excessive and dangerous drinking in a survey of 1,200 adolescents and young adults who were shown advertisements depicting excessive consumption themes. Results indicated that advertising stimulates consumption levels, which leads to heavy drinking and drinking in dangerous situations. (JAC)

  7. 30 CFR 71.602 - Drinking water; distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drinking water; distribution. 71.602 Section 71... Drinking Water § 71.602 Drinking water; distribution. (a) Water shall be piped or transported in sanitary containers. Water systems and appurtenances thereto shall be constructed and maintained in accordance...

  8. 21 CFR 520.2325a - Sulfaquinoxaline drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sulfaquinoxaline drinking water. 520.2325a Section... Sulfaquinoxaline drinking water. (a) Sponsor. See § 510.600(c) of this chapter for identification of the sponsors... tolerances. See § 556.685 of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use. It is used in drinking water as follows:...

  9. 30 CFR 71.602 - Drinking water; distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drinking water; distribution. 71.602 Section 71... Drinking Water § 71.602 Drinking water; distribution. (a) Water shall be piped or transported in sanitary containers. Water systems and appurtenances thereto shall be constructed and maintained in accordance...

  10. 30 CFR 71.602 - Drinking water; distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drinking water; distribution. 71.602 Section 71... Drinking Water § 71.602 Drinking water; distribution. (a) Water shall be piped or transported in sanitary containers. Water systems and appurtenances thereto shall be constructed and maintained in accordance...

  11. 30 CFR 71.602 - Drinking water; distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drinking water; distribution. 71.602 Section 71... Drinking Water § 71.602 Drinking water; distribution. (a) Water shall be piped or transported in sanitary containers. Water systems and appurtenances thereto shall be constructed and maintained in accordance...

  12. 30 CFR 71.602 - Drinking water; distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drinking water; distribution. 71.602 Section 71... Drinking Water § 71.602 Drinking water; distribution. (a) Water shall be piped or transported in sanitary containers. Water systems and appurtenances thereto shall be constructed and maintained in accordance...

  13. 21 CFR 520.2325a - Sulfaquinoxaline drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sulfaquinoxaline drinking water. 520.2325a Section... Sulfaquinoxaline drinking water. (a) Sponsor. See § 510.600(c) of this chapter for identification of the sponsors... tolerances. See § 556.685 of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use. It is used in drinking water as follows:...

  14. 21 CFR 520.2325a - Sulfaquinoxaline drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sulfaquinoxaline drinking water. 520.2325a Section... Sulfaquinoxaline drinking water. (a) Sponsor. See § 510.600(c) of this chapter for identification of the sponsors... tolerances. See § 556.685 of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use. It is used in drinking water as follows:...

  15. 21 CFR 520.2325a - Sulfaquinoxaline drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sulfaquinoxaline drinking water. 520.2325a Section... Sulfaquinoxaline drinking water. (a) Sponsor. See § 510.600(c) of this chapter for identification of the sponsors... tolerances. See § 556.685 of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use. It is used in drinking water as follows:...

  16. Self-Reported Reasons for Why College Students Drink.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Hugh

    1992-01-01

    Surveyed 526 on-campus college students about their reasons for drinking alcoholic beverages. Results indicated that students reported drinking because they liked the taste of alcohol and because drinking helped them celebrate special occasions. Negative or disintegrative reasons were endorsed rarely, and then usually by males, Greek organization…

  17. Drinking Motives and Alcoholic Beverage Preferences among Italian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graziano, Federica; Bina, Manuela; Giannotta, Fabrizia; Ciairano, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Although drinking motives have been largely studied, research taking into account the Mediterranean drinking culture and focusing on motives specifically associated to adolescents' developmental tasks is lacking. For these reasons the study investigates drinking motives in a group of Italian adolescents and their relationships with drunkenness and…

  18. A Model of Parental Involvement in Adolescent Drinking and Driving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Kenneth H.; Lockhart, Susan J.

    1992-01-01

    A model of parental involvement in the prevention of teenage drinking and driving is presented. It is suggested that parents' effectiveness at intervening to prevent teenagers from drinking and driving depends on their stage of involvement. Parents are often unaware of the true extent and nature of teen drinking. (SLD)

  19. Hazardous Drinking and Military Community Functioning: Identifying Mediating Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foran, Heather M.; Heyman, Richard E.; Slep, Amy M. Smith

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Hazardous drinking is a serious societal concern in military populations. Efforts to reduce hazardous drinking among military personnel have been limited in effectiveness. There is a need for a deeper understanding of how community-based prevention models apply to hazardous drinking in the military. Community-wide prevention efforts may…

  20. Parental Problem-Drinking and Adult Children's Labor Market Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balsa, Ana I.

    2008-01-01

    Current estimates of the societal costs of alcoholism do not consider the impact of parental drinking on children. This paper analyzes the consequences of parental problem-drinking on children's labor market outcomes in adulthood. Using the NLSY79, I show that having a problem-drinking parent is associated with longer periods out of the labor…

  1. Binge Drinking in Young Adults: Data, Definitions and Determinants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtney, Kelly E.; Polich, John

    2009-01-01

    Binge drinking is an increasingly important topic in alcohol research, but the field lacks empirical cohesion and definitional precision. The present review summarizes findings and viewpoints from the scientific binge-drinking literature. Epidemiological studies quantify the seriousness of alcohol-related problems arising from binge drinking, with…

  2. Collegiate Drinking Behavior: A Test of Neutralization Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodder, Richard; Hughes, Stella P.

