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Sample records for fish total diet

  1. Partial and total fish meal replacement by agricultural products in the diets improve sperm quality in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus).

    PubMed

    Nyina-Wamwiza, L; Milla, S; Pierrard, M-A; Rurangwa, E; Mandiki, S N M; Van Look, K J W; Kestemont, P

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the long-term effects of total and partial replacement of dietary fish meal (FM) by a mixture of agricultural products on sperm quality of African catfish Clarias gariepinus. Four isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated containing graded levels of either 50% FM and maize meal (diet 1); 25% FM mixed with crude sunflower oil cake (SFOC) and bean meal (BM) (diet 2); 12.5% FM mixed with sunflower oil cake, BM and ground nut oil cake (GOC) (diet 3) and 0% FM mixed with de-hulled sunflower oil cake (SFOCD), BM and ground nut oil cake (diet 4). Gonadosomatic index (GSI), sperm quality, plasma sex steroids (11-keto testosterone [11-KT]; testosterone [T]; estradiol-17beta [E2]) were evaluated on 10 to 24 fish fed on each diet. Sperm quality was assessed using computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA). Total replacement of fish meal by plant products markedly increased sperm volume, spermatocrit, spermatozoa integrity, and sperm motility. Fish fed diet 3 (12.5% fish meal) provided intermediate results on sperm quality whereas the lowest values were obtained in fish fed diets 1 and 2. In fish fed 0% fish meal (diet 4), androgen levels were higher and estrogen levels were lower than in fish fed fish meal diets. Based on dietary lipid and fatty acid analyses, these results suggest a positive impact of short chain n-6 fatty acids on androgen synthesis and sperm quality. In conclusion, a combination of ground nut oil cake, bean meal and sunflower oil cake (preferably when the sunflower is dehulled) in African catfish diet improves the sperm quality.

  2. Analysis of veterinary drug residues in fish and shrimp composites collected during the Canadian Total Diet Study, 1993-2004.

    PubMed

    Tittlemier, S A; Van de Riet, J; Burns, G; Potter, R; Murphy, C; Rourke, W; Pearce, H; Cao, X L; Dabekai, R W; Dufresne, G

    2007-01-01

    Thirty shrimp, marine fish, freshwater fish, and canned fish composite samples collected and prepared as part of the Canadian Total Diet Study were analysed for 39 different veterinary drug residues. The analyses were undertaken to obtain baseline data that could be used to estimate the dietary exposure of Canadians to these residues. The most frequently observed residue was AOZ (four out of 30 samples), the metabolite of furazolidone, at a range of 0.50 to 2.0 ng g(-1) wet weight. Other residues detected included enrofloxacin (three samples; 0.3-0.73 ng g(-1)), leucomalachite green (three samples; 0.73-1.2 ng g(-1)), oxolinic acid (two samples; 0.3-4.3 ng g(-1)), AMOZ (the metabolite of furaltadone; one sample; 0.40 ng g(-1)), chloramphenicol (one sample; 0.40 ng g(-1)), and SEM (the metabolite of nitrofurazone; one sample; 0.8 ng g(-1)). The results of this survey indicate that Canadians are exposed to low ng g-1 concentrations of some banned and unapproved veterinary drug residues via the consumption of certain fish and shrimp.

  3. Total substitution of fish oil by vegetable oils in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) diets: effects on hepatic Mx expression and some immune parameters.

    PubMed

    Montero, D; Grasso, V; Izquierdo, M S; Ganga, R; Real, F; Tort, L; Caballero, M J; Acosta, F

    2008-02-01

    The use of vegetable oils in fish nutrition has been extensively studied; and recent work has focused attention on replacing fish oil with alternative fatty acid sources and their effect on the immune system. However, little is known about the effect of these oils on immune parameters such as the fish interferon system. In this study we evaluate the effect of two vegetable oils (linseed and soybean) on gilthead sea bream Mx expression and other innate immune parameters. Experimental diets were formulated where fish oil was totally replaced by vegetable oils or for a mixture of them (50% linseed and 50% soybean). Another diet prepared with pure fish oil was used as a control. Two experiments were carried out in order to evaluate growth, feed utilization, serum alternative complement pathway activity, serum lysozyme and phagocytic activity of head kidney leucocytes as well as Mx expression in the liver. In the first experiment fish were fed with experimental diets for 6 months and then, growth and feed utilization as well as immune parameters were analyzed. In the second experiment, fish from the previous feeding trial were injected with either a sub-lethal dose of Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida (94/99) or a synthetic dsRNA (Poly I:C) in order to stimulate an Mx response. The results show that total substitution of fish oil by vegetable oils decreased the growth of gilthead sea bream juveniles. Furthermore, both phagocytic activity and serum alternative complement pathway activity were significantly reduced by the inclusion of either vegetable oil individually in the sea bream diets, but the diet with mixed vegetable oils had no significant effect. There was no effect on serum lysozyme levels but the basal constitutive levels of Mx transcript expression in the liver were elevated in the fish fed the vegetable oil diets. The time-course of the Mx response to injection of Poly I:C was shorter in the fish fed the fish oil diet and the fish fed the diet based

  4. Immunostimulants in fish diets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gannam, A.L.; Schrock, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    Various immunostimulants and their methods of application in fish culture are examined in this review. Important variables such as life stage and innate disease resistance of the fish; immunostimulant used, its structure and mode of action; and the fish's environment are discussed. Conflicting results have been published about the efficacy of immunostimulants in fish diets. Some researchers have had positive responses demonstrated as increased fish survival, others have not. Generally, immunostimulants enhance individual components of the non-specific immune response but that does not always translate into increased fish survival. In addition, immunostimulants fed at too high a dose or for too long can be immunosuppressive. [Article copies available for a fee from The Haworth Document Delivery Service: 1-800-342-9678. E-mail address: getinfo@haworthpressinc.com ].

  5. Diet, atherosclerosis, and fish oil.

    PubMed

    Connor, W E; Connor, S L

    1990-01-01

    The principal goal of dietary prevention and treatment of atherosclerotic coronary heart disease is the achievement of physiological levels of the plasma total and LDL cholesterol, triglyceride, and VLDL. These goals have been well delineated by the National Cholesterol Education Program of the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute and the American Heart Association. Dietary treatment is first accomplished by enhancing LDL receptor activity and at the same time depressing liver synthesis of cholesterol and triglyceride. Both dietary cholesterol and saturated fat decrease LDL receptor activity and inhibit the removal of LDL from the plasma by the liver. Saturated fat decreases LDL receptor activity, especially when cholesterol is concurrently present in the diet. The total amount of dietary fat is of importance also. The greater the flux of chylomicron remnants is into the liver, the greater is the influx of cholesterol ester. In addition, factors that affect VLDL and LDL synthesis could be important. These include excessive calories (obesity), which enhance triglyceride and VLDL and hence LDL synthesis. Weight loss and omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil depress synthesis of both VLDL and triglyceride in the liver. The optimal diet for the treatment of children and adults to prevent coronary disease has the following characteristics: cholesterol (100 mg/day), total fat (20% of calories, 6% saturated with the balance from omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fat), carbohydrate (65% of calories, two thirds from starch including 11 to 15 gm of soluble fiber), and protein (15% of calories). This low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet can lower the plasma cholesterol 18% to 21%. This diet is also an antithrombotic diet, thrombosis being another major consideration in preventing coronary heart disease. Dietary therapy is the mainstay of the prevention and treatment of coronary heart disease through the control of plasma lipid and lipoprotein levels. The

  6. Effects of partial or total fish meal replacement by agricultural by-product diets on gonad maturation, sex steroids and vitellogenin dynamics of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus).

    PubMed

    Nyina-wamwiza, L; Defreyne, P S; Ngendahayo, L; Milla, S; Mandiki, S N M; Kestemont, P

    2012-10-01

    The establishment of the first sexual maturation was characterized in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in order to study the efficiency of replacement of fish meal (FM) by diets composed of local vegetable ingredients. Four diets were formulated containing decreasing levels of FM (50-0% for diet 1 to diet 4) and increasing proportions of vegetable ingredients (50-100%). Gonadosomatic index (GSI), diameter and percentages of developmental stages of oocytes, plasma sex steroids and vitellogenin dynamics were investigated from February to June using one-year-old fish. Fish were individually tagged, and 12 individuals from each diet were investigated monthly. Replacement of FM with plant ingredients did not affect the GSI neither in males, nor in females. All males were spermiating, and no abnormal gonads were found. In females, GSI and percentages of advanced stages of oocytes decreased during the dry season, indicating seasonal changes in gonad development. Moreover, oocytes were in late exogenous vitellogenesis, but no final maturation stages were observed, whatever the diet. Higher plasma levels of E2 in females and of androgens (T and 11-KT) in both sexes were observed in fish fed diet 4 than in those receiving diet 1 depending on the season. Levels of plasma E2 and ALP (indicator for vitellogenin) in males did not differ among treatments and seasons suggesting no phytoestrogenic activity. The results showed that total replacement of FM by vegetable diets composed of groundnut oilcakes, bean and sunflower meals has no deleterious effect on the onset of sexual maturation in African catfish but, may stimulate the sex steroid production and in turns may potentially exert some positive actions on reproductive success.

  7. Total substitution of fish oil by vegetable oils in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) diets: effects on fish performance, biochemical composition, and expression of some glucocorticoid receptor-related genes.

    PubMed

    Benítez-Dorta, Vanessa; Caballero, María J; Izquierdo, Marisol; Manchado, Manuel; Infante, Carlos; Zamorano, María J; Montero, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    To study the substitution of fish oil by vegetable oils in fish diets, juveniles Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) were fed diets (56 % crude protein, 12 % crude lipid) containing either linseed (100LO) or soybean (100SO) oils in comparison with a 100 % fish oil-based diet (100FO) for 90 days. Samples of muscle, liver, and intestine were collected for biochemical analysis and for glucocorticoid receptor-related genes, including GR1 and GR2, and the associated heat shock proteins HSP70, HSP90AA, and HSP90AB. Besides, basal levels of plasma cortisol were also determined. After the feeding period, a stress test, consisting on 5 min of net chasing, was applied to a selected population of each dietary group. Total replacement of fish oil by vegetable oils did not induced changes in fish growth and performance, but affected fatty acid profile of muscle, liver, and intestine, reflecting those tissues the characteristic fatty acids of each type of dietary oil. A tendency to conserve the ARA/EPA ratio could be observed in the different tissues, despite of the level of these fatty acids in diet. Chasing stress induced an increase of muscle GR1 and a reduction in intestinal GR2 relative expressions at any of the experimental diets assayed. In liver, chasing stress induced an increase in both GR1 and GR2 gene expression in fish fed fish oil diets. Similarly, chasing stress induced an increase of muscle HSP70 and decrease of HSP90AB in liver at any of the experimental diet assayed. Besides, vegetable oils decreased the expression of HSP70 in intestine, being the relative expression of liver HSP90AA increased by the inclusion of linseed oil in the diet, at any of the experimental conditions assayed.

  8. Fish oils and human diet.

    PubMed

    Sargent, J R

    1997-07-01

    Trends in global fish catches are described together with fish landings and fish consumption in the UK. The importance of n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids as essential constituents of human diets is considered and the role of oily fish as a dietary source of the long-chain n-3 polyunsaturates, docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, is emphasized. The origin of n-3 polyunsaturates in, the marine phytoplankton and their transmission via zooplankton to fish is described as a means of understanding the composition of different fish body oils. The ease with which the fatty acid composition of fish body oils can be manipulated by altering the fatty acid composition of their feeds is emphasized and the dietary requirements of marine and freshwater fish for n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturates considered. Farming fish on diets containing principally fish meal and fish oil, as used in salmon production in Scotland, generates a high quality product with levels of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturates equalling or exceeding those of wild fish. Farming fish on high quality marine oils rich in docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids is an efficient means of delivering these essential nutrients in human diets and also efficiently exploiting a strictly limited marine bioresource.

  9. Evaluation of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae meal as partial or total replacement of marine fish meal in practical diets for Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) meal, produced from the larvae of Hermetia illucens, has shown promise as a fish meal (FM) replacement in diets for rainbow trout, catfish and tilapia, but has not been examined as an alternative protein source in shrimp diets. Six isonitrogenous (35% crude protein, a...

  10. Evaluation of plant and animal protein sources as partial or total replacement of fish meal in diets for juvenile Nile tilapia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A feeding trial was conducted in a closed system with Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) juveniles (mean weight, 2.84 g) to examine the effects of total replacement of fish meal (FM), with and without supplementation of DL-methionine (Met) and L-lysine (Lys), by plant protein sources. Fish were f...

  11. Inclusion of fish or fish oil in weight-loss diets for young adults: effects on blood lipids.

    PubMed

    Gunnarsdottir, I; Tomasson, H; Kiely, M; Martinéz, J A; Bandarra, N M; Morais, M G; Thorsdottir, I

    2008-07-01

    To assess the effects of fish (lean or oily) and fish oil consumption on blood lipid concentration during weight loss. Randomized, controlled 8-week trial of energy-restricted diet varying in fish and fish oil content. Subjects, 324 men and women, aged 20-40 years, body mass index 27.5-32.5 kg m(-2), from Iceland, Spain and Ireland, were randomized to one of four groups: (1) control (sunflower oil capsules, no seafood), (2) cod diet (3 x 150 g week(-1)), (3) salmon diet (3 x 150 g week(-1)), (4) fish oil (DHA/EPA capsules, no seafood). The macronutrient composition of the diets was similar between the groups and the capsule groups were single-blinded. Total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triacylglycerol (TG) and anthropometrics were measured at baseline and end point. The difference in logTG lowering between the control group and the cod diet, salmon diet and fish oil from baseline to end point was -0.036 (95% CI -0.079 to 0.006), -0.060 (-0.101 to -0.018) and -0.037 (-0.079 to 0.006), respectively. Reduction in TC was about 0.2 mmol l(-1) greater in the fish groups (cod and salmon) than in the control group, but only of borderline significance when adjusting for weight loss. HDL tended to decrease less in the diet groups consuming a significant amount of n-3 fatty acids (salmon and fish oil). Weight-loss diet including oily fish resulted in greater TG reduction than did a diet without fish or fish oil. Controlled trials using whole fish as a test meal are encouraged to be able to elucidate the role of different constituents of fish for human health.

  12. The response of fish to immunostimulant diets.

    PubMed

    Vallejos-Vidal, Eva; Reyes-López, Felipe; Teles, Mariana; MacKenzie, Simon

    2016-09-01

    In order to maintain fish health and to improve performance immunostimulants have been used as dietary additives to improve weight gain, feed efficiency, and/or disease resistance in cultured fish. In aquaculture, non-specific immunostimulants have been widely used probably due to the limited knowledge of the immune response in fish and the ease of their application. Many studies have been carried out to assess the effect of dietary immunostimulants in fish including algal derivatives, herb and plant extract containing diets using a wide range of downstream analytical techniques. Many immunostimulants are based upon tradition and folklore transferred through generations and specific to certain geographical regions rather than known biological properties. However, there are studies in which it is possible to observe a clear and direct dose-dependent stimulatory effect upon the immune system. Other dietary supplements used contain PAMPs (Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns) as immunostimulants whose recognition depends upon PRR (pathogen recognition receptor) interactions including the TLRs (Toll-like receptor). Despite the growing interest in the use of immunostimulants across the aquaculture industry the underlying mechanisms of ligand recognition, extract composition and activation of the fish immune response remains fragmented. In this review we focus upon the last 15 years of studies addressing the assessment of: (1) plant, herb and algae extracts; and (2) PAMPs, upon non-specific immune parameters of activation and immunostimulant diet efficacy.

  13. Genotype by diet interactions in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.): Nutritional challenge with totally plant-based diets.

    PubMed

    Le Boucher, R; Vandeputte, M; Dupont-Nivet, M; Quillet, E; Ruelle, F; Vergnet, A; Kaushik, S; Allamellou, J M; Médale, F; Chatain, B

    2013-01-01

    Aquaculture of carnivorous species has strongly relied on fish meal and fish oil for feed formulation; however, greater replacement by terrestrial plant-based products is occurring now. This rapid change in dietary environment has been a major revolution and has to be taken into consideration in breeding programs. The present study analyzes potential consequences of this nutritional tendency for selective breeding by estimating genetic parameters of BW and growth rates estimated by the thermal growth coefficient (TGC) over different periods with extremely different diets. European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) from a factorial cross (1,526 fish) between 25 sires and 9 dams were used to estimate heritabilities and genotype by diet interaction. Starting 87 d after fertilization (2.5 g), one-half of the sea bass were fed a diet containing marine products (M), and the other one-half were fed a totally plant-based (PB) diet (without any fish meal or fish oil). The fish were individually tagged, reared in a recirculated system, and genotyped at 13 microsatellites to rebuild parentage of individuals. Body weight and TGC were measured for 335 d until fish fed the M diet reached 108.3 g of BW. These traits were significantly less in fish fed the PB diet (P<0.05) in the very first stages after the dietary shift, but the difference in TGC between diets rapidly disappeared (P>0.1). Survival was significantly less in fish fed the PB diet (PB=64.7%, M=93.7% after 418 d, P<0.05). This work identified moderate heritabilities (0.18 to 0.46) for BW with both diets and high genetic correlations between diets (0.78 to 0.93), meaning low genotype by diet interactions, although diets were extremely different. Heritabilities of TGC (0.11 to 0.3) were less than for BW as well as genetic correlations between diets (0.43 to 0.64). Using such extremely different diets, predicted BW gains in different scenarios indicated that selecting fish for growth on a marine diet should be the most

  14. [Renal patient's diet: Can fish be included?].

    PubMed

    Castro González, M I; Maafs Rodríguez, A G; Galindo Gómez, C

    2012-01-01

    Medical and nutritional treatment for renal disease, now a major public health issue, is highly complicated. Nutritional therapy must seek to retard renal dysfunction, maintain an optimal nutritional status and prevent the development of underlying pathologies. To analyze ten fish species to identify those that, because of their low phosphorus content, high biological value protein and elevated n-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA, could be included in renal patient's diet. The following fish species (Litte tunny, Red drum, Spotted eagleray, Escolar, Swordfish, Big-scale pomfret, Cortez flounder, Largemouth blackbass, Periche mojarra, Florida Pompano) were analyzed according to the AOAC and Keller techniques to determine their protein, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, cholesterol, vitamins D(3) and E, and n-3 EPA+DHA content. These results were used to calculate relations between nutrients. The protein in the analyzed species ranged from 16.5 g/100 g of fillet (Largemouth black bass) to 27.2 g/100 g (Red drum); the lowest phosphorus value was 28.6 mg/100 g (Periche mojarra) and the highest 216.3 mg/100 g (Spotted eagle ray). 80% of the fish presented > 100 mg EPA + DHA in 100 g of fillet. By its Phosphorus/gProtein ratio, Escolar and Swordfish could not be included in the renal diet; Little tunny, Escolar, Big-scale pomfret, Largemouth black-bass, Periche mojarra and Florida Pompano presented a lower Phosphorus/EPA + DHA ratio. Florida pompano is the most recommended specie for renal patients, due to its optimal nutrient relations. However, all analyzed species, except Escolar and Swordfish, could be included in renal diets.

  15. An oily fish diet increases insulin sensitivity compared to a red meat diet in young iron-deficient women.

    PubMed

    Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Pérez-Granados, Ana M; Schoppen, Stefanie; Vaquero, M Pilar

    2009-08-01

    Beneficial effects of n-3 fatty acids on a variety of physiological functions have been reported, but information related to the effects of oily fish consumed within a varied diet on glucose metabolism and diabetes risk is scarce. The objective of the study was to compare the effects of a diet rich in oily fish to those of a diet rich in red meat on lipid profile, oxidative status, glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in young, iron-deficient women. The study was designed attending the CONSORT statement guidelines. It was a randomised crossover dietary intervention study with two 8-week periods. Two diets were designed differing only in their oily fish or red meat content (four portions per week). Twenty-five young iron-deficient women with normal lipid, glucose and insulin levels participated in the assay. Lipid profile (total, LDL- and HDL-cholesterol, TAG), fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and oxidation (lipoperoxides) and inflammation (soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1) biomarkers were analysed. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) and Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index (QUICKI). Insulin levels significantly decreased and insulin sensitivity significantly increased with the oily fish diet. HDL-cholesterol significantly increased with the oily fish diet. Other parameters did not significantly differ between diets. An increase in oily fish consumption increases insulin sensitivity in young iron-deficient women. This outcome should be considered when giving dietary advice to this population.

  16. Otolith Length-Fish Length Relationships of Eleven US Arctic Fish Species and Their Application to Ice Seal Diet Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, K. L.; Norcross, B.

    2016-02-01

    The Arctic ecosystem has moved into the spotlight of scientific research in recent years due to increased climate change and oil and gas exploration. Arctic fishes and Arctic marine mammals represent key parts of this ecosystem, with fish being a common part of ice seal diets in the Arctic. Determining sizes of fish consumed by ice seals is difficult because otoliths are often the only part left of the fish after digestion. Otolith length is known to be positively related to fish length. By developing species-specific otolith-body morphometric relationships for Arctic marine fishes, fish length can be determined for fish prey found in seal stomachs. Fish were collected during ice free months in the Beaufort and Chukchi seas 2009 - 2014, and the most prevalent species captured were chosen for analysis. Otoliths from eleven fish species from seven families were measured. All species had strong linear relationships between otolith length and fish total length. Nine species had coefficient of determination values over 0.75, indicating that most of the variability in the otolith to fish length relationship was explained by the linear regression. These relationships will be applied to otoliths found in stomachs of three species of ice seals (spotted Phoca largha, ringed Pusa hispida, and bearded Erignathus barbatus) and used to estimate fish total length at time of consumption. Fish lengths can in turn be used to calculate fish weight, enabling further investigation into ice seal energetic demands. This application will aid in understanding how ice seals interact with fish communities in the US Arctic and directly contribute to diet comparisons among and within ice seal species. A better understanding of predator-prey interactions in the US Arctic will aid in predicting how ice seal and fish species will adapt to a changing Arctic.

  17. The effect of diets supplemented with fish broth and fish oil on the health of weaners.

    PubMed

    Bakuła, T; Lis, Ł; Iwaniuk, Z; Ordyński, Z

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of fish-based feed materials, as a source of readily available protein contained in fish broth and essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) found in fish oil, on the health of piglets and rearing results. The experiment was conducted on a commercial pig fattening farm. The study involved a total of 80 weaners with an approximate body weight of 15 kg. The experiment was carried out over a period of 40 days. Feed samples were subjected to laboratory analyses. Blood samples were collected from experimental group animals to determine serum biochemical and immunological parameters. The body weight gains of weaners, mortality rates and average feed intake per animal were calculated for the entire experimental period. The addition of fish broth and fish oil significantly improved the n3:n6 fatty acid ratio in diets. The presence of EPA and DHA in the experimental diet could have had a positive health effect on piglets, comparable with that exerted by therapeutic doses of zinc often administered to pigs of this age group. During the experiment, feed conversion ratio (FCR) gain was considerably reduced in the experimental group, with similar daily gains in the control and experimental group.

  18. Feed of Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens, (Regan, 1910) in open pond: live and formulated diets.

    PubMed

    Sipaúba-Tavares, L H; Appoloni, A M; Fernandes, J B K; Millan, R N

    2016-06-01

    The growth rate and percent survival of Betta splendens when submitted to formulated diet and live food treatments are evaluated. The three different diets were used and designated as: formulated diet (basal diet); live food diet (plankton) and mixed diet (formulated diet with plankton). The live food diet contained plankton belonging to an open pond. High mortality was reported with live food (plankton) treatment whereas higher percent survival occurred with formulated diet. Highest specific growth rate, weight gain and final weight were reported in the mixed diet treatment and were significantly different (p<0.01) from those in formulated diet and live food treatments. The gut contents of B. splendens in mixed diet and live food treatments comprised, Rotifera and Bacillariophyceae species in high percentages or rather, over 78% of total organisms. Lecane sp. was the most ingested zooplankton species by B. splendens in both treatments (mixed diet and live food), with the phytoplankton species Asterionella sp. and Melosira sp. respectively in mixed diet and in live food, respectively. Results indicated that the formulated diet influenced the water parameters dissolved oxygen, total suspended solids, total dissolved solids and pH. The live food in the open pond was not enough to improve the growth rate and percent survival of B. splendens. The growth performance of B. splendens; had the best results with mixed diet which was capable of maintaining species's survival (82%) and development in artificial conditions, benefiting the culture management of ornamental fish.

  19. Totally vegetarian diets and infant nutrition.

    PubMed

    Shinwell, E D; Gorodischer, R

    1982-10-01

    Observations on the deleterious effects of a totally vegetarian diet in infancy are reported and the difficulties encountered in the prevention of nutritional deficiencies in a vegan religious community are discussed. Twenty-five infants of this community who were seen at the hospital showed evidence of protein-calorie malnutrition, iron- and vitamin B12-deficient anemia, rickets, zinc deficiency, and multiple recurrent infections. Evidence of growth retardation was also found in 47 infants seen at the local mother-child health (well-baby) clinic. Samples of breast milk showed low levels of carbohydrate (1.6 to 3.5 gm/100 ml), protein (0.8 to 1.4 gm/100 ml), and fat (2.4 to 4.1 gm/100 ml). The main constituent of the infants' diet after the age of 3 months (a "soya milk" prepared at the community's central kitchen) was extremely dilute with a very low calorific value (13.7 kcal/100 ml). Persistent attempts to find dietary modifications that would satisfy both the vegan philosophy and also the recommended dietary allowances failed. This problem represents a scientific and medicosocial challenge to pediatricians and nutritionists.

  20. Fish oil diet may reduce inflammatory levels in the liver of middle-aged rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Yingqiu; Zhao, Fan; Wu, Qiayu; Li, Mengjie; Zhu, Yingying; Song, Shangxin; Zhu, Jing; Ma, Yafang; Li, He; Shi, Xuebin; Xu, Xinglian; Zhou, Guanghong; Li, Chunbao

    2017-07-24

    The impact of dietary soybean oil, lard and fish oil on physiological responses in middle age is little studied. In this study, we investigated the changes of oxidative stress, inflammatory cytokines, telomere length, and age-related gene expression in the liver of middle-aged rats in response to the above three fat diets. Male Sprague Dawley rats (12 months old) were fed AIN-93M diets for 3 months, in which soybean oil was equivalently replaced by lard or fish oil. As compared to the lard diet, intake of fish oil diet significantly decreased body weight gain, white blood cell count, and levels of hepatic triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, fat accumulation, low-density lipoprotein, oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines (P < 0.05), but increased telomere length (P < 0.05). On the other hand, lard diet and soybean oil diet showed great similarity in the above variables. PCR array analysis further indicated that fish oil diet significantly down-regulated gene expression related to inflammatory response, apoptosis, DNA binding, proteostasis and telomere attrition. Differentially expressed genes were enriched in the complement and coagulation cascades pathways. Such physiological and molecular responses could be due to different fatty acid composition in fish oil, lard and soybean oil.

  1. Randomized trial of weight-loss-diets for young adults varying in fish and fish oil content.

    PubMed

    Thorsdottir, I; Tomasson, H; Gunnarsdottir, I; Gisladottir, E; Kiely, M; Parra, M D; Bandarra, N M; Schaafsma, G; Martinéz, J A

    2007-10-01

    To investigate the effect of including seafood and fish oils, as part of an energy-restricted diet, on weight loss in young overweight adults. Randomized controlled trial of energy-restricted diet varying in fish and fish oil content was followed for 8 weeks. Subjects were randomized to one of four groups: (1) control (sunflower oil capsules, no seafood); (2) lean fish (3 x 150 g portions of cod/week); (3) fatty fish (3 x 150 g portions of salmon/week); (4) fish oil (DHA/EPA capsules, no seafood). The macronutrient composition of the diets was similar between the groups and the capsule groups, were single-blinded. A total of 324 men and women aged 20-40 years, BMI 27.5-32.5 kg/m(2) from Iceland, Spain and Ireland. Anthropometric data were collected at baseline, midpoint and endpoint. Confounding factors were accounted for, with linear models, for repeated measures with two-way interactions. The most important interactions for weight loss were (diet x energy intake), (gender x diet) and (gender x initial-weight). An average man in the study (95 kg at baseline receiving 1600 kcal/day) was estimated to lose 3.55 kg (95% CI, 3.14-3.97) (1); 4.35 kg (95% CI, 3.94-4.75) (2); 4.50 kg (95% CI, 4.13-4.87) (3) and 4.96 kg (95% CI, 4.53-5.40) on diet (4) in 4 weeks, from baseline to midpoint. The weight-loss from midpoint to endpoint was 0.45 (0.41-0.49) times the observed weight loss from baseline to midpoint. The diets did not differ in their effect on weight loss in women. Changes in measures of body composition were in line with changes in body weight. In young, overweight men, the inclusion of either lean or fatty fish, or fish oil as part of an energy-restricted diet resulted in approximately 1 kg more weight loss after 4 weeks, than did a similar diet without seafood or supplement of marine origin. The addition of seafood to a nutritionally balanced energy-restricted diet may boost weight loss.

  2. Total Mercury in Six Antarctic Notothenioid Fishes.

    PubMed

    Wintle, Nathan J P; Sleadd, Isaac M; Gundersen, Deke T; Kohl, Kristina; Buckley, Bradley A

    2015-11-01

    We analyzed white muscle samples from six species of Antarctic fish (suborder Notothenioidei) collected in 2011 from McMurdo Sound, Ross Sea, Antarctica, to assess levels of total mercury (THg). Gymnodraco acuticeps and Trematomus bernacchii exhibited the highest concentrations of THg followed by Trematomus pennellii, Trematomus nicolai, Trematomus newnesi and Pagothenia borchgrevinki, (71.3, 53.9±32.1, 45.8±27.3, 37.2±18.6, 35.7±23.6, and 21.9±2.8 ng/g wet weight, respectively). The results from this study suggest that THg has the potential to bioaccumulate from various marine Antarctic ecosystems into biota.

  3. Diet niches of major forage fish in Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, B.M.; Savino, J.F.; Ogilvie, L.M.; ,

    2007-01-01

    A large complex of coregonine species historically dominated the fish community of Lake Michigan. The current species complex is simplified with one remaining coregonine, bloater (Coregonus hoyi), deepwater sculpin (Myoxocephalus thompsoni), slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus), and two dominant invaders, alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) and rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax). To better understand the diet relationships of the major offshore forage fishes now in Lake Michigan, diets of bloater, alewife, rainbow smelt, deepwater sculpin, and slimy sculpin were compared. The three sites, chosen to represent northern, central, and southern components of the lake, were sampled during spring, summer, and fall in 1994, and spring and fall in 1995. Forage fishes had diverse and variable diets, with niches differentiated by prey type or location. Diporeia hoyi, Mysis relicta, and zooplankton were the major diet items. The index of relative importance showed benthic (slimy and deepwater sculpins) and pelagic (alewife, rainbow smelt) feeding strategies with opportunistic bloaters incorporating both feeding strategies. Highest diet overlaps were between species of sculpin, and between large and small bloaters; both groups partitioned food by size. Though competition for food may be minimized by spatial segregation of potential competitors, the forage fish in Lake Michigan apparently partition food resources. Fishery management models incorporating food habits of pelagic forage fish would need to take into account diet variation associated with location and season. ?? 2007 E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung.

  4. Diet compositions and trophic guild structure of the eastern Chukchi Sea demersal fish community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitehouse, George A.; Buckley, Troy W.; Danielson, Seth L.

    2017-01-01

    Fishes are an important link in Arctic marine food webs, connecting production of lower trophic levels to apex predators. We analyzed 1773 stomach samples from 39 fish species collected during a bottom trawl survey of the eastern Chukchi Sea in the summer of 2012. We used hierarchical cluster analysis of diet dissimilarities on 21 of the most well sampled species to identify four distinct trophic guilds: gammarid amphipod consumers, benthic invertebrate generalists, fish and shrimp consumers, and zooplankton consumers. The trophic guilds reflect dominant prey types in predator diets. We used constrained analysis of principal coordinates (CAP) to determine if variation within the composite guild diets could be explained by a suite of non-diet variables. All CAP models explained a significant proportion of the variance in the diet matrices, ranging from 7% to 25% of the total variation. Explanatory variables tested included latitude, longitude, predator length, depth, and water mass. These results indicate a trophic guild structure is present amongst the demersal fish community during summer in the eastern Chukchi Sea. Regular monitoring of the food habits of the demersal fish community will be required to improve our understanding of the spatial, temporal, and interannual variation in diet composition, and to improve our ability to identify and predict the impacts of climate change and commercial development on the structure and functioning of the Chukchi Sea ecosystem.

  5. Iron status biomarkers in iron deficient women consuming oily fish versus red meat diet.

    PubMed

    Navas-Carretero, S; Pérez-Granados, A M; Schoppen, S; Sarria, B; Carbajal, A; Vaquero, M P

    2009-06-01

    Specific recommendations for anemic individuals consist in increasing red meat intake, but the population at large is advised to reduce consumption of red meat and increase that of fish, in order to prevent the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to determine the effects of consuming an oily fish compared to a red meat diet on iron status in women with low iron stores. The study was designed attending the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement guidelines. It was a randomised crossover dietary intervention study of two 8-week periods. Twenty-five young women with low iron stores completed the study. Two diets containing a total of 8 portions of fish, meat and poultry per week were designed differing only in their oily fish or red meat content (5 portions per week). At the beginning and the end of each period blood samples were taken and hemoglobin, hematocrit, serum ferritin, serum iron, serum transferrin, serum transferrin receptor-2 and the Zn-protoporphyrin/free-protoporphyrin ratio were determined. Food intake and body weight were monitored. During the oily fish diet, PUFA intake was significantly higher (p=0.010) and iron intake lower (mean+/-SD, 11.5+/-3.4 mg/day vs. 13.9+/-0.1 mg/day, p=0.008), both diets providing lower mean daily iron intake than recommended for menstruating women. Although there were no significant differences after 16 weeks, serum ferritin moderately decreased and soluble transferrin receptor increased with the oily fish, while changes with the red meat diet were the opposite. In conclusion, an oily fish diet compared to a red meat diet does not decrease iron status after 8 weeks in iron deficient women.

  6. PCB congener patterns in rats consuming diets containing Great Lakes salmon: Analysis of fish, diets, and adipose tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, S.A.; Feeley, M.M.

    1999-02-01

    As part of a multidisciplinary toxicological investigation into Great Lakes contaminants, chinook salmon were collected from lake Huron (LH) and Lake Ontario (LO) and incorporated into standard rat diets as 20 or 100% of the protein complement. Final PCB concentrations in the experiment ranged from 3.15 ng/g in the control diet to 1,080 ngg in the high-dose LO diet, with maximal estimated daily consumption by the rats of 82 {micro}g PCBs/kg body wt in the LO20 dietary group. Seventeen PCB congeners, PCB 85, 99, 101, 105, 110, 118, 128, 129, 132, 138, 149, 153, 170, 177, 180, 187, and 199, occurred at > 3.0% of the total PCBs in the fish with no major site differences. Cumulatively, these 17 congeners accounted for up to 75% of the total PCBs in the fish compared to 44 and 54% in two commercial Aroclors, 1254 and 1260, respectively. PCB 77 was the major dioxin-like congener in the fish, followed by PCB 126 and then PCB 169. All major dietary congeners bioaccumulated in the adipose tissue of the rats with the exception of PCB congeners 101, 110, 132, and 149.

  7. Total and inorganic arsenic in foods of the first Hong Kong total diet study.

    PubMed

    Chung, Stephen Wai-cheung; Lam, Chi-ho; Chan, Benny Tsz-pun

    2014-04-01

    Arsenic (As) is a metalloid that occurs in different inorganic and organic forms, which are found in the environment from both natural occurrence and anthropogenic activity. The inorganic forms of As (iAs) are more toxic as compared with the organic As, but so far most of the occurrence data in food collected in the framework of official food control are still reported as total As without differentiating the various As species. In this paper, total As and iAs contents of 600 total diet study (TDS) samples, subdivided into 15 different food groups, were quantified by high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HR-ICP/MS) and hydride generation (HG) ICP/MS respectively. The method detection limits for both total As and iAs were 3 μg As kg(-1). As the samples were prepared for TDS, food items were purchased directly from the market or prepared as for normal consumption, i.e. table ready, in the manner most representative of and consistent with cultural habits in Hong Kong as far as practicable. The highest total As and iAs content were found in 'fish, seafood and their products' and 'vegetables and their products' respectively. Besides, this paper also presents the ratios of iAs and total As content in different ready-to-eat food items. The highest ratio of iAs to total As was found in 'vegetables and their products'. It is likely that iAs in vegetables maintained its status even after cooking.

  8. A comparison of Oregon pellet and fish-meat diets for administration of sulfamethazine to Chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amend, D.F.; Fryer, J.L.; Pilcher, K.S.

    1967-01-01

    The absorption of sulfamethazine by yearling spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) was compared when administered in the Oregon Pellet and a fish-meat diet. The pelleted diet delivered the drug to the fish approximately twice as efficiently as the fish-meat diet. Dosage levels are recommended for both diets, and the efficacy of administering drugs in fish feed is discussed.

  9. Formulation of the Total Western Diet (TWD) as a basal diet for rodent cancer studies.

    PubMed

    Hintze, Korry J; Benninghoff, Abby D; Ward, Robert E

    2012-07-11

    Rodent cancer studies typically use defined diets with nutrient profiles optimized for rodent health. However, a defined rodent diet that represents typical American nutrition in all aspects, including calorie sources and macro- and micronutrient composition, is not yet available. Thus, a nutrient density approach was used to formulate the new Total Western Diet (TWD) based on NHANES data for macro- and micronutrient intakes. The TWD has fewer calories from protein and carbohydrate sources and twice that from fat as compared to the AIN-93 diet. The new diet contains more saturated and monounsaturated fats, less polyunsaturated fat, fewer complex carbohydrates, and twice the level of simple sugars. The TWD includes less calcium, copper, folate, thiamin, and vitamins B6, B12, D, and E, but much more sodium. This newly devised diet that better represents typical American nutrition will be highly useful for studies employing animal models of human disease, including cancer.

  10. Determination and assessment of total mercury levels in local, frozen and canned fish in Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Obeid, Pierre J; El-Khoury, Bilal; Burger, Joanne; Aouad, Samer; Younis, Mira; Aoun, Amal; El-Nakat, John Hanna

    2011-01-01

    Fish is an important constituent of the Lebanese diet. However, very little attention in our area is given to bring awareness regarding the effect of the toxicity of mercury (Hg) mainly through fish consumption. This study aimed to report analytical data on total mercury levels in several fish species for the first time in thirty years and to also made individuals aware of the presence and danger from exposure to mercury through fish consumption. Fish samples were selected from local Lebanese markets and fisheries and included 94 samples of which were fresh, frozen, processed, and canned fish. All values were reported as microgram of mercury per gram of fish based on wet weight. The level of mercury ranged from 0.0190 to 0.5700 microg/g in fresh samples, 0.0059 to 0.0665 microg/g in frozen samples, and 0.0305 to 0.1190 microg/g in canned samples. The data clearly showed that higher levels of mercury were detected in local fresh fish as opposed to other types thus placing consumers at higher risk from mercury exposure. Moreover, the data revealed that Mallifa (yellowstripe barracuda/Sphyraena chrysotaenia), Sargous (white seabream/Diplodus sargus), Ghobbos (bogue/Boops boops), and shrimp (Penaeus sp.) were among the types containing the highest amounts of mercury. On the other hand, processed fish such as fish fillet, fish burger, small shrimp and crab are found to contain lower levels of mercury and are associated with lower exposure risks to mercury. Lebanese population should therefore, be aware to consume limited amounts of fresh local fish to minimize exposure to mercury.

