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Sample records for fish pseudorasbora parva

  1. Laboratory and field validation of a simple method for detecting four species of non-native freshwater fish using eDNA.

    PubMed

    Davison, P I; Créach, V; Liang, W-J; Andreou, D; Britton, J R; Copp, G H

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents the first phase in the development and validation of a simple and reliable environmental (e)DNA method using conventional PCR to detect four species of non-native freshwater fish: pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus, sunbleak Leucaspius delineatus, fathead minnow Pimephales promelas and topmouth gudgeon Pseudorasbora parva. The efficacy of the approach was demonstrated in indoor tank (44 l) trials in which all four species were detected within 24 h. Validation was through two field trials, in which L. gibbosus was detected 6-12 h after its introduction into outdoor experimental ponds and P. parva was successfully detected in disused fish rearing ponds where the species was known to exist. Thus, the filtration of small (30 ml) volumes of pond water was sufficient to capture fish eDNA and the approach emphasised the importance of taking multiple water samples of sufficient spatial coverage for detecting species of random or patchy distribution. PMID:27465299

  2. Phylogenetic Relationships of Pseudorasbora, Pseudopungtungia, and Pungtungia (Teleostei; Cypriniformes; Gobioninae) Inferred from Multiple Nuclear Gene Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Keun-Yong; Ko, Myeong-Hun; Liu, Huanzhang; Tang, Qiongying; Chen, Xianglin; Bang, In-Chul

    2013-01-01

    Gobionine species belonging to the genera Pseudorasbora, Pseudopungtungia, and Pungtungia (Teleostei; Cypriniformes; Cyprinidae) have been heavily studied because of problems on taxonomy, threats of extinction, invasion, and human health. Nucleotide sequences of three nuclear genes, that is, recombination activating protein gene 1 (rag1), recombination activating gene 2 (rag2), and early growth response 1 gene (egr1), from Pseudorasbora, Pseudopungtungia, and Pungtungia species residing in China, Japan, and Korea, were analyzed to elucidate their intergeneric and interspecific phylogenetic relationships. In the phylogenetic tree inferred from their multiple gene sequences, Pseudorasbora, Pseudopungtungia and Pungtungia species ramified into three phylogenetically distinct clades; the “tenuicorpa” clade composed of Pseudopungtungia tenuicorpa, the “parva” clade composed of all Pseudorasbora species/subspecies, and the “herzi” clade composed of Pseudopungtungia nigra, and Pungtungia herzi. The genus Pseudorasbora was recovered as monophyletic, while the genus Pseudopungtungia was recovered as polyphyletic. Our phylogenetic result implies the unstable taxonomic status of the genus Pseudopungtungia. PMID:24106702

  3. Epidemiological investigation of Clonorchis sinensis infection in freshwater fishes in the Pearl River Delta.

    PubMed

    Chen, Daixiong; Chen, Jieyun; Huang, Ji; Chen, Xueying; Feng, Dana; Liang, Baofang; Che, Yuchuan; Liu, Xiaodan; Zhu, Cuihua; Li, Xiaomin; Shen, Haoxian

    2010-09-01

    Pearl River Delta region is a high clonorchiasis-endemic area in China. However, no complete epidemiological data exist regarding its infection in freshwater fishes, an important epidemic factor for Clonorchis sinensis. The present study collected freshwater fishes and shrimps from 32 sites of nine cities in the Pearl River Delta, and the encysted metacercariae of C. sinensis were detected by digesting these specimens with artificial gastric juice. The mean infection rate of freshwater fishes was 37.09% (2,160/5,824) with a mean number of 14.269 encysted metacercariae in every infected fish and 0.460 encysted metacercariae in every gram of fish meat. Of these freshwater fishes, 5,219 were domesticated, and the infection rate was 36.69% with a mean number of 10.743 encysted metacercariae in every infected fish and 0.312 encysted metacercariae in every gram of fish meat; the other 605 were wild, and the infection rate was 40.50% with a mean number of 41.829 encysted metacercariae in every infected fish and 8.812 encysted metacercariae in every gram of fish meat. A total of 228 shrimps were examined, and 3.07% of them were infected with a mean number of 1.00 encysted metacercariae in every infected shrimp. Pseudorasbora parva and Ctenopharyngodon idellus had the highest infection rate and degree of infection in the fishes studied. The results demonstrated a high incidence of C. sinensis infection in freshwater fishes and shrimps within Pearl River Delta region and a great difference in the infection rate among different collection sites and different fish species.

  4. Status and historical changes in the fish community in Erhai Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jianfeng; Ye, Shaowen; Li, Wei; Liu, Jiashou; Zhang, Tanglin; Guo, Zhiqiang; Zhu, Fengyue; Li, Zhongjie

    2013-07-01

    Erhai Lake is the second largest freshwater lake on the Yunnan Plateau, Southwest China. In recent decades, a number of exotic fish species have been introduced into the lake and the fish community has changed considerably. We evaluated the status of the fish community based on surveys with multimesh gillnet, trap net, and benthic fyke-net between May 2009 and April 2012. In addition, we evaluated the change in the community using historical data (1952-2010) describing the fish community and fishery harvest. The current fish community is dominated by small-sized fishes, including Pseudorasbora parva, Rhinogobius giurinus, Micropercops swinhonis, Hemiculter leucisculus, and Rhinogobius cliffordpopei. These accounted for 87.7% of the 22 546 total specimens collected. Omnivorous and carnivorous species dominated the community. A canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) plot revealed that the distribution of fishes in the lake is influenced by aquatic plants, water temperature, pH, and season. The abundance of indigenous species has declined sharply, and a majority of endemic species have been extirpated from the lake (a decrease from seven to two species). In contrast, the number of exotic species has increased since the 1960s to a total of 22 at present. The fishery harvest decreased initially following the 1960s, but has since increased due to the introduction of non-native fish and stocking of native fish. The fishery harvest was significantly correlated with total nitrogen, not total phosphorus, during the past 20 years. Based on our results, we discuss recommendations for the restoration and conservation of the fish resources in Erhai Lake.

  5. [Electron microscopic observation of synaptonemal complexes in spermatocytes of six species of fishes].

    PubMed

    Lin, Y J; Yu, Q X

    1991-01-01

    The synaptonemal complexes (SCs) in spermatocytes of six species of fishes were detected with a combination of surface spreading and silver staining technique and observed under both light and electron microscopes. These fishes are Tilapia nilotica, T. mossambica and Mastacembelus sinensis of Perciformes. Sarcocheilichthys nigripinnis, Pseudorasbora parva and Hemibarbus maculatus of Gobioninae in Cypriniformes. The formation of SCs started in Zygotene and completed at Pachytene. During the pachytene, each SC was morphologically intact, preferentially stained and attached to the nuclear envelope by a dense terminal plaque. Interlock in SCs frequently occurred in Zygotene. In several cases breakage and disentangling of interlocked lateral elements were observed. SCs disappeared in diplotene. The pairing of the SCs started at telomeres and stretched towards kinetochore. The sex determination of Mastacembelus sinensis was xx/xy. The X and Y chromosomal SCs' axes had a distinctive morphology at pachytene and were clearly distinguishable from autosomal SCs. The X and Y chromosomes begain to pair at early pachytene. The X and Y chromosome axes paired to form a length of SC that is somewhat longer than the unpaired portion at the mid-pachytene. There was a dense substance at unpaired portion. Quantitatine evaluation demonstrated that relative length and arm ratio were distinctive characteristics for each autosomal SC. The consistency of relative length and arm ratio indicates the stability of the techniques. The idiograms of SC karyotypes of three species (Tilapia niloticus, T. mossambicus and Mastacembelus sinensis) have been constructed.

  6. [Seasonal changes of fish species composition and diversity in mudflat wetlands of Hangzhou Bay].

    PubMed

    Jia, Xing-huan; Zhang, Heng; Jiang, Ke-yi; Wu, Ming

    2010-12-01

    In order to understand the spatiotemporal variation of fish species composition and biodiversity in the mudflat wetlands of Hangzhou Bay, thirty six surveys were conducted in the mudflat area, inning area, and aquaculture area in the south bank of the Bay in. March (early spring), May (spring), July (summer), and October (autumn), 2009. A total of 41 species belonging to 9 orders and 16 families were observed, among which, Cyprinid had the largest species number (14 species, 33.3% of the total), followed by Gobiidae (8 species, 19.1%). According to the lifestyle of fish, these 41 species could be divided into five ecological types, i.e., freshwater type (21 species), brackish-water type (16 species), inshore type (2 species), anadromous type (Coilia ectenes), and catadromios type (Anguilla japonica). The fish abundance was the highest (54. 5 fish per net) in summer, followed by in spring and autumn, and the lowest (17.7 fish per net) in early spring. In the three habitats, mudflat area and inning area had the similar seasonal change of fish abundance, i.e., the lowest in early spring, the highest in summer, and then decreased in autumn. Only two or three species were the dominant species in different seasons. In mudflat area, the dominant species were Mugil cephalus and Liza carinatus; while in inning and aquaculture areas, the dominant species were Carassius auratus, Hemiculter leucisculus, and Pseudorasbora parva. The values of Margalef's richness index (D), Pielou's evenness index (J), and Shannon index (H) were lower in March than in other months, but had no significant differences among May, July, and October (P > 0.05). The H value ranged in 0. 27-2. 13, being the lowest in March and higher in May and October (1.66 and 1.63, respectively). Overall, the fish abundance and biodiversity in the mudflat wetlands of Hangzhou Bay had apparent seasonal changes.

  7. Molecular epidemiology of Theileria parva in the field.

    PubMed

    Geysen, D; Bishop, R; Skilton, R; Dolan, T T; Morzaria, S

    1999-09-01

    Molecular tools based on seminested RFLP-PCR techniques to characterize field parasites in bloodspots dried on filter paper permitted investigation of the extent and the dynamics of diversity of Theileria parva populations in the field. Parallel molecular studies explored the long-term genome stability of various isolates by probing Southern blots of EcoRI digested total genomic DNA with four different reference nucleic acid probes. Three polymorphic single copy loci encoding for antigen genes were developed for seminested PCR detection in order to apply them for a multilocus approach in population genetic studies. Seven alleles were identified for the polymorphic immunodominant molecule (PIM) locus by using restriction enzymes, and 4 alleles each for the p150 and p104 loci. A simple DNA extraction method gave good results in amplifying these loci from carrier animals using samples of blood dried on filter papers. Results from probing Southern blots of cultures taken at sequential timepoints indicate relative genome stability in T. parva in comparison to other parasitic protozoa such as Plasmodium. Comparatively homogeneous profiles in sympatric isolates from Zambia were identified using all four probes and PCR amplified products which contrasted with the variety found amongst Kenyan stocks. Preliminary characterization of T. parva field samples from the Southern Province of Zambia strongly suggest clonal expansion of one of the components of a non-Zambian trivalent vaccine used on a limited scale in the Province from 1985 until 1992. PMID:10540308

  8. Dietary heavy metal uptake by the least shrew, Cryptotis parva

    SciTech Connect

    Brueske, C.C.; Barrett, G.W. )

    1991-12-01

    Heavy metals from sewage sludge have been reported to concentrate in producers, in primary consumers, and in detritivores. Little research, however, has focused on the uptake of heavy metals from sewage sludge by secondary consumers. The Family Soricidae represents an ideal mammalian taxonomic group to investigate rates of heavy metal transfer between primary and secondary consumers. The least shrew (Cryptotis parva) was used to evaluate the accumulation of heavy metals while maintained on a diet of earthworms collected from long-term sludge-treated old-field communities. This secondary consumer is distributed widely through the eastern United States and its natural diet includes earthworms which makes it a potentially good indicator of heavy metal transfer in areas treated with municipal sludge.

  9. Exposure of vaccinated and naive cattle to natural challenge from buffalo-derived Theileria parva.

    PubMed

    Sitt, Tatjana; Poole, E Jane; Ndambuki, Gideon; Mwaura, Stephen; Njoroge, Thomas; Omondi, George P; Mutinda, Matthew; Mathenge, Joseph; Prettejohn, Giles; Morrison, W Ivan; Toye, Philip

    2015-08-01

    Integrative management of wildlife and livestock requires a clear understanding of the diseases transmitted between the two populations. The tick-borne protozoan parasite Theileria parva causes two distinct diseases in cattle, East Coast fever and Corridor disease, following infection with parasites derived from cattle or buffalo, respectively. In this study, cattle were immunized with a live sporozoite vaccine containing three T. parva isolates (the Muguga cocktail), which has been used extensively and successfully in the field to protect against cattle-derived T. parva infection. The cattle were exposed in a natural field challenge site containing buffalo but no other cattle. The vaccine had no effect on the survival outcome in vaccinated animals compared to unvaccinated controls: nine out of the 12 cattle in each group succumbed to T. parva infection. The vaccine also had no effect on the clinical course of the disease. A combination of clinical and post mortem observations and laboratory analyses confirmed that the animals died of Corridor disease. The results clearly indicate that the Muguga cocktail vaccine does not provide protection against buffalo-derived T. parva at this site and highlight the need to evaluate the impact of the composition of challenge T. parva populations on vaccine success in areas where buffalo and cattle are present. PMID:26005635

  10. Population genetic structure of Theileria parva field isolates from indigenous cattle populations of Uganda.

    PubMed

    Muwanika, Vincent; Kabi, Fredrick; Masembe, Charles

    2016-03-01

    Theileria parva causes East Coast Fever (ECF) a protozoan infection which manifests as a non-symptomatic syndrome among endemically stable indigenous cattle populations. Knowledge of the current genetic diversity and population structure of T. parva is critical for predicting pathogen evolutionary trends to inform development of effective control strategies. In this study the population genetic structure of 78 field isolates of T. parva from indigenous cattle (Ankole, n=41 and East African shorthorn Zebu (EASZ), n=37) sampled from the different agro ecological zones (AEZs) of Uganda was investigated. A total of eight mini- and micro-satellite markers encompassing the four chromosomes of T. parva were used to genotype the study field isolates. The genetic diversity of the surveyed T. parva populations was observed to range from 0.643±0.55 to 0.663±0.41 among the Central and Western AEZs respectively. The overall Wright's F index showed significant genetic variation between the surveyed T. parva populations based on the different AEZs and indigenous cattle breeds (FST=0.133, p<0.01) and (FST=0.101, p<0.01) respectively. Significant pairwise population genetic differentiations (p<0.05) were observed with FST values ranging from 0.048 to 0.173 between the eastern and northern, eastern and western populations respectively. The principal component analysis (PCA) showed a high level of genetic and geographic sub-structuring among populations. Linkage disequilibrium was observed when populations from all the study AEZs were treated as a single population and when analysed separately. On the overall, the significant genetic diversity and geographic sub-structuring exhibited among the study T. parva isolates has critical implications for ECF control. PMID:26613662

  11. A 32 kDa surface antigen of Theileria parva: characterization and immunization studies.

    PubMed

    Skilton, R A; Musoke, A J; Wells, C W; Yagi, Y; Nene, V; Spooner, P R; Gachanja, J; Osaso, J; Bishop, R P; Morzaria, S P

    2000-06-01

    Previous studies using monoclonal antibody (mAb) 4C9 specific for a 32 kDa antigen (p32) of Theileria parva demonstrated expression of the antigen on the surface of the sporozoite, making it a potential antigen for sporozoite neutralization. A full-length cDNA encoding the major merozoite/piroplasm surface antigen (mMPSA) of T. parva was cloned and expressed in bacteria. The expressed product reacted strongly with mAb 4C9, demonstrating identity between the p32 and mMPSA of T. parva. Using immunoblot analysis and immunoelectron microscopy with mAb 4C9 it was shown that the mMPSA is a major antigen of the merozoite and piroplasm at the cell surface, while lower levels of antigen are expressed in the sporozoite and schizont stages. Upregulation of the mMPSA occurs at merogony and can be induced by culturing schizont-infected lymphocytes at 42 degrees C. Recombinant mMPSA of T. parva induced high titres of specific antibodies in cattle but failed to confer protection against a T. parva sporozoite stabilate challenge. The pre-challenge sera also failed to neutralize infectivity of sporozoites in an in vitro assay. Possible reasons for the lack of parasite neutralization in vivo and in vitro are discussed. PMID:10874718

  12. East coast fever caused by Theileria parva is characterized by macrophage activation associated with vasculitis and respiratory failure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Respiratory failure and death in East Coast Fever (ECF), a clinical syndrome of African cattle caused by the apicomplexan parasite Theileria parva, has historically been attributed to pulmonary infiltration by infected lymphocytes. However, immunohistochemical staining of tissue from T. parva infect...

  13. Postzygotic Isolation Evolves before Prezygotic Isolation between Fresh and Saltwater Populations of the Rainwater Killifish, Lucania parva

    PubMed Central

    Kozak, Genevieve M.; Rudolph, Arthur B.; Colon, Beatrice L.; Fuller, Rebecca C.

    2012-01-01

    Divergent natural selection has the potential to drive the evolution of reproductive isolation. The euryhaline killifish Lucania parva has stable populations in both fresh water and salt water. Lucania parva and its sister species, the freshwater L. goodei, are isolated by both prezygotic and postzygotic barriers. To further test whether adaptation to salinity has led to the evolution of these isolating barriers, we tested for incipient reproductive isolation within L. parva by crossing freshwater and saltwater populations. We found no evidence for prezygotic isolation, but reduced hybrid survival indicated that postzygotic isolation existed between L. parva populations. Therefore, postzygotic isolation evolved before prezygotic isolation in these ecologically divergent populations. Previous work on these species raised eggs with methylene blue, which acts as a fungicide. We found this fungicide distorts the pattern of postzygotic isolation by increasing fresh water survival in L. parva, masking species/population differences, and underestimating hybrid inviability. PMID:22518334

  14. Haemoparasite prevalence and Theileria parva strain diversity in Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Oura, C A L; Tait, A; Asiimwe, B; Lubega, G W; Weir, W

    2011-02-10

    Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer) are considered to be an important reservoir for various tick-borne haemoparasites of veterinary importance. In this study we have compared the haemoparasite carrier prevalence in buffalo from four geographically isolated national parks in Uganda [Lake Mburo National Park (LMNP), Queen Elizabeth National Park (QENP), Murchison Falls National Park (MFNP) and Kidepo Valley National Park (KVNP)]. Differences were seen in haemoparasite prevalence in buffalo from the four national parks. All the buffalo sampled in LMNP were carriers of Theileria parva however, buffalo from MFNP and KVNP, which are both located in the north of Uganda, were negative for T. parva. Interestingly, 95% of buffalo in the northern part of QENP were T. parva positive, however all buffalo sampled in the south of the park were negative. A high multiplicity of infection was recorded in all the buffalo found to be carrying T. parva, with evidence of at least nine parasite genotypes in some animals. Most of the buffalo sampled in all four national parks were carriers of T. mutans and T. velifera, however none were carriers of T. taurotragi, Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina, Ehrlichia bovis or Ehrlichia ruminantium. All the buffalo sampled from LMNP were positive for T. buffeli and T. sp. (buffalo) however, buffalo from the parks in the north of the country (KVNP and MFNP) were negative for these haemoparasites. Anaplasma centrale and Anaplasma marginale were circulating in buffalo from all four national parks. T. parva gene pools from two geographically separated populations of buffalo in two of the national parks in Uganda (LMNP and QENP) were compared. The T. parva populations in the two national parks were distinct, indicating that there was limited gene flow between the populations. The results presented highlight the complexity of tick-borne pathogen infections in buffalo and the significant role that buffalo may play as reservoir hosts for veterinary haemoparasites

  15. Theileria parva infection seroprevalence and associated risk factors in cattle in Machakos County, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Wesonga, Fred David; Gachohi, John Mwangi; Kitala, Philip Mwanzia; Gathuma, Joseph Mwangi; Njenga, Munene John

    2015-01-01

    The principle objective of this study was to estimate the infection seroprevalence and identify risk factors associated with Theileria parva infection in cattle on smallholder farms in Machakos County, Kenya. A total of 127 farms were selected by a proportional allocation approach based on the number of farms in four divisions in the county previously selected by stratified random sampling method. Subsequently, a total sample of 421 individual animals was randomly selected from the farms. Information on animal and relevant individual farm management practices was gathered using a standardized questionnaire. Prevalence of serum antibodies was determined using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Multivariable logistic models incorporating random effects at the farm level evaluated the association between the presence of T. parva antibodies and the identified risk variables. The overall estimation of T. parva antibodies in the county was 40.9% (95% confidence interval of 36.1, 45.7%). Seroprevalence to T. parva was significantly associated with animal age, vector tick infestation in the animal, tick control frequency, and administrative division. Further analyses suggested a confounding relationship between administrative division and both breed and grazing system and the T. parva seropositivity. Random effects model yielded intra-farm correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.18. The inclusion of farm random effect provided a substantially better fit than the standard logistic regression (P = 0.032). The results demonstrate substantial variability in the T. parva infection prevalence within all categories of the cattle population of Machakos County of Kenya, where East Coast fever is endemic. PMID:25319450

  16. Genome sequence of the free-living aerobic spirochete Turneriella parva type strain (HT), and emendation of the species Turneriella parva

    SciTech Connect

    Stackebrandt, Erko; Chertkov, Olga; Lapidus, Alla L.; Nolan, Matt; Lucas, Susan; Hammon, Nancy; Deshpande, Shweta; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Tapia, Roxanne; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Pitluck, Sam; Liolios, Konstantinos; Pagani, Ioanna; Ivanova, N; Mavromatis, K; Mikhailova, Natalia; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Land, Miriam L; Pan, Chongle; Rohde, Manfred; Gronow, Sabine; Goker, Markus; Detter, J. Chris; Bristow, James; Eisen, Jonathan; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2013-01-01

    Turneriella parva Levett et al. 2005 is the only species of the genus Turneriella which was es- tablished as a result of the reclassification of Leptospira parva Hovind-Hougen et al. 1982. Together with Leptonema and Leptospira, Turneriella constitutes the family Leptospiraceae, within the order Spirochaetales. Here we describe the features of this free-living aerobic spi- rochete together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. This is the first com- plete genome sequence of a member of the genus Turneriella and the 13th member of the family Leptospiraceae for which a complete or draft genome sequence is now available. The 4,409,302 bp long genome with its 4,169 protein-coding and 45 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  17. Quantitative analysis of cytokine mRNA expression and protozoan DNA load in Theileria parva-infected cattle.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Shinji; Konnai, Satoru; Imamura, Saiki; Simuunza, Martin; Chembensofu, Mwelwa; Chota, Amos; Nambota, Andrew; Onuma, Misao; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2009-01-01

    Theileria parva (T. parva) causes a highly serious bovine disease called East Coast fever (ECF), which is characterized by pyrexia, dyspnea and cachexia and is of great economic importance in African countries. We hypothesize that the clinical symptoms of ECF could be explained by a cytokine dysregulation. In this study, we investigated the relationship between T. parva DNA load and expression levels of cytokine mRNAs in leukocytes from experimentally infected calves by quantitative PCR. The p104 gene, which encodes the T. parva 104 kDa microneme-rhoptry protein, was detected in cattle blood from day 10 after T. parva-infected tick infestation, and the protozoan DNA load was increased together with severity of disease. The mRNA expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1beta and IL-6, were up-regulated with protozoan DNA load increasing. In addition, the level of a type-2 cytokine (IL-10) transcript was also increased during the acute phase. In contrast, the down-regulation or no detectable levels of the expression of type-1 cytokines, such as IL-2 and interferon (IFN)-gamma were observed in T. parva-infected animals. Thus, our observations indicated that high protozoan load and resulting intense inflammatory responses might be involved in the severity of clinical signs observed in T. parva-infection.

  18. Four p67 alleles identified in South African Theileria parva field samples.

    PubMed

    Sibeko, Kgomotso P; Geysen, Dirk; Oosthuizen, Marinda C; Matthee, Conrad A; Troskie, Milana; Potgieter, Frederick T; Coetzer, Jacobus A W; Collins, Nicola E

    2010-02-10

    Previous studies characterizing the Theileria parva p67 gene in East Africa revealed two alleles. Cattle-derived isolates associated with East Coast fever (ECF) have a 129bp deletion in the central region of the p67 gene (allele 1), compared to buffalo-derived isolates with no deletion (allele 2). In South Africa, Corridor disease outbreaks occur if there is contact between infected buffalo and susceptible cattle in the presence of vector ticks. Although ECF was introduced into South Africa in the early 20th century, it has been eradicated and it is thought that there has been no cattle to cattle transmission of T. parva since. The variable region of the p67 gene was amplified and the gene sequences analyzed to characterize South African T. parva parasites that occur in buffalo, in cattle from farms where Corridor disease outbreaks were diagnosed and in experimentally infected cattle. Four p67 alleles were identified, including alleles 1 and 2 previously detected in East African cattle and buffalo, respectively, as well as two novel alleles, one with a different 174bp deletion (allele 3), the other with a similar sequence to allele 3 but with no deletion (allele 4). Sequence variants of allele 1 were obtained from field samples originating from both cattle and buffalo. Allele 1 was also obtained from a bovine that tested T. parva positive from a farm near Ladysmith in the KwaZulu-Natal Province. East Coast fever was not diagnosed on this farm, but the p67 sequence was identical to that of T. parva Muguga, an isolate that causes ECF in Kenya. Variants of allele 2 were obtained from all T. parva samples from both buffalo and cattle, except Lad 10 and Zam 5. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that alleles 3 and 4 are monophyletic and diverged early from the other alleles. These novel alleles were not identified from South African field samples collected from cattle; however allele 3, with a p67 sequence identical to those obtained in South African field samples from

  19. A nested PCR assay exhibits enhanced sensitivity for detection of Theileria parva infections in bovine blood samples from carrier animals.

    PubMed

    Odongo, David O; Sunter, Jack D; Kiara, Henry K; Skilton, Robert A; Bishop, Richard P

    2010-01-01

    Theileria parva causes East Coast fever, an economically important disease of cattle in sub-Saharan Africa. We describe a nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) assay for the detection of T. parva DNA in cattle blood spotted onto filter paper using primers derived from the T. parva-specific 104-kDa antigen (p104) gene. The sensitivity of this assay was compared to a previously described p104-based PCR and also the reverse line blot (RLB) technique, using serial dilutions of blood from a calf with known T. parva piroplasm parasitaemia. The relative sensitivities of the three assays were 0.4, 1.4 and 4 parasites/microl corresponding to blood parasitaemias of 9.2 x 10(-6)%, 2.8 x 10(-5)% and 8.3 x 10(-5)%, respectively. The three assays were applied to samples from two calves infected with the T. parva Muguga stock. Parasite DNA was consistently detectable by the two p104 PCR assays until 48 and 82 days post-infection, respectively, and thereafter sporadically. RLB detected parasite DNA in the two infected calves until days 43 and 45. Field samples from 151 Kenyan cattle exhibited 37.7% positivity for T. parva by regular p104 PCR and 42.3% positivity using p104 nPCR. Among 169 cattle blood samples from Southern Sudan, 36% were positive for T. parva using nPCR. The nPCR assay represents a highly sensitive tool for detection and monitoring of asymptomatic carrier state infections of T. parva in the blood of cattle. PMID:19902251

  20. Food web structure and trophic levels in polyculture rice-crab fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Kai; Zhao, Wen; Li, Wenkuan; Zhao, Yuansong; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Chen

    2015-05-01

    Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes were used to investigate nutrient pathways and trophic relationships from the rice-crab system in Panjin, Liaoning Province, China. Values of δ13C ranged from -27.38‰±0.44‰ to -18.34‰±0.26‰ and δ15N ranged from 1.10‰±0.88‰ to 9.33‰±0.57‰. Pseudorasbora parva (Stone moroko) had the highest δ13C and δ15N values. The lowest δ13C values were obtained for the macrophytes and the lowest δ15N value was found in sediments. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes were used to determine the contribution of different food items to the diets of crabs. The δ13C results indicated that the Pseudorasbora parva made the greatest contribution to the diet of Eriocheir sinensis (Chinese mitten crab), while the δ15N results indicated that most food items contributed more than 10% to the diet of the crab. There were three trophic levels identified in the system (Levels 0-2). The crab Eriocheir sinensis, fish Pseudorasbora parva and Misgurnus anguillicaudatus (Oriental weatherfish), and the oligochaete Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri (Limnodrilus worm), were at the second level, zooplankton were at the first level and suspended particulate matter and macrophytes were at trophic position 0.

  1. Genotypic diversity, a survival strategy for the apicomplexan parasite Theileria parva.

    PubMed

    Katzer, F; Ngugi, D; Walker, A R; McKeever, D J

    2010-02-10

    The tick-borne protozoan parasite Theileria parva causes East Coast fever (ECF), a severe lymphoproliferative disease of cattle that is a major constraint to the improvement of livestock in eastern, central and southern Africa. Studies in cattle experimentally infected with T. parva have shown that the protective cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response is tightly focused, with individual animals recognizing only one or two dominant antigens, the identity of which varies with MHC class I phenotype. It is well known that cross-protection between T. parva stocks is limited, but precise evaluation of genetic diversity in field populations of the parasite has been hampered by a lack of molecular markers spanning the genome. A recently described panel of satellite markers has provided evidence for substantial genotypic diversity and recombination but does not provide cover for large segments of the genome. To address this deficiency, we undertook to identify additional polymorphic markers covering these regions and we report herein 42 newly identified PCR-RFLP markers distributed across the 4 T. parva chromosomes, as well as 19 new satellite markers for chromosomes 1 and 2. This brings the total number of available polymorphic markers to 141 for the 8.5 Mb genome. We have used these markers to characterise existing parasite stabilates and have also shown that passage of the parasite through naïve cattle and ticks can lead to substantial changes of parasite populations in resulting stabilates. These markers have also been used to show that passage of mixed parasites through an immunised calf results in the removal of the immunising genotype from the parasite population produced by ticks fed on this animal. PMID:19837514

  2. Characterisation of single domain ATP-binding cassette protien homologues of Theileria parva.

    PubMed

    Kibe, M K; Macklin, M; Gobright, E; Bishop, R; Urakawa, T; ole-MoiYoi, O K

    2001-09-01

    Two distinct genes encoding single domain, ATP-binding cassette transport protein homologues of Theileria parva were cloned and sequenced. Neither of the genes is tandemly duplicated. One gene, TpABC1, encodes a predicted protein of 593 amino acids with an N-terminal hydrophobic domain containing six potential membrane-spanning segments. A single discontinuous ATP-binding element was located in the C-terminal region of TpABC1. The second gene, TpABC2, also contains a single C-terminal ATP-binding motif. Copies of TpABC2 were present at four loci in the T. parva genome on three different chromosomes. TpABC1 exhibited allelic polymorphism between stocks of the parasite. Comparison of cDNA and genomic sequences revealed that TpABC1 contained seven short introns, between 29 and 84 bp in length. The full-length TpABC1 protein was expressed in insect cells using the baculovirus system. Application of antibodies raised against the recombinant antigen to western blots of T. parva piroplasm lysates detected an 85 kDa protein in this life-cycle stage.

  3. Isolation and characterization of a virus infecting the freshwater algae Chrysochromulina parva.

    PubMed

    Mirza, S F; Staniewski, M A; Short, C M; Long, A M; Chaban, Y V; Short, S M

    2015-12-01

    Water samples from Lake Ontario, Canada were tested for lytic activity against the freshwater haptophyte algae Chrysochromulina parva. A filterable lytic agent was isolated and identified as a virus via transmission electron microscopy and molecular methods. The virus, CpV-BQ1, is icosahedral, ca. 145nm in diameter, assembled within the cytoplasm, and has a genome size of ca. 485kb. Sequences obtained through PCR-amplification of DNA polymerase (polB) genes clustered among sequences from the family Phycodnaviridae, whereas major capsid protein (MCP) sequences clustered among sequences from either the Phycodnaviridae or Mimiviridae. Based on quantitative molecular assays, C. parva׳s abundance in Lake Ontario was relatively stable, yet CpV-BQ1׳s abundance was variable suggesting complex virus-host dynamics. This study demonstrates that CpV-BQ1 is a member of the proposed order Megavirales with characteristics of both phycodnaviruses and mimiviruses indicating that, in addition to its complex ecological dynamics, it also has a complex evolutionary history.

  4. Absolute Quantification of the Host-To-Parasite DNA Ratio in Theileria parva-Infected Lymphocyte Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Gotia, Hanzel T; Munro, James B; Knowles, Donald P; Daubenberger, Claudia A; Bishop, Richard P; Silva, Joana C

    2016-01-01

    Theileria parva is a tick-transmitted intracellular apicomplexan pathogen of cattle in sub-Saharan Africa that causes East Coast fever (ECF). ECF is an acute fatal disease that kills over one million cattle annually, imposing a tremendous burden on African small-holder cattle farmers. The pathology and level of T. parva infections in its wildlife host, African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), and in cattle are distinct. We have developed an absolute quantification method based on quantitative PCR (qPCR) in which recombinant plasmids containing single copy genes specific to the parasite (apical membrane antigen 1 gene, ama1) or the host (hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase 1, hprt1) are used as the quantification reference standards. Our study shows that T. parva and bovine cells are present in similar numbers in T. parva-infected lymphocyte cell lines and that consequently, due to its much smaller genome size, T. parva DNA comprises between 0.9% and 3% of the total DNA samples extracted from these lines. This absolute quantification assay of parasite and host genome copy number in a sample provides a simple and reliable method of assessing T. parva load in infected bovine lymphocytes, and is accurate over a wide range of host-to-parasite DNA ratios. Knowledge of the proportion of target DNA in a sample, as enabled by this method, is essential for efficient high-throughput genome sequencing applications for a variety of intracellular pathogens. This assay will also be very useful in future studies of interactions of distinct host-T. parva stocks and to fully characterize the dynamics of ECF infection in the field. PMID:26930209

  5. Prevalence and spatial distribution of Theileria parva in cattle under crop-livestock farming systems in Tororo District, Eastern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Tick-borne diseases (TBDs) present a major economic burden to communities across East Africa. Farmers in East Africa must use acaracides to target ticks and prevent transmission of tick-borne diseases such as anaplasmosis, babesiosis, cowdriosis and theileriosis; the major causes of cattle mortality and morbidity. The costs of controlling East Coast Fever (ECF), caused by Theileria parva, in Uganda are significant and measures taken to control ticks, to be cost-effective, should take into account the burden of disease. The aim of the present work was to estimate the burden presented by T. parva and its spatial distribution in a crop-livestock production system in Eastern Uganda. Methods A cross sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence and spatial distribution of T. parva in Tororo District, Uganda. Blood samples were taken from all cattle (n: 2,658) in 22 randomly selected villages across Tororo District from September to December 2011. Samples were analysed by PCR and T. parva prevalence and spatial distribution determined. Results The overall prevalence of T. parva was found to be 5.3%. Herd level prevalence ranged from 0% to 21% with majority of the infections located in the North, North-Eastern and South-Eastern parts of Tororo District. No statistically significant differences in risk of infection were found between age classes, sex and cattle breed. Conclusions T. parva infection is widely distributed in Tororo District, Uganda. The prevalence and distribution of T. parva is most likely determined by spatial distribution of R. appendiculatus, restricted grazing of calves and preferential tick control targeting draft animals. PMID:24589227

  6. Absolute Quantification of the Host-To-Parasite DNA Ratio in Theileria parva-Infected Lymphocyte Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Gotia, Hanzel T.; Munro, James B.; Knowles, Donald P.; Daubenberger, Claudia A.; Bishop, Richard P.; Silva, Joana C.

    2016-01-01

    Theileria parva is a tick-transmitted intracellular apicomplexan pathogen of cattle in sub-Saharan Africa that causes East Coast fever (ECF). ECF is an acute fatal disease that kills over one million cattle annually, imposing a tremendous burden on African small-holder cattle farmers. The pathology and level of T. parva infections in its wildlife host, African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), and in cattle are distinct. We have developed an absolute quantification method based on quantitative PCR (qPCR) in which recombinant plasmids containing single copy genes specific to the parasite (apical membrane antigen 1 gene, ama1) or the host (hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase 1, hprt1) are used as the quantification reference standards. Our study shows that T. parva and bovine cells are present in similar numbers in T. parva-infected lymphocyte cell lines and that consequently, due to its much smaller genome size, T. parva DNA comprises between 0.9% and 3% of the total DNA samples extracted from these lines. This absolute quantification assay of parasite and host genome copy number in a sample provides a simple and reliable method of assessing T. parva load in infected bovine lymphocytes, and is accurate over a wide range of host-to-parasite DNA ratios. Knowledge of the proportion of target DNA in a sample, as enabled by this method, is essential for efficient high-throughput genome sequencing applications for a variety of intracellular pathogens. This assay will also be very useful in future studies of interactions of distinct host-T. parva stocks and to fully characterize the dynamics of ECF infection in the field. PMID:26930209

  7. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays for detection of Theileria parva infections targeting the PIM and p150 genes.

    PubMed

    Thekisoe, Oriel M M; Rambritch, Natasha E; Nakao, Ryo; Bazie, Raoul S; Mbati, Peter; Namangala, Boniface; Malele, Imna; Skilton, Robert A; Jongejan, Frans; Sugimoto, Chihiro; Kawazu, Shin-Ichiro; Inoue, Noboru

    2010-01-01

    We have developed two loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays for the detection of Theileria parva, the causative agent of East Coast fever (ECF), an economically important cattle disease in eastern, central and southern Africa. These assays target the polymorphic immunodominant molecule (PIM) and p150 LAMP genes. The primer set for each gene target consists of six primers, and each set recognises eight distinct regions on the target gene to give highly specific detection of T. parva. The detection limit of each primer set is 1fg, which is equivalent to one copy of the PIM and p150 T. parva genes. These PIM and p150 LAMP primer sets amplify DNA of T. parva isolates from cattle and buffalo from different countries including Kenya, South Africa, Tanzania, Rwanda, Uganda and Burundi, indicating their ability to detect T. parva from different countries. With the advantages of simplicity, rapidity and cost effectiveness, these LAMP assays are good candidates for molecular epidemiology studies and for monitoring control programs in ECF-endemic, resource poor countries.

  8. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays for detection of Theileria parva infections targeting the PIM and p150 genes.

    PubMed

    Thekisoe, Oriel M M; Rambritch, Natasha E; Nakao, Ryo; Bazie, Raoul S; Mbati, Peter; Namangala, Boniface; Malele, Imna; Skilton, Robert A; Jongejan, Frans; Sugimoto, Chihiro; Kawazu, Shin-Ichiro; Inoue, Noboru

    2010-01-01

    We have developed two loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays for the detection of Theileria parva, the causative agent of East Coast fever (ECF), an economically important cattle disease in eastern, central and southern Africa. These assays target the polymorphic immunodominant molecule (PIM) and p150 LAMP genes. The primer set for each gene target consists of six primers, and each set recognises eight distinct regions on the target gene to give highly specific detection of T. parva. The detection limit of each primer set is 1fg, which is equivalent to one copy of the PIM and p150 T. parva genes. These PIM and p150 LAMP primer sets amplify DNA of T. parva isolates from cattle and buffalo from different countries including Kenya, South Africa, Tanzania, Rwanda, Uganda and Burundi, indicating their ability to detect T. parva from different countries. With the advantages of simplicity, rapidity and cost effectiveness, these LAMP assays are good candidates for molecular epidemiology studies and for monitoring control programs in ECF-endemic, resource poor countries. PMID:19654009

  9. Incremental effect of natural tick challenge on the infection and treatment method-induced immunity against T. parva in cattle under agro-pastoral systems in Northern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kazungu, Yvette E M; Mwega, Elisa; Neselle, Moses Ole; Sallu, Raphael; Kimera, Sharadhuli I; Gwakisa, Paul

    2015-07-01

    This study was conducted to assess the incremental effect of natural tick challenge on the infection and treatment method-induced immunity against T. parva under agro-pastoral systems in Simanjiro district, Northern Tanzania. T. parva specific antibody percent positivity and prevalence of T. parva parasites were studied in relation to duration post vaccination and proximity to Tarangire National park. A total of 381 cattle were included in this study, of which 127 were unvaccinated and 254 had been vaccinated at different time points between 2008 and 2014. Antibody percent positivity (PP) determined by the PIM-based T. parva ELISA and the prevalence of T. parva parasites detected by a nested PCR based on the p104 gene were used to compare vaccinated and unvaccinated cattle. Results showed that seroprevalence was significantly higher in vaccinated than unvaccinated cattle (OR 10.89, p = 0.0341). Only 1.6% (6/381) of all cattle were seronegative and 5/6 of these were unvaccinated. Prevalence of T. parva parasites was significantly higher in vaccinated (50.39%) than unvaccinated (19.69%) cattle (OR 2.03, p = 0.0144). While there was a positive association between PP and duration post vaccination but the latter was inversely associated with T. parva parasite prevalence. This study also showed that cattle which were closer to the park had higher antibody PP and T. parva prevalence. It is concluded that duration post vaccination as well as proximity from the wildlife in Tarangire National park together may exert an incremental effect on the outcome of ECF vaccination by influencing stronger antibody immunity of cattle and ability to withhold high T. parva infection pressure under constant field tick challenge. Further, the high seroprevalence in vaccinated and unvaccinated cattle suggests a likely state of endemic stability to T. parva in the study area. PMID:26005108

  10. Concerted evolution at a multicopy locus in the protozoan parasite Theileria parva: extreme divergence of potential protein-coding sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, R; Musoke, A; Morzaria, S; Sohanpal, B; Gobright, E

    1997-01-01

    Concerted evolution of multicopy gene families in vertebrates is recognized as an important force in the generation of biological novelty but has not been documented for the multicopy genes of protozoa. A multicopy locus, Tpr, which consists of tandemly arrayed open reading frames (ORFs) containing several repeated elements has been described for Theileria parva. Herein we show that probes derived from the 5'/N-terminal ends of ORFs in the genomic DNAs of T. parva Uganda (1,108 codons) and Boleni (699 codons) hybridized with multicopy sequences in homologous DNA but did not detect similar sequences in the DNA of 14 heterologous T. parva stocks and clones. The probe sequences were, however, protein coding according to predictive algorithms and codon usage. The 3'/C-terminal ends of the Uganda and Boleni ORFs exhibited 75% similarity and identity, respectively, to the previously identified Tpr1 and Tpr2 repetitive elements of T. parva Muguga. Tpr1-homologous sequences were detected in two additional species of Theileria. Eight different Tpr1-homologous transcripts were present in piroplasm mRNA from a single T. parva Muguga-infected animal. The Tpr1 and Tpr2 amino acid sequences contained six predicted membrane-associated segments. The ratio of synonymous to nonsynonymous substitutions indicates that Tpr1 evolves like protein-encoding DNA. The previously determined nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding the p67 antigen is completely identical in T. parva Muguga, Boleni, and Uganda, including the third base in codons. The data suggest that concerted evolution can lead to the radical divergence of coding sequences and that this can be a mechanism for the generation of novel genes. PMID:9032293

  11. Tick burden and prevalence of Theileria parva infection in Tarime zebu cattle in the lake zone of Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Laisser, Emmanuel Levillal Katamboi; Kipanyula, Maulilio John; Msalya, George; Mdegela, Robinson Hammerthon; Karimuribo, Esron Daniel; Mwilawa, Anjello Joseph; Mwega, Elisa Daniel; Kusiluka, Lughano; Chenyambuga, Sebastian Wilson

    2014-12-01

    This study was carried out to assess the distribution, abundance of different tick genera and prevalence of Theileria parva infection in Tarime zebu cattle kept in selected wards of Serengeti and Tarime districts in Mara region. Adult ticks were identified and counted from half body parts of 360 animals which were extensively managed in communal land with natural pastures. Concurrently, blood samples were collected and thereafter DNA extracted and a nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) was done using primers specific for p104 gene to detect the presence of T. parva DNA. Ticks were identified into four groups: Amblyomma genus, Boophilus sub-genus of Rhipicephalus genus, other species of Rhipicephalus, and Hyalomma genus. Rhipicephalus genus accounted for 71.8 % of the total ticks, whereas Amblyomma, Boophilus sub-genus of Rhipicephalus genus and Hyalomma constituted 14.1, 14.0 and 0.1 %, respectively. There were more animals (p < 0.05) infested with ticks in Tarime district (96.1 %) than in Serengeti (61.7 %). The average counts of ticks were higher in adult animals (p < 0.05) than in young animals. The overall prevalence of T. parva was 27.7 % and was higher (p < 0.05) in Serengeti (38.3 %) than in Tarime district (16.7 %). However, all animals tested positive for T. parva did not show any clinical signs of East Coast fever (ECF), suggesting the existence of subclinical infection in Tarime zebu. These results suggest that Tarime cattle can tolerate ECF infection and are likely to serve as potential carriers of T. parva to other less-tolerant cattle breeds in mixed herds. Since Tarime cattle are preferred by most farmers with mixed herds, routine screening for T. parva is highly recommended to minimize introduction of infected cattle into an immunologically naive population. PMID:25092591

  12. Identification of neutralization and diagnostic epitopes on PIM, the polymorphic immunodominant molecule of Theileria parva.

    PubMed Central

    Toye, P; Nyanjui, J; Goddeeris, B; Musoke, A J

    1996-01-01

    The polymorphic immunodominant molecule (PIM) of Theileria parva is expressed by the schizont and sporozoite stages of the parasite. We have recently cloned the cDNA encoding the PIM antigen from two stocks of the parasite: the cattle-derived T. parva (Muguga) stock and a buffalo-derived stock. The cDNAs were used in transient-transfection assays to assess the reactivity of the antigen with monoclonal antibodies (MAb) previously raised against schizont-infected cells and used for parasite strain identification. We demonstrate that 19 of the 25 MAb are specific for PIM. Antibody reactivities with deletion mutants of a fusion protein containing PIM and Pepscan analysis of the Muguga version of the molecule with 13 of the MAb indicate that there are at least 10 different epitopes throughout the molecule. None of the MAb react with a tetrapeptide repeat present in the central region of the molecule, probably because of an inability of BALB/c mice to produce antibodies to this repeat. In contrast, sera from infected cattle react strongly with the repeat region, suggesting that this region alone may be useful as a diagnostic reagent. Previous studies showed that MAb to PIM inhibit sporozoite infectivity of bovine lymphocytes in vitro, which suggests that the antigen may be useful in immunizing cattle against T. parva infection. Pepscan analysis revealed that sera from infected cattle reacted with peptides recognized by the neutralizing MAb, as did sera from cattle inoculated with a PIM-containing recombinant protein. The latter sera did not, however, neutralize sporozoite infectivity in vitro. These results will be useful in exploiting the strain identification, diagnostic, and immunizing potentials of this family of antigens. PMID:8613398

  13. Limited genetic and antigenic diversity within parasite isolates used in a live vaccine against Theileria parva.

    PubMed

    Hemmink, Johanneke D; Weir, William; MacHugh, Niall D; Graham, Simon P; Patel, Ekta; Paxton, Edith; Shiels, Brian; Toye, Philip G; Morrison, W Ivan; Pelle, Roger

    2016-07-01

    An infection and treatment protocol is used to vaccinate cattle against Theileria parva infection. Due to incomplete cross-protection between different parasite isolates, a mixture of three isolates, termed the Muguga cocktail, is used for vaccination. While vaccination of cattle in some regions provides high levels of protection, some animals are not protected against challenge with buffalo-derived T. parva. Knowledge of the genetic composition of the Muguga cocktail vaccine is required to understand how vaccination is able to protect against field challenge and to identify the potential limitations of the vaccine. The aim of the current study was to determine the extent of genetic and antigenic diversity within the parasite isolates that constitute the Muguga cocktail. High throughput multi-locus sequencing of antigen-encoding loci was performed in parallel with typing using a panel of micro- and mini-satellite loci. The former focused on genes encoding CD8(+) T cell antigens, believed to be relevant to protective immunity. The results demonstrate that each of the three component stocks of the cocktail contains limited parasite genotypic diversity, with single alleles detected at many gene/satellite loci and, moreover, that two of the components show a very high level of similarity. Thus, the vaccine incorporates very little of the genetic and antigenic diversity observed in field populations of T. parva. The presence of alleles at low frequency (<10%) within vaccine component populations also points to the possibility of variability in the content of vaccine doses and the potential for loss of allelic diversity during tick passage. The results demonstrate that there is scope to modify the content of the vaccine in order to enhance its diversity and thus its potential for providing broad protection. The ability to accurately quantify genetic diversity in vaccine component stocks will facilitate improved quality control procedures designed to ensure the long

  14. Characterization of the gene encoding the polymorphic immunodominant molecule, a neutralizing antigen of Theileria parva

    SciTech Connect

    Toye, P.G.; Metzelaar, M.J.; Wijngaard, P.L.J.

    1995-08-01

    Theileria parva, a tick-transmitted protozoan parasite related to Plasmodium spp., causes the disease East Coast fever, an acute and usually fatal lymphoproliferative disorder of cattle in Africa. Previous studies using sera from cattle that have survived infection identified a polymorphic immunodominant molecule (PIM) that is expressed by both the infective sporozoite stage of the parasite and the intracellular schizont. Here we show that mAb specific for the PIM Ag can inhibit sporozoite invasion of lymphocytes in vitro. A cDNA clone encoding the PIM Ag of the T. parva (Muguga) stock was obtained by using these mAb in a novel eukaryotic expression cloning system that allows isolation of cDNA encoding cytoplasmic or surface Ags. To establish the molecular basis of the polymorphism of PIM, the cDNA of the PIM Ag from a buffalo-derived T. parva stock was isolated and its sequence was compared with that of the cattle-derived Muguga PIM. The two cDNAs showed considerable identity in both the 5{prime} and 3{prime} regions, but there was substantial sequence divergence in the central regions. Several types of repeated sequences were identified in the variant regions. In the Muguga form of the molecule, there were five tandem repeats of the tetrapeptide, QPEP, that were shown, by transfection of a deleted version of the PIM gene, not to react with several anti-PIM mAbs. By isolating and sequencing the genomic version of the gene, we identified two small introns in the 3{prime} region of the gene. Finally, we showed that polyclonal rat Abs against recombinant PIM neutralize sporozoite infectivity in vitro, suggesting that the PIM Ag should be evaluated for its capacity to immunize cattle against East Coast Fever.

