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Sample records for fish scyliorhinus canicula

  1. The first cytokine sequence within cartilaginous fish: IL-1 beta in the small spotted catshark (Scyliorhinus canicula).

    PubMed

    Bird, Steve; Wang, Tiehui; Zou, Jun; Cunningham, Charlie; Secombes, Chris J

    2002-04-01

    Cartilaginous fish are considered the most primitive living jawed vertebrates with a complex immune system typical of all jawed vertebrates. Cytokine homologs are found within jawless and bony fish, although no cytokine or cytokine receptor genes have been sequenced in cartilaginous fish. In this study the complete coding sequence of the small spotted catshark (Scyliorhinus canicula) IL-1beta gene is presented that contains a short 5' untranslated region (54 bp), a 903-bp open reading frame, a 379-bp 3' untranslated region, a polyadenylation signal, and eight mRNA instability motifs. The predicted translation (301 amino acids) has highest identity to trout IL-1beta (31.7%), with greatest homology within the putative 12 beta-sheets. The IL-1 family signature is also present, but there is no apparent signal peptide. As with other nonmammalian IL-1beta sequences, the IL-1-converting enzyme cut site is absent. Expression of the IL-1beta transcript is detectable by RT-PCR in the spleen and testes, induced in vivo with LPS. Furthermore, a 7-fold increase of transcript levels in splenocytes incubated for 5 h with LPS was seen. The genomic organization comprises six exons and five introns with highest homology seen in exons encoding the largest amount of secondary structure per amino acid. Southern blot analysis suggests at least two copies of the IL-1beta gene or genes related to the 3' end of the IL-1beta sequence are present in the catshark. The cloning of IL-1beta in S. canicula, the first cytokine sequenced within cartilaginous fish, verifies previous bioactivity evidence for the presence of inflammatory cytokines.

  2. Production of Fish Protein Hydrolysates from Scyliorhinus canicula Discards with Antihypertensive and Antioxidant Activities by Enzymatic Hydrolysis and Mathematical Optimization Using Response Surface Methodology.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, José A; Blanco, Maria; Massa, Agueda E; Amado, Isabel Rodríguez; Pérez-Martín, Ricardo I

    2017-10-10

    Fish discards are of major concern in new EU policies. Alternatives for the management of the new biomass that has to be landed is compulsory. The production of bioactive compounds from fish protein hydrolysates (FPH) has been explored in recent years. However, the viability of Scyliorhinus canicula discards, which might account for up to 90-100% of captures in mixed trawler, gillnet, and longline industrial fisheries, to produce FPH from the muscle with bioactivities has still not been studied in terms of the optimization of the experimental conditions to enhance its production. The effect of pH and temperature on the hydrolysis of the S.canicula muscle was mediated by three commercial proteases using response surface methodology. Temperatures of 64.6 °C and 60.8 °C and pHs of 9.40 and 8.90 were established as the best hydrolysis conditions for Alcalase and Esperase, respectively. Optimization of the best conditions for the maximization of antihypertensive and antioxidant activities was performed. Higher Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity was found with Esperase. The pH optimum and temperature optimum for antioxidants were 55 °C/pH8.0 for ABTS/DPPH-Esperase, 63.1 °C/pH9.0 for DPPH-Alcalase, and 55 °C/pH9.0 for ABTS-Alcalase. No hydrolysis was detected when using Protamex.

  3. Antioxidant efficiency and detoxification enzymes in spotted dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula.

    PubMed

    Gorbi, Stefania; Pellegrini, David; Tedesco, Sara; Regoli, Francesco

    2004-01-01

    Although elasmobranchs are widely distributed species, commonly found on sandy, gravely or muddy bottoms, several biological aspects of their metabolism still remain poorly investigated. In this work the efficiency of antioxidant system and detoxification enzymes were investigated in the coastal spotted dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula and in the red mullet Mullus barbatus for comparison with a teleost species. Organisms were sampled during a bottom trawl survey and analyzed for the biotransformation activity (EROD), levels of metallothioneins, catalase, glutathione S-transferases and total oxyradical scavenging capacity (TOSC) toward peroxyl radicals and hydroxyl radicals. EROD activity in the elasmobranchs was more than one order of magnitude lower than in the red mullets, while similar levels of metallothioneins were measured in these species. S. canicula showed significantly lower antioxidant enzymes and a more reduced efficiency in neutralizing *OH; on the other hand the scavenging capability toward ROO* was comparable in S. canicula and M. barbatus.

  4. Lectin binding to olfactory system in a shark, Scyliorhinus canicula.

    PubMed

    Franceschini, V; Ciani, F

    1993-01-01

    Lectin histochemical studies were performed on the olfactory system of Scyliorhinus canicula to identify specific glycoconjugates on the cell surface of primary olfactory neurons. The olfactory receptor cells, the olfactory nerve fibers and their terminals in the bulbs were labelled with SBA, BSA-I and BSA-I-B4. The lectin staining patterns indicate that the membranes of small-spotted catshark olfactory neurons had glycoproteins with alpha-galactose residues. This carbohydrate moiety could be related to modulation of the cell-cell interactions in the olfactory system.

  5. Identifying reproductive events using archival tags: egg-laying behaviour of the small spotted catshark Scyliorhinus canicula.

    PubMed

    Wearmouth, V J; Southall, E J; Morritt, D; Sims, D W

    2013-01-01

    The use of archival depth telemetry as a means of remotely assessing the reproductive rates of free-ranging fishes is explored. This is achieved by electronically tracking the vertical movements of individual female small spotted catsharks Scyliorhinus canicula in the natural environment, whilst simultaneously evaluating the temporal and vertical distributions of egg-laying in this species. Distinctive patterns of short-term (0·3-3·7 h), shallow-water activity are documented in the time-depth profiles of female S. canicula that occur at an appropriate depth (1·0-2·3 m) and periodicity (every 10-12 days) to represent egg-laying behaviour. Putative egg-laying behaviour was exhibited simultaneously by two individually tracked female S. canicula during late-spring and early-summer. The results highlight that, provided species behaviour is suitable and complementary methods such as previous data, laboratory experiments and field surveys can be used to validate the patterns observed, archival depth telemetry offers an unobtrusive means by which egg production and egg-laying behaviour of free-living fishes can be estimated. As precise information regarding life-history parameters is difficult to obtain for free-ranging fish species, this technique could be used to improve the parameterization of species demographic models that are relevant to the management of wild fish populations.

  6. Prosomeric organization of the hypothalamus in an elasmobranch, the catshark Scyliorhinus canicula

    PubMed Central

    Santos-Durán, Gabriel N.; Menuet, Arnaud; Lagadec, Ronan; Mayeur, Hélène; Ferreiro-Galve, Susana; Mazan, Sylvie; Rodríguez-Moldes, Isabel; Candal, Eva

    2015-01-01

    The hypothalamus has been a central topic in neuroanatomy because of its important physiological functions, but its mature organization remains elusive. Deciphering its embryonic and adult organization is crucial in an evolutionary approach of the organization of the vertebrate forebrain. Here we studied the molecular organization of the hypothalamus and neighboring telencephalic domains in a cartilaginous fish, the catshark, Scyliorhinus canicula, focusing on ScFoxg1a, ScShh, ScNkx2.1, ScDlx2/5, ScOtp, and ScTbr1 expression profiles and on the identification α-acetylated-tubulin-immunoreactive (ir), TH-ir, 5-HT-ir, and GFAP-ir structures by means of immunohistochemistry. Analysis of the results within the updated prosomeric model framework support the existence of alar and basal histogenetic compartments in the hypothalamus similar to those described in the mouse, suggesting the ancestrality of these subdivisions in jawed vertebrates. These data provide new insights into hypothalamic organization in cartilaginous fishes and highlight the generality of key features of the prosomeric model in jawed vertebrates. PMID:25904850

  7. Prosomeric organization of the hypothalamus in an elasmobranch, the catshark Scyliorhinus canicula.

    PubMed

    Santos-Durán, Gabriel N; Menuet, Arnaud; Lagadec, Ronan; Mayeur, Hélène; Ferreiro-Galve, Susana; Mazan, Sylvie; Rodríguez-Moldes, Isabel; Candal, Eva

    2015-01-01

    The hypothalamus has been a central topic in neuroanatomy because of its important physiological functions, but its mature organization remains elusive. Deciphering its embryonic and adult organization is crucial in an evolutionary approach of the organization of the vertebrate forebrain. Here we studied the molecular organization of the hypothalamus and neighboring telencephalic domains in a cartilaginous fish, the catshark, Scyliorhinus canicula, focusing on ScFoxg1a, ScShh, ScNkx2.1, ScDlx2/5, ScOtp, and ScTbr1 expression profiles and on the identification α-acetylated-tubulin-immunoreactive (ir), TH-ir, 5-HT-ir, and GFAP-ir structures by means of immunohistochemistry. Analysis of the results within the updated prosomeric model framework support the existence of alar and basal histogenetic compartments in the hypothalamus similar to those described in the mouse, suggesting the ancestrality of these subdivisions in jawed vertebrates. These data provide new insights into hypothalamic organization in cartilaginous fishes and highlight the generality of key features of the prosomeric model in jawed vertebrates.

  8. Cloning of iNOS in the small spotted catshark (Scyliorhinus canicula).

    PubMed

    Reddick, Jennifer I; Goostrey, Anna; Secombes, Chris J

    2006-01-01

    The first cartilaginous fish iNOS gene has been cloned in the small spotted catshark, Scyliorhinus canicula. The cDNA was 4568 bp long, with a 3375 bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 1125 amino acids and a predicted molecular mass of 127.8 kDa. The catshark translation had 77% amino acid similarity with chicken iNOS and 70-73% similarity with known teleost i NOS molecules. The various co-factor binding sites were well conserved, with the calmodulin site hydrophobicity profile noticeable more similar to tetrapod molecules than teleost molecules. The catshark iNOS transcript was not typically expressed constitutively, with the exception of the gills. Clear induction of the gene was seen in splenocytes after exposure to Vibrio anguillarum in vivo, and after stimulation with LPS in vitro. iNOS message was first seen 2 h after stimulation, and was still apparent 24 h post-stimulation, the last timing studies. Poly I:C was also able to induce iNOS transcript expression in splenocytes, albeit at a later timing (i.e.24 h). Such findings suggest a role for this molecule in the non-specific defences of cartilaginous fish as seen in other vertebrate groups.

  9. Sexual dimorphisms in the dermal denticles of the lesser-spotted catshark, Scyliorhinus canicula (Linnaeus, 1758).

    PubMed

    Crooks, Neil; Babey, Lucy; Haddon, William J; Love, Adrian C; Waring, Colin P

    2013-01-01

    The dermal layers of several elasmobranch species have been shown to be sexually dimorphic. Generally, when this occurs the females have thicker dermal layers compared to those of males. This sexual dimorphism has been suggested to occur as a response to male biting during mating. Although male biting as a copulatory behaviour in Scyliorhinus canicula has been widely speculated to occur, only relatively recently has this behaviour been observed. Male S. canicula use their mouths to bite the female's pectoral and caudal fins as part of their pre-copulatory behaviour and to grasp females during copulation. Previous work has shown that female S. canicula have a thicker epidermis compared to that of males. The structure of the dermal denticles in females may also differ from that of males in order to protect against male biting or to provide a greater degree of friction in order to allow the male more purchase. This study reveals that the length, width and density of the dermal denticles of mature male and female S. canicula are sexually dimorphic across the integument in areas where males have been observed to bite and wrap themselves around females (pectoral fin, area posterior to the pectoral fin, caudal fin, and pelvic girdle). No significant differences in the dermal denticle dimensions were found in other body areas examined (head, dorsal skin and caudal peduncle). Sexually dimorphic dermal denticles in mature S. canicula could be a response to male biting/wrapping as part of the copulatory process.

  10. Sexual Dimorphisms in the Dermal Denticles of the Lesser-Spotted Catshark, Scyliorhinus canicula (Linnaeus, 1758)

    PubMed Central

    Crooks, Neil; Babey, Lucy; Haddon, William J.; Love, Adrian C.; Waring, Colin P.

    2013-01-01

    The dermal layers of several elasmobranch species have been shown to be sexually dimorphic. Generally, when this occurs the females have thicker dermal layers compared to those of males. This sexual dimorphism has been suggested to occur as a response to male biting during mating. Although male biting as a copulatory behaviour in Scyliorhinus canicula has been widely speculated to occur, only relatively recently has this behaviour been observed. Male S. canicula use their mouths to bite the female’s pectoral and caudal fins as part of their pre-copulatory behaviour and to grasp females during copulation. Previous work has shown that female S. canicula have a thicker epidermis compared to that of males. The structure of the dermal denticles in females may also differ from that of males in order to protect against male biting or to provide a greater degree of friction in order to allow the male more purchase. This study reveals that the length, width and density of the dermal denticles of mature male and female S. canicula are sexually dimorphic across the integument in areas where males have been observed to bite and wrap themselves around females (pectoral fin, area posterior to the pectoral fin, caudal fin, and pelvic girdle). No significant differences in the dermal denticle dimensions were found in other body areas examined (head, dorsal skin and caudal peduncle). Sexually dimorphic dermal denticles in mature S. canicula could be a response to male biting/wrapping as part of the copulatory process. PMID:24116179

  11. The developmental expression of foxl2 in the dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula.

    PubMed

    Wotton, Karl R; French, Kathryn E M; Shimeld, Sebastian M

    2007-08-01

    The FoxL2 genes are a subfamily of the Fox (forkhead box) gene family. FOXL2 is mutated in the disorder Blepharophimosis, Ptosis, and Epicanthus Inversus Syndrome (BPES), which is characterized by eyelid malformations, and Premature Ovarian Failure (POF). In the mouse expression is seen in the perioptic mesenchyme, developing eyelids, ovary and pituitary. We have isolated a foxl2 cDNA from the dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula (also known as the lesser spotted catshark), allowing the characterisation of this gene's sequence and expression from a lineage that diverged early in the evolution of gnathostomes. Molecular phylogenetic analysis strongly grouped this sequence with the gnathostomes within the FoxL2 subfamily. We demonstrate the early expression of Scyliorhinus canicula foxl2 in the mandibular head mesoderm and later in continuous populations of mandibular arch cells and mandibular head mesenchyme cells around the developing pituitary. As development proceeds expression decreases in the mesenchyme of the head but is seen in the mesenchyme around the eye and later in the developing eyelids. Additionally expression is seen in regions of pharyngeal arch mesoderm and in ectoderm from which gill buds will form. This expression is maintained in the developing and elongating gill buds. Thus, S. canicula foxl2 is a marker for the mandibular mesoderm and gill buds and its expression is conserved in the perioptic mesenchyme, developing eyelids and pituitary.

  12. Occurrence of neuropeptides and tyrosine hydroxylase in the olfactory epithelium of the lesser-spotted catshark (Scyliorhinus canicula Linnaeus, 1758).

    PubMed

    Zaccone, Daniele; Lo Cascio, Patrizia; Lauriano, Rita; Pergolizzi, Simona; Sfacteria, Alessandra; Marino, Fabio

    2011-11-01

    Immunohistochemical studies using antisera against various neuropeptides (Substance P, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, and cholecystokinin octapeptide) and tyrosine hydroxylase revealed both olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) polymorphisms and transepithelial-subepithelial nerves in the olfactory epithelium of the cartilaginous fish, Scyliorhinus canicula. This study provides the first evidence of three morphological types of OSNs within the olfactory epithelium of cartilaginous fish that are similar to those found in the teleosts. In fishes there is evidence that OSNs differ functionally, including their differential olfactory bulb projections and molecular properties. The Substance P positive olfactory neurons in S. canicula may have a separate bulbar projection site that is not known, but may indicate a characteristic found in olfactory neuron subtypes in both lampreys and teleost fish. Numerous Substance P immunopositive nerves are found at the base of and in the olfactory epithelium. Some of them were observed to extend outwards almost reaching the epithelial surface. Their presumptive origin from the trigeminal nerve and their interrelationship with chemosensory cells in the nasal passages of vertebrates are discussed.

  13. Metal accumulation and metallothionein induction in the spotted dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula.

    PubMed

    De Boeck, G; Eyckmans, M; Lardon, I; Bobbaers, R; Sinha, A K; Blust, R

    2010-04-01

    Recent studies indicate that elasmobranch fish respond differently to metal exposure than marine teleosts. Accumulation rates can be high, which despite the fact that normal background levels for metals in the marine environment are low, is worrying due to the long life span and late fecundity of most shark. The goals of the present study were to examine differences in accumulation rates and toxicity of a range of metals at equimolar concentrations (10microM) in the Mediterranean or spotted dogfish, Scyliorhinus canicula. For this purpose, we exposed the dogfish to Ni (587microg/L), Cd (1124microg/L), Pb (2072microg/L), Cu (635microg/L), and Ag (1079microg/L and two additional exposures at 10microg/L and 1microg/L) for one week and measured total metal accumulation, metallothionein induction, and parameters related to osmoregulation. Our study confirms the high toxicity and accumulation rates of Ag for elasmobranch fish, even at levels 100 to 1000 times lower than exposure levels of other metals. Also Pb accumulated readily in all organs, but did not cause any osmoregulatory disturbance at the exposure levels used. Ni and Cd seem to accumulate primarily in the kidney while Cu mainly accumulated in liver. In contrast to Ni and Cd, the three other metals Ag, Cu and Pb accumulated in the rectal gland, an important organ for osmoregulation and possible target organ for metal toxicity. Only Cu succeeded in initiating a protective response by inducing MT synthesis in liver and gills.

  14. The complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial DNA of the dogfish, Scyliorhinus canicula.

    PubMed Central

    Delarbre, C; Spruyt, N; Delmarre, C; Gallut, C; Barriel, V; Janvier, P; Laudet, V; Gachelin, G

    1998-01-01

    We have determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the dogfish, Scyliorhinus canicula. The 16,697-bp-long mtDNA possesses a gene organization identical to that of the Osteichthyes, but different from that of the sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus. The main features of the mtDNA of osteichthyans were thus established in the common ancestor to chondrichthyans and osteichthyans. The phylogenetic analysis confirms that the Chondrichthyes are the sister group of the Osteichthyes. PMID:9725850

  15. Humoral immune response of the small-spotted catshark, Scyliorhinus canicula.

    PubMed

    Crouch, Kathryn; Smith, Lauren E; Williams, Rebecca; Cao, Wei; Lee, Mike; Jensen, Allan; Dooley, Helen

    2013-05-01

    Cartilaginous fishes are the oldest group in which an adaptive immune system based on immunoglobulin-superfamily members is found. This manuscript compares humoral immune function in small-spotted catshark (Scyliorhinus canicula) with that described for spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias), another member of the Squalomorphi superorder, and nurse shark, the model for humoral immunity in elasmobranchs and a member of the Galeomorphi superorder. Although small-spotted catshark and nurse shark are separated by over 200 million years we found that immunoglobulin isoforms are well conserved between the two species. However, the plasma protein profile of small-spotted catshark was most similar to that of spiny dogfish, with low levels of pentameric IgM, and IgNAR present as a multimer in plasma rather than a monomer. We show that an antigen-specific monomeric IgM response, with a profile similar to that described previously for nurse sharks, can be raised in small-spotted catshark. Lacking polyclonal or monoclonal antibody reagents for detecting catshark IgNAR we investigated phage-display and recombinant Fc-fusion protein expression as alternative methods to look for an antigen-specific response for this isotype. However, we could find no evidence of an antigen-specific IgNAR in the animals tested using either of these techniques. Thus, unlike nurse sharks where antigen-specific monomeric IgM and IgNAR appear together, it seems there may be a temporal or complete 'uncoupling' of these isotypes during a humoral response in the small-spotted catshark.

  16. Studies on rod horizontal cell S-potential in dependence of the dark/light adapted state: a comparative study in Cyprinus carpio and Scyliorhinus canicula retinas.

    PubMed

    Villa, P; Bedmar, M D; Barón, M

    1991-01-01

    Changes in light sensitivity, response time-course and electrical coupling of rod driven horizontal cells (RHC) were examined in the dark and light adapted states by intracellular recording. Comparative analyses were made of two fishes from different photic environments. RHC of Cyprinus carpio and external horizontal cells (EHC) of Scyliorhinus canicula retinas showed similar changes of their electrical responses to light stimuli when the dark-adapted retina was light-adapted: a decrease in sensitivity, an acceleration in the response time-course and an increase in the coupling strength.

  17. Production of Hyaluronic Acid by Streptococcus zooepidemicus on Protein Substrates Obtained from Scyliorhinus canicula Discards.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, José A; Pastrana, Lorenzo; Piñeiro, Carmen; Teixeira, José A; Pérez-Martín, Ricardo I; Amado, Isabel R

    2015-10-23

    This work investigates the production of hyaluronic acid (H) by Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus in complex media formulated with peptones obtained from Scyliorhinus canicula viscera by-products. Initially, in batch cultures, the greatest productions were achieved using commercial media (3.03 g/L) followed by peptones from alcalase hydrolyzed viscera (2.32 g/L) and peptones from non-hydrolyzed viscera (2.26 g/L). An increase of between 12% and 15% was found in subsequent fed-batch cultures performed on waste peptones. Such organic nitrogen sources were shown to be an excellent low-cost substrate for microbial H, saving more than 50% of the nutrient costs.

  18. Production of Hyaluronic Acid by Streptococcus zooepidemicus on Protein Substrates Obtained from Scyliorhinus canicula Discards

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez, José A.; Pastrana, Lorenzo; Piñeiro, Carmen; Teixeira, José A.; Pérez-Martín, Ricardo I.; Amado, Isabel R.

    2015-01-01

    This work investigates the production of hyaluronic acid (H) by Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus in complex media formulated with peptones obtained from Scyliorhinus canicula viscera by-products. Initially, in batch cultures, the greatest productions were achieved using commercial media (3.03 g/L) followed by peptones from alcalase hydrolyzed viscera (2.32 g/L) and peptones from non-hydrolyzed viscera (2.26 g/L). An increase of between 12% and 15% was found in subsequent fed-batch cultures performed on waste peptones. Such organic nitrogen sources were shown to be an excellent low-cost substrate for microbial H, saving more than 50% of the nutrient costs. PMID:26512678

  19. Preliminary studies on the chemotactic potential of dogfish (Scyliorhinus canicula) leucocytes using the bipolar shape formation assay.

    PubMed

    Hunt, T C; Rowley, A F

    1986-06-01

    The bipolar shape formation assay, previously used to determine the chemotactic potential of various factors for mammalian leucocytes, was tested in the present study with granulocytes of the lesser spotted dogfish, Scyliorhinus canicula. Bipolar shape formation was found to be a temperature dependent process with maximal formation observed at 30 degrees C. Addition of the formyl peptide, N-formyl-methionyl-phenylalanine failed to induce any bipolar forms at all temperatures and concentrations tested.

  20. Characterisation of the TNF superfamily members CD40L and BAFF in the small-spotted catshark (Scyliorhinus canicula).

    PubMed

    Li, Ronggai; Redmond, Anthony K; Wang, Tiehui; Bird, Steve; Dooley, Helen; Secombes, Chris J

    2015-11-01

    The tumour necrosis factor superfamily (TNFSF) members CD40L and BAFF play critical roles in mammalian B cell survival, proliferation and maturation, however little is known about these key cytokines in the oldest jawed vertebrates, the cartilaginous fishes. Here we report the cloning of CD40L and BAFF orthologues (designated ScCD40L and ScBAFF) in the small-spotted catshark (Scyliorhinus canicula). As predicted both proteins are type II membrane-bound proteins with a TNF homology domain in their extracellular region and both are highly expressed in shark immune tissues. ScCD40L transcript levels correlate with those of TCRα and transcription of both genes is modulated in peripheral blood leukocytes following in vitro stimulation. Although a putative CD40L orthologue was identified in the elephant shark genome the work herein is the first molecular characterisation and transcriptional analysis of CD40L in a cartilaginous fish. ScBAFF was also cloned and its transcription characterised in an attempt to resolve the discrepancies observed between spiny dogfish BAFF and bamboo shark BAFF in previously published studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. By-products of Scyliorhinus canicula, Prionace glauca and Raja clavata: A valuable source of predominantly 6S sulfated chondroitin sulfate.

    PubMed

    Novoa-Carballal, Ramon; Pérez-Martín, Ricardo; Blanco, María; Sotelo, Carmen G; Fassini, Dario; Nunes, Cláudia; Coimbra, Manuel A; Silva, Tiago H; Reis, Rui L; Vázquez, José Antonio

    2017-02-10

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) was isolated from Scyliorhinus canicula (fin, head and skeleton), Prionace glauca (head), and Raja clavata (skeleton) by-products from fish processing industry using environmentally friendly processes. The molecular weight was determined by gel permeation chromatography and the sugar composition and sulfation position by NMR and SAX-HPLC after enzymatic digestion. The CSs showed a prevalent 6S GalNAc sulfation for the 3 species (4S/6S ratio lower than 1). A higher 6S sulfation was observed for P. glauca head and R. clavata skeleton (4S/6S ratio below 0.20) than for S. canicula (4S/6S ratio ca. 0.6). The existence of CS samples with such low 4S/6S ratio has only been observed before in a rare species of shark (Mitsukutina owatoni, globin shark). The good extraction yields achieved make S. canicula, P. glauca and R. clavata fish industry by-products a useful source of 6-sulfated chondroitin sulfate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Responses to moving visual stimuli in pretectal neurons of the small-spotted dogfish (Scyliorhinus canicula).

    PubMed

    Masseck, Olivia Andrea; Hoffmann, Klaus-Peter

    2008-01-01

    Single-unit recordings were performed from a retinorecipient pretectal area (corpus geniculatum laterale) in Scyliorhinus canicula. The function and homology of this nucleus has not been clarified so far. During visual stimulation with a random dot pattern, 45 (35%) neurons were found to be direction selective, 10 (8%) were axis selective (best neuronal responses to rotations in both directions around one particular stimulus axis), and 75 (58%) were movement sensitive. Direction-selective responses were found to the following stimulus directions (in retinal coordinates): temporonasal and nasotemporal horizontal movements, up- and downward vertical movements, and oblique movements. All directions of motion were represented equally by our sample of pretectal neurons. Additionally we tested the responses of 58 of the 130 neurons to random dot patterns rotating around the semicircular canal or body axes to investigate whether direction-selective visual information is mapped into vestibular coordinates in pretectal neurons of this chondrichthyan species. Again all rotational directions were represented equally, which argues against a direct transformation from a retinal to a vestibular reference frame. If a complete transformation had occurred, responses to rotational axes corresponding to the axes of the semicircular canals should have been overrepresented. In conclusion, the recorded direction-selective neurons in the Cgl are plausible detectors for retinal slip created by body rotations in all directions.

  3. Development of catecholaminergic systems in the spinal cord of the dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula (Elasmobranchs).

    PubMed

    Sueiro, Catalina; Carrera, Iván; Rodríguez-Moldes, Isabel; Molist, Pilar; Anadón, Ramón

    2003-05-14

    The development of catecholamine-synthesizing cells and fibers in the spinal cord of dogfish (Scyliorhinus canicula L.) was studied by means of immunohistochemistry using antibodies against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). The only TH-immunoreactive (TH-ir) cells already present in the spinal cord of stage 26 embryos were of cerebrospinal fluid-contacting (CSF-c) type. These cells were the first catecholaminergic neurons of the dogfish CNS. The number of these TH-ir cells increased very considerably in later embryos and adult dogfish. In later embryos (stage 33; prehatching), faintly TH-ir non-CSF-contacting neurons were observed in the ventral horn throughout most of the spinal cord. In adult dogfish, some non-CSF-contacting TH-ir cells were observed ventral or lateral to the central canal. In the rostral spinal cord, the catecholaminergic neurons observed in dorsal regions were continuous with caudal rhombencephalic populations. Numerous TH-ir fibers were observed in the spinal cord of later embryos and in adults, both intrinsic and descending from the brain, innervating many regions of the cord including the dorsal and ventral horns. In addition, some TH-ir fibers innervated the marginal nucleus of the spinal cord. The early appearance of catecholaminergic cells and fibers in the embryonic spinal cord of the dogfish, and the large number of these elements observed in adults, suggests an important role for catecholamines through development and adulthood in sensory and motor functions.

  4. Immunohistochemical Studies of Cytoskeletal and Extracellular Matrix Components in Dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula L. Notochordal Cells.

    PubMed

    Restović, Ivana; Vukojević, Katarina; Paladin, Antonela; Saraga-Babić, Mirna; Bočina, Ivana

    2015-10-01

    Immunofluorescence and immunohistochemical techniques were used to define the distribution of cytoskeletal (cytokeratin 8, vimentin) and extracellular matrix components (collagen type I, collagen type II, hyaluronic acid, and aggrecan) and bone morphogenetic proteins 4 and 7 (BMP4 and BMP7) in the notochord of the lesser spotted dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula L. Immunolocalization of hyaluronic acid was observed in the notochord, vertebral centrum, and neural and hemal arches, while positive labeling to aggrecan was observed in the ossified centrum, notochord, and the perichondrium of the hyaline cartilage. Type I collagen was observed in the mineralized cartilage of the vertebral bodies, the notochord, the fibrocartilage of intervertebral disc, and the perichondrium. A positive labeling to type II collagen was observed in the inner part of the cartilaginous vertebral centrum and the notochord, as well as in the neural arch and muscle tissue, but there was no appreciable labeling of the hyaline cartilage. The presence of both BMP4 and BMP7 was seen in the mineralized vertebral centrum, notochordal cells, and neural arch. The notochordal cells expressed both cytokeratin 8 and vimentin, but predominantly vimentin. Hyaluronic acid, collagen type I, and collagen type II expression confirmed the presence of a mixture of notochordal and fibrocartilaginous tissue in the intervertebral disc, while BMPs confirmed the presence of an ossification in the cartilaginous skeleton of the spotted dogfish. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Proteomic analysis of the spermatogonial stem cell compartment in dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula L.

    PubMed

    Loppion, Géraldine; Lavigne, Régis; Pineau, Charles; Auvray, Pierrïck; Sourdaine, Pascal

    2010-06-01

    In the dogfish (Scyliorhinus canicula L.) the testicular germinative zone (GZ), composed of large isolated spermatogonia surrounded by elongating pre-Sertoli cells, is located between the albuginea and the ventrolateral intratesticular vessel. During the spermatogenic wave, cysts radiate in maturational order forming distinct testicular zones. In this study, soluble proteins of the GZ and of the zone containing cysts with spermatocytes were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Gel images were matched and then evaluated for GZ-specific proteins. From the1400 protein spots identified, 680 were found to be apparently specific to this zone. Using MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry, de novo sequences were obtained for 33 proteins out of the 169 selected for identification by mass spectrometry, but only 16 of these 169 proteins were identified. One of them, proteasome subunit alpha-6, was analyzed further by immunohistochemistry. This study demonstrates the utility of the dogfish as a model for proteome analysis of the spermatogonial stem cell niche, even if it remains restricted by the lack of genomic data available on Elasmobranchs. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Mercury bioaccumulation in the spotted dogfish (Scyliorhinus canicula) from the Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Coelho, J P; Santos, H; Reis, A T; Falcão, J; Rodrigues, E T; Pereira, M E; Duarte, A C; Pardal, M A

    2010-08-01

    The annual and life-cycle mercury bioaccumulation pattern in selected tissues of the economically relevant Elasmobranchii species Scyliorhinus canicula was studied, and the risks associated with its consumption evaluated. Preferential mercury bioaccumulation occurred in muscle tissue, and followed the order muscle>heart>liver>gills>pancreas. Total mercury in muscle tissue ranged from 0.13mgkg(-1) (wwt) in 1+year old males to 0.8mgkg(-1) (wwt) in 8+ year old mature females, with no significant differences found between genders, and no clear lifespan bioaccumulation pattern observed, except for mature females. Organic mercury in the muscle ranged from 0.05mgkg(-1) (wwt) to 0.52mgkg(-1) (wwt), corresponding to an average of 70% of total mercury content. In mature females, a significant correlation (R=0.99, P=0.01) was found between size and organic mercury fraction, suggesting reproduction as an important factor controlling organic mercury bioaccumulation in the spotted dogfish. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A molecular analysis of neurogenic placode and cranial sensory ganglion development in the shark, Scyliorhinus canicula

    PubMed Central

    O’Neill, P.; McCole, R. B.; Baker, C. V. H.

    2016-01-01

    In order to gain insight into the evolution of the genetic control of the development of cranial neurogenic placodes and cranial sensory ganglia in vertebrates, we cloned and analysed the spatiotemporal expression pattern of six transcription factor genes in a chondrichthyan, the shark Scyliorhinus canicula (lesser-spotted dogfish/catshark). As in other vertebrates, NeuroD is expressed in all cranial sensory ganglia. We show that Pax3 is expressed in the profundal placode and ganglion, strongly supporting homology between the separate profundal ganglion of elasmobranchs and basal actinopterygians and the ophthalmic trigeminal placode-derived neurons of the fused amniote trigeminal ganglion. We show that Pax2 is a conserved pan-gnathostome marker for epibranchial and otic placodes, and confirm that Phox2b is a conserved pan-gnathostome marker for epibranchial placode-derived neurons. We identify Eya4 as a novel marker for the lateral line system throughout its development, expressed in lateral line placodes, sensory ridges and migrating primordia, neuromasts and electroreceptors. We also identify Tbx3 as a specific marker for lateral line ganglia in shark embryos. We use the spatiotemporal expression pattern of these genes to characterise the development of neurogenic placodes and cranial sensory ganglia in the dogfish, with a focus on the epibranchial and lateral line placodes. Our findings demonstrate the evolutionary conservation across all gnathostomes of at least some of the transcription factor networks underlying neurogenic placode development. PMID:17234174

  8. A molecular analysis of neurogenic placode and cranial sensory ganglion development in the shark, Scyliorhinus canicula.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, P; McCole, R B; Baker, C V H

    2007-04-01

    In order to gain insight into the evolution of the genetic control of the development of cranial neurogenic placodes and cranial sensory ganglia in vertebrates, we cloned and analysed the spatiotemporal expression pattern of six transcription factor genes in a chondrichthyan, the shark Scyliorhinus canicula (lesser-spotted dogfish/catshark). As in other vertebrates, NeuroD is expressed in all cranial sensory ganglia. We show that Pax3 is expressed in the profundal placode and ganglion, strongly supporting homology between the separate profundal ganglion of elasmobranchs and basal actinopterygians and the ophthalmic trigeminal placode-derived neurons of the fused amniote trigeminal ganglion. We show that Pax2 is a conserved pan-gnathostome marker for epibranchial and otic placodes, and confirm that Phox2b is a conserved pan-gnathostome marker for epibranchial placode-derived neurons. We identify Eya4 as a novel marker for the lateral line system throughout its development, expressed in lateral line placodes, sensory ridges and migrating primordia, neuromasts and electroreceptors. We also identify Tbx3 as a specific marker for lateral line ganglia in shark embryos. We use the spatiotemporal expression pattern of these genes to characterise the development of neurogenic placodes and cranial sensory ganglia in the dogfish, with a focus on the epibranchial and lateral line placodes. Our findings demonstrate the evolutionary conservation across all gnathostomes of at least some of the transcription factor networks underlying neurogenic placode development.

  9. Structure and expression of three Emx genes in the dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula: functional and evolutionary implications.

    PubMed

    Derobert, Y; Plouhinec, J L; Sauka-Spengler, T; Le Mentec, C; Baratte, B; Jaillard, D; Mazan, S

    2002-07-15

    We report the characterization of three Emx genes in a chondrichthyan, the dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula. Comparisons of these genes with their osteichthyan counterparts indicate that the gnathostome Emx genes belong to three distinct orthology classes, each containing one of the dogfish genes and either the tetrapod Emx1 genes (Emx1 class), the osteichthyan Emx2 genes (Emx2 class) or the zebrafish Emx1 gene (Emx3 class). While the three classes could be retrieved from the pufferfish genome data, no indication of an Emx3-related gene in tetrapods could be found in the databases, suggesting that this class may have been lost in this taxon. Expression pattern comparisons of the three dogfish Emx genes and their osteichthyan counterparts indicate that not only telencephalic, but also diencephalic Emx expression territories are highly conserved among gnathostomes. In particular, all gnathostomes share an early, dynamic phase of Emx expression, spanning presumptive dorsal diencephalic territories, which involves Emx3 in the dogfish, but another orthology class, Emx2, in tetrapods. In addition, the dogfish Emx2 gene shows a highly specific expression domain in the cephalic paraxial mesoderm from the end of gastrulation and throughout neurulation, which suggests a role in the segmentation of the cephalic mesoderm.

  10. Study of the potential spermatogonial stem cell compartment in dogfish testis, Scyliorhinus canicula L.

    PubMed

    Loppion, Geraldine; Crespel, Amélie; Martinez, Anne-Sophie; Auvray, Pierrïck; Sourdaine, Pascal

    2008-06-01

    In the lesser-spotted dogfish (Scyliorhinus canicula), spermatogenesis takes place within spermatocysts made up of Sertoli cells associated with stage-synchronized germ cells. As shown in testicular cross sections, cysts radiate in maturational order from the germinative area, where they are formed, to the opposite margin of the testis, where spermiation occurs. In the germinative zone, which is located in a specific area between the tunica albuginea of the testis and the dorsal testicular vessel, individual large spermatogonia are surrounded by elongated somatic cells. The aim of this study has been to define whether these spermatogonia share characteristics with spermatogonial stem cells described in vertebrate and non-vertebrate species. We have studied their ultrastructure and their mitotic activity by 5'-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunodetection. Additionally, immunodetection of c-Kit receptor, a marker of differentiating spermatogonia in rodents, and of alpha- and beta-spectrins, as constituents of the spectrosome and the fusome, has been performed. Ultrastructurally, nuclei of stage I spermatogonia present the same mottled aspect in dogfish as undifferentiated spermatogonia nuclei in rodents. Moreover, intercellular bridges are not observed in dogfish spermatogonia, although they are present in stage II spermatogonia. BrdU and PCNA immunodetection underlines their low mitotic activity. The presence of a spectrosome-like structure, a cytological marker of the germline stem cells in Drosophila, has been observed. Our results constitute the first step in the study of spermatogonial stem cells and their niche in the dogfish.

  11. A timeline of pharyngeal endoskeletal condensation and differentiation in the shark, Scyliorhinus canicula, and the paddlefish, Polyodon spathula

    PubMed Central

    Baker, C. V. H.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The lesser-spotted dogfish (Scyliorhinus canicula) and the North American paddlefish (Polyodon spathula) are two emerging model systems for the study of vertebrate craniofacial development. Notably, both of these taxa have retained plesiomorphic aspects of pharyngeal endoskeletal organization, relative to more commonly used models of vertebrate craniofacial development (e.g. zebrafish, chick and mouse), and are therefore well suited to inform the pharyngeal endoskeletal patterning mechanisms that functioned in the last common ancestor of jawed vertebrates. Here, we present a histological overview of the condensation and chondrogenesis of the most prominent endoskeletal elements of the jaw, hyoid and gill arches – the palatoquadrate/Meckel’s cartilage, the hyomandibula/ceratohyal, and the epi-/ceratobranchial cartilages, respectively – in embryonic series of S. canicula and P. spathula. Our observations provide a provisional timeline and anatomical framework for further molecular developmental and functional investigations of pharyngeal endoskeletal differentiation and patterning in these phylogenetically informative taxa. PMID:26566297

  12. The homology of odontodes in gnathostomes: insights from Dlx gene expression in the dogfish, Scyliorhinus canicula.

    PubMed

    Debiais-Thibaud, Mélanie; Oulion, Silvan; Bourrat, Franck; Laurenti, Patrick; Casane, Didier; Borday-Birraux, Véronique

    2011-10-18

    Teeth and tooth-like structures, together named odontodes, are repeated organs thought to share a common evolutionary origin. These structures can be found in gnathostomes at different locations along the body: oral teeth in the jaws, teeth and denticles in the oral-pharyngeal cavity, and dermal denticles on elasmobranch skin. We, and other colleagues, had previously shown that teeth in any location were serially homologous because: i) pharyngeal and oral teeth develop through a common developmental module; and ii) the expression patterns of the Dlx genes during odontogenesis were highly divergent between species but almost identical between oral and pharyngeal dentitions within the same species. Here we examine Dlx gene expression in oral teeth and dermal denticles in order to test the hypothesis of serial homology between these odontodes. We present a detailed comparison of the first developing teeth and dermal denticles (caudal primary scales) of the dogfish (Scyliorhinus canicula) and show that both odontodes develop through identical stages that correspond to the common stages of oral and pharyngeal odontogenesis. We identified six Dlx paralogs in the dogfish and found that three showed strong transcription in teeth and dermal denticles (Dlx3, Dlx4 and Dlx5) whereas a weak expression was detected for Dlx1 in dermal denticles and teeth, and for Dlx2 in dermal denticles. Very few differences in Dlx expression patterns could be detected between tooth and dermal denticle development, except for the absence of Dlx2 expression in teeth. Taken together, our histological and expression data strongly suggest that teeth and dermal denticles develop from the same developmental module and under the control of the same set of Dlx genes. Teeth and dermal denticles should therefore be considered as serial homologs developing through the initiation of a common gene regulatory network (GRN) at several body locations. This mechanism of heterotopy supports the 'inside and out

  13. Mechanics of myosin function in white muscle fibres of the dogfish, Scyliorhinus canicula.

    PubMed

    Park-Holohan, S; Linari, M; Reconditi, M; Fusi, L; Brunello, E; Irving, M; Dolfi, M; Lombardi, V; West, T G; Curtin, N A; Woledge, R C; Piazzesi, G

    2012-04-15

    The contractile properties of muscle fibres have been extensively investigated by fast perturbation in sarcomere length to define the mechanical characteristics of myofilaments and myosin heads that underpin refined models of the acto-myosin cycle. Comparison of published data from intact fast-twitch fibres of frog muscle and demembranated fibres from fast muscle of rabbit shows that stiffness of the rabbit myosin head is only ∼62% of that in frog. To clarify if and how much the mechanical characteristics of the filaments and myosin heads vary in muscles of different animals we apply the same high resolution mechanical methods, in combination with X-ray diffraction, to fast-twitch fibres from the dogfish (Scyliorhinus canicula). The values of equivalent filament compliance (C(f)) measured by X-ray diffraction and in mechanical experiments are not significantly different; the best estimate from combining these values is 17.1 ± 1.0 nm MPa(−1). This value is larger than Cf in frog, 13.0 ± 0.4 nm MPa(−1). The longer thin filaments in dogfish account for only part of this difference. The average isometric force exerted by each attached myosin head at 5°C, 4.5 pN, and the maximum sliding distance accounted for by the myosin working stroke, 11 nm, are similar to those in frog, while the average myosin head stiffness of dogfish (1.98 ± 0.31 pN nm(−1)) is smaller than that of frog (2.78 ± 0.30 pN nm(−1)). Taken together these results indicate that the working stroke responsible for the generation of isometric force is a larger fraction of the total myosin head working stroke in the dogfish than in the frog.

  14. Mechanics of myosin function in white muscle fibres of the dogfish, Scyliorhinus canicula

    PubMed Central

    Park-Holohan, S; Linari, M; Reconditi, M; Fusi, L; Brunello, E; Irving, M; Dolfi, M; Lombardi, V; West, T G; Curtin, N A; Woledge, R C; Piazzesi, G

    2012-01-01

    The contractile properties of muscle fibres have been extensively investigated by fast perturbation in sarcomere length to define the mechanical characteristics of myofilaments and myosin heads that underpin refined models of the acto-myosin cycle. Comparison of published data from intact fast-twitch fibres of frog muscle and demembranated fibres from fast muscle of rabbit shows that stiffness of the rabbit myosin head is only ∼62% of that in frog. To clarify if and how much the mechanical characteristics of the filaments and myosin heads vary in muscles of different animals we apply the same high resolution mechanical methods, in combination with X-ray diffraction, to fast-twitch fibres from the dogfish (Scyliorhinus canicula). The values of equivalent filament compliance (Cf) measured by X-ray diffraction and in mechanical experiments are not significantly different; the best estimate from combining these values is 17.1 ± 1.0 nm MPa−1. This value is larger than Cf in frog, 13.0 ± 0.4 nm MPa−1. The longer thin filaments in dogfish account for only part of this difference. The average isometric force exerted by each attached myosin head at 5°C, 4.5 pN, and the maximum sliding distance accounted for by the myosin working stroke, 11 nm, are similar to those in frog, while the average myosin head stiffness of dogfish (1.98 ± 0.31 pN nm−1) is smaller than that of frog (2.78 ± 0.30 pN nm−1). Taken together these results indicate that the working stroke responsible for the generation of isometric force is a larger fraction of the total myosin head working stroke in the dogfish than in the frog. PMID:22310308

  15. The homology of odontodes in gnathostomes: insights from Dlx gene expression in the dogfish, Scyliorhinus canicula

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Teeth and tooth-like structures, together named odontodes, are repeated organs thought to share a common evolutionary origin. These structures can be found in gnathostomes at different locations along the body: oral teeth in the jaws, teeth and denticles in the oral-pharyngeal cavity, and dermal denticles on elasmobranch skin. We, and other colleagues, had previously shown that teeth in any location were serially homologous because: i) pharyngeal and oral teeth develop through a common developmental module; and ii) the expression patterns of the Dlx genes during odontogenesis were highly divergent between species but almost identical between oral and pharyngeal dentitions within the same species. Here we examine Dlx gene expression in oral teeth and dermal denticles in order to test the hypothesis of serial homology between these odontodes. Results We present a detailed comparison of the first developing teeth and dermal denticles (caudal primary scales) of the dogfish (Scyliorhinus canicula) and show that both odontodes develop through identical stages that correspond to the common stages of oral and pharyngeal odontogenesis. We identified six Dlx paralogs in the dogfish and found that three showed strong transcription in teeth and dermal denticles (Dlx3, Dlx4 and Dlx5) whereas a weak expression was detected for Dlx1 in dermal denticles and teeth, and for Dlx2 in dermal denticles. Very few differences in Dlx expression patterns could be detected between tooth and dermal denticle development, except for the absence of Dlx2 expression in teeth. Conclusions Taken together, our histological and expression data strongly suggest that teeth and dermal denticles develop from the same developmental module and under the control of the same set of Dlx genes. Teeth and dermal denticles should therefore be considered as serial homologs developing through the initiation of a common gene regulatory network (GRN) at several body locations. This mechanism of heterotopy

  16. Development of the cerebellar afferent system in the shark Scyliorhinus canicula: insights into the basal organization of precerebellar nuclei in gnathostomes.

    PubMed

    Pose-Méndez, Sol; Candal, Eva; Adrio, Fátima; Rodríguez-Moldes, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    The cerebellum is recognized as an evolutionary innovation of jawed vertebrates, whose most primitive group is represented by the chondrichthyans, or cartilaginous fishes. A comprehensive knowledge of cerebellar connections in these fishes might shed light on the basal organization of the cerebellar system. Although the organization of the precerebellar system is known in adults, developmental studies are essential for understanding the origin and evolution of precerebellar nuclei. In the present work we performed a developmental study of cerebellar connections in embryos and juveniles of an advanced shark species, Scyliorhinus canicula, by application of tract tracing in combination with immunohistochemical techniques. Main precerebellar cell populations were located in the diencephalon (pretectum and thalamus), mesencephalon (reticular formation and nucleus ruber), rhombencephalon (cerebellar nucleus, reticular formation, and inferior olive), and spinal cord (ventral horn). The order of arrival of cerebellar afferent projections throughout development revealed a common pattern with other jawed vertebrates, which was helpful for comparison of stages of cerebellar development. The neurochemical study of the inferior olive and other precerebellar nuclei revealed many shared features with other gnathostomes. Furthermore, because many precerebellar nuclei originate from rhombic lips, the first analysis of neuronal migrations from these lips was performed with markers of neuroblasts. The shared features of development and organization of precerebellar connections observed between sharks and amniotes suggest that their basic pattern was established early in gnathostome evolution.

  17. The structure and ultrastructure of the sinus venosus in the mature dogfish (Scyliorhinus canicula): the endocardium, the epicardium and the subepicardial space.

    PubMed

    Ramos, C

    2004-12-01

    The sinus venosus of fish is the most caudal chamber of the heart. It is often reduced in teleosts but well developed in elasmobranchs. The sinus venosus of the dogfish (Scyliorhinus canicula) is vital, since it harbours key elements such as a little known neuroendocrine system and the nodal tissue. However, the study of its structure is still incomplete. We examined the endocardium, epicardium and subepicardium of the sinus venosus in mature dogfishes. The wall is 100-250 microm thick and comprises three main layers. Large bundles of myocardial cells occupy the middle layer. The endothelial ensheathing is composed of thin endocardial cells with prominent nuclei towards the lumen, whose cytoplasm contains numerous dense bodies and moderately dense bodies, 150-800 nm in diameter and large vacuoles. The possible functions of these organelles are discussed. The outermost layer is made of a robust sheet of cuboidal epicardial cells separated from the subepicardium by a conspicuous basal lamina. Numerous microvilli towards the pericardial cavity and elliptical vesicles are located in the apex of epicardial cells. A thick layer richly endowed with dense bundles of collagen fibres forms the subepicardial space. This structure should be contrasted with the venous return mechanism of elasmobranchs.

  18. Short communication: Alteration in blood parameters by enrofloxacin in juvenile lesser spotted dogfish (Scyliorhinus canicula, Linnaeus, 1758) after intramuscular injection.