  11. Neutron activation analysis of total diet food composites for iodine

    SciTech Connect

    Allegrini, M.; Boyer, K.W.; Tanner, J.T.

    1981-09-01

    The iodine content of Total Diet food composites was measured using neutron activation analysis. The interfering element chlorine was separated using a modified combustion and gas phase procedure. The average recovery was 94.8% (standard deviation 2.9) for the 10 matrices that were tested. In addition, iodine was measured in National Bureau of Standards Standard Reference Materials, which have no certified values for this element. Preliminary findings of iodine content of adult Total Diet market baskets collected during Fiscal Year 1980 in different regions of the United States ranged from 292 to 901 ..mu..g/day for a 2900 kcal intake.

  12. A maternal diet of fatty fish reduces body fat of offspring compared with a maternal diet of beef and a post-weaning diet of fish improves insulin sensitivity and lipid profile in adult C57BL/6 male mice.

    PubMed

    Hussain, A; Nookaew, I; Khoomrung, S; Andersson, L; Larsson, I; Hulthén, L; Jansson, N; Jakubowicz, R; Nilsson, S; Sandberg, A-S; Nielsen, J; Holmäng, A

    2013-11-01

    The maternal diet during pregnancy and lactation may affect the long-term health of the offspring. Our aim was to study how a fish or meat diet perinatal and after weaning affects body composition, insulin sensitivity and the profile of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in breast milk, fat depots, skeletal muscle and liver in male adult mice offspring. During gestation and lactation, C57BL/6 dams were fed a herring- or beef-based diet. Half of the pups in each group changed diets after weaning. In offspring, body composition measured by DEXA, plasma lipid profile and insulin sensitivity measured by euglycemic clamp or QUICKI were monitored to adulthood. Analysis of total FAs by GC-MS were performed in the diet, breast milk and in different tissues. At 9 week of age, offspring of herring-fed dams had less body fat than offspring of beef-fed dams. Mice fed herring after weaning had increased insulin sensitivity at 15 week of age, reduced total plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels, and compared with beef-fed mice, larger interscapular brown adipose tissue depots. The FA composition of the maternal diet was mirrored in breast milk, and the herring diet significantly affected the FA profile of different tissues, leading to an increased content of n-3 PUFAs. A herring-based maternal diet reduces body fat in the offspring, but the insulin sensitivity, plasma lipids and amount of brown adipose tissue are affected by the offspring's own diet; the herring diet is more beneficial than the beef diet. © 2013 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Assessment of mercury and selenium concentrations in captive bottlenose dolphin's (Tursiops truncatus) diet fish, blood, and tissue.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yong Seok; Hunter, Sue; Clayton, Leigh A; Rifkin, Erik; Bouwer, Edward J

    2012-01-01

    Concentrations of total mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) were determined in diet fish and whole blood and tissue samples from seven bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) housed at the National Aquarium Baltimore (NAB). In addition, concentrations of monomethylmercury (CH(3)Hg(+)) were determined in diet fish and dolphins' tissue samples. The data were compared with the values found in wild populations to better understand how the dietary Hg and Se uptake rates affect the Hg and Se levels in dolphins. The diet fish total Hg concentrations ranged between 14 and 47 ng g(-1) and were markedly lower than for similar fish found in Florida, South Carolina, and other aquaria. CH(3)Hg(+) accounted for 85 to 91% of the total Hg found in diet fish. The diet fish Se concentrations ranged between 270 and 800 ng g(-1), indicating excess molar concentrations of Se over Hg. The Hg concentration range in the blood of NAB dolphins was 27-117 ng g(-1) and the concentrations were about one order of magnitude and several factors lower than the concentrations found in the blood of wild bottlenose dolphins in Florida and in South Carolina, respectively. The total Hg and CH(3)Hg(+) in tissue samples were also significantly lower than the reported values obtained from wild populations of bottlenose dolphins. The differences in the Hg concentrations in the dolphins' blood may be due to the different levels of Hg atmospheric deposition in the area where the dolphins' diet fish were found. The Se concentration range in the blood of NAB dolphins was 221-297 ng g(-1) which was two factors lower than the values found in wild populations. The lower Hg levels, as well as higher Se:Hg molar ratios in the blood of NAB dolphins, suggest that NAB dolphins may be less susceptible to the potential neurotoxicity from the CH(3)Hg(+) in their blood. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Changes in fish diets and food web mercury bioaccumulation induced by an invasive planktivorous fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Suchanek, Thomas H.; Colwell, Arthur E.; Anderson, Norman L.; Moyle, Peter B.

    2008-01-01

    The invasion, boom, collapse, and reestablishment of a population of the planktivorous threadfin shad in Clear Lake, California, USA, were documented over a 20-year period, as were the effects of changing shad populations on diet and mercury (Hg) bioaccumulation in nearshore fishes. Threadfin shad competitively displaced other planktivorous fish in the lake, such as inland silversides, young-of-year (YOY) largemouth bass, and YOY bluegill, by reducing zooplankton abundance. As a result, all three species shifted from a diet that was dominated by zooplankton to one that was almost entirely zoobenthos. Stable carbon isotopes corroborated this pattern with each species becoming enriched in δ13C, which is elevated in benthic vs. pelagic organisms. Concomitant with these changes, Hg concentrations increased by ∼50% in all three species. In contrast, obligate benthivores such as prickly sculpin showed no relationship between diet or δ13C and the presence of threadfin shad, suggesting that effects of the shad were not strongly linked to the benthic fish community. There were also no changes in Hg concentrations of prickly sculpin. The temporary extirpation of threadfin shad from the lake resulted in zooplankton densities, foraging patterns, isotope ratios, and Hg concentrations in pelagic fishes returning to pre-shad values. These results indicate that even transient perturbations of the structure of freshwater food webs can result in significant alterations in the bioaccumulation of Hg and that food webs in lakes can be highly resilient.

  15. Total organochlorine content of fish from the Great Lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Newsome, W.H.; Andrews, P.; Conacher, H.B.; Rao, R.R.; Chatt, A. )

    1993-07-01

    Residues of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides were determined in several species of commercial fish from the Great Lakes and compared to the total organic chlorine determined by neutron activation analysis. The mean organochlorine contents ranged from 44 to 138 ppm (lipid basis) and were 5 to 72 times higher than the contents of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides. Marine fish also contained a large proportion of unidentified organic chlorine. The unknown material in the Great Lakes fish was found to chromatograph with the high molecular weight lipid fraction by gel permeation chromatography.

  16. [Diet and reproduction of the main fish species from the Mesay river (Colombian Amazon region) during the flooding season].

    PubMed

    Blanco-Parra, María del Pilar; Bejarano-Rodríguez, Ivonne

    2006-09-01

    The diet and reproduction of fish communities in three biotopes (river, stream, and lake) of the Mesay floodplain-river complex (Puerto Abeja, Serrania de Chiribiquete National Natural Park, Caquetá, Colombia) were sampled during the "high water" level or flooding period. A total of 79 species of fishes from 15 families and four orders were collected between July and September 2000. The most important items in their diet were fruits and seeds. Approximately 46 % of captured fish were near maturity, and 35 % were mature. The feeding and reproductive behavior of these fish were consistent with other studies on migratory Amazonian species during the high water period, when the floodplain plays an important role in the availability of food and refuge. During this period the fish make use of the vast food availability to accumulate fat reserves that later produce the energy needed for gonadal maturation and breeding migrations.

  17. Diets and diet overlap of nonindigenous gobies and small benthic native fishes co-inhabiting the St. Clair River, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, John R. P.; Jude, David J.

    2001-01-01

    Round gobies (Neogobius melanostomus), after successfully reproducing in the early 1990s, decimated populations of mottled sculpins (Cottus bairdi) and possibly logperch (Percina caprodes) in the St. Clair River. Studies were conducted during 1994 to determine whether diets of round and tubenose (Proterorhinus marmoratus) gobies overlapped with those of native forage fishes. In the nearshore zone (depth ≤ 1 m), round and tubenose gobies, logperch, and rainbow darters (Etheostoma caeruleum) of similar sizes (total lengths < 75 mm) consumed mainly small-sized macroinvertebrates (dipterans, Caenis, and amphipods) during June 1994. Logperch and rainbow darters were present in the nearshore zone only during this month. At the crest of the channel slope (depth = 3 m), round gobies and northern madtoms (Noturus stigmosus) ate mostly ephemeropteran nymphs (Hexagenia and Baetisca), while predation on zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and other mollusks by round gobies was minimal. Northern madtoms did not feed on mollusks. Diet overlap between round gobies and native fishes was not observed at the channel slope (depth = 5 m and 7 m) due to heavy predation on mollusks by round gobies. Young-of-the-year (YOY) round gobies migrated to deeper water in autumn and became prey of mottled sculpins and northern madtoms. Eggs and YOY of mottled sculpins may have become vulnerable to predation by both round gobies and native fishes in deeper water, since adult mottled sculpins were apparently confined to the channel with limited home range because aggressive round gobies occupied preferred shallow habitat, including spawning sites.

  18. Effects of protein hydrolysates supplementation in low fish meal diets on growth performance, innate immunity and disease resistance of red sea bream Pagrus major.

    PubMed

    Khosravi, Sanaz; Rahimnejad, Samad; Herault, Mikaël; Fournier, Vincent; Lee, Cho-Rong; Dio Bui, Hien Thi; Jeong, Jun-Bum; Lee, Kyeong-Jun

    2015-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the supplemental effects of three different types of protein hydrolysates in a low fish meal (FM) diet on growth performance, feed utilization, intestinal morphology, innate immunity and disease resistance of juvenile red sea bream. A FM-based diet was used as a high fish meal diet (HFM) and a low fish meal (LFM) diet was prepared by replacing 50% of FM by soy protein concentrate. Three other diets were prepared by supplementing shrimp, tilapia or krill hydrolysate to the LFM diet (designated as SH, TH and KH, respectively). Triplicate groups of fish (4.9 ± 0.1 g) were fed one of the test diets to apparent satiation twice daily for 13 weeks and then challenged by Edwardsiella tarda. At the end of the feeding trial, significantly (P < 0.05) higher growth performance was obtained in fish fed HFM and hydrolysate treated groups compared to those fed the LFM diet. Significant improvements in feed conversion and protein efficiency ratios were obtained in fish fed the hydrolysates compared to those fed the LFM diet. Significant enhancement in digestibility of protein was found in fish fed SH and KH diets and dry matter digestibility was increased in the group fed SH diet in comparison to LFM group. Fish fed the LFM diet showed significantly higher glucose level than all the other treatments. Whole-body and dorsal muscle compositions were not significantly influenced by dietary treatments. Histological analysis revealed significant reductions in goblet cell numbers and enterocyte length in the proximal intestine of fish fed the LFM diet. Superoxide dismutase activity and total immunoglobulin level were significantly increased in fish fed the diets containing protein hydrolysates compared to the LFM group. Also, significantly higher lysozyme and antiprotease activities were found in fish fed the hydrolysates and HFM diets compared to those offered LFM diet. Fish fed the LFM diet exhibited the lowest disease resistance against E. tarda

  19. [Total and organically bound mercury content in fishes from German fishing grounds (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Jacobs, G

    1977-06-30

    In a survey sponsored by the Ministry of Food Agriculture and Forestry of the Federal Republic of Germany the mercury contamination of 759 specimens of fishes from the German fishing grounds were analysed. The determinations were performed by flameless atomic absorption (cold vapour system). -We found for the fishes of greatest economic importance herring, cod, saithe, haddock very low averages of less than 0,1 ppm. The legal limit of 1 ppm was only reached or exceeded by older fishes (ling 1.18 ppm, red-fish 1.09 ppm) and by specific kinds of fishes (shark 3.23 ppm, ray 1.69 ppm, tuna 0.80 ppm). -The organically bound mercury (methyl-Hg) which is considered especially toxic, has been determined by gas-liquid-chromatography. Methyl-Hg constitutes about 70--98% of the total mercury, a value which is in agreement with Japanese and Swedish reports on this subject.

  20. Choline Essentiality and Its Requirement in Diets for Juvenile Parrot Fish (Oplegnathus fasciatus)

    PubMed Central

    Khosravi, Sanaz; Jang, Ji-Woong; Rahimnejad, Samad; Song, Jin-Woo; Lee, Kyeong-Jun

    2015-01-01

    A 12-wk feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the essentiality of choline supplementation in diets for parrot fish. Five isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets were supplemented with 0 (as control), 500, 1,000, and 2,000 mg choline per kg diet, and a positive control diet without choline contained 0.3% of 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol as choline biosynthesis inhibitor (designated as Con, C500, C1000, C2000 and Con+, respectively). Triplicate groups of fish (body weight, 8.8±0.01 g) were fed one of the experimental diets at a rate of 4% body weight twice daily. The fish fed Con+ diet revealed significantly lower growth performance and feed utilization efficiency than other fish groups. Supplementation of choline to the basal diet did not significantly influence fish growth. The highest liver lipid content was observed in fish fed the Con+ diet and inversely correlated with liver choline concentration although the differences were not significant. Also, significantly higher liver linoleic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid contents were found in fish fed the Con+ diet. Innate immune parameters including respiratory burst and myeloperoxidase activities were not significantly affected by dietary choline levels. The findings in this study conclude that choline concentration of approximately 230 mg kg−1 diet meets the requirement of parrot fish. PMID:25924958

  1. The Effect of Replacing Fish Meal in the Diet with Enzyme-Treated Soybean Meal (HP310) on Growth and Body Composition of Rainbow Trout Fry.

    PubMed

    Haghbayan, Samira; Shamsaie Mehrgan, Mehdi

    2015-11-26

    The potential of enzyme-treated soybean meal powder (HP310) as fish meal alternative in diets for rainbow trout weighing 1.17 ± 0.3 g was evaluated for 60 days. Fish meal was replaced with HP310 at 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of experimental diets. A control group was also considered. The results showed that diets containing 75% and 100% HP310 had significantly higher feed conversion ratio and lower feed intake, weight gain and specific growth rate compared to fish feed diets containing higher levels of fish protein ingredients (p < 0.05). Results suggested use of 50% HP310 in trout diet had a positive effect on growth performance (p < 0.05). All fish feed diets with HP310 had lower hematocrit, hemoglobin and red blood cells compared to the control group, but the differences between the control and the other treatments up to 75% HP310 replacement levels of diet (p > 0.05). However increasing in level of HP310 in the diet caused a significant increase of the white blood cells (p < 0.05). The fish fed with a diet totally replaced by HP310 showed the highest values of ash and moisture content among the diets and showed significantly different levels when compared with the control and other feeding treatments (p < 0.05).

  2. Total and inorganic arsenic in fish samples from Norwegian waters.

    PubMed

    Julshamn, Kaare; Nilsen, Bente M; Frantzen, Sylvia; Valdersnes, Stig; Maage, Amund; Nedreaas, Kjell; Sloth, Jens J

    2012-01-01

    The contents of total arsenic and inorganic arsenic were determined in fillet samples of Northeast Artic cod, herring, mackerel, Greenland halibut, tusk, saithe and Atlantic halibut. In total, 923 individual fish samples were analysed. The fish were mostly caught in the open sea off the coast of Norway, from 40 positions. The determination of total arsenic was carried out by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry following microwave-assisted wet digestion. The determination of inorganic arsenic was carried out by high-performance liquid chromatography-ICP-MS following microwave-assisted dissolution of the samples. The concentrations found for total arsenic varied greatly between fish species, and ranged from 0.3 to 110 mg kg(-1) wet weight. For inorganic arsenic, the concentrations found were very low (<0.006 mg kg(-1)) in all cases. The obtained results question the assumptions made by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) on the inorganic arsenic level in fish used in the recent EFSA opinion on arsenic in food.

  3. A purified diet for medaka (Oryzias latipes): refining a fish model for toxicological research

    SciTech Connect

    DeKoven, D.L.; Nunez, J.M.; Lester, S.M.; Conklin, D.E.; Marty, G.D.; Parker, L.M.; Hinton, D.E. )

    1992-04-01

    The overall nutritional adequacy of a purified casein-based diet (PC-diet) for the medaka (Oryzias latipes) was evaluated and compared with three diets: commercially available flaked fish food (FL-diet), live newly hatched Artemia (A-diet), and a combination of FL-diet plus A-diet (F/A-diet). Survival, growth, reproductive success, general and liver histopathology, and selected hepatic enzyme activities were compared in medaka from first feeding through reproductive maturity. The PC-diet proved adequate in all of the above criteria. When compared with fish fed F/A-diet, an initial lag in early growth rates (i.e., 0 to 30 days) occurred with the fish fed PC-diet. The FL-diet alone was not nutritionally adequate for medaka, resulting in poor growth, reduced reproductive success, lower survival, and emaciation. A significant number of spinal deformities (5.4%) were noted in medaka fed the F/A diet. Ethoxycoumarin 0-deethylase and glutathione S-transferase activities were monitored and a trend toward increasing activity with age was noted. This suggests that PC- and F/A-diets provide adequate nutrition for development of the xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes necessary for detoxification and activation of endogenous and foreign compounds. The PC-diet supported good survival, growth, reproduction, and normal histology. This diet provides a standardized, nutritionally adequate, and consistent alternative to undefined conventional diets and is less likely to contain the range of xenobiotics possible in whole, live food.

  4. Application of food waste based diets in polyculture of low trophic level fish: effects on fish growth, water quality and plankton density.

    PubMed

    Mo, Wing Yin; Cheng, Zhang; Choi, Wai Ming; Man, Yu Bon; Liu, Yihui; Wong, Ming Hung

    2014-08-30

    Food waste was collected from local hotels and fish feed pellets were produced for a 6 months long field feeding trial. Three types of fish feed pellets (control diet: Jinfeng® 613 formulated feed, contains mainly fish meal, plant product and fish oil; Diet A: food waste based diet without meat and 53% cereal; Diet B: food waste based diet with 25% meat and 28% cereal) were used in polyculture fish ponds to investigate the growth of fish (grass carp, bighead and mud carp), changes in water quality and plankton density. No significant differences in the levels of nitrogen and phosphorous compounds of water body were observed between 3 fish ponds after the half-year feeding trial, while pond receiving Diet A had the highest density of plankton. The food waste combination of Diet B seems to be a better formulation in terms of the overall performance on fish growth.

  5. Plasma lipids and lipoproteins in hypercholesterolemic men fed a lipid-lowering diet containing lean beef, lean fish, or poultry.

    PubMed

    Beauchesne-Rondeau, Edith; Gascon, Annie; Bergeron, Jean; Jacques, Hélène

    2003-03-01

    To reach desirable lipid and lipoprotein concentrations, patients with hypercholesterolemia are often told to replace the consumption of beef with that of fish and poultry. The objective of this study was to compare the effects on lipoprotein profiles in hypercholesterolemic men of the incorporation of lean beef, poultry (without skin), and lean fish into an American Heart Association diet with a high polyunsaturated-to-saturated fatty acid ratio and a high fiber content. Three groups of subjects each rotated in a crossover design through 3 experimental periods that lasted 26 d each. The diets were planned to provide 11 713 kJ/d, of which 18% came from protein, 53% from carbohydrate, and 30% from lipids (polyunsaturated-to-monounsaturated-to-saturated fatty acid ratio: 1.0:1.1:1.0); 268 mg cholesterol/d; and 29 g fiber/d. The lean beef, lean fish, and poultry diets reduced plasma total and LDL cholesterol by 5-9%, LDL apolipoprotein B by 16-19%, VLDL triacylglycerols by 22-31%, and the ratio of total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol by 6-11%; they also increased the ratio of LDL cholesterol to apolipoprotein B by 18-28%. No significant difference was found in these lipid variables between the 3 experimental diets. However, the lean fish diet increased HDL(2) cholesterol significantly more (P < 0.05) than did the lean beef diet and the ratio of HDL(2) to HDL(3) cholesterol significantly more (P < 0.05) than did the lean beef and poultry diets. The results indicate that an American Heart Association diet with a high polyunsaturated-to-saturated fatty acid ratio and high fiber content induced numerous favorable changes in coronary artery disease risk factors in hypercholesterolemic men, regardless of the protein source.

  6. Replacement of dietary fish oil with increasing levels of linseed oil: modification of flesh fatty acid compositions in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) using a fish oil finishing diet.

    PubMed

    Bell, J Gordon; Henderson, R James; Tocher, Douglas R; Sargent, John R

    2004-03-01

    Five groups of salmon, of initial mean weight 127 +/- 3 g, were fed increasing levels of dietary linseed oil (LO) in a regression design. The control diet contained capelin oil (FO) only, and the same oil was blended with LO to provide the experimental diets. After an initial period of 40 wk, all groups were switched to a finishing diet containing only FO for a further 24 wk. Growth and flesh lipid contents were not affected by dietary treatment. The FA compositions of flesh total lipids were linearly correlated with dietary FA compositions (r2 = 0.88-1.00, P < 0.0001). LO included at 50% of added dietary lipids reduced flesh DHA and EPA (20:5n-3) concentrations to 65 and 58%, respectively, of the concentrations in fish fed FO. Feeding 100% LO reduced flesh DHA and EPA concentrations to 38 and 30%, respectively, of the values in fish fed FO. Differences between diet and flesh FA concentrations showed that 16:0, 18:1n-9, and especially DHA were preferentially retained in flesh, whereas 18:2n-6, 18:3n-3, and 22:1n-11 were selected against and presumably utilized for energy. In fish previously fed 50 and 100% LO, feeding a finishing diet containing FO for 16 wk restored flesh DHA and EPA concentrations, to approximately 80% of the values in fish fed FO throughout. Flesh DHA and EPA concentrations in fish fed up to 50% LO were above recommended intake values for humans for these EFA. This study suggests that LO can be used as a substitute for FO in seawater salmon feeds and that any reductions in DHA and EPA can be largely overcome with a finishing diet high in FO before harvest.

  7. Optimizing fish meal-free commercial diets for Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A feeding trial was conducted in a closed recirculating aquaculture system with Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus juveniles (mean weight, 6.81 g) to examine the response to a practical diet containing protein primarily from menhaden fish meal (FM) and soybean meal (SBM) (control, Diet 1) or to diet...

  8. Effects of a fish oil enriched diet on aspirin intolerant asthmatic patients: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Picado, C; Castillo, J A; Schinca, N; Pujades, M; Ordinas, A; Coronas, A; Agusti-Vidal, A

    1988-02-01

    The effect of a fish oil enriched diet containing about 3 g of eicosapentaenoic acid was studied in 10 patients with aspirin intolerant asthma. Subjects were studied during six weeks on a control diet followed by six weeks on the fish oil diet in a single blind study design. They were asked to record their peak expiratory flow (PEF) twice daily, bronchodilator and steroid doses, and subjective ratings of pulmonary symptoms on diary cards. There were no significant changes in symptom scores over the six weeks of either the control diet or the fish oil diet. PEF values, however, were significantly lower during the fifth and sixth week of the fish oil diet than during the control diet (308 v 262 l/min week 5 and 306 v 256 l/min week 6). Bronchodilator usage was also greater during the fifth and sixth week of the fish oil diet than during the control period (12.0 v 7.4 and 13.0 v 7.4 puffs a day in weeks 5 and 6). This pilot study suggests that fish diets may have a deleterious effect on patients with aspirin intolerant asthma.

  9. Diet variability of forage fishes in the Northern California Current System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Andrew D.; Daly, Elizabeth A.; Brodeur, Richard D.

    2015-06-01

    As fisheries management shifts to an ecosystem-based approach, understanding energy pathways and trophic relationships in the Northern California Current (NCC) will become increasingly important for predictive modeling and understanding ecosystem response to changing ocean conditions. In the NCC, pelagic forage fishes are a critical link between seasonal and interannual variation in primary production and upper trophic groups. We compared diets among dominant forage fish (sardines, anchovies, herring, and smelts) in the NCC collected in May and June of 2011 and June 2012, and found high diet variability between and within species on seasonal and annual time scales, and also on decadal scales when compared to results of past studies conducted in the early 2000s. Copepoda were a large proportion by weight of several forage fish diets in 2011 and 2012, which differed from a preponderance of Euphausiidae found in previous studies, even though all years exhibited cool ocean conditions. We also examined diet overlap among these species and with co-occurring subyearling Chinook salmon and found that surf smelt diets overlapped more with subyearling Chinook diets than any other forage fish. Herring and sardine diets overlapped the most with each other in our interdecadal comparisons and some prey items were common to all forage fish diets. Forage fish that show plasticity in diet may be more adapted to ocean conditions of low productivity or anomalous prey fields. These findings highlight the variable and not well-understood connections between ocean conditions and energy pathways within the NCC.

  10. A method for measuring total thiaminase activity in fish tissues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zajicek, James L.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Honeyfield, Dale C.; Brown, Scott B.; Fitzsimons, John D.

    2005-01-01

    An accurate, quantitative, and rapid method for the measurement of thiaminase activity in fish samples is required to provide sufficient information to characterize the role of dietary thiaminase in the onset of thiamine deficiency in Great Lakes salmonines. A radiometric method that uses 14C-thiamine was optimized for substrate and co-substrate (nicotinic acid) concentrations, incubation time, and sample dilution. Total thiaminase activity was successfully determined in extracts of selected Great Lakes fishes and invertebrates. Samples included whole-body and selected tissues of forage fishes. Positive control material prepared from frozen alewives Alosa pseudoharengus collected in Lake Michigan enhanced the development and application of the method. The method allowed improved discrimination of thiaminolytic activity among forage fish species and their tissues. The temperature dependence of the thiaminase activity observed in crude extracts of Lake Michigan alewives followed a Q10 = 2 relationship for the 1-37??C temperature range, which is consistent with the bacterial-derived thiaminase I protein. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  11. Effects of a fish-based diet on the serum adiponectin concentration in young, non-obese, healthy Japanese subjects.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Keiko; Morino, Katsutaro; Nishio, Yoshihiko; Kondo, Motoyuki; Fuke, Tomoya; Ugi, Satoshi; Iwakawa, Hiromi; Kashiwagi, Atsunori; Maegawa, Hiroshi

    2010-06-30

    Adiponectin has insulin-sensitizing, anti-atherogenic, and anti-inflammatory properties, and researchers have recently reported that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) can increase the serum adiponectin concentration, suggesting that dietary factors, such as fish intake, may have an influence on the serum adiponectin concentration. In general, Japanese subjects consume twice as much fish as people in other countries. We hypothesized that incremental change in serum omega-3 PUFA levels by fish intake is an important regulator of serum adiponectin even in Japanese subjects. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship among fish consumption, serum omega-3 PUFA, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), levels, and serum adiponectin levels. We recruited 17 healthy Japanese volunteers (seven men and 10 women) for an 8-week fish-diet intervention (omega-3 PUFA 3.0 g/day) without affecting total energy intake, and measured serum adiponectin concentration and fatty acid profiles. Fish-diet intervention significantly increased the serum adiponectin concentration in women (from 13.5+/-4.6 to 15.8+/-5.2 microg/mL, p <0.01) but not in men (from 8.7+/-2.8 to 8.7+/-2.5 microg/mL). Serum omega-3 PUFA increased more in female subjects than male subjects after the fish-diet intervention (57.3+/-86.6 vs 150.9+/-46.7 microg/mL, p=0.011), suggesting that changes in omega-3 PUFA concentration may explain the different response between sexes. A fish-based diet intervention increased the serum adiponectin concentration in young, non-obese, healthy Japanese female subjects. The increment in serum omega-3 PUFA may regulate the serum adiponectin concentration.

  12. Total Mercury in Carnivorous Fish from Brazilian Southeast.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, M S; Marques, A N; Ribeiro, R O R; Conte, C A; Carneiro, C S; Santelli, R E; Freire, A S; São Clemente, S C; Mársico, E T

    2015-07-01

    Total mercury concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry in muscle tissue of two commercially important species of carnivorous fishes croaker (Micropogonias furnieri) and cutlassfish (Trichiurus lepturus) caught in Itaipu estuary, Rio de Janeiro. In this study, whitemouth croaker presented more mercury than Atlantic cutlassfish. Bioaccumulation differences can be explained by the biological behavior of juveniles whitemouth croaker, that remain in the estuary up to maturity, which makes them good indicators of local environmental impacts (0.110 mg Kg(-1) HgT). It also can be explained by differences in nutritional requirements between the different life stages of two species. The analysis showed the presence of low levels of the metal. However, our results suggest a possible risk to human health, depending on the level of fish consumption.

  13. Temperature and diet effects on omnivorous fish performance: Implications for the latitudinal diversity gradient in herbivorous fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Behrens, M.D.; Lafferty, K.D.

    2007-01-01

    Herbivorous fishes show a clear latitudinal diversity gradient, making up a larger proportion of the fish species in a community in tropical waters than in temperate waters. One proposed mechanism that could drive this gradient is a physiological constraint due to temperature. One prediction based on this mechanism is that if herbivorous fishes could shift their diet to animal material, they would be better able to grow, survive, and reproduce in cold waters. We tested this prediction on the omnivore Girella nigricans under different temperature and diet regimes using RNA-DNA ratios as an indicator of performance. Fish had increased performance (100%) at low temperatures (12??C) when their diet was supplemented with animal material. In contrast, at higher temperatures (17, 22, and 27??C) fish showed no differences between diets. This indicates that omnivorous fishes could increase their performance at low temperatures by consuming more animal matter. This study supports the hypothesis that a relative increase in the nutritional value of plant material at warmer temperatures could drive the latitudinal diversity gradient in herbivorous fishes. ?? 2007 NRC.

  14. Effect of a fish oil and arginine-fortified diet in thermally injured patients.

    PubMed

    Wibbenmeyer, Lucy A; Mitchell, Melanie A; Newel, Ingrid M; Faucher, Lee D; Amelon, Margery J; Ruffin, Timothy O; Lewis, Robert D; Latenser, Barbara A; Kealey, Patrick G

    2006-01-01

    Burn injury induces a hypercatabolic inflammatory state, predisposing burn patients to malnutrition, poor wound healing, and infectious complications. We conducted this study to determine what effect a diet fortified with fish oil and arginine (FAD) would have on wound healing in a thermally injured population. Twenty-three thermally injured patients were enrolled in this randomized double blind enteral feeding study from July 2002 to August 2004. All study patients received isonitrogenous enteral intragastric feeding within 48 hours of admission. Patients were randomized to our standard diet (STD, ProBalance with Promix, Probalance from Nestlé, Glendale, CA; ProMix R.D., Navaco Laboratories, Phoenix, AZ) or a diet fortified with fish oil and arginine (FAD, Crucial, Nestlé Nutrition Glendale, CA) Diets were advanced as tolerated to meet 100% of estimated needs. The primary endpoint of the study was time to heal the first donor site. There were no statistical differences between the study groups with respect to baseline characteristics. Both diets were well tolerated, and there were no differences in the daily total kilocalories or protein intake per kilogram between the two diet groups throughout the study. Although nonsignificant, the patients in the FAD group showed a slightly faster healing time than those in the STD group (10.8 +/- 2.7 days vs 12.3 +/- 5.2 days, respectively). This trend was further accelerated when those with body surface area burns less than 30% were examined (patients with body surface area burns <30% in the FAD healed in 9.0 +/- 1.7 vs corresponding patients in the standard group who healed in 12.2 +/- 6.2, P = .63). Patients in the FAD group trended to more infections and more adverse complications. The adverse complications were predominantly associated with inhalation injuries. The role of fortified enteral diets in the outcomes of thermally injured patients deserves further study. Such a future study should be conducted in a

  15. Egg shell and yolk quality characteristics of layers fed with sugarcane press residue in soya and fish based diets.

    PubMed

    Suma, N; Reddy, B S Venkatarami; Gloridoss, R G; Prabhu, T M; Kumar, C Basavanta; Suresh, B N; Shilpa, V T

    2015-02-01

    Sugarcane press residue (SPR), a by-product of sugarcane industry, which is rich in inorganic salts was assessed at different levels in both soya based and fish based diets of layers for egg shell and yolk quality characteristics. SPR was incorporated in 32-week-old white leghorn layer diets at 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% either in the soya based or fish based diets to form T1 to T8 diets, respectively. Each diet was offered to five replicates of four laying hens each constituting a total of one sixty birds kept for 84 days under colony cages. Mean egg shell thickness obtained from eggs of experimental hens measured was 0.342, 0.329, 0.320, 0.322, 0.319, 0.332, 0.328 and 0.336 mm in T1 through T8 groups, respectively. About the main factor effects, both showed non-significant results. Similarly, influence of different treatment diets, in imparting colour to the yolks, was found to be non-significant (p>0.05) at different 28-day time intervals. Further, the average yolk index values ranged non-significantly from 0.360 (T6) to 0.383 (T4). The SPR can be incorporated into layer diet as a source of inorganic as well as organic nutrients without affecting its egg quality characteristics.

  16. Egg shell and yolk quality characteristics of layers fed with sugarcane press residue in soya and fish based diets

    PubMed Central

    Suma, N.; Reddy, B. S. Venkatarami; Gloridoss, R. G.; Prabhu, T. M.; Kumar, C. Basavanta; Suresh, B. N.; Shilpa, V. T.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Sugarcane press residue (SPR), a by-product of sugarcane industry, which is rich in inorganic salts was assessed at different levels in both soya based and fish based diets of layers for egg shell and yolk quality characteristics. Materials and Methods: SPR was incorporated in 32-week-old white leghorn layer diets at 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% either in the soya based or fish based diets to form T1 to T8 diets, respectively. Each diet was offered to five replicates of four laying hens each constituting a total of one sixty birds kept for 84 days under colony cages. Results: Mean egg shell thickness obtained from eggs of experimental hens measured was 0.342, 0.329, 0.320, 0.322, 0.319, 0.332, 0.328 and 0.336 mm in T1 through T8 groups, respectively. About the main factor effects, both showed non-significant results. Similarly, influence of different treatment diets, in imparting colour to the yolks, was found to be non-significant (p>0.05) at different 28-day time intervals. Further, the average yolk index values ranged non-significantly from 0.360 (T6) to 0.383 (T4). Conclusion: The SPR can be incorporated into layer diet as a source of inorganic as well as organic nutrients without affecting its egg quality characteristics. PMID:27047079

  17. A study on the meat and bone meal and poultry by-product meal as protein substitutes of fish meal in practical diets for Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Wei; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Baigang; Wang, Fuzhen; Yu, Yu

    2004-10-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of meat and bone meal (MBM) and poultry by-product meal (PBM) as the replacement of fish meal in the diets on the growth performance, survival and apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of Litopenaeus vannamei. The basal diets were formulated with 22% fish meal and other ingredients which provided about 40% protein and 9% lipid in the diet. The experimental diets included MBM or PBM to replace 0, 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% of total fish meal respectively. All diets were iso-nitrogenous and isocaloric in gross terms. The results showed that there were no significant differences (Pτ;0.05) in growth performance and ADC among the treatments fed with the diets in which 0 60% fish meal had been replaced with MBM, while the percent weight gain (WG, %), body length gain (BLG, %) and ADC significantly decreased when the MBM was up to 80% of the fish meal. There were no significant differences (Pτ;0.05) in growth performance and ADC among all the treatments fed with the diets in which 0 80% fish meal had been replaced with PBM.

  18. 50 CFR 600.516 - Total allowable level of foreign fishing (TALFF).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Total allowable level of foreign fishing... Fishing § 600.516 Total allowable level of foreign fishing (TALFF). (a) The TALFF, if any, with respect to... OY and each assessment of the anticipated U.S. harvest will be reviewed during each fishing season...

  19. Intra- and inter-specific variability in total and methylmercury bioaccumulation by eight marine fish species from the Azores.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Maria C; Costa, Valentina; Menezes, Gui M; Pinho, Mário R; Santos, Ricardo S; Monteiro, Luís R

    2007-10-01

    We relate fish biological and ecological characteristics to total and organic mercury concentrations to determine whether accumulation is influenced by trophic level, Hg concentration in the diet, and vertical distribution. Levels of total mercury and methylmercury were determined in the muscle tissue of eight species of fish: Pagellus acarne, Trachurus picturatus, Phycis phycis, P. blennoides, Polyprion americanus, Conger conger, Lepidopus caudatus and Mora moro, caught in the Azores. All such fishes are commercially valuable and were selected to include species from a wide range of vertical distributions from epipelagic (<200 m) to mesopelagic (>300 m) environments. Methylmercury was the major form accumulated in all species, comprising an average of 88.1% of total mercury. Concentrations of mercury (total and methylmercury) increased with age, length and weight. Based on data from other studies, mercury concentrations in fish diet were estimated. Mercury levels in food ranged from 0.08 to 0.32 ppm, dry weight. Hg concentrations in the food and in muscle tissue from different species were positively correlated. Total Hg levels in the muscles were approximately nine times those estimated in food. Total mercury concentrations in muscle were positively correlated with both trophic level and median depth. Such enhanced mercury bioaccumulation in relation to depth appears to be determined primarily by concentrations in food and ultimately by water chemistry, which controls mercury speciation and uptake at the base of the food chain.

  20. Use of fish hydrolysates and fishmeal by-products of the Alaskan fishing industry in diets for Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The suitability of four fish hydrolysates and two fishmeals derived from by-products of the Alaskan fishing industry, as menhaden fishmeal replacements in shrimp diets was determined. A control diet (30% crude protein and 8.5% crude lipid) was produced with menhaden meal (13% of diet). Experimental ...

  1. Rats allowed to self-select zinc-deficient lard and fish-oil diets did not develop a preference for fish-oil diet.

    PubMed

    Sato, Akie; Nakashima, Yoko

    2011-01-01

    Zinc (Zn)-deficiency causes a reduction in food intake and alters adipose metabolism. The effect of zinc restriction in rats on the selection of fish-oil and lard was studied during a period of reduced appetite. The reduction of appetite was caused by an experimentally induced Zn-deficiency. Four-week-old male rats were divided into three dietary treatment groups: Zn-adequate (ZnA, 30.9 mg Zn/kg), marginal Zn-deficient (ZnM, 5.9 mg Zn/kg) or Zn-deficient (ZnD, 0.9 mg Zn/kg). The three groups were placed on a self-selection regimen of the ZnA-fish-oil diet (ZnA-FD) and the ZnA-lard diet (ZnA-LD), the ZnM-FD and the ZnM-LD or the ZnD-FD and the ZnD-LD, respectively for 24 d. The amount of the FD intake in the ZnD group decreased to 0.5 g/d after day 4-6 of self-selecting on the LD and the FD and no significant increase in the FD intake in the group was observed during the self-selection period. However, after day 7-9 and 13-15, the FD intake of the ZnA and the ZnM groups increased, respectively, and at the end of the self-selection period the ZnM and the ZnA rats consumed about 2.0 g FD/d and 4.5 g FD/d, respectively. The FD intake ratio [FD intake (g)/total intake (g)] in the ZnD rats during the self-selection period was the lowest and that in the ZnA rats was the highest of three groups. In conclusion, we showed that zinc status alters fish-oil and lard selection patterns and ZnD rats did not show a preference for fish-oil.

