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Sample records for fish pomacentrus moluccensis

  1. Evidence for developmental thermal acclimation in the damselfish, Pomacentrus moluccensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenchik, M. K.; Donelson, J. M.; Munday, P. L.

    2013-03-01

    Tropical species are predicted to have limited capacity for acclimation to global warming. This study investigated the potential for developmental thermal acclimation by the tropical damselfish Pomacentrus moluccensis to ocean temperatures predicted to occur over the next 50-100 years. Newly settled juveniles were reared for 4 months in four temperature treatments, consisting of the current-day summer average (28.5 °C) and up to 3 °C above the average (29.5, 30.5 and 31.5 °C). Resting metabolic rate (RMR) of fish reared at 29.5 and 31.5 °C was significantly higher than the control group reared at 28.5 °C. In contrast, RMR of fish reared at 30.5 °C was not significantly different from the control group, indicating these fish had acclimated to their rearing temperature. Furthermore, fish that developed in 30.5 and 31.5 °C exhibited an enhanced ability to deal with acute temperature increases. These findings illustrate that developmental acclimation may help coral reef fish cope with warming ocean temperatures.

  2. Andirobin from X. moluccensis

    PubMed Central

    Jittaniyom, Chutima; Sommit, Damrong; Muangsin, Nongnuj; Pudhom, Khanitha

    2012-01-01

    The title compound (systematic name: methyl 2-{(1R,2R)-2-[(1aS,4S,4aS,8aS)-4-(furan-3-yl)-4a-methyl-8-methyl­ene-2-oxoocta­hydro­oxireno[2,3-d]isochromen-7-yl]-2,6,6-trimethyl-5-oxocyclo­hex-3-en-1-yl}acetate), C27H32O7, was isolated from X. moluccensis seeds from Thailand. The conformations of the six-membered rings are distorted half-chair, chair and half-chair for the isolated cyclo­hexane, fused cyclo­hexane and lactone rings, respectively. In addition, the lactone ring bears in an equatorial orientation an essentially planar furan ring (r.m.s. deviation = 0.004 Å), which forms an angle of 63.87 (13)° with the mean plane defined by the ten atoms of the two fused six-membered rings (r.m.s. deviation = 0.213 Å). The absolute configuration was fixed on the basis of literature data. PMID:22904982

  3. Long-term cleaner fish presence affects growth of a coral reef fish

    PubMed Central

    Clague, Gillian E.; Cheney, Karen L.; Goldizen, Anne W.; McCormick, Mark I.; Waldie, Peter A.; Grutter, Alexandra S.

    2011-01-01

    Cleaning behaviour is considered to be a classical example of mutualism. However, no studies, to our knowledge, have measured the benefits to clients in terms of growth. In the longest experimental study of its kind, over an 8 year period, cleaner fish Labroides dimidiatus were consistently removed from seven patch reefs (61–285 m2) and left undisturbed on nine control reefs, and the growth and parasite load of the damselfish Pomacentrus moluccensis determined. After 8 years, growth was reduced and parasitic copepod abundance was higher on fish from removal reefs compared with controls, but only in larger individuals. Behavioural observations revealed that P. moluccensis cleaned by L. dimidiatus were 27 per cent larger than nearby conspecifics. The selective cleaning by L. dimidiatus probably explains why only larger P. moluccensis individuals benefited from cleaning. This is the first demonstration, to our knowledge, that cleaners affect the growth rate of client individuals; a greater size for a given age should result in increased fecundity at a given time. The effect of the removal of so few small fish on the size of another fish species is unprecedented on coral reefs. PMID:21733872

  4. Lethal effects of habitat degradation on fishes through changing competitive advantage

    PubMed Central

    McCormick, Mark I.

    2012-01-01

    Coral bleaching has caused catastrophic changes to coral reef ecosystems around the world with profound ecological, social and economic repercussions. While its occurrence is predicted to increase in the future, we have little understanding of mechanisms that underlie changes in the fish community associated with coral degradation. The present study uses a field-based experiment to examine how the intensity of interference competition between juveniles of two species of damselfish changes as healthy corals degrade through thermal bleaching. The mortality of a damselfish that is a live coral specialist (Pomacentrus moluccensis) increased on bleached and dead coral in the presence of the habitat generalist (Pomacentrus amboinensis). Increased mortality of the specialist was indirectly owing to enhanced aggression by the generalist forcing the specialist higher up and further away from shelter on bleached and dead coral. Evidence from this study stresses the importance of changing interspecific interactions to community dynamics as habitats change. PMID:22810432

  5. Lethal effects of habitat degradation on fishes through changing competitive advantage.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Mark I

    2012-10-07

    Coral bleaching has caused catastrophic changes to coral reef ecosystems around the world with profound ecological, social and economic repercussions. While its occurrence is predicted to increase in the future, we have little understanding of mechanisms that underlie changes in the fish community associated with coral degradation. The present study uses a field-based experiment to examine how the intensity of interference competition between juveniles of two species of damselfish changes as healthy corals degrade through thermal bleaching. The mortality of a damselfish that is a live coral specialist (Pomacentrus moluccensis) increased on bleached and dead coral in the presence of the habitat generalist (Pomacentrus amboinensis). Increased mortality of the specialist was indirectly owing to enhanced aggression by the generalist forcing the specialist higher up and further away from shelter on bleached and dead coral. Evidence from this study stresses the importance of changing interspecific interactions to community dynamics as habitats change.

  6. Influence of habitat degradation on fish replenishment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCormick, M. I.; Moore, J. A. Y.; Munday, P. L.

    2010-09-01

    Temperature-induced coral bleaching is a major threat to the biodiversity of coral reef ecosystems. While reductions in species diversity and abundance of fish communities have been documented following coral bleaching, the mechanisms that underlie these changes are poorly understood. The present study examined the impacts of coral bleaching on the early life-history processes of coral reef fishes. Daily monitoring of fish settlement patterns found that ten times as many fish settled to healthy coral than sub-lethally bleached coral. Species diversity of settling fishes was least on bleached coral and greatest on dead coral, with healthy coral having intermediate levels of diversity. Laboratory experiments using light-trap caught juveniles showed that different damselfish species chose among healthy, bleached and dead coral habitats using different combinations of visual and olfactory cues. The live coral specialist, Pomacentrus moluccensis, preferred live coral and avoided bleached and dead coral, using mostly visual cues to inform their habitat choice. The habitat generalist, Pomacentrus amboinensis, also preferred live coral and avoided bleached and dead coral but selected these habitats using both visual and olfactory cues. Trials with another habitat generalist, Dischistodus sp., suggested that vision played a significant role. A 20 days field experiment that manipulated densities of P. moluccensis on healthy and bleached coral heads found an influence of fish density on juvenile weight and growth, but no significant influence of habitat quality. These results suggests that coral bleaching will affect settlement patterns and species distributions by influencing the visual and olfactory cues that reef fish larvae use to make settlement choices. Furthermore, increased fish density within the remaining healthy coral habitats could play an important role in influencing population dynamics.

  7. Ability to home in small site-attached coral reef fishes.

    PubMed

    Booth, D J

    2016-08-01

    The ability of two common, site-attached coral-reef fishes to return to their home corals after displacement was investigated in a series of field experiments at One Tree Island, southern Great Barrier Reef. The humbug Dascyllus aruanus was displaced up to 250 m, with 42% of individuals returning home, irrespective of body size, displacement, direction (up or across currents) and route complexity, while for the lemon damselfish Pomacentrus moluccensis 35% of individuals returned overall, with 33% from the greatest displacement, 100 m along a reef edge. Given that the home range of both species is <1 m(2) , over their 10+ year life span, the mechanisms and motivations for such homing ability are unclear but it may allow resilience if fishes are displaced by storm events, allowing rapid return to home corals.

  8. Climate-driven coral reorganisation influences aggressive behaviour in juvenile coral-reef fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kok, Judith E.; Graham, Nicholas A. J.; Hoogenboom, Mia O.

    2016-06-01

    Globally, habitat degradation is altering the abundance and diversity of species in a variety of ecosystems. This study aimed to determine how habitat degradation, in terms of changing coral composition under climate change, affected abundance, species richness and aggressive behaviour of juveniles of three damselfishes ( Pomacentrus moluccensis, P. amboinensis and Dischistodus perspicillatus, in order of decreasing reliance on coral). Patch reefs were constructed to simulate two types of reefs: present-day reefs that are vulnerable to climate-induced coral bleaching, and reefs with more bleaching-robust coral taxa, thereby simulating the likely future of coral reefs under a warming climate. Fish communities were allowed to establish naturally on the reefs during the summer recruitment period. Climate-robust reefs had lower total species richness of coral-reef fishes than climate-vulnerable reefs, but total fish abundance was not significantly different between reef types (pooled across all species and life-history stages). The nature of aggressive interactions, measured as the number of aggressive chases, varied according to coral composition; on climate-robust reefs, juveniles used the substratum less often to avoid aggression from competitors, and interspecific aggression became relatively more frequent than intraspecific aggression for juveniles of the coral-obligate P. moluccensis. This study highlights the importance of coral composition as a determinant of behaviour and diversity of coral-reef fishes.

  9. Predators Exacerbate Competitive Interactions and Dominance Hierarchies between Two Coral Reef Fishes.

    PubMed

    Hall, April; Kingsford, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Predation and competition are critical processes influencing the ecology of organisms, and can play an integral role in shaping coral reef fish communities. This study compared the relative and interacting effects of competition and predation on two competing species of coral reef fish, Pomacentrus amboinensis and P. moluccensis (Pomacentridae), using a multifactorial experiment. Fish were subjected to the sight and smell of a known predator (Pseudochromis fuscus), the presence of the heterospecific competitor (i.e., P. amboinensis vs. P. moluccensis), or a combination of the two for a period of 19 days. The sub-lethal effects of predator/competitor treatments were compared with controls; a combination of otolith microstructure analysis and observations were used to determine otolith growth patterns and behaviour. We predicted that the stress of competition and/or predation would result in strong sub-lethal impacts, and act synergistically on growth and behavioural patterns. We found strong evidence to support this prediction, but only for P. amboinensis, which suffered reductions in growth in both predator and competitor treatments, with the largest reductions occurring when subjected to both predation and competition concurrently. There was strong evidence of asymmetrical competition between the two damselfish species, with P. moluccensis as the dominant competitor, displaying strong aggressive behaviour towards P. amboinensis. Growth reductions for P. amboinensis in predator/competitor treatments appeared to come about primarily due to increases in shelter seeking behaviour, which significantly reduced the foraging rates of individuals compared with controls. These data highlight the importance of predator/competitor synergisms in influencing key behaviours and demographic parameters for juvenile coral reef fishes.

  10. Predators Exacerbate Competitive Interactions and Dominance Hierarchies between Two Coral Reef Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Hall, April; Kingsford, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Predation and competition are critical processes influencing the ecology of organisms, and can play an integral role in shaping coral reef fish communities. This study compared the relative and interacting effects of competition and predation on two competing species of coral reef fish, Pomacentrus amboinensis and P. moluccensis (Pomacentridae), using a multifactorial experiment. Fish were subjected to the sight and smell of a known predator (Pseudochromis fuscus), the presence of the heterospecific competitor (i.e., P. amboinensis vs. P. moluccensis), or a combination of the two for a period of 19 days. The sub-lethal effects of predator/competitor treatments were compared with controls; a combination of otolith microstructure analysis and observations were used to determine otolith growth patterns and behaviour. We predicted that the stress of competition and/or predation would result in strong sub-lethal impacts, and act synergistically on growth and behavioural patterns. We found strong evidence to support this prediction, but only for P. amboinensis, which suffered reductions in growth in both predator and competitor treatments, with the largest reductions occurring when subjected to both predation and competition concurrently. There was strong evidence of asymmetrical competition between the two damselfish species, with P. moluccensis as the dominant competitor, displaying strong aggressive behaviour towards P. amboinensis. Growth reductions for P. amboinensis in predator/competitor treatments appeared to come about primarily due to increases in shelter seeking behaviour, which significantly reduced the foraging rates of individuals compared with controls. These data highlight the importance of predator/competitor synergisms in influencing key behaviours and demographic parameters for juvenile coral reef fishes. PMID:26992169

  11. Duration of Exposure to Elevated Temperature Affects Competitive Interactions in Juvenile Reef Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Donald T.; Donelson, Jennifer M.; McCormick, Mark I.; Ferrari, Maud C. O.; Munday, Philip L.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change will affect key ecological processes that structure natural communities, but the outcome of interactions between individuals and species will depend on their thermal plasticity. We tested how short- and long-term exposure to projected future temperatures affects intraspecific and interspecific competitive interactions in two species of coral reef damselfishes. In conspecific contests, juvenile Ambon damselfish, Pomacentrus amboinensis, exhibited no change in aggressive interactions after 4d exposure to higher temperatures. However, after 90d of exposure, fish showed a nonadaptive reduction in aggression at elevated temperatures. Conversely, 4d exposure to higher temperature increased aggression towards conspecifics in the lemon damselfish, Pomacentrus moluccensis. 90d exposure began to reduce this pattern, but overall there was little effect of temperature. Aggression in interspecific contests increased with short-term exposure, but was significantly lower after long-term exposure indicative of acclimation. Our results show how the length of exposure to elevated temperature can affect the outcome of competitive interactions. Furthermore, we illustrate that results from intraspecific contests may not accurately predict interspecific interactions, which will challenge our ability to generalise the effects of warming on competitive interactions. PMID:27736924

  12. The short-lived neon damsel Pomacentrus coelestis: implications for population dynamics.

    PubMed

    Kingsford, M J; O'Callaghan, M D; Liggins, L; Gerlach, G

    2017-03-16

    Daily increments of Pomacentrus coelestis, an abundant and well-studied fish, were validated for the life of the fish and depending on the location, age-maxima were estimated to be 127-160 days on reefs separated by tens to hundreds of kilometres on the Great Barrier Reef. This contrasts with congeners and other damselfishes that live for 5 years or more. Otoliths of P. coelestis were thinner and had different patterns of banding when compared with relatively long-lived congeners. It is suggested that banding patterns in P. coelestis may be related to patterns of maturation and spawning. The consequences of a short life would have a great influence on the population dynamics of this widespread species. Further, the demographics and habitat preferences of this species suggest rapid colonization and establishment of breeding populations that would quickly change the relative abundance of sympatric fishes.

  13. Alterations in gill structure in tropical reef fishes as a result of elevated temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Bowden, A.J.; Gardiner, N.M.; Couturier, C.S.; Stecyk, J.A.W.; Nilsson, G.E.; Munday, P.L.; Rummer, J.L.

    2015-01-01

    Tropical regions are expected to be some of the most affected by rising sea surface temperatures (SSTs) because seasonal temperature variations are minimal. As temperatures rise, less oxygen dissolves in water, but metabolic requirements of fish and thus, the demand for effective oxygen uptake, increases. Gill remodelling is an acclimation strategy well documented in freshwater cyprinids experiencing large seasonal variations in temperature and oxygen as well as an amphibious killifish upon air exposure. However, no study has investigated whether tropical reef fishes remodel their gills to allow for increased oxygen demands at elevated temperatures. We tested for gill remodelling in five coral reef species (Acanthochromis polyacanthus, Chromis atripectoralis, Pomacentrus moluccensis, Dascyllus melanurus and Cheilodipterus quinquelineatus) from populations in northern Papua New Guinea (2° 35.765′ S; 150° 46.193′ E). Fishes were acclimated for 12-14 days to 29 and 31 °C, encompassing their seasonal range (29-31 °C), and 33 and 34 °C to account for end-of-century predicted temperatures. We measured lamellar perimeter, cross-sectional area, base thickness, and length for five filaments on the 2nd gill arches and qualitatively assessed 3rd gill arches via scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All species exhibited significant differences in the quantitative measurements made on the lamellae, but no consistent trends with temperature were observed. SEM only revealed alterations in gill morphology in P. moluccensis. The overall lack of changes in gill morphology with increasing temperature suggests that these near-equatorial reef fishes may fail to maintain adequate O2 uptake under future climate scenarios unless other adaptive mechanisms are employed. PMID:24862962

  14. Alterations in gill structure in tropical reef fishes as a result of elevated temperatures.

    PubMed

    Bowden, A J; Gardiner, N M; Couturier, C S; Stecyk, J A W; Nilsson, G E; Munday, P L; Rummer, J L

    2014-09-01

    Tropical regions are expected to be some of the most affected by rising sea surface temperatures (SSTs) because seasonal temperature variations are minimal. As temperatures rise, less oxygen dissolves in water, but metabolic requirements of fish and thus, the demand for effective oxygen uptake, increase. Gill remodelling is an acclimation strategy well documented in freshwater cyprinids experiencing large seasonal variations in temperature and oxygen as well as an amphibious killifish upon air exposure. However, no study has investigated whether tropical reef fishes remodel their gills to allow for increased oxygen demands at elevated temperatures. We tested for gill remodelling in five coral reef species (Acanthochromis polyacanthus, Chromis atripectoralis, Pomacentrus moluccensis, Dascyllus melanurus and Cheilodipterus quinquelineatus) from populations in northern Papua New Guinea (2° 35.765' S; 150° 46.193' E). Fishes were acclimated for 12-14 days to 29 and 31°C (representing their seasonal range) and 33 and 34°C to account for end-of-century predicted temperatures. We measured lamellar perimeter, cross-sectional area, base thickness, and length for five filaments on the 2nd gill arches and qualitatively assessed 3rd gill arches via scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All species exhibited significant differences in the quantitative measurements made on the lamellae, but no consistent trends with temperature were observed. SEM only revealed alterations in gill morphology in P. moluccensis. The overall lack of changes in gill morphology with increasing temperature suggests that these near-equatorial reef fishes may fail to maintain adequate O2 uptake under future climate scenarios unless other adaptive mechanisms are employed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Baylisascaris procyonis infection in a Moluccan cockatoo (Cacatua moluccensis).

    PubMed

    Wolf, Karen N; Lock, Brad; Carpenter, James W; Garner, Michael M

    2007-09-01

    An adult female Moluccan cockatoo (Cacatua moluccensis) was evaluated for a 10-day history of progressive ataxia and weakness. The bird had been exposed intermittently over a 3-day period to a cage that had previously housed juvenile raccoons. Results of diagnostic tests were inconclusive and, despite supportive care, the bird died 7 days after the initial presentation. Histopathologic examination revealed a single nematode larva in the midbrain that was consistent with Baylisascaris species and multifocal granulomas in the left ventricle of the heart. The neurologic disease in this bird was attributed to encephalitis caused by neural larval migration of the raccoon roundworm, Baylisascaris procyonis.

  16. Do otolith increments allow correct inferences about age and growth of coral reef fishes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, D. J.

    2014-03-01

    Otolith increment structure is widely used to estimate age and growth of marine fishes. Here, I test the accuracy of the long-term otolith increment analysis of the lemon damselfish Pomacentrus moluccensis to describe age and growth characteristics. I compare the number of putative annual otolith increments (as a proxy for actual age) and widths of these increments (as proxies for somatic growth) with actual tagged fish-length data, based on a 6-year dataset, the longest time course for a coral reef fish. Estimated age from otoliths corresponded closely with actual age in all cases, confirming annual increment formation. However, otolith increment widths were poor proxies for actual growth in length [linear regression r 2 = 0.44-0.90, n = 6 fish] and were clearly of limited value in estimating annual growth. Up to 60 % of the annual growth variation was missed using otolith increments, suggesting the long-term back calculations of otolith growth characteristics of reef fish populations should be interpreted with caution.

  17. Near-reef elemental signals in the otoliths of settling Pomacentrus amboinensis (Pomacentridae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sih, Tiffany L.; Kingsford, Michael J.

    2016-03-01

    Settlement is a key life history transition for coral reef fishes, and how long a fish spends close to a reef prior to settlement is poorly understood. We used laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and otolith microstructure analysis (daily increments and settlement marks) to determine the length of time larval fish spend near a reef prior to settlement. The otoliths of Pomacentrus amboinensis collected from four neighbouring reefs in the southern Great Barrier Reef showed clear and consistent differences in their elemental signatures prior to and following settlement. Elevated Ba:Ca near settlement and post-settlement was found in fish from all four reefs. However, there was individual variation in elemental profiles, with an increased otolith Ba-to-Ca ratio (near-reef signature) at settlement in 33 % of fish, and up to 8 d prior to settlement in others. Increment widths, often used as a proxy for growth, decreased approaching the settlement mark for all fish, providing further evidence for a "search phase" in larvae. We demonstrated experimentally that otoliths of fish kept in reefal or inter-reefal waters had different elemental chemistry. There were differences in the elemental composition of water samples within the study area, but no consistent trends with distance from reefs. There was poor discrimination of multi-element signatures among fish from different reefs during their pre-settlement phases. However, discrimination improved in the settlement and post-settlement phases of otoliths, indicating that reef waters and perhaps stage of ontogeny affected otolith chemistry. This study demonstrated clear near-reef elemental signatures in fish around settlement. We suggest these differences are due to a combination of water chemistry and physiological influences (e.g., growth). Combining LA-ICP-MS with otolith microstructure analysis can provide high-resolution information on the early life history of reef fishes. Further, a

  18. Endemism and regional color and genetic differences in five putatively cosmopolitan reef fishes.

    PubMed

    Drew, Joshua; Allen, Gerald R; Kaufman, Les; Barber, Paul H

    2008-08-01

    Endemism is thought to be relatively rare in marine systems due to the lack of allopatric barriers and the potential for long-distance colonization via pelagic larval dispersal. Although many species of coral reef fishes exhibit regionally restricted color variants that are suggestive of regional endemism, such variation is typically ascribed to intraspecific variation. We examined the genetic structure in 5 putatively monospecific fishes from the Indo-West Pacific (Amphiprion melanopus, Chrysiptera talboti, and Pomacentrus moluccensis [Pomacentridae] and Cirrhilabrus punctatus, and Labroides dimidiatus [Labridae]) that express regional color variation unique to this area. Mitochondrial-control-region sequence analysis showed shallow to deep genetic divergence in all 5 species (sequence divergence 2-17%), with clades concordant with regional color variation. These results were partially supported by nuclear RAG2 data. An analysis of molecular variation (AMOVA) mirrored the phylogenetic results; Phi(ST) values ranged from 0.91 to 0.7, indicating high levels of geographic partitioning of genetic variation. Concordance of genetics and phenotype demonstrate the genetic uniqueness of southwestern Pacific color variants, indicating that these populations are at a minimum distinct evolutionarily significant units and perhaps distinct regionally endemic species. Our results indicate that the alpha biodiversity of the southwestern Pacific is likely underestimated even in well-studied groups, such as reef fishes, and that regional endemism may be more common in tropical marine systems than previously thought.

  19. Effects of elevated temperature on coral reef fishes: loss of hypoxia tolerance and inability to acclimate.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Göran E; Ostlund-Nilsson, Sara; Munday, Philip L

    2010-08-01

    Water temperature is expected to rise on coral reefs due to global warming. Here, we have examined if increased temperature reduces the hypoxia tolerance of coral reef fish (measured as critical [O(2)]), and if temperature acclimation in adults can change the resting rate of O(2) consumption and critical [O(2)]. Two common species from Lizard Island (Great Barrier Reef, Australia) were tested, Doederlein's cardinalfish (Ostorhinchus doederleini) and lemon damselfish (Pomacentrus moluccensis). In both species, a 3 degrees C rise in water temperature caused increased oxygen consumption and reduced hypoxia tolerance, changes that were not reduced by acclimation to the higher temperature for 7 to 22 days. Critical [O(2)] increased by 71% in the cardinalfish and by 23% in the damselfish at 32 degrees C compared to 29 degrees C. The higher oxygen needs are likely to reduce the aerobic scope, which could negatively affect the capacity for feeding, growth and reproduction. The reduced hypoxia tolerance may force the fishes out of their nocturnal shelters in the coral matrix, exposing them to predation. The consequences for population and species survival could be severe unless developmental phenotypic plasticity within generations or genetic adaptation between generations could produce individuals that are more tolerant to a warmer future.

  20. A retrovirus isolated from cell lines derived from neurofibromas in bicolor damselfish (Pomacentrus partitus).

    PubMed

    Schmale, M C; Aman, M R; Gill, K A

    1996-06-01

    Damselfish neurofibromatosis (DNF) is a naturally occurring, neoplastic disease affecting bicolor damselfish (Pomacentrus partitus) living on coral reefs in southern Florida, USA. The disease consists of multiple neurofibromas, neurofibrosarcomas and chromatophoromas and has been proposed as an animal model for neurofibromatosis type 1 in humans. DNF is transmissible by injection of crude tumour homogenates, cell-free filtrates of homogenates or cells from tumour cell lines. An analysis of tumorigenic cell lines derived from fish with spontaneous or experimentally induced DNF revealed virus particles budding from cells and present in conditioned media. The 90-110 nm particles resembled type C retroviruses. This virus exhibited a buoyant density of 1.14-1.17 g/cm2 in sucrose, at least six virus proteins of 15 to 80 kDa and reverse transcriptase (RT) activity. RT activity was maximized with a poly(rC).oligo(dG) template.primer combination and Mn2+ at a concentration of 0.5-1.0 mM. The optimum temperature for RT was determined to be 20 degrees C, a finding consistent with the ambient temperatures encountered by this species. This retrovirus, tentatively named damselfish neurofibromatosis virus (DNFV) may be the aetiological agent of DNF. Whether DNFV or another, as yet unidentified, virus is the cause of DNF, this agent may be unique in virus oncogenesis; neoplastic transformation of the cell types involved in DNF, Schwann cells and chromatophores, has not been documented in any other transmissible tumour.

  1. A Comparison of Measures of Boldness and Their Relationships to Survival in Young Fish

    PubMed Central

    White, James R.; Meekan, Mark G.; McCormick, Mark I.; Ferrari, Maud C. O.

    2013-01-01

    Boldness is the propensity of an animal to engage in risky behavior. Many variations of novel-object or novel-environment tests have been used to quantify the boldness of animals, although the relationship between test outcomes has rarely been investigated. Furthermore, the relationship of outcomes to any ecological aspect of fitness is generally assumed, rather than measured directly. Our study is the first to compare how the outcomes of the same test of boldness differ among observers and how different tests of boldness relate to the survival of individuals in the field. Newly-metamorphosed lemon damselfish, Pomacentrus moluccensis, were placed onto replicate patches of natural habitat. Individual behavior was quantified using four tests (composed of a total of 12 different measures of behavior): latency to enter a novel environment, activity in a novel environment, and reactions to threatening and benign novel objects. After behavior was quantified, survival was monitored for two days during which time fish were exposed to natural predators. Variation among observers was low for most of the 12 measures, except distance moved and the threat test (reaction to probe thrust), which displayed unacceptable amounts of inter-observer variation. Overall, the results of the behavioral tests suggested that novel environment and novel object tests quantified similar behaviors, yet these behavioral measures were not interchangeable. Multiple measures of behavior within the context of novel environment or object tests were the most robust way to assess boldness and these measures have a complex relationship with survivorship of young fish in the field. Body size and distance ventured from shelter were the only variables that had a direct and positive relationship with survival. PMID:23874804

  2. Species-specific effects of near-future CO(2) on the respiratory performance of two tropical prey fish and their predator.

    PubMed

    Couturier, Christine S; Stecyk, Jonathan A W; Rummer, Jodie L; Munday, Philip L; Nilsson, Göran E

    2013-11-01

    Ocean surface CO2 levels are increasing in line with rising atmospheric CO2 and could exceed 900μatm by year 2100, with extremes above 2000μatm in some coastal habitats. The imminent increase in ocean pCO2 is predicted to have negative consequences for marine fishes, including reduced aerobic performance, but variability among species could be expected. Understanding interspecific responses to ocean acidification is important for predicting the consequences of ocean acidification on communities and ecosystems. In the present study, the effects of exposure to near-future seawater CO2 (860μatm) on resting (M˙ O2rest) and maximum (M˙O2max) oxygen consumption rates were determined for three tropical coral reef fish species interlinked through predator-prey relationships: juvenile Pomacentrus moluccensis and Pomacentrus amboinensis, and one of their predators: adult Pseudochromis fuscus. Contrary to predictions, one of the prey species, P. amboinensis, displayed a 28-39% increase in M˙O2max after both an acute and four-day exposure to near-future CO2 seawater, while maintaining M˙O2rest. By contrast, the same treatment had no significant effects on M˙O2rest or M˙O2max of the other two species. However, acute exposure of P. amboinensis to 1400 and 2400μatm CO2 resulted in M˙O2max returning to control values. Overall, the findings suggest that: (1) the metabolic costs of living in a near-future CO2 seawater environment were insignificant for the species examined at rest; (2) the M˙O2max response of tropical reef species to near-future CO2 seawater can be dependent on the severity of external hypercapnia; and (3) near-future ocean pCO2 may not be detrimental to aerobic scope of all fish species and it may even augment aerobic scope of some species. The present results also highlight that close phylogenetic relatedness and living in the same environment, does not necessarily imply similar physiological responses to near-future CO2. © 2013.

  3. Variability in Isotope Discrimination Factors in Coral Reef Fishes: Implications for Diet and Food Web Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Wyatt, Alex S. J.; Waite, Anya M.; Humphries, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    Interpretation of stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen (δ13C and δ15N) is generally based on the assumption that with each trophic level there is a constant enrichment in the heavier isotope, leading to diet-tissue discrimination factors of 3.4‰ for 15N (ΔN) and ∼0.5‰ for 13C (ΔC). Diet-tissue discrimination factors determined from paired tissue and gut samples taken from 152 individuals from 26 fish species at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia demonstrate a large amount of variability around constant values. While caution is necessary in using gut contents to represent diet due to the potential for high temporal variability, there were significant effects of trophic position and season that may also lead to variability in ΔN under natural conditions. Nitrogen enrichment increased significantly at higher trophic levels (higher tissue δ15N), with significantly higher ΔN in carnivorous species. Changes in diet led to significant changes in ΔN, but not tissue δ15N, between seasons for several species: Acanthurus triostegus, Chromis viridis, Parupeneus signatus and Pomacentrus moluccensis. These results confirm that the use of meta-analysis averages for ΔN is likely to be inappropriate for accurately determining diets and trophic relationships using tissue stable isotope ratios. Where feasible, discrimination factors should be directly quantified for each species and trophic link in question, acknowledging the potential for significant variation away from meta-analysis averages and, perhaps, controlled laboratory diets and conditions. PMID:21060681

  4. Effects of "Reduced" and "Business-As-Usual" CO2 Emission Scenarios on the Algal Territories of the Damselfish Pomacentrus wardi (Pomacentridae).

    PubMed

    Bender, Dorothea; Champ, Connor Michael; Kline, David; Diaz-Pulido, Guillermo; Dove, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Turf algae are a very important component of coral reefs, featuring high growth and turnover rates, whilst covering large areas of substrate. As food for many organisms, turf algae have an important role in the ecosystem. Farming damselfish can modify the species composition and productivity of such algal assemblages, while defending them against intruders. Like all organisms however, turf algae and damselfishes have the potential to be affected by future changes in seawater (SW) temperature and pCO2. In this study, algal assemblages, in the presence and absence of farming Pomacentrus wardi were exposed to two combinations of SW temperature and pCO2 levels projected for the austral spring of 2100 (the B1 "reduced" and the A1FI "business-as-usual" CO2 emission scenarios) at Heron Island (GBR, Australia). These assemblages were dominated by the presence of red algae and non-epiphytic cyanobacteria, i.e. cyanobacteria that grow attached to the substrate rather than on filamentous algae. The endpoint algal composition was mostly controlled by the presence/absence of farming damselfish, despite a large variability found between the algal assemblages of individual fish. Different scenarios appeared to be responsible for a mild, species specific change in community composition, observable in some brown and green algae, but only in the absence of farming fish. Farming fish appeared unaffected by the conditions to which they were exposed. Algal biomass reductions were found under "reduced" CO2 emission, but not "business-as-usual" scenarios. This suggests that action taken to limit CO2 emissions may, if the majority of algae behave similarly across all seasons, reduce the potential for phase shifts that lead to algal dominated communities. At the same time the availability of food resources to damselfish and other herbivores would be smaller under "reduced" emission scenarios.

  5. Effects of “Reduced” and “Business-As-Usual” CO2 Emission Scenarios on the Algal Territories of the Damselfish Pomacentrus wardi (Pomacentridae)

    PubMed Central

    Bender, Dorothea; Champ, Connor Michael; Kline, David; Diaz-Pulido, Guillermo; Dove, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Turf algae are a very important component of coral reefs, featuring high growth and turnover rates, whilst covering large areas of substrate. As food for many organisms, turf algae have an important role in the ecosystem. Farming damselfish can modify the species composition and productivity of such algal assemblages, while defending them against intruders. Like all organisms however, turf algae and damselfishes have the potential to be affected by future changes in seawater (SW) temperature and pCO2. In this study, algal assemblages, in the presence and absence of farming Pomacentrus wardi were exposed to two combinations of SW temperature and pCO2 levels projected for the austral spring of 2100 (the B1 “reduced” and the A1FI “business-as-usual” CO2 emission scenarios) at Heron Island (GBR, Australia). These assemblages were dominated by the presence of red algae and non-epiphytic cyanobacteria, i.e. cyanobacteria that grow attached to the substrate rather than on filamentous algae. The endpoint algal composition was mostly controlled by the presence/absence of farming damselfish, despite a large variability found between the algal assemblages of individual fish. Different scenarios appeared to be responsible for a mild, species specific change in community composition, observable in some brown and green algae, but only in the absence of farming fish. Farming fish appeared unaffected by the conditions to which they were exposed. Algal biomass reductions were found under “reduced” CO2 emission, but not “business-as-usual” scenarios. This suggests that action taken to limit CO2 emissions may, if the majority of algae behave similarly across all seasons, reduce the potential for phase shifts that lead to algal dominated communities. At the same time the availability of food resources to damselfish and other herbivores would be smaller under “reduced” emission scenarios. PMID:26121163

  6. Species-specific effects of near-future CO2 on the respiratory performance of two tropical prey fish and their predator

    PubMed Central

    Couturier, Christine S.; Stecyk, Jonathan A. W.; Rummer, Jodie L.; Munday, Philip L.; Nilsson, Göran E.

    2013-01-01

    Ocean surface CO2 levels are increasing in line with rising atmospheric CO2 and could exceed 900 μatm by year 2100, with extremes above 2000 μatm in some coastal habitats. The imminent increase in ocean pCO2 is predicted to have negative consequences for marine fishes, including reduced aerobic performance, but variability among species could be expected. Understanding interspecific responses to ocean acidification is important for predicting the consequences of ocean acidification on communities and ecosystems. In the present study, the effects of exposure to near-future seawater CO2 (860 μatm) on resting (Ṁ O2rest) and maximum (Ṁ O2max) oxygen consumption rates were determined for three tropical coral reef fish species interlinked through predator-prey relationships: juvenile Pomacentrus moluccensis and P. amboinensis, and one of their predators: adult Pseudochromis fuscus. Contrary to predictions, one of the prey species, P. amboinensis, displayed a 28 – 39 % increase in Ṁ O2max after both an acute and four-day exposure to near-future CO2 seawater, while maintaining Ṁ O2rest. By contrast, the same treatment had no significant effects on Ṁ O2rest or Ṁ O2max of the other two species. However, acute exposure of P. amboinensis to 1400 and 2400 μatm CO2 resulted in Ṁ O2max returning to control values. Overall, the findings suggest that: (1) the metabolic costs of living in a near-future CO2 seawater environment were insignificant for the species examined at rest; (2) the ṀO2max response of tropical reef species to near-future CO2 seawater can be dependent on the severity of external hypercapnia; and (3) near-future ocean pCO2 may not be detrimental to aerobic scope of all fish species and it may even augment aerobic scope of some species. The present results also highlight that close phylogenetic relatedness and living in the same environment, does not necessarily imply similar physiological responses to near-future CO2. PMID:23916817

  7. Efficient isolation of avian bornaviruses (ABV) from naturally infected psittacine birds and identification of a new ABV genotype from a salmon-crested cockatoo (Cacatua moluccensis).

    PubMed

    Rubbenstroth, D; Rinder, M; Kaspers, B; Staeheli, P

    2012-12-28

    Avian bornaviruses (ABV) have been discovered in 2008 as the causative agent of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD) in psittacine birds. To date, six ABV genotypes have been described in psittacines. Furthermore, two additional but genetically different ABV genotypes were recognized in non-psittacine birds such as canary birds and wild waterfowl. This remarkable genetic diversity poses a considerable challenge to ABV diagnosis, since polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays may fail to detect distantly related or as yet unknown genotypes. In this study we investigated the use of virus isolation in cell culture as a strategy for improving ABV diagnosis. We found that the quail fibroblast cell line CEC-32 allows very efficient isolation of ABV from psittacine birds. Isolation of ABV was successful not only from organ samples but also from cloacal and pharyngeal swabs and blood samples collected intra vitam from naturally infected parrots. Importantly, using this experimental approach we managed to isolate a new ABV genotype, termed ABV-7, from a salmon-crested cockatoo (Cacatua moluccensis). Phylogenetic analysis showed that ABV-7 is most closely related to the psittacine genotypes ABV-1, -2, -3, and -4 and clearly distinct from genotypes ABV-5 and -6. Our successful identification of ABV-7 emphasizes the necessity to consider the high genetic diversity when trying to diagnose ABV infections with high reliability and further shows that classical virus isolation may represent a useful diagnostic option, particularly for the detection of new ABV genotypes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Anthropogenic noise increases fish mortality by predation

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Stephen D.; Radford, Andrew N.; Nedelec, Sophie L.; Ferrari, Maud C. O.; Chivers, Douglas P.; McCormick, Mark I.; Meekan, Mark G.

    2016-01-01

    Noise-generating human activities affect hearing, communication and movement in terrestrial and aquatic animals, but direct evidence for impacts on survival is rare. We examined effects of motorboat noise on post-settlement survival and physiology of a prey fish species and its performance when exposed to predators. Both playback of motorboat noise and direct disturbance by motorboats elevated metabolic rate in Ambon damselfish (Pomacentrus amboinensis), which when stressed by motorboat noise responded less often and less rapidly to simulated predatory strikes. Prey were captured more readily by their natural predator (dusky dottyback, Pseudochromis fuscus) during exposure to motorboat noise compared with ambient conditions, and more than twice as many prey were consumed by the predator in field experiments when motorboats were passing. Our study suggests that a common source of noise in the marine environment has the potential to impact fish demography, highlighting the need to include anthropogenic noise in management plans. PMID:26847493

  9. Anthropogenic noise increases fish mortality by predation.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Stephen D; Radford, Andrew N; Nedelec, Sophie L; Ferrari, Maud C O; Chivers, Douglas P; McCormick, Mark I; Meekan, Mark G

    2016-02-05

    Noise-generating human activities affect hearing, communication and movement in terrestrial and aquatic animals, but direct evidence for impacts on survival is rare. We examined effects of motorboat noise on post-settlement survival and physiology of a prey fish species and its performance when exposed to predators. Both playback of motorboat noise and direct disturbance by motorboats elevated metabolic rate in Ambon damselfish (Pomacentrus amboinensis), which when stressed by motorboat noise responded less often and less rapidly to simulated predatory strikes. Prey were captured more readily by their natural predator (dusky dottyback, Pseudochromis fuscus) during exposure to motorboat noise compared with ambient conditions, and more than twice as many prey were consumed by the predator in field experiments when motorboats were passing. Our study suggests that a common source of noise in the marine environment has the potential to impact fish demography, highlighting the need to include anthropogenic noise in management plans.

  10. Changing otolith/fish size ratios during settlement in two tropical damselfishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, H.; Gagliano, M.

    2011-09-01

    Otolith-fish size (O-L) relationships were analysed in recruits of two damselfish species ( Chrysiptera rollandi and Pomacentrus amboinensis) before and after cohorts had settled onto reefs surrounding Lizard Island in Australia's Great Barrier Reef. Unexpectedly, O was found to be unrelated to L in pre-settlers of both species. Settlers sampled only 12-15 days later, however, exhibited the expected isometric O-L relationship. This intriguingly rapid change—due to either variable growth, selective mortality or a combination of both—renders otolith increment widths inconsistent proxies for daily somatic growth rates in the pre- versus post-settlement stages of these pomacentrids.

  11. Spectral and spatial selectivity of luminance vision in reef fish

    PubMed Central

    Siebeck, Ulrike E.; Wallis, Guy Michael; Litherland, Lenore; Ganeshina, Olga; Vorobyev, Misha

    2014-01-01

    Luminance vision has high spatial resolution and is used for form vision and texture discrimination. In humans, birds and bees luminance channel is spectrally selective—it depends on the signals of the long-wavelength sensitive photoreceptors (bees) or on the sum of long- and middle-wavelength sensitive cones (humans), but not on the signal of the short-wavelength sensitive (blue) photoreceptors. The reasons of such selectivity are not fully understood. The aim of this study is to reveal the inputs of cone signals to high resolution luminance vision in reef fish. Sixteen freshly caught damselfish, Pomacentrus amboinensis, were trained to discriminate stimuli differing either in their color or in their fine patterns (stripes vs. cheques). Three colors (“bright green”, “dark green” and “blue”) were used to create two sets of color and two sets of pattern stimuli. The “bright green” and “dark green” were similar in their chromatic properties for fish, but differed in their lightness; the “dark green” differed from “blue” in the signal for the blue cone, but yielded similar signals in the long-wavelength and middle-wavelength cones. Fish easily learned to discriminate “bright green” from “dark green” and “dark green” from “blue” stimuli. Fish also could discriminate the fine patterns created from “dark green” and “bright green”. However, fish failed to discriminate fine patterns created from “blue” and “dark green” colors, i.e., the colors that provided contrast for the blue-sensitive photoreceptor, but not for the long-wavelength sensitive one. High resolution luminance vision in damselfish, Pomacentrus amboinensis, does not have input from the blue-sensitive cone, which may indicate that the spectral selectivity of luminance channel is a general feature of visual processing in both aquatic and terrestrial animals. PMID:25324727

  12. Spectral and spatial selectivity of luminance vision in reef fish.

    PubMed

    Siebeck, Ulrike E; Wallis, Guy Michael; Litherland, Lenore; Ganeshina, Olga; Vorobyev, Misha

    2014-01-01

    Luminance vision has high spatial resolution and is used for form vision and texture discrimination. In humans, birds and bees luminance channel is spectrally selective-it depends on the signals of the long-wavelength sensitive photoreceptors (bees) or on the sum of long- and middle-wavelength sensitive cones (humans), but not on the signal of the short-wavelength sensitive (blue) photoreceptors. The reasons of such selectivity are not fully understood. The aim of this study is to reveal the inputs of cone signals to high resolution luminance vision in reef fish. Sixteen freshly caught damselfish, Pomacentrus amboinensis, were trained to discriminate stimuli differing either in their color or in their fine patterns (stripes vs. cheques). Three colors ("bright green", "dark green" and "blue") were used to create two sets of color and two sets of pattern stimuli. The "bright green" and "dark green" were similar in their chromatic properties for fish, but differed in their lightness; the "dark green" differed from "blue" in the signal for the blue cone, but yielded similar signals in the long-wavelength and middle-wavelength cones. Fish easily learned to discriminate "bright green" from "dark green" and "dark green" from "blue" stimuli. Fish also could discriminate the fine patterns created from "dark green" and "bright green". However, fish failed to discriminate fine patterns created from "blue" and "dark green" colors, i.e., the colors that provided contrast for the blue-sensitive photoreceptor, but not for the long-wavelength sensitive one. High resolution luminance vision in damselfish, Pomacentrus amboinensis, does not have input from the blue-sensitive cone, which may indicate that the spectral selectivity of luminance channel is a general feature of visual processing in both aquatic and terrestrial animals.

  13. Sniffing out the competition? Juvenile coral reef damselfishes use chemical cues to distinguish the presence of conspecific and heterospecific aggregations.

    PubMed

    Coppock, Amy G; Gardiner, Naomi M; Jones, Geoffrey P

    2016-04-01

    Aquatic animals commonly rely on chemical cues to provide information regarding their surroundings. They can respond either by being attracted to (potential mates, preferred habitats) or avoiding (predators, competitors) the source of the stimuli. Coral reef fishes use chemical cues to detect habitats, avoid predators and recognise conspecifics. However, the extent to which chemical cues are used to detect and respond to potential competitors, has received little attention. Here we test olfactory preferences for conspecifics and heterospecifics in newly settled juvenile coral reef fishes. Juveniles of 4 common coral-associated damselfish species: Dascyllus melanurus, Dascyllus reticulatus, Chrysiptera arnazae and Pomacentrus moluccensis, were subjected to olfactory choice tests. Three of the 4 species (excluding P. moluccensis) demonstrated preferences for waterborne conspecifics odours. All species exhibited an avoidance towards heterospecific odours; this aversion was consistently greatest towards P. moluccensis. A neutral response toward heterospecifics was only evident in two instances (1) between the two congeneric Dascyllus species, with D. melanurus toward D. reticulatus, and (2) with C. arnazae toward D. melanurus. While it is already known that the presence of conspecifics plays a vital role in settlement site selection, we show here that the presence of heterospecifics may also be key in determining the spatial distributions of juveniles across areas of coral reef.

  14. Chemical spying in coral reef fish larvae at recruitment.

    PubMed

    Roux, Natacha; Brooker, Rohan M; Lecellier, Gaël; Berthe, Cécile; Frédérich, Bruno; Banaigs, Bernard; Lecchini, David

    2015-10-01

    When fish larvae recruit back to a reef, chemical cues are often used to find suitable habitat or to find juvenile or adult conspecifics. We tested if the chemical information used by larvae was intentionally produced by juvenile and adult conspecifics already on the reef (communication process) or whether the cues used result from normal biochemical processes with no active involvement by conspecifics ("spying" behavior by larvae). Conspecific chemical cues attracted the majority of larvae (four out of the seven species tested); although while some species were equally attracted to cues from adults and juveniles (Chromis viridis, Apogon novemfasciatus), two exhibited greater sensitivity to adult cues (Pomacentrus pavo, Dascyllus aruanus). Our results indicate also that spying cues are those most commonly used by settling fishes (C. viridis, P. pavo, A. novemfasciatus). Only one species (D. aruanus) preferred the odour of conspecifics that had had visual contact with larvae (communication).

  15. Temporal Links in Daily Activity Patterns between Coral Reef Predators and Their Prey

    PubMed Central

    Bosiger, Yoland J.; McCormick, Mark I.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have documented the activity patterns of both predators and their common prey over 24 h diel cycles. This study documents the temporal periodicity of two common resident predators of juvenile reef fishes, Cephalopholis cyanostigma (rockcod) and Pseudochromis fuscus (dottyback) and compares these to the activity and foraging pattern of a common prey species, juvenile Pomacentrus moluccensis (lemon damselfish). Detailed observations of activity in the field and using 24 h infrared video in the laboratory revealed that the two predators had very different activity patterns. C. cyanostigma was active over the whole 24 h period, with a peak in feeding strikes at dusk and increased activity at both dawn and dusk, while P. fuscus was not active at night and had its highest strike rates at midday. The activity and foraging pattern of P. moluccensis directly opposes that of C. cyanostigma with individuals reducing strike rate and intraspecific aggression at both dawn and dusk, and reducing distance from shelter and boldness at dusk only. Juveniles examined were just outside the size-selection window of P. fuscus. We suggest that the relatively predictable diel behaviour of coral reef predators results from physiological factors such as visual sensory abilities, circadian rhythmicity, variation in hunting profitability, and predation risk at different times of the day. Our study suggests that the diel periodicity of P. moluccensis behaviour may represent a response to increased predation risk at times when both the ability to efficiently capture food and visually detect predators is reduced. PMID:25354096

  16. Stable isotope analysis reveals community-level variation in fish trophodynamics across a fringing coral reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyatt, A. S. J.; Waite, A. M.; Humphries, S.