    1987-01-01

    Surveyed drinking patterns and problem-related behavior of 534 college students. Modified Norris-Dodder Neutralization Scale for juvenile delinquency to measure orientations toward drinking. Results indicated that greater acceptance of neutralizations related consistently to greater quantity and frequency of drinking as well as to more…

  3. Extreme Consumption Drinking Gaming and Prepartying among High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomaso, Cara C.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Haas, Amie L.; Kenney, Shannon R.; Ham, Lindsay S.; Borsari, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Drinking games and prepartying (i.e., drinking before going to a social gathering/event) have emerged as high-risk drinking behaviors in high school students. The present study examines the current prepartying behaviors of high school students who report current participation in extreme-consumption games (e.g., chugging) with those who do not.…

  4. BOOK REVIEW OF "DRINKING WATER REGULATION AND HEALTH"

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since the enactment of the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) in 1974, several amendments and other new regulations have been developed for drinking water. The book, "Drinking Water Regulation and Health", explains these regulations and provides background on why they were developed ...

  5. Binge Drinking Today: Learning Lessons from the Past

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herring, Rachel; Berridge, Virginia; Thom, Betsy

    2008-01-01

    Binge drinking is a matter of current social, media and political concern. Within the current debates binge drinking is sometimes portrayed as a recent phenomenon, but in fact it has a history and concern about binge drinking is not new. This paper sets the phenomenon in its historical context by examining how the nature and definition of binge…

  6. [Quality standards and hygienic problems of bottled drinking-water].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qing; Shu, Weiqun; Gao, Jingsheng

    2004-05-01

    The consumption of bottled drinking-water increases worldwide and relevant regulation for inspection and supervision work of bottled drinking-water were established in many countries. However, regulation mentioned above is lower than that for tap water. The hygienic problems of bottled drinking-water is emphasized, especially on microbial contamination. In this paper, some issues in regards were reviewed and discussed.

  7. Drinking and Driving: Alcohol Association with Traffic Accidents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacey, Barrie G.

    1985-01-01

    Presents an analysis of drink-driving research methods and findings with reference to traffic accidents. Challenges some conclusions about drinking and driving in Australia and New Zealand. Evaluates the growing acceptance of Scandinavian-type laws. Rejects the demand to "criminalize" drink-driving offenses. Presents the reduction of death as the…

  8. 36 CFR 5.10 - Eating, drinking, or lodging establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Eating, drinking, or lodging... INTERIOR COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.10 Eating, drinking, or lodging establishments. (a) No establishment offering food, drink, or lodging for sale on any privately owned lands under the...

  9. 36 CFR 5.10 - Eating, drinking, or lodging establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Eating, drinking, or lodging... INTERIOR COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.10 Eating, drinking, or lodging establishments. (a) No establishment offering food, drink, or lodging for sale on any privately owned lands under the...

  10. Team Awareness, Problem Drinking, and Drinking Climate: Workplace Social Health Promotion in a Policy Context

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Joel B.; Patterson, Camille R.; Reynolds, G. Shawn; Wiitala, Wyndy L.; Lehman, Wayne E. K.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose (1) To determine the effectiveness of classroom health promotion/prevention training designed to improve work climate and alcohol outcomes; (2) to assess whether such training contributes to improvements in problem drinking beyond standard workplace alcohol policies. Design A cross-sectional survey assessed employee problem drinking across three time periods. This was followed by a prevention intervention study; work groups were randomly assigned to an 8-hour training course in workplace social health promotion (Team Awareness), a 4-hour informational training course, or a control group. Surveys were administered 2 to 4 weeks before and after training and 6 months after posttest. Setting and Subjects Employees were surveyed from work departments in a large municipality of 3000 workers at three points in time (year, sample, and response rates are shown): (1) 1992, n = 1081, 95%; (2) 1995, n = 856, 97%; and (3) 1999, n = 587, 73%. Employees in the 1999 survey were recruited from safety-sensitive departments and were randomly assigned to receive the psychosocial (n = 201), informational (n = 192), or control (n = 194) condition. Intervention The psychosocial program (Team Awareness) provided skills training in peer referral, team building, and stress management. Informational training used a didactic review of policy, employee assistance, and drug testing. Measures Self-reports measured alcohol use (frequency, drunkenness, hangovers, and problems) and work drinking climate (enabling, responsiveness, drinking norms, stigma, and drink with coworkers). Results Employees receiving Team Awareness reduced problem drinking from 20% to 11% and working with or missing work because of a hangover from 16% to 6%. Information-trained workers also reduced problem drinking from 18% to 10%. These rates of change contrast with changes in problem drinking seen from 1992 (24%) to 1999 (17%). Team Awareness improvements differed significantly from control subjects, which showed

  11. 50 CFR 71.11 - Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing. 71.11 Section 71.11 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FISH HATCHERY AREAS Fishing § 71.11 Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing. National...

  12. 50 CFR 71.11 - Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing. 71.11 Section 71.11 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FISH HATCHERY AREAS Fishing § 71.11 Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing. National...

  13. 50 CFR 71.11 - Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing. 71.11 Section 71.11 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FISH HATCHERY AREAS Fishing § 71.11 Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing. National...

  14. 50 CFR 71.11 - Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing. 71.11 Section 71.11 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FISH HATCHERY AREAS Fishing § 71.11 Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing. National...

  15. 50 CFR 71.11 - Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing. 71.11 Section 71.11 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FISH HATCHERY AREAS Fishing § 71.11 Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing. National...