  15. Genetic and antigenic diversity of Theileria parva in cattle in Eastern and Southern zones of Tanzania. A study to support control of East Coast fever.

    PubMed

    Elisa, Mwega; Hasan, Salih Dia; Moses, Njahira; Elpidius, Rukambile; Skilton, Robert; Gwakisa, Paul

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the genetic and antigenic diversity of Theileria parva in cattle from the Eastern and Southern zones of Tanzania. Thirty-nine (62%) positive samples were genotyped using 14 mini- and microsatellite markers with coverage of all four T. parva chromosomes. Wright's F index (F(ST) = 0 × 094) indicated a high level of panmixis. Linkage equilibrium was observed in the two zones studied, suggesting existence of a panmyctic population. In addition, sequence analysis of CD8+ T-cell target antigen genes Tp1 revealed a single protein sequence in all samples analysed, which is also present in the T. parva Muguga strain, which is a component of the FAO1 vaccine. All Tp2 epitope sequences were identical to those in the T. parva Muguga strain, except for one variant of a Tp2 epitope, which is found in T. parva Kiambu 5 strain, also a component the FAO1 vaccine. Neighbour joining tree of the nucleotide sequences of Tp2 showed clustering according to geographical origin. Our results show low genetic and antigenic diversity of T. parva within the populations analysed. This has very important implications for the development of sustainable control measures for T. parva in Eastern and Southern zones of Tanzania, where East Coast fever is endemic. PMID:25417727

  16. Absolute quantification of the host-to-parasite DNA ratio in theileria parva-infected lymphocyte cell lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Theileria parva is a tick-transmitted intracellular apicomplexan pathogen of cattle in sub-Saharan Africa that causes East Coast fever (ECF). ECF is an acute fatal disease that kills over one million cattle annually, imposing a tremendous burden on African small-holder cattle farmers. The pathology ...

  17. Molecular and immunological characterisation of Theileria parva stocks which are components of the 'Muguga cocktail' used for vaccination against East Coast fever in cattle.

    PubMed

    Bishop, R; Geysen, D; Spooner, P; Skilton, R; Nene, V; Dolan, T; Morzaria, S

    2001-01-20

    The 'Muguga cocktail' which is composed of three Theileria parva stocks Muguga, Kiambu 5 and Serengeti-transformed has been used extensively for live vaccination against East Coast fever in cattle in eastern, central and southern Africa. Herein we describe the molecular characterisation of the T. parva vaccine stocks using three techniques, an indirect fluorescent antibody test with a panel of anti-schizont monoclonal antibodies (MAb), Southern blotting with four T. parva repetitive DNA probes and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assays detecting polymorphism within four single copy loci encoding antigen genes. The Muguga and Serengeti-transformed stocks exhibited no obvious differences in their reactivity with the panel of MAbs, whereas Kiambu 5 differed with several MAbs. Kiambu 5 DNA was very distinct from the Muguga and Serengeti-transformed isolates in the hybridisation pattern with all four nucleic acid probes, whereas Muguga and Serengeti-transformed isolates exhibited minor differences and could not be discriminated with one of the probes. PCR amplification in combination with restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis indicated that Kiambu 5 was also markedly divergent from the Muguga and Serengeti-transformed stocks within two of the four antigen coding genes. The T. parva Serengeti-transformed stock did not contain a 130 base pair insert within the p67 sporozoite antigen gene, which has been observed previously in most T. parva parasites isolated from buffalo, and could not be discriminated from T. parva Muguga at any of the four single copy loci. Collectively the data indicate that two of the cocktail components T. parva Serengeti-transformed and Muguga are genetically closely related, while the third component Kiambu 5 is quite distinct. Based on the findings, there may be a need to include only one of the T. parva Muguga and Serengeti-transformed components in the immunising cocktail. The study demonstrates the value of molecular

  18. Detection of Theileria parva antibodies in the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in the livestock-wildlife interface areas of Zambia.

    PubMed

    Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Siamudaala, Victor; Matandiko, Wigganson; Mulumba, Misheck; Nambota, Andrew; Munyeme, Musso; Mutoloki, Stephen; Nonga, Hezron

    2009-12-01

    A serolocigical survey was conducted for the detection of Theileria parva antibodies in 176 African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) sampled between 1996 and 2005 in livestock-wildlife interface areas of Zambia. Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, Rhipicephalus species, and Amblyomma variegatum were the most abundant tick species identified on buffaloes. T. parva sero-positives were reported in buffaloes sampled from game management areas at Mlanga and Nanzhila bordering the Kafue National Parks and in the Lochnivar National Park while buffaloes sampled from Lower Zambezi National Park were sero-negative. Given that Game Management Areas serve as interface areas that permit the co-existence of livestock and wildlife in similar ecological habitats our findings suggest that buffaloes could play a significant role in the epidemiology of theileriosis in livestock-wildlife interface areas. Thus far, the disease has only been reported in livestock and is herein being reported in the African buffalo for the first time in Zambia.

  19. Nucleotide diversity of the colorless green alga Polytomella parva (Chlorophyceae, Chlorophyta): high for the mitochondrial telomeres, surprisingly low everywhere else.

    PubMed

    Smith, David Roy; Lee, Robert W

    2011-01-01

    Silent-site nucleotide diversity data (π(silent)) can provide insights into the forces driving genome evolution. Here we present π(silent) statistics for the mitochondrial and nuclear DNAs of Polytomella parva, a nonphotosynthetic green alga with a highly reduced, linear fragmented mitochondrial genome. We show that this species harbors very little genetic diversity, with the exception of the mitochondrial telomeres, which have an excess of polymorphic sites. These data are compared with previously published π(silent) values from the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes of the model species Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Volvox carteri, which are close relatives of P. parva, and are used to understand the modes and tempos of genome evolution within green algae. PMID:21762422

  20. Occurrence of Theileria parva infection in cattle on a farm in the Ladysmith district, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Thompson, B E; Latif, A A; Oosthuizen, M C; Troskie, M; Penzhorn, B L

    2008-03-01

    Theileria parva causes widespread morbidity and mortality in cattle in endemic regions. An outbreak of theileriosis occurred on a farm near Ladysmith in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, which is not a declared Corridor disease-infected area. A survey of Red Brangus cattle from all age groups and areas of the farm was performed. Transmission of the parasite from infected animals on the farm to susceptible animals by tick transmission and tick-stabilate injection, was attempted. The survey indicated high numbers of animals with antibody titres to T. parva but only 6 infected animals, based on real-time PCR and RLB analysis. The transmission experiments failed to transmit the parasite. The study shows the difficulty in elucidating a source of infection and determining the dynamics of new infections in a herd where multiple possible sources are present and treatment with tetracyclines has taken place. PMID:18678189

  1. Target evaluation of deoxyhypusine synthase from Theileria parva the neglected animal parasite and its relationship to Plasmodium.

    PubMed

    Njuguna, James T; von Koschitzky, Imke; Gerhardt, Heike; Lämmerhofer, Michael; Choucry, Ali; Pink, Mario; Schmitz-Spahnke, Simone; Bakheit, Mohammed A; Strube, Christina; Kaiser, Annette

    2014-08-01

    East Coast fever (ECF) is a tick-borne disease caused by the parasite Theileria parva which infects cattle. In Sub-Saharan Africa it leads to enormous economic costs. After a bite of a tick, sporozoites invade the host lymphocytes and develop into schizonts. At this stage the parasite transforms host lymphocytes resulting in the clonal expansion of infected lymphocytes. Animals develop a lymphoma like disorder after infection which is rapidly fatal. Hitherto, a few drugs of the quinone type can cure the disease. However, therapy can only be successful after early diagnosis. The genera Theileria and Plasmodium, which includes the causative agent of human malaria, are closely related apicomplexan parasites. Enzymes of the hypusine pathway, a posttranslational modification in eukaryotic initiation factor EIF-5A, have shown to be druggable targets in Plasmodium. We identified the first enzyme of the hypusine pathway from T. parva, the deoxyhypusine synthase (DHS), which is located on chromosome 2 of the Muguga strain. Transcription is significantly increased in schizonts. The expressed T. parva DHS reveals an open reading frame (ORF) of 370 amino acids after expression in Escherichia coli Rosetta cells with a molecular size of 41.26 kDa and a theoretical pI of 5.26. Screening of the Malaria Box which consists of 400 active compounds resulted in a novel heterocyclic compound with a guanyl spacer which reduced the activity of T. parva DHS to 45%. In sum, the guanyl residue seems to be an important lead structure for inhibition of Theileria DHS. Currently, more different guanyl analogues from the Malaria Box are tested in inhibitor experiments to determine their efficacy. PMID:24909679

  2. Target evaluation of deoxyhypusine synthase from Theileria parva the neglected animal parasite and its relationship to Plasmodium.

    PubMed

    Njuguna, James T; von Koschitzky, Imke; Gerhardt, Heike; Lämmerhofer, Michael; Choucry, Ali; Pink, Mario; Schmitz-Spahnke, Simone; Bakheit, Mohammed A; Strube, Christina; Kaiser, Annette

    2014-08-01

    East Coast fever (ECF) is a tick-borne disease caused by the parasite Theileria parva which infects cattle. In Sub-Saharan Africa it leads to enormous economic costs. After a bite of a tick, sporozoites invade the host lymphocytes and develop into schizonts. At this stage the parasite transforms host lymphocytes resulting in the clonal expansion of infected lymphocytes. Animals develop a lymphoma like disorder after infection which is rapidly fatal. Hitherto, a few drugs of the quinone type can cure the disease. However, therapy can only be successful after early diagnosis. The genera Theileria and Plasmodium, which includes the causative agent of human malaria, are closely related apicomplexan parasites. Enzymes of the hypusine pathway, a posttranslational modification in eukaryotic initiation factor EIF-5A, have shown to be druggable targets in Plasmodium. We identified the first enzyme of the hypusine pathway from T. parva, the deoxyhypusine synthase (DHS), which is located on chromosome 2 of the Muguga strain. Transcription is significantly increased in schizonts. The expressed T. parva DHS reveals an open reading frame (ORF) of 370 amino acids after expression in Escherichia coli Rosetta cells with a molecular size of 41.26 kDa and a theoretical pI of 5.26. Screening of the Malaria Box which consists of 400 active compounds resulted in a novel heterocyclic compound with a guanyl spacer which reduced the activity of T. parva DHS to 45%. In sum, the guanyl residue seems to be an important lead structure for inhibition of Theileria DHS. Currently, more different guanyl analogues from the Malaria Box are tested in inhibitor experiments to determine their efficacy.

  3. East Coast Fever Caused by Theileria parva Is Characterized by Macrophage Activation Associated with Vasculitis and Respiratory Failure

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, David A.; Frevert, Charles W.; Nelson, Danielle D.; Morrison, W. Ivan; Knowles, Donald P.

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory failure and death in East Coast Fever (ECF), a clinical syndrome of African cattle caused by the apicomplexan parasite Theileria parva, has historically been attributed to pulmonary infiltration by infected lymphocytes. However, immunohistochemical staining of tissue from T. parva infected cattle revealed large numbers of CD3- and CD20-negative intralesional mononuclear cells. Due to this finding, we hypothesized that macrophages play an important role in Theileria parva disease pathogenesis. Data presented here demonstrates that terminal ECF in both Holstein and Boran cattle is largely due to multisystemic histiocytic responses and resultant tissue damage. Furthermore, the combination of these histologic changes with the clinical findings, including lymphadenopathy, prolonged pyrexia, multi-lineage leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia is consistent with macrophage activation syndrome. All animals that succumbed to infection exhibited lymphohistiocytic vasculitis of small to medium caliber blood and lymphatic vessels. In pulmonary, lymphoid, splenic and hepatic tissues from Holstein cattle, the majority of intralesional macrophages were positive for CD163, and often expressed large amounts of IL-17. These data define a terminal ECF pathogenesis in which parasite-driven lymphoproliferation leads to secondary systemic macrophage activation syndrome, mononuclear vasculitis, pulmonary edema, respiratory failure and death. The accompanying macrophage phenotype defined by CD163 and IL-17 is presented in the context of this pathogenesis. PMID:27195791

  4. East Coast Fever Caused by Theileria parva Is Characterized by Macrophage Activation Associated with Vasculitis and Respiratory Failure.

    PubMed

    Fry, Lindsay M; Schneider, David A; Frevert, Charles W; Nelson, Danielle D; Morrison, W Ivan; Knowles, Donald P

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory failure and death in East Coast Fever (ECF), a clinical syndrome of African cattle caused by the apicomplexan parasite Theileria parva, has historically been attributed to pulmonary infiltration by infected lymphocytes. However, immunohistochemical staining of tissue from T. parva infected cattle revealed large numbers of CD3- and CD20-negative intralesional mononuclear cells. Due to this finding, we hypothesized that macrophages play an important role in Theileria parva disease pathogenesis. Data presented here demonstrates that terminal ECF in both Holstein and Boran cattle is largely due to multisystemic histiocytic responses and resultant tissue damage. Furthermore, the combination of these histologic changes with the clinical findings, including lymphadenopathy, prolonged pyrexia, multi-lineage leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia is consistent with macrophage activation syndrome. All animals that succumbed to infection exhibited lymphohistiocytic vasculitis of small to medium caliber blood and lymphatic vessels. In pulmonary, lymphoid, splenic and hepatic tissues from Holstein cattle, the majority of intralesional macrophages were positive for CD163, and often expressed large amounts of IL-17. These data define a terminal ECF pathogenesis in which parasite-driven lymphoproliferation leads to secondary systemic macrophage activation syndrome, mononuclear vasculitis, pulmonary edema, respiratory failure and death. The accompanying macrophage phenotype defined by CD163 and IL-17 is presented in the context of this pathogenesis. PMID:27195791

  5. Associated disease risk from the introduced generalist pathogen Sphaerothecum destruens: management and policy implications.

    PubMed

    Andreou, Demetra; Gozlan, Rodolphe Elie

    2016-08-01

    The rosette agent Sphaerothecum destruens is a novel pathogen, which is currently believed to have been introduced into Europe along with the introduction of the invasive fish topmouth gudgeon Pseudorasbora parva (Temminck & Schlegel, 1846). Its close association with P. parva and its wide host species range and associated host mortalities, highlight this parasite as a potential source of disease emergence in European fish species. Here, using a meta-analysis of the reported S. destruens prevalence across all reported susceptible hosts species; we calculated host-specificity providing support that S. destruens is a true generalist. We have applied all the available information on S. destruens and host-range to an established framework for risk-assessing non-native parasites to evaluate the risks posed by S. destruens and discuss the next steps to manage and prevent disease emergence of this generalist parasite. PMID:27216376

  6. Associated disease risk from the introduced generalist pathogen Sphaerothecum destruens: management and policy implications.

    PubMed

    Andreou, Demetra; Gozlan, Rodolphe Elie

    2016-08-01

    The rosette agent Sphaerothecum destruens is a novel pathogen, which is currently believed to have been introduced into Europe along with the introduction of the invasive fish topmouth gudgeon Pseudorasbora parva (Temminck & Schlegel, 1846). Its close association with P. parva and its wide host species range and associated host mortalities, highlight this parasite as a potential source of disease emergence in European fish species. Here, using a meta-analysis of the reported S. destruens prevalence across all reported susceptible hosts species; we calculated host-specificity providing support that S. destruens is a true generalist. We have applied all the available information on S. destruens and host-range to an established framework for risk-assessing non-native parasites to evaluate the risks posed by S. destruens and discuss the next steps to manage and prevent disease emergence of this generalist parasite.

  7. The African buffalo parasite Theileria. sp. (buffalo) can infect and immortalize cattle leukocytes and encodes divergent orthologues of Theileria parva antigen genes.

    PubMed

    Bishop, R P; Hemmink, J D; Morrison, W I; Weir, W; Toye, P G; Sitt, T; Spooner, P R; Musoke, A J; Skilton, R A; Odongo, D O

    2015-12-01

    African Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is the wildlife reservoir of multiple species within the apicomplexan protozoan genus Theileria, including Theileria parva which causes East coast fever in cattle. A parasite, which has not yet been formally named, known as Theileria sp. (buffalo) has been recognized as a potentially distinct species based on rDNA sequence, since 1993. We demonstrate using reverse line blot (RLB) and sequencing of 18S rDNA genes, that in an area where buffalo and cattle co-graze and there is a heavy tick challenge, T. sp. (buffalo) can frequently be isolated in culture from cattle leukocytes. We also show that T. sp. (buffalo), which is genetically very closely related to T. parva, according to 18s rDNA sequence, has a conserved orthologue of the polymorphic immunodominant molecule (PIM) that forms the basis of the diagnostic ELISA used for T. parva serological detection. Closely related orthologues of several CD8 T cell target antigen genes are also shared with T. parva. By contrast, orthologues of the T. parva p104 and the p67 sporozoite surface antigens could not be amplified by PCR from T. sp. (buffalo), using conserved primers designed from the corresponding T. parva sequences. Collectively the data re-emphasise doubts regarding the value of rDNA sequence data alone for defining apicomplexan species in the absence of additional data. 'Deep 454 pyrosequencing' of DNA from two Theileria sporozoite stabilates prepared from Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks fed on buffalo failed to detect T. sp. (buffalo). This strongly suggests that R. appendiculatus may not be a vector for T. sp. (buffalo). Collectively, the data provides further evidence that T. sp. (buffalo). is a distinct species from T. parva. PMID:26543804

  8. The African buffalo parasite Theileria. sp. (buffalo) can infect and immortalize cattle leukocytes and encodes divergent orthologues of Theileria parva antigen genes

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, R.P.; Hemmink, J.D.; Morrison, W.I.; Weir, W.; Toye, P.G.; Sitt, T.; Spooner, P.R.; Musoke, A.J.; Skilton, R.A.; Odongo, D.O.

    2015-01-01

    African Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is the wildlife reservoir of multiple species within the apicomplexan protozoan genus Theileria, including Theileria parva which causes East coast fever in cattle. A parasite, which has not yet been formally named, known as Theileria sp. (buffalo) has been recognized as a potentially distinct species based on rDNA sequence, since 1993. We demonstrate using reverse line blot (RLB) and sequencing of 18S rDNA genes, that in an area where buffalo and cattle co-graze and there is a heavy tick challenge, T. sp. (buffalo) can frequently be isolated in culture from cattle leukocytes. We also show that T. sp. (buffalo), which is genetically very closely related to T. parva, according to 18s rDNA sequence, has a conserved orthologue of the polymorphic immunodominant molecule (PIM) that forms the basis of the diagnostic ELISA used for T. parva serological detection. Closely related orthologues of several CD8 T cell target antigen genes are also shared with T. parva. By contrast, orthologues of the T. parva p104 and the p67 sporozoite surface antigens could not be amplified by PCR from T. sp. (buffalo), using conserved primers designed from the corresponding T. parva sequences. Collectively the data re-emphasise doubts regarding the value of rDNA sequence data alone for defining apicomplexan species in the absence of additional data. ‘Deep 454 pyrosequencing’ of DNA from two Theileria sporozoite stabilates prepared from Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks fed on buffalo failed to detect T. sp. (buffalo). This strongly suggests that R. appendiculatus may not be a vector for T. sp. (buffalo). Collectively, the data provides further evidence that T. sp. (buffalo). is a distinct species from T. parva. PMID:26543804

  9. Identification of Theileria parva and Theileria sp. (buffalo) 18S rRNA gene sequence variants in the African Buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Chaisi, Mamohale E; Sibeko, Kgomotso P; Collins, Nicola E; Potgieter, Fred T; Oosthuizen, Marinda C

    2011-12-15

    Theileria parva is the causative agent of Corridor disease in cattle in South Africa. The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is the reservoir host, and, as these animals are important for eco-tourism in South Africa, it is compulsory to test and certify them disease free prior to translocation. A T. parva-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test based on the small subunit ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) gene is one of the tests used for the diagnosis of the parasite in buffalo and cattle in South Africa. However, because of the high similarity between the 18S rRNA gene sequences of T. parva and Theileria sp. (buffalo), the latter is also amplified by the real-time PCR primers, although it is not detected by the T. parva-specific hybridization probes. Preliminary sequencing studies have revealed a small number of sequence differences within the 18S rRNA gene in both species but the extent of this sequence variation is unknown. The aim of the current study was to sequence the 18S rRNA genes of T. parva and Theileria sp. (buffalo), and to determine whether all identified genotypes can be correctly detected by the real-time PCR assay. The reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization assay was used to identify T. parva and Theileria sp. (buffalo) positive samples from buffalo blood samples originating from the Kruger National Park, Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, the Greater Limpopo Transfrontier Park, and a private game ranch in the Hoedspruit area. T. parva and Theileria sp. (buffalo) were identified in 42% and 28%, respectively, of 252 samples, mainly as mixed infections. The full-length 18S rRNA gene of selected samples was amplified, cloned and sequenced. From a total of 20 sequences obtained, 10 grouped with previously published T. parva sequences from GenBank while 10 sequences grouped with a previously published Theileria sp. (buffalo) sequence. All these formed a monophyletic group with known pathogenic Theileria species. Our phylogenetic analyses confirm the

  10. Insight Into Genomic Changes Accompanying Divergence: Genetic Linkage Maps and Synteny of Lucania goodei and L. parva Reveal a Robertsonian Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Berdan, Emma L.; Kozak, Genevieve M.; Ming, Ray; Rayburn, A. Lane; Kiehart, Ryan; Fuller, Rebecca C.

    2014-01-01

    Linkage maps are important tools in evolutionary genetics and in studies of speciation. We performed a karyotyping study and constructed high-density linkage maps for two closely related killifish species, Lucania parva and L. goodei, that differ in salinity tolerance and still hybridize in their contact zone in Florida. Using SNPs from orthologous EST contigs, we compared synteny between the two species to determine how genomic architecture has shifted with divergence. Karyotyping revealed that L. goodei possesses 24 acrocentric chromosomes (1N) whereas L. parva possesses 23 chromosomes (1N), one of which is a large metacentric chromosome. Likewise, high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism−based linkage maps indicated 24 linkage groups for L. goodei and 23 linkage groups for L. parva. Synteny mapping revealed two linkage groups in L. goodei that were highly syntenic with the largest linkage group in L. parva. Together, this evidence points to the largest linkage group in L. parva being the result of a chromosomal fusion. We further compared synteny between Lucania with the genome of a more distant teleost relative medaka (Oryzias latipes) and found good conservation of synteny at the chromosomal level. Each Lucania LG had a single best match with each medaka chromosome. These results provide the groundwork for future studies on the genetic architecture of reproductive isolation and salinity tolerance in Lucania and other Fundulidae. PMID:24898707

  11. Genes transcribed in the salivary glands of female Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks infected with Theileria parva.

    PubMed

    Nene, Vishvanath; Lee, Dan; Kang'a, Simon; Skilton, Robert; Shah, Trushar; de Villiers, Etienne; Mwaura, Stephen; Taylor, David; Quackenbush, John; Bishop, Richard

    2004-10-01

    We describe the generation of an auto-annotated index of genes that are expressed in the salivary glands of four-day fed female adult Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks. A total of 9162 EST sequences were derived from an uninfected tick cDNA library and 9844 ESTs were from a cDNA library from ticks infected with Theileria parva, which develop in type III salivary gland acini. There were no major differences between abundantly expressed ESTs from the two cDNA libraries, although there was evidence for an up-regulation in the expression of some glycine-rich proteins in infected salivary glands. Gene ontology terms were also assigned to sequences in the index and those with potential enzyme function were linked to the Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes database, allowing reconstruction of metabolic pathways. Several genes code for previously characterized tick proteins such as receptors for myokinin or ecdysteroid and an immunosuppressive protein. cDNAs coding for homologs of heme-lipoproteins which are major components of tick hemolymph were identified by searching the database with published N-terminal peptide sequence data derived from biochemically purified Boophilus microplus proteins. The EST data will be a useful resource for construction of microarrays to probe vector biology, vector-host and vector-pathogen interactions and to underpin gene identification via proteomics approaches. PMID:15475305

  12. The biology of Theileria parva and control of East Coast fever - Current status and future trends.

    PubMed

    Nene, Vishvanath; Kiara, Henry; Lacasta, Anna; Pelle, Roger; Svitek, Nicholas; Steinaa, Lucilla

    2016-06-01

    Tremendous progress has been made over the last ten years on East Coast fever (ECF) research. Publication of a reference genome sequence of Theileria parva, the causative agent of ECF, has led to a more thorough characterization of the genotypic and antigenic diversity of the pathogen. It also facilitated identification of antigens that are targets of bovine major histocompatibility complex class I restricted cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs), induced by a live parasite-based infection and treatment method (ITM) vaccine. This has led to improved knowledge of epitope-specific T-cell responses to ITM that most likely contribute to the phenomenon of strain-specific immunity. The Muguga cocktail ITM vaccine, which provides broad-spectrum immunity to ECF is now a registered product in three countries in eastern Africa. Effort is directed at improving and scaling up the production process to make this vaccine more widely available on a commercial basis in the region. Meanwhile, research to develop a subunit vaccine based on parasite neutralizing antibodies and CTLs has been revived through convening of a research consortium to develop proof-of-concept for a next generation vaccine. Many new scientific and technical advances are facilitating this objective. Hence, the next decade promises even more progress toward an improved control of ECF. PMID:26972687

  13. Environment and farm factors associated with exposure to Theileria parva infection in cattle under traditional mixed farming system in Mbeere District, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Gachohi, John M; Kitala, Phillip M; Ngumi, Priscilla N; Skilton, Rob A

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between seroprevalence to Theileria parva infection in cattle and potential environmental and farm-level effects in 80 farms under traditional crop-livestock system in Mbeere District, Kenya. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect the effects characteristics as related to T. parva infection epidemiology. Serum samples were collected from 440 cattle of all ages for detection of T. parva antibodies by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. The association between the variables was assessed using a generalized estimation equation logistic regression model. The overall T. parva seroprevalence, accounting for correlation of responses, was 19.3% (95% confidence interval (CI) 14%, 25%). Two variables, "administrative division" and "presence of the vector tick on the farm", were significantly associated with the T. parva seroresponse. Respectively, cattle from farms in Gachoka, Evurore, and Mwea divisions were (and their 95% CI) 1.3 (0.36, 4.8), 4.4 (1.2, 15.9), and 15.2 (4.9, 47.1) times more likely to be seropositive relative to those from Siakago Division (P = 0.000). Cattle from farms in which the vector tick was present were 2.9 (1.2, 6.7) times more likely to be seropositive (P = 0.011). Results of this study suggested that both environmental and farm factors may be associated with T. parva infection epidemiology in Mbeere District. Under such circumstances, characterization of environmental suitability for the vector tick and corresponding environment-specific farm management practices in the district is required both for improved understanding of the disease and in planning disease control programs. PMID:20835912

  14. Environment and farm factors associated with exposure to Theileria parva infection in cattle under traditional mixed farming system in Mbeere District, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Gachohi, John M; Kitala, Phillip M; Ngumi, Priscilla N; Skilton, Rob A

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between seroprevalence to Theileria parva infection in cattle and potential environmental and farm-level effects in 80 farms under traditional crop-livestock system in Mbeere District, Kenya. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect the effects characteristics as related to T. parva infection epidemiology. Serum samples were collected from 440 cattle of all ages for detection of T. parva antibodies by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. The association between the variables was assessed using a generalized estimation equation logistic regression model. The overall T. parva seroprevalence, accounting for correlation of responses, was 19.3% (95% confidence interval (CI) 14%, 25%). Two variables, "administrative division" and "presence of the vector tick on the farm", were significantly associated with the T. parva seroresponse. Respectively, cattle from farms in Gachoka, Evurore, and Mwea divisions were (and their 95% CI) 1.3 (0.36, 4.8), 4.4 (1.2, 15.9), and 15.2 (4.9, 47.1) times more likely to be seropositive relative to those from Siakago Division (P = 0.000). Cattle from farms in which the vector tick was present were 2.9 (1.2, 6.7) times more likely to be seropositive (P = 0.011). Results of this study suggested that both environmental and farm factors may be associated with T. parva infection epidemiology in Mbeere District. Under such circumstances, characterization of environmental suitability for the vector tick and corresponding environment-specific farm management practices in the district is required both for improved understanding of the disease and in planning disease control programs.

  15. A new Eastern Central Atlantic skate Raja parva sp. nov. (Rajoidei: Rajidae) belonging to the Raja miraletus species complex.

    PubMed

    Last, Peter R; Séret, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    An investigation of combined CO1 and NADH2 data for rajid skates referable to Raja miraletus provided evidence that populations ranging from southern Africa to the North-East Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea, once considered to represent a cline, belong to a species complex consisting of at least four valid species. Raja miraletus appears to be confined to the Mediterranean Sea, and the North-East Atlantic from the Bay of Biscay south to Morocco and Madeira. The southernmost species, referable to the resurrected Raja ocellifera, occurs off southern Africa, off Namibia and from False Bay to Durban (South Africa). Two species occur off tropical West Africa, including Raja parva sp. nov. (Senegal, Liberia and Angola but is probably more widespread within the region), and another unidentified species needing further investigation. Raja cf. miraletus, confirmed from Mauritania and Senegal, appears to be a larger skate with a broader disc, more broadly pointed snout, larger spiracles, and a slightly longer and broader tail. Raja parva sp. nov. differs from nominal members of the complex in having an unusually long procaudal tail (exceeding 22% TL), as well as a combination of other external characters. Past investigators observed morphological and anatomical differences between these forms but these were thought to be due to intraspecific variability. They postulated that an upwelling at Cape Blanco (21°N) may have isolated the Mediterranean form (R. miraletus) from Mauritania-Senegal form (now known to be two species). Similarly, the Benguela Current and upwelling off Cape Frio (18°S) were thought to be responsible for separating the Angolan form (R. parva) and South African form (R. ocellifera). PMID:27515630

  16. Population genetic analysis of Theileria parva isolated in cattle and buffaloes in Tanzania using minisatellite and microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Rukambile, Elpidius; Machuka, Eunice; Njahira, Moses; Kyalo, Martina; Skilton, Robert; Mwega, Elisa; Chota, Andrew; Mathias, Mkama; Sallu, Raphael; Salih, Diaeldin

    2016-07-15

    A population genetic study of Theileria parva was conducted on 103 cattle and 30 buffalo isolates from Kibaha, Lushoto, Njombe Districts and selected National parks in Tanzania. Bovine blood samples were collected from these study areas and categorized into 5 populations; Buffalo, Cattle which graze close to buffalo, Kibaha, Lushoto and Njombe. Samples were tested by nested PCR for T. parva DNA and positives were compared for genetic diversity to the T. parva Muguga vaccine reference strain, using 3micro and 11 minisatellite markers selected from all 4 chromosomes of the parasite genome. The diversity across populations was determined by the mean number of different alleles, mean number of effective alleles, mean number of private allele and expected heterozygosity. The mean number of allele unique to populations for Cattle close to buffalo, Muguga, Njombe, Kibaha, Lushoto and Buffalo populations were 0.18, 0.24, 0.63, 0.71, 1.63 and 3.37, respectively. The mean number of different alleles ranged from 6.97 (Buffalo) to 0.07 (Muguga). Mean number of effective alleles ranged from 4.49 (Buffalo) to 0.29 (Muguga). The mean expected heterozygosity were 0.07 0.29, 0.45, 0.48, 0.59 and 0.64 for Muguga, cattle close to buffalo, Kibaha, Njombe, Lushoto and Buffalo populations, respectively. The Buffalo and Lushoto isolates possessed a close degree of diversity in terms of mean number of different alleles, effective alleles, private alleles and expected heterozygosity. The study revealed more diversity in buffalo isolates and further studies are recommended to establish if there is sharing of parasites between cattle and buffaloes which may affect the effectiveness of the control methods currently in use.

  17. Population genetic analysis of Theileria parva isolated in cattle and buffaloes in Tanzania using minisatellite and microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Rukambile, Elpidius; Machuka, Eunice; Njahira, Moses; Kyalo, Martina; Skilton, Robert; Mwega, Elisa; Chota, Andrew; Mathias, Mkama; Sallu, Raphael; Salih, Diaeldin

    2016-07-15

    A population genetic study of Theileria parva was conducted on 103 cattle and 30 buffalo isolates from Kibaha, Lushoto, Njombe Districts and selected National parks in Tanzania. Bovine blood samples were collected from these study areas and categorized into 5 populations; Buffalo, Cattle which graze close to buffalo, Kibaha, Lushoto and Njombe. Samples were tested by nested PCR for T. parva DNA and positives were compared for genetic diversity to the T. parva Muguga vaccine reference strain, using 3micro and 11 minisatellite markers selected from all 4 chromosomes of the parasite genome. The diversity across populations was determined by the mean number of different alleles, mean number of effective alleles, mean number of private allele and expected heterozygosity. The mean number of allele unique to populations for Cattle close to buffalo, Muguga, Njombe, Kibaha, Lushoto and Buffalo populations were 0.18, 0.24, 0.63, 0.71, 1.63 and 3.37, respectively. The mean number of different alleles ranged from 6.97 (Buffalo) to 0.07 (Muguga). Mean number of effective alleles ranged from 4.49 (Buffalo) to 0.29 (Muguga). The mean expected heterozygosity were 0.07 0.29, 0.45, 0.48, 0.59 and 0.64 for Muguga, cattle close to buffalo, Kibaha, Njombe, Lushoto and Buffalo populations, respectively. The Buffalo and Lushoto isolates possessed a close degree of diversity in terms of mean number of different alleles, effective alleles, private alleles and expected heterozygosity. The study revealed more diversity in buffalo isolates and further studies are recommended to establish if there is sharing of parasites between cattle and buffaloes which may affect the effectiveness of the control methods currently in use. PMID:27270385

  18. Population attributable fractions of farm vector tick (Rhipicephalus appendiculatus) presence on Theileria parva infection seroprevalence under endemic instability.

    PubMed

    Gachohi, J M; Kitala, P M; Ngumi, P N; Skilton, R A; Bett, B

    2013-02-01

    The primary objective of this study was to assess the impact of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus tick presence (exposure variable) on Theileria parva infection seroprevalence (outcome variable) in a group of cattle belonging to a farm using population attributable fractions (PAF). The analyses were based on a representative sample of 80 traditional smallholder mixed farms. The farms were selected by first stratifying the population administratively and implementing a multistage random sampling in Mbeere district in Kenya. The PAFs were estimated using the stratified, Bruzzi, and sequential partitioned PAF approaches. A secondary objective was, thus, to evaluate the impact of the approaches on the PAF estimates. The stratified and Bruzzi approaches estimated proportion of T. parva infection cases directly attributable to the exposure after controlling for confounding by agro-ecological zone (AEZ). The sequential partitioned PAF approach estimated a PAF associated with exposure after adjusting for any effect that the AEZ may have had by influencing the prevalence of the exposure. All analyses were carried out at the farm level where a farm was classified as infested if the tick was found on cattle on a farm, and infected if at least one animal on a farm was positive for T. parva antibodies. Variance estimation for PAFs was implemented using 'delete-a-group' jackknife re-sampling method. The stratified PAF (26.7% [95% CI: 9.0%, 44.4%]) and Bruzzi PAF (26.4% [95% CI: 9.6%, 43.2%]) were consistent in estimating a relatively low impact of farm vector tick presence with a relatively high level of uncertainty. The partitioned PAF (15.5% [95% CI: 1.5%, 29.6%]) suggested that part of the impacts estimated using the stratified PAF and Bruzzi approaches was driven by AEZ effects. Overall, the results suggested that under endemic instability in Mbeere district, (1) presence of R. appendiculatus was not a good indicator of T. parva infection occurrence on a farm; (2) ecological

  19. Physical and Cognitive Performance of the Least Shrew (Cryptotis parva) on a Calcium-Restricted Diet.

    PubMed

    Czajka, Jessica L; McCay, Timothy S; Garneau, Danielle E

    2012-09-01

    Geological substrates and air pollution affect the availability of calcium to mammals in many habitats, including the Adirondack Mountain Region (Adirondacks) of the United States. Mammalian insectivores, such as shrews, may be particularly restricted in environments with low calcium. We examined the consequences of calcium restriction on the least shrew (Cryptotis parva) in the laboratory. We maintained one group of shrews (5 F, 5 M) on a mealworm diet with a calcium concentration comparable to beetle larvae collected in the Adirondacks (1.1 ± 0.3 mg/g) and another group (5 F, 3 M) on a mealworm diet with a calcium concentration almost 20 times higher (19.5 ± 5.1 mg/g). Animals were given no access to mineral sources of calcium, such as snail shell or bone. We measured running speed and performance in a complex maze over 10 weeks. Shrews on the high-calcium diet made fewer errors in the maze than shrews on the low-calcium diet (F1,14 = 12.8, p < 0.01). Females made fewer errors than males (F1,14 = 10.6, p < 0.01). Running speeds did not markedly vary between diet groups or sexes, though there was a trend toward faster running by shrews on the high calcium diet (p = 0.087). Shrews in calcium-poor habitats with low availability of mineral sources of calcium may have greater difficulty with cognitive tasks such as navigation and recovery of food hoards.

  20. Physical and Cognitive Performance of the Least Shrew (Cryptotis parva) on a Calcium-Restricted Diet

    PubMed Central

    Czajka, Jessica L.; McCay, Timothy S.; Garneau, Danielle E.

    2012-01-01

    Geological substrates and air pollution affect the availability of calcium to mammals in many habitats, including the Adirondack Mountain Region (Adirondacks) of the United States. Mammalian insectivores, such as shrews, may be particularly restricted in environments with low calcium. We examined the consequences of calcium restriction on the least shrew (Cryptotis parva) in the laboratory. We maintained one group of shrews (5 F, 5 M) on a mealworm diet with a calcium concentration comparable to beetle larvae collected in the Adirondacks (1.1 ± 0.3 mg/g) and another group (5 F, 3 M) on a mealworm diet with a calcium concentration almost 20 times higher (19.5 ± 5.1 mg/g). Animals were given no access to mineral sources of calcium, such as snail shell or bone. We measured running speed and performance in a complex maze over 10 weeks. Shrews on the high-calcium diet made fewer errors in the maze than shrews on the low-calcium diet (F1,14 = 12.8, p < 0.01). Females made fewer errors than males (F1,14 = 10.6, p < 0.01). Running speeds did not markedly vary between diet groups or sexes, though there was a trend toward faster running by shrews on the high calcium diet (p = 0.087). Shrews in calcium-poor habitats with low availability of mineral sources of calcium may have greater difficulty with cognitive tasks such as navigation and recovery of food hoards. PMID:25379219

  1. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Theileria parva antibodies in cattle using a recombinant polymorphic immunodominant molecule.

    PubMed

    Katende, J; Morzaria, S; Toye, P; Skilton, R; Nene, V; Nkonge, C; Musoke, A

    1998-05-01

    Field and experimental bovine infection sera were used in immunoblots of sporozoite and schizont lysates of Theileria parva to identify candidate diagnostic antigens. Four parasite antigens of Mr 67,000 (p67), 85,000 (the polymorphic immunodominant molecule, PIM), 104,000 (p104), and 150,000 (p150) were selected for a more detailed analysis. The p67 and p104 antigens were present only in the sporozoite lysates, whereas PIM and p150 were found in both sporozoite and schizont lysates. The four antigens were expressed as recombinant fusion proteins and were compared with each other in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and in the whole-schizont-based indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) in terms of their ability to detect antibodies in sera of experimentally infected cattle. The PIM-based ELISA provided a higher degree of sensitivity and specificity than did the ELISA using the other three recombinant antigens or the IFAT. Further evaluation of the PIM-ELISA using experimental sera derived from cattle infected with different hemoparasites and field sera from endemic and nonendemic T. parva areas showed that the assay had a sensitivity of > 99% and a specificity of between 94% and 98%. PMID:9610640

  2. Cloning and characterization of a 150 kDa microsphere antigen of Theileria parva that is immunologically cross-reactive with the polymorphic immunodominant molecule (PIM).

    PubMed

    Skilton, R A; Bishop, R P; Wells, C W; Spooner, P R; Gobright, E; Nkonge, C; Musoke, A J; Macklin, M; Iams, K P

    1998-10-01

    To identify the genes encoding novel immunodominant antigens of Theileria parva a lambda gt11 library of piroplasm genomic DNA was immunoscreened with bovine recovery serum and a gene encoding a 150 kDa antigen (p150) was identified. The predicted polypeptide contains an N-terminal secretory signal sequence and a proline-rich region of repeated amino acid motifs. The repeat region is polymorphic between stocks of T. parva in both copy number and sequence, and analysis of the repeat region from 10 stocks of T. parva revealed 5 p150 variants. A monoclonal antibody (mAb) against the T. parva polymorphic immunodominant molecule (PIM) cross-reacted with the recombinant p150. The p150 has sequence homology with a PIM peptide sequence containing the anti-PIM mAb epitope. Immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated that the p150 antigen, like PIM, is located in the microspheres of the sporozoites and is exocytosed following sporozoite invasion of the host lymphocyte. By immunoelectron microscopy p150 was subsequently transiently detectable on the sporozoite surface and in the lymphocyte cytosol. Immunoblotting showed that p150 is also expressed by the schizont stage, but at much lower levels compared to the sporozoite. These results suggest a major role for p150 in the early events of host-sporozoite interaction. PMID:9820853

  3. Molecular Genetic Variation in Emmonsia crescens and Emmonsia parva, Etiologic Agents of Adiaspiromycosis, and Their Phylogenetic Relationship to Blastomyces dermatitidis (Ajellomyces dermatitidis) and Other Systemic Fungal Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Stephen W.; Sigler, Lynne

    1998-01-01

    Emmonsia crescens, an agent of adiaspiromycosis, Blastomyces dermatitidis, the agent of blastomycosis, and Histoplasma capsulatum, the agent of histoplasmosis, are known to form meiotic (sexual) stages in the ascomycete genus Ajellomyces (Onygenaceae, Onygenales), but no sexual stage is known for E. parva, the type species of the genus Emmonsia. To evaluate relationships among members of the putative Ajellomyces clade, large-subunit ribosomal and internal transcribed spacer region DNA sequences were determined from PCR-amplified DNA fragments. Sequences were analyzed phylogenetically to evaluate the genetic variation within the genus Emmonsia and evolutionary relationships to other taxa. E. crescens and E. parva are distinct species. E. crescens isolates are placed into two groups that correlate with their continents of origin. Considerable variation occurred among isolates previously classified as E. parva. Most isolates are placed into two closely related groups, but the remaining isolates, including some from human sources, are phylogenetically distinct and represent undescribed species. Strains of B. dermatitidis are a sister species of E. parva. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Histoplasma capsulatum are ancestral to most Emmonsia isolates, and P. brasiliensis, which has no known teleomorph, falls within the Ajellomyces clade. PMID:9738044

  4. Identification and sequence characterization of novel Theileria genotypes from the waterbuck (Kobus defassa) in a Theileria parva-endemic area in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Githaka, Naftaly; Konnai, Satoru; Bishop, Richard; Odongo, David; Lekolool, Isaac; Kariuki, Edward; Gakuya, Francis; Kamau, Lucy; Isezaki, Masayoshi; Murata, Shiro; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2014-05-28

    Waterbuck (Kobus defassa), an ungulate species endemic to the Eastern African savannah, is suspected of being a wildlife reservoir for tick-transmitted parasites infective to livestock. Waterbuck is infested by large numbers of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, the tick vector for Theileria parva, and previous data suggests that the species may be a source of T. parva transmission to cattle. In the present study, a total of 86 cattle and 26 waterbuck blood samples were obtained from Marula, a site in Kenya endemic for East Coast fever (ECF) where the primary wildlife reservoir of T. parva the Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is also common. To investigate for the presence of cattle-infective Theileria parasites, DNA specimens extracted from the blood samples were subjected to two diagnostic assays; a nested PCR based on the p104 gene that is specific for T. parva, and a reverse line blot (RLB) incorporating 13 oligonucleotide probes including all of the Theileria spp. so far described from livestock and wildlife in Kenya. Neither assay provided evidence of T. parva or Theileria sp. (buffalo) infection in the waterbuck DNA samples. By contrast, majority of the cattle samples (67.4%) were positive for T. parva using a nested PCR assay. The RLB assay, including a generic probe for the genus Theileria, indicated that 25/26 (96%) of the waterbuck samples were positive for Theileria, while none of the 11 Theileria species-specific probes hybridized with the waterbuck-derived PCR products. Phylogenetic analysis of 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences within the RLB-positive waterbuck samples revealed the occurrence of three Theileria genotypes of unknown identity designated A, B and C. Group A clustered with Theileria equi, a pathogenic Theileria species and a causative agent of equine piroplasmosis in domestic equids. However, DNA from this group failed to hybridize with the T. equi oligonucleotide present on the RLB filter probe

  5. Identification and sequence characterization of novel Theileria genotypes from the waterbuck (Kobus defassa) in a Theileria parva-endemic area in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Githaka, Naftaly; Konnai, Satoru; Bishop, Richard; Odongo, David; Lekolool, Isaac; Kariuki, Edward; Gakuya, Francis; Kamau, Lucy; Isezaki, Masayoshi; Murata, Shiro; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2014-05-28

    Waterbuck (Kobus defassa), an ungulate species endemic to the Eastern African savannah, is suspected of being a wildlife reservoir for tick-transmitted parasites infective to livestock. Waterbuck is infested by large numbers of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, the tick vector for Theileria parva, and previous data suggests that the species may be a source of T. parva transmission to cattle. In the present study, a total of 86 cattle and 26 waterbuck blood samples were obtained from Marula, a site in Kenya endemic for East Coast fever (ECF) where the primary wildlife reservoir of T. parva the Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is also common. To investigate for the presence of cattle-infective Theileria parasites, DNA specimens extracted from the blood samples were subjected to two diagnostic assays; a nested PCR based on the p104 gene that is specific for T. parva, and a reverse line blot (RLB) incorporating 13 oligonucleotide probes including all of the Theileria spp. so far described from livestock and wildlife in Kenya. Neither assay provided evidence of T. parva or Theileria sp. (buffalo) infection in the waterbuck DNA samples. By contrast, majority of the cattle samples (67.4%) were positive for T. parva using a nested PCR assay. The RLB assay, including a generic probe for the genus Theileria, indicated that 25/26 (96%) of the waterbuck samples were positive for Theileria, while none of the 11 Theileria species-specific probes hybridized with the waterbuck-derived PCR products. Phylogenetic analysis of 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences within the RLB-positive waterbuck samples revealed the occurrence of three Theileria genotypes of unknown identity designated A, B and C. Group A clustered with Theileria equi, a pathogenic Theileria species and a causative agent of equine piroplasmosis in domestic equids. However, DNA from this group failed to hybridize with the T. equi oligonucleotide present on the RLB filter probe

  6. Introduced pathogens and native freshwater biodiversity: a case study of Sphaerothecum destruens.

    PubMed

    Andreou, Demetra; Arkush, Kristen D; Guégan, Jean-François; Gozlan, Rodolphe E

    2012-01-01

    A recent threat to European fish diversity was attributed to the association between an intracellular parasite, Sphaerothecum destruens, and a healthy freshwater fish carrier, the invasive Pseudorasbora parva originating from China. The pathogen was found to be responsible for the decline and local extinction of the European endangered cyprinid Leucaspius delineatus and high mortalities in stocks of Chinook and Atlantic salmon in the USA. Here, we show that the emerging S. destruens is also a threat to a wider range of freshwater fish than originally suspected such as bream, common carp, and roach. This is a true generalist as an analysis of susceptible hosts shows that S. destruens is not limited to a phylogenetically narrow host spectrum. This disease agent is a threat to fish biodiversity as it can amplify within multiple hosts and cause high mortalities.

  7. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes from cattle immunized against Theileria parva exhibit pronounced cross-reactivity among different strain-specific epitopes of the Tp1 antigen.

    PubMed

    Steinaa, L; Saya, R; Awino, E; Toye, P

    2012-02-15

    The protozoan parasite Theileria parva causes a usually fatal disease in cattle, known as East Coast fever. Cattle can be vaccinated by injecting live parasites simultaneously with long acting oxytetracycline (the infection and treatment method, ITM). The immunity induced by ITM is believed to be mediated by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). Although effective, the ITM vaccine has disadvantages such as the need for a liquid nitrogen cold chain and a complex production process, which may be overcome by the development of a subunit vaccine. However, the high level of antigenic polymorphism among different strains of T. parva may hinder the development of a subunit vaccine aimed at induction of a protective CTL response. In this study, the CTL cross-reactivity among T. parva strains was examined. The Tp1(214-224) epitope has previously been shown to be recognized by cattle of the A18 BoLA type. Three different variants of this epitope have been identified from different T. parva strains. Here, bulk CTL and CTL clones were generated from two animals using both the live sporozoite vaccine composed of three different strains and a Muguga strain for immunization. The cross-reactivity of these CTL with the three variant Tp1 epitopes was examined in interferon gamma ELISPOT assays and CTL killing assays. CD8(+) cells from both animals cross-reacted with the three variant CTL epitopes in interferon gamma ELISPOT assays, although the CD8(+) cells from the Muguga-immunized animal showed a more epitope restricted response. Clones from the vaccine immunized animal showed diverse response patterns with clones responding to each variant peptide. Although some variability in the cytotoxic response was observed, overall strong cross-reactivity among the variant Tp1 epitopes was seen in both animals. Such epitope polymorphism does not, in this case, serve as a potential challenge in a putative subunit vaccine as it would be sufficient to only include one of the variant epitopes.