    2012-12-01

    In contrast to trophodynamic variations, the marked zonation in physical and biological processes across coral reefs and the concomitant changes in habitat and community structure are well documented. In this study, we demonstrate consistent spatial changes in the community-level trophodynamics of 46 species of fish across the fringing Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia, using tissue stable isotope and fatty acid analyses. Increasing nitrogen (δ15N) and decreasing carbon (δ13C) isotope ratios in the tissues of herbivores, planktivores and carnivores with increasing proximity to the ocean were indicative of increased reliance on oceanic productivity. In contrast, detritivores and corallivores displayed no spatial change in δ15N or δ13C, indicative of the dependence on reef-derived material across the reef. Higher δ13C, as well as increased benthic- and bacterial-specific fatty acids, suggested reliance on reef-derived production increased in back-reef habitats. Genus-level analyses supported community- and trophic group-level trends, with isotope modelling of species from five genera ( Abudefduf sexfasciatus, Chromis viridis, Dascyllus spp., Pomacentrus spp. and Stegastes spp.), demonstrating declining access to oceanic zooplankton and, in the case of Pomacentrus spp. and Stegastes spp., a switch to herbivory in the back-reef. The spatial changes in fish trophodynamics suggest that the relative roles of oceanic and reef-derived nutrients warrant more detailed consideration in reef-level community ecology.

  17. Restoring depleted coral-reef fish populations through recruitment enhancement: a proof of concept.

    PubMed

    Heenan, A; Simpson, S D; Meekan, M G; Healy, S D; Braithwaite, V A

    2009-11-01

    To determine whether enhancing the survival of new recruits is a sensible target for the restorative management of depleted coral-reef fish populations, settlement-stage ambon damsel fish Pomacentrus amboinensis were captured, tagged and then either released immediately onto small artificial reefs or held in aquaria for 1 week prior to release. Holding conditions were varied to determine whether they affected survival of fish: half the fish were held in bare tanks (non-enriched) and the other half in tanks containing coral and sand (enriched). Holding fish for this short period had a significantly positive effect on survivorship relative to the settlement-stage treatment group that were released immediately. The enrichment of holding conditions made no appreciable difference on the survival of fish once released onto the reef. It did, however, have a positive effect on the survival of fish while in captivity, thus supporting the case for the provision of simple environmental enrichment in fish husbandry. Collecting and holding settlement-stage fish for at least a week before release appear to increase the short-term survival of released fish; whether it is an effective method for longer-term enhancement of locally depleted coral-reef fish populations will require further study.

  18. Temperate macroalgae impacts tropical fish recruitment at forefronts of range expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, H. J.; Feary, D. A.; Nakamura, Y.; Booth, D. J.

    2017-06-01

    Warming waters and changing ocean currents are increasing the supply of tropical fish larvae to temperature regions where they are exposed to novel habitats, namely temperate macroalgae and barren reefs. Here, we use underwater surveys on the temperate reefs of south-eastern (SE) Australia and western Japan ( 33.5°N and S, respectively) to investigate how temperate macroalgal and non-macroalgal habitats influence recruitment success of a range of tropical fishes. We show that temperate macroalgae strongly affected recruitment of many tropical fish species in both regions and across three recruitment seasons in SE Australia. Densities and richness of recruiting tropical fishes, primarily planktivores and herbivores, were over seven times greater in non-macroalgal than macroalgal reef habitat. Species and trophic diversity ( K-dominance) were also greater in non-macroalgal habitat. Temperate macroalgal cover was a stronger predictor of tropical fish assemblages than temperate fish assemblages, reef rugosities or wave exposure. Tropical fish richness, diversity and density were greater on barren reef than on reef dominated by turfing algae. One common species, the neon damselfish ( Pomacentrus coelestis), chose non-macroalgal habitat over temperate macroalgae for settlement in an aquarium experiment. This study highlights that temperate macroalgae may partly account for spatial variation in recruitment success of many tropical fishes into higher latitudes. Hence, habitat composition of temperate reefs may need to be considered to accurately predict the geographic responses of many tropical fishes to climate change.

  19. Rising CO2 concentrations affect settlement behaviour of larval damselfishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devine, B. M.; Munday, P. L.; Jones, G. P.

    2012-03-01

    Reef fish larvae actively select preferred benthic habitat, relying on olfactory, visual and acoustic cues to discriminate between microhabitats at settlement. Recent studies show exposure to elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) impairs olfactory cue recognition in larval reef fishes. However, whether this alters the behaviour of settling fish or disrupts habitat selection is unknown. Here, the effect of elevated CO2 on larval behaviour and habitat selection at settlement was tested in three species of damselfishes (family Pomacentridae) that differ in their pattern of habitat use: Pomacentrus amboinensis (a habitat generalist), Pomacentrus chrysurus (a rubble specialist) and Pomacentrus moluccensis (a live coral specialist). Settlement-stage larvae were exposed to current-day CO2 levels or CO2 concentrations that could occur by 2100 (700 and 850 ppm) based on IPCC emission scenarios. First, pair-wise choice tests were performed using a two-channel flume chamber to test olfactory discrimination between hard coral, soft coral and coral rubble habitats. The habitat selected by settling fish was then compared among treatments using a multi-choice settlement experiment conducted overnight. Finally, settlement timing between treatments was compared across two lunar cycles for one of the species, P. chrysurus. Exposure to elevated CO2 disrupted the ability of larvae to discriminate between habitat odours in olfactory trials. However, this had no effect on the habitats selected at settlement when all sensory cues were available. The timing of settlement was dramatically altered by CO2 exposure, with control fish exhibiting peak settlement around the new moon, whereas fish exposed to 850 ppm CO2 displaying highest settlement rates around the full moon. These results suggest larvae can rely on other sensory information, such as visual cues, to compensate for impaired olfactory ability when selecting settlement habitat at small spatial scales. However, rising CO2 could cause larvae

  20. Experimental evaluation of diversity-productivity relationships in a coral reef fish assemblage.

    PubMed

    Messmer, Vanessa; Blowes, Shane A; Jones, Geoffrey P; Munday, Philip L

    2014-09-01

    The global decline in biodiversity is causing increasing concern about the effects of biodiversity loss on ecosystem services such as productivity. Biodiversity has been hypothesised to be important in maintaining productivity of biological assemblages because niche complementarity and facilitation among the constituent species can result in more efficient use of resources. However, these conclusions are primarily based on studies with plant communities, and the relationship between diversity and productivity at higher trophic levels is largely unknown, especially in the marine environment. Here, we used a manipulative field experiment to test the effects of species richness and species identity on biomass accumulation in coral reef fish assemblages at Lizard Island. Small patch reefs were stocked with a total of 30 juveniles belonging to three planktivorous damselfish (genus Pomacentrus) according to three different levels of fish species richness (one, two and three species) and seven different combinations of fish species. Species richness had no effect on the relative growth in this assemblage after 18 days, but relative growth differed among individual fish species and the different combinations of species. Patterns of increase in biomass were best explained by species-specific differences and variable effects of intra- and interspecific competition on growth. These results suggest that niche complementarity and facilitation are not the most influential drivers of total productivity within this guild of planktivorous fishes. Total productivity may be resilient to declining reef fish biodiversity, but this will depend on which species are lost and on the life-history traits of remaining species.

  1. Evaluation of the effect of closed areas on a unique and shallow water coral reef fish assemblage reveals complex responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shedrawi, G.; Harvey, E. S.; McLean, D. L.; Prince, J.; Bellchambers, L. M.; Newman, S. J.

    2014-09-01

    Areas closed to fishing are advocated as both fisheries management and biodiversity conservation tools. However, few studies investigate the responses of suites of both target and non-target fish species within an assemblage, which is an important consideration for ecosystem-based fisheries management approaches. Diver-operated stereo-video was used to assess the abundance and length of coral reef fish across multiple areas both open and closed to fishing at the Houtman Abrolhos Islands, Western Australia. After taking into consideration spatial differences in benthic habitat, the composition of fish assemblages was found to differ between open and closed areas. The target species, Plectropomus leopardus, was approximately two times more abundant in closed areas. Furthermore, 51 % of P. leopardus were larger than the minimum legal length (MLL) for retention in closed areas compared with only 1.8 % in areas open to fishing. Another target species, Choerodon rubescens was surveyed in greater abundance at sizes larger than the MLL in closed areas (64 % >400 mm) in comparison with areas open to fishing (36 %). A number of non-target species were also larger in closed areas (e.g., Kyphosus cornelii, Scarus schlegeli). In contrast, several non-targeted prey species were more abundant in open areas (e.g., Pomacentrus milleri was six times more abundant in open areas). Our results document complex responses of target and non-target species in closed areas at the Houtman Abrolhos Islands.

  2. Effects of ocean acidification on learning in coral reef fishes.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Maud C O; Manassa, Rachel P; Dixson, Danielle L; Munday, Philip L; McCormick, Mark I; Meekan, Mark G; Sih, Andrew; Chivers, Douglas P

    2012-01-01

    Ocean acidification has the potential to cause dramatic changes in marine ecosystems. Larval damselfish exposed to concentrations of CO(2) predicted to occur in the mid- to late-century show maladaptive responses to predator cues. However, there is considerable variation both within and between species in CO(2) effects, whereby some individuals are unaffected at particular CO(2) concentrations while others show maladaptive responses to predator odour. Our goal was to test whether learning via chemical or visual information would be impaired by ocean acidification and ultimately, whether learning can mitigate the effects of ocean acidification by restoring the appropriate responses of prey to predators. Using two highly efficient and widespread mechanisms for predator learning, we compared the behaviour of pre-settlement damselfish Pomacentrus amboinensis that were exposed to 440 µatm CO(2) (current day levels) or 850 µatm CO(2), a concentration predicted to occur in the ocean before the end of this century. We found that, regardless of the method of learning, damselfish exposed to elevated CO(2) failed to learn to respond appropriately to a common predator, the dottyback, Pseudochromis fuscus. To determine whether the lack of response was due to a failure in learning or rather a short-term shift in trade-offs preventing the fish from displaying overt antipredator responses, we conditioned 440 or 700 µatm-CO(2) fish to learn to recognize a dottyback as a predator using injured conspecific cues, as in Experiment 1. When tested one day post-conditioning, CO(2) exposed fish failed to respond to predator odour. When tested 5 days post-conditioning, CO(2) exposed fish still failed to show an antipredator response to the dottyback odour, despite the fact that both control and CO(2)-treated fish responded to a general risk cue (injured conspecific cues). These results indicate that exposure to CO(2) may alter the cognitive ability of juvenile fish and render learning

  3. Individual consistency in the behaviors of newly-settled reef fish

    PubMed Central

    Meekan, Mark G.; McCormick, Mark I.

    2015-01-01

    Flexibility in behavior is advantageous for organisms that transition between stages of a complex life history. However, various constraints can set limits on plasticity, giving rise to the existence of personalities that have associated costs and benefits. Here, we document a field and laboratory experiment that examines the consistency of measures of boldness, activity, and aggressive behavior in the young of a tropical reef fish, Pomacentrus amboinensis (Pomacentridae) immediately following their transition between pelagic larval and benthic juvenile habitats. Newly-settled fish were observed in aquaria and in the field on replicated patches of natural habitat cleared of resident fishes. Seven behavioral traits representing aspects of boldness, activity and aggression were monitored directly and via video camera over short (minutes), medium (hours), and long (3 days) time scales. With the exception of aggression, these behaviors were found to be moderately or highly consistent over all time scales in both laboratory and field settings, implying that these fish show stable personalities within various settings. Our study is the first to examine the temporal constancy of behaviors in both field and laboratory settings in over various time scales at a critically important phase during the life cycle of a reef fish. PMID:26020013

  4. Maladaptive behavior reinforces a recruitment bottleneck in newly settled fishes.

    PubMed

    Fuiman, Lee A; Meekan, Mark G; McCormick, Mark I

    2010-09-01

    Settlement from the plankton ends the major dispersive stage of life for many marine organisms and exposes them to intense predation pressure in juvenile habitats. This predation mortality represents a life-history bottleneck that can determine recruitment success. At the level of individual predator-prey interactions, prey survival depends upon behavior, specifically how behavior affects prey conspicuousness and evasive ability. We conducted an experiment to identify behavioral traits and performance levels that are important determinants of which individuals survive or die soon after settlement. We measured a suite of behavioral traits on late stage, pre-settlement Ward's damsel (Pomacentrus wardi) collected using light traps. These behavioral traits included two measures of routine swimming (indicators of conspicuousness) and eight measures of escape performance to a visual startle stimulus. Fish were then released onto individual patch reefs, where divers measured an additional behavioral trait (boldness). We censused each patch reef until approximately 50% of the fish were missing (~24 h), which we assumed to be a result of predation. We used classification tree analysis to discriminate survivors from fish presumed dead based on poor behavioral performance. The classification tree revealed that individuals displaying the maladaptive combination of low escape response speed, low boldness on the reef, and high routine swimming speed were highly susceptible to predation (92.4% with this combination died within 24 h). This accounted for 55.2% of all fish that died. Several combinations of behavioral traits predicted likely survival over 24 h, but there was greater uncertainty about that prediction than there was for fish that were predicted to die. Thus maladaptive behavioral traits were easier to identify than adaptive traits.

  5. Mancae of the parasitic cymothoid isopod, Anilocra apogonae: early life history, host-specificity, and effect on growth and survival of preferred young cardinal fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogelman, R. M.; Grutter, A. S.

    2008-09-01

    Juvenile parasitic cymothoid isopods (mancae) can injure or kill fishes, yet few studies have investigated their biology. While the definitive host of the adult cymothoids is usually a single host from a particular fish species, mancae may use so-called optional intermediate hosts before settling on the definitive host. Little, however, is known about these early interactions. The cymothoid isopod, Anilocra apogonae, infests the definitive host, Cheilodipterus quinquelineatus. This study examined their host preference among potential optional intermediate hosts. Their effect on the growth and mortality of the young of three apogonid fishes, including the definitive host, was investigated. The number of mancae produced per brood was positively correlated with female length. When given a choice of intermediate hosts, significantly more mancae attached to Apogon trimaculatus (Apogonidae) than to Apogon nigrofasciatus. When presented with Ap. trimaculatus and Pomacentrus amboinensis (Pomacentridae), mancae only attached to Ap. trimaculatus suggesting that mancae may show a taxonomic affiliation with preferred hosts. Mancae fed on all three apogonid species, with C. quinquelineatus being fed on earlier than Ap. trimaculatus and Ap. nigrofasciatus. Mancae feeding frequency, adjusted for fish survival, was lowest on C. quinquelineatus and highest on Ap. trimaculatus. Infested apogonids had reduced growth and increased mortality compared with uninfested fish. A. apogonae mancae can use several species of young apogonid fishes as optional intermediate hosts. Via reduced growth and increased mortality, mancae have the potential to negatively influence definitive host populations and also other young species of apogonid fishes.

  6. Spot the difference: mimicry in a coral reef fish.

    PubMed

    Gagliano, Monica; Depczynski, Martial

    2013-01-01

    Eyespots on the body of many animals have long been assumed to confer protection against predators, but empirical evidence has recently demonstrated that this may not always be the case and suggested that such markings may also serve other purposes. Clearly, this raises the unresolved question of what functions do these markings have and do they contribute to an individual's evolutionary fitness in the wild. Here, we examined the occurrence of eyespots on the dorsal fin of a coral reef damselfish (Pomacentrus amboinensis), where these markings are typical of the juvenile stage and fade away as the fish approaches sexual maturation to then disappear completely in the vast majority of, but not all, adult individuals. By exploring differences in body shape among age and gender groups, we found that individuals retaining the eyespot into adulthood are all sexually mature males, suggesting that these eyespots may be an adult deceptive signal. Interestingly, the body shape of these individuals resembled more closely that of immature females than mature dominant males. These results suggest that eyespots have multiple roles and their functional significance changes within the lifetime of an animal from being a juvenile advertisement to a deceptive adult signal. Male removal experiments or colour manipulations may be necessary to establish specific functions.

  7. One Fish Two Fish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Michele

    1998-01-01

    This activity explains fisheries resource management to seven-year olds. First-grade students learn concepts such as offspring viability, life expectancy, and distribution of species, which help to determine when, where, and how people fish and the importance of fishing responsibly. Lists materials, procedures, and extensions. (SJR)

  8. One Fish Two Fish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Michele

    1998-01-01

    This activity explains fisheries resource management to seven-year olds. First-grade students learn concepts such as offspring viability, life expectancy, and distribution of species, which help to determine when, where, and how people fish and the importance of fishing responsibly. Lists materials, procedures, and extensions. (SJR)

  9. Ultraviolet absorbing compounds provide a rapid response mechanism for UV protection in some reef fish.

    PubMed

    Braun, C; Reef, R; Siebeck, U E

    2016-07-01

    The external mucus surface of reef fish contains ultraviolet absorbing compounds (UVAC), most prominently Mycosporine-like Amino Acids (MAAs). MAAs in the external mucus of reef fish are thought to act as sunscreens by preventing the damaging effects of ultraviolet radiation (UVR), however, direct evidence for their protective role has been missing. We tested the protective function of UVAC's by exposing fish with naturally low, Pomacentrus amboinensis, and high, Thalassoma lunare, mucus absorption properties to a high dose of UVR (UVB: 13.4W∗m(-2), UVA: 6.1W∗m(-2)) and measuring the resulting DNA damage in the form of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs). For both species, the amount of UV induced DNA damage sustained following the exposure to a 1h pulse of high UVR was negatively correlated with mucus absorbance, a proxy for MAA concentration. Furthermore, a rapid and significant increase in UVAC concentration was observed in P. amboinensis following UV exposure, directly after capture and after ten days in captivity. No such increase was observed in T. lunare, which maintained relatively high levels of UV absorbance at all times. P. amboinensis, in contrast to T. lunare, uses UV communication and thus must maintain UV transparent mucus to be able to display its UV patterns. The ability to rapidly alter the transparency of mucus could be an important adaptation in the trade off between protection from harmful UVR and UV communication. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Habitat degradation is threatening reef replenishment by making fish fearless.

    PubMed

    Lönnstedt, Oona M; McCormick, Mark I; Chivers, Douglas P; Ferrari, Maud C O

    2014-09-01

    Habitat degradation is one of the 'Big Five' drivers of biodiversity loss. However, the mechanisms responsible for this progressive loss of biodiversity are poorly understood. In marine ecosystems, corals play the role of ecosystem engineers, providing essential habitat for hundreds of thousands of species and hence their health is crucial to the stability of the whole ecosystem. Climate change is causing coral bleaching and degradation, and while this has been known for a while, little do we know about the cascading consequences of these events on the complex interrelationships between predators and their prey. The goal of our study was to investigate, under completely natural conditions, the effect of coral degradation on predator-prey interactions. Settlement stage ambon damselfish (Pomacentrus amboinensis), a common tropical fish, were released on patches of healthy or dead corals, and their behaviours in situ were measured, along with their response to injured conspecific cues, a common risk indicator. This study also explored the effect of habitat degradation on natural levels of mortality at a critical life-history transition. We found that juveniles in dead corals displayed risk-prone behaviours, sitting further away and higher up on the reef patch, and failed to respond to predation cues, compared to those on live coral patches. In addition, in situ survival experiments over 48 h indicated that juveniles on dead coral habitats had a 75% increase in predation-related mortality, compared to fish released on live, healthy coral habitats. Our results provide the first of many potential mechanisms through which habitat degradation can impact the relationship between prey and predators in the coral reef ecosystem. As the proportion of dead coral increases, the recruitment and replenishment of coral reef fishes will be threatened, and so will the level of diversity in these biodiversity hot spots. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2014 British

  11. Fish Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... can react to touching fish or breathing in vapors from cooking fish. A fish allergy can cause ... hives red spots swelling a drop in blood pressure , causing lightheadedness or loss of consciousness Your child ...

  12. City Fishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Robert E.

    1979-01-01

    A program of supplying opportunities for fishing at locations within and near urban areas was developed. This effort included stocking, management of bodies of water for fishing, and presentation of fishing clinics for urban fishermen. (RE)

  13. Fish Hearing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaxter, J. H. S.

    1980-01-01

    Provides related information about hearing in fish, including the sensory stimulus of sound in the underwater environment, mechanoreceptors in fish, pressure perception and the swimbladder, specializations in sound conduction peculiar to certain fish families. Includes numerous figures. (CS)

  14. Spatial synchrony in coral reef fish populations and the influence of climate.

    PubMed

    Cheal, A J; Delean, S; Sweatman, H; Thompson, A A

    2007-01-01

    We investigated spatial patterns of synchrony among coral reef fish populations and environmental variables over an eight-year period on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Our aims were to determine the spatial scale of intra- and interspecific synchrony of fluctuations in abundance of nine damselfish species (genus Pomacentrus) and assess whether environmental factors could have influenced population synchrony. All species showed intraspecific synchrony among populations on reefs separated by < or =100 km, and interspecific synchrony was also common at this scale. At greater spatial scales, only four species showed intraspecific synchrony, over distances ranging from 100-300 km to 500-800 km, and no cases of interspecific synchrony were recorded. The two mechanisms most likely to cause population synchrony are dispersal and environmental forcing through regionally correlated climate (the Moran effect). Dispersal may have influenced population synchrony over distances up to 100 km as this is the expected spatial range for ecologically significant reef fish dispersal. Environmental factors are also likely to have synchronized population fluctuations via the Moran effect for three reasons: (1) dispersal could not have caused interspecific synchrony that was common over distances < or =100 km because dispersal cannot link populations of different species, (2) variations in both sea surface temperature and wind speed were synchronized over greater spatial scales (>800 km) than fluctuations in damselfish abundance (< or =800 km) and were correlated with an index of global climate variability, the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), and (3) synchronous population fluctuations of most damselfish species were correlated with ENSO; large population increases often followed ENSO events. We recorded regional variations in the strength of population synchrony that we suspect are due to spatial differences in geophysical, oceanographic, and population characteristics, which

  15. Comparison of functional and anatomical estimations of visual acuity in two species of coral reef fish.

    PubMed

    Parker, Amira N; Fritsches, Kerstin A; Newport, Cait; Wallis, Guy; Siebeck, Ulrike E

    2017-07-01

    The high-contrast, complex patterns typical of many reef fish serve several purposes, including providing disruptive camouflage and a basis for vision-based communication. In trying to understand the role of a specific pattern, it is important to first assess the extent to which an observer can resolve the pattern, itself determined, at least in part, by the observer's visual acuity. Here, we studied the visual acuity of two species of reef fish - Pomacentrus amboinensis and Pseudochromis fuscus - using both anatomical and behavioural estimates. The two species share a common habitat but are members of different trophic levels (predator versus herbivore/omnivore) and perform different visual tasks. On the basis of the anatomical study, we estimated visual acuity to lie between 4.1 and 4.6 cycles deg(-1) for P. amboinensis and 3.2 and 3.6 cycles deg(-1) for P. fuscus Behavioural acuity estimates were considerably lower, ranging between 1.29 and 1.36 cycles deg(-1) for P. amboinensis and 1.61 and 1.71 cycles deg(-1) for P. fuscus Our results show that two species from the same habitat have only moderately divergent visual capabilities, despite differences in their general life histories. The difference between anatomical and behavioural estimates is an important finding as the majority of our current knowledge on the resolution capabilities of reef fish comes from anatomical measurements. Our findings suggest that anatomical estimates may represent the highest potential acuity of fish but are not indicative of actual performance, and that there is unlikely to be a simple scaling factor to link the two measures across all fish species. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. Shifting from Right to Left: The Combined Effect of Elevated CO2 and Temperature on Behavioural Lateralization in a Coral Reef Fish

    PubMed Central

    Domenici, Paolo; Allan, Bridie J. M.; Watson, Sue-Ann; McCormick, Mark I.; Munday, Philip L.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that elevated CO2 can affect the behaviour of larval and juvenile fishes. In particular, behavioural lateralization, an expression of brain functional asymmetries, is affected by elevated CO2 in both coral reef and temperate fishes. However, the potentially interacting effects of rising temperatures and CO2 on lateralization are unknown. Here, we tested the combined effect of near-future elevated-CO2 concentrations (930 µatm) and temperature variation on behavioural lateralization of a marine damselfish, Pomacentrus wardi. Individuals exposed to one of four treatments (two CO2 levels and two temperatures) were observed in a detour test where they made repeated decisions about turning left or right. Individuals exposed to current CO2 and ambient temperature levels showed a significant right-turning bias at the population level. This biased was reversed (i.e. to the left side) in fish exposed to the elevated-CO2 treatment. Increased temperature attenuated this effect, resulting in lower values of relative lateralization. Consequently, rising temperature and elevated CO2 may have different and interactive effects on behavioural lateralization and therefore future studies on the effect of climate change on brain functions need to consider both these critical variables in order to assess the potential consequences for the ecological interactions of marine fishes. PMID:24498231

  17. Shifting from right to left: the combined effect of elevated CO2 and temperature on behavioural lateralization in a coral reef fish.

    PubMed

    Domenici, Paolo; Allan, Bridie J M; Watson, Sue-Ann; McCormick, Mark I; Munday, Philip L

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that elevated CO2 can affect the behaviour of larval and juvenile fishes. In particular, behavioural lateralization, an expression of brain functional asymmetries, is affected by elevated CO2 in both coral reef and temperate fishes. However, the potentially interacting effects of rising temperatures and CO2 on lateralization are unknown. Here, we tested the combined effect of near-future elevated-CO2 concentrations (930 µatm) and temperature variation on behavioural lateralization of a marine damselfish, Pomacentrus wardi. Individuals exposed to one of four treatments (two CO2 levels and two temperatures) were observed in a detour test where they made repeated decisions about turning left or right. Individuals exposed to current CO2 and ambient temperature levels showed a significant right-turning bias at the population level. This biased was reversed (i.e. to the left side) in fish exposed to the elevated-CO2 treatment. Increased temperature attenuated this effect, resulting in lower values of relative lateralization. Consequently, rising temperature and elevated CO2 may have different and interactive effects on behavioural lateralization and therefore future studies on the effect of climate change on brain functions need to consider both these critical variables in order to assess the potential consequences for the ecological interactions of marine fishes.

  18. Antarctic Fishes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastman, Joseph T.; DeVries, Arthur L.

    1986-01-01

    Explains the adaptations to Antarctic waters that Notothenioidei, a group of advanced bony fishes, have exhibited. Discusses the fishes' mechanisms of production of antifreeze properties and their capacities for neutral buoyancy in water. (ML)

  19. Fish Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Basics Facts and Statistics NIAID Resources Allergens Peanut Tree Nuts Milk Egg Wheat Soy Fish Shellfish Sesame ... Basics Facts and Statistics NIAID Resources Allergens Peanut Tree Nuts Milk Egg Wheat Soy Fish Shellfish Sesame ...

  20. Antarctic Fishes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastman, Joseph T.; DeVries, Arthur L.

    1986-01-01

    Explains the adaptations to Antarctic waters that Notothenioidei, a group of advanced bony fishes, have exhibited. Discusses the fishes' mechanisms of production of antifreeze properties and their capacities for neutral buoyancy in water. (ML)

  1. Fish Dishes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derby, Marie

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art project that was inspired by Greek pottery, specifically dishes shaped as fish. Explains that fourth-grade students drew a fish shape that was later used to create their clay version of the fish. Discusses how the students examined the pottery to make decisions about color and design. (CMK)

  2. Fish Dishes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derby, Marie

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art project that was inspired by Greek pottery, specifically dishes shaped as fish. Explains that fourth-grade students drew a fish shape that was later used to create their clay version of the fish. Discusses how the students examined the pottery to make decisions about color and design. (CMK)

  3. Feeling the heat: the effect of acute temperature changes on predator-prey interactions in coral reef fish.

    PubMed

    Allan, Bridie J M; Domenici, Paolo; Munday, Phillip L; McCormick, Mark I

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrate that the elevated temperatures predicted to occur by the end of the century can affect the physiological performance and behaviour of larval and juvenile fishes; however, little is known of the effect of these temperatures on ecological processes, such as predator-prey interactions. Here, we show that exposure to elevated temperatures significantly affected the predator-prey interactions of a pair of common reef fish, the planktivorous damselfish (Pomacentrus wardi) and the piscivorous dottyback (Pseudochromis fuscus). When predators exposed to elevated temperatures interacted with prey exposed in a similar manner, maximal attack speeds increased. This effect coupled with decreasing prey escape speeds and escape distances led to increased predation rates. Prey exposed to elevated temperatures also had decreased reaction distances and increased apparent looming threshold, suggesting that their sensory performance was affected. This occurred despite the increase in maximal attack speeds, which in other species has been shown to increase reaction distances. These results suggest that the escape performance of prey is sensitive to short-term increases in ambient temperature. As marine environments become more thermally variable in the future, our results demonstrate that some predators may become more successful, suggesting that there will be strong selection for the maintenance of maximal escape performance in prey. In the present era of rapid climate change, understanding how changes to individual performance influence the relationships between predators and their prey will be increasingly important in predicting the effects of climate change within ecosystems.

  4. Comparative Phylogeography in Fijian Coral Reef Fishes: A Multi-Taxa Approach towards Marine Reserve Design

    PubMed Central

    Drew, Joshua A.; Barber, Paul H.

    2012-01-01

    Delineating barriers to connectivity is important in marine reserve design as they describe the strength and number of connections among a reserve's constituent parts, and ultimately help characterize the resilience of the system to perturbations at each node. Here we demonstrate the utility of multi-taxa phylogeography in the design of a system of marine protected areas within Fiji. Gathering mtDNA control region data from five species of coral reef fish in five genera and two families, we find a range of population structure patterns, from those experiencing little (Chrysiptera talboti, Halichoeres hortulanus, and Pomacentrus maafu), to moderate (Amphiprion barberi, Φst = 0.14 and Amblyglyphidodon orbicularis Φst = 0.05) barriers to dispersal. Furthermore estimates of gene flow over ecological time scales suggest species-specific, asymmetric migration among the regions within Fiji. The diversity among species-specific results underscores the limitations of generalizing from single-taxon studies, including the inability to differentiate between a species-specific result and a replication of concordant phylogeographic patterns, and suggests that greater taxonomic coverage results in greater resolution of community dynamics within Fiji. Our results indicate that the Fijian reefs should not be managed as a single unit, and that closely related species can express dramatically different levels of population connectivity. PMID:23118892

  5. Comparative phylogeography in Fijian coral reef fishes: a multi-taxa approach towards marine reserve design.

    PubMed

    Drew, Joshua A; Barber, Paul H

    2012-01-01

    Delineating barriers to connectivity is important in marine reserve design as they describe the strength and number of connections among a reserve's constituent parts, and ultimately help characterize the resilience of the system to perturbations at each node. Here we demonstrate the utility of multi-taxa phylogeography in the design of a system of marine protected areas within Fiji. Gathering mtDNA control region data from five species of coral reef fish in five genera and two families, we find a range of population structure patterns, from those experiencing little (Chrysiptera talboti, Halichoeres hortulanus, and Pomacentrus maafu), to moderate (Amphiprion barberi, Φ(st) = 0.14 and Amblyglyphidodon orbicularis Φ(st) = 0.05) barriers to dispersal. Furthermore estimates of gene flow over ecological time scales suggest species-specific, asymmetric migration among the regions within Fiji. The diversity among species-specific results underscores the limitations of generalizing from single-taxon studies, including the inability to differentiate between a species-specific result and a replication of concordant phylogeographic patterns, and suggests that greater taxonomic coverage results in greater resolution of community dynamics within Fiji. Our results indicate that the Fijian reefs should not be managed as a single unit, and that closely related species can express dramatically different levels of population connectivity.

  6. Specializing on vulnerable habitat: Acropora selectivity among damselfish recruits and the risk of bleaching-induced habitat loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonin, M. C.

    2012-03-01

    Coral reef habitats are increasingly being degraded and destroyed by a range of disturbances, most notably climate-induced coral bleaching. Habitat specialists, particularly those associated with susceptible coral species, are clearly among the most vulnerable to population decline or extinction. However, the degree of specialization on coral microhabitats is still unclear for one of the most ubiquitous, abundant and well studied of coral reef fish families—the damselfishes (Pomacentridae). Using high taxonomic resolution surveys of microhabitat use and availability, this study provides the first species-level description of patterns of Acropora selectivity among recruits of 10 damselfish species in order to determine their vulnerability to habitat degradation. In addition, surveys of the bleaching susceptibility of 16 branching coral species revealed which preferred recruitment microhabitats are at highest risk of decline as a result of chronic coral bleaching. Four species (i.e., Chrysiptera parasema, Pomacentrus moluccensis, Dascyllus melanurus and Chromis retrofasciata) were identified as highly vulnerable because they used only branching hard corals as recruitment habitat and primarily associated with only 2-4 coral species. The bleaching surveys revealed that five species of Acropora were highly susceptible to bleaching, with more than 50% of colonies either severely bleached or already dead. These highly susceptible corals included two of the preferred microhabitats of the specialist C. parasema and represented a significant proportion of its total recruitment microhabitat. In contrast, highly susceptible corals were rarely used by another specialist, P. moluccensis, suggesting that this species faces a lower risk of bleaching-induced habitat loss compared to C. parasema. As degradation to coral reef habitats continues, specialists will increasingly be forced to use alternative recruitment microhabitats, and this is likely to reduce population

  7. Learning Temporal Patterns of Risk in a Predator-Diverse Environment

    PubMed Central

    Bosiger, Yoland J.; Lonnstedt, Oona M.; McCormick, Mark I.; Ferrari, Maud C. O.

    2012-01-01

    Predation plays a major role in shaping prey behaviour. Temporal patterns of predation risk have been shown to drive daily activity and foraging patterns in prey. Yet the ability to respond to temporal patterns of predation risk in environments inhabited by highly diverse predator communities, such as rainforests and coral reefs, has received surprisingly little attention. In this study, we investigated whether juvenile marine fish, Pomacentrus moluccensis (lemon damselfish), have the ability to learn to adjust the intensity of their antipredator response to match the daily temporal patterns of predation risk they experience. Groups of lemon damselfish were exposed to one of two predictable temporal risk patterns for six days. “Morning risk” treatment prey were exposed to the odour of Cephalopholis cyanostigma (rockcod) paired with conspecific chemical alarm cues (simulating a rockcod present and feeding) during the morning, and rockcod odour only in the evening (simulating a rockcod present but not feeding). “Evening risk” treatment prey had the two stimuli presented to them in the opposite order. When tested individually for their response to rockcod odour alone, lemon damselfish from the morning risk treatment responded with a greater antipredator response intensity in the morning than in the evening. In contrast, those lemon damselfish previously exposed to the evening risk treatment subsequently responded with a greater antipredator response when tested in the evening. The results of this experiment demonstrate that P. moluccensis have the ability to learn temporal patterns of predation risk and can adjust their foraging patterns to match the threat posed by predators at a given time of day. Our results provide the first experimental demonstration of a mechanism by which prey in a complex, multi-predator environment can learn and respond to daily patterns of predation risk. PMID:22493699

  8. Fish Rhabdoviruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kurath, G.; Winton, J.

    2008-01-01

    Many important viral pathogens of fish are members of the family Rhabdoviridae. The viruses in this large group cause significant losses in populations of wild fish as well as among fish reared in aquaculture. Fish rhabdoviruses often have a wide host and geographic range, and infect aquatic animals in both freshwater and seawater. The fish rhabdoviruses comprise a diverse collection of isolates that can be placed in one of two quite different groups: isolates that are members of the established genusNovirhabdovirus, and those that are most similar to members of the genus Vesiculovirus. Because the diseases caused by fish rhabdoviruses are important to aquaculture, diagnostic methods for their detection and identification are well established. In addition to regulations designed to reduce the spread of fish viruses, a significant body of research has addressed methods for the control or prevention of diseases caused by fish rhabdoviruses, including vaccination. The number of reported fish rhabdoviruses continues to grow as a result of the expansion of aquaculture, the increase in global trade, the development of improved diagnostic methods, and heightened surveillance activities. Fish rhabdoviruses serve as useful components of model systems to study vertebrate virus disease, epidemiology, and immunology.

  9. Damsel in distress: captured damselfish prey emit chemical cues that attract secondary predators and improve escape chances

    PubMed Central

    Lönnstedt, Oona M.; McCormick, Mark I.

    2015-01-01

    In aquatic environments, many prey animals possess damage-released chemical alarm cues that elicit antipredator behaviours in responsive con- and heterospecifics. Despite considerable study, the selective advantage of alarm cues remains unclear. In an attempt to investigate one of the more promising hypotheses concerning the evolution of alarm cues, we examined whether the cue functions in a fashion analogous to the distress vocalizations emitted by many terrestrial animals. Our results suggest that chemical alarm cues in damselfish (Pomacentridae) may have evolved to benefit the cue sender by attracting secondary predators who disrupt the predation event, allowing the prey a greater chance to escape. The coral reef piscivore, the dusky dottyback (Pseudochromis fuscus), chemically eavesdrops on predation events and uses chemical alarm cues from fish prey (lemon damselfish; Pomacentrus moluccensis) in an attempt to find and steal prey from primary predators. Field studies showed that Ps. fuscus aggregate at sites where prey alarm cue has been experimentally released. Furthermore, secondary predators attempted to steal captured prey of primary predators in laboratory trials and enhanced prey escape chances by 35–40%. These results are the first, to the best of our knowledge, to demonstrate a mechanism by which marine fish may benefit from the production and release of alarm cues, and highlight the complex and important role that semiochemicals play in marine predator–prey interactions. PMID:26511043

  10. Texture Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Julie

    2007-01-01

    In an effort to provide an opportunity for her first graders to explore texture through an engaging subject, the author developed a three-part lesson that features fish in a mixed-media artwork: (1) Exploring Textured Paint; (2) Creating the Fish; and (3) Role Playing. In this lesson, students effectively explore texture through painting, drawing,…

  11. Texture Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Julie

    2007-01-01

    In an effort to provide an opportunity for her first graders to explore texture through an engaging subject, the author developed a three-part lesson that features fish in a mixed-media artwork: (1) Exploring Textured Paint; (2) Creating the Fish; and (3) Role Playing. In this lesson, students effectively explore texture through painting, drawing,…

  12. One Fish, Two Fish, Redfish, You Fish!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Katherine; Timmons, Maryellen; Medders, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The recreational fishing activity presented in this article provides a hands-on, problem-based experience for students; it unites biology, math, economics, environmental policy, and population dynamics concepts. In addition, the activity allows students to shape environmental policy in a realistic setting and evaluate their peers' work. By…

  13. One Fish, Two Fish, Redfish, You Fish!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Katherine; Timmons, Maryellen; Medders, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The recreational fishing activity presented in this article provides a hands-on, problem-based experience for students; it unites biology, math, economics, environmental policy, and population dynamics concepts. In addition, the activity allows students to shape environmental policy in a realistic setting and evaluate their peers' work. By…

  14. Fishing Forecasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    ROFFS stands for Roffer's Ocean Fishing Forecasting Service, Inc. Roffer combines satellite and computer technology with oceanographic information from several sources to produce frequently updated charts sometimes as often as 30 times a day showing clues to the location of marlin, sailfish, tuna, swordfish and a variety of other types. Also provides customized forecasts for racing boats and the shipping industry along with seasonal forecasts that allow the marine industry to formulate fishing strategies based on foreknowledge of the arrival and departure times of different fish. Roffs service exemplifies the potential for benefits to marine industries from satellite observations. Most notable results are reduced search time and substantial fuel savings.

  15. Warming has a greater effect than elevated CO2 on predator-prey interactions in coral reef fish.

    PubMed

    Allan, Bridie J M; Domenici, Paolo; Watson, Sue Ann; Munday, Philip L; McCormick, Mark I

    2017-06-28

    Ocean acidification and warming, driven by anthropogenic CO2 emissions, are considered to be among the greatest threats facing marine organisms. While each stressor in isolation has been studied extensively, there has been less focus on their combined effects, which could impact key ecological processes. We tested the independent and combined effects of short-term exposure to elevated CO2 and temperature on the predator-prey interactions of a common pair of coral reef fishes (Pomacentrus wardi and its predator, Pseudochromis fuscus). We found that predator success increased following independent exposure to high temperature and elevated CO2 Overall, high temperature had an overwhelming effect on the escape behaviour of the prey compared with the combined exposure to elevated CO2 and high temperature or the independent effect of elevated CO2 Exposure to high temperatures led to an increase in attack and predation rates. By contrast, we observed little influence of elevated CO2 on the behaviour of the predator, suggesting that the attack behaviour of P. fuscus was robust to this environmental change. This is the first study to address how the kinematics and swimming performance at the basis of predator-prey interactions may change in response to concurrent exposure to elevated CO2 and high temperatures and represents an important step to forecasting the responses of interacting species to climate change. © 2017 The Author(s).

  16. Designer Fish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, William R., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Described is an activity in which students are asked to design a fish that would survive in a natural system. A project to computerize the activity is discussed. The development of this artificial intelligence software is detailed. (CW)

  17. Designer Fish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, William R., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Described is an activity in which students are asked to design a fish that would survive in a natural system. A project to computerize the activity is discussed. The development of this artificial intelligence software is detailed. (CW)

  18. Fish Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... not eat any fish because they worry about mercury in seafood. Mercury is a metal that, at high levels, can ... many types of seafood have little or no mercury at all. So your risk of mercury exposure ...

  19. Fish Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... been diagnosed with a fish allergy, keep injectable epinephrine on hand in case of a severe reaction. ... mouth or throat or difficulty breathing, give the epinephrine auto-injector right away. Every second counts in ...

  20. Fighting fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duchi, E.; Guerrini, V.; Rinaldi, S.; Schaeffer, G.

    2017-01-01

    We introduce new combinatorial structures, called fighting fish, that generalize directed convex polyominoes by allowing them to branch out of the plane into independent substructures. On the one hand the combinatorial structure of fighting fish appears to be particularly rich: we show that their generating function with respect to the perimeter and number of tails is algebraic, and we conjecture a mysterious multivariate equidistribution property with the left ternary trees introduced by Del Lungo et al On the other hand, fighting fish provide a simple and natural model of random branching surfaces which displays original features: in particular, we show that the average area of a uniform random fighting fish with perimeter 2n is of order n 5/4: to the best of our knowledge this behaviour is non-standard and suggests that we have identified a new universality class of random structures. Dedicated to Tony Guttmann on the occasion of his 70th birthday.

  1. Specialization in habitat use by coral reef damselfishes and their susceptibility to habitat loss

    PubMed Central

    Pratchett, Morgan S; Coker, Darren J; Jones, Geoffrey P; Munday, Philip L

    2012-01-01

    While it is generally assumed that specialist species are more vulnerable to disturbance compared with generalist counterparts, this has rarely been tested in coastal marine ecosystems, which are increasingly subject to a wide range of natural and anthropogenic disturbances. Habitat specialists are expected to be more vulnerable to habitat loss because habitat availability exerts a greater limitation on population size, but it is also possible that specialist species may escape effects of disturbance if they use habitats that are generally resilient to disturbance. This study quantified specificity in use of different coral species by six coral-dwelling damselfishes (Chromis viridis, C. atripectoralis, Dascyllus aruanus, D. reticulatus, Pomacentrus moluccensis, and P. amboinensis) and related habitat specialization to proportional declines in their abundance following habitat degradation caused by outbreaks of the coral eating starfish, Acanthaster planci. The coral species preferred by most coral-dwelling damselfishes (e.g., Pocillopora damicornis) were frequently consumed by coral eating crown-of-thorns starfish, such that highly specialized damselfishes were disproportionately affected by coral depletion, despite using a narrower range of different coral species. Vulnerability of damselfishes to this disturbance was strongly correlated with both their reliance on corals and their degree of habitat specialization. Ongoing disturbances to coral reef ecosystems are expected, therefore, to lead to fundamental shifts in the community structure of fish communities where generalists are favored over highly specialist species. PMID:23139876

  2. Specialization in habitat use by coral reef damselfishes and their susceptibility to habitat loss.

    PubMed

    Pratchett, Morgan S; Coker, Darren J; Jones, Geoffrey P; Munday, Philip L

    2012-09-01

    While it is generally assumed that specialist species are more vulnerable to disturbance compared with generalist counterparts, this has rarely been tested in coastal marine ecosystems, which are increasingly subject to a wide range of natural and anthropogenic disturbances. Habitat specialists are expected to be more vulnerable to habitat loss because habitat availability exerts a greater limitation on population size, but it is also possible that specialist species may escape effects of disturbance if they use habitats that are generally resilient to disturbance. This study quantified specificity in use of different coral species by six coral-dwelling damselfishes (Chromis viridis, C. atripectoralis, Dascyllus aruanus, D. reticulatus, Pomacentrus moluccensis, and P. amboinensis) and related habitat specialization to proportional declines in their abundance following habitat degradation caused by outbreaks of the coral eating starfish, Acanthaster planci. The coral species preferred by most coral-dwelling damselfishes (e.g., Pocillopora damicornis) were frequently consumed by coral eating crown-of-thorns starfish, such that highly specialized damselfishes were disproportionately affected by coral depletion, despite using a narrower range of different coral species. Vulnerability of damselfishes to this disturbance was strongly correlated with both their reliance on corals and their degree of habitat specialization. Ongoing disturbances to coral reef ecosystems are expected, therefore, to lead to fundamental shifts in the community structure of fish communities where generalists are favored over highly specialist species.

  3. Effects of elevated CO2 on predator avoidance behaviour by reef fishes is not altered by experimental test water.

    PubMed

    Munday, Philip L; Welch, Megan J; Allan, Bridie J M; Watson, Sue-Ann; McMahon, Shannon J; McCormick, Mark I

    2016-01-01

    Pioneering studies into the effects of elevated CO2 on the behaviour of reef fishes often tested high-CO2 reared fish using control water in the test arena. While subsequent studies using rearing treatment water (control or high CO2) in the test arena have confirmed the effects of high CO2 on a range of reef fish behaviours, a further investigation into the use of different test water in the experimental arena is warranted. Here, we used a fully factorial design to test the effect of rearing treatment water (control or high CO2) and experimental test water (control or high CO2) on antipredator responses of larval reef fishes. We tested antipredator behaviour in larval clownfish Amphiprion percula and ambon damselfish Pomacentrus amboinensis, two species that have been used in previous high CO2 experiments. Specifically, we tested if: (1) using control or high CO2 water in a two channel flume influenced the response of larval clownfish to predator odour; and (2) using control or high CO2 water in the test arena influenced the escape response of larval damselfish to a startle stimulus. Finally, (3) because the effects of high CO2 on fish behaviour appear to be caused by altered function of the GABA-A neurotransmitter we tested if antipredator behaviours were restored in clownfish treated with a GABA antagonist (gabazine) in high CO2 water. Larval clownfish reared from hatching in control water (496 µatm) strongly avoided predator cue whereas larval clownfish reared from hatching in high CO2 (1,022 µatm) were attracted to the predator cue, as has been reported in previous studies. There was no effect on fish responses of using either control or high CO2 water in the flume. Larval damselfish reared for four days in high CO2 (1,051 µatm) exhibited a slower response to a startle stimulus and slower escape speed compared with fish reared in control conditions (464 µatm). There was no effect of test water on escape responses. Treatment of high-CO2 reared clownfish with

  4. Effects of elevated CO2 on predator avoidance behaviour by reef fishes is not altered by experimental test water

    PubMed Central

    Welch, Megan J.; Allan, Bridie J.M.; Watson, Sue-Ann; McMahon, Shannon J.; McCormick, Mark I.