  16. Extension of the simulated drinking game procedure to multiple drinking games.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Jennifer M; Leon, Matthew R; Correia, Christopher J

    2011-08-01

    The present study extended the Simulated Drinking Game Procedure (SDGP) to obtain information about different types of drinking games. Phase I participants (N = 545) completed online screening questionnaires assessing substance use and drinking game participation. Participants who met the selection criteria for Phase II (N = 92) participated in laboratory sessions that consisted of three different periods of drinking game play. Sixty-two percent (N = 57) of the sample was female. Data from these sessions was used to estimate the peak Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) a participant would achieve if they consumed alcohol while participating in the SDGP. Total consumption and estimated BAC varied as a function of game type. The total consumption and estimated BAC obtained while playing Beer Pong and Memory varied significantly as a function of group. Total ounces consumed while playing Three Man varied significantly as a function of group; however, the variation in estimated BAC obtained while playing Three Man was not significant. Results indicated that estimated BACs were higher for female participants across game type. Previous experience playing the three drinking games had no impact on total drink consumption or estimated BAC obtained while participating in the SDGP. The present study demonstrated that the SDGP can be used to generate estimates of how much alcohol is consumed and the associated obtained BAC during multiple types of drinking games. In order to fully examine whether previous experience factors in to overall alcohol consumption and BAC, future research should extend the SDGP to incorporate laboratory administration of alcohol during drinking game participation. PMID:21707188

  17. Depression, Alcohol Dependence and Abuse, and Drinking and Driving Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ye; Sloan, Frank A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Alcohol dependence/abuse and depression are positively related. Prior studies focused on relationships between drinking and driving and alcohol dependence/abuse, drinking and driving and problem drinking, or drinking and driving and depression separately. No study has addressed how depression is linked to drinking and driving through various underlying channels in the same study. Methods This study investigated relationships between depression, alcohol dependence/abuse, and the number of self-reported drinking and driving episodes. We also explored underlying behavioral channels between depression and alcohol dependence/abuse and binge drinking, reducing drinking amounts when planning to drive, and use of designated drivers. Data on 1,634 drinkers came from a survey fielded in eight U.S. cities. We employed ordinary least squares regression (OLS) and path analysis to assess drinking and driving and underlying channels. Results With OLS, being depressed increased the number of drinking and driving episodes during the past year by 0.572. This increase decreased to 0.411 episodes/year increase after adding socio-demographic characteristics and household income and lost statistical significance after controlling for alcohol dependence/abuse. The path analysis showed that depression is positively associated with drinking and driving, indirectly operating through not using a designated driver, but is not directly associated with drinking and driving. Alcohol dependence/abuse is directly associated with drinking and driving, and indirectly with drinking and driving through binge drinking. Conclusion Our results suggest that treatment should focus on helping individuals with depression to obtain assistance from others, such as obtaining a designated driver. Since self-control of drinking in anticipation of driving did not significantly reduce drinking and driving episodes, this study finds no empirical support for emphasizing improved self-control when the

  18. Intermittent drinking, oxytocin and human health.

    PubMed

    Pruimboom, L; Reheis, D

    2016-07-01

    Looking at a waterhole, it is surprising that so many animals share the same space without visible signs of anxiety or aggression. Although waterholes are the preferred feeding locations of large carnivores, waterholes are shared by all type of herbivores of all sizes and shapes, including elephants. Recent research shows that the homeostatic disturbances leading to the "thirst feeling" not only activate specific substances regulating water and mineral household, but also the "trust and love" hormone oxytocin, while decreasing the production of the typical stress hormone cortisol. People using drugs, seem to be in search for oxytocin, as evidenced in studies with individuals on drugs such as ecstasy and gamma-hydroxybyturate. Hot environment, drought and increased sweating also activate specific oxytocin-producing parts of the hypothalamus, just as breastfeeding does in mother and infant. Water homeostasis is the only allostatic system activating trust neuro-anatomy and we suggest that this is due to the fact that all animals depend on water, whereas food type is species specific. Our hypothesis; regulating drinking behaviour through intermittent bulk drinking could increase oxytocin signalling, recover human trust and increase health by down-regulation of stress axis activity and inflammatory activity of the immune system. Intermittent bulk drinking should be defined as water (including tea and coffee) drinking up to a feeling of satiety and regulated by a mild feeling of thirst. This would mean that people would not drink less quantity but less frequently and that's how all animals, but also human newborns behave. It is the latter group, which is probably the only group of humans with a normal fluid homeostasis. PMID:27241263

  19. Brain Development in Heavy Drinking Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Squeglia, Lindsay M.; Tapert, Susan F.; Sullivan, Edith V.; Jacobus, Joanna; Meloy, M. J.; Rohlfing, Torsten; Pfefferbaum, Adolf

    2015-01-01

    Background Heavy alcohol use during adolescence may alter the trajectory of normal brain development. Whether developmental trajectories of regional cortical volume and white matter structures are differentially affected in heavy drinkers relative to non-drinking controls has not been studied over extended periods or with sample sizes adequate to address potential sex differences. Methods This longitudinal study examined gray and white matter volume trajectories in 134 adolescents (75 who transitioned into heavy drinking and 59 who remained light to non-drinkers over roughly 3.5 years). Each underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on a 3T system two to six times (390 total scans) between ages 12 to 24 and was followed up to 8 years. Volumes of neocortex, allocortex, and white matter structures were measured using atlas-based parcellation with longitudinal registration. Linear mixed-effects models described differences in trajectories of drinkers and controls over age; secondary analyses considered the contribution of other drug use to identified alcohol use effects. Results Heavy-drinking adolescents showed accelerated gray matter reduction in cortical lateral frontal and temporal volumes and attenuated white matter growth of the corpus callosum and pons relative to controls. These results were essentially the same when marijuana and other drug use were examined. Male and female drinkers showed similar patterns of development trajectory abnormalities. Discussion Longitudinal analysis enabled detection of accelerated typical volume decline in frontal and temporal cortical volumes and attenuated growth in principal white matter structures in adolescents who started to drink heavily. These results provide a call for caution regarding heavy alcohol use during adolescence, whether heavy alcohol drinking is the cause or one of many factors in a constellation of causes of these alterations in brain development. PMID:25982660