  8. Predicting global invasion risks: a management tool to prevent future introductions

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, D. H.; Gillingham, P. K.; Britton, J. R.; Blanchet, S.; Gozlan, R. E.

    2016-01-01

    Predicting regions at risk from introductions of non-native species and the subsequent invasions is a fundamental aspect of horizon scanning activities that enable the development of more effective preventative actions and planning of management measures. The Asian cyprinid fish topmouth gudgeon Pseudorasbora parva has proved highly invasive across Europe since its introduction in the 1960s. In addition to direct negative impacts on native fish populations, P. parva has potential for further damage through transmission of an emergent infectious disease, known to cause mortality in other species. To quantify its invasion risk, in regions where it has yet to be introduced, we trained 900 ecological niche models and constructed an Ensemble Model predicting suitability, then integrated a proxy for introduction likelihood. This revealed high potential for P. parva to invade regions well beyond its current invasive range. These included areas in all modelled continents, with several hotspots of climatic suitability and risk of introduction. We believe that these methods are easily adapted for a variety of other invasive species and that such risk maps could be used by policy-makers and managers in hotspots to formulate increased surveillance and early-warning systems that aim to prevent introductions and subsequent invasions. PMID:27199300

  9. Ichthyofauna of the Kubo, Tochikura, and Ichinono river systems (Kitakami River drainage, northern Japan), with a comparison of predicted and surveyed species richness

    PubMed Central

    Nakae, Masanori; Senou, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The potential fish species pool of the Kubo, Tochikura, and Ichinono river systems (tributaries of the Iwai River, Kitakami River drainage), Iwate Prefecture, northern Japan, was compared with the observed ichthyofauna by using historical records and new field surveys. Based on the literature survey, the potential species pool comprised 24 species/subspecies but only 20, including 7 non-native taxa, were recorded during the fieldwork. The absence during the survey of 11 species/subspecies from the potential species pool suggested either that sampling effort was insufficient, or that accurate determination of the potential species pool was hindered by lack of biogeographic data and ecological data related to the habitat use of the species. With respect to freshwater fish conservation in the area, Lethenteron reissneri, Carassius auratus buergeri, Pseudorasbora pumila, Tachysurus tokiensis, Oryzias latipes, and Cottus nozawae are regarded as priority species, and Cyprinus rubrofuscus, Pseudorasbora parva, and Micropterus salmoides as targets for removal. PMID:25425932

  10. Fish Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Fish Allergy KidsHealth > For Parents > Fish Allergy Print A ... From Home en español Alergia al pescado About Fish Allergy A fish allergy is not exactly the ...

  11. The persistence of Theileria parva infection in cattle immunized using two stocks which differ in their ability to induce a carrier state: analysis using a novel blood spot PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Skilton, R A; Bishop, R P; Katende, J M; Mwaura, S; Morzaria, S P

    2002-03-01

    An improved Theileria parva DNA detection assay based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers derived from the 104 kDa antigen (p104) gene was developed to detect parasite DNA in blood spots on filter paper. The specificity of the assay was validated using DNA from a wide range of cattle-derived and buffalo-derived stocks of T. parva. DNA of T. annulata, T. buffeli, T. lestoquardi, T. mutans and T. taurotragi was not amplified using the p104 primers. The detection threshold of the assay was approximately 1-2 parasites/microl of infected blood. PCR amplification using the p104 primers was applied to sequential samples from groups of cattle experimentally infected with either the T. parva Marikebuni stock that induces a long-term carrier state or the Muguga stock, which does not induce a carrier state. The study extended for up to 487 days post-infection and PCR data from defined time points were compared with parasitological microscopy and serological data, together with xenodiagnosis by experimental application of ticks. Microscopy first detected piroplasms between days 13 and 16 after infection whereas all cattle became PCR +ve between days 9 and 13. Animals infected with the Muguga stock of T. parva had parasite DNA in the peripheral blood, which could be detected by PCR, for between 33 and 129 days post-infection in different animals. By contrast parasite DNA in the blood of cattle infected with the Marikebuni stock could be detected consistently from day 9 up to 487 days, when the study terminated. The data suggest that the nature and persistence of the carrier state may differ markedly between different T. parva parasite stocks. PMID:11922428

  12. One Fish Two Fish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Michele

    1998-01-01

    This activity explains fisheries resource management to seven-year olds. First-grade students learn concepts such as offspring viability, life expectancy, and distribution of species, which help to determine when, where, and how people fish and the importance of fishing responsibly. Lists materials, procedures, and extensions. (SJR)

  13. Selective Toxicity of Persian Gulf Sea Cucumber (Holothuria parva) and Sponge (Haliclona oculata) Methanolic Extracts on Liver Mitochondria Isolated from an Animal Model of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Seydi, Enayatollah; Motallebi, Abbasali; Dastbaz, Maryam; Dehghan, Sahar; Salimi, Ahmad; Nazemi, Melika; Pourahmad, Jalal

    2015-01-01

    Background: Natural products isolated from marine environments are well known for their pharmacodynamic potential in diverse disease treatments, such as for cancer or inflammatory conditions. Sea cucumbers are marine animals of the phylum Echinoderm and the class Holothuroidea, with leathery skin and gelatinous bodies. Sponges are important components of Persian Gulf animal communities, and the marine sponges of the genus Haliclona have been known to display broad-spectrum biological activity. Many studies have shown that sea cucumbers and sponges contain antioxidants and anti-cancer compounds. Objectives: This study was designed to determine the selective toxicity of Persian Gulf sea cucumber (Holothuria parva) and sponge (Haliclona oculata) methanolic extracts on liver mitochondria isolated from an animal model of hepatocellular carcinoma, as part of a national project that hopes to identify novel potential anticancer candidates among Iranian Persian Gulf flora and fauna. Materials and Methods: To induce hepatocarcinogenesis, rats were given diethylnitrosamine (DEN) injections (200 mg/kg i.p. by a single dose), and then the cancer was promoted with 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF) (0.02 w/w) for two weeks. Histopathological evaluations were performed, and levels of liver injury markers and a specific liver cancer marker (alpha-fetoprotein), were determined for confirmation of hepatocellular carcinoma induction. Finally, mitochondria were isolated from cancerous and non-cancerous hepatocytes. Results: Our results showed that H. parva methanolic extracts (250, 500, and 1000 µg/mL) and H. oculata methanolic extracts (200, 400, and 800 µg/mL) increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), mitochondrial swelling, and cytochrome c release in the mitochondria obtained from cancerous hepatocytes, but not in mitochondria obtained from non-cancerous liver hepatocytes. These extracts also induced caspase-3 activation, which is

  14. City Fishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Robert E.

    1979-01-01

    A program of supplying opportunities for fishing at locations within and near urban areas was developed. This effort included stocking, management of bodies of water for fishing, and presentation of fishing clinics for urban fishermen. (RE)

  15. Fish Hearing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaxter, J. H. S.

    1980-01-01

    Provides related information about hearing in fish, including the sensory stimulus of sound in the underwater environment, mechanoreceptors in fish, pressure perception and the swimbladder, specializations in sound conduction peculiar to certain fish families. Includes numerous figures. (CS)

  16. Sequence diversity between class I MHC loci of African native and introduced Bos taurus cattle in Theileria parva endemic regions: in silico peptide binding prediction identifies distinct functional clusters.

    PubMed

    Obara, Isaiah; Nielsen, Morten; Jeschek, Marie; Nijhof, Ard; Mazzoni, Camila J; Svitek, Nicholas; Steinaa, Lucilla; Awino, Elias; Olds, Cassandra; Jabbar, Ahmed; Clausen, Peter-Henning; Bishop, Richard P

    2016-05-01

    There is strong evidence that the immunity induced by live vaccination for control of the protozoan parasite Theileria parva is mediated by class I MHC-restricted CD8(+) T cells directed against the schizont stage of the parasite that infects bovine lymphocytes. The functional competency of class I MHC genes is dependent on the presence of codons specifying certain critical amino acid residues that line the peptide binding groove. Compared with European Bos taurus in which class I MHC allelic polymorphisms have been examined extensively, published data on class I MHC transcripts in African taurines in T. parva endemic areas is very limited. We utilized the multiplexing capabilities of 454 pyrosequencing to make an initial assessment of class I MHC allelic diversity in a population of Ankole cattle. We also typed a population of exotic Holstein cattle from an African ranch for class I MHC and investigated the extent, if any, that their peptide-binding motifs overlapped with those of Ankole cattle. We report the identification of 18 novel allelic sequences in Ankole cattle and provide evidence of positive selection for sequence diversity, including in residues that predominantly interact with peptides. In silico functional analysis resulted in peptide binding specificities that were largely distinct between the two breeds. We also demonstrate that CD8(+) T cells derived from Ankole cattle that are seropositive for T. parva do not recognize vaccine candidate antigens originally identified in Holstein and Boran (Bos indicus) cattle breeds. PMID:26852329

  17. Antarctic Fishes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastman, Joseph T.; DeVries, Arthur L.

    1986-01-01

    Explains the adaptations to Antarctic waters that Notothenioidei, a group of advanced bony fishes, have exhibited. Discusses the fishes' mechanisms of production of antifreeze properties and their capacities for neutral buoyancy in water. (ML)

  18. Receptor-Selective Agonists Induce Emesis and Fos Expression in the Brain and Enteric Nervous System of the Least Shrew (Cryptotis parva)

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Andrew P.; Chebolu, Seetha; Darmani, Nissar A.

    2009-01-01

    Research on the mechanisms of emesis has implicated multiple neurotransmitters via both central (dorsal vagal complex) and peripheral (enteric neurons and enterochromaffin cells) anatomical substrates. Taking advantage of advances in receptor-specific agonists, and utilizing Fos expression as a functional activity marker, this study demonstrates a strong, but incomplete, overlap in anatomical substrates for a variety of emetogens. We used cisplatin and specific agonists to 5-HT3 serotonergic, D2/D3 dopaminergic, and NK1 tachykininergic receptors to induce vomiting in the least shrew (Cryptotis parva), and quantified the resulting Fos expression. The least shrew is a small mammal whose responses to emetic challenges are very similar to its human counterparts. In all cases, the enteric nervous system, nucleus of the solitary tract, and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus demonstrated significantly increased Fos immunoreactivity (Fos-IR). However, Fos-IR induction was notably absent from the area postrema following the dopaminergic and NK1 receptor-specific agents. Two brain nuclei not usually discussed regarding emesis, the dorsal raphe nucleus and paraventricular thalamic nucleus, also demonstrated increased emesis-related Fos-IR. Taken together, these data suggest the dorsal vagal complex is part of a common pathway for a variety of distinct emetogens, but there are central emetic substrates, both medullary and diencephalic, that can be accessed without directly stimulating the area postrema. PMID:19699757

  19. System development for linked-fermentation production of solvents from algal biomass. [Dunaliella tertiolecta, D. primolecta, D. parva, D. bardawil, D. salina

    SciTech Connect

    Nakas, J.P.; Schaedele, M.; Parkinsan, C.M.; Coonley, C.E.; Tanenbaum, S.W.

    1983-11-01

    Five species of the genus Dunaliella (D. tertiolecta, D. primolecta, D. parva, D. bardawil, and D. salina) were examined for glycerol accumulation, growth rate, cell density, and protein and chlorophyll content. The suitability of each algal species for use as a fermentation substrate was judged according to glycerol accumulation and quantities of neutral solvents produced after sequential bacterial fermentations. When grown in 2 M NaCl, with 24 mM NaHCO3 or 3% CO2 at 28 degrees C and with 10,000 to 15,000 lx of incident light on two sides of a glass aquarium, four of the five species tested produced ca. 10 to 20 mg of glycerol per liter of culture. Clostridium pasteurianum was found to convert an algal biomass mixture supplemented with 4% glycerol to ca. 16 g of mixed solvents (n-butanol, 1,3-propanediol, and ethanol) per liter. Acetone was not detected. Additionally, it has been demonstrated that Dunaliella concentrates of up to 300-fold can be directly fermented to an identical pattern of mixed solvents. Overall solvent yields were reduced by more than 50% when fermentations were performed in the presence of 2% NaCl. These results are discussed in terms of practical application in tropical coastal zones.

  20. Fish Dishes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derby, Marie

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art project that was inspired by Greek pottery, specifically dishes shaped as fish. Explains that fourth-grade students drew a fish shape that was later used to create their clay version of the fish. Discusses how the students examined the pottery to make decisions about color and design. (CMK)

  1. Fish Rhabdoviruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kurath, G.; Winton, J.

    2008-01-01

    Many important viral pathogens of fish are members of the family Rhabdoviridae. The viruses in this large group cause significant losses in populations of wild fish as well as among fish reared in aquaculture. Fish rhabdoviruses often have a wide host and geographic range, and infect aquatic animals in both freshwater and seawater. The fish rhabdoviruses comprise a diverse collection of isolates that can be placed in one of two quite different groups: isolates that are members of the established genusNovirhabdovirus, and those that are most similar to members of the genus Vesiculovirus. Because the diseases caused by fish rhabdoviruses are important to aquaculture, diagnostic methods for their detection and identification are well established. In addition to regulations designed to reduce the spread of fish viruses, a significant body of research has addressed methods for the control or prevention of diseases caused by fish rhabdoviruses, including vaccination. The number of reported fish rhabdoviruses continues to grow as a result of the expansion of aquaculture, the increase in global trade, the development of improved diagnostic methods, and heightened surveillance activities. Fish rhabdoviruses serve as useful components of model systems to study vertebrate virus disease, epidemiology, and immunology.

  2. Fish flavor.

    PubMed

    Kawai, T

    1996-02-01

    This article reviews features of flavor in three groups of fishes and summarizes them as follows: (1) fresh saltwater fish are nearly odorless because they contain a small quantity of volatiles; (2 freshwater fish give off pyrrolidine and earthy-odor compounds, which are responsible for their maturity and surrounding water pollution, and (3) euryhaline fish exhibit a variety of unsaturated carbonyls and alcohols derived from enzymatic and nonenzymatic oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PAs). These features are discussed, as are the effects of different enzymatic activities on PA oxidation and the effects of pH on mechanisms of formation of the volatiles. The monotonous volatile constitution of saltwater fish is likely caused by an unknown antioxidation system restraining the fish from oxidizing. The variety of constitution of euryhaline fish, especially that of anadromous fish under spawning conditions, could result from the loss of that system. The thermal environments of heated foods are also reviewed. The basic environment of fish, which allows the formation of flavor compounds, is discussed to confirm the volatiles found in unheated fish.

  3. Acid-base physiology response to ocean acidification of two ecologically and economically important holothuroids from contrasting habitats, Holothuria scabra and Holothuria parva.

    PubMed

    Collard, Marie; Eeckhaut, Igor; Dehairs, Frank; Dubois, Philippe

    2014-12-01

    Sea cucumbers are dominant invertebrates in several ecosystems such as coral reefs, seagrass meadows and mangroves. As bioturbators, they have an important ecological role in making available calcium carbonate and nutrients to the rest of the community. However, due to their commercial value, they face overexploitation in the natural environment. On top of that, occurring ocean acidification could impact these organisms, considered sensitive as echinoderms are osmoconformers, high-magnesium calcite producers and have a low metabolism. As a first investigation of the impact of ocean acidification on sea cucumbers, we tested the impact of short-term (6 to 12 days) exposure to ocean acidification (seawater pH 7.7 and 7.4) on two sea cucumbers collected in SW Madagascar, Holothuria scabra, a high commercial value species living in the seagrass meadows, and H. parva, inhabiting the mangroves. The former lives in a habitat with moderate fluctuations of seawater chemistry (driven by day-night differences) while the second lives in a highly variable intertidal environment. In both species, pH of the coelomic fluid was significantly negatively affected by reduced seawater pH, with a pronounced extracellular acidosis in individuals maintained at pH 7.7 and 7.4. This acidosis was due to an increased dissolved inorganic carbon content and pCO2 of the coelomic fluid, indicating a limited diffusion of the CO2 towards the external medium. However, respiration and ammonium excretion rates were not affected. No evidence of accumulation of bicarbonate was observed to buffer the coelomic fluid pH. If this acidosis stays uncompensated for when facing long-term exposure, other processes could be affected in both species, eventually leading to impacts on their ecological role.

  4. The impact of Theileria parva infections and other factors on calf mean daily weight gains in smallholder dairy farms in Murang'a District, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Gitau, G K; McDermott, J J; McDermott, B; Perry, B D

    2001-10-11

    The association between mean daily weight gain, Theileria parva infections, clinical East Coast fever and other possible determinants of weight gain were examined in a longitudinal observational study that was conducted in cohorts of female calves from five agro-ecological zone (AEZ)-grazing strata. The strata were upper-midlands (UM) 1 zero-grazing, UM 1 open-grazing, UM 2 zero-grazing, UM 4 zero-grazing and UM 4 open-grazing. In total, 225 calves on 188 smallholder dairy farms were visited within the first 2 weeks of life and thereafter at biweekly intervals up to the age of 6 months between March 1995 and August 1996. During each visit, the calves were weighed and other calf-management practices in the farm during the visit such as housing, feeding and tick control also were recorded. Other events such as morbidity and mortality between or during the visits were also recorded. The overall mean daily weight gains were 0.24-0.29 kg (S.D.=0.17-0.22 kg) and were lower than the recommended targets for smallholder farms of 0.40-0.50 kg. The major tendency in variability of daily weight gains was due to visit-to-visit variation (especially in calves >3 months old). Differences in mean daily gains were associated with AEZ-grazing strata and calf-level factors that included breed of calf, calf sickness, incidence of ECF, feeding of milk, concentrate feeds and minerals and interaction between calf age and AEZ-grazing strata (P<0.05). ECF and other calf sicknesses exerted a temporal effect on calf-growth at the height of illness and immediately after; calves later recovered the lost growth except where other factors such as poor calf nutrition prevailed. Improvement in calf-growth in Murang'a District is achievable and extension services should continue to target individual-calf-level management practices. PMID:11535277

  5. Texture Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Julie

    2007-01-01

    In an effort to provide an opportunity for her first graders to explore texture through an engaging subject, the author developed a three-part lesson that features fish in a mixed-media artwork: (1) Exploring Textured Paint; (2) Creating the Fish; and (3) Role Playing. In this lesson, students effectively explore texture through painting, drawing,…

  6. One Fish, Two Fish, Redfish, You Fish!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Katherine; Timmons, Maryellen; Medders, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The recreational fishing activity presented in this article provides a hands-on, problem-based experience for students; it unites biology, math, economics, environmental policy, and population dynamics concepts. In addition, the activity allows students to shape environmental policy in a realistic setting and evaluate their peers' work. By…

  7. Fishing Forecasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    ROFFS stands for Roffer's Ocean Fishing Forecasting Service, Inc. Roffer combines satellite and computer technology with oceanographic information from several sources to produce frequently updated charts sometimes as often as 30 times a day showing clues to the location of marlin, sailfish, tuna, swordfish and a variety of other types. Also provides customized forecasts for racing boats and the shipping industry along with seasonal forecasts that allow the marine industry to formulate fishing strategies based on foreknowledge of the arrival and departure times of different fish. Roffs service exemplifies the potential for benefits to marine industries from satellite observations. Most notable results are reduced search time and substantial fuel savings.

  8. Fish Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... specific fish used on the label. Read all product labels carefully before purchasing and consuming any item. Ingredients ... Getting Started Newly Diagnosed Emergency Care Plan Food Labels Mislabeled Products Tips for Managing Food Allergies Resources For... Most ...

  9. Fish Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... not eat any fish because they worry about mercury in seafood. Mercury is a metal that, at high levels, can ... many types of seafood have little or no mercury at all. So your risk of mercury exposure ...

  10. Designer Fish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, William R., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Described is an activity in which students are asked to design a fish that would survive in a natural system. A project to computerize the activity is discussed. The development of this artificial intelligence software is detailed. (CW)

  11. Evidence of threat to European economy and biodiversity following the introduction of an alien pathogen on the fungal-animal boundary.

    PubMed

    Ercan, Didem; Andreou, Demetra; Sana, Salma; Öntaş, Canan; Baba, Esin; Top, Nildeniz; Karakuş, Uğur; Tarkan, Ali Serhan; Gozlan, Rodolphe Elie

    2015-09-02

    Recent years have seen a global and rapid resurgence of fungal diseases with direct impact on biodiversity and local extinctions of amphibian, coral, or bat populations. Despite similar evidence of population extinction in European fish populations and the associated risk of food aquaculture due to the emerging rosette agent Sphaerothecum destruens, an emerging infectious eukaryotic intracellular pathogen on the fungal-animal boundary, our understanding of current threats remained limited. Long-term monitoring of population decline for the 8-year post-introduction of the fungal pathogen was coupled with seasonal molecular analyses of the 18S rDNA and histological work of native fish species organs. A phylogenetic relationship between the existing EU and US strains using the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer sequences was also carried out. Here, we provide evidence that this emerging parasite has now been introduced via Pseudorasbora parva to sea bass farms, an industry that represents over 400 M€€ annually in a Mediterranean region that is already economically vulnerable. We also provide for the first time evidence linking S. destruens to disease and severe declines in International Union for Conservation of Nature threatened European endemic freshwater fishes (i.e. 80% to 90 % mortalities). Our findings are thus of major economic and conservation importance.

  12. Commercial Fishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This document is a curriculum framework for a program in commercial fishing to be taught in Florida secondary and postsecondary institutions. This outline covers the major concepts/content of the program, which is designed to prepare students for employment in occupations with titles such as net fishers, pot fishers, line fishers, shrimp boat…

  13. Gone Fishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson-Demme, Hillary; Kisiel, Jim

    2003-01-01

    Presents a hands-on activity in which students create a model of an ocean ecosystem to gain an understanding of how humans can alter biodiversity through their actions. Uses differing levels of fishing technology to explore the concepts of sustainability and overfishing. (Author/SOE)

  14. Fish gelatin.

    PubMed

    Boran, Gokhan; Regenstein, Joe M

    2010-01-01

    Gelatin is a multifunctional ingredient used in foods, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and photographic films as a gelling agent, stabilizer, thickener, emulsifier, and film former. As a thermoreversible hydrocolloid with a narrower gap between its melting and gelling temperatures, both of which are below human body temperature, gelatin provides unique advantages over carbohydrate-based gelling agents. Gelatin is mostly produced from pig skin, and cattle hides and bones. Some alternative raw materials have recently gained attention from both researchers and the industry not just because they overcome religious concerns shared by Jews and Muslims but also because they provide, in some cases, technological advantages over mammalian gelatins. Fish skins from a number of fish species are among the other sources that have been comprehensively studied as sources for gelatin production. Fish skins have a significant potential for the production of high-quality gelatin with different melting and gelling temperatures over a much wider range than mammalian gelatins, yet still have a sufficiently high gel strength and viscosity. Gelatin quality is industrially determined by gel strength, viscosity, melting or gelling temperatures, the water content, and microbiological safety. For gelatin manufacturers, yield from a particular raw material is also important. Recent experimental studies have shown that these quality parameters vary greatly depending on the biochemical characteristics of the raw materials, the manufacturing processes applied, and the experimental settings used for quality control tests. In this review, the gelatin quality achieved from different fish species is reviewed along with the experimental procedures used to determine gelatin quality. In addition, the chemical structure of collagen and gelatin, the collagen-gelatin conversion, the gelation process, and the gelatin market are discussed.

  15. Fish Tales

    SciTech Connect

    McLerran, L.

    2010-07-06

    This talk is about fishing and the friendships that have resulted in its pursuit. It is also about theoretical physics, and the relationship of imagination and fantasy to the establishment of ideas about nature. Fishermen, like theoretical physicists, are well known for their inventive imaginations. Perhaps neither are as clever as sailors, who conceived of the mermaid. If one doubts the power of this fantasy, one should remember the ghosts of the many sailors who drowned pursuing these young nymphs. An extraordinary painting by J. Waterhouse is shown as Fig. 1. The enchantment of a mermaid must reflect an extraordinary excess of imagination on the part of the sailor, perhaps together with an impractical turn of mind. A consummated relationship with a mermaid is after all, by its very nature a fantasy incapable of realization. To a theoretical physicist, she is symbolic of many ideas we develop. There are many truths known to fisherman in which one might also find parallels to the goals of scientists: (1) A fish is the only animal that keeps growing after its death; (2) Nothing makes a fish bigger than almost being caught; (3) ''...of all the liars among mankind, the fisherman is the most trustworthy.'' (William Sherwood Fox, in Silken Lines and Silver Hooks); and (4) Men and fish are alike. They both get into trouble when they open their mouths. These quotes may be interpreted as reflecting skepticism regarding the honesty of fisherman, and probably do not reflect adequate admiration for a creative imagination. Is it fair to criticize a person for believing a falsehood that he or she sincerely believes to be true? The fisherman simultaneously invents the lie, and believes in it himself. The parallel with theoretical physics is perhaps only approximate, although we physicists may invent stories that we come to believe, on some rare occasions our ideas actually correspond to a more or less true descriptions of nature. These minor philosophical differences are not

  16. CD8 T-cell responses against the immunodominant Theileria parva peptide Tp249-59 are composed of two distinct populations specific for overlapping 11-mer and 10-mer epitopes.

    PubMed

    Connelley, Timothy K; Li, Xiaoying; MacHugh, Niall; Colau, Didier; Graham, Simon P; van der Bruggen, Pierre; Taracha, Evans L; Gill, Andy; Morrison, William Ivan

    2016-10-01

    Immunity against Theileria parva is associated with CD8 T-cell responses that exhibit immunodominance, focusing the response against limited numbers of epitopes. As candidates for inclusion in vaccines, characterization of responses against immunodominant epitopes is a key component in novel vaccine development. We have previously demonstrated that the Tp249-59 and Tp1214-224 epitopes dominate CD8 T-cell responses in BoLA-A10 and BoLA-18 MHC I homozygous animals, respectively. In this study, peptide-MHC I tetramers for these epitopes, and a subdominant BoLA-A10-restricted epitope (Tp298-106 ), were generated to facilitate accurate and rapid enumeration of epitope-specific CD8 T cells. During validation of these tetramers a substantial proportion of Tp249-59 -reactive T cells failed to bind the tetramer, suggesting that this population was heterogeneous with respect to the recognized epitope. We demonstrate that Tp250-59 represents a distinct epitope and that tetramers produced with Tp50-59 and Tp49-59 show no cross-reactivity. The Tp249-59 and Tp250-59 epitopes use different serine residues as the N-terminal anchor for binding to the presenting MHC I molecule. Molecular dynamic modelling predicts that the two peptide-MHC I complexes adopt structurally different conformations and Tcell receptor β sequence analysis showed that Tp249-59 and Tp250-59 are recognized by non-overlapping T-cell receptor repertoires. Together these data demonstrate that although differing by only a single residue, Tp249-59 and Tp250-59 epitopes form distinct ligands for T-cell receptor recognition. Tetramer analysis of T. parva-specific CD8 T-cell lines confirmed the immunodominance of Tp1214-224 in BoLA-A18 animals and showed in BoLA-A10 animals that the Tp249-59 epitope response was generally more dominant than the Tp250-59 response and confirmed that the Tp298-106 response was subdominant.

  17. CD8 T-cell responses against the immunodominant Theileria parva peptide Tp249-59 are composed of two distinct populations specific for overlapping 11-mer and 10-mer epitopes.

    PubMed

    Connelley, Timothy K; Li, Xiaoying; MacHugh, Niall; Colau, Didier; Graham, Simon P; van der Bruggen, Pierre; Taracha, Evans L; Gill, Andy; Morrison, William Ivan

    2016-10-01

    Immunity against Theileria parva is associated with CD8 T-cell responses that exhibit immunodominance, focusing the response against limited numbers of epitopes. As candidates for inclusion in vaccines, characterization of responses against immunodominant epitopes is a key component in novel vaccine development. We have previously demonstrated that the Tp249-59 and Tp1214-224 epitopes dominate CD8 T-cell responses in BoLA-A10 and BoLA-18 MHC I homozygous animals, respectively. In this study, peptide-MHC I tetramers for these epitopes, and a subdominant BoLA-A10-restricted epitope (Tp298-106 ), were generated to facilitate accurate and rapid enumeration of epitope-specific CD8 T cells. During validation of these tetramers a substantial proportion of Tp249-59 -reactive T cells failed to bind the tetramer, suggesting that this population was heterogeneous with respect to the recognized epitope. We demonstrate that Tp250-59 represents a distinct epitope and that tetramers produced with Tp50-59 and Tp49-59 show no cross-reactivity. The Tp249-59 and Tp250-59 epitopes use different serine residues as the N-terminal anchor for binding to the presenting MHC I molecule. Molecular dynamic modelling predicts that the two peptide-MHC I complexes adopt structurally different conformations and Tcell receptor β sequence analysis showed that Tp249-59 and Tp250-59 are recognized by non-overlapping T-cell receptor repertoires. Together these data demonstrate that although differing by only a single residue, Tp249-59 and Tp250-59 epitopes form distinct ligands for T-cell receptor recognition. Tetramer analysis of T. parva-specific CD8 T-cell lines confirmed the immunodominance of Tp1214-224 in BoLA-A18 animals and showed in BoLA-A10 animals that the Tp249-59 epitope response was generally more dominant than the Tp250-59 response and confirmed that the Tp298-106 response was subdominant. PMID:27317384

  18. A rop net and removable walkway used to quantitatively sample fishes over wetland surfaces in the dwarf mangrove of the Southern Everglades

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorenz, J.J.; McIvor, C.C.; Powell, G.V.N.; Frederick, P.C.

    1997-01-01

    We describe a 9 m2 drop net and removable walkways designed to quantify densities of small fishes in wetland habitats with low to moderate vegetation density. The method permits the collection of small, quantitative, discrete samples in ecologically sensitive areas by combining rapid net deployment from fixed sites with the carefully contained use of the fish toxicant rotenone. This method requires very little contact with the substrate, causes minimal alteration to the habitat being sampled, samples small fishes in an unbiased manner, and allows for differential sampling of microhabitats within a wetland. When used in dwarf red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) habitat in southern Everglades National Park and adjacent areas (September 1990 to March 1993), we achieved high recovery efficiencies (78–90%) for five common species <110 mm in length. We captured 20,193 individuals of 26 species. The most abundant fishes were sheepshead minnowCyprinodon variegatus, goldspotted killifishFloridichthys carpio, rainwater killifishLucania parva, sailfin mollyPoecilia latipinna, and the exotic Mayan cichlidCichlasoma urophthalmus. The 9 m2 drop net and associated removable walkways are versatile and can be used in a variety of wetland types, including both interior and coastal wetlands with either herbaceous or woody vegetation.

  19. Fishing amplifies forage fish population collapses.

    PubMed

    Essington, Timothy E; Moriarty, Pamela E; Froehlich, Halley E; Hodgson, Emma E; Koehn, Laura E; Oken, Kiva L; Siple, Margaret C; Stawitz, Christine C

    2015-05-26

    Forage fish support the largest fisheries in the world but also play key roles in marine food webs by transferring energy from plankton to upper trophic-level predators, such as large fish, seabirds, and marine mammals. Fishing can, thereby, have far reaching consequences on marine food webs unless safeguards are in place to avoid depleting forage fish to dangerously low levels, where dependent predators are most vulnerable. However, disentangling the contributions of fishing vs. natural processes on population dynamics has been difficult because of the sensitivity of these stocks to environmental conditions. Here, we overcome this difficulty by collating population time series for forage fish populations that account for nearly two-thirds of global catch of forage fish to identify the fingerprint of fisheries on their population dynamics. Forage fish population collapses shared a set of common and unique characteristics: high fishing pressure for several years before collapse, a sharp drop in natural population productivity, and a lagged response to reduce fishing pressure. Lagged response to natural productivity declines can sharply amplify the magnitude of naturally occurring population fluctuations. Finally, we show that the magnitude and frequency of collapses are greater than expected from natural productivity characteristics and therefore, likely attributed to fishing. The durations of collapses, however, were not different from those expected based on natural productivity shifts. A risk-based management scheme that reduces fishing when populations become scarce would protect forage fish and their predators from collapse with little effect on long-term average catches.

  20. Fishing amplifies forage fish population collapses

    PubMed Central

    Essington, Timothy E.; Moriarty, Pamela E.; Froehlich, Halley E.; Hodgson, Emma E.; Koehn, Laura E.; Oken, Kiva L.; Siple, Margaret C.; Stawitz, Christine C.

    2015-01-01

    Forage fish support the largest fisheries in the world but also play key roles in marine food webs by transferring energy from plankton to upper trophic-level predators, such as large fish, seabirds, and marine mammals. Fishing can, thereby, have far reaching consequences on marine food webs unless safeguards are in place to avoid depleting forage fish to dangerously low levels, where dependent predators are most vulnerable. However, disentangling the contributions of fishing vs. natural processes on population dynamics has been difficult because of the sensitivity of these stocks to environmental conditions. Here, we overcome this difficulty by collating population time series for forage fish populations that account for nearly two-thirds of global catch of forage fish to identify the fingerprint of fisheries on their population dynamics. Forage fish population collapses shared a set of common and unique characteristics: high fishing pressure for several years before collapse, a sharp drop in natural population productivity, and a lagged response to reduce fishing pressure. Lagged response to natural productivity declines can sharply amplify the magnitude of naturally occurring population fluctuations. Finally, we show that the magnitude and frequency of collapses are greater than expected from natural productivity characteristics and therefore, likely attributed to fishing. The durations of collapses, however, were not different from those expected based on natural productivity shifts. A risk-based management scheme that reduces fishing when populations become scarce would protect forage fish and their predators from collapse with little effect on long-term average catches. PMID:25848018

  1. Fish tapeworm infection

    MedlinePlus

    Fish tapeworm infection is an intestinal infection with the tapeworm parasite found in fish. ... The fish tapeworm ( Diphyllobothrium latum ) is the largest parasite that infects humans. Humans become infected when they eat raw ...

  2. Got a Sick Fish?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Welfare Veterinary Careers Public Health Got a sick fish? Fish with disease can show a variety of signs. If you notice your pet fish having any unusual disease signs, contact your veterinarian ...

  3. Fish mycobacteriosis (Tuberculosis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parisot, T.J.; Wood, J.W.

    1959-01-01

    The etiologic agent for the bacterial disease, "fish tuberculosis" (more correctly "mycobacteriosis"), was first observed in carp in 189& from a pond in France. Subsequently similar agents have been isolated from or observed in fish in fresh water, salt water, and brackish water, in fish in aquaria, hatcheries, and natural habitat~ (wild populations of fish). The disease has been recognized as an important infection among hatchery reared salmonid fishes on the West Coast of the United States, and in aquarium fishes such as the neon tetra, the Siamese fighting fish, and in salt water fish held in zoological displays.

  4. [Epidemiological Studies Of Clonorchis Sinensis In Mangyeong Riverside Areas In Korea

    PubMed

    Rhee, Jae Ku; Baek, Byeong Kirl; Lee, Sang Bork; Koh, Hong Bum

    1983-12-01

    In an attempt to clarify the epidemiological feature of C. sinensis in Mangyeong riverside area, the prevalence of clonorchiasis, infestation rate of the cercariae in Parafossarulus manchouricus, and detection rate of the metacercariae in fresh-water fishes were investigated from March 1 to September 30, 1983 at the upper, middle and lower reaches of the river. The results obtained were summarized as follows:Detection rate of C. sinensis egg among inhabitants was 8.2 % out of a total of 1,266 persons. but the differences in detection rates were not statistically signifcant among upper, middle and 1ower reaches. According to sex, the detection rates were 10.3 % in male and 6.1 % in female (p<0.05), but by age groups, increases of the rates were observed as increase in age (p<0.05). Out of a total of 380 fresh-water fishes of 32 different species, 93 fishes (25 %) of 12 species were found positive with Clonorchis metacercariae, and there were differences in infection rates of the metacercariae among the fishes in 3 parts of the river; 11 % in upper, 35 % in middle, and 34 % in lower reaches respectively. The metacercarial detection rates from various fishes were 97 % in Pseudorasbora parva, Cultriculus eigenmanni (85 %), Gnathopogon strigatus (67 %), Microphysogobio yaluensis (50 %), Gnathopogon coreanus (47 %), Pungtungia herzi(44 %), Abbottina rivularis (40 %), Moroco oxycephalus (33 %), Coreoleuciscus splendidus (32 %), Gnathopogon majimae (26 %), Rhodeus ocellatus (7 %), and Aphyocypris chinensis (3 %) respectively. Although very few P. manchouricus were collected at upper reach, 12 snails (0.7 %) among a total of 1,713 were found infected with Clonorchis cercariae. Also the cercariae of Echinochasmus japonicus (7.99 %), Lexogenes liberum (0.99 %), Cyathocotyle orientalis (0.75 %), Exorchis oviformis (0.23 %) and Asymphylodora japonica (0.05 %) were detected from the snails.

  5. 49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 173.218 Section 173.218... Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) Except as provided in Column (7) of the HMT in § 172.101 of this subchapter, fish meal or fish scrap, containing at least 6%, but not more than 12% water, is authorized...

  6. 49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 173.218 Section 173.218... Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) Except as provided in Column (7) of the HMT in § 172.101 of this subchapter, fish meal or fish scrap, containing at least 6%, but not more than 12% water, is authorized...

  7. 49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 173.218 Section 173.218... Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) Except as provided in Column (7) of the HMT in § 172.101 of this subchapter, fish meal or fish scrap, containing at least 6%, but not more than 12% water, is authorized...

  8. 49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 173.218 Section 173.218... Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) Except as provided in Column (7) of the HMT in § 172.101 of this subchapter, fish meal or fish scrap, containing at least 6%, but not more than 12% water, is authorized...

  9. 49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 173.218 Section 173.218... Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) Except as provided in Column (7) of the HMT in § 172.101 of this subchapter, fish meal or fish scrap, containing at least 6%, but not more than 12% water, is authorized...

  10. Fishing for Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Bruce

    1994-01-01

    Teaching students to fish not only develops a lifetime leisure skill but also leads to an understanding of aquatic ecosystems and encourages student connection with the natural environment. Addresses educational benefits of incorporating fishing into environmental education and describes how two fishing programs successfully met objectives of…

  11. Fish allergy: in review.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Michael F; Lopata, Andreas L

    2014-06-01

    Globally, the rising consumption of fish and its derivatives, due to its nutritional value and divergence of international cuisines, has led to an increase in reports of adverse reactions to fish. Reactions to fish are not only mediated by the immune system causing allergies, but are often caused by various toxins and parasites including ciguatera and Anisakis. Allergic reactions to fish can be serious and life threatening and children usually do not outgrow this type of food allergy. The route of exposure is not only restricted to ingestion but include manual handling and inhalation of cooking vapors in the domestic and occupational environment. Prevalence rates of self-reported fish allergy range from 0.2 to 2.29 % in the general population, but can reach up to 8 % among fish processing workers. Fish allergy seems to vary with geographical eating habits, type of fish processing, and fish species exposure. The major fish allergen characterized is parvalbumin in addition to several less well-known allergens. This contemporary review discusses interesting and new findings in the area of fish allergy including demographics, novel allergens identified, immunological mechanisms of sensitization, and innovative approaches in diagnosing and managing this life-long disease. PMID:23440653

  12. Fish community results

    SciTech Connect

    Hickman, G.D.; Scott, E.M. Jr.; Brown, A.M.

    1991-05-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) operates 9 reservoirs on the Tennessee River and 37 reservoirs on its tributaries. TVA is committed to maintaining the health of aquatic resources created when the reservoir system was built. To that end, TVA in cooperation with Valley states, operates a water resource monitoring program that includes physical, chemical, and biological data collection components. Biological monitoring will target the following selected elements within three zones of the reservoir (inflow, transition, and forebay): Sediment/Water-column Acute Toxicity Screening, Benthic macroinvertebrates, and Fish. Reservoir fisheries monitoring is divided into the following activities: Fish Biomass, Fish Tissue Contamination, Fish Community Monitoring, and Fish Health Assessment. This report presents the results of fish community monitoring and fish health assessments.

  13. The consequences of reservoir host eradication on disease epidemiology in animal communities

    PubMed Central

    Al-Shorbaji, Farah; Roche, Benjamin; Gozlan, Rodolphe; Britton, Robert; Andreou, Demetra

    2016-01-01

    Non-native species have often been linked with introduction of novel pathogens that spill over into native communities, and the amplification of the prevalence of native parasites. In the case of introduced generalist pathogens, their disease epidemiology in the extant communities remains poorly understood. Here, Sphaerothecum destruens, a generalist fungal-like fish pathogen with bi-modal transmission (direct and environmental) was used to characterise the biological drivers responsible for disease emergence in temperate fish communities. A range of biotic factors relating to both the pathogen and the surrounding host communities were used in a novel susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered (SEIR) model to test how these factors affected disease epidemiology. These included: (i) pathogen prevalence in an introduced reservoir host (Pseudorasbora parva); (ii) the impact of reservoir host eradication and its timing and (iii) the density of potential hosts in surrounding communities and their connectedness. These were modelled across 23 combinations and indicated that the spill-over of pathogen propagules via environmental transmission resulted in rapid establishment in adjacent fish communities (<1 year). Although disease dynamics were initially driven by environmental transmission in these communities, once sufficient numbers of native hosts were infected, the disease dynamics were driven by intra-species transmission. Subsequent eradication of the introduced host, irrespective of its timing (after one, two or three years), had limited impact on the long-term disease dynamics among local fish communities. These outputs reinforced the importance of rapid detection and eradication of non-native species, in particular when such species are identified as healthy reservoirs of a generalist pathogen. PMID:27165562

  14. The consequences of reservoir host eradication on disease epidemiology in animal communities.

    PubMed

    Al-Shorbaji, Farah; Roche, Benjamin; Gozlan, Rodolphe; Britton, Robert; Andreou, Demetra

    2016-01-01

    Non-native species have often been linked with introduction of novel pathogens that spill over into native communities, and the amplification of the prevalence of native parasites. In the case of introduced generalist pathogens, their disease epidemiology in the extant communities remains poorly understood. Here, Sphaerothecum destruens, a generalist fungal-like fish pathogen with bi-modal transmission (direct and environmental) was used to characterise the biological drivers responsible for disease emergence in temperate fish communities. A range of biotic factors relating to both the pathogen and the surrounding host communities were used in a novel susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered (SEIR) model to test how these factors affected disease epidemiology. These included: (i) pathogen prevalence in an introduced reservoir host (Pseudorasbora parva); (ii) the impact of reservoir host eradication and its timing and (iii) the density of potential hosts in surrounding communities and their connectedness. These were modelled across 23 combinations and indicated that the spill-over of pathogen propagules via environmental transmission resulted in rapid establishment in adjacent fish communities (<1 year). Although disease dynamics were initially driven by environmental transmission in these communities, once sufficient numbers of native hosts were infected, the disease dynamics were driven by intra-species transmission. Subsequent eradication of the introduced host, irrespective of its timing (after one, two or three years), had limited impact on the long-term disease dynamics among local fish communities. These outputs reinforced the importance of rapid detection and eradication of non-native species, in particular when such species are identified as healthy reservoirs of a generalist pathogen. PMID:27165562

  15. Cholesterol Oxidation in Fish and Fish Products.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Natalie Marinho; Sampaio, Geni Rodrigues; Ferreira, Fernanda Silva; Labre, Tatiana da Silva; Torres, Elizabeth Aparecida Ferraz da Silva; Saldanha, Tatiana

    2015-12-01

    Fish and fish products are important from a nutritional point of view due to the presence of high biological value proteins and the high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially those of the n-3 series, and above all eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. However, these important food products also contain significant amounts of cholesterol. Although cholesterol participates in essential functions in the human body, it is unstable, especially in the presence of light, oxygen, radiation, and high temperatures that can cause the formation of cholesterol oxidation products or cholesterol oxides, which are prejudicial to human health. Fish processing involves high and low temperatures, as well as other methods for microbiological control, which increases shelf life and consequently added value; however, such processes favor the formation of cholesterol oxidation products. This review brings together data on the formation of cholesterol oxides during the preparation and processing of fish into food products which are recognized and recommended for their nutritional properties.

  16. Fish elevator and method of elevating fish

    DOEpatents

    Truebe, Jonathan; Drooker, Michael S.

    1984-01-01

    A means and method for transporting fish from a lower body of water to a higher body of water. The means comprises a tubular lock with a gated entrance below the level of the lower body of water through which fish may enter the lock and a discharge passage above the level of the upper body of water. The fish raising means in the lock is a crowder pulled upward by a surface float as water from the upper body of water gravitationally flows into the closed lock filling it to the level of the upper body. Water is then pumped into the lock to raise the level to the discharge passage. The crowder is then caused to float upward the remaining distance through the water to the level of the discharge passage by the introduction of air into a pocket on the underside of the crowder. The fish are then automatically discharged from the lock into the discharge passage by the out of water position of the crowder. The movement of the fish into the discharge passage is aided by the continuous overflow of water still being pumped into the lock. A pipe may be connected to the discharge passage to deliver the fish to a selected location in the upper body of water.

  17. Why fishes have a fish shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eloy, Christophe; Schouveiler, Lionel

    2010-11-01

    The relation between form and function for elongated swimmers is revisited by solving a multi-objective optimization problem. We consider elongated fishes of varying elliptic cross-section whose motion is prescribed by a time-periodic curvature. The two semi-axes of the cross-section, the curvature amplitude and phase are assumed to vary continuously along the fish length. Hydrodynamic forces acting on such fishes are modeled in the elongated-body limit by considering both reactive and resistive forces. Applying Newton's second law, the heave and pitch amplitude and phase, as well as the swimming velocity can be found. The total power needed can also be calculated yielding the swimming efficiency. The multi-objective optimization consists in finding the fish shape and associated motion which corresponds to maximum efficiency, maximum velocity or any trade-off between the two. This optimization problem is solved using a genetic algorithm whose principle is to start with an initial random population and to evolve it by mutation and selection. We find that the most efficient shape resembles existing fishes and arguments are given to explain the relation between this particular fish form and performance.

  18. Immunostimulants in fish diets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gannam, A.L.; Schrock, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    Various immunostimulants and their methods of application in fish culture are examined in this review. Important variables such as life stage and innate disease resistance of the fish; immunostimulant used, its structure and mode of action; and the fish's environment are discussed. Conflicting results have been published about the efficacy of immunostimulants in fish diets. Some researchers have had positive responses demonstrated as increased fish survival, others have not. Generally, immunostimulants enhance individual components of the non-specific immune response but that does not always translate into increased fish survival. In addition, immunostimulants fed at too high a dose or for too long can be immunosuppressive. [Article copies available for a fee from The Haworth Document Delivery Service: 1-800-342-9678. E-mail address: getinfo@haworthpressinc.com ].

  19. Fish and shellfish allergy.

    PubMed

    Wild, Laurianne G; Lehrer, Samuel B

    2005-01-01

    Fish and shellfish are important in the American diet and economy. Nearly $27 billion are spent each year in the United States on seafood products. Fish and shellfish are also important causes of food hypersensitivity. In fact, shellfish constitute the number one cause of food allergy in the American adult. During the past decade, much has been learned about allergens in fish and shellfish. The major allergens responsible for cross-reactivity among distinct species of fish and amphibians are parvalbumins. The major shellfish allergen has been identified as tropomyosin. Many new and important potential cross-reacting allergens have been identified within the fish family and between shellfish, arachnids, and insects. Extensive research is currently underway for the development of safer and more effective methods for the diagnosis and management of fish and shellfish hypersensitivity.

  20. Fish and wildlife surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Poston, T.M.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the monitoring of radioactive contaminants in fish and wildlife species that inhabit the Colombia River and Hanford Site. Wildlife have access to areas of the Site containing radioactive contamination, and fish can be exposed to contamination in spring water entering the river along the shoreline. Therefore, samples are collected at various locations annually, generally during the hunting or fishing season, for selected species.

  1. [Helminths of Antarctic fishes].