    PubMed

    Zaccaroni, Annalisa; Perez-Lopez, Marcos; de la Casa Resino, Irene; Medri, Gianfranco; Ceneri, Fabrizio; Bertini, Simone; Mordenti, Oliviero; Cortinovis, Luana; Sirri, Rubina; Mandrioli, Luciana

    2017-08-10

    Enrofloxacin (EF) is a veterinary drug for respiratory, gastrointestinal and urinary tract infections. Parenteral administration at doses higher than the manufacturer recommended dosage has induced cartilage lesions in juvenile mammals and poultry. In elasmobranchs EF is commonly used for the treatment of infectious diseases, however only one study has been performed previously to evaluate pharmacokinetics and the potential chondrotoxicity of a fluoroquinolone in adult skates. In present study juvenile lesser spotted dogfish (Scyliorhinus canicula, Linnaeus, 1758) were treated with low (LD, 5mg/kg) and high dose (HD, 10mg/kg) of EF daily via intramuscular injection for 15 consecutive days, as indicated in a recognized treatment. Hematological parameters, oxidative stress and histology of vertebral cartilage were evaluated. No cartilage damage was observed. Hematological parameters evaluation underlined a significant (p=0.035), dose-dependent reduction in red blood cell count and in hematocrit (40% and 6%, respectively). Anyway, the biological significance of this reduction is doubtful, due to limited decrease observed. The evaluation of oxidative stress parameters underlined that glutathione levels, as well as glutathione S-transferase and catalase activities, were significantly increased in HD group animals, with respect to untreated and solvent control groups. Obtained data do not support a toxic effect of EF on dogfish cartilage, while concern arises from hematological and oxidative stress data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Contributions of developmental studies in the dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula to the brain anatomy of elasmobranchs: insights on the basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Quintana-Urzainqui, Idoia; Sueiro, Catalina; Carrera, Ivan; Ferreiro-Galve, Susana; Santos-Durán, Gabriel; Pose-Méndez, Sol; Mazan, Sylvie; Candal, Eva; Rodríguez-Moldes, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    The basic anatomy of the elasmobranch brain has been previously established after studying the organization of the different subdivisions in the adult brain. However, despite the relatively abundant immunohistochemical and hodologic studies performed in different species of sharks and skates, the organization of some brain subdivisions remains unclear. The present study focuses on some brain regions in which subdivisions established on the basis of anatomical data in adults remain controversial, such as the subpallium, mainly the striatal subdivision. Taking advantage of the great potential of the lesser spotted dogfish, Scyliorhinus canicula, as a model for developmental studies, we have characterized the subpallium throughout development and postembryonic stages by analyzing the distribution of immunomarkers for GABA, catecholamines, and neuropeptides, such as substance P. Moreover, we have analyzed the expression pattern of regulatory genes involved in the regionalization of the telencephalon, such as Dlx2, Nkx2.1, and Shh, and followed their derivatives throughout development in relation to the distribution of such neurochemical markers. For further characterization, we have also analyzed the patterns of innervation of the subpallium after applying tract-tracing techniques. Our observations may shed light on postulate equivalences of regions and nuclei among elasmobranchs and support homologies with other vertebrates. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. First analysis of multiple paternity in an oviparous shark, the small-spotted catshark (Scyliorhinus canicula L.).

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Andrew M; Jacoby, David M P; Casane, Didier; McHugh, Matthew; Croft, Darren P; Genner, Martin J; Sims, David W

    2012-01-01

    Multiple paternity (MP) has been demonstrated in a variety of sharks, although its prevalence and the number of sires per litter vary considerably among species. To date, such analyses have focused on viviparous species that possess only part of the wide spectrum of reproductive strategies developed in elasmobranchs. We analyzed MP in an oviparous species, the small-spotted catshark (Scyliorhinus canicula). In total, 150 neonates originating from 13 different mothers were genotyped using 12 microsatellite loci. MP was commonplace, with progeny from 92% of females sired by multiple males. This result is consistent with the reproductive biology of the species, particularly its protracted breeding season and potential for long-term sperm storage. The significance of these findings is discussed in light of small-spotted catshark behavior, which suggests that the cost of avoiding mating attempts initiated by males may be high and is therefore supportive of convenience polyandry as an explanation for MP. Eggs were followed from the time they were laid to when they hatched, offering a rare opportunity to investigate juvenile development in more detail.

  1. Pax6 expression patterns in Lampetra fluviatilis and Scyliorhinus canicula embryos suggest highly conserved roles in the early regionalization of the vertebrate brain.

    PubMed

    Derobert, Y; Baratte, B; Lepage, M; Mazan, S

    We report expression patterns of the Pax6 gene in the dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula and the lamprey Lampetra fluviatilis during neurulation and at the beginning of organogenesis. At the stages studied, both genes display very similar expression domains in the dorsal forebrain, with a sharp posterior boundary at the diencephalon-mesencephalon border, in the hindbrain, excluding the floor plate and the roof plate, and in the spinal cord. The comparison of these expression patterns with those reported in osteichthyans suggests that the roles played by Pax6 in early brain regionalization have been highly conserved during vertebrate evolution.

  2. Pattern and polarity in the development and evolution of the gnathostome jaw: both conservation and heterotopy in the branchial arches of the shark, Scyliorhinus canicula.

    PubMed

    Compagnucci, Claudia; Debiais-Thibaud, Melanie; Coolen, Marion; Fish, Jennifer; Griffin, John N; Bertocchini, Federica; Minoux, Maryline; Rijli, Filippo M; Borday-Birraux, Véronique; Casane, Didier; Mazan, Sylvie; Depew, Michael J

    2013-05-15

    The acquisition of jaws constitutes a landmark event in vertebrate evolution, one that in large part potentiated their success and diversification. Jaw development and patterning involves an intricate spatiotemporal series of reciprocal inductive and responsive interactions between the cephalic epithelia and the cranial neural crest (CNC) and cephalic mesodermal mesenchyme. The coordinated regulation of these interactions is critical for both the ontogenetic registration of the jaws and the evolutionary elaboration of variable jaw morphologies and designs. Current models of jaw development and evolution have been built on molecular and cellular evidence gathered mostly in amniotes such as mice, chicks and humans, and augmented by a much smaller body of work on the zebrafish. These have been partnered by essential work attempting to understand the origins of jaws that has focused on the jawless lamprey. Chondrichthyans (cartilaginous fish) are the most distant group to amniotes within extant gnathostomes, and comprise the crucial clade uniting amniotes and agnathans; yet despite their critical phylogenetic position, evidence of the molecular and cellular underpinnings of jaw development in chondrichthyans is still lacking. Recent advances in genome and molecular developmental biology of the lesser spotted dogfish shark, Scyliorhinus canicula, make it ideal for the molecular study of chondrichthyan jaw development. Here, following the 'Hinge and Caps' model of jaw development, we have investigated evidence of heterotopic (relative changes in position) and heterochronic (relative changes in timing) shifts in gene expression, relative to amniotes, in the jaw primordia of S. canicula embryos. We demonstrate the presence of clear proximo-distal polarity in gene expression patterns in the shark embryo, thus establishing a baseline molecular baüplan for branchial arch-derived jaw development and further validating the utility of the 'Hinge and Caps' model in comparative

  3. The effects of dietary sodium loading on the activity and expression of Na, K-ATPase in the rectal gland of the European dogfish (Scyliorhinus canicula).

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, S; Cutler, C P; Hazon, N; Cramb, G

    2002-02-01

    cDNA fragments of both the alpha- and beta-subunits of the Na, K-ATPase and a cDNA fragment of the secretory form of Na-K-Cl cotransporter from the European dogfish (Scyliorhinus canicula) were amplified and cloned using degenerate primers in RT-PCR. These clones were used along with a sCFTR cDNA from the related dogfish shark, Squalus acanthias to characterise the expression of mRNAs for these ion transporters in the dogfish rectal gland subsequent to an acute feeding episode. Following a single feeding event where starved dogfish were fed squid portions (20 g squid/kg fish), there was a delayed and transient 40-fold increase in the activity of Na, K-ATPase in crude rectal gland homogenates. Increases in enzyme activity were apparent 3 h after the feeding event and peaked at 9 h before returning to control values within 24 h. These increases in activity were accompanied by small and transient decreases in plasma sodium and chloride concentrations lasting up to 3 days. Significant increases in the expression of mRNAs for alpha- and beta-subunits of the Na, K-ATPase, the Na-K-Cl cotransporter and CFTR chloride channel were detected but not until 1-2 days after the feeding event. It is concluded that the transient increase in Na, K-ATPase activity is not attributable to increases in the abundance of alpha- and beta-subunit mRNAs but must be associated with some, as yet unknown, post-transcriptional activation mechanism.

  4. Morphogenesis of the cerebellum and cerebellum-related structures in the shark Scyliorhinus canicula: insights on the ground pattern of the cerebellar ontogeny.

    PubMed

    Pose-Méndez, Sol; Candal, Eva; Mazan, Sylvie; Rodríguez-Moldes, Isabel

    2016-04-01

    Because the cerebellum emerged at the agnathan-gnathostome transition and cartilaginous fishes are at the base of the gnathostome lineage, this group is crucial to determine the basic developmental pattern of the cerebellum and to gain insights into its origin. We have systematically analyzed key events in the development of cerebellum and cerebellum-related structures of the shark Scyliorhinus canicula. Three developmental periods are distinguished based on anatomical observations combined with molecular analysis. We present neurochemical and genoarchitectonic evidence on the onset of cerebellar development, the rostral and caudal cerebellar boundaries, the compartmentalization of the cerebellum, and correspondence of cerebellar domains to rhombomeric segmentation of the rostral hindbrain. Our observations, mainly based on the expression pattern of ScHoxA2, support the origin of both the upper and lower auricular leaves from r1 and exclude any cerebellar origin from r2. Correlation between subrhombomeres r1a/r1b and cerebellar domains is proposed based on the ScEn2 expression. The ScEn2 and ScOtx2 expression patterns revealed an antero-posterior cerebellar compartmentalization similar to that of mammals, and supported certain fissures (commonly used to define cerebellar domains) as reliable anatomical landmarks. At difference from mammals, the expression of ScEn2 along the cerebellar median-lateral axis does not reveal a multiple-banded pattern. The present study provides an atlas of cerebellar development in one of the most basal extant gnathostome lineages and emphasizes the importance of combining classic descriptive with modern molecular studies to gain knowledge on the ancestral condition of cerebellar developmental processes and the origins and evolution of the cerebellum.

  5. The accumulation of lead and mercury from seawater and their depuration by eggs of the spotted dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula (Chondrichthys).

    PubMed

    Jeffree, R A; Oberhansli, F; Teyssie, J-L

    2008-10-01

    Radiotracer experiments using (210)Pb and (203)Hg demonstrated that eggs of the spotted dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula absorbed lead and inorganic mercury directly from seawater over 21 days of experimental exposure, attaining total egg concentration factors (CFs) relative to water of approximately 400 for Pb and 180 for Hg, predominantly (> or =98%) due to their accumulation by the collagenous egg case. The rates of accumulation of both Pb and Hg by the total egg were significantly (P < 0.0001) reduced by its increasing age since parturition, whereas only the rate of depuration of Pb was reduced (P < 0.0001) with increasing age; these effects indicate a declining chemical reactivity of the egg case that may be due to the continued tanning of the case following parturition. The egg case per se, attained average CFs of about 1,500 and 850 for Pb and Hg, respectively. Both Pb and Hg showed declining concentration gradients from the exterior to the interior membranes of the wall of the egg case; CFs for Pb declined from 3,500 to 2,000 and for Hg from 5,000 to 500. Comparison of concentrations in separate membranes also demonstrated significant (P < or = 0.01) depurations of Hg from the external and internal membranes during the loss experiments. The presence of radiotracers of Pb and Hg in the internal components of the egg at the end of uptake phase, and prior to the opening of the apertures, confirmed the permeability of the egg case wall to them, consistent with their observed gradients in it. The average CFs for all embryos at the end of the uptake experiment were 34 and 44 for Pb and Hg, respectively, but were significantly (P < 0.001) enhanced for Hg by a factor of 6 in the older eggs. The accumulatory and kinetic characteristics of the egg-case may operate to optimize the exposure of embryos to Pb and Hg following episodic contaminant events in coastal habitats.

  6. Slow cycling cells in the continuous dental lamina of Scyliorhinus canicula: new evidence for stem cells in sharks.

    PubMed

    Vandenplas, Sam; Vandeghinste, Robbe; Boutet, Agnes; Mazan, Sylvie; Huysseune, Ann

    2016-05-01

    In the lesser spotted catshark (Scyliorhinus canicula), as in most non-mammalian vertebrates, the dentition renews throughout life. To contribute to our understanding of how continuous tooth replacement is achieved, we searched for evidence for the presence of stem cells in this species. Three-dimensional reconstructions of juvenile (2-3 weeks post-hatch) specimens showed that tooth families merge imperceptibly with so-called interdental zones within a continuous and permanent dental lamina. Interdental regions are composed of three layers, continuous with cervical loop, middle, and outer dental epithelium of the tooth families, respectively. A BrdU pulse-chase experiment revealed that cell proliferation is initiated in the lingual part of the dental lamina and the resulting population shifts one tooth position towards the oral epithelium in around four to five weeks. In the longest chase time (114 days) label-retaining and arguably non-differentiated cells were present at the lingual border of the dental lamina. These were found in the outer and middle dental epithelium, both within and between tooth families. This area of the dental lamina did not show expression or distribution of Sox2. Our data support the hypothesis that stem cells reside at the lingual border of the continuous dental lamina, more specifically in the middle dental epithelium at the level of the tooth families, and in its extension between the tooth families. To demonstrate their true stemness and their role in continuous tooth replacement, it remains to be shown that these cells have the potential to give rise to a complete new successor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Evolution of Hox gene clusters in gnathostomes: insights from a survey of a shark (Scyliorhinus canicula) transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Oulion, Silvan; Debiais-Thibaud, Mélanie; d'Aubenton-Carafa, Yves; Thermes, Claude; Da Silva, Corinne; Bernard-Samain, Sylvie; Gavory, Frédéric; Wincker, Patrick; Mazan, Sylvie; Casane, Didier

    2010-12-01

    It is now well established that there were four Hox gene clusters in the genome of the last common ancestor of extant gnathostomes. To better understand the evolution of the organization and expression of these genomic regions, we have studied the Hox gene clusters of a shark (Scyliorhinus canicula). We sequenced 225,580 expressed sequence tags from several embryonic cDNA libraries. Blast searches identified corresponding transcripts to almost all the HoxA, HoxB, and HoxD cluster genes. No HoxC transcript was identified, suggesting that this cluster is absent or highly degenerate. Using Hox gene sequences as probes, we selected and sequenced seven clones from a bacterial artificial chromosome library covering the complete region of the three gene clusters. Mapping of cDNAs to these genomic sequences showed extensive alternative splicing and untranslated exon sharing between neighboring Hox genes. Homologous noncoding exons could not be identified in transcripts from other species using sequence similarity. However, by comparing conserved noncoding sequences upstream of these exons in different species, we were able to identify homology between some exons. Some alternative splicing variants are probably very ancient and were already coded for by the ancestral Hox gene cluster. We also identified several transcripts that do not code for Hox proteins, are probably not translated, and all but one are in the reverse orientation to the Hox genes. This survey of the transcriptome of the Hox gene clusters of a shark shows that the high complexity observed in mammals is a gnathostome ancestral feature.

  8. Purification, characterization, and biological activity of insulins from the spotted dogfish, Scyliorhinus canicula, and the hammerhead shark, Sphyrna lewini.

    PubMed

    Anderson, W Gary; Ali, Mohamed F; Einarsdóttir, Ingibjörg E; Schäffer, Lauge; Hazon, Neil; Conlon, J Michael

    2002-03-01

    Insulin was purified from pancreatic extracts of two elasmobranch species belonging to different families in the order Carcharhiniformes, the European spotted dogfish, Scyliorhinus canicula (Scyliorhinidae), and the hammerhead shark, Sphyrna lewini (Carcharhinidae). The amino acid sequence of dogfish insulin was established as A-chain GIVDHCCRNT(10)CSLYDLEGYC(20)NQ and B-chain LPSQHLCGSH(10)LVETLYFVCG(20)QKGFYYVPKV(30). The primary structure of hammerhead shark insulin was similar to that of dogfish insulin with only 2 amino acid substitutions at A8 (R --> H) and B30 (V --> I). The elasmobranch insulins were markedly different from human insulin (17 amino acid substitutions) but all the residues in human insulin that are believed to be important in determining the receptor binding conformation (B6, B8, B11, B13, B23, B24, B25, A2, A3, and A19) have been conserved in the elasmobranch insulins with the exception of the conservative substitution Phe --> Tyr at B25. Consistent with this, dogfish and human insulin showed almost identical binding affinity to the recombinant solubilized human insulin receptor (K(D) values of 14.0 and 18.6 pM, respectively; relative potency 133%). Previous studies have shown that bovine insulin produces severe and sustained hypoglycemia in elasmobranchs but the effect is of slow onset. Bolus arterial injections of dogfish insulin (10 nmol x kg(-1)) into unanesthetized, fasting dogfish (n = 9) produced no changes in blood glucose, 3-hydroxybutyrate, and acetoacetate concentrations over a 4-h period. In a second series of experiments (n = 7), dogfish insulin (10 nmol x kg(-1)) produced a significant (P < 0.05) fall in blood glucose after 12 h that persisted for at least 48 h, but no change in ketone body concentrations. The data indicate that the metabolic actions of an endogenous elasmobranch insulin in an elasmobranch are similar to those previously described for mammalian insulin.

  9. Accumulation and transport behaviour of 241americium, 60cobalt and 134cesium by eggs of the spotted dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula.

    PubMed

    Jeffree, Ross A; Oberhansli, Francois; Teyssie, Jean-Louis

    2007-07-01

    An experimental study examined the 96-h net influx from seawater of the anthropogenic radionuclides (241)Am, (60)Co and (134)Cs through the egg-case of the spotted dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula. Net influx directly through the wall of the egg-case was greatest for (134)Cs, then (241)Am and lastly (60)Co. Within the egg-case wall itself the measured concentration factors (CFs) and their gradients in the external, median and internal layers showed that for both (241)Am and (60)Co they were >10(3) in the external layer and declined by an order of magnitude in the interior layer. In contrast (134)Cs had a CF of only about three in the external layer which declined by a factor of 2 towards the two more internal layers of the egg-case. The egg-case apertures, that open within the prehatching stage of embryological development, significantly (P<0.05) increased the net influx of (241)Am and (60)Co to the interior of the egg-case, although their water concentrations were still lower than those in the labelled seawater bath. In contrast, the aperture did not increase the net influx of (134)Cs whose water concentrations equilibrated with those in seawater. Together these results indicate that the egg-case wall is very permeable to (134)Cs, representing little barrier to its movement, and hence consistent with the lack of importance of the aperture in determining its internal water concentrations in the egg-case. In contrast, (241)Am and (60)Co show much higher rates of accumulation by the egg-case, consistent with the measured reduced permeability of its wall, and therefore giving greater prominence to its aperture in the net transfer of these two radionuclides to the egg case's interior. The presence of the embryo within its egg-case did not significantly (P>0.05) affect the rates of influx of radioisotopes, with the exception of an interactive effect for (60)Co with the egg-case aperture (P<0.05). The CF of only (241)Am in the embryo itself relative to the external seawater

  10. Distribution and development of glutamic acid decarboxylase immunoreactivity in the spinal cord of the dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula (elasmobranchs).

    PubMed

    Sueiro, Catalina; Carrera, Iván; Molist, Pilar; Rodríguez-Moldes, Isabel; Anadón, Ramón

    2004-10-11

    The adult distribution and development of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-synthesizing cells and fibers in the spinal cord of the lesser spotted dogfish (Scyliorhinus canicula L.) was studied by means of immunohistochemistry using antibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD). Complementary immunostaining with antibodies against GABA, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), and HuC/HuD (members of the Hu/Elav family of RNA-associated proteins) and staining with a reduced silver procedure ("en bloc" Bielschowski method), Nissl, and hematoxylin were also used. In adults, GAD-immunoreactive (GAD-ir) cells were observed in the ventral horns, in the spinal nucleus of the dorsal horn, at the base of the dorsal horns, and around the central canal, where some GAD-ir cells were cerebrospinal fluid-contacting (CSF-c). In addition, a few GAD-ir cells were observed in the lateral funiculus between the ventral horn and the marginal nucleus. The adult spinal cord was richly innervated by GAD-ir fibers. Large numbers of GAD-ir fibers and boutons were observed in the dorsal and ventral horns and also interstitially in the dorsal, lateral, and ventral funiculi. In addition, a rich GAD-ir innervation was observed in the marginal nucleus of the spinal cord. In the embryonic spinal cord, GAD-ir cells develop very early: The earliest cells were observed in the very thin mantle/marginal layer of stage 22 embryos in a short length of the spinal cord. At stages 25 and 26, several types of GAD-ir cells (commissural and noncommissural) were distinguished, and two of these cells were of CSF-c type. At stages 28, 30, and 31, the GAD-ir populations exhibited a marked longitudinal columnar organization. Double-immunolabeling experiments in embryos showed the presence of two different GAD-ir CSF-c cell populations, one ventral that is simultaneously TH-ir and other more dorsal that is TH-negative. By stage 33 (prehatching), GAD-expressing cells are present in virtually all loci, as in adults

  11. Responses of rod-bipolar cells in the dark-adapted retina of the dogfish, Scyliorhinus canicula

    PubMed Central

    Ashmore, J. F.; Falk, G.

    1980-01-01

    1. Responses to light were recorded from bipolar cells in the retina of the dogfish, Scyliorhinus canicula, under dark-adapted conditions. The identity of the cells was confirmed by Procion Yellow staining. 2. More than 95% of the bipolar cells sampled were of the type which depolarized to a spot of light. These are termed depolarizing bipolar cells. In most cells, illumination of the surround had little effect on the responses elicited from the central receptive field. 3. The mean flash sensitivity of the depolarizing bipolar cells was 270 mV/Rh** (where Rh** signifies rhodopsin photoisomerization per rod for full field illumination). 4. The mean flash sensitivity of horizontal cells under the same conditions was 8 mV/Rh**. In a limited sample of hyperpolarizing bipolar cells the highest flash sensitivity was 42 mV/Rh**. 5. The high flash sensitivity of the depolarizing bipolar cells indicates a large voltage gain at its synapse with rods. On the assumption of a rod flash sensitivity of 2 mV/Rh** the mean gain at the synapse was 135, but for some cells the gain was in excess of 500. 6. Responses of depolarizing bipolar cells to dim flashes could be approximated by the impulse response of a 12-16 stage low-pass filter, whereas horizontal cell responses could be fitted by a low-pass filter of six sections. The implied filter at the rod-bipolar cell synapse is tuned to the higher frequency components of rod signals, thereby improving temporal resolution in the rod pathway. 7. Depolarizing bipolar cell responses to test flashes are reduced by weak background illumination (less than 0·1 Rh**/sec). This desensitization, which would not be expected to affect rod responses, could be explained by a shift in the operating point to a less sensitive region of the intensity—response curve as a result of the large depolarization elicited by the background. 8. The results of current injection into the cell in darkness and during the response to light are consistent with the

  12. Comparison of the bioaccumulation from seawater and depuration of heavy metals and radionuclides in the spotted dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula (Chondrichthys) and the turbot Psetta maxima (Actinopterygii: Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Jeffree, Ross A; Warnau, Michel; Teyssié, Jean-Louis; Markich, Scott J

    2006-09-15

    The bioaccumulation of selected heavy metals and radionuclides ((241)Am, (109)Cd, (57)Co, (51)Cr, (134)Cs, (54)Mn and (65)Zn) from seawater was experimentally compared in the Chondrichthyan Scyliorhinus canicula (spotted dogfish) and the Actinopterygian Teleost Psetta maxima (turbot), of comparable size, age and benthic feeding habits. The speciation of these elements in seawater (salinity 38 per thousand, pH 8.1, temperature 16.5 degrees C) was also calculated to determine their potential bioavailability. The uptake rates, measured over 14 days, varied greatly among isotopes and between species. Concentration factors (CFs) in P. maxima varied 5-fold between ca. 0.2 for (51)Cr and 2.5 for (65)Zn and (134)Cs, whereas in S. canicula they varied by a much greater factor of 350, with CFs for (51)Cr and (241)Am ranging from ca. 0.4 to 140, respectively. With the exception of (134)Cs, all radiotracers were accumulated at a faster rate in S. canicula than in P. maxima, particularly for (241)Am and (65)Zn where the CFs attained during the uptake phase were, two and one order of magnitude greater in S. canicula, respectively. In contrast, (134)Cs reached a CF of about 2.5 in P. maxima, which was 5-fold greater than in S. canicula. Patterns of loss from the experimental depuration phase over 29 days showed greater similarities between species, compared to the uptake phase that highlighted the greater differences between elements. The distributions of these seven radioisotopes among six body components indicated that between the two species the skin of the dogfish displayed a greater bioaccumulation potential, particularly for (241)Am, (57)Co and (65)Zn. However (65)Zn was also distinctive from (241)Am and (57)Co in its pattern of bioaccumulation in dogfish, with its other body components attaining concentrations of (65)Zn that were comparable to the levels found in its skin. The heightened uptake of (134)Cs in turbot was characterised by a more even percentage distribution

  13. Molecular footprinting of skeletal tissues in the catshark Scyliorhinus canicula and the clawed frog Xenopus tropicalis identifies conserved and derived features of vertebrate calcification.

    PubMed

    Enault, Sébastien; Muñoz, David N; Silva, Willian T A F; Borday-Birraux, Véronique; Bonade, Morgane; Oulion, Silvan; Ventéo, Stéphanie; Marcellini, Sylvain; Debiais-Thibaud, Mélanie

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the evolutionary emergence and subsequent diversification of the vertebrate skeleton requires a comprehensive view of the diverse skeletal cell types found in distinct developmental contexts, tissues, and species. To date, our knowledge of the molecular nature of the shark calcified extracellular matrix, and its relationships with osteichthyan skeletal tissues, remain scarce. Here, based on specific combinations of expression patterns of the Col1a1, Col1a2, and Col2a1 fibrillar collagen genes, we compare the molecular footprint of endoskeletal elements from the chondrichthyan Scyliorhinus canicula and the tetrapod Xenopus tropicalis. We find that, depending on the anatomical location, Scyliorhinus skeletal calcification is associated to cell types expressing different subsets of fibrillar collagen genes, such as high levels of Col1a1 and Col1a2 in the neural arches, high levels of Col2a1 in the tesserae, or associated to a drastic Col2a1 downregulation in the centrum. We detect low Col2a1 levels in Xenopus osteoblasts, thereby revealing that the osteoblastic expression of this gene was significantly reduced in the tetrapod lineage. Finally, we uncover a striking parallel, from a molecular and histological perspective, between the vertebral cartilage calcification of both species and discuss the evolutionary origin of endochondral ossification.

  14. Molecular footprinting of skeletal tissues in the catshark Scyliorhinus canicula and the clawed frog Xenopus tropicalis identifies conserved and derived features of vertebrate calcification

    PubMed Central

    Enault, Sébastien; Muñoz, David N.; Silva, Willian T. A. F.; Borday-Birraux, Véronique; Bonade, Morgane; Oulion, Silvan; Ventéo, Stéphanie; Marcellini, Sylvain; Debiais-Thibaud, Mélanie

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the evolutionary emergence and subsequent diversification of the vertebrate skeleton requires a comprehensive view of the diverse skeletal cell types found in distinct developmental contexts, tissues, and species. To date, our knowledge of the molecular nature of the shark calcified extracellular matrix, and its relationships with osteichthyan skeletal tissues, remain scarce. Here, based on specific combinations of expression patterns of the Col1a1, Col1a2, and Col2a1 fibrillar collagen genes, we compare the molecular footprint of endoskeletal elements from the chondrichthyan Scyliorhinus canicula and the tetrapod Xenopus tropicalis. We find that, depending on the anatomical location, Scyliorhinus skeletal calcification is associated to cell types expressing different subsets of fibrillar collagen genes, such as high levels of Col1a1 and Col1a2 in the neural arches, high levels of Col2a1 in the tesserae, or associated to a drastic Col2a1 downregulation in the centrum. We detect low Col2a1 levels in Xenopus osteoblasts, thereby revealing that the osteoblastic expression of this gene was significantly reduced in the tetrapod lineage. Finally, we uncover a striking parallel, from a molecular and histological perspective, between the vertebral cartilage calcification of both species and discuss the evolutionary origin of endochondral ossification. PMID:26442101

  15. Retinal histogenesis and cell differentiation in an elasmobranch species, the small-spotted catshark Scyliorhinus canicula.

    PubMed

    Bejarano-Escobar, Ruth; Blasco, Manuel; Durán, Ana Carmen; Rodríguez, Cristina; Martín-Partido, Gervasio; Francisco-Morcillo, Javier

    2012-04-01

    Here we present a detailed study of the major events in the retinal histogenesis in a slow-developing elasmobranch species, the small-spotted catshark, during embryonic, postnatal and adult stages using classical histological and immunohistological methods, providing a complete neurochemical characterization of retinal cells. We found that the retina of the small-spotted catshark was fully differentiated prior to birth. The major developmental events in retinal cell differentiation occurred during the second third of the embryonic period. Maturational features described in the present study were first detected in the central retina and, as development progressed, they spread to the rest of the retina following a central-to-peripheral gradient. While the formation of both plexiform layers occurs simultaneously in the retina of the most common fish models, in the small-spotted catshark retina the emergence of the outer plexiform layer was delayed with respect to the inner plexiform layer. According to the expression of the markers used, retinal cell differentiation followed a vitreal-to-scleral gradient, with the exception of Müller cells that were the last cell type generated during retinogenesis. This vitreal-to-scleral progression of neural differentiation seems to be specific to slow-developing fish species.

  16. Retinal histogenesis and cell differentiation in an elasmobranch species, the small-spotted catshark Scyliorhinus canicula

    PubMed Central

    Bejarano-Escobar, Ruth; Blasco, Manuel; Durán, Ana Carmen; Rodríguez, Cristina; Martín-Partido, Gervasio; Francisco-Morcillo, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Here we present a detailed study of the major events in the retinal histogenesis in a slow-developing elasmobranch species, the small-spotted catshark, during embryonic, postnatal and adult stages using classical histological and immunohistological methods, providing a complete neurochemical characterization of retinal cells. We found that the retina of the small-spotted catshark was fully differentiated prior to birth. The major developmental events in retinal cell differentiation occurred during the second third of the embryonic period. Maturational features described in the present study were first detected in the central retina and, as development progressed, they spread to the rest of the retina following a central-to-peripheral gradient. While the formation of both plexiform layers occurs simultaneously in the retina of the most common fish models, in the small-spotted catshark retina the emergence of the outer plexiform layer was delayed with respect to the inner plexiform layer. According to the expression of the markers used, retinal cell differentiation followed a vitreal-to-scleral gradient, with the exception of Müller cells that were the last cell type generated during retinogenesis. This vitreal-to-scleral progression of neural differentiation seems to be specific to slow-developing fish species. PMID:22332849

  17. Expression of FoxC, FoxF, FoxL1, and FoxQ1 genes in the dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula defines ancient and derived roles for Fox genes in vertebrate development.

    PubMed

    Wotton, Karl R; Mazet, Françoise; Shimeld, Sebastian M

    2008-06-01

    In the human genome, members of the FoxC, FoxF, FoxL1, and FoxQ1 gene families are found in two paralagous clusters. Here we characterize all four gene families in the dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula, a member of the cartilaginous fish lineage that diverged before the radiation of osteichthyan vertebrates. We identify two FoxC genes, two FoxF genes, and single FoxQ1 and FoxL1 genes, demonstrating cluster duplication preceded the radiation of gnathostomes. The expression of all six genes was analyzed by in situ hybridization. The results show conserved expression of FoxL1, FoxF, and FoxC genes in different compartments of the mesoderm and of FoxQ1 in pharyngeal endoderm and its derivatives, confirming these as ancient sites of Fox gene expression, and also illustrate multiple cases of lineage-specific expression domains. Comparison to invertebrate chordates shows that the majority of conserved vertebrate expression domains mark tissues that are part of the primitive chordate body plan.

  18. Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) immunoreactivity in the brain and pituitary of the dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula. Colocalization with alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) in hypothalamic neurons.

    PubMed

    Vallarino, M; Andersen, A C; Delbende, C; Ottonello, I; Eberle, A N; Vaudry, H

    1989-01-01

    The distribution of melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) in the central nervous system of the dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula was determined by indirect immunofluorescence and peroxidase-anti-peroxidase techniques, using an antiserum raised against synthetic salmon MCH. Three groups of MCH-positive cell bodies were localized in the posterior hypothalamus. The most prominent cell group was detected in the nucleus sacci vasculosi. Scattered MCH-immunoreactive cells were observed in the nucleus tuberculi posterioris and in the nucleus lateralis tuberis. At the pituitary level, the caudal part of the median lobe of the pars distalis contained strongly MCH-positive perikarya. Some of these cells were liquor-contacting-type. Immunoreactive fibers originating from the hypothalamic perikarya projected throughout the dorsal wall of the posterior hypothalamus. Positive fibers were also detected within the thalamus and the central gray of the mesencephalon. The distribution of MCH-containing neurons was compared to that of alpha-MSH-immunoreactive elements using consecutive, 5-micron thick sections. Both MCH- and alpha-MSH-immunoreactive peptides were found in the same neurons of the nucleus sacci vasculosi. These data suggest that MCH and alpha-MSH, two neuropeptides which exert antagonistic activities on skin melanophores, may also act in a coordinate manner in the central nervous system of cartilaginous fish.

  19. Chronotopographical distribution patterns of cell death and of lectin-positive macrophages/microglial cells during the visual system ontogeny of the small-spotted catshark Scyliorhinus canicula

    PubMed Central

    Bejarano-Escobar, Ruth; Blasco, Manuel; Durán, Ana Carmen; Martín-Partido, Gervasio; Francisco-Morcillo, Javier

    2013-01-01

    The patterns of distribution of TUNEL-positive bodies and of lectin-positive phagocytes were investigated in the developing visual system of the small-spotted catshark Scyliorhinus canicula, from the optic vesicle stage to adulthood. During early stages of development, TUNEL-staining was mainly found in the protruding dorsal part of the optic cup and in the presumptive optic chiasm. Furthermore, TUNEL-positive bodies were also detected during detachment of the embryonic lens. Coinciding with the developmental period during which ganglion cells began to differentiate, an area of programmed cell death occurred in the distal optic stalk and in the retinal pigment epithelium that surrounds the optic nerve head. The topographical distribution of TUNEL-positive bodies in the differentiating retina recapitulated the sequence of maturation of the various layers and cell types following a vitreal-to-scleral gradient. Lectin-positive cells apparently entered the retina by the optic nerve head when the retinal layering was almost complete. As development proceeded, these labelled cells migrated parallel to the axon fascicles of the optic fiber layer and then reached more external layers by radial migration. In the mature retina, lectin-positive cells were confined to the optic fiber layer, ganglion cell layer and inner plexiform layer. No evident correlation was found between the chronotopographical pattern of distribution of TUNEL-positive bodies and the pattern of distribution of lectin-labelled macrophages/microglial cells during the shark′s visual system ontogeny. PMID:23758763

  20. Effects of angiotensin II and C-type natriuretic peptide on the in situ perfused trunk preparation of the dogfish, Scyliorhinus canicula.

    PubMed

    Wells, Alan; Anderson, W Gary; Cains, Jenna E; Cooper, Martin W; Hazon, Neil

    2006-01-15

    The renal roles of physiologically relevant doses of angiotensin II (Ang II) and C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) were investigated in the dogfish, Scyliorhinus canicula, using an in situ perfused trunk preparation. Perfusion with 10(-9) M Ang II resulted in a glomerular antidiuresis and decreases in perfusate flow rate, transport maxima for glucose and the proportion of filtering glomeruli. In addition, the renal clearances and excretion of urea, sodium, and chloride were significantly reduced, whereas the relative clearances of these parameters remained unchanged. In contrast, perfusion of 10(-9) M CNP caused a glomerular diuresis, an increase in transport maxima for glucose, but no significant change in the proportion of filtering glomeruli. In addition, the renal clearances of urea, sodium, and chloride were significantly increased but there was no effect on the relative clearances of urea, sodium, or chloride. Perfusion with 10(-10) M Ang II or CNP had no significant renal effects. Our results suggest that these hormones act at the level of the glomeruli rather than at a tubular level.

  1. Chronotopographical distribution patterns of cell death and of lectin-positive macrophages/microglial cells during the visual system ontogeny of the small-spotted catshark Scyliorhinus canicula.

    PubMed

    Bejarano-Escobar, Ruth; Blasco, Manuel; Durán, Ana Carmen; Martín-Partido, Gervasio; Francisco-Morcillo, Javier

    2013-08-01

    The patterns of distribution of TUNEL-positive bodies and of lectin-positive phagocytes were investigated in the developing visual system of the small-spotted catshark Scyliorhinus canicula, from the optic vesicle stage to adulthood. During early stages of development, TUNEL-staining was mainly found in the protruding dorsal part of the optic cup and in the presumptive optic chiasm. Furthermore, TUNEL-positive bodies were also detected during detachment of the embryonic lens. Coinciding with the developmental period during which ganglion cells began to differentiate, an area of programmed cell death occurred in the distal optic stalk and in the retinal pigment epithelium that surrounds the optic nerve head. The topographical distribution of TUNEL-positive bodies in the differentiating retina recapitulated the sequence of maturation of the various layers and cell types following a vitreal-to-scleral gradient. Lectin-positive cells apparently entered the retina by the optic nerve head when the retinal layering was almost complete. As development proceeded, these labelled cells migrated parallel to the axon fascicles of the optic fiber layer and then reached more external layers by radial migration. In the mature retina, lectin-positive cells were confined to the optic fiber layer, ganglion cell layer and inner plexiform layer. No evident correlation was found between the chronotopographical pattern of distribution of TUNEL-positive bodies and the pattern of distribution of lectin-labelled macrophages/microglial cells during the shark's visual system ontogeny.

  2. Production of Chondroitin Sulphate from Head, Skeleton and Fins of Scyliorhinus canicula By-Products by Combination of Enzymatic, Chemical Precipitation and Ultrafiltration Methodologies

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, María; Fraguas, Javier; Sotelo, Carmen G.; Pérez-Martín, Ricardo I.; Vázquez, José Antonio

    2015-01-01

    This study illustrates the optimisation of the experimental conditions of three sequential steps for chondroitin sulphate (CS) recovery from three cartilaginous materials of Scyliorhinus canicula by-products. Optimum conditions of temperature and pH were first obtained for alcalase proteolysis of head cartilage (58 °C/pH 8.5/0.1% (v/w)/10 h of hydrolysis). Then, similar optimal conditions were observed for skeletons and fin materials. Enzymatic hydrolysates were subsequently treated with a combination of alkaline hydroalcoholic saline solutions in order to improve the protein hydrolysis and the selective precipitation of CS. Ranges of 0.53–0.64 M (NaOH) and 1.14–1.20 volumes (EtOH) were the levels for optimal chemical treatment depending on the cartilage origin. Finally, selective purification and concentration of CS and protein elimination of samples obtained from chemical treatment, was assessed by a combination of ultrafiltration and diafiltration (UF-DF) techniques at 30 kDa. PMID:26023837

  3. Development of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive cell populations and fiber pathways in the brain of the dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula: new perspectives on the evolution of the vertebrate catecholaminergic system.

    PubMed

    Carrera, Iván; Anadón, Ramón; Rodríguez-Moldes, Isabel

    2012-11-01

    Developmental studies of the central catecholaminergic (CA) system are essential for understanding its evolution. To obtain knowledge about the CA system in chondrichthyans, an ancient gnathostome group, we used immunohistochemical techniques for detecting tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the initial rate-limiting enzyme of the CA synthesis, to study: 1) the neuromery of developing TH-immunoreactive (ir) neuronal populations, 2) the development of TH-ir innervation, and 3) the organization of TH-ir cells and fibers in the brain of postembryonic stages of the shark Scyliorhinus canicula. The first TH-ir cells appeared in the hypothalamus and rostral diencephalon (suprachiasmatic, posterior recess and posterior tubercle nuclei at embryonic stage 26, and dorsomedial hypothalamus at stage 28); then in more caudal basal regions of the diencephalon and rostral mesencephalon (substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area); and later on in the anterior (locus coeruleus/nucleus subcoeruleus) and posterior (vagal lobe and reticular formation) rhombencephalon. The appearance of TH-ir cells in the telencephalon (pallium) was rather late (stage [S]31) with respect to the other TH-ir prosencephalic populations. The first TH-ir fibers arose from cells of the posterior tubercle (S30) and formed recognizable ascending (toward dorsal and rostral territories) and descending pathways at S31. When the second half of embryonic development started (S32), TH-ir fibers innervated most brain areas, and nearly all TH-ir cell groups of the postembryonic brain were already established. This study provides key information about the evolution of the developmental patterns of central CA systems in fishes and thus may help in understanding how the vertebrate CA systems have evolved. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Development of the serotoninergic system in the central nervous system of a shark, the lesser spotted dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula.

    PubMed

    Carrera, Iván; Molist, Pilar; Anadón, Ramón; Rodríguez-Moldes, Isabel

    2008-12-20

    Chondrychthyans (cartilaginous fishes) are key to understanding the ancestral gnathostome condition since they provide an outgroup to sarcopterygians and actinopterygians. To gain comparative knowledge about the development of the vertebrate serotoninergic systems, we studied by immunohistochemistry the origin, spatiotemporal organization, and migration patterns of serotonin-containing neurons and the growth of axonal pathways in the central nervous system of a shark, the lesser spotted dogfish. Hindbrain serotonin-immunoreactive cells arose close to the floor plate and most populations migrated ventrally and mediolaterally to form the various raphe and reticular groups. The order of appearance of serotoninergic populations in the rhombencephalon and spinal cord (first the superior groups and then the inferior and spinal populations) roughly matched with that reported in other vertebrates but important differences were noted in the formation of prosencephalic groups in fishes. In addition to preoptic and hypothalamic areas, serotoninergic cerebrospinal fluid-contacting cells were observed in the isthmus (raphe dorsalis anterioris). Transient serotonin-immunoreactive cells were noted in the pineal organ, habenula, and pretectum. Further, we provide a revised anatomical framework for reticular and raphe serotoninergic populations considering their origin and segmental organization. Two distinct phases of development of the serotoninergic innervation were distinguished, that of the formation of the main axonal pathways and that of the branching of fibers. The development of main serotoninergic ascending pathways in dogfish was notably similar to that described in mammals. Our findings suggest the conservation of developmental patterns in serotoninergic systems and enhance the importance of elasmobranchs for understanding the early evolution of this system in vertebrates.

  5. The activity of cerebellar neurones of the decerebrate dogfish Scyliorhinus during spontaneous swimming movements.

    PubMed Central

    Paul, D H; Roberts, B L

    1984-01-01

    Patterns of activity of cerebellar neurones in response to cutaneous stimulation and during spontaneous, swimming-like movements were examined, using microelectrodes, in decerebrate dogfish (Scyliorhinus canicula). Continuous swimming movements, lasting for several hours, were obtained in fish in which the medial longitudinal fasciculus (m.l.f.) was lesioned in the rhombencephalon. Purkinje cells (P cells) and some stellate cells (S cells) were observed to discharge rhythmically, in phase with swimming movements. These units were distributed throughout the cerebellum, but with no apparent somatotopic distribution. After curarization, rhythmic motor discharges could still be recorded from ventral roots and phase locked P cell discharges were recorded from the cerebellum. P cells that discharged rhythmically during active swimming movements, did not do so when the body was oscillated passively during quiescent periods. Cutaneous stimulation evoked burst discharges in many P cells at long latency (ca. 100 ms) both before and after curarization and whether or not a rhythmic motor output was being generated. In rhythmically discharging units, a similar response was obtained when cutaneous stimulation was applied during that part of a cycle when the unit was most or least active. It was concluded that cerebellar neurones discharged in phase with the output of the spinal locomotory rhythm generators and independently of peripheral sensory feed-back. PMID:6747883

  6. Special evolution of neurohypophysial hormones in cartilaginous fishes: asvatocin and phasvatocin, two oxytocin-like peptides isolated from the spotted dogfish (Scyliorhinus caniculus).

    PubMed Central

    Chauvet, J; Rouille, Y; Chauveau, C; Chauvet, M T; Acher, R

    1994-01-01

    In contrast to most vertebrate species that possess one oxytocin-like hormone and one vasopressin-like hormone, a few groups, such as marsupials or cartilaginous fishes, are endowed with two peptides of either or both types, suggesting possible gene duplications. We have now isolated two oxytocin-like hormones from the pituitary of the spotted dogfish Scyliorhinus caniculus (suborder Galeoidei). Microsequencing as well as chromatographic and pharmacological comparisons with synthetic peptides show that these peptides are [Asn4,Val8]oxytocin (asvatocin) and [Phe3,Asn4,Val8]-oxytocin (phasvatocin). Asvatocin and phasvatocin display oxytocic activity on rat uterus, about 80 and 5 milliunits per nmol, respectively, and virtually no pressor activity on anesthetized rats. They occur in roughly equal molar amounts in the gland; vasotocin is also present in a proportional amount that is lower by about a factor of 20. In addition to the duality, conservative amino acid substitutions are observed in the two oxytocic peptides in positions 4 (Gln-4-->Asn) and 8 (Leu-8-->Val), when compared with oxytocin. Furthermore, replacement of the isoleucine residue found in position 3 of all other oxytocin-like hormones by phenylalanine in phasvatocin is exceptional; it determines a dramatic decrease of the oxytocic activity. Preservation of the C-terminal-amidated nonapeptide pattern in the 12 vertebrate neurohypophysial hormones known to date suggests that both precursors and processing enzymes have coevolved tightly. On the other hand, whereas the great evolutionary stability of the mature hormones (generally observed in vertebrates) suggests a strict messenger-receptor coevolution, the exceptional diversity found in cartilaginous fishes (six oxytocin-like peptides identified out of eight known) might be due to a looseness of selective constraints, perhaps in relationship with their specific urea osmoregulation. PMID:7972045

  7. A century later: Long-term change of an inshore temperate marine fish assemblage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McHugh, Matthew; Sims, David W.; Partridge, Julian C.; Genner, Martin J.

    2011-02-01

    There is compelling evidence that European marine fish assemblages have undergone extensive changes in composition over the last century. However, our knowledge of which species have changed in abundance and body size distributions, and the reasons for these changes, is limited due to a paucity of historical data. Here we report a study of long-term change in a marine fish assemblage from the inshore waters of the Western English Channel, near Plymouth. We compiled data from historic trawls undertaken between 1913 and 1922, and resurveyed those sites in 2008 and 2009. Our results revealed highly significant temporal differences in assemblage composition, but the scale of change was not consistent among taxonomic groups. Dramatic changes were recorded within the elasmobranchs, characterised by a reduction in abundance of all skate (Rajiidae) species, apparent extirpation of the angel shark ( Squatina squatina), and large increases in the abundance of lesser-spotted catshark ( Scyliorhinus canicula). By contrast we observed less evidence of change among 'flatfishes' (Pleuronectiformes) or 'roundfishes' (other teleosts). Changes were also observed in length-frequency distributions, with a significant decline in the size distribution of elasmobranchs (excluding S. canicula), but no significant change in size distributions of either group of teleosts. These data provide further evidence that larger, slow-maturing species have undergone declines in UK waters over the last century, and form useful benchmarks for assessment of future changes in this coastal faunal assemblage.

  8. Sustained performance by red and white muscle fibres from the dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula.

    PubMed

    Curtin, N A; Lou, F; Woledge, R C

    2010-06-01

    The mechanical performance of red and white muscle fibres from dogfish was compared during a long series of contractions with sinusoidal movement or under isometric conditions at 12 degrees C (normal in vivo temperature). Power output was measured during sinusoidal movement at 0.75 Hz and peak-to-peak amplitude about 12% L(0). Tetanus duty cycle was 33% (0.44 s) at phase -8% (first stimulus at 0.107 s before shortening started). Initially, the red fibres produced only about one third as much power as the white fibres, 6.57+/-0.63 W kg(-1) wet mass (mean +/- s.e.m.) and 18.3+/-2.3, respectively. Red fibres were better at sustaining power output; it declined rapidly to about 60% of its initial value and then remained relatively steady for up to 450 cycles of movement. Force during shortening declined, but force during stretch did not increase: force always relaxed to a low value before stretch started. By contrast, net power output by white fibres declined rapidly to zero within about 50 cycles. Two changes contributed: decline in force during shortening and an increase in force during stretch because relaxation became progressively less complete during the series of contractions. In isometric series (0.44 s stimulation every 1.33 s, cycle frequency 0.75 Hz), red and white fibres sustained peak isometric force similarly; in the 50th cycle force was 59+/-3% and 56+/-4% of initial values. The time required for force to relax to 10% of its maximum value decreased during the series for red fibres and increased for white fibres.

  9. Characterization of spermatogonial markers in the mature testis of the dogfish (Scyliorhinus canicula L.).

    PubMed

    Bosseboeuf, Adrien; Gautier, Aude; Auvray, Pierrick; Mazan, Sylvie; Sourdaine, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    In dogfish, spermatogenesis progresses from a restricted germinative zone, which lines the dorsal testicular vessel. Single spermatogonia (A(s)), including the spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), produce successively paired (A(p)), undifferentiated (A(u4) to A(u512)), and differentiated (A(d1) to A(d8)) spermatogonia and preleptotene (PL) spermatocytes through 13 mitoses. Dogfish spermatogonial subpopulations present classical morphological characteristics but cannot be distinguished on the basis of molecular markers. This characterization has been initiated in mammals despite the difficulty to separate each spermatogonial subpopulation. For instance, both glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor family receptor alpha 1 (GFRα1) and promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger protein (PLZF) are markers of undifferentiated spermatogonia, whereas receptor tyrosine kinase C-kit is a marker of differentiated spermatogonia. The aim of this study is to characterize spermatogonial markers and to differentiate several spermatogonial subpopulations. Dogfish cDNA sequences have been identified and validated by phylogenetic analyses for gfrα1, plzf, pou2, as well as for high-mobility group box proteins 2 and 3 (hmgb2 and 3) and for mini-chromosome maintenance protein 6 (mcm6). We have used the anatomical advantage of the polarized dogfish testis to analyze the expression of those markers by RT-PCR and in situ hybridization. gfrα1, pou2, and plzf have been detected in the testicular germinative zone, suggesting that spermatogonial markers are relatively well conserved among vertebrates but with a less restricted expression for plzf. Moreover, hmgb3 and mcm6 have been identified as new markers of differentiated spermatogonia. Finally, this first molecular characterization of spermatogonial subpopulations in a chondrichthyan model will be useful for further studies on the SSC niche evolution.

  10. Stage-specific gene expression during spermatogenesis in the dogfish (Scyliorhinus canicula).

    PubMed

    Redon, Emma; Bosseboeuf, Adrien; Rocancourt, Claire; Da Silva, Corinne; Wincker, Patrick; Mazan, Sylvie; Sourdaine, Pascal

    2010-07-01

    In the dogfish testis, the cystic arrangement and polarization of germ cell stages make it possible to observe all stages of spermatogenesis in a single transverse section. By taking advantage of the zonation of this organ, we have used suppressive subtractive libraries construction, real-time PCR, and in situ hybridization to identify 32 dogfish genes showing differential expressions during spermatogenesis. These include homologs of genes already known to be expressed in the vertebrate testis, but found here to be specifically expressed either in pre-meiotic and/or meiotic zones (ribosomal protein S8, high-mobility group box 3, ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal esterase L3, 20beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, or cyclophilin B) or in post-meiotic zone (speriolin, Soggy, zinc finger protein 474, calreticulin, or phospholipase c-zeta). We also report, for the first time, testis-specific expression patterns for dogfish genes coding for A-kinase anchor protein 5, ring finger protein 152, or F-box only protein 7. Finally, the study highlights the differential expression of new sequences whose identity remains to be assessed. This study provides the first molecular characterization of spermatogenesis in a chondrichthyan, a key species to gain insight into the evolution of this process in gnathostomes.