    2016-01-01

    Pioneering studies into the effects of elevated CO2 on the behaviour of reef fishes often tested high-CO2 reared fish using control water in the test arena. While subsequent studies using rearing treatment water (control or high CO2) in the test arena have confirmed the effects of high CO2 on a range of reef fish behaviours, a further investigation into the use of different test water in the experimental arena is warranted. Here, we used a fully factorial design to test the effect of rearing treatment water (control or high CO2) and experimental test water (control or high CO2) on antipredator responses of larval reef fishes. We tested antipredator behaviour in larval clownfish Amphiprion percula and ambon damselfish Pomacentrus amboinensis, two species that have been used in previous high CO2 experiments. Specifically, we tested if: (1) using control or high CO2 water in a two channel flume influenced the response of larval clownfish to predator odour; and (2) using control or high CO2 water in the test arena influenced the escape response of larval damselfish to a startle stimulus. Finally, (3) because the effects of high CO2 on fish behaviour appear to be caused by altered function of the GABA-A neurotransmitter we tested if antipredator behaviours were restored in clownfish treated with a GABA antagonist (gabazine) in high CO2 water. Larval clownfish reared from hatching in control water (496 µatm) strongly avoided predator cue whereas larval clownfish reared from hatching in high CO2 (1,022 µatm) were attracted to the predator cue, as has been reported in previous studies. There was no effect on fish responses of using either control or high CO2 water in the flume. Larval damselfish reared for four days in high CO2 (1,051 µatm) exhibited a slower response to a startle stimulus and slower escape speed compared with fish reared in control conditions (464 µatm). There was no effect of test water on escape responses. Treatment of high-CO2 reared clownfish with

  5. Karuk Fishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Ruth, Ed.; Goodwin, Norman

    A booklet on traditional fishing practices of the Karuk Indians of northwestern California is presented in the formal, literary English speech of Norman Goodwin, a Karuk medicine man involved in preserving ancient tribal traditions. Empirical information and personal narratives are combined in descriptions of different kinds of nets, social rules…

  6. Gone Fishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson-Demme, Hillary; Kisiel, Jim

    2003-01-01

    Presents a hands-on activity in which students create a model of an ocean ecosystem to gain an understanding of how humans can alter biodiversity through their actions. Uses differing levels of fishing technology to explore the concepts of sustainability and overfishing. (Author/SOE)

  7. Commercial Fishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This document is a curriculum framework for a program in commercial fishing to be taught in Florida secondary and postsecondary institutions. This outline covers the major concepts/content of the program, which is designed to prepare students for employment in occupations with titles such as net fishers, pot fishers, line fishers, shrimp boat…

  8. Commercial Fishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This document is a curriculum framework for a program in commercial fishing to be taught in Florida secondary and postsecondary institutions. This outline covers the major concepts/content of the program, which is designed to prepare students for employment in occupations with titles such as net fishers, pot fishers, line fishers, shrimp boat…

  9. Karuk Fishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Ruth, Ed.; Goodwin, Norman

    A booklet on traditional fishing practices of the Karuk Indians of northwestern California is presented in the formal, literary English speech of Norman Goodwin, a Karuk medicine man involved in preserving ancient tribal traditions. Empirical information and personal narratives are combined in descriptions of different kinds of nets, social rules…

  10. Gone Fishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson-Demme, Hillary; Kisiel, Jim

    2003-01-01

    Presents a hands-on activity in which students create a model of an ocean ecosystem to gain an understanding of how humans can alter biodiversity through their actions. Uses differing levels of fishing technology to explore the concepts of sustainability and overfishing. (Author/SOE)

  11. Fish gelatin.

    PubMed

    Boran, Gokhan; Regenstein, Joe M

    2010-01-01

    Gelatin is a multifunctional ingredient used in foods, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and photographic films as a gelling agent, stabilizer, thickener, emulsifier, and film former. As a thermoreversible hydrocolloid with a narrower gap between its melting and gelling temperatures, both of which are below human body temperature, gelatin provides unique advantages over carbohydrate-based gelling agents. Gelatin is mostly produced from pig skin, and cattle hides and bones. Some alternative raw materials have recently gained attention from both researchers and the industry not just because they overcome religious concerns shared by Jews and Muslims but also because they provide, in some cases, technological advantages over mammalian gelatins. Fish skins from a number of fish species are among the other sources that have been comprehensively studied as sources for gelatin production. Fish skins have a significant potential for the production of high-quality gelatin with different melting and gelling temperatures over a much wider range than mammalian gelatins, yet still have a sufficiently high gel strength and viscosity. Gelatin quality is industrially determined by gel strength, viscosity, melting or gelling temperatures, the water content, and microbiological safety. For gelatin manufacturers, yield from a particular raw material is also important. Recent experimental studies have shown that these quality parameters vary greatly depending on the biochemical characteristics of the raw materials, the manufacturing processes applied, and the experimental settings used for quality control tests. In this review, the gelatin quality achieved from different fish species is reviewed along with the experimental procedures used to determine gelatin quality. In addition, the chemical structure of collagen and gelatin, the collagen-gelatin conversion, the gelation process, and the gelatin market are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Fish Tales

    SciTech Connect

    McLerran, L.

    2010-07-06

    This talk is about fishing and the friendships that have resulted in its pursuit. It is also about theoretical physics, and the relationship of imagination and fantasy to the establishment of ideas about nature. Fishermen, like theoretical physicists, are well known for their inventive imaginations. Perhaps neither are as clever as sailors, who conceived of the mermaid. If one doubts the power of this fantasy, one should remember the ghosts of the many sailors who drowned pursuing these young nymphs. An extraordinary painting by J. Waterhouse is shown as Fig. 1. The enchantment of a mermaid must reflect an extraordinary excess of imagination on the part of the sailor, perhaps together with an impractical turn of mind. A consummated relationship with a mermaid is after all, by its very nature a fantasy incapable of realization. To a theoretical physicist, she is symbolic of many ideas we develop. There are many truths known to fisherman in which one might also find parallels to the goals of scientists: (1) A fish is the only animal that keeps growing after its death; (2) Nothing makes a fish bigger than almost being caught; (3) ''...of all the liars among mankind, the fisherman is the most trustworthy.'' (William Sherwood Fox, in Silken Lines and Silver Hooks); and (4) Men and fish are alike. They both get into trouble when they open their mouths. These quotes may be interpreted as reflecting skepticism regarding the honesty of fisherman, and probably do not reflect adequate admiration for a creative imagination. Is it fair to criticize a person for believing a falsehood that he or she sincerely believes to be true? The fisherman simultaneously invents the lie, and believes in it himself. The parallel with theoretical physics is perhaps only approximate, although we physicists may invent stories that we come to believe, on some rare occasions our ideas actually correspond to a more or less true descriptions of nature. These minor philosophical differences are not

  13. Fish Immunoglobulins

    PubMed Central

    Mashoof, Sara; Criscitiello, Michael F.

    2016-01-01

    The B cell receptor and secreted antibody are at the nexus of humoral adaptive immunity. In this review, we summarize what is known of the immunoglobulin genes of jawed cartilaginous and bony fishes. We focus on what has been learned from genomic or cDNA sequence data, but where appropriate draw upon protein, immunization, affinity and structural studies. Work from major aquatic model organisms and less studied comparative species are both included to define what is the rule for an immunoglobulin isotype or taxonomic group and what exemplifies an exception. PMID:27879632

  14. Fishing activities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oberle, Ferdinand; Puig, Pere; Martin, Jacobo; Micallef, Aaron; Krastel, Sebastian; Savini, Alessandra

    2018-01-01

    Unlike the major anthropogenic changes that terrestrial and coastal habitats underwent during the last centuries such as deforestation, river engineering, agricultural practices or urbanism, those occurring underwater are veiled from our eyes and have continued nearly unnoticed. Only recent advances in remote sensing and deep marine sampling technologies have revealed the extent and magnitude of the anthropogenic impacts to the seafloor. In particular, bottom trawling, a fishing technique consisting of dragging a net and fishing gear over the seafloor to capture bottom-dwelling living resources has gained attention among the scientific community, policy makers and the general public due to its destructive effects on the seabed. Trawling gear produces acute impacts on biota and the physical substratum of the seafloor by disrupting the sediment column structure, overturning boulders, resuspending sediments and imprinting deep scars on muddy bottoms. Also, the repetitive passage of trawling gear over the same areas creates long-lasting, cumulative impacts that modify the cohesiveness and texture of sediments. It can be asserted nowadays that due to its recurrence, mobility and wide geographical extent, industrial trawling has become a major force driving seafloor change and affecting not only its physical integrity on short spatial scales but also imprinting measurable modifications to the geomorphology of entire continental margins.

  15. Deep Fish.

    PubMed

    Ishaq, Omer; Sadanandan, Sajith Kecheril; Wählby, Carolina

    2017-01-01

    Zebrafish ( Danio rerio) is an important vertebrate model organism in biomedical research, especially suitable for morphological screening due to its transparent body during early development. Deep learning has emerged as a dominant paradigm for data analysis and found a number of applications in computer vision and image analysis. Here we demonstrate the potential of a deep learning approach for accurate high-throughput classification of whole-body zebrafish deformations in multifish microwell plates. Deep learning uses the raw image data as an input, without the need of expert knowledge for feature design or optimization of the segmentation parameters. We trained the deep learning classifier on as few as 84 images (before data augmentation) and achieved a classification accuracy of 92.8% on an unseen test data set that is comparable to the previous state of the art (95%) based on user-specified segmentation and deformation metrics. Ablation studies by digitally removing whole fish or parts of the fish from the images revealed that the classifier learned discriminative features from the image foreground, and we observed that the deformations of the head region, rather than the visually apparent bent tail, were more important for good classification performance.

  16. Fishing amplifies forage fish population collapses.

    PubMed

    Essington, Timothy E; Moriarty, Pamela E; Froehlich, Halley E; Hodgson, Emma E; Koehn, Laura E; Oken, Kiva L; Siple, Margaret C; Stawitz, Christine C

    2015-05-26

    Forage fish support the largest fisheries in the world but also play key roles in marine food webs by transferring energy from plankton to upper trophic-level predators, such as large fish, seabirds, and marine mammals. Fishing can, thereby, have far reaching consequences on marine food webs unless safeguards are in place to avoid depleting forage fish to dangerously low levels, where dependent predators are most vulnerable. However, disentangling the contributions of fishing vs. natural processes on population dynamics has been difficult because of the sensitivity of these stocks to environmental conditions. Here, we overcome this difficulty by collating population time series for forage fish populations that account for nearly two-thirds of global catch of forage fish to identify the fingerprint of fisheries on their population dynamics. Forage fish population collapses shared a set of common and unique characteristics: high fishing pressure for several years before collapse, a sharp drop in natural population productivity, and a lagged response to reduce fishing pressure. Lagged response to natural productivity declines can sharply amplify the magnitude of naturally occurring population fluctuations. Finally, we show that the magnitude and frequency of collapses are greater than expected from natural productivity characteristics and therefore, likely attributed to fishing. The durations of collapses, however, were not different from those expected based on natural productivity shifts. A risk-based management scheme that reduces fishing when populations become scarce would protect forage fish and their predators from collapse with little effect on long-term average catches.

  17. Indicators: Fish Assemblage

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Fish assemblage refers to the variety and abundance of fish species in a given waterbody. Fish are sensitive indicators of physical and chemical habitat degradation, environmental contamination, migration barriers, and overall ecosystem productivity.

  18. Fish tapeworm infection

    MedlinePlus

    Fish tapeworm infection is an intestinal infection with the tapeworm parasite found in fish. ... The fish tapeworm ( Diphyllobothrium latum ) is the largest parasite that infects humans. Humans become infected when they eat raw or undercooked ...

  19. Microencapsulation of Fish Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beindorff, Christiaan M.; Zuidam, Nicolaas Jan

    For those fortunate to live near rivers, lakes and the sea, fish has been part of their diet for many centuries, and trade in dried fish has a long history. The important fishing industry developed when fishermen started to fish over wider areas of the seas and when improvements in freezing facilities allowed storage at sea, and subsequent distribution to urban consumers. For many, fresh fish and fried fish are now a part of their standard diet.

  20. Fish mycobacteriosis (Tuberculosis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parisot, T.J.; Wood, J.W.

    1959-01-01

    The etiologic agent for the bacterial disease, "fish tuberculosis" (more correctly "mycobacteriosis"), was first observed in carp in 189& from a pond in France. Subsequently similar agents have been isolated from or observed in fish in fresh water, salt water, and brackish water, in fish in aquaria, hatcheries, and natural habitat~ (wild populations of fish). The disease has been recognized as an important infection among hatchery reared salmonid fishes on the West Coast of the United States, and in aquarium fishes such as the neon tetra, the Siamese fighting fish, and in salt water fish held in zoological displays.

  1. Rare Trophy Fish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Denice

    2000-01-01

    Describes an art lesson in which third-grade students create mounted trophy fish. Explains how the students created the three-dimensional fish, the board on which to mount the fish, and the small paper plaque with information about the trophy fish. (CMK)

  2. Scorpion fish sting

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002849.htm Scorpion fish sting To use the sharing features on this page, ... are also found in aquariums worldwide. Symptoms A scorpion fish sting causes intense pain and swelling at the site ...

  3. 49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 173.218 Section 173.218... Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) Except as provided in Column (7) of the HMT in § 172.101 of this subchapter, fish meal or fish scrap, containing at least 6%, but not more than 12% water, is authorized...

  4. 46 CFR 148.265 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... antioxidant at the time of shipment. (f) At the time of loading, the temperature of the fish meal or fish... must be taken of fish meal or fish scrap three times a day and recorded. If the temperature of the... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 148.265 Section 148.265...

  5. Fish eye optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudec, R.; Michalova, S.

    2017-07-01

    We report on small student (high—school) project of the Czech Academy of Sciences dealing with animal (fish) eyes and possible application in science and technology. Albeit most fishes have refractive eyes, the recent discoveries confirm that some fishes have reflective eyes with strange arrangements as well.

  6. Fishing for Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Bruce

    1994-01-01

    Teaching students to fish not only develops a lifetime leisure skill but also leads to an understanding of aquatic ecosystems and encourages student connection with the natural environment. Addresses educational benefits of incorporating fishing into environmental education and describes how two fishing programs successfully met objectives of…

  7. Poisoning - fish and shellfish

    MedlinePlus

    ... contaminated waters. Scombroid poisoning usually occurs from large, dark meat fish such as tuna, mackerel, mahi mahi, and albacore. Because this poison develops after a fish is caught and dies, it does not matter where the fish is caught. The main factor ...

  8. Fish under exercise.

    PubMed

    Palstra, Arjan P; Planas, Josep V

    2011-06-01

    Improved knowledge on the swimming physiology of fish and its application to fisheries science and aquaculture (i.e., farming a fitter fish) is currently needed in the face of global environmental changes, high fishing pressures, increased aquaculture production as well as increased concern on fish well-being. Here, we review existing data on teleost fish that indicate that sustained exercise at optimal speeds enhances muscle growth and has consequences for flesh quality. Potential added benefits of sustained exercise may be delay of ovarian development and stimulation of immune status. Exercise could represent a natural, noninvasive, and economical approach to improve growth, flesh quality as well as welfare of aquacultured fish: a FitFish for a healthy consumer. All these issues are important for setting directions for policy decisions and future studies in this area. For this purpose, the FitFish workshop on the Swimming Physiology of Fish ( http://www.ub.edu/fitfish2010 ) was organized to bring together a multidisciplinary group of scientists using exercise models, industrial partners, and policy makers. Sixteen international experts from Europe, North America, and Japan were invited to present their work and view on migration of fishes in their natural environment, beneficial effects of exercise, and applications for sustainable aquaculture. Eighty-eight participants from 19 different countries contributed through a poster session and round table discussion. Eight papers from invited speakers at the workshop have been contributed to this special issue on The Swimming Physiology of Fish.

  9. Fish allergy: in review.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Michael F; Lopata, Andreas L

    2014-06-01

    Globally, the rising consumption of fish and its derivatives, due to its nutritional value and divergence of international cuisines, has led to an increase in reports of adverse reactions to fish. Reactions to fish are not only mediated by the immune system causing allergies, but are often caused by various toxins and parasites including ciguatera and Anisakis. Allergic reactions to fish can be serious and life threatening and children usually do not outgrow this type of food allergy. The route of exposure is not only restricted to ingestion but include manual handling and inhalation of cooking vapors in the domestic and occupational environment. Prevalence rates of self-reported fish allergy range from 0.2 to 2.29 % in the general population, but can reach up to 8 % among fish processing workers. Fish allergy seems to vary with geographical eating habits, type of fish processing, and fish species exposure. The major fish allergen characterized is parvalbumin in addition to several less well-known allergens. This contemporary review discusses interesting and new findings in the area of fish allergy including demographics, novel allergens identified, immunological mechanisms of sensitization, and innovative approaches in diagnosing and managing this life-long disease.

  10. Functional endemism: population connectivity, shifting baselines, and the scale of human experience

    PubMed Central

    Drew, Joshua; Kaufman, Les

    2013-01-01

    Quantifying population connectivity is important for visualizing the spatial and temporal scales that conservation measures act upon. Traditionally, migration based on genetic data has been reported in migrants per generation. However, the temporal scales over which this migration may occur do not necessarily accommodate the scales over which human perturbations occur, leaving the potential for a disconnect between population genetic data and conservation action based on those data. Here, we present a new metric called the “Rule of Memory”, which helps conservation practitioners to interpret “migrants per generation” in the context both of human modified ecosystems and the cultural memory of those doing the modification. Our rule states that clades should be considered functionally endemic regardless of their actual taxonomic designation if the migration between locations is insufficient to maintain a viable population over the timescales of one human generation (20 years). Since larger animals are more likely to be remembered, we quantify the relationship between migrants per human (N) and body mass of the organism in question (M) with the formula N = 10M−1. We then use the coral reef fish Pomacentrus moluccensis to demonstrate the taxonomic and spatial scales over which this rule can be applied. Going beyond minimum viable population literature, this metric assesses the probability that a clade's existence will be forgotten by people throughout its range during a period of extirpation. Because conservation plans are predicated on having well-established baselines, a loss of a species over the range of one human generation evokes the likelihood of that species no longer being recognized as a member of an ecosystem, and thus being excluded in restoration or conservation prioritization. [Correction added on 26 December 2012, after first online publication: this formula has been corrected to N=10M−1]. PMID:23467269

  11. Cholesterol Oxidation in Fish and Fish Products.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Natalie Marinho; Sampaio, Geni Rodrigues; Ferreira, Fernanda Silva; Labre, Tatiana da Silva; Torres, Elizabeth Aparecida Ferraz da Silva; Saldanha, Tatiana

    2015-12-01

    Fish and fish products are important from a nutritional point of view due to the presence of high biological value proteins and the high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially those of the n-3 series, and above all eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. However, these important food products also contain significant amounts of cholesterol. Although cholesterol participates in essential functions in the human body, it is unstable, especially in the presence of light, oxygen, radiation, and high temperatures that can cause the formation of cholesterol oxidation products or cholesterol oxides, which are prejudicial to human health. Fish processing involves high and low temperatures, as well as other methods for microbiological control, which increases shelf life and consequently added value; however, such processes favor the formation of cholesterol oxidation products. This review brings together data on the formation of cholesterol oxides during the preparation and processing of fish into food products which are recognized and recommended for their nutritional properties.

  12. Fish elevator and method of elevating fish

    DOEpatents

    Truebe, Jonathan; Drooker, Michael S.

    1984-01-01

    A means and method for transporting fish from a lower body of water to a higher body of water. The means comprises a tubular lock with a gated entrance below the level of the lower body of water through which fish may enter the lock and a discharge passage above the level of the upper body of water. The fish raising means in the lock is a crowder pulled upward by a surface float as water from the upper body of water gravitationally flows into the closed lock filling it to the level of the upper body. Water is then pumped into the lock to raise the level to the discharge passage. The crowder is then caused to float upward the remaining distance through the water to the level of the discharge passage by the introduction of air into a pocket on the underside of the crowder. The fish are then automatically discharged from the lock into the discharge passage by the out of water position of the crowder. The movement of the fish into the discharge passage is aided by the continuous overflow of water still being pumped into the lock. A pipe may be connected to the discharge passage to deliver the fish to a selected location in the upper body of water.

  13. Why fishes have a fish shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eloy, Christophe; Schouveiler, Lionel

    2010-11-01

    The relation between form and function for elongated swimmers is revisited by solving a multi-objective optimization problem. We consider elongated fishes of varying elliptic cross-section whose motion is prescribed by a time-periodic curvature. The two semi-axes of the cross-section, the curvature amplitude and phase are assumed to vary continuously along the fish length. Hydrodynamic forces acting on such fishes are modeled in the elongated-body limit by considering both reactive and resistive forces. Applying Newton's second law, the heave and pitch amplitude and phase, as well as the swimming velocity can be found. The total power needed can also be calculated yielding the swimming efficiency. The multi-objective optimization consists in finding the fish shape and associated motion which corresponds to maximum efficiency, maximum velocity or any trade-off between the two. This optimization problem is solved using a genetic algorithm whose principle is to start with an initial random population and to evolve it by mutation and selection. We find that the most efficient shape resembles existing fishes and arguments are given to explain the relation between this particular fish form and performance.

  14. Sensor Fish Communicator

    SciTech Connect

    2016-06-09

    The Sensor Fish collects information that can be used to evaluate conditions encountered by juvenile salmonids and other fish as they pass through hydroelectric dams on their way to the ocean. Sensor Fish are deployed in turbines, spillways, and sluiceways and measure changes in pressure, angular rate of change, and linear acceleration during passage. The software is need to make Sensor Fish fully functional and easy to use. Sensor Fish Communicator (SFC) links to Sensor Fish, allowing users to control data collection settings and download data. It may also be used to convert native raw data (.raw2) files into Comma Separated Variable (.csv) files and plot the results. The multiple capabilities of the SFC allow hardware communication, data conversion, and data plotting with one application.

  15. Immunostimulants in fish diets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gannam, A.L.; Schrock, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    Various immunostimulants and their methods of application in fish culture are examined in this review. Important variables such as life stage and innate disease resistance of the fish; immunostimulant used, its structure and mode of action; and the fish's environment are discussed. Conflicting results have been published about the efficacy of immunostimulants in fish diets. Some researchers have had positive responses demonstrated as increased fish survival, others have not. Generally, immunostimulants enhance individual components of the non-specific immune response but that does not always translate into increased fish survival. In addition, immunostimulants fed at too high a dose or for too long can be immunosuppressive. [Article copies available for a fee from The Haworth Document Delivery Service: 1-800-342-9678. E-mail address: getinfo@haworthpressinc.com ].

  16. Fish and wildlife surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Poston, T.M.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the monitoring of radioactive contaminants in fish and wildlife species that inhabit the Colombia River and Hanford Site. Wildlife have access to areas of the Site containing radioactive contamination, and fish can be exposed to contamination in spring water entering the river along the shoreline. Therefore, samples are collected at various locations annually, generally during the hunting or fishing season, for selected species.

  17. Hematologic disorders of fish.

    PubMed

    Clauss, Tonya M; Dove, Alistair D M; Arnold, Jill E

    2008-09-01

    Hematology can be a useful tool for monitoring health status, detecting illness, and following the progress of disease and response to therapy. Despite advances in fish medicine in recent years, interpretation of fish hematology often is hampered by a lack of meaningful reference values and the bewildering diversity of fish species. A multitude of intrinsic and extrinsic factors cause normal and abnormal variation in hematologic data. This article provides an overview of some of the hematologic abnormalities in fish induced by infectious agents and environmental, husbandry, and nutritional issues.

  18. [Helminths of Antarctic fishes].

    PubMed

    Rocka, Anna

    2008-01-01

    Antarctic fishes are represented by sharks, skates (Chondrichthyes) and bony fishes (Teleostei). Teleosts play an important role in the completion of life cycles of many helminth species. They serve as either definitive or intermediate and paratenic hosts. Chondrichthyes are definitive hosts only. Seventy three helminth species occur as the adult stage in fishes: Digenea (45), Cestoda (14), Nematoda (6), Acanthocephala (8), Also, 11 larval stages of Cestoda (7) and Nematoda (4) are known, together with 7 species of Acanthocephala in the cystacanth stage. One digenean species, Otodistomum cestoides, matures in skates. Among cestodes maturing in fishes only one, Parabothriocephalus johnstoni, occurs in a bony fish, Macrourus whitsoni. Antarctic Chondrichthyes are not infected with nematodes and acanthocephalans. Cestode larvae from teleosts belong to Tetraphyllidea (parasites of skates), and Tetrabothriidae and Diphyllobothriidae (parasites of birds and mammals). Larval nematodes represent Anisakidae, parasites of fishes, birds and mammals. Acanthocephalan cystacanths mature in pinnipeds and birds. The majority of parasites maturing in Antarctic fishes are endemics. Only 4 digenean and one nematode species, Hysterothylacium aduncum, are cosmopolitan. All acanthocephalans, almost all digeneans, the majority of cestodes and some nematodes occur mainly or exclusively in benthic fishes. Specificity of the majority of helminths utilizing teleosts as intermediate and/or paratenic hosts is low. Among parasites using fishes as definitive hosts, all Cestoda, most Digenea and Nematoda, and almost all Acanthocephala have a range of hosts restricted to one order or even to 1-2 host species.

  19. Fish-allergic patients may be able to eat fish.

    PubMed

    Mourad, Ahmad A; Bahna, Sami L

    2015-03-01

    Reported fish allergy prevalence varies widely, with an estimated prevalence of 0.2% in the general population. Sensitization to fish can occur by ingestion, skin contact or inhalation. The manifestations can be IgE or non-IgE mediated. Several fish allergens have been identified, with parvalbumins being the major allergen in various species. Allergenicity varies among fish species and is affected by processing or preparation methods. Adverse reactions after eating fish are often claimed to be 'allergy' but could be a reaction to hidden food allergen, fish parasite, fish toxins or histamine in spoiled fish. Identifying such causes would allow free consumption of fish. Correct diagnosis of fish allergy, including the specific species, might provide the patient with safe alternatives. Patients have been generally advised for strict universal avoidance of fish. However, testing with various fish species or preparations might identify one or more forms that can be tolerated.

  20. 49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 173.218 Section 173.218... Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) Except as provided in Column (7) of the HMT in § 172.101 of this subchapter, fish meal or fish scrap, containing at least 6%, but not more than 12% water, is authorized for...

  1. Immunity in Fish

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The fish immune system has evolved with both non-specific (innate immunity) and acquired immune functions (humoral and cell mediated immunity) to eliminate invading foreign living and non-living agents. Fish possess a unique physical barrier (mucus and skin) that acts as the first line of defense a...

  2. Folkbiology of Freshwater Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medin, Douglas L.; Ross, Norbert O.; Atran, Scott; Cox, Douglas; Coley, John; Proffitt, Julia B.; Blok, Sergey

    2006-01-01

    Cross-cultural comparisons of categorization often confound cultural factors with expertise. This paper reports four experiments on the conceptual behavior of Native American and majority-culture fish experts. The two groups live in the same general area and engage in essentially the same set of fishing-related behaviors. Nonetheless, cultural…

  3. The Big Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLisle, Rebecca; Hargis, Jace

    2005-01-01

    The Killer Whale, Shamu jumps through hoops and splashes tourists in hopes for the big fish, not because of passion, desire or simply the enjoyment of doing so. What would happen if those fish were obsolete? Would this killer whale be able to find the passion to continue to entertain people? Or would Shamu find other exciting activities to do…

  4. Fishing for Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Bruce

    1994-01-01

    Fishing helps campers develop problem-solving skills, apply biological and ecological concepts, become aware of environmental problems, realize environmental consequences of actions, discuss environmental ethics, consider spiritual values, and connect with the natural world. Describes two camps that successfully integrate fishing with…

  5. Ammonia toxicity in fish.

    PubMed

    Randall, D J; Tsui, T K N

    2002-01-01

    Ammonia is present in the aquatic environment due to agricultural run-off and decomposition of biological waste. Ammonia is toxic to all vertebrates causing convulsions, coma and death, probably because elevated NH4+ displaces K+ and depolarizes neurons, causing activation of NMDA type glutamate receptor, which leads to an influx of excessive Ca2+ and subsequent cell death in the central nervous system. Present ammonia criteria for aquatic systems are based on toxicity tests carried out on, starved, resting, non-stressed fish. This is doubly inappropriate. During exhaustive exercise and stress, fish increase ammonia production and are more sensitive to external ammonia. Present criteria do not protect swimming fish. Fish have strategies to protect them from the ammonia pulse following feeding, and this also protects them from increases in external ammonia, as a result starved fish are more sensitive to external ammonia than fed fish. There are a number of fish species that can tolerate high environmental ammonia. Glutamine formation is an important ammonia detoxification strategy in the brain of fish, especially after feeding. Detoxification of ammonia to urea has also been observed in elasmobranches and some teleosts. Reduction in the rate of proteolysis and the rate of amino acid catabolism, which results in a decrease in ammonia production, may be another strategy to reduce ammonia toxicity. The weather loach volatilizes NH3, and the mudskipper, P. schlosseri, utilizes yet another unique strategy, it actively pumps NH4+ out of the body.

  6. Folkbiology of Freshwater Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medin, Douglas L.; Ross, Norbert O.; Atran, Scott; Cox, Douglas; Coley, John; Proffitt, Julia B.; Blok, Sergey

    2006-01-01

    Cross-cultural comparisons of categorization often confound cultural factors with expertise. This paper reports four experiments on the conceptual behavior of Native American and majority-culture fish experts. The two groups live in the same general area and engage in essentially the same set of fishing-related behaviors. Nonetheless, cultural…

  7. Enzymes in Fermented Fish.

    PubMed

    Giyatmi; Irianto, H E

    Fermented fish products are very popular particularly in Southeast Asian countries. These products have unique characteristics, especially in terms of aroma, flavor, and texture developing during fermentation process. Proteolytic enzymes have a main role in hydrolyzing protein into simpler compounds. Fermentation process of fish relies both on naturally occurring enzymes (in the muscle or the intestinal tract) as well as bacteria. Fermented fish products processed using the whole fish show a different characteristic compared to those prepared from headed and gutted fish. Endogenous enzymes like trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase, and aminopeptidase are the most involved in the fermentation process. Muscle tissue enzymes like cathepsins, peptidases, transaminases, amidases, amino acid decarboxylases, glutamic dehydrogenases, and related enzymes may also play a role in fish fermentation. Due to the decreased bacterial number during fermentation, contribution of microbial enzymes to proteolysis may be expected prior to salting of fish. Commercial enzymes are supplemented during processing for specific purposes, such as quality improvement and process acceleration. In the case of fish sauce, efforts to accelerate fermentation process and to improve product quality have been studied by addition of enzymes such as papain, bromelain, trypsin, pepsin, and chymotrypsin. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. PARASITES OF FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The intent of this chapter is to describe the parasites of importance to fishes maintained and used in laboratory settings. In contrast to the frist edition, the focus will be only on those parasites that pose a serious threat to or are common in fishes held in these confined en...

  9. PARASITES OF FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The intent of this chapter is to describe the parasites of importance to fishes maintained and used in laboratory settings. In contrast to the frist edition, the focus will be only on those parasites that pose a serious threat to or are common in fishes held in these confined en...

  10. An Amazing Fish Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Null, Elisabeth Higgins

    2001-01-01

    Caught up in the entrepreneurial thrill of launching a new industry, high-school students in an economically distressed fishing village in Maine are playing a vital research-and-development role in partnership with their community. The result is a sophisticated aquaculture center for raising several species of fish in a laboratory setting. (MLH)

  11. An Amazing Fish Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Null, Elisabeth Higgins

    2001-01-01

    Caught up in the entrepreneurial thrill of launching a new industry, high-school students in an economically distressed fishing village in Maine are playing a vital research-and-development role in partnership with their community. The result is a sophisticated aquaculture center for raising several species of fish in a laboratory setting. (MLH)

  12. Fish Vaccines in Aquaculture

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vaccination is a proven, cost-effective method to prevent infectious diseases in animals. Current fish vaccines can be categorized as killed fish vaccines or modified live vaccines. The major advantage of live vaccine is their ability to stimulate both cell-mediated and humoral immune responses for ...

  13. The Big Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLisle, Rebecca; Hargis, Jace

    2005-01-01

    The Killer Whale, Shamu jumps through hoops and splashes tourists in hopes for the big fish, not because of passion, desire or simply the enjoyment of doing so. What would happen if those fish were obsolete? Would this killer whale be able to find the passion to continue to entertain people? Or would Shamu find other exciting activities to do…

  14. Antimicrobial Peptides from Fish

    PubMed Central

    Masso-Silva, Jorge A.; Diamond, Gill

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are found widely distributed through Nature, and participate in the innate host defense of each species. Fish are a great source of these peptides, as they express all of the major classes of AMPs, including defensins, cathelicidins, hepcidins, histone-derived peptides, and a fish-specific class of the cecropin family, called piscidins. As with other species, the fish peptides exhibit broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, killing both fish and human pathogens. They are also immunomodulatory, and their genes are highly responsive to microbes and innate immuno-stimulatory molecules. Recent research has demonstrated that some of the unique properties of fish peptides, including their ability to act even in very high salt concentrations, make them good potential targets for development as therapeutic antimicrobials. Further, the stimulation of their gene expression by exogenous factors could be useful in preventing pathogenic microbes in aquaculture. PMID:24594555

  15. Epigenomics in marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Metzger, David C H; Schulte, Patricia M

    2016-12-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms are an underappreciated and often ignored component of an organism's response to environmental change and may underlie many types of phenotypic plasticity. Recent technological advances in methods for detecting epigenetic marks at a whole-genome scale have launched new opportunities for studying epigenomics in ecologically relevant non-model systems. The study of ecological epigenomics holds great promise to better understand the linkages between genotype, phenotype, and the environment and to explore mechanisms of phenotypic plasticity. The many attributes of marine fish species, including their high diversity, variable life histories, high fecundity, impressive plasticity, and economic value provide unique opportunities for studying epigenetic mechanisms in an environmental context. To provide a primer on epigenomic research for fish biologists, we start by describing fundamental aspects of epigenetics, focusing on the most widely studied and most well understood of the epigenetic marks: DNA methylation. We then describe the techniques that have been used to investigate DNA methylation in marine fishes to date and highlight some new techniques that hold great promise for future studies. Epigenomic research in marine fishes is in its early stages, so we first briefly discuss what has been learned about the establishment, maintenance, and function of DNA methylation in fishes from studies in zebrafish and then summarize the studies demonstrating the pervasive effects of the environment on the epigenomes of marine fishes. We conclude by highlighting the potential for ongoing research on the epigenomics of marine fishes to reveal critical aspects of the interaction between organisms and their environments.

  16. Folkbiology of freshwater fish.

    PubMed

    Medin, Douglas L; Ross, Norbert O; Atran, Scott; Cox, Douglas; Coley, John; Proffitt, Julia B; Blok, Sergey

    2006-04-01

    Cross-cultural comparisons of categorization often confound cultural factors with expertise. This paper reports four experiments on the conceptual behavior of Native American and majority-culture fish experts. The two groups live in the same general area and engage in essentially the same set of fishing-related behaviors. Nonetheless, cultural differences were consistently observed. Majority-culture fish experts tended to sort fish into taxonomic and goal-related categories. They also showed an influence of goals on probes of ecological relations, tending to answer in terms of relations involving adult fish. Native American fish experts, in contrast, were more likely to sort ecologically. They were also more likely to see positive and reciprocal ecological relations, tending to answer in terms of relations involving the full life cycle of fish. Further experiments support the view that the cultural differences do not reflect different knowledge bases but rather differences in the organization and accessibility of knowledge. At a minimum the results suggest that similar activities within a well-structured domain do not necessarily lead to common conceptualizations.

  17. Olfactory toxicity in fishes.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Keith B; Baldwin, David H; Hara, Toshiaki J; Ross, Peter S; Scholz, Nathaniel L; Kennedy, Christopher J

    2010-01-21

    Olfaction conveys critical environmental information to fishes, enabling activities such as mating, locating food, discriminating kin, avoiding predators and homing. All of these behaviors can be impaired or lost as a result of exposure to toxic contaminants in surface waters. Historically, teleost olfaction studies have focused on behavioral responses to anthropogenic contaminants (e.g., avoidance). More recently, there has been a shift towards understanding the underlying mechanisms and functional significance of contaminant-mediated changes in fish olfaction. This includes a consideration of how contaminants affect the olfactory nervous system and, by extension, the downstream physiological and behavioral processes that together comprise a normal response to naturally occurring stimuli (e.g., reproductive priming or releasing pheromones). Numerous studies spanning several species have shown that ecologically relevant exposures to common pollutants such as metals and pesticides can interfere with fish olfaction and disrupt life history processes that determine individual survival and reproductive success. This represents one of the pathways by which toxic chemicals in aquatic habitats may increasingly contribute to the decline and at-risk status of many commercially and ecologically important fish stocks. Despite our emerging understanding of the threats that pollution poses for chemical communication in aquatic communities, many research challenges remain. These include: (1) the determination of specific mechanisms of toxicity in the fish olfactory sensory epithelium; (2) an understanding of the impacts of complex chemical mixtures; (3) the capacity to assess olfactory toxicity in fish in situ; (4) the impacts of toxins on olfactory-mediated behaviors that are still poorly understood for many fish species; and (5) the connections between sublethal effects on individual fish and the long-term viability of wild populations. This review summarizes and integrates

  18. Vibriosis in fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bullock, G.L.

    1987-01-01

    Fish vibriosis is a systemic disease of marine, estuarine, and some freshwater fishes, caused by bacteria of the genus Vibrio (Ross et al. 1968, Ghittino et al. 1972). The disease has been known for centuries; outbreaks along the Italian coast were recorded as early as the 1500's. Terms such as "red pest," "red boil," "red plague," or "saltwater furunculosis" have been applied to vibrio infections, but vibriosis is a more specific term and is now used by most fishery workers. With the rapid development of mariculture, vibriosis has become a major cause of fish loss--sometimes to the extent of being a limiting factor.

  19. Early detection of non-native fishes using fish larvae

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our objective was to evaluate the use of fish larvae for early detection of non-native fishes, comparing traditional and molecular taxonomy approaches to investigate potential efficiencies. Fish larvae present an interesting opportunity for non-native fish early detection. First,...

  20. Which Fish Should I Eat? Perspectives Influencing Fish Consumption Choices

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Anna L.; Karagas, Margaret R.; Mariën, Koenraad; Rheinberger, Christoph M.; Schoeny, Rita; Sunderland, Elsie; Korrick, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Diverse perspectives have influenced fish consumption choices. Objectives: We summarized the issue of fish consumption choice from toxicological, nutritional, ecological, and economic points of view; identified areas of overlap and disagreement among these viewpoints; and reviewed effects of previous fish consumption advisories. Methods: We reviewed published scientific literature, public health guidelines, and advisories related to fish consumption, focusing on advisories targeted at U.S. populations. However, our conclusions apply to groups having similar fish consumption patterns. Discussion: There are many possible combinations of matters related to fish consumption, but few, if any, fish consumption patterns optimize all domains. Fish provides a rich source of protein and other nutrients, but because of contamination by methylmercury and other toxicants, higher fish intake often leads to greater toxicant exposure. Furthermore, stocks of wild fish are not adequate to meet the nutrient demands of the growing world population, and fish consumption choices also have a broad economic impact on the fishing industry. Most guidance does not account for ecological and economic impacts of different fish consumption choices. Conclusion: Despite the relative lack of information integrating the health, ecological, and economic impacts of different fish choices, clear and simple guidance is necessary to effect desired changes. Thus, more comprehensive advice can be developed to describe the multiple impacts of fish consumption. In addition, policy and fishery management inter-ventions will be necessary to ensure long-term availability of fish as an important source of human nutrition. PMID:22534056

  1. Early detection of non-native fishes using fish larvae

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our objective was to evaluate the use of fish larvae for early detection of non-native fishes, comparing traditional and molecular taxonomy approaches to investigate potential efficiencies. Fish larvae present an interesting opportunity for non-native fish early detection. First,...

  2. Endangered fish threatened by Asian fish tapeworm

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, Rebecca A.

    2004-01-01

    The Asian fish tapeworm, an exotic parasite, has invaded the endangered humpback chub (Gila cypha) population from the Colorado and Little Colorado Rivers in Grand Canyon, Arizona. This parasite causes disease and death in carp in aquaculture settings and may retard growth in hatchery-reared roundtail chub (Gila robusta). Other consequences include destruction and dysfunction of the intestinal lining and adverse changes to certain blood parameters. Introduced into the U.S. in the 1970s with imported grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), the Asian fish tapeworm (Bothriocephalus acheilognathi) was discovered in the Little Colorado River (LCR) by 1990. The LCR is the main tributary to the Colorado River in Grand Canyon and is an important spawning area for humpback chub.

  3. Dehydrofreezing of Fish I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozima, Tsuneo

    Recently, new method of removing water from perishable food were developed using dehydration sheet with material having high osmotic pressure and absorbent polymer. Dehydration sheet consist of mixture of sugar dehydrolysate and absorbent polymer covered with sem-permeable membrane, and can remove water in liquid state by contact with perishable food. Dehydration rate of fish using with dehydration sheet varied depending on species, their shape, and ambient temperature etc. Fish were dehydrated with dehydration sheet at low temperature as 0 - 5 C and frozen in cold storage room. Dehydrofrozen fish were kept it's high quality and freshness after thawing, ATPase activity of fish muscle was kept at high level after dehydrofreezing in the case of cod and alaska pollack, and flesh color of farming salmon was kept after thawing.

  4. Fishing for Seeds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science and Children, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Describes a method to collect seeds that are dispersed from weeds while avoiding some outdoor hazards such as rough terrain or animals. Describes a plan for creating a weed fishing pole and includes a materials list. (SAH)

  5. Fishing for Seeds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science and Children, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Describes a method to collect seeds that are dispersed from weeds while avoiding some outdoor hazards such as rough terrain or animals. Describes a plan for creating a weed fishing pole and includes a materials list. (SAH)

  6. Got a Sick Fish?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Public Resources | Pet Care Print Share This! Your Veterinarian Pet Care Currently selected Emergency Care Animal Welfare ... fish having any unusual disease signs, contact your veterinarian for further advice. These are some of the ...

  7. All fish for China?

    PubMed

    Villasante, Sebastián; Rodríguez-González, David; Antelo, Manel; Rivero-Rodríguez, Susana; de Santiago, José A; Macho, Gonzalo

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we examine the effect of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) on the level of fish intake in China in comparison with the rest of the world. We also analyse the origin and destination of China's seafood products in order to understand the main patterns during the last decades. The results show that in the 1961-2011 period the rate of growth of the GDP in China doubled that of other developing regions, while the daily fish intake of China increased fourfold, making China the largest fish consumer in the world. Given the size and scale of China's role in production, consumption, and global transformation of seafood markets, China is shaping a new era of industrialization in the history of the fishing industry.

  8. Freshwater Fish Communities

    EPA Science Inventory

    Freshwater fish are ecologically important in stream ecosystems, and they provide people with significant food, recreation, and conservation value as biological indicator of freshwater streams. Historically, the streams and rivers of southern New England supported moderately dive...

  9. CONTAMINANTS IN FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to determine inorganic and organic contaminant concentrations in edible tissue of fish collected from eight coastal areas receiving wastewater discharges and from two reference locations. Trace metal residues were statistically similar regardless ...

  10. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... By Syndrome Life Cycle Impacts Human Health Wildlife Ecosystems Socioeconomic Freshwater Regions Distribution - U.S. Distribution - World Maps ... Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning Cyanobacteria Medical Community ... Fish Poisoning Causative organisms: Gambierdiscus ...

  11. T Cells in Fish

    PubMed Central

    Nakanishi, Teruyuki; Shibasaki, Yasuhiro; Matsuura, Yuta

    2015-01-01

    Cartilaginous and bony fish are the most primitive vertebrates with a thymus, and possess T cells equivalent to those in mammals. There are a number of studies in fish demonstrating that the thymus is the essential organ for development of T lymphocytes from early thymocyte progenitors to functionally competent T cells. A high number of T cells in the intestine and gills has been reported in several fish species. Involvement of CD4+ and CD8α+ T cells in allograft rejection and graft-versus-host reaction (GVHR) has been demonstrated using monoclonal antibodies. Conservation of CD4+ helper T cell functions among teleost fishes has been suggested in a number studies employing mixed leukocyte culture (MLC) and hapten/carrier effect. Alloantigen- and virus-specific cytotoxicity has also been demonstrated in ginbuna and rainbow trout. Furthermore, the important role of cell-mediated immunity rather than humoral immunity has been reported in the protection against intracellular bacterial infection. Recently, the direct antibacterial activity of CD8α+, CD4+ T-cells and sIgM+ cells in fish has been reported. In this review, we summarize the recent progress in T cell research focusing on the tissue distribution and function of fish T cells. PMID:26426066

  12. Cleaner fish drives local fish diversity on coral reefs.

    PubMed

    Grutter, Alexandra S; Murphy, Jan Maree; Choat, J Howard

    2003-01-08

    Coral reefs are one of the most diverse habitats in the world, yet our understanding of the processes affecting their biodiversity is limited. At the local scale, cleaner fish are thought to have a disproportionate effect, in relation to their abundance and size, on the activity of many other fish species, but confirmation of this species' effect on local fish diversity has proved elusive. The cleaner fish Labroides dimidiatus has major effects on fish activity patterns and may indirectly affect fish demography through the removal of large numbers of parasites. Here we show that small reefs where L. dimidiatus had been experimentally excluded for 18 months had half the species diversity of fish and one-fourth the abundance of individuals. Only fish that move among reefs, however, were affected. These fish include large species that themselves can affect other reef organisms. In contrast, the distribution of resident fish was not affected by cleaner fish. Thus, many fish appear to choose reefs based on the presence of cleaner fish. Our findings indicate that a single small and not very abundant fish has a strong influence on the movement patterns, habitat choice, activity, and local diversity and abundance of a wide variety of reef fish species.

  13. Fishing down the largest coral reef fish species.

    PubMed

    Fenner, Douglas

    2014-07-15

    Studies on remote, uninhabited, near-pristine reefs have revealed surprisingly large populations of large reef fish. Locations such as the northwestern Hawaiian Islands, northern Marianas Islands, Line Islands, U.S. remote Pacific Islands, Cocos-Keeling Atoll and Chagos archipelago have much higher reef fish biomass than islands and reefs near people. Much of the high biomass of most remote reef fish communities lies in the largest species, such as sharks, bumphead parrots, giant trevally, and humphead wrasse. Some, such as sharks and giant trevally, are apex predators, but others such as bumphead parrots and humphead wrasse, are not. At many locations, decreases in large reef fish species have been attributed to fishing. Fishing is well known to remove the largest fish first, and a quantitative measure of vulnerability to fishing indicates that large reef fish species are much more vulnerable to fishing than small fish. The removal of large reef fish by fishing parallels the extinction of terrestrial megafauna by early humans. However large reef fish have great value for various ecological roles and for reef tourism.