  2. Total Diet Studies as a Tool for Ensuring Food Safety.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joon-Goo; Kim, Sheen-Hee; Kim, Hae-Jung; Yoon, Hae-Jung

    2015-09-01

    With the diversification and internationalization of the food industry and the increased focus on health from a majority of consumers, food safety policies are being implemented based on scientific evidence. Risk analysis represents the most useful scientific approach for making food safety decisions. Total diet study (TDS) is often used as a risk assessment tool to evaluate exposure to hazardous elements. Many countries perform TDSs to screen for chemicals in foods and analyze exposure trends to hazardous elements. TDSs differ from traditional food monitoring in two major aspects: chemicals are analyzed in food in the form in which it will be consumed and it is cost-effective in analyzing composite samples after processing multiple ingredients together. In Korea, TDSs have been conducted to estimate dietary intakes of heavy metals, pesticides, mycotoxins, persistent organic pollutants, and processing contaminants. TDSs need to be carried out periodically to ensure food safety.

  3. Total Diet Studies as a Tool for Ensuring Food Safety

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joon-Goo; Kim, Sheen-Hee; Kim, Hae-Jung

    2015-01-01

    With the diversification and internationalization of the food industry and the increased focus on health from a majority of consumers, food safety policies are being implemented based on scientific evidence. Risk analysis represents the most useful scientific approach for making food safety decisions. Total diet study (TDS) is often used as a risk assessment tool to evaluate exposure to hazardous elements. Many countries perform TDSs to screen for chemicals in foods and analyze exposure trends to hazardous elements. TDSs differ from traditional food monitoring in two major aspects: chemicals are analyzed in food in the form in which it will be consumed and it is cost-effective in analyzing composite samples after processing multiple ingredients together. In Korea, TDSs have been conducted to estimate dietary intakes of heavy metals, pesticides, mycotoxins, persistent organic pollutants, and processing contaminants. TDSs need to be carried out periodically to ensure food safety. PMID:26483881

  4. Individuals' diet diversity influences gut microbial diversity in two freshwater fish (threespine stickleback and Eurasian perch)

    PubMed Central

    Bolnick, Daniel I; Snowberg, Lisa K; Hirsch, Philipp E; Lauber, Christian L; Knight, Rob; Caporaso, J Gregory; Svanbäck, Richard; Post, David

    2014-01-01

    Vertebrates' diets profoundly influence the composition of symbiotic gut microbial communities. Studies documenting diet-microbiota associations typically focus on univariate or categorical diet variables. However, in nature individuals often consume diverse combinations of foods. If diet components act independently, each providing distinct microbial colonists or nutrients, we expect a positive relationship between diet diversity and microbial diversity. We tested this prediction within each of two fish species (stickleback and perch), in which individuals vary in their propensity to eat littoral or pelagic invertebrates or mixtures of both prey. Unexpectedly, in most cases individuals with more generalised diets had less diverse microbiota than dietary specialists, in both natural and laboratory populations. This negative association between diet diversity and microbial diversity was small but significant, and most apparent after accounting for complex interactions between sex, size and diet. Our results suggest that multiple diet components can interact non-additively to influence gut microbial diversity. PMID:24847735

  5. Long-term consumption of fish oil-enriched diet impairs serotonin hypophagia in rats.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Regina L H; Andrade, Iracema S; Telles, Mônica M; Albuquerque, Kelse T; Nascimento, Cláudia M O; Oyama, Lila M; Casarini, Dulce E; Ribeiro, Eliane B

    2010-10-01

    Hypothalamic serotonin inhibits food intake and stimulates energy expenditure. High-fat feeding is obesogenic, but the role of polyunsaturated fats is not well understood. This study examined the influence of different high-PUFA diets on serotonin-induced hypophagia, hypothalamic serotonin turnover, and hypothalamic protein levels of serotonin transporter (ST), and SR-1B and SR-2C receptors. Male Wistar rats received for 9 weeks from weaning a diet high in either soy oil or fish oil or low fat (control diet). Throughout 9 weeks, daily intake of fat diets decreased such that energy intake was similar to that of the control diet. However, the fish group developed heavier retroperitoneal and epididymal fat depots. After 12 h of either 200 or 300 μg intracerebroventricular serotonin, food intake was significantly inhibited in control group (21-25%) and soy group (37-39%) but not in the fish group. Serotonin turnover was significantly lower in the fish group than in both the control group (-13%) and the soy group (-18%). SR-2C levels of fish group were lower than those of control group (50%, P = 0.02) and soy group (37%, P = 0.09). ST levels tended to decrease in the fish group in comparison to the control group (16%, P = 0.339) and the soy group (21%, P = 0.161). Thus, unlike the soy-oil diet, the fish-oil diet decreased hypothalamic serotonin turnover and SR-2C levels and abolished serotonin-induced hypophagia. Fish-diet rats were potentially hypophagic, suggesting that, at least up to this point in its course, the serotonergic impairment was either compensated by other factors or not of a sufficient extent to affect feeding. That fat pad weight increased in the absence of hyperphagia indicates that energy expenditure was affected by the serotonergic hypofunction.

  6. Nursery function of mangrove: A comparison with mudflat in terms of fish species composition and fish diet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tse, P.; Nip, T. H. M.; Wong, C. K.

    2008-11-01

    Shallow soft-bottom habitats including mangroves and mudflats provide important nursery functions for juvenile fishes, but little information exists concerning the relative nursery value of these habitats for juvenile fishes. We compared the potential of a mangrove and a mudflat in a semi-enclosed bay in Hong Kong to serve as fish nurseries by measuring species composition, dietary composition, gut fullness and diet breadth of juvenile fishes. Fish abundance was higher in mangrove than mudflat, but species richness was almost similar between the two habitats. After excluding Ambassis gymnocephalus, which was found mainly in the mangrove, difference in fish abundance between the two habitats was small. The gut fullness and diet breath of most species did not differ between mangrove and mudflat, suggesting that the two habitats were very similar in terms of providing feeding opportunity for juvenile fishes. While the importance of mangrove as nursery of fishes has been repeatedly emphasized, our data suggest that other soft-bottom habitats, such as mudflats, are also important and need to be protected.

  7. Enrichment of milk with conjugated linoleic acid by supplementing diets with fish and sunflower oil.

    PubMed

    Abo El-Nor, S A H; Khattab, Mostafa S A

    2012-07-15

    There is an increase interesting in enrichment of milk with Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) due to its anti-oxidative and anti-carcinogenic properties. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of supplementing diets fed to lactating goats with sunflower, fish oil and its blend. Eight lactating Nubian goats were fed a base diet (T1), diet supplemented with 2% sunflower oil (on dry matter (DM) basis) (T2), diet supplemented with 2% fish oil (T3) and diet supplemented with 2% sunflower and fish oil (T4) for 84 day. Milk composition milk fat, protein (%) decreased in T2, T3 and T4 compared with control (T1) while there was no significant differences between treatments in milk lactose content. CLA content in milk fat was higher in response to fish oil or sunflower and fish oil blend compared with control (T1). The results indicated that supplementing diets fed to lactating goats with sunflower, fish oil increased CLA contents in the milk 2-4 times than control.

  8. A description on pharyngeal jaw apparatus and diets of halfbeak fish Zenarchopterus buffonis (Valenciennes 1847) in Malaysian waters

    SciTech Connect

    Abidin, Diana Atiqah Zainal Hashim, Marina; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.; Das, Simon K.

    2015-09-25

    Information on the feeding mechanism and diet of halfbeak fish species in harsh estuarine environment ecosystem is still lacking. The present study investigates the fine structure of pharyngeal jaw apparatus and diets of halfbeak fish Zenarchopterus buffonis. A total of 84 halfbeak fish samples have been collected from the coastal water of Peninsular Malaysia using fishing rod. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the micrographs of fine microstructure of the pharyngeal teeth. The fundamental anatomy of pharyngeal jaw apparatus displayed that the upper pharyngeal jaw (third pharyngobranchials) displays larger size of hook-like or tricuspid teeth which was analogous to tricuspid morphology. The lower pharyngeal jaw (fifth ceratobranchial) bears mainly conical teeth and appears triangular shape with two, short projections. The estimated TROPH values (1 − 3.2±0.55) denoted that halfbeak fish were omnivores in nature. The findings of this study was found to be useful as a baseline information for a better representation of the trophic flows associated with large medium and small surface water fishes.

  9. A description on pharyngeal jaw apparatus and diets of halfbeak fish Zenarchopterus buffonis (Valenciennes 1847) in Malaysian waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abidin, Diana Atiqah Zainal; Hashim, Marina; Das, Simon K.; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.

    2015-09-01

    Information on the feeding mechanism and diet of halfbeak fish species in harsh estuarine environment ecosystem is still lacking. The present study investigates the fine structure of pharyngeal jaw apparatus and diets of halfbeak fish Zenarchopterus buffonis. A total of 84 halfbeak fish samples have been collected from the coastal water of Peninsular Malaysia using fishing rod. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the micrographs of fine microstructure of the pharyngeal teeth. The fundamental anatomy of pharyngeal jaw apparatus displayed that the upper pharyngeal jaw (third pharyngobranchials) displays larger size of hook-like or tricuspid teeth which was analogous to tricuspid morphology. The lower pharyngeal jaw (fifth ceratobranchial) bears mainly conical teeth and appears triangular shape with two, short projections. The estimated TROPH values (1 - 3.2±0.55) denoted that halfbeak fish were omnivores in nature. The findings of this study was found to be useful as a baseline information for a better representation of the trophic flows associated with large medium and small surface water fishes.

  10. Fish Oil Finishing Diet Maintains Optimal n-3 Long-Chain Fatty Acid Content in European Whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus).

    PubMed

    Suomela, Jukka-Pekka; Tarvainen, Marko; Kallio, Heikki; Airaksinen, Susanna

    2017-08-31

    This study examined the effect of substituting vegetable oil for fish oil in feed, with subsequent re-introduction of fish oil-rich feed (finishing feeding) in late stages of growth, on the fatty acids of cultivated European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus). Restorative finishing feeding with fish oil-rich feed for 15 and 25 weeks was sufficient to change the total content of nutritionally valuable long-chain n-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3), to correspond to that of fish fed the fish oil-rich feed throughout their lifespan. Under natural conditions, 15 and 25 weeks correspond to weight gains of 75% and 100% (i.e. doubling), respectively. Also, the fatty acid profile of the fish was restored after finishing periods of 15 and 25 weeks. Limiting the use of fish oil by lowering the overall fat content of the feed (no vegetable oil added) resulted in a decrease in the long-chain n-3 fatty acids. Based on the results, after receiving a vegetable oil-rich diet, restorative fish oil-rich feeding in the last stages of growth in European whitefish is nutritionally justified in order to balance nutritional gain for consumers with sustainable use of finite marine oils. The results encourage commercial efforts to further utilize and optimize finishing feeding practices.

  11. Mucus: a new tissue fraction for rapid determination of fish diet switching using stable isotope analysis.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Stable isotope analysis of diet switching by fishes is often hampered by slow turnover rates of the tissues analyzed (usually muscle or fins). We examined epidermal mucus as a potentially faster turnover “tissue” that might provide a more rapid assessment of diet switching. In a controlled hatchery...

  12. Does diet influence consumer nutrient cycling? Macroinvertebrate and fish excretion in streams

    Treesearch

    Ryan McManamay; Jackson Webster; H. Valett; C. Dolloff

    2011-01-01

    Consumer nutrient cycling supplies limiting elements to autotrophic and heterotrophic organisms in aquatic systems. However, the role of consumers in supplying nutrients may change depending on their diet and their own stoichiometry. We evaluated the stoichiometry, N and P excretion, and diets of the dominant macroinvertebrates and fish at 6 stream sites to determine...

  13. Mucus: A new tissue fraction for rapid determination of fish diet switching using stable isotope analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stable isotope analysis of diet switching by fishes often is hampered by slow turnover rates of the tissues analyzed (usually muscle or fins). We examined epidermal mucus as a potentially faster turnover “tissue” that might provide a more rapid assessment of diet switching. In a ...

  14. Mucus: A new tissue fraction for rapid determination of fish diet switching using stable isotope analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stable isotope analysis of diet switching by fishes often is hampered by slow turnover rates of the tissues analyzed (usually muscle or fins). We examined epidermal mucus as a potentially faster turnover “tissue” that might provide a more rapid assessment of diet switching. In a ...

  15. Ontogenetic, spatial and temporal variation in trophic level and diet of Chukchi Sea fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, Jennifer M.; Mueter, Franz J.; Iken, Katrin; Danielson, Seth

    2017-01-01

    Climate warming and increasing development are expected to alter the ecosystem of the Chukchi Sea, including its fish communities. As a component of the Arctic Ecosystem Integrated Survey, we assessed the ontogenetic, spatial and temporal variability of the trophic level and diet of key fish species in the Chukchi Sea using N and C stable isotopes. During August and September of 2012 and 2013, 16 common fish species and two primary, invertebrate consumers were collected from surface, midwater and bottom trawls within the eastern Chukchi Sea. Linear mixed-effects models were used to detect possible variation in the relationship between body length and either δ13C or δ15N values among water masses and years for 13 fish species with an emphasis on Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida). We also examined the fish community isotopic niche space, trophic redundancy, and trophic separation within each water mass as measures of resiliency of the fish food web. Ontogenetic shifts in trophic level and diet were observed for most species and these changes tended to vary by water mass. As they increased in length, most fish species relied more on benthic prey with the exception of three forage fish species (walleye pollock, Gadus chalcogrammus, capelin, Mallotus villosus, and Pacific sandlance, Ammodytes hexapterus). Species that exhibited interannual differences in diet and trophic level were feeding at lower trophic levels and consumed a more pelagic diet in 2012 when zooplankton densities were higher. Fish communities occupied different isotopic niche spaces depending on water mass association. In more northerly Arctic waters, the fish community occupied the smallest isotopic niche space and relied heavily on a limited range of intermediate δ13C prey, whereas in warmer, nutrient-rich Bering Chukchi Summer Water, pelagic prey was important. In the warmest, Pacific-derived coastal water, fish consumed both benthic and pelagic prey. Examining how spatial gradients in trophic

  16. Induction of vitellogenin production in male tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) by commercial fish diets.

    PubMed

    Davis, Lori K; Fox, Bradley K; Lim, Chhorn; Hiramatsu, Naoshi; Sullivan, Craig V; Hirano, Tetsuya; Grau, E Gordon

    2009-10-01

    Mozambique tilapia, (Oreochromis mossambicus), are a euryhaline teleost and an important biological model species. Captive male tilapia frequently have high levels of the estrogen-induced yolk precursor protein vitellogenin (Vg), a common indicator of exposure to estrogenic compounds. Sex steroids are found in commercial fish diets, but relatively few studies have examined the relationship between commercial diets and Vg production. In a fasting experiment to ascertain a dietary role in male Vg production, plasma Vg was reduced to negligible levels after 2 weeks of fasting, while no change in estrogen receptor (ER) expression was seen. When male tilapia were fed a squid-based diet that replaced the commercial trout diet, plasma Vg was reduced to undetectable levels over 40 days, concomitant with significant reductions in hepatic expression of Vgs A, B, and C, and ERbeta, compared with control fish fed commercial trout diet. Female tilapia fed the squid-based for 20 days had no change in these parameters. When male tilapia were fed a defined, soy-based diet, plasma Vg reduced to 20% of levels in fish given either commercial trout diet or a defined, fishmeal-based diet. Overall, results from these studies suggest that estrogens in a commercial trout diet induce vitellogenin production by increasing expression of Vg, but not ER genes in male tilapia.

  17. Echium oil and linseed oil as alternatives for fish oil in the maternal diet: Blood fatty acid profiles and oxidative status of sows and piglets.

    PubMed

    Tanghe, S; Millet, S; De Smet, S

    2013-07-01

    Echium oil (source of stearidonic acid) and linseed oil (source of α-linolenic acid) were evaluated as alternatives for fish oil in the diet of sows to increase the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) status of the offspring. The hypothesis was that echium oil would be more efficient than linseed oil to increase the DHA concentration, as it bypasses the enzyme Δ6-desaturase. In addition, it was determined whether adding PUFA to the diet affected the plasma oxidative status. Sows were fed either a palm oil diet or a diet containing 1% linseed oil, echium oil, or fish oil from d 73 of gestation and during lactation (n = 16 per dietary treatment). Total oil concentrations in the diets were similar among dietary treatments. Blood samples were taken for fatty acid analysis and oxidative status of sows on d 73 and 93 of gestation and at parturition and the lightest and heaviest piglet per litter at birth and weaning. Colostrum was also sampled. No effect of diet was observed on total number of piglets born (13.7 ± 0.4), number of weaned piglets (10.8 ± 0.4), and gestation length (114.8 ± 0.2 d). Piglets from sows fed fish oil had lighter birth weights (1.41 ± 0.03 kg) than piglets from the linseed oil diet (1.54 ± 0.03 kg; P = 0.006), with no difference between the palm oil (1.45 ± 0.03 kg) and echium oil diet (1.49 ± 0.03 kg). Daily BW gain until weaning was less for piglets from sows fed the fish oil diet (214 ± 5 g) compared with piglets from sows fed the echium oil (240 ± 5 g; P < 0.001) or linseed oil diet (234 ± 5 g; P = 0.02). Compared with the palm oil diet, echium and linseed oil in the maternal diet increased the DHA concentration in the colostrum and the sow and piglet plasma to the same extent (1.1 to 1.4-fold; P < 0.001). On the fish oil diet, 20.7-fold, 10-fold, and 2.4-fold increases in DHA in colostrum, sow, and piglet plasma, respectively, were observed (P < 0.001). At 1% in the maternal diet, echium oil had, thus, no benefit over linseed oil and

  18. Sampling variability and uncertainty in total diet studies.

    PubMed

    Tsukakoshi, Yoshiki

    2011-02-07

    Here, the uncertainty budget for a total diet study (TDS) was clarified by separating the total measurement uncertainty into the uncertainty arising from the compositional heterogeneity of food items between cities (referred to as inter-city variance), the heterogeneity of food items within cities (intra-city variance), and the chemical analysis of the food samples (analytical variance) at one study design. TDS samples were collected from 14 cities in Japan. Duplicate samples collected in each city were prepared from food items purchased from different shops, and the cadmium concentrations were measured individually to obtain the intra-city variance. These results were used to show the importance of sampling design in TDSs, by evaluating a sampling method known as a multi-stage design, in which multiple samples are collected from several cities. Such schemes have been applied to TDSs, but the uncertainty involved has not been assessed. An intra-city correlation was observed between the cadmium concentrations in samples from the same city, demonstrating that the effective sample size was not simply the number of cities and shops sampled. The TDS results showed a high intra-city variance, which was greater than the inter-city variance for all of the food groups studied, and particularly for the bean and potato groups. By combining the sampling and analytical uncertainties obtained, the sampling uncertainty across different primary sampling unit sizes and secondary sampling unit sizes was obtained. As suggested by the analysis of potatoes and beans, grouping food samples from different shops in the same city can improve the representativeness of the results.

  19. Increase in plasma lipid peroxide in cats fed a fish diet.

    PubMed

    Momoi, Y; Goto, Y; Tanide, K; Takahashi, N; Watari, T; Yamazo, K; Tsujimoto, H; Kudo, T

    2001-12-01

    Plasma lipid peroxide levels were examined in cats. Plasma lipid peroxide levels in 3 of 4 clinical cases which had been fed raw fish were higher than those in normal cats. When healthy cats were put on a raw fish diet in controlled conditions, a remarkable increase in plasma lipid peroxide was observed. This increase occurred within 1 to 3 weeks in cats without obvious clinical disorders. We also showed that a continuous raw fish diet is necessary to cause the increase, but the increase was transient and restored in spite of a continuous raw fish diet, indicating the development of an unidentified antioxidant process. Our results clearly indicate that intake of foods high in polyunsaturated fatty acid can induce oxidative stress in cats.

  20. Fish condensate as effective replacer of fish meal protein in diet for striped snakehead, Channa striata (Bloch).

    PubMed

    Wattanakul, Wattana; Wattanakul, Uraiwan; Thongprajukaew, Karun; Muenpo, Chutchawan

    2017-02-01

    The optimal protein replacement of fish meal (FM) by fish condensate (FC) was investigated in striped snakehead, Channa striata (Bloch) (1.78 ± 0.02 g initial weight). The FM-based diet (0FC) was replaced by substituting protein from FC for 100 (100FC), 200 (200FC), 300 (300FC), 400 (400FC), 500 (500FC) or 600 (600FC) g kg(-1) of the FM, and a commercial diet (CD) for carnivorous fish was included for comparison. The experiment was conducted indoors under completely randomized design (8 treatments × 3 replications × 60 fish per pond) over a 6-month trial. There were no significant differences in water quality during the experiment. The fish fed with 500FC had superior growth performance and feed utilization. This dietary treatment gave similar levels to all observed specific activities of digestive enzymes as did baseline 0FC. Survival, carcass composition, hematological parameters and liver histopathology were not negatively impacted by this protein replacement level. Economic analysis also supports the use of this by-product as a potent protein replacer in striped snakehead diet. Findings from the current study indicate that a 500 g kg(-1) protein replacement of FM by FC is near optimal for striped snakehead, and similar use of it in the aquafeed of other species appears worth further studies.

  1. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) adipate in selected total diet food composite samples.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xu-Liang; Zhao, Wendy; Churchill, Robin; Dabeka, Robert

    2013-11-01

    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) food-wrapping films plasticized with di-(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA) are commonly used by grocery stores in Canada to rewrap meat, poultry, fish, cheese, and other foods. DEHA was assessed as part of the Government of Canada's Chemicals Management Plan. The main source of exposure for most age groups was expected to be food. Although the margin of exposure from food and beverages is considered to be adequately protective, the Government of Canada committed to performing targeted surveys of DEHA in foods and food packaging materials to better define Canadian exposure to DEHA through dietary intake. In order to determine whether more-comprehensive targeted surveys on DEHA in foods should be conducted, 26 food composite samples from the 2011 Canadian total diet study were selected and analyzed for DEHA using a method based on solvent and dispersive solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. These 26 food composites include cheese, meat, poultry, fish, and fast foods, and PVC films were likely used in packaging the individual foods used to make the composites. DEHA was detected in most of the meat, poultry, and fish composite samples, with the highest concentration found in ground beef (11 μg/g), followed by beef steak (9.9 μg/g), freshwater fish (7.8 μg/g), poultry liver pâté (7.4 μg/g), fresh pork (6.9 μg/g), cold cuts and luncheon meats (2.8 μg/g), veal cutlets (2.1 μg/g), roast beef (1.3 μg/g), lamb (1.2 μg/g), and organ meats (0.20 μg/g). Targeted surveys should be conducted to investigate the presence of DEHA in various foods packaged with PVC films in more detail and provide updated occurrence data for accurate human exposure assessment.

  2. Amino acid nutrition of fishes: requirements and supplementation of diets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ketola, H.G.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is: (1) to make a concise review of the published dietary requirements of fishes for amino acids, (2) to describe recent findings at the Tunison Laboratory concerning amino acid nutrition of trout, (3) to review specific signs of deficiency of amino acids, and (4) to discuss use of the fish egg amino acid pattern as a guideline to formulating new feeds or studying amino acid requirements of fishes for which there is limited information on their quantitative requirements.

  3. Investigation of Total and Methyl Mercury in Fish and Sediment of Lake Michigan

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment cores and fish collected between 1994 and 1996 as part of the Lake Michigan Mass Balance Project were analyzed for total and methyl mercury. Results of the fish analyses are being used to describe total and methyl mercury concentrations in forage fish and lake trout, re...

  4. Investigation of Total and Methyl Mercury in Fish and Sediment of Lake Michigan

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment cores and fish collected between 1994 and 1996 as part of the Lake Michigan Mass Balance Project were analyzed for total and methyl mercury. Results of the fish analyses are being used to describe total and methyl mercury concentrations in forage fish and lake trout, re...

  5. [Comparison of a rural town and a fishing town: diet and circulatory system diseases].

    PubMed

    Liang, H; Ozasa, K; Higashi, A; Watanabe, Y; Hayashi, K; Aoike, A; Kawai, K

    1993-10-01

    We report a comparative study of the Standardized Mortality Ratio (SMR) for circulatory system diseases and diet in a rural town and a fishing town in Kyoto Prefecture. SMR was assessed during the 5-year period from 1983 through 1987, and compared with the standard age- and sex-adjusted demographic and mortality statistics compiled by the National Census Bureau of Japan in 1985. A food frequency questionnaire in which the respondents evaluated their food consumption during the previous 1-year period was used to assess diet. The questionnaire was administered during February 1989 in the rural town and during February 1990 in the fishing town. In comparison with the standard statistics, SMR was higher in the rural town and lower in the fishing town. The inhabitants of the fishing town more frequently consumed low-fat and low-sodium foods, such as fish, potatoes, tofu, and green, yellow and other vegetables, and less frequently consumed high-fat and high-sodium foods, such as meat, fried food, pickles, than did the inhabitants of the rural town. The residents of the fishing town also consumed a greater variety of foods in one week. The two towns differ in geography and economic structure, and their inhabitants have different life-styles and eating habits. The lower SMR for circulatory system diseases in the fishing town may be related to the greater consumption of fish and vegetables with lower meat and salt intake, as well as the balanced of diet.

  6. Use of meatpacking by-products in fish diets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Since fish meal is of limited supply and more expensive than most other protein sources, reducing its use in fish feeds will increase profits and improve sustainability of the aquaculture industry. Meat meal, meat and bone meal, and blood meal are by-products of the animal rendering industry and ar...

  7. Replacement of fish oil with thraustochytrid Schizochytrium sp. L oil in Atlantic salmon parr (Salmo salar L) diets.

    PubMed

    Miller, Matthew R; Nichols, Peter D; Carter, Chris G

    2007-10-01

    Replacing fish oil with that from a docosahexaenoic acid (22:6omega3, DHA) rich single cell micro-organism, thraustochytrid Schizochytrium sp. L, in diets for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) was investigated. Four experimental diets containing 100% thraustochytrid oil (TO), 100% palm oil (PO) and a 4:1 palm and thraustochytrid oil mixture (MX) were compared to a fish oil (FO) diet over 9 weeks. A saltwater transfer challenge occurred at the end of the trial for 14 days to test the diet treatments on the ability of salmon to smolt. There were no significant differences in the feed consumption of the diets or the digestibility of the omega3 or omega6 PUFA, indicating no differences in the digestibility of fatty acids between diets. No significant differences were noted between the growth of fish on the four diet treatments. Significant differences were noted in the fatty acid profiles of the fish muscle tissues between all diets. Fish on the TO diet had a significantly greater percentage of DHA in muscle tissue compared with fish on all other diets. Blood osmolarity, which is inversely related to the ability of salmon to smolt, from the TO and FO fed fish was significantly lower than that of fish on the PO diet. This study showed that thraustochytrid oil can be used to replace fish oil in Atlantic salmon diets without detriment to the growth of parr. Including thraustochytrid oil in fish diets significantly increases the amount of DHA in Atlantic salmon muscle and therefore is a candidate for use in oil blends for salmon diets. Thraustochytrid oil provides a renewable source of essential fatty acids, in particular DHA, for aquafeeds.

  8. Fish Oil–Rich Diet Promotes Hematopoiesis and Alters Hematopoietic Niche

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao-ping; Cheng, Lu; Han, Mu-tian; Zhang, Miao-miao; Shao, Qi-xiang; Xu, Hua-xi

    2015-01-01

    The self-renewal and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in bone marrow are essential to replenish all blood cell types, but how this process is influenced by diet remains largely unclear. Here we show that a diet rich in fish oils promotes self-renewal of HSCs and extramedullary hematopoiesis. Chronic intake of a fish oil–rich diet increases the abundance of HSCs, alters the hematopoietic microenvironment, and, intriguingly, induces the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 12 (MMP12) in the bone marrow. Pointing to a direct effect of fish oil on MMP12 expression, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids induce the expression of MMP12 in a dose-dependent manner in bone marrow cells. Importantly, down-regulation of MMP12 activity using an MMP12-specific inhibitor attenuates diet-induced myelopoiesis in both bone marrow and spleen. Thus, a fish oil–rich diet promotes hematopoiesis in the bone marrow and spleen, in part via the activity of MMP12. Taken together, these data provide new insights into diet-mediated regulation of hematopoiesis. PMID:26061726

  9. Specialized morphology for a generalist diet: evidence for Liem's Paradox in a cichlid fish.

    PubMed

    Binning, S A; Chapman, L J; Cosandey-Godin, A

    2009-11-01

    The stable isotope ratio and seasonal changes in diet of Alluaud's haplo Astatoreochromis alluaudi, a cichlid fish with massive pharyngeal jaws well known for its ability to process hard-bodied prey, are described. The diet of A. alluaudi was quantified in Lake Saka, Uganda, over a period of 30 months. Variation in physico-chemical variables (mean monthly rainfall, water temperature, turbidity and dissolved oxygen), as well as potential competitor density and food abundance, was measured throughout the second half of the study (14 months). Stomach contents and isotope analysis revealed a diet comprised mainly of fishes and insects, with a low contribution of molluscs (0-33%) in any given month. No correlation was detected between diet and either macroinvertebrate abundance or competitor abundance. The running average rainfall was positively related to the percentage of fish consumed per month. Although A. alluaudi exhibits an apparent molluscivorous trophic morphology in Lake Saka, molluscs did not appear to compose a major portion of its diet. Gradients of rainfall seemed to be the most important environmental predictor of diet choice in Lake Saka. These results are discussed with reference to Liem's Paradox that apparently morphologically specialized fishes often function as generalist feeders in the wild.

  10. Diet dynamics of the adult piscivorous fish community in Spirit Lake, Iowa, USA 1995-1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liao, H.; Pierce, C.L.; Larscheid, J.G.

    2002-01-01

    Diets of adults of six important piscivorous fish species, black crappie Pomoxis nigromaculatus, largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, northern pike Esox lucius, smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieui, walleye Stizostedion vitreum, and yellow perch Perca flavescens were quantified in Spirit Lake, Iowa, USA from May to October in 1995-1997. Forty-one prey taxa were found in the diets of these species, including 19 species of fish. The most important prey taxa overall were yellow perch, amphipods and dipterans. Diets of northern pike and walleye were dominated by yellow perch. Largemouth bass diets included large percentages of both yellow perch and black bullhead Ameiurus melas. Smallmouth bass diets included large percentages of both yellow perch and crayfish. Black crappie and yellow perch diets were dominated by invertebrates, primarily amphipods and dipterans. There were pronounced differences in diets among species, among size classes within species and over time. Most of the dominant prey taxa we documented in the diets of piscivorous species were in accordance with previous studies, but a few deviated significantly from expectations. Many of the temporal diet changes were asynchronous among piscivorous species and size classes, suggesting different responses to common prey resources over time.

  11. [Is a fish oil enriched diet therapeutically beneficial?].

    PubMed

    Machura, E; Kalaciński, W; Brus, R

    1995-07-01

    The metabolism of arachidonic acid (AA) and significance of leukotrienes in the pathogenesis of asthma are presented in this article. The effect of a diet containing eicosapentaenoic acid in the treatment of a variety of diseases is discussed as well.

  12. Diet overlap of introduced rainbow trout and three native fishes in an Ozark stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fenner, D.B.; Walsh, M.G.; Winkelman, D.L.

    2005-01-01

    Private angling groups in Oklahoma have requested permission to stock rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss into streams of northeastern Oklahoma although little is known regarding interactions between introduced rainbow trout and native fishes in these systems. Our study objectives were to assess diet overlap between introduced rainbow trout and native smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, shadow bass Ambloplites ariommus, and bluegill sunfish Lepomis macrochirus in Brush Creek, Oklahoma, a small spring-fed Ozark stream. Rainbow trout diet composition differed from that of all three native fishes in the 2 months of comparison (March and May 2001), and rainbow trout diets contained relatively low numbers of prey. It is unlikely that exploitative competition for food resources occurred between rainbow trout and these three native fishes. ?? 2004 by the American Fisheries Society.

  13. Amino acid changes during transition to a vegan diet supplemented with fish in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Elshorbagy, Amany; Jernerén, Fredrik; Basta, Marianne; Basta, Caroline; Turner, Cheryl; Khaled, Maram; Refsum, Helga

    2017-08-01

    To explore whether changes in dietary protein sources can lower plasma branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), aromatic amino acids and sulfur amino acids (SAAs) that are often elevated in the obese, insulin-resistant state and in type 2 diabetes. Thirty-six subjects (mean age 31 ± 2 years) underwent a voluntary abstinence from meat, poultry, eggs, and dairy products for 6 weeks, while enriching the diet with fish, in fulfillment of a religious fast. Subjects were assessed 1 week before the fast (V1), 1 week after initiation of the fast (V2) and in the last week of the fast (V3). Thirty-four subjects completed all three visits. Fasting plasma BCAAs decreased at V2 and remained low at V3 (P < 0.001 for all). Valine showed the greatest decline, by 20 and 19 % at V2 and V3, respectively. Phenylalanine and tryptophan, but not tyrosine, also decreased at V2 and V3. The two proteinogenic SAAs, methionine and cysteine, remained stable, but the cysteine product, taurine, decreased from 92 ± 7 μmol/L to 66 ± 6 (V2; P = 0.003) and 65 ± 6 μmol/L (V3; P = 0.003). A progressive decline in plasma glutamic acid, coupled with an increase in glutamine, was observed. Plasma total and LDL cholesterol decreased at V2 and V3 (P < 0.001 for all). Changing dietary protein sources to plant- and fish-based sources in an ad libitum setting lowers the plasma BCAAs that have been linked to diabetes risk. These findings point to habitual diet as a potentially modifiable determinant of fasting plasma BCAA concentrations.

  14. Diet dynamics of the juvenile piscivorous fish community in Spirit Lake, Iowa, USA, 1997-1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pelham, M.E.; Pierce, C.L.; Larscheid, J.G.

    2001-01-01

    We assessed temporal dynamics and variation among species and age-classes in the diets of age 0 and age 1 piscivorous fish species in Spirit Lake, Iowa, USA during 1997 and 1998. Species included walleye Stizostedion vitreum, yellow perch Perca flavescens, smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieui, largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, black crappie Pomoxis nigromaculatus and white bass Morone chrysops. Thirty taxa were identified in diets, including 12 species of fish. We found dramatic differences in diets among species, among age-classes within species and over time. Walleye, largemouth bass, smallmouth bass and white bass were piscivorous at age 0. Black crappie began piscivory at age 1. Yellow perch also began piscivory at age 1, but fish were a very small fraction of age-1 diets. The primary temporal pattern, seen in several species and age- classes, was an increase in piscivory from spring to fall. This pattern was due to the lack of small, age-0 prey fish in spring. Although some patterns were evident, the taxonomic composition of the diets of all species was highly variable over time, making generalizations difficult. A surprising result was the absence of yellow perch in the diet of age-0 walleye, despite their abundance in Spirit Lake and prominence in diets of age-1 walleye and other age 1-piscivores. Age-0 yellow perch were consistently too large to be eaten by age-0 piscivores, which preyed primarily on invertebrates and smaller fish such as johnny darters Etheostoma nigrum and age 0 bluegill Lepomis macrochirus. This finding suggests that predator-prey interactions and resulting population dynamics may be quite different in Spirit Lake than in other systems dominated by walleye and yellow perch.

  15. Fish Oil Supplementation and Urinary Oxalate Excretion in Normal Subjects on a Low-oxalate Diet

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Jessica N.; Mufarrij, Patrick W.; Easter, Linda; Knight, John; Holmes, Ross P.; Assimos, Dean G.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine if fish oil supplementation reduces endogenous oxalate synthesis in healthy subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS Fifteen healthy non–stone-forming adults participated in this study. Subjects first abstained from using vitamins, medications, or foods enriched in omega-3 fatty acids for 30 days. Next, they collected two 24-hour urine specimens while consuming a self-selected diet. Subjects consumed an extremely low-oxalate and normal-calcium diet for 5 days and collected 24-hour urine specimens on the last 3 days of this diet. Next, the subjects took 2 fish oil capsules containing 650-mg eicosapentaenoic acid and 450-mg docosahexaenoic acid twice daily for 30 days. They consumed a self-selected diet on days 1–25 and the controlled diet on days 26–30. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected on days 28–30. Excretion levels of urinary analytes including oxalate and glycolate were analyzed. RESULTS Although there was a significant reduction in urinary oxalate, magnesium, and potassium excretions and an increase in uric acid excretion during the controlled dietary phases compared with the self-selected diet, there were no significant differences in their excretion during controlled diet phases with and without fish oil supplementation. CONCLUSION These results suggest that fish oil supplementation does not reduce endogenous oxalate synthesis or urinary oxalate excretion in normal adults during periods of extremely low oxalate intake. However, these results do not challenge the previously described reduction in urinary oxalate excretion demonstrated in normal subjects consuming a moderate amount of oxalate in conjunction with fish oil. PMID:25102784

  16. Utilization of stomach content DNA to determine diet diversity in piscivorous fishes.

    PubMed

    Carreon-Martinez, L; Johnson, T B; Ludsin, S A; Heath, D D

    2011-04-01

    The objective of the study was to validate and apply DNA-based approaches to describe fish diets. Laboratory experiments were performed to determine the number of hours after ingestion that DNA could be reliably isolated from stomach content residues, particularly with small prey fishes (c. 1 cm, <0·75 g). Additionally, experiments were conducted at different temperatures to resolve temperature effects on digestion rate and DNA viability. The molecular protocol of cloning and sequencing was then applied to the analysis of stomach contents of wild fishes collected from the western basin of Lake Erie, Canada-U.S.A. The results showed that molecular techniques were more precise than traditional visual inspection and could provide insight into diet preferences for even highly digested prey that have lost all physical characteristics. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2011 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  17. Batch spawning facilitates transfer of an essential nutrient from diet to eggs in a marine fish.

    PubMed

    Fuiman, Lee A; Faulk, Cynthia K

    2013-10-23

    Fatty acid composition of eggs affects development, growth and ecological performance of fish embryos and larvae, with potential consequences for recruitment success. Essential fatty acids in eggs derive from the maternal diet, and the time between ingestion and deposition in eggs is ecologically important but unknown. We examined the dynamics of diet-egg transfer of arachidonic acid (ARA) in the batch-spawning fish, red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus), by measuring ARA concentrations in eggs after a single diet shift and during a period of irregular variations in diet. ARA concentrations in eggs changed within 2-16 days of a diet shift. The rate of change was proportional to the magnitude of the shift, with no evidence of equilibration. These results are not consistent with eggs being assembled entirely from accumulated body stores. The immediate source of ARA in eggs appears to be the recent diet. We propose that batch spawning produces rapid diet-egg transfer of ARA because it removes large amounts of fatty acids from the body and prevents equilibration. The immediacy of the diet-egg connection suggests that spawning migration combined with short-interval batch spawning may have evolved to take advantage of nutrients critical for offspring survival that are available at the spawning site.

  18. Total and Methyl Mercury in 1994-5 Lake Michigan Lake Trout and Forage Fish

    EPA Science Inventory

    Total and methyl mercury were analyzed in Lake Michigan fish collected in 1994 and 1995 as part of the Lake Michigan Mass Balance project (LMMB). One predator fish species and five forage fish species were analyzed to determine the bioaccumulative nature of mercury. These data ...