  20. Examining Temptation to Drink from an Existential Perspective: Associations among Temptation, Purpose in Life, and Drinking Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Roos, Corey R.; Kirouac, Megan; Pearson, Matthew R.; Fink, Brandi C.; Witkiewitz, Katie

    2015-01-01

    Temptation to drink, defined as the degree to which one feels compelled to drink in the presence of internal or external alcohol-related cues, has been shown to predict alcohol treatment outcomes among individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Research examining temptation to drink from an existential perspective is lacking and little is known about how existential issues such as purpose in life (PIL) relate to temptation to drink, which is surprising given the role of existential issues in many treatments and mutual help approaches for AUDs. The current study examined the longitudinal associations among temptation to drink, PIL, and drinking outcomes using data from Project MATCH (N = 1726). Parallel process latent growth curve analyses indicated that PIL and temptation to drink were significantly associated across time, such that higher initial levels of PIL and increases in PIL over time were associated with lower initial levels of temptation to drink and decreases in temptation to drink over time. Higher initial levels of temptation to drink, lower initial levels of PIL, increases in temptation to drink, and decreases in PIL were significantly associated with greater intensity and frequency of drinking and greater drinking-related consequences at the 15-month follow-up. Accordingly, temptation to drink and PIL may be important constructs for clinicians to consider throughout the course of treatment. Future studies should examine if and how various kinds of treatments for AUDs are associated with increases in PIL, and whether these increases are related to decreased temptation to drink and reduced drinking. PMID:25730630

  1. Does parental drinking influence children's drinking? A systematic review of prospective cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Keating, Patrick; Felix, Lambert; McCambridge, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims To evaluate evidence of the capacity for causal inference in studies of associations between parental and offspring alcohol consumption in the general population. Methods A systematic search for, and narrative analysis of, prospective cohort studies of the consequences of drinking, except where assessed prenatally only, or with clinically derived instruments. Primary outcome measures were alcohol use or related problems in offspring, which were collected at least 3 years after exposure measures of parental drinking. The systematic review included 21 studies comprising 26 354 families or parent–child dyads with quantitative effect measures available for each study. Criteria for capacity of causal inference included (1) theory‐driven approach and analysis; (2) analytical rigour; and (3) minimization of sources of bias. Results Four of the 21 included studies filled several, but not all, criteria and were assessed to have some capacity for causal inference. These four studies found some evidence that parental drinking predicted drinking behaviour in adolescent offspring. The remaining 17 studies had little or no such capacity. Conclusions There is a fairly large and consistent literature demonstrating that more parental drinking is associated with more drinking in offspring. Despite this, existing evidence is insufficient to warrant causal inferences at this stage. PMID:26283063

  2. Assessment of the exposure of two fish species to metals pollution in the Ogun river catchments, Ketu, Lagos, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adeniyi, A A; Yusuf, K A; Okedeyi, O O

    2008-02-01

    The concentrations of metals (Ca, Cd, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn) were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry in water, sediments and fish samples in the Ogun river catchments, Ketu, Lagos, which is an important bird nesting, fishing and drinking water source. The results show that the southern tip bothering the Lagos lagoon is where the highest metal concentrations are found in the fish species (Tilapia sp. and Chrysichthys sp.), whereas the Agboyi creek segment near the lagoon with higher surrounding human population density recorded higher levels of metals in sediments and water samples. The two fish species accumulated different amounts of metals. However, the differences were not statistically different at p < 0.05. There is a significant correlation (p < 0.05) for Cd concentration in water. The concentrations of Pb in sampling points 3 and 4 as well as Cd, Mn and Fe in all six sampling points exceeds the World Health Organization (WHO) limits for drinking water. Levels of metals obtained for sediments are within the range reported for Nigeria's river sediments. Based on this study, the human risks for heavy metals in the harvested fish species from the Ogun river catchments, Ketu, are low for now as the concentrations were below the recommended Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) maximum limits for Pb (0.5 mg/Kg), Cd (0.5 mg/Kg), and Zn (30 mg/Kg) in fish. PMID:17665144

  3. A Multilevel Study of Students in Vietnam: Drinking Motives and Drinking Context as Predictors of Alcohol Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Diep, Pham Bich; Tan, Frans E. S.; Knibbe, Ronald A.; De Vries, Nanne

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study used multi-level analysis to estimate which type of factor explains most of the variance in alcohol consumption of Vietnamese students. Methods: Data were collected among 6011 students attending 12 universities/faculties in four provinces in Vietnam. The three most recent drinking occasions were investigated per student, resulting in 12,795 drinking occasions among 4265 drinkers. Students reported on 10 aspects of the drinking context per drinking occasion. A multi-level mixed-effects linear regression model was constructed in which aspects of drinking context composed the first level; the age of students and four drinking motives comprised the second level. The dependent variable was the number of drinks. Results: Of the aspects of context, drinking duration had the strongest association with alcohol consumption while, at the individual level, coping motive had the strongest association. The drinking context characteristics explained more variance than the individual characteristics in alcohol intake per occasion. Conclusions: These findings suggest that, among students in Vietnam, the drinking context explains a larger proportion of the variance in alcohol consumption than the drinking motives. Therefore, measures that reduce the availability of alcohol in specific drinking situations are an essential part of an effective prevention policy. PMID:27420089