  14. Fish and Fisheries Ecology.

    PubMed

    Magnuson, John J

    1991-02-01

    My paper on fish and fisheries ecology is offered to demonstrate a rich blending of applied and fundamental ecology, achieved by the intersections among fishery science, ichthyology, and ecology. The example, while specific, parallels practices and opportunities available in other areas of applied ecology. The emergence of fish and fisheries ecology as a discipline is evidence by such recent textbooks as Fisheries ecology by Pitcher and Hart (1982) and Ecology of teleost fishes by Wootton (1990). The ecology relevant to fish and fisheries includes not only marine and freshwater ecology, oceanography, and limnology, but also terrestrial study. Early work in fish and fisheries ecology came from Stephen A. Forbes > 100 yr ago in his books On some interactions of organisms (Forbes 1880) and The lake as a microcosm (Forbes 1887). These constitute one of the earliest conceptualizations of an ecosystem. By 1932 E. S. Russell concluded that fishery research was a study in marine ecology. I give examples of applications from six different categories of ecology. (1) Physiological ecology: The F. E. J. Fry school of fish physiology developed the concepts of temperature as a lethal, controlling and directive factor. More than 40 yr later, this knowledge is being combined with G. E. Hutchinson's concept of an n-dimensional niche to analyze potential influences of global climate warming on fishes. (2) Behavioral ecology: A. D. Hasler and students formulated and tested the hypothesis of olfactory imprinting as the mechanism by which Pacific salmon "home" to their natal spawning streams. Applications to reestablish salmon runs are as important to Hasler as the original scientific discovery; this is evident in his proposed "Salmon for Peace" for the river bounding USSR and China. (3) Population ecology: The realization that reproductive success of fishes depends more on larval mortality than on egg production emerged from the ideas of J. Hjort (1914). To this day inconsistencies

  15. Cowlitz Falls Fish Passage.

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The upper Cowlitz was once home to native salmon and steelhead. But the combined impacts of overharvest, farming, logging and road building hammered fish runs. And in the 1960s, a pair of hydroelectric dams blocked the migration path of ocean-returning and ocean-going fish. The lower Cowlitz still supports hatchery runs of chinook, coho and steelhead. But some 200 river miles in the upper river basin--much of it prime spawning and rearing habitat--have been virtually cut off from the ocean for over 26 years. Now the idea is to trap-and-haul salmon and steelhead both ways and bypass previously impassable obstacles in the path of anadromous fish. The plan can be summarized, for the sake of explanation, in three steps: (1) trap and haul adult fish--collect ocean-returning adult fish at the lowermost Cowlitz dam, and truck them upstream; (2) reseed--release the ripe adults above the uppermost dam, and let them spawn naturally, at the same time, supplement these runs with hatchery born fry that are reared and imprinted in ponds and net pens in the watershed; (3) trap and haul smolts--collection the new generation of young fish as they arrive at the uppermost Cowlitz dam, truck them past the three dams, and release them to continue their downstream migration to the sea. The critical part of any fish-collection system is the method of fish attraction. Scientists have to find the best combination of attraction system and screens that will guide young fish to the right spot, away from the turbine intakes. In the spring of 1994 a test was made of a prototype system of baffles and slots on the upriver face of the Cowlitz Falls Dam. The prototype worked at 90% efficiency in early tests, and it worked without the kind of expensive screening devices that have been installed on other dams. Now that the success of the attraction system has been verified, Harza engineers and consultants will design and build the appropriate collection part of the system.

  16. Immunity to fish rhabdoviruses.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Maureen K; Laing, Kerry J; Winton, James R

    2012-01-01

    Members of the family Rhabdoviridae are single-stranded RNA viruses and globally important pathogens of wild and cultured fish and thus relatively well studied in their respective hosts or other model systems. Here, we review the protective immune mechanisms that fish mount in response to rhabdovirus infections. Teleost fish possess the principal components of innate and adaptive immunity found in other vertebrates. Neutralizing antibodies are critical for long-term protection from fish rhabdoviruses, but several studies also indicate a role for cell-mediated immunity. Survival of acute rhabdoviral infection is also dependent on innate immunity, particularly the interferon (IFN) system that is rapidly induced in response to infection. Paradoxically, rhabdoviruses are sensitive to the effects of IFN but virulent rhabdoviruses can continue to replicate owing to the abilities of the matrix (M) protein to mediate host-cell shutoff and the non‑virion (NV) protein to subvert programmed cell death and suppress functional IFN. While many basic features of the fish immune response to rhabdovirus infections are becoming better understood, much less is known about how factors in the environment affect the ecology of rhabdovirus infections in natural populations of aquatic animals.

  17. Immunity to Fish Rhabdoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Laing, Kerry J.; Winton, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Members of the family Rhabdoviridae are single-stranded RNA viruses and globally important pathogens of wild and cultured fish and thus relatively well studied in their respective hosts or other model systems. Here, we review the protective immune mechanisms that fish mount in response to rhabdovirus infections. Teleost fish possess the principal components of innate and adaptive immunity found in other vertebrates. Neutralizing antibodies are critical for long-term protection from fish rhabdoviruses, but several studies also indicate a role for cell-mediated immunity. Survival of acute rhabdoviral infection is also dependent on innate immunity, particularly the interferon (IFN) system that is rapidly induced in response to infection. Paradoxically, rhabdoviruses are sensitive to the effects of IFN but virulent rhabdoviruses can continue to replicate owing to the abilities of the matrix (M) protein to mediate host-cell shutoff and the non‑virion (NV) protein to subvert programmed cell death and suppress functional IFN. While many basic features of the fish immune response to rhabdovirus infections are becoming better understood, much less is known about how factors in the environment affect the ecology of rhabdovirus infections in natural populations of aquatic animals. PMID:22355456

  18. Fish robotics and hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauder, George

    2010-11-01

    Studying the fluid dynamics of locomotion in freely-swimming fishes is challenging due to difficulties in controlling fish behavior. To provide better control over fish-like propulsive systems we have constructed a variety of fish-like robotic test platforms that range from highly biomimetic models of fins, to simple physical models of body movements during aquatic locomotion. First, we have constructed a series of biorobotic models of fish pectoral fins with 5 fin rays that allow detailed study of fin motion, forces, and fluid dynamics associated with fin-based locomotion. We find that by tuning fin ray stiffness and the imposed motion program we can produce thrust both on the fin outstroke and instroke. Second, we are using a robotic flapping foil system to study the self-propulsion of flexible plastic foils of varying stiffness, length, and trailing edge shape as a means of investigating the fluid dynamic effect of simple changes in the properties of undulating bodies moving through water. We find unexpected non-linear stiffness-dependent effects of changing foil length on self-propelled speed, and as well as significant effects of trailing edge shape on foil swimming speed.

  19. Immunity to fish rhabdoviruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Laing, Kerry J.; Winton, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Members of the family Rhabdoviridae are single-stranded RNA viruses and globally important pathogens of wild and cultured fish and thus relatively well studied in their respective hosts or other model systems. Here, we review the protective immune mechanisms that fish mount in response to rhabdovirus infections. Teleost fish possess the principal components of innate and adaptive immunity found in other vertebrates. Neutralizing antibodies are critical for long-term protection from fish rhabdoviruses, but several studies also indicate a role for cell-mediated immunity. Survival of acute rhabdoviral infection is also dependent on innate immunity, particularly the interferon (IFN) system that is rapidly induced in response to infection. Paradoxically, rhabdoviruses are sensitive to the effects of IFN but virulent rhabdoviruses can continue to replicate owing to the abilities of the matrix (M) protein to mediate host-cell shutoff and the non-virion (NV) protein to subvert programmed cell death and suppress functional IFN. While many basic features of the fish immune response to rhabdovirus infections are becoming better understood, much less is known about how factors in the environment affect the ecology of rhabdovirus infections in natural populations of aquatic animals.

  20. Can Fish Catch On in Your Class?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butzow, John W.; Kane, Philip N.

    1983-01-01

    Presented are several classroom activities using fish. These include gyotaku (Japanese fish printing), use of a dichotomous key to classify fish, "invent-a-fish" activities, and others. Includes discussion of fish facts and copies of fish key and invent-a-fish cards. (JN)

  1. CO-FISH, COD-FISH, ReD-FISH, SKY-FISH.

    PubMed

    Williams, Eli S; Cornforth, Michael N; Goodwin, Edwin H; Bailey, Susan M

    2011-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has become a powerful tool for exploring genomes at the level of chromosomes. The procedure can be used to identify individual chromosomes, rearrangements between chromosomes, and the location within a chromosome of specific DNA sequences such as centromeres, telomeres, and even individual genes. Chromosome orientation FISH (CO-FISH) extends the information obtainable from standard FISH to include the relative orientation of two or more DNA sequences within a chromosome (Goodwin and Meyne, Cytogenet Cell Genet 63:126-127, 1993). In combination with a suitable reference probe, CO-FISH can also determine the absolute 5'-3' direction of a DNA sequence relative to the short arm (pter) to long arm (qter) axis of the chromosome. This variation of CO-FISH was originally termed "COD-FISH" (Chromosome orientation and direction FISH) to reflect this fact (Meyne and Goodwin, Chromosome Research 3:375-378, 1995). Telomeric DNA serves as a convenient and absolute reference probe for this purpose, since all G-rich 5'-(TTAGGG)( n )-3' telomeric sequences are terminally located and oriented away from the centromere.In the beginning, CO-FISH was used to detect obligate chromosomal inversions associated with isochromosome formation (Bailey et al., Mutagenesis 11:139-144, 1996), various pericentric inversions (Bailey et al., Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics 75:248-253, 1996), and to confirm the origin of centromeric lateral asymmetry (Goodwin et al., Chromosoma 104:345-347, 1996). More recent and sophisticated applications of CO-FISH include distinction between telomeres produced via leading- vs. lagging-strand DNA synthesis (Bailey et al., Science 293:2462-2465, 2001), identification of interstitial blocks of telomere sequence that result from inappropriate fusion to double-strand breaks (telomere-DSB fusion) (Bailey et al., DNA Repair (Amst) 3:349-357, 2004), discovery of elevated rates of mitotic recombination at chromosomal termini

  2. Dynamite fishing in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Slade, Lorna M; Kalangahe, Baraka

    2015-12-30

    Fishing using explosives is common in Tanzanian waters; it is considered to be more widely practised now than at any other point in history. Mwambao Coastal Community Network, a Tanzanian NGO carried out a multi-stakeholder consultation in April 2014 initiated through the concern of private investors and tourism operators. Consultations were held with villagers, fisheries officers, government officers, hoteliers, dive operators, fish processors, NGOs and other key individuals, and shed some light on key factors enabling this practice to flourish. Key areas identified for attention include engendering political will at all levels, upholding of the law through a non-corrupt enforcement and judicial system, and defining clear roles and responsibilities for monitoring and surveillance. The work identified other successful initiatives which have tackled this pervasive practice including projects that build local capacity for marine governance, villages that have declared themselves intolerant of blast-fishing, and private-public partnerships for patrol and protection.

  3. Claudins in teleost fishes

    PubMed Central

    Kolosov, Dennis; Bui, Phuong; Chasiotis, Helen; Kelly, Scott P

    2013-01-01

    Teleost fishes are a large and diverse animal group that represent close to 50% of all described vertebrate species. This review consolidates what is known about the claudin (Cldn) family of tight junction (TJ) proteins in teleosts. Cldns are transmembrane proteins of the vertebrate epithelial/endothelial TJ complex that largely determine TJ permeability. Cldns achieve this by expressing barrier or pore forming properties and by exhibiting distinct tissue distribution patterns. So far, ~63 genes encoding for Cldn TJ proteins have been reported in 16 teleost species. Collectively, cldns (or Cldns) are found in a broad array of teleost fish tissues, but select genes exhibit restricted expression patterns. Evidence to date strongly supports the view that Cldns play a vital role in the embryonic development of teleost fishes and in the physiology of tissues and organ systems studied thus far. PMID:24665402

  4. [Ciguatera fish poisoning].

    PubMed

    Oehler, Erwan; Bouchut, Jérémie

    2014-09-01

    Ciguatera, an ichtyosarcotoxism linked to the consumption of usually healthy coral fish is a common poisoning in the Pacific, Caribbean and Indian Ocean where it is endemic. However, increased tourism and commercial transportation of tropical fish for consumption make it an unexceptional intoxication in countries away from its endemic area. Environmental stresses such as climate changes also contribute to the expansion of its geographical area. The non-specific clinical symptomatology is characterized by the occurrence of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, nervous and general signs few hours after eating a ciguatoxic fish. The diagnosis is clinical and relatively easy in endemic areas but much less for physicians who are rarely confronted with, which is a source of prolonged diagnostic delays and a significant increase in spending. Treatment of ciguatera is symptomatic but new treatments, still experimental, give a real hope for the future.

  5. Fish Stem Cell Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Ni; Li, Zhendong; Hong, Yunhan

    2011-01-01

    Stem cells have the potential for self-renewal and differentiation. First stem cell cultures were derived 30 years ago from early developing mouse embryos. These are pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells. Efforts towards ES cell derivation have been attempted in other mammalian and non-mammalian species. Work with stem cell culture in fish started 20 years ago. Laboratory fish species, in particular zebrafish and medaka, have been the focus of research towards stem cell cultures. Medaka is the second organism that generated ES cells and the first that gave rise to a spermatogonial stem cell line capable of test-tube sperm production. Most recently, the first haploid stem cells capable of producing whole animals have also been generated from medaka. ES-like cells have been reported also in zebrafish and several marine species. Attempts for germline transmission of ES cell cultures and gene targeting have been reported in zebrafish. Recent years have witnessed the progress in markers and procedures for ES cell characterization. These include the identification of fish homologs/paralogs of mammalian pluripotency genes and parameters for optimal chimera formation. In addition, fish germ cell cultures and transplantation have attracted considerable interest for germline transmission and surrogate production. Haploid ES cell nuclear transfer has proven in medaka the feasibility of semi-cloning as a novel assisted reproductive technology. In this special issue on “Fish Stem Cells and Nuclear Transfer”, we will focus our review on medaka to illustrate the current status and perspective of fish stem cells in research and application. We will also mention semi-cloning as a new development to conventional nuclear transfer. PMID:21547056

  6. 49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... subchapter, fish meal or fish scrap, containing at least 6%, but not more than 12% water, is authorized for transportation by vessel only when packaged as follows: (1) Burlap (jute) bag; (2) Multi-wall paper bag;...

  7. Interior below decks in fish hold looking forward. Fish hatch ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior below decks in fish hold looking forward. Fish hatch opening is at upper left, ceiling planks and knees at center and right. - Purse Seiner SHENANDOAH, Gig Harbor Peninsula Historical Society and Museum, Gig Harbor, Pierce County, WA

  8. Fish consumption and track to a fish feed formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai-Juan, Soong; Ramli, Razamin; Rahman, Rosshairy Abdul

    2015-12-01

    Strategically located in the equator, Malaysia is blessed with plenty of fish supply. The high demand in fish consumption has helped the development in the fishery industry and provided numerous jobs in the secondary sector, contributing significantly to the nation's income. A survey was conducted to understand the trend of current demands for fish for the purpose of designing a feed formulation, which is still limited in this area of study. Results showed that grouper fish in restaurants commanded a very high price compared to other species of fish. Tiger grouper gained the highest demand in most restaurants, while giant grouper had the highest price in restaurants. Due to the demand and challenges to culture this type of fish, a framework for fish feed formulation is proposed. The formulation framework when materialized could be an alternative to the use of trash fish as the feed for grouper.

  9. 49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... subchapter, fish meal or fish scrap, containing at least 6%, but not more than 12% water, is authorized for...) Polyethylene-lined burlap or paper bag; (4) Cargo tank; (5) Portable tank; (6) Rail car; or (7)...

  10. 49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... subchapter, fish meal or fish scrap, containing at least 6%, but not more than 12% water, is authorized for...) Polyethylene-lined burlap or paper bag; (4) Cargo tank; (5) Portable tank; (6) Rail car; or (7)...

  11. Fish oils and human diet.

    PubMed

    Sargent, J R

    1997-07-01

    Trends in global fish catches are described together with fish landings and fish consumption in the UK. The importance of n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids as essential constituents of human diets is considered and the role of oily fish as a dietary source of the long-chain n-3 polyunsaturates, docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, is emphasized. The origin of n-3 polyunsaturates in, the marine phytoplankton and their transmission via zooplankton to fish is described as a means of understanding the composition of different fish body oils. The ease with which the fatty acid composition of fish body oils can be manipulated by altering the fatty acid composition of their feeds is emphasized and the dietary requirements of marine and freshwater fish for n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturates considered. Farming fish on diets containing principally fish meal and fish oil, as used in salmon production in Scotland, generates a high quality product with levels of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturates equalling or exceeding those of wild fish. Farming fish on high quality marine oils rich in docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids is an efficient means of delivering these essential nutrients in human diets and also efficiently exploiting a strictly limited marine bioresource.

  12. 50 CFR 71.11 - Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... fishing. 71.11 Section 71.11 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) MANAGEMENT OF FISHERIES CONSERVATION AREAS HUNTING AND FISHING ON NATIONAL FISH HATCHERY AREAS Fishing § 71.11 Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing. National fish...

  13. 50 CFR 71.11 - Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... fishing. 71.11 Section 71.11 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) MANAGEMENT OF FISHERIES CONSERVATION AREAS HUNTING AND FISHING ON NATIONAL FISH HATCHERY AREAS Fishing § 71.11 Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing. National fish...

  14. 50 CFR 71.11 - Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... fishing. 71.11 Section 71.11 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) MANAGEMENT OF FISHERIES CONSERVATION AREAS HUNTING AND FISHING ON NATIONAL FISH HATCHERY AREAS Fishing § 71.11 Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing. National fish...

  15. Fish Commoditization: Sustainability Strategies to Protect Living Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Mimi E.; Pitcher, Tony J.

    2012-01-01

    The impacts of early fishing on aquatic ecosystems were minimal, as primitive technologies were used to harvest fish primarily for food. As fishing technology grew more sophisticated and human populations dispersed and expanded, local economies transitioned from subsistence to barter and trade. Expanded trade networks and mercantilization led to…

  16. Significant effects of fishing gear selectivity on fish life history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Zhenlin; Sun, Peng; Yan, Wei; Huang, Liuyi; Tang, Yanli

    2014-06-01

    Over the past few decades, extreme changes have occurred in the characters of exploited fish populations. The majority of these changes have affected the growth traits of fish life history, which include a smaller size-at-age, an earlier age-at-maturation and among others. Currently, the causes of these life history traits changes still require systematic analyses and empirical studies. The explanations that have been cited are merely expressed in terms of fish phenotypic adaptation. It has been claimed that the original traits of fish can be recovered once the intensity of exploitation of the fish is controlled. Sustained environmental and fishing pressure will change the life history traits of most fish species, so the fish individual's traits are still in small size-at-age and at earlier age-at-maturation in exploited fish populations. In this paper, we expressed our view of points that fishing gear has imposed selectivity on fish populations and individuals as various other environmental factors have done and such changes are unrecoverable. According to the existing tend of exploited fish individual's life history traits, we suggested further researches in this field and provided better methods of fishery management and thereby fishery resources protection than those available early.

  17. Fish and fish oil in health and disease prevention

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fish is an important dietary component due to its contribution of valuable nutrients. In addition to the high quality protein and micronutrients provided, fish is the primary source of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids which are found in oils of ‘fatty’ cold water fish. Biomedical evidence supports th...

  18. Fish Commoditization: Sustainability Strategies to Protect Living Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Mimi E.; Pitcher, Tony J.

    2012-01-01

    The impacts of early fishing on aquatic ecosystems were minimal, as primitive technologies were used to harvest fish primarily for food. As fishing technology grew more sophisticated and human populations dispersed and expanded, local economies transitioned from subsistence to barter and trade. Expanded trade networks and mercantilization led to…

  19. Hydrodynamics of fossil fishes.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Thomas; Altringham, John; Peakall, Jeffrey; Wignall, Paul; Dorrell, Robert

    2014-08-07

    From their earliest origins, fishes have developed a suite of adaptations for locomotion in water, which determine performance and ultimately fitness. Even without data from behaviour, soft tissue and extant relatives, it is possible to infer a wealth of palaeobiological and palaeoecological information. As in extant species, aspects of gross morphology such as streamlining, fin position and tail type are optimized even in the earliest fishes, indicating similar life strategies have been present throughout their evolutionary history. As hydrodynamical studies become more sophisticated, increasingly complex fluid movement can be modelled, including vortex formation and boundary layer control. Drag-reducing riblets ornamenting the scales of fast-moving sharks have been subjected to particularly intense research, but this has not been extended to extinct forms. Riblets are a convergent adaptation seen in many Palaeozoic fishes, and probably served a similar hydrodynamic purpose. Conversely, structures which appear to increase skin friction may act as turbulisors, reducing overall drag while serving a protective function. Here, we examine the diverse adaptions that contribute to drag reduction in modern fishes and review the few attempts to elucidate the hydrodynamics of extinct forms.

  20. Fish Facts. Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Mike

    This lesson plan is designed for a 50-minute class to teach extension home economists and homemakers about buying, storing, and using fish. The lesson plan contains references, a list of equipment needed, objectives, and the presentation. The presentation consists of an outline of instruction coordinated with methods of instruction and aids and…

  1. FishTraits Database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Angermeier, Paul L.; Frimpong, Emmanuel A.

    2009-01-01

    The need for integrated and widely accessible sources of species traits data to facilitate studies of ecology, conservation, and management has motivated development of traits databases for various taxa. In spite of the increasing number of traits-based analyses of freshwater fishes in the United States, no consolidated database of traits of this group exists publicly, and much useful information on these species is documented only in obscure sources. The largely inaccessible and unconsolidated traits information makes large-scale analysis involving many fishes and/or traits particularly challenging. FishTraits is a database of >100 traits for 809 (731 native and 78 exotic) fish species found in freshwaters of the conterminous United States, including 37 native families and 145 native genera. The database contains information on four major categories of traits: (1) trophic ecology, (2) body size and reproductive ecology (life history), (3) habitat associations, and (4) salinity and temperature tolerances. Information on geographic distribution and conservation status is also included. Together, we refer to the traits, distribution, and conservation status information as attributes. Descriptions of attributes are available here. Many sources were consulted to compile attributes, including state and regional species accounts and other databases.

  2. Colwater fish in rivers

    EPA Science Inventory

    A standard sampling protocol to assess the fish assemblages and abundances in large, coldwater rivers is most accurate and precise if consistent gears and levels of effort are used at each site. This requires thorough crew training, quality control audits, and replicate sampling...

  3. The Last Fish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollack, Susan

    1995-01-01

    Describes the collapse of Newfoundland's once immense northern-cod fishery in 1992 from the perspective of a family fisherman who has become an environmental activist. Discusses failures in environmental management including the overfishing of shared resources encouraged by the Canadian government and hastened by international fishing fleets and…

  4. Fishing for Features

    ScienceCinema

    Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Cort, John; Bailey, Vanessa

    2016-08-24

    The Fishing for Features Signature Discovery project developed a framework for discovering signature features in challenging environments involving large and complex data sets or where phenomena may be poorly characterized or understood. Researchers at PNNL have applied the framework to the optimization of biofuels blending and to discover signatures of climate change on microbial soil communities.

  5. Yet Another Fish Tale?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lalasz, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Last month the "Rocky Mountain News" reported that a survey by an emeritus professor at University of Colorado Boulder found that only 23 of 825 faculty members on the campus were registered Republicans. But on his "New York Times" blog, Stanley Fish brushed off the survey's significance from a familiarly Fishian stance. A faculty's political…

  6. Ooey, Gooey, Fish Guts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmons, Maryellen

    2004-01-01

    Fish dissections are a great way to introduce the concepts of food webs, predator-prey relationships, and ecosystems, but these labs are expensive, messy, smelly, and require a lot of supervision because of the tools involved. The author has developed an inexpensive, safe, and clean alternative where students "dissect" simulated fish…

  7. Ooey, Gooey, Fish Guts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmons, Maryellen

    2004-01-01

    Fish dissections are a great way to introduce the concepts of food webs, predator-prey relationships, and ecosystems, but these labs are expensive, messy, smelly, and require a lot of supervision because of the tools involved. The author has developed an inexpensive, safe, and clean alternative where students "dissect" simulated fish…

  8. Fish out of Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartorius, Tara Cady

    1998-01-01

    Highlights the life of Leonard Koscianski, an artist who focuses on revealing the inner life of the human heart and mind in his artwork. Includes four lesson plans for grades ranging from 2 through 12: philosophy, psychology, language arts, and visual arts. Provides a copy and background about Koscianski's painting "Red Fish." (CMK)

  9. Yet Another Fish Tale?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lalasz, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Last month the "Rocky Mountain News" reported that a survey by an emeritus professor at University of Colorado Boulder found that only 23 of 825 faculty members on the campus were registered Republicans. But on his "New York Times" blog, Stanley Fish brushed off the survey's significance from a familiarly Fishian stance. A faculty's political…

  10. Fishing for Features

    SciTech Connect

    Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Cort, John; Bailey, Vanessa

    2016-07-21

    The Fishing for Features Signature Discovery project developed a framework for discovering signature features in challenging environments involving large and complex data sets or where phenomena may be poorly characterized or understood. Researchers at PNNL have applied the framework to the optimization of biofuels blending and to discover signatures of climate change on microbial soil communities.

  11. Colwater fish in rivers

    EPA Science Inventory

    A standard sampling protocol to assess the fish assemblages and abundances in large, coldwater rivers is most accurate and precise if consistent gears and levels of effort are used at each site. This requires thorough crew training, quality control audits, and replicate sampling...

  12. The Last Fish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollack, Susan

    1995-01-01

    Describes the collapse of Newfoundland's once immense northern-cod fishery in 1992 from the perspective of a family fisherman who has become an environmental activist. Discusses failures in environmental management including the overfishing of shared resources encouraged by the Canadian government and hastened by international fishing fleets and…

  13. Hydrodynamics of fossil fishes

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Thomas; Altringham, John; Peakall, Jeffrey; Wignall, Paul; Dorrell, Robert

    2014-01-01

    From their earliest origins, fishes have developed a suite of adaptations for locomotion in water, which determine performance and ultimately fitness. Even without data from behaviour, soft tissue and extant relatives, it is possible to infer a wealth of palaeobiological and palaeoecological information. As in extant species, aspects of gross morphology such as streamlining, fin position and tail type are optimized even in the earliest fishes, indicating similar life strategies have been present throughout their evolutionary history. As hydrodynamical studies become more sophisticated, increasingly complex fluid movement can be modelled, including vortex formation and boundary layer control. Drag-reducing riblets ornamenting the scales of fast-moving sharks have been subjected to particularly intense research, but this has not been extended to extinct forms. Riblets are a convergent adaptation seen in many Palaeozoic fishes, and probably served a similar hydrodynamic purpose. Conversely, structures which appear to increase skin friction may act as turbulisors, reducing overall drag while serving a protective function. Here, we examine the diverse adaptions that contribute to drag reduction in modern fishes and review the few attempts to elucidate the hydrodynamics of extinct forms. PMID:24943377

  14. Fish-induced keriorrhea.

    PubMed

    Ling, Ka Ho; Nichols, Peter D; But, Paul Pui-Hay

    2009-01-01

    Many deep-sea fishes store large amounts of wax esters in their body for buoyancy control. Some of them are frequently caught as by-catch of tuna and other fishes. The most noteworthy ones include escolar and oilfish. The accumulation of the indigestible wax esters in the rectum through consumption of these fish engenders discharges or leakage per rectum as orange or brownish green oil, but without noticeable loss of water. This physiological response is called keriorrhea, which is variously described as "oily diarrhea," "oily orange diarrhea," or "orange oily leakage" by the mass media and bloggers on the internet. Outbreaks of keriorrhea have been repeatedly reported across continents. Additional symptoms including nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, and diarrhea were complained by the victims. They are probably due to anxiety or panic when suffering from keriorrhea. Escolar and oilfish are banned from import and sale in Italy, Japan, and South Korea. Rapid detection of the two fishes is imperative to ensure proper labeling and safeguarding of the public before and after any keriorrhea outbreak.

  15. Miniature sonar fish tag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovelady, R. W.; Ferguson, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    Self-powered sonar device may be implanted in body of fish. It transmits signal that can be detected with portable tracking gear or by automatic detection-and-tracking system. Operating life of over 4000 hours may be expected. Device itself may be used almost indefinitely.

  16. Fish Facts. Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Mike

    This lesson plan is designed for a 50-minute class to teach extension home economists and homemakers about buying, storing, and using fish. The lesson plan contains references, a list of equipment needed, objectives, and the presentation. The presentation consists of an outline of instruction coordinated with methods of instruction and aids and…

  17. Truck-Drivin' Fish?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, AnnMarie

    2001-01-01

    Presents an art activity that enables first-grade students to learn about color mixing by driving toys trucks through paint. Explains that the students created rainbow fish and drew the background with crayons. States that this activity demonstrates how to utilize nontraditional tools or objects when creating art. (CMK)

  18. Parasitology and necropsy of fish.

    PubMed

    Weber, E P Scott; Govett, Pam

    2009-02-01

    Parasitic diseases are common in fish. Diagnosis can be made through gill biopsy, skin cytology, fecal examination, or necropsy. Common parasites include protozoa, helminths, and crustaceans. Determining the cause of death in a fish is important for maintaining the health of other fish in the same environment. Due to rapid autolysis, fish necropsies should be performed promptly after death. Samples should be preserved in 10% neutral buffered formalin. Squash preparations, tissue imprints, microbiology, and virology are also useful in obtaining a diagnosis.

  19. Guidelines for Eating Fish that Contain Mercury

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn about how to minimize exposure to methylmercury while eating fish. Read about fish advisories, how to use them to consume fish safely, and use the national fish advisories locator to find them in an area near you.

  20. PNNL Tests Fish Passage System

    ScienceCinema

    Colotelo, Alison

    2016-08-18

    Scientists from PNNL are testing a fish transportation system developed by Whooshh Innovations. The Whooshh system uses a flexible tube that works a bit like a vacuum, guiding fish over hydroelectric dams or other structures. Compared to methods used today, this system could save money while granting fish quicker, safer passage through dams and hatcheries.

  1. PNNL Tests Fish Passage System

    SciTech Connect

    Colotelo, Alison

    2015-03-13

    Scientists from PNNL are testing a fish transportation system developed by Whooshh Innovations. The Whooshh system uses a flexible tube that works a bit like a vacuum, guiding fish over hydroelectric dams or other structures. Compared to methods used today, this system could save money while granting fish quicker, safer passage through dams and hatcheries.

  2. The offshore benthic fish community

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lantry, Brian F.; Lantry, Jana R.; Weidel, Brian C.; Walsh, Maureen; Hoyle, James A.; Schaner, Teodore; Neave, Fraser B.; Keir, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The offshore benthic fish community will be composed of self-sustaining native fishes characterized by lake trout as the top predator, a population expansion of lake whitefish from northeastern waters to other areas of the lake, and rehabilitated native prey fishes.

  3. Turbo FISH: A Method for Rapid Single Molecule RNA FISH

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, Sydney M.; Wu, Min-Tzu; Levesque, Marshall J.; Raj, Arjun

    2013-01-01

    Advances in RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (RNA FISH) have allowed practitioners to detect individual RNA molecules in single cells via fluorescence microscopy, enabling highly accurate and sensitive quantification of gene expression. However, current methods typically employ hybridization times on the order of 2–16 hours, limiting its potential in applications like rapid diagnostics. We present here a set of conditions for RNA FISH (dubbed Turbo RNA FISH) that allow us to make accurate measurements with no more than 5 minutes of hybridization time and 3 minutes of washing, and show that hybridization times can go as low as 30 seconds while still producing quantifiable images. We further show that rapid hybridization is compatible with our recently developed iceFISH and SNP FISH variants of RNA FISH that enable chromosome and single base discrimination, respectively. Our method is simple and cost effective, and has the potential to dramatically increase the throughput and realm of applicability of RNA FISH. PMID:24066168

  4. Metazoan Parasites of Antarctic Fishes.

    PubMed

    Oğuz, Mehmet Cemal; Tepe, Yahya; Belk, Mark C; Heckmann, Richard A; Aslan, Burçak; Gürgen, Meryem; Bray, Rodney A; Akgül, Ülker

    2015-06-01

    To date, there have been nearly 100 papers published on metazoan parasites of Antarctic fishes, but there has not yet been any compilation of a species list of fish parasites for this large geographic area. Herein, we provide a list of all documented occurrences of monogenean, cestode, digenean, acanthocephalan, nematode, and hirudinean parasites of Antarctic fishes. The list includes nearly 250 parasite species found in 142 species of host fishes. It is likely that there are more species of fish parasites, which are yet to be documented from Antarctic waters.

  5. Improving fish survival through turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, J.W. )

    1993-04-01

    Much of what is known about fish passage through hydroturbines has been developed by studying migratory species of fish passing through large Kaplan turbine units. A review of the literature on previous fish passage research presented in the accompanying story illustrates that studies have focused on determining mortality levels, rather than identifying the causal mechanism involved. There is a need for understanding how turbine designs could be altered to improve fish passage conditions, how to retrofit existing units, and how proposed hydro plant operational changes may affect fish survival. The US Army Corps of Engineers has developed a research program to define biologically based engineering criteria for improving fish passage conditions. Turbine designs incorporating these criteria can be evaluated for their effects on fish survival, engineering issues, costs, and power production. The research program has the following objectives: To gain a thorough knowledge of the mechanisms of fish mortality; To define the biological sensitivities of key fish species to these mechanisms of mortality; To develop new turbine design criteria to reduce fish mortality; To construct prototype turbine designs, and to test these designs for fish passage, hydro-mechanical operation, and power production; and To identify construction and power costs associated with new turbine designs.

  6. Ecosystem consequences of fish parasites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2008-01-01

    In most aquatic ecosystems, fishes are hosts to parasites and, sometimes, these parasites can affect fish biology. Some of the most dramatic cases occur when fishes are intermediate hosts for larval parasites. For example, fishes in southern California estuaries are host to many parasites. The most common of these parasites, Euhaplorchis californiensis, infects the brain of the killifish Fundulus parvipinnis and alters its behaviour, making the fish 10–30 times more susceptible to predation by the birds that serve as its definitive host. Parasites like E. californiensis are embedded in food webs because they require trophic transmission. In the Carpinteria Salt Marsh estuarine food web, parasites dominate the links and comprise substantial amount of biomass. Adding parasites to food webs alters important network statistics such as connectance and nestedness. Furthermore, some free-living stages of parasites are food items for free-living species. For instance, fishes feed on trematode cercariae. Being embedded in food webs makes parasites sensitive to changes in the environment. In particular, fishing and environmental disturbance, by reducing fish populations, may reduce parasite populations. Indirect evidence suggests a decrease in parasites in commercially fished species over the past three decades. In addition, environmental degradation can affect fish parasites. For these reasons, parasites in fishes may serve as indicators of environmental impacts.

  7. Consumers' Attitude Towards Fish Meat.

    PubMed

    Conte, Francesca; Passantino, Annamaria; Longo, Sabrina; Voslářová, Eva

    2014-08-28

    The overall aim of this paper is to show the factors that may affect consumers' attitude towards farmed fish products. Consumers ask new products on the basis of different quality attributes: stability, safety, composition, better health effects, environment protection, etc. Different and controversial opinions on farmed and wild fish are also explored by literature review. The authors pay attention also to fish welfare as an emerging issue and effective information about fish products as a factor exerting a positive influence on consumers' decision of purchase. Some relevant legislative notes on the paper's topics are also cited. The qualitative aspects of aquaculture fish and the consumers' demand and choice need further studies, according to some factors, such as the changing consumers' attitudes towards fish products, the different fish quality perception and the development in the aquaculture systems.

  8. Automatic electronic fish tracking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osborne, P. W.; Hoffman, E.; Merriner, J. V.; Richards, C. E.; Lovelady, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    A newly developed electronic fish tracking system to automatically monitor the movements and migratory habits of fish is reported. The system is aimed particularly at studies of effects on fish life of industrial facilities which use rivers or lakes to dump their effluents. Location of fish is acquired by means of acoustic links from the fish to underwater Listening Stations, and by radio links which relay tracking information to a shore-based Data Base. Fish over 4 inches long may be tracked over a 5 x 5 mile area. The electronic fish tracking system provides the marine scientist with electronics which permit studies that were not practical in the past and which are cost-effective compared to manual methods.

  9. Consumers’ Attitude Towards Fish Meat

    PubMed Central

    Passantino, Annamaria; Longo, Sabrina; Voslářová, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The overall aim of this paper is to show the factors that may affect consumers’ attitude towards farmed fish products. Consumers ask new products on the basis of different quality attributes: stability, safety, composition, better health effects, environment protection, etc. Different and controversial opinions on farmed and wild fish are also explored by literature review. The authors pay attention also to fish welfare as an emerging issue and effective information about fish products as a factor exerting a positive influence on consumers’ decision of purchase. Some relevant legislative notes on the paper’s topics are also cited. The qualitative aspects of aquaculture fish and the consumers’ demand and choice need further studies, according to some factors, such as the changing consumers’ attitudes towards fish products, the different fish quality perception and the development in the aquaculture systems. PMID:27800359

  10. Fish oil: a panacea?

    PubMed

    Bilo, H J; Gans, R O

    1990-01-01

    Since the first report by Bang and Dyerberg regarding the apparent beneficial effects of a fish oil-enriched diet on the incidence of atherosclerotic heart disease in Greenland eskimos, a considerable number of studies have been performed regarding the effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the prevention and treatment of a variety of disease states not necessarily related to atherosclerosis. Studies have been performed on healthy volunteers and in patients with hyperlipidaemia, atherosclerotic vascular disease, diabetes, asthma, psoriasis and chronic renal insufficiency, amongst others. Positive effects on platelet activity, lipid profile, blood rheology and blood pressure--all factors which are presumably of importance in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic disease have been noted in these studies, albeit with a wide range of variability. Some negative effects also appear to exist. However, some general conclusions can be made regarding the effects of a fish oil-enriched diet.

  11. Herpesviruses that Infect Fish

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Larry; Dishon, Arnon; Kotler, Moshe

    2011-01-01

    Herpesviruses are host specific pathogens that are widespread among vertebrates. Genome sequence data demonstrate that most herpesviruses of fish and amphibians are grouped together (family Alloherpesviridae) and are distantly related to herpesviruses of reptiles, birds and mammals (family Herpesviridae). Yet, many of the biological processes of members of the order Herpesvirales are similar. Among the conserved characteristics are the virion structure, replication process, the ability to establish long term latency and the manipulation of the host immune response. Many of the similar processes may be due to convergent evolution. This overview of identified herpesviruses of fish discusses the diseases that alloherpesviruses cause, the biology of these viruses and the host-pathogen interactions. Much of our knowledge on the biology of Alloherpesvirdae is derived from research with two species: Ictalurid herpesvirus 1 (channel catfish virus) and Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (koi herpesvirus). PMID:22163339

  12. Speciation in fishes.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Giacomo

    2013-11-01

    The field of speciation has seen much renewed interest in the past few years, with theoretical and empirical advances that have moved it from a descriptive field to a predictive and testable one. The goal of this review is to provide a general background on research on speciation as it pertains to fishes. Three major components to the question are first discussed: the spatial, ecological and sexual factors that influence speciation mechanisms. We then move to the latest developments in the field of speciation genomics. Affordable and rapidly available, massively parallel sequencing data allow speciation studies to converge into a single comprehensive line of investigation, where the focus has shifted to the search for speciation genes and genomic islands of speciation. We argue that fish present a very diverse array of scenarios, making them an ideal model to study speciation processes.

  13. Beyond biodiversity: fish metagenomes.

    PubMed

    Ardura, Alba; Planes, Serge; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Biodiversity and intra-specific genetic diversity are interrelated and determine the potential of a community to survive and evolve. Both are considered together in Prokaryote communities treated as metagenomes or ensembles of functional variants beyond species limits.Many factors alter biodiversity in higher Eukaryote communities, and human exploitation can be one of the most important for some groups of plants and animals. For example, fisheries can modify both biodiversity and genetic diversity (intra specific). Intra-specific diversity can be drastically altered by overfishing. Intense fishing pressure on one stock may imply extinction of some genetic variants and subsequent loss of intra-specific diversity. The objective of this study was to apply a metagenome approach to fish communities and explore its value for rapid evaluation of biodiversity and genetic diversity at community level. Here we have applied the metagenome approach employing the barcoding target gene coi as a model sequence in catch from four very different fish assemblages exploited by fisheries: freshwater communities from the Amazon River and northern Spanish rivers, and marine communities from the Cantabric and Mediterranean seas.Treating all sequences obtained from each regional catch as a biological unit (exploited community) we found that metagenomic diversity indices of the Amazonian catch sample here examined were lower than expected. Reduced diversity could be explained, at least partially, by overexploitation of the fish community that had been independently estimated by other methods.We propose using a metagenome approach for estimating diversity in Eukaryote communities and early evaluating genetic variation losses at multi-species level.

  14. Ciguatera fish poisoning.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Patrick; Murray, Peter; Nesdale, Annette; Peckler, Brad

    2016-10-28

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is the most common cause of seafood-toxin poisoning in the world and is most prevalent in tropical and subtropical areas. It causes gastroenteritis but also myriad neurological and cardiovascular symptoms. We present a cluster of CFP that occurred in Wellington Hospital, New Zealand. It resulted in three patients with life threatening cardiotoxicity and a fourth case with severe gastro-intestinal symptoms. The epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment and public health issues are discussed.

  15. ONE FISH, TWO FISH, RED FISH, BLUE FISH: THE FISH QUALITY INDEX AS A RISK COMMUNICATION TOOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many people are at high risk for methyl mercury toxicity because of their consumption of contaminated fish. Often health risks of Persistent Bioaccumulative Toxicants (PT) such as methyl mercury, PCBs or Dioxins are underestimated because of their amplification in the food chain ...

  16. ONE FISH, TWO FISH, RED FISH, BLUE FISH: THE FISH QUALITY INDEX AS A RISK COMMUNICATION TOOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many people are at high risk for methyl mercury toxicity because of their consumption of contaminated fish. Often health risks of Persistent Bioaccumulative Toxicants (PT) such as methyl mercury, PCBs or Dioxins are underestimated because of their amplification in the food chain ...

  17. The interleukins of fish.

    PubMed

    Secombes, C J; Wang, T; Bird, S

    2011-12-01

    Interleukins are a subgroup of cytokines, molecules involved in the intercellular regulation of the immune system. The term interleukin was first coined in 1979 to refer to molecules that signal between different leucocyte types, although not exclusively restricted to leucocyte communication. Whilst it is now known that interleukins are produced by a wide variety of cell types, nevertheless many are synthesised by CD4(+) T helper cells, macrophages/monocytes and endothelial cells. The nomenclature is relatively straightforward, with interleukin 1 the first discovered and interleukin 2 the second, etc. However, whilst 35 interleukins are currently described in mammals, several are in fact terms referring to subfamilies of more molecules, as with the IL-1 family where 11 members (IL-1F1-IL-1F11) are present, and the IL-17 family where 6 members (IL-17A-IL-17F) are present. So the total is much higher and splice variants and allelic variation increase this diversity further. This review will focus on what is known about interleukins in fish, and will refer to the major subfamilies rather than try to work through 35 descriptions in a row. It is clear that many direct homologues of molecules known in mammals are present in fish, but that not all are present and some novel interleukins exist that may have arisen from fish specific gene duplication events. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Fish Synucleins: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Toni, Mattia; Cioni, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Synucleins (syns) are a family of proteins involved in several human neurodegenerative diseases and tumors. Since the first syn discovery in the brain of the electric ray Torpedo californica, members of the same family have been identified in all vertebrates and comparative studies have indicated that syn proteins are evolutionary conserved. No counterparts of syns were found in invertebrates suggesting that they are vertebrate-specific proteins. Molecular studies showed that the number of syn members varies among vertebrates. Three genes encode for α-, β- and γ-syn in mammals and birds. However, a variable number of syn genes and encoded proteins is expressed or predicted in fish depending on the species. Among biologically verified sequences, four syn genes were identified in fugu, encoding for α, β and two γ (γ1 and γ2) isoforms, whereas only three genes are expressed in zebrafish, which lacks α-syn gene. The list of “non verified” sequences is much longer and is often found in sequence databases. In this review we provide an overview of published papers and known syn sequences in agnathans and fish that are likely to impact future studies in this field. Indeed, fish models may play a key role in elucidating some of the molecular mechanisms involved in physiological and pathological functions of syn proteins. PMID:26528989

  19. Fishing degrades size structure of coral reef fish communities.

    PubMed

    Robinson, James P W; Williams, Ivor D; Edwards, Andrew M; McPherson, Jana; Yeager, Lauren; Vigliola, Laurent; Brainard, Russell E; Baum, Julia K

    2017-03-01

    Fishing pressure on coral reef ecosystems has been frequently linked to reductions of large fishes and reef fish biomass. Associated impacts on overall community structure are, however, less clear. In size-structured aquatic ecosystems, fishing impacts are commonly quantified using size spectra, which describe the distribution of individual body sizes within a community. We examined the size spectra and biomass of coral reef fish communities at 38 US-affiliated Pacific islands that ranged in human presence from near pristine to human population centers. Size spectra 'steepened' steadily with increasing human population and proximity to market due to a reduction in the relative biomass of large fishes and an increase in the dominance of small fishes. Reef fish biomass was substantially lower on inhabited islands than uninhabited ones, even at inhabited islands with the lowest levels of human presence. We found that on populated islands size spectra exponents decreased (analogous to size spectra steepening) linearly with declining biomass, whereas on uninhabited islands there was no relationship. Size spectra were steeper in regions of low sea surface temperature but were insensitive to variation in other environmental and geomorphic covariates. In contrast, reef fish biomass was highly sensitive to oceanographic conditions, being influenced by both oceanic productivity and sea surface temperature. Our results suggest that community size structure may be a more robust indicator than fish biomass to increasing human presence and that size spectra are reliable indicators of exploitation impacts across regions of different fish community compositions, environmental drivers, and fisheries types. Size-based approaches that link directly to functional properties of fish communities, and are relatively insensitive to abiotic variation across biogeographic regions, offer great potential for developing our understanding of fishing impacts in coral reef ecosystems.

  20. Beyond the transect: an alternative microchemical imaging method for fine scale analysis of trace elements in fish otoliths during early life.

    PubMed

    McGowan, Nicole; Fowler, Ashley M; Parkinson, Kerryn; Bishop, David P; Ganio, Katherine; Doble, Philip A; Booth, David J; Hare, Dominic J

    2014-10-01

    Microchemical analysis of otolith (calcified 'ear stones' used for balance and orientation) of fishes is an important tool for studying their environmental history and management. However, the spatial resolution achieved is often too coarse to examine short-term events occurring in early life. Current methods rely on single points or transects across the otolith surface, which may provide a limited view of elemental distributions, a matter that has not previously been investigated. Imaging by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) permits microchemical analyses of short-term events in early life with high (<10 μm) resolution, two-dimensional (2D) visualization of elemental distributions. To demonstrate the potential of this method, we mapped the concentrations of Sr and Ba, two key trace elements, in a small number of juvenile otoliths of neon damselfish (Pomacentrus coelestis) using an 8 μm beam diameter (laser fluence of 13.8 ± 3.5 Jcm(-2)). Quantification was performed using the established method by Longerich et al. (1996), which is applied to 2D imaging of a biological matrix here for the first time. Accuracy of >97% was achieved using a multi-point non matrix-matched calibration of National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) 610 and 612 (trace elements in glass) using Longerich's calculation method against the matrix-matched standard FEBS-1 (powdered red snapper [Lutjanus campechanus] otolith). The spatial resolution achieved in the otolith corresponded to a time period of 2 ± 1 days during the larval phase, and 4 ± 1 days during the post-settlement juvenile phase. This method has the potential to improve interpretations of early life-history events at scales corresponding to specific events. While the images showed gradients in Sr and Ba across the larval settlement zone more clearly than single transects, the method proved sample homogeneity throughout the structure; demonstrating that 2D scanning has no

  1. 50 CFR 71.11 - Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing. 71.11 Section 71.11 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FISH HATCHERY AREAS Fishing § 71.11 Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing. National...

  2. 50 CFR 71.11 - Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing. 71.11 Section 71.11 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FISH HATCHERY AREAS Fishing § 71.11 Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing. National...

  3. Adsorption to fish sperm of vertically transmitted fish viruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulcahy, D.; Pascho, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    More than 99 percent of a vertically transmitted fish rhabdovirus, infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus, was removed from suspension in less than 1 minute by adsorption to the surface membrane of sperm from two genera of salmonid fishes. The vertically transmitted, infectious pancreatic necrosis virus adsorbed to a lesser degree, but no adsorption occurred with a second fish rhabdovirus that is not vertically transmitted. Such adsorption may be involved in vertical transmission of these viruses.

  4. The Sensor Fish: Measuring Fish Passage in Severe Hydraulic Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Thomas J. ); Duncan, Joanne P. ); Gilbride, Theresa L. )

    2003-05-28

    This article describes PNNL's efforts to develop the Sensor Fish, a waterproof sensor package that travels thru the turbines of spillways of hydroelectric dam to collect pressure and acceleration data on the conditions experienced by live salmon smolts during dam passage. Sensor Fish development is sponsored by the DOE Advanced Hydropower Turbine Survival Program. The article also gave two recent examples of Sensor Fish use: turbine passage at a McNary Kaplan turbine and spill passage in topspill at Rock Island Dam.