  11. Hydrolysates of Fish Skin Collagen: An Opportunity for Valorizing Fish Industry Byproducts

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, María; Vázquez, José Antonio; Pérez-Martín, Ricardo I.; Sotelo, Carmen G.

    2017-01-01

    During fish processing operations, such as skinning and filleting, the removal of collagen-containing materials can account for up to 30% of the total fish byproducts. Collagen is the main structural protein in skin, representing up to 70% of dry weight depending on the species, age and season. It has a wide range of applications including cosmetic, pharmaceutical, food industry, and medical. In the present work, collagen was obtained by pepsin extraction from the skin of two species of teleost and two species of chondrychtyes with yields varying between 14.16% and 61.17%. The storage conditions of the skins appear to influence these collagen extractions yields. Pepsin soluble collagen (PSC) was enzymatically hydrolyzed and the resultant hydrolysates were ultrafiltrated and characterized. Electrophoretic patterns showed the typical composition of type I collagen, with denaturation temperatures ranged between 23 °C and 33 °C. In terms of antioxidant capacity, results revealed significant intraspecific differences between hydrolysates, retentate, and permeate fractions when using β-Carotene and DPPH methods and also showed interspecies differences between those fractions when using DPPH and ABTS methods. Under controlled conditions, PSC hydrolysates from Prionace glauca, Scyliorhinus canicula, Xiphias gladius, and Thunnus albacares provide a valuable source of peptides with antioxidant capacities constituting a feasible way to efficiently upgrade fish skin biomass. PMID:28475143

  12. Hydrolysates of Fish Skin Collagen: An Opportunity for Valorizing Fish Industry Byproducts.

    PubMed

    Blanco, María; Vázquez, José Antonio; Pérez-Martín, Ricardo I; Sotelo, Carmen G

    2017-05-05

    During fish processing operations, such as skinning and filleting, the removal of collagen-containing materials can account for up to 30% of the total fish byproducts. Collagen is the main structural protein in skin, representing up to 70% of dry weight depending on the species, age and season. It has a wide range of applications including cosmetic, pharmaceutical, food industry, and medical. In the present work, collagen was obtained by pepsin extraction from the skin of two species of teleost and two species of chondrychtyes with yields varying between 14.16% and 61.17%. The storage conditions of the skins appear to influence these collagen extractions yields. Pepsin soluble collagen (PSC) was enzymatically hydrolyzed and the resultant hydrolysates were ultrafiltrated and characterized. Electrophoretic patterns showed the typical composition of type I collagen, with denaturation temperatures ranged between 23 °C and 33 °C. In terms of antioxidant capacity, results revealed significant intraspecific differences between hydrolysates, retentate, and permeate fractions when using β-Carotene and DPPH methods and also showed interspecies differences between those fractions when using DPPH and ABTS methods. Under controlled conditions, PSC hydrolysates from Prionace glauca, Scyliorhinus canicula, Xiphias gladius, and Thunnus albacares provide a valuable source of peptides with antioxidant capacities constituting a feasible way to efficiently upgrade fish skin biomass.

  13. Physical and oxidative stability of fish oil-in-water emulsions stabilized with fish protein hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    García-Moreno, Pedro J; Guadix, Antonio; Guadix, Emilia M; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2016-07-15

    The emulsifying and antioxidant properties of fish protein hydrolysates (FPH) for the physical and oxidative stabilization of 5% (by weight) fish oil-in-water emulsions were investigated. Muscle proteins from sardine (Sardina pilchardus) and small-spotted catshark (Scyliorhinus canicula) were hydrolyzed to degrees of hydrolysis (DH) of 3-4-5-6% with subtilisin. Sardine hydrolysates with low DH, 3% and 4%, presented the most effective peptides to physically stabilize emulsions with smaller droplet size. This implied more protein adsorbed at the interface to act as physical barrier against prooxidants. This fact might also be responsible for the higher oxidative stability of these emulsions, as shown by their lowest peroxide value and concentration of volatiles such as 1-penten-3-one and 1-penten-3-ol. Among the hydrolysates prepared from small-spotted catshark only the hydrolysate with DH 3% yielded a physically stable emulsion with low concentration of unsaturated aldehydes. These results show the potential of FPH as alternative protein emulsifiers for the production of oxidatively stable fish oil-in-water emulsions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Ingestion of microplastics by demersal fish from the Spanish Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts.

    PubMed

    Bellas, Juan; Martínez-Armental, José; Martínez-Cámara, Ariana; Besada, Victoria; Martínez-Gómez, Concepción

    2016-08-15

    Microplastic pollution has received increased attention over the last few years. This study documents microplastic ingestion in three commercially relevant demersal fish species from the Spanish Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts, the lesser spotted dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula, the European hake Merluccius merluccius and the red mullet Mullus barbatus. Overall 212 fish were examined, 72 dogfish, 12 hakes and 128 red mullets. The percentage of fish with microplastics was 17.5% (15.3% dogfish, 18.8% red mullets and 16.7% hakes), averaging 1.56±0.5 items per fish, and the size of the microplastics ranged from 0.38 to 3.1mm. These fish species are used currently as biomonitors for marine pollution monitoring within the Spanish Marine Pollution Monitoring Programme (SMP), and may be as well suitable candidates for monitoring spatial and temporal trends of ingested litter. The data presented here represent a baseline for the implementation of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive descriptor 10 in Spain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterization of Brachyury genes in the dogfish S. canicula and the lamprey L. fluviatilis. Insights into gastrulation in a chondrichthyan.

    PubMed

    Sauka-Spengler, Tatjana; Baratte, Blandine; Lepage, Mario; Mazan, Sylvie

    2003-11-15

    In order to gain insights into the evolution of gastrulation mechanisms among vertebrates, we have characterized a Brachyury-related gene in a lamprey, Lampetra fluviatilis, and in a chondrichthyan, Scyliorhinus canicula. These two genes, respectively termed LfT and ScT, share with their osteichthyan counterparts prominent expression sites in the developing notochord, the tailbud, but also a transient expression in the prechordal plate, which is likely to be ancestral among vertebrates. In addition, the lamprey LfT gene is transcribed in the endoderm of the pharyngeal arches and the epiphysis, two expression sites that have not been reported thus far in gnathostomes, and, as in the chick, in the differentiating nephrotomes. Since Brachyury expression in nascent mesoderm and endoderm is highly conserved among vertebrates as well as cephalochordates, we have used this marker to identify these cell populations during gastrulation in the dogfish. The results suggest that these cells are initially present over the whole margin of the blastoderm and are displaced during gastrulation to its posterior part, which may correspond to the site of mesoderm and endoderm internalization. These data provide the first molecular characterization of gastrulation in a chondrichthyan. They indicate that gastrulation in the dogfish and in some amniotes shares striking similarities despite the phylogenetic distance between these species. This supports the hypothesis that the extensively divergent morphologies of gastrulae among vertebrates largely result from adaptations to the presence of yolk.

  16. Strong population genetic structure and contrasting demographic histories for the small-spotted catshark (Scyliorhinus canicula) in the Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Kousteni, V; Kasapidis, P; Kotoulas, G; Megalofonou, P

    2015-03-01

    Coastal and demersal chondrichthyans, such as the small-spotted catshark, are expected to exhibit genetic differentiation in areas of complex geomorphology like the Mediterranean Basin because of their limited dispersal ability. To test this hypothesis, we used a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene and 12 nuclear microsatellite loci in order to investigate the genetic structure and historical demography of this species, and to identify potential barriers to gene flow. Samples were collected from the Balearic Islands, the Algerian Basin, the Ionian Sea, the Corinthian Gulf and various locations across the Aegean Sea. Additional sequences from the Atlantic and the Levantine Basin retrieved from GenBank were included in the mitochondrial DNA analysis. Both mitochondrial and nuclear microsatellite DNA data revealed a strong genetic subdivision, mainly between the western and eastern Mediterranean, whereas the Levantine Basin shared haplotypes with both areas. The geographic isolation of the Mediterranean basins seems to enforce the population genetic differentiation of the species, with the deep sea acting as a strong barrier to its dispersal. Contrasting historical demographic patterns were also observed in different parts of the species' distribution, most notably a population growth trend in the western Mediterranean/Atlantic area and a slight decreasing one in the Aegean Sea. The different effects of the Pleistocene glacial periods on the habitat availability may explain the contrasting demographic patterns observed. The current findings suggest that the small-spotted catshark exhibits several genetic stocks in the Mediterranean, although further study is needed.

  17. Strong population genetic structure and contrasting demographic histories for the small-spotted catshark (Scyliorhinus canicula) in the Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Kousteni, V; Kasapidis, P; Kotoulas, G; Megalofonou, P

    2015-01-01

    Coastal and demersal chondrichthyans, such as the small-spotted catshark, are expected to exhibit genetic differentiation in areas of complex geomorphology like the Mediterranean Basin because of their limited dispersal ability. To test this hypothesis, we used a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene and 12 nuclear microsatellite loci in order to investigate the genetic structure and historical demography of this species, and to identify potential barriers to gene flow. Samples were collected from the Balearic Islands, the Algerian Basin, the Ionian Sea, the Corinthian Gulf and various locations across the Aegean Sea. Additional sequences from the Atlantic and the Levantine Basin retrieved from GenBank were included in the mitochondrial DNA analysis. Both mitochondrial and nuclear microsatellite DNA data revealed a strong genetic subdivision, mainly between the western and eastern Mediterranean, whereas the Levantine Basin shared haplotypes with both areas. The geographic isolation of the Mediterranean basins seems to enforce the population genetic differentiation of the species, with the deep sea acting as a strong barrier to its dispersal. Contrasting historical demographic patterns were also observed in different parts of the species' distribution, most notably a population growth trend in the western Mediterranean/Atlantic area and a slight decreasing one in the Aegean Sea. The different effects of the Pleistocene glacial periods on the habitat availability may explain the contrasting demographic patterns observed. The current findings suggest that the small-spotted catshark exhibits several genetic stocks in the Mediterranean, although further study is needed. PMID:25469687

  18. Assessing Fish and Motile Fauna around Offshore Windfarms Using Stereo Baited Video.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Ross A; Robinson, Gary J; West, Ashley; Gloyne-Phillips, Ian T; Unsworth, Richard K F

    2016-01-01

    There remains limited knowledge of how offshore windfarm developments influence fish assemblages, particularly at a local scale around the turbine structures. Considering the existing levels of anthropogenic pressures on coastal fish populations it is becoming increasingly important for developers and environmental regulators to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the factors influencing fish assemblages. Improving our ability to assess such fish populations in close proximity to structures will assist in increasing this knowledge. In the present study we provide the first trial use of Baited Remote Underwater Stereo-Video systems (stereo BRUVs) for the quantification of motile fauna in close proximity to offshore wind turbines. The study was conducted in the Irish Sea and finds the technique to be a viable means of assessing the motile fauna of such environments. The present study found a mixture of species including bottom dwellers, motile crustaceans and large predatory fish. The majority of taxa observed were found to be immature individuals with few adult individuals recorded. The most abundant species were the angular crab (Goneplax rhomboides) and the small-spotted catshark (Scyliorhinus canicula). Of note in this study was the generally low abundance and diversity of taxa recorded across all samples, we hypothesise that this reflects the generally poor state of the local fauna of the Irish Sea. The faunal assemblages sampled in close proximity to turbines were observed to alter with increasing distance from the structure, species more characteristic of hard bottom environments were in abundance at the turbines (e.g. Homarus gammarus, Cancer pagarus, Scyliorhinus spp.) and those further away more characteristic of soft bottoms (e.g. Norwegian Lobster). This study highlights the need for the environmental impacts of offshore renewables on motile fauna to be assessed using targeted and appropriate tools. Stereo BRUVs provide one of those tools, but like

  19. Assessing Fish and Motile Fauna around Offshore Windfarms Using Stereo Baited Video

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Ross A.; Robinson, Gary J.; West, Ashley; Gloyne-Phillips, Ian T.; Unsworth, Richard K. F.

    2016-01-01

    There remains limited knowledge of how offshore windfarm developments influence fish assemblages, particularly at a local scale around the turbine structures. Considering the existing levels of anthropogenic pressures on coastal fish populations it is becoming increasingly important for developers and environmental regulators to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the factors influencing fish assemblages. Improving our ability to assess such fish populations in close proximity to structures will assist in increasing this knowledge. In the present study we provide the first trial use of Baited Remote Underwater Stereo-Video systems (stereo BRUVs) for the quantification of motile fauna in close proximity to offshore wind turbines. The study was conducted in the Irish Sea and finds the technique to be a viable means of assessing the motile fauna of such environments. The present study found a mixture of species including bottom dwellers, motile crustaceans and large predatory fish. The majority of taxa observed were found to be immature individuals with few adult individuals recorded. The most abundant species were the angular crab (Goneplax rhomboides) and the small-spotted catshark (Scyliorhinus canicula). Of note in this study was the generally low abundance and diversity of taxa recorded across all samples, we hypothesise that this reflects the generally poor state of the local fauna of the Irish Sea. The faunal assemblages sampled in close proximity to turbines were observed to alter with increasing distance from the structure, species more characteristic of hard bottom environments were in abundance at the turbines (e.g. Homarus gammarus, Cancer pagarus, Scyliorhinus spp.) and those further away more characteristic of soft bottoms (e.g. Norwegian Lobster). This study highlights the need for the environmental impacts of offshore renewables on motile fauna to be assessed using targeted and appropriate tools. Stereo BRUVs provide one of those tools, but like

  20. Fish-based remedies in Spanish ethnomedicine: a review from a historical perspective

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fish-based therapeutics is fundamentally based on a dietary use, but these vertebrates have also been employed in the treatment of infectious and parasitic diseases, during pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum and to deal with diseases of the different systems. Methods An overview of the ethnomedical and historical Spanish literature has been carried out. Automated searches in the most important national and international databases have been performed. All related works have been thorough examined. Results We examine the historical use of 54 medicinal fish species, 48 marine and six from inland waters. As useful, in Ancient times 39 species have been recorded (of which only 21 have been collected in subsequent periods), seven in the Middle Ages, 18 in Modern times and 17 in the contemporary period. Anguilla anguilla, Engraulis encrasicolus or Scyliorhinus canicula are species that have survived over time as an ingredient in Spanish folk remedies. Most remedies used in the last century and currently are empirical remedies based on the humorism theory and the principle of contraria contrariis curantur (74%), and the rest (26%) are magical type remedies that complete the popular therapeutic arsenal. Conclusions In the last century we find a progressive decrease in the number of fish species used in ethnomedicine. Only seven taxa have been documented as surviving therapeutic resources since centuries ago. The existence of a dynamic Spanish ethnomedicine has also been detected which has managed to generate new therapeutic resources in recent times. It is important to validate the remedies by ethnopharmacology and evidence-based medicine. In order to recover as much data as possible, it will be necessary to draw up an inventory of ethnoichthyological uses. PMID:24885245

  1. Scyliorhinus ugoi, a new species of catshark from Brazil (Chondrichthyes: Carcharhiniformes: Scyliorhinidae).

    PubMed

    Soares, Karla D A; Gadig, Otto F B; Gomes, Ulisses L

    2015-03-25

    A new species of catshark (Carcharhiniformes, Scyliorhinidae), Scyliorhinus ugoi sp. nov., is described from off Northeastern and Southeastern Brazil. The new species is closest to the Scyliorhinus haeckelii/besnardi group and S. hesperius but differs in background coloration, head width, sexual maturity, and in cranial and body proportions.

  2. Mercury in muscle tissue of lesser-spotted dogfish (Scyliorhinus caniculus L.) from the north-east Irish Sea.

    PubMed

    Leah, R; Evans, S; Johnson, M

    1991-10-15

    This paper reports concentrations of mercury in muscle tissue of lesser-spotted dogfish (Scyliorhinus caniculus L.) from various locations within Liverpool Bay and the north-east Irish Sea. Concentrations of mercury in fish muscle showed distinct spatial variation, with values from the northern sectors of the Irish Sea significantly lower than those for the southern area, particularly sites in Liverpool Bay and around the mouth of the Mersey Estuary. The data support the hypothesis that there are several major populations of lesser-spotted dogfish within the study area, each of which remains quite distinct during seasonal movements. Consequently, exposure to environmental mercury is reflected in muscle concentrations of mercury. Regressions of mercury concentration against fish length showed significant relationships for the majority of sites, with the slope relating to distance from known sources of mercury contamination. Mean mercury concentrations were higher than in corresponding populations of flatfish from the same areas.

  3. UREA TRANSPORT BY HEPATOCYTES AND RED BLOOD CELLS OF SELECTED ELASMOBRANCH AND TELEOST FISHES

    PubMed

    Walsh; Wood; Perry; Thomas

    1994-08-01

    Although urea transport is receiving increased attention in mammalian systems, very little is known about urea transport in fish tissues. This study examined mechanisms of urea transport in red blood cells and hepatocytes from the lesser spotted dogfish (Scyliorhinus canicula), Atlantic stingray (Dasyatis sabina), turbot (Scopthalmus maximus), redfish (Scianops ocellatus), gulf toadfish (Opsanus beta) and oyster toadfish (Opsanus tau). Urea appeared to be passively distributed in both tissues (i.e. there was no difference between plasma and tissue urea concentrations). Additionally, a number of in vitro experiments examining [14C]urea flux were performed. In red blood cells from all species except redfish, urea transport occurred via simple passive diffusion, but redfish red blood cells showed a small (25 %) phloretin-sensitive uptake component. In hepatocytes of the two elasmobranch species (dogfish and stingray), urea efflux was also by simple passive diffusion. However, urea efflux in toadfish (both O. beta and O. tau) hepatocytes exhibited a marked phloretin-sensitivity, and O. beta hepatocytes were used in further experiments with other inhibitors and treatments. Urea transport in O. beta had a relatively high specificity for urea compared with the urea analogues acetamide, thiourea and N-methylurea, was unaffected by phloridzin and extracellular Na+ removal, and was not inhibited by physiological levels of glucose (0.5­10 mmol l-1). A phloretin-sensitive glucose transport, that was not inhibited by physiological levels of urea, was discovered in O. beta hepatocytes. The results are discussed in terms of patterns of species distribution and similarities between urea and glucose transport.

  4. Shark (Scyliorhinus torazame) metallothionein: cDNA cloning, genomic sequence, and expression analysis.

    PubMed

    Cho, Young Sun; Choi, Buyl Nim; Ha, En-Mi; Kim, Ki Hong; Kim, Sung Koo; Kim, Dong Soo; Nam, Yoon Kwon

    2005-01-01

    Novel metallothionein (MT) complementary DNA and genomic sequences were isolated from a cartilaginous shark species, Scyliorhinus torazame. The full-length open reading frame (ORF) of shark MT cDNA encoded 68 amino acids with a high cysteine content (29%). The genomic ORF sequence (932 bp) of shark MT isolated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) comprised 3 exons with 2 interventing introns. Shark MT sequence shared many conserved features with other vertebrate MTs: overall amino acid identities of shark MT ranged from 47% to 57% with fish MTs, and 41% to 62% with mammalian MTs. However, in addition to these conserved characteristics, shark MT sequence exhibited some unique characteristics. It contained 4 extra amino acids (Lys-Ala-Gly-Arg) at the end of the beta-domain, which have not been reported in any other vertebrate MTs. The last amino acid residue at the C-terminus was Ser, which also has not been reported in fish and mammalian MTs. The MT messenger RNA levels in shark liver and kidney, assessed by semiquantitative reverse transcriptase PCR and RNA blot hybridization, were significantly affected by experimental exposures to heavy metals (cadmium, copper, and zinc). Generally, the transcriptional activation of shark MT gene was dependent on the dose (0-10 mg/kg body weight for injection and 0-20 microM for immersion) and duration (1-10 days); zinc was a more potent inducer than copper and cadmium.

  5. Taxonomic review of catsharks of the Scyliorhinus haeckelii group, with the description of a new species (Chondrichthyes: Carcharhiniformes: Scyliorhinidae).

    PubMed

    Soares, Karla D A; Gomes, Ulisses L; Carvalho, Marcelo R De

    2016-01-19

    Sharks of the genus Scyliorhinus from the southwestern Atlantic are reviewed; identification problems and taxonomic misinformation given in the literature are rectified. After extensive examination of the external and internal morphology of specimens collected mostly off southeastern and southern Brazil, Scyliorhinus besnardi Springer & Sadowsky, 1970 is placed in the synonymy of S. haeckelii (Miranda Ribeiro, 1907), which is thoroughly redescribed. Additionally, a new species, Scyliorhinus cabofriensis, sp. nov., is described from the state of Rio de Janeiro, distinguished from all southwestern Atlantic congeners by its color pattern, clasper and neurocranial morphology, and proportional measurements. A key to Scyliorhinus species occurring in the southwestern Atlantic is also provided.

  6. Molecular cloning of the cDNAs encoding three somatostatin variants in the dogfish (Scylorhinus canicula).

    PubMed

    Quan, Feng B; Kenigfest, Natalia B; Mazan, Sylvie; Tostivint, Hervé

    2013-01-01

    It has been recently shown that the somatostatin gene family was likely composed of at least three paralogous genes in the common ancestor of all extant jawed vertebrates. These three genes, namely SS1, SS2 and SS5, are thought to have been generated through the two rounds of whole-genome duplications (2R) that took place early during the vertebrate evolution. In the present study, we report the cloning of three distinct somatostatin cDNAs from the dogfish Scylorhinus canicula, a member of the group of cartilaginous fish. We decided to call these cDNAs, at least provisionally, SSa, SSb and SSc, respectively. Two of them, SSa and SSb, encode proteins that both contain the same tetradecapeptide sequence at their C-terminal extremity (AGCKNFFWKTFTSC). This putative peptide is identical to that generated by the SS1 gene in other vertebrate species. The last cDNA, SSc, encodes a protein that contains at its C-terminal extremity the same peptide sequence as that generated by the SS2 gene in teleosts (APCKNFFWKTFTSC). Phylogenetic analysis showed that the SSa and SSc genes likely correspond to the dogfish counterparts of the SS1 and SS2 genes, respectively. In contrast, the phylogenetic status of the SSb gene is less clear. Several lines of evidence suggest that it could correspond to the SS5 gene, but this view will need to be confirmed, for example by synteny analysis. Finally, RT-PCR analysis revealed that SSa, SSb and SSc genes are differentially expressed in dogfish tissues, suggesting that the corresponding peptides may exert distinct functions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Retinal ganglion cell distribution and spatial resolving power in the Japanese catshark Scyliorhinus torazame.

    PubMed

    Muguruma, Kaori; Takei, Shiro; Yamamoto, Naoyuki

    2013-01-01

    Topographic distribution of retinal ganglion cells (GCs) is linked with the visual capabilities and behavioral ecology of vertebrates. Studies on the distribution of different types of GCs, however, have been conducted in only a few species of elasmobranchs. In the present study, the distribution and peak cell density of GCs, and spatial resolving power (SRP) were examined in the Japanese catshark, Scyliorhinus torazame. Distinct populations of GCs were identified in the ganglion cell layer of S. torazame based on soma size: small and large GCs, which showed different spatial distribution patterns. A horizontal streak of high cell density was recognized in the dorsal retina for small GCs. The highest cell density occurred within the streak, and the peak SRPs of the three fish investigated in the present study were 2.32, 2.64, and 3.01 cycles/deg. In contrast, two spots of high cell density, or areae gigantocellulares, were identified for large GCs, one in the temporal and the other in the nasal retina. The highest cell density occurred in the temporal or nasal area gigantocellularis (SRP: 1.36, 1.55 and 1.83 cycles/deg). This is the first study reporting an elasmobranch species with a horizontal visual streak of small GCs and two areae gigantocellulares. The horizontal streak of small GCs in the dorsal retina, which serves for the inferior visual field, is likely important for food search on the bottom, and the areae gigantocellulares may be important to the detection of prey and/or predators approaching from the front or behind the catshark.

  8. Neuropeptide Y immunohistochemistry and ultrastructure of developing chromaffin tissue in the cloudy dogfish, Scyliorhinus torazame (Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii).

    PubMed

    Chiba, A

    2001-02-01

    Ontogenetic changes in neuropeptide Y-like immunoreactivity (NPY-LI) were studied in chromaffin tissue of the cloudy dogfish, Scyliorhinus torazame. In adults and post-hatching juveniles, NPY-LI was demonstrated in chromaffin cells, but not in ganglion cells and supporting cells. Immunoreactive fibers were also found in the axillary body (the major chromaffin tissue) of the adult fish. During the embryonic period, NPY-LI was found at first in chromaffin tissue in the 34-mm stage. In this stage, cells in the periphery of the tissue were positive for NPY. Afterwards, changes were not observed in the topography and relative dominance of labelled cells in the tissue. Transmission electron microscopy of chromaffin tissue of the 26-mm stage showed an early phase of histogenesis in rudimental cell clusters composed of agranular cells and a few granular cells, i.e. pheochromoblasts. In the 43-mm stage, differentiation of the chromaffin tissue enabled ultrastructural classification of adrenalin-producing cells, noradrenalin-producing cells, ganglion cells, supporting cells, and unmyelinated nerve fibers. These results suggest that in the dogfish the appearance of NPY-LI in the developing sympathoadrenal system is related to differentiation of chromaffin cells.

  9. Distributional shift of urea production site from the extraembryonic yolk sac membrane to the embryonic liver during the development of cloudy catshark (Scyliorhinus torazame).

    PubMed

    Takagi, Wataru; Kajimura, Makiko; Tanaka, Hironori; Hasegawa, Kumi; Ogawa, Shuntaro; Hyodo, Susumu

    2017-09-01

    Urea is an essential osmolyte for marine cartilaginous fishes. Adult elasmobranchs and holocephalans are known to actively produce urea in the liver, muscle and other extrahepatic organs; however, osmoregulatory mechanisms in the developing cartilaginous fish embryo with an undeveloped urea-producing organ are poorly understood. We recently described the contribution of extraembryonic yolk sac membranes (YSM) to embryonic urea synthesis during the early developmental period of the oviparous holocephalan elephant fish (Callorhinchus milii). In the present study, to test whether urea production in the YSM is a general phenomenon among oviparous Chondrichthyes, we investigated gene expression and activities of ornithine urea cycle (OUC) enzymes together with urea concentrations in embryos of the elasmobranch cloudy catshark (Scyliorhinus torazame). The intracapsular fluid, in which the catshark embryo develops, had a similar osmolality to seawater, and embryos maintained a high concentration of urea at levels similar to that of adult plasma throughout development. Relative mRNA expressions and activities of catshark OUC enzymes were significantly higher in YSM than in embryos until stage 32. Concomitant with the development of the embryonic liver, the expression levels and activities of OUC enzymes were markedly increased in the embryo from stage 33, while those of the YSM decreased from stage 32. The present study provides further evidence that the YSM contributes to embryonic urea homeostasis until the liver and other extrahepatic organs become fully functional, and that urea-producing tissue shifts from the YSM to the embryonic liver in the late developmental period of oviparous marine cartilaginous fishes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cloning and characterization of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-3 (TIMP-3) from shark, Scyliorhinus torazame.

    PubMed

    Kim, J T; Kim, M S; Bae, M K; Song, H S; Ahn, M Y; Kim, Y J; Lee, S J; Kim, K W

    2001-01-26

    We cloned the full-length cDNA encoding TIMP-3 from the cartilage of cloudy dogfish, Scyliorhinus torazame. The entire open reading frame was composed of 645 nucleotides and 214 residues including 12 conserved cysteines and asparagine-184, a putative site for N-linked sugars. It showed about 72% identity to those of other species based on the deduced amino acid sequence. The mRNA of shark TIMP-3 were expressed abundantly in brain and cartilage tissues. To investigate the roles of shark TIMP-3, an expression vector was constructed and transfected into HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cells. Overexpression of shark TIMP-3 reduced the activity of MMP-2 in gelatin zymography. Through human Alu PCR based CAM assay, we also confirmed that shark TIMP-3 transfected HT1080 cells had less intravasation effects.

  11. A morphological classification of retinal ganglion cells in the Japanese catshark Scyliorhinus torazame.

    PubMed

    Muguruma, Kaori; Stell, William K; Yamamoto, Naoyuki

    2014-01-01

    Retinal ganglion cells (GCs) in the Japanese catshark Scyliorhinus torazame were labeled retrogradely with biotinylated dextran amine (BDA3000). First the labeled cells were classified into 5 morphological types (types I-III: small GCs; types IV and V: large GCs) according to the size of the soma and the dendritic arborization pattern as seen in retinal wholemounts. Type I cells were stellate, with dendrites radiating in different directions. Type II cells had bipolar dendritic trees, with 2 primary dendrites extending in opposite directions. Type III cells had a single thick primary dendrite. Type IV cells were stellate, with dendrites covering a large area centered on the cell body. Type V cells were asymmetric, with most dendrites extending opposite to the axon as a large, fan-shaped dendritic field. Subsequently a wholemount was cross-sectioned, and we classified cells further into multiple subtypes according to the level of dendritic arborization within the inner plexiform layer. The present results suggest the existence of many types of GCs in elasmobranchs in addition to the 3 types of large GCs that have been characterized previously. Some of the newly described GC subtypes in the catshark retina appear to be similar to some of those reported in actinopterygians.

  12. Characterization of vitellogenin and its derived yolk proteins in cloudy catshark (Scyliorhinus torazame).

    PubMed

    Yamane, Kodai; Yagai, Tomoki; Nishimiya, Osamu; Sugawara, Rieko; Amano, Haruna; Fujita, Toshiaki; Hiramatsu, Naoshi; Todo, Takashi; Matsubara, Takahiro; Hara, Akihiko

    2013-04-01

    Elasmobranchs (sharks and rays) exhibit unique reproductive characteristics and, in contrast to the situation in teleosts, very little is known about the identity, structure and physical characteristics of their egg yolk proteins. The aims of this study were to (1) detect and purify the vitellogenin (Vtg; egg yolk precursor) and yolk proteins (YPs) of the cloudy catshark (Scyliorhinus torazame), (2) examine the relationships between Vtg and YPs and (3) characterize and classify the deduced primary structure of the Vtg transcript (vtg). The apparent molecular weights of purified Vtg and putative Vtg-related YPs (lipovitellin: Lv, phosvitin: Pv) were determined by gel filtration and were ~560, >669 and ~58 kDa, respectively. Following SDS-PAGE, these purified products (i.e., Vtg, Lv and Pv) appeared as bands of ~210, ~110 and ~22 kDa, respectively. On Western blots, antisera against purified Vtg, Lv and Pv recognized the ~210 kDa Vtg band. Catshark Pv, in contrast to teleost Pvs, had a very low serine content. The catshark Vtg cDNA sequence (vtg) appeared to contain an open-reading frame consisting of domains encoding Lv, Pv and β'-component (β'-c). A phylogenetic analysis, with a consideration of genome duplication events, placed catshark vtg into the 'vtgAB type.' It is concluded that at least a single major type of Vtg protein, which is transcribed and translated from catshark vtgAB gene, is the precursor of three egg yolk proteins (Lv, Pv and β'-c) in catshark.

  13. Leukotriene B4 induces enhanced migration of fish leucocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hunt, T C; Rowley, A F

    1986-12-01

    Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) was found to induce enhanced migration of the eosinophilic G1 granulocyte of the dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula in the migration under agarose assay. Higher levels of LTB4, however, were required to produce this effect than with mammalian neutrophils under similar conditions. It is postulated that this may be due to the dogfish granulocytes possessing fewer receptors for LTB4 than their mammalian counterparts. The eosinophilic G3 granulocyte was also tested using the same assay but results were inconclusive. The effect of LTB4 on dogfish G1 and G3 granulocytes was also monitored with the bipolar shape formation (BSF) assay. LTB4 induced BSF in both granulocyte types, and this method appeared to be more sensitive than the migration under agarose assay. Whether the enhanced migration observed is a result of chemotaxis or chemokinesis is not determined. This present study represents the first known report of the function of LTB4 in a non-mammalian vertebrate.

  14. Study of dogfish (Scyliorhinus caniculus) deoxyribonucleic acid polymerase alpha and beta. Extraction, separation, characterization and changes during spermatogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Philippe, M; Chevaillier, P

    1980-01-01

    DNA polymerase activity was extracted from testis cells of the dogfish Scyliorhinus caniculus. On a sucrose gradient, two main peaks could be separated, corresponding to DNA polymerases beta (3.8 S) and alpha (7.5 S). DNA polymerase gamma could also be detected when poly(A) . (dT)12 was used as template. The properties of alpha and beta polymerases of this primitive vertebrate were similar to those generally described, especially in mammals. The beta enzyme was highly sensitive to N-ethylmaleimide, however, and could use poly(dT) . poly(A) as template. Polymerase alpha was present in spermatogonia, spermatocytes and spermatids. Activity was maximal in spermatocytes. DNA polymerase beta was present in all testis cells with similar activities in spermatogonia and spermatocytes. Decreased activities were observed during spermiogenesis. Some activity remained associated with the chromatin fraction of mature sperm cells. Images PLATE 1 PLATE 2 PMID:7194042

  15. Cloning and functional characterization of Chondrichthyes, cloudy catshark, Scyliorhinus torazame and whale shark, Rhincodon typus estrogen receptors.

    PubMed

    Katsu, Yoshinao; Kohno, Satomi; Narita, Haruka; Urushitani, Hiroshi; Yamane, Koudai; Hara, Akihiko; Clauss, Tonya M; Walsh, Michael T; Miyagawa, Shinichi; Guillette, Louis J; Iguchi, Taisen

    2010-09-15

    Sex-steroid hormones are essential for normal reproductive activity in both sexes in all vertebrates. Estrogens are required for ovarian differentiation during a critical developmental stage and promote the growth and differentiation of the female reproductive system following puberty. Recent studies have shown that environmental estrogens influence the developing reproductive system as well as gametogenesis, especially in males. To understand the molecular mechanisms of estrogen actions and to evaluate estrogen receptor-ligand interactions in Elasmobranchii, we cloned a single estrogen receptor (ESR) from two shark species, the cloudy catshark (Scyliorhinus torazame) and whale shark (Rhincodon typus) and used an ERE-luciferase reporter assay system to characterize the interaction of these receptors with steroidal and other environmental estrogens. In the transient transfection ERE-luciferase reporter assay system, both shark ESR proteins displayed estrogen-dependent activation of transcription, and shark ESRs were more sensitive to 17beta-estradiol compared with other natural and synthetic estrogens. Further, the environmental chemicals, bisphenol A, nonylphenol, octylphenol and DDT could activate both shark ESRs. The assay system provides a tool for future studies examining the receptor-ligand interactions and estrogen disrupting mechanisms in Elasmobranchii. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Cell types of the endocrine pancreas in the shark Scyliorhinus stellaris as revealed by correlative light and electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, K; Syed Ali, S

    1981-01-01

    In the pancreas of Scyliorhinus stellaris large islets are usually found around small ducts, the inner surface of which is covered by elongated epithelial cells; thus the endocrine cells are never exposed directly to the lumen of the duct. Sometimes, single islet cells or small groups of endocrine elements are also incorporated into acini. Using correlative light and electron microscopy, eight islet cell types were identified: Only B-cells (type I) display a positive reaction with pseudoisocyanin and aldehyde-fuchsin staining. This cell type contains numerous small secretory granules (diameter 280 nm). Type II- and III-cells possess large granules stainable with orange G and azocarmine and show strong luminescence with dark-field microscopy. Type II-cells have spherical (diameter 700 nm), type III-cells spherical to elongated granules (diameter 450 x 750 nm). Type II-cells are possibly analogous to A-cells, while type III-cells resemble mammalian enterochromaffin cells. Type IV-cells contain granules (diameter 540 nm) of high electron density showing a positive reaction to the Hellman-Hellerström silver impregnation and a negative reaction to Grimelius' silver impregnation; they are most probably analogous to D-cells of other species. Type V-cells exhibit smaller granules (diameter 250 x 500 nm), oval to elongated in shape. Type VI-cells contain small spherical granules (diameter 310 nm). Type VII-cells possess two kinds of large granules interspersed in the cytoplasm; one type is spherical and electron dense (diameter 650 nm), the other spherical and less electron dense (diameter 900 nm). Type VIII-cells have small granules curved in shape and show moderate electron density (diameter 100 nm). Grimelius-positive secretory granules were not only found in cell types II and III, but also in types V, VI, and VII. B-cells (type I) and the cell types II to IV were the most frequent cells; types V to VII occurred occasionally, whereas type VIII-cells were very rare.

  17. Regionalization of the Shark Hindbrain: A Survey of an Ancestral Organization

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Moldes, Isabel; Carrera, Ivan; Pose-Méndez, Sol; Quintana-Urzainqui, Idoia; Candal, Eva; Anadón, Ramón; Mazan, Sylvie; Ferreiro-Galve, Susana

    2011-01-01

    Cartilaginous fishes (chondrichthyans) represent an ancient radiation of vertebrates currently considered the sister group of the group of gnathostomes with a bony skeleton that gave rise to land vertebrates. This out-group position makes chondrichthyans essential in assessing the ancestral organization of the brain of jawed vertebrates. To gain knowledge about hindbrain evolution we have studied its development in a shark, the lesser spotted dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula by analyzing the expression of some developmental genes and the origin and distribution of specific neuronal populations, which may help to identify hindbrain subdivisions and boundaries and the topology of specific cell groups. We have characterized three developmental periods that will serve as a framework to compare the development of different neuronal systems and may represent a suitable tool for comparing the absolute chronology of development among vertebrates. The expression patterns of Pax6, Wnt8, and HoxA2 genes in early embryos of S. canicula showed close correspondence to what has been described in other vertebrates and helped to identify the anterior rhombomeres. Also in these early embryos, the combination of Pax6 with protein markers of migrating neuroblasts (DCX) and early differentiating neurons (general: HuC/D; neuron type specific: GAD, the GABA synthesizing enzyme) revealed the organization of S. canicula hindbrain in both transverse segmental units corresponding to visible rhombomeres and longitudinal columns. Later in development, when the interrhombomeric boundaries fade away, accurate information about S. canicula hindbrain subdivisions was achieved by comparing the expression patterns of Pax6 and GAD, serotonin (serotoninergic neurons), tyrosine hydroxylase (catecholaminergic neurons), choline acetyltransferase (cholinergic neurons), and calretinin (a calcium-binding protein). The patterns observed revealed many topological correspondences with other vertebrates and led to

  18. One Fish Two Fish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Michele

    1998-01-01

    This activity explains fisheries resource management to seven-year olds. First-grade students learn concepts such as offspring viability, life expectancy, and distribution of species, which help to determine when, where, and how people fish and the importance of fishing responsibly. Lists materials, procedures, and extensions. (SJR)

  19. One Fish Two Fish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Michele

    1998-01-01

    This activity explains fisheries resource management to seven-year olds. First-grade students learn concepts such as offspring viability, life expectancy, and distribution of species, which help to determine when, where, and how people fish and the importance of fishing responsibly. Lists materials, procedures, and extensions. (SJR)

  20. Development of head and trunk mesoderm in the dogfish, Scyliorhinus torazame: I. Embryology and morphology of the head cavities and related structures.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Noritaka; Kuratani, Shigeru

    2012-01-01

    Vertebrate head segmentation has attracted the attention of comparative and evolutionary morphologists for centuries, given its importance for understanding the developmental body plan of vertebrates and its evolutionary origin. In particular, the segmentation of the mesoderm is central to the problem. The shark embryo has provided a canonical morphological scheme of the head, with its epithelialized coelomic cavities (head cavities), which have often been regarded as head somites. To understand the evolutionary significance of the head cavities, the embryonic development of the mesoderm was investigated at the morphological and histological levels in the shark, Scyliorhinus torazame. Unlike somites and some enterocoelic mesodermal components in other vertebrates, the head cavities in S. torazame appeared as irregular cyst(s) in the originally unsegmented mesenchymal head mesoderm, and not via segmentation of an undivided coelom. The mandibular cavity appeared first in the paraxial part of the mandibular mesoderm, followed by the hyoid cavity, and the premandibular cavity was the last to form. The prechordal plate was recognized as a rhomboid roof of the preoral gut, continuous with the rostral notochord, and was divided anteroposteriorly into two parts by the growth of the hypothalamic primordium. Of those, the posterior part was likely to differentiate into the premandibular cavity, and the anterior part disappeared later. The head cavities and somites in the trunk exhibited significant differences, in terms of histological appearance and timing of differentiation. The mandibular cavity developed a rostral process secondarily; its homology to the anterior cavity reported in some elasmobranch embryos is discussed. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Karyotype and genome characterization in four cartilaginous fishes.

    PubMed

    Rocco, Lucia; Morescalchi, Maria A; Costagliola, Domenico; Stingo, Vincenzo

    2002-08-07

    Different approaches can be used to elucidate the unsolved questions concerning taxonomic evolution in cartilaginous fish. The study of the karyological characteristics of these vertebrates by combining molecular and traditional techniques of chromosome preparation and banding has been demonstrated to be a very effective method. In this paper we studied the localization and the composition of the constitutive heterochromatin by using C- and restriction endonuclease-banding in four selachian species, belonging to two of the four superorders. We also characterized two different types of repetitive genomic sequences in these species: satellite DNA and (TTAGGG)(n) telomeric sequences. Finally, we analysed the nuclear ribosomal gene to determine the number of the nucleolar organizers and their position on chromosomes by using silver staining, chromomycin A(3), and FISH (fluorescent in situ hybridization). The results showed a prevailingly telomeric localization of constitutive heterochromatin in the Galeomorphii, the presence of additional nucleolar organizer sites in Raja asterias, an exclusively telomeric localization of the (TTAGGG)(n) sequences in Scyliorhinus stellaris and both telomeric and interstitial in Taeniura lymma. These data, together with those concerning the conservation of the satellite DNA, seem to support the hypothesis that Chondrichthyes have an evolutionary history leading them to the acquisition of large genomes rich in highly repeated sequences and subjected to some selective pressures favoring the conservation of this DNA fraction.

  2. The ancestral role of nodal signalling in breaking L/R symmetry in the vertebrate forebrain.

    PubMed

    Lagadec, Ronan; Laguerre, Laurent; Menuet, Arnaud; Amara, Anis; Rocancourt, Claire; Péricard, Pierre; Godard, Benoît G; Rodicio, Maria Celina; Rodriguez-Moldes, Isabel; Mayeur, Hélène; Rougemont, Quentin; Mazan, Sylvie; Boutet, Agnès

    2015-03-30

    Left-right asymmetries in the epithalamic region of the brain are widespread across vertebrates, but their magnitude and laterality varies among species. Whether these differences reflect independent origins of forebrain asymmetries or taxa-specific diversifications of an ancient vertebrate feature remains unknown. Here we show that the catshark Scyliorhinus canicula and the lampreys Petromyzon marinus and Lampetra planeri exhibit conserved molecular asymmetries between the left and right developing habenulae. Long-term pharmacological treatments in these species show that nodal signalling is essential to their generation, rather than their directionality as in teleosts. Moreover, in contrast to zebrafish, habenular left-right differences are observed in the absence of overt asymmetry of the adjacent pineal field. These data support an ancient origin of epithalamic asymmetry, and suggest that a nodal-dependent asymmetry programme operated in the forebrain of ancestral vertebrates before evolving into a variable trait in bony fish.

  3. A shift in anterior-posterior positional information underlies the fin-to-limb evolution.

    PubMed

    Onimaru, Koh; Kuraku, Shigehiro; Takagi, Wataru; Hyodo, Susumu; Sharpe, James; Tanaka, Mikiko

    2015-08-18

    The pectoral fins of ancestral fishes had multiple proximal elements connected to their pectoral girdles. During the fin-to-limb transition, anterior proximal elements were lost and only the most posterior one remained as the humerus. Thus, we hypothesised that an evolutionary alteration occurred in the anterior-posterior (AP) patterning system of limb buds. In this study, we examined the pectoral fin development of catshark (Scyliorhinus canicula) and revealed that the AP positional values in fin buds are shifted more posteriorly than mouse limb buds. Furthermore, examination of Gli3 function and regulation shows that catshark fins lack a specific AP patterning mechanism, which restricts its expression to an anterior domain in tetrapods. Finally, experimental perturbation of AP patterning in catshark fin buds results in an expansion of posterior values and loss of anterior skeletal elements. Together, these results suggest that a key genetic event of the fin-to-limb transformation was alteration of the AP patterning network.

  4. Fish Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... can react to touching fish or breathing in vapors from cooking fish. A fish allergy can cause ... hives red spots swelling a drop in blood pressure , causing lightheadedness or loss of consciousness Your child ...

  5. City Fishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Robert E.

    1979-01-01

    A program of supplying opportunities for fishing at locations within and near urban areas was developed. This effort included stocking, management of bodies of water for fishing, and presentation of fishing clinics for urban fishermen. (RE)

  6. Fish Hearing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaxter, J. H. S.

    1980-01-01

    Provides related information about hearing in fish, including the sensory stimulus of sound in the underwater environment, mechanoreceptors in fish, pressure perception and the swimbladder, specializations in sound conduction peculiar to certain fish families. Includes numerous figures. (CS)

  7. Effects of closed trawl fishery areas on some elasmobranch species in the Cantabrian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Cabello, C.; Sánchez, F.; Serrano, A.; Olaso, I.

    2008-07-01

    This study examines the effects of certain closed areas to the trawl fishery on some Rajidae species and small-spotted catshark in the southern area of the Bay of Biscay. The results are based on abundance index (number/haul) and catch length composition obtained from a series of bottom trawl surveys carried out in the area (1993-2005). Abundance trends are similar considering or not closed areas, but with much lower values excluding closed areas. The length distributions revealed that in some of the species like Scyliorhinus canicula the larger specimens were the most affected by this decrease in number. Finally, the effects and consequences of one of these marine protected areas (MPAs), an artificial reef were examined in more detail for all the fishes and invertebrates. The analysis of the yield series showed an increase in total biomass after the placement of the reefs not only for S. canicula and rays but also teleosts fishes like Pagellus acarne, Trachurus trachurus, Mullus surmuletus and Trachinus draco and particularly invertebrates (sea urchins). On the contrary, the main target species of the trawl fishery (hake, monkfish and megrim among others) did not increase.

  8. Classification of Sharks in the Egyptian Mediterranean Waters Using Morphological and DNA Barcoding Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Moftah, Marie; Abdel Aziz, Sayeda H.; Elramah, Sara; Favereaux, Alexandre

    2011-01-01

    The identification of species constitutes the first basic step in phylogenetic studies, biodiversity monitoring and conservation. DNA barcoding, i.e. the sequencing of a short standardized region of DNA, has been proposed as a new tool for animal species identification. The present study provides an update on the composition of shark in the Egyptian Mediterranean waters off Alexandria, since the latest study to date was performed 30 years ago, DNA barcoding was used in addition to classical taxonomical methodologies. Thus, 51 specimen were DNA barcoded for a 667 bp region of the mitochondrial COI gene. Although DNA barcoding aims at developing species identification systems, some phylogenetic signals were apparent in the data. In the neighbor-joining tree, 8 major clusters were apparent, each of them containing individuals belonging to the same species, and most with 100% bootstrap value. This study is the first to our knowledge to use DNA barcoding of the mitochondrial COI gene in order to confirm the presence of species Squalus acanthias, Oxynotus centrina, Squatina squatina, Scyliorhinus canicula, Scyliorhinus stellaris, Mustelus mustelus, Mustelus punctulatus and Carcharhinus altimus in the Egyptian Mediterranean waters. Finally, our study is the starting point of a new barcoding database concerning shark composition in the Egyptian Mediterranean waters (Barcoding of Egyptian Mediterranean Sharks [BEMS], http://www.boldsystems.org/views/projectlist.php?&#Barcoding%20Fish%20%28FishBOL%29). PMID:22087242

  9. Zn, Cu, and Mn levels in the liver of the dogfish exposed to Zn

    SciTech Connect

    Sanpera, C.; Vallribera, M.; Crespo, S.

    1983-10-01

    To investigate the effects of Zn contamination on the hepatic distribution of these trace elements, Zn, Cu, and Mn levels were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry in the liver of the dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula exposed to 80 and 10 ppm of zinc.

  10. Modeling sensitive elasmobranch habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pennino, M. Grazia; Muñoz, Facundo; Conesa, David; López-Quílez, Antonio; Bellido, José Marí; a

    2013-10-01

    Basic information on the distribution and habitat preferences of ecologically important species is essential for their management and protection. In the Mediterranean Sea there is increasing concern over elasmobranch species because their biological (ecological) characteristics make them highly vulnerable to fishing pressure. Their removal could affect the structure and function of marine ecosystems, inducing changes in trophic interactions at the community level due to the selective elimination of predators or prey species, competitors and species replacement. In this study Bayesian hierarchical spatial models are used to map the sensitive habitats of the three most caught elasmobranch species (Galeus melastomus, Scyliorhinus canicula, Etmopterus spinax) in the western Mediterranean Sea, based on fishery-dependent bottom trawl data. Results show that habitats associated with hard substrata and sandy beds, mainly in deep waters and with a high seabed gradient, have a greater probability registering the presence of the studied species than those associated with muddy shallow waters. Temperature and chlorophyll-α concentration show a negative relationship with S. canicula occurrence. Our results identify some of the sensitive habitats for elasmobranchs in the western Mediterranean Sea (GSA06 South), providing essential and easy-to-use interpretation tools, such as predictive distribution maps, with the final aim of improving management and conservation of these vulnerable species.

  11. Antarctic Fishes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastman, Joseph T.; DeVries, Arthur L.

    1986-01-01

    Explains the adaptations to Antarctic waters that Notothenioidei, a group of advanced bony fishes, have exhibited. Discusses the fishes' mechanisms of production of antifreeze properties and their capacities for neutral buoyancy in water. (ML)

  12. Fish Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Basics Facts and Statistics NIAID Resources Allergens Peanut Tree Nuts Milk Egg Wheat Soy Fish Shellfish Sesame ... Basics Facts and Statistics NIAID Resources Allergens Peanut Tree Nuts Milk Egg Wheat Soy Fish Shellfish Sesame ...