  4. Short-Term Prospective Effects of Impulsivity on Binge Drinking: Mediation by Positive and Negative Drinking Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Aesoon; Kim, Jueun; Gellis, Les A.; Zaso, Michelle J.; Maisto, Stephen A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Although the association of impulsivity with diverse alcohol outcomes has been documented, the mechanisms by which impulsivity predicts drinking over time remain to be fully characterized. The authors examined whether positive drinking consequences, but not negative drinking consequences, mediated the association between impulsivity and…

  5. Small Beneficial Effect of Caffeinated Energy Drink Ingestion on Strength.

    PubMed

    Collier, Nora B; Hardy, Michelle A; Millard-Stafford, Mindy L; Warren, Gordon L

    2016-07-01

    Collier, NB, Hardy, MA, Millard-Stafford, ML, and Warren, GL. Small beneficial effect of caffeinated energy drink ingestion on strength. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1862-1870, 2016-Because caffeine ingestion has been found to increase muscle strength, our aim was to determine whether caffeine when combined with other potential ergogenic ingredients, such as those in commercial energy drinks, would have a similar effect. Fifteen young healthy subjects were used in a double-blind, repeated-measures experimental design. Each subject performed 3 trials, ingesting either a caffeinated energy drink, an uncaffeinated version of the drink, or a placebo drink. The interpolated twitch procedure was used to assess maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) strength, electrically evoked strength, and percent muscle activation during MVIC of the knee extensors both before and after drink ingestion, and after a fatiguing bout of contractions; electromyographic (EMG) amplitude of the knee extensors during MVIC was also assessed. The mean (±SE) change in MVIC strength from before to after drink ingestion was significantly greater for the caffeinated energy drink compared with placebo [+5.0 (±1.7) vs. -0.5 (±1.5)%] and the difference between the drinks remained after fatigue (p = 0.015); the strength changes for the uncaffeinated energy drink were not significantly different from those of the other 2 drinks at any time. There was no significant effect of drink type on the changes in electrically evoked strength, percent muscle activation, and EMG from before to after drink ingestion. This study indicates that a caffeinated energy drink can increase MVIC strength but the effect is modest and the strength increase cannot be attributed to increased muscle activation. Whether the efficacy of energy drinks can be attributed solely to caffeine remains unclear.

  6. A survey of sports drinks consumption among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Broughton, D; Fairchild, R M; Morgan, M Z

    2016-06-24

    Background Sports drinks intended to improve performance and hydrate athletes taking part in endurance sport are being marketed to children, for whom these products are not intended. Popularity among children has grown exponentially. Worryingly they consume them socially, as well as during physical activity. Sports drinks are high in sugar and are acidic. Product marketing ignores the potential harmful effects of dental caries and erosion.Objective To investigate the use of sports drinks by children.Method One hundred and eighty-three self-complete questionnaires were distributed to four schools in South Wales. Children in high school years 8 and 9 (aged 12-14) were recruited to take part. Questions focused on use of sports drinks, type consumed, frequency of and reason for consumption and where drinks were purchased.Results One hundred and sixty children responded (87% response rate): 89.4% (143) claimed to drink sports drinks, half drinking them at least twice a week. Lucozade Sport(™) was the most popular brand. The main reason for consuming the drinks was attributed to the 'nice taste' (90%, 129/143). Most respondents purchased the drinks from local shops (80.4%, 115) or supermarkets (54.5%, 78). More boys claimed to drink sports drinks during physical activity (77.9% versus 48.6% girls, P <0.001). Whereas more girls claimed to drink them socially (51.4% versus 48.5% boys, NS).Conclusion A high proportion of children consumed sports drinks regularly and outside of sporting activity. Dental health professionals should be aware of the popularity of sports drinks with children when giving health education advice or designing health promotion initiatives.

  7. A survey of sports drinks consumption among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Broughton, D; Fairchild, R M; Morgan, M Z

    2016-06-24

    Background Sports drinks intended to improve performance and hydrate athletes taking part in endurance sport are being marketed to children, for whom these products are not intended. Popularity among children has grown exponentially. Worryingly they consume them socially, as well as during physical activity. Sports drinks are high in sugar and are acidic. Product marketing ignores the potential harmful effects of dental caries and erosion.Objective To investigate the use of sports drinks by children.Method One hundred and eighty-three self-complete questionnaires were distributed to four schools in South Wales. Children in high school years 8 and 9 (aged 12-14) were recruited to take part. Questions focused on use of sports drinks, type consumed, frequency of and reason for consumption and where drinks were purchased.Results One hundred and sixty children responded (87% response rate): 89.4% (143) claimed to drink sports drinks, half drinking them at least twice a week. Lucozade Sport(™) was the most popular brand. The main reason for consuming the drinks was attributed to the 'nice taste' (90%, 129/143). Most respondents purchased the drinks from local shops (80.4%, 115) or supermarkets (54.5%, 78). More boys claimed to drink sports drinks during physical activity (77.9% versus 48.6% girls, P <0.001). Whereas more girls claimed to drink them socially (51.4% versus 48.5% boys, NS).Conclusion A high proportion of children consumed sports drinks regularly and outside of sporting activity. Dental health professionals should be aware of the popularity of sports drinks with children when giving health education advice or designing health promotion initiatives. PMID:27338907