  19. Evaluation of fruit-vegetable and fish wastes as alternative feedstuffs in pig diets.

    PubMed

    Esteban, M B; García, A J; Ramos, P; Márquez, M C

    2007-01-01

    Fruit-vegetable and fish wastes were evaluated as potential feedstuffs for growing-finishing pigs. Wastes were collected from shops in the city of Salamanca (Spain) and their nutritional composition, mineral content and digestibility were determined. The dry matter of the wastes under study was relatively low (12% for fruit-vegetable waste and 26% for fish waste), but they presented all of the nutrient requirements for swine diets. The fish waste contained 58% crude protein, 22% ash, 19% ether extract and 1% crude fibre, whereas the fruit-vegetable waste contained 65% nitrogen free extract, 13% crude fibre, 12% crude protein, 8% ash and 2% ether extract. Waste digestibility decreased with temperature, and hence temperatures over 65 degrees C for fruit-vegetable waste and 105 degrees C for fish waste should not be used in the treatment to reduce the moisture and to ensure the microbiology quality. Therefore, two diets were formulated using linear programming. The analysed waste was included in approximately 20% of one of the diets, while another diet was formulated without any type of waste. These data showed that this part of biodegradable municipal waste could be managed as alternative feedstuffs in swine diets, reducing the amount of biodegradable municipal waste going to landfills.

  20. Efficacy of phytosterols and fish-oil supplemented high-oleic-sunflower oil rich diets in hypercholesterolemic growing rats.

    PubMed

    Alsina, Estefania; Macri, Elisa V; Lifshitz, Fima; Bozzini, Clarisa; Rodriguez, Patricia N; Boyer, Patricia M; Friedman, Silvia M

    2016-06-01

    Phytosterols (P) and fish-oil (F) efficacy on high-oleic-sunflower oil (HOSO) diets were assessed in hypercholesterolemic growing rats. Controls (C) received a standard diet for 8 weeks; experimental rats were fed an atherogenic diet (AT) for 3 weeks, thereafter were divided into four groups fed for 5 weeks a monounsaturated fatty acid diet (MUFA) containing either: extra virgin olive oil (OO), HOSO or HOSO supplemented with P or F. The diets did not alter body weight or growth. HOSO-P and HOSO-F rats showed reduced total cholesterol (T-chol), non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (non-HDL-chol) and triglycerides and increased HDL-chol levels, comparably to the OO rats. Total body fat (%) was similar among all rats; but HOSO-F showed the lowest intestinal, epididymal and perirenal fat. However, bone mineral content and density, and bone yield stress and modulus of elasticity were unchanged. Growing hypercholesterolemic rats fed HOSO with P or F improved serum lipids and fat distribution, but did not influence material bone quality.

  1. Proteomics identifies molecular networks affected by tetradecylthioacetic acid and fish oil supplemented diets.

    PubMed

    Wrzesinski, Krzysztof; R León, Ileana; Kulej, Katarzyna; Sprenger, Richard R; Bjørndal, Bodil; Christensen, Bjørn J; Berge, Rolf K; Jensen, Ole N; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina

    2013-06-12

    Fish oil (FO) and tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) - a synthetic modified fatty acid have beneficial effects in regulating lipid metabolism. In order to dissect the mechanisms underlying the molecular action of those two fatty acids we have investigated the changes in mitochondrial protein expression in a long-term study (50weeks) in male Wistar rats fed 5 different diets. The diets were as follows: low fat diet; high fat diet; and three diets that combined high fat diet with fish oil, TTA or combination of those two as food supplements. We used two different proteomics techniques: a protein centric based on 2D gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, and LC-MS(E) based peptide centric approach. As a result we provide evidence that fish oil and TTA modulate mitochondrial metabolism in a synergistic manner yet the effects of TTA are much more dramatic. We demonstrate that fatty acid metabolism; lipid oxidation, amino acid metabolism and oxidative phosphorylation pathways are involved in fish oil and TTA action. Evidence for the involvement of PPAR mediated signalling is provided. Additionally we postulate that down regulation of components of complexes I and II contributes to the strong antioxidant properties of TTA. This study for the first time explores the effect of fish oil and TTA - tetradecyl-thioacetic acid and the combination of those two as diet supplements on mitochondria metabolism in a comprehensive and systematic manner. We show that fish oil and TTA modulate mitochondrial metabolism in a synergistic manner yet the effects of TTA are much more dramatic. We demonstrate in a large scale that fatty acid metabolism and lipid oxidation are affected by fish oil and TTA, a phenomenon already known from more directed molecular biology studies. Our approach, however, shows additionally that amino acid metabolism and oxidative phosphorylation pathways are also strongly affected by TTA and also to some extent by fish oil administration. Strong evidence for the

  2. Growth and diet of fish in Waldo Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swanson, Nicola L.; Liss, W.J.; Ziller, Jeffrey S.; Wade, M.; Gresswell, R.E.

    2000-01-01

    Waldo Lake, located in the Oregon Cascades, is considered to be one of the most dilute lakes in the world. Even with low nutrient concentrations and sparse populations of zooplankton, introduced fish in the lake are large in size and in good condition when compared to fish from other lakes. This apparent anomaly is due to the availability of benthic macroinvertebrates. Taxa found in the stomach contents offish captured in Waldo Lake consist primarily of Chironomidae larvae and pupae, Trichoptera larvae and pupae, amphipods, Ephemeroptera larvae, and Odonata larvae.

  3. Constraints on Energy Intake in Fish: The Link between Diet Composition, Energy Metabolism, and Energy Intake in Rainbow Trout

    PubMed Central

    Saravanan, Subramanian; Schrama, Johan W.; Figueiredo-Silva, A. Claudia; Kaushik, Sadasivam J.; Verreth, Johan A. J.; Geurden, Inge

    2012-01-01

    The hypothesis was tested that fish fed to satiation with iso-energetic diets differing in macronutrient composition will have different digestible energy intakes (DEI) but similar total heat production. Four iso-energetic diets (2×2 factorial design) were formulated having a contrast in i) the ratio of protein to energy (P/E): high (HP/E) vs. low (LP/E) and ii) the type of non-protein energy (NPE) source: fat vs. carbohydrate which were iso-energetically exchanged. Triplicate groups (35 fish/tank) of rainbow trout were hand-fed each diet twice daily to satiation for 6 weeks under non-limiting water oxygen conditions. Feed intake (FI), DEI (kJ kg−0.8 d−1) and growth (g kg−0.8 d−1) of trout were affected by the interaction between P/E ratio and NPE source of the diet (P<0.05). Regardless of dietary P/E ratio, the inclusion of carbohydrate compared to fat as main NPE source reduced DEI and growth of trout by ∼20%. The diet-induced differences in FI and DEI show that trout did not compensate for the dietary differences in digestible energy or digestible protein contents. Further, changes in body fat store and plasma glucose did not seem to exert a homeostatic feedback control on DEI. Independent of the diet composition, heat production of trout did not differ (P>0.05). Our data suggest that the control of DEI in trout might be a function of heat production, which in turn might reflect a physiological limit related with oxidative metabolism. PMID:22496852

  4. The ratio of fish to meat in the diet is positively associated with favorable intake of food groups and nutrients among young Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Okubo, Hitomi; Sasaki, Satoshi; Murakami, Kentaro; Takahashi, Yoshiko

    2011-03-01

    Although fish and meat may exert opposing influences on chronic disease, information on the balance of intake between fish and meat to overall diet quality is limited, particularly in Japanese, who have a much higher fish intake than Western populations. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to test the hypothesis that intake balance between fish and meat is associated with food and nutrient intakes in young Japanese women. The subjects were 3716 Japanese dietetic students aged 18 to 20 years. Diet was assessed by a validated, self-administered diet history questionnaire. The dietary ratio of fish to meat was calculated from fish and meat intakes as a temporal indicator of overall intake balance. The ratio of fish to meat intake was associated positively with intakes of vegetables, fruits, pulses, dairy products, and alcohol, and negatively with those of energy-containing beverages and fat and oils. At the nutrient level, the ratio of fish to meat intake was associated negatively with intakes of energy, total fat, saturated fatty acids, n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamin B(1), and zinc, and positively with those of protein, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, dietary fiber, and key vitamins and minerals. After limiting analysis to nutrients derived from foods other than fish and meat, the ratio of fish to meat intake was positively associated with intakes of almost all vitamins and minerals examined. In conclusion, women who consumed more fish than meat (ratio >1) tended to choose more favorable food groups that included higher amounts of vegetables and fruits, resulting in a better profile of nutrient intake patterns. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A high-fat diet supplemented with fish oil improves metabolic features associated with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Jelinek, David; Castillo, Joseph J; Arora, Surpreet L; Richardson, Lisa M; Garver, William S

    2013-09-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of a high-fat diet supplemented with fish oil or olive oil, fed to C57BL/6J mice for an extended period, on metabolic features associated with type 2 diabetes. Mice were fed one of four diets for 30 wk: a low-fat diet, a high-fat diet supplemented with lard, a high-fat diet supplemented with fish oil, or a high-fat diet supplemented with olive oil. Phenotypic and metabolic analysis were determined at 15 and 25 to 30 wk, thereby providing comparative analysis for weight gain, energy consumption, fat distribution, glucose and insulin tolerance, and hepatic/plasma lipid analysis. Mice fed a high-fat diet supplemented with fish oil had improved glucose tolerance after an extended period compared with mice fed a high-fat diet supplemented with lard. Moreover, mice fed a high-fat diet supplemented with fish oil had significantly decreased concentrations of liver cholesterol, cholesteryl ester, and triacylglycerol compared with mice fed a high-fat diet supplemented with either lard or olive oil. Mice fed a high-fat diet supplemented with fish oil improved metabolic features associated with type 2 diabetes such as impaired glucose tolerance and hepatic steatosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Insect protein as a partical replacement of fishmeal in the diets of juvenile fish and crustaceans

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This chapter represents a review of the published literature to determine if insect protein is an important supplement to - or even a replacement for - fishmeal in diets for juvenile fish and crustaceans. Fishmeal is becoming a finite resource. This chapter highlights areas of opportunity for prod...

  7. Insect Protein as a partial Replacement of Fishmeal in the Diets of Juvenile Fish and Crustaceans

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This chapter represents a review of the published literature to determine if insect protein is an important supplement to - or even a replacement for - fishmeal in diets for juvenile fish and crustaceans. Fishmeal is becoming a finite resource. This chapter highlights areas of opportunity for produc...

  8. Insect protein as a partial replacement of fishmeal in the diets of juvenile fish and crustaceans

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This chapter represents a review of the published literature to determine if insect protein is an important supplement to - or even a replacement for - fishmeal in diets for juvenile fish and crustaceans. Fishmeal is becoming a finite resource. This chapter highlights areas of opportunity for produc...

  9. Effects of Copper, Cadmium, Lead, and Arsenic in a Live Diet on Juvenile Fish Growth

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of dietborne copper, cadmium, lead, and arsenic on juvenile fish were evaluated using a live diet consisting of the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus. In 30-d exposures, no effects on growth and survival of rainbow trout, fathead minnow, and channel catfish were obs...

  10. Effects of Copper, Cadmium, Lead, and Arsenic in a Live Diet on Juvenile Fish Growth

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of dietborne copper, cadmium, lead, and arsenic on juvenile fish were evaluated using a live diet consisting of the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus. In 30-d exposures, no effects on growth and survival of rainbow trout, fathead minnow, and channel catfish were obs...

  11. Nutritive value of diets containing fish silage for juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei (Bonne, 1931).

    PubMed

    Gallardo, Pedro; Gaxiola, Gabriela; Soberano, Sofía; Taboada, J Gabriel; Pérez, Marquelia; Rosas, Carlos; Cuzon, Gerard; Espinosa, L Gabriela; Sotelo, Angela

    2012-08-30

    Fish wastes has been used for many years as an alternative in feeds for aquaculture. In the present study weight gain of juvenile white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei fed diets including fish waste silage (WS), fish waste silage with soybean meal SBM (WS + S) or fish waste meal (WM) was compared. A conventional acidic silage process was applied to obtain from wastes (skin, heads, bones and viscera) of snapper (Lutjanus spp.), grunt (Haemulon plumieri), and grouper (Epinephelus spp.) an ingredient rich in protein. After 3 days ensilage more than 90% protein was hydrolysed. Waste material processed at pH 3.8 lost about 24% tryptophan. Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) prevented lipid oxidation, as shown after 45 days with malonaldehyde production. Shrimp fed WS + S diet gained 0.7 g per week higher than those fed WS and WM diets with 0.3 g per week (P < 0.05). WS processed with formic acid under conditions of low pH is beneficial for the white shrimp L. vannamei. It sustained reasonable weight gain combined with soybean meal in practical diets. On the other hand, BHT addition was beneficial in preventing oxidative action during silage preparation. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Empirical assessment of indices of prey importance in the diets of predacious fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liao, H.; Pierce, C.L.; Larscheid, J.G.

    2001-01-01

    Determining the importance of prey taxa in the diets of predacious species is a frequent objective in fisheries research. Various indices of prey importance are in common use, and all give different results because of their emphasis on different aspects of fish diets. We explored these differences by empirically comparing four well-known indices-percent weight (%W), percent occurrence (%O), percent number (%N), and percent index of relative importance (%IRI)-as well as a modified %IRI (%MIRI), as applied to an extensive data set on the diets of six fish species in Spirit Lake, Iowa. Correlations among all indices were positive but were weaker among component indices (%W, %O, and %N) than between the two compound indices (%IRI and %MIRI); correlations among component indices were also weaker than correlations of compound with component indices. Correlation strength of %MIRI with the three component indices varied greatly (%N %O %W), whereas the correlation strength of %IRI with component indices was similar. Importance values based on %W, %MIRI, and %N depend more on prey size than those based on %IRI and %O. The %W and %MIRI emphasized the importance of large prey taxa, whereas %N emphasized small prey in diets; %IRI and %O were similarly unbiased with respect to prey size. The %O yielded substantially higher importance values than all other indices. Thus, for use as a general index of dietary importance, we believe %IRI provides the optimal balancing of frequency of occurrence, numerical abundance, and abundance by weight of taxa in fish diets.

  13. Effect of supplementation of fish and canola oil in the diet on milk Fatty Acid composition in early lactating holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Vafa, Toktam S; Naserian, Abbas A; Heravi Moussavi, Ali R; Valizadeh, Reza; Mesgaran, Mohsen Danesh

    2012-03-01

    This study examined the effects of supplementation of fish oil and canola oil in the diet on milk yield, milk components and fatty acid composition of Holstein dairy cows in early lactation. Eight multiparous early lactation Holstein cows (42±12 DIM, 40±6 kg daily milk yield) were fed a total mixed ration supplemented with either 0% oil (Control), 2% fish oil (FO), 1% canola oil +1% fish oil (FOCO), or 2% canola oil (CO) according to a double 4×4 Latin square design. Each period lasted 3 wk; experimental analyses were restricted to the last week of each period. Supplemental oils were added to a basal diet which was formulated according to NRC (2001) and consisted of 20% alfalfa, 20% corn silage and 60% concentrate. Milk yield was similar between diets (p>0.05), but dry matter intake (DMI) was lower (p<0.05) in cows fed FO diet compared to other diets. Milk fat percentage and daily yield decreased (p<0.01) with the supplementation of fish and canola oil. The daily yield and percentage of milk protein, lactose and solids-not-fat (SNF) were not affected by diets (p>0.05). The proportion (g/100 g fatty acids) of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) decreased and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) increased (p<0.05) in milk of all cows fed diets supplemented with oil. The proportions of 6:0, 8:0, 10:0 12:0 and 14:0 fatty acids in milk fat decreased (p<0.01) for all diets supplemented with oil, but the proportions of 14:1, 16:0 and 16:1 fatty acids were not affected by diets (p>0.05). The proportion of trans(t)-18:1 increased (p<0.01) in milk fat of cows fed FO and FOCO diets, but CO diet had the highest proportion of cis(c)-11 18:1 (p<0.01). The concentration of t-10, c-12 18:2, c-9 t-11 18:2, 18:3, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6) increased (p<0.05) in FO and FOCO diets in comparison with the other two diets. These data indicate that including fish oil in combination with canola oil significantly modifies the fatty acid composition of

  14. Effect of Supplementation of Fish and Canola Oil in the Diet on Milk Fatty Acid Composition in Early Lactating Holstein Cows

    PubMed Central

    Vafa, Toktam S.; Naserian, Abbas A.; Heravi Moussavi, Ali R.; Valizadeh, Reza; Mesgaran, Mohsen Danesh

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of supplementation of fish oil and canola oil in the diet on milk yield, milk components and fatty acid composition of Holstein dairy cows in early lactation. Eight multiparous early lactation Holstein cows (42±12 DIM, 40±6 kg daily milk yield) were fed a total mixed ration supplemented with either 0% oil (Control), 2% fish oil (FO), 1% canola oil +1% fish oil (FOCO), or 2% canola oil (CO) according to a double 4×4 Latin square design. Each period lasted 3 wk; experimental analyses were restricted to the last week of each period. Supplemental oils were added to a basal diet which was formulated according to NRC (2001) and consisted of 20% alfalfa, 20% corn silage and 60% concentrate. Milk yield was similar between diets (p>0.05), but dry matter intake (DMI) was lower (p<0.05) in cows fed FO diet compared to other diets. Milk fat percentage and daily yield decreased (p<0.01) with the supplementation of fish and canola oil. The daily yield and percentage of milk protein, lactose and solids-not-fat (SNF) were not affected by diets (p>0.05). The proportion (g/100 g fatty acids) of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) decreased and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) increased (p<0.05) in milk of all cows fed diets supplemented with oil. The proportions of 6:0, 8:0, 10:0 12:0 and 14:0 fatty acids in milk fat decreased (p<0.01) for all diets supplemented with oil, but the proportions of 14:1, 16:0 and 16:1 fatty acids were not affected by diets (p>0.05). The proportion of trans(t)-18:1 increased (p<0.01) in milk fat of cows fed FO and FOCO diets, but CO diet had the highest proportion of cis(c)-11 18:1 (p<0.01). The concentration of t-10, c-12 18:2, c-9 t-11 18:2, 18:3, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6) increased (p<0.05) in FO and FOCO diets in comparison with the other two diets. These data indicate that including fish oil in combination with canola oil significantly modifies the fatty acid composition of

  15. Diet and Diversification in the Evolution of Coral Reef Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Lobato, Fabio L.; Barneche, Diego R.; Siqueira, Alexandre C.; Liedke, Ana M. R.; Lindner, Alberto; Pie, Marcio R.; Bellwood, David R.; Floeter, Sergio R.

    2014-01-01

    The disparity in species richness among evolutionary lineages is one of the oldest and most intriguing issues in evolutionary biology. Although geographical factors have been traditionally thought to promote speciation, recent studies have underscored the importance of ecological interactions as one of the main drivers of diversification. Here, we test if differences in species richness of closely related lineages match predictions based on the concept of density-dependent diversification. As radiation progresses, ecological niche-space would become increasingly saturated, resulting in fewer opportunities for speciation. To assess this hypothesis, we tested whether reef fish niche shifts toward usage of low-quality food resources (i.e. relatively low energy/protein per unit mass), such as algae, detritus, sponges and corals are accompanied by rapid net diversification. Using available molecular information, we reconstructed phylogenies of four major reef fish clades (Acanthuroidei, Chaetodontidae, Labridae and Pomacentridae) to estimate the timing of radiations of their subclades. We found that the evolution of species-rich clades was associated with a switch to low quality food in three of the four clades analyzed, which is consistent with a density-dependent model of diversification. We suggest that ecological opportunity may play an important role in understanding the diversification of reef-fish lineages. PMID:25029229

  16. Diet and diversification in the evolution of coral reef fishes.

    PubMed

    Lobato, Fabio L; Barneche, Diego R; Siqueira, Alexandre C; Liedke, Ana M R; Lindner, Alberto; Pie, Marcio R; Bellwood, David R; Floeter, Sergio R

    2014-01-01

    The disparity in species richness among evolutionary lineages is one of the oldest and most intriguing issues in evolutionary biology. Although geographical factors have been traditionally thought to promote speciation, recent studies have underscored the importance of ecological interactions as one of the main drivers of diversification. Here, we test if differences in species richness of closely related lineages match predictions based on the concept of density-dependent diversification. As radiation progresses, ecological niche-space would become increasingly saturated, resulting in fewer opportunities for speciation. To assess this hypothesis, we tested whether reef fish niche shifts toward usage of low-quality food resources (i.e. relatively low energy/protein per unit mass), such as algae, detritus, sponges and corals are accompanied by rapid net diversification. Using available molecular information, we reconstructed phylogenies of four major reef fish clades (Acanthuroidei, Chaetodontidae, Labridae and Pomacentridae) to estimate the timing of radiations of their subclades. We found that the evolution of species-rich clades was associated with a switch to low quality food in three of the four clades analyzed, which is consistent with a density-dependent model of diversification. We suggest that ecological opportunity may play an important role in understanding the diversification of reef-fish lineages.

  17. Supplementing oregano essential oil to boar diet with strengthened fish oil: Effects on semen antioxidant status and semen quality parameters.

    PubMed

    Liu, Q; Duan, R J; Zhou, Y F; Wei, H K; Peng, J; Li, J L

    2017-02-22

    Previous research has shown benefits of dietary fish oil supplementation on semen quality of boars. However, little is known about how antioxidant protects lipid peroxidation on spermatozoa from n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) addition. This study evaluated the effect of oregano essential oil (OEO) supplementation on semen antioxidant status and semen quality in boars fed a diet enriched with fish oil. Thirty-four mature boars of proven fertility, received daily 2.5 kg basal diet top-dressed with 45 g soybean oil and 15 g fish oil to meet the n-3 PUFA requirement of spermatozoa, randomly allocated to one of four groups supplemented with 100 mg α-tocopheryl acetate kg(-1) (control), or 250 or 500 or 750 mg OEO kg(-1) for 16 weeks. Semen was collected at weeks 0, 8, 12 and 16 for measurements of sperm production, motion characteristics, sperm α-tocopherol content, antioxidant enzyme activities, reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA damage (8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, 8-OHdG), lipoperoxidation (malondialdehyde, MDA) and seminal total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Sperm production and motion characteristics were similar (p > .05) among groups throughout the experimental week 16, but increased (p < .01) with experimental week. Although higher α-tocopherol content and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were in OEO group spermatozoa, feeding diet with 500 mg/kg OEO resulted in elevation in seminal TAC, decrease in sperm ROS, MDA and 8-OHdG than control group (p < .05). Overall, these results support the view that oregano essential oil has a positive effect on antioxidant capacity in boar when used fish oil.

  18. Effect of phytate, microbial phytase, fiber, and soybean oil on calculated values for apparent and standardized total tract digestibility of calcium and apparent total tract digestibility of phosphorus in fish meal fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    González-Vega, J C; Walk, C L; Stein, H H

    2015-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of phytate, phytase, fiber, and soybean oil on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of Ca and on ATTD of P in fish meal fed to growing pigs. In Exp. 1, 40 growing pigs (initial average BW: 19.16 ± 2.04 kg) were randomly allotted to 1 of 5 diets with 8 pigs per treatment and placed in metabolism crates. Four diets were used in a 2 ´ 2 factorial design with 2 levels of phytate (0 or 0.7%) and 2 levels of microbial phytase (0 or 500 phytase units/kg). The diet containing no phytate was based on sucrose, cornstarch, fish meal, casein, and soybean oil, and the diet containing 0.7% phytate was based on corn, corn germ, fish meal, casein, and soybean oil. A Ca-free diet was used to determine basal endogenous losses of Ca. Feces were collected from d 6 to 13 after a 5-d adaptation period. Results indicated that the ATTD and STTD of Ca in fish meal and the ATTD of P increased ( < 0.001) if phytase was used and were greater ( < 0.05) in the diets based on corn and corn germ. Experiment 2 was conducted to determine the effects of fiber and soybean oil on the ATTD and STTD of Ca and the ATTD of P in fish meal. Fifty growing pigs (initial average BW: 19.36 ± 0.99 kg) were randomly allotted to 1 of 5 diets with 10 pigs per treatment. Two diets contained sucrose, cornstarch, fish meal, casein, and either 0 or 8% of a synthetic source of fiber. Two additional diets contained fish meal, casein, corn, and either 1 or 7% soybean oil. A Ca-free diet was also used. Pigs were housed individually in metabolism crates and fecal samples were collected. Results indicated that fiber increased ( < 0.001) the ATTD and STTD of Ca and the ATTD of P, but the ATTD and STTD of Ca or the ATTD of P were not affected by soybean oil. In agreement with the results of Exp. 1, the ATTD and STTD of Ca and the ATTD of P in the corn-based diet were greater ( < 0.05) than those in the cornstarch

  19. Diet shifts by planktivorous and benthivorous fishes in northern Lake Michigan in response to ecosystem changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bunnell, David B.; Davis, Bruce M.; Chriscinske, Margret Ann; Keeler, Kevin M.; Mychek-Londer, Justin G.

    2015-01-01

    In Lake Michigan, diets of planktivorous and benthivorous fishes have varied over the past decades, in part owing to food web changes. To update diet information and compare them to a similar effort in 1994–1995, we analyzed the diets of seven benthivorous and planktivorous fish species collected along two northern Lake Michigan transects that spanned nearshore (18 m), intermediate (46 m), and offshore (91, 110, 128 m) bottom depths during spring, summer, and autumn of 2010. Calanoid copepods (e.g., Limnocalanus macrurus, Leptodiaptomus sicilis, and Senecella calanoides) comprised a majority of the diets in at least one season for all sizes of alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus), bloater (Coregonus hoyi), and rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax). Similarly, Mysis diluviana was the highest proportion in at least one season for large sizes of alewife, bloater, and rainbow smelt, as well as slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus) and deepwater sculpin (Myoxocephalus thompsonii). The diets of the remaining two species, ninespine stickleback (Pungitius pungitius) and round goby (Neogobius melanostomus), were dominated by herbivorous cladocerans or dreissenid mussels, respectively. Interspecific diet overlap was minimal at 18 and 46 m. In offshore waters, however, overlap was relatively high, driven by frequent consumption of Mysis. Relative to 1994–1995, 2010 diets revealed increased feeding on calanoid copepods and Mysis, with corresponding declining consumption of Diporeia spp. and herbivorous cladocerans. Relative diet weight was also higher in 1994–1995 than in 2010 for small and large bloater and both sculpin species. We hypothesize that the shifts in diets are reflective of community-level changes in invertebrate prey availability.

  20. Distribution of total mercury and methyl mercury in water, sediment, and fish from South Florida estuaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kannan, K.; Smith, R.G.; Lee, R.F.; Windom, H.L.; Heitmuller, P.T.; Macauley, J.M.; Summers, J.K.

    1998-01-01

    Concentrations of total mercury and methyl mercury were determined in sediment and fish collected from estuarine waters of Florida to understand their distribution and partitioning. Total mercury concentrations in sediments ranged from 1 to 219 ng/g dry wt. Methyl mercury accounted for, on average, 0.77% of total mercury in sediment. Methyl mercury concentrations were not correlated with total mercury or organic carbon content in sediments. The concentrations of total mercury in fish muscle were between 0.03 and 2.22 (mean: 0.31) ??g/g, wet wt, with methyl mercury contributing 83% of total mercury. Methyl mercury concentrations in fish muscle were directly proportional to total mercury concentrations. The relationship of total and methyl mercury concentrations in fish to those of sediments from corresponding locations was fish-species dependent, in addition to several abiotic factors. Among fish species analyzed, hardhead catfish, gafftopsail catfish, and sand seatrout contained the highest concentrations of mercury. Filtered water samples from canals and creeks that discharge into the Florida Bay showed mercury concentrations of 3-7.4 ng/L, with methyl mercury accounting for <0.03-52% of the total mercury. Consumption of fish containing 0.31 ??g mercury/g wet wt, the mean concentration found in this study, at rates greater than 70 g/day, was estimated to be hazardous to human health.

  1. Incorporation of magnesium into fish otoliths: Determining contribution from water and diet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodcock, S. H.; Munro, A. R.; Crook, D. A.; Gillanders, B. M.

    2012-10-01

    Magnesium is a commonly measured element in otolith chemistry analysis and is often included in the suite of elements used to discriminate fish from different environments. Poor relations between Mg in water and otolith chemistry are, however, often found. We examined the uptake of Mg into the otoliths of a freshwater fish (silver perch Bidyanus bidyanus), to determine the extent to which this element can be used to record previous environmental conditions. Silver perch fingerlings were reared for 30 days in water with four concentrations of Mg (14.5, 36.6, 52.1 and 69.6 mg L-1) and fed on a diet supplemented with a combination of natural Mg and enriched 26Mg at five concentrations (1496, 1626, 1902, 2005 and 2036 μg g-1). Enriched 26Mg was added to the diet to achieve a 26Mg/25Mg ratio that was different from the natural ratio, such that the relative contribution of water and diet to Mg incorporated into otoliths could be determined. Enriching the diet with 26Mg resulted in an isotope shift in the otolith of silver perch from the natural 26Mg/25Mg ratio of 1.10-1.42; however, this was not as high as the ratio in the diet (> 3.7) suggesting that the fish did not fully incorporate Mg from the diet. Water was the primary source of otolith Mg, contributing on average > 80% to otolith Mg (range 74-95%). The fact that Mg concentrations in the otolith did not change in response to Mg concentrations in the water or diet, indicates that Mg is likely physiologically regulated and therefore is not a reliable environmental indicator.

  2. Transcriptomic analysis of the effects of a fish oil enriched diet on murine brains.

    PubMed

    Hammamieh, Rasha; Chakraborty, Nabarun; Gautam, Aarti; Miller, Stacy-Ann; Muhie, Seid; Meyerhoff, James; Jett, Marti

    2014-01-01

    The health benefits of fish oil enriched with high omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) are widely documented. Fish oil as dietary supplements, however, show moderate clinical efficacy, highlighting an immediate scope of systematic in vitro feedback. Our transcriptomic study was designed to investigate the genomic shift of murine brains fed on fish oil enriched diets. A customized fish oil enriched diet (FD) and standard lab diet (SD) were separately administered to two randomly chosen populations of C57BL/6J mice from their weaning age until late adolescence. Statistical analysis mined 1,142 genes of interest (GOI) differentially altered in the hemibrains collected from the FD- and SD-fed mice at the age of five months. The majority of identified GOI (∼ 40%) encodes proteins located in the plasma membrane, suggesting that fish oil primarily facilitated the membrane-oriented biofunctions. FD potentially augmented the nervous system's development and functions by selectively stimulating the Src-mediated calcium-induced growth cascade and the downstream PI3K-AKT-PKC pathways. FD reduced the amyloidal burden, attenuated oxidative stress, and assisted in somatostatin activation-the signatures of attenuation of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and affective disorder. FD induced elevation of FKBP5 and suppression of BDNF, which are often linked with the improvement of anxiety disorder, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Hence we anticipate efficacy of FD in treating illnesses such as depression that are typically triggered by the hypoactivities of dopaminergic, adrenergic, cholinergic, and GABAergic networks. Contrastingly, FD's efficacy could be compromised in treating illnesses such as bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, which are triggered by hyperactivities of the same set of neuromodulators. A more comprehensive investigation is recommended to elucidate the implications of fish oil on disease pathomechanisms, and the result

  3. Transcriptomic Analysis of the Effects of a Fish Oil Enriched Diet on Murine Brains

    PubMed Central

    Gautam, Aarti; Miller, Stacy-Ann; Muhie, Seid; Meyerhoff, James; Jett, Marti

    2014-01-01

    The health benefits of fish oil enriched with high omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) are widely documented. Fish oil as dietary supplements, however, show moderate clinical efficacy, highlighting an immediate scope of systematic in vitro feedback. Our transcriptomic study was designed to investigate the genomic shift of murine brains fed on fish oil enriched diets. A customized fish oil enriched diet (FD) and standard lab diet (SD) were separately administered to two randomly chosen populations of C57BL/6J mice from their weaning age until late adolescence. Statistical analysis mined 1,142 genes of interest (GOI) differentially altered in the hemibrains collected from the FD- and SD-fed mice at the age of five months. The majority of identified GOI (∼40%) encodes proteins located in the plasma membrane, suggesting that fish oil primarily facilitated the membrane-oriented biofunctions. FD potentially augmented the nervous system's development and functions by selectively stimulating the Src-mediated calcium-induced growth cascade and the downstream PI3K-AKT-PKC pathways. FD reduced the amyloidal burden, attenuated oxidative stress, and assisted in somatostatin activation—the signatures of attenuation of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and affective disorder. FD induced elevation of FKBP5 and suppression of BDNF, which are often linked with the improvement of anxiety disorder, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Hence we anticipate efficacy of FD in treating illnesses such as depression that are typically triggered by the hypoactivities of dopaminergic, adrenergic, cholinergic, and GABAergic networks. Contrastingly, FD's efficacy could be compromised in treating illnesses such as bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, which are triggered by hyperactivities of the same set of neuromodulators. A more comprehensive investigation is recommended to elucidate the implications of fish oil on disease pathomechanisms, and the result

  4. Blood pressure and serum lipids from SHR after diets supplemented with evening primrose, sunflowerseed or fish oil.

    PubMed

    Singer, P; Moritz, V; Wirth, M; Berger, I; Forster, D

    1990-05-01

    Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) at 4 weeks of age were fed a diet supplemented with sunflowerseed oil (SO), evening primrose oil (EPO), fish oil (FO) or EPO + FO for 22 weeks. A diet with commercially available pellets served as control. Systolic blood pressure was significantly lower during and after FO, EPO and EPO + FO, whereas the lower level after SO was not significant when compared with the controls. Serum triglycerides and total cholesterol were lowest after EPO followed FO. The combination of both EPO and FO resulted in unexpected high values of triglycerides and cholesterol. HDL-cholesterol was likewise highest after EPO + FO. The results indicate a quantitatively different depression of blood pressure and serum lipids from SHR by individual polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA).

  5. Milk conjugated linoleic acid response to fish oil supplementation of diets differing in fatty acid profiles.

    PubMed

    AbuGhazaleh, A A; Schingoethe, D J; Hippen, A R; Kalscheur, K F

    2003-03-01

    The objective of this experiment was to examine the effect of feeding fish oil (FO) along with fat sources that varied in their fatty acid compositions (high stearic, high oleic, high linoleic, or high linolenic acids) to determine which combination would lead to maximum conjugated linoleic acid (cis-9,trans-11 CLA) and transvaccenic acid (TVA) concentrations in milk fat. Twelve Holstein cows (eight multiparous and four primiparous cows) at 73 (+/- 32) DIM were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square with 4-wk periods. Treatment diets were 1) 1% FO plus 2% fat source high in stearic acid (HS), 2) 1% FO plus 2% fat from high oleic acid sunflower seeds (HO), 3) 1% FO plus 2% fat from high linoleic acid sunflower seeds (HLO), and 4) 1% FO plus 2% fat from flax seeds (high linolenic; HLN). Diets formulated to contain 18% crude protein were composed of 50% (dry basis) concentrate mix, 25% corn silage, 12.5% alfalfa haylage, and 12.5% alfalfa hay. Milk production (35.8, 36.3, 34.9, and 35.0 kg/d for diets 1 to 4) was similar for all diets. Milk fat percentages (3.14, 2.81, 2.66, and 3.08) and yields (1.13, 1.02, 0.93, and 1.08 kg/d) for diets 1 to 4 were lowest for HLO. Milk protein percentages (3.04, 3.03, 3.10, and 3.08) and dry matter intake (DMI) (25.8, 26.0, 26.2, and 26.2 kg/d) for diets 1 to 4 were similar for all diets. Milk cis-9,trans-11 CLA concentrations (0.70, 1.04, 1.70, and 1.06 g/100 g fatty acids) for diet 1 to 4 and yields (7.7, 10.7, 15.8, and 11.3 g/d) for diets 1 to 4 were greatest with HLO and were least with HS. Milk cis-9,trans-11 CLA concentrations and yields were similar for cows fed the HO and the HLN diets. Similar to milk cis-9,trans-11 CLA, milk TVA concentration (1.64, 2.49, 3.74, and 2.41 g/100 g fatty acids) for diets 1 to 4 was greatest with the HLO diet and least with the HS diet. Feeding a high linoleic acid fat source with fish oil most effectively increased concentrations and yields of milk cis-9,trans-11 CLA and TVA.

  6. [Estimation of the intake of radioactive cesium based on analysis of total diet samples in Nagoya].

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Hitoshi; Kato, Haruyasu; Kato, Yukari; Tsuchiyama, Tomoyuki; Terada, Hisaya

    2013-01-01

    Food samples were purchased in Nagoya based on daily intake in the Tokai region, and prepared as total diet samples according to the market basket method. The contents of radioactive cesium (Cs) were determined by using a γ-ray spectrometer with a germanium semiconductor detector, and a committed effective dose was estimated. Radioactive Cs was not detected in samples collected in 2006 before the Fukushima nuclear plant accident. Radioactive Cs was detected in samples prepared in August, 2011, five months after the accident. The sources were sugar and confectioneries (3rd food group), other vegetables, seaweeds and mushrooms (8th food group) and fishes, shellfishes and processed seafoods (10th food group). Only Cs-137 was detected in samples prepared in August, 2012, one year and five months after the accident. The sources were the 8th and the 10th food groups. The estimated committed effective dose for radioactive Cs was 0.0015 mSv in 2011 and 0.00016 mSv in 2012.

  7. Potential of Psidium guajava supplemented fish diets in controlling Aeromonas hydrophila infection in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    PubMed

    Pachanawan, Adithepchaikarn; Phumkhachorn, Parichat; Rattanachaikunsopon, Pongsak

    2008-11-01

    Fourteen herbs were extracted in water, 95% ethanol, and ether, and tested in vitro for antimicrobial activities against Aeromonas hydrophila, a fish pathogen causing motile Aeromonas septicemia. Using swab paper disc assays and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) determinations, we noted that the ethanol extract of Psidium guajava leaf exhibited the strongest antimicrobial activity. The extract allowed growth-inhibited A. hydrophila cells to regrow in fresh BHI broth indicating a bacteriostatic mode of action. In a pathogenicity test, the median lethal dose (LD(50)) of A. hydrophila for tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) by intraperitoneal injection was 3.44 x 10(6) CFU/ml. In vivo experiments showed that fish diets containing either dry leaf powder of P. guajava or dried ethanol extract of P. guajava leaf reduced mortality of A. hydrophila infected tilapia with no detected adverse effect on the fish. This study suggests that P. guajava leaf has the potential to control fish diseases caused by A. hydrophila.