  13. Antarctic Fishes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastman, Joseph T.; DeVries, Arthur L.

    1986-01-01

    Explains the adaptations to Antarctic waters that Notothenioidei, a group of advanced bony fishes, have exhibited. Discusses the fishes' mechanisms of production of antifreeze properties and their capacities for neutral buoyancy in water. (ML)

  14. Fish Dishes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derby, Marie

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art project that was inspired by Greek pottery, specifically dishes shaped as fish. Explains that fourth-grade students drew a fish shape that was later used to create their clay version of the fish. Discusses how the students examined the pottery to make decisions about color and design. (CMK)

  15. Fish Dishes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derby, Marie

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art project that was inspired by Greek pottery, specifically dishes shaped as fish. Explains that fourth-grade students drew a fish shape that was later used to create their clay version of the fish. Discusses how the students examined the pottery to make decisions about color and design. (CMK)

  16. Fish Rhabdoviruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kurath, G.; Winton, J.

    2008-01-01

    Many important viral pathogens of fish are members of the family Rhabdoviridae. The viruses in this large group cause significant losses in populations of wild fish as well as among fish reared in aquaculture. Fish rhabdoviruses often have a wide host and geographic range, and infect aquatic animals in both freshwater and seawater. The fish rhabdoviruses comprise a diverse collection of isolates that can be placed in one of two quite different groups: isolates that are members of the established genusNovirhabdovirus, and those that are most similar to members of the genus Vesiculovirus. Because the diseases caused by fish rhabdoviruses are important to aquaculture, diagnostic methods for their detection and identification are well established. In addition to regulations designed to reduce the spread of fish viruses, a significant body of research has addressed methods for the control or prevention of diseases caused by fish rhabdoviruses, including vaccination. The number of reported fish rhabdoviruses continues to grow as a result of the expansion of aquaculture, the increase in global trade, the development of improved diagnostic methods, and heightened surveillance activities. Fish rhabdoviruses serve as useful components of model systems to study vertebrate virus disease, epidemiology, and immunology.

  17. Texture Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Julie

    2007-01-01

    In an effort to provide an opportunity for her first graders to explore texture through an engaging subject, the author developed a three-part lesson that features fish in a mixed-media artwork: (1) Exploring Textured Paint; (2) Creating the Fish; and (3) Role Playing. In this lesson, students effectively explore texture through painting, drawing,…

  18. Texture Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Julie

    2007-01-01

    In an effort to provide an opportunity for her first graders to explore texture through an engaging subject, the author developed a three-part lesson that features fish in a mixed-media artwork: (1) Exploring Textured Paint; (2) Creating the Fish; and (3) Role Playing. In this lesson, students effectively explore texture through painting, drawing,…

  19. One Fish, Two Fish, Redfish, You Fish!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Katherine; Timmons, Maryellen; Medders, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The recreational fishing activity presented in this article provides a hands-on, problem-based experience for students; it unites biology, math, economics, environmental policy, and population dynamics concepts. In addition, the activity allows students to shape environmental policy in a realistic setting and evaluate their peers' work. By…

  20. One Fish, Two Fish, Redfish, You Fish!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Katherine; Timmons, Maryellen; Medders, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The recreational fishing activity presented in this article provides a hands-on, problem-based experience for students; it unites biology, math, economics, environmental policy, and population dynamics concepts. In addition, the activity allows students to shape environmental policy in a realistic setting and evaluate their peers' work. By…

  1. Fishing Forecasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    ROFFS stands for Roffer's Ocean Fishing Forecasting Service, Inc. Roffer combines satellite and computer technology with oceanographic information from several sources to produce frequently updated charts sometimes as often as 30 times a day showing clues to the location of marlin, sailfish, tuna, swordfish and a variety of other types. Also provides customized forecasts for racing boats and the shipping industry along with seasonal forecasts that allow the marine industry to formulate fishing strategies based on foreknowledge of the arrival and departure times of different fish. Roffs service exemplifies the potential for benefits to marine industries from satellite observations. Most notable results are reduced search time and substantial fuel savings.

  2. Designer Fish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, William R., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Described is an activity in which students are asked to design a fish that would survive in a natural system. A project to computerize the activity is discussed. The development of this artificial intelligence software is detailed. (CW)

  3. Designer Fish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, William R., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Described is an activity in which students are asked to design a fish that would survive in a natural system. A project to computerize the activity is discussed. The development of this artificial intelligence software is detailed. (CW)

  4. Fish Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... not eat any fish because they worry about mercury in seafood. Mercury is a metal that, at high levels, can ... many types of seafood have little or no mercury at all. So your risk of mercury exposure ...

  5. Fish Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... been diagnosed with a fish allergy, keep injectable epinephrine on hand in case of a severe reaction. ... mouth or throat or difficulty breathing, give the epinephrine auto-injector right away. Every second counts in ...

  6. Fighting fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duchi, E.; Guerrini, V.; Rinaldi, S.; Schaeffer, G.

    2017-01-01

    We introduce new combinatorial structures, called fighting fish, that generalize directed convex polyominoes by allowing them to branch out of the plane into independent substructures. On the one hand the combinatorial structure of fighting fish appears to be particularly rich: we show that their generating function with respect to the perimeter and number of tails is algebraic, and we conjecture a mysterious multivariate equidistribution property with the left ternary trees introduced by Del Lungo et al On the other hand, fighting fish provide a simple and natural model of random branching surfaces which displays original features: in particular, we show that the average area of a uniform random fighting fish with perimeter 2n is of order n 5/4: to the best of our knowledge this behaviour is non-standard and suggests that we have identified a new universality class of random structures. Dedicated to Tony Guttmann on the occasion of his 70th birthday.

  7. Development of the head and trunk mesoderm in the dogfish, Scyliorhinus torazame: II. Comparison of gene expression between the head mesoderm and somites with reference to the origin of the vertebrate head.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Noritaka; Takechi, Masaki; Hirai, Tamami; Kuratani, Shigeru

    2012-01-01

    The vertebrate mesoderm differs distinctly between the head and trunk, and the evolutionary origin of the head mesoderm remains enigmatic. Although the presence of somite-like segmentation in the head mesoderm of model animals is generally denied at molecular developmental levels, the appearance of head cavities in elasmobranch embryos has not been explained, and the possibility that they may represent vestigial head somites once present in an amphioxus-like ancestor has not been ruled out entirely. To examine whether the head cavities in the shark embryo exhibit any molecular signatures reminiscent of trunk somites, we isolated several developmentally key genes, including Pax1, Pax3, Pax7, Pax9, Myf5, Sonic hedgehog, and Patched2, which are involved in myogenic and chondrogenic differentiation in somites, and Pitx2, Tbx1, and Engrailed2, which are related to the patterning of the head mesoderm, from an elasmobranch species, Scyliorhinus torazame. Observation of the expression patterns of these genes revealed that most were expressed in patterns that resembled those found in amniote embryos. In addition, the head cavities did not exhibit an overt similarity to somites; that is, the similarity was no greater than that of the unsegmented head mesoderm in other vertebrates. Moreover, the shark head mesoderm showed an amniote-like somatic/visceral distinction according to the expression of Pitx2, Tbx1, and Engrailed2. We conclude that the head cavities do not represent a manifestation of ancestral head somites; rather, they are more likely to represent a derived trait obtained in the lineage of gnathostomes. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Karuk Fishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Ruth, Ed.; Goodwin, Norman

    A booklet on traditional fishing practices of the Karuk Indians of northwestern California is presented in the formal, literary English speech of Norman Goodwin, a Karuk medicine man involved in preserving ancient tribal traditions. Empirical information and personal narratives are combined in descriptions of different kinds of nets, social rules…

  9. Gone Fishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson-Demme, Hillary; Kisiel, Jim

    2003-01-01

    Presents a hands-on activity in which students create a model of an ocean ecosystem to gain an understanding of how humans can alter biodiversity through their actions. Uses differing levels of fishing technology to explore the concepts of sustainability and overfishing. (Author/SOE)

  10. Commercial Fishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This document is a curriculum framework for a program in commercial fishing to be taught in Florida secondary and postsecondary institutions. This outline covers the major concepts/content of the program, which is designed to prepare students for employment in occupations with titles such as net fishers, pot fishers, line fishers, shrimp boat…

  11. Commercial Fishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This document is a curriculum framework for a program in commercial fishing to be taught in Florida secondary and postsecondary institutions. This outline covers the major concepts/content of the program, which is designed to prepare students for employment in occupations with titles such as net fishers, pot fishers, line fishers, shrimp boat…

  12. Karuk Fishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Ruth, Ed.; Goodwin, Norman

    A booklet on traditional fishing practices of the Karuk Indians of northwestern California is presented in the formal, literary English speech of Norman Goodwin, a Karuk medicine man involved in preserving ancient tribal traditions. Empirical information and personal narratives are combined in descriptions of different kinds of nets, social rules…

  13. Gone Fishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson-Demme, Hillary; Kisiel, Jim

    2003-01-01

    Presents a hands-on activity in which students create a model of an ocean ecosystem to gain an understanding of how humans can alter biodiversity through their actions. Uses differing levels of fishing technology to explore the concepts of sustainability and overfishing. (Author/SOE)

  14. Fish gelatin.

    PubMed

    Boran, Gokhan; Regenstein, Joe M

    2010-01-01

    Gelatin is a multifunctional ingredient used in foods, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and photographic films as a gelling agent, stabilizer, thickener, emulsifier, and film former. As a thermoreversible hydrocolloid with a narrower gap between its melting and gelling temperatures, both of which are below human body temperature, gelatin provides unique advantages over carbohydrate-based gelling agents. Gelatin is mostly produced from pig skin, and cattle hides and bones. Some alternative raw materials have recently gained attention from both researchers and the industry not just because they overcome religious concerns shared by Jews and Muslims but also because they provide, in some cases, technological advantages over mammalian gelatins. Fish skins from a number of fish species are among the other sources that have been comprehensively studied as sources for gelatin production. Fish skins have a significant potential for the production of high-quality gelatin with different melting and gelling temperatures over a much wider range than mammalian gelatins, yet still have a sufficiently high gel strength and viscosity. Gelatin quality is industrially determined by gel strength, viscosity, melting or gelling temperatures, the water content, and microbiological safety. For gelatin manufacturers, yield from a particular raw material is also important. Recent experimental studies have shown that these quality parameters vary greatly depending on the biochemical characteristics of the raw materials, the manufacturing processes applied, and the experimental settings used for quality control tests. In this review, the gelatin quality achieved from different fish species is reviewed along with the experimental procedures used to determine gelatin quality. In addition, the chemical structure of collagen and gelatin, the collagen-gelatin conversion, the gelation process, and the gelatin market are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Elevated carbon dioxide alters the plasma composition and behaviour of a shark

    PubMed Central

    Green, Leon; Jutfelt, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    Increased carbon emissions from fossil fuels are increasing the pCO2 of the ocean surface waters in a process called ocean acidification. Elevated water pCO2 can induce physiological and behavioural effects in teleost fishes, although there appear to be large differences in sensitivity between species. There is currently no information available on the possible responses to future ocean acidification in elasmobranch fishes. We exposed small-spotted catsharks (Scyliorhinus canicula) to either control conditions or a year 2100 scenario of 990 μatm pCO2 for four weeks. We did not detect treatment effects on growth, resting metabolic rate, aerobic scope, skin denticle ultrastructure or skin denticle morphology. However, we found that the elevated pCO2 group buffered internal acidosis via accumulation with an associated increase in Na+, indicating that the blood chemistry remained altered despite the long acclimation period. The elevated pCO2 group also exhibited a shift in their nocturnal swimming pattern from a pattern of many starts and stops to more continuous swimming. Although CO2-exposed teleost fishes can display reduced behavioural asymmetry (lateralization), the CO2-exposed sharks showed increased lateralization. These behavioural effects may suggest that elasmobranch neurophysiology is affected by CO2, as in some teleosts, or that the sharks detect CO2 as a constant stressor, which leads to altered behaviour. The potential direct effects of ocean acidification should henceforth be considered when assessing future anthropogenic effects on sharks. PMID:25232027

  16. Differences between directly measured and calculated values for cardiac output in the dogfish: a criticism of the Fick method.

    PubMed

    Metcalfe, J D; Butler, P J

    1982-08-01

    Cardiac output has been measured directly, and calculated by the Fick method, during normoxia and hypoxia in six artificially perfused dogfish (Scyliorhinus canicula) in an attempt to estimate the accuracy of this method in fish. The construction and operation of a simple extra-corporeal cardiac bypass pump is described. This pump closely mimics the flow pulse profiles of the fish's own heart and allows complete control of both cardiac stroke volume and systolic and diastolic periods. During normoxia (PO2 = 21 kPa) there was no significant difference between directly measured and calculated values for cardiac output. However, some shunting of blood past the respiratory surface of the gills may have been obscured by cutaneous oxygen uptake. In response to hypoxia (PO2 = 8.6 kPa) there is either a decrease in the amount of blood being shunted past the respiratory surface of the gills and/or an increase in cutaneous oxygen uptake such that the Fick calculated value for cardiac output is on average 38% greater than the measured value. It is proposed that the increase in the levels of circulating catecholamines that is reported to occur in response to hypoxia in this species may play an important role in the observed response to hypoxia. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for the calculation of cardiac output by the Fick principle in fish.

  17. Fish Tales

    SciTech Connect

    McLerran, L.

    2010-07-06

    This talk is about fishing and the friendships that have resulted in its pursuit. It is also about theoretical physics, and the relationship of imagination and fantasy to the establishment of ideas about nature. Fishermen, like theoretical physicists, are well known for their inventive imaginations. Perhaps neither are as clever as sailors, who conceived of the mermaid. If one doubts the power of this fantasy, one should remember the ghosts of the many sailors who drowned pursuing these young nymphs. An extraordinary painting by J. Waterhouse is shown as Fig. 1. The enchantment of a mermaid must reflect an extraordinary excess of imagination on the part of the sailor, perhaps together with an impractical turn of mind. A consummated relationship with a mermaid is after all, by its very nature a fantasy incapable of realization. To a theoretical physicist, she is symbolic of many ideas we develop. There are many truths known to fisherman in which one might also find parallels to the goals of scientists: (1) A fish is the only animal that keeps growing after its death; (2) Nothing makes a fish bigger than almost being caught; (3) ''...of all the liars among mankind, the fisherman is the most trustworthy.'' (William Sherwood Fox, in Silken Lines and Silver Hooks); and (4) Men and fish are alike. They both get into trouble when they open their mouths. These quotes may be interpreted as reflecting skepticism regarding the honesty of fisherman, and probably do not reflect adequate admiration for a creative imagination. Is it fair to criticize a person for believing a falsehood that he or she sincerely believes to be true? The fisherman simultaneously invents the lie, and believes in it himself. The parallel with theoretical physics is perhaps only approximate, although we physicists may invent stories that we come to believe, on some rare occasions our ideas actually correspond to a more or less true descriptions of nature. These minor philosophical differences are not

  18. Fish Immunoglobulins

    PubMed Central

    Mashoof, Sara; Criscitiello, Michael F.

    2016-01-01

    The B cell receptor and secreted antibody are at the nexus of humoral adaptive immunity. In this review, we summarize what is known of the immunoglobulin genes of jawed cartilaginous and bony fishes. We focus on what has been learned from genomic or cDNA sequence data, but where appropriate draw upon protein, immunization, affinity and structural studies. Work from major aquatic model organisms and less studied comparative species are both included to define what is the rule for an immunoglobulin isotype or taxonomic group and what exemplifies an exception. PMID:27879632

  19. Mortality, accumulation, and distribution of zinc in the gill system of the dogfish following zinc treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Crespo, S.; Blasch, J.

    1980-06-01

    Besides being an essential element, Zn has been shown to be toxic to aquatic organisms. Acute lethalities of Zn salts to teleosts have been reported, but few data regarding Zn toxicity to elasmobranchs can be found. To evaluate the effect of Zn on elasmobranchs and to compare the data with those on teleosts this paper studies Zn toxicity and the accumulation of the metal in the gills of the dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula exposed to 180 and 80 ppM of zinc.

  20. Fishing activities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oberle, Ferdinand; Puig, Pere; Martin, Jacobo; Micallef, Aaron; Krastel, Sebastian; Savini, Alessandra

    2018-01-01

    Unlike the major anthropogenic changes that terrestrial and coastal habitats underwent during the last centuries such as deforestation, river engineering, agricultural practices or urbanism, those occurring underwater are veiled from our eyes and have continued nearly unnoticed. Only recent advances in remote sensing and deep marine sampling technologies have revealed the extent and magnitude of the anthropogenic impacts to the seafloor. In particular, bottom trawling, a fishing technique consisting of dragging a net and fishing gear over the seafloor to capture bottom-dwelling living resources has gained attention among the scientific community, policy makers and the general public due to its destructive effects on the seabed. Trawling gear produces acute impacts on biota and the physical substratum of the seafloor by disrupting the sediment column structure, overturning boulders, resuspending sediments and imprinting deep scars on muddy bottoms. Also, the repetitive passage of trawling gear over the same areas creates long-lasting, cumulative impacts that modify the cohesiveness and texture of sediments. It can be asserted nowadays that due to its recurrence, mobility and wide geographical extent, industrial trawling has become a major force driving seafloor change and affecting not only its physical integrity on short spatial scales but also imprinting measurable modifications to the geomorphology of entire continental margins.

  1. Deep Fish.

    PubMed

    Ishaq, Omer; Sadanandan, Sajith Kecheril; Wählby, Carolina

    2017-01-01

    Zebrafish ( Danio rerio) is an important vertebrate model organism in biomedical research, especially suitable for morphological screening due to its transparent body during early development. Deep learning has emerged as a dominant paradigm for data analysis and found a number of applications in computer vision and image analysis. Here we demonstrate the potential of a deep learning approach for accurate high-throughput classification of whole-body zebrafish deformations in multifish microwell plates. Deep learning uses the raw image data as an input, without the need of expert knowledge for feature design or optimization of the segmentation parameters. We trained the deep learning classifier on as few as 84 images (before data augmentation) and achieved a classification accuracy of 92.8% on an unseen test data set that is comparable to the previous state of the art (95%) based on user-specified segmentation and deformation metrics. Ablation studies by digitally removing whole fish or parts of the fish from the images revealed that the classifier learned discriminative features from the image foreground, and we observed that the deformations of the head region, rather than the visually apparent bent tail, were more important for good classification performance.

  2. Fishing amplifies forage fish population collapses.

    PubMed

    Essington, Timothy E; Moriarty, Pamela E; Froehlich, Halley E; Hodgson, Emma E; Koehn, Laura E; Oken, Kiva L; Siple, Margaret C; Stawitz, Christine C

    2015-05-26

    Forage fish support the largest fisheries in the world but also play key roles in marine food webs by transferring energy from plankton to upper trophic-level predators, such as large fish, seabirds, and marine mammals. Fishing can, thereby, have far reaching consequences on marine food webs unless safeguards are in place to avoid depleting forage fish to dangerously low levels, where dependent predators are most vulnerable. However, disentangling the contributions of fishing vs. natural processes on population dynamics has been difficult because of the sensitivity of these stocks to environmental conditions. Here, we overcome this difficulty by collating population time series for forage fish populations that account for nearly two-thirds of global catch of forage fish to identify the fingerprint of fisheries on their population dynamics. Forage fish population collapses shared a set of common and unique characteristics: high fishing pressure for several years before collapse, a sharp drop in natural population productivity, and a lagged response to reduce fishing pressure. Lagged response to natural productivity declines can sharply amplify the magnitude of naturally occurring population fluctuations. Finally, we show that the magnitude and frequency of collapses are greater than expected from natural productivity characteristics and therefore, likely attributed to fishing. The durations of collapses, however, were not different from those expected based on natural productivity shifts. A risk-based management scheme that reduces fishing when populations become scarce would protect forage fish and their predators from collapse with little effect on long-term average catches.

  3. Indicators: Fish Assemblage

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Fish assemblage refers to the variety and abundance of fish species in a given waterbody. Fish are sensitive indicators of physical and chemical habitat degradation, environmental contamination, migration barriers, and overall ecosystem productivity.

  4. Fish tapeworm infection

    MedlinePlus

    Fish tapeworm infection is an intestinal infection with the tapeworm parasite found in fish. ... The fish tapeworm ( Diphyllobothrium latum ) is the largest parasite that infects humans. Humans become infected when they eat raw or undercooked ...

  5. Microencapsulation of Fish Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beindorff, Christiaan M.; Zuidam, Nicolaas Jan

    For those fortunate to live near rivers, lakes and the sea, fish has been part of their diet for many centuries, and trade in dried fish has a long history. The important fishing industry developed when fishermen started to fish over wider areas of the seas and when improvements in freezing facilities allowed storage at sea, and subsequent distribution to urban consumers. For many, fresh fish and fried fish are now a part of their standard diet.

  6. Fish mycobacteriosis (Tuberculosis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parisot, T.J.; Wood, J.W.

    1959-01-01

    The etiologic agent for the bacterial disease, "fish tuberculosis" (more correctly "mycobacteriosis"), was first observed in carp in 189& from a pond in France. Subsequently similar agents have been isolated from or observed in fish in fresh water, salt water, and brackish water, in fish in aquaria, hatcheries, and natural habitat~ (wild populations of fish). The disease has been recognized as an important infection among hatchery reared salmonid fishes on the West Coast of the United States, and in aquarium fishes such as the neon tetra, the Siamese fighting fish, and in salt water fish held in zoological displays.

  7. The origin of the parathyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Okabe, Masataka; Graham, Anthony

    2004-12-21

    It has long been held that the parathyroid glands and parathyroid hormone evolved with the emergence of the tetrapods, reflecting a need for new controls on calcium homeostasis in terrestrial, rather than aquatic, environments. Developmentally, the parathyroid gland is derived from the pharyngeal pouch endoderm, and studies in mice have shown that its formation is under the control of a key regulatory gene, Gcm-2. We have used a phylogenetic analysis of Gcm-2 to probe the evolutionary origins of the parathyroid gland. We show that in chicks, as in mice, Gcm-2 is expressed in the pharyngeal pouches and the forming parathyroid gland. We find that Gcm-2 is present not only in tetrapods but also in teleosts and chondrichthyans, and that in these species, Gcm-2 is expressed within the pharyngeal pouches and internal gill buds that derive from them in zebrafish (Danio rerio), a teleost, and dogfish (Scyliorhinus canicula), a chondrichthyan. We further demonstrate that Gcm-2 is required for the formation of the internal gill buds in zebrafish. We also have identified parathyroid hormone 1/2-encoding genes in fish and show that these genes are expressed by the gills. We further show that the gills express the calcium-sensing receptor, which is used in tetrapods to monitor serum calcium levels. These results indicate that the tetrapod parathyroid gland and the gills of fish are evolutionarily related structures, and that the parathyroid likely came into being as a result of the transformation of the gills during tetrapod evolution.

  8. Rare Trophy Fish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Denice

    2000-01-01

    Describes an art lesson in which third-grade students create mounted trophy fish. Explains how the students created the three-dimensional fish, the board on which to mount the fish, and the small paper plaque with information about the trophy fish. (CMK)

  9. Characterization of new medium-chain alcohol dehydrogenases adds resolution to duplications of the class I/III and the sub-class I genes.

    PubMed

    Cederlund, Ella; Hedlund, Joel; Hjelmqvist, Lars; Jonsson, Andreas; Shafqat, Jawed; Norin, Annika; Keung, Wing-Ming; Persson, Bengt; Jörnvall, Hans

    2011-05-30

    Four additional variants of alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases have been purified and functionally characterized, and their primary structures have been determined. The results allow conclusions about the structural and evolutionary relationships within the large family of MDR alcohol dehydrogenases from characterizations of the pigeon (Columba livia) and dogfish (Scyliorhinus canicula) major liver alcohol dehydrogenases. The pigeon enzyme turns out to be of class I type and the dogfish enzyme of class III type. This result gives a third type of evidence, based on purifications and enzyme characterization in lower vertebrates, that the classical liver alcohol dehydrogenase originated by a gene duplication early in the evolution of vertebrates. It is discernable as the major liver form at about the level in-between cartilaginous and osseous fish. The results also show early divergence within the avian orders. Structures were determined by Edman degradations, making it appropriate to acknowledge the methodological contributions of Pehr Edman during the 65 years since his thesis at Karolinska Institutet, where also the present analyses were performed.

  10. Connections of the terminal nerve and the olfactory system in two galeomorph sharks: an experimental study using a carbocyanine dye.

    PubMed

    Yáñez, Julián; Folgueira, Mónica; Köhler, Elisabeth; Martínez, Cristina; Anadón, Ramón

    2011-11-01

    In elasmobranchs the terminal nerve courses separately from the olfactory nerve. This characteristic makes elasmobranchs excellent models to study the anatomy and function of these two systems. Here we study the neural connections of the terminal nerve and olfactory system in two sharks by experimental tracing methods using carbocyanine dyes. The main projections from the terminal nerve system (consisting of three ganglia in Scyliorhinus canicula) course ipsilaterally to the medial septal nucleus and bilaterally to the ventromedial telencephalic pallial region. Minor terminal nerve projections were also traced ipsilaterally to diencephalic and mesencephalic levels. With regard to the olfactory connections, our results show that in sharks, unlike ray-finned fishes, the primary olfactory projections are mainly restricted to the olfactory bulb. We also performed tracer application to the olfactory bulb in order to analyze the possible central neuroanatomical relationship between the projections of the terminal nerve and the olfactory bulb. In these experiments labeled neurons and fibers were observed from telencephalic to caudal mesencephalic regions. However, we observe almost no overlap between the two systems at central levels. The afferent and the putatively efferent connections of the dogfish olfactory bulb are compared with those previously reported in other elasmobranchs. The significance of the extratelencephalic secondary olfactory projections is also discussed in a comparative context.

  11. HoxD expression in the fin-fold compartment of basal gnathostomes and implications for paired appendage evolution.

    PubMed

    Tulenko, Frank J; Augustus, Gaius J; Massey, James L; Sims, Seth E; Mazan, Sylvie; Davis, Marcus C

    2016-03-04

    The role of Homeobox transcription factors during fin and limb development have been the focus of recent work investigating the evolutionary origin of limb-specific morphologies. Here we characterize the expression of HoxD genes, as well as the cluster-associated genes Evx2 and LNP, in the paddlefish Polyodon spathula, a basal ray-finned fish. Our results demonstrate a collinear pattern of nesting in early fin buds that includes HoxD14, a gene previously thought to be isolated from global Hox regulation. We also show that in both Polyodon and the catshark Scyliorhinus canicula (a representative chondrichthyan) late phase HoxD transcripts are present in cells of the fin-fold and co-localize with And1, a component of the dermal skeleton. These new data support an ancestral role for HoxD genes in patterning the fin-folds of jawed vertebrates, and fuel new hypotheses about the evolution of cluster regulation and the potential downstream differentiation outcomes of distinct HoxD-regulated compartments.

  12. A shift in anterior–posterior positional information underlies the fin-to-limb evolution

    PubMed Central

    Onimaru, Koh; Kuraku, Shigehiro; Takagi, Wataru; Hyodo, Susumu; Sharpe, James; Tanaka, Mikiko

    2015-01-01

    The pectoral fins of ancestral fishes had multiple proximal elements connected to their pectoral girdles. During the fin-to-limb transition, anterior proximal elements were lost and only the most posterior one remained as the humerus. Thus, we hypothesised that an evolutionary alteration occurred in the anterior–posterior (AP) patterning system of limb buds. In this study, we examined the pectoral fin development of catshark (Scyliorhinus canicula) and revealed that the AP positional values in fin buds are shifted more posteriorly than mouse limb buds. Furthermore, examination of Gli3 function and regulation shows that catshark fins lack a specific AP patterning mechanism, which restricts its expression to an anterior domain in tetrapods. Finally, experimental perturbation of AP patterning in catshark fin buds results in an expansion of posterior values and loss of anterior skeletal elements. Together, these results suggest that a key genetic event of the fin-to-limb transformation was alteration of the AP patterning network. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07048.001 PMID:26283004

  13. HoxD expression in the fin-fold compartment of basal gnathostomes and implications for paired appendage evolution

    PubMed Central

    Tulenko, Frank J.; Augustus, Gaius J.; Massey, James L.; Sims, Seth E.; Mazan, Sylvie; Davis, Marcus C.

    2016-01-01

    The role of Homeobox transcription factors during fin and limb development have been the focus of recent work investigating the evolutionary origin of limb-specific morphologies. Here we characterize the expression of HoxD genes, as well as the cluster-associated genes Evx2 and LNP, in the paddlefish Polyodon spathula, a basal ray-finned fish. Our results demonstrate a collinear pattern of nesting in early fin buds that includes HoxD14, a gene previously thought to be isolated from global Hox regulation. We also show that in both Polyodon and the catshark Scyliorhinus canicula (a representative chondrichthyan) late phase HoxD transcripts are present in cells of the fin-fold and co-localize with And1, a component of the dermal skeleton. These new data support an ancestral role for HoxD genes in patterning the fin-folds of jawed vertebrates, and fuel new hypotheses about the evolution of cluster regulation and the potential downstream differentiation outcomes of distinct HoxD-regulated compartments. PMID:26940624

  14. Scorpion fish sting

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002849.htm Scorpion fish sting To use the sharing features on this page, ... are also found in aquariums worldwide. Symptoms A scorpion fish sting causes intense pain and swelling at the site ...

  15. 49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 173.218 Section 173.218... Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) Except as provided in Column (7) of the HMT in § 172.101 of this subchapter, fish meal or fish scrap, containing at least 6%, but not more than 12% water, is authorized...

  16. 46 CFR 148.265 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... antioxidant at the time of shipment. (f) At the time of loading, the temperature of the fish meal or fish... must be taken of fish meal or fish scrap three times a day and recorded. If the temperature of the... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 148.265 Section 148.265...

  17. Fish eye optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudec, R.; Michalova, S.

    2017-07-01

    We report on small student (high—school) project of the Czech Academy of Sciences dealing with animal (fish) eyes and possible application in science and technology. Albeit most fishes have refractive eyes, the recent discoveries confirm that some fishes have reflective eyes with strange arrangements as well.

  18. Fishing for Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Bruce

    1994-01-01

    Teaching students to fish not only develops a lifetime leisure skill but also leads to an understanding of aquatic ecosystems and encourages student connection with the natural environment. Addresses educational benefits of incorporating fishing into environmental education and describes how two fishing programs successfully met objectives of…

  19. Poisoning - fish and shellfish

    MedlinePlus

    ... contaminated waters. Scombroid poisoning usually occurs from large, dark meat fish such as tuna, mackerel, mahi mahi, and albacore. Because this poison develops after a fish is caught and dies, it does not matter where the fish is caught. The main factor ...

  20. Fish under exercise.

    PubMed

    Palstra, Arjan P; Planas, Josep V

    2011-06-01

    Improved knowledge on the swimming physiology of fish and its application to fisheries science and aquaculture (i.e., farming a fitter fish) is currently needed in the face of global environmental changes, high fishing pressures, increased aquaculture production as well as increased concern on fish well-being. Here, we review existing data on teleost fish that indicate that sustained exercise at optimal speeds enhances muscle growth and has consequences for flesh quality. Potential added benefits of sustained exercise may be delay of ovarian development and stimulation of immune status. Exercise could represent a natural, noninvasive, and economical approach to improve growth, flesh quality as well as welfare of aquacultured fish: a FitFish for a healthy consumer. All these issues are important for setting directions for policy decisions and future studies in this area. For this purpose, the FitFish workshop on the Swimming Physiology of Fish ( http://www.ub.edu/fitfish2010 ) was organized to bring together a multidisciplinary group of scientists using exercise models, industrial partners, and policy makers. Sixteen international experts from Europe, North America, and Japan were invited to present their work and view on migration of fishes in their natural environment, beneficial effects of exercise, and applications for sustainable aquaculture. Eighty-eight participants from 19 different countries contributed through a poster session and round table discussion. Eight papers from invited speakers at the workshop have been contributed to this special issue on The Swimming Physiology of Fish.

  1. Fish allergy: in review.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Michael F; Lopata, Andreas L

    2014-06-01

    Globally, the rising consumption of fish and its derivatives, due to its nutritional value and divergence of international cuisines, has led to an increase in reports of adverse reactions to fish. Reactions to fish are not only mediated by the immune system causing allergies, but are often caused by various toxins and parasites including ciguatera and Anisakis. Allergic reactions to fish can be serious and life threatening and children usually do not outgrow this type of food allergy. The route of exposure is not only restricted to ingestion but include manual handling and inhalation of cooking vapors in the domestic and occupational environment. Prevalence rates of self-reported fish allergy range from 0.2 to 2.29 % in the general population, but can reach up to 8 % among fish processing workers. Fish allergy seems to vary with geographical eating habits, type of fish processing, and fish species exposure. The major fish allergen characterized is parvalbumin in addition to several less well-known allergens. This contemporary review discusses interesting and new findings in the area of fish allergy including demographics, novel allergens identified, immunological mechanisms of sensitization, and innovative approaches in diagnosing and managing this life-long disease.

  2. Cholesterol Oxidation in Fish and Fish Products.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Natalie Marinho; Sampaio, Geni Rodrigues; Ferreira, Fernanda Silva; Labre, Tatiana da Silva; Torres, Elizabeth Aparecida Ferraz da Silva; Saldanha, Tatiana

    2015-12-01

    Fish and fish products are important from a nutritional point of view due to the presence of high biological value proteins and the high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially those of the n-3 series, and above all eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. However, these important food products also contain significant amounts of cholesterol. Although cholesterol participates in essential functions in the human body, it is unstable, especially in the presence of light, oxygen, radiation, and high temperatures that can cause the formation of cholesterol oxidation products or cholesterol oxides, which are prejudicial to human health. Fish processing involves high and low temperatures, as well as other methods for microbiological control, which increases shelf life and consequently added value; however, such processes favor the formation of cholesterol oxidation products. This review brings together data on the formation of cholesterol oxides during the preparation and processing of fish into food products which are recognized and recommended for their nutritional properties.

  3. Fish elevator and method of elevating fish

    DOEpatents

    Truebe, Jonathan; Drooker, Michael S.

    1984-01-01

    A means and method for transporting fish from a lower body of water to a higher body of water. The means comprises a tubular lock with a gated entrance below the level of the lower body of water through which fish may enter the lock and a discharge passage above the level of the upper body of water. The fish raising means in the lock is a crowder pulled upward by a surface float as water from the upper body of water gravitationally flows into the closed lock filling it to the level of the upper body. Water is then pumped into the lock to raise the level to the discharge passage. The crowder is then caused to float upward the remaining distance through the water to the level of the discharge passage by the introduction of air into a pocket on the underside of the crowder. The fish are then automatically discharged from the lock into the discharge passage by the out of water position of the crowder. The movement of the fish into the discharge passage is aided by the continuous overflow of water still being pumped into the lock. A pipe may be connected to the discharge passage to deliver the fish to a selected location in the upper body of water.

  4. Why fishes have a fish shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eloy, Christophe; Schouveiler, Lionel

    2010-11-01

    The relation between form and function for elongated swimmers is revisited by solving a multi-objective optimization problem. We consider elongated fishes of varying elliptic cross-section whose motion is prescribed by a time-periodic curvature. The two semi-axes of the cross-section, the curvature amplitude and phase are assumed to vary continuously along the fish length. Hydrodynamic forces acting on such fishes are modeled in the elongated-body limit by considering both reactive and resistive forces. Applying Newton's second law, the heave and pitch amplitude and phase, as well as the swimming velocity can be found. The total power needed can also be calculated yielding the swimming efficiency. The multi-objective optimization consists in finding the fish shape and associated motion which corresponds to maximum efficiency, maximum velocity or any trade-off between the two. This optimization problem is solved using a genetic algorithm whose principle is to start with an initial random population and to evolve it by mutation and selection. We find that the most efficient shape resembles existing fishes and arguments are given to explain the relation between this particular fish form and performance.

  5. Sensor Fish Communicator

    SciTech Connect

    2016-06-09

    The Sensor Fish collects information that can be used to evaluate conditions encountered by juvenile salmonids and other fish as they pass through hydroelectric dams on their way to the ocean. Sensor Fish are deployed in turbines, spillways, and sluiceways and measure changes in pressure, angular rate of change, and linear acceleration during passage. The software is need to make Sensor Fish fully functional and easy to use. Sensor Fish Communicator (SFC) links to Sensor Fish, allowing users to control data collection settings and download data. It may also be used to convert native raw data (.raw2) files into Comma Separated Variable (.csv) files and plot the results. The multiple capabilities of the SFC allow hardware communication, data conversion, and data plotting with one application.

  6. Immunostimulants in fish diets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gannam, A.L.; Schrock, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    Various immunostimulants and their methods of application in fish culture are examined in this review. Important variables such as life stage and innate disease resistance of the fish; immunostimulant used, its structure and mode of action; and the fish's environment are discussed. Conflicting results have been published about the efficacy of immunostimulants in fish diets. Some researchers have had positive responses demonstrated as increased fish survival, others have not. Generally, immunostimulants enhance individual components of the non-specific immune response but that does not always translate into increased fish survival. In addition, immunostimulants fed at too high a dose or for too long can be immunosuppressive. [Article copies available for a fee from The Haworth Document Delivery Service: 1-800-342-9678. E-mail address: getinfo@haworthpressinc.com ].

  7. Fish and wildlife surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Poston, T.M.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the monitoring of radioactive contaminants in fish and wildlife species that inhabit the Colombia River and Hanford Site. Wildlife have access to areas of the Site containing radioactive contamination, and fish can be exposed to contamination in spring water entering the river along the shoreline. Therefore, samples are collected at various locations annually, generally during the hunting or fishing season, for selected species.

  8. Hematologic disorders of fish.

    PubMed

    Clauss, Tonya M; Dove, Alistair D M; Arnold, Jill E

    2008-09-01

    Hematology can be a useful tool for monitoring health status, detecting illness, and following the progress of disease and response to therapy. Despite advances in fish medicine in recent years, interpretation of fish hematology often is hampered by a lack of meaningful reference values and the bewildering diversity of fish species. A multitude of intrinsic and extrinsic factors cause normal and abnormal variation in hematologic data. This article provides an overview of some of the hematologic abnormalities in fish induced by infectious agents and environmental, husbandry, and nutritional issues.

  9. [Helminths of Antarctic fishes].

    PubMed

    Rocka, Anna

    2008-01-01

    Antarctic fishes are represented by sharks, skates (Chondrichthyes) and bony fishes (Teleostei). Teleosts play an important role in the completion of life cycles of many helminth species. They serve as either definitive or intermediate and paratenic hosts. Chondrichthyes are definitive hosts only. Seventy three helminth species occur as the adult stage in fishes: Digenea (45), Cestoda (14), Nematoda (6), Acanthocephala (8), Also, 11 larval stages of Cestoda (7) and Nematoda (4) are known, together with 7 species of Acanthocephala in the cystacanth stage. One digenean species, Otodistomum cestoides, matures in skates. Among cestodes maturing in fishes only one, Parabothriocephalus johnstoni, occurs in a bony fish, Macrourus whitsoni. Antarctic Chondrichthyes are not infected with nematodes and acanthocephalans. Cestode larvae from teleosts belong to Tetraphyllidea (parasites of skates), and Tetrabothriidae and Diphyllobothriidae (parasites of birds and mammals). Larval nematodes represent Anisakidae, parasites of fishes, birds and mammals. Acanthocephalan cystacanths mature in pinnipeds and birds. The majority of parasites maturing in Antarctic fishes are endemics. Only 4 digenean and one nematode species, Hysterothylacium aduncum, are cosmopolitan. All acanthocephalans, almost all digeneans, the majority of cestodes and some nematodes occur mainly or exclusively in benthic fishes. Specificity of the majority of helminths utilizing teleosts as intermediate and/or paratenic hosts is low. Among parasites using fishes as definitive hosts, all Cestoda, most Digenea and Nematoda, and almost all Acanthocephala have a range of hosts restricted to one order or even to 1-2 host species.

  10. Fish-allergic patients may be able to eat fish.

    PubMed

    Mourad, Ahmad A; Bahna, Sami L

    2015-03-01

    Reported fish allergy prevalence varies widely, with an estimated prevalence of 0.2% in the general population. Sensitization to fish can occur by ingestion, skin contact or inhalation. The manifestations can be IgE or non-IgE mediated. Several fish allergens have been identified, with parvalbumins being the major allergen in various species. Allergenicity varies among fish species and is affected by processing or preparation methods. Adverse reactions after eating fish are often claimed to be 'allergy' but could be a reaction to hidden food allergen, fish parasite, fish toxins or histamine in spoiled fish. Identifying such causes would allow free consumption of fish. Correct diagnosis of fish allergy, including the specific species, might provide the patient with safe alternatives. Patients have been generally advised for strict universal avoidance of fish. However, testing with various fish species or preparations might identify one or more forms that can be tolerated.

  11. 49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 173.218 Section 173.218... Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) Except as provided in Column (7) of the HMT in § 172.101 of this subchapter, fish meal or fish scrap, containing at least 6%, but not more than 12% water, is authorized for...

  12. Immunity in Fish

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The fish immune system has evolved with both non-specific (innate immunity) and acquired immune functions (humoral and cell mediated immunity) to eliminate invading foreign living and non-living agents. Fish possess a unique physical barrier (mucus and skin) that acts as the first line of defense a...

  13. Folkbiology of Freshwater Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medin, Douglas L.; Ross, Norbert O.; Atran, Scott; Cox, Douglas; Coley, John; Proffitt, Julia B.; Blok, Sergey

    2006-01-01

    Cross-cultural comparisons of categorization often confound cultural factors with expertise. This paper reports four experiments on the conceptual behavior of Native American and majority-culture fish experts. The two groups live in the same general area and engage in essentially the same set of fishing-related behaviors. Nonetheless, cultural…

  14. The Big Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLisle, Rebecca; Hargis, Jace

    2005-01-01

    The Killer Whale, Shamu jumps through hoops and splashes tourists in hopes for the big fish, not because of passion, desire or simply the enjoyment of doing so. What would happen if those fish were obsolete? Would this killer whale be able to find the passion to continue to entertain people? Or would Shamu find other exciting activities to do…

  15. Fishing for Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Bruce

    1994-01-01

    Fishing helps campers develop problem-solving skills, apply biological and ecological concepts, become aware of environmental problems, realize environmental consequences of actions, discuss environmental ethics, consider spiritual values, and connect with the natural world. Describes two camps that successfully integrate fishing with…

  16. Ammonia toxicity in fish.

    PubMed

    Randall, D J; Tsui, T K N

    2002-01-01

    Ammonia is present in the aquatic environment due to agricultural run-off and decomposition of biological waste. Ammonia is toxic to all vertebrates causing convulsions, coma and death, probably because elevated NH4+ displaces K+ and depolarizes neurons, causing activation of NMDA type glutamate receptor, which leads to an influx of excessive Ca2+ and subsequent cell death in the central nervous system. Present ammonia criteria for aquatic systems are based on toxicity tests carried out on, starved, resting, non-stressed fish. This is doubly inappropriate. During exhaustive exercise and stress, fish increase ammonia production and are more sensitive to external ammonia. Present criteria do not protect swimming fish. Fish have strategies to protect them from the ammonia pulse following feeding, and this also protects them from increases in external ammonia, as a result starved fish are more sensitive to external ammonia than fed fish. There are a number of fish species that can tolerate high environmental ammonia. Glutamine formation is an important ammonia detoxification strategy in the brain of fish, especially after feeding. Detoxification of ammonia to urea has also been observed in elasmobranches and some teleosts. Reduction in the rate of proteolysis and the rate of amino acid catabolism, which results in a decrease in ammonia production, may be another strategy to reduce ammonia toxicity. The weather loach volatilizes NH3, and the mudskipper, P. schlosseri, utilizes yet another unique strategy, it actively pumps NH4+ out of the body.

  17. Folkbiology of Freshwater Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medin, Douglas L.; Ross, Norbert O.; Atran, Scott; Cox, Douglas; Coley, John; Proffitt, Julia B.; Blok, Sergey

    2006-01-01

    Cross-cultural comparisons of categorization often confound cultural factors with expertise. This paper reports four experiments on the conceptual behavior of Native American and majority-culture fish experts. The two groups live in the same general area and engage in essentially the same set of fishing-related behaviors. Nonetheless, cultural…

  18. Enzymes in Fermented Fish.

    PubMed

    Giyatmi; Irianto, H E

    Fermented fish products are very popular particularly in Southeast Asian countries. These products have unique characteristics, especially in terms of aroma, flavor, and texture developing during fermentation process. Proteolytic enzymes have a main role in hydrolyzing protein into simpler compounds. Fermentation process of fish relies both on naturally occurring enzymes (in the muscle or the intestinal tract) as well as bacteria. Fermented fish products processed using the whole fish show a different characteristic compared to those prepared from headed and gutted fish. Endogenous enzymes like trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase, and aminopeptidase are the most involved in the fermentation process. Muscle tissue enzymes like cathepsins, peptidases, transaminases, amidases, amino acid decarboxylases, glutamic dehydrogenases, and related enzymes may also play a role in fish fermentation. Due to the decreased bacterial number during fermentation, contribution of microbial enzymes to proteolysis may be expected prior to salting of fish. Commercial enzymes are supplemented during processing for specific purposes, such as quality improvement and process acceleration. In the case of fish sauce, efforts to accelerate fermentation process and to improve product quality have been studied by addition of enzymes such as papain, bromelain, trypsin, pepsin, and chymotrypsin. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. PARASITES OF FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The intent of this chapter is to describe the parasites of importance to fishes maintained and used in laboratory settings. In contrast to the frist edition, the focus will be only on those parasites that pose a serious threat to or are common in fishes held in these confined en...

  20. PARASITES OF FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The intent of this chapter is to describe the parasites of importance to fishes maintained and used in laboratory settings. In contrast to the frist edition, the focus will be only on those parasites that pose a serious threat to or are common in fishes held in these confined en...

  1. An Amazing Fish Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Null, Elisabeth Higgins

    2001-01-01

    Caught up in the entrepreneurial thrill of launching a new industry, high-school students in an economically distressed fishing village in Maine are playing a vital research-and-development role in partnership with their community. The result is a sophisticated aquaculture center for raising several species of fish in a laboratory setting. (MLH)

  2. An Amazing Fish Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Null, Elisabeth Higgins

    2001-01-01

    Caught up in the entrepreneurial thrill of launching a new industry, high-school students in an economically distressed fishing village in Maine are playing a vital research-and-development role in partnership with their community. The result is a sophisticated aquaculture center for raising several species of fish in a laboratory setting. (MLH)

  3. Fish Vaccines in Aquaculture

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vaccination is a proven, cost-effective method to prevent infectious diseases in animals. Current fish vaccines can be categorized as killed fish vaccines or modified live vaccines. The major advantage of live vaccine is their ability to stimulate both cell-mediated and humoral immune responses for ...

  4. The Big Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLisle, Rebecca; Hargis, Jace

    2005-01-01

    The Killer Whale, Shamu jumps through hoops and splashes tourists in hopes for the big fish, not because of passion, desire or simply the enjoyment of doing so. What would happen if those fish were obsolete? Would this killer whale be able to find the passion to continue to entertain people? Or would Shamu find other exciting activities to do…

  5. Antimicrobial Peptides from Fish

    PubMed Central

    Masso-Silva, Jorge A.; Diamond, Gill

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are found widely distributed through Nature, and participate in the innate host defense of each species. Fish are a great source of these peptides, as they express all of the major classes of AMPs, including defensins, cathelicidins, hepcidins, histone-derived peptides, and a fish-specific class of the cecropin family, called piscidins. As with other species, the fish peptides exhibit broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, killing both fish and human pathogens. They are also immunomodulatory, and their genes are highly responsive to microbes and innate immuno-stimulatory molecules. Recent research has demonstrated that some of the unique properties of fish peptides, including their ability to act even in very high salt concentrations, make them good potential targets for development as therapeutic antimicrobials. Further, the stimulation of their gene expression by exogenous factors could be useful in preventing pathogenic microbes in aquaculture. PMID:24594555

  6. Epigenomics in marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Metzger, David C H; Schulte, Patricia M

    2016-12-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms are an underappreciated and often ignored component of an organism's response to environmental change and may underlie many types of phenotypic plasticity. Recent technological advances in methods for detecting epigenetic marks at a whole-genome scale have launched new opportunities for studying epigenomics in ecologically relevant non-model systems. The study of ecological epigenomics holds great promise to better understand the linkages between genotype, phenotype, and the environment and to explore mechanisms of phenotypic plasticity. The many attributes of marine fish species, including their high diversity, variable life histories, high fecundity, impressive plasticity, and economic value provide unique opportunities for studying epigenetic mechanisms in an environmental context. To provide a primer on epigenomic research for fish biologists, we start by describing fundamental aspects of epigenetics, focusing on the most widely studied and most well understood of the epigenetic marks: DNA methylation. We then describe the techniques that have been used to investigate DNA methylation in marine fishes to date and highlight some new techniques that hold great promise for future studies. Epigenomic research in marine fishes is in its early stages, so we first briefly discuss what has been learned about the establishment, maintenance, and function of DNA methylation in fishes from studies in zebrafish and then summarize the studies demonstrating the pervasive effects of the environment on the epigenomes of marine fishes. We conclude by highlighting the potential for ongoing research on the epigenomics of marine fishes to reveal critical aspects of the interaction between organisms and their environments.

  7. Folkbiology of freshwater fish.

    PubMed

    Medin, Douglas L; Ross, Norbert O; Atran, Scott; Cox, Douglas; Coley, John; Proffitt, Julia B; Blok, Sergey

    2006-04-01

    Cross-cultural comparisons of categorization often confound cultural factors with expertise. This paper reports four experiments on the conceptual behavior of Native American and majority-culture fish experts. The two groups live in the same general area and engage in essentially the same set of fishing-related behaviors. Nonetheless, cultural differences were consistently observed. Majority-culture fish experts tended to sort fish into taxonomic and goal-related categories. They also showed an influence of goals on probes of ecological relations, tending to answer in terms of relations involving adult fish. Native American fish experts, in contrast, were more likely to sort ecologically. They were also more likely to see positive and reciprocal ecological relations, tending to answer in terms of relations involving the full life cycle of fish. Further experiments support the view that the cultural differences do not reflect different knowledge bases but rather differences in the organization and accessibility of knowledge. At a minimum the results suggest that similar activities within a well-structured domain do not necessarily lead to common conceptualizations.