    PubMed

    Rocka, Anna

    2008-01-01

    Antarctic fishes are represented by sharks, skates (Chondrichthyes) and bony fishes (Teleostei). Teleosts play an important role in the completion of life cycles of many helminth species. They serve as either definitive or intermediate and paratenic hosts. Chondrichthyes are definitive hosts only. Seventy three helminth species occur as the adult stage in fishes: Digenea (45), Cestoda (14), Nematoda (6), Acanthocephala (8), Also, 11 larval stages of Cestoda (7) and Nematoda (4) are known, together with 7 species of Acanthocephala in the cystacanth stage. One digenean species, Otodistomum cestoides, matures in skates. Among cestodes maturing in fishes only one, Parabothriocephalus johnstoni, occurs in a bony fish, Macrourus whitsoni. Antarctic Chondrichthyes are not infected with nematodes and acanthocephalans. Cestode larvae from teleosts belong to Tetraphyllidea (parasites of skates), and Tetrabothriidae and Diphyllobothriidae (parasites of birds and mammals). Larval nematodes represent Anisakidae, parasites of fishes, birds and mammals. Acanthocephalan cystacanths mature in pinnipeds and birds. The majority of parasites maturing in Antarctic fishes are endemics. Only 4 digenean and one nematode species, Hysterothylacium aduncum, are cosmopolitan. All acanthocephalans, almost all digeneans, the majority of cestodes and some nematodes occur mainly or exclusively in benthic fishes. Specificity of the majority of helminths utilizing teleosts as intermediate and/or paratenic hosts is low. Among parasites using fishes as definitive hosts, all Cestoda, most Digenea and Nematoda, and almost all Acanthocephala have a range of hosts restricted to one order or even to 1-2 host species. PMID:18664106

  2. The Big Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLisle, Rebecca; Hargis, Jace

    2005-01-01

    The Killer Whale, Shamu jumps through hoops and splashes tourists in hopes for the big fish, not because of passion, desire or simply the enjoyment of doing so. What would happen if those fish were obsolete? Would this killer whale be able to find the passion to continue to entertain people? Or would Shamu find other exciting activities to do…

  3. Folkbiology of Freshwater Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medin, Douglas L.; Ross, Norbert O.; Atran, Scott; Cox, Douglas; Coley, John; Proffitt, Julia B.; Blok, Sergey

    2006-01-01

    Cross-cultural comparisons of categorization often confound cultural factors with expertise. This paper reports four experiments on the conceptual behavior of Native American and majority-culture fish experts. The two groups live in the same general area and engage in essentially the same set of fishing-related behaviors. Nonetheless, cultural…

  4. Stress in Fish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stress in fish involves a condition disruptive of physiological homeostasis that occurs in response to unfavorable external influences and is capable of adversely affecting fish. Any stimulus that provokes stress responses is known as a stressor, disrupting a stable condition and causing a response....

  5. PARASITES OF FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The intent of this chapter is to describe the parasites of importance to fishes maintained and used in laboratory settings. In contrast to the frist edition, the focus will be only on those parasites that pose a serious threat to or are common in fishes held in these confined en...

  6. Summer Fish Camp.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remick, Dennis; Pulu, Tupou L.

    The booklet presents a description and illustrates, with photographs, the Eskimo lifestyle and the kinds of activities that occur at a summer fish camp on the Yukon River. Eleven suggested activities are listed for the teacher to present when using the booklet. Activities include studying the map of Alaska; tracing the life cycle of the fish;…

  7. An Amazing Fish Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Null, Elisabeth Higgins

    2001-01-01

    Caught up in the entrepreneurial thrill of launching a new industry, high-school students in an economically distressed fishing village in Maine are playing a vital research-and-development role in partnership with their community. The result is a sophisticated aquaculture center for raising several species of fish in a laboratory setting. (MLH)

  8. Antimicrobial Peptides from Fish

    PubMed Central

    Masso-Silva, Jorge A.; Diamond, Gill

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are found widely distributed through Nature, and participate in the innate host defense of each species. Fish are a great source of these peptides, as they express all of the major classes of AMPs, including defensins, cathelicidins, hepcidins, histone-derived peptides, and a fish-specific class of the cecropin family, called piscidins. As with other species, the fish peptides exhibit broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, killing both fish and human pathogens. They are also immunomodulatory, and their genes are highly responsive to microbes and innate immuno-stimulatory molecules. Recent research has demonstrated that some of the unique properties of fish peptides, including their ability to act even in very high salt concentrations, make them good potential targets for development as therapeutic antimicrobials. Further, the stimulation of their gene expression by exogenous factors could be useful in preventing pathogenic microbes in aquaculture. PMID:24594555

  9. Open-hole fishing

    SciTech Connect

    Pietrobono, J.T.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports on losing equipment in the hole that is one of the most expensive and potentially dangerous things that can go wrong in drilling a well. Drilling must come to a halt until the equipment is recovered, or the hole must be sidetracked. The well also can become hard to control with essential tools out of reach, increasing the risk of a blowout. Fishing, or recovering lost or stuck equipment in the hole, is therefore a critical procedure at any drilling operation. Fishing can be divided into two broad categories: open hole and cased hole. a major difference between the two is timing: open-hole fishing is done as the well is being drilled, whereas cased-hole fishing is performed during production or well workover. Fishing techniques and types of equipment used also vary between the tow. This lesson describes some of the basic techniques and tools used in open-hole fishing-that is, retrieving fish from a hole that is being drilled but is not yet cased.

  10. Patterns in Species Composition of Fish and Selected Invertebrate Assemblages in Estuarine Subregions near Ponce de Leon Inlet, Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paperno, R.; Mille, K. J.; Kadison, E.

    2001-01-01

    The Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission's Fisheries-Independent Monitoring program monitored the species composition and relative abundance of fishes and selected invertebrates in the estuarine waters near Ponce de Leon Inlet, Florida, from January 1993 through to December 1996. Sampling sites were located in three distinct physiographic and biotic estuarine subregions: Mosquito Lagoon (ML; 11 stations), Ponce de Leon Inlet (PI; 8 stations), and Tomoka Basin/River (TR; 8 stations). This series of subregions associated with Ponce de Leon Inlet is a species-rich estuarine system that is numerically dominated by a few taxa. A total of 1 080 477 animals representing 160 species and 56 families were recorded. Anchoa spp. (29·9%) and Menidia spp. (12·6%) were the numerically dominant taxa. Sciaenidae and Gobiidae were the most speciose families, with 12 species each (14·0% and 1·7% of the total animals collected, respectively), followed by the bothids 10 species (0·6% of total animals). Detrended correspondence analysis showed that the subregions could be discriminated by their respective species composition and relative abundance. Spatial differences in species composition were principally attributed to differences in the magnitude of seasonal recruitment events and to habitat characteristics associated with the presence of seagrass, inlet dynamics, or the influence of freshwater discharge. The presence of freshwater taxa (centrarchids) and the seasonal recruitment of juvenile Penaeidae, Micropogonias undulatus , Stellifer lanceolatus and Leiostomus xanthurus, characterize the TR area, whereas the presence of species associated with higher salinities ( Opisthonema oglinum and Harengula jaguana) characterize PI and with seagrass ( Lucania parva and Lagodon rhomboides) characterize ML.

  11. Early detection of non-native fishes using fish larvae

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our objective was to evaluate the use of fish larvae for early detection of non-native fishes, comparing traditional and molecular taxonomy approaches to investigate potential efficiencies. Fish larvae present an interesting opportunity for non-native fish early detection. First,...

  12. Which Fish Should I Eat? Perspectives Influencing Fish Consumption Choices

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Anna L.; Karagas, Margaret R.; Mariën, Koenraad; Rheinberger, Christoph M.; Schoeny, Rita; Sunderland, Elsie; Korrick, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Diverse perspectives have influenced fish consumption choices. Objectives: We summarized the issue of fish consumption choice from toxicological, nutritional, ecological, and economic points of view; identified areas of overlap and disagreement among these viewpoints; and reviewed effects of previous fish consumption advisories. Methods: We reviewed published scientific literature, public health guidelines, and advisories related to fish consumption, focusing on advisories targeted at U.S. populations. However, our conclusions apply to groups having similar fish consumption patterns. Discussion: There are many possible combinations of matters related to fish consumption, but few, if any, fish consumption patterns optimize all domains. Fish provides a rich source of protein and other nutrients, but because of contamination by methylmercury and other toxicants, higher fish intake often leads to greater toxicant exposure. Furthermore, stocks of wild fish are not adequate to meet the nutrient demands of the growing world population, and fish consumption choices also have a broad economic impact on the fishing industry. Most guidance does not account for ecological and economic impacts of different fish consumption choices. Conclusion: Despite the relative lack of information integrating the health, ecological, and economic impacts of different fish choices, clear and simple guidance is necessary to effect desired changes. Thus, more comprehensive advice can be developed to describe the multiple impacts of fish consumption. In addition, policy and fishery management inter-ventions will be necessary to ensure long-term availability of fish as an important source of human nutrition. PMID:22534056

  13. Fishing for Seeds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science and Children, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Describes a method to collect seeds that are dispersed from weeds while avoiding some outdoor hazards such as rough terrain or animals. Describes a plan for creating a weed fishing pole and includes a materials list. (SAH)

  14. All fish for China?

    PubMed

    Villasante, Sebastián; Rodríguez-González, David; Antelo, Manel; Rivero-Rodríguez, Susana; de Santiago, José A; Macho, Gonzalo

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we examine the effect of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) on the level of fish intake in China in comparison with the rest of the world. We also analyse the origin and destination of China's seafood products in order to understand the main patterns during the last decades. The results show that in the 1961-2011 period the rate of growth of the GDP in China doubled that of other developing regions, while the daily fish intake of China increased fourfold, making China the largest fish consumer in the world. Given the size and scale of China's role in production, consumption, and global transformation of seafood markets, China is shaping a new era of industrialization in the history of the fishing industry.

  15. CONTAMINANTS IN FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to determine inorganic and organic contaminant concentrations in edible tissue of fish collected from eight coastal areas receiving wastewater discharges and from two reference locations. Trace metal residues were statistically similar regardless ...

  16. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... By Syndrome Life Cycle Impacts Human Health Wildlife Ecosystems Socioeconomic Freshwater Regions Distribution - U.S. Distribution - World Maps ... Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning Cyanobacteria Medical Community ... Fish Poisoning Causative organisms: Gambierdiscus ...

  17. Dehydrofreezing of Fish I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozima, Tsuneo

    Recently, new method of removing water from perishable food were developed using dehydration sheet with material having high osmotic pressure and absorbent polymer. Dehydration sheet consist of mixture of sugar dehydrolysate and absorbent polymer covered with sem-permeable membrane, and can remove water in liquid state by contact with perishable food. Dehydration rate of fish using with dehydration sheet varied depending on species, their shape, and ambient temperature etc. Fish were dehydrated with dehydration sheet at low temperature as 0 - 5 C and frozen in cold storage room. Dehydrofrozen fish were kept it's high quality and freshness after thawing, ATPase activity of fish muscle was kept at high level after dehydrofreezing in the case of cod and alaska pollack, and flesh color of farming salmon was kept after thawing.

  18. T Cells in Fish

    PubMed Central

    Nakanishi, Teruyuki; Shibasaki, Yasuhiro; Matsuura, Yuta

    2015-01-01

    Cartilaginous and bony fish are the most primitive vertebrates with a thymus, and possess T cells equivalent to those in mammals. There are a number of studies in fish demonstrating that the thymus is the essential organ for development of T lymphocytes from early thymocyte progenitors to functionally competent T cells. A high number of T cells in the intestine and gills has been reported in several fish species. Involvement of CD4+ and CD8α+ T cells in allograft rejection and graft-versus-host reaction (GVHR) has been demonstrated using monoclonal antibodies. Conservation of CD4+ helper T cell functions among teleost fishes has been suggested in a number studies employing mixed leukocyte culture (MLC) and hapten/carrier effect. Alloantigen- and virus-specific cytotoxicity has also been demonstrated in ginbuna and rainbow trout. Furthermore, the important role of cell-mediated immunity rather than humoral immunity has been reported in the protection against intracellular bacterial infection. Recently, the direct antibacterial activity of CD8α+, CD4+ T-cells and sIgM+ cells in fish has been reported. In this review, we summarize the recent progress in T cell research focusing on the tissue distribution and function of fish T cells. PMID:26426066

  19. Fish cardiovascular physiology and disease.

    PubMed

    Sherrill, Johanna; Weber, E Scott; Marty, Gary D; Hernandez-Divers, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Fish patients with cardiovascular disorders present a challenge in terms of diagnostic evaluation and therapeutic options. Veterinarians can approach these cases in fish using methods similar to those employed for other companion animals. Clinicians who evaluate and treat fish in private, aquarium, zoologic, or aquaculture settings need to rely on sound clinical judgment after thorough historical and physical evaluation. Pharmacokinetic data and treatments specific to cardiovascular disease in fish are limited; thus, drug types and dosages used in fish are largely empiric. Fish cardiovascular anatomy, physiology, diagnostic evaluation, monitoring, common diseases, cardiac pathologic conditions, formulary options, and comprehensive references are presented with the goal of providing fish veterinarians with clinically relevant tools.

  20. Fishing down the largest coral reef fish species.

    PubMed

    Fenner, Douglas

    2014-07-15

    Studies on remote, uninhabited, near-pristine reefs have revealed surprisingly large populations of large reef fish. Locations such as the northwestern Hawaiian Islands, northern Marianas Islands, Line Islands, U.S. remote Pacific Islands, Cocos-Keeling Atoll and Chagos archipelago have much higher reef fish biomass than islands and reefs near people. Much of the high biomass of most remote reef fish communities lies in the largest species, such as sharks, bumphead parrots, giant trevally, and humphead wrasse. Some, such as sharks and giant trevally, are apex predators, but others such as bumphead parrots and humphead wrasse, are not. At many locations, decreases in large reef fish species have been attributed to fishing. Fishing is well known to remove the largest fish first, and a quantitative measure of vulnerability to fishing indicates that large reef fish species are much more vulnerable to fishing than small fish. The removal of large reef fish by fishing parallels the extinction of terrestrial megafauna by early humans. However large reef fish have great value for various ecological roles and for reef tourism.

  1. Fishing down the largest coral reef fish species.

    PubMed

    Fenner, Douglas

    2014-07-15

    Studies on remote, uninhabited, near-pristine reefs have revealed surprisingly large populations of large reef fish. Locations such as the northwestern Hawaiian Islands, northern Marianas Islands, Line Islands, U.S. remote Pacific Islands, Cocos-Keeling Atoll and Chagos archipelago have much higher reef fish biomass than islands and reefs near people. Much of the high biomass of most remote reef fish communities lies in the largest species, such as sharks, bumphead parrots, giant trevally, and humphead wrasse. Some, such as sharks and giant trevally, are apex predators, but others such as bumphead parrots and humphead wrasse, are not. At many locations, decreases in large reef fish species have been attributed to fishing. Fishing is well known to remove the largest fish first, and a quantitative measure of vulnerability to fishing indicates that large reef fish species are much more vulnerable to fishing than small fish. The removal of large reef fish by fishing parallels the extinction of terrestrial megafauna by early humans. However large reef fish have great value for various ecological roles and for reef tourism. PMID:24889317

  2. Cowlitz Falls Fish Passage.

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The upper Cowlitz was once home to native salmon and steelhead. But the combined impacts of overharvest, farming, logging and road building hammered fish runs. And in the 1960s, a pair of hydroelectric dams blocked the migration path of ocean-returning and ocean-going fish. The lower Cowlitz still supports hatchery runs of chinook, coho and steelhead. But some 200 river miles in the upper river basin--much of it prime spawning and rearing habitat--have been virtually cut off from the ocean for over 26 years. Now the idea is to trap-and-haul salmon and steelhead both ways and bypass previously impassable obstacles in the path of anadromous fish. The plan can be summarized, for the sake of explanation, in three steps: (1) trap and haul adult fish--collect ocean-returning adult fish at the lowermost Cowlitz dam, and truck them upstream; (2) reseed--release the ripe adults above the uppermost dam, and let them spawn naturally, at the same time, supplement these runs with hatchery born fry that are reared and imprinted in ponds and net pens in the watershed; (3) trap and haul smolts--collection the new generation of young fish as they arrive at the uppermost Cowlitz dam, truck them past the three dams, and release them to continue their downstream migration to the sea. The critical part of any fish-collection system is the method of fish attraction. Scientists have to find the best combination of attraction system and screens that will guide young fish to the right spot, away from the turbine intakes. In the spring of 1994 a test was made of a prototype system of baffles and slots on the upriver face of the Cowlitz Falls Dam. The prototype worked at 90% efficiency in early tests, and it worked without the kind of expensive screening devices that have been installed on other dams. Now that the success of the attraction system has been verified, Harza engineers and consultants will design and build the appropriate collection part of the system.

  3. Fish robotics and hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauder, George

    2010-11-01

    Studying the fluid dynamics of locomotion in freely-swimming fishes is challenging due to difficulties in controlling fish behavior. To provide better control over fish-like propulsive systems we have constructed a variety of fish-like robotic test platforms that range from highly biomimetic models of fins, to simple physical models of body movements during aquatic locomotion. First, we have constructed a series of biorobotic models of fish pectoral fins with 5 fin rays that allow detailed study of fin motion, forces, and fluid dynamics associated with fin-based locomotion. We find that by tuning fin ray stiffness and the imposed motion program we can produce thrust both on the fin outstroke and instroke. Second, we are using a robotic flapping foil system to study the self-propulsion of flexible plastic foils of varying stiffness, length, and trailing edge shape as a means of investigating the fluid dynamic effect of simple changes in the properties of undulating bodies moving through water. We find unexpected non-linear stiffness-dependent effects of changing foil length on self-propelled speed, and as well as significant effects of trailing edge shape on foil swimming speed.

  4. Immunity to Fish Rhabdoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Laing, Kerry J.; Winton, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Members of the family Rhabdoviridae are single-stranded RNA viruses and globally important pathogens of wild and cultured fish and thus relatively well studied in their respective hosts or other model systems. Here, we review the protective immune mechanisms that fish mount in response to rhabdovirus infections. Teleost fish possess the principal components of innate and adaptive immunity found in other vertebrates. Neutralizing antibodies are critical for long-term protection from fish rhabdoviruses, but several studies also indicate a role for cell-mediated immunity. Survival of acute rhabdoviral infection is also dependent on innate immunity, particularly the interferon (IFN) system that is rapidly induced in response to infection. Paradoxically, rhabdoviruses are sensitive to the effects of IFN but virulent rhabdoviruses can continue to replicate owing to the abilities of the matrix (M) protein to mediate host-cell shutoff and the non‑virion (NV) protein to subvert programmed cell death and suppress functional IFN. While many basic features of the fish immune response to rhabdovirus infections are becoming better understood, much less is known about how factors in the environment affect the ecology of rhabdovirus infections in natural populations of aquatic animals. PMID:22355456

  5. Immunity to fish rhabdoviruses.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Maureen K; Laing, Kerry J; Winton, James R

    2012-01-01

    Members of the family Rhabdoviridae are single-stranded RNA viruses and globally important pathogens of wild and cultured fish and thus relatively well studied in their respective hosts or other model systems. Here, we review the protective immune mechanisms that fish mount in response to rhabdovirus infections. Teleost fish possess the principal components of innate and adaptive immunity found in other vertebrates. Neutralizing antibodies are critical for long-term protection from fish rhabdoviruses, but several studies also indicate a role for cell-mediated immunity. Survival of acute rhabdoviral infection is also dependent on innate immunity, particularly the interferon (IFN) system that is rapidly induced in response to infection. Paradoxically, rhabdoviruses are sensitive to the effects of IFN but virulent rhabdoviruses can continue to replicate owing to the abilities of the matrix (M) protein to mediate host-cell shutoff and the non‑virion (NV) protein to subvert programmed cell death and suppress functional IFN. While many basic features of the fish immune response to rhabdovirus infections are becoming better understood, much less is known about how factors in the environment affect the ecology of rhabdovirus infections in natural populations of aquatic animals.

  6. Immunity to fish rhabdoviruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Laing, Kerry J.; Winton, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Members of the family Rhabdoviridae are single-stranded RNA viruses and globally important pathogens of wild and cultured fish and thus relatively well studied in their respective hosts or other model systems. Here, we review the protective immune mechanisms that fish mount in response to rhabdovirus infections. Teleost fish possess the principal components of innate and adaptive immunity found in other vertebrates. Neutralizing antibodies are critical for long-term protection from fish rhabdoviruses, but several studies also indicate a role for cell-mediated immunity. Survival of acute rhabdoviral infection is also dependent on innate immunity, particularly the interferon (IFN) system that is rapidly induced in response to infection. Paradoxically, rhabdoviruses are sensitive to the effects of IFN but virulent rhabdoviruses can continue to replicate owing to the abilities of the matrix (M) protein to mediate host-cell shutoff and the non-virion (NV) protein to subvert programmed cell death and suppress functional IFN. While many basic features of the fish immune response to rhabdovirus infections are becoming better understood, much less is known about how factors in the environment affect the ecology of rhabdovirus infections in natural populations of aquatic animals.

  7. Dynamite fishing in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Slade, Lorna M; Kalangahe, Baraka

    2015-12-30

    Fishing using explosives is common in Tanzanian waters; it is considered to be more widely practised now than at any other point in history. Mwambao Coastal Community Network, a Tanzanian NGO carried out a multi-stakeholder consultation in April 2014 initiated through the concern of private investors and tourism operators. Consultations were held with villagers, fisheries officers, government officers, hoteliers, dive operators, fish processors, NGOs and other key individuals, and shed some light on key factors enabling this practice to flourish. Key areas identified for attention include engendering political will at all levels, upholding of the law through a non-corrupt enforcement and judicial system, and defining clear roles and responsibilities for monitoring and surveillance. The work identified other successful initiatives which have tackled this pervasive practice including projects that build local capacity for marine governance, villages that have declared themselves intolerant of blast-fishing, and private-public partnerships for patrol and protection. PMID:26475022

  8. Claudins in teleost fishes

    PubMed Central

    Kolosov, Dennis; Bui, Phuong; Chasiotis, Helen; Kelly, Scott P

    2013-01-01

    Teleost fishes are a large and diverse animal group that represent close to 50% of all described vertebrate species. This review consolidates what is known about the claudin (Cldn) family of tight junction (TJ) proteins in teleosts. Cldns are transmembrane proteins of the vertebrate epithelial/endothelial TJ complex that largely determine TJ permeability. Cldns achieve this by expressing barrier or pore forming properties and by exhibiting distinct tissue distribution patterns. So far, ~63 genes encoding for Cldn TJ proteins have been reported in 16 teleost species. Collectively, cldns (or Cldns) are found in a broad array of teleost fish tissues, but select genes exhibit restricted expression patterns. Evidence to date strongly supports the view that Cldns play a vital role in the embryonic development of teleost fishes and in the physiology of tissues and organ systems studied thus far. PMID:24665402

  9. Dynamite fishing in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Slade, Lorna M; Kalangahe, Baraka

    2015-12-30

    Fishing using explosives is common in Tanzanian waters; it is considered to be more widely practised now than at any other point in history. Mwambao Coastal Community Network, a Tanzanian NGO carried out a multi-stakeholder consultation in April 2014 initiated through the concern of private investors and tourism operators. Consultations were held with villagers, fisheries officers, government officers, hoteliers, dive operators, fish processors, NGOs and other key individuals, and shed some light on key factors enabling this practice to flourish. Key areas identified for attention include engendering political will at all levels, upholding of the law through a non-corrupt enforcement and judicial system, and defining clear roles and responsibilities for monitoring and surveillance. The work identified other successful initiatives which have tackled this pervasive practice including projects that build local capacity for marine governance, villages that have declared themselves intolerant of blast-fishing, and private-public partnerships for patrol and protection.

  10. The welfare of fish.

    PubMed

    Iwama, George K

    2007-05-01

    Our interactions with fish cover a wide range of activities including enjoying them as pets to consuming them as food. I propose that we confine the consideration of the welfare of fish to their physiology, and not join the discussion on whether fish can feel pain and suffering, as humans. A significant proportion of the papers on animal welfare center on whether non-human animals can feel pain, and suffer as humans. This is a question that never can be answered unequivocally. The premise of the present paper is that we have an ethical responsibility to respect the life and wellbeing of all organisms. Thus, we should concentrate on the behavioural, physiological, and cellular indicators of their well-being and attempt to minimize a state of stress in the animals that we have in our care or influence. PMID:17578254

  11. Fish stem cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ni; Li, Zhendong; Hong, Yunhan

    2011-04-13

    Stem cells have the potential for self-renewal and differentiation. First stem cell cultures were derived 30 years ago from early developing mouse embryos. These are pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells. Efforts towards ES cell derivation have been attempted in other mammalian and non-mammalian species. Work with stem cell culture in fish started 20 years ago. Laboratory fish species, in particular zebrafish and medaka, have been the focus of research towards stem cell cultures. Medaka is the second organism that generated ES cells and the first that gave rise to a spermatogonial stem cell line capable of test-tube sperm production. Most recently, the first haploid stem cells capable of producing whole animals have also been generated from medaka. ES-like cells have been reported also in zebrafish and several marine species. Attempts for germline transmission of ES cell cultures and gene targeting have been reported in zebrafish. Recent years have witnessed the progress in markers and procedures for ES cell characterization. These include the identification of fish homologs/paralogs of mammalian pluripotency genes and parameters for optimal chimera formation. In addition, fish germ cell cultures and transplantation have attracted considerable interest for germline transmission and surrogate production. Haploid ES cell nuclear transfer has proven in medaka the feasibility of semi-cloning as a novel assisted reproductive technology. In this special issue on "Fish Stem Cells and Nuclear Transfer", we will focus our review on medaka to illustrate the current status and perspective of fish stem cells in research and application. We will also mention semi-cloning as a new development to conventional nuclear transfer.

  12. Fish hematology and associated disorders.

    PubMed

    Grant, Krystan R

    2015-01-01

    Fish health is a growing concern as pets, education, and aquaculture evolves. For the veterinary staff, fish handling, diagnostics, medicine, and surgery may require specialized training and equipment in comparison with terrestrial and arboreal animals, simply because of their aquatic nature and diversity. Fish hematology is one diagnostic tool that may not require additional equipment, may be inexpensive, and provide useful information in guiding treatment options. Challenges involving hematology may include handling and restraint, venipuncture, evaluation, and interpretation. In this article, strategies for these challenges are discussed for teleost (bony fish) and elasmobranch (cartilaginous fish) fish types.

  13. Fish Hematology and Associated Disorders.

    PubMed

    Grant, Krystan R

    2015-09-01

    Fish health is a growing concern as pets, education, and aquaculture evolves. For the veterinary staff, fish handling, diagnostics, medicine, and surgery may require specialized training and equipment in comparison with terrestrial and arboreal animals, simply because of their aquatic nature and diversity. Fish hematology is one diagnostic tool that may not require additional equipment, may be inexpensive, and provide useful information in guiding treatment options. Challenges involving hematology may include handling and restraint, venipuncture, evaluation, and interpretation. In this article, strategies for these challenges are discussed for teleost (bony fish) and elasmobranch (cartilaginous fish) fish types.

  14. Simultaneous RNA-DNA FISH.

    PubMed

    Lai, Lan-Tian; Meng, Zhenyu; Shao, Fangwei; Zhang, Li-Feng

    2016-01-01

    A highly useful tool for studying lncRNAs is simultaneous RNA-DNA FISH, which reveals the localization and quantitative information of RNA and DNA in cellular contexts. However, a simple combination of RNA FISH and DNA FISH often generates disappointing results because the fragile RNA signals are often damaged by the harsh conditions used in DNA FISH for denaturing the DNA. Here, we describe a robust and simple RNA-DNA FISH protocol, in which amino-labeled nucleic acid probes are used for RNA FISH. The method is suitable to detect single-RNA molecules simultaneously with DNA.

  15. Interior below decks in fish hold looking forward. Fish hatch ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior below decks in fish hold looking forward. Fish hatch opening is at upper left, ceiling planks and knees at center and right. - Purse Seiner SHENANDOAH, Gig Harbor Peninsula Historical Society and Museum, Gig Harbor, Pierce County, WA

  16. Fish consumption and track to a fish feed formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai-Juan, Soong; Ramli, Razamin; Rahman, Rosshairy Abdul

    2015-12-01

    Strategically located in the equator, Malaysia is blessed with plenty of fish supply. The high demand in fish consumption has helped the development in the fishery industry and provided numerous jobs in the secondary sector, contributing significantly to the nation's income. A survey was conducted to understand the trend of current demands for fish for the purpose of designing a feed formulation, which is still limited in this area of study. Results showed that grouper fish in restaurants commanded a very high price compared to other species of fish. Tiger grouper gained the highest demand in most restaurants, while giant grouper had the highest price in restaurants. Due to the demand and challenges to culture this type of fish, a framework for fish feed formulation is proposed. The formulation framework when materialized could be an alternative to the use of trash fish as the feed for grouper.

  17. Fish and fish oil in health promotion and disease prevention

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fish is an important dietary component due to its contribution of valuable nutrients. In addition to the high quality protein and micronutrients provided, fish is the primary source of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids which are found in oils of ‘fatty’ cold water fish. Biomedical evidence supports th...

  18. Fish Commoditization: Sustainability Strategies to Protect Living Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Mimi E.; Pitcher, Tony J.

    2012-01-01

    The impacts of early fishing on aquatic ecosystems were minimal, as primitive technologies were used to harvest fish primarily for food. As fishing technology grew more sophisticated and human populations dispersed and expanded, local economies transitioned from subsistence to barter and trade. Expanded trade networks and mercantilization led to…

  19. Fish and shellfish allergy.

    PubMed

    Thalayasingam, Meera; Lee, Bee-Wah

    2015-01-01

    Fish and shellfish consumption has increased worldwide, and there are increasing reports of adverse reactions to fish and shellfish, with an approximate prevalence of 0.5-5%. Fish allergy often develops early in life, whilst shellfish allergy tends to develop later, from adolescence onwards. Little is known about the natural history of these allergies, but both are thought to be persistent. The clinical manifestations of shellfish allergy, in particular, may vary from local to life-threatening 'anaphylactic' reactions within an individual and between individuals. Parvalbumin and tropomyosin are the two major allergens, but several other allergens have been cloned and described. These allergens are highly heat and biochemically stable, and this may in part explain the persistence of these allergies. Diagnosis requires a thorough history, skin prick and in-vitro-specific IgE tests, and oral challenges may be needed for diagnostic confirmation. Strict avoidance of these allergens is the current standard of clinical care for allergic patients, and when indicated, an anaphylactic plan with an adrenaline auto-injector is prescribed. There are no published clinical trials evaluating specific oral immunotherapy for fish or shellfish allergy.

  20. FishTraits Database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Angermeier, Paul L.; Frimpong, Emmanuel A.

    2009-01-01

    The need for integrated and widely accessible sources of species traits data to facilitate studies of ecology, conservation, and management has motivated development of traits databases for various taxa. In spite of the increasing number of traits-based analyses of freshwater fishes in the United States, no consolidated database of traits of this group exists publicly, and much useful information on these species is documented only in obscure sources. The largely inaccessible and unconsolidated traits information makes large-scale analysis involving many fishes and/or traits particularly challenging. FishTraits is a database of >100 traits for 809 (731 native and 78 exotic) fish species found in freshwaters of the conterminous United States, including 37 native families and 145 native genera. The database contains information on four major categories of traits: (1) trophic ecology, (2) body size and reproductive ecology (life history), (3) habitat associations, and (4) salinity and temperature tolerances. Information on geographic distribution and conservation status is also included. Together, we refer to the traits, distribution, and conservation status information as attributes. Descriptions of attributes are available here. Many sources were consulted to compile attributes, including state and regional species accounts and other databases.

  1. Ooey, Gooey, Fish Guts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmons, Maryellen

    2004-01-01

    Fish dissections are a great way to introduce the concepts of food webs, predator-prey relationships, and ecosystems, but these labs are expensive, messy, smelly, and require a lot of supervision because of the tools involved. The author has developed an inexpensive, safe, and clean alternative where students "dissect" simulated fish…

  2. If the Fish Stinks....

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meltzer, Milton

    1998-01-01

    Describes how the proverb, "When the fish stinks, say that it stinks" permeates the author's writing of biographies of well-known American "heroes" for young readers. Points out the writer's obligation to illuminate both the negative and positive character and behavior of the people he or she writes about, offering examples from the author's…

  3. Yet Another Fish Tale?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lalasz, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Last month the "Rocky Mountain News" reported that a survey by an emeritus professor at University of Colorado Boulder found that only 23 of 825 faculty members on the campus were registered Republicans. But on his "New York Times" blog, Stanley Fish brushed off the survey's significance from a familiarly Fishian stance. A faculty's political…

  4. Truck-Drivin' Fish?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, AnnMarie

    2001-01-01

    Presents an art activity that enables first-grade students to learn about color mixing by driving toys trucks through paint. Explains that the students created rainbow fish and drew the background with crayons. States that this activity demonstrates how to utilize nontraditional tools or objects when creating art. (CMK)

  5. Fish out of Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartorius, Tara Cady

    1998-01-01

    Highlights the life of Leonard Koscianski, an artist who focuses on revealing the inner life of the human heart and mind in his artwork. Includes four lesson plans for grades ranging from 2 through 12: philosophy, psychology, language arts, and visual arts. Provides a copy and background about Koscianski's painting "Red Fish." (CMK)

  6. Hydrodynamics of fossil fishes

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Thomas; Altringham, John; Peakall, Jeffrey; Wignall, Paul; Dorrell, Robert

    2014-01-01

    From their earliest origins, fishes have developed a suite of adaptations for locomotion in water, which determine performance and ultimately fitness. Even without data from behaviour, soft tissue and extant relatives, it is possible to infer a wealth of palaeobiological and palaeoecological information. As in extant species, aspects of gross morphology such as streamlining, fin position and tail type are optimized even in the earliest fishes, indicating similar life strategies have been present throughout their evolutionary history. As hydrodynamical studies become more sophisticated, increasingly complex fluid movement can be modelled, including vortex formation and boundary layer control. Drag-reducing riblets ornamenting the scales of fast-moving sharks have been subjected to particularly intense research, but this has not been extended to extinct forms. Riblets are a convergent adaptation seen in many Palaeozoic fishes, and probably served a similar hydrodynamic purpose. Conversely, structures which appear to increase skin friction may act as turbulisors, reducing overall drag while serving a protective function. Here, we examine the diverse adaptions that contribute to drag reduction in modern fishes and review the few attempts to elucidate the hydrodynamics of extinct forms. PMID:24943377

  7. The Last Fish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollack, Susan

    1995-01-01

    Describes the collapse of Newfoundland's once immense northern-cod fishery in 1992 from the perspective of a family fisherman who has become an environmental activist. Discusses failures in environmental management including the overfishing of shared resources encouraged by the Canadian government and hastened by international fishing fleets and…

  8. Fish-induced keriorrhea.

    PubMed

    Ling, Ka Ho; Nichols, Peter D; But, Paul Pui-Hay

    2009-01-01

    Many deep-sea fishes store large amounts of wax esters in their body for buoyancy control. Some of them are frequently caught as by-catch of tuna and other fishes. The most noteworthy ones include escolar and oilfish. The accumulation of the indigestible wax esters in the rectum through consumption of these fish engenders discharges or leakage per rectum as orange or brownish green oil, but without noticeable loss of water. This physiological response is called keriorrhea, which is variously described as "oily diarrhea," "oily orange diarrhea," or "orange oily leakage" by the mass media and bloggers on the internet. Outbreaks of keriorrhea have been repeatedly reported across continents. Additional symptoms including nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, and diarrhea were complained by the victims. They are probably due to anxiety or panic when suffering from keriorrhea. Escolar and oilfish are banned from import and sale in Italy, Japan, and South Korea. Rapid detection of the two fishes is imperative to ensure proper labeling and safeguarding of the public before and after any keriorrhea outbreak.

  9. Hydrodynamics of fossil fishes.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Thomas; Altringham, John; Peakall, Jeffrey; Wignall, Paul; Dorrell, Robert

    2014-08-01

    From their earliest origins, fishes have developed a suite of adaptations for locomotion in water, which determine performance and ultimately fitness. Even without data from behaviour, soft tissue and extant relatives, it is possible to infer a wealth of palaeobiological and palaeoecological information. As in extant species, aspects of gross morphology such as streamlining, fin position and tail type are optimized even in the earliest fishes, indicating similar life strategies have been present throughout their evolutionary history. As hydrodynamical studies become more sophisticated, increasingly complex fluid movement can be modelled, including vortex formation and boundary layer control. Drag-reducing riblets ornamenting the scales of fast-moving sharks have been subjected to particularly intense research, but this has not been extended to extinct forms. Riblets are a convergent adaptation seen in many Palaeozoic fishes, and probably served a similar hydrodynamic purpose. Conversely, structures which appear to increase skin friction may act as turbulisors, reducing overall drag while serving a protective function. Here, we examine the diverse adaptions that contribute to drag reduction in modern fishes and review the few attempts to elucidate the hydrodynamics of extinct forms. PMID:24943377

  10. Miniature sonar fish tag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovelady, R. W.; Ferguson, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    Self-powered sonar device may be implanted in body of fish. It transmits signal that can be detected with portable tracking gear or by automatic detection-and-tracking system. Operating life of over 4000 hours may be expected. Device itself may be used almost indefinitely.

  11. Puffer fish poisoning.

    PubMed Central

    Field, J

    1998-01-01

    Regarded by many as a delicacy, puffer fish (Lagocephalus scleratus) is a lethal source of food poisoning with a high mortality. It contains tetrodotoxin which can cause death by muscular paralysis, respiratory depression, and circulatory failure. A case of mild intoxication is reported and the literature reviewed. Images p336-a PMID:9785165

  12. Colwater fish in rivers

    EPA Science Inventory

    A standard sampling protocol to assess the fish assemblages and abundances in large, coldwater rivers is most accurate and precise if consistent gears and levels of effort are used at each site. This requires thorough crew training, quality control audits, and replicate sampling...

  13. Sediment bioaccumulation testing with fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mac, Michael J.; Schmitt, Christopher J.; Burton, G. Allen

    1992-01-01

    In this chapter, we discuss methods for conducting bioaccumulation bioassays with fish; the advantages and disadvantages of using fish rather than invertebrates; and problems associated with bioaccumulation testing, with a special emphasis on statistical treatment.

  14. PNNL Tests Fish Passage System

    SciTech Connect

    Colotelo, Alison

    2015-03-13

    Scientists from PNNL are testing a fish transportation system developed by Whooshh Innovations. The Whooshh system uses a flexible tube that works a bit like a vacuum, guiding fish over hydroelectric dams or other structures. Compared to methods used today, this system could save money while granting fish quicker, safer passage through dams and hatcheries.

  15. 50 CFR 404.10 - Commercial fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... NOAA regulations at 50 CFR part 665, subpart E as necessary. (2) Total landings for each fishing year... MONUMENT § 404.10 Commercial fishing. (a) Lobster fishing. Any commercial lobster fishing permit is...

  16. Metazoan Parasites of Antarctic Fishes.

    PubMed

    Oğuz, Mehmet Cemal; Tepe, Yahya; Belk, Mark C; Heckmann, Richard A; Aslan, Burçak; Gürgen, Meryem; Bray, Rodney A; Akgül, Ülker

    2015-06-01

    To date, there have been nearly 100 papers published on metazoan parasites of Antarctic fishes, but there has not yet been any compilation of a species list of fish parasites for this large geographic area. Herein, we provide a list of all documented occurrences of monogenean, cestode, digenean, acanthocephalan, nematode, and hirudinean parasites of Antarctic fishes. The list includes nearly 250 parasite species found in 142 species of host fishes. It is likely that there are more species of fish parasites, which are yet to be documented from Antarctic waters.

  17. Consumers’ Attitude Towards Fish Meat

    PubMed Central

    Passantino, Annamaria; Longo, Sabrina; Voslářová, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The overall aim of this paper is to show the factors that may affect consumers’ attitude towards farmed fish products. Consumers ask new products on the basis of different quality attributes: stability, safety, composition, better health effects, environment protection, etc. Different and controversial opinions on farmed and wild fish are also explored by literature review. The authors pay attention also to fish welfare as an emerging issue and effective information about fish products as a factor exerting a positive influence on consumers’ decision of purchase. Some relevant legislative notes on the paper’s topics are also cited. The qualitative aspects of aquaculture fish and the consumers’ demand and choice need further studies, according to some factors, such as the changing consumers’ attitudes towards fish products, the different fish quality perception and the development in the aquaculture systems. PMID:27800359

  18. Automatic electronic fish tracking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osborne, P. W.; Hoffman, E.; Merriner, J. V.; Richards, C. E.; Lovelady, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    A newly developed electronic fish tracking system to automatically monitor the movements and migratory habits of fish is reported. The system is aimed particularly at studies of effects on fish life of industrial facilities which use rivers or lakes to dump their effluents. Location of fish is acquired by means of acoustic links from the fish to underwater Listening Stations, and by radio links which relay tracking information to a shore-based Data Base. Fish over 4 inches long may be tracked over a 5 x 5 mile area. The electronic fish tracking system provides the marine scientist with electronics which permit studies that were not practical in the past and which are cost-effective compared to manual methods.

  19. Beyond Biodiversity: Fish Metagenomes

    PubMed Central

    Ardura, Alba; Planes, Serge; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Biodiversity and intra-specific genetic diversity are interrelated and determine the potential of a community to survive and evolve. Both are considered together in Prokaryote communities treated as metagenomes or ensembles of functional variants beyond species limits. Many factors alter biodiversity in higher Eukaryote communities, and human exploitation can be one of the most important for some groups of plants and animals. For example, fisheries can modify both biodiversity and genetic diversity (intra specific). Intra-specific diversity can be drastically altered by overfishing. Intense fishing pressure on one stock may imply extinction of some genetic variants and subsequent loss of intra-specific diversity. The objective of this study was to apply a metagenome approach to fish communities and explore its value for rapid evaluation of biodiversity and genetic diversity at community level. Here we have applied the metagenome approach employing the Barcoding target gene COI as a model sequence in catch from four very different fish assemblages exploited by fisheries: freshwater communities from the Amazon River and northern Spanish rivers, and marine communities from the Cantabric and Mediterranean seas. Treating all sequences obtained from each regional catch as a biological unit (exploited community) we found that metagenomic diversity indices of the Amazonian catch sample here examined were lower than expected. Reduced diversity could be explained, at least partially, by overexploitation of the fish community that had been independently estimated by other methods. We propose using a metagenome approach for estimating diversity in Eukaryote communities and early evaluating genetic variation losses at multi-species level. PMID:21829636

  20. Visualization on fish's wake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xuemin; Lu, Xiyun; Yin, Xiezhen

    2002-05-01

    In this paper an experiment on wake of Goldfish swimming unrestricted was conducted in a water tunnel. Method of color liquid was used to visualize the wake. Results show that there is reverse Karman vortex street in symmetrical plane of the wake and the Strouhal frequency of the fish is in the range 0.25-0.35. A 3D vortex ring chain model was presented.

  1. Beyond biodiversity: fish metagenomes.

    PubMed

    Ardura, Alba; Planes, Serge; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Biodiversity and intra-specific genetic diversity are interrelated and determine the potential of a community to survive and evolve. Both are considered together in Prokaryote communities treated as metagenomes or ensembles of functional variants beyond species limits.Many factors alter biodiversity in higher Eukaryote communities, and human exploitation can be one of the most important for some groups of plants and animals. For example, fisheries can modify both biodiversity and genetic diversity (intra specific). Intra-specific diversity can be drastically altered by overfishing. Intense fishing pressure on one stock may imply extinction of some genetic variants and subsequent loss of intra-specific diversity. The objective of this study was to apply a metagenome approach to fish communities and explore its value for rapid evaluation of biodiversity and genetic diversity at community level. Here we have applied the metagenome approach employing the barcoding target gene coi as a model sequence in catch from four very different fish assemblages exploited by fisheries: freshwater communities from the Amazon River and northern Spanish rivers, and marine communities from the Cantabric and Mediterranean seas.Treating all sequences obtained from each regional catch as a biological unit (exploited community) we found that metagenomic diversity indices of the Amazonian catch sample here examined were lower than expected. Reduced diversity could be explained, at least partially, by overexploitation of the fish community that had been independently estimated by other methods.We propose using a metagenome approach for estimating diversity in Eukaryote communities and early evaluating genetic variation losses at multi-species level.

  2. ONE FISH, TWO FISH, RED FISH, BLUE FISH: THE FISH QUALITY INDEX AS A RISK COMMUNICATION TOOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many people are at high risk for methyl mercury toxicity because of their consumption of contaminated fish. Often health risks of Persistent Bioaccumulative Toxicants (PT) such as methyl mercury, PCBs or Dioxins are underestimated because of their amplification in the food chain ...

  3. Fish Synucleins: An Update.

    PubMed

    Toni, Mattia; Cioni, Carla

    2015-11-01

    Synucleins (syns) are a family of proteins involved in several human neurodegenerative diseases and tumors. Since the first syn discovery in the brain of the electric ray Torpedo californica, members of the same family have been identified in all vertebrates and comparative studies have indicated that syn proteins are evolutionary conserved. No counterparts of syns were found in invertebrates suggesting that they are vertebrate-specific proteins. Molecular studies showed that the number of syn members varies among vertebrates. Three genes encode for α-, β- and γ-syn in mammals and birds. However, a variable number of syn genes and encoded proteins is expressed or predicted in fish depending on the species. Among biologically verified sequences, four syn genes were identified in fugu, encoding for α, β and two γ (γ1 and γ2) isoforms, whereas only three genes are expressed in zebrafish, which lacks α-syn gene. The list of "non verified" sequences is much longer and is often found in sequence databases. In this review we provide an overview of published papers and known syn sequences in agnathans and fish that are likely to impact future studies in this field. Indeed, fish models may play a key role in elucidating some of the molecular mechanisms involved in physiological and pathological functions of syn proteins. PMID:26528989

  4. Fish Synucleins: An Update.

    PubMed

    Toni, Mattia; Cioni, Carla

    2015-11-01

    Synucleins (syns) are a family of proteins involved in several human neurodegenerative diseases and tumors. Since the first syn discovery in the brain of the electric ray Torpedo californica, members of the same family have been identified in all vertebrates and comparative studies have indicated that syn proteins are evolutionary conserved. No counterparts of syns were found in invertebrates suggesting that they are vertebrate-specific proteins. Molecular studies showed that the number of syn members varies among vertebrates. Three genes encode for α-, β- and γ-syn in mammals and birds. However, a variable number of syn genes and encoded proteins is expressed or predicted in fish depending on the species. Among biologically verified sequences, four syn genes were identified in fugu, encoding for α, β and two γ (γ1 and γ2) isoforms, whereas only three genes are expressed in zebrafish, which lacks α-syn gene. The list of "non verified" sequences is much longer and is often found in sequence databases. In this review we provide an overview of published papers and known syn sequences in agnathans and fish that are likely to impact future studies in this field. Indeed, fish models may play a key role in elucidating some of the molecular mechanisms involved in physiological and pathological functions of syn proteins.

  5. 50 CFR 71.11 - Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing. 71.11 Section 71.11 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FISH HATCHERY AREAS Fishing § 71.11 Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing. National...

  6. 50 CFR 71.11 - Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing. 71.11 Section 71.11 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FISH HATCHERY AREAS Fishing § 71.11 Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing. National...

  7. 50 CFR 71.11 - Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing. 71.11 Section 71.11 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FISH HATCHERY AREAS Fishing § 71.11 Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing. National...

  8. 50 CFR 71.11 - Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing. 71.11 Section 71.11 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FISH HATCHERY AREAS Fishing § 71.11 Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing. National...

  9. 50 CFR 71.11 - Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing. 71.11 Section 71.11 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FISH HATCHERY AREAS Fishing § 71.11 Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing. National...

  10. Adsorption to Fish Sperm of Vertically Transmitted Fish Viruses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulcahy, Dan; Pascho, Ronald J.

    1984-07-01

    More than 99 percent of a vertically transmitted fish rhabdovirus, infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus, was removed from suspension in less than 1 minute by adsorption to the surface membrane of sperm from two genera of salmonid fishes. The vertically transmitted, infectious pancreatic necrosis virus adsorbed to a lesser degree, but no adsorption occurred with a second fish rhabdovirus that is not vertically transmitted. Such adsorption may be involved in vertical transmission of these viruses.

  11. Adsorption to fish sperm of vertically transmitted fish viruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulcahy, D.; Pascho, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    More than 99 percent of a vertically transmitted fish rhabdovirus, infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus, was removed from suspension in less than 1 minute by adsorption to the surface membrane of sperm from two genera of salmonid fishes. The vertically transmitted, infectious pancreatic necrosis virus adsorbed to a lesser degree, but no adsorption occurred with a second fish rhabdovirus that is not vertically transmitted. Such adsorption may be involved in vertical transmission of these viruses.

  12. The Sensor Fish: Measuring Fish Passage in Severe Hydraulic Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Thomas J. ); Duncan, Joanne P. ); Gilbride, Theresa L. )

    2003-05-28

    This article describes PNNL's efforts to develop the Sensor Fish, a waterproof sensor package that travels thru the turbines of spillways of hydroelectric dam to collect pressure and acceleration data on the conditions experienced by live salmon smolts during dam passage. Sensor Fish development is sponsored by the DOE Advanced Hydropower Turbine Survival Program. The article also gave two recent examples of Sensor Fish use: turbine passage at a McNary Kaplan turbine and spill passage in topspill at Rock Island Dam.

  13. Virus diseases of fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watson, Stanley W.

    1954-01-01

    The degenerative or non-neoplastic diseases of possible virus origin give the fish-culturist the most concern because of the severe mortalities resulting from infection. Epizootics of this nature have been reported in carp (Cyprinus carpio) and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) in Europe, in acara (Geophagus brasiliensis) in South America, in kokanee, (Oncorhynchus nerka kennerlyi) and in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka nerka) in the State of Washington. It has been demonstrated that each epizootic was caused by an infectious filterable agent, probably a virus.