  8. Protective effect of soybean oil- or fish oil-rich diets on allergic airway inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Navarro-Xavier, Roberta Araujo; de Barros, Karina Vieira; de Andrade, Iracema Senna; Palomino, Zaira; Casarini, Dulce Elena; Flor Silveira, Vera Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Background The increased prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases in westernized societies has been associated with increased intake of diets rich in n-6 fatty acids (FAs) and poor in n-3 FAs. This study aimed to analyze the prophylactic effects of treatment with a soybean oil-rich diet (rich in n-6) or fish oil (rich in n-3) in an allergic airway inflammation model on lung inflammation score, leukocyte migration, T-helper cell (Th)-2 (interleukin [IL]-4, IL-5) and Th1 (interferon [IFN]-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α) cytokines, lipoxin A4, nitric oxide, bradykinin, and corticosterone levels in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) or lungs. Methods Male Wistar rats fed with soybean oil- or fish oil-rich diet or standard rat chow were sensitized twice with ovalbumin–alumen and challenged twice with ovalbumin aerosol. The BAL and lungs were examined 24 hours later. Results Both diets, rich in n-6 or n-3 FAs, impaired the allergic lung inflammation and reduced leukocyte migration, eosinophil and neutrophil percentages, and IL-4/IL-5/bradykinin levels in BAL and/or lungs, as well as increased the nitric oxide levels in BAL. The soybean oil-rich diet additionally increased the levels of lipoxin A4 and corticosterone in the lungs. Conclusion Data presented demonstrated that the n-6 FA-rich diet had protective effect upon allergic airway inflammation and was as anti-inflammatory as the n-3 FA-rich diet, although through different mechanisms, suggesting that both diets could be considered as complementary therapy or a prophylactic alternative for allergic airway inflammation. PMID:27274303

  9. Rb-Cs ratio as an indicator of fish diet in lakes of the Patagonia, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Guevara, S Ribeiro; Bubach, D; Macchi, P J; Vigliano, P; Arribére, M; Colombo, J C

    2006-01-01

    The ratios of Rb to Cs contents were studied in five fish species from seven lakes located in the Patagonia Andean Range, Argentina in order to trace fish diet. The species studied were native velvet catfish (Diplomistes viedmensis) and creole perch (Percichthys trucha), and exotic brown trout (Salmo trutta), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and brook trout (Salvenilus fontinalis). Rainbow trout specimens from two farms were also studied, as well as fish food items and native mussels (Diplodon chilensis). Rb and Cs concentrations were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. A positive correlation of Cs concentration in the muscle of velvet catfish with fish length was observed, probably associated with the long biological half-life of this element in this species, whereas the Rb concentration remained constant, hence inhibiting the use of Rb-Cs ratios as a tracer in this case. Seasonal variations observed for rainbow trout and Cs concentration background bias in one of the lakes studied are also a limiting factor to the use of Rb-Cs ratios as a diet tracer. Rb-Cs ratios allowed clear differentiation of rainbow trout raised in farms from the natural specimens that lived in the same environment, in agreement with Rb-Cs ratios determined in both diets. Rb-Cs ratios in rainbow trout showed significant differences between Rivadavia and Futalaufquen lakes compared to Moreno and Nahuel Huapi lakes, which could be associated with a higher participation of plankton in the diet in the first case. No relevant variations in Rb-Cs ratios of brown trout were observed, probably because of the similarity in the diet.

  10. Ontogenetic development of intestinal length and relationships to diet in an Australasian fish family (Terapontidae)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background One of the most widely accepted ecomorphological relationships in vertebrates is the negative correlation between intestinal length and proportion of animal prey in diet. While many fish groups exhibit this general pattern, other clades demonstrate minimal, and in some cases contrasting, associations between diet and intestinal length. Moreover, this relationship and its evolutionary derivation have received little attention from a phylogenetic perspective. This study documents the phylogenetic development of intestinal length variability, and resultant correlation with dietary habits, within a molecular phylogeny of 28 species of terapontid fishes. The Terapontidae (grunters), an ancestrally euryhaline-marine group, is the most trophically diverse of Australia’s freshwater fish families, with widespread shifts away from animal-prey-dominated diets occurring since their invasion of fresh waters. Results Description of ontogenetic development of intestinal complexity of terapontid fishes, in combination with ancestral character state reconstruction, demonstrated that complex intestinal looping (convolution) has evolved independently on multiple occasions within the family. This modification of ontogenetic development drives much of the associated interspecific variability in intestinal length evident in terapontids. Phylogenetically informed comparative analyses (phylogenetic independent contrasts) showed that the interspecific differences in intestinal length resulting from these ontogenetic developmental mechanisms explained ~65% of the variability in the proportion of animal material in terapontid diets. Conclusions The ontogenetic development of intestinal complexity appears to represent an important functional innovation underlying the extensive trophic differentiation seen in Australia’s freshwater terapontids, specifically facilitating the pronounced shifts away from carnivorous (including invertebrates and vertebrates) diets evident across the

  11. Total and inorganic arsenic in Mid-Atlantic marine fish and shellfish and implications for fish advisories.

    PubMed

    Greene, Richard; Crecelius, Eric

    2006-10-01

    Sampling was conducted in 2002 to determine the total concentration and chemical speciation of arsenic in several marine fish and shellfish species collected from the Delaware Inland Bays and the Delaware Estuary, both of which are important estuarine waterbodies in the US Mid-Atlantic region that support recreational and commercial fishing. Edible meats from summer flounder (Paralicthys dentatus), striped bass (Marone saxatilis), Atlantic croaker (Micropogonias undulates), and hard clam (Mercenaria mercenaria) were tested. Total arsenic was highest in summer flounder, followed by hard clam, then striped bass, and finally, Atlantic croaker. Total arsenic was higher in summer flounder collected during the spring, as these fish migrated into the Inland Bays from the continental shelf, compared with levels in summer flounder collected during the fall, after these fish had spent the summer in the Inland Bays. Similarly, striped bass collected in the early spring close to the ocean had higher total arsenic levels compared with levels detected in striped bass collected later during the year in waters with lower salinity. Speciation of arsenic revealed low concentrations (0.00048-0.02 microg/g wet wt) of toxic inorganic arsenic. Dimethylarsinic acid was more than an order of magnitude greater in hard clam meats than in the other species tested, a finding that was attributed to arsenic uptake by phytoplankton and subsequent dietary uptake by the clam. Risk assessment using the inorganic arsenic concentrations was used to conclude that a fish consumption advisory is not warranted.

  12. The influence of external subsidies on diet, growth and Hg concentrations of freshwater sport fish: implications for management and fish consumption advisories.

    PubMed

    Lepak, Jesse M; Hooten, Mevin B; Johnson, Brett M

    2012-10-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination in sport fish is a global problem. In freshwater systems, food web structure, sport fish sex, size, diet and growth rates influence Hg bioaccumulation. Fish stocking is a common management practice worldwide that can introduce external energy and contaminants into freshwater systems. Thus, stocking can alter many of the factors that influence Hg concentrations in sport fish. Here we evaluated the influence of external subsidies, in the form of hatchery-raised rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss on walleye Sander vitreus diet, growth and Hg concentrations in two freshwater systems. Stocking differentially influenced male and female walleye diets and growth, producing a counterintuitive size-contamination relationship. Modeling indicated that walleye growth rate and diet were important explanatory variables when predicting Hg concentrations. Thus, hatchery contributions to freshwater systems in the form of energy and contaminants can influence diet, growth and Hg concentrations in sport fish. Given the extensive scale of fish stocking, and the known health risks associated with Hg contamination, this represents a significant issue for managers monitoring and manipulating freshwater food web structures, and policy makers attempting to develop fish consumption advisories to protect human health in stocked systems.

  13. The influence of external subsidies on diet, growth and Hg concentrations of freshwater sport fish: implications for management and fish consumption advisories

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lepak, J.M.; Hooten, M.B.; Johnson, B.M.

    2012-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination in sport fish is a global problem. In freshwater systems, food web structure, sport fish sex, size, diet and growth rates influence Hg bioaccumulation. Fish stocking is a common management practice worldwide that can introduce external energy and contaminants into freshwater systems. Thus, stocking can alter many of the factors that influence Hg concentrations in sport fish. Here we evaluated the influence of external subsidies, in the form of hatchery-raised rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss on walleye Sander vitreus diet, growth and Hg concentrations in two freshwater systems. Stocking differentially influenced male and female walleye diets and growth, producing a counterintuitive size-contamination relationship. Modeling indicated that walleye growth rate and diet were important explanatory variables when predicting Hg concentrations. Thus, hatchery contributions to freshwater systems in the form of energy and contaminants can influence diet, growth and Hg concentrations in sport fish. Given the extensive scale of fish stocking, and the known health risks associated with Hg contamination, this represents a significant issue for managers monitoring and manipulating freshwater food web structures, and policy makers attempting to develop fish consumption advisories to protect human health in stocked systems.

  14. Fish protein improves the total antioxidant status of streptozotocin-induced diabetes in spontaneously hypertensive rat.

    PubMed

    Boukortt, Farida Ouda; Girard, Aurélie; Prost, Josiane L; Ait-Yahia, Dalila; Bouchenak, Malika; Belleville, Jacques

    2004-11-01

    We measured the effects of fish protein (FP) on blood pressure, glycemia and antioxidant status in spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes (STZ). Two groups of 12 rats each were fed 20% casein (C) or FP for 2 months. The total antioxidant status of blood and organs (liver, kidney and heart) was measured by the KRL test. Antioxidant enzyme activities (G-Px, G-Red, and SOD) and antioxidant substances (GSH, NO) were determined in organs, and vitamin C in plasma. FP lowered blood pressure in SH rats, but not in SH-STZ. Blood and plasma antioxidant status increased 35% and 9%, respectively, with FP in SH-STZ compared to SH rats; when compared to C, these values were more enhanced. SOD activity values were elevated with FP in SH-STZ rats, compared to the C diet, regardless of organ. Higher kidney NO and heart GSH values were noted in SH-STZ rats than SH. In SH rats fed FP, the GSH value was 2.26 times higher in liver, and NO was 3 times higher in heart. Higher NO was noted in kidney (1.84 times) and heart (1.91 times), GSH in heart (1.79 times), and vitamin C in plasma (+46%) in SH-STZ rats with FP than with C. Fish protein has a beneficial effect on blood pressure in SH rats but not in SH-STZ, and plays an important role in antioxidative defense. This protein may be useful in future treatments of such diseases as diabetes and hypertension.

  15. Stable Isotopes in Ecological Sceinces: Bird and Fish Diet and Migration in Virginia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, S.; Dias, R. F.; Ake, R.; Jones, C. M.

    2002-12-01

    The preservation of ecologically sensitive habitats for birds and fishes in Virginia requires a detailed understanding of the important changes in diet and migration over the life span of the animal. Stable isotope analysis offers the potential to assess migration and trophic level variability in birds and fishes from southeastern Virginia and the greater Chesapeake Bay. Fish of various species and ages from different locations throughout the Chesapeake Bay were analyzed for carbon-13 and nitrogen-15 bulk natural abundance. Of particular note, blue fish were found to have significantly higher d15N values than striped bass which are believed to be trophic competitors. Observations are discussed relative to the maturity of the different fish, variation in water-mass chemistry (N-inputs), local environmental habitats, trophic relationships and migratory habits. In conjunction with banding studies being conducted by Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries in the Great Dismal Swamp (VA), breast feathers from Carolina Wren, Common Yellowthroat, Northern Cardinal, Ovenbird, and Prothonotary Warbler were analyzed for carbon-13 and nitrogen-15 bulk natural abundance. Given the preliminary nature of this work our ability to identify trends between species was less than satisfying, thus highlighting the need for larger sample populations over more than one breeding season. However, within a given species (most notably the Prothonotary Warbler) we are able to discern a change in diet. The hatching year Prothonotary warbler were more enriched in both carbon-13 and nitrogen-15 than the after-hatching-year (AHY) birds, indicating a change in food sources between the two age groups. By sampling over time and at various sample sites, isotopic analyses allow a more detailed investigation of the spatial and temporal variation in the diets and migratory habits of fishes and birds in Virginia and the Chesapeake Bay.

  16. Batch spawning facilitates transfer of an essential nutrient from diet to eggs in a marine fish

    PubMed Central

    Fuiman, Lee A.; Faulk, Cynthia K.

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acid composition of eggs affects development, growth and ecological performance of fish embryos and larvae, with potential consequences for recruitment success. Essential fatty acids in eggs derive from the maternal diet, and the time between ingestion and deposition in eggs is ecologically important but unknown. We examined the dynamics of diet–egg transfer of arachidonic acid (ARA) in the batch-spawning fish, red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus), by measuring ARA concentrations in eggs after a single diet shift and during a period of irregular variations in diet. ARA concentrations in eggs changed within 2–16 days of a diet shift. The rate of change was proportional to the magnitude of the shift, with no evidence of equilibration. These results are not consistent with eggs being assembled entirely from accumulated body stores. The immediate source of ARA in eggs appears to be the recent diet. We propose that batch spawning produces rapid diet–egg transfer of ARA because it removes large amounts of fatty acids from the body and prevents equilibration. The immediacy of the diet–egg connection suggests that spawning migration combined with short-interval batch spawning may have evolved to take advantage of nutrients critical for offspring survival that are available at the spawning site. PMID:23985349

  17. Fish oil decreases hepatic lipogenic genes in rats fasted and refed on a high fructose diet.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Gabriela S; Cardoso, João Felipe R; Calder, Philip C; Jordão, Alceu A; Vannucchi, Helio

    2015-03-05

    Fasting and then refeeding on a high-carbohydrate diet increases serum and hepatic triacylglycerol (TAG) concentrations compared to standard diets. Fructose is a lipogenic monosaccharide which stimulates de novo fatty acid synthesis. Omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids stimulate hepatic β-oxidation, partitioning fatty acids away from TAG synthesis. This study investigated whether dietary n-3 fatty acids from fish oil (FO) improve the hepatic lipid metabolic response seen in rats fasted and then refed on a high-fructose diet. During the post-prandial (fed) period, rats fed a FO rich diet showed an increase in hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR-α) gene expression and decreased expression of carbohydrate responsive element binding protein (ChREBP), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP). Feeding a FO rich diet for 7 days prior to 48 h of fasting resulted in lower hepatic TAG, lower PPAR-α expression and maintenance of hepatic n-3 fatty acid content. Refeeding on a high fructose diet promoted an increase in hepatic and serum TAG and in hepatic PPAR-α, ChREBP and MTTP expression. FO did not prevent the increase in serum and hepatic TAG after fructose refeeding, but did decrease hepatic expression of lipogenic genes and increased the n-3 fatty acid content of the liver. n-3 Fatty acids can modify some components of the hepatic lipid metabolic response to later feeding with a high fructose diet.

  18. Fish Oil Decreases Hepatic Lipogenic Genes in Rats Fasted and Refed on a High Fructose Diet

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, Gabriela S.; Cardoso, João Felipe R.; Calder, Philip C.; Jordão, Alceu A.; Vannucchi, Helio

    2015-01-01

    Fasting and then refeeding on a high-carbohydrate diet increases serum and hepatic triacylglycerol (TAG) concentrations compared to standard diets. Fructose is a lipogenic monosaccharide which stimulates de novo fatty acid synthesis. Omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids stimulate hepatic β-oxidation, partitioning fatty acids away from TAG synthesis. This study investigated whether dietary n-3 fatty acids from fish oil (FO) improve the hepatic lipid metabolic response seen in rats fasted and then refed on a high-fructose diet. During the post-prandial (fed) period, rats fed a FO rich diet showed an increase in hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR-α) gene expression and decreased expression of carbohydrate responsive element binding protein (ChREBP), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP). Feeding a FO rich diet for 7 days prior to 48 h of fasting resulted in lower hepatic TAG, lower PPAR-α expression and maintenance of hepatic n-3 fatty acid content. Refeeding on a high fructose diet promoted an increase in hepatic and serum TAG and in hepatic PPAR-α, ChREBP and MTTP expression. FO did not prevent the increase in serum and hepatic TAG after fructose refeeding, but did decrease hepatic expression of lipogenic genes and increased the n-3 fatty acid content of the liver. n-3 Fatty acids can modify some components of the hepatic lipid metabolic response to later feeding with a high fructose diet. PMID:25751821

  19. Identifying core foods for total diet studies: a comparison of four different approaches.

    PubMed

    Devlin, Niamh F C; McNulty, Breige A; Turrini, Aida; Tlustos, Christina; Hearty, Aine P; Volatier, Jean-Luc; Kelleher, Cecily C; Nugent, Anne P

    2014-01-01

    Total diet studies (TDS) are recognised as a cost-effective approach in estimating dietary exposure to chemicals in food. It has been advised that candidate foods for inclusion in TDS analysis should represent a large part of the typical diet to estimate accurately the exposure of a population group. To date a variety of approaches have been used to determine which foods should be included in a core TDS food list, with no agreed method. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare four of these approaches by creating TDS food lists for adult populations in Europe using summary statistics data from the EFSA Comprehensive Food Consumption Database. Both a food group approach and a total diet approach were employed, and foods were selected for inclusion in the TDS food lists if they met the criteria as defined by consumption weight and/or a 5% consumer rate. Using all four approaches the representation of the diet across the TDS food lists was > 85%. The food group approach showed a slight advantage in diet representation, but produced considerably longer TDS food lists in comparison with the total diet approach. The addition of a 5% consumer rate to both approaches had little impact on results. In conclusion, the total diet approach may act as a more cost-effective approach in comparison with the food group approach while still achieving comprehensive results in the creation of core TDS food lists.

  20. Contribution of anadromous fish to the diet of European catfish in a large river system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syväranta, Jari; Cucherousset, Julien; Kopp, Dorothée; Martino, Aurélia; Céréghino, Régis; Santoul, Frédéric

    2009-05-01

    Many anadromous fish species, when migrating from the sea to spawn in fresh waters, can potentially be a valuable prey for larger predatory fish, thereby efficiently linking these two ecosystems. Here, we assess the contribution of anadromous fish to the diet of European catfish ( Silurus glanis) in a large river system (Garonne, southwestern France) using stable isotope analysis and allis shad ( Alosa alosa) as an example of anadromous fish. Allis shad caught in the Garonne had a very distinct marine δ13C value, over 8‰ higher after lipid extraction compared to the mean δ13C value of all other potential freshwater prey fish. The δ13C values of European catfish varied considerably between these two extremes and some individuals were clearly specializing on freshwater prey, whereas others specialized on anadromous fish. The mean contribution of anadromous fish to the entire European catfish population was estimated to be between 53% and 65%, depending on the fractionation factor used for δ13C.

  1. Effects of simultaneous intakes of fish oil and green tea extracts on plasma, glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and adiponectin and on liver lipid concentrations in mice fed low- and high-fat diets.

    PubMed

    Shirai, Nobuya; Suzuki, Hiramitsu

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the effects of a simultaneous intake of fish oil and green tea extracts (GTE) on plasma lipids, glucose (Glu), insulin, C-peptide, and adiponectin concentrations and on liver lipids in mice fed low- and high-fat diets. Male mice (5 months old) were fed low-fat (5%) or high-fat (20%) diets containing 0% (5 or 20% lard), 1% (4 or 19% lard) or 5% (0 or 15% lard) fish oil with or without 1% GTE for 3 months. Single or combined intakes of fish oil and GTE intakes significantly lowered plasma and liver total cholesterol (T-chol) and triacylglycerol (TG) concentrations in mice on high-fat diets. However, a positive effect of GTE alone was not observed in the plasma T-chol and TG concentrations of mice on low-fat diets. Plasma Glu concentrations were significantly lowered by dietary fish oil in mice on the low- and high-fat diets. A tendency of GTE intake to decrease plasma Glu in mice on both the low- and high-fat diets was not significant. An intake of GTE only minimally influenced plasma insulin, C-peptide, and adiponectin concentrations, but fish oil supplementation increased the adiponectin concentration in mice on the low- and high-fat diets. GTE addition to the diets had no adverse effects on reductions by fish oil. These results suggest that a simultaneous intake of fish oil and GTE can improve plasma and liver lipid and plasma Glu profiles in mice fed a high-fat diet without any negative interactions of fish oil and GTE. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Diet and body mass index in 38000 EPIC-Oxford meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans.

    PubMed

    Spencer, E A; Appleby, P N; Davey, G K; Key, T J

    2003-06-01

    To compare body mass index (BMI) in four diet groups (meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans) in the Oxford cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Oxford) and to investigate lifestyle and dietary factors associated with any observed differences. Cross-sectional analysis of self-reported dietary, anthropometric and lifestyle data. A total of 37875 healthy men and women aged 20-97 y participating in EPIC-Oxford. Age-adjusted mean BMI was significantly different between the four diet groups, being highest in the meat-eaters (24.41 kg/m(2) in men, 23.52 kg/m(2) in women) and lowest in the vegans (22.49 kg/m(2) in men, 21.98 kg/m(2) in women). Fish-eaters and vegetarians had similar, intermediate mean BMI. Differences in lifestyle factors including smoking, physical activity and education level accounted for less than 5% of the difference in mean age-adjusted BMI between meat-eaters and vegans, whereas differences in macronutrient intake accounted for about half of the difference. High protein (as percent energy) and low fibre intakes were the dietary factors most strongly and consistently associated with increasing BMI both between and within the diet groups. Fish-eaters, vegetarians and especially vegans had lower BMI than meat-eaters. Differences in macronutrient intakes accounted for about half the difference in mean BMI between vegans and meat-eaters. High protein and low fibre intakes were the factors most strongly associated with increasing BMI.

  3. Fish protein substrates can substitute effectively for poultry by-product meal when incorporated in high-quality senior dog diets.

    PubMed

    Zinn, K E; Hernot, D C; Fastinger, N D; Karr-Lilienthal, L K; Bechtel, P J; Swanson, K S; Fahey, G C

    2009-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to analytically define several novel fish substrates and determine the effects of feeding diets containing these substrates on total tract nutrient digestibilities and on immune status of senior dogs. The control diet contained poultry by-product meal while test diets contained 20% milt meal (MM), pink salmon hydrolysate (PSH) and white fish meal (WFM) added at the expense of poultry by-product meal. Concentrations of lymphocytes positive for CD3, CD4, CD8 and CD21 cell-surface markers and immunoglobulin concentrations were measured. Gene expression of cytokines tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-, interleukin (IL)-6, interferon (IFN)-, IL-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β was determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Major compositional differences were noted among fish substrates but apparent nutrient digestibility coefficients and immune indices were not affected by treatment. Fish protein substrates were found to be effective substitutes for poultry by-product meal, providing diets of high nutritive value for senior dogs.

  4. Total dietary fiber composition of diets used for management of obesity and diabetes mellitus in cats.

    PubMed

    Owens, Tammy J; Larsen, Jennifer A; Farcas, Amy K; Nelson, Richard W; Kass, Philip H; Fascetti, Andrea J

    2014-07-01

    To determine total dietary fiber (TDF) composition of feline diets used for management of obesity and diabetes mellitus. Cross-sectional survey. Dry veterinary (n = 10), canned veterinary (12), and canned over-the-counter (3) feline diets. Percentage of TDF as insoluble dietary fiber (IDF), high-molecular-weight soluble dietary fiber (HMWSDF), and low-molecular-weight soluble dietary fiber (LMWSDF) was determined. Median measured TDF concentration was greater than reported maximum crude fiber content in dry and canned diets. Median TDF (dry-matter) concentration in dry and canned diets was 12.2% (range, 8.11% to 27.16%) and 13.8% (range, 4.7% to 27.9%), respectively. Dry and canned diets, and diets with and without a source of oligosaccharides in the ingredient list, were not different in energy density or concentrations of TDF, IDF, HMWSDF, or LMWSDF. Similarly, loaf-type (n = 11) and gravy-type (4) canned diets differed only in LMWSDF concentration. Disparities in TDF concentrations among products existed despite a lack of differences among groups. Limited differences in TDF concentration and dietary fiber composition were detected when diets were compared on the basis of carbohydrate concentration. Diets labeled for management of obesity were higher in TDF concentration and lower in energy density than diets for management of diabetes mellitus. Diets provided a range of TDF concentrations with variable concentrations of IDF, HMWSDF, and LMWSDF. Crude fiber concentration was not a reliable indicator of TDF concentration or dietary fiber composition. Because carbohydrate content is calculated as a difference, results suggested that use of crude fiber content would cause overestimation of both carbohydrate and energy content of diets.

  5. Parasites of the deep-sea fish Mora moro (Risso, 1810) from the NW Mediterranean Sea and relationship with fish diet and enzymatic biomarkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallarés, Sara; Constenla, María; Padrós, Francesc; Cartes, Joan E.; Solé, Montse; Carrassón, Maite

    2014-10-01

    Specimens of Mora moro were collected in two seasons and three localities of the Balearic Sea (NW Mediterranean Sea) and parasitological, dietary (to prey-species level), enzymatic and histological data were obtained, alongside with environmental information (T, S, O2). The relationships among fish parasite load, condition indices, diet, enzymatic activity of muscular acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), intensity of splenic melano-macrophage centres (MMC) and hepatic granulomas were tested. M. moro showed a rich and abundant parasite fauna, and was a new host record for 17 out of the 18 different endoparasite taxa found. Significant differences were detected among locality-season groups, in turn related to different environmental variables, for Anisakidae gen. sp., Anisakis Type II and Tetraphyllidea fam. gen. sp.; thus, they are proposed as potentially useful as biological tags for geographical discrimination of M. moro in the NW Mediterranean Sea. Detailed relationships were found between parasite taxa and prey ingested (e.g. Anisakidae gen. sp. related with meso-bathypelagic crustaceans; Anisakis Type I with benthopelagic squids). Most parasites were linked to samples with highest levels of near-bottom O2, which is consistent with direct relationships found between near-bottom O2 and zooplankton biomass in the Balearic Basin. Total parasite abundance and the abundance of Tetraphyllidea fam. gen. sp. showed a significant relationship with the activity of AChE and the abundance of Anisakis Type II with LDH. AChE was associated with hepatosomatic index (HSI) and condition factor (K); LDH with gonadosomatic index (GSI), K and fish total length (TL). LDH activity showed differences among sampling groups. Splenic MMC and hepatic granulomas were not associated with fish parasite load. A positive relationship was found between MMC area and fish TL and LDH activity.

  6. Association between intake of total vs added sugar on diet quality: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu; Tapsell, Linda C

    2015-12-01

    Given its potential effect on nutrient and energy density, the sugar content of the diet is a subject of controversy. The aim of this review was to examine the cross-sectional or prospective evidence for associations between the intake of total sugar or added sugar (high vs low intakes) and diet quality or nutrient intakes in the general population. The following databases were searched for English-language articles published between 1972 and 2012: CINAHL Plus, EBM Reviews, ERIC, MEDLINE, PREMEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed, and ScienceDirect. The search identified studies that examined the association between intake of total sugar and/or added sugar and diet quality (n = 22) or nutrient intakes (n = 30). The following data were extracted: sample size and population, dietary assessment method, source of added sugar data, source of funding, comparator, association between total sugar or added sugar and diet quality, and the direction and magnitude of the association. Of 22 studies, all except 1 found a higher intake of added sugar to be associated with poorer diet quality, and the exceptional study did not adjust for total energy intake. Twenty-one of 30 studies found a negative association between added sugar and micronutrient intakes. The same association was not found for total sugar intake. Any negative association between dietary sugar and diet quality is better exposed by referring to added sugar rather than total sugar. There was substantial variation in features of study quality, including sample size, so the magnitude of the observed effect was generally small and may not be of clinical significance. Furthermore, the positive influence that core foods such as fruit and milk exert on total sugar values may bias the association between total sugar and diet quality. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Use of the oligochaete, Lumbricuilus variegatus, as a prey organism for toxicant exposure of fish through the diet.

    PubMed

    Mount, David R; Highland, Terry L; Mattson, Vincent R; Dawson, Timothy D; Lott, Kevin G; Ingersoll, Christopher G

    2006-10-01

    The oligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus, has several characteristics that make it desirable as a prey organism for conducting dietary exposure studies with fish. We conducted 21- and 30-d experiments with young fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), respectively, to determine whether a diet consisting solely of L. variegatus would support normal growth and to compare performance with standard diets (Artemia nauplii, frozen brine shrimp, or trout chow). All diets were readily accepted, and fish survived and grew well. Food conversion in both fathead minnows and rainbow trout was as high as or higher for the oligochaete diet compared with others, although this comparison is influenced by differences in ration, ingestion rate, or both. The oligochaete diet had gross nutritional analysis similar to the other diets, and meets fish nutrition guidelines for protein and essential amino acids. Methodologies and practical considerations for successfully using oligochaetes as an experimental diet are discussed. Considering their ready acceptance by fish, their apparent nutritional sufficiency, the ease of culturing large numbers, and the ease with which they can be loaded with exogenous chemicals, we believe that L. variegatus represents an excellent choice of exposure vector for exposing fish to toxicants via the diet.

  8. Use of the oligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus, as a prey organism for toxicant exposure of fish through the diet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mount, D.R.; Highland, T.L.; Mattson, V.R.; Dawson, T.D.; Lott, K.G.; Ingersoll, C.G.

    2006-01-01

    The oligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus, has several characteristics that make it desirable as a prey organism for conducting dietary exposure studies with fish. We conducted 21- and 30-d experiments with young fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), respectively, to determine whether a diet consisting solely of L. variegatus would support normal growth and to compare performance with standard diets (Artemia nauplii, frozen brine shrimp, or trout chow). All diets were readily accepted, and fish survived and grew well. Food conversion in both fathead minnows and rainbow trout was as high as or higher for the oligochaete diet compared with others, although this comparison is influenced by differences in ration, ingestion rate, or both. The oligochaete diet had gross nutritional analysis similar to the other diets, and meets fish nutrition guidelines for protein and essential amino acids. Methodologies and practical considerations for successfully using oligochaetes as an experimental diet are discussed. Considering their ready acceptance by fish, their apparent nutritional sufficiency, the ease of culturing large numbers, and the ease with which they can be loaded with exogenous chemicals, we believe that L. variegatus represents an excellent choice of exposure vector for exposing fish to toxicants via the diet. ?? 2006 SETAC.

  9. Replacement of fish meal protein by surimi by-product protein in the diet of blue gourami Trichogaster trichopterus fingerlings.

    PubMed

    Mohanta, K N; Subramanian, S; Korikanthimath, V S

    2013-02-01

    Based on the nutrient requirement of Trichogaster trichopterus, a fish meal-based basal diet with 350 g/kg diet crude protein and 16.7 MJ/kg energy was formulated, in which the fish meal protein was replaced by surimi by-product protein at 0.0 (control), 12.5, 25, 50, 75 and 100% levels. The formulated diets were fed ad libitum to T. trichopterus fingerlings (4.80 ± 0.03 g) in triplicate groups for 45 days in a closed water system. Eighteen fibre-reinforced plastic tanks with 200 l of water were used for rearing the fish. Weight gain, specific growth rate, feed/gain ratio, protein efficiency ratio, nutrient retention and digestibility (protein and energy) of fish were not affected (p > 0.05) up to 50% fish meal protein replacement level by surimi by-product protein. While whole-body protein content of fish was marginally decreased, the lipid content was increased with increase in surumi by-product incorporation level in the diet. The study results suggest that the fish meal protein, which is scarce and costly nowadays, could be replaced up to 50% by surimi by-product protein in the diet of blue gourami without hampering the growth and nutrient utilization of fish.

  10. DETERMINATION OF TOTAL MERCURY IN FISH TISSUES USING PYROLYSIS ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROMETRY WITH GOLD AMALGAMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A simple and rapid procedure for measuring total mercury in fish tissues is evaluated and
    compared with conventional techniques. Using an automated instrument incorporating combustion, preconcentration by amalgamation with gold, and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), mill...

  11. DETERMINATION OF TOTAL MERCURY IN FISH TISSUES USING PYROLYSIS ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROMETRY WITH GOLD AMALGAMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A simple and rapid procedure for measuring total mercury in fish tissues is evaluated and
    compared with conventional techniques. Using an automated instrument incorporating combustion, preconcentration by amalgamation with gold, and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), mill...

  12. Total and organic mercury in Barents sea pelagic fish

    SciTech Connect

    Joiris, C.R.; Ali, I.B.; Hoisbeek, L. Bossicart, M.; Tapia, G.

    1995-11-01

    One of the main questions, when studying mercury levels in natural samples, is to define how far the measured concentrations correspond to natural- or background-levels or to actual contamination due to human activities. To establish background pristine levels of Hg in the marine environment, areas of very low human activities are often proposed. Arctic and Antarctic waters, together with deep oceans waters, are best suited and provide themselves for such studies. Barents Sea areas were used in this study, even if the existence of an important atmospheric transport of Hg probably caused an increase of Hg levels at a global scale. Instead of analyzing mercury from the very low concentrations in sea water, it is much easier to identify it from the higher concentrations which organisms, used as bioindicators, have built up in their tissues. By using these bioindicators to study the bioavailable fraction of the stable residues, one also integrates small scale temporal and spatial variations. Pelagic fish were used in this work to study the ecotoxicology of Hg in the Barents Sea. This study has been made possible due to recent access of the Barents Sea to western scientists and it is to serve as a complement to existing studies by the same team in the Greenland and Norwegian seas, and the southwestern part of the Barents Sea. 19 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Total mercury levels in commercial fish species from Italian fishery and aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Di Lena, Gabriella; Casini, Irene; Caproni, Roberto; Fusari, Andrea; Orban, Elena

    2017-06-01

    Total mercury levels were measured in 42 commercial fish species caught off the Central Adriatic and Tyrrhenian coasts of Italy and in 6 aquaculture species. The study on wild fish covered species differing in living habitat and trophic level. The study on farmed fish covered marine and freshwater species from intensive and extensive aquaculture and their feed. Mercury levels were analysed by thermal decomposition-amalgamation-atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Total mercury concentrations in the muscle of wild fish showed a high variability among species (0.025-2.20 mg kg(-1) wet weight). The lowest levels were detected in low trophic-level demersal and pelagic-neritic fish and in young individuals of high trophic-level species. Levels exceeding the European Commission limits were found in large-size specimens of high trophic-level pelagic and demersal species. Fish from intensive farming showed low levels of total mercury (0.008-0.251 mg kg(-1)). Fish from extensive rearing showed variable contamination levels, depending on the area of provenience. An estimation of the human intake of mercury associated to the consumption of the studied fish and its comparison with the tolerable weekly intake is provided.

  14. Association of Changes in Diet Quality with Total and Cause-Specific Mortality.

    PubMed

    Sotos-Prieto, Mercedes; Bhupathiraju, Shilpa N; Mattei, Josiemer; Fung, Teresa T; Li, Yanping; Pan, An; Willett, Walter C; Rimm, Eric B; Hu, Frank B

    2017-07-13

    Few studies have evaluated the relationship between changes in diet quality over time and the risk of death. We used Cox proportional-hazards models to calculate adjusted hazard ratios for total and cause-specific mortality among 47,994 women in the Nurses' Health Study and 25,745 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study from 1998 through 2010. Changes in diet quality over the preceding 12 years (1986-1998) were assessed with the use of the Alternate Healthy Eating Index-2010 score, the Alternate Mediterranean Diet score, and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet score. The pooled hazard ratios for all-cause mortality among participants who had the greatest improvement in diet quality (13 to 33% improvement), as compared with those who had a relatively stable diet quality (0 to 3% improvement), in the 12-year period were the following: 0.91 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.85 to 0.97) according to changes in the Alternate Healthy Eating Index score, 0.84 (95 CI%, 0.78 to 0.91) according to changes in the Alternate Mediterranean Diet score, and 0.89 (95% CI, 0.84 to 0.95) according to changes in the DASH score. A 20-percentile increase in diet scores (indicating an improved quality of diet) was significantly associated with a reduction in total mortality of 8 to 17% with the use of the three diet indexes and a 7 to 15% reduction in the risk of death from cardiovascular disease with the use of the Alternate Healthy Eating Index and Alternate Mediterranean Diet. Among participants who maintained a high-quality diet over a 12-year period, the risk of death from any cause was significantly lower - by 14% (95% CI, 8 to 19) when assessed with the Alternate Healthy Eating Index score, 11% (95% CI, 5 to 18) when assessed with the Alternate Mediterranean Diet score, and 9% (95% CI, 2 to 15) when assessed with the DASH score - than the risk among participants with consistently low diet scores over time. Improved diet quality over 12 years was

  15. Angler-caught piscivore diets reflect fish community changes in Lake Huron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roseman, Edward F.; Schaeffer, Jeff; Bright, Ethan; Fielder, David G.

    2014-01-01

    Examination of angler-caught piscivore stomachs revealed that Lake Trout Salvelinus namaycush, Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, and Walleyes Sander vitreus altered theirdiets in response to unprecedented declines in Lake Huron's main-basin prey fish community.Diets varied by predator species, season, and location but were nearly always dominated numerically by some combination of Alewife Alosa pseudoharengus, Rainbow Smelt Osmerus mordax, Emerald Shiner Notropis atherinoides, Round Goby Neogobius melanostomus, or terrestrial insects. Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (steelhead), Coho Salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch, and Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar had varied diets that reflected higher contributions of insects. Compared with an earlier (1983–1986) examination of angler-caught predator fishes from Lake Huron, the contemporary results showed an increase in consumption of nontraditional prey (including conspecifics), use of smaller prey, and an increase in insects in the diet, suggesting that piscivores were faced with chronic prey limitation during this study. The management of all piscivores in Lake Huron will likely require consideration of the pervasive effects of changes in food webs, especially if prey fish remain at low levels.

  16. Influence of host diet and phylogeny on parasite sharing by fish in a diverse tropical floodplain.

    PubMed

    Lima, L B; Bellay, S; Giacomini, H C; Isaac, A; Lima-Junior, D P

    2016-03-01

    The patterns of parasite sharing among hosts have important implications for ecosystem structure and functioning, and are influenced by several ecological and evolutionary factors associated with both hosts and parasites. Here we evaluated the influence of fish diet and phylogenetic relatedness on the pattern of infection by parasites with contrasting life history strategies in a freshwater ecosystem of key ecological importance in South America. The studied network of interactions included 52 fish species, which consumed 58 food types and were infected with 303 parasite taxa. Our results show that both diet and evolutionary history of hosts significantly explained parasite sharing; phylogenetically close fish species and/or species sharing food types tend to share more parasites. However, the effect of diet was observed only for endoparasites in contrast to ectoparasites. These results are consistent with the different life history strategies and selective pressures imposed on these groups: endoparasites are in general acquired via ingestion by their intermediate hosts, whereas ectoparasites actively seek and attach to the gills, body surface or nostrils of its sole host, thus not depending directly on its feeding habits.

  17. Comparison of ruminal lipid metabolism in dairy cows and goats fed diets supplemented with starch, plant oil, or fish oil.

    PubMed

    Toral, P G; Bernard, L; Belenguer, A; Rouel, J; Hervás, G; Chilliard, Y; Frutos, P

    2016-01-01

    Direct comparison of cow and goat performance and milk fatty acid responses to diets known to induce milk fat depression (MFD) in the bovine reveals relevant species-by-diet interactions in ruminal lipid metabolism. Thus, this study was conducted to infer potential mechanisms responsible for differences in the rumen microbial biohydrogenation (BH) due to diet and ruminant species. To meet this objective, 12 cows and 15 goats were fed a basal diet (control), a similar diet supplemented with 2.2% fish oil (FO), or a diet containing 5.3% sunflower oil and additional starch (+38%; SOS) according to a 3 × 3 Latin square design with 25-d experimental periods. On the last day of each period, fatty acid composition (by gas chromatography) and bacterial community (by terminal-RFLP), as well as fermentation characteristics, were measured in rumen fluid samples. Results showed significant differences in the response of cows and goats to dietary treatments, although variations in some fermentation parameters (e.g., decreases in the acetate-to-propionate ratio due to FO or SOS) were similar in both species. Main alterations in ruminal BH pathways potentially responsible for MFD on the SOS diet (i.e., the shift from trans-11 to trans-10 18:1 and related increases in trans-10,cis-12 18:2) tended to be more pronounced in cows, which is consistent with an associated MFD only in this species. However, changes linked to FO-induced MFD (e.g., decreases in 18:0 and increases in total trans-18:1) were stronger in caprine rumen fluid, which may explain their unexpected susceptibility (although less marked than in bovine) to the negative effect of FO on milk fat content. Altogether, these results suggest that distinct ruminal mechanisms lead to each type of diet-induced MFD and confirm a pronounced interaction with species. With regard to microbiota, differences between cows and goats in the composition of the rumen bacterial community might be behind the disparity in the microorganisms

  18. Mink reproductive and physiological response to diets supplemented with PCB and mercury contaminated fish collected on the Oak Ridge Reservation

    SciTech Connect

    Halbrook, R.; Aulerich, R.; Bursian, S.; Lewis, L.