  5. Fish Ontology framework for taxonomy-based fish recognition

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Najib M.; Khan, Haris A.; Then, Amy Y-Hui; Ving Ching, Chong; Gaur, Manas

    2017-01-01

    Life science ontologies play an important role in Semantic Web. Given the diversity in fish species and the associated wealth of information, it is imperative to develop an ontology capable of linking and integrating this information in an automated fashion. As such, we introduce the Fish Ontology (FO), an automated classification architecture of existing fish taxa which provides taxonomic information on unknown fish based on metadata restrictions. It is designed to support knowledge discovery, provide semantic annotation of fish and fisheries resources, data integration, and information retrieval. Automated classification for unknown specimens is a unique feature that currently does not appear to exist in other known ontologies. Examples of automated classification for major groups of fish are demonstrated, showing the inferred information by introducing several restrictions at the species or specimen level. The current version of FO has 1,830 classes, includes widely used fisheries terminology, and models major aspects of fish taxonomy, grouping, and character. With more than 30,000 known fish species globally, the FO will be an indispensable tool for fish scientists and other interested users. PMID:28929028

  6. Fish Ontology framework for taxonomy-based fish recognition.

    PubMed

    Ali, Najib M; Khan, Haris A; Then, Amy Y-Hui; Ving Ching, Chong; Gaur, Manas; Dhillon, Sarinder Kaur

    2017-01-01

    Life science ontologies play an important role in Semantic Web. Given the diversity in fish species and the associated wealth of information, it is imperative to develop an ontology capable of linking and integrating this information in an automated fashion. As such, we introduce the Fish Ontology (FO), an automated classification architecture of existing fish taxa which provides taxonomic information on unknown fish based on metadata restrictions. It is designed to support knowledge discovery, provide semantic annotation of fish and fisheries resources, data integration, and information retrieval. Automated classification for unknown specimens is a unique feature that currently does not appear to exist in other known ontologies. Examples of automated classification for major groups of fish are demonstrated, showing the inferred information by introducing several restrictions at the species or specimen level. The current version of FO has 1,830 classes, includes widely used fisheries terminology, and models major aspects of fish taxonomy, grouping, and character. With more than 30,000 known fish species globally, the FO will be an indispensable tool for fish scientists and other interested users.

  7. Fish detection and classification system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tidd, Richard A.; Wilder, Joseph

    2001-01-01

    Marine biologists traditionally determine the presence and quantities of different types of fish by dragging nets across the bottom, and examining their contents. This method, although accurate, kills the collected fish, damages their habitat, and consumes large quantities of resources. This paper presents an alternative, a machine vision system capable of determining the presence of fish species. Illumination presents a unique problem in this environment, and the design of an effective illumination system is discussed. The related issues of object orientation and measurement are also discussed and resolved. Capturing images of fish in murky water also presents challenges. An adaptive thresholding technique is required to appropriately segment the fish from the background in these images. Mode detection, and histogram analysis are useful tools in determining these localized thresholds. It is anticipated that this system, created in conjunction with the Rutgers Institute for Marine and Coastal Science, will effectively classify fish in the estuarine environment.

  8. Lipid peroxidation of fish oils.

    PubMed

    Godwin, Angela; Prabhu, H Ramachandra

    2006-03-01

    Fish and fish oils are the richest sources of ω-3 fatty acids. However, they are susceptible to lipid peroxidation due to their high degree of unsaturation. In the present study, the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive material in various fish oils available in the market with and without added Vitamin E was determined. The peroxide levels in fish oil heated to food frying temperature of 180°C and the effect of addition of vitamin E has also been studied. The results indicate that the peroxide levels in almost all the products available in the market were abnormally high irrespective of their Vitamin E content. This might be due to the inefficient methods used for processing and storage of fish oils. Addition of vitamin E was found to have a significant effect in lowering the rate of peroxidation of fish oil during thermal stress, showing that association of antioxidants with ω-3 fatty acids lowers the rate of lipid peroxidation.

  9. Gonadal development in fish.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Toshiya; Tanaka, Minoru

    2014-01-01

    Vertebrate reproduction depends on the function of 2 distinct gametes, sperm and eggs, which develop in 2 different organs, the testis and the ovary. Testes and ovaries are composed of germ cells, supporting cells and interstitial cells. In this review, we describe the origin and the fate of these cell lineages and how they interact with each other to form sexually dimorphic reproductive organs in medaka. We delineate how the temporally different association and establishment of these lineages contribute to a variety of seemingly different sex differentiation processes among teleost fish. Thus, teleosts represent an intriguing group in which to study the fundamental processes of gonadal development through comparing conserved and unique mechanisms.

  10. Virus diseases of fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watson, Stanley W.

    1954-01-01

    The degenerative or non-neoplastic diseases of possible virus origin give the fish-culturist the most concern because of the severe mortalities resulting from infection. Epizootics of this nature have been reported in carp (Cyprinus carpio) and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) in Europe, in acara (Geophagus brasiliensis) in South America, in kokanee, (Oncorhynchus nerka kennerlyi) and in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka nerka) in the State of Washington. It has been demonstrated that each epizootic was caused by an infectious filterable agent, probably a virus.

  11. Fish intelligence, sentience and ethics.

    PubMed

    Brown, Culum

    2015-01-01

    Fish are one of the most highly utilised vertebrate taxa by humans; they are harvested from wild stocks as part of global fishing industries, grown under intensive aquaculture conditions, are the most common pet and are widely used for scientific research. But fish are seldom afforded the same level of compassion or welfare as warm-blooded vertebrates. Part of the problem is the large gap between people's perception of fish intelligence and the scientific reality. This is an important issue because public perception guides government policy. The perception of an animal's intelligence often drives our decision whether or not to include them in our moral circle. From a welfare perspective, most researchers would suggest that if an animal is sentient, then it can most likely suffer and should therefore be offered some form of formal protection. There has been a debate about fish welfare for decades which centres on the question of whether they are sentient or conscious. The implications for affording the same level of protection to fish as other vertebrates are great, not least because of fishing-related industries. Here, I review the current state of knowledge of fish cognition starting with their sensory perception and moving on to cognition. The review reveals that fish perception and cognitive abilities often match or exceed other vertebrates. A review of the evidence for pain perception strongly suggests that fish experience pain in a manner similar to the rest of the vertebrates. Although scientists cannot provide a definitive answer on the level of consciousness for any non-human vertebrate, the extensive evidence of fish behavioural and cognitive sophistication and pain perception suggests that best practice would be to lend fish the same level of protection as any other vertebrate.

  12. The Function of Fish Cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Jun; Secombes, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    What is known about the biological activity of fish cytokines is reviewed. Most of the functional studies performed to date have been in teleost fish, and have focused on the induced effects of cytokine recombinant proteins, or have used loss- and gain-of-function experiments in zebrafish. Such studies begin to tell us about the role of these molecules in the regulation of fish immune responses and whether they are similar or divergent to the well-characterised functions of mammalian cytokines. This knowledge will aid our ability to determine and modulate the pathways leading to protective immunity, to improve fish health in aquaculture. PMID:27231948

  13. Disease control in hatchery fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fish, F.F.

    1947-01-01

    The method described herein has been extensively tested, both in the laboratory and at the producing hatchery, over a period of several years. Once familiarity with the details of application have been mastered, th8 reduction in effort required to treat fish is amazing. For example, two men have treated 20 large ponds containing several million fish, in one morning with no significant increase in mortality of the fish, whereas a crew of eight men required a full day to treat a single similar pond by hand dipping the fish with a subsequent loss approximating 50 percent of the stock.

  14. Fish can get diseases too

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winton, J.R.; Mesa, M.; Kurath, G.; Elliot, D.

    2005-01-01

    Infectious diseases are increasingly recognized as an important component of the ecology of fish in the wild. Many of the viral, bacterial, protozoan and fungal pathogens of fish that were initially discovered in captive fish have their origin among wild populations; however, the impact of disease among these free-ranging stocks has been difficult to study. At the WFRC, combinations of field and laboratory investigations, aided by the tools of molecular biology, have begun to provide information on the ecology of infectious diseases among natural populations of fish in both freshwater and marine ecosystems.

  15. Fishing for feed or fishing for food: increasing global competition for small pelagic forage fish.

    PubMed

    Tacon, Albert G J; Metian, Marc

    2009-09-01

    At present, small pelagic forage fish species (includes anchovies, herring, mackerel, sardines, etc.) represent the largest landed species group in capture fisheries (27.3 million t or 29.7% of total capture fisheries landings in 2006). They also currently constitute the major species group actively fished and targeted for nonfood uses, including reduction into fishmeal and fish oil for use within compound animal feeds, or for direct animal feeding; the aquaculture sector alone consumed the equivalent of about 23.8 million t of fish (live weight equivalent) or 87% in the form of feed inputs in 2006. This article attempts to make a global analysis of the competition for small pelagic forage fish for direct human consumption and nonfood uses, particularly concerning the important and growing role played by small pelagic forage fish in the diet and food security of the poor and needy, especially within the developing countries of Africa and the Sub-Saharan region.

  16. Fish Manoeuvres and Morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Kiran; Pedley, Timothy

    2008-11-01

    The extraordinary manoeuvrability observed in many fish is attributed to their inherent flexibility, which might be enhanced by the use of appendages like fins. The aim of this work is to understand the role of morphological adaptations, such as body shape and deployment of median fins, on manoeuvrability and internal body dynamics. The 3d vortex lattice numerical method was employed to analyse the hydrodynamics for arbitrary body planforms of infinitesimal thickness. The internal structure of the body due to the combined skeletal system and soft tissue, is represented as an active Euler-Bernoulli beam, in which the time-dependent bending moment distribution is calculated from body inertia and the hydrodynamic pressure difference across the body. C-turns are the manoeuvre of choice for this work and the response for three different species of fish are examined. Angelfish(Pterophyllum eimekei), pike (Esox sp) and tuna (Thunnus albacares) were chosen for their differences in body profile, median fin use and manoeuvrability. Net direction change and bending moment response to prescribed backbone flexure are calculated and used to interpret the influence of body profile on manoeuvrability and muscle work done. Internal stresses may be computed from anatomical data on muscle fibre distribution and recruitment. To the future, it is intended to extend this work to other typical manoeuvres, such as fast starts for which muscle activation patterns have been measured quite widely.

  17. New research method looks at fish mucus

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have developed a new way to analyze fish tissues to understand fish ecology. Instead of killing the fish to collect the sample for analysis, we collect body mucus from the fish and analyze that. The fish can then be returned alive to the stream or lake.

  18. New research method looks at fish mucus

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have developed a new way to analyze fish tissues to understand fish ecology. Instead of killing the fish to collect the sample for analysis, we collect body mucus from the fish and analyze that. The fish can then be returned alive to the stream or lake.

  19. 25 CFR 242.4 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fishing. 242.4 Section 242.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE COMMERCIAL FISHING ON RED LAKE INDIAN RESERVATION § 242.4 Fishing. (a) Enrolled members of the Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians may take fish at any time...

  20. 25 CFR 242.4 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fishing. 242.4 Section 242.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE COMMERCIAL FISHING ON RED LAKE INDIAN RESERVATION § 242.4 Fishing. (a) Enrolled members of the Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians may take fish at any time...

  1. 25 CFR 242.4 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Fishing. 242.4 Section 242.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE COMMERCIAL FISHING ON RED LAKE INDIAN RESERVATION § 242.4 Fishing. (a) Enrolled members of the Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians may take fish at any time...

  2. 50 CFR 300.129 - Fishing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fishing year. 300.129 Section 300.129 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Vessels of the United States Fishing in Colombian Treaty Waters § 300.129 Fishing year. The fishing year...

  3. 25 CFR 242.4 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fishing. 242.4 Section 242.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE COMMERCIAL FISHING ON RED LAKE INDIAN RESERVATION § 242.4 Fishing. (a) Enrolled members of the Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians may take fish at any time...

  4. 50 CFR 300.129 - Fishing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fishing year. 300.129 Section 300.129 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Vessels of the United States Fishing in Colombian Treaty Waters § 300.129 Fishing year. The fishing year...

  5. 76 FR 60379 - Hunting and Fishing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 32 Hunting and Fishing CFR Correction In Title 50 of the Code of.... Sport Fishing. We allow fishing on designated areas of the refuge in accordance with State regulations subject to the following conditions: 0 1. We allow fishing in impounded waters contained within dikes and...

  6. 50 CFR 600.508 - Fishing operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fishing operations. 600.508 Section 600... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Foreign Fishing § 600.508 Fishing.... fishing vessels. These joint venture operations with U.S. fishing vessels may be conducted throughout the...

  7. 50 CFR 300.129 - Fishing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fishing year. 300.129 Section 300.129 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Vessels of the United States Fishing in Colombian Treaty Waters § 300.129 Fishing year. The fishing year...

  8. 50 CFR 300.129 - Fishing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fishing year. 300.129 Section 300.129 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Vessels of the United States Fishing in Colombian Treaty Waters § 300.129 Fishing year. The fishing year...

  9. 50 CFR 600.508 - Fishing operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fishing operations. 600.508 Section 600... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Foreign Fishing § 600.508 Fishing.... fishing vessels. These joint venture operations with U.S. fishing vessels may be conducted throughout the...

  10. 25 CFR 242.4 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fishing. 242.4 Section 242.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE COMMERCIAL FISHING ON RED LAKE INDIAN RESERVATION § 242.4 Fishing. (a) Enrolled members of the Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians may take fish at any time...

  11. 50 CFR 300.129 - Fishing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fishing year. 300.129 Section 300.129 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Vessels of the United States Fishing in Colombian Treaty Waters § 300.129 Fishing year. The fishing year...

  12. Fish Passage: A New Tool to Investigate Fish Movement: JSATS

    SciTech Connect

    McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Weiland, Mark A.; Deng, Zhiqun; Eppard, Matthew B.

    2011-04-20

    A new system is being used to determine fish mortality issues related to hydroelectric facilities in the Pacific Northwest. Called the juvenile salmon acoustic telemetry system (JSATS), this tool allows researchers to better understand fish movement, behavior, and survival around dams and powerhouses.

  13. Fish Karyome: A karyological information network database of Indian Fishes.

    PubMed

    Nagpure, Naresh Sahebrao; Pathak, Ajey Kumar; Pati, Rameshwar; Singh, Shri Prakash; Singh, Mahender; Sarkar, Uttam Kumar; Kushwaha, Basdeo; Kumar, Ravindra

    2012-01-01

    'Fish Karyome', a database on karyological information of Indian fishes have been developed that serves as central source for karyotype data about Indian fishes compiled from the published literature. Fish Karyome has been intended to serve as a liaison tool for the researchers and contains karyological information about 171 out of 2438 finfish species reported in India and is publically available via World Wide Web. The database provides information on chromosome number, morphology, sex chromosomes, karyotype formula and cytogenetic markers etc. Additionally, it also provides the phenotypic information that includes species name, its classification, and locality of sample collection, common name, local name, sex, geographical distribution, and IUCN Red list status. Besides, fish and karyotype images, references for 171 finfish species have been included in the database. Fish Karyome has been developed using SQL Server 2008, a relational database management system, Microsoft's ASP.NET-2008 and Macromedia's FLASH Technology under Windows 7 operating environment. The system also enables users to input new information and images into the database, search and view the information and images of interest using various search options. Fish Karyome has wide range of applications in species characterization and identification, sex determination, chromosomal mapping, karyo-evolution and systematics of fishes.

  14. 46 CFR 148.265 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... be treated with an effective antioxidant (at least 400 mg/kg (ppm) ethoxyquin, at least 1000 mg/kg (ppm) butylated hydroxytoluene, or at least 1000 mg/kg (ppm) of tocopherol-based liquid antioxidant... antioxidant at the time of shipment. (f) At the time of loading, the temperature of the fish meal or fish...

  15. 46 CFR 148.265 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... be treated with an effective antioxidant (at least 400 mg/kg (ppm) ethoxyquin, at least 1000 mg/kg (ppm) butylated hydroxytoluene, or at least 1000 mg/kg (ppm) of tocopherol-based liquid antioxidant... antioxidant at the time of shipment. (f) At the time of loading, the temperature of the fish meal or fish...

  16. 46 CFR 148.265 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... be treated with an effective antioxidant (at least 400 mg/kg (ppm) ethoxyquin, at least 1000 mg/kg (ppm) butylated hydroxytoluene, or at least 1000 mg/kg (ppm) of tocopherol-based liquid antioxidant... antioxidant at the time of shipment. (f) At the time of loading, the temperature of the fish meal or fish...

  17. FIXATION OF FISH TISSUES. IN: THE LABORATORY FISH.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter deals with the fixation of fish tissues and whole fish. Traditionally, fixation has been applied to animal tissues mainly for histological or pathological studies. Development of new molecular and immunologic tools now allows tissue and cellular localization of nucle...

  18. FIXATION OF FISH TISSUES. IN: THE LABORATORY FISH.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter deals with the fixation of fish tissues and whole fish. Traditionally, fixation has been applied to animal tissues mainly for histological or pathological studies. Development of new molecular and immunologic tools now allows tissue and cellular localization of nucle...

  19. Fishing effects on energy use by North Sea fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, Simon; van Hal, Ralf; Hiddink, Jan G.; Maxwell, Tracy A. D.

    Fishing affects patterns of energy use in fish populations, as demonstrated by changes in population energy consumption and the size and age when energy demands are greatest. We compare theoretical predictions and observed patterns of energy use (expressed as the primary production required to support fish production) by North Sea fish, based on simple and widely applicable theory that links life history parameters, fishing mortality ( F), trophic transfer efficiency and relationships between size and trophic level (as determined using nitrogen stable isotope analysis). For the demersal species that dominate total biomass, relationships between size and trophic level were quite consistent among years. There were large decreases in relative energy requirements of all exploited demersal populations except plaice Pleuronectes platessa during the last 3 to 4 decades. Relative energy requirements of plaice were more stable because smaller plaice, which now dominate the exploited population, feed at higher trophic levels than larger plaice. The sizes and ages when population energy demands were greatest fell with increasing fishing mortality and differences between the predicted ( F = 0) and observed ages at maximum energy demand were greater in larger species. Currently, the energy demands of most species peak early in life (1-3 years) and largely reflect patterns of recruitment, leading to a homogenisation of the trophodynamics of the fish community. The fate of energy that is no longer used by commercially exploited species is not clear, partly because of the infrequent and untargeted monitoring of species that are more resilient to fishing. However, we conducted a preliminary assessment of the energy demands of solenette Buglossidium luteum, a very abundant small flatfish in the central North Sea that has increased in abundance in recent years. The solenette's high abundance and resilience to fishing, suggests that it now requires 35% of primary production in part of

  20. 76 FR 20707 - Cle Elum Dam Fish Passage Facilities and Fish Reintroduction Project; Kittitas County, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Cle Elum Dam Fish Passage Facilities and Fish Reintroduction Project; Kittitas... Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) for the Cle Elum Dam Fish Passage Facilities and Fish Reintroduction... FEIS on the proposed Cle Elum Dam Fish Passage Facilities and Fish Reintroduction Project. The...

  1. Vision of Fish in Air

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colicchia, Giuseppe

    2007-01-01

    The investigation of the focusing in fish eyes, both theoretical and experimental, by using a simple fish eye model, provides an interesting biological context for teaching the introductory principles of optics. Moreover, the students will learn concepts of biology by an approach of cause and effect.

  2. Feeding Practices and Fish Health

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Over the past three decades, the aquaculture industry has expanded rapidly throughout the world and is expected to continue to grow in the years to come due to the unpredictability and high cost of harvesting fish from the oceans as well as the increased demand for fish as a result of rapid populati...

  3. Vision of Fish in Air

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colicchia, Giuseppe

    2007-01-01

    The investigation of the focusing in fish eyes, both theoretical and experimental, by using a simple fish eye model, provides an interesting biological context for teaching the introductory principles of optics. Moreover, the students will learn concepts of biology by an approach of cause and effect.

  4. Relative and combined effects of habitat and fishing on reef fish communities across a limited fishing gradient at Ningaloo.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Shaun K; Babcock, Russ C; Fisher, Rebecca; Holmes, Thomas H; Moore, James A Y; Thomson, Damian P

    2012-10-01

    Habitat degradation and fishing are major drivers of temporal and spatial changes in fish communities. The independent effects of these drivers are well documented, but the relative importance and interaction between fishing and habitat shifts is poorly understood, particularly in complex systems such as coral reefs. To assess the combined and relative effects of fishing and habitat we examined the composition of fish communities on patch reefs across a gradient of high to low structural complexity in fished and unfished areas of the Ningaloo Marine Park, Western Australia. Biomass and species richness of fish were positively correlated with structural complexity of reefs and negatively related to macroalgal cover. Total abundance of fish was also positively related to structural complexity, however this relationship was stronger on fished reefs than those where fishing is prohibited. The interaction between habitat condition and fishing pressure is primarily due to the high abundance of small bodied planktivorous fish on fished reefs. However, the influence of management zones on the abundance and biomass of predators and target species is small, implying spatial differences in fishing pressure are low and unlikely to be driving this interaction. Our results emphasise the importance of habitat in structuring reef fish communities on coral reefs especially when gradients in fishing pressure are low. The influence of fishing effort on this relationship may however become more important as fishing pressure increases.

  5. Orientation through chemo reception in fishes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleerekoper, H.

    1972-01-01

    A system designed to acquire and process data describing locomotor behavior of fish is described. Data are recorded in relation to the fish's response to olfactory stimuli. It was concluded that fish orientation is based on rheataxis or chemotropotaxis.

  6. Flapping flexible fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Root, Robert G.; Courtland, Hayden-William; Shepherd, William; Long, John H.

    In order to analyze and model the body kinematics used by fish in a wide range of swimming behaviors, we developed a technique to separate the periodic whole-body motions that characterize steady swimming from the secular motions that characterize changes in whole-body shape. We applied this harmonic analysis technique to the study of the forward and backward swimming of lamprey. We found that in order to vary the unsteadiness of swimming, lamprey superimpose periodic and secular components of their body motion, modulate the patterns and magnitudes of those components, and change shape. These kinematic results suggest the following hydromechanical hypothesis: steady swimming is a maneuver that requires active suppression of secular body reconfigurations.

  7. Phylogenetic classification of bony fishes.

    PubMed

    Betancur-R, Ricardo; Wiley, Edward O; Arratia, Gloria; Acero, Arturo; Bailly, Nicolas; Miya, Masaki; Lecointre, Guillaume; Ortí, Guillermo

    2017-07-06

    Fish classifications, as those of most other taxonomic groups, are being transformed drastically as new molecular phylogenies provide support for natural groups that were unanticipated by previous studies. A brief review of the main criteria used by ichthyologists to define their classifications during the last 50 years, however, reveals slow progress towards using an explicit phylogenetic framework. Instead, the trend has been to rely, in varying degrees, on deep-rooted anatomical concepts and authority, often mixing taxa with explicit phylogenetic support with arbitrary groupings. Two leading sources in ichthyology frequently used for fish classifications (JS Nelson's volumes of Fishes of the World and W. Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes) fail to adopt a global phylogenetic framework despite much recent progress made towards the resolution of the fish Tree of Life. The first explicit phylogenetic classification of bony fishes was published in 2013, based on a comprehensive molecular phylogeny ( www.deepfin.org ). We here update the first version of that classification by incorporating the most recent phylogenetic results. The updated classification presented here is based on phylogenies inferred using molecular and genomic data for nearly 2000 fishes. A total of 72 orders (and 79 suborders) are recognized in this version, compared with 66 orders in version 1. The phylogeny resolves placement of 410 families, or ~80% of the total of 514 families of bony fishes currently recognized. The ordinal status of 30 percomorph families included in this study, however, remains uncertain (incertae sedis in the series Carangaria, Ovalentaria, or Eupercaria). Comments to support taxonomic decisions and comparisons with conflicting taxonomic groups proposed by others are presented. We also highlight cases were morphological support exist for the groups being classified. This version of the phylogenetic classification of bony fishes is substantially improved, providing resolution

  8. The campaign to DNA barcode all fishes, FISH-BOL.

    PubMed

    Ward, R D; Hanner, R; Hebert, P D N

    2009-02-01

    FISH-BOL, the Fish Barcode of Life campaign, is an international research collaboration that is assembling a standardized reference DNA sequence library for all fishes. Analysis is targeting a 648 base pair region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene. More than 5000 species have already been DNA barcoded, with an average of five specimens per species, typically vouchers with authoritative identifications. The barcode sequence from any fish, fillet, fin, egg or larva can be matched against these reference sequences using BOLD; the Barcode of Life Data System (http://www.barcodinglife.org). The benefits of barcoding fishes include facilitating species identification, highlighting cases of range expansion for known species, flagging previously overlooked species and enabling identifications where traditional methods cannot be applied. Results thus far indicate that barcodes separate c. 98 and 93% of already described marine and freshwater fish species, respectively. Several specimens with divergent barcode sequences have been confirmed by integrative taxonomic analysis as new species. Past concerns in relation to the use of fish barcoding for species discrimination are discussed. These include hybridization, recent radiations, regional differentiation in barcode sequences and nuclear copies of the barcode region. However, current results indicate these issues are of little concern for the great majority of specimens.

  9. Active Fish Tracking Sonar (AFTS) for Assessing Fish Behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Hedgepeth, J; Johnson, Gary E. ); Skalski, John R.; Burczynski, J

    2002-11-01

    Active fish tracking sonars (AFTS) were used in 2001 to study fish movement in response to intake occlusion plates at The Dalles Dam on the Columbia River. AFTS provides three-dimensional fish tracks by aligning the axis of a split-beam transducer with a fish target. High-speed stepper motors move the transducer so that a tracked target remains on-axis. Occlusion plates with lateral extensions covered the top half of the turbine intakes to produce a fish friendly near-dam environment. Two AFTS were positioned at the center of Main Unit 1, one each for monitoring installed and removed plate conditions. A regression analysis showed that occlusion plates had pronounced effects on fish movement along the dam. The plates appeared to inhibit movement toward the spillway, movement toward the dam (especially in front of the turbine intake), and movement downward toward the turbines. Fish fate (as opposed to movement directions from regression slopes) into particular areas was determined using Markov-chain analysis. The sluiceway (a safer passage route above the turbine intake) zone of influence was larger with the occlusion plates installed, contrary to the regression results. In addition, the probability of passage out the near turbine and bottom sides of the sample volume was about 50% lower with occlusion plates installed.

  10. Fisheries and aquatic resources--fish health

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Panek, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Fish health research at Leetown had its origin in the 1930’s when the Leetown Fish Hatchery and Experiment Station was constructed. In 1978, the National Fish Health Research Laboratory, now a component of the Leetown Science Center, was established to solve emerging and known disease problems affecting fish and other aquatic organisms critical to species restoration programs. Center scientists develop methods for the isolation, detection, and identification of fish pathogens and for prevention and control of fish diseases.

  11. Tropical Fishes Dominate Temperate Reef Fish Communities within Western Japan

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Yohei; Feary, David A.; Kanda, Masaru; Yamaoka, Kosaku

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is resulting in rapid poleward shifts in the geographical distribution of tropical and subtropical fish species. We can expect that such range shifts are likely to be limited by species-specific resource requirements, with temperate rocky reefs potentially lacking a range of settlement substrates or specific dietary components important in structuring the settlement and success of tropical and subtropical fish species. We examined the importance of resource use in structuring the distribution patterns of range shifting tropical and subtropical fishes, comparing this with resident temperate fish species within western Japan (Tosa Bay); the abundance, diversity, size class, functional structure and latitudinal range of reef fishes utilizing both coral reef and adjacent rocky reef habitat were quantified over a 2 year period (2008–2010). This region has undergone rapid poleward expansion of reef-building corals in response to increasing coastal water temperatures, and forms one of the global hotspots for rapid coastal changes. Despite the temperate latitude surveyed (33°N, 133°E) the fish assemblage was both numerically, and in terms of richness, dominated by tropical fishes. Such tropical faunal dominance was apparent within both coral, and rocky reef habitats. The size structure of the assemblage suggested that a relatively large number of tropical species are overwintering within both coral and rocky habitats, with a subset of these species being potentially reproductively active. The relatively high abundance and richness of tropical species with obligate associations with live coral resources (i.e., obligate corallivores) shows that this region holds the most well developed temperate-located tropical fish fauna globally. We argue that future tropicalisation of the fish fauna in western Japan, associated with increasing coral habitat development and reported increasing shifts in coastal water temperatures, may have considerable positive economic

  12. Tropical fishes dominate temperate reef fish communities within western Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yohei; Feary, David A; Kanda, Masaru; Yamaoka, Kosaku

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is resulting in rapid poleward shifts in the geographical distribution of tropical and subtropical fish species. We can expect that such range shifts are likely to be limited by species-specific resource requirements, with temperate rocky reefs potentially lacking a range of settlement substrates or specific dietary components important in structuring the settlement and success of tropical and subtropical fish species. We examined the importance of resource use in structuring the distribution patterns of range shifting tropical and subtropical fishes, comparing this with resident temperate fish species within western Japan (Tosa Bay); the abundance, diversity, size class, functional structure and latitudinal range of reef fishes utilizing both coral reef and adjacent rocky reef habitat were quantified over a 2 year period (2008-2010). This region has undergone rapid poleward expansion of reef-building corals in response to increasing coastal water temperatures, and forms one of the global hotspots for rapid coastal changes. Despite the temperate latitude surveyed (33°N, 133°E) the fish assemblage was both numerically, and in terms of richness, dominated by tropical fishes. Such tropical faunal dominance was apparent within both coral, and rocky reef habitats. The size structure of the assemblage suggested that a relatively large number of tropical species are overwintering within both coral and rocky habitats, with a subset of these species being potentially reproductively active. The relatively high abundance and richness of tropical species with obligate associations with live coral resources (i.e., obligate corallivores) shows that this region holds the most well developed temperate-located tropical fish fauna globally. We argue that future tropicalisation of the fish fauna in western Japan, associated with increasing coral habitat development and reported increasing shifts in coastal water temperatures, may have considerable positive economic

  13. Ecology of North Sea fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daan, N.; Bromley, P. J.; Hislop, J. R. G.; Nielsen, N. A.

    Fishes of the North Sea include over 200 species exhibiting widely differing ecological characteristics. There is a wealth of literature and, in this paper, we have restricted ourselves to providing generalized data on the more abundant species, with a view of highlighting those aspects which link the total fish community to the biotic and abiotic environment. There is necessarily a bias towards commercial species, because most of the pertinent information is related specifically to fish which are heavily fished. However, since there are few abundant species which are not exploited, the ecological links of the total fish community to other components of the system are well represented by the selection. Moreover, exploitation of the fish community may have indirectly affected the ecological relationships in the entire system. It follows that an understandinf of the impact of fisheries on the fish community is likely to play a key role in helping us to understand how the North Sea ecosystem functions. The paper highlights various ecological aspects of the fish fauna including population dynamics, spawning in time and space, distribution, variations in year class strength, feeding, density-dependent growth and changes in species composition. Despite long time series of quantitative biological information for individual species and the obvious impact of fisheries on longevity and productivity of the fish community, the general conclusion is that it remains very difficult to separate effects of fisheries and of the environment on reproductive success, in which the variation is the most important destabilizing factor in the regulation of exploited fish populations. Another conclusion is that the spatial heterogeneity of the fish community in the North Sea is a factor of considerable concern in trying to link fish production to other components. It would seem likely that, to improve our understanding of the ecological linkages in the entire system, the spatial differences

  14. Plastic in north sea fish.

    PubMed

    Foekema, Edwin M; De Gruijter, Corine; Mergia, Mekuria T; van Franeker, Jan Andries; Murk, Albertinka J; Koelmans, Albert A

    2013-08-06

    To quantify the occurrence of ingested plastic in fish species caught at different geographical positions in the North Sea, and to test whether the fish condition is affected by ingestion of plastics, 1203 individual fish of seven common North Sea species were investigated: herring, gray gurnard, whiting, horse mackerel, haddock, atlantic mackerel, and cod. Plastic particles were found in 2.6% of the examined fish and in five of the seven species. No plastics were found in gray gurnard and mackerel. In most cases, only one particle was found per fish, ranging in size from 0.04 to 4.8 mm. Only particles larger than 0.2 mm, being the diameter of the sieve used, were considered for the data analyses, resulting in a median particle size of 0.8 mm. The frequency of fish with plastic was significantly higher (5.4%) in the southern North Sea, than in the northern North Sea above 55°N (1.2%). The highest frequency (>33%) was found in cod from the English Channel. In addition, small fibers were initially detected in most of the samples, but their abundance sharply decreased when working under special clean air conditions. Therefore, these fibers were considered to be artifacts related to air born contamination and were excluded from the analyses. No relationship was found between the condition factor (size-weight relationship) of the fish and the presence of ingested plastic particles.

  15. Climate Change and Fish Availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Paul P. S.; Lassa, Jonatan; Caballero-Anthony, Mely

    Human consumption of fish has been trending upwards in the past decades and this is projected to continue. The main sources of fish are from wild fisheries (marine and freshwater) and aquaculture. Climate change is anticipated to affect the availability of fish through its effect on these two sources as well as on supply chain processes such as storage, transport, processing and retail. Climate change is known to result in warmer and more acid oceans. Ocean acidification due to higher CO2 concentration levels at sea modifies the distribution of phytoplankton and zooplankton to affect wild, capture fisheries. Higher temperature causes warm-water coral reefs to respond with species replacement and bleaching, leading to coral cover loss and habitat loss. Global changes in climatic systems may also cause fish invasion, extinction and turnover. While this may be catastrophic for small scale fish farming in poor tropical communities, there are also potential effects on animal protein supply shifts at local and global scales with food security consequences. This paper discusses the potential impacts of climate change on fisheries and aquaculture in the Asian Pacific region, with special emphasis on Southeast Asia. The key question to be addressed is “What are the impacts of global climate change on global fish harvests and what does it mean to the availability of fish?”

  16. Fish everywhere, all the time: modeling fish in the riverscape

    EPA Science Inventory

    From 2002-2006, EPA’s Western Ecology Division conducted innovative research on the population dynamics of fish within an entire stream network. Employing individual tagging and tracking technology, we examined spatial patterns of juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch...

  17. Fluctuations of fish populations and the magnifying effects of fishing.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Andrew O; Mangel, Marc

    2011-04-26

    A central and classic question in ecology is what causes populations to fluctuate in abundance. Understanding the interaction between natural drivers of fluctuating populations and human exploitation is an issue of paramount importance for conservation and natural resource management. Three main hypotheses have been proposed to explain fluctuations: (i) species interactions, such as predator-prey interactions, cause fluctuations, (ii) strongly nonlinear single-species dynamics cause fluctuations, and (iii) environmental variation cause fluctuations. We combine a general fisheries model with data from a global sample of fish species to assess how two of these hypothesis, nonlinear single-species dynamics and environmental variation, interact with human exploitation to affect the variability of fish populations. In contrast with recent analyses that suggest fishing drives increased fluctuations by changing intrinsic nonlinear dynamics, we show that single-species nonlinear dynamics alone, both in the presence and absence of fisheries, are unlikely to drive deterministic fluctuations in fish; nearly all fish populations fall into regions of stable dynamics. However, adding environmental variation dramatically alters the consequences of exploitation on the temporal variability of populations. In a variable environment, (i) the addition of mortality from fishing leads to increased temporal variability for all species examined, (ii) variability in recruitment rates of juveniles contributes substantially more to fluctuations than variation in adult mortality, and (iii) the correlation structure of juvenile and adult vital rates plays an important and underappreciated role in determining population fluctuations. Our results are robust to alternative model formulations and to a range of environmental autocorrelation.

  18. Cortisol coregulation in fish

    PubMed Central

    Fürtbauer, Ines; Heistermann, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Cortisol coregulation, which is the up- or down-regulation of partners’ physiological stress responses, has been described for individuals with strong attachment bonds, e.g. parents and their children, and romantic relationship partners. Research into moderating effects on cortisol coregulation suggests stronger covariation among distressed partners. Whether cortisol coregulation is unique to humans or can also be found in other species that share universal features of the vertebrate stress response remains unexplored. Using a repeated measures approach and non-invasive waterborne hormone analysis, we test the hypothesis that dyads of three-spined stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus) coregulate their cortisol levels in shared environments. Dyadic cortisol levels were unrelated when cohabiting (home tank), but significantly covaried when sharing a more stressful (as indicated by higher cortisol levels) environment (open field). Time-lag analysis further revealed that open field cortisol levels were predicted by partner’s cortisol levels prior to the shared experience. To our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence for coregulatory processes on cortisol responses in a non-human animal that lacks strong bonds and social attachment relationships, suggesting a shared evolutionary origin of cortisol coregulation in vertebrates. From an adaptive perspective, cortisol coregulation may serve to reduce risk in challenging, potentially threatening situations. PMID:27458063

  19. Gills of antarctic fish.

    PubMed

    Rankin, J C; Tuurala, H

    1998-01-01

    We review the literature on the way the structure of icefish gills relates the physiology of these haemoglobin-less fishes. Vascular casting confirmed earlier reports that the only special feature of the gills is the large size of the blood vessels, especially the prominent and continuous marginal channels Isolated perfused gill arches were used to study the effects of changes in afferent and efferent pressure on gill resistance and tritiated water influx in Chionobathyscus dewitti. Increasing perfusion rate did not change gill resistance, but there were moderate proportional increases in water influx. Reducing efferent pressure increased gill resistance but did not affect water influx. In both C. dewitti and Cryodraco antarcticus gills perfused at constant flow rate, noradrenaline produced concentration-dependent decreases in gill resistance and, with high concentrations, increases in water influx. Fixation while perfusion continued was used to compare blood space dimensions in control, noradrenaline-treated and unperfused gills. Noradrenaline caused large increases in the thickness of the lamellar blood space and increased lamellar height, despite a greatly reduced afferent pressure. This suggests that modulation of pillar cell active tension might be involved in control of lamellar perfusion. The possible relationship between gill water fluxes and lamellar recruitment is discussed.

  20. 50 CFR 300.205 - Denial of port privileges and import restrictions on fish or fish products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... restrictions on fish or fish products. 300.205 Section 300.205 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND....205 Denial of port privileges and import restrictions on fish or fish products. (a) Scope of... fish and fish products. Services, including the refueling and re-supplying of such fishing vessels,...

  1. Volumetric imaging of fish locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Flammang, Brooke E.; Lauder, George V.; Troolin, Daniel R.; Strand, Tyson E.

    2011-01-01

    Fishes use multiple flexible fins in order to move and maintain stability in a complex fluid environment. We used a new approach, a volumetric velocimetry imaging system, to provide the first instantaneous three-dimensional views of wake structures as they are produced by freely swimming fishes. This new technology allowed us to demonstrate conclusively the linked ring vortex wake pattern that is produced by the symmetrical (homocercal) tail of fishes, and to visualize for the first time the three-dimensional vortex wake interaction between the dorsal and anal fins and the tail. We found that the dorsal and anal fin wakes were rapidly (within one tail beat) assimilated into the caudal fin vortex wake. These results show that volumetric imaging of biologically generated flow patterns can reveal new features of locomotor dynamics, and provides an avenue for future investigations of the diversity of fish swimming patterns and their hydrodynamic consequences. PMID:21508026

  2. To Fish in Troubled Waters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garmon, Linda

    1980-01-01

    The effects of heavy metals on fish are being investigated by the Columbia National Fishery Research Laboratory in Missouri. This article describes the process and some techniques that are being used in the research. (SA)

  3. For the Classroom: Fish Painting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Sally

    1984-01-01

    Fish painting can be used to introduce basic and advanced subject-concepts, especially with students for whom tactile skill development is of particular importance. Materials, methods, and hints are presented along with a diagram of the painting procedure. (BC)

  4. The fish that beat physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-11-01

    Silvery fish have evolved an elegant optical scheme for overcoming the Brewster effect, creating broadband, polarization-neutral reflections for any angle of incidence. Nicholas Roberts explained to Nature Photonics how and why they do it.

  5. Volumetric imaging of fish locomotion.

    PubMed

    Flammang, Brooke E; Lauder, George V; Troolin, Daniel R; Strand, Tyson E

    2011-10-23

    Fishes use multiple flexible fins in order to move and maintain stability in a complex fluid environment. We used a new approach, a volumetric velocimetry imaging system, to provide the first instantaneous three-dimensional views of wake structures as they are produced by freely swimming fishes. This new technology allowed us to demonstrate conclusively the linked ring vortex wake pattern that is produced by the symmetrical (homocercal) tail of fishes, and to visualize for the first time the three-dimensional vortex wake interaction between the dorsal and anal fins and the tail. We found that the dorsal and anal fin wakes were rapidly (within one tail beat) assimilated into the caudal fin vortex wake. These results show that volumetric imaging of biologically generated flow patterns can reveal new features of locomotor dynamics, and provides an avenue for future investigations of the diversity of fish swimming patterns and their hydrodynamic consequences.

  6. To Fish in Troubled Waters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garmon, Linda

    1980-01-01

    The effects of heavy metals on fish are being investigated by the Columbia National Fishery Research Laboratory in Missouri. This article describes the process and some techniques that are being used in the research. (SA)

  7. Visual direction finding by fishes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waterman, T. H.

    1972-01-01

    The use of visual orientation, in the absence of landmarks, for underwater direction finding exercises by fishes is reviewed. Celestial directional clues observed directly near the water surface or indirectly at an asymptatic depth are suggested as possible orientation aids.

  8. A streptomycete pathogenic to fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rucker, R.R.

    1949-01-01

    A streptomycete and pseutdomonad were isolated from blueback salmon, Oncorhynchuis nerka (WValbaum), and shown to be pathogenic to fish. Trhese organisms were isolated from young blueback salmon taken from a gr'oup that developed an increasing mortality after feeding about a month at the United States Fishery Station, Leavenworth, Washington. A superficial examination revealed only the presence of fungus (probably Sap0olcynia parasitica), which wvas on the gills and was eliminated by treatment with a quaternary ammonium salt. Although the fungus infection was eliminated, the mortality continued. It was observed by the station biologist at the time that the majority of the fish in the hatchery troughs were healthy, but that there w-as alwzays present an apathetic group that hud(dled on the bottom, refused food, ancl eventually weakene(l and died. The bulk of the daily mortality was composedI of fish from this group. The apathetic group received constant recruitment from the more vigorous stock, and their number showed a gradual increase rather than clepletion. A more critical examination of the larger affected fish revealedl that thc kICidneys and spleens weIe disintegrating; mycelial masses w-ere sporadically observed in the body cavity; congestion wN-as present in the gastrointestinal tract; some hemorrhagic areas were present in the body musculature; an(l a few fish had a perforating ulceration of the body wall. Furi'unculosis was immediately suspected, and attempts were made to isolate from the diseaseti fish Bacteriim .salininicida Lehmann and Netumann, the etiological agent of furunculosis. B. salmornicida Awas not recovered, however, even after repeated attempts at isolation. Subsequently it was discovered that two other organisms, a streptomycete and a pseudomonad, were characteristically present in the diseased fish. Both organisms were found experimentally to be pathogenic to fish.

  9. 32 CFR 770.3 - Fishing regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... LIMITING PUBLIC ACCESS TO PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Hunting and Fishing at Marine Corps Base, Quantico... are permitted to fish in the areas designated by the Annual Fishing Regulations on Marine Corps Base... 16 to 65. (b) Fishing is permitted on all waters within the boundaries of Marine Corps Base,...

  10. Enhancing utilization of Alaska fish processing byproducts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fish processing byproducts are the parts that remain after valued products such as fillets and roe are removed. Fish harvested from Alaska waters provide over half of the total wild fish harvested and processed for human consumption in the USA. Major byproducts from commercial fish processing plants...

  11. Fish gelatin: Material properties and applications

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The main difference between fish gelatin and mammalian gelatin is fish gelatin’s lower gelation temperature. This property limits the use of fish gelatin in applications that currently utilize mammalian gelatin. However, fish gelatin remains an attractive alterative to mammalian gelatin due to relig...

  12. Fishing. Unit 1, Colorado Division of Wildlife.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hetzel, George K.; Smith, Dwight R.

    This booklet on fishing is part of a series developed to encourage youth to pursue outdoor projects. Fish anatomy, equipment, casting techniques, knot and leader tying, hooks, fishing areas, cleaning and cooking fish, types of bait, lures, and regulations are discussed and illustrated. Suggested activities and field trips are listed. (MR)

  13. Gila River Basin Native Fishes Conservation Program

    Treesearch

    Doug Duncan; Robert W. Clarkson

    2013-01-01

    The Gila River Basin Native Fishes Conservation Program was established to conserve native fishes and manage against nonnative fishes in response to several Endangered Species Act biological opinions between the Bureau of Reclamation and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service on Central Arizona Project (CAP) water transfers to the Gila River basin. Populations of some Gila...

  14. 36 CFR 331.4 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fishing. 331.4 Section 331.4... INDIANA § 331.4 Fishing. Unless otherwise authorized in writing by the District Engineer: (a) Fishing is... be in effect are hereby adopted as part of these regulations. (b) Fishing by means of the use of...

  15. 20 CFR 404.1031 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fishing. 404.1031 Section 404.1031 Employees... Fishing. (a) If you work on a boat engaged in catching fish or other forms of aquatic animal life, your... of the boat (or each boat from which you receive a share if the fishing operation involves more than...

  16. 36 CFR 331.4 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fishing. 331.4 Section 331.4... INDIANA § 331.4 Fishing. Unless otherwise authorized in writing by the District Engineer: (a) Fishing is... be in effect are hereby adopted as part of these regulations. (b) Fishing by means of the use of...

  17. 50 CFR 600.513 - Recreational fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Recreational fishing. 600.513 Section 600... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Foreign Fishing § 600.513 Recreational fishing. (a) Foreign vessels conducting recreational fishing must comply only with this section, and...

  18. 76 FR 27636 - Permits; Foreign Fishing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA423 Permits; Foreign Fishing AGENCY: National... a vessel of the United States to engage in fishing consisting solely of transporting fish or fish...

  19. 50 CFR 600.513 - Recreational fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Recreational fishing. 600.513 Section 600... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Foreign Fishing § 600.513 Recreational fishing. (a) Foreign vessels conducting recreational fishing must comply only with this section, and...

  20. 20 CFR 404.1031 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fishing. 404.1031 Section 404.1031 Employees... Fishing. (a) If you work on a boat engaged in catching fish or other forms of aquatic animal life, your... of the boat (or each boat from which you receive a share if the fishing operation involves more than...

  1. 36 CFR 331.4 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fishing. 331.4 Section 331.4... INDIANA § 331.4 Fishing. Unless otherwise authorized in writing by the District Engineer: (a) Fishing is... be in effect are hereby adopted as part of these regulations. (b) Fishing by means of the use of...

  2. 20 CFR 404.1031 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fishing. 404.1031 Section 404.1031 Employees... Fishing. (a) If you work on a boat engaged in catching fish or other forms of aquatic animal life, your... of the boat (or each boat from which you receive a share if the fishing operation involves more than...

  3. 50 CFR 600.513 - Recreational fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recreational fishing. 600.513 Section 600... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Foreign Fishing § 600.513 Recreational fishing. (a) Foreign vessels conducting recreational fishing must comply only with this section, and...

  4. 20 CFR 404.1031 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fishing. 404.1031 Section 404.1031 Employees... Fishing. (a) If you work on a boat engaged in catching fish or other forms of aquatic animal life, your... of the boat (or each boat from which you receive a share if the fishing operation involves more than...

  5. Fishing. Unit 1, Colorado Division of Wildlife.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hetzel, George K.; Smith, Dwight R.