  8. Olfactory toxicity in fishes.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Keith B; Baldwin, David H; Hara, Toshiaki J; Ross, Peter S; Scholz, Nathaniel L; Kennedy, Christopher J

    2010-01-21

    Olfaction conveys critical environmental information to fishes, enabling activities such as mating, locating food, discriminating kin, avoiding predators and homing. All of these behaviors can be impaired or lost as a result of exposure to toxic contaminants in surface waters. Historically, teleost olfaction studies have focused on behavioral responses to anthropogenic contaminants (e.g., avoidance). More recently, there has been a shift towards understanding the underlying mechanisms and functional significance of contaminant-mediated changes in fish olfaction. This includes a consideration of how contaminants affect the olfactory nervous system and, by extension, the downstream physiological and behavioral processes that together comprise a normal response to naturally occurring stimuli (e.g., reproductive priming or releasing pheromones). Numerous studies spanning several species have shown that ecologically relevant exposures to common pollutants such as metals and pesticides can interfere with fish olfaction and disrupt life history processes that determine individual survival and reproductive success. This represents one of the pathways by which toxic chemicals in aquatic habitats may increasingly contribute to the decline and at-risk status of many commercially and ecologically important fish stocks. Despite our emerging understanding of the threats that pollution poses for chemical communication in aquatic communities, many research challenges remain. These include: (1) the determination of specific mechanisms of toxicity in the fish olfactory sensory epithelium; (2) an understanding of the impacts of complex chemical mixtures; (3) the capacity to assess olfactory toxicity in fish in situ; (4) the impacts of toxins on olfactory-mediated behaviors that are still poorly understood for many fish species; and (5) the connections between sublethal effects on individual fish and the long-term viability of wild populations. This review summarizes and integrates

  9. Vibriosis in fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bullock, G.L.

    1987-01-01

    Fish vibriosis is a systemic disease of marine, estuarine, and some freshwater fishes, caused by bacteria of the genus Vibrio (Ross et al. 1968, Ghittino et al. 1972). The disease has been known for centuries; outbreaks along the Italian coast were recorded as early as the 1500's. Terms such as "red pest," "red boil," "red plague," or "saltwater furunculosis" have been applied to vibrio infections, but vibriosis is a more specific term and is now used by most fishery workers. With the rapid development of mariculture, vibriosis has become a major cause of fish loss--sometimes to the extent of being a limiting factor.

  10. Identification of Radial Glia Progenitors in the Developing and Adult Retina of Sharks

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Farías, Nuria; Candal, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Neural stem cells give rise to transient progenitors termed neuroepithelial cells (NECs) and radial glial cells (RGCs). RGCs represent the major source of neurons, glia and adult stem cells in several regions of the central nervous system (CNS). RGCs are mostly transient in mammals, but they are widely maintained in the adult CNS of fishes, where they continue to be morphologically similar to RGCs in the mammalian brain and fulfill similar roles as progenitors and guide for migrating neurons. The retina of fishes offers an exceptional model to approach the study of adult neurogenesis because of the presence of constitutive proliferation from the ciliary marginal zone (CMZ), containing NECs, and from adult glial cells with radial morphology (the Müller glia). However, the cellular hierarchies and precise contribution of different types of progenitors to adult neurogenesis remain unsolved. We have analyzed the transition from NECs to RGCs and RGC differentiation in the retina of the cartilaginous fish Scyliorhinus canicula, which offers a particularly good spatial and temporal frame to investigate this process. We have characterized progenitor and adult RGCs by immunohistochemical detection of glial markers as glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and glutamine synthetase (GS). We have compared the emergence and localization of glial markers with that of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, a proliferation maker) and Doublecortin (DCX, which increases at early stages of neuronal differentiation). During retinal development, GFAP-immunoreactive NECs located in the most peripheral CMZ (CMZp) codistribute with DCX-immunonegative cells. GFAP-immunoreactive RGCs and Müller cells are located in successive more central parts of the retina and codistribute with DCX- and DCX/GS-immunoreactive cells, respectively. The same types of progenitors are found in juveniles, suggesting that the contribution of the CMZ to adult neurogenesis implies a transition through the

  11. Early detection of non-native fishes using fish larvae

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our objective was to evaluate the use of fish larvae for early detection of non-native fishes, comparing traditional and molecular taxonomy approaches to investigate potential efficiencies. Fish larvae present an interesting opportunity for non-native fish early detection. First,...

  12. Which Fish Should I Eat? Perspectives Influencing Fish Consumption Choices

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Anna L.; Karagas, Margaret R.; Mariën, Koenraad; Rheinberger, Christoph M.; Schoeny, Rita; Sunderland, Elsie; Korrick, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Diverse perspectives have influenced fish consumption choices. Objectives: We summarized the issue of fish consumption choice from toxicological, nutritional, ecological, and economic points of view; identified areas of overlap and disagreement among these viewpoints; and reviewed effects of previous fish consumption advisories. Methods: We reviewed published scientific literature, public health guidelines, and advisories related to fish consumption, focusing on advisories targeted at U.S. populations. However, our conclusions apply to groups having similar fish consumption patterns. Discussion: There are many possible combinations of matters related to fish consumption, but few, if any, fish consumption patterns optimize all domains. Fish provides a rich source of protein and other nutrients, but because of contamination by methylmercury and other toxicants, higher fish intake often leads to greater toxicant exposure. Furthermore, stocks of wild fish are not adequate to meet the nutrient demands of the growing world population, and fish consumption choices also have a broad economic impact on the fishing industry. Most guidance does not account for ecological and economic impacts of different fish consumption choices. Conclusion: Despite the relative lack of information integrating the health, ecological, and economic impacts of different fish choices, clear and simple guidance is necessary to effect desired changes. Thus, more comprehensive advice can be developed to describe the multiple impacts of fish consumption. In addition, policy and fishery management inter-ventions will be necessary to ensure long-term availability of fish as an important source of human nutrition. PMID:22534056

  13. Early detection of non-native fishes using fish larvae

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our objective was to evaluate the use of fish larvae for early detection of non-native fishes, comparing traditional and molecular taxonomy approaches to investigate potential efficiencies. Fish larvae present an interesting opportunity for non-native fish early detection. First,...

  14. Endangered fish threatened by Asian fish tapeworm

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, Rebecca A.

    2004-01-01

    The Asian fish tapeworm, an exotic parasite, has invaded the endangered humpback chub (Gila cypha) population from the Colorado and Little Colorado Rivers in Grand Canyon, Arizona. This parasite causes disease and death in carp in aquaculture settings and may retard growth in hatchery-reared roundtail chub (Gila robusta). Other consequences include destruction and dysfunction of the intestinal lining and adverse changes to certain blood parameters. Introduced into the U.S. in the 1970s with imported grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), the Asian fish tapeworm (Bothriocephalus acheilognathi) was discovered in the Little Colorado River (LCR) by 1990. The LCR is the main tributary to the Colorado River in Grand Canyon and is an important spawning area for humpback chub.

  15. Dehydrofreezing of Fish I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozima, Tsuneo

    Recently, new method of removing water from perishable food were developed using dehydration sheet with material having high osmotic pressure and absorbent polymer. Dehydration sheet consist of mixture of sugar dehydrolysate and absorbent polymer covered with sem-permeable membrane, and can remove water in liquid state by contact with perishable food. Dehydration rate of fish using with dehydration sheet varied depending on species, their shape, and ambient temperature etc. Fish were dehydrated with dehydration sheet at low temperature as 0 - 5 C and frozen in cold storage room. Dehydrofrozen fish were kept it's high quality and freshness after thawing, ATPase activity of fish muscle was kept at high level after dehydrofreezing in the case of cod and alaska pollack, and flesh color of farming salmon was kept after thawing.

  16. Fishing for Seeds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science and Children, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Describes a method to collect seeds that are dispersed from weeds while avoiding some outdoor hazards such as rough terrain or animals. Describes a plan for creating a weed fishing pole and includes a materials list. (SAH)

  17. Fishing for Seeds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science and Children, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Describes a method to collect seeds that are dispersed from weeds while avoiding some outdoor hazards such as rough terrain or animals. Describes a plan for creating a weed fishing pole and includes a materials list. (SAH)

  18. Got a Sick Fish?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Public Resources | Pet Care Print Share This! Your Veterinarian Pet Care Currently selected Emergency Care Animal Welfare ... fish having any unusual disease signs, contact your veterinarian for further advice. These are some of the ...

  19. All fish for China?

    PubMed

    Villasante, Sebastián; Rodríguez-González, David; Antelo, Manel; Rivero-Rodríguez, Susana; de Santiago, José A; Macho, Gonzalo

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we examine the effect of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) on the level of fish intake in China in comparison with the rest of the world. We also analyse the origin and destination of China's seafood products in order to understand the main patterns during the last decades. The results show that in the 1961-2011 period the rate of growth of the GDP in China doubled that of other developing regions, while the daily fish intake of China increased fourfold, making China the largest fish consumer in the world. Given the size and scale of China's role in production, consumption, and global transformation of seafood markets, China is shaping a new era of industrialization in the history of the fishing industry.

  20. Freshwater Fish Communities

    EPA Science Inventory

    Freshwater fish are ecologically important in stream ecosystems, and they provide people with significant food, recreation, and conservation value as biological indicator of freshwater streams. Historically, the streams and rivers of southern New England supported moderately dive...

  1. CONTAMINANTS IN FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to determine inorganic and organic contaminant concentrations in edible tissue of fish collected from eight coastal areas receiving wastewater discharges and from two reference locations. Trace metal residues were statistically similar regardless ...

  2. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... By Syndrome Life Cycle Impacts Human Health Wildlife Ecosystems Socioeconomic Freshwater Regions Distribution - U.S. Distribution - World Maps ... Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning Cyanobacteria Medical Community ... Fish Poisoning Causative organisms: Gambierdiscus ...

  3. T Cells in Fish

    PubMed Central

    Nakanishi, Teruyuki; Shibasaki, Yasuhiro; Matsuura, Yuta

    2015-01-01

    Cartilaginous and bony fish are the most primitive vertebrates with a thymus, and possess T cells equivalent to those in mammals. There are a number of studies in fish demonstrating that the thymus is the essential organ for development of T lymphocytes from early thymocyte progenitors to functionally competent T cells. A high number of T cells in the intestine and gills has been reported in several fish species. Involvement of CD4+ and CD8α+ T cells in allograft rejection and graft-versus-host reaction (GVHR) has been demonstrated using monoclonal antibodies. Conservation of CD4+ helper T cell functions among teleost fishes has been suggested in a number studies employing mixed leukocyte culture (MLC) and hapten/carrier effect. Alloantigen- and virus-specific cytotoxicity has also been demonstrated in ginbuna and rainbow trout. Furthermore, the important role of cell-mediated immunity rather than humoral immunity has been reported in the protection against intracellular bacterial infection. Recently, the direct antibacterial activity of CD8α+, CD4+ T-cells and sIgM+ cells in fish has been reported. In this review, we summarize the recent progress in T cell research focusing on the tissue distribution and function of fish T cells. PMID:26426066

  4. Cleaner fish drives local fish diversity on coral reefs.

    PubMed

    Grutter, Alexandra S; Murphy, Jan Maree; Choat, J Howard

    2003-01-08

    Coral reefs are one of the most diverse habitats in the world, yet our understanding of the processes affecting their biodiversity is limited. At the local scale, cleaner fish are thought to have a disproportionate effect, in relation to their abundance and size, on the activity of many other fish species, but confirmation of this species' effect on local fish diversity has proved elusive. The cleaner fish Labroides dimidiatus has major effects on fish activity patterns and may indirectly affect fish demography through the removal of large numbers of parasites. Here we show that small reefs where L. dimidiatus had been experimentally excluded for 18 months had half the species diversity of fish and one-fourth the abundance of individuals. Only fish that move among reefs, however, were affected. These fish include large species that themselves can affect other reef organisms. In contrast, the distribution of resident fish was not affected by cleaner fish. Thus, many fish appear to choose reefs based on the presence of cleaner fish. Our findings indicate that a single small and not very abundant fish has a strong influence on the movement patterns, habitat choice, activity, and local diversity and abundance of a wide variety of reef fish species.

  5. Fishing down the largest coral reef fish species.

    PubMed

    Fenner, Douglas

    2014-07-15

    Studies on remote, uninhabited, near-pristine reefs have revealed surprisingly large populations of large reef fish. Locations such as the northwestern Hawaiian Islands, northern Marianas Islands, Line Islands, U.S. remote Pacific Islands, Cocos-Keeling Atoll and Chagos archipelago have much higher reef fish biomass than islands and reefs near people. Much of the high biomass of most remote reef fish communities lies in the largest species, such as sharks, bumphead parrots, giant trevally, and humphead wrasse. Some, such as sharks and giant trevally, are apex predators, but others such as bumphead parrots and humphead wrasse, are not. At many locations, decreases in large reef fish species have been attributed to fishing. Fishing is well known to remove the largest fish first, and a quantitative measure of vulnerability to fishing indicates that large reef fish species are much more vulnerable to fishing than small fish. The removal of large reef fish by fishing parallels the extinction of terrestrial megafauna by early humans. However large reef fish have great value for various ecological roles and for reef tourism.

  6. Fish and Fisheries Ecology.

    PubMed

    Magnuson, John J

    1991-02-01

    My paper on fish and fisheries ecology is offered to demonstrate a rich blending of applied and fundamental ecology, achieved by the intersections among fishery science, ichthyology, and ecology. The example, while specific, parallels practices and opportunities available in other areas of applied ecology. The emergence of fish and fisheries ecology as a discipline is evidence by such recent textbooks as Fisheries ecology by Pitcher and Hart (1982) and Ecology of teleost fishes by Wootton (1990). The ecology relevant to fish and fisheries includes not only marine and freshwater ecology, oceanography, and limnology, but also terrestrial study. Early work in fish and fisheries ecology came from Stephen A. Forbes > 100 yr ago in his books On some interactions of organisms (Forbes 1880) and The lake as a microcosm (Forbes 1887). These constitute one of the earliest conceptualizations of an ecosystem. By 1932 E. S. Russell concluded that fishery research was a study in marine ecology. I give examples of applications from six different categories of ecology. (1) Physiological ecology: The F. E. J. Fry school of fish physiology developed the concepts of temperature as a lethal, controlling and directive factor. More than 40 yr later, this knowledge is being combined with G. E. Hutchinson's concept of an n-dimensional niche to analyze potential influences of global climate warming on fishes. (2) Behavioral ecology: A. D. Hasler and students formulated and tested the hypothesis of olfactory imprinting as the mechanism by which Pacific salmon "home" to their natal spawning streams. Applications to reestablish salmon runs are as important to Hasler as the original scientific discovery; this is evident in his proposed "Salmon for Peace" for the river bounding USSR and China. (3) Population ecology: The realization that reproductive success of fishes depends more on larval mortality than on egg production emerged from the ideas of J. Hjort (1914). To this day inconsistencies

  7. Cowlitz Falls Fish Passage.

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The upper Cowlitz was once home to native salmon and steelhead. But the combined impacts of overharvest, farming, logging and road building hammered fish runs. And in the 1960s, a pair of hydroelectric dams blocked the migration path of ocean-returning and ocean-going fish. The lower Cowlitz still supports hatchery runs of chinook, coho and steelhead. But some 200 river miles in the upper river basin--much of it prime spawning and rearing habitat--have been virtually cut off from the ocean for over 26 years. Now the idea is to trap-and-haul salmon and steelhead both ways and bypass previously impassable obstacles in the path of anadromous fish. The plan can be summarized, for the sake of explanation, in three steps: (1) trap and haul adult fish--collect ocean-returning adult fish at the lowermost Cowlitz dam, and truck them upstream; (2) reseed--release the ripe adults above the uppermost dam, and let them spawn naturally, at the same time, supplement these runs with hatchery born fry that are reared and imprinted in ponds and net pens in the watershed; (3) trap and haul smolts--collection the new generation of young fish as they arrive at the uppermost Cowlitz dam, truck them past the three dams, and release them to continue their downstream migration to the sea. The critical part of any fish-collection system is the method of fish attraction. Scientists have to find the best combination of attraction system and screens that will guide young fish to the right spot, away from the turbine intakes. In the spring of 1994 a test was made of a prototype system of baffles and slots on the upriver face of the Cowlitz Falls Dam. The prototype worked at 90% efficiency in early tests, and it worked without the kind of expensive screening devices that have been installed on other dams. Now that the success of the attraction system has been verified, Harza engineers and consultants will design and build the appropriate collection part of the system.

  8. Immunity to fish rhabdoviruses.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Maureen K; Laing, Kerry J; Winton, James R

    2012-01-01

    Members of the family Rhabdoviridae are single-stranded RNA viruses and globally important pathogens of wild and cultured fish and thus relatively well studied in their respective hosts or other model systems. Here, we review the protective immune mechanisms that fish mount in response to rhabdovirus infections. Teleost fish possess the principal components of innate and adaptive immunity found in other vertebrates. Neutralizing antibodies are critical for long-term protection from fish rhabdoviruses, but several studies also indicate a role for cell-mediated immunity. Survival of acute rhabdoviral infection is also dependent on innate immunity, particularly the interferon (IFN) system that is rapidly induced in response to infection. Paradoxically, rhabdoviruses are sensitive to the effects of IFN but virulent rhabdoviruses can continue to replicate owing to the abilities of the matrix (M) protein to mediate host-cell shutoff and the non‑virion (NV) protein to subvert programmed cell death and suppress functional IFN. While many basic features of the fish immune response to rhabdovirus infections are becoming better understood, much less is known about how factors in the environment affect the ecology of rhabdovirus infections in natural populations of aquatic animals.

  9. Immunity to Fish Rhabdoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Laing, Kerry J.; Winton, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Members of the family Rhabdoviridae are single-stranded RNA viruses and globally important pathogens of wild and cultured fish and thus relatively well studied in their respective hosts or other model systems. Here, we review the protective immune mechanisms that fish mount in response to rhabdovirus infections. Teleost fish possess the principal components of innate and adaptive immunity found in other vertebrates. Neutralizing antibodies are critical for long-term protection from fish rhabdoviruses, but several studies also indicate a role for cell-mediated immunity. Survival of acute rhabdoviral infection is also dependent on innate immunity, particularly the interferon (IFN) system that is rapidly induced in response to infection. Paradoxically, rhabdoviruses are sensitive to the effects of IFN but virulent rhabdoviruses can continue to replicate owing to the abilities of the matrix (M) protein to mediate host-cell shutoff and the non‑virion (NV) protein to subvert programmed cell death and suppress functional IFN. While many basic features of the fish immune response to rhabdovirus infections are becoming better understood, much less is known about how factors in the environment affect the ecology of rhabdovirus infections in natural populations of aquatic animals. PMID:22355456

  10. Fish robotics and hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauder, George

    2010-11-01

    Studying the fluid dynamics of locomotion in freely-swimming fishes is challenging due to difficulties in controlling fish behavior. To provide better control over fish-like propulsive systems we have constructed a variety of fish-like robotic test platforms that range from highly biomimetic models of fins, to simple physical models of body movements during aquatic locomotion. First, we have constructed a series of biorobotic models of fish pectoral fins with 5 fin rays that allow detailed study of fin motion, forces, and fluid dynamics associated with fin-based locomotion. We find that by tuning fin ray stiffness and the imposed motion program we can produce thrust both on the fin outstroke and instroke. Second, we are using a robotic flapping foil system to study the self-propulsion of flexible plastic foils of varying stiffness, length, and trailing edge shape as a means of investigating the fluid dynamic effect of simple changes in the properties of undulating bodies moving through water. We find unexpected non-linear stiffness-dependent effects of changing foil length on self-propelled speed, and as well as significant effects of trailing edge shape on foil swimming speed.

  11. Immunity to fish rhabdoviruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Laing, Kerry J.; Winton, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Members of the family Rhabdoviridae are single-stranded RNA viruses and globally important pathogens of wild and cultured fish and thus relatively well studied in their respective hosts or other model systems. Here, we review the protective immune mechanisms that fish mount in response to rhabdovirus infections. Teleost fish possess the principal components of innate and adaptive immunity found in other vertebrates. Neutralizing antibodies are critical for long-term protection from fish rhabdoviruses, but several studies also indicate a role for cell-mediated immunity. Survival of acute rhabdoviral infection is also dependent on innate immunity, particularly the interferon (IFN) system that is rapidly induced in response to infection. Paradoxically, rhabdoviruses are sensitive to the effects of IFN but virulent rhabdoviruses can continue to replicate owing to the abilities of the matrix (M) protein to mediate host-cell shutoff and the non-virion (NV) protein to subvert programmed cell death and suppress functional IFN. While many basic features of the fish immune response to rhabdovirus infections are becoming better understood, much less is known about how factors in the environment affect the ecology of rhabdovirus infections in natural populations of aquatic animals.

  12. Can Fish Catch On in Your Class?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butzow, John W.; Kane, Philip N.

    1983-01-01

    Presented are several classroom activities using fish. These include gyotaku (Japanese fish printing), use of a dichotomous key to classify fish, "invent-a-fish" activities, and others. Includes discussion of fish facts and copies of fish key and invent-a-fish cards. (JN)

  13. CO-FISH, COD-FISH, ReD-FISH, SKY-FISH.

    PubMed

    Williams, Eli S; Cornforth, Michael N; Goodwin, Edwin H; Bailey, Susan M

    2011-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has become a powerful tool for exploring genomes at the level of chromosomes. The procedure can be used to identify individual chromosomes, rearrangements between chromosomes, and the location within a chromosome of specific DNA sequences such as centromeres, telomeres, and even individual genes. Chromosome orientation FISH (CO-FISH) extends the information obtainable from standard FISH to include the relative orientation of two or more DNA sequences within a chromosome (Goodwin and Meyne, Cytogenet Cell Genet 63:126-127, 1993). In combination with a suitable reference probe, CO-FISH can also determine the absolute 5'-3' direction of a DNA sequence relative to the short arm (pter) to long arm (qter) axis of the chromosome. This variation of CO-FISH was originally termed "COD-FISH" (Chromosome orientation and direction FISH) to reflect this fact (Meyne and Goodwin, Chromosome Research 3:375-378, 1995). Telomeric DNA serves as a convenient and absolute reference probe for this purpose, since all G-rich 5'-(TTAGGG)( n )-3' telomeric sequences are terminally located and oriented away from the centromere.In the beginning, CO-FISH was used to detect obligate chromosomal inversions associated with isochromosome formation (Bailey et al., Mutagenesis 11:139-144, 1996), various pericentric inversions (Bailey et al., Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics 75:248-253, 1996), and to confirm the origin of centromeric lateral asymmetry (Goodwin et al., Chromosoma 104:345-347, 1996). More recent and sophisticated applications of CO-FISH include distinction between telomeres produced via leading- vs. lagging-strand DNA synthesis (Bailey et al., Science 293:2462-2465, 2001), identification of interstitial blocks of telomere sequence that result from inappropriate fusion to double-strand breaks (telomere-DSB fusion) (Bailey et al., DNA Repair (Amst) 3:349-357, 2004), discovery of elevated rates of mitotic recombination at chromosomal termini

  14. Dynamite fishing in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Slade, Lorna M; Kalangahe, Baraka

    2015-12-30

    Fishing using explosives is common in Tanzanian waters; it is considered to be more widely practised now than at any other point in history. Mwambao Coastal Community Network, a Tanzanian NGO carried out a multi-stakeholder consultation in April 2014 initiated through the concern of private investors and tourism operators. Consultations were held with villagers, fisheries officers, government officers, hoteliers, dive operators, fish processors, NGOs and other key individuals, and shed some light on key factors enabling this practice to flourish. Key areas identified for attention include engendering political will at all levels, upholding of the law through a non-corrupt enforcement and judicial system, and defining clear roles and responsibilities for monitoring and surveillance. The work identified other successful initiatives which have tackled this pervasive practice including projects that build local capacity for marine governance, villages that have declared themselves intolerant of blast-fishing, and private-public partnerships for patrol and protection.

  15. Claudins in teleost fishes

    PubMed Central

    Kolosov, Dennis; Bui, Phuong; Chasiotis, Helen; Kelly, Scott P

    2013-01-01

    Teleost fishes are a large and diverse animal group that represent close to 50% of all described vertebrate species. This review consolidates what is known about the claudin (Cldn) family of tight junction (TJ) proteins in teleosts. Cldns are transmembrane proteins of the vertebrate epithelial/endothelial TJ complex that largely determine TJ permeability. Cldns achieve this by expressing barrier or pore forming properties and by exhibiting distinct tissue distribution patterns. So far, ~63 genes encoding for Cldn TJ proteins have been reported in 16 teleost species. Collectively, cldns (or Cldns) are found in a broad array of teleost fish tissues, but select genes exhibit restricted expression patterns. Evidence to date strongly supports the view that Cldns play a vital role in the embryonic development of teleost fishes and in the physiology of tissues and organ systems studied thus far. PMID:24665402

  16. [Ciguatera fish poisoning].

    PubMed

    Oehler, Erwan; Bouchut, Jérémie

    2014-09-01

    Ciguatera, an ichtyosarcotoxism linked to the consumption of usually healthy coral fish is a common poisoning in the Pacific, Caribbean and Indian Ocean where it is endemic. However, increased tourism and commercial transportation of tropical fish for consumption make it an unexceptional intoxication in countries away from its endemic area. Environmental stresses such as climate changes also contribute to the expansion of its geographical area. The non-specific clinical symptomatology is characterized by the occurrence of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, nervous and general signs few hours after eating a ciguatoxic fish. The diagnosis is clinical and relatively easy in endemic areas but much less for physicians who are rarely confronted with, which is a source of prolonged diagnostic delays and a significant increase in spending. Treatment of ciguatera is symptomatic but new treatments, still experimental, give a real hope for the future.

  17. Heterogeneous conservation of Dlx paralog co-expression in jawed vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Debiais-Thibaud, Mélanie; Metcalfe, Cushla J; Pollack, Jacob; Germon, Isabelle; Ekker, Marc; Depew, Michael; Laurenti, Patrick; Borday-Birraux, Véronique; Casane, Didier

    2013-01-01

    The Dlx gene family encodes transcription factors involved in the development of a wide variety of morphological innovations that first evolved at the origins of vertebrates or of the jawed vertebrates. This gene family expanded with the two rounds of genome duplications that occurred before jawed vertebrates diversified. It includes at least three bigene pairs sharing conserved regulatory sequences in tetrapods and teleost fish, but has been only partially characterized in chondrichthyans, the third major group of jawed vertebrates. Here we take advantage of developmental and molecular tools applied to the shark Scyliorhinus canicula to fill in the gap and provide an overview of the evolution of the Dlx family in the jawed vertebrates. These results are analyzed in the theoretical framework of the DDC (Duplication-Degeneration-Complementation) model. The genomic organisation of the catshark Dlx genes is similar to that previously described for tetrapods. Conserved non-coding elements identified in bony fish were also identified in catshark Dlx clusters and showed regulatory activity in transgenic zebrafish. Gene expression patterns in the catshark showed that there are some expression sites with high conservation of the expressed paralog(s) and other expression sites with events of paralog sub-functionalization during jawed vertebrate diversification, resulting in a wide variety of evolutionary scenarios within this gene family. Dlx gene expression patterns in the catshark show that there has been little neo-functionalization in Dlx genes over gnathostome evolution. In most cases, one tandem duplication and two rounds of vertebrate genome duplication have led to at least six Dlx coding sequences with redundant expression patterns followed by some instances of paralog sub-functionalization. Regulatory constraints such as shared enhancers, and functional constraints including gene pleiotropy, may have contributed to the evolutionary inertia leading to high

  18. A Developmental Study of the Cerebellar Nucleus in the Catshark, a Basal Gnathostome.

    PubMed

    Pose-Méndez, Sol; Rodríguez-Moldes, Isabel; Candal, Eva; Mazan, Sylvie; Anadón, Ramón

    2017-01-01

    The output of the cerebellar cortex is mainly released via cerebellar nuclei which vary in number and complexity among gnathostomes, extant vertebrates with a cerebellum. Cartilaginous fishes, a basal gnathostome lineage, show a conspicuous, well-organized cerebellar nucleus, unlike ray-finned fishes. To gain insight into the evolution and development of the cerebellar nucleus, we analyzed in the shark Scyliorhinus canicula (a chondrichthyan model species) the developmental expression of several genes coding for transcription factors (ScLhx5,ScLhx9,ScTbr1, and ScEn2) and the distribution of the protein calbindin, since all appear to be involved in cerebellar nuclei patterning in other gnathostomes. Three regions (subventricular, medial or central, and lateral or superficial) became recognizable in the cerebellar nucleus of this shark during development. Present genoarchitectonic and neurochemical data in embryos provide insight into the origin of the cerebellar nucleus in chondrichthyans and support a tripartite mediolateral organization of the cerebellar nucleus, as previously described in adult sharks. Furthermore, the expression pattern of ScLhx5,ScLhx9, and ScTbr1 in this shark, together with that of markers of proliferation, migration, and early differentiation of neurons, is compatible with the hypothesis that, as in mammals, different subsets of cerebellar nucleus neurons are originated from progenitors of 2 different sources: the ventricular zone of the cerebellar plate and the rhombic lip. We also present suggestive evidence that Lhx9 expression is involved in cerebellar nuclei patterning early on in gnathostome evolution, rather than representing an evolutionary innovation of the dentate nucleus in mammals, as previously hypothesized.

  19. Heterogeneous Conservation of Dlx Paralog Co-Expression in Jawed Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Debiais-Thibaud, Mélanie; Metcalfe, Cushla J.; Pollack, Jacob; Germon, Isabelle; Ekker, Marc; Depew, Michael; Laurenti, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Background The Dlx gene family encodes transcription factors involved in the development of a wide variety of morphological innovations that first evolved at the origins of vertebrates or of the jawed vertebrates. This gene family expanded with the two rounds of genome duplications that occurred before jawed vertebrates diversified. It includes at least three bigene pairs sharing conserved regulatory sequences in tetrapods and teleost fish, but has been only partially characterized in chondrichthyans, the third major group of jawed vertebrates. Here we take advantage of developmental and molecular tools applied to the shark Scyliorhinus canicula to fill in the gap and provide an overview of the evolution of the Dlx family in the jawed vertebrates. These results are analyzed in the theoretical framework of the DDC (Duplication-Degeneration-Complementation) model. Results The genomic organisation of the catshark Dlx genes is similar to that previously described for tetrapods. Conserved non-coding elements identified in bony fish were also identified in catshark Dlx clusters and showed regulatory activity in transgenic zebrafish. Gene expression patterns in the catshark showed that there are some expression sites with high conservation of the expressed paralog(s) and other expression sites with events of paralog sub-functionalization during jawed vertebrate diversification, resulting in a wide variety of evolutionary scenarios within this gene family. Conclusion Dlx gene expression patterns in the catshark show that there has been little neo-functionalization in Dlx genes over gnathostome evolution. In most cases, one tandem duplication and two rounds of vertebrate genome duplication have led to at least six Dlx coding sequences with redundant expression patterns followed by some instances of paralog sub-functionalization. Regulatory constraints such as shared enhancers, and functional constraints including gene pleiotropy, may have contributed to the evolutionary

  20. Fish Stem Cell Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Ni; Li, Zhendong; Hong, Yunhan

    2011-01-01

    Stem cells have the potential for self-renewal and differentiation. First stem cell cultures were derived 30 years ago from early developing mouse embryos. These are pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells. Efforts towards ES cell derivation have been attempted in other mammalian and non-mammalian species. Work with stem cell culture in fish started 20 years ago. Laboratory fish species, in particular zebrafish and medaka, have been the focus of research towards stem cell cultures. Medaka is the second organism that generated ES cells and the first that gave rise to a spermatogonial stem cell line capable of test-tube sperm production. Most recently, the first haploid stem cells capable of producing whole animals have also been generated from medaka. ES-like cells have been reported also in zebrafish and several marine species. Attempts for germline transmission of ES cell cultures and gene targeting have been reported in zebrafish. Recent years have witnessed the progress in markers and procedures for ES cell characterization. These include the identification of fish homologs/paralogs of mammalian pluripotency genes and parameters for optimal chimera formation. In addition, fish germ cell cultures and transplantation have attracted considerable interest for germline transmission and surrogate production. Haploid ES cell nuclear transfer has proven in medaka the feasibility of semi-cloning as a novel assisted reproductive technology. In this special issue on “Fish Stem Cells and Nuclear Transfer”, we will focus our review on medaka to illustrate the current status and perspective of fish stem cells in research and application. We will also mention semi-cloning as a new development to conventional nuclear transfer. PMID:21547056

  1. 49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... subchapter, fish meal or fish scrap, containing at least 6%, but not more than 12% water, is authorized for transportation by vessel only when packaged as follows: (1) Burlap (jute) bag; (2) Multi-wall paper bag;...

  2. Interior below decks in fish hold looking forward. Fish hatch ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior below decks in fish hold looking forward. Fish hatch opening is at upper left, ceiling planks and knees at center and right. - Purse Seiner SHENANDOAH, Gig Harbor Peninsula Historical Society and Museum, Gig Harbor, Pierce County, WA

  3. Fish consumption and track to a fish feed formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai-Juan, Soong; Ramli, Razamin; Rahman, Rosshairy Abdul

    2015-12-01

    Strategically located in the equator, Malaysia is blessed with plenty of fish supply. The high demand in fish consumption has helped the development in the fishery industry and provided numerous jobs in the secondary sector, contributing significantly to the nation's income. A survey was conducted to understand the trend of current demands for fish for the purpose of designing a feed formulation, which is still limited in this area of study. Results showed that grouper fish in restaurants commanded a very high price compared to other species of fish. Tiger grouper gained the highest demand in most restaurants, while giant grouper had the highest price in restaurants. Due to the demand and challenges to culture this type of fish, a framework for fish feed formulation is proposed. The formulation framework when materialized could be an alternative to the use of trash fish as the feed for grouper.

  4. 49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... subchapter, fish meal or fish scrap, containing at least 6%, but not more than 12% water, is authorized for...) Polyethylene-lined burlap or paper bag; (4) Cargo tank; (5) Portable tank; (6) Rail car; or (7)...

  5. 49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... subchapter, fish meal or fish scrap, containing at least 6%, but not more than 12% water, is authorized for...) Polyethylene-lined burlap or paper bag; (4) Cargo tank; (5) Portable tank; (6) Rail car; or (7)...

  6. Fish oils and human diet.

    PubMed

    Sargent, J R

    1997-07-01

    Trends in global fish catches are described together with fish landings and fish consumption in the UK. The importance of n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids as essential constituents of human diets is considered and the role of oily fish as a dietary source of the long-chain n-3 polyunsaturates, docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, is emphasized. The origin of n-3 polyunsaturates in, the marine phytoplankton and their transmission via zooplankton to fish is described as a means of understanding the composition of different fish body oils. The ease with which the fatty acid composition of fish body oils can be manipulated by altering the fatty acid composition of their feeds is emphasized and the dietary requirements of marine and freshwater fish for n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturates considered. Farming fish on diets containing principally fish meal and fish oil, as used in salmon production in Scotland, generates a high quality product with levels of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturates equalling or exceeding those of wild fish. Farming fish on high quality marine oils rich in docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids is an efficient means of delivering these essential nutrients in human diets and also efficiently exploiting a strictly limited marine bioresource.

  7. 50 CFR 71.11 - Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... fishing. 71.11 Section 71.11 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) MANAGEMENT OF FISHERIES CONSERVATION AREAS HUNTING AND FISHING ON NATIONAL FISH HATCHERY AREAS Fishing § 71.11 Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing. National fish...

  8. 50 CFR 71.11 - Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... fishing. 71.11 Section 71.11 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) MANAGEMENT OF FISHERIES CONSERVATION AREAS HUNTING AND FISHING ON NATIONAL FISH HATCHERY AREAS Fishing § 71.11 Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing. National fish...

  9. 50 CFR 71.11 - Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... fishing. 71.11 Section 71.11 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) MANAGEMENT OF FISHERIES CONSERVATION AREAS HUNTING AND FISHING ON NATIONAL FISH HATCHERY AREAS Fishing § 71.11 Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing. National fish...

  10. Fish Commoditization: Sustainability Strategies to Protect Living Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Mimi E.; Pitcher, Tony J.

    2012-01-01

    The impacts of early fishing on aquatic ecosystems were minimal, as primitive technologies were used to harvest fish primarily for food. As fishing technology grew more sophisticated and human populations dispersed and expanded, local economies transitioned from subsistence to barter and trade. Expanded trade networks and mercantilization led to…

  11. Significant effects of fishing gear selectivity on fish life history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Zhenlin; Sun, Peng; Yan, Wei; Huang, Liuyi; Tang, Yanli

    2014-06-01

    Over the past few decades, extreme changes have occurred in the characters of exploited fish populations. The majority of these changes have affected the growth traits of fish life history, which include a smaller size-at-age, an earlier age-at-maturation and among others. Currently, the causes of these life history traits changes still require systematic analyses and empirical studies. The explanations that have been cited are merely expressed in terms of fish phenotypic adaptation. It has been claimed that the original traits of fish can be recovered once the intensity of exploitation of the fish is controlled. Sustained environmental and fishing pressure will change the life history traits of most fish species, so the fish individual's traits are still in small size-at-age and at earlier age-at-maturation in exploited fish populations. In this paper, we expressed our view of points that fishing gear has imposed selectivity on fish populations and individuals as various other environmental factors have done and such changes are unrecoverable. According to the existing tend of exploited fish individual's life history traits, we suggested further researches in this field and provided better methods of fishery management and thereby fishery resources protection than those available early.

  12. Fish and fish oil in health and disease prevention

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fish is an important dietary component due to its contribution of valuable nutrients. In addition to the high quality protein and micronutrients provided, fish is the primary source of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids which are found in oils of ‘fatty’ cold water fish. Biomedical evidence supports th...

  13. Fish Commoditization: Sustainability Strategies to Protect Living Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Mimi E.; Pitcher, Tony J.

    2012-01-01

    The impacts of early fishing on aquatic ecosystems were minimal, as primitive technologies were used to harvest fish primarily for food. As fishing technology grew more sophisticated and human populations dispersed and expanded, local economies transitioned from subsistence to barter and trade. Expanded trade networks and mercantilization led to…

  14. Hydrodynamics of fossil fishes.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Thomas; Altringham, John; Peakall, Jeffrey; Wignall, Paul; Dorrell, Robert

    2014-08-07

    From their earliest origins, fishes have developed a suite of adaptations for locomotion in water, which determine performance and ultimately fitness. Even without data from behaviour, soft tissue and extant relatives, it is possible to infer a wealth of palaeobiological and palaeoecological information. As in extant species, aspects of gross morphology such as streamlining, fin position and tail type are optimized even in the earliest fishes, indicating similar life strategies have been present throughout their evolutionary history. As hydrodynamical studies become more sophisticated, increasingly complex fluid movement can be modelled, including vortex formation and boundary layer control. Drag-reducing riblets ornamenting the scales of fast-moving sharks have been subjected to particularly intense research, but this has not been extended to extinct forms. Riblets are a convergent adaptation seen in many Palaeozoic fishes, and probably served a similar hydrodynamic purpose. Conversely, structures which appear to increase skin friction may act as turbulisors, reducing overall drag while serving a protective function. Here, we examine the diverse adaptions that contribute to drag reduction in modern fishes and review the few attempts to elucidate the hydrodynamics of extinct forms.

  15. Fish Facts. Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Mike

    This lesson plan is designed for a 50-minute class to teach extension home economists and homemakers about buying, storing, and using fish. The lesson plan contains references, a list of equipment needed, objectives, and the presentation. The presentation consists of an outline of instruction coordinated with methods of instruction and aids and…

  16. FishTraits Database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Angermeier, Paul L.; Frimpong, Emmanuel A.

    2009-01-01

    The need for integrated and widely accessible sources of species traits data to facilitate studies of ecology, conservation, and management has motivated development of traits databases for various taxa. In spite of the increasing number of traits-based analyses of freshwater fishes in the United States, no consolidated database of traits of this group exists publicly, and much useful information on these species is documented only in obscure sources. The largely inaccessible and unconsolidated traits information makes large-scale analysis involving many fishes and/or traits particularly challenging. FishTraits is a database of >100 traits for 809 (731 native and 78 exotic) fish species found in freshwaters of the conterminous United States, including 37 native families and 145 native genera. The database contains information on four major categories of traits: (1) trophic ecology, (2) body size and reproductive ecology (life history), (3) habitat associations, and (4) salinity and temperature tolerances. Information on geographic distribution and conservation status is also included. Together, we refer to the traits, distribution, and conservation status information as attributes. Descriptions of attributes are available here. Many sources were consulted to compile attributes, including state and regional species accounts and other databases.

  17. Colwater fish in rivers

    EPA Science Inventory

    A standard sampling protocol to assess the fish assemblages and abundances in large, coldwater rivers is most accurate and precise if consistent gears and levels of effort are used at each site. This requires thorough crew training, quality control audits, and replicate sampling...

  18. The Last Fish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollack, Susan

    1995-01-01

    Describes the collapse of Newfoundland's once immense northern-cod fishery in 1992 from the perspective of a family fisherman who has become an environmental activist. Discusses failures in environmental management including the overfishing of shared resources encouraged by the Canadian government and hastened by international fishing fleets and…

  19. Fishing for Features

    ScienceCinema

    Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Cort, John; Bailey, Vanessa

    2016-08-24

    The Fishing for Features Signature Discovery project developed a framework for discovering signature features in challenging environments involving large and complex data sets or where phenomena may be poorly characterized or understood. Researchers at PNNL have applied the framework to the optimization of biofuels blending and to discover signatures of climate change on microbial soil communities.

  20. Yet Another Fish Tale?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lalasz, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Last month the "Rocky Mountain News" reported that a survey by an emeritus professor at University of Colorado Boulder found that only 23 of 825 faculty members on the campus were registered Republicans. But on his "New York Times" blog, Stanley Fish brushed off the survey's significance from a familiarly Fishian stance. A faculty's political…

  1. Ooey, Gooey, Fish Guts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmons, Maryellen

    2004-01-01

    Fish dissections are a great way to introduce the concepts of food webs, predator-prey relationships, and ecosystems, but these labs are expensive, messy, smelly, and require a lot of supervision because of the tools involved. The author has developed an inexpensive, safe, and clean alternative where students "dissect" simulated fish…

  2. Ooey, Gooey, Fish Guts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmons, Maryellen

    2004-01-01

    Fish dissections are a great way to introduce the concepts of food webs, predator-prey relationships, and ecosystems, but these labs are expensive, messy, smelly, and require a lot of supervision because of the tools involved. The author has developed an inexpensive, safe, and clean alternative where students "dissect" simulated fish…

  3. Fish out of Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartorius, Tara Cady

    1998-01-01

    Highlights the life of Leonard Koscianski, an artist who focuses on revealing the inner life of the human heart and mind in his artwork. Includes four lesson plans for grades ranging from 2 through 12: philosophy, psychology, language arts, and visual arts. Provides a copy and background about Koscianski's painting "Red Fish." (CMK)

  4. Yet Another Fish Tale?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lalasz, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Last month the "Rocky Mountain News" reported that a survey by an emeritus professor at University of Colorado Boulder found that only 23 of 825 faculty members on the campus were registered Republicans. But on his "New York Times" blog, Stanley Fish brushed off the survey's significance from a familiarly Fishian stance. A faculty's political…

  5. Fishing for Features

    SciTech Connect

    Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Cort, John; Bailey, Vanessa

    2016-07-21

    The Fishing for Features Signature Discovery project developed a framework for discovering signature features in challenging environments involving large and complex data sets or where phenomena may be poorly characterized or understood. Researchers at PNNL have applied the framework to the optimization of biofuels blending and to discover signatures of climate change on microbial soil communities.

  6. Colwater fish in rivers

    EPA Science Inventory

    A standard sampling protocol to assess the fish assemblages and abundances in large, coldwater rivers is most accurate and precise if consistent gears and levels of effort are used at each site. This requires thorough crew training, quality control audits, and replicate sampling...

  7. The Last Fish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollack, Susan

    1995-01-01

    Describes the collapse of Newfoundland's once immense northern-cod fishery in 1992 from the perspective of a family fisherman who has become an environmental activist. Discusses failures in environmental management including the overfishing of shared resources encouraged by the Canadian government and hastened by international fishing fleets and…

  8. Hydrodynamics of fossil fishes

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Thomas; Altringham, John; Peakall, Jeffrey; Wignall, Paul; Dorrell, Robert

    2014-01-01

    From their earliest origins, fishes have developed a suite of adaptations for locomotion in water, which determine performance and ultimately fitness. Even without data from behaviour, soft tissue and extant relatives, it is possible to infer a wealth of palaeobiological and palaeoecological information. As in extant species, aspects of gross morphology such as streamlining, fin position and tail type are optimized even in the earliest fishes, indicating similar life strategies have been present throughout their evolutionary history. As hydrodynamical studies become more sophisticated, increasingly complex fluid movement can be modelled, including vortex formation and boundary layer control. Drag-reducing riblets ornamenting the scales of fast-moving sharks have been subjected to particularly intense research, but this has not been extended to extinct forms. Riblets are a convergent adaptation seen in many Palaeozoic fishes, and probably served a similar hydrodynamic purpose. Conversely, structures which appear to increase skin friction may act as turbulisors, reducing overall drag while serving a protective function. Here, we examine the diverse adaptions that contribute to drag reduction in modern fishes and review the few attempts to elucidate the hydrodynamics of extinct forms. PMID:24943377

  9. Fish-induced keriorrhea.

    PubMed

    Ling, Ka Ho; Nichols, Peter D; But, Paul Pui-Hay

    2009-01-01

    Many deep-sea fishes store large amounts of wax esters in their body for buoyancy control. Some of them are frequently caught as by-catch of tuna and other fishes. The most noteworthy ones include escolar and oilfish. The accumulation of the indigestible wax esters in the rectum through consumption of these fish engenders discharges or leakage per rectum as orange or brownish green oil, but without noticeable loss of water. This physiological response is called keriorrhea, which is variously described as "oily diarrhea," "oily orange diarrhea," or "orange oily leakage" by the mass media and bloggers on the internet. Outbreaks of keriorrhea have been repeatedly reported across continents. Additional symptoms including nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, and diarrhea were complained by the victims. They are probably due to anxiety or panic when suffering from keriorrhea. Escolar and oilfish are banned from import and sale in Italy, Japan, and South Korea. Rapid detection of the two fishes is imperative to ensure proper labeling and safeguarding of the public before and after any keriorrhea outbreak.

  10. Miniature sonar fish tag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovelady, R. W.; Ferguson, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    Self-powered sonar device may be implanted in body of fish. It transmits signal that can be detected with portable tracking gear or by automatic detection-and-tracking system. Operating life of over 4000 hours may be expected. Device itself may be used almost indefinitely.

  11. Fish Facts. Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Mike

    This lesson plan is designed for a 50-minute class to teach extension home economists and homemakers about buying, storing, and using fish. The lesson plan contains references, a list of equipment needed, objectives, and the presentation. The presentation consists of an outline of instruction coordinated with methods of instruction and aids and…

  12. Truck-Drivin' Fish?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, AnnMarie

    2001-01-01

    Presents an art activity that enables first-grade students to learn about color mixing by driving toys trucks through paint. Explains that the students created rainbow fish and drew the background with crayons. States that this activity demonstrates how to utilize nontraditional tools or objects when creating art. (CMK)

  13. Parasitology and necropsy of fish.

    PubMed

    Weber, E P Scott; Govett, Pam

    2009-02-01

    Parasitic diseases are common in fish. Diagnosis can be made through gill biopsy, skin cytology, fecal examination, or necropsy. Common parasites include protozoa, helminths, and crustaceans. Determining the cause of death in a fish is important for maintaining the health of other fish in the same environment. Due to rapid autolysis, fish necropsies should be performed promptly after death. Samples should be preserved in 10% neutral buffered formalin. Squash preparations, tissue imprints, microbiology, and virology are also useful in obtaining a diagnosis.

  14. Guidelines for Eating Fish that Contain Mercury

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn about how to minimize exposure to methylmercury while eating fish. Read about fish advisories, how to use them to consume fish safely, and use the national fish advisories locator to find them in an area near you.

  15. PNNL Tests Fish Passage System

    ScienceCinema

    Colotelo, Alison

    2016-08-18

    Scientists from PNNL are testing a fish transportation system developed by Whooshh Innovations. The Whooshh system uses a flexible tube that works a bit like a vacuum, guiding fish over hydroelectric dams or other structures. Compared to methods used today, this system could save money while granting fish quicker, safer passage through dams and hatcheries.

  16. PNNL Tests Fish Passage System

    SciTech Connect

    Colotelo, Alison

    2015-03-13

    Scientists from PNNL are testing a fish transportation system developed by Whooshh Innovations. The Whooshh system uses a flexible tube that works a bit like a vacuum, guiding fish over hydroelectric dams or other structures. Compared to methods used today, this system could save money while granting fish quicker, safer passage through dams and hatcheries.

  17. The offshore benthic fish community

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lantry, Brian F.; Lantry, Jana R.; Weidel, Brian C.; Walsh, Maureen; Hoyle, James A.; Schaner, Teodore; Neave, Fraser B.; Keir, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The offshore benthic fish community will be composed of self-sustaining native fishes characterized by lake trout as the top predator, a population expansion of lake whitefish from northeastern waters to other areas of the lake, and rehabilitated native prey fishes.

  18. Turbo FISH: A Method for Rapid Single Molecule RNA FISH

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, Sydney M.; Wu, Min-Tzu; Levesque, Marshall J.; Raj, Arjun

    2013-01-01

    Advances in RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (RNA FISH) have allowed practitioners to detect individual RNA molecules in single cells via fluorescence microscopy, enabling highly accurate and sensitive quantification of gene expression. However, current methods typically employ hybridization times on the order of 2–16 hours, limiting its potential in applications like rapid diagnostics. We present here a set of conditions for RNA FISH (dubbed Turbo RNA FISH) that allow us to make accurate measurements with no more than 5 minutes of hybridization time and 3 minutes of washing, and show that hybridization times can go as low as 30 seconds while still producing quantifiable images. We further show that rapid hybridization is compatible with our recently developed iceFISH and SNP FISH variants of RNA FISH that enable chromosome and single base discrimination, respectively. Our method is simple and cost effective, and has the potential to dramatically increase the throughput and realm of applicability of RNA FISH. PMID:24066168

  19. Metazoan Parasites of Antarctic Fishes.

    PubMed

    Oğuz, Mehmet Cemal; Tepe, Yahya; Belk, Mark C; Heckmann, Richard A; Aslan, Burçak; Gürgen, Meryem; Bray, Rodney A; Akgül, Ülker

    2015-06-01

    To date, there have been nearly 100 papers published on metazoan parasites of Antarctic fishes, but there has not yet been any compilation of a species list of fish parasites for this large geographic area. Herein, we provide a list of all documented occurrences of monogenean, cestode, digenean, acanthocephalan, nematode, and hirudinean parasites of Antarctic fishes. The list includes nearly 250 parasite species found in 142 species of host fishes. It is likely that there are more species of fish parasites, which are yet to be documented from Antarctic waters.