    1995-12-31

    Plant operations and waste disposal at the Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) have resulted in increased concentrations of PCBs and mercury (Hg) in fish inhabiting streams located on the reservation. As a component of environmental restoration investigation, fish were collected from streams on the reservation, analyzed for tissue concentrations of PCBs and Hg, and fed to ranch mink 3 months prior to and during the breeding season. As reference, fish also were collected from the Clinch River (CR) above the ORR and from the ocean (O), and fed to mink following similar procedures. Five prepared diets containing either 75% O, 75% CR, 25% ORR + 50% O, 50% ORR + 25% O, or 75% ORR fish and 25% standard mink diet were fed to 8 female and 2 male mink, each, following normal mink farm practices. PCB (Aroclor 1260 and CB congeners) and Hg concentrations were greatest in fish collected from the ORR and diets containing ORR fish exhibited a progressive increase in PCBs and Hg concentration with increased percentage of ORR fish. Female mink fed diets containing 75% ORR fish had decreased litter size and decreased mean whole body weights, Mean weight of male offspring of females fed 75% ORR fish also were decreased. Do to the contaminated environment, other aquatic prey of mink probably have elevated contaminant burdens that would contribute to effects in mink. Adverse reproductive and health effects in mink living on the ORR are speculative at this time.

  19. A marine fish diet reduces spontaneous lymphoma in outbred Swiss-Webster mice.

    PubMed

    Somers, Christopher M; Kwiecien, Jacek M; Quinn, James S

    2005-12-01

    Diets rich in marine organisms or their oils are known to suppress solid tumor development in humans and rodents, but the potential for marine foods to affect hematopoietic system cancers is not well understood. As part of a toxicology study, we fed groups of mice three different diets for 10 weeks: marine fish, 58% homogenized Atlantic smelt and herring; freshwater fish, 58% smelt and alewife from the North American Great Lakes, and commercial dry rodent chow. Between 1 and 15 weeks following dietary treatment, 20 of 103 (19.4%) mice unexpectedly developed spontaneous lymphoma. Disease incidence peaked when the mice were 7-8 months old, and was not distributed equally across treatment groups. Mice in the control (30%) and fresh water fish (27.5%) groups had significantly higher incidences of lymphoma than those fed Atlantic fish species (5%). Although our experiment was not originally designed for this purpose, our results indicate that consumption of fat-rich Atlantic smelt and herring protected mice against hematopoietic tumor development.

  20. High variability in stable isotope diet-tissue discrimination factors of two omnivorous freshwater fishes in controlled ex situ conditions.

    PubMed

    Busst, Georgina M A; Britton, J Robert

    2016-04-01

    Diet-tissue discrimination factors (Δ(13)C and Δ(15)N) are influenced by variables including the tissues being analysed and the taxon of the consumer and its prey. Whilst differences in Δ(13)C and Δ(15)N are apparent between herbivorous and piscivorous fishes, there is less known for omnivorous fishes that consume plant and animal material. Here, the omnivorous cyprinid fishes Barbus barbus and Squalius cephalus were held in tank aquaria and exposed to three diets that varied in their constituents (plant based to fishmeal based) and protein content (13% to 45%). After 100 days and isotopic replacement in fish tissues to 98%, samples of the food items, and dorsal muscle, fin tissue and scales were analysed for δ(13)C and δ(15)N. For both species and all diets, muscle was always enriched in δ(15)N and depleted in δ(13)C compared with fin tissue and scales. Across the different diets, Δ(13)C ranged between 2.0‰ and 5.6‰ and Δ(15)N ranged between 2.0‰ and 6.9‰. The diet based on plant material (20% protein) always resulted in the highest discrimination factors for each tissue, whilst the diet based on fishmeal (45% protein) consistently resulted in the lowest. The discrimination factors produced by non-fish diets were comparatively high compared with values in the literature, but were consistent with general patterns for some herbivorous fishes. These outputs suggest that the diet-tissue discrimination factors of omnivorous fishes will vary considerably between animal and plant prey, and these specific differences need consideration in predictions of their diet composition and trophic position. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. Total evidence: molecules, morphology, and the phylogenetics of cichlid fishes.

    PubMed

    Farias, I P; Ortí, G; Meyer, A

    2000-04-15

    We present a most comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the family Cichlidae. New data analyzed include mitochondrial 16S rRNA sequences and two nuclear loci (Tmo-M27 and Tmo-4C4) for a large taxonomic sampling with emphasis on South American species. We also incorporate a published morphological data set for a total evidence analysis. Character congruence among mitochondrial (74 taxa) and nuclear data (50 taxa) was high. However, partition-homogeneity tests suggest significant heterogeneity among molecular and morphological data. In agreement with results obtained from molecular data alone, total evidence analysis (1,460 characters for 34 taxa) supports a robust phylogenetic hypothesis for the family Cichlidae that is congruent with drift-vicariance events associated with the fragmentation of Gondwana. Our analyses confirm the placement of Malagasy/Indian cichlids as the most basal lineages, with a sister-group relationship to the monophyletic African and Neotropical clades. Total evidence suggests that the controversial African genus Heterochromis is at the base of the African radiation. Among more than 50 Neotropical genera analyzed, Retroculus is identified as the basal taxon, with successive branching of Cichla, Astronotus, geophagines (including crenicichlines) + chaetobranchines, and cichlasomines + heroines. Relative rate tests applied to mitochondrial DNA suggest significantly higher rates of genetic variation in Neotropical than in African taxa, and both mitochondrial and nuclear sequences show that rate heterogeneity among Neotropical lineages is confined to the geophagine cichlids.

  2. Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet retains effectiveness to reduce blood pressure when lean pork is substituted for chicken and fish as the predominant source of protein.

    PubMed

    Sayer, R Drew; Wright, Amy J; Chen, Ningning; Campbell, Wayne W

    2015-08-01

    Hypertension is a major, modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular and kidney disease and premature mortality that is improved by the DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) diet. The DASH diet emphasizes increased consumption of fruit and vegetables, whole grains, low-fat dairy, nuts, and poultry and fish and reduced intakes of fats, red meats (including pork), sodium, and added sugars. We sought to evaluate whether the consumption of lean pork compared with the consumption of chicken and fish as the predominant protein source in a DASH-style diet affected blood pressure (BP) control in men and women with elevated BP. In a randomized crossover study, 13 women and 6 men [mean ± SEM age: 61 ± 2 y; BMI (in kg/m²): 31.2 ± 1.4] with elevated BP [systolic blood pressure (SBP)/diastolic blood pressure (DBP): 130 ± 2/85 ± 2 mm Hg] consumed a DASH-style diet for two 6-wk controlled dietary interventions (with a 4-wk diet washout between interventions) with either lean pork [DASH diet with pork (DASH-P)] or chicken and fish [DASH diet with chicken and fish (DASH-CF), the control diet] as the major protein source (55% of total protein intake). SBP and DBP were measured manually and with a 24-h BP monitoring system on 3 d before and 3 d at the end of each diet intervention. Preintervention manual BP (DASH-P: 130/84 ± 2/1 mm Hg; DASH-CF: 129/84 ± 2/1 mg Hg) and postintervention manual BP (DASH-P: 122/79 ± 2/1 mm Hg; DASH-CF: 123/78 ± 3/1) were not different between the DASH-P and DASH-CF. Consumption of these DASH-style diets for 6 wk reduced all measures of BP (P < 0.05) with no differences in responses between the DASH-CF and DASH-P. The results indicate that adults with elevated BP may effectively incorporate lean pork into a DASH-style diet for BP reduction. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. Bioenergetics assessment of fish and crayfish consumption by river otter (Lontra canadensis): integrating prey availability, diet, and field metabolic rate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dekar, Matthew P.; Magoulick, Daniel D.; Beringer, J.

    2010-01-01

    River otters (Lontra canadensis) are important predators in aquatic ecosystems, but few studies quantify their prey consumption. We trapped crayfish monthly as an index of availability and collected otter scat for diet analysis in the Ozark Mountains of northwestern Arkansas, USA. We measured otter daily energy expenditure (DEE) with the doubly labeled water method to develop a bioenergetics model for estimating monthly prey consumption. Meek's crayfish (Orconectes meeki) catch-per-unit-effort was positively related to stream temperature, indicating that crayfish were more available during warmer months. The percentage frequency of occurrence for crayfish in scat samples peaked at 85.0% in summer and was lowest (42.3%) in winter. In contrast, the percentage occurrence of fish was 13.3% in summer and 57.7% in winter. Estimates of DEE averaged 4738 kJ·day-1 for an otter with a body mass of 7842 g. Total biomass consumption ranged from 35 079 to 52 653 g·month-1 (wet mass), corresponding to a high proportion of fish and crayfish in the diet, respectively. Otter consumption represents a large fraction of prey production, indicating potentially strong effects of otters on trophic dynamics in stream ecosystems.

  4. Dietary supplementation with fish oil prevents high fat diet-induced enhancement of sensitivity to the behavioral effects of quinpirole.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Casner, Caroline; Ramos, Jeremiah; Serafine, Katherine M

    2017-09-01

    Eating a diet high in fat can lead to negative health consequences, including obesity and insulin resistance. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (such as those found in fish oil) prevent high fat diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in rats. Eating a high fat diet also enhances sensitivity of rats to the behavioral effects of drugs that act on dopamine systems (e.g. quinpirole, a dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist). To test the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with fish oil prevents high fat diet-induced enhanced sensitivity to the behavioral effects of quinpirole (0.0032-0.32 mg/kg), male rats ate standard laboratory chow, high fat chow, standard chow with fish oil, or high fat chow with fish oil (20% w/w). After 5 weeks, rats eating high fat chow were more sensitive (e.g. leftward shift of the quinpirole dose-response curve) than rats eating standard chow to yawning induced by quinpirole. Dietary supplementation with fish oil prevented this effect. That is, quinpirole dose-response curves were not different between rats eating high fat chow supplemented with fish oil and standard chow fed controls. These data add to a growing literature showing the complex relationship between diet and dopamine systems, and the health benefits of fish oil.

  5. Diets and niche overlap among nine co-occurring demersal fishes in the southern continental shelf of East/Japan Sea, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myun Park, Joo; Nam Kwak, Seok; Huh, Sung-Hoi; Han, In-Seong

    2017-09-01

    Dietary niches and food resource partitioning can support the coexistence of many fishes in benthic marine systems, which can lead to the greater abundances of those species that can potentially support their fisheries. Diets and niche overlap among nine demersal fish species were investigated in the southern continental shelf of East/Japan Sea, Korea. Specimens were collected monthly from January to November 2007 on soft bottoms between 40 and 100 m depth using a bottom trawl. A total of 20 prey taxa were found in 1904 stomachs of the nine species. Comparison of the stomach contents among the nine species showed that inter-specific dietary compositions differed significantly. Although all fish species consumed similar types of prey items, their contributions to the diet of different species varied. Among prey taxa, carid shrimps contributed greatly to the diets of Amblychaeturichthys hexanema, Amblychaeturichthys sciistius, Coelorinchus multispinulosus, Lepidotrigla guentheri, and Liparis tanakae, whereas polychaetes and teleosts contributed to the diets of Callionymus lunatus and Lophius litulon, respectively. On the other hand, carid shrimps and teleosts together contributed to the diets of Pseudorhombus pentophthalmus. Non-metric multivariate analysis of the mass contributions of dietary categories for food resources emphasized visually that the dietary compositions of the nine species differed. Although C. multispinulosus, L. guentheri, L. litulon, and L. tanakae showed similar dietary compositions between small and large size classes, ontogenetic diet changes of the remaining six species were evident. Feeding relationships among the nine demersal species were complicated, but inter- and intra-specific differences in dietary composition among the species reduced potential competition for food resources within the fish community in the southern continental shelf of East/Japan Sea, Korea.

  6. Role of self-caught fish in total fish consumption rates for recreational fishermen: Average consumption for some species exceeds allowable intake.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Studies of fish consumption focus on recreational or subsistence fishing, on awareness and adherence to advisories, consumption patterns, and contaminants in fish. Yet the general public obtains their fish from commercial sources. In this paper I examine fish consumption patterns of recreational fishermen in New Jersey to determine: 1) consumption rates for self-caught fish and for other fish, 2) meals consumed per year, 3) average meal size, and average daily intake of mercury, and 4) variations in these parameters for commonly-consumed fish, and different methods of computing intake. Over 300 people were interviewed at fishing sites and fishing clubs along the New Jersey shore. Consumption patterns of anglers varied by species of fish. From 2 to 90 % of the anglers ate the different fish species, and between 9 and 75 % gave fish away to family or friends. Self-caught fish made up 7 to 92 % of fish diets. On average, self-caught fish were eaten for only 2 to 6 months of the year, whereas other fish (commercial or restaurant) were eaten up to 10 months a year. Anglers consumed from 5 to 36 meals of different fish a year, which resulted in intake of mercury ranging from 0.01 to 0.22 ug/kg/day. Average intake of Mako shark, swordfish, and tuna (sushi, canned tuna, self-caught tuna) exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's oral, chronic reference dose for mercury of 0.1 ug/kg/day. However, computing intake using consumption for the highest month results in average mercury intake exceeding the reference dose for striped bass and bluefish as well. These data, and the variability in consumption patterns, have implications for risk assessors, risk managers, and health professionals.

  7. Role of self-caught fish in total fish consumption rates for recreational fishermen: Average consumption for some species exceeds allowable intake

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Studies of fish consumption focus on recreational or subsistence fishing, on awareness and adherence to advisories, consumption patterns, and contaminants in fish. Yet the general public obtains their fish from commercial sources. In this paper I examine fish consumption patterns of recreational fishermen in New Jersey to determine: 1) consumption rates for self-caught fish and for other fish, 2) meals consumed per year, 3) average meal size, and average daily intake of mercury, and 4) variations in these parameters for commonly-consumed fish, and different methods of computing intake. Over 300 people were interviewed at fishing sites and fishing clubs along the New Jersey shore. Consumption patterns of anglers varied by species of fish. From 2 to 90 % of the anglers ate the different fish species, and between 9 and 75 % gave fish away to family or friends. Self-caught fish made up 7 to 92 % of fish diets. On average, self-caught fish were eaten for only 2 to 6 months of the year, whereas other fish (commercial or restaurant) were eaten up to 10 months a year. Anglers consumed from 5 to 36 meals of different fish a year, which resulted in intake of mercury ranging from 0.01 to 0.22 ug/kg/day. Average intake of Mako shark, swordfish, and tuna (sushi, canned tuna, self-caught tuna) exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s oral, chronic reference dose for mercury of 0.1 ug/kg/day. However, computing intake using consumption for the highest month results in average mercury intake exceeding the reference dose for striped bass and bluefish as well. These data, and the variability in consumption patterns, have implications for risk assessors, risk managers, and health professionals. PMID:23914136

  8. Increasing Fish Oil Levels in Commercial Diets Influence Hematology and Immune Responses of Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cultured freshwater fish including channel catfish are commonly fed grain-soybean meal based feeds high in linoleic series (n-6) fatty acids. Published studies have shown that supplementation of catfish diets with marine fish oil rich in n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 HUFA) significantly in...

  9. Increasing Fish Oil Levels in Commercial Diets Influences Hematological and Immunological Responses of Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Growth performance, immune responses and disease resistance were studied in juvenile channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus fed a commercial diet (35.3% crude protein and 5.6% lipid) supplemented with menhaden fish oil at levels of 0, 3, 6 and 9% for 15 weeks. Dietary fish oil levels did not significa...

  10. Fish oil diet modulates epididymal and inguinal adipocyte metabolism in mice.

    PubMed

    Bargut, Thereza Cristina Lonzetti; Souza-Mello, Vanessa; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos Alberto; Aguila, Marcia Barbosa

    2016-03-01

    We aimed to investigate the impact of different high-fat diets containing fish oil on adiposity and white adipose tissue (WAT) function in mice, comparing the effects on epididymal (eWAT) and subcutaneous (sWAT) depots. For this, we used C57BL/6 male mice fed four types of diets for eight weeks: standard chow (SC), high-fat lard (HF-L), high-fat lard plus fish oil (HF-L + FO), and high-fat fish oil (HF-FO). The HF-L group had a greater body mass (BM) gain, insulin resistance, increased gene expression related to lipogenesis (CD36, aP2, SREBP1c, and FAS), decreased gene expression of perilipin in both eWAT and sWAT, and reduced expression of genes related to beta-oxidation (CPT-1a) and to mitochondrial biogenesis (PGC1alpha, NRF1, and TFAM) in eWAT and sWAT. On the other hand, the HF-L + FO and HF-FO groups showed a smaller BM gain and adiposity, and normalization of insulin resistance and lipogenic genes in both eWAT and sWAT. These animals also showed decreased perilipin gene expression and elevated expression of beta-oxidation and mitochondrial biogenesis genes in eWAT and sWAT. 'Beige' adipocytes were identified in sWAT of the HF-FO animals. In conclusion, fish oil intake has anti-obesity effects through modulation of both eWAT and sWAT metabolism in mice and is relevant in diminishing the BM gain, adiposity, and insulin resistance even in combination with a high-fat lard diet in mice.

  11. A fish-oil-rich diet reduces vascular oxidative stress in apoE(-/-) mice.

    PubMed

    Casós, Kelly; Zaragozá, María C; Zarkovic, Neven; Zarkovic, Kamelija; Andrisic, Luka; Portero-Otín, Manuel; Cacabelos, Daniel; Mitjavila, María T

    2010-07-01

    Oxidative stress contributes to lipid peroxidation and decreases nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability in atherosclerosis. While long-chain (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are easily oxidized in vitro, they improve endothelial function. Hence, this study postulates that long-chain (n-3) PUFA decrease atherogenic oxidative stress in vivo. To test this, apoE(-/-) mice were fed a corn oil- or a fish oil (FO)-rich diet for 8, 14 or 20 weeks and parameters related to NO and superoxide (O(2)(.-)) plus markers of lipid peroxidation and protein oxidative damage in the aortic root were evaluated. The FO-rich diet increased NO production and endothelial NO synthase (NOS) expression and lowered inducible NOS, p22(phox) expression and O(2)(.-)production after 14 and 20 weeks of diet. Protein lipoxidative damage (including 4-hydroxynonenal) was decreased after a long-term FO-diet. This supports the hypothesis that a FO-rich diet could counteract atherogenic oxidative stress, showing beneficial effects of long-chain (n-3) PUFA.

  12. Contrasting Population and Diet Influences on Gut Length of an Omnivorous Tropical Fish, the Trinidadian Guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    PubMed

    Zandonà, Eugenia; Auer, Sonya K; Kilham, Susan S; Reznick, David N

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is advantageous for organisms that live in variable environments. The digestive system is particularly plastic, responding to changes in diet. Gut length is the result of a trade-off between maximum nutrient absorption and minimum cost for its maintenance and it can be influenced by diet and by evolutionary history. We assessed variation in gut length of Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata) as a function of diet, season, ontogeny, and local adaptation. Populations of guppies adapted to different predation levels have evolved different life history traits and have different diets. We sampled guppies from sites with low (LP) and high predation (HP) pressure in the Aripo and Guanapo Rivers in Trinidad. We collected fish during both the dry and wet season and assessed their diet and gut length. During the dry season, guppies from HP sites fed mostly on invertebrates, while guppies in the LP sites fed mainly on detritus. During the wet season, the diet of LP and HP populations became very similar. We did not find strong evidence of an ontogenetic diet shift. Gut length was negatively correlated with the proportion of invertebrates in diet across fish from all sites, supporting the hypothesis that guppy digestive systems adapt in length to changes in diet. Population of origin also had an effect on gut length, as HP and LP fish maintained different gut lengths even in the wet season, when their diets were very similar and individuals in both types of populations fed mostly on detritus. Thus, both environment and population of origin influenced guppies gut length, but population of origin seemed to have a stronger effect. Our study also showed that, even in omnivorous fish, gut length adapted to different diets, being more evident when the magnitude of difference between animal and plant material in the diet was very large.

  13. Position of the American Dietetic Association: total diet approach to communicating food and nutrition information.

    PubMed

    Freeland-Graves, Jeanne; Nitzke, Susan

    2002-01-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that all foods can fit into a healthful eating style. The ADA strives to communicate healthful eating messages to the public that emphasize the total diet, or overall pattern of food eaten, rather than any one food or meal. If consumed in moderation with appropriate portion size and combined with regular physical activity, all foods can fit into a healthful diet. Public policies that support the total diet approach include Reference Dietary Intakes, Food Guide Pyramid, Dietary Guidelines for Americans, Nutrition Labeling and Healthy People 2010. The value of a food should be determined within the context of the total diet because classifying foods as "good" or "bad" may foster unhealthy eating behaviors. Eating practices are influenced by taste and food preferences, concerns about nutrition and weight control, physiology, lifestyle, environment, and food product safety. To increase the effectiveness of nutrition education in promoting sensible food choices, dietetics professionals plan communications and educational programs that utilize theories and models related to human behavior. Communication campaigns/programs should implement an active, behaviorally focused approach within the larger context of food choices. Nutrition confusion can be reduced by emphasizing moderation, appropriate portion size, balance and adequacy of the total diet over time, the importance of obtaining nutrients from foods, and physical activity.

  14. Position of the American Dietetic Association: total diet approach to communicating food and nutrition information.

    PubMed

    Nitzke, Susan; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne

    2007-07-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that the total diet or overall pattern of food eaten is the most important focus of a healthful eating style. All foods can fit within this pattern, if consumed in moderation with appropriate portion size and combined with regular physical activity. The American Dietetic Association strives to communicate healthful eating messages to the public that emphasize a balance of foods, rather than any one food or meal. Public policies that support the total diet approach include the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, MyPyramid, the DASH Diet (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension), Dietary Reference Intakes, and nutrition labeling. The value of a food should be determined within the context of the total diet because classifying foods as "good" or "bad" may foster unhealthful eating behaviors. Alternative approaches may be necessary in some health conditions. Eating practices are dynamic and influenced by many factors, including taste and food preferences, weight concerns, physiology, lifestyle, time challenges, economics, environment, attitudes and beliefs, social/cultural influences, media, food technology, and food product safety. To increase the effectiveness of nutrition education in promoting sensible food choices, food and nutrition professionals should utilize appropriate behavioral theory and evidence-based strategies. A focus on moderation and proportionality in the context of a healthful lifestyle, rather than specific nutrients or foods, can help reduce consumer confusion. Proactive, empowering, and practical messages that emphasize the total diet approach promote positive lifestyle changes.

  15. Position of the academy of nutrition and dietetics: total diet approach to healthy eating.

    PubMed

    Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H; Nitzke, Susan

    2013-02-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that the total diet or overall pattern of food eaten is the most important focus of healthy eating. All foods can fit within this pattern if consumed in moderation with appropriate portion size and combined with physical activity. The Academy strives to communicate healthy eating messages that emphasize a balance of food and beverages within energy needs, rather than any one food or meal. Public policies and dietary patterns that support the total diet approach include the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) Diet, MyPlate, Let's Move, Nutrition Facts labels, Healthy People 2020, and the Dietary Reference Intakes. In contrast to the total diet approach, classification of specific foods as good or bad is overly simplistic and can foster unhealthy eating behaviors. Alternative approaches are necessary in some situations. Eating practices are dynamic and influenced by many factors, including taste and food preferences, weight concerns, physiology, time and convenience, environment, abundance of foods, economics, media/marketing, perceived product safety, culture, and attitudes/beliefs. To increase the effectiveness of nutrition education in promoting sensible food choices, skilled food and nutrition practitioners utilize appropriate behavioral theory and evidence-based strategies. Focusing on variety, moderation, and proportionality in the context of a healthy lifestyle, rather than targeting specific nutrients or foods, can help reduce consumer confusion and prevent unnecessary reliance on supplements. Proactive, empowering, and practical messages that emphasize the total diet approach promote positive lifestyle changes.

  16. Trophic structure of a coastal fish community determined with diet and stable isotope analyses.

    PubMed

    Malek, A J; Collie, J S; Taylor, D L

    2016-09-01

    A combination of dietary guild analysis and nitrogen (δ(15) N) and carbon (δ(13) C) stable-isotope analysis was used to assess the trophic structure of the fish community in Rhode Island and Block Island Sounds, an area off southern New England identified for offshore wind energy development. In the autumn of 2009, 2010 and 2011, stomach and tissue samples were taken from 20 fish and invertebrate species for analysis of diet composition and δ(15) N and δ(13) C signatures. The food chain in Rhode Island and Block Island Sounds comprises approximately four trophic levels within which the fish community is divided into distinct dietary guilds, including planktivores, benthivores, crustacivores and piscivores. Within these guilds, inter-species isotopic and dietary overlap is high, suggesting that resource partitioning or competitive interactions play a major role in structuring the fish community. Carbon isotopes indicate that most fishes are supported by pelagic phytoplankton, although there is evidence that benthic production also plays a role, particularly for obligate benthivores such as skates Leucoraja spp. This type of analysis is useful for developing an ecosystem-based approach to management, as it identifies species that act as direct links to basal resources as well as species groups that share trophic roles.

  17. A history of total mercury in edible muscle of fish from lakes in northern Canada.

    PubMed

    Lockhart, W L; Stern, G A; Low, G; Hendzel, M; Boila, G; Roach, P; Evans, M S; Billeck, B N; DeLaronde, J; Friesen, S; Kidd, K; Atkins, S; Muir, D C G; Stoddart, M; Stephens, G; Stephenson, S; Harbicht, S; Snowshoe, N; Grey, B; Thompson, S; DeGraff, N

    2005-12-01

    Subsistence fishing has been an important source of food for Native People in northern Canada since prehistoric time. Measurements of the levels of mercury in edible muscle of northern fish have been undertaken for over three decades in efforts to evaluate the risks of consuming northern fish. This report summarizes the data obtained from 7974 fish of 25 species from sites distributed from the Yukon to Labrador. The most abundant species were lake trout, lake whitefish, arctic char, walleye, northern pike and burbot. The question being asked was essentially "Are the fish safe to eat?" The results were used to support decisions on fishing and consumption of fish. They were sorted in several ways, into concentration ranges corresponding to human consumption guidelines, into political jurisdictions and into types of bedrock geology. Overall walleye, northern pike and lake trout, usually exceeded the subsistence consumption guideline of 0.2 microg g-1 total mercury and often exceeded the higher guideline of 0.5 microg g-1 total mercury for commercial sales of fish. Mercury in burbot, another facultative predator, was often lower but several still exceeding a guideline. Arctic char collections were mostly from anadromous populations and these had very low levels of mercury, presumably reflecting marine food sources. Lake whitefish were among the cleanest fish examined with 69 of 81 collections falling in the lowest range. Most collections were from sites in sedimentary rock. However a few sites were in metamorphic, intrusive or volcanic rocks and these, taken together, tended to have a higher proportion of sites in the higher ranges of mercury. These results indicate a widespread problem with mercury in subsistence fisheries for predator species of fish with the problem being most problematic for Nunavut.

  18. Does the invasive plant Elymus athericus modify fish diet in tidal salt marshes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laffaille, P.; Pétillon, J.; Parlier, E.; Valéry, L.; Ysnel, F.; Radureau, A.; Feunteun, E.; Lefeuvre, J.-C.

    2005-12-01

    The invasion of Mont-Saint-Michel Bay salt marshes (France) by a grass species ( Elymus athericus) has led to important changes in vegetation cover, which is likely to modify the habitat for many invertebrates. Some of them constitute the main food items for several fish species, such as young sea bass ( Dicentrarchus labrax) and sand goby ( Pomatoschistus minutus), that feed in salt marsh creeks during high tides. As a result, fish nursery functions of salt marshes could be modified by the E. athericus invasion. In order to test this hypothesis, gut contents of the two most abundant fish species (sea bass and sand goby) were compared before and after E. athericus invasion in the same salt marsh creek and using the same methodology. The accessibility and availability of the main food item, the semi-terrestrial amphipod Orchestia gammarella, were estimated and compared between invaded (dominated by E. athericus) and original areas (dominated by Atriplex portulacoides). Gut content analysis showed a significantly greater percentage of fish leaving with empty guts from E. athericus areas than from A. portulacoides areas. The sea bass diet composition study showed a major shift in the relative importance of the main food items: before E. athericus invasion, diets were dominated by the semi-terrestrial species O. gammarella, whereas after the E. athericus invasion they were dominated by a marine mysid Neomysis integer. The same trend was found for sand gobies, with a shift of the main food item from O. gammarella before invasion to the polychaete Hediste diversicolor after invasion. These trophic changes may be explained by the lower accessibility and availability of O. gammarella in invaded communities than in natural ones. The E. athericus invasion, observed throughout northern Europe, is thus likely to disturb trophic function of natural salt marshes for fish. This preliminary study of the E. athericus invasion is also an illustration that invasive species are an

  19. Total Suspended Solids Effects on Freshwater Lake Biota Other than Fish.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Peter M; Hayward, April; Faithful, John

    2017-08-17

    Protective benchmarks for the effects of total suspended solids (TSS) on freshwater aquatic biota primarily focus on fish; whether these benchmarks will also protect their prey or co-existing lower trophic level aquatic biota was uncertain. We conducted an extensive literature review of TSS effects on those organisms comprising the food webs upon which fish living in lakes depend: phytoplankton, zooplankton, periphyton, and benthic invertebrates. The available literature indicates that TSS benchmarks that protect sensitive life stages of lake fish will also protect their supporting food webs; in other words, the function of lake aquatic communities will be protected and maintained.

  20. DNA Methylation Pattern in Overweight Women under an Energy-Restricted Diet Supplemented with Fish Oil

    PubMed Central

    do Amaral, Cátia Lira; Milagro, Fermín I.; Curi, Rui; Martínez, J. Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Dietary factors modulate gene expression and are able to alter epigenetic signatures in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). However, there are limited studies about the effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) on the epigenetic mechanisms that regulate gene expression. This research investigates the effects of n-3-rich fish oil supplementation on DNA methylation profile of several genes whose expression has been reported to be downregulated by n-3 PUFA in PBMC: CD36, FFAR3, CD14, PDK4, and FADS1. Young overweight women were supplemented with fish oil or control in a randomized 8-week intervention trial following a balanced diet with 30% energy restriction. Fatty acid receptor CD36 decreased DNA methylation at CpG +477 due to energy restriction. Hypocaloric diet-induced weight loss also reduced the methylation percentages of CpG sites located in CD14, PDK4, and FADS1. The methylation patterns of these genes were only slightly affected by the fish oil supplementation, being the most relevant to the attenuation of the weight loss-induced decrease in CD36 methylation after adjusting by baseline body weight. These results suggest that the n-3 PUFA-induced changes in the expression of these genes in PBMC are not mediated by DNA methylation, although other epigenetic mechanisms cannot be discarded. PMID:24579084

  1. DNA methylation pattern in overweight women under an energy-restricted diet supplemented with fish oil.

    PubMed

    do Amaral, Cátia Lira; Milagro, Fermín I; Curi, Rui; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Dietary factors modulate gene expression and are able to alter epigenetic signatures in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). However, there are limited studies about the effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) on the epigenetic mechanisms that regulate gene expression. This research investigates the effects of n-3-rich fish oil supplementation on DNA methylation profile of several genes whose expression has been reported to be downregulated by n-3 PUFA in PBMC: CD36, FFAR3, CD14, PDK4, and FADS1. Young overweight women were supplemented with fish oil or control in a randomized 8-week intervention trial following a balanced diet with 30% energy restriction. Fatty acid receptor CD36 decreased DNA methylation at CpG +477 due to energy restriction. Hypocaloric diet-induced weight loss also reduced the methylation percentages of CpG sites located in CD14, PDK4, and FADS1. The methylation patterns of these genes were only slightly affected by the fish oil supplementation, being the most relevant to the attenuation of the weight loss-induced decrease in CD36 methylation after adjusting by baseline body weight. These results suggest that the n-3 PUFA-induced changes in the expression of these genes in PBMC are not mediated by DNA methylation, although other epigenetic mechanisms cannot be discarded.

  2. Addition of fish oil to diets for dairy cows. II. Effects on milk fat and gene expression of mammary lipogenic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Ahnadi, Charaf E; Beswick, Naomi; Delbecchi, Louis; Kennelly, John J; Lacasse, Pierre

    2002-11-01

    Sixteen Holstein cows in mid-lactation were used to determine whether alterations of mammary fatty acid metabolism are responsible for the milk fat depression associated with consumption of fish oil. Cows were given a total mixed ration with no added fish oil (control), unprotected fish oil (3.7 % of dry matter), or glutaraldehyde-protected microcapsules of fish oil (1.5% or 3.0% of dry matter) for 4 weeks. Milk samples were taken once a week and a mammary biopsy was taken from a rear quarter at the end of the treatment period. Milk fat content was lower in cows given unprotected fish oil (26.0 g/kg), 1.5% protected fish oil (24.6 g/kg) and 3% protected fish oil (20.4 g/kg) than in cows fed the control diet (36.0 g/kg). This was mainly due to a decrease in the synthesis of short-chain fatty acids. Consumption of protected fish oil decreased the abundance of lipogenic enzymes mRNA in the mammary gland. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthase, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase mRNAs for cows given 3% protected fish oil averaged only 30%, 25% and 25% of control values, respectively. Dietary addition of unprotected fish oil slightly decreased mRNA abundance of these enzymes but markedly reduced the amount of lipoprotein lipase mRNA. Milk fat content was significantly correlated with gene expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthase, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase but not lipoprotein lipase. These results suggest that fish oil reduces milk fat percentage by inhibiting gene expression of mammary lipogenic enzymes.

  3. DNA Methylation Changes Induced by a High-Fat Diet and Fish Oil Supplementation in the Skeletal Muscle of Mice.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Catia L; Crisma, Amanda R; Masi, Laureane N; Martins, Amanda R; Hirabara, Sandro M; Curi, Rui

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the global changes in DNA methylation and methylation of the promoter region of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma transcript variant 2 (Pparg2) gene resulting from a high-fat diet (HFD) and/or fish oil supplementation. Fish oil, rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, or water was orally administered to male mice for 12 weeks. After the first 4 weeks, the animals were fed a control diet or an HFD until the end of the experimental protocol, when the epididymal fat, gastrocnemius muscle and liver were excised. Pparg2 mRNA expression was upregulated by obesity and downregulated by fish oil supplementation in the liver. In the gastrocnemius muscle, diet-induced obesity increased global DNA methylation. Fish oil prevented the decrease in Pparg2 promoter methylation induced by obesity in the gastrocnemius muscle. Regardless of the diet given, fish oil supplementation increased Pparg2 promoter methylation at CpG-263 in muscle and adipose tissue. HFD and fish oil modified global and Pparg2 promoter DNA methylation in a tissue-specific manner. Fish oil supplementation attenuated body weight gain, abolished the increase in Pparg2 expression in the liver and prevented the decrease in Pparg2 promoter methylation in the muscle induced by the HFD. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Feeding a Modified Fish Diet to Bottlenose Dolphins Leads to an Increase in Serum Adiponectin and Sphingolipids

    PubMed Central

    Sobolesky, Philip M.; Harrell, Tyler S.; Parry, Celeste; Venn-Watson, Stephanie; Janech, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    Feeding a modified fish diet has been suggested to improve insulin sensitivity in bottlenose dolphins; however, insulin sensitivity was not directly measured. Since demonstrating an improvement in insulin sensitivity is technically difficult in dolphins, we postulated that directional changes in the hormone axis: fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21)/Adiponectin/Ceramide (Cer), could provide further support to this hypothesis. We measured 2-h post-prandial serum FGF21, total adiponectin, percent unmodified adiponectin, ceramide, and sphingosine levels from dolphins fed a diet rich in heptadecanoic acid (C17:0) over 24 weeks. Serum FGF21 was quantified by ELISA with an observed range of 129–1599 pg/ml, but did not significantly change over the 24-week study period. Total adiponectin levels (mean ± SD) significantly increased from 776 ± 400 pmol/ml at week 0 to 1196 ± 467 pmol/ml at week 24. The percent unmodified adiponectin levels (mean ± SD) decreased from 23.8 ± 6.0% at week 0 to 15.2 ± 5.2% at week 24. Interestingly, although FGF21 levels did not change, there was a good correlation between FGF21 and total adiponectin (ρ = 0.788, P < 0.001). We quantified the abundances of serum ceramides and sphingosines (SPH) because adiponectin has a defined role in sphingolipid metabolism through adiponectin receptor-mediated activation of ceramidases. The most abundant ceramide in dolphin sera was Cer 24:1 comprising 49% of the ceramides measured. Significant reductions were observed in the unsaturated Cer 18:1, Cer 20:1, and Cer 24:1, whereas significant increases were observed in saturated Cer 22:0, Cer 24:0, and Cer 26:0. However, total serum ceramides did not change. Significant elevations were detected for total sphingosine, dihydrosphingosine, sphingosine-1-phosphate, and dihydrosphingosine-1-phosphate. Proteomic analysis of the serum proteins revealed few changes in serum proteins over the study period. In conclusion

  5. Using diets to reveal overlap and egg predation among benthivorous fishes in Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mychek-Londer, Justin G.; Bunnell, David B.; Stott, Wendylee; Diana, James S.; French, John R. P.; Chriscinske, Margret

    2013-01-01

    Ecological stability in the Laurentian Great Lakes has been altered by nonindigenous species, such as the Round Goby Neogobius melanostomus and dreissenid mussels, and by declines in native amphipods Diporeia spp. We evaluated whether these changes could influence diet overlap between three benthivorous fishes (Slimy Sculpin Cottus cognatus, Deepwater Sculpin Myoxocephalus thompsonii, and Round Goby) and whether predation on eggs of native species was occurring. We examined diets of fish collected at depths of 69–128 m in Lake Michigan offshore of Frankfort and Muskegon, Michigan, and Two Rivers and Sturgeon Bay, Wisconsin, during January–May 2009 and 2010. Important prey (by dry weight proportion and by percent frequency of occurrence) for Slimy Sculpin were Mysis (0.34; 45%), Diporeia (0.16; 34%), and Limnocalanus macrurus (0.22; 68%); important prey for Deepwater Sculpin were Mysis (0.74; 92%) and Diporeia (0.16; 54%). Round Goby consumed mainly bivalves (i.e., dreissenids: 0.68; 95%) and Mysis (0.15; 37%). The two sculpin species consumed the eggs of Bloaters Coregonus hoyi (Slimy Sculpin: 0.04, 11%; Deepwater Sculpin: 0.02, 7%) and the eggs of Deepwater Sculpin (Slimy Sculpin: 0.03, 13%; Deepwater Sculpin: 0.05, 16%) during February–May at all sites. Round Goby also consumed eggs of these species but at lower levels (≤0.01; <1%). Diet overlap was identified between sculpin species at Frankfort and Sturgeon Bay, suggesting possible interspecific competition, but their diets did not overlap at Two Rivers; diet overlap was never observed between Round Goby and either sculpin species. Given that (1) diet overlap varied by site and (2) diet proportions varied spatially more than temporally, benthivores appear to be exhibiting localized responses to recent ecological changes. Overall, these results reveal that egg predation and interspecific competition could be important interactions to consider in future examinations of the population dynamics of these

  6. High diet overlap between native small-bodied fishes and nonnative fathead minnow in the Colorado River, Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seegert, Sarah E. Zahn; Rosi-Marshall, Emma J.; Baxter, Colden V.; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Hall, Robert O.; Cross, Wyatt F.