    This booklet on fishing is part of a series developed to encourage youth to pursue outdoor projects. Fish anatomy, equipment, casting techniques, knot and leader tying, hooks, fishing areas, cleaning and cooking fish, types of bait, lures, and regulations are discussed and illustrated. Suggested activities and field trips are listed. (MR)

  6. 77 FR 30995 - Permits; Foreign Fishing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... 0648-XC034 Permits; Foreign Fishing AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic... engage in fishing consisting solely of transporting fish or fish products at sea from a point within the... 18, 2012. Rebecca Lent, Director, Office of International Affairs, National Marine Fisheries Service...

  7. Vaccines for fish in aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Sommerset, Ingunn; Krossøy, Bjørn; Biering, Eirik; Frost, Petter

    2005-02-01

    Vaccination plays an important role in large-scale commercial fish farming and has been a key reason for the success of salmon cultivation. In addition to salmon and trout, commercial vaccines are available for channel catfish, European seabass and seabream, Japanese amberjack and yellowtail, tilapia and Atlantic cod. In general, empirically developed vaccines based on inactivated bacterial pathogens have proven to be very efficacious in fish. Fewer commercially available viral vaccines and no parasite vaccines exist. Substantial efficacy data are available for new fish vaccines and advanced technology has been implemented. However, before such vaccines can be successfully commercialized, several hurdles have to be overcome regarding the production of cheap but effective antigens and adjuvants, while bearing in mind environmental and associated regulatory concerns (e.g., those that limit the use of live vaccines). Pharmaceutical companies have performed a considerable amount of research on fish vaccines, however, limited information is available in scientific publications. In addition, salmonids dominate both the literature and commercial focus, despite their relatively small contribution to the total volume of farmed fish in the world. This review provides an overview of the fish vaccines that are currently commercially available and some viewpoints on how the field is likely to evolve in the near future.

  8. 76 FR 30757 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the Salmon-Crested Cockatoo as Threatened...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, determine threatened status for the salmon-crested cockatoo (Cacatua moluccensis) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). This final rule implements the Federal protections provided by the Act for this species. We are also publishing a special rule for the species.

  9. 21 CFR 102.45 - Fish sticks or portions made from minced fish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fish sticks or portions made from minced fish. 102... for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.45 Fish sticks or portions made from minced fish. (a) The common or usual name of the food product that resembles and is of the same composition as fish sticks or...

  10. 21 CFR 102.45 - Fish sticks or portions made from minced fish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fish sticks or portions made from minced fish. 102... for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.45 Fish sticks or portions made from minced fish. (a) The common or usual name of the food product that resembles and is of the same composition as fish sticks or...

  11. 21 CFR 102.45 - Fish sticks or portions made from minced fish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fish sticks or portions made from minced fish. 102... for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.45 Fish sticks or portions made from minced fish. (a) The common or usual name of the food product that resembles and is of the same composition as fish sticks or...

  12. Fish in throat: An Unusual Foreign Body.

    PubMed

    Tang, M L; Ching, L S; Brito-Mutunayagam, S; Revadi, G

    2013-12-01

    A 19 year-old man was presented to us in a state of respiratory distress with history of alleged accidentally swallowed the live fish. Flexible nasopharyngolaryngoscope showed a big live fish impacted in the laryngopharynx. Attempts to remove the fish orally were futile as the fish was impacted. We resorted to tracheostomy under local anaesthesia, followed by direct laryngoscopy and removal of the fish under general anaesthesia. The literature review of such rare incidence and approach to such case are discussed.

  13. Fish & Wildlife Annual Project Summary, 1983.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1984-07-01

    BPA's Division of Fish and Wildlife was created in 1982 to develop, coordinate and manage BPA's fish and wildlife program. Division activities protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife resources impacted by hydroelectric development and operation in the Columbia River Basin. At present the Division spends 95% of its budget on restoration projects. In 1983, 83 projects addressed all aspects of the anadromous fish life cycle, non-migratory fish problems and the status of wildlife living near reservoirs.

  14. Fishing-gear restrictions and biomass gains for coral reef fishes in marine protected areas.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Stuart J; Edgar, Graham J; Stuart-Smith, Rick D; Soler, German; Bates, Amanda E

    2017-08-04

    Strong empirical evidence supports recovery of reef fish populations with fishery closures. In countries where full exclusion of people from fishing may be perceived as inequitable, fishing gear restrictions on non-selective and destructive gears may offer socially relevant management alternatives to build recovery of fish biomass. Even so, very few studies have statistically compared the responses of tropical reef fisheries to alternative management strategies. Here we test for the effects of fishery closures and fishing gear restrictions on tropical reef fish biomass, at the community and family level, at 1,396 underwater surveys conducted at 617 unique sites across a spatial hierarchy within 22 global marine ecoregions representing five realms. We compare total biomass across local fish assemblages, and among 20 reef fish families inside marine protected areas (MPAs) with different fishing restrictions: no-take, hook and line fishing only, several fishing gears allowed, to sites open to all fishing gears. We include a further category representing remote sites where fishing pressure is low. As expected, full fishery closures, often referred to as 'no-take' zones, most benefit community and family level fish biomass in comparison with restrictions on fishing gears and openly fished sites. We further find that although biomass responses to fishery closures are highly variable across families, some fishery targets (e.g., Carcharhinidae, and Lutjanidae) respond positively to multiple restrictions on fishing gears (i.e., where gears other than hook and line fishing are not permitted). Remoteness also imparts a positive influence on the response of community level fish biomass and many fish families. Our findings provide strong support for the role of fishing restrictions in building recovery of fish biomass, and indicate important interactions among fishing gear types on removal of fish biomass among a range of reef fish families. This article is protected by

  15. Cloning of fish enzymes and other fish protein genes.

    PubMed

    Macouzet, M; Simpson, B K; Lee, B H

    1999-01-01

    Fish metabolism needs special enzymes that have maximum activity at very different conditions than their mammalian counterparts. Due to the differences in activity, these enzymes, especially cold-adapted proteases, could be used advantageously for the production of some foods. In addition to the enzymes, this review describes some other unique fish polypeptides such as antifreeze proteins, fluorescent proteins, antitumor peptides, antibiotics, and hormones, that have already been cloned and used in food processing, genetic engineering, medicine, and aquaculture. Recombinant DNA technology, which allows these biological molecules to be cloned and overexpressed in microorganisms is also described, highlighting innovative applications. The expected impact of cloning fish proteins in different fields of technology is discussed.

  16. Fish mucus metabolome reveals fish life-history traits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reverter, M.; Sasal, P.; Banaigs, B.; Lecchini, D.; Lecellier, G.; Tapissier-Bontemps, N.

    2017-06-01

    Fish mucus has important biological and ecological roles such as defense against fish pathogens and chemical mediation among several species. A non-targeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry metabolomic approach was developed to study gill mucus of eight butterflyfish species in Moorea (French Polynesia), and the influence of several fish traits (geographic site and reef habitat, species taxonomy, phylogeny, diet and parasitism levels) on the metabolic variability was investigated. A biphasic extraction yielding two fractions (polar and apolar) was used. Fish diet (obligate corallivorous, facultative corallivorous or omnivorous) arose as the main driver of the metabolic differences in the gill mucus in both fractions, accounting for 23% of the observed metabolic variability in the apolar fraction and 13% in the polar fraction. A partial least squares discriminant analysis allowed us to identify the metabolites (variable important in projection, VIP) driving the differences between fish with different diets (obligate corallivores, facultative corallivores and omnivorous). Using accurate mass data and fragmentation data, we identified some of these VIP as glycerophosphocholines, ceramides and fatty acids. Level of monogenean gill parasites was the second most important factor shaping the gill mucus metabolome, and it explained 10% of the metabolic variability in the polar fraction and 5% in the apolar fraction. A multiple regression tree revealed that the metabolic variability due to parasitism in the polar fraction was mainly due to differences between non-parasitized and parasitized fish. Phylogeny and butterflyfish species were factors contributing significantly to the metabolic variability of the apolar fraction (10 and 3%, respectively) but had a less pronounced effect in the polar fraction. Finally, geographic site and reef habitat of butterflyfish species did not influence the gill mucus metabolome of butterflyfishes.

  17. Fish kill from underwater explosions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuart, David J.

    1962-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has used 23 different shotpoints during two seasons of field work in our seismic study of crustal structure in western United States. Without exception, it has been found that under-water shotpoints result in a more efficient conversion of explosive energy into seismic energy than do drilled-hole shotpoints. This experience, together with elimination of drilling costs, has led to the use of underwater shotpoints wherever possible. Three of the 23 shotpoints were in the Pacific Ocean, and for these we have no detailed information on the fish kill. Another six shotpoints were located in inland bodies of water. These are: * Soda Lake near Fallon, Nevada * Mono Lake near Lee Vining, California * Lake Mead near Boulder City, Nevada * Shasta Lake near Redding, California * C.J. Strike Reservoir near Bruneau, Idaho * Lucky Peak Reservoir near Boise, Idaho The 22 high-explosive charges, weighing a total of 95,100 pounds, that were fired in lakes containing fish life resulted in the known death of 2,413 game fish with a total weight of 759 pounds. The average mortality was 110 game fish or 34.5 pounds of game fish killed per average shot of 4,325 pounds of high-explosives.

  18. FISH in polycythemia vera (PCV)

    SciTech Connect

    Amiel, A.; Gaber, E.; Manor, Y.

    1994-09-01

    Trisomies 8 and 9 are the most common numerical abnormalities in polycythemia vera (PCV). However, their role in the pathogenesis of the disease is unclear as is their diagnostic or prognostic value. We evaluated the role of fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) as compared to chromosome analysis in the detection of trisomies 8 or 9 in peripheral blood cells of 14 PCV and 5 secondary PCV patients. Using FISH, we found trisomies 8 and 9 in 10 PCV patients above the cutoff levels of 5%. However, no patient with the secondary PCV reached the cutoff level. Out of 10 PCV patients in whom the trisomy was detected by FISH, only in 3 was this trisomy also detected by routine cytogenetics. The incidence of the finding of trisomy 9 correlates with the duration of the disease, suggesting that this is not the primary event in PCV. FISH is a sensitive, convenient and rapid method for diagnosis and follow-up of chromosome aberrations in PCV patients. Application of FISH to larger cohort of patients may provide valuable information regarding their role in initiation and progession of the disease.

  19. Signal Cloaking by Electric Fish

    PubMed Central

    STODDARD, PHILIP K.; MARKHAM, MICHAEL R.

    2010-01-01

    Electric fish produce weak electric fields to image their world in darkness and to communicate with potential mates and rivals. Eavesdropping by electroreceptive predators exerts selective pressure on electric fish to shift their signals into less-detectable high-frequency spectral ranges. Hypopomid electric fish evolved a signal-cloaking strategy that reduces their detectability by predators in the lab (and thus presumably their risk of predation in the field). These fish produce broad-frequency electric fields close to the body, but the heterogeneous local fields merge over space to cancel the low-frequency spectrum at a distance. Mature males dynamically regulate this cloaking mechanism to enhance or suppress low-frequency energy. The mechanism underlying electric-field cloaking involves electrogenic cells that produce two independent action potentials. In a unique twist, these cells orient sodium and potassium currents in the same direction, potentially boosting their capabilities for current generation. Exploration of such evolutionary inventions could aid the design of biogenerators to power implantable medical devices, an ambition that would benefit from the complete genome sequence of a gymnotiform fish. PMID:20209064

  20. Signal Cloaking by Electric Fish.

    PubMed

    Stoddard, Philip K; Markham, Michael R

    2008-01-01

    Electric fish produce weak electric fields to image their world in darkness and to communicate with potential mates and rivals. Eavesdropping by electroreceptive predators exerts selective pressure on electric fish to shift their signals into less-detectable high-frequency spectral ranges. Hypopomid electric fish evolved a signal-cloaking strategy that reduces their detectability by predators in the lab (and thus presumably their risk of predation in the field). These fish produce broad-frequency electric fields close to the body, but the heterogeneous local fields merge over space to cancel the low-frequency spectrum at a distance. Mature males dynamically regulate this cloaking mechanism to enhance or suppress low-frequency energy. The mechanism underlying electric-field cloaking involves electrogenic cells that produce two independent action potentials. In a unique twist, these cells orient sodium and potassium currents in the same direction, potentially boosting their capabilities for current generation. Exploration of such evolutionary inventions could aid the design of biogenerators to power implantable medical devices, an ambition that would benefit from the complete genome sequence of a gymnotiform fish.

  1. Water quality for freshwater fish

    SciTech Connect

    Howells, G. )

    1994-01-01

    This timely and up-to-date volume brings together recent critical reviews on water quality requirements for freshwater fish commissioned by the European Inland Fisheries Advisory Commission, an agency of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization. It provides a unique and authoritative source of critically evaluated water quality data concerning the effects of chromium, nickel, aluminum and nitrite on freshwater fish and includes an assessment of the toxicity of mixtures. The reports presented in this volume cover all stages of the life cycle and relevant trophic levels, including aquatic invertebrates and plants and potential bioaccumulation through the food chain. An extensive bibliography is provided for each chapter as well as a glossary of terms and a list of fish species mentioned in the text. This compilation of papers is the definitive reference volume for chemists, biologists, ecologists and toxicologists as well as for water resource managers concerned with management and control of pollution in fresh waters.

  2. A review of fish lectins.

    PubMed

    Ng, Tzi Bun; Fai Cheung, Randy Chi; Wing Ng, Charlene Cheuk; Fang, Evandro Fei; Wong, Jack Ho

    2015-01-01

    Lectins have been reported from various tissues of a diversity of fish species including Japanese eel, conger eel, electric eel, bighead carp, gibel carp, grass carp, Arabian Gulf catfish, channel catfish, blue catfish, catfish, pike perch, perch, powan, zebrafish, toxic moray, cobia fish, steelhead trout, Japanese trout, Atlantic salmon, chinook salmon, olive rainbow smelt, rainbow smelt, white-spotted charr, tilapia, blue gourami, ayu, Potca fish, Spanish mackerel, gilt head bream, tench, roach, rudd, common skate, and sea lamprey. The tissues from which the lectins were isolated comprise gills, eggs, electric organ, stomach, intestine, and liver. Lectins have also been isolated from skin, mucus serum, and plasma. The lectins differ in molecular weight, number of subunits, glycosylation, sugar binding specificity and amino acid sequence. Their activities include antimicrobial, antitumor, immunoregulatory and a role in development.

  3. Orexin system in teleost fish.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Kouhei; Azuma, Morio; Kang, Ki Sung

    2012-01-01

    Orexin is a neuropeptide distributed widely among vertebrates. In mammals, orexin and its receptor system are involved in the regulation of food intake, locomotion, and psychomotor activities including the sleep/wakefulness cycle. With regard to nonmammalian vertebrates, there has also been intensive study aimed at the identification and functional characterization of orexin and its receptor, and recent investigations of the role of orexin have revealed that it exerts behavioral effects in teleost fish. Goldfish and zebrafish are excellent teleost fish models, and in these species it has been demonstrated that orexin increases food consumption as an orexigenic factor and enhances locomotor activity, as well as being involved in the regulation of active and rest status (circadian rhythmicity and the sleep/wakefulness cycle), as is the case in mammals. This chapter reviews current knowledge of orexin derived from studies of teleost fish, as representative nonmammals, focusing particularly on the role of the orexin system, and examines its significance from a comparative viewpoint.

  4. Circadian clocks: lessons from fish.

    PubMed

    Idda, M Laura; Bertolucci, Cristiano; Vallone, Daniela; Gothilf, Yoav; Sánchez-Vázquez, Francisco Javier; Foulkes, Nicholas S

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of the molecular and cellular organization of the circadian timing system in vertebrates has increased enormously over the past decade. In large part, progress has been based on genetic studies in the mouse as well as on fundamental similarities between vertebrate and Drosophila clocks. The zebrafish was initially considered as a potentially attractive genetic model for identifying vertebrate clock genes. However, instead, fish have ultimately proven to be valuable complementary models for studying various aspects of clock biology. For example, many fish can shift from diurnal to nocturnal activity implying specific flexibility in their clock function. We have learned much about the function of light input pathways, and the ontogeny and function of the pineal organ, the fish central pacemaker. Finally, blind cavefish have also provided new insight into the evolution of the circadian clock under extreme environmental conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Mycobacteriosis in fishes: a review.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, David T; Rhodes, Martha W

    2009-04-01

    Mycobacterium species have long been recognised as a significant source of morbidity and mortality in finfish aquaculture, as well as in wild finfishes. Mycobacteria infecting fishes also include zoonotic pathogens that can cause protracted illness, especially in immunocompromised individuals. Several basic aspects of mycobacterial pathobiology in aquatic animals remain poorly understood, although a number of important recent developments have been made, especially with respect to identification of novel Mycobacterium spp. infecting fishes and a new group of mycobacteria closely related to the human pathogen Mycobacterium ulcerans. This review will encompass important aspects of mycobacterial disease in fishes, discuss recent research including studies of mycobacteriosis in striped bass (Morone saxatilis) of Chesapeake Bay, USA, and suggest directions for future work.

  6. The ethics of fish welfare.

    PubMed

    Evans, J C

    2009-12-01

    The topic of fish welfare in the context of commercial fisheries is a difficult one. From traditionally anthropocentric or human-centred perspectives, fishes are simply objects for humans to use as they see fit. When it is argued that anthropocentrism is arbitrary, it may appear that a strong animal rights position is the only recourse, with the result that humans ought not to use animals in the first place, if it is at all possible. It can be argued that both positions fail to view human beings as part of the natural world. If human beings are viewed as part of the world from which they live, then it has to be asked what it means to be respectful of the animals which humans use and from which they live. From this perspective, concern for the welfare of the fishes humans eat is simply what should be expected from humans as good citizens in the community of living creatures.

  7. Emulating a Fish Swim Bladder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vesenka, James; Meredith, Dawn; Bolker, Jessica; Schubert, Christopher; Kraut, Gertrud

    2009-10-01

    The University of New Hampshire and the University of New England are developing biologically relevant physics laboratories for their predominantly health science audiences. Buoyancy plays an important role in a variety of biological processes. We describe an inexpensive laboratory activity based on the Cartesian Diver that allows students to quantitatively emulate the swim bladder of a fish. Inflation of the ``bladder'' is externally controlled through an external gas syringe or squeezing on the plastic water containment vessel (a 2L soda bottle). The students can accurately determine the volume of a ``fish'' at the point of neutral buoyancy by visual measurement of the trapped air pocket. A simple electronic gas pressure sensor allows the hydrostatic pressure on the fish to be analyzed simultaneously.

  8. Chemical avoidance responses of fishes.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Keith B

    2016-05-01

    The hydrosphere is a repository for all of our waste and mistakes, be they sewage, garbage, process-affected waters, runoff, and gases. For fish living in environments receiving undesirable inputs, moving away seems an obvious way to avoid harm. While this should occur, there are numerous examples where it will not. The inability to avoid harmful environments may lead to sensory impairments that in turn limit the ability to avoid other dangers or locate benefits. For avoidance to occur, the danger must first be perceived, which may not happen if the fish is 'blinded' in some capacity. Second, the danger must be recognized for what it is, which may also not happen if the fish is cognitively confused or impaired. Third, it is possible that the fish may not be able to leave the area, or worse, learns to prefer a toxic environment. Concerning generating regulations around avoidance, there are two possibilities: that an avoidance threshold be used to set guidelines for effluent release with the intention of driving fishes away; the second is to set a contaminant concentration that would not affect the avoidance or attraction responses to other cues. With the complexities of the modern world in which we release diverse pollutants, from light to municipal effluents full of 1000s of chemicals, to the diversity present in ecosystems, it is impossible to have avoidance data on every stimulus-species combination. Nevertheless, we may be able to use existing avoidance response data to predict the likelihood of avoidance of untested stimuli. Where we cannot, this review includes a framework that can be used to direct new research. This review is intended to collate existing avoidance response data, provide a framework for making decisions in the absence of data, and suggest studies that would facilitate the prediction of risk to fish health in environments receiving intentional and unintentional human-based chemical inputs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. DNA vaccines for aquacultured fish.

    PubMed

    Lorenzen, N; LaPatra, S E

    2005-04-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) vaccination is based on the administration of the gene encoding the vaccine antigen, rather than the antigen itself. Subsequent expression of the antigen by cells in the vaccinated hosts triggers the host immune system. Among the many experimental DNA vaccines tested in various animal species as well as in humans, the vaccines against rhabdovirus diseases in fish have given some of the most promising results. A single intramuscular (IM) injection of microgram amounts of DNA induces rapid and long-lasting protection in farmed salmonids against economically important viruses such as infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) and viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV). DNA vaccines against other types of fish pathogens, however, have so far had limited success. The most efficient delivery route at present is IM injection, and suitable delivery strategies for mass vaccination of small fish have yet to be developed. In terms of safety, no adverse effects in the vaccinated fish have been observed to date. As DNA vaccination is a relatively new technology, various theoretical and long-term safety issues related to the environment and the consumer remain to be fully addressed, although inherently the risks should not be any greater than with the commercial fish vaccines that are currently used. Present classification systems lack clarity in distinguishing DNA-vaccinated animals from genetically modified organisms (GMOs), which could raise issues in terms of licensing and public acceptance of the technology. The potential benefits of DNA vaccines for farmed fish include improved animal welfare, reduced environmental impacts of aquaculture activities, increased food quality and quantity, and more sustainable production. Testing under commercial production conditions has recently been initiated in Canada and Denmark.

  10. Opisthorchis viverrini metacercaria in Thai freshwater fish.

    PubMed

    Waikagul, J

    1998-06-01

    Examination for metacercaria in freshwater fish, the common intermediate hosts of Opisthorchis viverrini was carried out during 1992-1996. The 4-year survey of fish from markets in 14 provinces revealed that metacercariae of O. viverrini were found in fish from Udon Thani, Sa Kaeo and Prachin Buri Provinces; fish from Aranyaprathet district had the highest positive rates (25-28%). Fish from 12 provinces were found to be positive with heterophyid metacercariae, namely: Haplorchis pumilio, H. taichui, H. yokogawai, Stellantchasmus falcatus, Centrocestus formosanus and Haplorchoides cahirinus. It was also observed that the prevalence of O. viverrini metacercaria in fish decreased markedly during the last 10 years.

  11. Fish Oncology: Diseases, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Vergneau-Grosset, Claire; Nadeau, Marie-Eve; Groff, Joseph M

    2017-01-01

    The scientific literature contains a wealth of information concerning spontaneous fish neoplasms, although ornamental fish oncology is still in its infancy. The occurrence of fish neoplasms has often been associated with oncogenic viruses and environmental insults, making them useful markers for environmental contaminants. The use of fish, including zebrafish, as models of human carcinogenesis has been developed and knowledge gained from these models may also be applied to ornamental fish, although more studies are required. This review summarizes information available about fish oncology pertaining to veterinary clinicians.

  12. Effect of aquaculture on world fish supplies.

    PubMed

    Naylor, R L; Goldburg, R J; Primavera, J H; Kautsky, N; Beveridge, M C; Clay, J; Folke, C; Lubchenco, J; Mooney, H; Troell, M

    2000-06-29

    Global production of farmed fish and shellfish has more than doubled in the past 15 years. Many people believe that such growth relieves pressure on ocean fisheries, but the opposite is true for some types of aquaculture. Farming carnivorous species requires large inputs of wild fish for feed. Some aquaculture systems also reduce wild fish supplies through habitat modification, wild seedstock collection and other ecological impacts. On balance, global aquaculture production still adds to world fish supplies; however, if the growing aquaculture industry is to sustain its contribution to world fish supplies, it must reduce wild fish inputs in feed and adopt more ecologically sound management practices.

  13. Captain Cook on poison fish.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Michael J

    2005-12-13

    On his second voyage of discovery, Captain James Cook charted much of the South Pacific. The journey was long, from 1772 to 1775. During the exploration, the geographic, ethnographic, and scientific variety provided no shortage of work for the accompanying naturalists, astronomers, navigators, and painters. Culinary discoveries included new species of fish, many of which were sketched, dressed, and ultimately eaten. The examined journals and correspondence document clinical poisonings after ingestion of two different species of fish. The clinical findings are described and likely represent ciguatera and tetrodotoxin poisonings. Mechanisms of these toxin's actions are discussed in light of more recent studies.

  14. Lead fishing weights and other fishing tackle in selected waterbirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.; Hansen, Scott P.; Creekmore, T.E.; Brand, C.J.; Evers, D.C.; Duerr, A.E.; DeStefano, S.

    2003-01-01

    From 1995 through 1999, 2,240 individuals of 28 species of waterbirds were examined in the United States for ingested lead fishing weights. A combination of radiography and visual examination of stomachs was used to search for lead weights and blood and liver samples from live birds and carcasses, respectively, were collected for lead analysis. Ingested lead weights were found most frequently in the Common Loon (Gavia immer) (11 of 313 = 3.5%) and Brown Pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis) (10 of 365 = 2.7%), but also in one of 81 (1.2%) Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) and one of 11 (9.1%) Black-crowned Night Herons (Nycticorax nycticorax). Birds with ingested lead fishing weights (including split shot, jig heads, and egg, bell, and pyramid sinkers) were found in California, Florida, Maine, New Hampshire, North Carolina, and Wisconsin. The size and mass of ingested lead weights ranged from split shot of 7 mm in the longest dimension, weighing less than 2 g, to a 22 ?? 39 mm pyramid sinker that weighed 78.2 g. Six ingested lead weights were more than 25.4 mm in the longest dimension. Lead concentrations in the blood and liver of birds with lead fishing weights in their stomachs ranged up to 13.9 ppm and 26.0 ppm (wet weight basis), respectively. During the study, we also noted the presence of ingested or entangled fishing tackle, with no associated lead weights, in eight species.

  15. Optimizing fish sampling for fish - mercury bioaccumulation factors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scudder Eikenberry, Barbara C.; Riva-Murray, Karen; Knightes, Christopher D.; Journey, Celeste; Chasar, Lia C.; Brigham, Mark E.; Bradley, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    Fish Bioaccumulation Factors (BAFs; ratios of mercury (Hg) in fish (Hgfish) and water (Hgwater)) are used to develop Total Maximum Daily Load and water quality criteria for Hg-impaired waters. Both applications require representative Hgfish estimates and, thus, are sensitive to sampling and data-treatment methods. Data collected by fixed protocol from 11 streams in 5 states distributed across the US were used to assess the effects of Hgfish normalization/standardization methods and fish sample numbers on BAF estimates. Fish length, followed by weight, was most correlated to adult top-predator Hgfish. Site-specific BAFs based on length-normalized and standardized Hgfish estimates demonstrated up to 50% less variability than those based on non-normalized Hgfish. Permutation analysis indicated that length-normalized and standardized Hgfish estimates based on at least 8 trout or 5 bass resulted in mean Hgfish coefficients of variation less than 20%. These results are intended to support regulatory mercury monitoring and load-reduction program improvements.

  16. FISH-ing for Genes: Modeling Fluorescence "in situ" Hybridization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, William P.; Jones, Carleton Buck

    2006-01-01

    Teaching methods of genetic analysis such as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) can be an important part of instructional units in biology, microbiology, and biotechnology. Experience, however, indicates that these topics are difficult for many students. The authors of this article describe how they created an activity that effectively…

  17. FISH-ing for Genes: Modeling Fluorescence "in situ" Hybridization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, William P.; Jones, Carleton Buck

    2006-01-01

    Teaching methods of genetic analysis such as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) can be an important part of instructional units in biology, microbiology, and biotechnology. Experience, however, indicates that these topics are difficult for many students. The authors of this article describe how they created an activity that effectively…

  18. [Imported tropical fish causes ciguatera fish poisoning in Germany].

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Katharina; Eisenblätter, Anneka; Vetter, Irina; Ebbecke, Martin; Friedemann, Miriam; Desel, Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Ciguatera is a seafood-borne illness caused by consumption of tropical fish contaminated with ciguatoxins, lipophilic polyethers that are produced in benthic dinoflagellates and accumulate through the marine food chain. Ciguatera cases in Europe usually occur in travellers returning from tropical and subtropical regions of the Pacific and Carribean, where ciguatera is endemic. In 2012, several cases of ciguatera occurred in Germany due to sale of contaminated fish products originating from the Indian Ocean. Although the symptomatology in these cases were typical of ciguatera, with patients reporting gastrointestinal discomfort including nausea, vomiting and diarrhea as well as neurological effects including widespread intense pruritus, paresthesias, hypothermia or altered temperature sensation and diffuse pain, correct diagnosis was delayed in all cases due to lack of awareness of the treating medical practitioners. In light of increasing global mobility, trade, and occurrence of ciguatoxic fish in previously non-endemic areas, ciguatera should be considered as a possible diagnosis if gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms occur shortly after consumption of fish.

  19. Fish Eaters Report Less Rheumatoid Arthritis Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_166848.html Fish Eaters Report Less Rheumatoid Arthritis Pain Study suggests most fish may play role ... significantly reduce the pain and swelling associated with rheumatoid arthritis, a new study says. Prior studies have shown ...

  20. Hotchkiss National Fish Hatchery NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service is authorized to discharge from outfalls at its Hotchkiss National Fish Hatchery wastewater treatment facility to the North Fork of the Gunnison River in Delta County, Colorado.

  1. The taste system of small fish species.

    PubMed

    Okada, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    Small fish species such as the zebrafish (Danio rerio) and medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) are advantageous animal models and have been used as model organisms in many research areas. However, they have not been utilized for studying the taste system, primarily because of a dearth of molecular biological knowledge. Quantitative methods for analyzing the taste preferences of fish species have also been lacking. Recent progress of the fish genome project has enabled the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of taste sensation. Taste receptors and a number of signal transduction molecules have been identified. Additionally, the development of quantitative methods of feeding using fluorescently labeled artificial foods has demonstrated taste preferences in small fish species. Comparisons between these results in fish and reports on mammals have proposed a general logic and evolution of vertebrate taste systems. Analysis on the transsynaptic tracer-expressing transgenic medaka fish also suggests the usefulness of small fish in the research of neural circuits for taste.

  2. Leadville National Fish Hatchery NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit number CO-0000582, the U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service is authorized to discharge from its Leadville National Fish Hatchery wastewater treatment facility in Colorado.

  3. Cardiovascular control in Antarctic fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egginton, Stuart; Campbell, Hamish; Davison, William

    2006-04-01

    The capacity for synthesis and plasma levels of stress hormones in species with a range of activity patterns suggest that depressed catecholamine synthesis is typical of notothenioid fishes regardless of life style, although they are able to release extensive stores under conditions of extreme trauma. Cortisol does not appear to be an important primary stress hormone in these species. In general, vascular reactivity shows a modest α and β adrenergic tonus, but with greater potency for cholinergic and serotonergic vasoconstrictor agonists, although a dominance of vasodilatation over vasoconstriction is observed in one species. Vasomotor control mechanisms appear to be primarily a consequence of evolutionary lineage rather than low environmental temperature, but the pattern may be modified according to functional demand. These and other data confirm the cardiovascular system is dominated by cholinergic control: the heart apparently lacks adrenergic innervation, but receives inhibitory parasympathetic input that regulates heart rate (HR) by setting a resting vagal tonus. Oxygen consumption (MO 2) determined at rest and varied via specific dynamic action, in intact fish and fish that had undergone bilateral sectioning of the vagus nerve, show that HR is a good predictor of MO 2, and that the major influence on HR is the degree of vagal tone—these fish work by removing the brake rather than applying the accelerator. However, whether these traits actually represent adaptation to the Antarctic environment or merely represent ancestral characteristics and their relative phylogenetic position is at present unclear.

  4. Bioactive Components in Fish Venoms

    PubMed Central

    Ziegman, Rebekah; Alewood, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Animal venoms are widely recognized excellent resources for the discovery of novel drug leads and physiological tools. Most are comprised of a large number of components, of which the enzymes, small peptides, and proteins are studied for their important bioactivities. However, in spite of there being over 2000 venomous fish species, piscine venoms have been relatively underrepresented in the literature thus far. Most studies have explored whole or partially fractioned venom, revealing broad pharmacology, which includes cardiovascular, neuromuscular, cytotoxic, inflammatory, and nociceptive activities. Several large proteinaceous toxins, such as stonustoxin, verrucotoxin, and Sp-CTx, have been isolated from scorpaenoid fish. These form pores in cell membranes, resulting in cell death and creating a cascade of reactions that result in many, but not all, of the physiological symptoms observed from envenomation. Additionally, Natterins, a novel family of toxins possessing kininogenase activity have been found in toadfish venom. A variety of smaller protein toxins, as well as a small number of peptides, enzymes, and non-proteinaceous molecules have also been isolated from a range of fish venoms, but most remain poorly characterized. Many other bioactive fish venom components remain to be discovered and investigated. These represent an untapped treasure of potentially useful molecules. PMID:25941767

  5. POPULATION DECLINE IN STREAM FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over half of the streams in the Mid-Atlantic Highlands have fish communities that are in fair or poor condition, and the EPA concluded that physical habitat alteration represents the greatest potential stressor across this region. A quantitative method for relating habitat quali...

  6. POPULATION DECLINE IN STREAM FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over half of the streams in the Mid-Atlantic Highlands have fish communities that are in fair or poor condition, and the EPA concluded that physical habitat alteration represents the greatest potential stressor across this region. A quantitative method for relating habitat quali...

  7. Offshore Fish Community: Ecological Interactions

    EPA Science Inventory

    The offshore (>80 m) fish community of Lake Superior is made up of predominately native species. The most prominent species are deepwater sculpin, kiyi, cisco, siscowet lake trout, burbot, and the exotic sea lamprey. Bloater and shortjaw cisco are also found in the offshore zone...

  8. Enhancing fish performance in Aquaculture

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aquaculture currently is the fastest growing agricultural industry and must continue to grow to meet the world’s increasing demand for seafood. Continued growth will depend upon advances in fish genetics and nutrition, and improvements in culture system design and management. The number and complexi...

  9. Hydroacoustic estimates of fish abundance

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, W.K.

    1991-03-01

    Hydroacoustics, as defined in the context of this report, is the use of a scientific sonar system to determine fish densities with respect to numbers and biomass. These two parameters provide a method of monitoring reservoir fish populations and detecting gross changes in the ecosystem. With respect to southeastern reservoirs, hydroacoustic surveys represent a new method of sampling open water areas and the best technology available. The advantages of this technology are large amounts of data can be collected in a relatively short period of time allowing improved statistical interpretation and data comparison, the pelagic (open water) zone can be sampled efficiently regardless of depth, and sampling is nondestructive and noninvasive with neither injury to the fish nor alteration of the environment. Hydroacoustics cannot provide species identification and related information on species composition or length/weight relationships. Also, sampling is limited to a minimum depth of ten feet which precludes the use of this equipment for sampling shallow shoreline areas. The objective of this study is to use hydroacoustic techniques to estimate fish standing stocks (i.e., numbers and biomass) in several areas of selected Tennessee Valley Reservoirs as part of a base level monitoring program to assess long-term changes in reservoir water quality.

  10. Introductory Statistics and Fish Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jardine, Dick

    2002-01-01

    Describes how fisheries research and management data (available on a website) have been incorporated into an Introductory Statistics course. In addition to the motivation gained from seeing the practical relevance of the course, some students have participated in the data collection and analysis for the New Hampshire Fish and Game Department. (MM)

  11. Introductory Statistics and Fish Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jardine, Dick

    2002-01-01

    Describes how fisheries research and management data (available on a website) have been incorporated into an Introductory Statistics course. In addition to the motivation gained from seeing the practical relevance of the course, some students have participated in the data collection and analysis for the New Hampshire Fish and Game Department. (MM)

  12. Offshore Fish Community: Ecological Interactions

    EPA Science Inventory

    The offshore (>80 m) fish community of Lake Superior is made up of predominately native species. The most prominent species are deepwater sculpin, kiyi, cisco, siscowet lake trout, burbot, and the exotic sea lamprey. Bloater and shortjaw cisco are also found in the offshore zone...

  13. Nutritional Physiology of Captive Fishes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Managing the health of captive fishes requires broad knowledge of environmental, physiological, and nutritional requirements for life in an aquatic realm, something no human being can fully appreciate. In spite of our lack of experience living in an aquatic environment, we can successfully manage th...

  14. Methods for assessing fish populations

    Treesearch

    Kevin L. Pope; Steve E. Lochmann; Michael K. Young

    2010-01-01

    Fisheries managers are likely to assess fish populations at some point during the fisheries management process. Managers that follow the fisheries management process (see Chapter 5) might find their knowledge base insufficient during the steps of problem identification or management action and must assess a population before appropriate actions can be taken. Managers...

  15. Diet, atherosclerosis, and fish oil.

    PubMed

    Connor, W E; Connor, S L

    1990-01-01

    The principal goal of dietary prevention and treatment of atherosclerotic coronary heart disease is the achievement of physiological levels of the plasma total and LDL cholesterol, triglyceride, and VLDL. These goals have been well delineated by the National Cholesterol Education Program of the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute and the American Heart Association. Dietary treatment is first accomplished by enhancing LDL receptor activity and at the same time depressing liver synthesis of cholesterol and triglyceride. Both dietary cholesterol and saturated fat decrease LDL receptor activity and inhibit the removal of LDL from the plasma by the liver. Saturated fat decreases LDL receptor activity, especially when cholesterol is concurrently present in the diet. The total amount of dietary fat is of importance also. The greater the flux of chylomicron remnants is into the liver, the greater is the influx of cholesterol ester. In addition, factors that affect VLDL and LDL synthesis could be important. These include excessive calories (obesity), which enhance triglyceride and VLDL and hence LDL synthesis. Weight loss and omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil depress synthesis of both VLDL and triglyceride in the liver. The optimal diet for the treatment of children and adults to prevent coronary disease has the following characteristics: cholesterol (100 mg/day), total fat (20% of calories, 6% saturated with the balance from omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fat), carbohydrate (65% of calories, two thirds from starch including 11 to 15 gm of soluble fiber), and protein (15% of calories). This low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet can lower the plasma cholesterol 18% to 21%. This diet is also an antithrombotic diet, thrombosis being another major consideration in preventing coronary heart disease. Dietary therapy is the mainstay of the prevention and treatment of coronary heart disease through the control of plasma lipid and lipoprotein levels. The

  16. Idaho Fish Screening Improvements Final Status Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Leitzinger, Eric J.

    2008-11-12

    This project funds two Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) fish habitat biologists to develop, secure funding for, and implement on-the-ground fish habitat improvement projects in the lower Clearwater River drainage and the upper Salmon River drainage. This report summarizes project activity during the first year of funding. The Clearwater Region fish habitat biologist began work on January 28, 2008 and the Salmon Region habitat biologist began on February 11, 2008.

  17. Forecasting Tools Point to Fishing Hotspots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Private weather forecaster WorldWinds Inc. of Slidell, Louisiana has employed satellite-gathered oceanic data from Marshall Space Flight Center to create a service that is every fishing enthusiast s dream. The company's FishBytes system uses information about sea surface temperature and chlorophyll levels to forecast favorable conditions for certain fish populations. Transmitting the data to satellite radio subscribers, FishBytes provides maps that guide anglers to the areas they are most likely to make their favorite catch.

  18. Physiology of fish in intensive culture systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wedemeyer, Gary

    1996-01-01

    Fish culture in hatcheries and other aquacultural facilities is becoming much more intensive all over the world. The success of all kinds of fish rearing depends on the quality of management and this depends, in turn, on understanding the biology of fishes and the aquatic environment in which they live. This book directly addresses the relationship between the aquatic environment and the fishes. An understanding of this by the reader will result in a reduction of disease outbreaks through improved management.

  19. Naturally Occuring Fish Poisons from Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannon, Jonathan G.; Burton, Robert A.; Wood, Steven G.; Owen, Noel L.

    2004-10-01

    Since prehistoric times, cultures throughout the world have used piscicidal (fish poisoning) plants for fishing. In recent times, scientists have identified many of the plant compounds responsible for killing the fish and have found that these compounds possess other important biological properties, such as insecticidal and anti-cancer activities. This article reviews some of the chemical research that has been performed on naturally occurring fish poisons, including plant sources, methods of use, toxicity, and mechanisms of action of piscicides.

  20. Diseases in North Sea fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dethlefsen, V.

    1984-03-01

    Prior to the studies reviewed here, only lymphocystis and skeletal deformities of a variety of fish species and certain diseases of eel were known to occur in the German Bight (North Sea). From 1977 until now, 9 externally visible lesions on North Sea fishes were observed; in addition to those mentioned before, they comprise: fin rot, ulcerations, epidermal papilloma, hyperplasia, pseudobranchial tumour, eye diseases and gill swellings. With the exception of information on changes in frequencies of vertebral deformities of herring from the 1950's to the 1970's, there are no long-term data characterizing changes in frequencies of the diseases under study. For pseudobranchial tumours of cod and epidermal papilloma of dab, information is provided on occurrence and abundance. The distribution pattern of cod afflicted with pseudobranchial tumours is strongly influenced by the migratory behaviour of the fish. Epidermal papillomas of dab were more frequently found at stations within the inner German Bight than in neighbouring areas. The Bight is used for dumping of wastes from titaniumdioxide production. Further disease hot spots are areas off the Humber estuary and the British coast. Analysis of chromium in dab from the German Bight revealed elevated concentrations in epidermal tissues of specimens from the dumping area compared with that found in dab from neighbouring localities. Particulate iron was demonstrated to occur in mucous cells of dab from the dumping area. From increased levels of heavy metals with cancerogenic potential in sensitive target tissues and from increased prevalences of diseased fish in the dumping area it is concluded that these phenomena are possibly causally linked. In the vicinity of the Humber estuary high disease rates were encountered and areas with high prevalences of dab afflicted with epidermal papilloma extended over regions shown to be transport routes for persistent pollutants such as radioactive materials. It is therefore suggested

  1. Fish passage research: S.O. Conte Anadromous Fish Research Laboratory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garebedian, Steve

    2008-01-01

    The Leetown Science Center’s S.O. Conte Anadromous Fish Research Laboratory conducts basic and applied scientific studies of fish passage and migration to define underlying principles and relationships of fish behavior and hydraulics, and to develop integrated, predictive research that can be applied to a wide range of fish passage problems.

  2. Trematode infections in farm-raised fish: Reasons for massive infections, impacts on fish and fish farms, and management of infections on fish farms

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There is an increasing problem with trematodes in fish production facilities. The onset and growth of pond aquaculture in the US (1950-1990) resulted in concentrated areas of fish, new sites for snail growth and multiplication, and new bird feeding habitat. Snails, fish, and birds serve as hosts for...

  3. Gyotaku - Japanese Fish Printing. Leaflet 2548.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewees, Christopher M.

    A list of materials needed and methodology for "gyotaku" (fish rubbing) are provided. Originally developed in Japan and China during the early 1800's, the technique of fish printing has become popular in the United States during the last 10 years. Because good printing results depend on an understanding of fish anatomy, a chart is…

  4. Mercury concentrations in Maine sport fishes

    SciTech Connect

    Stafford, C.P.; Haines, T.A.

    1997-01-01

    To assess mercury contamination of fish in Maine, fish were collected from 120 randomly selected lakes. The collection goal for each lake was five fish of the single most common sport fish species within the size range commonly harvested by anglers. Skinless, boneless fillets of fish from each lake were composited, homogenized, and analyzed for total mercury. The two most abundant species, brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, were also analyzed individually. The composite fish analyses indicate high concentrations of mercury, particularly in large and long-lived nonsalmonid species. Chain pickerel Esox niger, smallmouth bass, largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, and white perch Morone americana had the highest average mercury concentrations, and brook trout and yellow perch Perca flavescens had the lowest. The mean species composite mercury concentration was positively correlated with a factor incorporating the average size and age of the fish. Lakes containing fish with high mercury concentrations were not clustered near known industrial or population centers but were commonest in the area within 150 km of the seacoast, reflecting the geographical distribution of species that contained higher mercury concentrations. Stocked and wild brook trout were not different in length or weight, but wild fish were older and had higher mercury concentrations. Fish populations maintained by frequent introductions of hatchery-produced fish and subject to high angler exploitation rates may consist of younger fish with lower exposure to environmental mercury and thus contain lower concentrations than wild populations.

  5. 50 CFR 660.516 - Exempted fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Exempted fishing. (a) General. In the interest of developing an efficient and productive fishery for CPS, the Regional Administrator may issue exempted fishing permits (EFP) for the harvest of CPS that otherwise would be prohibited. (b) No exempted fishing for CPS may be conducted unless authorized by an...

  6. 50 CFR 660.516 - Exempted fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Exempted fishing. (a) General. In the interest of developing an efficient and productive fishery for CPS, the Regional Administrator may issue exempted fishing permits (EFP) for the harvest of CPS that otherwise would be prohibited. (b) No exempted fishing for CPS may be conducted unless authorized by an...

  7. 50 CFR 660.516 - Exempted fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Exempted fishing. (a) General. In the interest of developing an efficient and productive fishery for CPS, the Regional Administrator may issue exempted fishing permits (EFP) for the harvest of CPS that otherwise would be prohibited. (b) No exempted fishing for CPS may be conducted unless authorized by an...

  8. 50 CFR 660.516 - Exempted fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Exempted fishing. (a) General. In the interest of developing an efficient and productive fishery for CPS, the Regional Administrator may issue exempted fishing permits (EFP) for the harvest of CPS that otherwise would be prohibited. (b) No exempted fishing for CPS may be conducted unless authorized by an...

  9. 36 CFR 1002.3 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fishing. 1002.3 Section 1002.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.3 Fishing. Fishing is prohibited within the area administered by the Presidio Trust....

  10. 50 CFR 660.510 - Fishing seasons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fishing seasons. 660.510 Section 660.510... Fishing seasons. All seasons will begin at 0001 hours and terminate at 2400 hours local time. Fishing seasons for the following CPS species are: (a) Pacific sardine. January 1 to December 31, or until...

  11. 50 CFR 660.510 - Fishing seasons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fishing seasons. 660.510 Section 660.510... Fishing seasons. All seasons will begin at 0001 hours and terminate at 2400 hours local time. Fishing seasons for the following CPS species are: (a) Pacific sardine. January 1 to December 31, or until...

  12. Fish as Hosts of Vibrio cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Halpern, Malka; Izhaki, Ido

    2017-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of pandemic cholera, is abundant in marine and freshwater environments. Copepods and chironomids are natural reservoirs of this species. However, the ways V. cholerae is globally disseminated are as yet unknown. Here we review the scientific literature that provides evidence for the possibility that some fish species may be reservoirs and vectors of V. cholerae. So far, V. cholerae has been isolated from 30 fish species (22 freshwater; 9 marine). V. cholerae O1 was reported in a few cases. In most cases V. cholerae was isolated from fish intestines, but it has also been detected in gills, skin, kidney, liver and brain tissue. In most cases the fish were healthy but in some, they were diseased. Nevertheless, Koch postulates were not applied to prove that V. cholerae and not another agent was the cause of the disease in the fish. Evidence from the literature correlates raw fish consumption or fish handling to a few cholera cases or cholera epidemics. Thus, we can conclude that V. cholerae inhabits some marine and freshwater fish species. It is possible that fish may protect the bacteria in unfavorable habitats while the bacteria may assist the fish to digest its food. Also, fish may disseminate the bacteria in the aquatic environment and may transfer it to waterbirds that consume them. Thus, fish are reservoirs of V. cholerae and may play a role in its global dissemination. PMID:28293221

  13. Gyotaku - Japanese Fish Printing. Leaflet 2548.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewees, Christopher M.

    A list of materials needed and methodology for "gyotaku" (fish rubbing) are provided. Originally developed in Japan and China during the early 1800's, the technique of fish printing has become popular in the United States during the last 10 years. Because good printing results depend on an understanding of fish anatomy, a chart is…

  14. 50 CFR 660.510 - Fishing seasons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fishing seasons. 660.510 Section 660.510... Fishing seasons. All seasons will begin at 0001 hours and terminate at 2400 hours local time. Fishing seasons for the following CPS species are: (a) Pacific sardine. January 1 to December 31, or until...

  15. 50 CFR 660.510 - Fishing seasons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fishing seasons. 660.510 Section 660.510... Fishing seasons. All seasons will begin at 0001 hours and terminate at 2400 hours local time. Fishing seasons for the following CPS species are: (a) Pacific sardine. January 1 to December 31, or until...