  8. Small Beneficial Effect of Caffeinated Energy Drink Ingestion on Strength.

    PubMed

    Collier, Nora B; Hardy, Michelle A; Millard-Stafford, Mindy L; Warren, Gordon L

    2016-07-01

    Collier, NB, Hardy, MA, Millard-Stafford, ML, and Warren, GL. Small beneficial effect of caffeinated energy drink ingestion on strength. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1862-1870, 2016-Because caffeine ingestion has been found to increase muscle strength, our aim was to determine whether caffeine when combined with other potential ergogenic ingredients, such as those in commercial energy drinks, would have a similar effect. Fifteen young healthy subjects were used in a double-blind, repeated-measures experimental design. Each subject performed 3 trials, ingesting either a caffeinated energy drink, an uncaffeinated version of the drink, or a placebo drink. The interpolated twitch procedure was used to assess maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) strength, electrically evoked strength, and percent muscle activation during MVIC of the knee extensors both before and after drink ingestion, and after a fatiguing bout of contractions; electromyographic (EMG) amplitude of the knee extensors during MVIC was also assessed. The mean (±SE) change in MVIC strength from before to after drink ingestion was significantly greater for the caffeinated energy drink compared with placebo [+5.0 (±1.7) vs. -0.5 (±1.5)%] and the difference between the drinks remained after fatigue (p = 0.015); the strength changes for the uncaffeinated energy drink were not significantly different from those of the other 2 drinks at any time. There was no significant effect of drink type on the changes in electrically evoked strength, percent muscle activation, and EMG from before to after drink ingestion. This study indicates that a caffeinated energy drink can increase MVIC strength but the effect is modest and the strength increase cannot be attributed to increased muscle activation. Whether the efficacy of energy drinks can be attributed solely to caffeine remains unclear. PMID:26670991

  9. Adsorption to Fish Sperm of Vertically Transmitted Fish Viruses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulcahy, Dan; Pascho, Ronald J.

    1984-07-01

    More than 99 percent of a vertically transmitted fish rhabdovirus, infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus, was removed from suspension in less than 1 minute by adsorption to the surface membrane of sperm from two genera of salmonid fishes. The vertically transmitted, infectious pancreatic necrosis virus adsorbed to a lesser degree, but no adsorption occurred with a second fish rhabdovirus that is not vertically transmitted. Such adsorption may be involved in vertical transmission of these viruses.

  10. Adsorption to fish sperm of vertically transmitted fish viruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulcahy, D.; Pascho, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    More than 99 percent of a vertically transmitted fish rhabdovirus, infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus, was removed from suspension in less than 1 minute by adsorption to the surface membrane of sperm from two genera of salmonid fishes. The vertically transmitted, infectious pancreatic necrosis virus adsorbed to a lesser degree, but no adsorption occurred with a second fish rhabdovirus that is not vertically transmitted. Such adsorption may be involved in vertical transmission of these viruses.

  11. The Sensor Fish: Measuring Fish Passage in Severe Hydraulic Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Thomas J. ); Duncan, Joanne P. ); Gilbride, Theresa L. )

    2003-05-28

    This article describes PNNL's efforts to develop the Sensor Fish, a waterproof sensor package that travels thru the turbines of spillways of hydroelectric dam to collect pressure and acceleration data on the conditions experienced by live salmon smolts during dam passage. Sensor Fish development is sponsored by the DOE Advanced Hydropower Turbine Survival Program. The article also gave two recent examples of Sensor Fish use: turbine passage at a McNary Kaplan turbine and spill passage in topspill at Rock Island Dam.

  12. Survey of the mutagenicity of surface water, sediments, and drinking water from the Penobscot Indian Nation.

    PubMed

    Warren, Sarah H; Claxton, Larry D; Diliberto, Janet; Hughes, Thomas J; Swank, Adam; Kusnierz, Daniel H; Marshall, Valerie; DeMarini, David M

    2015-02-01

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) Regional Applied Research Effort (RARE) projects address the effects of environmental pollutants in a particular region on the health of the population in that region. This report is part of a RARE project that addresses this for the Penobscot Indian Nation (PIN), Penobscot Island, Maine, U.S., where the Penobscot River has had fish advisories for many years due to high levels of mercury. We used the Salmonella mutagenicity assay with strains TA100, TA98, YG1041, and YG1042 with and without metabolic activation to assess the mutagenic potencies of organic extracts of the Penobscot River water and sediment, as well as drinking-water samples, all collected by the PIN Department of Natural Resources. The source water for the PIN drinking water is gravel-packed groundwater wells adjacent to the Penobscot River. Most samples of all extracts were either not mutagenic or had low to moderate mutagenic potencies. The average mutagenic potencies (revertants/L-equivalent) were 337 for the drinking-water extracts and 177 for the river-water extracts; the average mutagenic potency for the river-sediment extracts was 244 revertants(g-equivalent)(-1). This part of the RARE project showed that extracts of the Penobscot River water and sediments and Penobscot drinking water have little to no mutagenic activity that might be due to the classes of compounds that the Salmonella mutagenicity assay detects, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitro-PAHs (nitroarenes), and aromatic amines. This study is the first to examine the mutagenicity of environmental samples from a tribal nation in the U.S.