  14. Fish intelligence, sentience and ethics.

    PubMed

    Brown, Culum

    2015-01-01

    Fish are one of the most highly utilised vertebrate taxa by humans; they are harvested from wild stocks as part of global fishing industries, grown under intensive aquaculture conditions, are the most common pet and are widely used for scientific research. But fish are seldom afforded the same level of compassion or welfare as warm-blooded vertebrates. Part of the problem is the large gap between people's perception of fish intelligence and the scientific reality. This is an important issue because public perception guides government policy. The perception of an animal's intelligence often drives our decision whether or not to include them in our moral circle. From a welfare perspective, most researchers would suggest that if an animal is sentient, then it can most likely suffer and should therefore be offered some form of formal protection. There has been a debate about fish welfare for decades which centres on the question of whether they are sentient or conscious. The implications for affording the same level of protection to fish as other vertebrates are great, not least because of fishing-related industries. Here, I review the current state of knowledge of fish cognition starting with their sensory perception and moving on to cognition. The review reveals that fish perception and cognitive abilities often match or exceed other vertebrates. A review of the evidence for pain perception strongly suggests that fish experience pain in a manner similar to the rest of the vertebrates. Although scientists cannot provide a definitive answer on the level of consciousness for any non-human vertebrate, the extensive evidence of fish behavioural and cognitive sophistication and pain perception suggests that best practice would be to lend fish the same level of protection as any other vertebrate.

  15. Disease control in hatchery fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fish, F.F.

    1947-01-01

    The method described herein has been extensively tested, both in the laboratory and at the producing hatchery, over a period of several years. Once familiarity with the details of application have been mastered, th8 reduction in effort required to treat fish is amazing. For example, two men have treated 20 large ponds containing several million fish, in one morning with no significant increase in mortality of the fish, whereas a crew of eight men required a full day to treat a single similar pond by hand dipping the fish with a subsequent loss approximating 50 percent of the stock.

  16. The Function of Fish Cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Jun; Secombes, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    What is known about the biological activity of fish cytokines is reviewed. Most of the functional studies performed to date have been in teleost fish, and have focused on the induced effects of cytokine recombinant proteins, or have used loss- and gain-of-function experiments in zebrafish. Such studies begin to tell us about the role of these molecules in the regulation of fish immune responses and whether they are similar or divergent to the well-characterised functions of mammalian cytokines. This knowledge will aid our ability to determine and modulate the pathways leading to protective immunity, to improve fish health in aquaculture. PMID:27231948

  17. Fish can get diseases too

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorsteinson, Lyman

    2005-01-01

    Infectious diseases are increasingly recognized as an important component of the ecology of fish in the wild. Many of the viral, bacterial, protozoan and fungal pathogens of fish that were initially discovered in captive fish have their origin among wild populations; however, the impact of disease among these free-ranging stocks has been difficult to study. At the WFRC, combinations of field and laboratory investigations, aided by the tools of molecular biology, have begun to provide information on the ecology of infectious diseases among natural populations of fish in both freshwater and marine ecosystems.

  18. Farming in a fish tank.

    PubMed

    Youth, H

    1992-01-01

    Water, fish, and vegetables are all things that most developing countries do not have enough of. There is a method of food production called aquaculture that integrates fish and vegetable growing and conserves and purifies water at the same time. A working system that grows vegetables and fish for regional supermarkets in Massachusetts is a gravity fed system. At the top of the system is a 3,000 gallon fish rearing tank that measures 12 feet in diameter. Water trickles out of the tank and fish wastes are captured which can be composted and used in farm fields. The water goes into a bio filter that contains bacteria which convert harmful ammonia generated from fish waste into beneficial nitrate. Then the water flows into 100 foot long hydroponic tanks where lettuce grows. A 1/6 horsepower pump return the purified water to the fish tank and completes the cycle. The key to success is maintaining a balance between the fish nutrients and waste and the plants nutrients and waste. The system is estimated to produce 35,000 heads of lettuce and 2 tons of fish annually which translates into $23,500. The system could be adapted to developing countries with several modifications to reduce the start up cost.

  19. Fishing for feed or fishing for food: increasing global competition for small pelagic forage fish.

    PubMed

    Tacon, Albert G J; Metian, Marc

    2009-09-01

    At present, small pelagic forage fish species (includes anchovies, herring, mackerel, sardines, etc.) represent the largest landed species group in capture fisheries (27.3 million t or 29.7% of total capture fisheries landings in 2006). They also currently constitute the major species group actively fished and targeted for nonfood uses, including reduction into fishmeal and fish oil for use within compound animal feeds, or for direct animal feeding; the aquaculture sector alone consumed the equivalent of about 23.8 million t of fish (live weight equivalent) or 87% in the form of feed inputs in 2006. This article attempts to make a global analysis of the competition for small pelagic forage fish for direct human consumption and nonfood uses, particularly concerning the important and growing role played by small pelagic forage fish in the diet and food security of the poor and needy, especially within the developing countries of Africa and the Sub-Saharan region.

  20. Fish Manoeuvres and Morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Kiran; Pedley, Timothy

    2008-11-01

    The extraordinary manoeuvrability observed in many fish is attributed to their inherent flexibility, which might be enhanced by the use of appendages like fins. The aim of this work is to understand the role of morphological adaptations, such as body shape and deployment of median fins, on manoeuvrability and internal body dynamics. The 3d vortex lattice numerical method was employed to analyse the hydrodynamics for arbitrary body planforms of infinitesimal thickness. The internal structure of the body due to the combined skeletal system and soft tissue, is represented as an active Euler-Bernoulli beam, in which the time-dependent bending moment distribution is calculated from body inertia and the hydrodynamic pressure difference across the body. C-turns are the manoeuvre of choice for this work and the response for three different species of fish are examined. Angelfish(Pterophyllum eimekei), pike (Esox sp) and tuna (Thunnus albacares) were chosen for their differences in body profile, median fin use and manoeuvrability. Net direction change and bending moment response to prescribed backbone flexure are calculated and used to interpret the influence of body profile on manoeuvrability and muscle work done. Internal stresses may be computed from anatomical data on muscle fibre distribution and recruitment. To the future, it is intended to extend this work to other typical manoeuvres, such as fast starts for which muscle activation patterns have been measured quite widely.

  1. Fronts, fish, and predators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belkin, Igor M.; Hunt, George L.; Hazen, Elliott L.; Zamon, Jeannette E.; Schick, Robert S.; Prieto, Rui; Brodziak, Jon; Teo, Steven L. H.; Thorne, Lesley; Bailey, Helen; Itoh, Sachihiko; Munk, Peter; Musyl, Michael K.; Willis, Jay K.; Zhang, Wuchang

    2014-09-01

    Ocean fronts play a key role in marine ecosystems. Fronts shape oceanic landscapes and affect every trophic level across a wide range of spatio-temporal scales, from meters to thousands of kilometers, and from days to millions of years. At some fronts, there is an elevated rate of primary production, whereas at others, plankton is aggregated by advection and by the behavior of organisms moving against gradients in temperature, salinity, light irradiance, hydrostatic pressure and other physico-chemical and biological factors. Lower trophic level organisms - phytoplankton and zooplankton - that are aggregated in sufficient densities, attract organisms from higher trophic levels, from planktivorous schooling fish to squid, large piscivorous fish, seabirds and marine mammals. Many species have critical portions of their life stages or behaviors closely associated with fronts, including spawning, feeding, ontogenetic development, migrations, and other activities cued to frontal dynamics. At different life stages, an individual species or population might be linked to different fronts. The nature and strength of associations between fronts and biota depend on numerous factors such as the physical nature and spatio-temporal scales of the front and the species and their life stages in question. In other words, fronts support many different niches and micro/macro-habitats over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales.

  2. Efficiency of fish propulsion.

    PubMed

    Maertens, A P; Triantafyllou, M S; Yue, D K P

    2015-07-30

    The system efficiency of a self-propelled flexible body is ill-defined, hence we introduce the concept of quasi-propulsive efficiency, defined as the ratio of the power needed to tow a body in rigid-straight condition over the power it requires for self-propulsion, both measured for the same speed. Through examples we show that the quasi-propulsive efficiency is a rational non-dimensional metric of the propulsive fitness of fish and fish-like mechanisms, consistent with the goal to minimize fuel consumption under size and velocity constraints. We perform two-dimensional viscous simulations and apply the concept of quasi-propulsive efficiency to illustrate and discuss the efficiency of two-dimensional undulating foils employing first carangiform and then anguilliform kinematics. We show that low efficiency may be due to adverse body-propulsor hydrodynamic interactions, which cannot be accounted for by an increase in friction drag, as done previously, since at the Reynolds number Re = 5 000 considered in the simulations, pressure is a major contributor to both thrust and drag.

  3. Fish Karyome: A karyological information network database of Indian Fishes.

    PubMed

    Nagpure, Naresh Sahebrao; Pathak, Ajey Kumar; Pati, Rameshwar; Singh, Shri Prakash; Singh, Mahender; Sarkar, Uttam Kumar; Kushwaha, Basdeo; Kumar, Ravindra

    2012-01-01

    'Fish Karyome', a database on karyological information of Indian fishes have been developed that serves as central source for karyotype data about Indian fishes compiled from the published literature. Fish Karyome has been intended to serve as a liaison tool for the researchers and contains karyological information about 171 out of 2438 finfish species reported in India and is publically available via World Wide Web. The database provides information on chromosome number, morphology, sex chromosomes, karyotype formula and cytogenetic markers etc. Additionally, it also provides the phenotypic information that includes species name, its classification, and locality of sample collection, common name, local name, sex, geographical distribution, and IUCN Red list status. Besides, fish and karyotype images, references for 171 finfish species have been included in the database. Fish Karyome has been developed using SQL Server 2008, a relational database management system, Microsoft's ASP.NET-2008 and Macromedia's FLASH Technology under Windows 7 operating environment. The system also enables users to input new information and images into the database, search and view the information and images of interest using various search options. Fish Karyome has wide range of applications in species characterization and identification, sex determination, chromosomal mapping, karyo-evolution and systematics of fishes.

  4. Fish Passage: A New Tool to Investigate Fish Movement: JSATS

    SciTech Connect

    McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Weiland, Mark A.; Deng, Zhiqun; Eppard, Matthew B.

    2011-04-20

    A new system is being used to determine fish mortality issues related to hydroelectric facilities in the Pacific Northwest. Called the juvenile salmon acoustic telemetry system (JSATS), this tool allows researchers to better understand fish movement, behavior, and survival around dams and powerhouses.

  5. FIXATION OF FISH TISSUES. IN: THE LABORATORY FISH.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter deals with the fixation of fish tissues and whole fish. Traditionally, fixation has been applied to animal tissues mainly for histological or pathological studies. Development of new molecular and immunologic tools now allows tissue and cellular localization of nucle...

  6. New research method looks at fish mucus

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have developed a new way to analyze fish tissues to understand fish ecology. Instead of killing the fish to collect the sample for analysis, we collect body mucus from the fish and analyze that. The fish can then be returned alive to the stream or lake.

  7. 25 CFR 242.4 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fishing. 242.4 Section 242.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE COMMERCIAL FISHING ON RED LAKE INDIAN RESERVATION § 242.4 Fishing. (a) Enrolled members of the Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians may take fish at any...

  8. 50 CFR 600.508 - Fishing operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fishing operations. 600.508 Section 600... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Foreign Fishing § 600.508 Fishing.... fishing vessels. These joint venture operations with U.S. fishing vessels may be conducted throughout...

  9. 25 CFR 242.4 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fishing. 242.4 Section 242.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE COMMERCIAL FISHING ON RED LAKE INDIAN RESERVATION § 242.4 Fishing. (a) Enrolled members of the Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians may take fish at any...

  10. 25 CFR 242.4 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fishing. 242.4 Section 242.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE COMMERCIAL FISHING ON RED LAKE INDIAN RESERVATION § 242.4 Fishing. (a) Enrolled members of the Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians may take fish at any...

  11. 76 FR 60379 - Hunting and Fishing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 32 Hunting and Fishing CFR Correction In Title 50 of the Code of.... Sport Fishing. We allow fishing on designated areas of the refuge in accordance with State regulations subject to the following conditions: 0 1. We allow fishing in impounded waters contained within dikes...

  12. 50 CFR 600.508 - Fishing operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fishing operations. 600.508 Section 600... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Foreign Fishing § 600.508 Fishing.... fishing vessels. These joint venture operations with U.S. fishing vessels may be conducted throughout...

  13. 25 CFR 242.4 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Fishing. 242.4 Section 242.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE COMMERCIAL FISHING ON RED LAKE INDIAN RESERVATION § 242.4 Fishing. (a) Enrolled members of the Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians may take fish at any...

  14. 25 CFR 242.4 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fishing. 242.4 Section 242.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE COMMERCIAL FISHING ON RED LAKE INDIAN RESERVATION § 242.4 Fishing. (a) Enrolled members of the Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians may take fish at any...

  15. 50 CFR 600.508 - Fishing operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fishing operations. 600.508 Section 600... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Foreign Fishing § 600.508 Fishing.... fishing vessels. These joint venture operations with U.S. fishing vessels may be conducted throughout...

  16. 50 CFR 600.508 - Fishing operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fishing operations. 600.508 Section 600... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Foreign Fishing § 600.508 Fishing.... fishing vessels. These joint venture operations with U.S. fishing vessels may be conducted throughout...

  17. 50 CFR 300.129 - Fishing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fishing year. 300.129 Section 300.129 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Vessels of the United States Fishing in Colombian Treaty Waters § 300.129 Fishing year. The fishing...

  18. 50 CFR 300.129 - Fishing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fishing year. 300.129 Section 300.129 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Vessels of the United States Fishing in Colombian Treaty Waters § 300.129 Fishing year. The fishing...

  19. 50 CFR 300.129 - Fishing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fishing year. 300.129 Section 300.129 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Vessels of the United States Fishing in Colombian Treaty Waters § 300.129 Fishing year. The fishing...

  20. 50 CFR 300.129 - Fishing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fishing year. 300.129 Section 300.129 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Vessels of the United States Fishing in Colombian Treaty Waters § 300.129 Fishing year. The fishing...

  1. 50 CFR 300.129 - Fishing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fishing year. 300.129 Section 300.129 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Vessels of the United States Fishing in Colombian Treaty Waters § 300.129 Fishing year. The fishing...

  2. Fishing effects on energy use by North Sea fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, Simon; van Hal, Ralf; Hiddink, Jan G.; Maxwell, Tracy A. D.

    Fishing affects patterns of energy use in fish populations, as demonstrated by changes in population energy consumption and the size and age when energy demands are greatest. We compare theoretical predictions and observed patterns of energy use (expressed as the primary production required to support fish production) by North Sea fish, based on simple and widely applicable theory that links life history parameters, fishing mortality ( F), trophic transfer efficiency and relationships between size and trophic level (as determined using nitrogen stable isotope analysis). For the demersal species that dominate total biomass, relationships between size and trophic level were quite consistent among years. There were large decreases in relative energy requirements of all exploited demersal populations except plaice Pleuronectes platessa during the last 3 to 4 decades. Relative energy requirements of plaice were more stable because smaller plaice, which now dominate the exploited population, feed at higher trophic levels than larger plaice. The sizes and ages when population energy demands were greatest fell with increasing fishing mortality and differences between the predicted ( F = 0) and observed ages at maximum energy demand were greater in larger species. Currently, the energy demands of most species peak early in life (1-3 years) and largely reflect patterns of recruitment, leading to a homogenisation of the trophodynamics of the fish community. The fate of energy that is no longer used by commercially exploited species is not clear, partly because of the infrequent and untargeted monitoring of species that are more resilient to fishing. However, we conducted a preliminary assessment of the energy demands of solenette Buglossidium luteum, a very abundant small flatfish in the central North Sea that has increased in abundance in recent years. The solenette's high abundance and resilience to fishing, suggests that it now requires 35% of primary production in part of

  3. Vision of Fish in Air

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colicchia, Giuseppe

    2007-01-01

    The investigation of the focusing in fish eyes, both theoretical and experimental, by using a simple fish eye model, provides an interesting biological context for teaching the introductory principles of optics. Moreover, the students will learn concepts of biology by an approach of cause and effect.

  4. Feeding Practices and Fish Health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the past three decades, the aquaculture industry has expanded rapidly throughout the world and is expected to continue to grow in the years to come due to the unpredictability and high cost of harvesting fish from the oceans as well as the increased demand for fish as a result of rapid populati...

  5. Fish health and environmental health.

    PubMed Central

    Murchelano, R A

    1990-01-01

    Surveys conducted to evaluate the health of marine-bottom fishes have been conducted in the eastern and western North Atlantic for the past 15 years, usually in conjunction with fish stock assessment cruises. The health of the fish sampled was evaluated using certain integumental and skeletal lesions and anomalies as markers to signify compromised health status. The results of these surveys indicate that fish health is poorer in coastal waters that have been anthropogenically degraded. Monitoring programs to determine the status and trends in levels of inorganic and organic contaminants in fish tissue and sediments have disclosed high levels of chemical contaminants in several coastal areas of the northeastern United States. Histopathological examinations of liver tissues of winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus, from Boston Harbor, one of the more chemically contaminated sites, has revealed a high prevalence of hepatocarcinoma. PMID:2401261

  6. Interphase Chromosome Flow-FISH.

    PubMed

    Keyvanfar, Keyvan; Weed, Jason; Swamy, Prashanth; Kajigaya, Sachiko; Calado, Rodrigo T; Young, Neal S

    2012-10-11

    A 2-day method using flow cytometry and FISH for interphase cells was developed to detect monosomy 7 cells in myelodysplastic syndrome patients. The method, Interphase Chromosome Flow-FISH (IC Flow-FISH), involves fixation of leukocytes from blood, membrane permeabilization, hybridization of cellular DNA with peptide nucleic acid probes with cells intact, and analysis by flow cytometry. Hundreds to thousands of monosomy 7 cells were consistently detected from 10-20 mL of blood in patients with monosomy 7. Proportions of monosomy 7 cells detected in IC Flow-FISH were compared with results from conventional cytogenetics; identification of monosomy 7 populations was verified with FACS; and patient and donor cells were mixed to test for sensitivity. IC Flow-FISH allows for detecting monosomy 7 without requiring bone marrow procurement or the necessity of metaphase spreads, and wider applications to other chromosomal abnormalities are in development. PMID:22932794

  7. [Magnetic fields and fish behavior].

    PubMed

    Krylov, V V; Iziumov, Iu G; Izvekov, E I; Nepomniashchikh, V A

    2013-01-01

    In the review, contemporary data on the influence of natural and artificial magnetic fields on fish behavior are considered. In this regard, elasmobranchs and teleosts appear to be studied most exhaustively. Elasmobranchs and some teleosts are able to perceive magnetic fields via electroreceptors. A number of teleosts can sense magnetic fields via sensory cells containing crystals of biogenic magnetite. Laboratory experiments and field observations indicate the influence of magnetic fields on fish locomotor activity and spatial distribution. The geomagnetic field can be used by fish for navigation. Besides, artificial magnetic fields and natural fluctuations of the geomagnetic field can affect fish embryos leading to alterations in their development. It is suggested that, afterwards, these alterations can have an effect on fish behavior.

  8. [Magnetic fields and fish behavior].

    PubMed

    Krylov, V V; Iziumov, Iu G; Izvekov, E I; Nepomniashchikh, V A

    2013-01-01

    In the review, contemporary data on the influence of natural and artificial magnetic fields on fish behavior are considered. In this regard, elasmobranchs and teleosts appear to be studied most exhaustively. Elasmobranchs and some teleosts are able to perceive magnetic fields via electroreceptors. A number of teleosts can sense magnetic fields via sensory cells containing crystals of biogenic magnetite. Laboratory experiments and field observations indicate the influence of magnetic fields on fish locomotor activity and spatial distribution. The geomagnetic field can be used by fish for navigation. Besides, artificial magnetic fields and natural fluctuations of the geomagnetic field can affect fish embryos leading to alterations in their development. It is suggested that, afterwards, these alterations can have an effect on fish behavior. PMID:25438567

  9. [Magnetic fields and fish behavior].

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    In the review, contemporary data on the influence of natural and artificial magnetic fields on fish behavior are considered. In this regard, elasmobranchs and teleosts appear to be studied most exhaustively. Elasmobranchs and some teleosts are able to perceive magnetic fields via electroreceptors. A number of teleosts can sense magnetic fields via sensory cells containing crystals of biogenic magnetite. Laboratory experiments and field observations indicate the influence of magnetic fields on fish locomotor activity and spatial distribution. The geomagnetic field can be used by fish for navigation. Besides, artificial magnetic fields and natural fluctuations of the geomagnetic field can affect fish embryos leading to alterations in their development. It is suggested that, afterwards, these alterations can have an effect on fish behavior. PMID:25508098

  10. Orientation through chemo reception in fishes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleerekoper, H.

    1972-01-01

    A system designed to acquire and process data describing locomotor behavior of fish is described. Data are recorded in relation to the fish's response to olfactory stimuli. It was concluded that fish orientation is based on rheataxis or chemotropotaxis.

  11. Genetics Home Reference: fish-eye disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions fish-eye disease fish-eye disease Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Fish-eye disease , also called partial LCAT deficiency, is ...

  12. [Noise in fishing vessels].

    PubMed

    Peretti, Alessandro; Nataletti, Pietro; Bonfiglio, Paolo; di Bisceglie, Anita Pasqua

    2013-01-01

    The present research concerns the noise analysis of five vessels during navigation and fishing activities. In locations where staff operates, sound levels (produced substantially by the engine) were close to 90 dB(A); within the rest areas the noise is also quite significant. On the basis of working time, exposure levels ranged between 80 and 90 dB(A). In order to identify interventions able to reduce the risk, reverberation times, sound insulation of the different areas and the vibrations produced by the engine were measured on the same vessels docked in port. Noise level reduction as a result of sound absorptive treatments were estimated using an analytical model. PMID:24303698

  13. Flapping flexible fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Root, Robert G.; Courtland, Hayden-William; Shepherd, William; Long, John H.

    In order to analyze and model the body kinematics used by fish in a wide range of swimming behaviors, we developed a technique to separate the periodic whole-body motions that characterize steady swimming from the secular motions that characterize changes in whole-body shape. We applied this harmonic analysis technique to the study of the forward and backward swimming of lamprey. We found that in order to vary the unsteadiness of swimming, lamprey superimpose periodic and secular components of their body motion, modulate the patterns and magnitudes of those components, and change shape. These kinematic results suggest the following hydromechanical hypothesis: steady swimming is a maneuver that requires active suppression of secular body reconfigurations.

  14. Revision of Khawia spp. (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), parasites of cyprinid fish, including a key to their identification and molecular phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Tomás; Brabec, Jan; Král'ová-Hromadová, Ivica; Oros, Mikulás; Bazsalovicsová, Eva; Ermolenko, Alexey; Hanzelová, Vladimíra

    2011-09-01

    Monozoic cestodes of the genus Khawia Hsü, 1935 (Caryophyllidea: Lytocestidae), parasites of cyprinid fish in Europe, Asia, Africa and North America, are revised on the basis of taxonomic evaluation of extensive materials, including recently collected specimens of most species. This evaluation has made it possible to critically assess the validity of all 17 nominal species of the genus and to provide redescriptions of the following seven species considered to be valid: Khawia sinensis Hsü, 1935 (type species); K. armeniaca (Cholodkovsky, 1915); K. baltica Szidat, 1941; K. japonensis (Yamaguti, 1934); K. parva (Zmeev, 1936); K. rossittensis (Szidat, 1937); and K. saurogobii Xi, Oros, Wang, Wu, Gao et Nie, 2009. Several new synonyms are proposed: Khawia barbi Rahemo et Mohammad, 2002 and K. lutei Al-Kalak et Rahemo, 2003 are synonymized with K. armeniaca; K. coregoni Kritscher, 1990 with Caryophyllaeus laticeps (Pallas, 1781) (family Caryophyllaeidae); K. cyprini Li, 1964 and K. iowensis Calentine et Ulmer, 1961 with K. japonensis; K. dubia (Szidat, 1937) (syn. Bothrioscolex dubius Szidat, 1937) with K. rossittensis; and Tsengia neimongkuensis Li, 1964 and T. xiamenensis Liu, Yang et Lin, 1995 with K. sinensis. Khawia prussica (Szidat, 1937) (syn. Bothrioscolex prussicus Szidat, 1937) is considered to be species incertae sedis, but its morphology indicates it may belong to Caryophyllaeus Gmelin, 1790 (Caryophyllaeidae). The molecular analysis of all seven valid species, based on comparison of sequences of two nuclear ribosomal and two mitochondrial genes, has shown that the species form three major groups clustered according to their fish hosts. Five species from common and crucian carp and goldfish were grouped together, whereas K. armeniaca from barbels (Barbinae) and K. baltica from tench (Tinca) formed separate clades. In contrast, geographical distribution does not seem to play a crucial role in grouping of individual taxa. A phylogenetic tree based on

  15. The campaign to DNA barcode all fishes, FISH-BOL.

    PubMed

    Ward, R D; Hanner, R; Hebert, P D N

    2009-02-01

    FISH-BOL, the Fish Barcode of Life campaign, is an international research collaboration that is assembling a standardized reference DNA sequence library for all fishes. Analysis is targeting a 648 base pair region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene. More than 5000 species have already been DNA barcoded, with an average of five specimens per species, typically vouchers with authoritative identifications. The barcode sequence from any fish, fillet, fin, egg or larva can be matched against these reference sequences using BOLD; the Barcode of Life Data System (http://www.barcodinglife.org). The benefits of barcoding fishes include facilitating species identification, highlighting cases of range expansion for known species, flagging previously overlooked species and enabling identifications where traditional methods cannot be applied. Results thus far indicate that barcodes separate c. 98 and 93% of already described marine and freshwater fish species, respectively. Several specimens with divergent barcode sequences have been confirmed by integrative taxonomic analysis as new species. Past concerns in relation to the use of fish barcoding for species discrimination are discussed. These include hybridization, recent radiations, regional differentiation in barcode sequences and nuclear copies of the barcode region. However, current results indicate these issues are of little concern for the great majority of specimens.

  16. Active Fish Tracking Sonar (AFTS) for Assessing Fish Behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Hedgepeth, J; Johnson, Gary E. ); Skalski, John R.; Burczynski, J

    2002-11-01

    Active fish tracking sonars (AFTS) were used in 2001 to study fish movement in response to intake occlusion plates at The Dalles Dam on the Columbia River. AFTS provides three-dimensional fish tracks by aligning the axis of a split-beam transducer with a fish target. High-speed stepper motors move the transducer so that a tracked target remains on-axis. Occlusion plates with lateral extensions covered the top half of the turbine intakes to produce a fish friendly near-dam environment. Two AFTS were positioned at the center of Main Unit 1, one each for monitoring installed and removed plate conditions. A regression analysis showed that occlusion plates had pronounced effects on fish movement along the dam. The plates appeared to inhibit movement toward the spillway, movement toward the dam (especially in front of the turbine intake), and movement downward toward the turbines. Fish fate (as opposed to movement directions from regression slopes) into particular areas was determined using Markov-chain analysis. The sluiceway (a safer passage route above the turbine intake) zone of influence was larger with the occlusion plates installed, contrary to the regression results. In addition, the probability of passage out the near turbine and bottom sides of the sample volume was about 50% lower with occlusion plates installed.

  17. Fisheries and aquatic resources--fish health

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Panek, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Fish health research at Leetown had its origin in the 1930’s when the Leetown Fish Hatchery and Experiment Station was constructed. In 1978, the National Fish Health Research Laboratory, now a component of the Leetown Science Center, was established to solve emerging and known disease problems affecting fish and other aquatic organisms critical to species restoration programs. Center scientists develop methods for the isolation, detection, and identification of fish pathogens and for prevention and control of fish diseases.

  18. Tropical fishes dominate temperate reef fish communities within western Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yohei; Feary, David A; Kanda, Masaru; Yamaoka, Kosaku

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is resulting in rapid poleward shifts in the geographical distribution of tropical and subtropical fish species. We can expect that such range shifts are likely to be limited by species-specific resource requirements, with temperate rocky reefs potentially lacking a range of settlement substrates or specific dietary components important in structuring the settlement and success of tropical and subtropical fish species. We examined the importance of resource use in structuring the distribution patterns of range shifting tropical and subtropical fishes, comparing this with resident temperate fish species within western Japan (Tosa Bay); the abundance, diversity, size class, functional structure and latitudinal range of reef fishes utilizing both coral reef and adjacent rocky reef habitat were quantified over a 2 year period (2008-2010). This region has undergone rapid poleward expansion of reef-building corals in response to increasing coastal water temperatures, and forms one of the global hotspots for rapid coastal changes. Despite the temperate latitude surveyed (33°N, 133°E) the fish assemblage was both numerically, and in terms of richness, dominated by tropical fishes. Such tropical faunal dominance was apparent within both coral, and rocky reef habitats. The size structure of the assemblage suggested that a relatively large number of tropical species are overwintering within both coral and rocky habitats, with a subset of these species being potentially reproductively active. The relatively high abundance and richness of tropical species with obligate associations with live coral resources (i.e., obligate corallivores) shows that this region holds the most well developed temperate-located tropical fish fauna globally. We argue that future tropicalisation of the fish fauna in western Japan, associated with increasing coral habitat development and reported increasing shifts in coastal water temperatures, may have considerable positive economic

  19. Tropical fishes dominate temperate reef fish communities within western Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yohei; Feary, David A; Kanda, Masaru; Yamaoka, Kosaku

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is resulting in rapid poleward shifts in the geographical distribution of tropical and subtropical fish species. We can expect that such range shifts are likely to be limited by species-specific resource requirements, with temperate rocky reefs potentially lacking a range of settlement substrates or specific dietary components important in structuring the settlement and success of tropical and subtropical fish species. We examined the importance of resource use in structuring the distribution patterns of range shifting tropical and subtropical fishes, comparing this with resident temperate fish species within western Japan (Tosa Bay); the abundance, diversity, size class, functional structure and latitudinal range of reef fishes utilizing both coral reef and adjacent rocky reef habitat were quantified over a 2 year period (2008-2010). This region has undergone rapid poleward expansion of reef-building corals in response to increasing coastal water temperatures, and forms one of the global hotspots for rapid coastal changes. Despite the temperate latitude surveyed (33°N, 133°E) the fish assemblage was both numerically, and in terms of richness, dominated by tropical fishes. Such tropical faunal dominance was apparent within both coral, and rocky reef habitats. The size structure of the assemblage suggested that a relatively large number of tropical species are overwintering within both coral and rocky habitats, with a subset of these species being potentially reproductively active. The relatively high abundance and richness of tropical species with obligate associations with live coral resources (i.e., obligate corallivores) shows that this region holds the most well developed temperate-located tropical fish fauna globally. We argue that future tropicalisation of the fish fauna in western Japan, associated with increasing coral habitat development and reported increasing shifts in coastal water temperatures, may have considerable positive economic

  20. Tropical Fishes Dominate Temperate Reef Fish Communities within Western Japan

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Yohei; Feary, David A.; Kanda, Masaru; Yamaoka, Kosaku

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is resulting in rapid poleward shifts in the geographical distribution of tropical and subtropical fish species. We can expect that such range shifts are likely to be limited by species-specific resource requirements, with temperate rocky reefs potentially lacking a range of settlement substrates or specific dietary components important in structuring the settlement and success of tropical and subtropical fish species. We examined the importance of resource use in structuring the distribution patterns of range shifting tropical and subtropical fishes, comparing this with resident temperate fish species within western Japan (Tosa Bay); the abundance, diversity, size class, functional structure and latitudinal range of reef fishes utilizing both coral reef and adjacent rocky reef habitat were quantified over a 2 year period (2008–2010). This region has undergone rapid poleward expansion of reef-building corals in response to increasing coastal water temperatures, and forms one of the global hotspots for rapid coastal changes. Despite the temperate latitude surveyed (33°N, 133°E) the fish assemblage was both numerically, and in terms of richness, dominated by tropical fishes. Such tropical faunal dominance was apparent within both coral, and rocky reef habitats. The size structure of the assemblage suggested that a relatively large number of tropical species are overwintering within both coral and rocky habitats, with a subset of these species being potentially reproductively active. The relatively high abundance and richness of tropical species with obligate associations with live coral resources (i.e., obligate corallivores) shows that this region holds the most well developed temperate-located tropical fish fauna globally. We argue that future tropicalisation of the fish fauna in western Japan, associated with increasing coral habitat development and reported increasing shifts in coastal water temperatures, may have considerable positive economic

  1. Cortisol coregulation in fish.

    PubMed

    Fürtbauer, Ines; Heistermann, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Cortisol coregulation, which is the up- or down-regulation of partners' physiological stress responses, has been described for individuals with strong attachment bonds, e.g. parents and their children, and romantic relationship partners. Research into moderating effects on cortisol coregulation suggests stronger covariation among distressed partners. Whether cortisol coregulation is unique to humans or can also be found in other species that share universal features of the vertebrate stress response remains unexplored. Using a repeated measures approach and non-invasive waterborne hormone analysis, we test the hypothesis that dyads of three-spined stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus) coregulate their cortisol levels in shared environments. Dyadic cortisol levels were unrelated when cohabiting (home tank), but significantly covaried when sharing a more stressful (as indicated by higher cortisol levels) environment (open field). Time-lag analysis further revealed that open field cortisol levels were predicted by partner's cortisol levels prior to the shared experience. To our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence for coregulatory processes on cortisol responses in a non-human animal that lacks strong bonds and social attachment relationships, suggesting a shared evolutionary origin of cortisol coregulation in vertebrates. From an adaptive perspective, cortisol coregulation may serve to reduce risk in challenging, potentially threatening situations. PMID:27458063

  2. Fueling global fishing fleets.

    PubMed

    Tyedmers, Peter H; Watson, Reg; Pauly, Daniel

    2005-12-01

    Over the course of the 20th century, fossil fuels became the dominant energy input to most of the world's fisheries. Although various analyses have quantified fuel inputs to individual fisheries, to date, no attempt has been made to quantify the global scale and to map the distribution of fuel consumed by fisheries. By integrating data representing more than 250 fisheries from around the world with spatially resolved catch statistics for 2000, we calculate that globally, fisheries burned almost 50 billion L of fuel in the process of landing just over 80 million t of marine fish and invertebrates for an average rate of 620 L t(-1). Consequently, fisheries account for about 1.2% of global oil consumption, an amount equivalent to that burned by the Netherlands, the 18th-ranked oil consuming country globally, and directly emit more than 130 million t of CO2 into the atmosphere. From an efficiency perspective, the energy content of the fuel burned by global fisheries is 12.5 times greater than the edible-protein energy content of the resulting catch.

  3. Gravitational Neurobiology of Fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmann, H.; Anken, R. H.

    In vertebrates (including man), altered gravitational environments such as weightlessness can induce malfunctions of the inner ears, based on irregular movements of the semicircular cristae or on dislocations of the inner ear otoliths from the corresponding sensory epithelia. This will lead to illusionary tilts, since the vestibular inputs are not confirmed by the other sensory organs, which results in an intersensory conflict. Vertebrates in orbit therefore face severe orientation problems. In humans, the intersensory conflict may additionally lead to a malaise, commonly referred to as space motion sickness (SMS), a kinetosis. During the first days at weightlessness, the orientation problems (and SMS) disappear, since the brain develops a new compensatory interpretation of the available sensory data. The present review reports on the neurobiological responses - particularly of fish - observed at altered gravitational states, concerning behaviour and neuroplastic reactivities. Recent investigations employing microgravity (spaceflight, parabolic aircraft flights, clinostat) and hyper-gravity (laboratory centrifuges as ground based research tools) yielded clues and insights into the understanding of the respective basic phenomena

  4. Cortisol coregulation in fish

    PubMed Central

    Fürtbauer, Ines; Heistermann, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Cortisol coregulation, which is the up- or down-regulation of partners’ physiological stress responses, has been described for individuals with strong attachment bonds, e.g. parents and their children, and romantic relationship partners. Research into moderating effects on cortisol coregulation suggests stronger covariation among distressed partners. Whether cortisol coregulation is unique to humans or can also be found in other species that share universal features of the vertebrate stress response remains unexplored. Using a repeated measures approach and non-invasive waterborne hormone analysis, we test the hypothesis that dyads of three-spined stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus) coregulate their cortisol levels in shared environments. Dyadic cortisol levels were unrelated when cohabiting (home tank), but significantly covaried when sharing a more stressful (as indicated by higher cortisol levels) environment (open field). Time-lag analysis further revealed that open field cortisol levels were predicted by partner’s cortisol levels prior to the shared experience. To our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence for coregulatory processes on cortisol responses in a non-human animal that lacks strong bonds and social attachment relationships, suggesting a shared evolutionary origin of cortisol coregulation in vertebrates. From an adaptive perspective, cortisol coregulation may serve to reduce risk in challenging, potentially threatening situations. PMID:27458063

  5. 78 FR 53156 - Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council; Teleconference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-28

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council; Teleconference AGENCY: Fish... Wildlife Service (Service), announce a public teleconference of the Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership.... App., we announce that Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council will hold a...

  6. 50 CFR 300.205 - Denial of port privileges and import restrictions on fish or fish products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... restrictions on fish or fish products. 300.205 Section 300.205 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND....205 Denial of port privileges and import restrictions on fish or fish products. (a) Scope of... fish and fish products. Services, including the refueling and re-supplying of such fishing vessels,...

  7. 50 CFR 300.205 - Denial of port privileges and import restrictions on fish or fish products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... restrictions on fish or fish products. 300.205 Section 300.205 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND....205 Denial of port privileges and import restrictions on fish or fish products. (a) Scope of... fish and fish products. Services, including the refueling and re-supplying of such fishing vessels,...

  8. Visual direction finding by fishes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waterman, T. H.

    1972-01-01

    The use of visual orientation, in the absence of landmarks, for underwater direction finding exercises by fishes is reviewed. Celestial directional clues observed directly near the water surface or indirectly at an asymptatic depth are suggested as possible orientation aids.

  9. To Fish in Troubled Waters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garmon, Linda

    1980-01-01

    The effects of heavy metals on fish are being investigated by the Columbia National Fishery Research Laboratory in Missouri. This article describes the process and some techniques that are being used in the research. (SA)

  10. A streptomycete pathogenic to fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rucker, R.R.

    1949-01-01

    A streptomycete and pseutdomonad were isolated from blueback salmon, Oncorhynchuis nerka (WValbaum), and shown to be pathogenic to fish. Trhese organisms were isolated from young blueback salmon taken from a gr'oup that developed an increasing mortality after feeding about a month at the United States Fishery Station, Leavenworth, Washington. A superficial examination revealed only the presence of fungus (probably Sap0olcynia parasitica), which wvas on the gills and was eliminated by treatment with a quaternary ammonium salt. Although the fungus infection was eliminated, the mortality continued. It was observed by the station biologist at the time that the majority of the fish in the hatchery troughs were healthy, but that there w-as alwzays present an apathetic group that hud(dled on the bottom, refused food, ancl eventually weakene(l and died. The bulk of the daily mortality was composedI of fish from this group. The apathetic group received constant recruitment from the more vigorous stock, and their number showed a gradual increase rather than clepletion. A more critical examination of the larger affected fish revealedl that thc kICidneys and spleens weIe disintegrating; mycelial masses w-ere sporadically observed in the body cavity; congestion wN-as present in the gastrointestinal tract; some hemorrhagic areas were present in the body musculature; an(l a few fish had a perforating ulceration of the body wall. Furi'unculosis was immediately suspected, and attempts were made to isolate from the diseaseti fish Bacteriim .salininicida Lehmann and Netumann, the etiological agent of furunculosis. B. salmornicida Awas not recovered, however, even after repeated attempts at isolation. Subsequently it was discovered that two other organisms, a streptomycete and a pseudomonad, were characteristically present in the diseased fish. Both organisms were found experimentally to be pathogenic to fish.

  11. Freezing resistance in polar fishes.

    PubMed

    Hargens, A R

    1972-04-14

    Arctic and antarctic fishes, living in contact with sea ice at -1.9 degrees C, have plasma equilibrium freezing points near -1.2 degrees C which are dependent on salt concentrations. These supercooled fishes have plasma protein concentrations much higher than other polar animals have, and the proteins impede ice propagation at temperatures down to -2 degrees C. Plasma protein concentration increases as environmental water temperature decreases. PMID:17843537

  12. Grouping facilitates avoidance of parasites by fish

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Parasite distribution is often highly heterogeneous, and intensity of infection depends, among other things, on how well hosts can avoid areas with a high concentration of parasites. We studied the role of fish behaviour in avoiding microhabitats with a high infection risk using Oncorhynchus mykiss and cercariae of Diplostomum pseudospathaceum as a model. Spatial distribution of parasites in experimental tanks was highly heterogeneous. We hypothesized that fish in groups are better at recognizing a parasitized area and avoiding it than solitary fish. Methods Number of fish, either solitary or in groups of 5, was recorded in different compartments of a shuttle tank where fish could make a choice between areas with different risk of being infected. Intensity of infection was assessed and compared with the number of fish recorded in the compartment with parasites and level of fish motility. Results Both solitary fish and fish in groups avoided parasitized areas, but fish in groups avoided it more strongly and thus acquired significantly fewer parasites than solitary fish. Prevalence of infection among grouped and solitary fish was 66 and 92 %, respectively, with the mean abundance two times higher in the solitary fish. Between-individual variation in the number of parasites per fish was higher in the “groups” treatment (across all individuals) than in the “solitary” treatment. Avoidance behaviour was more efficient when fish were allowed to explore the experimental arena prior to parasite exposure. High motility of fish was shown to increase the acquisition of D. pseudospathaceum. Conclusion Fish in groups better avoided parasitized habitat, and acquired significantly fewer parasites than solitary fish. We suggest that fish in groups benefit from information about parasites gained from other members of a group. Grouping behaviour may be an efficient mechanism of parasite avoidance, together with individual behaviour and immune responses of fishes

  13. 50 CFR 635.25 - Fishing areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... from NMFS issued under § 635.32. (c) Atlantic bluefin tuna. No person aboard a U.S. fishing vessel shall fish for bluefin tuna in, or possess on board that fishing vessel a bluefin tuna taken from, the... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fishing areas. 635.25 Section...

  14. 50 CFR 600.513 - Recreational fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Recreational fishing. 600.513 Section 600... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Foreign Fishing § 600.513 Recreational fishing. (a) Foreign vessels conducting recreational fishing must comply only with this section,...

  15. 20 CFR 404.1031 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fishing. 404.1031 Section 404.1031 Employees... Fishing. (a) If you work on a boat engaged in catching fish or other forms of aquatic animal life, your... of the boat (or each boat from which you receive a share if the fishing operation involves more...

  16. 50 CFR 600.513 - Recreational fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Recreational fishing. 600.513 Section 600... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Foreign Fishing § 600.513 Recreational fishing. (a) Foreign vessels conducting recreational fishing must comply only with this section,...

  17. 20 CFR 404.1031 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fishing. 404.1031 Section 404.1031 Employees... Fishing. (a) If you work on a boat engaged in catching fish or other forms of aquatic animal life, your... of the boat (or each boat from which you receive a share if the fishing operation involves more...

  18. 20 CFR 404.1031 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fishing. 404.1031 Section 404.1031 Employees... Fishing. (a) If you work on a boat engaged in catching fish or other forms of aquatic animal life, your... of the boat (or each boat from which you receive a share if the fishing operation involves more...

  19. 20 CFR 404.1031 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fishing. 404.1031 Section 404.1031 Employees... Fishing. (a) If you work on a boat engaged in catching fish or other forms of aquatic animal life, your... of the boat (or each boat from which you receive a share if the fishing operation involves more...

  20. 20 CFR 404.1031 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fishing. 404.1031 Section 404.1031 Employees... Fishing. (a) If you work on a boat engaged in catching fish or other forms of aquatic animal life, your... of the boat (or each boat from which you receive a share if the fishing operation involves more...

  1. Environmental Assessment : Umatilla Fish Hatchery.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration. Office of Power and Resources Management.

    1987-02-01

    Environmental impacts of the fish hatchery expansion alternative are addressed. It is possible that numbers and species of fish produced could change through a future cooperative ODF and W/CTUIR hatchery master planning process. However, the environmental impacts of an expanded hatchery are expected to be basically the same as described in this document. The master plan includes the following information for the proposed Umatilla Fish Hatchery: rearing schedules and release sites and schedules; a detailed production profile that includes numbers of fish to be released and expected annual adult returns; harvest strategies for naturally and hatchery produced fish; proposed management policies and hatchery practices which will ensure that hatchery releases are coordinated with other fishery management agencies and tribes in the Columbia River Basin; and a proposal for biological monitoring and evaluation of the hatchery program. Development of the Umatilla Fish Hatchery, a joint agency effort, is designed to preserve and enhance summer steelhead and possibly spring and fall chinook salmon stocks of the Umatilla River. The hatchery would provide increased harvest opportunities to the commercial, ceremonial, and subsistence fisheries of the CTUIR and the regional sport fishery.

  2. 21 CFR 102.45 - Fish sticks or portions made from minced fish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fish sticks or portions made from minced fish. 102... for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.45 Fish sticks or portions made from minced fish. (a) The common or usual name of the food product that resembles and is of the same composition as fish sticks...

  3. 21 CFR 102.45 - Fish sticks or portions made from minced fish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fish sticks or portions made from minced fish. 102... for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.45 Fish sticks or portions made from minced fish. (a) The common or usual name of the food product that resembles and is of the same composition as fish sticks...

  4. 21 CFR 102.45 - Fish sticks or portions made from minced fish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fish sticks or portions made from minced fish. 102... for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.45 Fish sticks or portions made from minced fish. (a) The common or usual name of the food product that resembles and is of the same composition as fish sticks...

  5. 21 CFR 102.45 - Fish sticks or portions made from minced fish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fish sticks or portions made from minced fish. 102... for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.45 Fish sticks or portions made from minced fish. (a) The common or usual name of the food product that resembles and is of the same composition as fish sticks...

  6. 21 CFR 102.45 - Fish sticks or portions made from minced fish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fish sticks or portions made from minced fish. 102... for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.45 Fish sticks or portions made from minced fish. (a) The common or usual name of the food product that resembles and is of the same composition as fish sticks...

  7. Fish & Wildlife Annual Project Summary, 1983.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1984-07-01

    BPA's Division of Fish and Wildlife was created in 1982 to develop, coordinate and manage BPA's fish and wildlife program. Division activities protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife resources impacted by hydroelectric development and operation in the Columbia River Basin. At present the Division spends 95% of its budget on restoration projects. In 1983, 83 projects addressed all aspects of the anadromous fish life cycle, non-migratory fish problems and the status of wildlife living near reservoirs.

  8. [Epidemiological studies of Clonorchis sinensis prevailed in the peoples of Kyungpook Province

    PubMed

    Shin, Dae Shik

    1964-06-01

    infestation rates of fresh water fishes; 1) The metacercaria of Clonorchis sinensis was found in the flesh exclusive of the Misgurnus anguillicaudatus and Zacco platypus in the 11 kinds of fresh water fishes. 2) The maximum infestation rate of 55.8 percent was revealed at Pseudorasbora parva and next to it was Sarcocheilichthys wakiyae of 5l.7 percent. 3) The number of metacercaria in flesh was decreased as compared to the previously examined level. PMID:12913603

  9. [Epidemiological studies of Clonorchis sinensis prevailed in the peoples of Kyungpook Province

    PubMed

    Shin, Dae Shik

    1964-06-01

    infestation rates of fresh water fishes; 1) The metacercaria of Clonorchis sinensis was found in the flesh exclusive of the Misgurnus anguillicaudatus and Zacco platypus in the 11 kinds of fresh water fishes. 2) The maximum infestation rate of 55.8 percent was revealed at Pseudorasbora parva and next to it was Sarcocheilichthys wakiyae of 5l.7 percent. 3) The number of metacercaria in flesh was decreased as compared to the previously examined level.

  10. FISH in polycythemia vera (PCV)

    SciTech Connect

    Amiel, A.; Gaber, E.; Manor, Y.

    1994-09-01

    Trisomies 8 and 9 are the most common numerical abnormalities in polycythemia vera (PCV). However, their role in the pathogenesis of the disease is unclear as is their diagnostic or prognostic value. We evaluated the role of fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) as compared to chromosome analysis in the detection of trisomies 8 or 9 in peripheral blood cells of 14 PCV and 5 secondary PCV patients. Using FISH, we found trisomies 8 and 9 in 10 PCV patients above the cutoff levels of 5%. However, no patient with the secondary PCV reached the cutoff level. Out of 10 PCV patients in whom the trisomy was detected by FISH, only in 3 was this trisomy also detected by routine cytogenetics. The incidence of the finding of trisomy 9 correlates with the duration of the disease, suggesting that this is not the primary event in PCV. FISH is a sensitive, convenient and rapid method for diagnosis and follow-up of chromosome aberrations in PCV patients. Application of FISH to larger cohort of patients may provide valuable information regarding their role in initiation and progession of the disease.

  11. Fish kill from underwater explosions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuart, David J.

    1962-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has used 23 different shotpoints during two seasons of field work in our seismic study of crustal structure in western United States. Without exception, it has been found that under-water shotpoints result in a more efficient conversion of explosive energy into seismic energy than do drilled-hole shotpoints. This experience, together with elimination of drilling costs, has led to the use of underwater shotpoints wherever possible. Three of the 23 shotpoints were in the Pacific Ocean, and for these we have no detailed information on the fish kill. Another six shotpoints were located in inland bodies of water. These are: * Soda Lake near Fallon, Nevada * Mono Lake near Lee Vining, California * Lake Mead near Boulder City, Nevada * Shasta Lake near Redding, California * C.J. Strike Reservoir near Bruneau, Idaho * Lucky Peak Reservoir near Boise, Idaho The 22 high-explosive charges, weighing a total of 95,100 pounds, that were fired in lakes containing fish life resulted in the known death of 2,413 game fish with a total weight of 759 pounds. The average mortality was 110 game fish or 34.5 pounds of game fish killed per average shot of 4,325 pounds of high-explosives.