  16. Dietary Nutrients, Additives, and Fish Health

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aquaculture will play a major role in global food security by 2050. Production of fish will need to double by 2050 to meet global demand for this important source of protein. Proper fish nutrition is essential for the overall health and well-being of fish. Sustainable and profitable production is...

  17. Coldwater fish in wadeable streams [Chapter 8

    Treesearch

    Jason B. Dunham; Amanda E. Rosenberger; Russell F. Thurow; C. Andrew Dolloff; Philip J. Howell

    2009-01-01

    Small, wadeable streams comprise the majority of habitats available to fishes in fluvial networks. Wadeable streams are generally less than 1 m deep, and fish can be sampled without the use of water craft. Cold waters are defined as having mean 7-d summer maximum water temperatures of less than 20°C and providing habitat for coldwater fishes.

  18. 43 CFR 15.7 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fishing. 15.7 Section 15.7 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.7 Fishing. (a) Spear fishing within the boundaries or confines of this Preserve is prohibited. (b) The use of poisons,...

  19. 43 CFR 15.7 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fishing. 15.7 Section 15.7 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.7 Fishing. (a) Spear fishing within the boundaries or confines of this Preserve is prohibited. (b) The use of poisons,...

  20. 43 CFR 15.7 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fishing. 15.7 Section 15.7 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.7 Fishing. (a) Spear fishing within the boundaries or confines of this Preserve is prohibited. (b) The use of poisons,...

  1. 43 CFR 15.7 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fishing. 15.7 Section 15.7 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.7 Fishing. (a) Spear fishing within the boundaries or confines of this Preserve is prohibited. (b) The use of poisons,...

  2. 43 CFR 15.7 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Fishing. 15.7 Section 15.7 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.7 Fishing. (a) Spear fishing within the boundaries or confines of this Preserve is prohibited. (b) The use of poisons,...

  3. Fish as Hosts of Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Halpern, Malka; Izhaki, Ido

    2017-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of pandemic cholera, is abundant in marine and freshwater environments. Copepods and chironomids are natural reservoirs of this species. However, the ways V. cholerae is globally disseminated are as yet unknown. Here we review the scientific literature that provides evidence for the possibility that some fish species may be reservoirs and vectors of V. cholerae. So far, V. cholerae has been isolated from 30 fish species (22 freshwater; 9 marine). V. cholerae O1 was reported in a few cases. In most cases V. cholerae was isolated from fish intestines, but it has also been detected in gills, skin, kidney, liver and brain tissue. In most cases the fish were healthy but in some, they were diseased. Nevertheless, Koch postulates were not applied to prove that V. cholerae and not another agent was the cause of the disease in the fish. Evidence from the literature correlates raw fish consumption or fish handling to a few cholera cases or cholera epidemics. Thus, we can conclude that V. cholerae inhabits some marine and freshwater fish species. It is possible that fish may protect the bacteria in unfavorable habitats while the bacteria may assist the fish to digest its food. Also, fish may disseminate the bacteria in the aquatic environment and may transfer it to waterbirds that consume them. Thus, fish are reservoirs of V. cholerae and may play a role in its global dissemination.

  4. 36 CFR 13.470 - Subsistence fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Subsistence fishing. 13.470 Section 13.470 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Subsistence § 13.470 Subsistence fishing. Fish may be taken by local...

  5. 50 CFR 635.25 - Fishing areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fishing areas. 635.25 Section 635.25..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ATLANTIC HIGHLY MIGRATORY SPECIES Management Measures § 635.25 Fishing areas. (a) General. Persons on board fishing vessels subject to the jurisdiction of the United States are authorized...

  6. 50 CFR 635.25 - Fishing areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fishing areas. 635.25 Section 635.25..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ATLANTIC HIGHLY MIGRATORY SPECIES Management Measures § 635.25 Fishing areas. (a) General. Persons on board fishing vessels subject to the jurisdiction of the United States are authorized...

  7. 36 CFR § 331.4 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Fishing. § 331.4 Section Â..., KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.4 Fishing. Unless otherwise authorized in writing by the District Engineer: (a) Fishing is only permitted in accordance with the laws and regulations of the State within whose exterior...

  8. 36 CFR 13.470 - Subsistence fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Subsistence fishing. 13.470 Section 13.470 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Subsistence § 13.470 Subsistence fishing. Fish may be taken by local...

  9. 32 CFR 770.3 - Fishing regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fishing regulations. 770.3 Section 770.3... LIMITING PUBLIC ACCESS TO PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Hunting and Fishing at Marine Corps Base, Quantico, Virginia § 770.3 Fishing regulations. (a) All persons possessing the proper state license and Base permit...

  10. 50 CFR 660.516 - Exempted fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exempted fishing. 660.516 Section 660.516... Exempted fishing. (a) General. In the interest of developing an efficient and productive fishery for CPS, the Regional Administrator may issue exempted fishing permits (EFP) for the harvest of CPS that...

  11. 50 CFR 660.718 - Exempted fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exempted fishing. 660.718 Section 660.718... Exempted fishing. (a) In the interest of developing an efficient and productive fishery for HMS, the Regional Administrator may issue exempted fishing permits (EFP) for the harvest of HMS that otherwise would...

  12. 36 CFR 1002.3 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fishing. 1002.3 Section 1002.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.3 Fishing. Fishing is prohibited within the area administered by the Presidio Trust. ...

  13. 50 CFR 665.17 - Experimental fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Experimental fishing. 665.17 Section 665... fishing. (a) General. The Regional Administrator may authorize, for limited purposes, the direct or incidental harvest of MUS that would otherwise be prohibited by this part. No experimental fishing may be...

  14. 36 CFR 1002.3 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fishing. 1002.3 Section 1002.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.3 Fishing. Fishing is prohibited within the area administered by the Presidio Trust. ...

  15. 36 CFR § 1002.3 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Fishing. § 1002.3 Section § 1002.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.3 Fishing. Fishing is prohibited within the area administered by the Presidio Trust. ...

  16. 36 CFR 13.1202 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fishing. 13.1202 Section 13.1202 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL... § 13.1202 Fishing. Fishing is allowed in accordance with § 13.40 of this chapter, but only with...

  17. 50 CFR 660.718 - Exempted fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exempted fishing. 660.718 Section 660.718... Exempted fishing. (a) In the interest of developing an efficient and productive fishery for HMS, the Regional Administrator may issue exempted fishing permits (EFP) for the harvest of HMS that otherwise would...

  18. 36 CFR 13.1202 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fishing. 13.1202 Section 13.1202 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL... § 13.1202 Fishing. Fishing is allowed in accordance with § 13.40 of this chapter, but only with...

  19. 36 CFR 1002.3 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fishing. 1002.3 Section 1002.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.3 Fishing. Fishing is prohibited within the area administered by the Presidio Trust. ...

  20. 50 CFR 660.718 - Exempted fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exempted fishing. 660.718 Section 660.718... Exempted fishing. (a) In the interest of developing an efficient and productive fishery for HMS, the Regional Administrator may issue exempted fishing permits (EFP) for the harvest of HMS that otherwise would...

  1. 50 CFR 635.25 - Fishing areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fishing areas. 635.25 Section 635.25..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ATLANTIC HIGHLY MIGRATORY SPECIES Management Measures § 635.25 Fishing areas. (a) General. Persons on board fishing vessels subject to the jurisdiction of the United States are authorized...

  2. 50 CFR 660.718 - Exempted fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exempted fishing. 660.718 Section 660.718... Exempted fishing. (a) In the interest of developing an efficient and productive fishery for HMS, the Regional Administrator may issue exempted fishing permits (EFP) for the harvest of HMS that otherwise would...

  3. 50 CFR 635.25 - Fishing areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fishing areas. 635.25 Section 635.25..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ATLANTIC HIGHLY MIGRATORY SPECIES Management Measures § 635.25 Fishing areas. (a) General. Persons on board fishing vessels subject to the jurisdiction of the United States are authorized...

  4. 50 CFR 660.510 - Fishing seasons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fishing seasons. 660.510 Section 660.510 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Fishing seasons. All seasons will begin at 0001 hours and terminate at 2400 hours local time. Fishing...

  5. 36 CFR 13.1202 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fishing. 13.1202 Section 13.1202 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL... § 13.1202 Fishing. Fishing is allowed in accordance with § 13.40 of this chapter, but only with...

  6. 50 CFR 660.718 - Exempted fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exempted fishing. 660.718 Section 660.718... Exempted fishing. (a) In the interest of developing an efficient and productive fishery for HMS, the Regional Administrator may issue exempted fishing permits (EFP) for the harvest of HMS that otherwise would...

  7. Crop nutrient recovery from applied fish coproducts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Alaska fishing industry produces over 1,000,000 metric tons of fish byproducts annually, and most of them are not used. Most food in Alaska is imported. Fish byproducts are rich in plant essential nutrients and can be used as nutrient sources for crop production. The objective of the study was t...

  8. 36 CFR 13.1202 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fishing. 13.1202 Section 13.1202 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL... § 13.1202 Fishing. Fishing is allowed in accordance with § 13.40 of this chapter, but only with...

  9. 36 CFR 13.1202 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fishing. 13.1202 Section 13.1202 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL... § 13.1202 Fishing. Fishing is allowed in accordance with § 13.40 of this chapter, but only with...

  10. 50 CFR 635.25 - Fishing areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fishing areas. 635.25 Section 635.25..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ATLANTIC HIGHLY MIGRATORY SPECIES Management Measures § 635.25 Fishing areas. (a) General. Persons on board fishing vessels subject to the jurisdiction of the United States are authorized...

  11. 36 CFR 13.470 - Subsistence fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Subsistence fishing. 13.470 Section 13.470 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Subsistence § 13.470 Subsistence fishing. Fish may be taken by local...

  12. 36 CFR 13.470 - Subsistence fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Subsistence fishing. 13.470 Section 13.470 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Subsistence § 13.470 Subsistence fishing. Fish may be taken by local...

  13. 50 CFR 665.17 - Experimental fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Experimental fishing. 665.17 Section 665... fishing. (a) General. The Regional Administrator may authorize, for limited purposes, the direct or incidental harvest of MUS that would otherwise be prohibited by this part. No experimental fishing may be...

  14. 36 CFR 13.470 - Subsistence fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Subsistence fishing. 13.470 Section 13.470 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Subsistence § 13.470 Subsistence fishing. Fish may be taken by local...

  15. 32 CFR 770.3 - Fishing regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fishing regulations. 770.3 Section 770.3... LIMITING PUBLIC ACCESS TO PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Hunting and Fishing at Marine Corps Base, Quantico, Virginia § 770.3 Fishing regulations. (a) All persons possessing the proper state license and Base permit...

  16. On the hydrodynamics of fish schooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borazjani, Iman; Daghooghi, Mohsen

    2013-11-01

    A Considerable number of fish species swim in a coordinated manner within approximately constant and equal distance from each other, forming a pattern which is referred to as a fish school. It is believed that fish schooling results in more efficient swimming. However, no experimental evidence has conclusively shown the hydrodynamic effects of neighboring fish on swimming, probably due to the challenges involved in measuring the performance under controlled conditions in a school. We investigate possible hydrodynamical effects of fish schooling by constructing an infinite school of virtual swimmers based on a mackerel fish body and carangiform kinematics. We carry out our self-propelled simulation based on prescribed undulations of the fish body (assuming that all of the fish in the school move in exact same manner) and calculating motion of the center of mass. One of the most important geometrical factors of the fish schooling pattern seems to be the distance between two adjacent fish in the school. Therefore, we examined fish schools with different distances of two adjacent fish. This work was partly supported by the Center for Computational Research (CCR), University at Buffalo.

  17. A qualitative exploration of fishing and fish consumption in the Gullah/Geechee culture.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Jamelle H; Friedman, Daniela B; Puett, Robin; Scott, Geoffrey I; Porter, Dwayne E

    2014-12-01

    The Gullah/Geechee (G/G) heritage is rooted in a culture largely dependent on fish and seafood as a primary food source. Research suggests that African-American (AA) fishers in the Southeastern US consume larger amounts of fish, potentially exposing them to higher environmental contaminant levels. This in-depth study was conducted to explore G/G and AA Sea Island attitudes, perceptions, and cultural beliefs about fishing in one urban and two rural South Carolina coastal counties. Results indicated that study participants in rural counties had slightly different perspectives of fishing (e.g. fishing as an essential dietary supplement) than in urban counties where fishing was viewed more as relaxation. Major misperceptions existed in all counties between fish consumption advisories related to pollution versus harvesting restrictions associated with fishing regulations. Providing clear, culturally tailored health messages regarding fish advisories will promote more informed choices about fish consumption that will minimize potential exposures to environmental pollutants.

  18. Fish Protection: Cooperative research advances fish-friendly turbine design

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Richard S.; Ahmann, Martin L.; Trumbo, Bradly A.; Foust, Jason

    2012-12-01

    Renewable hydropower is a tremendous resource within the Pacific Northwest that is managed with considerable cost and consideration for the safe migration of salmon. Recent research conducted in this region has provided results that could lower the impacts of hydro power production and make the technology more fish-friendly. This research is now being applied during a period when a huge emphasis is being made to develop clean, renewable energy sources.

  19. 50 CFR 14.23 - Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... eggs. 14.23 Section 14.23 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Exportation at Designated Ports § 14.23 Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs. Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs meet the definition of “bred in captivity” as stated in 50 CFR 17.3....

  20. 50 CFR 14.23 - Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... eggs. 14.23 Section 14.23 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Exportation at Designated Ports § 14.23 Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs. Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs meet the definition of “bred in captivity” as stated in 50 CFR 17.3....

  1. 50 CFR 14.23 - Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... eggs. 14.23 Section 14.23 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Exportation at Designated Ports § 14.23 Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs. Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs meet the definition of “bred in captivity” as stated in 50 CFR 17.3....

  2. 50 CFR 14.23 - Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... eggs. 14.23 Section 14.23 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Exportation at Designated Ports § 14.23 Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs. Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs meet the definition of “bred in captivity” as stated in 50 CFR 17.3....

  3. Fishing, fish consumption and advisory awareness among Louisiana's recreational fishers.

    PubMed

    Katner, Adrienne; Ogunyinka, Ebenezer; Sun, Mei-Hung; Soileau, Shannon; Lavergne, David; Dugas, Dianne; Suffet, Mel

    2011-11-01

    This paper presents results from the first known population-based survey of recreational fishers in Louisiana (n=1774). The ultimate goal of this study was to obtain data in support of the development of regional advisories for a high exposure population with unique seafood consumption patterns. Between July and August of 2008, a survey was mailed to a random sample of licensed recreational fishers to characterize local fishing habits, sportfish consumption, and advisory awareness. Eighty-eight percent of respondents reported eating sportfish. Respondents ate an estimated mean of four fish meals per month, of which, approximately half were sportfish. Over half of all sportfish meals (54%) were caught in the Gulf of Mexico or bordering brackish areas. Sportfish consumption varied by license and gender; and was highest among Sportsman's Paradise license holders (2.8±0.2 meals per month), and males (2.2±0.1 meals per month). The most frequently consumed sportfish species were red drum, speckled trout, catfish, bass, crappie and bream. Advisory awareness rates varied by gender, ethnicity, geographic area, license type, age and education; and were lowest among women (53%), African-Americans (43%), fishers from the southeast of Louisiana (50%), holders of Senior Hunting and Fishing licenses (51%), individuals between 15 and 19 years of age (41%), and individuals with less than a high school education (43%). Results were used to identify ways to optimize monitoring, advisory development and outreach activities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Assuring fish safety and quality in international fish trade.

    PubMed

    Ababouch, Lahsen

    2006-01-01

    International trade in fishery commodities reached US 58.2 billion dollars in 2002, a 5% improvement relative to 2000 and a 45% increase over 1992 levels. Within this global trade, developing countries registered a net trade surplus of US 17.4 billion dollars in 2002 and accounted for almost 50% by value and 55% of fish exports by volume. This globalization of fish trade, coupled with technological developments in food production, handling, processing and distribution, and the increasing awareness and demand of consumers for safe and high quality food have put food safety and quality assurance high in public awareness and a priority for many governments. Consequently, many countries have tightened food safety controls, imposing additional costs and requirements on imports. As early as 1980, there was an international drive towards adopting preventative HACCP-based safety and quality systems. More recently, there has been a growing awareness of the importance of an integrated, multidisciplinary approach to food safety and quality throughout the entire food chain. Implementation of this approach requires an enabling policy and regulatory environment at national and international levels with clearly defined rules and standards, establishment of appropriate food control systems and programmes at national and local levels, and provision of appropriate training and capacity building. This paper discusses the international framework for fish safety and quality, with particular emphasis on the United Nation's Food and Agricultural Organization's (FAO) strategy to promote international harmonization and capacity building.

  5. How ecology shapes prey fish cognition.

    PubMed

    Beri, S; Patton, B W; Braithwaite, V A

    2014-11-01

    Fish exhibit diverse cognitive capacities: they cooperate, punish, develop cultural traditions, learn to map their environment and communicate their intentions to one another. Skills such as these have helped fish radiate to colonize the many and diverse aquatic niches available. Prey fish are no exception to this, and several recent studies have shown them to be a rich resource for understanding the evolutionary ecology of animal cognition. Many fish have to cope with the threat of predation, but some environments contain more predators than others. These environments deliver the opportunity to investigate how predation pressure shapes fish cognition and behaviour. Here we compared fish from two high and two low predation habitats in their ability to learn a sequential choice spatial task. We also investigated their ability to solve the maze after it was rearranged. Fish from high predation sites made more errors as they learned to navigate the maze than fish from low predation sites. The fish also varied in the cues that they learned to help them solve the task. These did not vary by levels of predation pressure, rather, they differed between rivers, with fish from one river learning to use landmark cues, and those from the other river learning the sequence of left and right turns. As the different populations varied in how well they learned to navigate through a reconfigured maze, it seems likely that predation pressure is not the only factor influencing spatial behavior in these fish.

  6. Fishing down nutrients on coral reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allgeier, Jacob E.; Valdivia, Abel; Cox, Courtney; Layman, Craig A.

    2016-08-01

    Fishing is widely considered a leading cause of biodiversity loss in marine environments, but the potential effect on ecosystem processes, such as nutrient fluxes, is less explored. Here, we test how fishing on Caribbean coral reefs influences biodiversity and ecosystem functions provided by the fish community, that is, fish-mediated nutrient capacity. Specifically, we modelled five processes of nutrient storage (in biomass) and supply (via excretion) of nutrients, as well as a measure of their multifunctionality, onto 143 species of coral reef fishes across 110 coral reef fish communities. These communities span a gradient from extreme fishing pressure to protected areas with little to no fishing. We find that in fished sites fish-mediated nutrient capacity is reduced almost 50%, despite no substantial changes in the number of species. Instead, changes in community size and trophic structure were the primary cause of shifts in ecosystem function. These findings suggest that a broader perspective that incorporates predictable impacts of fishing pressure on ecosystem function is imperative for effective coral reef conservation and management.

  7. Fishing down nutrients on coral reefs

    PubMed Central

    Allgeier, Jacob E.; Valdivia, Abel; Cox, Courtney; Layman, Craig A.

    2016-01-01

    Fishing is widely considered a leading cause of biodiversity loss in marine environments, but the potential effect on ecosystem processes, such as nutrient fluxes, is less explored. Here, we test how fishing on Caribbean coral reefs influences biodiversity and ecosystem functions provided by the fish community, that is, fish-mediated nutrient capacity. Specifically, we modelled five processes of nutrient storage (in biomass) and supply (via excretion) of nutrients, as well as a measure of their multifunctionality, onto 143 species of coral reef fishes across 110 coral reef fish communities. These communities span a gradient from extreme fishing pressure to protected areas with little to no fishing. We find that in fished sites fish-mediated nutrient capacity is reduced almost 50%, despite no substantial changes in the number of species. Instead, changes in community size and trophic structure were the primary cause of shifts in ecosystem function. These findings suggest that a broader perspective that incorporates predictable impacts of fishing pressure on ecosystem function is imperative for effective coral reef conservation and management. PMID:27529748

  8. Fishing down nutrients on coral reefs.

    PubMed

    Allgeier, Jacob E; Valdivia, Abel; Cox, Courtney; Layman, Craig A

    2016-08-16

    Fishing is widely considered a leading cause of biodiversity loss in marine environments, but the potential effect on ecosystem processes, such as nutrient fluxes, is less explored. Here, we test how fishing on Caribbean coral reefs influences biodiversity and ecosystem functions provided by the fish community, that is, fish-mediated nutrient capacity. Specifically, we modelled five processes of nutrient storage (in biomass) and supply (via excretion) of nutrients, as well as a measure of their multifunctionality, onto 143 species of coral reef fishes across 110 coral reef fish communities. These communities span a gradient from extreme fishing pressure to protected areas with little to no fishing. We find that in fished sites fish-mediated nutrient capacity is reduced almost 50%, despite no substantial changes in the number of species. Instead, changes in community size and trophic structure were the primary cause of shifts in ecosystem function. These findings suggest that a broader perspective that incorporates predictable impacts of fishing pressure on ecosystem function is imperative for effective coral reef conservation and management.

  9. Electricity and fishing - a dangerous mix.

    PubMed

    Fodor, Lucian; Bota, Ioan O; Abbas, Yusuf; Fodor, Marius; Ciuce, Constantin

    2011-05-01

    The advent of fishing rods made of carbon fiber and graphite rods has greatly increased the risks of electrical injuries associated with fishing. The braided fishing lines and metal hooks put the fishermen at risk for electrical injuries. We review our burn center's experience with electrical injuries related to fishing activities during the last four years. We retrospectively collected data on patients with electrical burns related to fishing activities between January 2006, when our burns unit was established, and December 2009. Eight patients with electrical burns were admitted during this period of time, five who sustained the injury while fishing, due to contact of the fishing rod with overhead high-voltage cables and three who were injured during illegal fishing, using electricity to stun the fish. The total burn surface area ranged from 0.5% to 70%. Three of the patients sustained fourth degree burns, while the rest had second and third degree burns. One patient underwent scapulohumeral disarticulation and an above-knee amputation. Two patients had fingers and toes amputated. Latissimus dorsi and anterolateral thigh flaps were used to cover the defects in two cases. Local flaps were employed in other two cases to cover the tissue defects. Two patients died. Fishing-related burns and illegal fishing can lead to serious injuries and death. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  10. [Progress in transgenic fish techniques and application].

    PubMed

    Ye, Xing; Tian, Yuan-Yuan; Gao, Feng-Ying

    2011-05-01

    Transgenic technique provides a new way for fish breeding. Stable lines of growth hormone gene transfer carps, salmon and tilapia, as well as fluorescence protein gene transfer zebra fish and white cloud mountain minnow have been produced. The fast growth characteristic of GH gene transgenic fish will be of great importance to promote aquaculture production and economic efficiency. This paper summarized the progress in transgenic fish research and ecological assessments. Microinjection is still the most common used method, but often resulted in multi-site and multi-copies integration. Co-injection of transposon or meganuclease will greatly improve the efficiency of gene transfer and integration. "All fish" gene or "auto gene" should be considered to produce transgenic fish in order to eliminate misgiving on food safety and to benefit expression of the transferred gene. Environmental risk is the biggest obstacle for transgenic fish to be commercially applied. Data indicates that transgenic fish have inferior fitness compared with the traditional domestic fish. However, be-cause of the genotype-by-environment effects, it is difficult to extrapolate simple phenotypes to the complex ecological interactions that occur in nature based on the ecological consequences of the transgenic fish determined in the laboratory. It is critical to establish highly naturalized environments for acquiring reliable data that can be used to evaluate the environ-mental risk. Efficacious physical and biological containment strategies remain to be crucial approaches to ensure the safe application of transgenic fish technology.

  11. Functional aspects of emotions in fish.

    PubMed

    Kittilsen, Silje

    2013-11-01

    There is an ongoing scientific discussion on whether fish have emotions, and if so how they experience them? The discussion has incorporated important areas such as brain anatomy and function, physiological and behavioural responses, and the cognitive abilities that fish possess. Little attention has however, been directed towards what functional aspects emotions ought to have in fish. If fish have emotions - why? The elucidation of this question and an assessment of the scientific evidences of emotions in fish in an evolutionary and functional framework would represent a valuable contribution in the discussion on whether fish are emotional creatures. Here parts of the vast amount of literature from both biology and psychology relating to the scientific field of emotions, animal emotion, and the functional aspects that emotions fulfil in the lives of humans and animals are reviewed. Subsequently, by viewing fish behaviour, physiology and cognitive abilities in the light of this functional framework it is possible to infer what functions emotions may serve in fish. This approach may contribute to the vital running discussion on the subject of emotions in fish. In fact, if it can be substantiated that emotions are likely to serve a function in fish similar to that of other higher vertebrate species, the notion that fish do have emotions will be strengthened.

  12. Enhanced schooling performance in lateralized fishes

    PubMed Central

    Bisazza, Angelo; Dadda, Marco

    2005-01-01

    The occurrence of functional left–right cerebral asymmetries has been documented in a wide range of animals, suggesting that the lateralization of cognitive functions enjoys some kind of selective advantage over the bilateral control of the same functions. Here, we compared schooling performance of fishes with high or low degree of lateralization, which were obtained through selective breeding. Schools of lateralized fishes moving in a novel environment showed significantly more cohesion and coordination than schools of non-lateralized (NL) fishes. Pairs of fishes lateralized in opposite directions were as efficient as pairs of same laterality, suggesting that the performance of lateralized fishes derives from a computational advantage rather than being the consequence of a behavioural similarity among schoolmates. In schools composed of both lateralized and NL fishes, the latter were more often at the periphery of the school while lateralized fishes occupied the core, a position normally safer and energetically less expensive. PMID:16087422

  13. Thermal effects on fish ecology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coutant, Charles C.

    1976-01-01

    Of all the environmental factors that influence aquatic organisms, temperature is the most all-pervasive. There is always an environmental temperature while other factors may or may not be present to exert their effects. Fish are, for all practical purposes, thermal conformers, or obligate poikilotherms. That is, they are able to exert little significant influence on maintaining a certain body temperature by specialized metabolic or behavioral means. Their body temperature thus fluctuates nearly in concert with the temperature of their aquatic medium (although particularly large, actively-moving fish such as tuna have deep muscle temperatures slightly higher than the water). Intimate contact at the gills of body fluids with the outside water and the high specific heat of water provide a very efficient heat exchanger that insures this near identity of internal and external temperatures.

  14. 75 FR 22731 - Implementation of Fish and Fish Product Import Provisions of the Marine Mammal Protection Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ...-AY15 Implementation of Fish and Fish Product Import Provisions of the Marine Mammal Protection Act... of the Marine Mammal Protection Act for imports of fish and fish products. NMFS is seeking advance... prohibition of imports of some fish or fish products. Possible Standards for Evaluating Marine Mammal Bycatch...

  15. Fish and Wildlife Mitigation Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-07-01

    Sacramento River Bank Protection Project 3 Environmental Impact of Construction of the First Phase 6 Determination of Mitigation Needs 7 Analysis 8...be acquired for habitat restoration for fish and wildlife purposes to offset the impact of construction of the First Phase of the Sacramento River...set forth, along with other data necessary for project authorization, in a report submitted to the Congress by the construction agency. Construction

  16. Fish populations surviving estrogen pollution.

    PubMed

    Wedekind, Claus

    2014-02-10

    Among the most common pollutants that enter the environment after passing municipal wastewater treatment are estrogens, especially the synthetic 17α-ethinylestradiol that is used in oral contraceptives. Estrogens are potent endocrine disruptors at concentrations frequently observed in surface waters. However, new genetic analyses suggest that some fish populations can be self-sustaining even in heavily polluted waters. We now need to understand the basis of this tolerance.

  17. Bahamian whitings - no fish story

    SciTech Connect

    Shinn, E.A.; Steinen, R.P.; Lidz, B.H.; Halley, R.B.

    1985-02-01

    Bahamian whitings, controversial patches of drifting mud-laden water, have been thought to be produced by fish. Observations over several 7-day periods show that whitings are long-lived phenomena (days and possibly weeks) and that the dozens which exist at any time on the Great Bahama Bank continually rain aragonitic sediment. Although chemical changes consistent with precipitation have not been detected in seawater near or within whitings, new data indirectly suggest that precipitation from seawater causes whitings. Lime mud settled in approximately 6 hr in large (30 gal) containers of water taken from whitings, whereas in the sea, the parent whitings persisted for days. Sediment traps verified continual transport of sediment. Divers noted no fish stirring up the bottom nor any evidence of bottom feeding. Side-scan sonar failed to detect unusually large schools of fish, and a shrimper's net dragged in the whitings failed to catch any fish known to be bottom feeders. Dragging the net in clear water near active whitings created artificial whitings that settled back to the bottom in a few hours. Current measurements within and outside of whitings ruled out current eddies. Near the edge of the Bahama platform, whitings occur over bottom sediments too coarse-grained to be stirred into suspension, yet the muddy bottom of the banks was miles away. These data suggest that natural whitings must be continually replenished with sediment. Filtration of known volumes of water from 15 whitings and from clear seawater indicates that active-whiting water contains only a very small (10-12 mg/L) amount of suspended carbonate sediment, yet whitings are considered a potential major source of lime mud on the Great Bahama Bank. Inasmuch as nearly one-half the world's oil is pumped from limestone, knowledge of the origin and deposition of lime mud has implications for hydrocarbon exploration.

  18. Synchronized Swimming of Two Fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koumoutsakos, Petros; Novati, Guido; Abbati, Gabriele; Hejazialhosseini, Babak; van Rees, Wim

    2015-11-01

    We present simulations of two, self-propelled, fish-like swimmers that perform synchronized moves in a two-dimensional, viscous fluid. The swimmers learn to coordinate by receiving a reward for their synchronized actions. We analyze the swimming patterns emerging for different rewards in terms of their hydrodynamic efficiency and artistic impression. European Research Council (ERC) Advanced Investigator Award (No. 2-73985-14).

  19. School's Out-Gone Fishing!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancaster, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Can you solve the following Problem? There are 200 fish in an aquarium, and 99 percent of them are guppies. How many guppies must be removed to reduce the tank's guppy population to 98 percent? The key to this problem is to work backward by using the data given in figure 2 to determine the surface area of the top of the aquarium; then determine…

  20. School's Out-Gone Fishing!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancaster, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Can you solve the following Problem? There are 200 fish in an aquarium, and 99 percent of them are guppies. How many guppies must be removed to reduce the tank's guppy population to 98 percent? The key to this problem is to work backward by using the data given in figure 2 to determine the surface area of the top of the aquarium; then determine…

  1. Fishes of the Adirondack Park

    SciTech Connect

    George, C.J.

    1980-01-01

    This review of the ichthyology of the area of the Adirondack Park contained within the blue line centers on biological surveys of the six major watersheds of the study area done in 1930-1935. The total area of 9261 square miles contains 2000-3000 water bodies. The ichthyofauna consists of 96 forms, including four kinds of hybrids commonly produced and used in stock programs; of the remaining 92 forms, 23 may be classified as Boreal or peri-glacial. The Atlantian group consists of 20 species and the Mississippian and adjacent Pleistocene refugia have provided about 45 members of the fauna. Two of the fauna are the rainbow and steelhead trout and the Kokanee salmon, introduced from the west coast; three species are from the old world. Spraying for insect control, introduction of exotic plant species, and acid precipitation have all measurably impacted fish populations in recent years, often in complex and synergistic ways. For example, a decline of fish populations in Big Moose Lake is probably the complex result of present and past lumbering, fishing, stocking, forest fires and hurricane damage, as well as acid precipitation. As the system diversifies, many populations of Boreal forms are being lost, and new forms of Atlantian and Mississippian heritage are being established. 253 references, 7 tables.

  2. Thyroid hormone deiodination in fish.

    PubMed

    Orozco, Aurea; Valverde-R, Carlos

    2005-08-01

    We review the experimental evidence accumulated within the past decade regarding the physiologic, biochemical, and molecular characterization of iodothyronine deiodinases (IDs) in piscine species. Agnathans, chondrichthyes, and teleosts express the three isotypes of IDs: ID1, ID2, and ID3, which are responsible for the peripheral fine-tuning of thyroid hormone (TH) bioactivity. At the molecular and operational level, fish IDs share properties with their corresponding vertebrate counterparts. However, fish IDs also exhibit discrete features that seem to be distinctive for piscine species. Indeed, teleostean ID1 is conspicuously resistant to propylthiouracil (PTU) inhibition, and its response to thyroidal status differs from that exhibited by other ID1s. Moreover, both the high level of ID2 activity and its expression in the liver of teleosts are unique among vertebrates. The physiologic role of iodothyronine deiodination in functions regulated by TH in fish is not entirely clear. Nevertheless, current experimental evidence suggests that IDs may coordinate and facilitate, in a tissue-specific fashion, the action of iodothyronines and other hormones involved in such processes.

  3. [Toxicity of puffer fish fins].

    PubMed

    Honda, Shunichi; Ichimaru, Shunichi; Arakawa, Osamu; Takatani, Tomohiro; Noguchi, Tamao; Ishizaki, Shoichiro; Nagashima, Yuji

    2007-10-01

    Puffer fish is prized as a Japanese traditional food and its fin is also used in the cuisine. However, whether the fin is edible or not is determined for convenience from the toxicity of skin, since little information is available about the toxicity of puffer fish fins. In the present study, we examined the toxicity of fins and skin of three toxic species, Takifugu vermicularis, T. snyderi, and T. porphyreus. The toxicity of T. vermicularis fins (< 5-52.4 MU/g) was significantly lower than that of skin (<5-1200 MU/g). HPLC analysis showed that tetrodotoxin was a major toxic principle irrespective of the toxicity value in each tissue of T. vermicularis. In the case of T. snyderi and T. porphyreus, the toxicity of fins was at almost the same level as that of the skin. The toxicity (< 10-12 MU/g) of caudal fins of T. porphyreus was apparently increased to 16.5-22.0 MU/g by drying. However, the toxin amounts in the dried fins were slightly decreased as compared with those of the non-dried fins. These results demonstrate that puffer fish with toxic skin also have toxic fins.

  4. Taxonomy of bacterial fish pathogens.

    PubMed

    Austin, Brian

    2011-02-02

    Bacterial taxonomy has progressed from reliance on highly artificial culture-dependent techniques involving the study of phenotype (including morphological, biochemical and physiological data) to the modern applications of molecular biology, most recently 16S rRNA gene sequencing, which gives an insight into evolutionary pathways (= phylogenetics). The latter is applicable to culture-independent approaches, and has led directly to the recognition of new uncultured bacterial groups, i.e. "Candidatus", which have been associated as the cause of some fish diseases, including rainbow trout summer enteritic syndrome. One immediate benefit is that 16S rRNA gene sequencing has led to increased confidence in the accuracy of names allocated to bacterial pathogens. This is in marked contrast to the previous dominance of phenotyping, and identifications, which have been subsequently challenged in the light of 16S rRNA gene sequencing. To date, there has been some fluidity over the names of bacterial fish pathogens, with some, for example Vibrio anguillarum, being divided into two separate entities (V. anguillarum and V. ordalii). Others have been combined, for example V. carchariae, V. harveyi and V. trachuri as V. harveyi. Confusion may result with some organisms recognized by more than one name; V. anguillarum was reclassified as Beneckea and Listonella, with Vibrio and Listonella persisting in the scientific literature. Notwithstanding, modern methods have permitted real progress in the understanding of the taxonomic relationships of many bacterial fish pathogens.

  5. Protein changes in frozen fish.

    PubMed

    Sikorski, Z; Olley, J; Kostuch, S

    1976-09-01

    Storage of frozen fish brings about a decrease of extractability of myofibrillar proteins. There is also deterioration of the texture and functional properties of the flesh. In model systems, aggregation of myosin, actin, tropomyosin, and whole myofibrils have been described. These changes are caused by concurrent action of partial dehydration due to the freezing out of water, exposure of the proteins to inorganic salts which are concentrated in the remaining nonfrozen fluid, interactions with free fatty acids liberated from phospholipids and with lipid oxidation products, and cross-linking by formaldehyde produced in some species of fish as a result of enzymic decomposition of trimethylamine oxide. The extent of protein alterations increases with time and temperature of storage as well as with advanced disintegration of the tissues and intermixing of their components. The role played by the individual factors and the significance of different types of bonds, i.e., hydrophobic adherences, ionic bonds, and covalent cross-links in particular cases are not yet fully disclosed. Retardation of the deteriorative changes of proteins in frozen fish is possible by avoiding high storage temperatures and oxidation of lipids, removing hematin compounds and other constituents promoting cross-linking reactions, and by adding cryoprotectors like sugars, several organic acids, amino acids, or peptides.

  6. Eyespots divert attacks by fish.

    PubMed

    Kjernsmo, Karin; Merilaita, Sami

    2013-09-07

    Eyespots (colour patterns consisting of concentric rings) are found in a wide range of animal taxa and are often assumed to have an anti-predator function. Previous experiments have found strong evidence for an intimidating effect of eyespots against passerine birds. Some eyespots have been suggested to increase prey survival by diverting attacks towards less vital body parts or a direction that would facilitate escape. While eyespots in aquatic environments are widespread, their function is extremely understudied. Therefore, we investigated the protective function of eyespots against attacking fish. We used artificial prey and predator-naive three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) as predators to test both the diversion (deflection) and the intimidation hypothesis. Interestingly, our results showed that eyespots smaller than the fish' own eye very effectively draw the attacks of the fish towards them. Furthermore, our experiment also showed that this was not due to the conspicuousness of the eyespot, because attack latency did not differ between prey items with and without eyespots. We found little support for an intimidating effect by larger eyespots. Even though also other markings might misdirect attacks, we can conclude that the misdirecting function may have played an important role in the evolution of eyespots in aquatic environments.

  7. Freshwater fishes of northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Pusey, Bradley J; Burrows, Damien W; Kennard, Mark J; Perna, Colton N; Unmack, Peter J; Allsop, Quentin; Hammer, Michael P

    2017-04-11

    Northern Australia is biologically diverse and of national and global conservation signicance. Its ancient landscape contains the world's largest area of savannah ecosystem in good ecological condition and its rivers are largely free-flowing. Agriculture, previously confined largely to open range-land grazing, is set to expand in extent and to focus much more on irrigated cropping and horticulture. Demands on the water resources of the region are thus, inevitably increasing. Reliable information is required to guide and inform development and help plan for a sustainable future for the region which includes healthy rivers that contain diverse fish assemblages. Based on a range of information sources, including the outcomes of recent and extensive new field surveys, this study maps the distribution of the 111 freshwater fishes (excluding elasmobranches) and 42 estuarine vagrants recorded from freshwater habitats of the region. We classify the habitat use and migratory biology of each species. This study provides a comprehensive assessment of the diversity and distribution of fishes of the region within a standardised nomenclatural framework. In addition, we summarise the outcomes of recent phylogeographic and phylogenetic research using molecular technologies to identify where issues of taxonomy may need further scrutiny. The study provides an informed basis for further research on the spatial arrangement of biodiversity and its relationship to environmental factors (e.g. hydrology), conservation planning and phylogentic variation within individual taxa.

  8. Taxonomy of bacterial fish pathogens

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial taxonomy has progressed from reliance on highly artificial culture-dependent techniques involving the study of phenotype (including morphological, biochemical and physiological data) to the modern applications of molecular biology, most recently 16S rRNA gene sequencing, which gives an insight into evolutionary pathways (= phylogenetics). The latter is applicable to culture-independent approaches, and has led directly to the recognition of new uncultured bacterial groups, i.e. "Candidatus", which have been associated as the cause of some fish diseases, including rainbow trout summer enteritic syndrome. One immediate benefit is that 16S rRNA gene sequencing has led to increased confidence in the accuracy of names allocated to bacterial pathogens. This is in marked contrast to the previous dominance of phenotyping, and identifications, which have been subsequently challenged in the light of 16S rRNA gene sequencing. To date, there has been some fluidity over the names of bacterial fish pathogens, with some, for example Vibrio anguillarum, being divided into two separate entities (V. anguillarum and V. ordalii). Others have been combined, for example V. carchariae, V. harveyi and V. trachuri as V. harveyi. Confusion may result with some organisms recognized by more than one name; V. anguillarum was reclassified as Beneckea and Listonella, with Vibrio and Listonella persisting in the scientific literature. Notwithstanding, modern methods have permitted real progress in the understanding of the taxonomic relationships of many bacterial fish pathogens. PMID:21314902

  9. Optical plasticity in fish lenses.

    PubMed

    Kröger, Ronald H H

    2013-05-01

    In a typical fish eye, the crystalline lens is the only refractive element. It is spherical in shape and has high refractive power. Most fish species have elaborate color vision and spectral sensitivity may range from the near-infrared to the near-ultraviolet. Longitudinal chromatic aberration exceeds depth of focus and chromatic blur is compensated for by species-specific multifocality of the lens. The complex optical properties of fish lenses are subject to accurate regulation, including circadian reversible adjustments and irreversible developmental tuning. The mechanisms optimize the transfer of visual information to the retina in diverse and variable environments, and allow for rapid evolutionary changes in color vision. Active optical tuning of the lens is achieved by changes in the refractive index gradient and involves layers of mature, denucleated lens fiber cells. First steps have been taken toward unraveling the signaling systems controlling lens optical plasticity. Multifocal lenses compensating for chromatic blur are common in all major groups of vertebrates, including birds and mammals. Furthermore, the optical quality of a monofocal lens, such as in the human eye, is equally sensitive to the exact shape of the refractive index profile. Optical plasticity in the crystalline lens may thus be present in vertebrates in general. 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved

  10. Omics in fish mucosal immunity.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Irene; Magadán, Susana

    2017-10-01

    The mucosal immune system of fish is a complex network of immune cells and molecules that are constantly surveilling the environment and protecting the host from infection. A number of "omics" tools are now available and utilized to understand the complexity of mucosal immune systems in non-traditional animal models. This review summarizes recent advances in the implementation of "omics" tools pertaining to the four mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues in teleosts. Genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and "omics" in microbiome research require interdisciplinary collaboration and careful experimental design. The data-rich datasets generated are proving really useful at discovering new innate immune players in fish mucosal secretions, identifying novel markers of specific mucosal immune responses, unraveling the diversity of the B and T cell repertoires and characterizing the diversity of the microbial communities present in teleost mucosal surfaces. Bioinformatics, data analysis and storage platforms should be developed to facilitate rapid processing of large datasets, especially when mammalian tools such as bioinformatics analysis software are not available in fishes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Hydrodynamic aspects of fish olfaction

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Jonathan P.L

    2008-01-01

    Flow into and around the olfactory chamber of a fish determines how odorant from the fish's immediate environment is transported to the sensory surface (olfactory epithelium) lining the chamber. Diffusion times in water are long, even over comparatively short distances (millimetres). Therefore, transport from the external environment to the olfactory epithelium must be controlled by processes that rely on convection (i.e. the bulk flow of fluid). These include the beating of cilia lining the olfactory chamber and the relatively inexpensive pumping action of accessory sacs. Flow through the chamber may also be induced by an external flow. Flow over the olfactory epithelium appears to be laminar. Odorant transfer to the olfactory epithelium may be facilitated in several ways: if the olfactory organs are mounted on stalks that penetrate the boundary layer; by the steep velocity gradients generated by beating cilia; by devices that deflect flow into the olfactory chamber; by parallel arrays of olfactory lamellae; by mechanical agitation of the chamber (or olfactory stalks); and by vortices. Overall, however, our knowledge of the hydrodynamics of fish olfaction is far from complete. Several areas of future research are outlined. PMID:18184629

  12. Breaking the host range: mandarin fish is susceptible to a vesiculovirus derived from snakehead fish.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaodan; Wen, Yi; Hu, Xianqin; Wang, Wenwen; Liang, Xufang; Li, Jun; Vakharia, Vikram; Lin, Li

    2015-04-01

    Members of the genus Vesiculovirus, which belongs to the family Rhabdoviridae, can cause great economic loss in fish culture. In the present report, a vesiculovirus [named snakehead fish vesiculovirus (SHVV)] was isolated from diseased hybrid snakehead fish. SHVV shared 94 % nucleotide sequence identity at the genomic level with Siniperca chuatsi rhabdovirus (SCRV), which infects mandarin fish (S. chuatsi). We showed that SHVV was able to replicate and proliferate well in SSN-1 cells, which originate from striped snakehead fish (Channa striatus). Furthermore, mandarin fish was susceptible to SHVV by bath exposure, as well as by intraperitoneal injection. The infected fish showed typical clinical signs of rhabdovirus infection, including haemorrhage and oedema. Histopathological analysis revealed that extensive inflammation and necrosis were observed in the spleen, kidney, liver, heart and brain of the moribund mandarin fish. These results will shed new light on the epidemic of vesiculovirus infections among fish. © 2015.

  13. Estimating the worldwide extent of illegal fishing.

    PubMed

    Agnew, David J; Pearce, John; Pramod, Ganapathiraju; Peatman, Tom; Watson, Reg; Beddington, John R; Pitcher, Tony J

    2009-01-01

    Illegal and unreported fishing contributes to overexploitation of fish stocks and is a hindrance to the recovery of fish populations and ecosystems. This study is the first to undertake a world-wide analysis of illegal and unreported fishing. Reviewing the situation in 54 countries and on the high seas, we estimate that lower and upper estimates of the total value of current illegal and unreported fishing losses worldwide are between $10 bn and $23.5 bn annually, representing between 11 and 26 million tonnes. Our data are of sufficient resolution to detect regional differences in the level and trend of illegal fishing over the last 20 years, and we can report a significant correlation between governance and the level of illegal fishing. Developing countries are most at risk from illegal fishing, with total estimated catches in West Africa being 40% higher than reported catches. Such levels of exploitation severely hamper the sustainable management of marine ecosystems. Although there have been some successes in reducing the level of illegal fishing in some areas, these developments are relatively recent and follow growing international focus on the problem. This paper provides the baseline against which successful action to curb illegal fishing can be judged.

  14. COMPLIANCE STUDIES: WHAT ABOUT THE FISH?

    SciTech Connect

    Woodley, Christa M.; Fischer, Eric S.; Wagner, Katie A.; Weiland, Mark A.; Eppard, M. B.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2013-08-21

    ABSTRACT It is understood that operational and structural conditions at hydroelectric facilities along with environmental conditions of the migration corridors affect the passage conditions for fish. Hydropower fish survival assessments at the individual- and population-level have progressed over the past decade with development of turbine simulation software and improvements in telemetry systems, in particular, micro-transmitters, cabled and autonomous receivers, and advanced statistical designs that provide precise estimates of passage routes and dam-passage survival. However, these approaches often ignore fish condition as a variable in passage and survival analyses. To account for fish condition effects on survival results, compliance statistical models often require increased numbers of tagged fish. For example, prior to and during migration, fish encounter numerous stressors (e.g., disease, predation, contact with structures, decompression events), all of which can cause physical and physiological stress, altering the probability of survival after passage through a dam or a series of dams. In addition, the effects of surgical transmitter implantation process or the transmitter itself may cause physiological stress, alter behavior, and/or decrease survival. Careful physiological evaluations can augment survival model assumptions, resultant data, and predictive scenarios. To exemplify this, surgeons concurrently noted fish condition and surgical implantation during a multi-dam compliance study in 2011. The analyses indicted that surgeon observations on fish condition and surgical outcomes were related to 24 h holding mortalities and fish that never detected after release. Short reach and long reach survival were related to surgical outcomes and fish condition, respectively.