  13. A survey of energy drink consumption patterns among college students

    PubMed Central

    Malinauskas, Brenda M; Aeby, Victor G; Overton, Reginald F; Carpenter-Aeby, Tracy; Barber-Heidal, Kimberly

    2007-01-01

    Background Energy drink consumption has continued to gain in popularity since the 1997 debut of Red Bull, the current leader in the energy drink market. Although energy drinks are targeted to young adult consumers, there has been little research regarding energy drink consumption patterns among college students in the United States. The purpose of this study was to determine energy drink consumption patterns among college students, prevalence and frequency of energy drink use for six situations, namely for insufficient sleep, to increase energy (in general), while studying, driving long periods of time, drinking with alcohol while partying, and to treat a hangover, and prevalence of adverse side effects and energy drink use dose effects among college energy drink users. Methods Based on the responses from a 32 member college student focus group and a field test, a 19 item survey was used to assess energy drink consumption patterns of 496 randomly surveyed college students attending a state university in the Central Atlantic region of the United States. Results Fifty one percent of participants (n = 253) reported consuming greater than one energy drink each month in an average month for the current semester (defined as energy drink user). The majority of users consumed energy drinks for insufficient sleep (67%), to increase energy (65%), and to drink with alcohol while partying (54%). The majority of users consumed one energy drink to treat most situations although using three or more was a common practice to drink with alcohol while partying (49%). Weekly jolt and crash episodes were experienced by 29% of users, 22% reported ever having headaches, and 19% heart palpitations from consuming energy drinks. There was a significant dose effect only for jolt and crash episodes. Conclusion Using energy drinks is a popular practice among college students for a variety of situations. Although for the majority of situations assessed, users consumed one energy drink with a

  14. Urinary arsenic species, toenail arsenic, and arsenic intake estimates in a Michigan population with low levels of arsenic in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Núñez, Zorimar; Meliker, Jaymie R; Meeker, John D; Slotnick, Melissa J; Nriagu, Jerome O

    2012-01-01

    The large disparity between arsenic concentrations in drinking water and urine remains unexplained. This study aims to evaluate predictors of urinary arsenic in a population exposed to low concentrations (≤50 μg/l) of arsenic in drinking water. Urine and drinking water samples were collected from a subsample (n=343) of a population enrolled in a bladder cancer case-control study in southeastern Michigan. Total arsenic in water and arsenic species in urine were determined using ICP-MS: arsenobetaine (AsB), arsenite (As[III]), arsenate (As[V]), methylarsenic acid (MMA[V]), and dimethylarsenic acid (DMA[V]). The sum of As[III], As[V], MMA[V], and DMA[V] was denoted as SumAs. Dietary information was obtained through a self-reported food intake questionnaire. Log(10)-transformed drinking water arsenic concentration at home was a significant (P<0.0001) predictor of SumAs (R(2)=0.18). Associations improved (R(2)=0.29, P<0.0001) when individuals with less than 1 μg/l of arsenic in drinking water were removed and further improved when analyses were applied to individuals who consumed amounts of home drinking water above the median volume (R(2)=0.40, P<0.0001). A separate analysis indicated that AsB and DMA[V] were significantly correlated with fish and shellfish consumption, which may suggest that seafood intake influences DMA[V] excretion. The Spearman correlation between arsenic concentration in toenails and SumAs was 0.36 and between arsenic concentration in toenails and arsenic concentration in water was 0.42. Results show that arsenic exposure from drinking water consumption is an important determinant of urinary arsenic concentrations, even in a population exposed to relatively low levels of arsenic in drinking water, and suggest that seafood intake may influence urinary DMA[V] concentrations.

  15. Application of a direct fluorescence-based live/dead staining combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization for assessment of survival rate of Bacteroides spp. in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Savichtcheva, Olga; Okayama, Noriko; Ito, Tsukasa; Okabe, Satoshi

    2005-11-01

    To evaluate the viability and survival ability of fecal Bacteroides spp. in environmental waters, a fluorescence-based live/dead staining method using ViaGram Red+ Bacterial gram stain and viability kit was combined with fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probe (referred as LDS-FISH). The proposed LDS-FISH was a direct and reliable method to detect fecal Bacteroides cells and their viability at single-cell level in complex microbial communities. The pure culture of Bacteroides fragilis and whole human feces were dispersed in aerobic drinking water and incubated at different water temperatures (4 degrees C, 13 degrees C, 18 degrees C, and 24 degrees C), and then the viability of B. fragilis and fecal Bacteroides spp. were determined by applying the LDS-FISH. The results revealed that temperature and the presence of oxygen have significant effects on the survival ability. Increasing the temperature resulted in a rapid decrease in the viability of both pure cultured B. fragilis cells and fecal Bacteroides spp. The live pure cultured B. fragilis cells could be found at the level of detection in drinking water for 48 h of incubation at 24 degrees C, whereas live fecal Bacteroides spp. could be detected for only 4 h of incubation at 24 degrees C. The proposed LDS-FISH method should provide useful quantitative information on the presence and viability of Bacteroides spp., a potential alternative fecal indicator, in environmental waters.

  16. Age at First Drink, Drinking, Binge Drinking and DSM-5 Alcohol Use Disorder among Hispanic National Groups in the U.S.

    PubMed Central

    Caetano, Raul; Mills, Britain A.; Vaeth, Patrice A. C.; Reingle, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Background This paper examines age at first drink and adult drinking, binge drinking and DSM-5 alcohol use disorder (AUD) among U.S. Hispanic national groups. Methods Respondents come from two independent studies. The Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey used a multistage cluster sample design to interview 5,224 individuals 18 years of age and older selected from the household population in: Miami, New York, Philadelphia, Houston and Los Angeles. Respondents in the border area (N=1,307) constituted a household probability sample of Mexican Americans living on U.S. counties that border Mexico. In both surveys, data were collected during computer assisted interviews conducted in respondents' homes. The HABLAS and the border sample response rates were 76% and 67%, respectively. Results U.S. born Hispanics begin drinking at a younger age than those who are foreign born, independent of national group. Among foreign born Hispanics, age of arrival in the U.S. is not associated with age at first drink. Results support the hypothesis that a younger age at first drink is associated with a higher mean volume of drinking, a higher probability of bingeing and a higher probability of DSM-5 AUD. But the results do not show a clear pattern by which a particular national group would consistently show no associations or stronger associations between age at first drink and the alcohol-related outcomes under consideration. Conclusions An earlier age at first drinking is positively associated with heavier drinking patterns among U.S. Hispanics. However, as in other areas of alcohol epidemiology, here too there is considerable variation in age at first drink and drinking across Hispanic national groups. PMID:24689445