  20. Improving fish survival through turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, J.W. )

    1993-04-01

    Much of what is known about fish passage through hydroturbines has been developed by studying migratory species of fish passing through large Kaplan turbine units. A review of the literature on previous fish passage research presented in the accompanying story illustrates that studies have focused on determining mortality levels, rather than identifying the causal mechanism involved. There is a need for understanding how turbine designs could be altered to improve fish passage conditions, how to retrofit existing units, and how proposed hydro plant operational changes may affect fish survival. The US Army Corps of Engineers has developed a research program to define biologically based engineering criteria for improving fish passage conditions. Turbine designs incorporating these criteria can be evaluated for their effects on fish survival, engineering issues, costs, and power production. The research program has the following objectives: To gain a thorough knowledge of the mechanisms of fish mortality; To define the biological sensitivities of key fish species to these mechanisms of mortality; To develop new turbine design criteria to reduce fish mortality; To construct prototype turbine designs, and to test these designs for fish passage, hydro-mechanical operation, and power production; and To identify construction and power costs associated with new turbine designs.

  1. Ecosystem consequences of fish parasites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2008-01-01

    In most aquatic ecosystems, fishes are hosts to parasites and, sometimes, these parasites can affect fish biology. Some of the most dramatic cases occur when fishes are intermediate hosts for larval parasites. For example, fishes in southern California estuaries are host to many parasites. The most common of these parasites, Euhaplorchis californiensis, infects the brain of the killifish Fundulus parvipinnis and alters its behaviour, making the fish 10–30 times more susceptible to predation by the birds that serve as its definitive host. Parasites like E. californiensis are embedded in food webs because they require trophic transmission. In the Carpinteria Salt Marsh estuarine food web, parasites dominate the links and comprise substantial amount of biomass. Adding parasites to food webs alters important network statistics such as connectance and nestedness. Furthermore, some free-living stages of parasites are food items for free-living species. For instance, fishes feed on trematode cercariae. Being embedded in food webs makes parasites sensitive to changes in the environment. In particular, fishing and environmental disturbance, by reducing fish populations, may reduce parasite populations. Indirect evidence suggests a decrease in parasites in commercially fished species over the past three decades. In addition, environmental degradation can affect fish parasites. For these reasons, parasites in fishes may serve as indicators of environmental impacts.

  2. Consumers' Attitude Towards Fish Meat.

    PubMed

    Conte, Francesca; Passantino, Annamaria; Longo, Sabrina; Voslářová, Eva

    2014-08-28

    The overall aim of this paper is to show the factors that may affect consumers' attitude towards farmed fish products. Consumers ask new products on the basis of different quality attributes: stability, safety, composition, better health effects, environment protection, etc. Different and controversial opinions on farmed and wild fish are also explored by literature review. The authors pay attention also to fish welfare as an emerging issue and effective information about fish products as a factor exerting a positive influence on consumers' decision of purchase. Some relevant legislative notes on the paper's topics are also cited. The qualitative aspects of aquaculture fish and the consumers' demand and choice need further studies, according to some factors, such as the changing consumers' attitudes towards fish products, the different fish quality perception and the development in the aquaculture systems.

  3. Automatic electronic fish tracking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osborne, P. W.; Hoffman, E.; Merriner, J. V.; Richards, C. E.; Lovelady, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    A newly developed electronic fish tracking system to automatically monitor the movements and migratory habits of fish is reported. The system is aimed particularly at studies of effects on fish life of industrial facilities which use rivers or lakes to dump their effluents. Location of fish is acquired by means of acoustic links from the fish to underwater Listening Stations, and by radio links which relay tracking information to a shore-based Data Base. Fish over 4 inches long may be tracked over a 5 x 5 mile area. The electronic fish tracking system provides the marine scientist with electronics which permit studies that were not practical in the past and which are cost-effective compared to manual methods.

  4. Consumers’ Attitude Towards Fish Meat

    PubMed Central

    Passantino, Annamaria; Longo, Sabrina; Voslářová, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The overall aim of this paper is to show the factors that may affect consumers’ attitude towards farmed fish products. Consumers ask new products on the basis of different quality attributes: stability, safety, composition, better health effects, environment protection, etc. Different and controversial opinions on farmed and wild fish are also explored by literature review. The authors pay attention also to fish welfare as an emerging issue and effective information about fish products as a factor exerting a positive influence on consumers’ decision of purchase. Some relevant legislative notes on the paper’s topics are also cited. The qualitative aspects of aquaculture fish and the consumers’ demand and choice need further studies, according to some factors, such as the changing consumers’ attitudes towards fish products, the different fish quality perception and the development in the aquaculture systems. PMID:27800359

  5. Fish oil: a panacea?

    PubMed

    Bilo, H J; Gans, R O

    1990-01-01

    Since the first report by Bang and Dyerberg regarding the apparent beneficial effects of a fish oil-enriched diet on the incidence of atherosclerotic heart disease in Greenland eskimos, a considerable number of studies have been performed regarding the effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the prevention and treatment of a variety of disease states not necessarily related to atherosclerosis. Studies have been performed on healthy volunteers and in patients with hyperlipidaemia, atherosclerotic vascular disease, diabetes, asthma, psoriasis and chronic renal insufficiency, amongst others. Positive effects on platelet activity, lipid profile, blood rheology and blood pressure--all factors which are presumably of importance in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic disease have been noted in these studies, albeit with a wide range of variability. Some negative effects also appear to exist. However, some general conclusions can be made regarding the effects of a fish oil-enriched diet.

  6. Herpesviruses that Infect Fish

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Larry; Dishon, Arnon; Kotler, Moshe

    2011-01-01

    Herpesviruses are host specific pathogens that are widespread among vertebrates. Genome sequence data demonstrate that most herpesviruses of fish and amphibians are grouped together (family Alloherpesviridae) and are distantly related to herpesviruses of reptiles, birds and mammals (family Herpesviridae). Yet, many of the biological processes of members of the order Herpesvirales are similar. Among the conserved characteristics are the virion structure, replication process, the ability to establish long term latency and the manipulation of the host immune response. Many of the similar processes may be due to convergent evolution. This overview of identified herpesviruses of fish discusses the diseases that alloherpesviruses cause, the biology of these viruses and the host-pathogen interactions. Much of our knowledge on the biology of Alloherpesvirdae is derived from research with two species: Ictalurid herpesvirus 1 (channel catfish virus) and Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (koi herpesvirus). PMID:22163339

  7. Speciation in fishes.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Giacomo

    2013-11-01

    The field of speciation has seen much renewed interest in the past few years, with theoretical and empirical advances that have moved it from a descriptive field to a predictive and testable one. The goal of this review is to provide a general background on research on speciation as it pertains to fishes. Three major components to the question are first discussed: the spatial, ecological and sexual factors that influence speciation mechanisms. We then move to the latest developments in the field of speciation genomics. Affordable and rapidly available, massively parallel sequencing data allow speciation studies to converge into a single comprehensive line of investigation, where the focus has shifted to the search for speciation genes and genomic islands of speciation. We argue that fish present a very diverse array of scenarios, making them an ideal model to study speciation processes.

  8. Beyond biodiversity: fish metagenomes.

    PubMed

    Ardura, Alba; Planes, Serge; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Biodiversity and intra-specific genetic diversity are interrelated and determine the potential of a community to survive and evolve. Both are considered together in Prokaryote communities treated as metagenomes or ensembles of functional variants beyond species limits.Many factors alter biodiversity in higher Eukaryote communities, and human exploitation can be one of the most important for some groups of plants and animals. For example, fisheries can modify both biodiversity and genetic diversity (intra specific). Intra-specific diversity can be drastically altered by overfishing. Intense fishing pressure on one stock may imply extinction of some genetic variants and subsequent loss of intra-specific diversity. The objective of this study was to apply a metagenome approach to fish communities and explore its value for rapid evaluation of biodiversity and genetic diversity at community level. Here we have applied the metagenome approach employing the barcoding target gene coi as a model sequence in catch from four very different fish assemblages exploited by fisheries: freshwater communities from the Amazon River and northern Spanish rivers, and marine communities from the Cantabric and Mediterranean seas.Treating all sequences obtained from each regional catch as a biological unit (exploited community) we found that metagenomic diversity indices of the Amazonian catch sample here examined were lower than expected. Reduced diversity could be explained, at least partially, by overexploitation of the fish community that had been independently estimated by other methods.We propose using a metagenome approach for estimating diversity in Eukaryote communities and early evaluating genetic variation losses at multi-species level.

  9. Ciguatera fish poisoning.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Patrick; Murray, Peter; Nesdale, Annette; Peckler, Brad

    2016-10-28

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is the most common cause of seafood-toxin poisoning in the world and is most prevalent in tropical and subtropical areas. It causes gastroenteritis but also myriad neurological and cardiovascular symptoms. We present a cluster of CFP that occurred in Wellington Hospital, New Zealand. It resulted in three patients with life threatening cardiotoxicity and a fourth case with severe gastro-intestinal symptoms. The epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment and public health issues are discussed.

  10. ONE FISH, TWO FISH, RED FISH, BLUE FISH: THE FISH QUALITY INDEX AS A RISK COMMUNICATION TOOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many people are at high risk for methyl mercury toxicity because of their consumption of contaminated fish. Often health risks of Persistent Bioaccumulative Toxicants (PT) such as methyl mercury, PCBs or Dioxins are underestimated because of their amplification in the food chain ...

  11. ONE FISH, TWO FISH, RED FISH, BLUE FISH: THE FISH QUALITY INDEX AS A RISK COMMUNICATION TOOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many people are at high risk for methyl mercury toxicity because of their consumption of contaminated fish. Often health risks of Persistent Bioaccumulative Toxicants (PT) such as methyl mercury, PCBs or Dioxins are underestimated because of their amplification in the food chain ...

  12. The interleukins of fish.

    PubMed

    Secombes, C J; Wang, T; Bird, S

    2011-12-01

    Interleukins are a subgroup of cytokines, molecules involved in the intercellular regulation of the immune system. The term interleukin was first coined in 1979 to refer to molecules that signal between different leucocyte types, although not exclusively restricted to leucocyte communication. Whilst it is now known that interleukins are produced by a wide variety of cell types, nevertheless many are synthesised by CD4(+) T helper cells, macrophages/monocytes and endothelial cells. The nomenclature is relatively straightforward, with interleukin 1 the first discovered and interleukin 2 the second, etc. However, whilst 35 interleukins are currently described in mammals, several are in fact terms referring to subfamilies of more molecules, as with the IL-1 family where 11 members (IL-1F1-IL-1F11) are present, and the IL-17 family where 6 members (IL-17A-IL-17F) are present. So the total is much higher and splice variants and allelic variation increase this diversity further. This review will focus on what is known about interleukins in fish, and will refer to the major subfamilies rather than try to work through 35 descriptions in a row. It is clear that many direct homologues of molecules known in mammals are present in fish, but that not all are present and some novel interleukins exist that may have arisen from fish specific gene duplication events. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Fish Synucleins: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Toni, Mattia; Cioni, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Synucleins (syns) are a family of proteins involved in several human neurodegenerative diseases and tumors. Since the first syn discovery in the brain of the electric ray Torpedo californica, members of the same family have been identified in all vertebrates and comparative studies have indicated that syn proteins are evolutionary conserved. No counterparts of syns were found in invertebrates suggesting that they are vertebrate-specific proteins. Molecular studies showed that the number of syn members varies among vertebrates. Three genes encode for α-, β- and γ-syn in mammals and birds. However, a variable number of syn genes and encoded proteins is expressed or predicted in fish depending on the species. Among biologically verified sequences, four syn genes were identified in fugu, encoding for α, β and two γ (γ1 and γ2) isoforms, whereas only three genes are expressed in zebrafish, which lacks α-syn gene. The list of “non verified” sequences is much longer and is often found in sequence databases. In this review we provide an overview of published papers and known syn sequences in agnathans and fish that are likely to impact future studies in this field. Indeed, fish models may play a key role in elucidating some of the molecular mechanisms involved in physiological and pathological functions of syn proteins. PMID:26528989

  14. Fishing degrades size structure of coral reef fish communities.

    PubMed

    Robinson, James P W; Williams, Ivor D; Edwards, Andrew M; McPherson, Jana; Yeager, Lauren; Vigliola, Laurent; Brainard, Russell E; Baum, Julia K

    2017-03-01

    Fishing pressure on coral reef ecosystems has been frequently linked to reductions of large fishes and reef fish biomass. Associated impacts on overall community structure are, however, less clear. In size-structured aquatic ecosystems, fishing impacts are commonly quantified using size spectra, which describe the distribution of individual body sizes within a community. We examined the size spectra and biomass of coral reef fish communities at 38 US-affiliated Pacific islands that ranged in human presence from near pristine to human population centers. Size spectra 'steepened' steadily with increasing human population and proximity to market due to a reduction in the relative biomass of large fishes and an increase in the dominance of small fishes. Reef fish biomass was substantially lower on inhabited islands than uninhabited ones, even at inhabited islands with the lowest levels of human presence. We found that on populated islands size spectra exponents decreased (analogous to size spectra steepening) linearly with declining biomass, whereas on uninhabited islands there was no relationship. Size spectra were steeper in regions of low sea surface temperature but were insensitive to variation in other environmental and geomorphic covariates. In contrast, reef fish biomass was highly sensitive to oceanographic conditions, being influenced by both oceanic productivity and sea surface temperature. Our results suggest that community size structure may be a more robust indicator than fish biomass to increasing human presence and that size spectra are reliable indicators of exploitation impacts across regions of different fish community compositions, environmental drivers, and fisheries types. Size-based approaches that link directly to functional properties of fish communities, and are relatively insensitive to abiotic variation across biogeographic regions, offer great potential for developing our understanding of fishing impacts in coral reef ecosystems.

  15. 50 CFR 71.11 - Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing. 71.11 Section 71.11 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FISH HATCHERY AREAS Fishing § 71.11 Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing. National...

  16. 50 CFR 71.11 - Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing. 71.11 Section 71.11 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FISH HATCHERY AREAS Fishing § 71.11 Opening of national fish hatchery areas to fishing. National...

  17. The Shark Alar Hypothalamus: Molecular Characterization of Prosomeric Subdivisions and Evolutionary Trends.

    PubMed

    Santos-Durán, Gabriel N; Ferreiro-Galve, Susana; Menuet, Arnaud; Quintana-Urzainqui, Idoia; Mazan, Sylvie; Rodríguez-Moldes, Isabel; Candal, Eva

    2016-01-01

    The hypothalamus is an important physiologic center of the vertebrate brain involved in the elaboration of individual and species survival responses. To better understand the ancestral organization of the alar hypothalamus we revisit previous data on ScOtp, ScDlx2/5, ScTbr1, ScNkx2.1 expression and Pax6 immunoreactivity jointly with new data on ScNeurog2, ScLhx9, ScLhx5, and ScNkx2.8 expression, in addition to immunoreactivity to serotonin (5-HT) and doublecortin (DCX) in the catshark Scyliorhinus canicula, a key species for this purpose since cartilaginous fishes are basal representatives of gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates). Our study revealed a complex genoarchitecture for the chondrichthyan alar hypothalamus. We identified terminal (rostral) and peduncular (caudal) subdivisions in the prosomeric paraventricular and subparaventricular areas (TPa/PPa and TSPa/PSPa, respectively) evidenced by the expression pattern of developmental genes like ScLhx5 (TPa) and immunoreactivity against Pax6 (PSPa) and 5-HT (PPa and PSPa). Dorso-ventral subdivisions were only evidenced in the SPa (SPaD, SPaV; respectively) by means of Pax6 and ScNkx2.8 (respectively). Interestingly, ScNkx2.8 expression overlaps over the alar-basal boundary, as Nkx2.2 does in other vertebrates. Our results reveal evidences for the existence of different groups of tangentially migrated cells expressing ScOtp, Pax6, and ScDlx2. The genoarchitectonic comparative analysis suggests alternative interpretations of the rostral-most alar plate in prosomeric terms and reveals a conserved molecular background for the vertebrate alar hypothalamus likely acquired before/during the agnathan-gnathostome transition, on which Otp, Pax6, Lhx5, and Neurog2 are expressed in the Pa while Dlx and Nkx2.2/Nkx2.8 are expressed in the SPa.

  18. The Shark Alar Hypothalamus: Molecular Characterization of Prosomeric Subdivisions and Evolutionary Trends

    PubMed Central

    Santos-Durán, Gabriel N.; Ferreiro-Galve, Susana; Menuet, Arnaud; Quintana-Urzainqui, Idoia; Mazan, Sylvie; Rodríguez-Moldes, Isabel; Candal, Eva

    2016-01-01

    The hypothalamus is an important physiologic center of the vertebrate brain involved in the elaboration of individual and species survival responses. To better understand the ancestral organization of the alar hypothalamus we revisit previous data on ScOtp, ScDlx2/5, ScTbr1, ScNkx2.1 expression and Pax6 immunoreactivity jointly with new data on ScNeurog2, ScLhx9, ScLhx5, and ScNkx2.8 expression, in addition to immunoreactivity to serotonin (5-HT) and doublecortin (DCX) in the catshark Scyliorhinus canicula, a key species for this purpose since cartilaginous fishes are basal representatives of gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates). Our study revealed a complex genoarchitecture for the chondrichthyan alar hypothalamus. We identified terminal (rostral) and peduncular (caudal) subdivisions in the prosomeric paraventricular and subparaventricular areas (TPa/PPa and TSPa/PSPa, respectively) evidenced by the expression pattern of developmental genes like ScLhx5 (TPa) and immunoreactivity against Pax6 (PSPa) and 5-HT (PPa and PSPa). Dorso-ventral subdivisions were only evidenced in the SPa (SPaD, SPaV; respectively) by means of Pax6 and ScNkx2.8 (respectively). Interestingly, ScNkx2.8 expression overlaps over the alar-basal boundary, as Nkx2.2 does in other vertebrates. Our results reveal evidences for the existence of different groups of tangentially migrated cells expressing ScOtp, Pax6, and ScDlx2. The genoarchitectonic comparative analysis suggests alternative interpretations of the rostral-most alar plate in prosomeric terms and reveals a conserved molecular background for the vertebrate alar hypothalamus likely acquired before/during the agnathan-gnathostome transition, on which Otp, Pax6, Lhx5, and Neurog2 are expressed in the Pa while Dlx and Nkx2.2/Nkx2.8 are expressed in the SPa. PMID:27932958

  19. Evolution of developmental pattern for vertebrate dentitions: an oro-pharyngeal specific mechanism.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Gareth J; Smith, Moya Meredith

    2011-03-15

    Classically the oral dentition with teeth regulated into a successional iterative order was thought to have evolved from the superficial skin denticles migrating into the mouth at the stage when jaws evolved. The canonical view is that the initiation of a pattern order for teeth at the mouth margin required development of a sub-epithelial, permanent dental lamina. This provided regulated tooth production in advance of functional need, as exemplified by the Chondrichthyes. It had been assumed that teeth in the Osteichthyes form in this way as in tetrapods. However, this has been shown not to be true for many osteichthyan fish where a dental lamina of this kind does not form, but teeth are regularly patterned and replaced. We question the evolutionary origin of pattern information for the dentition driven by new morphological data on spatial initiation of skin denticles in the catshark. We review recent gene expression data for spatio-temporal order of tooth initiation for Scyliorhinus canicula, selected teleosts in both oral and pharyngeal dentitions, and Neoceratodus forsteri. Although denticles in the chondrichthyan skin appear not to follow a strict pattern order in space and time, tooth replacement in a functional system occurs with precise timing and spatial order. We suggest that the patterning mechanism observed for the oral and pharyngeal dentition is unique to the vertebrate oro-pharynx and independent of the skin system. Therefore, co-option of a successional iterative pattern occurred in evolution not from the skin but from mechanisms existing in the oro-pharynx of now extinct agnathans.

  20. Analysis of EphA4 in the lesser spotted catshark identifies a primitive gnathostome expression pattern and reveals co-option during evolution of shark-specific morphology.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Renata; Cohn, Martin J

    2004-09-01

    The Eph family is the largest known group of structurally related receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). Each Eph receptor has a specific Ephrin ligand, and these function to define spatial boundaries during development. Analyses of EphA4 in mouse, chick, frog and zebrafish embryos have implicated this gene in a number of developmental processes, including maintenance of segmental boundaries, axon guidance, limb development, neural crest migration and patterning of the ear. In order to determine which components of EphA4 function may be primitive for gnathostomes, we cloned EphA4 from the lesser spotted catshark ( Scyliorhinus canicula) and examined its expression pattern during shark embryonic development. Consistent with the patterns reported for bony fish and tetrapods, we observed segmental expression of EphA4 in the developing hindbrain and later in the pharyngeal arches of shark embryos. EphA4 was also detected during sensory organogenesis, in the developing ear, eye, nasal pits and lateral line. A dynamic pattern of EphA4expression occurs during shark fin development, suggesting an early role in outgrowth and patterning of the fin buds and a later role in tissue differentiation. We also observed several novel domains of EphA4expression that have not been reported in other vertebrates, including external gill buds, dermal denticles, median fins and claspers. While some of these domains may reflect co-option of EphA4expression to novel sites for development of shark-specific characters, others are more likely to be ancestral patterns of expression that were lost in other vertebrate lineages.

  1. Adsorption to fish sperm of vertically transmitted fish viruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulcahy, D.; Pascho, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    More than 99 percent of a vertically transmitted fish rhabdovirus, infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus, was removed from suspension in less than 1 minute by adsorption to the surface membrane of sperm from two genera of salmonid fishes. The vertically transmitted, infectious pancreatic necrosis virus adsorbed to a lesser degree, but no adsorption occurred with a second fish rhabdovirus that is not vertically transmitted. Such adsorption may be involved in vertical transmission of these viruses.

  2. The Sensor Fish: Measuring Fish Passage in Severe Hydraulic Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Thomas J. ); Duncan, Joanne P. ); Gilbride, Theresa L. )

    2003-05-28

    This article describes PNNL's efforts to develop the Sensor Fish, a waterproof sensor package that travels thru the turbines of spillways of hydroelectric dam to collect pressure and acceleration data on the conditions experienced by live salmon smolts during dam passage. Sensor Fish development is sponsored by the DOE Advanced Hydropower Turbine Survival Program. The article also gave two recent examples of Sensor Fish use: turbine passage at a McNary Kaplan turbine and spill passage in topspill at Rock Island Dam.

  3. Fish Ontology framework for taxonomy-based fish recognition

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Najib M.; Khan, Haris A.; Then, Amy Y-Hui; Ving Ching, Chong; Gaur, Manas

    2017-01-01

    Life science ontologies play an important role in Semantic Web. Given the diversity in fish species and the associated wealth of information, it is imperative to develop an ontology capable of linking and integrating this information in an automated fashion. As such, we introduce the Fish Ontology (FO), an automated classification architecture of existing fish taxa which provides taxonomic information on unknown fish based on metadata restrictions. It is designed to support knowledge discovery, provide semantic annotation of fish and fisheries resources, data integration, and information retrieval. Automated classification for unknown specimens is a unique feature that currently does not appear to exist in other known ontologies. Examples of automated classification for major groups of fish are demonstrated, showing the inferred information by introducing several restrictions at the species or specimen level. The current version of FO has 1,830 classes, includes widely used fisheries terminology, and models major aspects of fish taxonomy, grouping, and character. With more than 30,000 known fish species globally, the FO will be an indispensable tool for fish scientists and other interested users. PMID:28929028

  4. Fish Ontology framework for taxonomy-based fish recognition.

    PubMed

    Ali, Najib M; Khan, Haris A; Then, Amy Y-Hui; Ving Ching, Chong; Gaur, Manas; Dhillon, Sarinder Kaur

    2017-01-01

    Life science ontologies play an important role in Semantic Web. Given the diversity in fish species and the associated wealth of information, it is imperative to develop an ontology capable of linking and integrating this information in an automated fashion. As such, we introduce the Fish Ontology (FO), an automated classification architecture of existing fish taxa which provides taxonomic information on unknown fish based on metadata restrictions. It is designed to support knowledge discovery, provide semantic annotation of fish and fisheries resources, data integration, and information retrieval. Automated classification for unknown specimens is a unique feature that currently does not appear to exist in other known ontologies. Examples of automated classification for major groups of fish are demonstrated, showing the inferred information by introducing several restrictions at the species or specimen level. The current version of FO has 1,830 classes, includes widely used fisheries terminology, and models major aspects of fish taxonomy, grouping, and character. With more than 30,000 known fish species globally, the FO will be an indispensable tool for fish scientists and other interested users.

  5. Fish detection and classification system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tidd, Richard A.; Wilder, Joseph

    2001-01-01

    Marine biologists traditionally determine the presence and quantities of different types of fish by dragging nets across the bottom, and examining their contents. This method, although accurate, kills the collected fish, damages their habitat, and consumes large quantities of resources. This paper presents an alternative, a machine vision system capable of determining the presence of fish species. Illumination presents a unique problem in this environment, and the design of an effective illumination system is discussed. The related issues of object orientation and measurement are also discussed and resolved. Capturing images of fish in murky water also presents challenges. An adaptive thresholding technique is required to appropriately segment the fish from the background in these images. Mode detection, and histogram analysis are useful tools in determining these localized thresholds. It is anticipated that this system, created in conjunction with the Rutgers Institute for Marine and Coastal Science, will effectively classify fish in the estuarine environment.

  6. Lipid peroxidation of fish oils.

    PubMed

    Godwin, Angela; Prabhu, H Ramachandra

    2006-03-01

    Fish and fish oils are the richest sources of ω-3 fatty acids. However, they are susceptible to lipid peroxidation due to their high degree of unsaturation. In the present study, the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive material in various fish oils available in the market with and without added Vitamin E was determined. The peroxide levels in fish oil heated to food frying temperature of 180°C and the effect of addition of vitamin E has also been studied. The results indicate that the peroxide levels in almost all the products available in the market were abnormally high irrespective of their Vitamin E content. This might be due to the inefficient methods used for processing and storage of fish oils. Addition of vitamin E was found to have a significant effect in lowering the rate of peroxidation of fish oil during thermal stress, showing that association of antioxidants with ω-3 fatty acids lowers the rate of lipid peroxidation.

  7. Gonadal development in fish.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Toshiya; Tanaka, Minoru

    2014-01-01

    Vertebrate reproduction depends on the function of 2 distinct gametes, sperm and eggs, which develop in 2 different organs, the testis and the ovary. Testes and ovaries are composed of germ cells, supporting cells and interstitial cells. In this review, we describe the origin and the fate of these cell lineages and how they interact with each other to form sexually dimorphic reproductive organs in medaka. We delineate how the temporally different association and establishment of these lineages contribute to a variety of seemingly different sex differentiation processes among teleost fish. Thus, teleosts represent an intriguing group in which to study the fundamental processes of gonadal development through comparing conserved and unique mechanisms.

  8. Virus diseases of fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watson, Stanley W.

    1954-01-01

    The degenerative or non-neoplastic diseases of possible virus origin give the fish-culturist the most concern because of the severe mortalities resulting from infection. Epizootics of this nature have been reported in carp (Cyprinus carpio) and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) in Europe, in acara (Geophagus brasiliensis) in South America, in kokanee, (Oncorhynchus nerka kennerlyi) and in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka nerka) in the State of Washington. It has been demonstrated that each epizootic was caused by an infectious filterable agent, probably a virus.

  9. Fish intelligence, sentience and ethics.

    PubMed

    Brown, Culum

    2015-01-01

    Fish are one of the most highly utilised vertebrate taxa by humans; they are harvested from wild stocks as part of global fishing industries, grown under intensive aquaculture conditions, are the most common pet and are widely used for scientific research. But fish are seldom afforded the same level of compassion or welfare as warm-blooded vertebrates. Part of the problem is the large gap between people's perception of fish intelligence and the scientific reality. This is an important issue because public perception guides government policy. The perception of an animal's intelligence often drives our decision whether or not to include them in our moral circle. From a welfare perspective, most researchers would suggest that if an animal is sentient, then it can most likely suffer and should therefore be offered some form of formal protection. There has been a debate about fish welfare for decades which centres on the question of whether they are sentient or conscious. The implications for affording the same level of protection to fish as other vertebrates are great, not least because of fishing-related industries. Here, I review the current state of knowledge of fish cognition starting with their sensory perception and moving on to cognition. The review reveals that fish perception and cognitive abilities often match or exceed other vertebrates. A review of the evidence for pain perception strongly suggests that fish experience pain in a manner similar to the rest of the vertebrates. Although scientists cannot provide a definitive answer on the level of consciousness for any non-human vertebrate, the extensive evidence of fish behavioural and cognitive sophistication and pain perception suggests that best practice would be to lend fish the same level of protection as any other vertebrate.

  10. The Function of Fish Cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Jun; Secombes, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    What is known about the biological activity of fish cytokines is reviewed. Most of the functional studies performed to date have been in teleost fish, and have focused on the induced effects of cytokine recombinant proteins, or have used loss- and gain-of-function experiments in zebrafish. Such studies begin to tell us about the role of these molecules in the regulation of fish immune responses and whether they are similar or divergent to the well-characterised functions of mammalian cytokines. This knowledge will aid our ability to determine and modulate the pathways leading to protective immunity, to improve fish health in aquaculture. PMID:27231948

  11. Disease control in hatchery fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fish, F.F.

    1947-01-01

    The method described herein has been extensively tested, both in the laboratory and at the producing hatchery, over a period of several years. Once familiarity with the details of application have been mastered, th8 reduction in effort required to treat fish is amazing. For example, two men have treated 20 large ponds containing several million fish, in one morning with no significant increase in mortality of the fish, whereas a crew of eight men required a full day to treat a single similar pond by hand dipping the fish with a subsequent loss approximating 50 percent of the stock.

  12. Fish can get diseases too

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winton, J.R.; Mesa, M.; Kurath, G.; Elliot, D.

    2005-01-01

    Infectious diseases are increasingly recognized as an important component of the ecology of fish in the wild. Many of the viral, bacterial, protozoan and fungal pathogens of fish that were initially discovered in captive fish have their origin among wild populations; however, the impact of disease among these free-ranging stocks has been difficult to study. At the WFRC, combinations of field and laboratory investigations, aided by the tools of molecular biology, have begun to provide information on the ecology of infectious diseases among natural populations of fish in both freshwater and marine ecosystems.

  13. Fishing for feed or fishing for food: increasing global competition for small pelagic forage fish.

    PubMed

    Tacon, Albert G J; Metian, Marc

    2009-09-01

    At present, small pelagic forage fish species (includes anchovies, herring, mackerel, sardines, etc.) represent the largest landed species group in capture fisheries (27.3 million t or 29.7% of total capture fisheries landings in 2006). They also currently constitute the major species group actively fished and targeted for nonfood uses, including reduction into fishmeal and fish oil for use within compound animal feeds, or for direct animal feeding; the aquaculture sector alone consumed the equivalent of about 23.8 million t of fish (live weight equivalent) or 87% in the form of feed inputs in 2006. This article attempts to make a global analysis of the competition for small pelagic forage fish for direct human consumption and nonfood uses, particularly concerning the important and growing role played by small pelagic forage fish in the diet and food security of the poor and needy, especially within the developing countries of Africa and the Sub-Saharan region.

  14. Fish Manoeuvres and Morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Kiran; Pedley, Timothy

    2008-11-01

    The extraordinary manoeuvrability observed in many fish is attributed to their inherent flexibility, which might be enhanced by the use of appendages like fins. The aim of this work is to understand the role of morphological adaptations, such as body shape and deployment of median fins, on manoeuvrability and internal body dynamics. The 3d vortex lattice numerical method was employed to analyse the hydrodynamics for arbitrary body planforms of infinitesimal thickness. The internal structure of the body due to the combined skeletal system and soft tissue, is represented as an active Euler-Bernoulli beam, in which the time-dependent bending moment distribution is calculated from body inertia and the hydrodynamic pressure difference across the body. C-turns are the manoeuvre of choice for this work and the response for three different species of fish are examined. Angelfish(Pterophyllum eimekei), pike (Esox sp) and tuna (Thunnus albacares) were chosen for their differences in body profile, median fin use and manoeuvrability. Net direction change and bending moment response to prescribed backbone flexure are calculated and used to interpret the influence of body profile on manoeuvrability and muscle work done. Internal stresses may be computed from anatomical data on muscle fibre distribution and recruitment. To the future, it is intended to extend this work to other typical manoeuvres, such as fast starts for which muscle activation patterns have been measured quite widely.

  15. New research method looks at fish mucus

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have developed a new way to analyze fish tissues to understand fish ecology. Instead of killing the fish to collect the sample for analysis, we collect body mucus from the fish and analyze that. The fish can then be returned alive to the stream or lake.

  16. New research method looks at fish mucus

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have developed a new way to analyze fish tissues to understand fish ecology. Instead of killing the fish to collect the sample for analysis, we collect body mucus from the fish and analyze that. The fish can then be returned alive to the stream or lake.

  17. 25 CFR 242.4 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fishing. 242.4 Section 242.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE COMMERCIAL FISHING ON RED LAKE INDIAN RESERVATION § 242.4 Fishing. (a) Enrolled members of the Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians may take fish at any time...

  18. 25 CFR 242.4 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fishing. 242.4 Section 242.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE COMMERCIAL FISHING ON RED LAKE INDIAN RESERVATION § 242.4 Fishing. (a) Enrolled members of the Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians may take fish at any time...

  19. 25 CFR 242.4 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Fishing. 242.4 Section 242.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE COMMERCIAL FISHING ON RED LAKE INDIAN RESERVATION § 242.4 Fishing. (a) Enrolled members of the Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians may take fish at any time...

  20. 50 CFR 300.129 - Fishing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fishing year. 300.129 Section 300.129 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Vessels of the United States Fishing in Colombian Treaty Waters § 300.129 Fishing year. The fishing year...

  1. 25 CFR 242.4 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fishing. 242.4 Section 242.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE COMMERCIAL FISHING ON RED LAKE INDIAN RESERVATION § 242.4 Fishing. (a) Enrolled members of the Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians may take fish at any time...

  2. 50 CFR 300.129 - Fishing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fishing year. 300.129 Section 300.129 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Vessels of the United States Fishing in Colombian Treaty Waters § 300.129 Fishing year. The fishing year...

  3. 76 FR 60379 - Hunting and Fishing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 32 Hunting and Fishing CFR Correction In Title 50 of the Code of.... Sport Fishing. We allow fishing on designated areas of the refuge in accordance with State regulations subject to the following conditions: 0 1. We allow fishing in impounded waters contained within dikes and...

  4. 50 CFR 600.508 - Fishing operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fishing operations. 600.508 Section 600... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Foreign Fishing § 600.508 Fishing.... fishing vessels. These joint venture operations with U.S. fishing vessels may be conducted throughout the...

  5. 50 CFR 300.129 - Fishing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fishing year. 300.129 Section 300.129 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Vessels of the United States Fishing in Colombian Treaty Waters § 300.129 Fishing year. The fishing year...

  6. 50 CFR 300.129 - Fishing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fishing year. 300.129 Section 300.129 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Vessels of the United States Fishing in Colombian Treaty Waters § 300.129 Fishing year. The fishing year...

  7. 50 CFR 600.508 - Fishing operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fishing operations. 600.508 Section 600... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Foreign Fishing § 600.508 Fishing.... fishing vessels. These joint venture operations with U.S. fishing vessels may be conducted throughout the...

  8. 25 CFR 242.4 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fishing. 242.4 Section 242.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE COMMERCIAL FISHING ON RED LAKE INDIAN RESERVATION § 242.4 Fishing. (a) Enrolled members of the Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians may take fish at any time...

  9. 50 CFR 300.129 - Fishing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fishing year. 300.129 Section 300.129 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Vessels of the United States Fishing in Colombian Treaty Waters § 300.129 Fishing year. The fishing year...

  10. Fish Passage: A New Tool to Investigate Fish Movement: JSATS

    SciTech Connect

    McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Weiland, Mark A.; Deng, Zhiqun; Eppard, Matthew B.

    2011-04-20

    A new system is being used to determine fish mortality issues related to hydroelectric facilities in the Pacific Northwest. Called the juvenile salmon acoustic telemetry system (JSATS), this tool allows researchers to better understand fish movement, behavior, and survival around dams and powerhouses.

  11. Fish Karyome: A karyological information network database of Indian Fishes.

    PubMed

    Nagpure, Naresh Sahebrao; Pathak, Ajey Kumar; Pati, Rameshwar; Singh, Shri Prakash; Singh, Mahender; Sarkar, Uttam Kumar; Kushwaha, Basdeo; Kumar, Ravindra

    2012-01-01

    'Fish Karyome', a database on karyological information of Indian fishes have been developed that serves as central source for karyotype data about Indian fishes compiled from the published literature. Fish Karyome has been intended to serve as a liaison tool for the researchers and contains karyological information about 171 out of 2438 finfish species reported in India and is publically available via World Wide Web. The database provides information on chromosome number, morphology, sex chromosomes, karyotype formula and cytogenetic markers etc. Additionally, it also provides the phenotypic information that includes species name, its classification, and locality of sample collection, common name, local name, sex, geographical distribution, and IUCN Red list status. Besides, fish and karyotype images, references for 171 finfish species have been included in the database. Fish Karyome has been developed using SQL Server 2008, a relational database management system, Microsoft's ASP.NET-2008 and Macromedia's FLASH Technology under Windows 7 operating environment. The system also enables users to input new information and images into the database, search and view the information and images of interest using various search options. Fish Karyome has wide range of applications in species characterization and identification, sex determination, chromosomal mapping, karyo-evolution and systematics of fishes.

  12. 46 CFR 148.265 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... be treated with an effective antioxidant (at least 400 mg/kg (ppm) ethoxyquin, at least 1000 mg/kg (ppm) butylated hydroxytoluene, or at least 1000 mg/kg (ppm) of tocopherol-based liquid antioxidant... antioxidant at the time of shipment. (f) At the time of loading, the temperature of the fish meal or fish...

  13. 46 CFR 148.265 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... be treated with an effective antioxidant (at least 400 mg/kg (ppm) ethoxyquin, at least 1000 mg/kg (ppm) butylated hydroxytoluene, or at least 1000 mg/kg (ppm) of tocopherol-based liquid antioxidant... antioxidant at the time of shipment. (f) At the time of loading, the temperature of the fish meal or fish...

  14. 46 CFR 148.265 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... be treated with an effective antioxidant (at least 400 mg/kg (ppm) ethoxyquin, at least 1000 mg/kg (ppm) butylated hydroxytoluene, or at least 1000 mg/kg (ppm) of tocopherol-based liquid antioxidant... antioxidant at the time of shipment. (f) At the time of loading, the temperature of the fish meal or fish...

  15. FIXATION OF FISH TISSUES. IN: THE LABORATORY FISH.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter deals with the fixation of fish tissues and whole fish. Traditionally, fixation has been applied to animal tissues mainly for histological or pathological studies. Development of new molecular and immunologic tools now allows tissue and cellular localization of nucle...

  16. FIXATION OF FISH TISSUES. IN: THE LABORATORY FISH.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter deals with the fixation of fish tissues and whole fish. Traditionally, fixation has been applied to animal tissues mainly for histological or pathological studies. Development of new molecular and immunologic tools now allows tissue and cellular localization of nucle...

  17. Fishing effects on energy use by North Sea fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, Simon; van Hal, Ralf; Hiddink, Jan G.; Maxwell, Tracy A. D.

    Fishing affects patterns of energy use in fish populations, as demonstrated by changes in population energy consumption and the size and age when energy demands are greatest. We compare theoretical predictions and observed patterns of energy use (expressed as the primary production required to support fish production) by North Sea fish, based on simple and widely applicable theory that links life history parameters, fishing mortality ( F), trophic transfer efficiency and relationships between size and trophic level (as determined using nitrogen stable isotope analysis). For the demersal species that dominate total biomass, relationships between size and trophic level were quite consistent among years. There were large decreases in relative energy requirements of all exploited demersal populations except plaice Pleuronectes platessa during the last 3 to 4 decades. Relative energy requirements of plaice were more stable because smaller plaice, which now dominate the exploited population, feed at higher trophic levels than larger plaice. The sizes and ages when population energy demands were greatest fell with increasing fishing mortality and differences between the predicted ( F = 0) and observed ages at maximum energy demand were greater in larger species. Currently, the energy demands of most species peak early in life (1-3 years) and largely reflect patterns of recruitment, leading to a homogenisation of the trophodynamics of the fish community. The fate of energy that is no longer used by commercially exploited species is not clear, partly because of the infrequent and untargeted monitoring of species that are more resilient to fishing. However, we conducted a preliminary assessment of the energy demands of solenette Buglossidium luteum, a very abundant small flatfish in the central North Sea that has increased in abundance in recent years. The solenette's high abundance and resilience to fishing, suggests that it now requires 35% of primary production in part of

  18. 76 FR 20707 - Cle Elum Dam Fish Passage Facilities and Fish Reintroduction Project; Kittitas County, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Cle Elum Dam Fish Passage Facilities and Fish Reintroduction Project; Kittitas... Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) for the Cle Elum Dam Fish Passage Facilities and Fish Reintroduction... FEIS on the proposed Cle Elum Dam Fish Passage Facilities and Fish Reintroduction Project. The...

  19. Vision of Fish in Air

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colicchia, Giuseppe

    2007-01-01

    The investigation of the focusing in fish eyes, both theoretical and experimental, by using a simple fish eye model, provides an interesting biological context for teaching the introductory principles of optics. Moreover, the students will learn concepts of biology by an approach of cause and effect.

  20. Feeding Practices and Fish Health

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Over the past three decades, the aquaculture industry has expanded rapidly throughout the world and is expected to continue to grow in the years to come due to the unpredictability and high cost of harvesting fish from the oceans as well as the increased demand for fish as a result of rapid populati...

  1. Vision of Fish in Air

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colicchia, Giuseppe

    2007-01-01

    The investigation of the focusing in fish eyes, both theoretical and experimental, by using a simple fish eye model, provides an interesting biological context for teaching the introductory principles of optics. Moreover, the students will learn concepts of biology by an approach of cause and effect.

  2. Relative and combined effects of habitat and fishing on reef fish communities across a limited fishing gradient at Ningaloo.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Shaun K; Babcock, Russ C; Fisher, Rebecca; Holmes, Thomas H; Moore, James A Y; Thomson, Damian P

    2012-10-01

    Habitat degradation and fishing are major drivers of temporal and spatial changes in fish communities. The independent effects of these drivers are well documented, but the relative importance and interaction between fishing and habitat shifts is poorly understood, particularly in complex systems such as coral reefs. To assess the combined and relative effects of fishing and habitat we examined the composition of fish communities on patch reefs across a gradient of high to low structural complexity in fished and unfished areas of the Ningaloo Marine Park, Western Australia. Biomass and species richness of fish were positively correlated with structural complexity of reefs and negatively related to macroalgal cover. Total abundance of fish was also positively related to structural complexity, however this relationship was stronger on fished reefs than those where fishing is prohibited. The interaction between habitat condition and fishing pressure is primarily due to the high abundance of small bodied planktivorous fish on fished reefs. However, the influence of management zones on the abundance and biomass of predators and target species is small, implying spatial differences in fishing pressure are low and unlikely to be driving this interaction. Our results emphasise the importance of habitat in structuring reef fish communities on coral reefs especially when gradients in fishing pressure are low. The influence of fishing effort on this relationship may however become more important as fishing pressure increases.

  3. Orientation through chemo reception in fishes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleerekoper, H.

    1972-01-01

    A system designed to acquire and process data describing locomotor behavior of fish is described. Data are recorded in relation to the fish's response to olfactory stimuli. It was concluded that fish orientation is based on rheataxis or chemotropotaxis.

  4. Flapping flexible fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Root, Robert G.; Courtland, Hayden-William; Shepherd, William; Long, John H.

    In order to analyze and model the body kinematics used by fish in a wide range of swimming behaviors, we developed a technique to separate the periodic whole-body motions that characterize steady swimming from the secular motions that characterize changes in whole-body shape. We applied this harmonic analysis technique to the study of the forward and backward swimming of lamprey. We found that in order to vary the unsteadiness of swimming, lamprey superimpose periodic and secular components of their body motion, modulate the patterns and magnitudes of those components, and change shape. These kinematic results suggest the following hydromechanical hypothesis: steady swimming is a maneuver that requires active suppression of secular body reconfigurations.

  5. Phylogenetic classification of bony fishes.

    PubMed

    Betancur-R, Ricardo; Wiley, Edward O; Arratia, Gloria; Acero, Arturo; Bailly, Nicolas; Miya, Masaki; Lecointre, Guillaume; Ortí, Guillermo

    2017-07-06

    Fish classifications, as those of most other taxonomic groups, are being transformed drastically as new molecular phylogenies provide support for natural groups that were unanticipated by previous studies. A brief review of the main criteria used by ichthyologists to define their classifications during the last 50 years, however, reveals slow progress towards using an explicit phylogenetic framework. Instead, the trend has been to rely, in varying degrees, on deep-rooted anatomical concepts and authority, often mixing taxa with explicit phylogenetic support with arbitrary groupings. Two leading sources in ichthyology frequently used for fish classifications (JS Nelson's volumes of Fishes of the World and W. Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes) fail to adopt a global phylogenetic framework despite much recent progress made towards the resolution of the fish Tree of Life. The first explicit phylogenetic classification of bony fishes was published in 2013, based on a comprehensive molecular phylogeny ( www.deepfin.org ). We here update the first version of that classification by incorporating the most recent phylogenetic results. The updated classification presented here is based on phylogenies inferred using molecular and genomic data for nearly 2000 fishes. A total of 72 orders (and 79 suborders) are recognized in this version, compared with 66 orders in version 1. The phylogeny resolves placement of 410 families, or ~80% of the total of 514 families of bony fishes currently recognized. The ordinal status of 30 percomorph families included in this study, however, remains uncertain (incertae sedis in the series Carangaria, Ovalentaria, or Eupercaria). Comments to support taxonomic decisions and comparisons with conflicting taxonomic groups proposed by others are presented. We also highlight cases were morphological support exist for the groups being classified. This version of the phylogenetic classification of bony fishes is substantially improved, providing resolution

  6. The campaign to DNA barcode all fishes, FISH-BOL.

    PubMed

    Ward, R D; Hanner, R; Hebert, P D N

    2009-02-01

    FISH-BOL, the Fish Barcode of Life campaign, is an international research collaboration that is assembling a standardized reference DNA sequence library for all fishes. Analysis is targeting a 648 base pair region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene. More than 5000 species have already been DNA barcoded, with an average of five specimens per species, typically vouchers with authoritative identifications. The barcode sequence from any fish, fillet, fin, egg or larva can be matched against these reference sequences using BOLD; the Barcode of Life Data System (http://www.barcodinglife.org). The benefits of barcoding fishes include facilitating species identification, highlighting cases of range expansion for known species, flagging previously overlooked species and enabling identifications where traditional methods cannot be applied. Results thus far indicate that barcodes separate c. 98 and 93% of already described marine and freshwater fish species, respectively. Several specimens with divergent barcode sequences have been confirmed by integrative taxonomic analysis as new species. Past concerns in relation to the use of fish barcoding for species discrimination are discussed. These include hybridization, recent radiations, regional differentiation in barcode sequences and nuclear copies of the barcode region. However, current results indicate these issues are of little concern for the great majority of specimens.

  7. Active Fish Tracking Sonar (AFTS) for Assessing Fish Behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Hedgepeth, J; Johnson, Gary E. ); Skalski, John R.; Burczynski, J

    2002-11-01

    Active fish tracking sonars (AFTS) were used in 2001 to study fish movement in response to intake occlusion plates at The Dalles Dam on the Columbia River. AFTS provides three-dimensional fish tracks by aligning the axis of a split-beam transducer with a fish target. High-speed stepper motors move the transducer so that a tracked target remains on-axis. Occlusion plates with lateral extensions covered the top half of the turbine intakes to produce a fish friendly near-dam environment. Two AFTS were positioned at the center of Main Unit 1, one each for monitoring installed and removed plate conditions. A regression analysis showed that occlusion plates had pronounced effects on fish movement along the dam. The plates appeared to inhibit movement toward the spillway, movement toward the dam (especially in front of the turbine intake), and movement downward toward the turbines. Fish fate (as opposed to movement directions from regression slopes) into particular areas was determined using Markov-chain analysis. The sluiceway (a safer passage route above the turbine intake) zone of influence was larger with the occlusion plates installed, contrary to the regression results. In addition, the probability of passage out the near turbine and bottom sides of the sample volume was about 50% lower with occlusion plates installed.

  8. Fisheries and aquatic resources--fish health

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Panek, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Fish health research at Leetown had its origin in the 1930’s when the Leetown Fish Hatchery and Experiment Station was constructed. In 1978, the National Fish Health Research Laboratory, now a component of the Leetown Science Center, was established to solve emerging and known disease problems affecting fish and other aquatic organisms critical to species restoration programs. Center scientists develop methods for the isolation, detection, and identification of fish pathogens and for prevention and control of fish diseases.

  9. Tropical Fishes Dominate Temperate Reef Fish Communities within Western Japan

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Yohei; Feary, David A.; Kanda, Masaru; Yamaoka, Kosaku

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is resulting in rapid poleward shifts in the geographical distribution of tropical and subtropical fish species. We can expect that such range shifts are likely to be limited by species-specific resource requirements, with temperate rocky reefs potentially lacking a range of settlement substrates or specific dietary components important in structuring the settlement and success of tropical and subtropical fish species. We examined the importance of resource use in structuring the distribution patterns of range shifting tropical and subtropical fishes, comparing this with resident temperate fish species within western Japan (Tosa Bay); the abundance, diversity, size class, functional structure and latitudinal range of reef fishes utilizing both coral reef and adjacent rocky reef habitat were quantified over a 2 year period (2008–2010). This region has undergone rapid poleward expansion of reef-building corals in response to increasing coastal water temperatures, and forms one of the global hotspots for rapid coastal changes. Despite the temperate latitude surveyed (33°N, 133°E) the fish assemblage was both numerically, and in terms of richness, dominated by tropical fishes. Such tropical faunal dominance was apparent within both coral, and rocky reef habitats. The size structure of the assemblage suggested that a relatively large number of tropical species are overwintering within both coral and rocky habitats, with a subset of these species being potentially reproductively active. The relatively high abundance and richness of tropical species with obligate associations with live coral resources (i.e., obligate corallivores) shows that this region holds the most well developed temperate-located tropical fish fauna globally. We argue that future tropicalisation of the fish fauna in western Japan, associated with increasing coral habitat development and reported increasing shifts in coastal water temperatures, may have considerable positive economic

  10. Tropical fishes dominate temperate reef fish communities within western Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yohei; Feary, David A; Kanda, Masaru; Yamaoka, Kosaku

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is resulting in rapid poleward shifts in the geographical distribution of tropical and subtropical fish species. We can expect that such range shifts are likely to be limited by species-specific resource requirements, with temperate rocky reefs potentially lacking a range of settlement substrates or specific dietary components important in structuring the settlement and success of tropical and subtropical fish species. We examined the importance of resource use in structuring the distribution patterns of range shifting tropical and subtropical fishes, comparing this with resident temperate fish species within western Japan (Tosa Bay); the abundance, diversity, size class, functional structure and latitudinal range of reef fishes utilizing both coral reef and adjacent rocky reef habitat were quantified over a 2 year period (2008-2010). This region has undergone rapid poleward expansion of reef-building corals in response to increasing coastal water temperatures, and forms one of the global hotspots for rapid coastal changes. Despite the temperate latitude surveyed (33°N, 133°E) the fish assemblage was both numerically, and in terms of richness, dominated by tropical fishes. Such tropical faunal dominance was apparent within both coral, and rocky reef habitats. The size structure of the assemblage suggested that a relatively large number of tropical species are overwintering within both coral and rocky habitats, with a subset of these species being potentially reproductively active. The relatively high abundance and richness of tropical species with obligate associations with live coral resources (i.e., obligate corallivores) shows that this region holds the most well developed temperate-located tropical fish fauna globally. We argue that future tropicalisation of the fish fauna in western Japan, associated with increasing coral habitat development and reported increasing shifts in coastal water temperatures, may have considerable positive economic

  11. Ecology of North Sea fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daan, N.; Bromley, P. J.; Hislop, J. R. G.; Nielsen, N. A.