  15. Mapping Fishing Effort through AIS Data

    PubMed Central

    Natale, Fabrizio; Gibin, Maurizio; Alessandrini, Alfredo; Vespe, Michele; Paulrud, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Several research initiatives have been undertaken to map fishing effort at high spatial resolution using the Vessel Monitoring System (VMS). An alternative to the VMS is represented by the Automatic Identification System (AIS), which in the EU became compulsory in May 2014 for all fishing vessels of length above 15 meters. The aim of this paper is to assess the uptake of the AIS in the EU fishing fleet and the feasibility of producing a map of fishing effort with high spatial and temporal resolution at European scale. After analysing a large AIS dataset for the period January-August 2014 and covering most of the EU waters, we show that AIS was adopted by around 75% of EU fishing vessels above 15 meters of length. Using the Swedish fleet as a case study, we developed a method to identify fishing activity based on the analysis of individual vessels’ speed profiles and produce a high resolution map of fishing effort based on AIS data. The method was validated using detailed logbook data and proved to be sufficiently accurate and computationally efficient to identify fishing grounds and effort in the case of trawlers, which represent the largest portion of the EU fishing fleet above 15 meters of length. Issues still to be addressed before extending the exercise to the entire EU fleet are the assessment of coverage levels of the AIS data for all EU waters and the identification of fishing activity in the case of vessels other than trawlers. PMID:26098430

  16. Estimating the Worldwide Extent of Illegal Fishing

    PubMed Central

    Agnew, David J.; Pearce, John; Pramod, Ganapathiraju; Peatman, Tom; Watson, Reg; Beddington, John R.; Pitcher, Tony J.

    2009-01-01

    Illegal and unreported fishing contributes to overexploitation of fish stocks and is a hindrance to the recovery of fish populations and ecosystems. This study is the first to undertake a world-wide analysis of illegal and unreported fishing. Reviewing the situation in 54 countries and on the high seas, we estimate that lower and upper estimates of the total value of current illegal and unreported fishing losses worldwide are between $10 bn and $23.5 bn annually, representing between 11 and 26 million tonnes. Our data are of sufficient resolution to detect regional differences in the level and trend of illegal fishing over the last 20 years, and we can report a significant correlation between governance and the level of illegal fishing. Developing countries are most at risk from illegal fishing, with total estimated catches in West Africa being 40% higher than reported catches. Such levels of exploitation severely hamper the sustainable management of marine ecosystems. Although there have been some successes in reducing the level of illegal fishing in some areas, these developments are relatively recent and follow growing international focus on the problem. This paper provides the baseline against which successful action to curb illegal fishing can be judged. PMID:19240812

  17. Mapping Fishing Effort through AIS Data.

    PubMed

    Natale, Fabrizio; Gibin, Maurizio; Alessandrini, Alfredo; Vespe, Michele; Paulrud, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Several research initiatives have been undertaken to map fishing effort at high spatial resolution using the Vessel Monitoring System (VMS). An alternative to the VMS is represented by the Automatic Identification System (AIS), which in the EU became compulsory in May 2014 for all fishing vessels of length above 15 meters. The aim of this paper is to assess the uptake of the AIS in the EU fishing fleet and the feasibility of producing a map of fishing effort with high spatial and temporal resolution at European scale. After analysing a large AIS dataset for the period January-August 2014 and covering most of the EU waters, we show that AIS was adopted by around 75% of EU fishing vessels above 15 meters of length. Using the Swedish fleet as a case study, we developed a method to identify fishing activity based on the analysis of individual vessels' speed profiles and produce a high resolution map of fishing effort based on AIS data. The method was validated using detailed logbook data and proved to be sufficiently accurate and computationally efficient to identify fishing grounds and effort in the case of trawlers, which represent the largest portion of the EU fishing fleet above 15 meters of length. Issues still to be addressed before extending the exercise to the entire EU fleet are the assessment of coverage levels of the AIS data for all EU waters and the identification of fishing activity in the case of vessels other than trawlers.

  18. Fish out of water: terrestrial jumping by fully aquatic fishes.

    PubMed

    Gibb, Alice C; Ashley-Ross, Miriam A; Pace, Cinnamon M; Long, John H

    2011-12-01

    Many teleosts that live at the water's edge will voluntarily strand themselves to evade predators or escape poor conditions-this behavior has been repeatedly observed in the field for killifishes (Cyprinodontiformes). Although most killifishes are considered fully aquatic and possess no obvious morphological specializations to facilitate terrestrial locomotion, individuals from several different species have been observed moving across land via a "tail flip" behavior that generates a terrestrial jump. Like aquatic fast starts, terrestrial jumps are produced by high-curvature lateral flexion of the body (stage one), followed by contralateral flexion of the posterior body (stage two). Here, terrestrial jumps and aquatic fast starts are quantified for two littoral teleosts: Gambusia affinis (a killifish, Cyprinodontiformes) and Danio rerio (a small carp, Cypriniformes) to determine if the tail flip is produced by other (non-killifish) teleosts and to test the null hypothesis that the tail flip is a fast start behavior, performed on land. Both Danio and Gambusia produce tail flip-driven terrestrial jumps, which are kinematically distinct from aquatic escapes and characterized by (1) a prolonged stage one, during which the fish bends, lifting and rolling the center of mass over the caudal peduncle, and (2) a relatively brief stage two, wherein the caudal peduncle pushes against the substrate to launch the fish into the aerial phase. The ability of these fully aquatic fishes to employ the same structure to produce distinct kinematic patterns in disparate environments suggests that a new behavior has evolved to facilitate movement on land and that anatomical novelty is not a prerequisite for effective terrestrial locomotion.

  19. Hydrokinetic Turbine Effects on Fish Swimming Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Hammar, Linus; Andersson, Sandra; Eggertsen, Linda; Haglund, Johan; Gullström, Martin; Ehnberg, Jimmy; Molander, Sverker

    2013-01-01

    Hydrokinetic turbines, targeting the kinetic energy of fast-flowing currents, are under development with some turbines already deployed at ocean sites around the world. It remains virtually unknown as to how these technologies affect fish, and rotor collisions have been postulated as a major concern. In this study the effects of a vertical axis hydrokinetic rotor with rotational speeds up to 70 rpm were tested on the swimming patterns of naturally occurring fish in a subtropical tidal channel. Fish movements were recorded with and without the rotor in place. Results showed that no fish collided with the rotor and only a few specimens passed through rotor blades. Overall, fish reduced their movements through the area when the rotor was present. This deterrent effect on fish increased with current speed. Fish that passed the rotor avoided the near-field, about 0.3 m from the rotor for benthic reef fish. Large predatory fish were particularly cautious of the rotor and never moved closer than 1.7 m in current speeds above 0.6 ms-1. The effects of the rotor differed among taxa and feeding guilds and it is suggested that fish boldness and body shape influenced responses. In conclusion, the tested hydrokinetic turbine rotor proved non-hazardous to fish during the investigated conditions. However, the results indicate that arrays comprising multiple turbines may restrict fish movements, particularly for large species, with possible effects on habitat connectivity if migration routes are exploited. Arrays of the investigated turbine type and comparable systems should therefore be designed with gaps of several metres width to allow large fish to pass through. In combination with further research the insights from this study can be used for guiding the design of hydrokinetic turbine arrays where needed, so preventing ecological impacts. PMID:24358334

  20. Hydrokinetic turbine effects on fish swimming behaviour.

    PubMed

    Hammar, Linus; Andersson, Sandra; Eggertsen, Linda; Haglund, Johan; Gullström, Martin; Ehnberg, Jimmy; Molander, Sverker

    2013-01-01

    Hydrokinetic turbines, targeting the kinetic energy of fast-flowing currents, are under development with some turbines already deployed at ocean sites around the world. It remains virtually unknown as to how these technologies affect fish, and rotor collisions have been postulated as a major concern. In this study the effects of a vertical axis hydrokinetic rotor with rotational speeds up to 70 rpm were tested on the swimming patterns of naturally occurring fish in a subtropical tidal channel. Fish movements were recorded with and without the rotor in place. Results showed that no fish collided with the rotor and only a few specimens passed through rotor blades. Overall, fish reduced their movements through the area when the rotor was present. This deterrent effect on fish increased with current speed. Fish that passed the rotor avoided the near-field, about 0.3 m from the rotor for benthic reef fish. Large predatory fish were particularly cautious of the rotor and never moved closer than 1.7 m in current speeds above 0.6 ms(-1). The effects of the rotor differed among taxa and feeding guilds and it is suggested that fish boldness and body shape influenced responses. In conclusion, the tested hydrokinetic turbine rotor proved non-hazardous to fish during the investigated conditions. However, the results indicate that arrays comprising multiple turbines may restrict fish movements, particularly for large species, with possible effects on habitat connectivity if migration routes are exploited. Arrays of the investigated turbine type and comparable systems should therefore be designed with gaps of several metres width to allow large fish to pass through. In combination with further research the insights from this study can be used for guiding the design of hydrokinetic turbine arrays where needed, so preventing ecological impacts.

  1. Augmented Fish Health Monitoring in Idaho, 1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Munson, A.Douglas

    1993-12-01

    This report documents the progress of Idaho Department of Fish and Game`s fish health monitoring during the past five years and will serve as a completion report for the Augmented Fish Health Monitoring Project. Anadromous fish at twelve IDFG facilities were monitored for various pathogens and organosomatic analyses were performed to anadromous fish prior to their release. A fish disease database has been developed and data is presently being entered. Alternate funding has been secured to continue fish health monitoring.

  2. Perceptions about mercury and lead in fish consumed in Lake Albert fishing communities Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Andrew, Tamale; Francis, Ejobi; Charles, Muyanja; Naigaga, Irene; Jesca, Nakavuma; Micheal, Ocaido; Anne, Katuhoire; Deborah, Amulen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Fish consumption is a lifestyle in fishing communities influenced by individual and communal perceptions. However, information about individual perceptions about fish consumption in the vulnerable fishing community in a developing country is lacking. Without this study, the benefits of fish consumption in a vulnerable community may not be realized. Data collection was executed using key informant interviews and survey structured questionnaires. The key informants include fisheries, community development, veterinary, community and environmental officers. The household heads were the respondents. The Qualitative data was organized and queried using QSR Nvivo 10 and quantitative data analyzed with SPSS version 22. The perceived benefits of eating fish are health, income, nutrition and manhood. The perceived risks are Stigma and ill health. The factors increasing fish consumption are heedless of fish consumption benefits (p = 0.041) and household size i.e. number of adults more than seven (p = 0.020). Those decreasing are methods of preparation of fish i.e. boiling and frying (p = 0.019 and p = 0.010) and oblivious about organizations dealing with fishing activities (p = 0.029). An awareness campaign is needed to demystify the health benefits and fallacies of fish consumption. The knowledge on individual perceptions associated with fish consumption will increase fish consumption but with fewer risks. PMID:27722182

  3. FishCam - A semi-automatic video-based monitoring system of fish migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kratzert, Frederik; Mader, Helmut

    2016-04-01

    One of the main objectives of the Water Framework Directive is to preserve and restore the continuum of river networks. Regarding vertebrate migration, fish passes are widely used measure to overcome anthropogenic constructions. Functionality of this measure needs to be verified by monitoring. In this study we propose a newly developed monitoring system, named FishCam, to observe fish migration especially in fish passes without contact and without imposing stress on fish. To avoid time and cost consuming field work for fish pass monitoring, this project aims to develop a semi-automatic monitoring system that enables a continuous observation of fish migration. The system consists of a detection tunnel and a high resolution camera, which is mainly based on the technology of security cameras. If changes in the image, e.g. by migrating fish or drifting particles, are detected by a motion sensor, the camera system starts recording and continues until no further motion is detectable. An ongoing key challenge in this project is the development of robust software, which counts, measures and classifies the passing fish. To achieve this goal, many different computer vision tasks and classification steps have to be combined. Moving objects have to be detected and separated from the static part of the image, objects have to be tracked throughout the entire video and fish have to be separated from non-fish objects (e.g. foliage and woody debris, shadows and light reflections). Subsequently, the length of all detected fish needs to be determined and fish should be classified into species. The object classification in fish and non-fish objects is realized through ensembles of state-of-the-art classifiers on a single image per object. The choice of the best image for classification is implemented through a newly developed "fish benchmark" value. This value compares the actual shape of the object with a schematic model of side-specific fish. To enable an automatization of the

  4. Pesticide concentrations in Great Lakes fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reinert, Robert E.

    1970-01-01

    During the past 4 years the Ann Arbor Great Lakes Fishery Laboratory of the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries has been monitoring insecticide levels in fish from the Great Lakes. The two insecticides found in all Great Lakes fish have been DDT (DDT, DDD, DDE) and dieldrin. Fish from Lake Michigan contain from 2 to 7 times as much of these insecticides as those from the other Great Lakes. Insecticide levels calculated on a whole-fish basis show a marked difference from species to species. Within a species there is also an increase in DDT and dieldrin levels with an increase in size. If these insecticide levels are, however, calculated as ppm of insecticide in the extractable fish oil, the differences in concentration between species and the differences between size groups becomes considerably less. Laboratory experiments indicate that fish can build up concentrations of DDT and dieldrin at the parts-per-million level from parts-per-trillion concentrations in the water.

  5. The humoral immune system of anadromous fish.

    PubMed

    Zwollo, Patty

    2017-01-03

    The immune system of anadromous fish is extremely complex, a direct consequence of their diadromous nature. Hormone levels fluctuate widely throughout their life cycle, as fish move between fresh and salt water. This poses major challenges to the physiology of anadromous fish, including adaptation to very different saline environments, distinct pathogen fingerprints, and different environmental stressors. Elevated cortisol and sex hormone levels inhibit B lymphopoiesis and IgM(+) antibody responses, while catecholamines, growth hormones and thyroid hormones are generally stimulatory and enhance the humoral immune response. Immunological memory in the form of long-lived plasma cells likely plays important roles in health and survival during the life cycle of anadromous fishes. This review discusses some of the complex immune-endocrine pathways in anadromous fish, focusing on essential roles for B lineage cells in the successful completion of their life cycle. A discussion is included on potential differences in immuno-competence between wild and hatchery-raised fish.

  6. Concentration of elements in whole-body fish, fish fillets, fish muscle plugs, and fish eggs from the 2008 Missouri Department of Conservation General Contaminant Monitoring Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    May, Thomas W.; Walther, Michael J.; Brumbaugh, William G.; McKee, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the results of a contaminant monitoring survey conducted annually by the Missouri Department of Conservation to examine the levels of selected elemental contaminants in whole-body fish, fish fillets, fish muscle plugs, and fish eggs. Whole-body, fillet, or egg samples of catfish (Ictalurus punctatus, Ictalurus furcatus, Pylodictis olivaris), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), walleye (Sander vitreus), crappie (Pomoxis annularis, Pomoxis nigromaculatus), shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus), northern hog sucker (Hypentelium nigricans), and Missouri saddled darter (Etheostoma tetrazonum) were collected from 23 sites as part of the Missouri Department of Conservation's Fish Contaminant Monitoring Program. Fish dorsal muscle plugs also were collected from walleye (Sander vitreus) at one of the sites.

  7. Monitoring fish distributions along electrofishing segments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miranda, Leandro E.

    2014-01-01

    Electrofishing is widely used to monitor fish species composition and relative abundance in streams and lakes. According to standard protocols, multiple segments are selected in a body of water to monitor population relative abundance as the ratio of total catch to total sampling effort. The standard protocol provides an assessment of fish distribution at a macrohabitat scale among segments, but not within segments. An ancillary protocol was developed for assessing fish distribution at a finer scale within electrofishing segments. The ancillary protocol was used to estimate spacing, dispersion, and association of two species along shore segments in two local reservoirs. The added information provided by the ancillary protocol may be useful for assessing fish distribution relative to fish of the same species, to fish of different species, and to environmental or habitat characteristics.

  8. Freshwater to seawater transitions in migratory fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zydlewski, Joseph; Michael P. Wilkie,

    2012-01-01

    The transition from freshwater to seawater is integral to the life history of many fishes. Diverse migratory fishes express anadromous, catadromous, and amphidromous life histories, while others make incomplete transits between freshwater and seawater. The physiological mechanisms of osmoregulation are widely conserved among phylogenetically diverse species. Diadromous fishes moving between freshwater and seawater develop osmoregulatory mechanisms for different environmental salinities. Freshwater to seawater transition involves hormonally mediated changes in gill ionocytes and the transport proteins associated with hypoosmoregulation, increased seawater ingestion and water absorption in the intestine, and reduced urinary water losses. Fishes attain salinity tolerance through early development, gradual acclimation, or environmentally or developmentally cued adaptations. This chapter describes adaptations in diverse taxa and the effects of salinity on growth. Identifying common strategies in diadromous fishes moving between freshwater and seawater will reveal the ecological and physiological basis for maintaining homeostasis in different salinities, and inform efforts to conserve and manage migratory euryhaline fishes.

  9. Monitoring fish distributions along electrofishing segments.

    PubMed

    Miranda, L E

    2014-12-01

    Electrofishing is widely used to monitor fish species composition and relative abundance in streams and lakes. According to standard protocols, multiple segments are selected in a body of water to monitor population relative abundance as the ratio of total catch to total sampling effort. The standard protocol provides an assessment of fish distribution at a macrohabitat scale among segments, but not within segments. An ancillary protocol was developed for assessing fish distribution at a finer scale within electrofishing segments. The ancillary protocol was used to estimate spacing, dispersion, and association of two species along shore segments in two local reservoirs. The added information provided by the ancillary protocol may be useful for assessing fish distribution relative to fish of the same species, to fish of different species, and to environmental or habitat characteristics.

  10. Fish locomotion: recent advances and new directions.

    PubMed

    Lauder, George V

    2015-01-01

    Research on fish locomotion has expanded greatly in recent years as new approaches have been brought to bear on a classical field of study. Detailed analyses of patterns of body and fin motion and the effects of these movements on water flow patterns have helped scientists understand the causes and effects of hydrodynamic patterns produced by swimming fish. Recent developments include the study of the center-of-mass motion of swimming fish and the use of volumetric imaging systems that allow three-dimensional instantaneous snapshots of wake flow patterns. The large numbers of swimming fish in the oceans and the vorticity present in fin and body wakes support the hypothesis that fish contribute significantly to the mixing of ocean waters. New developments in fish robotics have enhanced understanding of the physical principles underlying aquatic propulsion and allowed intriguing biological features, such as the structure of shark skin, to be studied in detail.

  11. Swimming Performance of Toy Robotic Fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petelina, Nina; Mendelson, Leah; Techet, Alexandra

    2015-11-01

    HEXBUG AquaBotsTM are a commercially available small robot fish that come in a variety of ``species''. These models have varying caudal fin shapes and randomly-varied modes of swimming including forward locomotion, diving, and turning. In this study, we assess the repeatability and performance of the HEXBUG swimming behaviors and discuss the use of these toys to develop experimental techniques and analysis methods to study live fish swimming. In order to determine whether these simple, affordable model fish can be a valid representation for live fish movement, two models, an angelfish and a shark, were studied using 2D Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and 3D Synthetic Aperture PIV. In a series of experiments, the robotic fish were either allowed to swim freely or towed in one direction at a constant speed. The resultant measurements of the caudal fin wake are compared to data from previous studies of a real fish and simplified flapping propulsors.

  12. Marine soundscape shaped by fishing activity

    PubMed Central

    Lossent, Julie; Grall, Jacques; Chauvaud, Laurent

    2017-01-01

    Marine communities face anthropogenic pressures that degrade ecosystems. Because underwater soundscapes carry information about habitat quality, we explored whether destructive impacts of fishing could be evaluated via the soundscape. Maerl beds are recognized as biodiversity hotspots and they experience major worldwide degradation owing to fishing. We collected field acoustic recordings in maerl beds exposed to different fishing practices. We found that unfished maerl beds were threefold louder and exhibited sound frequencies more diversified than those recorded in fished maerl beds. Analyses of associated fauna samples indicated that snapping shrimps provided a major contribution to the maerl bed soundscape. Moreover, sea urchins and squat lobsters most likely contributed to differences between the soundscapes of unfished and fished maerl beds. Our results supported the idea that the soundscape can provide valuable information on maerl bed ecosystem health related to fishing activity. PMID:28280559

  13. Fish Locomotion: Recent Advances and New Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauder, George V.

    2015-01-01

    Research on fish locomotion has expanded greatly in recent years as new approaches have been brought to bear on a classical field of study. Detailed analyses of patterns of body and fin motion and the effects of these movements on water flow patterns have helped scientists understand the causes and effects of hydrodynamic patterns produced by swimming fish. Recent developments include the study of the center-of-mass motion of swimming fish and the use of volumetric imaging systems that allow three-dimensional instantaneous snapshots of wake flow patterns. The large numbers of swimming fish in the oceans and the vorticity present in fin and body wakes support the hypothesis that fish contribute significantly to the mixing of ocean waters. New developments in fish robotics have enhanced understanding of the physical principles underlying aquatic propulsion and allowed intriguing biological features, such as the structure of shark skin, to be studied in detail.

  14. Nutrition, feeding, and behavior of fish.

    PubMed

    Lall, Santosh P; Tibbetts, Sean M

    2009-05-01

    Nutrition and feeding influence growth, reproduction, and health of fish and their response to physiologic and environmental stressors and pathogens. The basics of fish metabolism are similar to those of warm-blooded animals in that they involve food intake, digestion, absorption, and transport of nutrients to the various tissues. Fish, however, being the most primitive form of vertebrates, possess some distinguishing features which will be discussed. Unlike warm-blooded animals, which are homoeothermic, fish are poikilothermic, so their body temperature and metabolic rate depends on the water temperature and this has practical implications for the nutrition, feeding and health of fish. Several behavioral responses have been linked to methods of feeding, feeding habits, frequency of feeding, mechanisms of food detection, and food preferences. Fish are also unique among vertebrates in their ability to absorb minerals not only from their diets but also from water through their gills and skin.

  15. Marine soundscape shaped by fishing activity.

    PubMed

    Coquereau, Laura; Lossent, Julie; Grall, Jacques; Chauvaud, Laurent

    2017-01-01

    Marine communities face anthropogenic pressures that degrade ecosystems. Because underwater soundscapes carry information about habitat quality, we explored whether destructive impacts of fishing could be evaluated via the soundscape. Maerl beds are recognized as biodiversity hotspots and they experience major worldwide degradation owing to fishing. We collected field acoustic recordings in maerl beds exposed to different fishing practices. We found that unfished maerl beds were threefold louder and exhibited sound frequencies more diversified than those recorded in fished maerl beds. Analyses of associated fauna samples indicated that snapping shrimps provided a major contribution to the maerl bed soundscape. Moreover, sea urchins and squat lobsters most likely contributed to differences between the soundscapes of unfished and fished maerl beds. Our results supported the idea that the soundscape can provide valuable information on maerl bed ecosystem health related to fishing activity.

  16. Hybrid seine for full fish community collections

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKenna, James E.; Waldt, Emily M.; Abbett, Ross; David, Anthony; Snyder, James

    2013-01-01

    Seines are simple and effective fish collection gears, but the net mesh size influences how well the catch represents the fish communities. We designed and tested a hybrid seine with a dual-mesh bag (1/4″ and 1/8″) and compared the fish assemblage collected by each mesh. The fine-mesh net retained three times as many fish and collected more species (as many as eight), including representatives of several rare species, than did the coarser mesh. The dual-mesh bag permitted us to compare both sizes and species retained by each layer and to develop species-specific abundance correction factors, which allowed comparison of catches with the coarse-mesh seine used for earlier collections. The results indicate that a hybrid seine with coarse-mesh wings and a fine-mesh bag would enhance future studies of fish communities, especially when small-bodied fishes or early life stages are the research focus.

  17. Genomics and Mapping of Teleostei (Bony Fish)

    PubMed Central

    2003-01-01

    Until recently, the Human Genome Project held centre stage in the press releases concerning sequencing programmes. However, in October 2001, it was announced that the Japanese puffer fish (Takifugu rubripes, Fugu) was the second vertebrate organism to be sequenced to draft quality. Briefly, the spotlight was on fish genomes. There are currently two other fish species undergoing intensive sequencing, the green spotted puffer fish (Tetraodon nigroviridis) and the zebrafish (Danio rerio). But this trio are, in many ways, atypical representations of the current state of fish genomic research. The aim of this brief review is to demonstrate the complexity of fish as a group of vertebrates and to publicize the ‘lesser-known’ species, all of which have something to offer. PMID:18629122

  18. DNA barcoding Australia's fish species

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Robert D; Zemlak, Tyler S; Innes, Bronwyn H; Last, Peter R; Hebert, Paul D.N

    2005-01-01

    Two hundred and seven species of fish, mostly Australian marine fish, were sequenced (barcoded) for a 655 bp region of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene (cox1). Most species were represented by multiple specimens, and 754 sequences were generated. The GC content of the 143 species of teleosts was higher than the 61 species of sharks and rays (47.1% versus 42.2%), largely due to a higher GC content of codon position 3 in the former (41.1% versus 29.9%). Rays had higher GC than sharks (44.7% versus 41.0%), again largely due to higher GC in the 3rd codon position in the former (36.3% versus 26.8%). Average within-species, genus, family, order and class Kimura two parameter (K2P) distances were 0.39%, 9.93%, 15.46%, 22.18% and 23.27%, respectively. All species could be differentiated by their cox1 sequence, although single individuals of each of two species had haplotypes characteristic of a congener. Although DNA barcoding aims to develop species identification systems, some phylogenetic signal was apparent in the data. In the neighbour-joining tree for all 754 sequences, four major clusters were apparent: chimaerids, rays, sharks and teleosts. Species within genera invariably clustered, and generally so did genera within families. Three taxonomic groups—dogfishes of the genus Squalus, flatheads of the family Platycephalidae, and tunas of the genus Thunnus—were examined more closely. The clades revealed after bootstrapping generally corresponded well with expectations. Individuals from operational taxonomic units designated as Squalus species B through F formed individual clades, supporting morphological evidence for each of these being separate species. We conclude that cox1 sequencing, or ‘barcoding’, can be used to identify fish species. PMID:16214743

  19. Paramyxoviruses of fish: Chapter 17

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyers, Theodore R; Batts, William N.; Kibenge, Frederick S. B.; Godoy, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    The first fish paramyxovirus was isolated from normal adult Chinook salmon returning to a coastal hatchery in Oregon in the fall of 1982. Subsequently, the virus was isolated from other stocks of adult Chinook salmon and one stock of adult coho salmon in California, Oregon, Washington and Alaska, leading to its designation as the Pacific salmon paramyxovirus (PSPV). The slow-growing virus can be isolated from tissues and ovarian fluids of healthy adult fish returning to spawn and apparently causes no clinical signs of disease or mortality. In 1995, a different and widely disseminated paramyxovirus was isolated from farmed Atlantic salmon in Norway and was designated as Atlantic salmon paramyxovirus (ASPV). Although this virus caused no disease or mortality when injected into juvenile Atlantic salmon, ASPV has been associated with proliferative gill inflammation in sea-reared yearling fish; however, additional infectious agents may be involved in the etiology of the condition. Sequence analysis of PSPV and ASPV isolates using the polymerase gene established their placement in the family Paramyxoviridaeand has shown the two viruses to be closely related but sufficiently different from each other and from other known paramyxoviruses to possibly represent new genera within the family. The viruses can be diagnosed by isolation in cell culture with final confirmation by molecular methods. Other paramyxovirus-like agents have been observed or isolated from rainbow trout in Germany, from seabream in Japan associated with epithelial necrosis, from turbot in Spain associated with erythrocytic inclusion bodies and buccal/opercular hemorrhaging and from koi and common carp associated with gill necrosis in the European Union.

  20. Fish gill morphology: inside out.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Jonathan M; Laurent, Pierre

    2002-08-01

    In this short review of fish gill morphology we cover some basic gross anatomy as well as in some more detail the microscopic anatomy of the branchial epithelia from representatives of the major extant groups of fishes (Agnathans, Elasmobranchs, and Teleosts). The agnathan hagfishes have primitive gill pouches, while the lampreys have arch-like gills similar to the higher fishes. In the lampreys and elasmobranchs, the gill filaments are supported by a complete interbranchial septum and water exits via external branchial slits or pores. In contrast, the teleost interbranchial septum is much reduced, leaving the ends of the filaments unattached, and the multiple gill openings are replaced by the single caudal opening of the operculum. The basic functional unit of the gill is the filament, which supports rows of plate-like lamellae. The lamellae are designed for gas exchange with a large surface area and a thin epithelium surrounding a well-vascularized core of pillar cell capillaries. The lamellae are positioned for the blood flow to be counter-current to the water flow over the gills. Despite marked differences in the gross anatomy of the gill among the various groups, the cellular constituents of the epithelium are remarkably similar. The lamellar gas-exchange surface is covered by squamous pavement cells, while large, mitochondria-rich, ionocytes and mucocytes are found in greatest frequency in the filament epithelium. Demands for ionoregulation can often upset this balance. There has been much study of the structure and function of the branchial mitochondria-rich cells. These cells are generally characterized by a high mitochondrial density and an amplification of the basolateral membrane through folding or the presence of an intracellular tubular system. Morphological subtypes of MRCs as well as some methods of MRC detection are discussed. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Molecular approaches to fish vaccines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winton, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    For more than 50 years, researchers have tested a variety of killed, attenuated, and subunit preparations for control offish diseases. The earliest fish vaccines used killed preparations containing whole bacteria, viruses, or parasites and today, several bacterins have become commercially successful with more expected as improved delivery systems and adjuvants are realized. Live, attenuated vaccines have been developed by serial passage of a pathogen in culture or by using naturally occurring mutants and cross-reacting strains. These generally offer excellent protection and are cost-effective, but concerns about residual virulence or their effects on other aquatic species make them difficult candidates for licensing. In recent years, the tools of molecular biology have been applied to construction of a variety of recombinant, engineered, or subunit vaccines for fish. Among the approaches to be discussed are: attenuated strains of viruses and bacteria created by deletion of specific genes associated with virulence, in vitro synthesis of protective antigens from genes cloned into E. coli or baculovirus expression systems, chemical synthesis of peptides that represent protective epitopes, and direct immunization with DNA coding for protective antigens. Preparations representing each of these approaches have been tested in laboratory or field trials with various results and such vaccines promise to be safe and relatively inexpensive if they are able to provide protection when delivered by immersion. A significant advantage of genetically engineered vaccines is the ability to construct multivalent preparations that can protect fish against several pathogens or different strains of the same pathogen. While many of these novel vaccine strategies have been effective at stimulating specific immunity in the laboratory, more work is needed to develop better delivery systems and to overcome potential regulatory concerns.

  2. Fish populations surviving estrogen pollution

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Among the most common pollutants that enter the environment after passing municipal wastewater treatment are estrogens, especially the synthetic 17α-ethinylestradiol that is used in oral contraceptives. Estrogens are potent endocrine disruptors at concentrations frequently observed in surface waters. However, new genetic analyses suggest that some fish populations can be self-sustaining even in heavily polluted waters. We now need to understand the basis of this tolerance. See research article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/12/1 PMID:24512617

  3. [Structure of fish serum albumins].

    PubMed

    Andreeva, A M

    2010-01-01

    Data are presented about the presence of serum albumins in fishes of different classes and orders inhabiting different ecological conditions, about structure of typical albumins and albumin-like proteins, and about the degree of homology of these proteins to mammalian albumins. There is shown a wide spectrum of structural diversity of albumins in Pisces due to their participation in osmotic, plastic, and transport functions under conditions of environment and of the organism internal media. Detection of similar motifs in the piscine and mammalian albumin genes allows uniting these genes into one superfamily and considering vertebrate albumins the homologous proteins.

  4. Vibrio diseases of marine fish populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colwell, R. R.; Grimes, D. J.

    1984-03-01

    Several Vibrio spp. cause disease in marine fish populations, both wild and cultured. The most common disease, vibriosis, is caused by V. anguillarum. However, increase in the intensity of mariculture, combined with continuing improvements in bacterial systematics, expands the list of Vibrio spp. that cause fish disease. The bacterial pathogens, species of fish affected, virulence mechanisms, and disease treatment and prevention are included as topics of emphasis in this review.

  5. Developing Biological Specifications for Fish Friendly Turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Neitzel, Duane A.

    2009-09-14

    This factsheet explains studies conducted in a highly reproducible manner to examine the biological effects to fish exposed to a shear environment in the laboratory. Strain rate was used as the index of intensity to describe the hydraulic force experienced by a fish in a shear environment. It was determined that no significant injuries occurred to any fish subjected to strain rates equal to or less than 500 cm/s/cm.

  6. Consumer beliefs regarding farmed versus wild fish.

    PubMed

    Claret, Anna; Guerrero, Luis; Ginés, Rafael; Grau, Amàlia; Hernández, M Dolores; Aguirre, Enaitz; Peleteiro, José Benito; Fernández-Pato, Carlos; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carmen

    2014-08-01

    Aquaculture is a food-producing activity, alternative to traditional extractive fishing, which still acts as a reference for most consumers. The main objective of the present paper was to study which consumer beliefs, regarding farmed versus wild fish, hinder the potential development of the aquaculture sector. To achieve this purpose the study was organized into two complementary steps: a qualitative approach (focus groups) aimed at assessing consumer perception about wild and farmed fish and to identify the salient beliefs that differentiate them; and a quantitative approach (survey by means of a questionnaire) to validate the results obtained in the focus group discussions over a representative sample of participants (n = 919). Results showed that participants perceive clear differences between farmed and wild fish. Although no significant differences between both kinds of fish were detected on safety, in general farmed fish was perceived to be less affected by marine pollution, heavy metals and parasites. In the contrary, wild fish was considered to have healthier feeding, to contain fewer antibiotics and to be fresher, healthier, less handled and more natural. Beliefs related to quality were in favour of wild fish, while those related to availability and price were in favour of farmed fish. Significant differences were observed in the perception of both kinds of fish depending on the consumers' objective knowledge about fish, on the level of education, age and gender and on the three segments of consumers identified: "Traditional/Conservative", "Connoisseur", "Open to aquaculture". The results provided could play an important role when planning and designing efficient marketing strategies for promoting farmed fish by adapting the information provided to the perception of each segment of consumers identified by the present study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Fishing out marine parasites? Impacts of fishing on rates of parasitism in the ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Chelsea L.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Micheli, Fiorenza

    2010-01-01

    Among anthropogenic effects on the ocean, fishing is one of the most pervasive and extends deepest into the past. Because fishing reduces the density of fish (reducing transmission efficiency of directly transmitted parasites), selectively removes large fish (which tend to carry more parasites than small fish), and reduces food web complexity (reducing transmission efficiency of trophically transmitted parasites), the removal of fish from the world’s oceans over the course of hundreds of years may be driving a long-term, global decline in fish parasites. There has been growing recognition in recent years that parasites are a critical part of biodiversity and that their loss could substantially alter ecosystem function. Such a loss may be among the last major ecological effects of industrial fishing to be recognized by scientists.

  8. 2010 Great Lakes Human Health Fish Tissue Study Fish Tissue Data Dictionary

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Office of Science and Technology (OST) is providing the fish tissue results from the 2010 Great Lakes Human Health Fish Tissue Study (GLHHFTS). This document includes the “data dictionary” for Mercury, PFC, PBDE and PCBs.

  9. Genomic Approaches with Natural Fish Populations

    PubMed Central

    Oleksiak, M. F.

    2011-01-01

    Natural populations versus inbred stocks provide a much richer resource for identifying the effects of nucleotide substitutions because natural populations have greater polymorphism. Additionally, natural populations offer an advantage over most common research organisms because they are subject to natural selection, and analyses of these adaptations can be used to identify biologically important changes. Among fishes, these analyses are enhanced by having a wide diversity of species (> 28,000 species, more than any other group of vertebrates) living in a huge range of environments (from below freezing to > 46° C, in fresh water to salinities > 40 ppt.). Moreover, fishes exhibit many different life history and reproductive strategies and have many different phenotypes and social structures. While fishes provide numerous advantages over other vertebrate models, there is still a dearth of available genomic tools for fishes. Fish make up approximately half of all known vertebrate species, yet less than 0.2% of fish species have significant genomic resources. Nonetheless, genomic approaches with fishes have provided some of the first measures of individual variation in gene expression and insights in to environmental and ecological adaptations. Thus, genomic approaches with natural fish populations have the potential to revolutionize fundamental studies of diverse fish species that offer myriad ecological and evolutionary questions. PMID:20409163

  10. Fish rhabdoviruses: molecular epidemiology and evolution.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, B; Beer, M; Schütze, H; Mettenleiter, T C

    2005-01-01

    Rhabdoviruses may cause serious diseases in wild and farmed fish. Within the Rhabdoviridae six genera have been established: Ephemerovirus, Cytorhabdovirus, Nucleorhabdovirus, Lyssavirus, Vesiculovirus, and Novirhabdovirus. Viruses that infect fish are official or tentative members of the genera Vesiculovirus and Novirhabdovirus, or are listed as unassigned rhabdoviruses. In this report, we summarize and discuss published and our own unpublished data on the molecular epidemiology and phylogeography of fish rhabdoviruses including intrapopulational differences and subgrouping of fish rhabdoviruses, in particular the species spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV), infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV).

  11. Fish monitoring: Getting a complete picture

    SciTech Connect

    Kuehl, E.S.; Johnson, G.E. ); Olson, F.W. )

    1991-02-01

    During licensing or relicensing procedures, resource agencies often recommend that hydroelectric project owners monitor fish passage at the site of the power plant. By using multiple sampling techniques, an owner can made a comprehensive assessment of the fish population surrounding a site and determine how the project affects these fish. This approach was recently used at a hydro project in southern Ohio along the Ohio River. Recognizing that each commonly used biological sampling method has strengths and weaknesses, the plant owner, its consultants, and agency representatives decided on a strategy that employed four techniques to study the effects of the project on fish. Combining various monitoring methods provided complementary sampling of fish distributions and behavior in the river and at the dam. In this study, hydroacoustic techniques allowed extensive sampling over time and space. When complemented with species composition information from net sampling, hydroacoustic techniques produced useful information on fish population and entrainment. Radiotelemetry was used to estimate minimum survival rates of fish passing through a dam gate and turbine unit. In combination, the use of hydroacoustics, netting, electrofishing, and radio telemetry provided a complete picture of the fish population at Greenup Dam over three seasons, and facilitated an accurate assessment of the project's effects on fish.

  12. Founders of fish culture - European origins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fish, F.F.

    1936-01-01

    Just where true fish culture appeared in history depends entirely upon what one considers fish culture to be. If the transportation of fishes from regions of plenty to those of few is to be regarded as fish culture - as it is by some even today - then this story should start in remotest antiquity and deal with an amazing series of failures. However, fish culture to be classed as a science must include far more than mere transportation, it must include a deliberate effort on the part of man to master a technique of fish raising which will yield results far superior to Nature's. Accordingly, the wheel of history must be spun forward to the fifteenth century, A. D., when man first conceived the idea that with care and exactitude, he could improve upon Nature. The fish cultural efforts of the Chinese, the Egyptians, the Greeks, and the Romans may be skipped over in a hurry, for they represented little more than the transportation and rearing of wild fish. With the renaissance of modern civilization in Europe came the birth of scientific fish culture.

  13. Effects of Hurricane Charley on fish chorusing

    PubMed Central

    Locascio, James V; Mann, David A

    2005-01-01

    Hurricane Charley, a category 4 hurricane, passed through Charlotte Harbor, Florida, directly over an autonomous underwater acoustic datalogger used to record sound production by fishes associated with courtship and spawning. Acoustic recordings made on 9 days prior to the storm, during and 3 days after the storm provided unprecedented documentation of the hurricane's passage and its effect on fishes' calling behaviour. The hurricane did not inhibit nightly chorusing events of spawning fish. Sound levels produced by spawning fish on the night of and 3 days after the hurricane were higher and lasted longer than any of the 9 days recorded prior to the hurricane. PMID:17148207

  14. Augmented Fish Health Monitoring, 1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, James W.

    1992-08-01

    The Augmented Fish Health Monitoring Project (Project) had its origin, in the mid-1980's, in perceived differences or inconsistencies in fish disease detection, diagnosis and control capabilities between the five conservation agencies rearing and releasing anadromous salmonids for fishery resource management and mitigation purposes in the Columbia River basin. Agency fish health programs varied greatly. Some agencies had personnel, equipment and funding to frequently monitor the health status of both juvenile production fish and adult salmon or steelhead trout at the time of spawning. Other agencies had much smaller programs and limited resources. These differences became better understood when the Pacific Northwest Fish Health Protection Committee developed its Model Fish Health Protection Program including recommendations for standard fish disease detection procedures. Even though some agencies could not immediately attain the goals set by the Model Program it was unanimously adopted as a desirable objective. Shortly thereafter, a multi-party planning group was assembled to help the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) find ways to improve agency fish health programs and implement measures under the Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power Planning Council. The planning group assessed existing agency fish health monitoring capabilities, agreed upon satisfactory levels of capability to detect and identify important fish pathogens, and designed a five-year project establishing comparable fish health monitoring capability in each agency. It was strongly believed that such a project would improve the health and quality of the millions of hatchery fish released annually in the Columbia River basin and improve interagency communications and disease control coordination. During 1986 and 1987 BPA individually negotiated five separate contracts with the fishery agencies to standardize fish health monitoring, develop a common data collection and reporting format

  15. Applications of the Sensor Fish Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Richmond, Marshall C.

    2007-08-28

    The Sensor Fish is an autonomous device developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Army Corps of Engineers (COE) to better understand the physical conditions fish experience during passage through hydro-turbines and other dam bypass alternatives. Since its initial development in 1997, the Sensor Fish has undergone several design changes to improve its function and extend the range of its use. The most recent Sensor Fish design, the six-degree-of-freedom (6DOF) device, has been deployed successfully to characterize the environment fish experience when they pass through several hydroelectric projects along main stem Columbia and Snake Rivers in the Pacific Northwest. Just as information gathered from crash test dummies can affect automobile design with the installation of protective designs to lessen or prevent human injury, having sensor fish data to quantify accelerations, rotations, and pressure changes, helps identify fish injury mechanisms such as strike, turbulent shear, pressure, and inertial effects, including non-lethal ones such as stunning or signs of vestibular disruption that expose fish to a higher risk of predation by birds and piscivorous fish downstream following passage.

  16. The Influence of Fisher Knowledge on the Susceptibility of Reef Fish Aggregations to Fishing

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Jan; Cinner, Joshua E.; Graham, Nicholas A. J.

    2014-01-01

    Reef fishes that exhibit predictable aggregating behaviour are often considered vulnerable to overexploitation. However, fisher knowledge of this behaviour is often heterogeneous and, coupled with socioeconomic factors that constrain demand for or access to aggregated fish, will influence susceptibility to fishing. At two case study locations in Papua New Guinea, Ahus and Karkar islands, we conducted interview-based surveys to examine how local context influenced heterogeneity in knowledge of fish aggregations. We then explored the role of fisher knowledge in conferring susceptibility to fishing relative to socioeconomic drivers of fishing effort. Local heterogeneity in knowledge of aggregating behaviour differed between our case studies. At Ahus, variable access rights among fishers and genders to the main habitats were sources of heterogeneity in knowledge. By contrast, knowledge was more homogenous at Karkar and the sole source of variation was gear type. Differences between locations in the susceptibility of aggregations to fishing depended primarily on socioeconomic drivers of fishing effort rather than catchability. While Ahus fishers were knowledgeable of fish aggregations and used more selective gears, Karkar fishers were less constrained by tenure in their access to aggregation habitat. However, fishing effort was greater at Ahus and likely related to high dependency on fishing, greater access to provincial capital markets than Karkar and a weakening of customary management. Moreover, highly efficient fishing techniques have emerged at Ahus to exploit the non-reproductive aggregating behaviour of target species. Understanding how knowledge is structured within fishing communities and its relation to socioeconomic drivers of fishing effort is important if customary practices for conservation, such as tambu areas, are to be supported. The findings of this study call for a holistic approach to assessing the risks posed to reef fish aggregations by fishing

  17. The influence of fisher knowledge on the susceptibility of reef fish aggregations to fishing.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Jan; Cinner, Joshua E; Graham, Nicholas A J

    2014-01-01

    Reef fishes that exhibit predictable aggregating behaviour are often considered vulnerable to overexploitation. However, fisher knowledge of this behaviour is often heterogeneous and, coupled with socioeconomic factors that constrain demand for or access to aggregated fish, will influence susceptibility to fishing. At two case study locations in Papua New Guinea, Ahus and Karkar islands, we conducted interview-based surveys to examine how local context influenced heterogeneity in knowledge of fish aggregations. We then explored the role of fisher knowledge in conferring susceptibility to fishing relative to socioeconomic drivers of fishing effort. Local heterogeneity in knowledge of aggregating behaviour differed between our case studies. At Ahus, variable access rights among fishers and genders to the main habitats were sources of heterogeneity in knowledge. By contrast, knowledge was more homogenous at Karkar and the sole source of variation was gear type. Differences between locations in the susceptibility of aggregations to fishing depended primarily on socioeconomic drivers of fishing effort rather than catchability. While Ahus fishers were knowledgeable of fish aggregations and used more selective gears, Karkar fishers were less constrained by tenure in their access to aggregation habitat. However, fishing effort was greater at Ahus and likely related to high dependency on fishing, greater access to provincial capital markets than Karkar and a weakening of customary management. Moreover, highly efficient fishing techniques have emerged at Ahus to exploit the non-reproductive aggregating behaviour of target species. Understanding how knowledge is structured within fishing communities and its relation to socioeconomic drivers of fishing effort is important if customary practices for conservation, such as tambu areas, are to be supported. The findings of this study call for a holistic approach to assessing the risks posed to reef fish aggregations by fishing

  18. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens).

    PubMed

    Song, Ying-Nan; Xiao, Gui-Bao; Li, Jiong-Tang

    2016-11-01

    The Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens) is one of the popular aquarium fish. Serious attentions have been paid to the biodiversity of the fish. The mitochondrial genome of the Siamese fighting fish is reported to be 17 099 bp and includes 37 genes. The gene organization is similar to other fish mitogenomes. The control region is AT-rich and includes three tandem repeats. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that the fish is close to fish in the Macropodus genus. This mitogenome will assist in studying the mitochondrial variations and population structure in this fish and examine the evolutionary relationship among fish in the Osphronemidae family.

  19. Histology of the first fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, M.P.; Sansom, I.J.; Repetski, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    THE first description of Anatolepis Bockelie & Fortey was from early Ordovician sediments of Ny Friesland, Spitsbergen1,2, but the genus is now known from many localities in North America and Greenland, ranging in age from the Late Cambrian period to the Early Ordovician3-6. Although initially interpreted as an agnathan fish2,3 that predated other representatives7, this has been widely disputed because the available histological data were unconvincing6,8-10 and the scales fell outside the known morphological range of other accepted early vertebrates9-11. Further doubt was cast upon the vertebrate affinity of Anatolepis when specimens from East Greenland were interpreted as the cuticular fragments of aglaspid arthropods6, although this interpretation has also been refuted12. Here we report on the morphology and histology of large collections of Anatolepis, and demonstrate the presence of dentine, a tissue unique to vertebrates, confirming that the taxon is both a vertebrate and the oldest known fish.

  20. Eyespots divert attacks by fish

    PubMed Central

    Kjernsmo, Karin; Merilaita, Sami

    2013-01-01

    Eyespots (colour patterns consisting of concentric rings) are found in a wide range of animal taxa and are often assumed to have an anti-predator function. Previous experiments have found strong evidence for an intimidating effect of eyespots against passerine birds. Some eyespots have been suggested to increase prey survival by diverting attacks towards less vital body parts or a direction that would facilitate escape. While eyespots in aquatic environments are widespread, their function is extremely understudied. Therefore, we investigated the protective function of eyespots against attacking fish. We used artificial prey and predator-naive three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) as predators to test both the diversion (deflection) and the intimidation hypothesis. Interestingly, our results showed that eyespots smaller than the fish’ own eye very effectively draw the attacks of the fish towards them. Furthermore, our experiment also showed that this was not due to the conspicuousness of the eyespot, because attack latency did not differ between prey items with and without eyespots. We found little support for an intimidating effect by larger eyespots. Even though also other markings might misdirect attacks, we can conclude that the misdirecting function may have played an important role in the evolution of eyespots in aquatic environments. PMID:23864602