  17. Milk as an effective post-exercise rehydration drink.

    PubMed

    Shirreffs, Susan M; Watson, Phillip; Maughan, Ronald J

    2007-07-01

    The effectiveness of low-fat milk, alone and with an additional 20 mmol/l NaCl, at restoring fluid balance after exercise-induced hypohydration was compared to a sports drink and water. After losing 1.8 (sd 0.1) % of their body mass during intermittent exercise in a warm environment, eleven subjects consumed a drink volume equivalent to 150 % of their sweat loss. Urine samples were collected before and for 5 h after exercise to assess fluid balance. Urine excretion over the recovery period did not change during the milk trials whereas there was a marked increase in output between 1 and 2 h after drinking water and the sports drink. Cumulative urine output was less after the milk drinks were consumed (611 (sd 207) and 550 (sd 141) ml for milk and milk with added sodium, respectively, compared to 1184 (sd 321) and 1205 (sd 142) ml for the water and sports drink; P < 0.001). Subjects remained in net positive fluid balance or euhydrated throughout the recovery period after drinking the milk drinks but returned to net negative fluid balance 1 h after drinking the other drinks. The results of the present study suggest that milk can be an effective post-exercise rehydration drink and can be considered for use after exercise by everyone except those individuals who have lactose intolerance.

  18. Energy drinks in the Gulf Cooperation Council states: A review.

    PubMed

    Alhyas, Layla; El Kashef, Ahmed; AlGhaferi, Hamad

    2016-01-01

    Energy drinks have become a popular beverage worldwide. This review was carried out to have an overview among adolescents and emerging adults in the Gulf Co-operation Council states about energy drinks consumption rates and other related issues such as starting age and patterns of energy drink consumption. The Medline and Embase databases were searched separately using different terms such as energy drinks, energy beverages, and caffeinated drinks. Data related to the rates of energy drinks use were entered in STATA for statistical analysis. Then, these data were used to conduct meta-analysis to estimate the rate of energy drink consumption. Overall, meta-analysis results showed that the estimated rates of energy drinks consumption is 46.9% (95% CIs, 33.2 -66.1; nine studies) with I-square 3.7%. Findings indicated that individuals start to consume energy drinks at approximately 16 years old, and males were found to consume energy drinks more frequently than females. Results from this review carry several recommendations for policy and enforcement, public education and research that can help policy and decision makers to achieve the goal of safer use of energy drinks.

  19. Energy drinks in the Gulf Cooperation Council states: A review

    PubMed Central

    El Kashef, Ahmed; AlGhaferi, Hamad

    2015-01-01

    Energy drinks have become a popular beverage worldwide. This review was carried out to have an overview among adolescents and emerging adults in the Gulf Co-operation Council states about energy drinks consumption rates and other related issues such as starting age and patterns of energy drink consumption. The Medline and Embase databases were searched separately using different terms such as energy drinks, energy beverages, and caffeinated drinks. Data related to the rates of energy drinks use were entered in STATA for statistical analysis. Then, these data were used to conduct meta-analysis to estimate the rate of energy drink consumption. Overall, meta-analysis results showed that the estimated rates of energy drinks consumption is 46.9% (95% CIs, 33.2 −66.1; nine studies) with I-square 3.7%. Findings indicated that individuals start to consume energy drinks at approximately 16 years old, and males were found to consume energy drinks more frequently than females. Results from this review carry several recommendations for policy and enforcement, public education and research that can help policy and decision makers to achieve the goal of safer use of energy drinks. PMID:26770815

  20. Heavy Drinking Relates to Positive Valence Ratings of Alcohol Cues

    PubMed Central

    Pulido, Carmen; Mok, Alex; Brown, Sandra A.; Tapert, Susan F.

    2009-01-01

    Background A positive family history of alcohol use disorders (FH) is a robust predictor of personal alcohol abuse and dependence. Exposure to problem-drinking models is one mechanism through which family history influences alcohol-related cognitions and drinking patterns. Similarly, exposure to alcohol advertisements is associated with alcohol involvement and the relationship between affective response to alcohol cues and drinking behavior has not been well established. In addition, the collective contribution that FH, exposure to different types of problem-drinking models (e.g., parents, peers), and personal alcohol use have on appraisal of alcohol-related stimuli has not been evaluated with a large sample. Objective We investigated the independent effects of FH, exposure to problem-drinking models, and personal alcohol use on valence ratings of alcohol pictures in a college sample. Method College students (N=227) completed measures of personal drinking and substance use, exposure to problem-drinking models, FH, and ratings on affective valence of 60 alcohol pictures. Results Greater exposure to non-familial problem-drinkers predicted greater drinking among college students (β = .17, p < .01). However, personal drinking was the only predictor of valence ratings of alcohol pictures (β= −.53, p < .001). Conclusions Personal drinking level predicted valence ratings of alcohol cues over and above FH, exposure to problem-drinking models, and demographic characteristics. This suggests that positive affective responses to alcohol pictures are more a function of personal experience (i.e., repeated heavy alcohol use) than vicarious learning. PMID:18855802