    Fishes of the North Sea include over 200 species exhibiting widely differing ecological characteristics. There is a wealth of literature and, in this paper, we have restricted ourselves to providing generalized data on the more abundant species, with a view of highlighting those aspects which link the total fish community to the biotic and abiotic environment. There is necessarily a bias towards commercial species, because most of the pertinent information is related specifically to fish which are heavily fished. However, since there are few abundant species which are not exploited, the ecological links of the total fish community to other components of the system are well represented by the selection. Moreover, exploitation of the fish community may have indirectly affected the ecological relationships in the entire system. It follows that an understandinf of the impact of fisheries on the fish community is likely to play a key role in helping us to understand how the North Sea ecosystem functions. The paper highlights various ecological aspects of the fish fauna including population dynamics, spawning in time and space, distribution, variations in year class strength, feeding, density-dependent growth and changes in species composition. Despite long time series of quantitative biological information for individual species and the obvious impact of fisheries on longevity and productivity of the fish community, the general conclusion is that it remains very difficult to separate effects of fisheries and of the environment on reproductive success, in which the variation is the most important destabilizing factor in the regulation of exploited fish populations. Another conclusion is that the spatial heterogeneity of the fish community in the North Sea is a factor of considerable concern in trying to link fish production to other components. It would seem likely that, to improve our understanding of the ecological linkages in the entire system, the spatial differences

  12. Plastic in north sea fish.

    PubMed

    Foekema, Edwin M; De Gruijter, Corine; Mergia, Mekuria T; van Franeker, Jan Andries; Murk, Albertinka J; Koelmans, Albert A

    2013-08-06

    To quantify the occurrence of ingested plastic in fish species caught at different geographical positions in the North Sea, and to test whether the fish condition is affected by ingestion of plastics, 1203 individual fish of seven common North Sea species were investigated: herring, gray gurnard, whiting, horse mackerel, haddock, atlantic mackerel, and cod. Plastic particles were found in 2.6% of the examined fish and in five of the seven species. No plastics were found in gray gurnard and mackerel. In most cases, only one particle was found per fish, ranging in size from 0.04 to 4.8 mm. Only particles larger than 0.2 mm, being the diameter of the sieve used, were considered for the data analyses, resulting in a median particle size of 0.8 mm. The frequency of fish with plastic was significantly higher (5.4%) in the southern North Sea, than in the northern North Sea above 55°N (1.2%). The highest frequency (>33%) was found in cod from the English Channel. In addition, small fibers were initially detected in most of the samples, but their abundance sharply decreased when working under special clean air conditions. Therefore, these fibers were considered to be artifacts related to air born contamination and were excluded from the analyses. No relationship was found between the condition factor (size-weight relationship) of the fish and the presence of ingested plastic particles.

  13. Climate Change and Fish Availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Paul P. S.; Lassa, Jonatan; Caballero-Anthony, Mely

    Human consumption of fish has been trending upwards in the past decades and this is projected to continue. The main sources of fish are from wild fisheries (marine and freshwater) and aquaculture. Climate change is anticipated to affect the availability of fish through its effect on these two sources as well as on supply chain processes such as storage, transport, processing and retail. Climate change is known to result in warmer and more acid oceans. Ocean acidification due to higher CO2 concentration levels at sea modifies the distribution of phytoplankton and zooplankton to affect wild, capture fisheries. Higher temperature causes warm-water coral reefs to respond with species replacement and bleaching, leading to coral cover loss and habitat loss. Global changes in climatic systems may also cause fish invasion, extinction and turnover. While this may be catastrophic for small scale fish farming in poor tropical communities, there are also potential effects on animal protein supply shifts at local and global scales with food security consequences. This paper discusses the potential impacts of climate change on fisheries and aquaculture in the Asian Pacific region, with special emphasis on Southeast Asia. The key question to be addressed is “What are the impacts of global climate change on global fish harvests and what does it mean to the availability of fish?”

  14. Fish everywhere, all the time: modeling fish in the riverscape

    EPA Science Inventory

    From 2002-2006, EPA’s Western Ecology Division conducted innovative research on the population dynamics of fish within an entire stream network. Employing individual tagging and tracking technology, we examined spatial patterns of juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch...

  15. Fluctuations of fish populations and the magnifying effects of fishing.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Andrew O; Mangel, Marc

    2011-04-26

    A central and classic question in ecology is what causes populations to fluctuate in abundance. Understanding the interaction between natural drivers of fluctuating populations and human exploitation is an issue of paramount importance for conservation and natural resource management. Three main hypotheses have been proposed to explain fluctuations: (i) species interactions, such as predator-prey interactions, cause fluctuations, (ii) strongly nonlinear single-species dynamics cause fluctuations, and (iii) environmental variation cause fluctuations. We combine a general fisheries model with data from a global sample of fish species to assess how two of these hypothesis, nonlinear single-species dynamics and environmental variation, interact with human exploitation to affect the variability of fish populations. In contrast with recent analyses that suggest fishing drives increased fluctuations by changing intrinsic nonlinear dynamics, we show that single-species nonlinear dynamics alone, both in the presence and absence of fisheries, are unlikely to drive deterministic fluctuations in fish; nearly all fish populations fall into regions of stable dynamics. However, adding environmental variation dramatically alters the consequences of exploitation on the temporal variability of populations. In a variable environment, (i) the addition of mortality from fishing leads to increased temporal variability for all species examined, (ii) variability in recruitment rates of juveniles contributes substantially more to fluctuations than variation in adult mortality, and (iii) the correlation structure of juvenile and adult vital rates plays an important and underappreciated role in determining population fluctuations. Our results are robust to alternative model formulations and to a range of environmental autocorrelation.

  16. Cortisol coregulation in fish

    PubMed Central

    Fürtbauer, Ines; Heistermann, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Cortisol coregulation, which is the up- or down-regulation of partners’ physiological stress responses, has been described for individuals with strong attachment bonds, e.g. parents and their children, and romantic relationship partners. Research into moderating effects on cortisol coregulation suggests stronger covariation among distressed partners. Whether cortisol coregulation is unique to humans or can also be found in other species that share universal features of the vertebrate stress response remains unexplored. Using a repeated measures approach and non-invasive waterborne hormone analysis, we test the hypothesis that dyads of three-spined stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus) coregulate their cortisol levels in shared environments. Dyadic cortisol levels were unrelated when cohabiting (home tank), but significantly covaried when sharing a more stressful (as indicated by higher cortisol levels) environment (open field). Time-lag analysis further revealed that open field cortisol levels were predicted by partner’s cortisol levels prior to the shared experience. To our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence for coregulatory processes on cortisol responses in a non-human animal that lacks strong bonds and social attachment relationships, suggesting a shared evolutionary origin of cortisol coregulation in vertebrates. From an adaptive perspective, cortisol coregulation may serve to reduce risk in challenging, potentially threatening situations. PMID:27458063

  17. Gills of antarctic fish.

    PubMed

    Rankin, J C; Tuurala, H

    1998-01-01

    We review the literature on the way the structure of icefish gills relates the physiology of these haemoglobin-less fishes. Vascular casting confirmed earlier reports that the only special feature of the gills is the large size of the blood vessels, especially the prominent and continuous marginal channels Isolated perfused gill arches were used to study the effects of changes in afferent and efferent pressure on gill resistance and tritiated water influx in Chionobathyscus dewitti. Increasing perfusion rate did not change gill resistance, but there were moderate proportional increases in water influx. Reducing efferent pressure increased gill resistance but did not affect water influx. In both C. dewitti and Cryodraco antarcticus gills perfused at constant flow rate, noradrenaline produced concentration-dependent decreases in gill resistance and, with high concentrations, increases in water influx. Fixation while perfusion continued was used to compare blood space dimensions in control, noradrenaline-treated and unperfused gills. Noradrenaline caused large increases in the thickness of the lamellar blood space and increased lamellar height, despite a greatly reduced afferent pressure. This suggests that modulation of pillar cell active tension might be involved in control of lamellar perfusion. The possible relationship between gill water fluxes and lamellar recruitment is discussed.

  18. 50 CFR 300.205 - Denial of port privileges and import restrictions on fish or fish products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... restrictions on fish or fish products. 300.205 Section 300.205 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND....205 Denial of port privileges and import restrictions on fish or fish products. (a) Scope of... fish and fish products. Services, including the refueling and re-supplying of such fishing vessels,...

  19. Volumetric imaging of fish locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Flammang, Brooke E.; Lauder, George V.; Troolin, Daniel R.; Strand, Tyson E.

    2011-01-01

    Fishes use multiple flexible fins in order to move and maintain stability in a complex fluid environment. We used a new approach, a volumetric velocimetry imaging system, to provide the first instantaneous three-dimensional views of wake structures as they are produced by freely swimming fishes. This new technology allowed us to demonstrate conclusively the linked ring vortex wake pattern that is produced by the symmetrical (homocercal) tail of fishes, and to visualize for the first time the three-dimensional vortex wake interaction between the dorsal and anal fins and the tail. We found that the dorsal and anal fin wakes were rapidly (within one tail beat) assimilated into the caudal fin vortex wake. These results show that volumetric imaging of biologically generated flow patterns can reveal new features of locomotor dynamics, and provides an avenue for future investigations of the diversity of fish swimming patterns and their hydrodynamic consequences. PMID:21508026

  20. To Fish in Troubled Waters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garmon, Linda

    1980-01-01

    The effects of heavy metals on fish are being investigated by the Columbia National Fishery Research Laboratory in Missouri. This article describes the process and some techniques that are being used in the research. (SA)

  1. For the Classroom: Fish Painting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Sally

    1984-01-01

    Fish painting can be used to introduce basic and advanced subject-concepts, especially with students for whom tactile skill development is of particular importance. Materials, methods, and hints are presented along with a diagram of the painting procedure. (BC)

  2. The fish that beat physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-11-01

    Silvery fish have evolved an elegant optical scheme for overcoming the Brewster effect, creating broadband, polarization-neutral reflections for any angle of incidence. Nicholas Roberts explained to Nature Photonics how and why they do it.

  3. Volumetric imaging of fish locomotion.

    PubMed

    Flammang, Brooke E; Lauder, George V; Troolin, Daniel R; Strand, Tyson E

    2011-10-23

    Fishes use multiple flexible fins in order to move and maintain stability in a complex fluid environment. We used a new approach, a volumetric velocimetry imaging system, to provide the first instantaneous three-dimensional views of wake structures as they are produced by freely swimming fishes. This new technology allowed us to demonstrate conclusively the linked ring vortex wake pattern that is produced by the symmetrical (homocercal) tail of fishes, and to visualize for the first time the three-dimensional vortex wake interaction between the dorsal and anal fins and the tail. We found that the dorsal and anal fin wakes were rapidly (within one tail beat) assimilated into the caudal fin vortex wake. These results show that volumetric imaging of biologically generated flow patterns can reveal new features of locomotor dynamics, and provides an avenue for future investigations of the diversity of fish swimming patterns and their hydrodynamic consequences.

  4. To Fish in Troubled Waters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garmon, Linda

    1980-01-01

    The effects of heavy metals on fish are being investigated by the Columbia National Fishery Research Laboratory in Missouri. This article describes the process and some techniques that are being used in the research. (SA)

  5. Visual direction finding by fishes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waterman, T. H.

    1972-01-01

    The use of visual orientation, in the absence of landmarks, for underwater direction finding exercises by fishes is reviewed. Celestial directional clues observed directly near the water surface or indirectly at an asymptatic depth are suggested as possible orientation aids.

  6. A streptomycete pathogenic to fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rucker, R.R.

    1949-01-01

    A streptomycete and pseutdomonad were isolated from blueback salmon, Oncorhynchuis nerka (WValbaum), and shown to be pathogenic to fish. Trhese organisms were isolated from young blueback salmon taken from a gr'oup that developed an increasing mortality after feeding about a month at the United States Fishery Station, Leavenworth, Washington. A superficial examination revealed only the presence of fungus (probably Sap0olcynia parasitica), which wvas on the gills and was eliminated by treatment with a quaternary ammonium salt. Although the fungus infection was eliminated, the mortality continued. It was observed by the station biologist at the time that the majority of the fish in the hatchery troughs were healthy, but that there w-as alwzays present an apathetic group that hud(dled on the bottom, refused food, ancl eventually weakene(l and died. The bulk of the daily mortality was composedI of fish from this group. The apathetic group received constant recruitment from the more vigorous stock, and their number showed a gradual increase rather than clepletion. A more critical examination of the larger affected fish revealedl that thc kICidneys and spleens weIe disintegrating; mycelial masses w-ere sporadically observed in the body cavity; congestion wN-as present in the gastrointestinal tract; some hemorrhagic areas were present in the body musculature; an(l a few fish had a perforating ulceration of the body wall. Furi'unculosis was immediately suspected, and attempts were made to isolate from the diseaseti fish Bacteriim .salininicida Lehmann and Netumann, the etiological agent of furunculosis. B. salmornicida Awas not recovered, however, even after repeated attempts at isolation. Subsequently it was discovered that two other organisms, a streptomycete and a pseudomonad, were characteristically present in the diseased fish. Both organisms were found experimentally to be pathogenic to fish.

  7. 32 CFR 770.3 - Fishing regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... LIMITING PUBLIC ACCESS TO PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Hunting and Fishing at Marine Corps Base, Quantico... are permitted to fish in the areas designated by the Annual Fishing Regulations on Marine Corps Base... 16 to 65. (b) Fishing is permitted on all waters within the boundaries of Marine Corps Base,...

  8. Enhancing utilization of Alaska fish processing byproducts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fish processing byproducts are the parts that remain after valued products such as fillets and roe are removed. Fish harvested from Alaska waters provide over half of the total wild fish harvested and processed for human consumption in the USA. Major byproducts from commercial fish processing plants...

  9. Fish gelatin: Material properties and applications

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The main difference between fish gelatin and mammalian gelatin is fish gelatin’s lower gelation temperature. This property limits the use of fish gelatin in applications that currently utilize mammalian gelatin. However, fish gelatin remains an attractive alterative to mammalian gelatin due to relig...

  10. Fishing. Unit 1, Colorado Division of Wildlife.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hetzel, George K.; Smith, Dwight R.

    This booklet on fishing is part of a series developed to encourage youth to pursue outdoor projects. Fish anatomy, equipment, casting techniques, knot and leader tying, hooks, fishing areas, cleaning and cooking fish, types of bait, lures, and regulations are discussed and illustrated. Suggested activities and field trips are listed. (MR)

  11. Gila River Basin Native Fishes Conservation Program

    Treesearch

    Doug Duncan; Robert W. Clarkson

    2013-01-01

    The Gila River Basin Native Fishes Conservation Program was established to conserve native fishes and manage against nonnative fishes in response to several Endangered Species Act biological opinions between the Bureau of Reclamation and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service on Central Arizona Project (CAP) water transfers to the Gila River basin. Populations of some Gila...

  12. 36 CFR 331.4 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fishing. 331.4 Section 331.4... INDIANA § 331.4 Fishing. Unless otherwise authorized in writing by the District Engineer: (a) Fishing is... be in effect are hereby adopted as part of these regulations. (b) Fishing by means of the use of...

  13. 20 CFR 404.1031 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fishing. 404.1031 Section 404.1031 Employees... Fishing. (a) If you work on a boat engaged in catching fish or other forms of aquatic animal life, your... of the boat (or each boat from which you receive a share if the fishing operation involves more than...

  14. 36 CFR 331.4 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fishing. 331.4 Section 331.4... INDIANA § 331.4 Fishing. Unless otherwise authorized in writing by the District Engineer: (a) Fishing is... be in effect are hereby adopted as part of these regulations. (b) Fishing by means of the use of...

  15. 50 CFR 600.513 - Recreational fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Recreational fishing. 600.513 Section 600... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Foreign Fishing § 600.513 Recreational fishing. (a) Foreign vessels conducting recreational fishing must comply only with this section, and...

  16. 76 FR 27636 - Permits; Foreign Fishing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA423 Permits; Foreign Fishing AGENCY: National... a vessel of the United States to engage in fishing consisting solely of transporting fish or fish...

  17. 50 CFR 600.513 - Recreational fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Recreational fishing. 600.513 Section 600... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Foreign Fishing § 600.513 Recreational fishing. (a) Foreign vessels conducting recreational fishing must comply only with this section, and...

  18. 20 CFR 404.1031 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fishing. 404.1031 Section 404.1031 Employees... Fishing. (a) If you work on a boat engaged in catching fish or other forms of aquatic animal life, your... of the boat (or each boat from which you receive a share if the fishing operation involves more than...

  19. 36 CFR 331.4 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fishing. 331.4 Section 331.4... INDIANA § 331.4 Fishing. Unless otherwise authorized in writing by the District Engineer: (a) Fishing is... be in effect are hereby adopted as part of these regulations. (b) Fishing by means of the use of...

  20. 20 CFR 404.1031 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fishing. 404.1031 Section 404.1031 Employees... Fishing. (a) If you work on a boat engaged in catching fish or other forms of aquatic animal life, your... of the boat (or each boat from which you receive a share if the fishing operation involves more than...

  1. 50 CFR 600.513 - Recreational fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recreational fishing. 600.513 Section 600... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Foreign Fishing § 600.513 Recreational fishing. (a) Foreign vessels conducting recreational fishing must comply only with this section, and...

  2. 20 CFR 404.1031 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fishing. 404.1031 Section 404.1031 Employees... Fishing. (a) If you work on a boat engaged in catching fish or other forms of aquatic animal life, your... of the boat (or each boat from which you receive a share if the fishing operation involves more than...

  3. Fishing. Unit 1, Colorado Division of Wildlife.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hetzel, George K.; Smith, Dwight R.

    This booklet on fishing is part of a series developed to encourage youth to pursue outdoor projects. Fish anatomy, equipment, casting techniques, knot and leader tying, hooks, fishing areas, cleaning and cooking fish, types of bait, lures, and regulations are discussed and illustrated. Suggested activities and field trips are listed. (MR)

  4. 77 FR 30995 - Permits; Foreign Fishing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... 0648-XC034 Permits; Foreign Fishing AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic... engage in fishing consisting solely of transporting fish or fish products at sea from a point within the... 18, 2012. Rebecca Lent, Director, Office of International Affairs, National Marine Fisheries Service...

  5. Vaccines for fish in aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Sommerset, Ingunn; Krossøy, Bjørn; Biering, Eirik; Frost, Petter

    2005-02-01

    Vaccination plays an important role in large-scale commercial fish farming and has been a key reason for the success of salmon cultivation. In addition to salmon and trout, commercial vaccines are available for channel catfish, European seabass and seabream, Japanese amberjack and yellowtail, tilapia and Atlantic cod. In general, empirically developed vaccines based on inactivated bacterial pathogens have proven to be very efficacious in fish. Fewer commercially available viral vaccines and no parasite vaccines exist. Substantial efficacy data are available for new fish vaccines and advanced technology has been implemented. However, before such vaccines can be successfully commercialized, several hurdles have to be overcome regarding the production of cheap but effective antigens and adjuvants, while bearing in mind environmental and associated regulatory concerns (e.g., those that limit the use of live vaccines). Pharmaceutical companies have performed a considerable amount of research on fish vaccines, however, limited information is available in scientific publications. In addition, salmonids dominate both the literature and commercial focus, despite their relatively small contribution to the total volume of farmed fish in the world. This review provides an overview of the fish vaccines that are currently commercially available and some viewpoints on how the field is likely to evolve in the near future.

  6. 21 CFR 102.45 - Fish sticks or portions made from minced fish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fish sticks or portions made from minced fish. 102... for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.45 Fish sticks or portions made from minced fish. (a) The common or usual name of the food product that resembles and is of the same composition as fish sticks or...

  7. 21 CFR 102.45 - Fish sticks or portions made from minced fish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fish sticks or portions made from minced fish. 102... for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.45 Fish sticks or portions made from minced fish. (a) The common or usual name of the food product that resembles and is of the same composition as fish sticks or...

  8. 21 CFR 102.45 - Fish sticks or portions made from minced fish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fish sticks or portions made from minced fish. 102... for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.45 Fish sticks or portions made from minced fish. (a) The common or usual name of the food product that resembles and is of the same composition as fish sticks or...

  9. Fish in throat: An Unusual Foreign Body.

    PubMed

    Tang, M L; Ching, L S; Brito-Mutunayagam, S; Revadi, G

    2013-12-01

    A 19 year-old man was presented to us in a state of respiratory distress with history of alleged accidentally swallowed the live fish. Flexible nasopharyngolaryngoscope showed a big live fish impacted in the laryngopharynx. Attempts to remove the fish orally were futile as the fish was impacted. We resorted to tracheostomy under local anaesthesia, followed by direct laryngoscopy and removal of the fish under general anaesthesia. The literature review of such rare incidence and approach to such case are discussed.

  10. Fish & Wildlife Annual Project Summary, 1983.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1984-07-01

    BPA's Division of Fish and Wildlife was created in 1982 to develop, coordinate and manage BPA's fish and wildlife program. Division activities protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife resources impacted by hydroelectric development and operation in the Columbia River Basin. At present the Division spends 95% of its budget on restoration projects. In 1983, 83 projects addressed all aspects of the anadromous fish life cycle, non-migratory fish problems and the status of wildlife living near reservoirs.

  11. Fishing-gear restrictions and biomass gains for coral reef fishes in marine protected areas.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Stuart J; Edgar, Graham J; Stuart-Smith, Rick D; Soler, German; Bates, Amanda E

    2017-08-04

    Strong empirical evidence supports recovery of reef fish populations with fishery closures. In countries where full exclusion of people from fishing may be perceived as inequitable, fishing gear restrictions on non-selective and destructive gears may offer socially relevant management alternatives to build recovery of fish biomass. Even so, very few studies have statistically compared the responses of tropical reef fisheries to alternative management strategies. Here we test for the effects of fishery closures and fishing gear restrictions on tropical reef fish biomass, at the community and family level, at 1,396 underwater surveys conducted at 617 unique sites across a spatial hierarchy within 22 global marine ecoregions representing five realms. We compare total biomass across local fish assemblages, and among 20 reef fish families inside marine protected areas (MPAs) with different fishing restrictions: no-take, hook and line fishing only, several fishing gears allowed, to sites open to all fishing gears. We include a further category representing remote sites where fishing pressure is low. As expected, full fishery closures, often referred to as 'no-take' zones, most benefit community and family level fish biomass in comparison with restrictions on fishing gears and openly fished sites. We further find that although biomass responses to fishery closures are highly variable across families, some fishery targets (e.g., Carcharhinidae, and Lutjanidae) respond positively to multiple restrictions on fishing gears (i.e., where gears other than hook and line fishing are not permitted). Remoteness also imparts a positive influence on the response of community level fish biomass and many fish families. Our findings provide strong support for the role of fishing restrictions in building recovery of fish biomass, and indicate important interactions among fishing gear types on removal of fish biomass among a range of reef fish families. This article is protected by

  12. Hunt warm, rest cool: bioenergetic strategy underlying diel vertical migration of a benthic shark.

    PubMed

    Sims, David W; Wearmouth, Victoria J; Southall, Emily J; Hill, Jacqueline M; Moore, Pippa; Rawlinson, Kate; Hutchinson, Neil; Budd, Georgina C; Righton, David; Metcalfe, Julian D; Nash, Jon P; Morritt, David

    2006-01-01

    1. Diel vertical migration (DVM) is a widespread phenomenon among marine and freshwater organisms and many studies with various taxa have sought to understand its adaptive significance. Among crustacean zooplankton and juveniles of some fish species DVM is accepted widely as an antipredator behaviour, but little is known about its adaptive value for relatively large-bodied, adult predatory fish such as sharks. Moreover, the majority of studies have focused on pelagic forms, which raises the question of whether DVM occurs in bottom-living predators. 2. To investigate DVM in benthic predatory fish in the marine environment and to determine why it might occur we tracked movements of adult male dogfish (Scyliorhinus canicula) by short- and long-term acoustic and archival telemetry. Movement studies were complemented with measurements of prey abundance and availability and thermal habitat within home ranges. A thermal choice experiment and energy budget modelling was used to investigate trade-offs between foraging and thermal habitat selection. 3. Male dogfish undertook normal DVM (nocturnal ascent) within relatively small home ranges (-100 x 100 m) comprising along-bottom movements up submarine slopes from deeper, colder waters occupied during the day into warmer, shallow prey-rich areas above the thermocline at night. Few daytime vertical movements occurred. Levels of activity were higher during the night above the thermocline compared to below it during the day indicating they foraged in warm water and rested in colder depths. 4. A thermal choice experiment using environmentally realistic temperatures supported the field observation that dogfish positively avoided warmer water even when it was associated with greater food availability. Males in laboratory aquaria moved into warm water from a cooler refuge only to obtain food, and after food consumption they preferred to rest and digest in cooler water. 5. Modelling of energy budgets under different realistic thermal

  13. Cloning of fish enzymes and other fish protein genes.

    PubMed

    Macouzet, M; Simpson, B K; Lee, B H

    1999-01-01

    Fish metabolism needs special enzymes that have maximum activity at very different conditions than their mammalian counterparts. Due to the differences in activity, these enzymes, especially cold-adapted proteases, could be used advantageously for the production of some foods. In addition to the enzymes, this review describes some other unique fish polypeptides such as antifreeze proteins, fluorescent proteins, antitumor peptides, antibiotics, and hormones, that have already been cloned and used in food processing, genetic engineering, medicine, and aquaculture. Recombinant DNA technology, which allows these biological molecules to be cloned and overexpressed in microorganisms is also described, highlighting innovative applications. The expected impact of cloning fish proteins in different fields of technology is discussed.

  14. Fish mucus metabolome reveals fish life-history traits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reverter, M.; Sasal, P.; Banaigs, B.; Lecchini, D.; Lecellier, G.; Tapissier-Bontemps, N.

    2017-06-01

    Fish mucus has important biological and ecological roles such as defense against fish pathogens and chemical mediation among several species. A non-targeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry metabolomic approach was developed to study gill mucus of eight butterflyfish species in Moorea (French Polynesia), and the influence of several fish traits (geographic site and reef habitat, species taxonomy, phylogeny, diet and parasitism levels) on the metabolic variability was investigated. A biphasic extraction yielding two fractions (polar and apolar) was used. Fish diet (obligate corallivorous, facultative corallivorous or omnivorous) arose as the main driver of the metabolic differences in the gill mucus in both fractions, accounting for 23% of the observed metabolic variability in the apolar fraction and 13% in the polar fraction. A partial least squares discriminant analysis allowed us to identify the metabolites (variable important in projection, VIP) driving the differences between fish with different diets (obligate corallivores, facultative corallivores and omnivorous). Using accurate mass data and fragmentation data, we identified some of these VIP as glycerophosphocholines, ceramides and fatty acids. Level of monogenean gill parasites was the second most important factor shaping the gill mucus metabolome, and it explained 10% of the metabolic variability in the polar fraction and 5% in the apolar fraction. A multiple regression tree revealed that the metabolic variability due to parasitism in the polar fraction was mainly due to differences between non-parasitized and parasitized fish. Phylogeny and butterflyfish species were factors contributing significantly to the metabolic variability of the apolar fraction (10 and 3%, respectively) but had a less pronounced effect in the polar fraction. Finally, geographic site and reef habitat of butterflyfish species did not influence the gill mucus metabolome of butterflyfishes.

  15. Fish kill from underwater explosions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuart, David J.

    1962-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has used 23 different shotpoints during two seasons of field work in our seismic study of crustal structure in western United States. Without exception, it has been found that under-water shotpoints result in a more efficient conversion of explosive energy into seismic energy than do drilled-hole shotpoints. This experience, together with elimination of drilling costs, has led to the use of underwater shotpoints wherever possible. Three of the 23 shotpoints were in the Pacific Ocean, and for these we have no detailed information on the fish kill. Another six shotpoints were located in inland bodies of water. These are: * Soda Lake near Fallon, Nevada * Mono Lake near Lee Vining, California * Lake Mead near Boulder City, Nevada * Shasta Lake near Redding, California * C.J. Strike Reservoir near Bruneau, Idaho * Lucky Peak Reservoir near Boise, Idaho The 22 high-explosive charges, weighing a total of 95,100 pounds, that were fired in lakes containing fish life resulted in the known death of 2,413 game fish with a total weight of 759 pounds. The average mortality was 110 game fish or 34.5 pounds of game fish killed per average shot of 4,325 pounds of high-explosives.

  16. FISH in polycythemia vera (PCV)

    SciTech Connect

    Amiel, A.; Gaber, E.; Manor, Y.

    1994-09-01

    Trisomies 8 and 9 are the most common numerical abnormalities in polycythemia vera (PCV). However, their role in the pathogenesis of the disease is unclear as is their diagnostic or prognostic value. We evaluated the role of fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) as compared to chromosome analysis in the detection of trisomies 8 or 9 in peripheral blood cells of 14 PCV and 5 secondary PCV patients. Using FISH, we found trisomies 8 and 9 in 10 PCV patients above the cutoff levels of 5%. However, no patient with the secondary PCV reached the cutoff level. Out of 10 PCV patients in whom the trisomy was detected by FISH, only in 3 was this trisomy also detected by routine cytogenetics. The incidence of the finding of trisomy 9 correlates with the duration of the disease, suggesting that this is not the primary event in PCV. FISH is a sensitive, convenient and rapid method for diagnosis and follow-up of chromosome aberrations in PCV patients. Application of FISH to larger cohort of patients may provide valuable information regarding their role in initiation and progession of the disease.

  17. Signal Cloaking by Electric Fish

    PubMed Central

    STODDARD, PHILIP K.; MARKHAM, MICHAEL R.

    2010-01-01

    Electric fish produce weak electric fields to image their world in darkness and to communicate with potential mates and rivals. Eavesdropping by electroreceptive predators exerts selective pressure on electric fish to shift their signals into less-detectable high-frequency spectral ranges. Hypopomid electric fish evolved a signal-cloaking strategy that reduces their detectability by predators in the lab (and thus presumably their risk of predation in the field). These fish produce broad-frequency electric fields close to the body, but the heterogeneous local fields merge over space to cancel the low-frequency spectrum at a distance. Mature males dynamically regulate this cloaking mechanism to enhance or suppress low-frequency energy. The mechanism underlying electric-field cloaking involves electrogenic cells that produce two independent action potentials. In a unique twist, these cells orient sodium and potassium currents in the same direction, potentially boosting their capabilities for current generation. Exploration of such evolutionary inventions could aid the design of biogenerators to power implantable medical devices, an ambition that would benefit from the complete genome sequence of a gymnotiform fish. PMID:20209064

  18. Signal Cloaking by Electric Fish.

    PubMed

    Stoddard, Philip K; Markham, Michael R

    2008-01-01

    Electric fish produce weak electric fields to image their world in darkness and to communicate with potential mates and rivals. Eavesdropping by electroreceptive predators exerts selective pressure on electric fish to shift their signals into less-detectable high-frequency spectral ranges. Hypopomid electric fish evolved a signal-cloaking strategy that reduces their detectability by predators in the lab (and thus presumably their risk of predation in the field). These fish produce broad-frequency electric fields close to the body, but the heterogeneous local fields merge over space to cancel the low-frequency spectrum at a distance. Mature males dynamically regulate this cloaking mechanism to enhance or suppress low-frequency energy. The mechanism underlying electric-field cloaking involves electrogenic cells that produce two independent action potentials. In a unique twist, these cells orient sodium and potassium currents in the same direction, potentially boosting their capabilities for current generation. Exploration of such evolutionary inventions could aid the design of biogenerators to power implantable medical devices, an ambition that would benefit from the complete genome sequence of a gymnotiform fish.

  19. Water quality for freshwater fish

    SciTech Connect

    Howells, G. )

    1994-01-01

    This timely and up-to-date volume brings together recent critical reviews on water quality requirements for freshwater fish commissioned by the European Inland Fisheries Advisory Commission, an agency of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization. It provides a unique and authoritative source of critically evaluated water quality data concerning the effects of chromium, nickel, aluminum and nitrite on freshwater fish and includes an assessment of the toxicity of mixtures. The reports presented in this volume cover all stages of the life cycle and relevant trophic levels, including aquatic invertebrates and plants and potential bioaccumulation through the food chain. An extensive bibliography is provided for each chapter as well as a glossary of terms and a list of fish species mentioned in the text. This compilation of papers is the definitive reference volume for chemists, biologists, ecologists and toxicologists as well as for water resource managers concerned with management and control of pollution in fresh waters.

  20. A review of fish lectins.

    PubMed

    Ng, Tzi Bun; Fai Cheung, Randy Chi; Wing Ng, Charlene Cheuk; Fang, Evandro Fei; Wong, Jack Ho

    2015-01-01

    Lectins have been reported from various tissues of a diversity of fish species including Japanese eel, conger eel, electric eel, bighead carp, gibel carp, grass carp, Arabian Gulf catfish, channel catfish, blue catfish, catfish, pike perch, perch, powan, zebrafish, toxic moray, cobia fish, steelhead trout, Japanese trout, Atlantic salmon, chinook salmon, olive rainbow smelt, rainbow smelt, white-spotted charr, tilapia, blue gourami, ayu, Potca fish, Spanish mackerel, gilt head bream, tench, roach, rudd, common skate, and sea lamprey. The tissues from which the lectins were isolated comprise gills, eggs, electric organ, stomach, intestine, and liver. Lectins have also been isolated from skin, mucus serum, and plasma. The lectins differ in molecular weight, number of subunits, glycosylation, sugar binding specificity and amino acid sequence. Their activities include antimicrobial, antitumor, immunoregulatory and a role in development.

  1. Orexin system in teleost fish.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Kouhei; Azuma, Morio; Kang, Ki Sung

    2012-01-01

    Orexin is a neuropeptide distributed widely among vertebrates. In mammals, orexin and its receptor system are involved in the regulation of food intake, locomotion, and psychomotor activities including the sleep/wakefulness cycle. With regard to nonmammalian vertebrates, there has also been intensive study aimed at the identification and functional characterization of orexin and its receptor, and recent investigations of the role of orexin have revealed that it exerts behavioral effects in teleost fish. Goldfish and zebrafish are excellent teleost fish models, and in these species it has been demonstrated that orexin increases food consumption as an orexigenic factor and enhances locomotor activity, as well as being involved in the regulation of active and rest status (circadian rhythmicity and the sleep/wakefulness cycle), as is the case in mammals. This chapter reviews current knowledge of orexin derived from studies of teleost fish, as representative nonmammals, focusing particularly on the role of the orexin system, and examines its significance from a comparative viewpoint.

  2. Circadian clocks: lessons from fish.

    PubMed

    Idda, M Laura; Bertolucci, Cristiano; Vallone, Daniela; Gothilf, Yoav; Sánchez-Vázquez, Francisco Javier; Foulkes, Nicholas S

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of the molecular and cellular organization of the circadian timing system in vertebrates has increased enormously over the past decade. In large part, progress has been based on genetic studies in the mouse as well as on fundamental similarities between vertebrate and Drosophila clocks. The zebrafish was initially considered as a potentially attractive genetic model for identifying vertebrate clock genes. However, instead, fish have ultimately proven to be valuable complementary models for studying various aspects of clock biology. For example, many fish can shift from diurnal to nocturnal activity implying specific flexibility in their clock function. We have learned much about the function of light input pathways, and the ontogeny and function of the pineal organ, the fish central pacemaker. Finally, blind cavefish have also provided new insight into the evolution of the circadian clock under extreme environmental conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Mycobacteriosis in fishes: a review.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, David T; Rhodes, Martha W

    2009-04-01

    Mycobacterium species have long been recognised as a significant source of morbidity and mortality in finfish aquaculture, as well as in wild finfishes. Mycobacteria infecting fishes also include zoonotic pathogens that can cause protracted illness, especially in immunocompromised individuals. Several basic aspects of mycobacterial pathobiology in aquatic animals remain poorly understood, although a number of important recent developments have been made, especially with respect to identification of novel Mycobacterium spp. infecting fishes and a new group of mycobacteria closely related to the human pathogen Mycobacterium ulcerans. This review will encompass important aspects of mycobacterial disease in fishes, discuss recent research including studies of mycobacteriosis in striped bass (Morone saxatilis) of Chesapeake Bay, USA, and suggest directions for future work.

  4. The ethics of fish welfare.

    PubMed

    Evans, J C

    2009-12-01

    The topic of fish welfare in the context of commercial fisheries is a difficult one. From traditionally anthropocentric or human-centred perspectives, fishes are simply objects for humans to use as they see fit. When it is argued that anthropocentrism is arbitrary, it may appear that a strong animal rights position is the only recourse, with the result that humans ought not to use animals in the first place, if it is at all possible. It can be argued that both positions fail to view human beings as part of the natural world. If human beings are viewed as part of the world from which they live, then it has to be asked what it means to be respectful of the animals which humans use and from which they live. From this perspective, concern for the welfare of the fishes humans eat is simply what should be expected from humans as good citizens in the community of living creatures.

  5. Emulating a Fish Swim Bladder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vesenka, James; Meredith, Dawn; Bolker, Jessica; Schubert, Christopher; Kraut, Gertrud

    2009-10-01

    The University of New Hampshire and the University of New England are developing biologically relevant physics laboratories for their predominantly health science audiences. Buoyancy plays an important role in a variety of biological processes. We describe an inexpensive laboratory activity based on the Cartesian Diver that allows students to quantitatively emulate the swim bladder of a fish. Inflation of the ``bladder'' is externally controlled through an external gas syringe or squeezing on the plastic water containment vessel (a 2L soda bottle). The students can accurately determine the volume of a ``fish'' at the point of neutral buoyancy by visual measurement of the trapped air pocket. A simple electronic gas pressure sensor allows the hydrostatic pressure on the fish to be analyzed simultaneously.

  6. Chemical avoidance responses of fishes.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Keith B

    2016-05-01

    The hydrosphere is a repository for all of our waste and mistakes, be they sewage, garbage, process-affected waters, runoff, and gases. For fish living in environments receiving undesirable inputs, moving away seems an obvious way to avoid harm. While this should occur, there are numerous examples where it will not. The inability to avoid harmful environments may lead to sensory impairments that in turn limit the ability to avoid other dangers or locate benefits. For avoidance to occur, the danger must first be perceived, which may not happen if the fish is 'blinded' in some capacity. Second, the danger must be recognized for what it is, which may also not happen if the fish is cognitively confused or impaired. Third, it is possible that the fish may not be able to leave the area, or worse, learns to prefer a toxic environment. Concerning generating regulations around avoidance, there are two possibilities: that an avoidance threshold be used to set guidelines for effluent release with the intention of driving fishes away; the second is to set a contaminant concentration that would not affect the avoidance or attraction responses to other cues. With the complexities of the modern world in which we release diverse pollutants, from light to municipal effluents full of 1000s of chemicals, to the diversity present in ecosystems, it is impossible to have avoidance data on every stimulus-species combination. Nevertheless, we may be able to use existing avoidance response data to predict the likelihood of avoidance of untested stimuli. Where we cannot, this review includes a framework that can be used to direct new research. This review is intended to collate existing avoidance response data, provide a framework for making decisions in the absence of data, and suggest studies that would facilitate the prediction of risk to fish health in environments receiving intentional and unintentional human-based chemical inputs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. DNA vaccines for aquacultured fish.

    PubMed

    Lorenzen, N; LaPatra, S E

    2005-04-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) vaccination is based on the administration of the gene encoding the vaccine antigen, rather than the antigen itself. Subsequent expression of the antigen by cells in the vaccinated hosts triggers the host immune system. Among the many experimental DNA vaccines tested in various animal species as well as in humans, the vaccines against rhabdovirus diseases in fish have given some of the most promising results. A single intramuscular (IM) injection of microgram amounts of DNA induces rapid and long-lasting protection in farmed salmonids against economically important viruses such as infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) and viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV). DNA vaccines against other types of fish pathogens, however, have so far had limited success. The most efficient delivery route at present is IM injection, and suitable delivery strategies for mass vaccination of small fish have yet to be developed. In terms of safety, no adverse effects in the vaccinated fish have been observed to date. As DNA vaccination is a relatively new technology, various theoretical and long-term safety issues related to the environment and the consumer remain to be fully addressed, although inherently the risks should not be any greater than with the commercial fish vaccines that are currently used. Present classification systems lack clarity in distinguishing DNA-vaccinated animals from genetically modified organisms (GMOs), which could raise issues in terms of licensing and public acceptance of the technology. The potential benefits of DNA vaccines for farmed fish include improved animal welfare, reduced environmental impacts of aquaculture activities, increased food quality and quantity, and more sustainable production. Testing under commercial production conditions has recently been initiated in Canada and Denmark.

  8. Opisthorchis viverrini metacercaria in Thai freshwater fish.

    PubMed

    Waikagul, J

    1998-06-01

    Examination for metacercaria in freshwater fish, the common intermediate hosts of Opisthorchis viverrini was carried out during 1992-1996. The 4-year survey of fish from markets in 14 provinces revealed that metacercariae of O. viverrini were found in fish from Udon Thani, Sa Kaeo and Prachin Buri Provinces; fish from Aranyaprathet district had the highest positive rates (25-28%). Fish from 12 provinces were found to be positive with heterophyid metacercariae, namely: Haplorchis pumilio, H. taichui, H. yokogawai, Stellantchasmus falcatus, Centrocestus formosanus and Haplorchoides cahirinus. It was also observed that the prevalence of O. viverrini metacercaria in fish decreased markedly during the last 10 years.

  9. Fish Oncology: Diseases, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Vergneau-Grosset, Claire; Nadeau, Marie-Eve; Groff, Joseph M

    2017-01-01

    The scientific literature contains a wealth of information concerning spontaneous fish neoplasms, although ornamental fish oncology is still in its infancy. The occurrence of fish neoplasms has often been associated with oncogenic viruses and environmental insults, making them useful markers for environmental contaminants. The use of fish, including zebrafish, as models of human carcinogenesis has been developed and knowledge gained from these models may also be applied to ornamental fish, although more studies are required. This review summarizes information available about fish oncology pertaining to veterinary clinicians.

  10. Effect of aquaculture on world fish supplies.

    PubMed

    Naylor, R L; Goldburg, R J; Primavera, J H; Kautsky, N; Beveridge, M C; Clay, J; Folke, C; Lubchenco, J; Mooney, H; Troell, M

    2000-06-29

    Global production of farmed fish and shellfish has more than doubled in the past 15 years. Many people believe that such growth relieves pressure on ocean fisheries, but the opposite is true for some types of aquaculture. Farming carnivorous species requires large inputs of wild fish for feed. Some aquaculture systems also reduce wild fish supplies through habitat modification, wild seedstock collection and other ecological impacts. On balance, global aquaculture production still adds to world fish supplies; however, if the growing aquaculture industry is to sustain its contribution to world fish supplies, it must reduce wild fish inputs in feed and adopt more ecologically sound management practices.

  11. Captain Cook on poison fish.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Michael J

    2005-12-13

    On his second voyage of discovery, Captain James Cook charted much of the South Pacific. The journey was long, from 1772 to 1775. During the exploration, the geographic, ethnographic, and scientific variety provided no shortage of work for the accompanying naturalists, astronomers, navigators, and painters. Culinary discoveries included new species of fish, many of which were sketched, dressed, and ultimately eaten. The examined journals and correspondence document clinical poisonings after ingestion of two different species of fish. The clinical findings are described and likely represent ciguatera and tetrodotoxin poisonings. Mechanisms of these toxin's actions are discussed in light of more recent studies.

  12. Lead fishing weights and other fishing tackle in selected waterbirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.; Hansen, Scott P.; Creekmore, T.E.; Brand, C.J.; Evers, D.C.; Duerr, A.E.; DeStefano, S.

    2003-01-01

    From 1995 through 1999, 2,240 individuals of 28 species of waterbirds were examined in the United States for ingested lead fishing weights. A combination of radiography and visual examination of stomachs was used to search for lead weights and blood and liver samples from live birds and carcasses, respectively, were collected for lead analysis. Ingested lead weights were found most frequently in the Common Loon (Gavia immer) (11 of 313 = 3.5%) and Brown Pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis) (10 of 365 = 2.7%), but also in one of 81 (1.2%) Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) and one of 11 (9.1%) Black-crowned Night Herons (Nycticorax nycticorax). Birds with ingested lead fishing weights (including split shot, jig heads, and egg, bell, and pyramid sinkers) were found in California, Florida, Maine, New Hampshire, North Carolina, and Wisconsin. The size and mass of ingested lead weights ranged from split shot of 7 mm in the longest dimension, weighing less than 2 g, to a 22 ?? 39 mm pyramid sinker that weighed 78.2 g. Six ingested lead weights were more than 25.4 mm in the longest dimension. Lead concentrations in the blood and liver of birds with lead fishing weights in their stomachs ranged up to 13.9 ppm and 26.0 ppm (wet weight basis), respectively. During the study, we also noted the presence of ingested or entangled fishing tackle, with no associated lead weights, in eight species.

  13. Optimizing fish sampling for fish - mercury bioaccumulation factors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scudder Eikenberry, Barbara C.; Riva-Murray, Karen; Knightes, Christopher D.; Journey, Celeste; Chasar, Lia C.; Brigham, Mark E.; Bradley, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    Fish Bioaccumulation Factors (BAFs; ratios of mercury (Hg) in fish (Hgfish) and water (Hgwater)) are used to develop Total Maximum Daily Load and water quality criteria for Hg-impaired waters. Both applications require representative Hgfish estimates and, thus, are sensitive to sampling and data-treatment methods. Data collected by fixed protocol from 11 streams in 5 states distributed across the US were used to assess the effects of Hgfish normalization/standardization methods and fish sample numbers on BAF estimates. Fish length, followed by weight, was most correlated to adult top-predator Hgfish. Site-specific BAFs based on length-normalized and standardized Hgfish estimates demonstrated up to 50% less variability than those based on non-normalized Hgfish. Permutation analysis indicated that length-normalized and standardized Hgfish estimates based on at least 8 trout or 5 bass resulted in mean Hgfish coefficients of variation less than 20%. These results are intended to support regulatory mercury monitoring and load-reduction program improvements.

  14. FISH-ing for Genes: Modeling Fluorescence "in situ" Hybridization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, William P.; Jones, Carleton Buck

    2006-01-01

    Teaching methods of genetic analysis such as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) can be an important part of instructional units in biology, microbiology, and biotechnology. Experience, however, indicates that these topics are difficult for many students. The authors of this article describe how they created an activity that effectively…

  15. FISH-ing for Genes: Modeling Fluorescence "in situ" Hybridization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, William P.; Jones, Carleton Buck

    2006-01-01

    Teaching methods of genetic analysis such as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) can be an important part of instructional units in biology, microbiology, and biotechnology. Experience, however, indicates that these topics are difficult for many students. The authors of this article describe how they created an activity that effectively…

  16. [Imported tropical fish causes ciguatera fish poisoning in Germany].

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Katharina; Eisenblätter, Anneka; Vetter, Irina; Ebbecke, Martin; Friedemann, Miriam; Desel, Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Ciguatera is a seafood-borne illness caused by consumption of tropical fish contaminated with ciguatoxins, lipophilic polyethers that are produced in benthic dinoflagellates and accumulate through the marine food chain. Ciguatera cases in Europe usually occur in travellers returning from tropical and subtropical regions of the Pacific and Carribean, where ciguatera is endemic. In 2012, several cases of ciguatera occurred in Germany due to sale of contaminated fish products originating from the Indian Ocean. Although the symptomatology in these cases were typical of ciguatera, with patients reporting gastrointestinal discomfort including nausea, vomiting and diarrhea as well as neurological effects including widespread intense pruritus, paresthesias, hypothermia or altered temperature sensation and diffuse pain, correct diagnosis was delayed in all cases due to lack of awareness of the treating medical practitioners. In light of increasing global mobility, trade, and occurrence of ciguatoxic fish in previously non-endemic areas, ciguatera should be considered as a possible diagnosis if gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms occur shortly after consumption of fish.

  17. Fish Eaters Report Less Rheumatoid Arthritis Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_166848.html Fish Eaters Report Less Rheumatoid Arthritis Pain Study suggests most fish may play role ... significantly reduce the pain and swelling associated with rheumatoid arthritis, a new study says. Prior studies have shown ...

  18. Hotchkiss National Fish Hatchery NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service is authorized to discharge from outfalls at its Hotchkiss National Fish Hatchery wastewater treatment facility to the North Fork of the Gunnison River in Delta County, Colorado.

  19. The taste system of small fish species.

    PubMed

    Okada, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    Small fish species such as the zebrafish (Danio rerio) and medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) are advantageous animal models and have been used as model organisms in many research areas. However, they have not been utilized for studying the taste system, primarily because of a dearth of molecular biological knowledge. Quantitative methods for analyzing the taste preferences of fish species have also been lacking. Recent progress of the fish genome project has enabled the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of taste sensation. Taste receptors and a number of signal transduction molecules have been identified. Additionally, the development of quantitative methods of feeding using fluorescently labeled artificial foods has demonstrated taste preferences in small fish species. Comparisons between these results in fish and reports on mammals have proposed a general logic and evolution of vertebrate taste systems. Analysis on the transsynaptic tracer-expressing transgenic medaka fish also suggests the usefulness of small fish in the research of neural circuits for taste.

  20. Leadville National Fish Hatchery NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit number CO-0000582, the U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service is authorized to discharge from its Leadville National Fish Hatchery wastewater treatment facility in Colorado.