  12. A review of fish lectins.

    PubMed

    Ng, Tzi Bun; Fai Cheung, Randy Chi; Wing Ng, Charlene Cheuk; Fang, Evandro Fei; Wong, Jack Ho

    2015-01-01

    Lectins have been reported from various tissues of a diversity of fish species including Japanese eel, conger eel, electric eel, bighead carp, gibel carp, grass carp, Arabian Gulf catfish, channel catfish, blue catfish, catfish, pike perch, perch, powan, zebrafish, toxic moray, cobia fish, steelhead trout, Japanese trout, Atlantic salmon, chinook salmon, olive rainbow smelt, rainbow smelt, white-spotted charr, tilapia, blue gourami, ayu, Potca fish, Spanish mackerel, gilt head bream, tench, roach, rudd, common skate, and sea lamprey. The tissues from which the lectins were isolated comprise gills, eggs, electric organ, stomach, intestine, and liver. Lectins have also been isolated from skin, mucus serum, and plasma. The lectins differ in molecular weight, number of subunits, glycosylation, sugar binding specificity and amino acid sequence. Their activities include antimicrobial, antitumor, immunoregulatory and a role in development. PMID:25929869

  13. Emulating a Fish Swim Bladder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vesenka, James; Meredith, Dawn; Bolker, Jessica; Schubert, Christopher; Kraut, Gertrud

    2009-10-01

    The University of New Hampshire and the University of New England are developing biologically relevant physics laboratories for their predominantly health science audiences. Buoyancy plays an important role in a variety of biological processes. We describe an inexpensive laboratory activity based on the Cartesian Diver that allows students to quantitatively emulate the swim bladder of a fish. Inflation of the ``bladder'' is externally controlled through an external gas syringe or squeezing on the plastic water containment vessel (a 2L soda bottle). The students can accurately determine the volume of a ``fish'' at the point of neutral buoyancy by visual measurement of the trapped air pocket. A simple electronic gas pressure sensor allows the hydrostatic pressure on the fish to be analyzed simultaneously.

  14. Circadian clocks: lessons from fish.

    PubMed

    Idda, M Laura; Bertolucci, Cristiano; Vallone, Daniela; Gothilf, Yoav; Sánchez-Vázquez, Francisco Javier; Foulkes, Nicholas S

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of the molecular and cellular organization of the circadian timing system in vertebrates has increased enormously over the past decade. In large part, progress has been based on genetic studies in the mouse as well as on fundamental similarities between vertebrate and Drosophila clocks. The zebrafish was initially considered as a potentially attractive genetic model for identifying vertebrate clock genes. However, instead, fish have ultimately proven to be valuable complementary models for studying various aspects of clock biology. For example, many fish can shift from diurnal to nocturnal activity implying specific flexibility in their clock function. We have learned much about the function of light input pathways, and the ontogeny and function of the pineal organ, the fish central pacemaker. Finally, blind cavefish have also provided new insight into the evolution of the circadian clock under extreme environmental conditions. PMID:22877658

  15. Water quality for freshwater fish

    SciTech Connect

    Howells, G. )

    1994-01-01

    This timely and up-to-date volume brings together recent critical reviews on water quality requirements for freshwater fish commissioned by the European Inland Fisheries Advisory Commission, an agency of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization. It provides a unique and authoritative source of critically evaluated water quality data concerning the effects of chromium, nickel, aluminum and nitrite on freshwater fish and includes an assessment of the toxicity of mixtures. The reports presented in this volume cover all stages of the life cycle and relevant trophic levels, including aquatic invertebrates and plants and potential bioaccumulation through the food chain. An extensive bibliography is provided for each chapter as well as a glossary of terms and a list of fish species mentioned in the text. This compilation of papers is the definitive reference volume for chemists, biologists, ecologists and toxicologists as well as for water resource managers concerned with management and control of pollution in fresh waters.

  16. [Checklist of fishes of Yunnan].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Yong

    2013-08-01

    Based on extant literatures and taking into accounts updated results of taxonomy and phylogeny, we have updated this checklist of fishes present in Yunnan, including the number of taxa and drainage areas. As of 2013, there were 13 orders, 42 families, 198 genera and 620 valid species recorded in Yunnan Province, of which 586 were native species, 34 alien species, 254 species endemic to Yunnan, and 152 species only occuring in Yunnan within China. The number of species in Yunnan accounts for 39.17% of China's total fish species (of which there are 1 583 recorded freshwater fish species according to data present in Fishbase), and of these 6 families and 66 genera only occur in Yunnan. The number of fish species of the six major drainages in Yunnan were as follows: 202 in Pearl River, 183 in Lancangjiang River (upper Mekong), 142 in Jinshajiang River (upper Yangtze), 120 in Red River, 84 in Irrawaddy Drainage, 77 in Nujiang-Salween Drainage. There are also 99 endangered species of fish occurring in Yunnan, among them 23 species protected by the national and/or the provincial government, including 2 species of national key protected animal class one, 4 species of national key protected animal class two, 17 species of Yunnan provincial protected animal. Totally, 43 species were listed in China Red Data Book of Endangered Animals, Pisces; 73 species were listed in China Species Red List Vol. 1; 50 species were listed in endangered categories of IUCN Red List; and 3 species were listed in the Appendix 2 of CITES. The Chinese name, Latin name, synomyns, distribution and literatures of the 620 species of fishes in Yunnan are listed.

  17. Chemical avoidance responses of fishes.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Keith B

    2016-05-01

    The hydrosphere is a repository for all of our waste and mistakes, be they sewage, garbage, process-affected waters, runoff, and gases. For fish living in environments receiving undesirable inputs, moving away seems an obvious way to avoid harm. While this should occur, there are numerous examples where it will not. The inability to avoid harmful environments may lead to sensory impairments that in turn limit the ability to avoid other dangers or locate benefits. For avoidance to occur, the danger must first be perceived, which may not happen if the fish is 'blinded' in some capacity. Second, the danger must be recognized for what it is, which may also not happen if the fish is cognitively confused or impaired. Third, it is possible that the fish may not be able to leave the area, or worse, learns to prefer a toxic environment. Concerning generating regulations around avoidance, there are two possibilities: that an avoidance threshold be used to set guidelines for effluent release with the intention of driving fishes away; the second is to set a contaminant concentration that would not affect the avoidance or attraction responses to other cues. With the complexities of the modern world in which we release diverse pollutants, from light to municipal effluents full of 1000s of chemicals, to the diversity present in ecosystems, it is impossible to have avoidance data on every stimulus-species combination. Nevertheless, we may be able to use existing avoidance response data to predict the likelihood of avoidance of untested stimuli. Where we cannot, this review includes a framework that can be used to direct new research. This review is intended to collate existing avoidance response data, provide a framework for making decisions in the absence of data, and suggest studies that would facilitate the prediction of risk to fish health in environments receiving intentional and unintentional human-based chemical inputs.

  18. DNA Microarrays for Identifying Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Nölte, M.; Weber, H.; Silkenbeumer, N.; Hjörleifsdottir, S.; Hreggvidsson, G. O.; Marteinsson, V.; Kappel, K.; Planes, S.; Tinti, F.; Magoulas, A.; Garcia Vazquez, E.; Turan, C.; Hervet, C.; Campo Falgueras, D.; Antoniou, A.; Landi, M.; Blohm, D.

    2008-01-01

    In many cases marine organisms and especially their diverse developmental stages are difficult to identify by morphological characters. DNA-based identification methods offer an analytically powerful addition or even an alternative. In this study, a DNA microarray has been developed to be able to investigate its potential as a tool for the identification of fish species from European seas based on mitochondrial 16S rDNA sequences. Eleven commercially important fish species were selected for a first prototype. Oligonucleotide probes were designed based on the 16S rDNA sequences obtained from 230 individuals of 27 fish species. In addition, more than 1200 sequences of 380 species served as sequence background against which the specificity of the probes was tested in silico. Single target hybridisations with Cy5-labelled, PCR-amplified 16S rDNA fragments from each of the 11 species on microarrays containing the complete set of probes confirmed their suitability. True-positive, fluorescence signals obtained were at least one order of magnitude stronger than false-positive cross-hybridisations. Single nontarget hybridisations resulted in cross-hybridisation signals at approximately 27% of the cases tested, but all of them were at least one order of magnitude lower than true-positive signals. This study demonstrates that the 16S rDNA gene is suitable for designing oligonucleotide probes, which can be used to differentiate 11 fish species. These data are a solid basis for the second step to create a “Fish Chip” for approximately 50 fish species relevant in marine environmental and fisheries research, as well as control of fisheries products. PMID:18270778

  19. Chemical avoidance responses of fishes.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Keith B

    2016-05-01

    The hydrosphere is a repository for all of our waste and mistakes, be they sewage, garbage, process-affected waters, runoff, and gases. For fish living in environments receiving undesirable inputs, moving away seems an obvious way to avoid harm. While this should occur, there are numerous examples where it will not. The inability to avoid harmful environments may lead to sensory impairments that in turn limit the ability to avoid other dangers or locate benefits. For avoidance to occur, the danger must first be perceived, which may not happen if the fish is 'blinded' in some capacity. Second, the danger must be recognized for what it is, which may also not happen if the fish is cognitively confused or impaired. Third, it is possible that the fish may not be able to leave the area, or worse, learns to prefer a toxic environment. Concerning generating regulations around avoidance, there are two possibilities: that an avoidance threshold be used to set guidelines for effluent release with the intention of driving fishes away; the second is to set a contaminant concentration that would not affect the avoidance or attraction responses to other cues. With the complexities of the modern world in which we release diverse pollutants, from light to municipal effluents full of 1000s of chemicals, to the diversity present in ecosystems, it is impossible to have avoidance data on every stimulus-species combination. Nevertheless, we may be able to use existing avoidance response data to predict the likelihood of avoidance of untested stimuli. Where we cannot, this review includes a framework that can be used to direct new research. This review is intended to collate existing avoidance response data, provide a framework for making decisions in the absence of data, and suggest studies that would facilitate the prediction of risk to fish health in environments receiving intentional and unintentional human-based chemical inputs. PMID:26970365

  20. DNA vaccines for aquacultured fish.

    PubMed

    Lorenzen, N; LaPatra, S E

    2005-04-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) vaccination is based on the administration of the gene encoding the vaccine antigen, rather than the antigen itself. Subsequent expression of the antigen by cells in the vaccinated hosts triggers the host immune system. Among the many experimental DNA vaccines tested in various animal species as well as in humans, the vaccines against rhabdovirus diseases in fish have given some of the most promising results. A single intramuscular (IM) injection of microgram amounts of DNA induces rapid and long-lasting protection in farmed salmonids against economically important viruses such as infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) and viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV). DNA vaccines against other types of fish pathogens, however, have so far had limited success. The most efficient delivery route at present is IM injection, and suitable delivery strategies for mass vaccination of small fish have yet to be developed. In terms of safety, no adverse effects in the vaccinated fish have been observed to date. As DNA vaccination is a relatively new technology, various theoretical and long-term safety issues related to the environment and the consumer remain to be fully addressed, although inherently the risks should not be any greater than with the commercial fish vaccines that are currently used. Present classification systems lack clarity in distinguishing DNA-vaccinated animals from genetically modified organisms (GMOs), which could raise issues in terms of licensing and public acceptance of the technology. The potential benefits of DNA vaccines for farmed fish include improved animal welfare, reduced environmental impacts of aquaculture activities, increased food quality and quantity, and more sustainable production. Testing under commercial production conditions has recently been initiated in Canada and Denmark.

  1. 50 CFR 300.206 - Denial of port privileges and import restrictions on fish or fish products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... restrictions on fish or fish products. 300.206 Section 300.206 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND....206 Denial of port privileges and import restrictions on fish or fish products. (a) Scope of... prohibited from landing, processing, or transshipping fish and fish products, under applicable law....

  2. 50 CFR 300.206 - Denial of port privileges and import restrictions on fish or fish products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... restrictions on fish or fish products. 300.206 Section 300.206 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND....206 Denial of port privileges and import restrictions on fish or fish products. (a) Scope of... prohibited from landing, processing, or transshipping fish and fish products, under applicable law....

  3. Patterns of fish sound production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, David A.

    2003-04-01

    While vocalization and chorusing behavior has been intensively studied in frogs and birds, little has been done with fishes. This paper presents patterns of sound production in damselfish, toadfish, and spotted seatrout on seasonal, daily, and subdaily time scales. Chorus behavior ranges from highly coordinated behavior between neighboring toadfish to uncoordinated behavior in spotted seatrout. Differences in coordination of sound production (i.e., the degree of overlap in calls) can be related to differences in territoriality and modes of reproduction. Toadfish and damselfish are territorial fishes in which males guard benthic eggs laid in nests. Sciaenids (croakers and drums) spawn planktonic eggs, and form temporary aggregations of calling males.

  4. Captain Cook on poison fish.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Michael J

    2005-12-13

    On his second voyage of discovery, Captain James Cook charted much of the South Pacific. The journey was long, from 1772 to 1775. During the exploration, the geographic, ethnographic, and scientific variety provided no shortage of work for the accompanying naturalists, astronomers, navigators, and painters. Culinary discoveries included new species of fish, many of which were sketched, dressed, and ultimately eaten. The examined journals and correspondence document clinical poisonings after ingestion of two different species of fish. The clinical findings are described and likely represent ciguatera and tetrodotoxin poisonings. Mechanisms of these toxin's actions are discussed in light of more recent studies. PMID:16344524

  5. 46 CFR 148.265 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... be treated with an effective antioxidant (at least 400 mg/kg (ppm) ethoxyquin, at least 1000 mg/kg (ppm) butylated hydroxytoluene, or at least 1000 mg/kg (ppm) of tocopherol-based liquid antioxidant... antioxidant at the time of shipment. (f) At the time of loading, the temperature of the fish meal or...

  6. 46 CFR 148.265 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... be treated with an effective antioxidant (at least 400 mg/kg (ppm) ethoxyquin, at least 1000 mg/kg (ppm) butylated hydroxytoluene, or at least 1000 mg/kg (ppm) of tocopherol-based liquid antioxidant... antioxidant at the time of shipment. (f) At the time of loading, the temperature of the fish meal or...

  7. 46 CFR 148.265 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... be treated with an effective antioxidant (at least 400 mg/kg (ppm) ethoxyquin, at least 1000 mg/kg (ppm) butylated hydroxytoluene, or at least 1000 mg/kg (ppm) of tocopherol-based liquid antioxidant... antioxidant at the time of shipment. (f) At the time of loading, the temperature of the fish meal or...

  8. 46 CFR 148.265 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... be treated with an effective antioxidant (at least 400 mg/kg (ppm) ethoxyquin, at least 1000 mg/kg (ppm) butylated hydroxytoluene, or at least 1000 mg/kg (ppm) of tocopherol-based liquid antioxidant... antioxidant at the time of shipment. (f) At the time of loading, the temperature of the fish meal or...

  9. Lead fishing weights and other fishing tackle in selected waterbirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.; Hansen, Scott P.; Creekmore, T.E.; Brand, C.J.; Evers, D.C.; Duerr, A.E.; DeStefano, S.

    2003-01-01

    From 1995 through 1999, 2,240 individuals of 28 species of waterbirds were examined in the United States for ingested lead fishing weights. A combination of radiography and visual examination of stomachs was used to search for lead weights and blood and liver samples from live birds and carcasses, respectively, were collected for lead analysis. Ingested lead weights were found most frequently in the Common Loon (Gavia immer) (11 of 313 = 3.5%) and Brown Pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis) (10 of 365 = 2.7%), but also in one of 81 (1.2%) Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) and one of 11 (9.1%) Black-crowned Night Herons (Nycticorax nycticorax). Birds with ingested lead fishing weights (including split shot, jig heads, and egg, bell, and pyramid sinkers) were found in California, Florida, Maine, New Hampshire, North Carolina, and Wisconsin. The size and mass of ingested lead weights ranged from split shot of 7 mm in the longest dimension, weighing less than 2 g, to a 22 ?? 39 mm pyramid sinker that weighed 78.2 g. Six ingested lead weights were more than 25.4 mm in the longest dimension. Lead concentrations in the blood and liver of birds with lead fishing weights in their stomachs ranged up to 13.9 ppm and 26.0 ppm (wet weight basis), respectively. During the study, we also noted the presence of ingested or entangled fishing tackle, with no associated lead weights, in eight species.

  10. [Imported tropical fish causes ciguatera fish poisoning in Germany].

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Katharina; Eisenblätter, Anneka; Vetter, Irina; Ebbecke, Martin; Friedemann, Miriam; Desel, Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Ciguatera is a seafood-borne illness caused by consumption of tropical fish contaminated with ciguatoxins, lipophilic polyethers that are produced in benthic dinoflagellates and accumulate through the marine food chain. Ciguatera cases in Europe usually occur in travellers returning from tropical and subtropical regions of the Pacific and Carribean, where ciguatera is endemic. In 2012, several cases of ciguatera occurred in Germany due to sale of contaminated fish products originating from the Indian Ocean. Although the symptomatology in these cases were typical of ciguatera, with patients reporting gastrointestinal discomfort including nausea, vomiting and diarrhea as well as neurological effects including widespread intense pruritus, paresthesias, hypothermia or altered temperature sensation and diffuse pain, correct diagnosis was delayed in all cases due to lack of awareness of the treating medical practitioners. In light of increasing global mobility, trade, and occurrence of ciguatoxic fish in previously non-endemic areas, ciguatera should be considered as a possible diagnosis if gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms occur shortly after consumption of fish. PMID:25612286

  11. FISH-ing for Genes: Modeling Fluorescence "in situ" Hybridization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, William P.; Jones, Carleton Buck

    2006-01-01

    Teaching methods of genetic analysis such as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) can be an important part of instructional units in biology, microbiology, and biotechnology. Experience, however, indicates that these topics are difficult for many students. The authors of this article describe how they created an activity that effectively…

  12. Optimizing fish sampling for fish - mercury bioaccumulation factors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scudder Eikenberry, Barbara C.; Riva-Murray, Karen; Knightes, Christopher D.; Journey, Celeste A.; Chasar, Lia C.; Brigham, Mark E.; Bradley, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    Fish Bioaccumulation Factors (BAFs; ratios of mercury (Hg) in fish (Hgfish) and water (Hgwater)) are used to develop Total Maximum Daily Load and water quality criteria for Hg-impaired waters. Both applications require representative Hgfish estimates and, thus, are sensitive to sampling and data-treatment methods. Data collected by fixed protocol from 11 streams in 5 states distributed across the US were used to assess the effects of Hgfish normalization/standardization methods and fish sample numbers on BAF estimates. Fish length, followed by weight, was most correlated to adult top-predator Hgfish. Site-specific BAFs based on length-normalized and standardized Hgfish estimates demonstrated up to 50% less variability than those based on non-normalized Hgfish. Permutation analysis indicated that length-normalized and standardized Hgfish estimates based on at least 8 trout or 5 bass resulted in mean Hgfish coefficients of variation less than 20%. These results are intended to support regulatory mercury monitoring and load-reduction program improvements.

  13. 75 FR 6058 - Federal Sport Fish Restoration; California Department of Fish and Game Fish Hatchery and Stocking...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... the Federal Register on August 5, 2008 (73 FR 45470). The notice of availability for the draft EIR/EIS and 45-day comment period published in the Federal Register on October 8, 2009 (74 FR 51872). The... Fish and Wildlife Service Federal Sport Fish Restoration; California Department of Fish and Game...

  14. Nonnutrient Components of Fish Diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Though the various dietary nutrients are the primary concerns of nutritionists when formulating feeds for intensively cultured tilapia, the inclusion of dietary components that do not have nutritional value can have profound effects on the performance of fish fed these diets. These components may be...

  15. Bioactive Components in Fish Venoms

    PubMed Central

    Ziegman, Rebekah; Alewood, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Animal venoms are widely recognized excellent resources for the discovery of novel drug leads and physiological tools. Most are comprised of a large number of components, of which the enzymes, small peptides, and proteins are studied for their important bioactivities. However, in spite of there being over 2000 venomous fish species, piscine venoms have been relatively underrepresented in the literature thus far. Most studies have explored whole or partially fractioned venom, revealing broad pharmacology, which includes cardiovascular, neuromuscular, cytotoxic, inflammatory, and nociceptive activities. Several large proteinaceous toxins, such as stonustoxin, verrucotoxin, and Sp-CTx, have been isolated from scorpaenoid fish. These form pores in cell membranes, resulting in cell death and creating a cascade of reactions that result in many, but not all, of the physiological symptoms observed from envenomation. Additionally, Natterins, a novel family of toxins possessing kininogenase activity have been found in toadfish venom. A variety of smaller protein toxins, as well as a small number of peptides, enzymes, and non-proteinaceous molecules have also been isolated from a range of fish venoms, but most remain poorly characterized. Many other bioactive fish venom components remain to be discovered and investigated. These represent an untapped treasure of potentially useful molecules. PMID:25941767

  16. POPULATION DECLINE IN STREAM FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over half of the streams in the Mid-Atlantic Highlands have fish communities that are in fair or poor condition, and the EPA concluded that physical habitat alteration represents the greatest potential stressor across this region. A quantitative method for relating habitat quali...

  17. Cardiovascular control in Antarctic fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egginton, Stuart; Campbell, Hamish; Davison, William

    2006-04-01

    The capacity for synthesis and plasma levels of stress hormones in species with a range of activity patterns suggest that depressed catecholamine synthesis is typical of notothenioid fishes regardless of life style, although they are able to release extensive stores under conditions of extreme trauma. Cortisol does not appear to be an important primary stress hormone in these species. In general, vascular reactivity shows a modest α and β adrenergic tonus, but with greater potency for cholinergic and serotonergic vasoconstrictor agonists, although a dominance of vasodilatation over vasoconstriction is observed in one species. Vasomotor control mechanisms appear to be primarily a consequence of evolutionary lineage rather than low environmental temperature, but the pattern may be modified according to functional demand. These and other data confirm the cardiovascular system is dominated by cholinergic control: the heart apparently lacks adrenergic innervation, but receives inhibitory parasympathetic input that regulates heart rate (HR) by setting a resting vagal tonus. Oxygen consumption (MO 2) determined at rest and varied via specific dynamic action, in intact fish and fish that had undergone bilateral sectioning of the vagus nerve, show that HR is a good predictor of MO 2, and that the major influence on HR is the degree of vagal tone—these fish work by removing the brake rather than applying the accelerator. However, whether these traits actually represent adaptation to the Antarctic environment or merely represent ancestral characteristics and their relative phylogenetic position is at present unclear.

  18. Offshore Fish Community: Ecological Interactions

    EPA Science Inventory

    The offshore (>80 m) fish community of Lake Superior is made up of predominately native species. The most prominent species are deepwater sculpin, kiyi, cisco, siscowet lake trout, burbot, and the exotic sea lamprey. Bloater and shortjaw cisco are also found in the offshore zone...

  19. Introductory Statistics and Fish Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jardine, Dick

    2002-01-01

    Describes how fisheries research and management data (available on a website) have been incorporated into an Introductory Statistics course. In addition to the motivation gained from seeing the practical relevance of the course, some students have participated in the data collection and analysis for the New Hampshire Fish and Game Department. (MM)

  20. Enhancing fish performance in Aquaculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aquaculture currently is the fastest growing agricultural industry and must continue to grow to meet the world’s increasing demand for seafood. Continued growth will depend upon advances in fish genetics and nutrition, and improvements in culture system design and management. The number and complexi...

  1. Hydroacoustic estimates of fish abundance

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, W.K.

    1991-03-01

    Hydroacoustics, as defined in the context of this report, is the use of a scientific sonar system to determine fish densities with respect to numbers and biomass. These two parameters provide a method of monitoring reservoir fish populations and detecting gross changes in the ecosystem. With respect to southeastern reservoirs, hydroacoustic surveys represent a new method of sampling open water areas and the best technology available. The advantages of this technology are large amounts of data can be collected in a relatively short period of time allowing improved statistical interpretation and data comparison, the pelagic (open water) zone can be sampled efficiently regardless of depth, and sampling is nondestructive and noninvasive with neither injury to the fish nor alteration of the environment. Hydroacoustics cannot provide species identification and related information on species composition or length/weight relationships. Also, sampling is limited to a minimum depth of ten feet which precludes the use of this equipment for sampling shallow shoreline areas. The objective of this study is to use hydroacoustic techniques to estimate fish standing stocks (i.e., numbers and biomass) in several areas of selected Tennessee Valley Reservoirs as part of a base level monitoring program to assess long-term changes in reservoir water quality.

  2. Anisakidae in Fishing Products Sold in Sicily

    PubMed Central

    Cicero, Antonello; Costa, Antonella; Alongi, Angelina; Palumbo, Paola; Graci, Stefania; Giangrosso, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    One of the parasite diseases associated with the consumption of raw fish that occurs with some frequency is the anisakiasis, a human disease caused by the accidental ingestion of larval nematodes of the genus Anisakis, family Anisakidae. At the National Reference Centre for Anisakiasis (C.Re.N.A.) from October 2012 to February 2013, a number of 231 bony fish (Trichiuridae, Engraulidae, Scombridae and Clupeidae) were received from different fishing sites in Sicily. Anisakis pegreffii is the main species detected in fish, as identified by molecular analysis based on polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism, while Anisakis simplex sensu stricto was found only in Scomber scombrus caught in the Mediterranean Sea (Fishing Areas 37), in the Spanish coast (Fishing Areas 37) and in the Atlantic Ocean (Fishing Areas 34). Larvae of the genus Pseudoterranova were found only in fish caught in the Norwegian Sea. PMID:27800344

  3. The taste system of small fish species.

    PubMed

    Okada, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    Small fish species such as the zebrafish (Danio rerio) and medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) are advantageous animal models and have been used as model organisms in many research areas. However, they have not been utilized for studying the taste system, primarily because of a dearth of molecular biological knowledge. Quantitative methods for analyzing the taste preferences of fish species have also been lacking. Recent progress of the fish genome project has enabled the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of taste sensation. Taste receptors and a number of signal transduction molecules have been identified. Additionally, the development of quantitative methods of feeding using fluorescently labeled artificial foods has demonstrated taste preferences in small fish species. Comparisons between these results in fish and reports on mammals have proposed a general logic and evolution of vertebrate taste systems. Analysis on the transsynaptic tracer-expressing transgenic medaka fish also suggests the usefulness of small fish in the research of neural circuits for taste.

  4. 50 CFR 404.10 - Commercial fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... renewed pursuant to NOAA regulations at 50 CFR part 665, subpart E as necessary. (2) Total landings for... MARINE NATIONAL MONUMENT § 404.10 Commercial fishing. (a) Lobster fishing. Any commercial lobster...

  5. 50 CFR 404.10 - Commercial fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... renewed pursuant to NOAA regulations at 50 CFR part 665, subpart E as necessary. (2) Total landings for... MARINE NATIONAL MONUMENT § 404.10 Commercial fishing. (a) Lobster fishing. Any commercial lobster...

  6. 50 CFR 404.10 - Commercial fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... renewed pursuant to NOAA regulations at 50 CFR part 665, subpart E as necessary. (2) Total landings for... MARINE NATIONAL MONUMENT § 404.10 Commercial fishing. (a) Lobster fishing. Any commercial lobster...

  7. 50 CFR 404.10 - Commercial fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... renewed pursuant to NOAA regulations at 50 CFR part 665, subpart E as necessary. (2) Total landings for... MARINE NATIONAL MONUMENT § 404.10 Commercial fishing. (a) Lobster fishing. Any commercial lobster...

  8. Constructing a fish metabolic network model

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    We report the construction of a genome-wide fish metabolic network model, MetaFishNet, and its application to analyzing high throughput gene expression data. This model is a stepping stone to broader applications of fish systems biology, for example by guiding study design through comparison with human metabolism and the integration of multiple data types. MetaFishNet resources, including a pathway enrichment analysis tool, are accessible at http://metafishnet.appspot.com. PMID:21114829

  9. Idaho Fish Screening Improvements Final Status Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Leitzinger, Eric J.

    2008-11-12

    This project funds two Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) fish habitat biologists to develop, secure funding for, and implement on-the-ground fish habitat improvement projects in the lower Clearwater River drainage and the upper Salmon River drainage. This report summarizes project activity during the first year of funding. The Clearwater Region fish habitat biologist began work on January 28, 2008 and the Salmon Region habitat biologist began on February 11, 2008.

  10. Forecasting Tools Point to Fishing Hotspots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Private weather forecaster WorldWinds Inc. of Slidell, Louisiana has employed satellite-gathered oceanic data from Marshall Space Flight Center to create a service that is every fishing enthusiast s dream. The company's FishBytes system uses information about sea surface temperature and chlorophyll levels to forecast favorable conditions for certain fish populations. Transmitting the data to satellite radio subscribers, FishBytes provides maps that guide anglers to the areas they are most likely to make their favorite catch.

  11. Diseases in North Sea fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dethlefsen, V.

    1984-03-01

    Prior to the studies reviewed here, only lymphocystis and skeletal deformities of a variety of fish species and certain diseases of eel were known to occur in the German Bight (North Sea). From 1977 until now, 9 externally visible lesions on North Sea fishes were observed; in addition to those mentioned before, they comprise: fin rot, ulcerations, epidermal papilloma, hyperplasia, pseudobranchial tumour, eye diseases and gill swellings. With the exception of information on changes in frequencies of vertebral deformities of herring from the 1950's to the 1970's, there are no long-term data characterizing changes in frequencies of the diseases under study. For pseudobranchial tumours of cod and epidermal papilloma of dab, information is provided on occurrence and abundance. The distribution pattern of cod afflicted with pseudobranchial tumours is strongly influenced by the migratory behaviour of the fish. Epidermal papillomas of dab were more frequently found at stations within the inner German Bight than in neighbouring areas. The Bight is used for dumping of wastes from titaniumdioxide production. Further disease hot spots are areas off the Humber estuary and the British coast. Analysis of chromium in dab from the German Bight revealed elevated concentrations in epidermal tissues of specimens from the dumping area compared with that found in dab from neighbouring localities. Particulate iron was demonstrated to occur in mucous cells of dab from the dumping area. From increased levels of heavy metals with cancerogenic potential in sensitive target tissues and from increased prevalences of diseased fish in the dumping area it is concluded that these phenomena are possibly causally linked. In the vicinity of the Humber estuary high disease rates were encountered and areas with high prevalences of dab afflicted with epidermal papilloma extended over regions shown to be transport routes for persistent pollutants such as radioactive materials. It is therefore suggested

  12. 33 CFR 110.79c - Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin. 110.79c Section 110.79c Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.79c Fish Creek Harbor, Fish...

  13. 33 CFR 110.79c - Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin. 110.79c Section 110.79c Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.79c Fish Creek Harbor, Fish...

  14. 33 CFR 110.79c - Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin. 110.79c Section 110.79c Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.79c Fish Creek Harbor, Fish...

  15. 33 CFR 110.79c - Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin. 110.79c Section 110.79c Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.79c Fish Creek Harbor, Fish...

  16. 33 CFR 110.79c - Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fish Creek Harbor, Fish Creek, Wisconsin. 110.79c Section 110.79c Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.79c Fish Creek Harbor, Fish...

  17. 50 CFR 660.510 - Fishing seasons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fishing seasons. 660.510 Section 660.510... Fishing seasons. All seasons will begin at 0001 hours and terminate at 2400 hours local time. Fishing seasons for the following CPS species are: (a) Pacific sardine. January 1 to December 31, or until...

  18. 50 CFR 660.510 - Fishing seasons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fishing seasons. 660.510 Section 660.510... Fishing seasons. All seasons will begin at 0001 hours and terminate at 2400 hours local time. Fishing seasons for the following CPS species are: (a) Pacific sardine. January 1 to December 31, or until...

  19. 50 CFR 660.510 - Fishing seasons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fishing seasons. 660.510 Section 660.510... Fishing seasons. All seasons will begin at 0001 hours and terminate at 2400 hours local time. Fishing seasons for the following CPS species are: (a) Pacific sardine. January 1 to December 31, or until...

  20. 50 CFR 660.510 - Fishing seasons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fishing seasons. 660.510 Section 660.510... Fishing seasons. All seasons will begin at 0001 hours and terminate at 2400 hours local time. Fishing seasons for the following CPS species are: (a) Pacific sardine. January 1 to December 31, or until...

  1. 50 CFR 600.508 - Fishing operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....508 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Foreign Fishing § 600.508 Fishing... of any species or species group for which there is an unfilled national allocation. All fish...

  2. 43 CFR 15.7 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fishing. 15.7 Section 15.7 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.7 Fishing. (a) Spear fishing within the boundaries or confines of this Preserve is prohibited. (b) The use of poisons,...

  3. 43 CFR 15.7 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fishing. 15.7 Section 15.7 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.7 Fishing. (a) Spear fishing within the boundaries or confines of this Preserve is prohibited. (b) The use of poisons,...

  4. 43 CFR 15.7 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Fishing. 15.7 Section 15.7 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.7 Fishing. (a) Spear fishing within the boundaries or confines of this Preserve is prohibited. (b) The use of poisons,...

  5. 43 CFR 15.7 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fishing. 15.7 Section 15.7 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.7 Fishing. (a) Spear fishing within the boundaries or confines of this Preserve is prohibited. (b) The use of poisons,...

  6. 36 CFR 1002.3 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fishing. 1002.3 Section 1002.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.3 Fishing. Fishing is prohibited within the area administered by the Presidio Trust....

  7. 36 CFR 13.1202 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fishing. 13.1202 Section 13.1202 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL... § 13.1202 Fishing. Fishing is allowed in accordance with § 13.40 of this chapter, but only...

  8. 36 CFR 13.1202 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fishing. 13.1202 Section 13.1202 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL... § 13.1202 Fishing. Fishing is allowed in accordance with § 13.40 of this chapter, but only...

  9. 50 CFR 660.516 - Exempted fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exempted fishing. 660.516 Section 660.516... Exempted fishing. (a) General. In the interest of developing an efficient and productive fishery for CPS, the Regional Administrator may issue exempted fishing permits (EFP) for the harvest of CPS...

  10. 36 CFR 13.470 - Subsistence fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Subsistence fishing. 13.470 Section 13.470 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Subsistence § 13.470 Subsistence fishing. Fish may be taken by...

  11. 36 CFR 13.1202 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fishing. 13.1202 Section 13.1202 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL... § 13.1202 Fishing. Fishing is allowed in accordance with § 13.40 of this chapter, but only...

  12. 36 CFR 13.470 - Subsistence fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Subsistence fishing. 13.470 Section 13.470 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Subsistence § 13.470 Subsistence fishing. Fish may be taken by...

  13. 50 CFR 660.516 - Exempted fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exempted fishing. 660.516 Section 660.516... Exempted fishing. (a) General. In the interest of developing an efficient and productive fishery for CPS, the Regional Administrator may issue exempted fishing permits (EFP) for the harvest of CPS...

  14. 36 CFR 13.470 - Subsistence fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Subsistence fishing. 13.470 Section 13.470 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Subsistence § 13.470 Subsistence fishing. Fish may be taken by...

  15. 36 CFR 13.1202 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fishing. 13.1202 Section 13.1202 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL... § 13.1202 Fishing. Fishing is allowed in accordance with § 13.40 of this chapter, but only...

  16. 36 CFR 1002.3 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Fishing. 1002.3 Section 1002.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.3 Fishing. Fishing is prohibited within the area administered by the Presidio Trust....

  17. 50 CFR 660.516 - Exempted fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exempted fishing. 660.516 Section 660.516... Exempted fishing. (a) General. In the interest of developing an efficient and productive fishery for CPS, the Regional Administrator may issue exempted fishing permits (EFP) for the harvest of CPS...

  18. 50 CFR 635.25 - Fishing areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fishing areas. 635.25 Section 635.25..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ATLANTIC HIGHLY MIGRATORY SPECIES Management Measures § 635.25 Fishing areas. (a) General. Persons on board fishing vessels subject to the jurisdiction of the United States are...

  19. 36 CFR 13.1202 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fishing. 13.1202 Section 13.1202 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL... § 13.1202 Fishing. Fishing is allowed in accordance with § 13.40 of this chapter, but only...

  20. 36 CFR 1002.3 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fishing. 1002.3 Section 1002.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.3 Fishing. Fishing is prohibited within the area administered by the Presidio Trust....

  1. Crop nutrient recovery from applied fish coproducts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Alaska fishing industry produces over 1,000,000 metric tons of fish byproducts annually, and most of them are not used. Most food in Alaska is imported. Fish byproducts are rich in plant essential nutrients and can be used as nutrient sources for crop production. The objective of the study was t...

  2. 36 CFR 13.470 - Subsistence fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Subsistence fishing. 13.470 Section 13.470 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Subsistence § 13.470 Subsistence fishing. Fish may be taken by...

  3. 50 CFR 660.516 - Exempted fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exempted fishing. 660.516 Section 660.516... Exempted fishing. (a) General. In the interest of developing an efficient and productive fishery for CPS, the Regional Administrator may issue exempted fishing permits (EFP) for the harvest of CPS...

  4. 36 CFR 13.470 - Subsistence fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Subsistence fishing. 13.470 Section 13.470 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Subsistence § 13.470 Subsistence fishing. Fish may be taken by...

  5. 36 CFR 1002.3 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fishing. 1002.3 Section 1002.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.3 Fishing. Fishing is prohibited within the area administered by the Presidio Trust....

  6. Trematode infections in farm-raised fish: Reasons for massive infections, impacts on fish and fish farms, and management of infections on fish farms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is an increasing problem with trematodes in fish production facilities. The onset and growth of pond aquaculture in the US (1950-1990) resulted in concentrated areas of fish, new sites for snail growth and multiplication, and new bird feeding habitat. Snails, fish, and birds serve as hosts for...

  7. 36 CFR 1002.3 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fishing. 1002.3 Section 1002.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.3 Fishing. Fishing is prohibited within the area administered by the Presidio Trust....

  8. 43 CFR 15.7 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fishing. 15.7 Section 15.7 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.7 Fishing. (a) Spear fishing within the boundaries or confines of this Preserve is prohibited. (b) The use of poisons,...

  9. Mercury concentrations in Maine sport fishes

    SciTech Connect

    Stafford, C.P.; Haines, T.A.

    1997-01-01

    To assess mercury contamination of fish in Maine, fish were collected from 120 randomly selected lakes. The collection goal for each lake was five fish of the single most common sport fish species within the size range commonly harvested by anglers. Skinless, boneless fillets of fish from each lake were composited, homogenized, and analyzed for total mercury. The two most abundant species, brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, were also analyzed individually. The composite fish analyses indicate high concentrations of mercury, particularly in large and long-lived nonsalmonid species. Chain pickerel Esox niger, smallmouth bass, largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, and white perch Morone americana had the highest average mercury concentrations, and brook trout and yellow perch Perca flavescens had the lowest. The mean species composite mercury concentration was positively correlated with a factor incorporating the average size and age of the fish. Lakes containing fish with high mercury concentrations were not clustered near known industrial or population centers but were commonest in the area within 150 km of the seacoast, reflecting the geographical distribution of species that contained higher mercury concentrations. Stocked and wild brook trout were not different in length or weight, but wild fish were older and had higher mercury concentrations. Fish populations maintained by frequent introductions of hatchery-produced fish and subject to high angler exploitation rates may consist of younger fish with lower exposure to environmental mercury and thus contain lower concentrations than wild populations.

  10. Dietary Nutrients, Additives, and Fish Health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aquaculture will play a major role in global food security by 2050. Production of fish will need to double by 2050 to meet global demand for this important source of protein. Proper fish nutrition is essential for the overall health and well-being of fish. Sustainable and profitable production is...

  11. A qualitative exploration of fishing and fish consumption in the Gullah/Geechee culture.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Jamelle H; Friedman, Daniela B; Puett, Robin; Scott, Geoffrey I; Porter, Dwayne E

    2014-12-01

    The Gullah/Geechee (G/G) heritage is rooted in a culture largely dependent on fish and seafood as a primary food source. Research suggests that African-American (AA) fishers in the Southeastern US consume larger amounts of fish, potentially exposing them to higher environmental contaminant levels. This in-depth study was conducted to explore G/G and AA Sea Island attitudes, perceptions, and cultural beliefs about fishing in one urban and two rural South Carolina coastal counties. Results indicated that study participants in rural counties had slightly different perspectives of fishing (e.g. fishing as an essential dietary supplement) than in urban counties where fishing was viewed more as relaxation. Major misperceptions existed in all counties between fish consumption advisories related to pollution versus harvesting restrictions associated with fishing regulations. Providing clear, culturally tailored health messages regarding fish advisories will promote more informed choices about fish consumption that will minimize potential exposures to environmental pollutants.

  12. Fish Protection: Cooperative research advances fish-friendly turbine design

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Richard S.; Ahmann, Martin L.; Trumbo, Bradly A.; Foust, Jason

    2012-12-01

    Renewable hydropower is a tremendous resource within the Pacific Northwest that is managed with considerable cost and consideration for the safe migration of salmon. Recent research conducted in this region has provided results that could lower the impacts of hydro power production and make the technology more fish-friendly. This research is now being applied during a period when a huge emphasis is being made to develop clean, renewable energy sources.

  13. Consumption patterns and why people fish.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna

    2002-10-01

    Recreational and subsistence fishing play major roles in the lives of many people, although their importance in urban areas is often underestimated. There are fish and shellfish consumption advisories in the New York-New Jersey harbor estuary, particularly in the waters of the Newark Bay Complex. This paper examines fishing behavior, consumption patterns, and the reasons that people fish in the Newark Bay Complex. I test the null hypotheses that there are no differences among Asians, Blacks, Hispanics, and Whites in consumption patterns for fish and crabs and in the reasons that they fish or crab. Most people either fished or crabbed, but not both. People who fish and crab ate more grams of crab than fish in a given meal; people who crab only consumed more grams of crab at a meal than those who fish only consumed of fish. Although 30% or more of the people who fished and crabbed in the Newark Bay Complex did not eat their self-caught fish or crabs 8-25% of the people ate more than 1500 g/month. Some people angling in the Newark Bay Complex are eating crabs at a rate well over 1500 g/month, and about 70% are eating crabs even though there is a total ban on both harvest and consumption because of the health risks from dioxin. Consumption patterns were negatively correlated with mean income and positively correlated with mean age. Most people rated relaxation and being outdoors the highest reasons for angling, although on an open-ended question they usually listed recreation. There were no ethnic differences in reasons for angling, although other studies have shown ethnic differences in consumption. Obtaining fish or crabs to eat, give away, trade, or sell were rated low, suggesting that consumption advisories fail partly because people are not primarily fishing for food. PMID:12483803

  14. Parvalbumin--the major tropical fish allergen.

    PubMed

    Lim, Dawn Li-Chern; Neo, Keng Hwee; Yi, Fong Cheng; Chua, Kaw Yan; Goh, Denise Li-Meng; Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi; Giam, Yoke Chin; Van Bever, Hugo P S; Lee, Bee Wah

    2008-08-01

    Fish allergy is common in countries where consumption is high. Asian nations are amongst the world's largest consumers of fish but the allergen profiles of tropical fish are unknown. This study sought to evaluate the allergenicity of four commonly consumed tropical fish, the threadfin (Polynemus indicus), Indian anchovy (Stolephorus indicus), pomfret (Pampus chinensis) and tengirri (Scomberomorus guttatus). Immunoglobulin E (IgE) cross-reactivity with parvalbumin of cod fish (Gad c 1), the major fish allergen, was also studied. Detection of tropical fish and cod specific-IgE was performed by UniCap assay, and skin prick tests were also carried out. The IgE-binding components of tropical fish were identified using IgE immunoblot techniques, and cross-reactivity with Gad c 1 was assessed by ELISA inhibition and IgE immunoblot inhibition. Clinically, nine of 10 patients studied were allergic to multiple fish. All patients exhibited detectable specific-IgE to cod fish (10 of 10 skin prick test positive, eight of 10 UniCap assay positive) despite lack of previous exposure. The major allergen of the four tropical fish was the 12-kDa parvalbumin. IgE cross-reactivity of these allergens to Gad c 1 was observed to be moderate to high in the tropical fish studied. Parvalbumins are the major allergens in commonly consumed tropical fish. They are cross-reactive with each other as well as with Gad c 1. Commercial tests for cod fish appear to be sufficient for the detection of tropical fish specific-IgE.

  15. Fishing, fish consumption and advisory awareness among Louisiana's recreational fishers.

    PubMed

    Katner, Adrienne; Ogunyinka, Ebenezer; Sun, Mei-Hung; Soileau, Shannon; Lavergne, David; Dugas, Dianne; Suffet, Mel

    2011-11-01

    This paper presents results from the first known population-based survey of recreational fishers in Louisiana (n=1774). The ultimate goal of this study was to obtain data in support of the development of regional advisories for a high exposure population with unique seafood consumption patterns. Between July and August of 2008, a survey was mailed to a random sample of licensed recreational fishers to characterize local fishing habits, sportfish consumption, and advisory awareness. Eighty-eight percent of respondents reported eating sportfish. Respondents ate an estimated mean of four fish meals per month, of which, approximately half were sportfish. Over half of all sportfish meals (54%) were caught in the Gulf of Mexico or bordering brackish areas. Sportfish consumption varied by license and gender; and was highest among Sportsman's Paradise license holders (2.8±0.2 meals per month), and males (2.2±0.1 meals per month). The most frequently consumed sportfish species were red drum, speckled trout, catfish, bass, crappie and bream. Advisory awareness rates varied by gender, ethnicity, geographic area, license type, age and education; and were lowest among women (53%), African-Americans (43%), fishers from the southeast of Louisiana (50%), holders of Senior Hunting and Fishing licenses (51%), individuals between 15 and 19 years of age (41%), and individuals with less than a high school education (43%). Results were used to identify ways to optimize monitoring, advisory development and outreach activities. PMID:21851935

  16. Assuring fish safety and quality in international fish trade.

    PubMed

    Ababouch, Lahsen

    2006-01-01

    International trade in fishery commodities reached US 58.2 billion dollars in 2002, a 5% improvement relative to 2000 and a 45% increase over 1992 levels. Within this global trade, developing countries registered a net trade surplus of US 17.4 billion dollars in 2002 and accounted for almost 50% by value and 55% of fish exports by volume. This globalization of fish trade, coupled with technological developments in food production, handling, processing and distribution, and the increasing awareness and demand of consumers for safe and high quality food have put food safety and quality assurance high in public awareness and a priority for many governments. Consequently, many countries have tightened food safety controls, imposing additional costs and requirements on imports. As early as 1980, there was an international drive towards adopting preventative HACCP-based safety and quality systems. More recently, there has been a growing awareness of the importance of an integrated, multidisciplinary approach to food safety and quality throughout the entire food chain. Implementation of this approach requires an enabling policy and regulatory environment at national and international levels with clearly defined rules and standards, establishment of appropriate food control systems and programmes at national and local levels, and provision of appropriate training and capacity building. This paper discusses the international framework for fish safety and quality, with particular emphasis on the United Nation's Food and Agricultural Organization's (FAO) strategy to promote international harmonization and capacity building. PMID:17052733

  17. Assuring fish safety and quality in international fish trade.

    PubMed

    Ababouch, Lahsen

    2006-01-01

    International trade in fishery commodities reached US 58.2 billion dollars in 2002, a 5% improvement relative to 2000 and a 45% increase over 1992 levels. Within this global trade, developing countries registered a net trade surplus of US 17.4 billion dollars in 2002 and accounted for almost 50% by value and 55% of fish exports by volume. This globalization of fish trade, coupled with technological developments in food production, handling, processing and distribution, and the increasing awareness and demand of consumers for safe and high quality food have put food safety and quality assurance high in public awareness and a priority for many governments. Consequently, many countries have tightened food safety controls, imposing additional costs and requirements on imports. As early as 1980, there was an international drive towards adopting preventative HACCP-based safety and quality systems. More recently, there has been a growing awareness of the importance of an integrated, multidisciplinary approach to food safety and quality throughout the entire food chain. Implementation of this approach requires an enabling policy and regulatory environment at national and international levels with clearly defined rules and standards, establishment of appropriate food control systems and programmes at national and local levels, and provision of appropriate training and capacity building. This paper discusses the international framework for fish safety and quality, with particular emphasis on the United Nation's Food and Agricultural Organization's (FAO) strategy to promote international harmonization and capacity building.