    2014-01-01

    River regulation may mediate the interactions among native and nonnative species, potentially favoring nonnative species and contributing to the decline of native populations. We examined food resource use and diet overlap among small-bodied fishes in the Grand Canyon section of the Colorado River as a first step in evaluating potential resource competition. We compared the diets of the predominant small-bodied fishes (native Speckled Dace Rhinichthys osculus, juvenile Flannelmouth Sucker Catostomus latipinnis, and juvenile Bluehead Sucker C. discobolus, and nonnative Fathead Minnow Pimephales promelas) across seasons at four sites downstream of Glen Canyon Dam using nonmetric multidimensional scaling and Schoener's similarity index. The diets of these fishes included diatoms, amorphous detritus, aquatic invertebrates (especially simuliid and chironomid larvae), terrestrial invertebrates, and terrestrial vegetation. Diets varied with season and were affected by high turbidity. Fish consumed more amorphous detritus and terrestrial vegetation during the summer monsoon season (July–September), when turbidity was higher. The diets of all species overlapped, but there was large variation in the degree of overlap. The diets of juvenile suckers and Fathead Minnows were most similar, while Speckled Dace had relatively distinct diets. The differences took the form of higher proportions of diatoms and amorphous detritus in the diets of Bluehead Suckers and Fathead Minnows and higher proportions of simuliids and chironomids in those of Speckled Dace. If food resources are or become limiting, diet overlap suggests that competition may occur among native and nonnative species, which could have implications for the population dynamics of these fishes and for the management of the Colorado River ecosystem in Grand Canyon.

  7. High diet overlap between native small-bodied fishes and nonnative fathead minnow in the Colorado River, Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seegert, Sarah E. Zahn; Rosi-Marshall, Emma J.; Baxter, Colden V.; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Hall, Robert O.; Cross, Wyatt F.

    2014-01-01

    River regulation may mediate the interactions among native and nonnative species, potentially favoring nonnative species and contributing to the decline of native populations. We examined food resource use and diet overlap among small-bodied fishes in the Grand Canyon section of the Colorado River as a first step in evaluating potential resource competition. We compared the diets of the predominant small-bodied fishes (native Speckled Dace Rhinichthys osculus, juvenile Flannelmouth Sucker Catostomus latipinnis, and juvenile Bluehead Sucker C. discobolus, and nonnative Fathead Minnow Pimephales promelas) across seasons at four sites downstream of Glen Canyon Dam using nonmetric multidimensional scaling and Schoener's similarity index. The diets of these fishes included diatoms, amorphous detritus, aquatic invertebrates (especially simuliid and chironomid larvae), terrestrial invertebrates, and terrestrial vegetation. Diets varied with season and were affected by high turbidity. Fish consumed more amorphous detritus and terrestrial vegetation during the summer monsoon season (July–September), when turbidity was higher. The diets of all species overlapped, but there was large variation in the degree of overlap. The diets of juvenile suckers and Fathead Minnows were most similar, while Speckled Dace had relatively distinct diets. The differences took the form of higher proportions of diatoms and amorphous detritus in the diets of Bluehead Suckers and Fathead Minnows and higher proportions of simuliids and chironomids in those of Speckled Dace. If food resources are or become limiting, diet overlap suggests that competition may occur among native and nonnative species, which could have implications for the population dynamics of these fishes and for the management of the Colorado River ecosystem in Grand Canyon.

  8. Variability in Isotope Discrimination Factors in Coral Reef Fishes: Implications for Diet and Food Web Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Wyatt, Alex S. J.; Waite, Anya M.; Humphries, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    Interpretation of stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen (δ13C and δ15N) is generally based on the assumption that with each trophic level there is a constant enrichment in the heavier isotope, leading to diet-tissue discrimination factors of 3.4‰ for 15N (ΔN) and ∼0.5‰ for 13C (ΔC). Diet-tissue discrimination factors determined from paired tissue and gut samples taken from 152 individuals from 26 fish species at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia demonstrate a large amount of variability around constant values. While caution is necessary in using gut contents to represent diet due to the potential for high temporal variability, there were significant effects of trophic position and season that may also lead to variability in ΔN under natural conditions. Nitrogen enrichment increased significantly at higher trophic levels (higher tissue δ15N), with significantly higher ΔN in carnivorous species. Changes in diet led to significant changes in ΔN, but not tissue δ15N, between seasons for several species: Acanthurus triostegus, Chromis viridis, Parupeneus signatus and Pomacentrus moluccensis. These results confirm that the use of meta-analysis averages for ΔN is likely to be inappropriate for accurately determining diets and trophic relationships using tissue stable isotope ratios. Where feasible, discrimination factors should be directly quantified for each species and trophic link in question, acknowledging the potential for significant variation away from meta-analysis averages and, perhaps, controlled laboratory diets and conditions. PMID:21060681

  9. Mice fed fish oil diet and upregulation of brown adipose tissue thermogenic markers.

    PubMed

    Bargut, Thereza Cristina Lonzetti; Silva-e-Silva, Anna Carolina Alves Gomes; Souza-Mello, Vanessa; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos Alberto; Aguila, Marcia Barbosa

    2016-02-01

    Fish oil (FO) elicits diverse beneficial effects. Reduction in or prevention of body mass (BM) gain in animal models may be associated with modulation of brown adipose tissue (BAT). We aimed to evaluate the effects of different high-fat diets with FO on BAT metabolism and thermogenic markers. C57BL/6 male mice (3-month-old) were fed different diets during 8 weeks: standard-chow diet (SC 10% fat), high-fat lard diet (HF-L 50% fat), high-fat lard plus FO diet (HF-L+FO 50% fat), and high-fat FO diet (HF-FO 50% fat). We evaluated BM and performed an oral glucose tolerance test. At euthanasia, plasma was collected for leptin, and triacylglycerol measurement and interscapular BAT was dissected and stored for molecular analyses. HF-L group showed elevated BM; glucose intolerance associated with diminished TC10 and GLUT4 expressions; hypertriglyceridemia associated with increased CD36 and diminished CPT1 expression; elevated expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines; and reduced PPAR expression. Furthermore, these animals showed hyperleptinemia with increased expression of thermogenic markers (beta3-AR, PGC1alpha, and UCP1). Conversely, HF-L+FO and HF-FO groups showed reduced BM gain with regularization of glucose tolerance and triglyceridemia, GLUT4, TC10, CD36, CPT1, and cytokines expressions. Both groups exhibited elevated PPAR and thermogenic markers expression in a dose-dependent way. FO improves metabolic profile and upregulates thermogenic markers, suggesting an elevated thermogenesis that leads to reduced BM gain.

  10. Diets of emerald and spottail shiners and potential interactions with other western Lake Erie planktivorous fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartman, Kyle J.; Vondracek, Bruce; Parrish, Donna L.; Muth, Kenneth M.

    1992-01-01

    Emerald shiner (Notropis atherinoides) and spottail shiner (N. hudsonius) were abundant historically in western Lake Erie. Recent changes in the fish community suggest that shiners may not compete favorably with the invading white perch (Morone americana) or the gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum). We examined the diets of emerald and spottail shiner and compared them to other planktivores in western Lake Erie. Emerald and spottail shiner ate cladocerans such as Daphnia spp.,Leptodora, and Bythotrephes. Biologically significant overlaps (Schoener 1970 index ≥ 0.6) among zooplanktivores occurred from July through September, but most occurred during July. The frequency of significant diet overlaps among planktivores declined since an earlier study in the mid-1970s (Muth and Busch 1989) possibly indicating that competitive interactions have eased since 1975. In addition to competitive interactions, other factors such as increased eutrophication and predator mediated mortality likely played a role in planktivore community changes since the early 1970s.

  11. Relationship between roving behaviour and the diet and client composition of the cleaner fish Labroides bicolor.

    PubMed

    Oates, J; Manica, A; Bshary, R; Grutter, A S

    2012-07-01

    Diet analyses and observations of cleaning behaviour of two cleaner fishes revealed that Labroides bicolor fed more on client mucus, but Labroides dimidiatus fed more on ectoparasites, and that L. bicolor interacted with fewer species (36 species) compared with L. dimidiatus (44 species). The client species which contributed most to the dissimilarity between cleaner species were the dusky farmerfish Stegastes nigricans and bicolor chromis Chromis margaritifer damselfishes, which L. dimidiatus interacted with more often than L. bicolor, and the striated Ctenochaetus striatus and brown Acanthurus nigrofuscus surgeonfishes, which L. bicolor interacted with more; L. bicolor interacted with all parrotfishes (Scaridae) more. These results confirm the importance of repeated interactions and partner choice in determining the nature of interactions in mutualisms. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  12. [Risk-benefit of some mollusks and processed fishes in the renal patient's diet].

    PubMed

    Castro-González, M I; Miranda-Becerra, D; Pérez-Gil, R F

    2010-03-01

    The renal diet must include limited amounts of high quality protein, phosphorus P and potassium K. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFA EPA and DHA), present in fishes and mollusks, render beneficial properties against progression of renal damage. The aim of this study was to evaluate protein PR, phosphorus P, potassium K, calcium Ca and n-3PUFA in processed fishes and mollusks as an alimentary option for renal patients. Canned tuna (water AA and oil AC), sardine in tomate sauce ST and chipotle SC and smoked salmon SA, fresh jumbo flying squid CA, common octopus PU and oyster OS were evaluated. Significant difference was detected (p <.0.05) for K between different types of fish. SA contained 38g/100g PR, 307 mg/100g of P, 371 mg/ 100g K and 106 mg/100g n-3PUFA. Sardines contained (279-304 mg/100g of P and 283-322 mg/100g K and tunas 142-160 mg/100g P and 141-154 mg/100g K. Tunas and sardines had elevated concentration of n-3PUFA (4114 and 4790 mg/ 100g respectively), P:n-3PUFA and K:n-3PUFA ratio was low in tunas (0.03) and sardines (0.06). AA and AC contained (10.1 and 11.1 mgP/gPR), while ST and SC provided 26.4-19.1 mg/P/gPR. n-3PUFA/gPR were similar for tunas and sardines (302-424mg/gPR). Mollusks: CA presented the highest values of P and PR (2.4 mg/100g and 18.4g/100g). n-3PUFA ranged from 4.3 to 79 mg/100g in PU and OS respectively. Among processed fishes, only canned tunas are recommended for the diet of renal patients, in an individualized basis. The risk-benefit ratio of sardines in the renal diet should be evaluated, due to their high content of P and n-3PUFA. Salmon and mollusks are not recommended for the renal diet.

  13. Protective effect of clove oil-supplemented fish diets on experimental Lactococcus garvieae infection in tilapia.

    PubMed

    Rattanachaikunsopon, Pongsak; Phumkhachorn, Parichat

    2009-09-01

    The essential oils extracted from the four herbs, cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum), clove (Syzygium aromaticum), ginger (Zingiber officinale) and holy basil (Ocimum sanctum), were investigated for their antimicrobial activity and mode of action against Lactococcus garvieae, a fish pathogenic bacteria causing lactococcosis. Of all the tested oils, clove oil had the strongest inhibitory effect and exhibited a bactericidal mode of action against the pathogenic bacterium. When an intraperitoneal infection of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) with L. garvieae was performed, the median lethal dose (LD(50)) was determined to be 1.78x10(2) CFU/fish. For an in vivo trial, no mortality was apparent in fish fed on the fish diets supplemented with 3% (w/w) of clove oil and with 0.5% (w/w) of oxytetracycline 5 d prior to the infection with L. garvieae. These results indicate that clove oil had a protective effect on experimental L. garvieae infection in tilapia and the potential to replace antibiotics for controlling the disease.

  14. Vulnerability and diet breadth predict larval and adult parasite diversity in fish of the Bothnian Bay.

    PubMed

    Locke, Sean A; Marcogliese, David J; Valtonen, E Tellervo

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies of aquatic food webs show that parasite diversity is concentrated in nodes that likely favour transmission. Various aspects of parasite diversity have been observed to be correlated with the trophic level, size, diet breadth, and vulnerability to predation of hosts. However, no study has attempted to distinguish among all four correlates, which may have differential importance for trophically transmitted parasites occurring as larvae or adults. We searched for factors that best predict the diversity of larval and adult endoparasites in 4105 fish in 25 species studied over a three-year period in the Bothnian Bay, Finland. Local predator-prey relationships were determined from stomach contents, parasites, and published data in 8,229 fish in 31 species and in seals and piscivorous birds. Fish that consumed more species of prey had more diverse trophically transmitted adult parasites. Larval parasite diversity increased with the diversity of both prey and predators, but increases in predator diversity had a greater effect. Prey diversity was more strongly associated with the diversity of adult parasites than with that of larvae. The proportion of parasite species present as larvae in a host species was correlated with the diversity of its predators. There was a notable lack of association with the diversity of any parasite guild and fish length, trophic level, or trophic category. Thus, diversity is associated with different nodal properties in larval and adult parasites, and association strengths also differ, strongly reflecting the life cycles of parasites and the food chains they follow to complete transmission.

  15. Application of isotope dilution mass spectrometry: determination of ochratoxin A in the Canadian Total Diet Study

    PubMed Central

    Tam, J.; Pantazopoulos, P.; Scott, P.M.; Moisey, J.; Dabeka, R.W.; Richard, I.D.K.

    2011-01-01

    Analytical methods are generally developed and optimized for specific commodities. Total Diet Studies, representing typical food products ‘as consumed’, pose an analytical challenge since every food product is different. In order to address this technical challenge, a selective and sensitive analytical method was developed suitable for the quantitation of ochratoxin A (OTA) in Canadian Total Diet Study composites. The method uses an acidified solvent extraction, an immunoaffinity column (IAC) for clean-up, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for identification and quantification, and a uniformly stable isotope-labelled OTA (U-[13C20]-OTA) as an internal recovery standard. Results are corrected for this standard. The method is accurate (101% average recovery) and precise (5.5% relative standard deviation (RSD)) based on 17 duplicate analysis of various food products over 2 years. A total of 140 diet composites were analysed for OTA as part of the Canadian Total Diet Study. Samples were collected at retail level from two Canadian cities, Quebec City and Calgary, in 2008 and 2009, respectively. The results indicate that 73% (102/140) of the samples had detectable levels of OTA, with some of the highest levels of OTA contamination found in the Canadian bread supply. PMID:21623499

  16. Content of selenium, total and inorganic arsenic and bioaccessibility of arsenic in children diets of Mexico.

    PubMed

    García-Rico, Leticia; Tejeda-Valenzuela, Lourdes; Vélez, Dinoraz; Montoro, Rosa

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the intake of selenium, total and inorganic arsenic and the bioaccessibility of arsenic in diets of Mexican schoolchildren using an in vitro method. Total and inorganic arsenic concentrations in the diets ranged from 0.05 to 1.15 mg kg(-1) dry weight (DW) and from 0.023 to 0.088 mg kg(-1) DW respectively, while selenium levels were between 0.08 and 0.20 mg kg(-1) DW. Daily intake of total and inorganic arsenic ranged from 0.15 to 10.49 µg day(-1) kg(-1) body weight (BW) and from 0.06 to 1.11 µg day(-1) kg(-1) BW respectively, while that of selenium varied from 0.29 to 2.63 µg day(-1) kg(-1) BW. Bioaccessibility of total and inorganic arsenic ranged from 4 to 97% (mean 44 ± 21.5%) and from 33 to 97% (mean 71 ± 22.5%) respectively. Inorganic arsenic levels in the diets were low. Therefore there appears to be a low risk of adverse effects resulting from excess inorganic arsenic intake from these diets. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. EFFECTS OF COMMONLY USED COOKING PRACTICES ON TOTAL MERCURY CONCENTRATION IN FISH AND THEIR IMPACT ON EXPOSURE ASSESSMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of cooking practices commonly used by Native Americans on total mercury concentrations in fish were investigated. A preparation factor relating mercury concentrations in fish as prepared for consumption to mercury concentration data as measured in typical environmenta...

  18. EFFECTS OF COMMONLY USED COOKING PRACTICES ON TOTAL MERCURY CONCENTRATION IN FISH AND THEIR IMPACT ON EXPOSURE ASSESSMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of cooking practices commonly used by Native Americans on total mercury concentrations in fish were investigated. A preparation factor relating mercury concentrations in fish as prepared for consumption to mercury concentration data as measured in typical environmenta...

  19. Fish oil and flax seed oil supplemented diets increase FFAR4 expression in the rat colon.

    PubMed

    Cheshmehkani, Ameneh; Senatorov, Ilya S; Kandi, Praveen; Singh, Monalisa; Britt, April; Hayslett, Renee; Moniri, Nader H

    2015-10-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids, such as α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) that have long been associated with anti-inflammatory activity and general benefit toward human health. Over the last decade, the identification of a family of cell-surface G protein-coupled receptors that bind and are activated by free-fatty acids, including omega-3 fatty acids, suggest that many effects of PUFA are receptor-mediated. One such receptor, free-fatty acid receptor-4 (FFAR4), previously described as GPR120, has been shown to modulate anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing effects in response to PUFA such as ALA and DHA. Additionally, FFAR4 stimulates secretion of the insulin secretagogue glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) from the GI tract and acts as a dietary sensor to regulate energy availability. The aim of the current study was to assess the effects of dietary omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on FFAR4 expression in the rat colon. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed control soybean oil diets or alternatively, diets supplemented with either fish oil, which is enriched in DHA and EPA, or flaxseed oil, which is enriched in ALA, for 7 weeks. GLP-1 and blood glucose levels were monitored weekly and at the end of the study period, expression of FFAR4 and the inflammatory marker TNF-α was assessed. Our findings indicate that GLP-1 and blood glucose levels were unaffected by omega-3 fatty acid supplementation, however, animals that were fed fish or flaxseed oil-supplemented diets had significantly heightened colonic FFAR4 and actin expression, and reduced expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α compared to animals fed control diets. These results suggest that similar to ingestion of other fats, dietary-intake of omega-3 fatty acids can alter FFAR4 expression within the colon.

  20. Response of fish communities to multiple pressures: Development of a total anthropogenic pressure intensity index.

    PubMed

    Poikane, Sandra; Ritterbusch, David; Argillier, Christine; Białokoz, Witold; Blabolil, Petr; Breine, Jan; Jaarsma, Nicolaas G; Krause, Teet; Kubečka, Jan; Lauridsen, Torben L; Nõges, Peeter; Peirson, Graeme; Virbickas, Tomas

    2017-05-15

    Lakes in Europe are subject to multiple anthropogenic pressures, such as eutrophication, habitat degradation and introduction of alien species, which are frequently inter-related. Therefore, effective assessment methods addressing multiple pressures are needed. In addition, these systems have to be harmonised (i.e. intercalibrated) to achieve common management objectives across Europe. Assessments of fish communities inform environmental policies on ecological conditions integrating the impacts of multiple pressures. However, the challenge is to ensure consistency in ecological assessments through time, across ecosystem types and across jurisdictional boundaries. To overcome the serious comparability issues between national assessment systems in Europe, a total anthropogenic pressure intensity (TAPI) index was developed as a weighted combination of the most common pressures in European lakes that is validated against 10 national fish-based water quality assessment systems using data from 556 lakes. Multi-pressure indices showed significantly higher correlations with fish indices than single-pressure indices. The best-performing index combines eutrophication, hydromorphological alterations and human use intensity of lakes. For specific lake types also biological pressures may constitute an important additional pressure. The best-performing index showed a strong correlation with eight national fish-based assessment systems. This index can be used in lake management for assessing total anthropogenic pressure on lake ecosystems and creates a benchmark for comparison of fish assessments independent of fish community composition, size structure and fishing-gear. We argue that fish-based multiple-pressure assessment tools should be seen as complementary to single-pressure tools offering the major advantage of integrating direct and indirect effects of multiple pressures over large scales of space and time.

  1. Occurrence of the Great Lake's most recent invader, Hemimysis anomala, in the diet of fishes in southeastern Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lantry, B.F.; Walsh, M.G.; Johnson, J. H.; McKenna, J.E.

    2010-01-01

    The Ponto-Caspian mysid, Hemimysis anomala, was first observed in southeastern Lake Ontario in May 2006. During July and August 2007, gill nets were fished in 6 to 8 m of water at two locations of known Hemimysis colonization in southeastern Lake Ontario to determine if fish that consume macroinvertebrates were beginning to include this new invasive mysid in their diets. Of nine fish species captured in August, September, and October 2007, three species had consumed Hemimysis: alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus), rock bass (Ambloplites rupestris), and yellow perch (Perca flavescens); and six species had not: round goby Apollonia melanostoma, smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, spottail shiner Notropis hudsonius, gizzard shad Dorosoma cepedianum, white perch Morone americana and log perch Percina caprodes. Diets of alewives from all samples were composed predominantly of Hemimysis (69.6% -100% frequency of occurrence, 46.0%–74.5% dry weight diet composition). Two of 6 rock bass stomachs sampled in August contained ≥ 98.9% Hemimysis (10 and 40 individuals each) and one of 61 yellow perch stomachs sampled in September contained 10.0% Hemimysis (6 individuals) and 90.0% fish. While Hemimysis were observed only sparsely in the diet of most nearshore fish, their predominance in alewife diets and their omnivorous feeding behavior indicated that they have the potential to alter energy flow in Great Lakes' foodwebs.

  2. Effect of supplementation of cows diet with linseed and fish oil and different variants of β-lactoglobulin on fatty acid composition and antioxidant capacity of milk.

    PubMed

    Puppel, Kamila; Kuczyńska, Beata; Nałęcz-Tarwacka, Teresa; Gołębiewski, Marcin; Sakowski, Tomasz; Kapusta, Aleksandra; Budziński, Arkadiusz; Balcerak, Marek

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of polymorphic variants of β-lactoglobulin in cows supplemented with linseed and fish oil on the fatty acid composition and antioxidant capacity of milk. From the herd of 320 Polish Holstein Friesian cows three groups of cows were selected according to the variants of β-LG (β-LGAA, β-LGBB, β-LGAB). During the first 7 days (the initial period) all the cows were fed the same total mixed ration (TMR) diet. From day 8 to 28,150 g fish oil and 250 g linseed (FOL) was added to the TMR diet of each cow. The results showed that the diet supplemented with FOL was effective in reducing atherogenic and thrombogenic indices. Introducing supplementation improved the antioxidant capacity: higher concentration of C18:2cis-9 trans-11, C20:5 n-3, C22:6 n-3, bioactive whey proteins and vitamin soluble in fat has been recorded. The results showed that β-LGAA was associated with lower levels of atherogenic and thrombogenic indices and higher concentration of C22:5 n-6, phospholipids and β-carotene. β-LGBB favours a higher content of C18:1trans-11, C18:2cis-9 trans-11 and lactoferrin. β-LGAB was associated with higher concentrations of C20:5 n-3, Lysozyme, α-retinol, α-tocopherol and total antioxidant status. Modification of the diet of cows with fish oil and linseed significantly influenced fatty acid composition and antioxidant properties of milk. The effect of β-LG phenotype on the fatty acid composition and antioxidant capacity of milk is variable, which could partly be the result of a β-LG phenotype × diet interaction. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Feeding ecology and ontogenic diet shifts of juvenile fish species in an inverse estuary: The Sine-Saloum, Senegal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gning, Ndombour; Vidy, Guy; Thiaw, Omar Thiom

    2008-01-01

    We examined the diet of juvenile fish of four species - Eucinostomus melanopterus (Gerreidae), Ethmalosa fimbriata (Clupeidae), Monodactylus sebae (Monodactylidae), and Sarotherodon melanotheron (Cichlidae) - between their appearance on the nursery ground and the end of the recruitment season, when they began to shift to deeper parts of the estuary. Fish were collected from the Sine-Saloum, an inverse estuary in Senegal, West Africa. Sampling was conducted at six sites located along the salinity gradient. The study was conducted in the context of an inverse estuary where increasing salinity leads to the disappearance of mangroves. Stomach contents were sorted and the preferred prey determined to the lowest possible taxonomic level. Ontogenic changes in diet were characterized and results expressed as the frequency of occurrence of the prey. The results showed that almost all juveniles began with a "classical" zooplanktonic diet. Following that first stage, they then preyed on items belonging to the periphytic community in the vicinity of mangroves (when present). Juvenile Ethmalosa fimbriata, a phytoplankton feeder as an adult, displayed that kind of transitory diet, a finding not previously recorded. Plant material (algae and leaves) occurred frequently in the stomach contents. All four species began the ontogenic shift toward their adult diet at a length of 50 mm. The periphytic community supported on mangrove prop roots contributes to the diet of juvenile fish living in proximity to mangroves; this may not be verified for those fish living in open waters.

  4. Growth and Feed Efficiency of Juvenile Channel Catfish Reared at Different Water Temperatures and Fed Diets Containing Various Levels of Fish Meal

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus do not feed well at low temperatures. It is thought that a diet containing fish meal may enhance feed palatability at low temperatures since fish meal is highly palatable to the fish. There is a lack of information on effects of fish meal levels on growth perfor...

  5. Substituting fish oil with crude palm oil in the diet of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) affects muscle fatty acid composition and hepatic fatty acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Bell, J Gordon; Henderson, R James; Tocher, Douglas R; McGhee, Fiona; Dick, James R; Porter, Allan; Smullen, Richard P; Sargent, John R

    2002-02-01

    Supplies of marine fish oils (FO) are limited and continued growth in aquaculture production dictates that substitutes must be found that do not compromise fish health and product quality. In this study the suitability of crude palm oil (PO) as a replacement for FO in diets of Atlantic salmon was investigated. Duplicate groups of Atlantic salmon post-smolts were fed four practical-type diets in which the added lipid was either 100% FO and 0% crude PO (0% PO); 75% FO and 25% PO (25% PO); 50% FO and 50% PO (50% PO); and 100% PO, for 30 wk. There were no effects of diet on growth rate or feed conversion ratio nor were any histopathological lesions found in liver, heart or muscle. Lipid deposition was greatest in fish fed 0% PO and was significantly greater than in fish fed 50% and 100% PO. Fatty acid compositions of muscle total lipid were correlated with dietary PO inclusion such that the concentrations of 16:0, 18:1(n-9), 18:2(n-6), total saturated fatty acids and total monoenoic fatty acids increased linearly with increasing dietary PO. The concentration of eicosapentaenoic acid [20:5(n-3)] was reduced significantly with increasing levels of dietary PO but the concentration of docosahexaenoic acid [22:6(n-3)] was significantly reduced only in fish fed 100% PO, compared with the other three treatments. Similar diet-induced changes were seen in liver total lipid fatty acid compositions. Hepatic fatty acid desaturation and elongation activities were approximately 10-fold greater in fish fed 100% PO than in those fed 0% PO. This study suggests that PO can be used successfully as a substitute for FO in the culture of Atlantic salmon in sea water. However, at levels of PO inclusion above 50% of dietary lipid, significant reductions in muscle 20:5(n-3), 22:6(n-3) and the (n-3):(n-6) PUFA ratio occur, resulting in reduced availability of these essential (n-3) highly unsaturated fatty acids to the consumer.

  6. Optimal diets in complex environments: feeding strategies of two herbivorous fishes from a temperate rocky intertidal zone.

    PubMed

    Horn, M H

    1983-06-01

    The seasonal diets of Cebidichthys violaceus and Xiphister mucosus, two herbivorous fishes from the complex, multifood environment of the central California rocky intertidal zone, were partially consistent with three predictions of optimal diet models based on energy maximization: 1) The prediction that at high food densities a forager should concentrate solely on the energetically most valuable items was incompletely met by these two fish species. C. violaceus and X. mucosus increased their consumption of energy-rich annual macrophytes during periods (summer and fall) of high food abundance, but nevertheless continued to take a mixed diet. 2) The prediction that abundance of lower-valued foods does not determine their inclusion in the diet was largely upheld by the feeding habits of these two intertidal fishes. The probability of an item being consumed apparently depends upon its abundance as well as its chemical composition. 3) The prediction that foragers will generalize as food abundance declines was largely met by the two fishes since their diets broadened considerably during periods (e.g. winter) of reduced food supply. Furthermore, diets of the two species converged during periods of high food abundance and diverged during months of low food abundance. Whether this seasonal pattern of overlap was due to interspecific competition or other factors is unknown. This study, in agreement with other recent investigations, indicates that optimal diet models cannot be based solely on energy maximization but should also include nutrient constraints in order to more accurately predict the seasonally fluctuating mixed diets of these fishes and other generalist herbivores.

  7. Let the pyramid guide your food choices: capturing the total diet concept.

    PubMed

    Dixon, L B; Cronin, F J; Krebs-Smith, S M

    2001-02-01

    This paper discusses how the guideline "Eat a variety of foods" became "Let the Pyramid guide your food choices," presents background information on the food guidance system upon which the Food Guide Pyramid is based and reviews methods that have been used to assess aspects of the total diet, i.e., the variety, moderation and proportionality, promoted by this guidance. The methods include measures of dietary variety, patterns based on Pyramid food group intakes and scoring methods comprised of multiple dietary components. Highlights of results from these methods include the following. Although approximately one third of the U.S. population eat at least some food from all Pyramid food groups, only approximately 1-3% eat the recommended number of servings from all food groups on a given day. Fruits are the most commonly omitted food group. Vegetables and meat are the groups most commonly met by adults, and dairy the most commonly met by youth. Intakes of specific types of vegetables (i.e., dark green, deep yellow) and of grains (i.e., whole grains) are well below that recommended; intakes of total fat and added sugars exceed current recommendations. Scoring methods show those diets of the majority of the population require improvement, and that diets improve with increases in education and income. This paper also discusses the limitations and strengths of these approaches, and concludes with suggestions to improve current food guidance and methods to assess the total diet.

  8. Total and Inorganic Arsenic in Mid-Atlantic Marine Fish and Shellfish and Implications for Fish Advisories

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, Richard; Crecelius, Eric A.

    2006-02-06

    Up to 33.3 metric tons of arsenic trioxide were spilled off the Middle Atlantic coast of the United States in January of 1992 during a shipping accident. Historical fish tissue data for samples collected in the Delaware Inland Bays before and after the spill reveal a prominent spike in total arsenic in summer flounder following the spill and a gradual decline ever since. In 2002, a small study was conducted to determine whether summer flounder migrating into the Delaware Inland Bays from the Continental Shelf in the spring contain higher body burdens of arsenic than summer flounder migrating out of the Inland Bays in the fall. Total arsenic was significantly higher in the incoming fish. Considering that summer flounder overwinter at the spill site, that arsenic trioxide is a dense powder of limited solubility that would tend to incorporate into the sediments, and that summer flounder are demersal fish, we conclude that summer flounder accumulate arsenic offshore and that the likely source of their extra body burden is the spilled arsenic. Speciation of arsenic in the summer flounder, as well as in Atlantic croaker, striped bass, and hard clam reveal low concentrations (0.5 ? 20 ug/kg ww) of toxic inorganic arsenic. DMA was more than an order of magnitude greater in hard clam meats than in the other species tested, a finding attributed to arsenic uptake by phytoplankton and subsequent dietary uptake by the clam. Risk assessment using the inorganic arsenic concentrations was used to conclude that a fish advisory is not warranted.

  9. Total mercury and methylmercury levels in fish from hydroelectric reservoirs in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Ikingura, J R; Akagi, H

    2003-03-20

    Total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) levels have been determined in fish species representing various tropic levels in four major hydroelectric reservoirs (Mtera, Kidatu, Hale-Pangani, Nyumba ya Mungu) located in two distinct geographical areas in Tanzania. The Mtera and Kidatu reservoirs are located along the Great Ruaha River drainage basin in the southern central part of the country while the other reservoirs are located within the Pangani River basin in the north eastern part of Tanzania. Fish mercury levels ranged from 5 to 143 microg/kg (mean 40 microg/kg wet weight) in the Mtera Reservoir, and from 7 to 119 microg/kg (mean 21 microg/kg) in the Kidatu Reservoir downstream of the Great Ruaha River. The lowest THg levels, in the range 1-10 microg/kg (mean 5 microg/kg), were found in fish from the Nyumba ya Mungu (NyM) Reservoir, which is one of the oldest reservoirs in the country. Fish mercury levels in the Pangani and Hale mini-reservoirs, downstream of the NyM Reservoir, were in the order of 3-263 microg/kg, with an average level of 21 microg/kg. These THg levels are among the lowest to be reported in freshwater fish from hydroelectric reservoirs. Approximately 56-100% of the total mercury in the fish was methylmercury. Herbivorous fish species contained lower THg levels than the piscivorous species; this was consistent with similar findings in other fish studies. In general the fish from the Tanzanian reservoirs contained very low mercury concentrations, and differed markedly from fish in hydroelectric reservoirs of similar age in temperate and other regions, which are reported to contain elevated mercury concentrations. The low levels of mercury in the fish correlated with low background concentrations of THg in sediment and flooded soil (mean 2-8 microg/kg dry weight) in the reservoir surroundings. This suggested a relatively clean reservoir environment that has not been significantly impacted by mercury contamination from natural or anthropogenic

  10. Nitrogen utilization from diets with refined and blended poultry by-products as partial fish meal replacements in diets for low-salinity cultured Florida pompano, Trachinotus carolinus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Three trials were performed to evaluate partial fish meal (FM) replacement with poultry by-products in a practical-type diet for Florida pompano, Trachinotus carolinus reared in low-salinity. Two refined and blended meals (BP67, BP70), two chicken concentrates (CC66, CC70) and one standard pet-food ...

  11. Fish oil and olive oil-rich diets modify ozone-induced ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Rationale: Air pollution exposure has been associated with adverse cardiovascular health effects. Our clinical studies suggest that fish oil (FO) and olive oil (OO) supplementations attenuate the cardiovascular responses to inhaled concentrated ambient particles. This study was designed to examine the cardiovascular effects of ozone and the efficacy of FO and OO-rich diets in attenuating these effects of ozone exposure in rats. Methods: Male Wistar Kyoto rats were fed either a normal diet (ND), or a diet enriched with 6% FO or OO starting at 4 weeks of age. Eight weeks following the start of the diet, animals were exposed to filtered air (FA) or 0.8 ppm ozone, 4 hr/day for 2 consecutive days. Immediately after exposure, cardiac responses were assessed ex vivo using a Langendorff heart preparation with a protocol consisting of 20 min of global ischemia followed by 2 hr reperfusion. Cardiac function was measured as the index of left-ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) and contractility (dP/dtmax and dP/dtmin) before ischemia. Upon reperfusion after ischemia, the recovery of post-ischemic LVDP and infarct size were examined. Results: The pre-ischemic LVDP, dP/dtmax, and dP/dtmin were lower after ozone exposure when compared to the FA control in the rats fed ND but not FO and OO. OO diet shortened the time to ischemic contracture of the hearts after FA exposure compared to ND. Ozone exposure increased pre-ischemic heart rate and the time to ischemic contractur

  12. Survey of total mercury in total diet food composites and an estimation of the dietary intake of mercury by adults and children from two Canadian cities, 1998-2000.

    PubMed

    Dabeka, R W; McKenzie, A D; Bradley, P

    2003-07-01

    Total mercury was measured in 259 total diet food composites from two Canadian cities. Levels were generally low, with 46% of the composites having concentrations below the limit of detection, which ranged from 0.026 to 0.506 ng g(-1). The fish category contained the highest mercury concentrations, which averaged 67 ng g(-1) and ranged from 24 to 148 ng g(-1). All composites were below the Canadian guideline for total mercury in fish of 0.5 ppm. Dietary intakes of mercury averaged 0.022 microg kg(-1) body weight/day (microg kg(-1) day(-1)), and ranged from 0.012 microg kg(-1) day(-1) for females over 65 years old to 0.062 microg kg(-1) day(-1) for 0-1-month-old infants. For fish consumers, fish contributed to more than half of the ingested mercury. All intakes were well below Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intakes, expressed on a daily basis, of 0.71 microg kg(-1) day(-1) total mercury and 0.47 microg kg(-1) day(-1) methyl mercury, and also below a recent Health Canada recommended maximum methyl mercury intake of 0.2 microg kg(-1) day(-1) for children and women of child-bearing age.

  13. Maintaining Coral Snakes (Micrurus nigrocinctus, Serpentes: Elapidae) for venom production on an alternative fish-based diet.

    PubMed

    Chacón, Danilo; Rodríguez, Santos; Arias, Jazmín; Solano, Gabriela; Bonilla, Fabián; Gómez, Aarón

    2012-09-01

    American Elapid snakes (Coral Snakes) comprise the genera Leptomicrurus, Micruroides and Micrurus, which form a vast taxonomic assembly of 330 species distributed from the South of United States to the southern region of South America. In order to obtain venom for animal immunizations aimed at antivenom production, Coral Snakes must be kept in captivity and submitted periodically to venom extraction procedures. Thus, to maintain a snake colony in good health for this purpose, a complete alternative diet utilizing an easily obtained prey animal is desirable. The development of a diet based on fish is compared to the wild diet based on colubrid snakes, and assessed in terms of gain in body weight rate (g/week), longevity (weeks), venom yield (mg/individual), venom median lethal dose (LD₅₀) and venom chromatographic profiles. The animals fed with the fish-based diet gained more weight, lived longer, and produced similar amount of venom whose biological and biochemical characteristics were similar to those of venom collected from specimens fed with the wild diet. This fish-based diet appears to be suitable (and preferable to the wild diet) to supply the nutritional requirements of a Micrurus nigrocinctus snake collection for the production of antivenom. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Fish consumption among young overweight European adults and compliance to varying seafood content in four weight loss intervention diets.

    PubMed

    Thorsdottir, I; Birgisdottir, Be; Kiely, M; Martinez, Ja; Bandarra, Nm

    2009-05-01

    Fish is considered an important part of a healthy diet and is frequently recommended as a main course at least twice a week. To study the frequency of fish consumption among young overweight European adults and their compliance to varying seafood consumption in weight loss intervention diets. After meeting the inclusion criteria, the subject's seafood intake was evaluated. Subjects were randomly assigned into four groups and were advised energy-restricted diets for 8 weeks, including no seafood (control), cod, salmon or fish oil. A validated FFQ was used to evaluate the consumption of seafood at baseline, midpoint and endpoint, and long-chain n-3 fatty acids in blood erythrocytes were measured. Iceland, Ireland and Spain. The sample (n 324); 20-40-year-olds with BMI = 27.5-32.5 kg/m2; 85 % participated. At baseline, 34 % of the participants reported eating fish at least twice a week as the main course. During the intervention, six participants reported that they did not finish their fish portions, 15 % of the participants consumed small amount of fish additional to the study protocol in weeks 1-4 and 23 % in weeks 5-8 (P = 0.010). Changes in erythrocyte long-chain n-3 fatty acids confirmed good compliance, with increases in the salmon (P < 0.001) and fish oil (P < 0.001) groups, smaller increase in the cod group (P = 0.037) and decrease in the control group (P = 0.030). Frequency of fish consumption among 66 % of young European overweight adults is lower than frequently recommended. Compliance to varying seafood consumption was good. Therefore, including more fish in the diet of this group should be encouraged.