  1. Cardiovascular control in Antarctic fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egginton, Stuart; Campbell, Hamish; Davison, William

    2006-04-01

    The capacity for synthesis and plasma levels of stress hormones in species with a range of activity patterns suggest that depressed catecholamine synthesis is typical of notothenioid fishes regardless of life style, although they are able to release extensive stores under conditions of extreme trauma. Cortisol does not appear to be an important primary stress hormone in these species. In general, vascular reactivity shows a modest α and β adrenergic tonus, but with greater potency for cholinergic and serotonergic vasoconstrictor agonists, although a dominance of vasodilatation over vasoconstriction is observed in one species. Vasomotor control mechanisms appear to be primarily a consequence of evolutionary lineage rather than low environmental temperature, but the pattern may be modified according to functional demand. These and other data confirm the cardiovascular system is dominated by cholinergic control: the heart apparently lacks adrenergic innervation, but receives inhibitory parasympathetic input that regulates heart rate (HR) by setting a resting vagal tonus. Oxygen consumption (MO 2) determined at rest and varied via specific dynamic action, in intact fish and fish that had undergone bilateral sectioning of the vagus nerve, show that HR is a good predictor of MO 2, and that the major influence on HR is the degree of vagal tone—these fish work by removing the brake rather than applying the accelerator. However, whether these traits actually represent adaptation to the Antarctic environment or merely represent ancestral characteristics and their relative phylogenetic position is at present unclear.

  2. Bioactive Components in Fish Venoms

    PubMed Central

    Ziegman, Rebekah; Alewood, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Animal venoms are widely recognized excellent resources for the discovery of novel drug leads and physiological tools. Most are comprised of a large number of components, of which the enzymes, small peptides, and proteins are studied for their important bioactivities. However, in spite of there being over 2000 venomous fish species, piscine venoms have been relatively underrepresented in the literature thus far. Most studies have explored whole or partially fractioned venom, revealing broad pharmacology, which includes cardiovascular, neuromuscular, cytotoxic, inflammatory, and nociceptive activities. Several large proteinaceous toxins, such as stonustoxin, verrucotoxin, and Sp-CTx, have been isolated from scorpaenoid fish. These form pores in cell membranes, resulting in cell death and creating a cascade of reactions that result in many, but not all, of the physiological symptoms observed from envenomation. Additionally, Natterins, a novel family of toxins possessing kininogenase activity have been found in toadfish venom. A variety of smaller protein toxins, as well as a small number of peptides, enzymes, and non-proteinaceous molecules have also been isolated from a range of fish venoms, but most remain poorly characterized. Many other bioactive fish venom components remain to be discovered and investigated. These represent an untapped treasure of potentially useful molecules. PMID:25941767

  3. POPULATION DECLINE IN STREAM FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over half of the streams in the Mid-Atlantic Highlands have fish communities that are in fair or poor condition, and the EPA concluded that physical habitat alteration represents the greatest potential stressor across this region. A quantitative method for relating habitat quali...

  4. POPULATION DECLINE IN STREAM FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over half of the streams in the Mid-Atlantic Highlands have fish communities that are in fair or poor condition, and the EPA concluded that physical habitat alteration represents the greatest potential stressor across this region. A quantitative method for relating habitat quali...

  5. Offshore Fish Community: Ecological Interactions

    EPA Science Inventory

    The offshore (>80 m) fish community of Lake Superior is made up of predominately native species. The most prominent species are deepwater sculpin, kiyi, cisco, siscowet lake trout, burbot, and the exotic sea lamprey. Bloater and shortjaw cisco are also found in the offshore zone...

  6. Enhancing fish performance in Aquaculture

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aquaculture currently is the fastest growing agricultural industry and must continue to grow to meet the world’s increasing demand for seafood. Continued growth will depend upon advances in fish genetics and nutrition, and improvements in culture system design and management. The number and complexi...

  7. Hydroacoustic estimates of fish abundance

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, W.K.

    1991-03-01

    Hydroacoustics, as defined in the context of this report, is the use of a scientific sonar system to determine fish densities with respect to numbers and biomass. These two parameters provide a method of monitoring reservoir fish populations and detecting gross changes in the ecosystem. With respect to southeastern reservoirs, hydroacoustic surveys represent a new method of sampling open water areas and the best technology available. The advantages of this technology are large amounts of data can be collected in a relatively short period of time allowing improved statistical interpretation and data comparison, the pelagic (open water) zone can be sampled efficiently regardless of depth, and sampling is nondestructive and noninvasive with neither injury to the fish nor alteration of the environment. Hydroacoustics cannot provide species identification and related information on species composition or length/weight relationships. Also, sampling is limited to a minimum depth of ten feet which precludes the use of this equipment for sampling shallow shoreline areas. The objective of this study is to use hydroacoustic techniques to estimate fish standing stocks (i.e., numbers and biomass) in several areas of selected Tennessee Valley Reservoirs as part of a base level monitoring program to assess long-term changes in reservoir water quality.

  8. Introductory Statistics and Fish Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jardine, Dick

    2002-01-01

    Describes how fisheries research and management data (available on a website) have been incorporated into an Introductory Statistics course. In addition to the motivation gained from seeing the practical relevance of the course, some students have participated in the data collection and analysis for the New Hampshire Fish and Game Department. (MM)

  9. Introductory Statistics and Fish Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jardine, Dick

    2002-01-01

    Describes how fisheries research and management data (available on a website) have been incorporated into an Introductory Statistics course. In addition to the motivation gained from seeing the practical relevance of the course, some students have participated in the data collection and analysis for the New Hampshire Fish and Game Department. (MM)

  10. Offshore Fish Community: Ecological Interactions

    EPA Science Inventory

    The offshore (>80 m) fish community of Lake Superior is made up of predominately native species. The most prominent species are deepwater sculpin, kiyi, cisco, siscowet lake trout, burbot, and the exotic sea lamprey. Bloater and shortjaw cisco are also found in the offshore zone...

  11. Nutritional Physiology of Captive Fishes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Managing the health of captive fishes requires broad knowledge of environmental, physiological, and nutritional requirements for life in an aquatic realm, something no human being can fully appreciate. In spite of our lack of experience living in an aquatic environment, we can successfully manage th...

  12. Methods for assessing fish populations

    Treesearch

    Kevin L. Pope; Steve E. Lochmann; Michael K. Young

    2010-01-01

    Fisheries managers are likely to assess fish populations at some point during the fisheries management process. Managers that follow the fisheries management process (see Chapter 5) might find their knowledge base insufficient during the steps of problem identification or management action and must assess a population before appropriate actions can be taken. Managers...

  13. Diet, atherosclerosis, and fish oil.

    PubMed

    Connor, W E; Connor, S L

    1990-01-01

    The principal goal of dietary prevention and treatment of atherosclerotic coronary heart disease is the achievement of physiological levels of the plasma total and LDL cholesterol, triglyceride, and VLDL. These goals have been well delineated by the National Cholesterol Education Program of the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute and the American Heart Association. Dietary treatment is first accomplished by enhancing LDL receptor activity and at the same time depressing liver synthesis of cholesterol and triglyceride. Both dietary cholesterol and saturated fat decrease LDL receptor activity and inhibit the removal of LDL from the plasma by the liver. Saturated fat decreases LDL receptor activity, especially when cholesterol is concurrently present in the diet. The total amount of dietary fat is of importance also. The greater the flux of chylomicron remnants is into the liver, the greater is the influx of cholesterol ester. In addition, factors that affect VLDL and LDL synthesis could be important. These include excessive calories (obesity), which enhance triglyceride and VLDL and hence LDL synthesis. Weight loss and omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil depress synthesis of both VLDL and triglyceride in the liver. The optimal diet for the treatment of children and adults to prevent coronary disease has the following characteristics: cholesterol (100 mg/day), total fat (20% of calories, 6% saturated with the balance from omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fat), carbohydrate (65% of calories, two thirds from starch including 11 to 15 gm of soluble fiber), and protein (15% of calories). This low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet can lower the plasma cholesterol 18% to 21%. This diet is also an antithrombotic diet, thrombosis being another major consideration in preventing coronary heart disease. Dietary therapy is the mainstay of the prevention and treatment of coronary heart disease through the control of plasma lipid and lipoprotein levels. The

  14. Idaho Fish Screening Improvements Final Status Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Leitzinger, Eric J.

    2008-11-12

    This project funds two Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) fish habitat biologists to develop, secure funding for, and implement on-the-ground fish habitat improvement projects in the lower Clearwater River drainage and the upper Salmon River drainage. This report summarizes project activity during the first year of funding. The Clearwater Region fish habitat biologist began work on January 28, 2008 and the Salmon Region habitat biologist began on February 11, 2008.

  15. Forecasting Tools Point to Fishing Hotspots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Private weather forecaster WorldWinds Inc. of Slidell, Louisiana has employed satellite-gathered oceanic data from Marshall Space Flight Center to create a service that is every fishing enthusiast s dream. The company's FishBytes system uses information about sea surface temperature and chlorophyll levels to forecast favorable conditions for certain fish populations. Transmitting the data to satellite radio subscribers, FishBytes provides maps that guide anglers to the areas they are most likely to make their favorite catch.

  16. Physiology of fish in intensive culture systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wedemeyer, Gary

    1996-01-01

    Fish culture in hatcheries and other aquacultural facilities is becoming much more intensive all over the world. The success of all kinds of fish rearing depends on the quality of management and this depends, in turn, on understanding the biology of fishes and the aquatic environment in which they live. This book directly addresses the relationship between the aquatic environment and the fishes. An understanding of this by the reader will result in a reduction of disease outbreaks through improved management.

  17. Naturally Occuring Fish Poisons from Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannon, Jonathan G.; Burton, Robert A.; Wood, Steven G.; Owen, Noel L.

    2004-10-01

    Since prehistoric times, cultures throughout the world have used piscicidal (fish poisoning) plants for fishing. In recent times, scientists have identified many of the plant compounds responsible for killing the fish and have found that these compounds possess other important biological properties, such as insecticidal and anti-cancer activities. This article reviews some of the chemical research that has been performed on naturally occurring fish poisons, including plant sources, methods of use, toxicity, and mechanisms of action of piscicides.

  18. Diseases in North Sea fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dethlefsen, V.

    1984-03-01

    Prior to the studies reviewed here, only lymphocystis and skeletal deformities of a variety of fish species and certain diseases of eel were known to occur in the German Bight (North Sea). From 1977 until now, 9 externally visible lesions on North Sea fishes were observed; in addition to those mentioned before, they comprise: fin rot, ulcerations, epidermal papilloma, hyperplasia, pseudobranchial tumour, eye diseases and gill swellings. With the exception of information on changes in frequencies of vertebral deformities of herring from the 1950's to the 1970's, there are no long-term data characterizing changes in frequencies of the diseases under study. For pseudobranchial tumours of cod and epidermal papilloma of dab, information is provided on occurrence and abundance. The distribution pattern of cod afflicted with pseudobranchial tumours is strongly influenced by the migratory behaviour of the fish. Epidermal papillomas of dab were more frequently found at stations within the inner German Bight than in neighbouring areas. The Bight is used for dumping of wastes from titaniumdioxide production. Further disease hot spots are areas off the Humber estuary and the British coast. Analysis of chromium in dab from the German Bight revealed elevated concentrations in epidermal tissues of specimens from the dumping area compared with that found in dab from neighbouring localities. Particulate iron was demonstrated to occur in mucous cells of dab from the dumping area. From increased levels of heavy metals with cancerogenic potential in sensitive target tissues and from increased prevalences of diseased fish in the dumping area it is concluded that these phenomena are possibly causally linked. In the vicinity of the Humber estuary high disease rates were encountered and areas with high prevalences of dab afflicted with epidermal papilloma extended over regions shown to be transport routes for persistent pollutants such as radioactive materials. It is therefore suggested

  19. Fish passage research: S.O. Conte Anadromous Fish Research Laboratory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garebedian, Steve

    2008-01-01

    The Leetown Science Center’s S.O. Conte Anadromous Fish Research Laboratory conducts basic and applied scientific studies of fish passage and migration to define underlying principles and relationships of fish behavior and hydraulics, and to develop integrated, predictive research that can be applied to a wide range of fish passage problems.

  20. Trematode infections in farm-raised fish: Reasons for massive infections, impacts on fish and fish farms, and management of infections on fish farms

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There is an increasing problem with trematodes in fish production facilities. The onset and growth of pond aquaculture in the US (1950-1990) resulted in concentrated areas of fish, new sites for snail growth and multiplication, and new bird feeding habitat. Snails, fish, and birds serve as hosts for...

  1. Gyotaku - Japanese Fish Printing. Leaflet 2548.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewees, Christopher M.

    A list of materials needed and methodology for "gyotaku" (fish rubbing) are provided. Originally developed in Japan and China during the early 1800's, the technique of fish printing has become popular in the United States during the last 10 years. Because good printing results depend on an understanding of fish anatomy, a chart is…

  2. Mercury concentrations in Maine sport fishes

    SciTech Connect

    Stafford, C.P.; Haines, T.A.

    1997-01-01

    To assess mercury contamination of fish in Maine, fish were collected from 120 randomly selected lakes. The collection goal for each lake was five fish of the single most common sport fish species within the size range commonly harvested by anglers. Skinless, boneless fillets of fish from each lake were composited, homogenized, and analyzed for total mercury. The two most abundant species, brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, were also analyzed individually. The composite fish analyses indicate high concentrations of mercury, particularly in large and long-lived nonsalmonid species. Chain pickerel Esox niger, smallmouth bass, largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, and white perch Morone americana had the highest average mercury concentrations, and brook trout and yellow perch Perca flavescens had the lowest. The mean species composite mercury concentration was positively correlated with a factor incorporating the average size and age of the fish. Lakes containing fish with high mercury concentrations were not clustered near known industrial or population centers but were commonest in the area within 150 km of the seacoast, reflecting the geographical distribution of species that contained higher mercury concentrations. Stocked and wild brook trout were not different in length or weight, but wild fish were older and had higher mercury concentrations. Fish populations maintained by frequent introductions of hatchery-produced fish and subject to high angler exploitation rates may consist of younger fish with lower exposure to environmental mercury and thus contain lower concentrations than wild populations.

  3. 50 CFR 660.516 - Exempted fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Exempted fishing. (a) General. In the interest of developing an efficient and productive fishery for CPS, the Regional Administrator may issue exempted fishing permits (EFP) for the harvest of CPS that otherwise would be prohibited. (b) No exempted fishing for CPS may be conducted unless authorized by an...

  4. 50 CFR 660.516 - Exempted fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Exempted fishing. (a) General. In the interest of developing an efficient and productive fishery for CPS, the Regional Administrator may issue exempted fishing permits (EFP) for the harvest of CPS that otherwise would be prohibited. (b) No exempted fishing for CPS may be conducted unless authorized by an...

  5. 50 CFR 660.516 - Exempted fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Exempted fishing. (a) General. In the interest of developing an efficient and productive fishery for CPS, the Regional Administrator may issue exempted fishing permits (EFP) for the harvest of CPS that otherwise would be prohibited. (b) No exempted fishing for CPS may be conducted unless authorized by an...

  6. 50 CFR 660.516 - Exempted fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Exempted fishing. (a) General. In the interest of developing an efficient and productive fishery for CPS, the Regional Administrator may issue exempted fishing permits (EFP) for the harvest of CPS that otherwise would be prohibited. (b) No exempted fishing for CPS may be conducted unless authorized by an...

  7. 36 CFR 1002.3 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fishing. 1002.3 Section 1002.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.3 Fishing. Fishing is prohibited within the area administered by the Presidio Trust....

  8. 50 CFR 660.510 - Fishing seasons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fishing seasons. 660.510 Section 660.510... Fishing seasons. All seasons will begin at 0001 hours and terminate at 2400 hours local time. Fishing seasons for the following CPS species are: (a) Pacific sardine. January 1 to December 31, or until...

  9. 50 CFR 660.510 - Fishing seasons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fishing seasons. 660.510 Section 660.510... Fishing seasons. All seasons will begin at 0001 hours and terminate at 2400 hours local time. Fishing seasons for the following CPS species are: (a) Pacific sardine. January 1 to December 31, or until...

  10. Fish as Hosts of Vibrio cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Halpern, Malka; Izhaki, Ido

    2017-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of pandemic cholera, is abundant in marine and freshwater environments. Copepods and chironomids are natural reservoirs of this species. However, the ways V. cholerae is globally disseminated are as yet unknown. Here we review the scientific literature that provides evidence for the possibility that some fish species may be reservoirs and vectors of V. cholerae. So far, V. cholerae has been isolated from 30 fish species (22 freshwater; 9 marine). V. cholerae O1 was reported in a few cases. In most cases V. cholerae was isolated from fish intestines, but it has also been detected in gills, skin, kidney, liver and brain tissue. In most cases the fish were healthy but in some, they were diseased. Nevertheless, Koch postulates were not applied to prove that V. cholerae and not another agent was the cause of the disease in the fish. Evidence from the literature correlates raw fish consumption or fish handling to a few cholera cases or cholera epidemics. Thus, we can conclude that V. cholerae inhabits some marine and freshwater fish species. It is possible that fish may protect the bacteria in unfavorable habitats while the bacteria may assist the fish to digest its food. Also, fish may disseminate the bacteria in the aquatic environment and may transfer it to waterbirds that consume them. Thus, fish are reservoirs of V. cholerae and may play a role in its global dissemination. PMID:28293221

  11. Gyotaku - Japanese Fish Printing. Leaflet 2548.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewees, Christopher M.

    A list of materials needed and methodology for "gyotaku" (fish rubbing) are provided. Originally developed in Japan and China during the early 1800's, the technique of fish printing has become popular in the United States during the last 10 years. Because good printing results depend on an understanding of fish anatomy, a chart is…

  12. 50 CFR 660.510 - Fishing seasons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fishing seasons. 660.510 Section 660.510... Fishing seasons. All seasons will begin at 0001 hours and terminate at 2400 hours local time. Fishing seasons for the following CPS species are: (a) Pacific sardine. January 1 to December 31, or until...

  13. 50 CFR 660.510 - Fishing seasons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fishing seasons. 660.510 Section 660.510... Fishing seasons. All seasons will begin at 0001 hours and terminate at 2400 hours local time. Fishing seasons for the following CPS species are: (a) Pacific sardine. January 1 to December 31, or until...

  14. Dietary Nutrients, Additives, and Fish Health

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aquaculture will play a major role in global food security by 2050. Production of fish will need to double by 2050 to meet global demand for this important source of protein. Proper fish nutrition is essential for the overall health and well-being of fish. Sustainable and profitable production is...

  15. Coldwater fish in wadeable streams [Chapter 8

    Treesearch

    Jason B. Dunham; Amanda E. Rosenberger; Russell F. Thurow; C. Andrew Dolloff; Philip J. Howell

    2009-01-01

    Small, wadeable streams comprise the majority of habitats available to fishes in fluvial networks. Wadeable streams are generally less than 1 m deep, and fish can be sampled without the use of water craft. Cold waters are defined as having mean 7-d summer maximum water temperatures of less than 20°C and providing habitat for coldwater fishes.

  16. 43 CFR 15.7 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fishing. 15.7 Section 15.7 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.7 Fishing. (a) Spear fishing within the boundaries or confines of this Preserve is prohibited. (b) The use of poisons,...

  17. 43 CFR 15.7 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fishing. 15.7 Section 15.7 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.7 Fishing. (a) Spear fishing within the boundaries or confines of this Preserve is prohibited. (b) The use of poisons,...

  18. 43 CFR 15.7 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fishing. 15.7 Section 15.7 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.7 Fishing. (a) Spear fishing within the boundaries or confines of this Preserve is prohibited. (b) The use of poisons,...

  19. 43 CFR 15.7 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fishing. 15.7 Section 15.7 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.7 Fishing. (a) Spear fishing within the boundaries or confines of this Preserve is prohibited. (b) The use of poisons,...

  20. 43 CFR 15.7 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Fishing. 15.7 Section 15.7 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.7 Fishing. (a) Spear fishing within the boundaries or confines of this Preserve is prohibited. (b) The use of poisons,...

  1. Fish as Hosts of Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Halpern, Malka; Izhaki, Ido

    2017-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of pandemic cholera, is abundant in marine and freshwater environments. Copepods and chironomids are natural reservoirs of this species. However, the ways V. cholerae is globally disseminated are as yet unknown. Here we review the scientific literature that provides evidence for the possibility that some fish species may be reservoirs and vectors of V. cholerae. So far, V. cholerae has been isolated from 30 fish species (22 freshwater; 9 marine). V. cholerae O1 was reported in a few cases. In most cases V. cholerae was isolated from fish intestines, but it has also been detected in gills, skin, kidney, liver and brain tissue. In most cases the fish were healthy but in some, they were diseased. Nevertheless, Koch postulates were not applied to prove that V. cholerae and not another agent was the cause of the disease in the fish. Evidence from the literature correlates raw fish consumption or fish handling to a few cholera cases or cholera epidemics. Thus, we can conclude that V. cholerae inhabits some marine and freshwater fish species. It is possible that fish may protect the bacteria in unfavorable habitats while the bacteria may assist the fish to digest its food. Also, fish may disseminate the bacteria in the aquatic environment and may transfer it to waterbirds that consume them. Thus, fish are reservoirs of V. cholerae and may play a role in its global dissemination.

  2. 36 CFR 13.470 - Subsistence fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Subsistence fishing. 13.470 Section 13.470 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Subsistence § 13.470 Subsistence fishing. Fish may be taken by local...

  3. 50 CFR 635.25 - Fishing areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fishing areas. 635.25 Section 635.25..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ATLANTIC HIGHLY MIGRATORY SPECIES Management Measures § 635.25 Fishing areas. (a) General. Persons on board fishing vessels subject to the jurisdiction of the United States are authorized...

  4. 50 CFR 635.25 - Fishing areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fishing areas. 635.25 Section 635.25..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ATLANTIC HIGHLY MIGRATORY SPECIES Management Measures § 635.25 Fishing areas. (a) General. Persons on board fishing vessels subject to the jurisdiction of the United States are authorized...

  5. 36 CFR § 331.4 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Fishing. § 331.4 Section Â..., KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.4 Fishing. Unless otherwise authorized in writing by the District Engineer: (a) Fishing is only permitted in accordance with the laws and regulations of the State within whose exterior...

  6. 36 CFR 13.470 - Subsistence fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Subsistence fishing. 13.470 Section 13.470 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Subsistence § 13.470 Subsistence fishing. Fish may be taken by local...

  7. 32 CFR 770.3 - Fishing regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fishing regulations. 770.3 Section 770.3... LIMITING PUBLIC ACCESS TO PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Hunting and Fishing at Marine Corps Base, Quantico, Virginia § 770.3 Fishing regulations. (a) All persons possessing the proper state license and Base permit...

  8. 50 CFR 660.516 - Exempted fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exempted fishing. 660.516 Section 660.516... Exempted fishing. (a) General. In the interest of developing an efficient and productive fishery for CPS, the Regional Administrator may issue exempted fishing permits (EFP) for the harvest of CPS that...

  9. 50 CFR 660.718 - Exempted fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exempted fishing. 660.718 Section 660.718... Exempted fishing. (a) In the interest of developing an efficient and productive fishery for HMS, the Regional Administrator may issue exempted fishing permits (EFP) for the harvest of HMS that otherwise would...

  10. 36 CFR 1002.3 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fishing. 1002.3 Section 1002.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.3 Fishing. Fishing is prohibited within the area administered by the Presidio Trust. ...

  11. 50 CFR 665.17 - Experimental fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Experimental fishing. 665.17 Section 665... fishing. (a) General. The Regional Administrator may authorize, for limited purposes, the direct or incidental harvest of MUS that would otherwise be prohibited by this part. No experimental fishing may be...

  12. 36 CFR 1002.3 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fishing. 1002.3 Section 1002.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.3 Fishing. Fishing is prohibited within the area administered by the Presidio Trust. ...

  13. 36 CFR § 1002.3 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Fishing. § 1002.3 Section § 1002.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.3 Fishing. Fishing is prohibited within the area administered by the Presidio Trust. ...

  14. 36 CFR 13.1202 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fishing. 13.1202 Section 13.1202 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL... § 13.1202 Fishing. Fishing is allowed in accordance with § 13.40 of this chapter, but only with...

  15. 50 CFR 660.718 - Exempted fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exempted fishing. 660.718 Section 660.718... Exempted fishing. (a) In the interest of developing an efficient and productive fishery for HMS, the Regional Administrator may issue exempted fishing permits (EFP) for the harvest of HMS that otherwise would...

  16. 36 CFR 13.1202 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fishing. 13.1202 Section 13.1202 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL... § 13.1202 Fishing. Fishing is allowed in accordance with § 13.40 of this chapter, but only with...

  17. 36 CFR 1002.3 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fishing. 1002.3 Section 1002.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.3 Fishing. Fishing is prohibited within the area administered by the Presidio Trust. ...

  18. 50 CFR 660.718 - Exempted fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exempted fishing. 660.718 Section 660.718... Exempted fishing. (a) In the interest of developing an efficient and productive fishery for HMS, the Regional Administrator may issue exempted fishing permits (EFP) for the harvest of HMS that otherwise would...

  19. 50 CFR 635.25 - Fishing areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fishing areas. 635.25 Section 635.25..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ATLANTIC HIGHLY MIGRATORY SPECIES Management Measures § 635.25 Fishing areas. (a) General. Persons on board fishing vessels subject to the jurisdiction of the United States are authorized...

  20. 50 CFR 660.718 - Exempted fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exempted fishing. 660.718 Section 660.718... Exempted fishing. (a) In the interest of developing an efficient and productive fishery for HMS, the Regional Administrator may issue exempted fishing permits (EFP) for the harvest of HMS that otherwise would...

  1. 50 CFR 635.25 - Fishing areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fishing areas. 635.25 Section 635.25..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ATLANTIC HIGHLY MIGRATORY SPECIES Management Measures § 635.25 Fishing areas. (a) General. Persons on board fishing vessels subject to the jurisdiction of the United States are authorized...

  2. 50 CFR 660.510 - Fishing seasons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fishing seasons. 660.510 Section 660.510 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Fishing seasons. All seasons will begin at 0001 hours and terminate at 2400 hours local time. Fishing...

  3. 36 CFR 13.1202 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fishing. 13.1202 Section 13.1202 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL... § 13.1202 Fishing. Fishing is allowed in accordance with § 13.40 of this chapter, but only with...

  4. 50 CFR 660.718 - Exempted fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exempted fishing. 660.718 Section 660.718... Exempted fishing. (a) In the interest of developing an efficient and productive fishery for HMS, the Regional Administrator may issue exempted fishing permits (EFP) for the harvest of HMS that otherwise would...

  5. Crop nutrient recovery from applied fish coproducts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Alaska fishing industry produces over 1,000,000 metric tons of fish byproducts annually, and most of them are not used. Most food in Alaska is imported. Fish byproducts are rich in plant essential nutrients and can be used as nutrient sources for crop production. The objective of the study was t...

  6. 36 CFR 13.1202 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fishing. 13.1202 Section 13.1202 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL... § 13.1202 Fishing. Fishing is allowed in accordance with § 13.40 of this chapter, but only with...

  7. 36 CFR 13.1202 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fishing. 13.1202 Section 13.1202 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL... § 13.1202 Fishing. Fishing is allowed in accordance with § 13.40 of this chapter, but only with...

  8. 50 CFR 635.25 - Fishing areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fishing areas. 635.25 Section 635.25..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ATLANTIC HIGHLY MIGRATORY SPECIES Management Measures § 635.25 Fishing areas. (a) General. Persons on board fishing vessels subject to the jurisdiction of the United States are authorized...

  9. 36 CFR 13.470 - Subsistence fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Subsistence fishing. 13.470 Section 13.470 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Subsistence § 13.470 Subsistence fishing. Fish may be taken by local...

  10. 36 CFR 13.470 - Subsistence fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Subsistence fishing. 13.470 Section 13.470 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Subsistence § 13.470 Subsistence fishing. Fish may be taken by local...

  11. 50 CFR 665.17 - Experimental fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Experimental fishing. 665.17 Section 665... fishing. (a) General. The Regional Administrator may authorize, for limited purposes, the direct or incidental harvest of MUS that would otherwise be prohibited by this part. No experimental fishing may be...

  12. 36 CFR 13.470 - Subsistence fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Subsistence fishing. 13.470 Section 13.470 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Subsistence § 13.470 Subsistence fishing. Fish may be taken by local...

  13. 32 CFR 770.3 - Fishing regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fishing regulations. 770.3 Section 770.3... LIMITING PUBLIC ACCESS TO PARTICULAR INSTALLATIONS Hunting and Fishing at Marine Corps Base, Quantico, Virginia § 770.3 Fishing regulations. (a) All persons possessing the proper state license and Base permit...

  14. On the hydrodynamics of fish schooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borazjani, Iman; Daghooghi, Mohsen

    2013-11-01

    A Considerable number of fish species swim in a coordinated manner within approximately constant and equal distance from each other, forming a pattern which is referred to as a fish school. It is believed that fish schooling results in more efficient swimming. However, no experimental evidence has conclusively shown the hydrodynamic effects of neighboring fish on swimming, probably due to the challenges involved in measuring the performance under controlled conditions in a school. We investigate possible hydrodynamical effects of fish schooling by constructing an infinite school of virtual swimmers based on a mackerel fish body and carangiform kinematics. We carry out our self-propelled simulation based on prescribed undulations of the fish body (assuming that all of the fish in the school move in exact same manner) and calculating motion of the center of mass. One of the most important geometrical factors of the fish schooling pattern seems to be the distance between two adjacent fish in the school. Therefore, we examined fish schools with different distances of two adjacent fish. This work was partly supported by the Center for Computational Research (CCR), University at Buffalo.

  15. A qualitative exploration of fishing and fish consumption in the Gullah/Geechee culture.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Jamelle H; Friedman, Daniela B; Puett, Robin; Scott, Geoffrey I; Porter, Dwayne E

    2014-12-01

    The Gullah/Geechee (G/G) heritage is rooted in a culture largely dependent on fish and seafood as a primary food source. Research suggests that African-American (AA) fishers in the Southeastern US consume larger amounts of fish, potentially exposing them to higher environmental contaminant levels. This in-depth study was conducted to explore G/G and AA Sea Island attitudes, perceptions, and cultural beliefs about fishing in one urban and two rural South Carolina coastal counties. Results indicated that study participants in rural counties had slightly different perspectives of fishing (e.g. fishing as an essential dietary supplement) than in urban counties where fishing was viewed more as relaxation. Major misperceptions existed in all counties between fish consumption advisories related to pollution versus harvesting restrictions associated with fishing regulations. Providing clear, culturally tailored health messages regarding fish advisories will promote more informed choices about fish consumption that will minimize potential exposures to environmental pollutants.

  16. Fish Protection: Cooperative research advances fish-friendly turbine design

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Richard S.; Ahmann, Martin L.; Trumbo, Bradly A.; Foust, Jason

    2012-12-01

    Renewable hydropower is a tremendous resource within the Pacific Northwest that is managed with considerable cost and consideration for the safe migration of salmon. Recent research conducted in this region has provided results that could lower the impacts of hydro power production and make the technology more fish-friendly. This research is now being applied during a period when a huge emphasis is being made to develop clean, renewable energy sources.

  17. 50 CFR 14.23 - Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... eggs. 14.23 Section 14.23 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Exportation at Designated Ports § 14.23 Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs. Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs meet the definition of “bred in captivity” as stated in 50 CFR 17.3....

  18. 50 CFR 14.23 - Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... eggs. 14.23 Section 14.23 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Exportation at Designated Ports § 14.23 Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs. Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs meet the definition of “bred in captivity” as stated in 50 CFR 17.3....

  19. 50 CFR 14.23 - Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... eggs. 14.23 Section 14.23 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Exportation at Designated Ports § 14.23 Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs. Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs meet the definition of “bred in captivity” as stated in 50 CFR 17.3....

  20. 50 CFR 14.23 - Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... eggs. 14.23 Section 14.23 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Exportation at Designated Ports § 14.23 Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs. Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs meet the definition of “bred in captivity” as stated in 50 CFR 17.3....

  1. Fishing, fish consumption and advisory awareness among Louisiana's recreational fishers.

    PubMed

    Katner, Adrienne; Ogunyinka, Ebenezer; Sun, Mei-Hung; Soileau, Shannon; Lavergne, David; Dugas, Dianne; Suffet, Mel

    2011-11-01

    This paper presents results from the first known population-based survey of recreational fishers in Louisiana (n=1774). The ultimate goal of this study was to obtain data in support of the development of regional advisories for a high exposure population with unique seafood consumption patterns. Between July and August of 2008, a survey was mailed to a random sample of licensed recreational fishers to characterize local fishing habits, sportfish consumption, and advisory awareness. Eighty-eight percent of respondents reported eating sportfish. Respondents ate an estimated mean of four fish meals per month, of which, approximately half were sportfish. Over half of all sportfish meals (54%) were caught in the Gulf of Mexico or bordering brackish areas. Sportfish consumption varied by license and gender; and was highest among Sportsman's Paradise license holders (2.8±0.2 meals per month), and males (2.2±0.1 meals per month). The most frequently consumed sportfish species were red drum, speckled trout, catfish, bass, crappie and bream. Advisory awareness rates varied by gender, ethnicity, geographic area, license type, age and education; and were lowest among women (53%), African-Americans (43%), fishers from the southeast of Louisiana (50%), holders of Senior Hunting and Fishing licenses (51%), individuals between 15 and 19 years of age (41%), and individuals with less than a high school education (43%). Results were used to identify ways to optimize monitoring, advisory development and outreach activities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Assuring fish safety and quality in international fish trade.

    PubMed

    Ababouch, Lahsen

    2006-01-01

    International trade in fishery commodities reached US 58.2 billion dollars in 2002, a 5% improvement relative to 2000 and a 45% increase over 1992 levels. Within this global trade, developing countries registered a net trade surplus of US 17.4 billion dollars in 2002 and accounted for almost 50% by value and 55% of fish exports by volume. This globalization of fish trade, coupled with technological developments in food production, handling, processing and distribution, and the increasing awareness and demand of consumers for safe and high quality food have put food safety and quality assurance high in public awareness and a priority for many governments. Consequently, many countries have tightened food safety controls, imposing additional costs and requirements on imports. As early as 1980, there was an international drive towards adopting preventative HACCP-based safety and quality systems. More recently, there has been a growing awareness of the importance of an integrated, multidisciplinary approach to food safety and quality throughout the entire food chain. Implementation of this approach requires an enabling policy and regulatory environment at national and international levels with clearly defined rules and standards, establishment of appropriate food control systems and programmes at national and local levels, and provision of appropriate training and capacity building. This paper discusses the international framework for fish safety and quality, with particular emphasis on the United Nation's Food and Agricultural Organization's (FAO) strategy to promote international harmonization and capacity building.

  3. How ecology shapes prey fish cognition.

    PubMed

    Beri, S; Patton, B W; Braithwaite, V A

    2014-11-01

    Fish exhibit diverse cognitive capacities: they cooperate, punish, develop cultural traditions, learn to map their environment and communicate their intentions to one another. Skills such as these have helped fish radiate to colonize the many and diverse aquatic niches available. Prey fish are no exception to this, and several recent studies have shown them to be a rich resource for understanding the evolutionary ecology of animal cognition. Many fish have to cope with the threat of predation, but some environments contain more predators than others. These environments deliver the opportunity to investigate how predation pressure shapes fish cognition and behaviour. Here we compared fish from two high and two low predation habitats in their ability to learn a sequential choice spatial task. We also investigated their ability to solve the maze after it was rearranged. Fish from high predation sites made more errors as they learned to navigate the maze than fish from low predation sites. The fish also varied in the cues that they learned to help them solve the task. These did not vary by levels of predation pressure, rather, they differed between rivers, with fish from one river learning to use landmark cues, and those from the other river learning the sequence of left and right turns. As the different populations varied in how well they learned to navigate through a reconfigured maze, it seems likely that predation pressure is not the only factor influencing spatial behavior in these fish.

  4. Fishing down nutrients on coral reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allgeier, Jacob E.; Valdivia, Abel; Cox, Courtney; Layman, Craig A.

    2016-08-01

    Fishing is widely considered a leading cause of biodiversity loss in marine environments, but the potential effect on ecosystem processes, such as nutrient fluxes, is less explored. Here, we test how fishing on Caribbean coral reefs influences biodiversity and ecosystem functions provided by the fish community, that is, fish-mediated nutrient capacity. Specifically, we modelled five processes of nutrient storage (in biomass) and supply (via excretion) of nutrients, as well as a measure of their multifunctionality, onto 143 species of coral reef fishes across 110 coral reef fish communities. These communities span a gradient from extreme fishing pressure to protected areas with little to no fishing. We find that in fished sites fish-mediated nutrient capacity is reduced almost 50%, despite no substantial changes in the number of species. Instead, changes in community size and trophic structure were the primary cause of shifts in ecosystem function. These findings suggest that a broader perspective that incorporates predictable impacts of fishing pressure on ecosystem function is imperative for effective coral reef conservation and management.

  5. Fishing down nutrients on coral reefs

    PubMed Central

    Allgeier, Jacob E.; Valdivia, Abel; Cox, Courtney; Layman, Craig A.

    2016-01-01

    Fishing is widely considered a leading cause of biodiversity loss in marine environments, but the potential effect on ecosystem processes, such as nutrient fluxes, is less explored. Here, we test how fishing on Caribbean coral reefs influences biodiversity and ecosystem functions provided by the fish community, that is, fish-mediated nutrient capacity. Specifically, we modelled five processes of nutrient storage (in biomass) and supply (via excretion) of nutrients, as well as a measure of their multifunctionality, onto 143 species of coral reef fishes across 110 coral reef fish communities. These communities span a gradient from extreme fishing pressure to protected areas with little to no fishing. We find that in fished sites fish-mediated nutrient capacity is reduced almost 50%, despite no substantial changes in the number of species. Instead, changes in community size and trophic structure were the primary cause of shifts in ecosystem function. These findings suggest that a broader perspective that incorporates predictable impacts of fishing pressure on ecosystem function is imperative for effective coral reef conservation and management. PMID:27529748

  6. Fishing down nutrients on coral reefs.

    PubMed

    Allgeier, Jacob E; Valdivia, Abel; Cox, Courtney; Layman, Craig A

    2016-08-16

    Fishing is widely considered a leading cause of biodiversity loss in marine environments, but the potential effect on ecosystem processes, such as nutrient fluxes, is less explored. Here, we test how fishing on Caribbean coral reefs influences biodiversity and ecosystem functions provided by the fish community, that is, fish-mediated nutrient capacity. Specifically, we modelled five processes of nutrient storage (in biomass) and supply (via excretion) of nutrients, as well as a measure of their multifunctionality, onto 143 species of coral reef fishes across 110 coral reef fish communities. These communities span a gradient from extreme fishing pressure to protected areas with little to no fishing. We find that in fished sites fish-mediated nutrient capacity is reduced almost 50%, despite no substantial changes in the number of species. Instead, changes in community size and trophic structure were the primary cause of shifts in ecosystem function. These findings suggest that a broader perspective that incorporates predictable impacts of fishing pressure on ecosystem function is imperative for effective coral reef conservation and management.

  7. Electricity and fishing - a dangerous mix.

    PubMed

    Fodor, Lucian; Bota, Ioan O; Abbas, Yusuf; Fodor, Marius; Ciuce, Constantin

    2011-05-01

    The advent of fishing rods made of carbon fiber and graphite rods has greatly increased the risks of electrical injuries associated with fishing. The braided fishing lines and metal hooks put the fishermen at risk for electrical injuries. We review our burn center's experience with electrical injuries related to fishing activities during the last four years. We retrospectively collected data on patients with electrical burns related to fishing activities between January 2006, when our burns unit was established, and December 2009. Eight patients with electrical burns were admitted during this period of time, five who sustained the injury while fishing, due to contact of the fishing rod with overhead high-voltage cables and three who were injured during illegal fishing, using electricity to stun the fish. The total burn surface area ranged from 0.5% to 70%. Three of the patients sustained fourth degree burns, while the rest had second and third degree burns. One patient underwent scapulohumeral disarticulation and an above-knee amputation. Two patients had fingers and toes amputated. Latissimus dorsi and anterolateral thigh flaps were used to cover the defects in two cases. Local flaps were employed in other two cases to cover the tissue defects. Two patients died. Fishing-related burns and illegal fishing can lead to serious injuries and death. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  8. [Progress in transgenic fish techniques and application].

    PubMed

    Ye, Xing; Tian, Yuan-Yuan; Gao, Feng-Ying

    2011-05-01

    Transgenic technique provides a new way for fish breeding. Stable lines of growth hormone gene transfer carps, salmon and tilapia, as well as fluorescence protein gene transfer zebra fish and white cloud mountain minnow have been produced. The fast growth characteristic of GH gene transgenic fish will be of great importance to promote aquaculture production and economic efficiency. This paper summarized the progress in transgenic fish research and ecological assessments. Microinjection is still the most common used method, but often resulted in multi-site and multi-copies integration. Co-injection of transposon or meganuclease will greatly improve the efficiency of gene transfer and integration. "All fish" gene or "auto gene" should be considered to produce transgenic fish in order to eliminate misgiving on food safety and to benefit expression of the transferred gene. Environmental risk is the biggest obstacle for transgenic fish to be commercially applied. Data indicates that transgenic fish have inferior fitness compared with the traditional domestic fish. However, be-cause of the genotype-by-environment effects, it is difficult to extrapolate simple phenotypes to the complex ecological interactions that occur in nature based on the ecological consequences of the transgenic fish determined in the laboratory. It is critical to establish highly naturalized environments for acquiring reliable data that can be used to evaluate the environ-mental risk. Efficacious physical and biological containment strategies remain to be crucial approaches to ensure the safe application of transgenic fish technology.

  9. Functional aspects of emotions in fish.

    PubMed

    Kittilsen, Silje

    2013-11-01

    There is an ongoing scientific discussion on whether fish have emotions, and if so how they experience them? The discussion has incorporated important areas such as brain anatomy and function, physiological and behavioural responses, and the cognitive abilities that fish possess. Little attention has however, been directed towards what functional aspects emotions ought to have in fish. If fish have emotions - why? The elucidation of this question and an assessment of the scientific evidences of emotions in fish in an evolutionary and functional framework would represent a valuable contribution in the discussion on whether fish are emotional creatures. Here parts of the vast amount of literature from both biology and psychology relating to the scientific field of emotions, animal emotion, and the functional aspects that emotions fulfil in the lives of humans and animals are reviewed. Subsequently, by viewing fish behaviour, physiology and cognitive abilities in the light of this functional framework it is possible to infer what functions emotions may serve in fish. This approach may contribute to the vital running discussion on the subject of emotions in fish. In fact, if it can be substantiated that emotions are likely to serve a function in fish similar to that of other higher vertebrate species, the notion that fish do have emotions will be strengthened.

  10. Enhanced schooling performance in lateralized fishes

    PubMed Central

    Bisazza, Angelo; Dadda, Marco

    2005-01-01

    The occurrence of functional left–right cerebral asymmetries has been documented in a wide range of animals, suggesting that the lateralization of cognitive functions enjoys some kind of selective advantage over the bilateral control of the same functions. Here, we compared schooling performance of fishes with high or low degree of lateralization, which were obtained through selective breeding. Schools of lateralized fishes moving in a novel environment showed significantly more cohesion and coordination than schools of non-lateralized (NL) fishes. Pairs of fishes lateralized in opposite directions were as efficient as pairs of same laterality, suggesting that the performance of lateralized fishes derives from a computational advantage rather than being the consequence of a behavioural similarity among schoolmates. In schools composed of both lateralized and NL fishes, the latter were more often at the periphery of the school while lateralized fishes occupied the core, a position normally safer and energetically less expensive. PMID:16087422

  11. Thermal effects on fish ecology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coutant, Charles C.

    1976-01-01

    Of all the environmental factors that influence aquatic organisms, temperature is the most all-pervasive. There is always an environmental temperature while other factors may or may not be present to exert their effects. Fish are, for all practical purposes, thermal conformers, or obligate poikilotherms. That is, they are able to exert little significant influence on maintaining a certain body temperature by specialized metabolic or behavioral means. Their body temperature thus fluctuates nearly in concert with the temperature of their aquatic medium (although particularly large, actively-moving fish such as tuna have deep muscle temperatures slightly higher than the water). Intimate contact at the gills of body fluids with the outside water and the high specific heat of water provide a very efficient heat exchanger that insures this near identity of internal and external temperatures.

  12. 75 FR 22731 - Implementation of Fish and Fish Product Import Provisions of the Marine Mammal Protection Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ...-AY15 Implementation of Fish and Fish Product Import Provisions of the Marine Mammal Protection Act... of the Marine Mammal Protection Act for imports of fish and fish products. NMFS is seeking advance... prohibition of imports of some fish or fish products. Possible Standards for Evaluating Marine Mammal Bycatch...

  13. Fish and Wildlife Mitigation Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-07-01

    Sacramento River Bank Protection Project 3 Environmental Impact of Construction of the First Phase 6 Determination of Mitigation Needs 7 Analysis 8...be acquired for habitat restoration for fish and wildlife purposes to offset the impact of construction of the First Phase of the Sacramento River...set forth, along with other data necessary for project authorization, in a report submitted to the Congress by the construction agency. Construction

  14. Fish populations surviving estrogen pollution.

    PubMed

    Wedekind, Claus

    2014-02-10

    Among the most common pollutants that enter the environment after passing municipal wastewater treatment are estrogens, especially the synthetic 17α-ethinylestradiol that is used in oral contraceptives. Estrogens are potent endocrine disruptors at concentrations frequently observed in surface waters. However, new genetic analyses suggest that some fish populations can be self-sustaining even in heavily polluted waters. We now need to understand the basis of this tolerance.

  15. Bahamian whitings - no fish story

    SciTech Connect

    Shinn, E.A.; Steinen, R.P.; Lidz, B.H.; Halley, R.B.

    1985-02-01

    Bahamian whitings, controversial patches of drifting mud-laden water, have been thought to be produced by fish. Observations over several 7-day periods show that whitings are long-lived phenomena (days and possibly weeks) and that the dozens which exist at any time on the Great Bahama Bank continually rain aragonitic sediment. Although chemical changes consistent with precipitation have not been detected in seawater near or within whitings, new data indirectly suggest that precipitation from seawater causes whitings. Lime mud settled in approximately 6 hr in large (30 gal) containers of water taken from whitings, whereas in the sea, the parent whitings persisted for days. Sediment traps verified continual transport of sediment. Divers noted no fish stirring up the bottom nor any evidence of bottom feeding. Side-scan sonar failed to detect unusually large schools of fish, and a shrimper's net dragged in the whitings failed to catch any fish known to be bottom feeders. Dragging the net in clear water near active whitings created artificial whitings that settled back to the bottom in a few hours. Current measurements within and outside of whitings ruled out current eddies. Near the edge of the Bahama platform, whitings occur over bottom sediments too coarse-grained to be stirred into suspension, yet the muddy bottom of the banks was miles away. These data suggest that natural whitings must be continually replenished with sediment. Filtration of known volumes of water from 15 whitings and from clear seawater indicates that active-whiting water contains only a very small (10-12 mg/L) amount of suspended carbonate sediment, yet whitings are considered a potential major source of lime mud on the Great Bahama Bank. Inasmuch as nearly one-half the world's oil is pumped from limestone, knowledge of the origin and deposition of lime mud has implications for hydrocarbon exploration.

  16. Synchronized Swimming of Two Fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koumoutsakos, Petros; Novati, Guido; Abbati, Gabriele; Hejazialhosseini, Babak; van Rees, Wim

    2015-11-01

    We present simulations of two, self-propelled, fish-like swimmers that perform synchronized moves in a two-dimensional, viscous fluid. The swimmers learn to coordinate by receiving a reward for their synchronized actions. We analyze the swimming patterns emerging for different rewards in terms of their hydrodynamic efficiency and artistic impression. European Research Council (ERC) Advanced Investigator Award (No. 2-73985-14).

  17. School's Out-Gone Fishing!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancaster, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Can you solve the following Problem? There are 200 fish in an aquarium, and 99 percent of them are guppies. How many guppies must be removed to reduce the tank's guppy population to 98 percent? The key to this problem is to work backward by using the data given in figure 2 to determine the surface area of the top of the aquarium; then determine…

  18. School's Out-Gone Fishing!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancaster, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Can you solve the following Problem? There are 200 fish in an aquarium, and 99 percent of them are guppies. How many guppies must be removed to reduce the tank's guppy population to 98 percent? The key to this problem is to work backward by using the data given in figure 2 to determine the surface area of the top of the aquarium; then determine…

  19. Fishes of the Adirondack Park

    SciTech Connect

    George, C.J.

    1980-01-01

    This review of the ichthyology of the area of the Adirondack Park contained within the blue line centers on biological surveys of the six major watersheds of the study area done in 1930-1935. The total area of 9261 square miles contains 2000-3000 water bodies. The ichthyofauna consists of 96 forms, including four kinds of hybrids commonly produced and used in stock programs; of the remaining 92 forms, 23 may be classified as Boreal or peri-glacial. The Atlantian group consists of 20 species and the Mississippian and adjacent Pleistocene refugia have provided about 45 members of the fauna. Two of the fauna are the rainbow and steelhead trout and the Kokanee salmon, introduced from the west coast; three species are from the old world. Spraying for insect control, introduction of exotic plant species, and acid precipitation have all measurably impacted fish populations in recent years, often in complex and synergistic ways. For example, a decline of fish populations in Big Moose Lake is probably the complex result of present and past lumbering, fishing, stocking, forest fires and hurricane damage, as well as acid precipitation. As the system diversifies, many populations of Boreal forms are being lost, and new forms of Atlantian and Mississippian heritage are being established. 253 references, 7 tables.

  20. Thyroid hormone deiodination in fish.

    PubMed

    Orozco, Aurea; Valverde-R, Carlos

    2005-08-01

    We review the experimental evidence accumulated within the past decade regarding the physiologic, biochemical, and molecular characterization of iodothyronine deiodinases (IDs) in piscine species. Agnathans, chondrichthyes, and teleosts express the three isotypes of IDs: ID1, ID2, and ID3, which are responsible for the peripheral fine-tuning of thyroid hormone (TH) bioactivity. At the molecular and operational level, fish IDs share properties with their corresponding vertebrate counterparts. However, fish IDs also exhibit discrete features that seem to be distinctive for piscine species. Indeed, teleostean ID1 is conspicuously resistant to propylthiouracil (PTU) inhibition, and its response to thyroidal status differs from that exhibited by other ID1s. Moreover, both the high level of ID2 activity and its expression in the liver of teleosts are unique among vertebrates. The physiologic role of iodothyronine deiodination in functions regulated by TH in fish is not entirely clear. Nevertheless, current experimental evidence suggests that IDs may coordinate and facilitate, in a tissue-specific fashion, the action of iodothyronines and other hormones involved in such processes.