  18. Subunit dissociation in fish hemoglobins.

    PubMed

    Edelstein, S J; McEwen, B; Gibson, Q H

    1976-12-10

    The tetramer-dimer dissociation equilibria (K 4,2) of several fish hemoglobins have been examined by sedimentation velocity measurements with a scanner-computer system for the ultracentrifuge and by flash photolysis measurements using rapid kinetic methods. Samples studied in detail included hemoglobins from a marine teleost, Brevoortia tyrannus (common name, menhaden); a fresh water teleost, Cyprinus carpio, (common name, carp); and an elasmobranch Prionace glauca (common name, blue shark). For all three species in the CO form at pH 7, in 0.1 M phosphate buffer, sedimentation coefficients of 4.3 S (typical of tetrameric hemoglobin) are observed in the micromolar concentration range. In contrast, mammalian hemoglobins dissociate appreciably to dimers under these conditions. The inability to detect dissociation in three fish hemoglobins at the lowest concentrations examined indicates that K 4,2 must have a value of 10(-8) M or less. In flash photolysis experiments on very dilute solutions in long path length cells, two kinetic components were detected with their proportions varying as expected for an equilibrium between tetramers (the slower component) and dimers (the faster component); values of K 4,2 for the three fish hemoglobins in the range 10(-9) to 10(-8) M were calculated from these data. Thus, the values of K 4,2 for liganded forms of the fish hemoglobins appear to be midway between the value for liganded human hemoglobin (K 4,2 approximately 10(-6) M) and unliganded human hemoglobin (K 4,2 approximately 10(-12) M). This conclusion is supported by measurements on solutions containing guanidine hydrochloride to enhance the degree of dissociation. All three fish hemoglobins are appreciably dissociated at guanidine concentrations of about 0.8 M, which is roughly midway between the guanidine concentrations needed to cause comparable dissociation of liganded human hemoglobin (about 0.4 M) and unliganded human hemoglobin (about 1.6 M). Kinetic measurements on

  19. Fishing down nutrients on coral reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allgeier, Jacob E.; Valdivia, Abel; Cox, Courtney; Layman, Craig A.

    2016-08-01

    Fishing is widely considered a leading cause of biodiversity loss in marine environments, but the potential effect on ecosystem processes, such as nutrient fluxes, is less explored. Here, we test how fishing on Caribbean coral reefs influences biodiversity and ecosystem functions provided by the fish community, that is, fish-mediated nutrient capacity. Specifically, we modelled five processes of nutrient storage (in biomass) and supply (via excretion) of nutrients, as well as a measure of their multifunctionality, onto 143 species of coral reef fishes across 110 coral reef fish communities. These communities span a gradient from extreme fishing pressure to protected areas with little to no fishing. We find that in fished sites fish-mediated nutrient capacity is reduced almost 50%, despite no substantial changes in the number of species. Instead, changes in community size and trophic structure were the primary cause of shifts in ecosystem function. These findings suggest that a broader perspective that incorporates predictable impacts of fishing pressure on ecosystem function is imperative for effective coral reef conservation and management.

  20. Fishing down nutrients on coral reefs.

    PubMed

    Allgeier, Jacob E; Valdivia, Abel; Cox, Courtney; Layman, Craig A

    2016-01-01

    Fishing is widely considered a leading cause of biodiversity loss in marine environments, but the potential effect on ecosystem processes, such as nutrient fluxes, is less explored. Here, we test how fishing on Caribbean coral reefs influences biodiversity and ecosystem functions provided by the fish community, that is, fish-mediated nutrient capacity. Specifically, we modelled five processes of nutrient storage (in biomass) and supply (via excretion) of nutrients, as well as a measure of their multifunctionality, onto 143 species of coral reef fishes across 110 coral reef fish communities. These communities span a gradient from extreme fishing pressure to protected areas with little to no fishing. We find that in fished sites fish-mediated nutrient capacity is reduced almost 50%, despite no substantial changes in the number of species. Instead, changes in community size and trophic structure were the primary cause of shifts in ecosystem function. These findings suggest that a broader perspective that incorporates predictable impacts of fishing pressure on ecosystem function is imperative for effective coral reef conservation and management. PMID:27529748

  1. Fishing down nutrients on coral reefs

    PubMed Central

    Allgeier, Jacob E.; Valdivia, Abel; Cox, Courtney; Layman, Craig A.

    2016-01-01

    Fishing is widely considered a leading cause of biodiversity loss in marine environments, but the potential effect on ecosystem processes, such as nutrient fluxes, is less explored. Here, we test how fishing on Caribbean coral reefs influences biodiversity and ecosystem functions provided by the fish community, that is, fish-mediated nutrient capacity. Specifically, we modelled five processes of nutrient storage (in biomass) and supply (via excretion) of nutrients, as well as a measure of their multifunctionality, onto 143 species of coral reef fishes across 110 coral reef fish communities. These communities span a gradient from extreme fishing pressure to protected areas with little to no fishing. We find that in fished sites fish-mediated nutrient capacity is reduced almost 50%, despite no substantial changes in the number of species. Instead, changes in community size and trophic structure were the primary cause of shifts in ecosystem function. These findings suggest that a broader perspective that incorporates predictable impacts of fishing pressure on ecosystem function is imperative for effective coral reef conservation and management. PMID:27529748

  2. [Progress in transgenic fish techniques and application].

    PubMed

    Ye, Xing; Tian, Yuan-Yuan; Gao, Feng-Ying

    2011-05-01

    Transgenic technique provides a new way for fish breeding. Stable lines of growth hormone gene transfer carps, salmon and tilapia, as well as fluorescence protein gene transfer zebra fish and white cloud mountain minnow have been produced. The fast growth characteristic of GH gene transgenic fish will be of great importance to promote aquaculture production and economic efficiency. This paper summarized the progress in transgenic fish research and ecological assessments. Microinjection is still the most common used method, but often resulted in multi-site and multi-copies integration. Co-injection of transposon or meganuclease will greatly improve the efficiency of gene transfer and integration. "All fish" gene or "auto gene" should be considered to produce transgenic fish in order to eliminate misgiving on food safety and to benefit expression of the transferred gene. Environmental risk is the biggest obstacle for transgenic fish to be commercially applied. Data indicates that transgenic fish have inferior fitness compared with the traditional domestic fish. However, be-cause of the genotype-by-environment effects, it is difficult to extrapolate simple phenotypes to the complex ecological interactions that occur in nature based on the ecological consequences of the transgenic fish determined in the laboratory. It is critical to establish highly naturalized environments for acquiring reliable data that can be used to evaluate the environ-mental risk. Efficacious physical and biological containment strategies remain to be crucial approaches to ensure the safe application of transgenic fish technology.

  3. Functional aspects of emotions in fish.

    PubMed

    Kittilsen, Silje

    2013-11-01

    There is an ongoing scientific discussion on whether fish have emotions, and if so how they experience them? The discussion has incorporated important areas such as brain anatomy and function, physiological and behavioural responses, and the cognitive abilities that fish possess. Little attention has however, been directed towards what functional aspects emotions ought to have in fish. If fish have emotions - why? The elucidation of this question and an assessment of the scientific evidences of emotions in fish in an evolutionary and functional framework would represent a valuable contribution in the discussion on whether fish are emotional creatures. Here parts of the vast amount of literature from both biology and psychology relating to the scientific field of emotions, animal emotion, and the functional aspects that emotions fulfil in the lives of humans and animals are reviewed. Subsequently, by viewing fish behaviour, physiology and cognitive abilities in the light of this functional framework it is possible to infer what functions emotions may serve in fish. This approach may contribute to the vital running discussion on the subject of emotions in fish. In fact, if it can be substantiated that emotions are likely to serve a function in fish similar to that of other higher vertebrate species, the notion that fish do have emotions will be strengthened.

  4. Behavior of Medaka fish under distributed gravity.

    PubMed

    Hosoi, Yosuke; Fujino, Masato; Hirai, Mariko; Mizuno, Rie; Ijiri, Kenichi; Suzuki, Toshio

    2003-10-01

    The threshold value of gravity for Medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) was determined using parabolic flights of an airplane. Rotating a turntable during a 20 sec of microgravity, a gradient field of centrifugal force was realized in the aquarium. Fish of HO5 strain were used because from the previous studies, in microgravity they were known to exhibit looping behavior more easily than any other strains. Looping fish became stable (i.e., recovered their posture control) when fish swam from a lower-gravity area of the aquarium to an area of a certain gravity value or beyond. On the other hand, stable fish lost their posture control and started looping when fish swam into an area of a gravity lower than a certain value. Using these phenomena, we obtained the gravity value of 0.21 to 0.26 G as for the threshold value for Medaka fish to sense the gravity.

  5. Thermal effects on fish ecology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coutant, Charles C.

    1976-01-01

    Of all the environmental factors that influence aquatic organisms, temperature is the most all-pervasive. There is always an environmental temperature while other factors may or may not be present to exert their effects. Fish are, for all practical purposes, thermal conformers, or obligate poikilotherms. That is, they are able to exert little significant influence on maintaining a certain body temperature by specialized metabolic or behavioral means. Their body temperature thus fluctuates nearly in concert with the temperature of their aquatic medium (although particularly large, actively-moving fish such as tuna have deep muscle temperatures slightly higher than the water). Intimate contact at the gills of body fluids with the outside water and the high specific heat of water provide a very efficient heat exchanger that insures this near identity of internal and external temperatures.

  6. Do Fish Perceive Illusory Motion?

    PubMed Central

    Gori, Simone; Agrillo, Christian; Dadda, Marco; Bisazza, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    Motion illusion refers to a perception of motion that is absent or different in the physical stimulus. These illusions are a powerful non-invasive tool for understanding the neurobiology of vision because they tell us, indirectly, how we process motion. There is general agreement in ascribing motion illusion to higher-level processing in the visual cortex, but debate remains about the exact role of eye movements and cortical networks in triggering it. Surprisingly, there have been no studies investigating global illusory motion evoked by static patterns in animal species other than humans. Herein, we show that fish perceive one of the most studied motion illusions, the Rotating Snakes. Fish responded similarly to real and illusory motion. The demonstration that complex global illusory motion is not restricted to humans and can be found even in species that do not have a cortex paves the way to develop animal models to study the neurobiological bases of motion perception. PMID:25246001

  7. [Human helminthiasis transmitted by fishes].

    PubMed

    Chappuis, F; Loutan, L

    2006-05-10

    The consumption of dishes made from raw fresh- or see-water fishes exposes many individuals (residents, visitors or migrants) from tropical to arctic regions to the risk of helminthiasis. Anisakiasis, diphyllobothriasis, clonorchiasis, opistorchiasis and gnathostomiasis have distinct parasitic cycles and various clinical presentations, from sub-clinical infections to life-threatening hemorragic or tumoral complications. In-depth history, clinical presentation, stool examination for ova and parasites and serology usually allow for a specific diagnosis to be made. The common anti-parasitic drugs, such as albendazole, ivermectin and praziquantel, are efficacious against most of these helminthiasis. Sufficient cooking or freezing of fishes before consumption are very efficient preventive measures. PMID:16767879

  8. Optical plasticity in fish lenses.

    PubMed

    Kröger, Ronald H H

    2013-05-01

    In a typical fish eye, the crystalline lens is the only refractive element. It is spherical in shape and has high refractive power. Most fish species have elaborate color vision and spectral sensitivity may range from the near-infrared to the near-ultraviolet. Longitudinal chromatic aberration exceeds depth of focus and chromatic blur is compensated for by species-specific multifocality of the lens. The complex optical properties of fish lenses are subject to accurate regulation, including circadian reversible adjustments and irreversible developmental tuning. The mechanisms optimize the transfer of visual information to the retina in diverse and variable environments, and allow for rapid evolutionary changes in color vision. Active optical tuning of the lens is achieved by changes in the refractive index gradient and involves layers of mature, denucleated lens fiber cells. First steps have been taken toward unraveling the signaling systems controlling lens optical plasticity. Multifocal lenses compensating for chromatic blur are common in all major groups of vertebrates, including birds and mammals. Furthermore, the optical quality of a monofocal lens, such as in the human eye, is equally sensitive to the exact shape of the refractive index profile. Optical plasticity in the crystalline lens may thus be present in vertebrates in general.

  9. Taxonomy of bacterial fish pathogens

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial taxonomy has progressed from reliance on highly artificial culture-dependent techniques involving the study of phenotype (including morphological, biochemical and physiological data) to the modern applications of molecular biology, most recently 16S rRNA gene sequencing, which gives an insight into evolutionary pathways (= phylogenetics). The latter is applicable to culture-independent approaches, and has led directly to the recognition of new uncultured bacterial groups, i.e. "Candidatus", which have been associated as the cause of some fish diseases, including rainbow trout summer enteritic syndrome. One immediate benefit is that 16S rRNA gene sequencing has led to increased confidence in the accuracy of names allocated to bacterial pathogens. This is in marked contrast to the previous dominance of phenotyping, and identifications, which have been subsequently challenged in the light of 16S rRNA gene sequencing. To date, there has been some fluidity over the names of bacterial fish pathogens, with some, for example Vibrio anguillarum, being divided into two separate entities (V. anguillarum and V. ordalii). Others have been combined, for example V. carchariae, V. harveyi and V. trachuri as V. harveyi. Confusion may result with some organisms recognized by more than one name; V. anguillarum was reclassified as Beneckea and Listonella, with Vibrio and Listonella persisting in the scientific literature. Notwithstanding, modern methods have permitted real progress in the understanding of the taxonomic relationships of many bacterial fish pathogens. PMID:21314902

  10. Eyespots divert attacks by fish.

    PubMed

    Kjernsmo, Karin; Merilaita, Sami

    2013-09-01

    Eyespots (colour patterns consisting of concentric rings) are found in a wide range of animal taxa and are often assumed to have an anti-predator function. Previous experiments have found strong evidence for an intimidating effect of eyespots against passerine birds. Some eyespots have been suggested to increase prey survival by diverting attacks towards less vital body parts or a direction that would facilitate escape. While eyespots in aquatic environments are widespread, their function is extremely understudied. Therefore, we investigated the protective function of eyespots against attacking fish. We used artificial prey and predator-naive three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) as predators to test both the diversion (deflection) and the intimidation hypothesis. Interestingly, our results showed that eyespots smaller than the fish' own eye very effectively draw the attacks of the fish towards them. Furthermore, our experiment also showed that this was not due to the conspicuousness of the eyespot, because attack latency did not differ between prey items with and without eyespots. We found little support for an intimidating effect by larger eyespots. Even though also other markings might misdirect attacks, we can conclude that the misdirecting function may have played an important role in the evolution of eyespots in aquatic environments. PMID:23864602

  11. Hydrodynamic aspects of fish olfaction

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Jonathan P.L

    2008-01-01

    Flow into and around the olfactory chamber of a fish determines how odorant from the fish's immediate environment is transported to the sensory surface (olfactory epithelium) lining the chamber. Diffusion times in water are long, even over comparatively short distances (millimetres). Therefore, transport from the external environment to the olfactory epithelium must be controlled by processes that rely on convection (i.e. the bulk flow of fluid). These include the beating of cilia lining the olfactory chamber and the relatively inexpensive pumping action of accessory sacs. Flow through the chamber may also be induced by an external flow. Flow over the olfactory epithelium appears to be laminar. Odorant transfer to the olfactory epithelium may be facilitated in several ways: if the olfactory organs are mounted on stalks that penetrate the boundary layer; by the steep velocity gradients generated by beating cilia; by devices that deflect flow into the olfactory chamber; by parallel arrays of olfactory lamellae; by mechanical agitation of the chamber (or olfactory stalks); and by vortices. Overall, however, our knowledge of the hydrodynamics of fish olfaction is far from complete. Several areas of future research are outlined. PMID:18184629

  12. Taxonomy of bacterial fish pathogens.

    PubMed

    Austin, Brian

    2011-02-02

    Bacterial taxonomy has progressed from reliance on highly artificial culture-dependent techniques involving the study of phenotype (including morphological, biochemical and physiological data) to the modern applications of molecular biology, most recently 16S rRNA gene sequencing, which gives an insight into evolutionary pathways (= phylogenetics). The latter is applicable to culture-independent approaches, and has led directly to the recognition of new uncultured bacterial groups, i.e. "Candidatus", which have been associated as the cause of some fish diseases, including rainbow trout summer enteritic syndrome. One immediate benefit is that 16S rRNA gene sequencing has led to increased confidence in the accuracy of names allocated to bacterial pathogens. This is in marked contrast to the previous dominance of phenotyping, and identifications, which have been subsequently challenged in the light of 16S rRNA gene sequencing. To date, there has been some fluidity over the names of bacterial fish pathogens, with some, for example Vibrio anguillarum, being divided into two separate entities (V. anguillarum and V. ordalii). Others have been combined, for example V. carchariae, V. harveyi and V. trachuri as V. harveyi. Confusion may result with some organisms recognized by more than one name; V. anguillarum was reclassified as Beneckea and Listonella, with Vibrio and Listonella persisting in the scientific literature. Notwithstanding, modern methods have permitted real progress in the understanding of the taxonomic relationships of many bacterial fish pathogens.

  13. Eyespots divert attacks by fish.

    PubMed

    Kjernsmo, Karin; Merilaita, Sami

    2013-09-01

    Eyespots (colour patterns consisting of concentric rings) are found in a wide range of animal taxa and are often assumed to have an anti-predator function. Previous experiments have found strong evidence for an intimidating effect of eyespots against passerine birds. Some eyespots have been suggested to increase prey survival by diverting attacks towards less vital body parts or a direction that would facilitate escape. While eyespots in aquatic environments are widespread, their function is extremely understudied. Therefore, we investigated the protective function of eyespots against attacking fish. We used artificial prey and predator-naive three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) as predators to test both the diversion (deflection) and the intimidation hypothesis. Interestingly, our results showed that eyespots smaller than the fish' own eye very effectively draw the attacks of the fish towards them. Furthermore, our experiment also showed that this was not due to the conspicuousness of the eyespot, because attack latency did not differ between prey items with and without eyespots. We found little support for an intimidating effect by larger eyespots. Even though also other markings might misdirect attacks, we can conclude that the misdirecting function may have played an important role in the evolution of eyespots in aquatic environments.

  14. Breaking the host range: mandarin fish is susceptible to a vesiculovirus derived from snakehead fish.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaodan; Wen, Yi; Hu, Xianqin; Wang, Wenwen; Liang, Xufang; Li, Jun; Vakharia, Vikram; Lin, Li

    2015-04-01

    Members of the genus Vesiculovirus, which belongs to the family Rhabdoviridae, can cause great economic loss in fish culture. In the present report, a vesiculovirus [named snakehead fish vesiculovirus (SHVV)] was isolated from diseased hybrid snakehead fish. SHVV shared 94 % nucleotide sequence identity at the genomic level with Siniperca chuatsi rhabdovirus (SCRV), which infects mandarin fish (S. chuatsi). We showed that SHVV was able to replicate and proliferate well in SSN-1 cells, which originate from striped snakehead fish (Channa striatus). Furthermore, mandarin fish was susceptible to SHVV by bath exposure, as well as by intraperitoneal injection. The infected fish showed typical clinical signs of rhabdovirus infection, including haemorrhage and oedema. Histopathological analysis revealed that extensive inflammation and necrosis were observed in the spleen, kidney, liver, heart and brain of the moribund mandarin fish. These results will shed new light on the epidemic of vesiculovirus infections among fish.

  15. Mapping Fishing Effort through AIS Data.

    PubMed

    Natale, Fabrizio; Gibin, Maurizio; Alessandrini, Alfredo; Vespe, Michele; Paulrud, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Several research initiatives have been undertaken to map fishing effort at high spatial resolution using the Vessel Monitoring System (VMS). An alternative to the VMS is represented by the Automatic Identification System (AIS), which in the EU became compulsory in May 2014 for all fishing vessels of length above 15 meters. The aim of this paper is to assess the uptake of the AIS in the EU fishing fleet and the feasibility of producing a map of fishing effort with high spatial and temporal resolution at European scale. After analysing a large AIS dataset for the period January-August 2014 and covering most of the EU waters, we show that AIS was adopted by around 75% of EU fishing vessels above 15 meters of length. Using the Swedish fleet as a case study, we developed a method to identify fishing activity based on the analysis of individual vessels' speed profiles and produce a high resolution map of fishing effort based on AIS data. The method was validated using detailed logbook data and proved to be sufficiently accurate and computationally efficient to identify fishing grounds and effort in the case of trawlers, which represent the largest portion of the EU fishing fleet above 15 meters of length. Issues still to be addressed before extending the exercise to the entire EU fleet are the assessment of coverage levels of the AIS data for all EU waters and the identification of fishing activity in the case of vessels other than trawlers. PMID:26098430

  16. Mapping Fishing Effort through AIS Data

    PubMed Central

    Natale, Fabrizio; Gibin, Maurizio; Alessandrini, Alfredo; Vespe, Michele; Paulrud, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Several research initiatives have been undertaken to map fishing effort at high spatial resolution using the Vessel Monitoring System (VMS). An alternative to the VMS is represented by the Automatic Identification System (AIS), which in the EU became compulsory in May 2014 for all fishing vessels of length above 15 meters. The aim of this paper is to assess the uptake of the AIS in the EU fishing fleet and the feasibility of producing a map of fishing effort with high spatial and temporal resolution at European scale. After analysing a large AIS dataset for the period January-August 2014 and covering most of the EU waters, we show that AIS was adopted by around 75% of EU fishing vessels above 15 meters of length. Using the Swedish fleet as a case study, we developed a method to identify fishing activity based on the analysis of individual vessels’ speed profiles and produce a high resolution map of fishing effort based on AIS data. The method was validated using detailed logbook data and proved to be sufficiently accurate and computationally efficient to identify fishing grounds and effort in the case of trawlers, which represent the largest portion of the EU fishing fleet above 15 meters of length. Issues still to be addressed before extending the exercise to the entire EU fleet are the assessment of coverage levels of the AIS data for all EU waters and the identification of fishing activity in the case of vessels other than trawlers. PMID:26098430

  17. COMPLIANCE STUDIES: WHAT ABOUT THE FISH?

    SciTech Connect

    Woodley, Christa M.; Fischer, Eric S.; Wagner, Katie A.; Weiland, Mark A.; Eppard, M. B.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2013-08-21

    ABSTRACT It is understood that operational and structural conditions at hydroelectric facilities along with environmental conditions of the migration corridors affect the passage conditions for fish. Hydropower fish survival assessments at the individual- and population-level have progressed over the past decade with development of turbine simulation software and improvements in telemetry systems, in particular, micro-transmitters, cabled and autonomous receivers, and advanced statistical designs that provide precise estimates of passage routes and dam-passage survival. However, these approaches often ignore fish condition as a variable in passage and survival analyses. To account for fish condition effects on survival results, compliance statistical models often require increased numbers of tagged fish. For example, prior to and during migration, fish encounter numerous stressors (e.g., disease, predation, contact with structures, decompression events), all of which can cause physical and physiological stress, altering the probability of survival after passage through a dam or a series of dams. In addition, the effects of surgical transmitter implantation process or the transmitter itself may cause physiological stress, alter behavior, and/or decrease survival. Careful physiological evaluations can augment survival model assumptions, resultant data, and predictive scenarios. To exemplify this, surgeons concurrently noted fish condition and surgical implantation during a multi-dam compliance study in 2011. The analyses indicted that surgeon observations on fish condition and surgical outcomes were related to 24 h holding mortalities and fish that never detected after release. Short reach and long reach survival were related to surgical outcomes and fish condition, respectively.

  18. Estimating the worldwide extent of illegal fishing.

    PubMed

    Agnew, David J; Pearce, John; Pramod, Ganapathiraju; Peatman, Tom; Watson, Reg; Beddington, John R; Pitcher, Tony J

    2009-01-01

    Illegal and unreported fishing contributes to overexploitation of fish stocks and is a hindrance to the recovery of fish populations and ecosystems. This study is the first to undertake a world-wide analysis of illegal and unreported fishing. Reviewing the situation in 54 countries and on the high seas, we estimate that lower and upper estimates of the total value of current illegal and unreported fishing losses worldwide are between $10 bn and $23.5 bn annually, representing between 11 and 26 million tonnes. Our data are of sufficient resolution to detect regional differences in the level and trend of illegal fishing over the last 20 years, and we can report a significant correlation between governance and the level of illegal fishing. Developing countries are most at risk from illegal fishing, with total estimated catches in West Africa being 40% higher than reported catches. Such levels of exploitation severely hamper the sustainable management of marine ecosystems. Although there have been some successes in reducing the level of illegal fishing in some areas, these developments are relatively recent and follow growing international focus on the problem. This paper provides the baseline against which successful action to curb illegal fishing can be judged.

  19. Hydrokinetic turbine effects on fish swimming behaviour.

    PubMed

    Hammar, Linus; Andersson, Sandra; Eggertsen, Linda; Haglund, Johan; Gullström, Martin; Ehnberg, Jimmy; Molander, Sverker

    2013-01-01

    Hydrokinetic turbines, targeting the kinetic energy of fast-flowing currents, are under development with some turbines already deployed at ocean sites around the world. It remains virtually unknown as to how these technologies affect fish, and rotor collisions have been postulated as a major concern. In this study the effects of a vertical axis hydrokinetic rotor with rotational speeds up to 70 rpm were tested on the swimming patterns of naturally occurring fish in a subtropical tidal channel. Fish movements were recorded with and without the rotor in place. Results showed that no fish collided with the rotor and only a few specimens passed through rotor blades. Overall, fish reduced their movements through the area when the rotor was present. This deterrent effect on fish increased with current speed. Fish that passed the rotor avoided the near-field, about 0.3 m from the rotor for benthic reef fish. Large predatory fish were particularly cautious of the rotor and never moved closer than 1.7 m in current speeds above 0.6 ms(-1). The effects of the rotor differed among taxa and feeding guilds and it is suggested that fish boldness and body shape influenced responses. In conclusion, the tested hydrokinetic turbine rotor proved non-hazardous to fish during the investigated conditions. However, the results indicate that arrays comprising multiple turbines may restrict fish movements, particularly for large species, with possible effects on habitat connectivity if migration routes are exploited. Arrays of the investigated turbine type and comparable systems should therefore be designed with gaps of several metres width to allow large fish to pass through. In combination with further research the insights from this study can be used for guiding the design of hydrokinetic turbine arrays where needed, so preventing ecological impacts. PMID:24358334

  20. Hydrokinetic Turbine Effects on Fish Swimming Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Hammar, Linus; Andersson, Sandra; Eggertsen, Linda; Haglund, Johan; Gullström, Martin; Ehnberg, Jimmy; Molander, Sverker

    2013-01-01

    Hydrokinetic turbines, targeting the kinetic energy of fast-flowing currents, are under development with some turbines already deployed at ocean sites around the world. It remains virtually unknown as to how these technologies affect fish, and rotor collisions have been postulated as a major concern. In this study the effects of a vertical axis hydrokinetic rotor with rotational speeds up to 70 rpm were tested on the swimming patterns of naturally occurring fish in a subtropical tidal channel. Fish movements were recorded with and without the rotor in place. Results showed that no fish collided with the rotor and only a few specimens passed through rotor blades. Overall, fish reduced their movements through the area when the rotor was present. This deterrent effect on fish increased with current speed. Fish that passed the rotor avoided the near-field, about 0.3 m from the rotor for benthic reef fish. Large predatory fish were particularly cautious of the rotor and never moved closer than 1.7 m in current speeds above 0.6 ms-1. The effects of the rotor differed among taxa and feeding guilds and it is suggested that fish boldness and body shape influenced responses. In conclusion, the tested hydrokinetic turbine rotor proved non-hazardous to fish during the investigated conditions. However, the results indicate that arrays comprising multiple turbines may restrict fish movements, particularly for large species, with possible effects on habitat connectivity if migration routes are exploited. Arrays of the investigated turbine type and comparable systems should therefore be designed with gaps of several metres width to allow large fish to pass through. In combination with further research the insights from this study can be used for guiding the design of hydrokinetic turbine arrays where needed, so preventing ecological impacts. PMID:24358334

  1. Hydrokinetic turbine effects on fish swimming behaviour.

    PubMed

    Hammar, Linus; Andersson, Sandra; Eggertsen, Linda; Haglund, Johan; Gullström, Martin; Ehnberg, Jimmy; Molander, Sverker

    2013-01-01

    Hydrokinetic turbines, targeting the kinetic energy of fast-flowing currents, are under development with some turbines already deployed at ocean sites around the world. It remains virtually unknown as to how these technologies affect fish, and rotor collisions have been postulated as a major concern. In this study the effects of a vertical axis hydrokinetic rotor with rotational speeds up to 70 rpm were tested on the swimming patterns of naturally occurring fish in a subtropical tidal channel. Fish movements were recorded with and without the rotor in place. Results showed that no fish collided with the rotor and only a few specimens passed through rotor blades. Overall, fish reduced their movements through the area when the rotor was present. This deterrent effect on fish increased with current speed. Fish that passed the rotor avoided the near-field, about 0.3 m from the rotor for benthic reef fish. Large predatory fish were particularly cautious of the rotor and never moved closer than 1.7 m in current speeds above 0.6 ms(-1). The effects of the rotor differed among taxa and feeding guilds and it is suggested that fish boldness and body shape influenced responses. In conclusion, the tested hydrokinetic turbine rotor proved non-hazardous to fish during the investigated conditions. However, the results indicate that arrays comprising multiple turbines may restrict fish movements, particularly for large species, with possible effects on habitat connectivity if migration routes are exploited. Arrays of the investigated turbine type and comparable systems should therefore be designed with gaps of several metres width to allow large fish to pass through. In combination with further research the insights from this study can be used for guiding the design of hydrokinetic turbine arrays where needed, so preventing ecological impacts.

  2. Protein nutrition in fish: protein/energy ratio and alternative protein sources to fish meal.

    PubMed

    Sanz, A; García Gallego, M; De la Higuera, M

    2000-09-01

    Those interested in the design and manufacture of feeds for intensive fish farming face the basic concern of formulating mixtures for the best yield at the lowest costs. Of the macronutrients in the feed, protein has and continues to receive special consideration because fish present high and specific needs for this constituent. Traditionally, protein has been supplied primarily by fish meals. This paper presents a synthesis of the efforts made and the lines explored to achieve an effective reduction of the amount of fish meal in the feeds for fish, following two strategies: reduction of the protein in the feeds and the use of new raw materials to replace fish meal.

  3. Occurrence of PCDD/F, PCB, PBDE, PFAS, and organotin compounds in fish meal, fish oil and fish feed.

    PubMed

    Suominen, K; Hallikainen, A; Ruokojärvi, P; Airaksinen, R; Koponen, J; Rannikko, R; Kiviranta, H

    2011-10-01

    We analysed polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/F, dioxins), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in 13 fish meal, five fish oil, and seven fish feed samples. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE), organotin compounds (OTC), and perfluoroalkylated substances (PFAS) were analysed in ten fish meal, two fish oil, and two fish feed samples. All measured TEQ concentrations of PCDD/F and PCB were below the maximum levels set by Directive 2002/32/EC. There was no correlation between concentrations of WHOPCDD/F-TEQ and indicator PCB in our samples. The most common congeners among PBDEs were BDE-47 and BDE-100. BDE-209 was present in five fish meals of the ten analysed. Tributyltin (TBT) was the predominant congener in all samples except in three fish meals, where monobutyltin (MBT) was the major congener. Perfluorooctane sulphonate (PFOS) was the predominant congener in six fish meals of the ten analysed. There was large variation in concentrations and congener distributions of the studied compounds between our samples. Our results underline a need to pay special attention to the origin and purity of feed raw material of marine origin.

  4. Augmented Fish Health Monitoring in Idaho, 1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Munson, A.Douglas

    1993-12-01

    This report documents the progress of Idaho Department of Fish and Game`s fish health monitoring during the past five years and will serve as a completion report for the Augmented Fish Health Monitoring Project. Anadromous fish at twelve IDFG facilities were monitored for various pathogens and organosomatic analyses were performed to anadromous fish prior to their release. A fish disease database has been developed and data is presently being entered. Alternate funding has been secured to continue fish health monitoring.

  5. Perceptions about mercury and lead in fish consumed in Lake Albert fishing communities Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Andrew, Tamale; Francis, Ejobi; Charles, Muyanja; Naigaga, Irene; Jesca, Nakavuma; Micheal, Ocaido; Anne, Katuhoire; Deborah, Amulen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Fish consumption is a lifestyle in fishing communities influenced by individual and communal perceptions. However, information about individual perceptions about fish consumption in the vulnerable fishing community in a developing country is lacking. Without this study, the benefits of fish consumption in a vulnerable community may not be realized. Data collection was executed using key informant interviews and survey structured questionnaires. The key informants include fisheries, community development, veterinary, community and environmental officers. The household heads were the respondents. The Qualitative data was organized and queried using QSR Nvivo 10 and quantitative data analyzed with SPSS version 22. The perceived benefits of eating fish are health, income, nutrition and manhood. The perceived risks are Stigma and ill health. The factors increasing fish consumption are heedless of fish consumption benefits (p = 0.041) and household size i.e. number of adults more than seven (p = 0.020). Those decreasing are methods of preparation of fish i.e. boiling and frying (p = 0.019 and p = 0.010) and oblivious about organizations dealing with fishing activities (p = 0.029). An awareness campaign is needed to demystify the health benefits and fallacies of fish consumption. The knowledge on individual perceptions associated with fish consumption will increase fish consumption but with fewer risks. PMID:27722182

  6. FishCam - A semi-automatic video-based monitoring system of fish migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kratzert, Frederik; Mader, Helmut

    2016-04-01

    One of the main objectives of the Water Framework Directive is to preserve and restore the continuum of river networks. Regarding vertebrate migration, fish passes are widely used measure to overcome anthropogenic constructions. Functionality of this measure needs to be verified by monitoring. In this study we propose a newly developed monitoring system, named FishCam, to observe fish migration especially in fish passes without contact and without imposing stress on fish. To avoid time and cost consuming field work for fish pass monitoring, this project aims to develop a semi-automatic monitoring system that enables a continuous observation of fish migration. The system consists of a detection tunnel and a high resolution camera, which is mainly based on the technology of security cameras. If changes in the image, e.g. by migrating fish or drifting particles, are detected by a motion sensor, the camera system starts recording and continues until no further motion is detectable. An ongoing key challenge in this project is the development of robust software, which counts, measures and classifies the passing fish. To achieve this goal, many different computer vision tasks and classification steps have to be combined. Moving objects have to be detected and separated from the static part of the image, objects have to be tracked throughout the entire video and fish have to be separated from non-fish objects (e.g. foliage and woody debris, shadows and light reflections). Subsequently, the length of all detected fish needs to be determined and fish should be classified into species. The object classification in fish and non-fish objects is realized through ensembles of state-of-the-art classifiers on a single image per object. The choice of the best image for classification is implemented through a newly developed "fish benchmark" value. This value compares the actual shape of the object with a schematic model of side-specific fish. To enable an automatization of the

  7. Hybrid seine for full fish community collections

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKenna, James E.; Waldt, Emily M.; Abbett, Ross; David, Anthony; Snyder, James

    2013-01-01

    Seines are simple and effective fish collection gears, but the net mesh size influences how well the catch represents the fish communities. We designed and tested a hybrid seine with a dual-mesh bag (1/4″ and 1/8″) and compared the fish assemblage collected by each mesh. The fine-mesh net retained three times as many fish and collected more species (as many as eight), including representatives of several rare species, than did the coarser mesh. The dual-mesh bag permitted us to compare both sizes and species retained by each layer and to develop species-specific abundance correction factors, which allowed comparison of catches with the coarse-mesh seine used for earlier collections. The results indicate that a hybrid seine with coarse-mesh wings and a fine-mesh bag would enhance future studies of fish communities, especially when small-bodied fishes or early life stages are the research focus.

  8. Concentration of Elements in Whole-body Fish, Fish Fillets, Fish Muscle Plugs, and Fish Eggs from the 2008 Missouri Department of Conservation General Contaminant Monitoring Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    May, Thomas W.; Walther, Michael J.; Brumbaugh, William G.; McKee, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the results of a contaminant monitoring survey conducted annually by the Missouri Department of Conservation to examine the levels of selected elemental contaminants in whole-body fish, fish fillets, fish muscle plugs, and fish eggs. Whole-body, fillet, or egg samples of catfish (Ictalurus punctatus, Ictalurus furcatus, Pylodictis olivaris), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), walleye (Sander vitreus), crappie (Pomoxis annularis, Pomoxis nigromaculatus), shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus), northern hog sucker (Hypentelium nigricans), and Missouri saddled darter (Etheostoma tetrazonum) were collected from 23 sites as part of the Missouri Department of Conservation's Fish Contaminant Monitoring Program. Fish dorsal muscle plugs also were collected from walleye (Sander vitreus) at one of the sites.

  9. Monitoring fish distributions along electrofishing segments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miranda, Leandro E.

    2014-01-01

    Electrofishing is widely used to monitor fish species composition and relative abundance in streams and lakes. According to standard protocols, multiple segments are selected in a body of water to monitor population relative abundance as the ratio of total catch to total sampling effort. The standard protocol provides an assessment of fish distribution at a macrohabitat scale among segments, but not within segments. An ancillary protocol was developed for assessing fish distribution at a finer scale within electrofishing segments. The ancillary protocol was used to estimate spacing, dispersion, and association of two species along shore segments in two local reservoirs. The added information provided by the ancillary protocol may be useful for assessing fish distribution relative to fish of the same species, to fish of different species, and to environmental or habitat characteristics.

  10. Healthy fish consumption and reduced mercury exposure

    PubMed Central

    Abelsohn, Alan; Vanderlinden, Loren D.; Scott, Fran; Archbold, Josephine A.; Brown, Tara L.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To provide family physicians with a practical, evidence-based approach to counseling women about healthy fish eating. Sources of information MEDLINE was searched for articles published between 1999 and 2008. Most studies described in this article provide level II or III evidence. Main message Fish is an important component of a healthy diet for women in their reproductive years owing to the beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acids on the neurologic development of the fetus. However, some fish species contain considerable methylmercury, which crosses the placenta and has harmful effects on neurobehavioural development. As many jurisdictions have issued fish consumption advisories, which can be confusing, women would benefit from individualized assistance from a trusted source, their family physicians, to clarify the risks and benefits of eating fish. Conclusion We recommend that family physicians counsel women in their reproductive years about healthy choices regarding fish in their diet, and provide appropriate resources. PMID:21322285

  11. Freshwater to seawater transitions in migratory fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zydlewski, Joseph; Michael P. Wilkie,

    2012-01-01

    The transition from freshwater to seawater is integral to the life history of many fishes. Diverse migratory fishes express anadromous, catadromous, and amphidromous life histories, while others make incomplete transits between freshwater and seawater. The physiological mechanisms of osmoregulation are widely conserved among phylogenetically diverse species. Diadromous fishes moving between freshwater and seawater develop osmoregulatory mechanisms for different environmental salinities. Freshwater to seawater transition involves hormonally mediated changes in gill ionocytes and the transport proteins associated with hypoosmoregulation, increased seawater ingestion and water absorption in the intestine, and reduced urinary water losses. Fishes attain salinity tolerance through early development, gradual acclimation, or environmentally or developmentally cued adaptations. This chapter describes adaptations in diverse taxa and the effects of salinity on growth. Identifying common strategies in diadromous fishes moving between freshwater and seawater will reveal the ecological and physiological basis for maintaining homeostasis in different salinities, and inform efforts to conserve and manage migratory euryhaline fishes.

  12. Fish Locomotion: Recent Advances and New Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauder, George V.

    2015-01-01

    Research on fish locomotion has expanded greatly in recent years as new approaches have been brought to bear on a classical field of study. Detailed analyses of patterns of body and fin motion and the effects of these movements on water flow patterns have helped scientists understand the causes and effects of hydrodynamic patterns produced by swimming fish. Recent developments include the study of the center-of-mass motion of swimming fish and the use of volumetric imaging systems that allow three-dimensional instantaneous snapshots of wake flow patterns. The large numbers of swimming fish in the oceans and the vorticity present in fin and body wakes support the hypothesis that fish contribute significantly to the mixing of ocean waters. New developments in fish robotics have enhanced understanding of the physical principles underlying aquatic propulsion and allowed intriguing biological features, such as the structure of shark skin, to be studied in detail.

  13. Swimming Performance of Toy Robotic Fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petelina, Nina; Mendelson, Leah; Techet, Alexandra

    2015-11-01

    HEXBUG AquaBotsTM are a commercially available small robot fish that come in a variety of ``species''. These models have varying caudal fin shapes and randomly-varied modes of swimming including forward locomotion, diving, and turning. In this study, we assess the repeatability and performance of the HEXBUG swimming behaviors and discuss the use of these toys to develop experimental techniques and analysis methods to study live fish swimming. In order to determine whether these simple, affordable model fish can be a valid representation for live fish movement, two models, an angelfish and a shark, were studied using 2D Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and 3D Synthetic Aperture PIV. In a series of experiments, the robotic fish were either allowed to swim freely or towed in one direction at a constant speed. The resultant measurements of the caudal fin wake are compared to data from previous studies of a real fish and simplified flapping propulsors.

  14. Genomics and Mapping of Teleostei (Bony Fish)

    PubMed Central

    2003-01-01

    Until recently, the Human Genome Project held centre stage in the press releases concerning sequencing programmes. However, in October 2001, it was announced that the Japanese puffer fish (Takifugu rubripes, Fugu) was the second vertebrate organism to be sequenced to draft quality. Briefly, the spotlight was on fish genomes. There are currently two other fish species undergoing intensive sequencing, the green spotted puffer fish (Tetraodon nigroviridis) and the zebrafish (Danio rerio). But this trio are, in many ways, atypical representations of the current state of fish genomic research. The aim of this brief review is to demonstrate the complexity of fish as a group of vertebrates and to publicize the ‘lesser-known’ species, all of which have something to offer. PMID:18629122

  15. RNA FISH, DNA FISH and Chromosome Painting of Chicken Oocytes.

    PubMed

    Guioli, Silvana; Lovell-Badge, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a molecular cytogenetic technique. It identifies the location of DNA loci and RNAs, including nascent RNAs in the process of being transcribed, within individual cells. Great advances in fluorescent dye technology and technique sensitivity, combined with developments in light microscopy and imaging software have made it widely accessible and have expanded the range of applications in basic research as well as in diagnostics. Being able to perform RNA hybridization, DNA hybridization, and protein immunofluorescence consecutively on the same sample is an invaluable tool to study RNA expression in relation to their gene loci and to map RNA and DNA in relation to nuclear or cellular structures. This has contributed to enormous progress in understanding basal mechanisms of male and female meiosis in different animal model systems. In this chapter we describe in detail the protocols for FISH based techniques applied to study gene expression dynamics and nuclear architecture of chicken oocytes during meiotic prophase I. These techniques can be easily performed in any molecular and cell biology laboratory and be adapted to different systems and to different phases of gametogenesis. PMID:27557582

  16. Paramyxoviruses of fish: Chapter 17

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyers, Theodore R; Batts, William N.; Kibenge, Frederick S. B.; Godoy, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    The first fish paramyxovirus was isolated from normal adult Chinook salmon returning to a coastal hatchery in Oregon in the fall of 1982. Subsequently, the virus was isolated from other stocks of adult Chinook salmon and one stock of adult coho salmon in California, Oregon, Washington and Alaska, leading to its designation as the Pacific salmon paramyxovirus (PSPV). The slow-growing virus can be isolated from tissues and ovarian fluids of healthy adult fish returning to spawn and apparently causes no clinical signs of disease or mortality. In 1995, a different and widely disseminated paramyxovirus was isolated from farmed Atlantic salmon in Norway and was designated as Atlantic salmon paramyxovirus (ASPV). Although this virus caused no disease or mortality when injected into juvenile Atlantic salmon, ASPV has been associated with proliferative gill inflammation in sea-reared yearling fish; however, additional infectious agents may be involved in the etiology of the condition. Sequence analysis of PSPV and ASPV isolates using the polymerase gene established their placement in the family Paramyxoviridaeand has shown the two viruses to be closely related but sufficiently different from each other and from other known paramyxoviruses to possibly represent new genera within the family. The viruses can be diagnosed by isolation in cell culture with final confirmation by molecular methods. Other paramyxovirus-like agents have been observed or isolated from rainbow trout in Germany, from seabream in Japan associated with epithelial necrosis, from turbot in Spain associated with erythrocytic inclusion bodies and buccal/opercular hemorrhaging and from koi and common carp associated with gill necrosis in the European Union.

  17. Developing Biological Specifications for Fish Friendly Turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Neitzel, Duane A.

    2009-09-14

    This factsheet explains studies conducted in a highly reproducible manner to examine the biological effects to fish exposed to a shear environment in the laboratory. Strain rate was used as the index of intensity to describe the hydraulic force experienced by a fish in a shear environment. It was determined that no significant injuries occurred to any fish subjected to strain rates equal to or less than 500 cm/s/cm.

  18. Consumer beliefs regarding farmed versus wild fish.

    PubMed

    Claret, Anna; Guerrero, Luis; Ginés, Rafael; Grau, Amàlia; Hernández, M Dolores; Aguirre, Enaitz; Peleteiro, José Benito; Fernández-Pato, Carlos; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carmen

    2014-08-01

    Aquaculture is a food-producing activity, alternative to traditional extractive fishing, which still acts as a reference for most consumers. The main objective of the present paper was to study which consumer beliefs, regarding farmed versus wild fish, hinder the potential development of the aquaculture sector. To achieve this purpose the study was organized into two complementary steps: a qualitative approach (focus groups) aimed at assessing consumer perception about wild and farmed fish and to identify the salient beliefs that differentiate them; and a quantitative approach (survey by means of a questionnaire) to validate the results obtained in the focus group discussions over a representative sample of participants (n = 919). Results showed that participants perceive clear differences between farmed and wild fish. Although no significant differences between both kinds of fish were detected on safety, in general farmed fish was perceived to be less affected by marine pollution, heavy metals and parasites. In the contrary, wild fish was considered to have healthier feeding, to contain fewer antibiotics and to be fresher, healthier, less handled and more natural. Beliefs related to quality were in favour of wild fish, while those related to availability and price were in favour of farmed fish. Significant differences were observed in the perception of both kinds of fish depending on the consumers' objective knowledge about fish, on the level of education, age and gender and on the three segments of consumers identified: "Traditional/Conservative", "Connoisseur", "Open to aquaculture". The results provided could play an important role when planning and designing efficient marketing strategies for promoting farmed fish by adapting the information provided to the perception of each segment of consumers identified by the present study. PMID:24709486

  19. Consumer beliefs regarding farmed versus wild fish.

    PubMed

    Claret, Anna; Guerrero, Luis; Ginés, Rafael; Grau, Amàlia; Hernández, M Dolores; Aguirre, Enaitz; Peleteiro, José Benito; Fernández-Pato, Carlos; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carmen

    2014-08-01

    Aquaculture is a food-producing activity, alternative to traditional extractive fishing, which still acts as a reference for most consumers. The main objective of the present paper was to study which consumer beliefs, regarding farmed versus wild fish, hinder the potential development of the aquaculture sector. To achieve this purpose the study was organized into two complementary steps: a qualitative approach (focus groups) aimed at assessing consumer perception about wild and farmed fish and to identify the salient beliefs that differentiate them; and a quantitative approach (survey by means of a questionnaire) to validate the results obtained in the focus group discussions over a representative sample of participants (n = 919). Results showed that participants perceive clear differences between farmed and wild fish. Although no significant differences between both kinds of fish were detected on safety, in general farmed fish was perceived to be less affected by marine pollution, heavy metals and parasites. In the contrary, wild fish was considered to have healthier feeding, to contain fewer antibiotics and to be fresher, healthier, less handled and more natural. Beliefs related to quality were in favour of wild fish, while those related to availability and price were in favour of farmed fish. Significant differences were observed in the perception of both kinds of fish depending on the consumers' objective knowledge about fish, on the level of education, age and gender and on the three segments of consumers identified: "Traditional/Conservative", "Connoisseur", "Open to aquaculture". The results provided could play an important role when planning and designing efficient marketing strategies for promoting farmed fish by adapting the information provided to the perception of each segment of consumers identified by the present study.

  20. A historical review of fish vaccinology.

    PubMed

    Evelyn, T P

    1997-01-01

    The first report on fish vaccination to appear in a widely read international scientific journal was that by Duff [5] dealing with his results obtained with anti-furunculosis vaccines. Duff's report did not result in an immediate landslide of fish vaccination trials in other laboratories because, in the years following the second world war, the preoccupation was with disease control using the newly discovered antibiotics. In fish culture, the ensuing 30 to 40 years might accurately have been termed the "era of chemotherapy" because large numbers of antibiotics, sulpha drugs, and even mercury-based antimicrobial agents were routinely used. It was only in the mid to late 1970s, with an increased interest in fish farming, particularly marine fish farming, that attention was once again turned to the possibility of vaccination as a means of preventing/ controlling fish diseases and to the development of commercially available vaccines. The reasons for this turn of events were varied: the high cost of using chemotherapy, the short-term nature of the protection obtained with antibiotics, the increasing appearance of antibiotic resistant fish pathogens, and, to some extent, concerns about the environmental impacts of antibiotic use. This paper briefly outlines the success that has attended efforts to develop vaccines against some of the more important bacterial diseases of cultured fish and the progress made in developing vaccines against important viral fish pathogens. In the process, an attempt will be made to show how fish vaccine development has benefited from an improved knowledge of the fish's immune system and from a better understanding of the virulence factors possessed by particular fish pathogens. PMID:9270829

  1. Fishing out marine parasites? Impacts of fishing on rates of parasitism in the ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Chelsea L.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Micheli, Fiorenza

    2010-01-01

    Among anthropogenic effects on the ocean, fishing is one of the most pervasive and extends deepest into the past. Because fishing reduces the density of fish (reducing transmission efficiency of directly transmitted parasites), selectively removes large fish (which tend to carry more parasites than small fish), and reduces food web complexity (reducing transmission efficiency of trophically transmitted parasites), the removal of fish from the world’s oceans over the course of hundreds of years may be driving a long-term, global decline in fish parasites. There has been growing recognition in recent years that parasites are a critical part of biodiversity and that their loss could substantially alter ecosystem function. Such a loss may be among the last major ecological effects of industrial fishing to be recognized by scientists.

  2. Founders of fish culture - European origins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fish, F.F.

    1936-01-01

    Just where true fish culture appeared in history depends entirely upon what one considers fish culture to be. If the transportation of fishes from regions of plenty to those of few is to be regarded as fish culture - as it is by some even today - then this story should start in remotest antiquity and deal with an amazing series of failures. However, fish culture to be classed as a science must include far more than mere transportation, it must include a deliberate effort on the part of man to master a technique of fish raising which will yield results far superior to Nature's. Accordingly, the wheel of history must be spun forward to the fifteenth century, A. D., when man first conceived the idea that with care and exactitude, he could improve upon Nature. The fish cultural efforts of the Chinese, the Egyptians, the Greeks, and the Romans may be skipped over in a hurry, for they represented little more than the transportation and rearing of wild fish. With the renaissance of modern civilization in Europe came the birth of scientific fish culture.

  3. Applications of the Sensor Fish Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Richmond, Marshall C.

    2007-08-28

    The Sensor Fish is an autonomous device developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Army Corps of Engineers (COE) to better understand the physical conditions fish experience during passage through hydro-turbines and other dam bypass alternatives. Since its initial development in 1997, the Sensor Fish has undergone several design changes to improve its function and extend the range of its use. The most recent Sensor Fish design, the six-degree-of-freedom (6DOF) device, has been deployed successfully to characterize the environment fish experience when they pass through several hydroelectric projects along main stem Columbia and Snake Rivers in the Pacific Northwest. Just as information gathered from crash test dummies can affect automobile design with the installation of protective designs to lessen or prevent human injury, having sensor fish data to quantify accelerations, rotations, and pressure changes, helps identify fish injury mechanisms such as strike, turbulent shear, pressure, and inertial effects, including non-lethal ones such as stunning or signs of vestibular disruption that expose fish to a higher risk of predation by birds and piscivorous fish downstream following passage.

  4. Genomic Approaches with Natural Fish Populations

    PubMed Central

    Oleksiak, M. F.

    2011-01-01

    Natural populations versus inbred stocks provide a much richer resource for identifying the effects of nucleotide substitutions because natural populations have greater polymorphism. Additionally, natural populations offer an advantage over most common research organisms because they are subject to natural selection, and analyses of these adaptations can be used to identify biologically important changes. Among fishes, these analyses are enhanced by having a wide diversity of species (> 28,000 species, more than any other group of vertebrates) living in a huge range of environments (from below freezing to > 46° C, in fresh water to salinities > 40 ppt.). Moreover, fishes exhibit many different life history and reproductive strategies and have many different phenotypes and social structures. While fishes provide numerous advantages over other vertebrate models, there is still a dearth of available genomic tools for fishes. Fish make up approximately half of all known vertebrate species, yet less than 0.2% of fish species have significant genomic resources. Nonetheless, genomic approaches with fishes have provided some of the first measures of individual variation in gene expression and insights in to environmental and ecological adaptations. Thus, genomic approaches with natural fish populations have the potential to revolutionize fundamental studies of diverse fish species that offer myriad ecological and evolutionary questions. PMID:20409163

  5. Evolution of mica fish in mylonitic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ten Grotenhuis, S. M.; Trouw, R. A. J.; Passchier, C. W.

    2003-08-01

    Mineral fish are lozenge-shaped porphyroclasts, single crystals in a finer grained matrix, which occur in ductile shear zones and which are commonly used as shear sense indicators. Mineral fish of biotite, tourmaline, K-feldspar, garnet, hypersthene and quartz occur in mylonites but most common are white mica fish. These mica fish can be subdivided into six morphological groups that develop by different mechanisms determined by different initial shapes and orientations. The principal mechanisms of formation are intracrystalline deformation combined with rigid body rotation. Concomitant selective grain size reduction occurs by recrystallisation, cataclastic separation, pressure solution and diffusional mass transfer. Microboudinage has been proposed for the breakdown of large mica fish into smaller ones but many mica fish undergo shortening rather than extension along their long axes. Evidence is presented for an alternative process in which the tips of mica fish are isoclinally folded and then break off along the hinge of these microfolds. All the presented fish-shaped porphyroclasts or mineral fish have a specific shape-preferred orientation with their long axis at a small antithetic angle with respect to the foliation. They represent a special group of objects with a stable orientation due to flow partitioning into narrow shear bands.

  6. Augmented Fish Health Monitoring, 1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, James W.

    1992-08-01

    The Augmented Fish Health Monitoring Project (Project) had its origin, in the mid-1980's, in perceived differences or inconsistencies in fish disease detection, diagnosis and control capabilities between the five conservation agencies rearing and releasing anadromous salmonids for fishery resource management and mitigation purposes in the Columbia River basin. Agency fish health programs varied greatly. Some agencies had personnel, equipment and funding to frequently monitor the health status of both juvenile production fish and adult salmon or steelhead trout at the time of spawning. Other agencies had much smaller programs and limited resources. These differences became better understood when the Pacific Northwest Fish Health Protection Committee developed its Model Fish Health Protection Program including recommendations for standard fish disease detection procedures. Even though some agencies could not immediately attain the goals set by the Model Program it was unanimously adopted as a desirable objective. Shortly thereafter, a multi-party planning group was assembled to help the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) find ways to improve agency fish health programs and implement measures under the Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power Planning Council. The planning group assessed existing agency fish health monitoring capabilities, agreed upon satisfactory levels of capability to detect and identify important fish pathogens, and designed a five-year project establishing comparable fish health monitoring capability in each agency. It was strongly believed that such a project would improve the health and quality of the millions of hatchery fish released annually in the Columbia River basin and improve interagency communications and disease control coordination. During 1986 and 1987 BPA individually negotiated five separate contracts with the fishery agencies to standardize fish health monitoring, develop a common data collection and reporting format

  7. 50 CFR 14.23 - Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... and farm-raised fish eggs meet the definition of “bred in captivity” as stated in 50 CFR 17.3. Except... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs. 14.23 Section 14.23 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...

  8. 50 CFR 14.23 - Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... and farm-raised fish eggs meet the definition of “bred in captivity” as stated in 50 CFR 17.3. Except... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs. 14.23 Section 14.23 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...

  9. 50 CFR 14.23 - Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... and farm-raised fish eggs meet the definition of “bred in captivity” as stated in 50 CFR 17.3. Except... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs. 14.23 Section 14.23 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...

  10. 50 CFR 14.23 - Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... and farm-raised fish eggs meet the definition of “bred in captivity” as stated in 50 CFR 17.3. Except... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs. 14.23 Section 14.23 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...

  11. 50 CFR 14.23 - Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... and farm-raised fish eggs meet the definition of “bred in captivity” as stated in 50 CFR 17.3. Except... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs. 14.23 Section 14.23 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...

  12. The influence of fisher knowledge on the susceptibility of reef fish aggregations to fishing.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Jan; Cinner, Joshua E; Graham, Nicholas A J

    2014-01-01

    Reef fishes that exhibit predictable aggregating behaviour are often considered vulnerable to overexploitation. However, fisher knowledge of this behaviour is often heterogeneous and, coupled with socioeconomic factors that constrain demand for or access to aggregated fish, will influence susceptibility to fishing. At two case study locations in Papua New Guinea, Ahus and Karkar islands, we conducted interview-based surveys to examine how local context influenced heterogeneity in knowledge of fish aggregations. We then explored the role of fisher knowledge in conferring susceptibility to fishing relative to socioeconomic drivers of fishing effort. Local heterogeneity in knowledge of aggregating behaviour differed between our case studies. At Ahus, variable access rights among fishers and genders to the main habitats were sources of heterogeneity in knowledge. By contrast, knowledge was more homogenous at Karkar and the sole source of variation was gear type. Differences between locations in the susceptibility of aggregations to fishing depended primarily on socioeconomic drivers of fishing effort rather than catchability. While Ahus fishers were knowledgeable of fish aggregations and used more selective gears, Karkar fishers were less constrained by tenure in their access to aggregation habitat. However, fishing effort was greater at Ahus and likely related to high dependency on fishing, greater access to provincial capital markets than Karkar and a weakening of customary management. Moreover, highly efficient fishing techniques have emerged at Ahus to exploit the non-reproductive aggregating behaviour of target species. Understanding how knowledge is structured within fishing communities and its relation to socioeconomic drivers of fishing effort is important if customary practices for conservation, such as tambu areas, are to be supported. The findings of this study call for a holistic approach to assessing the risks posed to reef fish aggregations by fishing

  13. Histology of the first fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, M.P.; Sansom, I.J.; Repetski, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    THE first description of Anatolepis Bockelie & Fortey was from early Ordovician sediments of Ny Friesland, Spitsbergen1,2, but the genus is now known from many localities in North America and Greenland, ranging in age from the Late Cambrian period to the Early Ordovician3-6. Although initially interpreted as an agnathan fish2,3 that predated other representatives7, this has been widely disputed because the available histological data were unconvincing6,8-10 and the scales fell outside the known morphological range of other accepted early vertebrates9-11. Further doubt was cast upon the vertebrate affinity of Anatolepis when specimens from East Greenland were interpreted as the cuticular fragments of aglaspid arthropods6, although this interpretation has also been refuted12. Here we report on the morphology and histology of large collections of Anatolepis, and demonstrate the presence of dentine, a tissue unique to vertebrates, confirming that the taxon is both a vertebrate and the oldest known fish.

  14. Lateralization of aggression in fish.

    PubMed

    Bisazza, Angelo; de Santi, Andrea

    2003-05-15

    Recent research has suggested that lateralization of aggressive behaviors could follow an homogeneous pattern among all vertebrates. A left eye/right hemisphere dominance in eliciting aggressive responses has been demonstrated for all groups of tetrapods but teleost fish for which data is lacking. Here we studied differential eye use during aggressive interactions in three species of teleosts: Gambusia holbrooki, Xenotoca eiseni and Betta splendens. In the first experiment we checked for lateralization in the use of the eyes while the subject was attacking its own mirror image. In order to confirm the results, other tests were performed on two species and eye preference was scored during attacks or displays directed toward a live rival. All three species showed a marked preference for using the right eye when attacking a mirror image or a live rival. Thus, the direction of asymmetry in fish appears the opposite to that shown by all the other groups of vertebrates. Hypotheses on the origin of the difference are discussed.

  15. Predator Avoidance in Extremophile Fish

    PubMed Central

    Bierbach, David; Schulte, Matthias; Herrmann, Nina; Zimmer, Claudia; Arias-Rodriguez, Lenin; Indy, Jeane Rimber; Riesch, Rüdiger; Plath, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Extreme habitats are often characterized by reduced predation pressures, thus representing refuges for the inhabiting species. The present study was designed to investigate predator avoidance of extremophile populations of Poecilia mexicana and P. sulphuraria that either live in hydrogen sulfide-rich (sulfidic) springs or cave habitats, both of which are known to have impoverished piscine predator regimes. Focal fishes that inhabited sulfidic springs showed slightly weaker avoidance reactions when presented with several naturally occurring predatory cichlids, but strongest differences to populations from non-sulfidic habitats were found in a decreased shoaling tendency with non-predatory swordtail (Xiphophorus hellerii) females. When comparing avoidance reactions between P. mexicana from a sulfidic cave (Cueva del Azufre) and the adjacent sulfidic surface creek (El Azufre), we found only slight differences in predator avoidance, but surface fish reacted much more strongly to the non-predatory cichlid Vieja bifasciata. Our third experiment was designed to disentangle learned from innate effects of predator recognition. We compared laboratory-reared (i.e., predator-naïve) and wild-caught (i.e., predator-experienced) individuals of P. mexicana from a non-sulfidic river and found no differences in their reaction towards the presented predators. Overall, our results indicate (1) that predator avoidance is still functional in extremophile Poecilia spp. and (2) that predator recognition and avoidance reactions have a strong genetic basis. PMID:25371337

  16. Eyespots divert attacks by fish

    PubMed Central

    Kjernsmo, Karin; Merilaita, Sami

    2013-01-01

    Eyespots (colour patterns consisting of concentric rings) are found in a wide range of animal taxa and are often assumed to have an anti-predator function. Previous experiments have found strong evidence for an intimidating effect of eyespots against passerine birds. Some eyespots have been suggested to increase prey survival by diverting attacks towards less vital body parts or a direction that would facilitate escape. While eyespots in aquatic environments are widespread, their function is extremely understudied. Therefore, we investigated the protective function of eyespots against attacking fish. We used artificial prey and predator-naive three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) as predators to test both the diversion (deflection) and the intimidation hypothesis. Interestingly, our results showed that eyespots smaller than the fish’ own eye very effectively draw the attacks of the fish towards them. Furthermore, our experiment also showed that this was not due to the conspicuousness of the eyespot, because attack latency did not differ between prey items with and without eyespots. We found little support for an intimidating effect by larger eyespots. Even though also other markings might misdirect attacks, we can conclude that the misdirecting function may have played an important role in the evolution of eyespots in aquatic environments. PMID:23864602

  17. Lateralization of aggression in fish.

    PubMed

    Bisazza, Angelo; de Santi, Andrea

    2003-05-15

    Recent research has suggested that lateralization of aggressive behaviors could follow an homogeneous pattern among all vertebrates. A left eye/right hemisphere dominance in eliciting aggressive responses has been demonstrated for all groups of tetrapods but teleost fish for which data is lacking. Here we studied differential eye use during aggressive interactions in three species of teleosts: Gambusia holbrooki, Xenotoca eiseni and Betta splendens. In the first experiment we checked for lateralization in the use of the eyes while the subject was attacking its own mirror image. In order to confirm the results, other tests were performed on two species and eye preference was scored during attacks or displays directed toward a live rival. All three species showed a marked preference for using the right eye when attacking a mirror image or a live rival. Thus, the direction of asymmetry in fish appears the opposite to that shown by all the other groups of vertebrates. Hypotheses on the origin of the difference are discussed. PMID:12742249

  18. Predator avoidance in extremophile fish.

    PubMed

    Bierbach, David; Schulte, Matthias; Herrmann, Nina; Zimmer, Claudia; Arias-Rodriguez, Lenin; Indy, Jeane Rimber; Riesch, Rüdiger; Plath, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Extreme habitats are often characterized by reduced predation pressures, thus representing refuges for the inhabiting species. The present study was designed to investigate predator avoidance of extremophile populations of Poecilia mexicana and P. sulphuraria that either live in hydrogen sulfide-rich (sulfidic) springs or cave habitats, both of which are known to have impoverished piscine predator regimes. Focal fishes that inhabited sulfidic springs showed slightly weaker avoidance reactions when presented with several naturally occurring predatory cichlids, but strongest differences to populations from non-sulfidic habitats were found in a decreased shoaling tendency with non-predatory swordtail (Xiphophorus hellerii) females. When comparing avoidance reactions between P. mexicana from a sulfidic cave (Cueva del Azufre) and the adjacent sulfidic surface creek (El Azufre), we found only slight differences in predator avoidance, but surface fish reacted much more strongly to the non-predatory cichlid Vieja bifasciata. Our third experiment was designed to disentangle learned from innate effects of predator recognition. We compared laboratory-reared (i.e., predator-naïve) and wild-caught (i.e., predator-experienced) individuals of P. mexicana from a non-sulfidic river and found no differences in their reaction towards the presented predators. Overall, our results indicate (1) that predator avoidance is still functional in extremophile Poecilia spp. and (2) that predator recognition and avoidance reactions have a strong genetic basis.

  19. Characteristics of nitrogen and phospphorus release from fish meals and fish hydrolysate in subarctic soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The expanding of organic farming in Alaska demands alternative nutrient sources for crop production. Annually, there are over 1,000,000 metric tons of fish by-products from the Alaska fishing industries. These fish by-products are rich in nitrogen and can be processed and used for crop production f...

  20. Lake Erie...Build a Fish to Scale!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canning, Maureen; Dunlevy, Margie

    This elementary school teaching unit was developed as a part of a series of teaching units that deal with Lake Erie. This unit was developed to enable children to: (1) name the different parts of a fish; (2) assemble a fish using overlapping overheads to reinforce fish parts; (3) build a fish to scale using jumbo fish puzzle parts; (4) classify…

  1. 7 CFR 60.133 - Wild fish and shellfish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Wild fish and shellfish. 60.133 Section 60.133... FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Definitions § 60.133 Wild fish and shellfish. Wild fish and shellfish means naturally-born or hatchery-originated fish or shellfish released in the wild, and...

  2. 7 CFR 60.106 - Farm-raised fish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Farm-raised fish. 60.106 Section 60.106 Agriculture... FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Definitions § 60.106 Farm-raised fish. Farm-raised fish means fish or shellfish that have been harvested in controlled environments, including ocean-ranched...

  3. 25 CFR 242.5 - Disposition of unmarketable fish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Disposition of unmarketable fish. 242.5 Section 242.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE COMMERCIAL FISHING ON RED LAKE INDIAN RESERVATION § 242.5 Disposition of unmarketable fish. All unmarketable live fish...

  4. 7 CFR 60.133 - Wild fish and shellfish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Wild fish and shellfish. 60.133 Section 60.133... FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Definitions § 60.133 Wild fish and shellfish. Wild fish and shellfish means naturally-born or hatchery-originated fish or shellfish released in the wild, and...

  5. 25 CFR 242.5 - Disposition of unmarketable fish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Disposition of unmarketable fish. 242.5 Section 242.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE COMMERCIAL FISHING ON RED LAKE INDIAN RESERVATION § 242.5 Disposition of unmarketable fish. All unmarketable live fish...

  6. 7 CFR 60.106 - Farm-raised fish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Farm-raised fish. 60.106 Section 60.106 Agriculture... FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Definitions § 60.106 Farm-raised fish. Farm-raised fish means fish or shellfish that have been harvested in controlled environments, including ocean-ranched...

  7. 7 CFR 60.133 - Wild fish and shellfish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Wild fish and shellfish. 60.133 Section 60.133... FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Definitions § 60.133 Wild fish and shellfish. Wild fish and shellfish means naturally-born or hatchery-originated fish or shellfish released in the wild, and...

  8. 25 CFR 242.5 - Disposition of unmarketable fish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Disposition of unmarketable fish. 242.5 Section 242.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE COMMERCIAL FISHING ON RED LAKE INDIAN RESERVATION § 242.5 Disposition of unmarketable fish. All unmarketable live fish...

  9. 21 CFR 172.340 - Fish protein isolate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fish protein isolate. 172.340 Section 172.340 Food... Additives § 172.340 Fish protein isolate. (a) The food additive fish protein isolate may be safely used as a... principally of dried fish protein prepared from the edible portions of fish after removal of the heads,...

  10. 25 CFR 242.5 - Disposition of unmarketable fish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disposition of unmarketable fish. 242.5 Section 242.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE COMMERCIAL FISHING ON RED LAKE INDIAN RESERVATION § 242.5 Disposition of unmarketable fish. All unmarketable live fish...

  11. 36 CFR 241.23 - Taking of fish and wildlife.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Taking of fish and wildlife... FISH AND WILDLIFE Conservation of Fish, Wildlife, and Their Habitat, Chugach National Forest, Alaska § 241.23 Taking of fish and wildlife. (a) The taking of fish and wildlife by hunting, trapping,...

  12. 36 CFR 241.23 - Taking of fish and wildlife.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Taking of fish and wildlife... FISH AND WILDLIFE Conservation of Fish, Wildlife, and Their Habitat, Chugach National Forest, Alaska § 241.23 Taking of fish and wildlife. (a) The taking of fish and wildlife by hunting, trapping,...

  13. 7 CFR 60.106 - Farm-raised fish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Farm-raised fish. 60.106 Section 60.106 Agriculture... FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Definitions § 60.106 Farm-raised fish. Farm-raised fish means fish or shellfish that have been harvested in controlled environments, including ocean-ranched...

  14. 36 CFR 241.23 - Taking of fish and wildlife.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Taking of fish and wildlife... FISH AND WILDLIFE Conservation of Fish, Wildlife, and Their Habitat, Chugach National Forest, Alaska § 241.23 Taking of fish and wildlife. (a) The taking of fish and wildlife by hunting, trapping,...

  15. 25 CFR 242.5 - Disposition of unmarketable fish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Disposition of unmarketable fish. 242.5 Section 242.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE COMMERCIAL FISHING ON RED LAKE INDIAN RESERVATION § 242.5 Disposition of unmarketable fish. All unmarketable live fish...

  16. 7 CFR 60.133 - Wild fish and shellfish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Wild fish and shellfish. 60.133 Section 60.133... FOR FISH AND SHELLFISH General Provisions Definitions § 60.133 Wild fish and shellfish. Wild fish and shellfish means naturally-born or hatchery-originated fish or shellfish released in the wild, and...

  17. 25 CFR 242.10 - Fishing equipment limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fishing equipment limitations. 242.10 Section 242.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE COMMERCIAL FISHING ON RED LAKE INDIAN RESERVATION § 242.10 Fishing equipment limitations. (a) Any variety of fish may be taken...

  18. 46 CFR 105.10-25 - Commercial fishing vessel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Commercial fishing vessel. 105.10-25 Section 105.10-25... COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Definition of Terms Used in This Part § 105.10-25 Commercial fishing vessel. (a) The term commercial fishing vessel includes fishing vessels, cannery...

  19. 25 CFR 249.4 - Identification of fishing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Identification of fishing equipment. 249.4 Section 249.4... FISHING General Provisions § 249.4 Identification of fishing equipment. All fishing gear or other equipment used in the exercise of any off-reservation treaty fishing right shall be marked in such manner...

  20. 25 CFR 249.4 - Identification of fishing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Identification of fishing equipment. 249.4 Section 249.4... FISHING General Provisions § 249.4 Identification of fishing equipment. All fishing gear or other equipment used in the exercise of any off-reservation treaty fishing right shall be marked in such manner...

  1. 46 CFR 105.10-25 - Commercial fishing vessel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Commercial fishing vessel. 105.10-25 Section 105.10-25... COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Definition of Terms Used in This Part § 105.10-25 Commercial fishing vessel. (a) The term commercial fishing vessel includes fishing vessels, cannery...

  2. 46 CFR 105.10-25 - Commercial fishing vessel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Commercial fishing vessel. 105.10-25 Section 105.10-25... COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Definition of Terms Used in This Part § 105.10-25 Commercial fishing vessel. (a) The term commercial fishing vessel includes fishing vessels, cannery...

  3. 25 CFR 249.4 - Identification of fishing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Identification of fishing equipment. 249.4 Section 249.4... FISHING General Provisions § 249.4 Identification of fishing equipment. All fishing gear or other equipment used in the exercise of any off-reservation treaty fishing right shall be marked in such manner...

  4. 25 CFR 249.4 - Identification of fishing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Identification of fishing equipment. 249.4 Section 249.4... FISHING General Provisions § 249.4 Identification of fishing equipment. All fishing gear or other equipment used in the exercise of any off-reservation treaty fishing right shall be marked in such manner...

  5. 46 CFR 105.10-25 - Commercial fishing vessel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Commercial fishing vessel. 105.10-25 Section 105.10-25... COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Definition of Terms Used in This Part § 105.10-25 Commercial fishing vessel. (a) The term commercial fishing vessel includes fishing vessels, cannery...

  6. 25 CFR 249.4 - Identification of fishing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Identification of fishing equipment. 249.4 Section 249.4... FISHING General Provisions § 249.4 Identification of fishing equipment. All fishing gear or other equipment used in the exercise of any off-reservation treaty fishing right shall be marked in such manner...

  7. 25 CFR 242.10 - Fishing equipment limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Fishing equipment limitations. 242.10 Section 242.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE COMMERCIAL FISHING ON RED LAKE INDIAN RESERVATION § 242.10 Fishing equipment limitations. (a) Any variety of fish may be taken...

  8. 46 CFR 105.10-25 - Commercial fishing vessel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Commercial fishing vessel. 105.10-25 Section 105.10-25... COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Definition of Terms Used in This Part § 105.10-25 Commercial fishing vessel. (a) The term commercial fishing vessel includes fishing vessels, cannery...

  9. 25 CFR 242.10 - Fishing equipment limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fishing equipment limitations. 242.10 Section 242.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE COMMERCIAL FISHING ON RED LAKE INDIAN RESERVATION § 242.10 Fishing equipment limitations. (a) Any variety of fish may be taken...

  10. 25 CFR 242.10 - Fishing equipment limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fishing equipment limitations. 242.10 Section 242.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE COMMERCIAL FISHING ON RED LAKE INDIAN RESERVATION § 242.10 Fishing equipment limitations. (a) Any variety of fish may be taken...

  11. 25 CFR 241.3 - Commercial fishing, Annette Islands Reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commercial fishing, Annette Islands Reserve. 241.3... FISHING IN ALASKA § 241.3 Commercial fishing, Annette Islands Reserve. (a) Definition. Commercial fishing... salmon fishing at any four of the following sites in the Annette Islands Reserve, Alaska: (1)...

  12. 25 CFR 241.3 - Commercial fishing, Annette Islands Reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Commercial fishing, Annette Islands Reserve. 241.3... FISHING IN ALASKA § 241.3 Commercial fishing, Annette Islands Reserve. (a) Definition. Commercial fishing... salmon fishing at any four of the following sites in the Annette Islands Reserve, Alaska: (1)...

  13. 25 CFR 241.3 - Commercial fishing, Annette Islands Reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Commercial fishing, Annette Islands Reserve. 241.3... FISHING IN ALASKA § 241.3 Commercial fishing, Annette Islands Reserve. (a) Definition. Commercial fishing... salmon fishing at any four of the following sites in the Annette Islands Reserve, Alaska: (1)...

  14. 25 CFR 241.3 - Commercial fishing, Annette Islands Reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Commercial fishing, Annette Islands Reserve. 241.3... FISHING IN ALASKA § 241.3 Commercial fishing, Annette Islands Reserve. (a) Definition. Commercial fishing... salmon fishing at any four of the following sites in the Annette Islands Reserve, Alaska: (1)...

  15. 75 FR 22423 - Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... public meeting of the Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council (Council). DATES: The meeting will be... announce that the Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council will hold a meeting. Background The...

  16. 76 FR 75898 - Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... (Service), announce a public teleconference of the Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council (Council.... The Council represents the interests of the public and private sectors of the sport fishing,...

  17. Countermeasures against viral diseases of farmed fish.

    PubMed

    Kibenge, Frederick S B; Godoy, Marcos G; Fast, Mark; Workenhe, Samuel; Kibenge, Molly J T

    2012-09-01

    Farmed fish provide an increasing fraction of the human food supply, and are of major economic importance in many countries. As in the case of terrestrial agriculture, bringing together large numbers of animals of a single species (i.e., monoculture) increases the risk of infectious disease outbreaks, including viral infections. Aquaculture, in which farmed fish are kept at high population densities in close proximity with wild fish reservoirs, is ideal for the emergence of wild-type pathogens that exist benignly in local wild fish and/or the spreading of aquatic pathogens to wild fish that enter into or come into close proximity with net cages and with fish escaping from them. This paper provides a general review for the nonspecialist of viral diseases of farmed fish and how they could be prevented or treated. It has five principal objectives: (1) to provide an update on the most important and emerging viral diseases of salmonid aquaculture; (2) to review general aspects of innate antiviral defense against virus infections in fish, including recent advances in antiviral signaling; (3) to discuss current principles and practices of vaccinating fish; (4) to review antiviral drugs that have activity against viruses of farmed fish, and current barriers to employing them in aquaculture; and (5) to discuss the growing use of "functional feeds" in salmonid aquaculture to mitigate viral diseases. In conclusion, despite the challenging aquatic environment, it is expected that well thought-out combinations of vaccination and immunostimulants and/or antiviral drugs could provide solid protection against viral diseases of farmed fish.

  18. Fish Is Food - The FAO’s Fish Price Index

    PubMed Central

    Tveterås, Sigbjørn; Asche, Frank; Bellemare, Marc F.; Smith, Martin D.; Guttormsen, Atle G.; Lem, Audun; Lien, Kristin; Vannuccini, Stefania

    2012-01-01

    World food prices hit an all-time high in February 2011 and are still almost two and a half times those of 2000. Although three billion people worldwide use seafood as a key source of animal protein, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations–which compiles prices for other major food categories–has not tracked seafood prices. We fill this gap by developing an index of global seafood prices that can help to understand food crises and may assist in averting them. The fish price index (FPI) relies on trade statistics because seafood is heavily traded internationally, exposing non-traded seafood to price competition from imports and exports. Easily updated trade data can thus proxy for domestic seafood prices that are difficult to observe in many regions and costly to update with global coverage. Calculations of the extent of price competition in different countries support the plausibility of reliance on trade data. Overall, the FPI shows less volatility and fewer price spikes than other food price indices including oils, cereals, and dairy. The FPI generally reflects seafood scarcity, but it can also be separated into indices by production technology, fish species, or region. Splitting FPI into capture fisheries and aquaculture suggests increased scarcity of capture fishery resources in recent years, but also growth in aquaculture that is keeping pace with demand. Regionally, seafood price volatility varies, and some prices are negatively correlated. These patterns hint that regional supply shocks are consequential for seafood prices in spite of the high degree of seafood tradability. PMID:22590598

  19. Fish is food--the FAO's fish price index.

    PubMed

    Tveterås, Sigbjørn; Asche, Frank; Bellemare, Marc F; Smith, Martin D; Guttormsen, Atle G; Lem, Audun; Lien, Kristin; Vannuccini, Stefania

    2012-01-01

    World food prices hit an all-time high in February 2011 and are still almost two and a half times those of 2000. Although three billion people worldwide use seafood as a key source of animal protein, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations-which compiles prices for other major food categories-has not tracked seafood prices. We fill this gap by developing an index of global seafood prices that can help to understand food crises and may assist in averting them. The fish price index (FPI) relies on trade statistics because seafood is heavily traded internationally, exposing non-traded seafood to price competition from imports and exports. Easily updated trade data can thus proxy for domestic seafood prices that are difficult to observe in many regions and costly to update with global coverage. Calculations of the extent of price competition in different countries support the plausibility of reliance on trade data. Overall, the FPI shows less volatility and fewer price spikes than other food price indices including oils, cereals, and dairy. The FPI generally reflects seafood scarcity, but it can also be separated into indices by production technology, fish species, or region. Splitting FPI into capture fisheries and aquaculture suggests increased scarcity of capture fishery resources in recent years, but also growth in aquaculture that is keeping pace with demand. Regionally, seafood price volatility varies, and some prices are negatively correlated. These patterns hint that regional supply shocks are consequential for seafood prices in spite of the high degree of seafood tradability.

  20. Fishing Long-Fingered Bats (Myotis capaccinii) Prey Regularly upon Exotic Fish

    PubMed Central

    Aizpurua, Ostaizka; Garin, Inazio; Alberdi, Antton; Salsamendi, Egoitz; Baagøe, Hans; Aihartza, Joxerra

    2013-01-01

    The long-fingered bat Myotis capaccinii is a European trawling bat reported to feed on fish in several Mediterranean locations, but the ecological circumstances of this behavior have not yet been studied. To elucidate the importance of fishing in this bat's diet, we evaluated the frequency and seasonal variation of fish remains in 3,000 fecal pellets collected from M. capaccinii at a nursery roost in Dénia (Eastern Iberian Peninsula) in 2008, 2009, and 2010. Fish consumption occurred evenly throughout the year. All otoliths found in feces were identified as belonging to the surface-feeding fish Gambusia holbrooki. Measuring otoliths, we estimated that the mean size of consumed fish was significantly smaller than the mean measured for available fish, suggesting that the long-fingered bat's relatively small body may constrain its handling of larger prey. Of note, one bat had eaten 15 fish, showing that fish may be a locally or seasonally important trophic resource for this species. By capturing 15 bats and radio-tracking the four with the most fish remains in their droppings, we also identified fishing areas, including a single fishing ground comprising several ponds within a golf course. Ponds hold a high density of G. holbrooki, suggesting that the amount of fish at the water surface may be the principal factor triggering fishing. The observed six-fold increase in percentage of consumed fish across the study period may be related to recent pond-building in the area. We discuss whether this quick behavioral response is a novel feature of M. capaccinii or an intrinsic feature that has erupted and faded locally along the species' history. PMID:24312200

  1. Fishing long-fingered bats (Myotis capaccinii) prey regularly upon exotic fish.

    PubMed

    Aizpurua, Ostaizka; Garin, Inazio; Alberdi, Antton; Salsamendi, Egoitz; Baagøe, Hans; Aihartza, Joxerra

    2013-01-01

    The long-fingered bat Myotis capaccinii is a European trawling bat reported to feed on fish in several Mediterranean locations, but the ecological circumstances of this behavior have not yet been studied. To elucidate the importance of fishing in this bat's diet, we evaluated the frequency and seasonal variation of fish remains in 3,000 fecal pellets collected from M. capaccinii at a nursery roost in Dénia (Eastern Iberian Peninsula) in 2008, 2009, and 2010. Fish consumption occurred evenly throughout the year. All otoliths found in feces were identified as belonging to the surface-feeding fish Gambusia holbrooki. Measuring otoliths, we estimated that the mean size of consumed fish was significantly smaller than the mean measured for available fish, suggesting that the long-fingered bat's relatively small body may constrain its handling of larger prey. Of note, one bat had eaten 15 fish, showing that fish may be a locally or seasonally important trophic resource for this species. By capturing 15 bats and radio-tracking the four with the most fish remains in their droppings, we also identified fishing areas, including a single fishing ground comprising several ponds within a golf course. Ponds hold a high density of G. holbrooki, suggesting that the amount of fish at the water surface may be the principal factor triggering fishing. The observed six-fold increase in percentage of consumed fish across the study period may be related to recent pond-building in the area. We discuss whether this quick behavioral response is a novel feature of M. capaccinii or an intrinsic feature that has erupted and faded locally along the species' history.

  2. Health benefits and potential risks related to consumption of fish or fish oil.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, Kirpal S

    2003-12-01

    The nutritional benefits of fish consumption relate to the utilization of proteins of high biological value, as well as certain minerals and vitamins that fish provide. Fish or fish oil contains omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) that appear to play several useful roles for human health. Conversely, some carcinogenic contaminants are also stored in the adipose tissue of fish. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the potential health benefits and risks related to the consumption of fish or fish oil. Health benefits related to the consumption of fish or omega-3 PUFAs were obtained by an extensive literature search. Potential health risks related to carcinogenic contaminants (e.g., dioxin, PCB, etc.) in fish were estimated using the U.S. EPA-approved cancer risk assessment guidelines. Potential health risk estimates were evaluated by comparing them with the acceptable excess risk level of 10(-6)-10(-4). Scientific data indicate that the consumption of fish or fish oil containing omega-3 PUFAs reduces the risk of coronary heart disease, decreases mild hypertension, and prevents certain cardiac arrhythmias and sudden death. Risk estimates in humans for carcinogenic environmental contaminants in fish ranged from an excess risk level of 3x10(-6)-9x10(-4). These risk estimates appeared to meet the acceptable excess risk level criteria. Therefore, consumption of fish in accordance with the State of Michigan Fish Advisory Guidelines is safe and should be encouraged. The top 11 fish species [e.g., sardines, mackerel, herring (Atlantic and Pacific), lake trout, salmon (Chinook, Atlantic, and Sockeye), anchovy (European), sablefish, and bluefish] provide an adequate amount of omega-3 PUFAs (2.7-7.5g/meal) and appear to meet the nutritional recommendation of the American Heart Association.

  3. What determines fresh fish consumption in Croatia?

    PubMed

    Tomić, Marina; Matulić, Daniel; Jelić, Margareta

    2016-11-01

    Although fresh fish is widely available, consumption still remains below the recommended intake levels among the majority of European consumers. The economic crisis affects consumer food behaviour, therefore fresh fish is perceived as healthy but expensive food product. The aim of this study was to determine the factors influencing fresh fish consumption using an expanded Theory of Planned Behaviour (Ajzen, 1991) as a theoretical framework. The survey was conducted on a heterogeneous sample of 1151 Croatian fresh fish consumers. The study investigated the relationship between attitudes, perceived behavioural control, subjective norm, moral obligation, involvement in health, availability, intention and consumption of fresh fish. Structural Equation Modeling by Partial Least Squares was used to analyse the collected data. The results indicated that attitudes are the strongest positive predictor of the intention to consume fresh fish. Other significant predictors of the intention to consume fresh fish were perceived behavioural control, subjective norm, health involvement and moral obligation. The intention to consume fresh fish showed a strong positive correlation with behaviour. This survey provides valuable information for food marketing professionals and for the food industry in general. PMID:26721719

  4. Visualizing genomes with Oligopaint FISH probes

    PubMed Central

    Beliveau, Brian J.; Apostolopoulos, Nicholas; Wu, Chao-ting

    2014-01-01

    Oligopaint probes are fluorescently-labeled, single-stranded DNA oligonucleotides that can be used to visualize genomic regions ranging in size from tens of kilobases to many megabases. This unit details how Oligopaint probes can be synthesized using basic molecular biological techniques as well as provides protocols for FISH, 3D-FISH, and sample preparation. PMID:24510436

  5. 50 CFR 635.25 - Fishing areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fishing areas. 635.25 Section 635.25..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ATLANTIC HIGHLY MIGRATORY SPECIES Management Measures § 635.25 Fishing areas. (a... implemented under this part only in or from those management areas for which the United States has received...

  6. 50 CFR 635.25 - Fishing areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fishing areas. 635.25 Section 635.25..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ATLANTIC HIGHLY MIGRATORY SPECIES Management Measures § 635.25 Fishing areas. (a... implemented under this part only in or from those management areas for which the United States has received...

  7. 50 CFR 635.25 - Fishing areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fishing areas. 635.25 Section 635.25..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ATLANTIC HIGHLY MIGRATORY SPECIES Management Measures § 635.25 Fishing areas. (a... implemented under this part only in or from those management areas for which the United States has received...

  8. Effects of Pollution on Freshwater Fish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brungs, W. A.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the effects of pollution on freshwater fish, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) water quality; (2) pesticide pollutants; (3) chemical pollutants; (4) miscellaneous pollutants; and (5) physical factors of pollution on freshwater fish. A list of 338 references is also presented. (HM)

  9. 50 CFR 600.513 - Recreational fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recreational fishing. 600.513 Section 600.513 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Foreign Fishing § 600.513...

  10. Significance of FISH in clinical cytogenetics

    SciTech Connect

    Gopal Rao, V.V.N.; Harris, S.; Roop, H.

    1994-09-01

    Ever since its discovery, FISH technology has become an invaluable adjunct to conventional cytogenetics. FISH has been instrumental in resolving previously unresolved cytogenetic dilemmas. FISH has been used to elucidate complex as well as subtle chromosomal translocations, in detection of microdeletions, to confirm duplications and inversions and to identify marker chromosomes. We report a few selected cases where FISH proved to be invaluable in not only confirming the anomaly, but also in arriving at an accurate diagnosis and appropriate counseling of the patients. These include 3 cases of prenatal and 3 cases of postnatal diagnosis. The results clearly demonstrate the significance of FISH in identifying and interpreting the difficult karyotype in clinical cytogenetics. In addition, FISH has been used to rule out microdeletions in Prader-Willi (16), Angelman (3), Miller-Dieker (7), DiGeorge (4) and Smith-Magenis (1) syndrome patients. Without FISH in the majority of these cases, it would not have been possible to accurately identify the karyotype and interpret the results. Hence, we recommend that FISH be used as a powerful adjunct to conventional cytogenetics in order to arrive at an accurate interpretation of the results but not to replace routine cytogenetic studies.

  11. THE FISHES OF THE PELICAN CAYS, BELIZE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Smith, C. Lavett, James C. Tyler, William P. Davis, Robert S. Jones, David G. Smith and Carole C. Baldwin. Submitted. Fishes of the Pelican Cays, Belize. Atoll Res. Bull. 108 p. (ERL,GB 1204).

    The fishes of the Pelican Cays, Belize, were sampled using a combination of sma...

  12. Simulating fish assemblages in riverine networks

    EPA Science Inventory

    We describe a modeling approach for simulating assemblages of fish in riverine landscapes. The approach allows a user to determine the grain and extent of river networks within which fish populations reproduce, move, and survive in response to both environmental drivers and assem...

  13. Par Pond Fish, Water, and Sediment Chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Paller, M.H.; Wike, L.D.

    1996-06-01

    The objectives of this report are to describe the Par Pond fish community and the impact of the drawdown and refill on the community, describe contaminant levels in Par Pond fish, sediments, and water and indicate how contaminant concentrations and distributions were affected by the drawdown and refill, and predict possible effects of future water level fluctuations in Par Pond.

  14. Fish Story. Literature in the Art Room.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Barbara

    2001-01-01

    Presents an activity that used the book "The Rainbow Fish" by Marcus Pfister as a means to introducing the project in which first-grade students created a picture of a fish. Explains how the students practice following step-by-step directions by the teacher. (CMK)

  15. Histopathology of fish: I. Techniques and principles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, E.M.; Yasutake, W.T.

    1955-01-01

    The techniques of histopathology have been used for many years in the study of human and animal diseases. Until very recent times, however, histology has been applied to fish studies only very infrequently. This brief discussion is intended to acquaint the reader with the techniques and principles involved and to explain how histological studies may help to overcome fish diseases and nutritional problems.

  16. Uses of stable isotopes in fish ecology

    EPA Science Inventory

    Analyses of fish tissues (other than otoliths) for stable isotope ratios can provide substantial information on fish ecology, including physiological ecology. Stable isotopes of nitrogen and carbon frequently are used to determine the mix of diet sources for consumers. Stable i...

  17. 75 FR 57698 - Hunting and Fishing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 32 Hunting and Fishing CFR Correction In Title 50 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 18 to 199, revised as of October 1, 2009, on page 385, in Sec. 32.43, the...

  18. 50 CFR 660.718 - Exempted fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... for the participating vessel in accordance with the criteria and procedures specified in 50 CFR 600... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exempted fishing. 660.718 Section 660.718... Exempted fishing. (a) In the interest of developing an efficient and productive fishery for HMS,...

  19. 75 FR 57698 - Hunting and Fishing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 32 Hunting and Fishing CFR Correction In Title 50 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 18 to 199, revised as of October 1, 2009, on page 406, in Sec. 32.45,...

  20. 50 CFR 660.718 - Exempted fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... for the participating vessel in accordance with the criteria and procedures specified in 50 CFR 600... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exempted fishing. 660.718 Section 660.718... Exempted fishing. (a) In the interest of developing an efficient and productive fishery for HMS,...

  1. 50 CFR 660.718 - Exempted fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... for the participating vessel in accordance with the criteria and procedures specified in 50 CFR 600... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exempted fishing. 660.718 Section 660.718... Exempted fishing. (a) In the interest of developing an efficient and productive fishery for HMS,...

  2. 50 CFR 660.718 - Exempted fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... for the participating vessel in accordance with the criteria and procedures specified in 50 CFR 600... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exempted fishing. 660.718 Section 660.718... Exempted fishing. (a) In the interest of developing an efficient and productive fishery for HMS,...

  3. 50 CFR 660.718 - Exempted fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... for the participating vessel in accordance with the criteria and procedures specified in 50 CFR 600... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exempted fishing. 660.718 Section 660.718... Exempted fishing. (a) In the interest of developing an efficient and productive fishery for HMS,...

  4. Histopathologic Effects of Estrogens on Marine Fishes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), such as estrogens estradiol (E2) and ethinylestradiol (EE2) have been reported to affect fish reproduction. This study histologically compared and evaluated effects of EDCs in two species of treated fish. Juvenile male summer flounder (Paral...

  5. 50 CFR 36.13 - Subsistence fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Subsistence fishing. 36.13 Section 36.13 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM ALASKA NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGES Subsistence Uses § 36.13...

  6. 50 CFR 36.13 - Subsistence fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Subsistence fishing. 36.13 Section 36.13 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM ALASKA NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGES Subsistence Uses § 36.13...

  7. 50 CFR 36.13 - Subsistence fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Subsistence fishing. 36.13 Section 36.13 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM ALASKA NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGES Subsistence Uses § 36.13...

  8. 50 CFR 36.13 - Subsistence fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Subsistence fishing. 36.13 Section 36.13 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM ALASKA NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGES Subsistence Uses § 36.13...

  9. 50 CFR 36.13 - Subsistence fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Subsistence fishing. 36.13 Section 36.13 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM ALASKA NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGES Subsistence Uses § 36.13...

  10. Fishing--A Sport for All Seasons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Phyllis

    2011-01-01

    In the United States, the phrase "goin' fishin'" is synonymous with taking a break and leaving everyday cares behind to go enjoy the outdoors, spend time with family or friends, and, if one is lucky, catch some tasty fish. According to the American Sportfishing Association, fishing is a hobby pursued by some 40 million Americans, including more…

  11. SIMULATING FISH ASSEMBLAGE DYNAMICS IN RIVER NETWORKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    My recently retired colleague, Joan Baker, and I have developed a prototype computer simulation model for studying the effects of human and non-human alterations of habitats and species availability on fish assemblage populations. The fish assemblage model, written in R, is a sp...

  12. Kalispel Resident Fish Project : Annual Report, 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, Todd; Olson, Jason

    2003-03-01

    In 2002 the Kalispel Natural Resource Department (KNRD) continued monitoring enhancement projects (implemented from 1996 to 1998) for bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), westslope cutthroat (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Additional baseline fish population and habitat assessments were conducted, in 2002, in tributaries to the Pend Oreille River. Further habitat and fish population enhancement projects were also implemented in 2002.

  13. Kalispel Resident Fish Project Annual Report, 2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, Jason; Andersen, Todd

    2004-04-01

    In 2003 the Kalispel Natural Resource Department (KNRD) continued monitoring enhancement projects (implemented from 1996 to 1998) for bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), westslope cutthroat (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Additional baseline fish population and habitat assessments were conducted, in 2003, in tributaries to the Pend Oreille River. Further habitat and fish population enhancement projects were also implemented.

  14. 75 FR 57698 - Hunting and Fishing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 32 Hunting and Fishing CFR Correction In Title 50 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 18 to 199, revised as of October 1, 2009, on page 326, in Sec. 32.35, in...

  15. Fish and Shellfish Associated Disease Outbreaks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, M.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of disease outbreaks related to fish and shellfish, covering publications of 1976-77. This review covers the chemical, bacterial, and viral diseases that are transmitted by fish and shellfish. A list of 50 references is also presented. (HM)

  16. Salted fish and nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, R W; Eng, A C

    1983-01-01

    The evidence for a hypothesis that eating salted fish is associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is reviewed. The hypothesis was tested among Malaysian Chinese using a matched case-control design. The kinds of salted fish and patterns of use were also investigated in a control group comprising 100 Chinese, 50 Malay and 50 Indian households. During 1980, in Selangor, Malaysia, interviews with 100 Chinese cases of NPC and 100 non-disease controls indicated that salted fish consumption during childhood was a significant risk (relative risk = 3.0, P = 0.04), with an elevated risk for daily as opposed to less frequent consumption. Salted fish consumption during adolescence was a less significant risk, and current consumption not at all. There were 19 kinds of fishes reported as being eaten as salted fish by the 200 control households. There were marked differences between ethnic groups in preference for different kinds: Chinese preferred red snapper (74% of households), Malay jewfish (54%) and Indian red snapper (28%). Salted fish was hardly ever eaten daily by any household; weekly was a moderate frequency in all ethnic groups; less than weekly most common. There were no statistically significant differences between Chinese NPC case and non-disease control participants in kind of salted fish eaten. Results were the same when the data were analyzed by sex, subethnic group and income. PMID:6635717

  17. Scripted Reading Programs: Fishing for Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan-Owens, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    "Give a man a fish and he will eat for a day. Teach a man to fish and he will eat for the rest of his life." This popular Chinese proverb is an apt metaphor for the dilemma faced by principals and curriculum coordinators when deciding whether to purchase a scripted commercial reading program. Although a scripted reading program may solve the…

  18. An O-"fish"-ial Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, James; Krustchinsky, Rick; Vanek, Karen; Nguyen, Kim-Thoa

    2009-01-01

    In this "O-"fish"-ial" research project, third-grade students use multiple resources to research several fish species, write a research paper and develop a PowerPoint presentation to communicate their findings. In addition, students actually examine these species up close with samples from the local market, and then conclude the project with a…

  19. The OECD Fish Testing Framework Project

    EPA Science Inventory

    OECD Project 2.30 on a Fish Testing Framework was initiated in mid-2009, with the United States as the lead country. The objectives of the project are to review the regulatory needs and data requirements for fish testing and review the currency of existing OECD Test Guidelines. ...

  20. Contaminants in fish: risk-benefit considerations.

    PubMed

    Costa, Lucio G

    2007-09-01

    Fish provide a healthful source of dietary protein and are high in nutrients such as omega-3 fatty acids. There is evidence of beneficial effects of fish consumption in coronary heart disease, stroke, age-related macular degeneration, and growth and development. Yet, benefits may be offset by the presence of contaminants, such as methylmercury (MeHg), dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and several other halogenated persistent organic pollutants. MeHg is a known developmental neurotoxicant, as evidenced by several animal studies and episodes of human intoxication in Japan and Iraq. Fish represent the main source of exposure to MeHg for the general population, and large predatory fish (swordfish, tuna) have the highest levels of MeHg contamination. Provisional tolerable weekly intakes of 0.7 microg kg(-1) to 1.6 microg kg(-1) have been set by regulatory agencies. Concern for contamination of fish with dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs stems from their reported carcinogenicity, immunotoxicity, and reproductive and developmental toxicities. Farmed and wild-caught fish appear to have similar levels of contaminants. Advisories are in place that recommend limited consumption of certain fish in children, pregnant women and women of childbearing age. Careful risk-benefit considerations should foster fish consumption while minimizing exposure to toxic contaminants.