  15. Partial replacements of Stylosanthes scabra forage for lucerne in total mixed ration diet of Saanen goats.

    PubMed

    Mpanza, Thamsanqa Doctor Empire; Hassen, Abubeker

    2015-10-01

    The inclusion of Stylosanthes scabra cv. Seca forage in the total mixed ration (TMR) as partial replacement of lucerne (alfalfa) was evaluated for its effects on voluntary feed intake, nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance in Saanen goats. Three experimental diets were formulated having 0 % Seca (T1), 15 % Seca (T2) and 30 % Seca (T3) as partial replacement of lucerne forage in the TMR diet for goats. Eighteen Saanen goats of about 7 months old were divided into three groups of six animals per group. Each group was randomly assigned to one of the three dietary treatments in a complete randomised design, and the study lasted for a period of 21 days. There was an increase in fibre and mineral content of the diets as Seca inclusion increased, but this resulted in the decrease of crude protein contents and in vitro organic matter digestibility. Animals that were fed 15 % Seca recorded higher voluntary dry matter and nutrient (organic matter and fibres) intake, but the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05) as compared to the other treatments. Nutrient digestibility as well as nitrogen balance was not significantly different across the three diets. The lack of significant differences in feed intake, nutrient digestibility and nitrogen utilisation following the inclusion of Seca in the TMR suggests that S. scabra forage can partially replace lucerne in the TMR diet of goats.

  16. 50 CFR 600.516 - Total allowable level of foreign fishing (TALFF).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Total allowable level of foreign fishing (TALFF). 600.516 Section 600.516 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS...

  17. Diet and feeding strategies of mesopelagic fishes in the western Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernal, Ainhoa; Olivar, M. Pilar; Maynou, Francesc; Fernández de Puelles, M. Luz

    2015-06-01

    Myctophids, gonostomatids and sternoptychids are the most abundant teleosteans worldwide and constitute an important assemblage of the mesopelagic ecosystem, functioning as vehicles of energy and matter through trophic webs. This study concentrates on the trophic ecology of the most abundant mesopelagic fishes of the western Mediterranean (WM) based on stomach content analysis. The myctophids (in this study: Benthosema glaciale, Ceratoscopelus maderensis, Lobianchia dofleini, Myctophum punctatum, Hygophum benoiti, Hygophum hygomii, Lampanyctus crocodilus, Lampanyctus pusillus and Notoscopelus elongatus) perform extensive diel migrations across the water column, between the surface to as deep as 1000 m, interacting with plankton and micronekton at multiple depths, and generally feeding in the epipelagic layers at night. In contrast, the gonostomatids Cyclothone braueri, Cyclothone pygmaea, and the sternoptychid Argyropelecus hemigymnus remain below epipelagic layers, feeding at different times throughout the day and night. The diet composition, trophic niche breadth and prey selectivity of 11 of these fish species were determined for juvenile and adult individuals from two surveys performed in December 2009 and July 2010 in the western Mediterranean Sea. The number of prey items varied among species, e.g. Myctophum punctatum was the species with the highest feeding intensity, reaching ca. 700 prey items in a stomach, whereas the mean number of prey in Cyclothone braueri was low (usually 1 or 2 prey per stomach). A dietary shift towards larger prey was evident from juveniles to the largest and oldest adult individuals, despite trophic niche breadths did not increase with body length for any of these mesopelagic species. The diets of the small gonostomatids, sternoptychid and early juveniles of myctophids were dominated by non-calanoid copepods, ostracods, and other small zooplankton, whereas medium-sized myctophids, e.g. L. dofleini or H. benoiti, preyed mainly on

  18. Levels of total mercury in predatory fish sold in Canada in 2005.

    PubMed

    Dabeka, R W; McKenzie, A D; Forsyth, D S

    2011-06-01

    Total mercury was analysed in 188 samples of predatory fish purchased at the retail level in Canada in 2005. The average concentrations (ng g(-1), range) were: sea bass 329 (38-1367), red snapper 148 (36-431), orange roughy 543 (279-974), fresh water trout 55 (20-430), grouper 360 (8-1060), black cod 284 (71-651), Arctic char 37 (28-54), king fish 440 (42-923), tilefish 601 (79-1164) and marlin 854 (125-2346). The Canadian standard for maximum total mercury allowed in the edible portions of fish sold at the retail level is 1000 ng g(-1) for shark, swordfish, marlin, orange roughy, escolar and both fresh and frozen tuna. The standard is 500 ng g(-1) for all other types of fish. In this study, despite the small number of samples of each species, the 1000 ng g(-1) maximum was exceeded in five samples of marlin (28%). The 500 ng g(-1) maximum was exceeded by six samples of sea bass (20%), four of tilefish (50%), five of grouper (24%), six of king fish (40%) and one of black cod (13%).

  19. An n-3 PUFA-rich microalgal oil diet protects to a similar extent as a fish oil-rich diet against AOM-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci in F344 rats.

    PubMed

    van Beelen, Vincent A; Spenkelink, Bert; Mooibroek, Hans; Sijtsma, Lolke; Bosch, Dirk; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Alink, Gerrit M

    2009-02-01

    The chemopreventive effects of high fat microalgal oil diet on azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) were studied in male Fischer 344 rats following 8 weeks of dietary treatment. These effects were compared to the effects of high fat fish oil and high fat corn oil diets to determine whether microalgal oil is a good alternative for fish oil regarding protection against colorectal cancer. Despite the difference in fatty acid composition and total amount of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) between microalgal oil and fish oil, both these oils gave the same 50% reduction of AOM-induced ACF when compared to corn oil. To determine whether oxidative stress could play a role in the chemoprevention of colorectal cancer by n-3 PUFAs, feces and caecal content were examined using the TBA assay. The results showed that lipid peroxidation does occur in the gastrointestinal tract. As several lipid peroxidation products of n-3 PUFAs can induce phase II detoxifying enzymes by an EpRE-mediated pathway, the in vivo results suggest that this route may contribute to n-3 PUFA-mediated chemoprevention. All in all, n-3 PUFA-rich oil from microalgae is as good as fish oil regarding chemoprevention in the colon of the rat.

  20. Trade-off between morphological convergence and opportunistic diet behavior in fish hybrid zone

    PubMed Central

    Corse, Emmanuel; Costedoat, Caroline; Pech, Nicolas; Chappaz, Rémi; Grey, Jonathan; Gilles, André

    2009-01-01

    Background The invasive Chondrostoma nasus nasus has colonized part of the distribution area of the protected endemic species Chondrostoma toxostoma toxostoma. This hybrid zone is a complex system where multiple effects such as inter-species competition, bi-directional introgression, strong environmental pressure and so on are combined. Why do sympatric Chondrostoma fish present a unidirectional change in body shape? Is this the result of inter-species interactions and/or a response to environmental effects or the result of trade-offs? Studies focusing on the understanding of a trade-off between multiple parameters are still rare. Although this has previously been done for Cichlid species flock and for Darwin finches, where mouth or beak morphology were coupled to diet and genetic identification, no similar studies have been done for a fish hybrid zone in a river. We tested the correlation between morphology (body and mouth morphology), diet (stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes) and genomic combinations in different allopatric and sympatric populations for a global data set of 1330 specimens. To separate the species interaction effect from the environmental effect in sympatry, we distinguished two data sets: the first one was obtained from a highly regulated part of the river and the second was obtained from specimens coming from the less regulated part. Results The distribution of the hybrid combinations was different in the two part of the sympatric zone, whereas all the specimens presented similar overall changes in body shape and in mouth morphology. Sympatric specimens were also characterized by a larger diet behavior variance than reference populations, characteristic of an opportunistic diet. No correlation was established between the body shape (or mouth deformation) and the stable isotope signature. Conclusion The Durance River is an untamed Mediterranean river despite the presence of numerous dams that split the river from upstream to downstream. The

  1. A high-fish-oil diet prevents adiposity and modulates white adipose tissue inflammation pathways in mice.

    PubMed

    Bargut, Thereza Cristina Lonzetti; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos Alberto; Aguila, Marcia Barbosa

    2015-09-01

    Fish oil improves obesity and its comorbidities, but its mechanisms of action remain unknown. We evaluate the effects of a diet rich in fish oil in white adipose tissue (WAT) inflammation pathways, renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). To achieve our aims, four groups of male C57BL/6 mice were fed different diets: standard chow diet (SC; 10% energy from fat), SC+fish oil diet (SC-FO; 10% energy from fat), high-fat lard diet (HF-L; 50% energy from lard) and HF fish oil diet (HF-FO; 50% energy from fish oil). We evaluated body mass, epididymal fat pad mass, food intake and glucose tolerance. In WAT, we assessed adipocyte hypertrophy, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 immunofluorescence, and gene and protein expression of insulin signaling, inflammation, MAPKs, RAS, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). In relation to the results, the HF-L group, as expected, showed elevated body mass and adiposity, glucose intolerance and hypertrophied adipocytes. In WAT, we found a defect in insulin signaling, infiltration of macrophages and inflammatory markers with the associated activation of MAPKs and local RAS. On the contrary, the HF-FO group did not present increased body mass, adiposity or glucose intolerance. In this group, insulin signaling, macrophage infiltration and inflammation were reduced in WAT in comparison with the HF-L group. We also observed decreases of MAPKs and local RAS and elevation of PPAR and AMPK. In summary, fish oil activates PPAR (the three isoforms) and AMPK, decreases WAT insulin resistance and inflammation, and inhibits MAPK and RAS pathways activation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of dietary supplemental fish oil during the peripartum period on blood metabolites and hepatic fatty acid compositions and total triacylglycerol concentrations of multiparous Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Ballou, M A; Gomes, R C; Juchem, S O; DePeters, E J

    2009-02-01

    The objectives were to evaluate the effects of dietary fish oil on plasma metabolite, hepatic fatty acid composition, and total triacylglycerol concentrations. Multiparous Holstein cows (n = 42) were completely randomized to 1 of 3 treatments at 3 wk prepartum. Treatments were no supplemental lipid or supplemental lipid from either Energy Booster (Milk Specialties Co., Dundee, IL) or fish oil. Treatment diets were fed from -21 d relative to expected date of parturition until 10 d postpartum. Treatments were fed as a bolus before the a.m. feeding. The dose of lipid fed during the prepartum period was 250 g, whereas approximately 0.92% of the previous day's dry matter intake was supplemented postpartum. Blood was collected 3 times weekly for determination of plasma metabolites. Liver biopsies were performed at 21 and 10 d before expected date of parturition and 1 and 14 d after parturition to determine fatty acid compositions and total triacylglycerol concentrations. Dry matter intake, milk yield, and loss of body weight or body condition score were not affected by supplementing the diet with lipid or by the source of lipid. Supplemental lipid tended to increase plasma glucose and decrease nonesterified fatty acids during the postpartum period. Furthermore, plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate was reduced during the postpartum period in the lipid-supplemented treatments. However, source of supplemental lipid had no influence on any blood metabolite. Supplemental fish oil altered the fatty acid composition of liver phospholipids and triacylglycerols, decreasing total saturated fatty acids and increasing total n-3 and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (>20 carbon fatty acids). Despite the altered fatty acid composition, hepatic total triacylglycerol concentrations were unaffected by supplemental fish oil. Furthermore, the improved metabolic profile following lipid supplementation did not decrease hepatic total triacylglycerol concentrations.

  3. A new method for total mercury and methyl mercury analysis in muscle of seawater fish.

    PubMed

    Carbonell, G; Bravo, J C; Fernández, C; Tarazona, J V

    2009-08-01

    In this work we have developed a cost-effective method for the analysis of methyl mercury (MeHg) in seawater fish muscle. The novelty of this method lies in the use of microwave-assisted extraction with acidic solution (HCl), addition of toluene, and subsequent extraction with cysteine acetate solution where only MeHg is present because of its affinity for cysteine groups. MeHg in cysteine phase and total mercury in the homogenate muscle tissue were determined using a direct Hg analyzer (DMA-80). Validation, precision, and accuracy of the method were evaluated and monitored with a tuna fish certified reference material (CRM 463) containing MeHg.

  4. Peripheral nerve metabolism and zinc levels in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Effect of diets high in fish and corn oil

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, J.P.; Fenton, M.R. )

    1991-03-15

    This study was designed to assess the effects of diets high in fish and corn oil on peripheral nerve metabolism in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. A type I diabetic state was induced in female Sprague-Dawley rats by injection of STZ. Animals were divided into three dietary groups; normal rat chow, high corn oil diet and high fish oil diet. After 4 weeks animals were analyzed for nerve conduction velocity, bled and then sacrificed. Sciatic nerves were removed, processed and several biochemical parameters determined. Plasma zinc levels were elevated in the STZ normal chow group compared to non-diabetic controls. Both corn oil and fish oil diets tended to eliminate the rise in plasma zinc. Differences in subcellular distribution of zinc in sciatic nerves were also observed. Normal chow STZ animals displayed a 20% decrease in nerve conduction velocity compared to control. Dietary supplementation with either fish or corn oil seemed to ameliorate these effects. Biochemical analysis of Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase and protein kinase C revealed a decrease in activity in normal chow animals compared to control groups. Again, dietary intervention with either fish or corn oil seemed to return these activities back to normal. The results suggest a link between zinc metabolism and peripheral nerve metabolism which can be modified by dietary intervention.

  5. Fish-oil high-fat diet intake of dams after day 5 of pregnancy and during lactation guards against excessive fat consumption of their weaning pups.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Yoko

    2008-02-01

    To investigate the influence of parental fat intake on preferential fat intake by pups after weaning, two groups of dams in study 1 were fed either a low-fat diet (LFD) or a lard high-fat diet (HFD) and those in study 2 were fed either a LFD or a fish-oil HFD after day 5 of pregnancy and during lactation. In study 1, when pups were placed on a self-selection regimen of the LFD and the lard HFD within the first week after weaning, the ratio of the lard HFD intake [lard HFD intake (g)/total intake (g)] by pups of both groups was about 70%. Although pups nursed by dams fed the lard HFD continued to eat the same ratio of the lard HFD, the ratio for pups nursed by dams fed the LFD gradually decreased to 20% in week 3 after weaning. In study 2, when pups were placed on a self-selection regimen of the LFD and the fish-oil HFD after weaning, the ratio of the fish-oil HFD intake in both groups of pups nursed by dams fed the LFD and the fish-oil HFD was about 20% for 3 wk after weaning. In studies 1 and 2, although no significant difference in dietary intake or body weight of dams and pups was observed among all groups through the experimental period, perirenal fat tissue weight of dams fed the lard HFD was higher than that of dams fed the LFD. These findings indicate that (1) fat preference of weaning pups nursed by dams fed the lard HFD is higher than that of weaning pups nursed by dams fed the LFD, and (2) intake of dam's fish-oil HFD diet guards against pups' intake of excessive fat.

  6. Serum concentrations of cholesterol, apolipoprotein A-I and apolipoprotein B in a total of 1694 meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans.

    PubMed

    Bradbury, K E; Crowe, F L; Appleby, P N; Schmidt, J A; Travis, R C; Key, T J

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to describe serum lipid concentrations, including apolipoproteins A-I and B, in different diet groups. A cross-sectional analysis of a sample of 424 meat-eaters, 425 fish-eaters, 423 vegetarians and 422 vegans, matched on sex and age, from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Oxford cohort. Serum concentrations of total, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, as well as apolipoproteins A-I and B were measured, and serum non-HDL cholesterol was calculated. Vegans had the lowest body mass index (BMI) and the highest and lowest intakes of polyunsaturated and saturated fat, respectively. After adjustment for age, alcohol and physical activity, compared with meat-eaters, fish-eaters and vegetarians, serum concentrations of total and non-HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B were significantly lower in vegans. Serum apolipoprotein A-I concentrations did not differ between the diet groups. In males, the mean serum total cholesterol concentration was 0.87 mmol/l lower in vegans than in meat-eaters; after further adjustment for BMI this difference was 0.76 mmol/l. In females, the difference in total cholesterol between these two groups was 0.6 mmol/l, and after further adjustment for BMI was 0.55 mmol/l. [corrected]. In this study, which included a large number of vegans, serum total cholesterol and apolipoprotein B concentrations were lower in vegans compared with meat-eaters, fish-eaters and vegetarians. A small proportion of the observed differences in serum lipid concentrations was explained by differences in BMI, but a large proportion is most likely due to diet.

  7. Serum concentrations of cholesterol, apolipoprotein A-I, and apolipoprotein B in a total of 1 694 meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians, and vegans

    PubMed Central

    Bradbury, Kathryn E; Crowe, Francesca L; Appleby, Paul N; Schmidt, Julie A; Travis, Ruth C; Key, Timothy J

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The objective of this study was to describe serum lipid concentrations, including apolipoproteins A-I and B, in different diet groups. METHODS A cross-sectional analysis of a sample of 424 meat-eaters, 425 fish-eaters, 423 vegetarians, and 422 vegans, matched on sex and age, from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Oxford cohort. Serum concentrations of total, and HDL cholesterol, as well as apolipoproteins A-I and B were measured, and serum non-HDL cholesterol was calculated. RESULTS Vegans had the lowest BMI, and the highest and lowest intakes of polyunsaturated and saturated fat, respectively. After adjustment for age, alcohol and physical activity, compared to meat-eaters, fish-eaters and vegetarians, serum concentrations of total and non-HDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B were significantly lower in vegans. Serum apolipoprotein A-I concentrations did not differ between the diet groups. In males, the mean serum total cholesterol concentration was 0.87 nmol/L lower in vegans than in meat-eaters; after further adjustment for BMI this difference was 0.76 nmol/L. In females, the difference in total cholesterol between these two groups was 0.60 nmol/L, and after further adjustment for BMI was 0.55 nmol/L. CONCLUSIONS In this study, which included a large number of vegans, serum total cholesterol and apolipoprotein B concentrations were lower in vegans compared to meat-eaters, fish-eaters and vegetarians. A small proportion of the observed differences in serum lipid concentrations was explained by differences in BMI, but a large proportion is most likely due to diet. PMID:24346473

  8. Total and organic mercury in ten fish species for human consumption from the Mexican Pacific.

    PubMed

    Ruelas-Inzunza, J; Hernández-Osuna, J; Páez-Osuna, F

    2011-06-01

    Total mercury and organic mercury were measured in ten fish species from the Mexican Pacific ocean to have a general view on the ratio of total mercury-organic mercury and potential implications on human health. Highest concentration of total mercury was recorded in muscle tissue of Carcharhinus leucas (0.62 μg g⁻¹ wet weight). Organic mercury was more concentrated in Haemulon sexfasciatum (0.4 μg g⁻¹ wet weight). Percentages of organic mercury ranged from 33 to 100%. Hazard indices associated to organic mercury and average fish consumption in Mexico ranged from 0.25 in Lutjanus colorado to 1.65 in Haemulon sexfasciatum.

  9. Effects of low carbohydrate diets high in red meats or poultry, fish and shellfish on plasma lipids and weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Cassady, Bridget A; Charboneau, Nicole L; Brys, Emily E; Crouse, Kristin A; Beitz, Donald C; Wilson, Ted

    2007-01-01

    Background Low carbohydrate diets (LCDs) have been demonstrated to be effective tools for promoting weight loss and an improved plasma lipid profile. Such diets are often associated with increased meat consumption, either poultry, fish, and shellfish (PFS), which are generally high in polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) or red meats (RM), generally high in saturated fat (SFA). The fatty acid profile and content of a diet may influence the plasma lipid profile of humans. This study examined whether the type of meat consumed could influence the outcome of an LCD. Methods Moderately obese subjects consumed two different LCDs as part of a weight loss regimen: 1) a diet high in foods of mammalian origin (RM) intended to contain more SFA, or 2) a diet high in PFS intended to contain more PUFA. Diet dependent changes in body weight, nutritional intake, and plasma lipids were evaluated during a 28 day study period. Results Both diets were associated with significant weight loss after 28 days, -5.26 ± 0.84 kg and -5.74 ± 0.63 kg for RM and PFS groups, respectively. The PFS diet was associated with a significantly higher intake of PUFA and cholesterol. Despite high cholesterol and fat intakes, neither diet was associated with significant changes in plasma cholesterol or the plasma lipoprotein cholesterol profile. While plasma triglycerides were reduced in both groups, the effect was only statistically significant for the PFS diet. PMID:17974023

  10. [The diet of the neotropical insectivorous fish Creagrutus bolivari (Pisces: Characidae) according to the "graphic" and "relative importance" methods].

    PubMed

    Ortaz, Mario; von Bach, Pablo Borjas; Candia, Rubén

    2006-12-01

    The diet ofa neotropical fish species (Creagrutus bolivari) was studied using different methods: the Cortés 1997 graphic method and two relative importance indexes, one designed by George and Hadley in 1979 (% RIi) and another proposed by Cortés in 1997 (% IRIi). Only discrete prey (aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates) were used in the diet analysis. The occurrence (% A), number (% N) and weight (% G) frequencies were estimated for each food item. A total of 240 specimens (size range from 25.3 to 64.7 mm standard length) were analyzed. For values of % A > 50 %, % IRIi was higher than % RIi with an opposite trend (up to 130 times) for values of % A < 50 %. % IRIi overestimated the relative importance of prey for high values of % A, while it underestimated the relative importance of prey for low values of % A, showing a nonlinear relationship to % A. The variables used in the Cortés graphic method are insufficient to evaluate predator feeding strategy (generalization versus specialization). Therefore, we suggest including other variables, such as population and individual trophic niche breadth and a suitable field sampling record. An extended sampling record is necessary to classify prey as rare or dominant according to Cortés' classification. The indexes of relative importance and graphic method are complementary. Compound indexes that comprise mass, number, and occurrence provide a more accurate description of diet and allow comparative studies. The graphic analysis is easy to interpret and helps in the evaluation of prey importance and predator feeding strategy.

  11. Diet restriction in mice causes differential tissue responses in total reducing power and antioxidant compounds.

    PubMed

    Dubnov, G; Kohen, R; Berry, E M

    2000-02-01

    Diet restriction (DR) has been shown to extend the life spans of various laboratory animals, the mechanism may involve a decrease in oxidative stress. When determining if the total tissue defense has been altered, it is important to observe the overall direct antioxidant capacity, which consists of low molecular weight antioxidants (LMWA) and enzymes. To determine DR induced changes in total reducing power and overall direct antioxidant capacity of various mouse tissues. Young female Sabra mice were fed a 60% food restricted diet for 40 days (DR group). Organs of the DR group and of ad libitum (AL) fed controls were then dissected and examined. A cyclic voltammetry method was used to quantify the total reducing power, which correlates with the overall LMWA activity. Specific LMWA were identified by HPLC-ECD. Superoxide dismutase activity and H2O2 degrading ability were measured in order to include the enzymatic antioxidant component. Short-term DR caused alterations in the total reducing power of various mouse tissues, indicating changes in the total scavenging ability of these tissues. Overall direct antioxidant capacity of heart, kidney and muscle was enhanced; liver and small intestine deteriorated; brain did not differ between DR and AL groups; lung and spleen exhibited a mixed response. We have shown for the first time that DR causes changes in the total reducing power of different mouse tissues, thus, affecting the overall direct antioxidant capacity. These findings support the suggestion that there may be a biological regulation of the antioxidant system.

  12. Dietary Butyrate Helps to Restore the Intestinal Status of a Marine Teleost (Sparus aurata) Fed Extreme Diets Low in Fish Meal and Fish Oil

    PubMed Central

    Estensoro, Itziar; Ballester-Lozano, Gabriel; Benedito-Palos, Laura; Grammes, Fabian; Martos-Sitcha, Juan Antonio; Mydland, Liv-Torunn; Calduch-Giner, Josep Alvar; Fuentes, Juan; Karalazos, Vasileios; Ortiz, Álvaro; Øverland, Margareth; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume

    2016-01-01

    There is a constant need to find feed additives that improve health and nutrition of farmed fish and lessen the intestinal inflammation induced by plant-based ingredients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of adding an organic acid salt to alleviate some of the detrimental effects of extreme plant-ingredient substitution of fish meal (FM) and fish oil (FO) in gilthead sea bream diet. Three experiments were conducted. In a first trial (T1), the best dose (0.4%) of sodium butyrate (BP-70 ®NOREL) was chosen after a short (9-weeks) feeding period. In a second longer trial (T2) (8 months), four diets were used: a control diet containing 25% FM (T2-D1) and three experimental diets containing 5% FM (T2-D2, T2-D3, T2-D4). FO was the only added oil in D1, while a blend of plant oils replaced 58% and 84% of FO in T2-D2, and T2-D3 and T2-D4, respectively. The latter was supplemented with 0.4% BP-70. In a third trial (T3), two groups of fish were fed for 12 and 38 months with D1, D3 and D4 diets of T2. The effects of dietary changes were studied using histochemical, immunohistochemical, molecular and electrophysiological tools. The extreme diet (T2-D3) modified significantly the transcriptomic profile, especially at the anterior intestine, up-regulating the expression of inflammatory markers, in coincidence with a higher presence of granulocytes and lymphocytes in the submucosa, and changing genes involved in antioxidant defences, epithelial permeability and mucus production. Trans-epithelial electrical resistance (Rt) was also decreased (T3-D3). Most of these modifications were returned to control values with the addition of BP-70. None of the experimental diets modified the staining pattern of PCNA, FABP2 or ALPI. These results further confirm the potential of this additive to improve or reverse the detrimental effects of extreme fish diet formulations. PMID:27898676

  13. Dietary Butyrate Helps to Restore the Intestinal Status of a Marine Teleost (Sparus aurata) Fed Extreme Diets Low in Fish Meal and Fish Oil.

    PubMed

    Estensoro, Itziar; Ballester-Lozano, Gabriel; Benedito-Palos, Laura; Grammes, Fabian; Martos-Sitcha, Juan Antonio; Mydland, Liv-Torunn; Calduch-Giner, Josep Alvar; Fuentes, Juan; Karalazos, Vasileios; Ortiz, Álvaro; Øverland, Margareth; Sitjà-Bobadilla, Ariadna; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume

    2016-01-01

    There is a constant need to find feed additives that improve health and nutrition of farmed fish and lessen the intestinal inflammation induced by plant-based ingredients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of adding an organic acid salt to alleviate some of the detrimental effects of extreme plant-ingredient substitution of fish meal (FM) and fish oil (FO) in gilthead sea bream diet. Three experiments were conducted. In a first trial (T1), the best dose (0.4%) of sodium butyrate (BP-70 ®NOREL) was chosen after a short (9-weeks) feeding period. In a second longer trial (T2) (8 months), four diets were used: a control diet containing 25% FM (T2-D1) and three experimental diets containing 5% FM (T2-D2, T2-D3, T2-D4). FO was the only added oil in D1, while a blend of plant oils replaced 58% and 84% of FO in T2-D2, and T2-D3 and T2-D4, respectively. The latter was supplemented with 0.4% BP-70. In a third trial (T3), two groups of fish were fed for 12 and 38 months with D1, D3 and D4 diets of T2. The effects of dietary changes were studied using histochemical, immunohistochemical, molecular and electrophysiological tools. The extreme diet (T2-D3) modified significantly the transcriptomic profile, especially at the anterior intestine, up-regulating the expression of inflammatory markers, in coincidence with a higher presence of granulocytes and lymphocytes in the submucosa, and changing genes involved in antioxidant defences, epithelial permeability and mucus production. Trans-epithelial electrical resistance (Rt) was also decreased (T3-D3). Most of these modifications were returned to control values with the addition of BP-70. None of the experimental diets modified the staining pattern of PCNA, FABP2 or ALPI. These results further confirm the potential of this additive to improve or reverse the detrimental effects of extreme fish diet formulations.

  14. Fish diets in a freshwater-deprived semiarid estuary (The Coorong, Australia) as inferred by stable isotope analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamontagne, S.; Deegan, B. M.; Aldridge, K. T.; Brookes, J. D.; Geddes, M. C.

    2016-09-01

    In 2007, high rates of water extraction combined with a regional drought stopped freshwater discharge to the Coorong, a ∼120 km estuarine and coastal lagoon system at the outlet of the River Murray (Australia). The sources of organic matter sustaining the Coorong food web in the absence of river-borne organic matter and nutrient inputs were evaluated by measuring δ13C, δ15N and δ34S in large-bodied fish and their prey. In general, the δ34S of the food web (mean = 11.3‰; range = 4.32-18.9‰) suggested a comparable contribution from autochthonous pelagic (∼21‰) and benthic (<5‰) primary production. A relatively high δ13C in all organisms (-20 to -9.2‰) was also consistent with a dominant contribution from autochtonous sources to the food web. A Bayesian mixing model framework (SIMMR) was used to estimate the diet of large-bodied fish for statistically-determined prey groups based on their similarity in isotopic composition. Argyrosomus japonicus preyed primarily on Fish Group 1 (small pelagic fish like galaxiids and Hyperlophus vittatus), Rhombosolea tapirina on Invertebrate Group 2 (polychaetes like Capitella spp.) but Acanthopagrus butcheri fed on a wide variety of fish and invertebrate groups. A partial switch in diet to other prey groups suggested larger Ar. japonicus fed on larger prey, such as crabs and adult Aldrichetta forsteri. Despite being numerically abundant at the time, Fish Group 2 (benthic species) was a relatively low proportion of large-bodied fish diets. This probably reflected the tendency of some salt-tolerant members of this group (such as Atherinosoma microstoma) to prefer hypersaline habitats, which the large-bodied fish avoided. As the heavily preyed-on Fish Group 1 included species with a marine component to their life-cycle, marine productivity may also help to maintain this estuarine ecosystem in the absence of river-borne organic matter inputs.

  15. Contributions of allochthonous inputs of food to the diets of benthopelagic fish over the northwest Mediterranean slope (to 2300 m)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartes, Joan E.; Soler-Membrives, A.; Stefanescu, C.; Lombarte, A.; Carrassón, M.

    2016-03-01

    The contributions of allochthonous inputs of food (food falls, plastics and other anthropogenic remains) in the diets of large fish (6 teleosteans, 3 sharks) were analyzed for depths between 500 and 2300 m in the deep Balearic basin (western Mediterranean). The analyses were based on gut contents. The identification was based on a multi-analytic approach, comprising morphological features (including morphometric analysis) and molecular genetics (DNA barcoding method). Remains of a number of anthropogenic, inorganic materials (microplastic fibres, plastic bags and cartons) appeared regularly in the guts of deep-sea fish (e.g., in Trachyrhynchus scabrus and Mora moro), though always at low occurrence (9.1% of fish at most) and negligible weights (< 2%W of diet). In our sampling, covering an area of ca. 12 km2, large food falls contribute only a little to fish diets by weight, W, e.g., in shark diets they represented 4.5%W for Centroscymnus coelolepis and 11%W for Galeus melastomus. However, the importance of food falls (e.g., cetacean blubber and carcharhinid shark remains) was substantial locally (up to 70.8%W of C. coelolepis diet) particularly near canyons. The arrival of livestock remains (beef flesh, goat ribs and vertebrae) was shown by molecular analyses to contributed to deep-sea shark diets (ca. 5.5%W) comparably to natural food falls. These remains, which originate from human activity, may locally alter the food webs of oligotrophic environments like that of the deep Mediterranean. Food falls of both natural and anthropogenic origin were mainly found in fish collected close to canyon axes. The only cetacean fall documented in the deep Balearic Basin was also near a canyon, the carcass of a small (ca. 1.2 m) striped dolphin, Stenella coeruleoalba, collected in a haul at 1750 m off Barcelona.

  16. Breakfast Dietary Patterns among Mexican Children Are Related to Total-Day Diet Quality.

    PubMed

    Afeiche, Myriam C; Taillie, Lindsey Smith; Hopkins, Sinead; Eldridge, Alison L; Popkin, Barry M

    2017-03-01

    Background: Mexico has experienced shifts in food availability and consumption patterns over the past few decades from traditional diets to those containing more high-energy density foods, resulting in the development of unhealthful dietary patterns among children and adults. However, to our knowledge it is not known whether breakfast consumption patterns contribute to the overall daily diet of Mexican children.Objective: We examined total-day diet among breakfast consumers compared with breakfast skippers, identified and investigated breakfast dietary patterns in relation to energy and nutrient intakes at breakfast and across the day, and examined these patterns in relation to sociodemographic characteristics.Methods: With the use of nationally representative dietary data (one 24-h recall) from the 2012 Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey, 3760 children aged 4-13 y were categorized into mutually exclusive breakfast patterns with the use of cluster analysis. The association between breakfast patterns and breakfast skippers with dietary intake at breakfast and for the total day was investigated with the use of multivariate linear regression.Results: Most children (83%) consumed breakfast. Six breakfast dietary patterns were identified (milk and sweetened breads, tortillas and beans, sweetened beverages, sandwiches and quesadillas, eggs, and cereal and milk) and reflected both traditional and more Westernized dietary patterns. Sugar-sweetened beverages were consumed across all patterns. Compared with all breakfast dietary patterns, breakfast skippers had the lowest intake of several nutrients of public health concern. Nutrients to limit that were high at breakfast tended to be high for the total day and vice versa for nutrients to encourage.Conclusions: There was not a single pattern that complied perfectly with the Mexican School Breakfast Guidelines, but changes such as increasing dietary fiber by encouraging more whole grains, fruits, vegetables, and

  17. High-fat diets rich in soy or fish oil distinctly alter hypothalamic insulin signaling in rats.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, Gustavo D; Dornellas, Ana P S; Rosa, José C; Lira, Fábio S; Cunha, Cláudio A; Boldarine, Valter T; de Souza, Gabriel I H; Hirata, Aparecida E; Nascimento, Cláudia M O; Oyama, Lila M; Watanabe, Regina L H; Ribeiro, Eliane B

    2012-07-01

    Hypothalamic insulin inhibits food intake, preventing obesity. High-fat feeding with polyunsaturated fats may be obesogenic, but their effect on insulin action has not been elucidated. The present study evaluated insulin hypophagia and hypothalamic signaling after central injection in rats fed either control diet (15% energy from fat) or high-fat diets (50% energy from fat) enriched with either soy or fish oil. Soy rats had increased fat pad weight and serum leptin with normal body weight, serum lipid profile and peripheral insulin sensitivity. Fish rats had decreased body and fat pad weight, low leptin and corticosterone levels, and improved serum lipid profile. A 20-mU dose of intracerebroventricular (ICV) insulin inhibited food intake in control and fish groups, but failed to do so in the soy group. Hypothalamic protein levels of IR, IRS-1, IRS-2, Akt, mTOR, p70S6K and AMPK were similar among groups. ICV insulin stimulated IR tyrosine phosphorylation in control (68%), soy (36%) and fish (34%) groups. Tyrosine phosphorylation of the pp185 band was significantly stimulated in control (78%) and soy (53%) rats, but not in fish rats. IRS-1 phosphorylation was stimulated only in control rats (94%). Akt serine phosphorylation was significantly stimulated only in control (90%) and fish (78%) rats. The results showed that, rather than the energy density, the fat type was a relevant aspect of high-fat feeding, since blockade of hypothalamic insulin signal transmission and insulin hypophagia was promoted only by the high-fat soy diet, while they were preserved in the rats fed with the high-fat fish diet. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Total antioxidant capacity from diet and risk of myocardial infarction: a prospective cohort of women.

    PubMed

    Rautiainen, Susanne; Levitan, Emily B; Orsini, Nicola; Åkesson, Agneta; Morgenstern, Ralf; Mittleman, Murray A; Wolk, Alicja

    2012-10-01

    There are no previous studies investigating the effect of all dietary antioxidants in relation to myocardial infarction. The total antioxidant capacity of diet takes into account all antioxidants and synergistic effects between them. The aim of this study was to examine how total antioxidant capacity of diet and antioxidant-containing foods were associated with incident myocardial infarction among middle-aged and elderly women. In the population-based prospective Swedish Mammography Cohort of 49-83-year-old women, 32,561 were cardiovascular disease-free at baseline. Women completed a food-frequency questionnaire, and dietary total antioxidant capacity was calculated using oxygen radical absorbance capacity values. Information on myocardial infarction was identified from the Swedish Hospital Discharge and the Cause of Death registries. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using Cox proportional hazard models. During the follow-up (September 1997-December 2007), we identified 1114 incident cases of myocardial infarction (321,434 person-years). In multivariable-adjusted analysis, the HR for women comparing the highest quintile of dietary total antioxidant capacity to the lowest was 0.80 (95% CI, 0.67-0.97; P for trend=0.02). Servings of fruit and vegetables and whole grains were nonsignificantly inversely associated with myocardial infarction. These data suggest that dietary total antioxidant capacity, based on fruits, vegetables, coffee, and whole grains, is of importance in the prevention of myocardial infarction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Foods, nutrients or whole diets: effects of targeting fish and LCn3PUFA consumption in a 12mo weight loss trial.

    PubMed

    Tapsell, Linda C; Batterham, Marijka J; Charlton, Karen E; Neale, Elizabeth P; Probst, Yasmine C; O'Shea, Jane E; Thorne, Rebecca L; Zhang, Qingsheng; Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu

    2013-12-26

    There is some evidence in the literature that emphasising fish consumption may assist with weight loss. The aim was to assess the effects of advice to consume 2 fish meals per week in a weight loss diet. A parallel randomised placebo-controlled trial was conducted in 118 obese Australian adults (mean BMI ± SD 31.3 ± 3.5 kg/m2; mean age ± SD 45 ± 10 y; 28% male). Participants received low calorie dietary advice+placebo (1 g olive oil; CONTROL), low calorie dietary advice emphasising fish+placebo (Fish), or low calorie dietary advice emphasising fish diet + LCn3PUFA supplements (Fish+S). Individualised advice targeted 2 MJ energy deficit (30%E fat, 45%E carbohydrate and 25%E protein) with or without two servings (180 g) fatty fish/wk. All groups lost weight at 12 months (CONTROL -4.5 kg vs. Fish -4.3 kg vs. Fish+S -3.3 kg; p<0.001) and percentage body fat ( -1.5% vs. Fish: -1.4% vs. Fish+S: -0.7%; p<0.001) but there were no significant differences between groups. Cardiovascular disease risk factors changed as expected from weight loss. Advice to consume 2 fish meals per week did not enhance the effects on weight loss of a healthy low calorie diet. ACTRN12608000425392.

  20. USE OF THE OLIGOCHAETE, LUMBRICULUS VARIEGATUS, AS A PREY ORGANISM FOR THE TOXICANT EXPOSURE OF FISH THROUGH THE DIET

    EPA Science Inventory

    The oligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus, has several characteristics that make it desirable as a prey organism for conducting dietary exposure studies with fish, but its sufficiency as a stand alone diet has not been evaluated. We conducted 21-d and 30-d experiments with young fa...

  1. USE OF THE OLIGOCHAETE, LUMBRICULUS VARIEGATUS, AS A PREY ORGANISM FOR THE TOXICANT EXPOSURE OF FISH THROUGH THE DIET

    EPA Science Inventory

    The oligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus, has several characteristics that make it desirable as a prey organism for conducting dietary exposure studies with fish, but its sufficiency as a stand alone diet has not been evaluated. We conducted 21-d and 30-d experiments with young fa...

  2. Influence of a diet rich in fish oil on blood pressure, body weight and cardiac hypertrophy in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    von Au, D; Brändle, M; Rupp, H; Jacob, R

    1988-01-01

    The effects of a diet rich in fish oil on arterial blood pressure, body weight, left ventricular weight and heart rate have been investigated in 8 month old spontaneously hypertensive male rats (SHR) as compared to age-matched hypertensive controls. A diet containing 10% fish oil decreased blood pressure by about 40 mmHg within 20 days of starting the experiment, and this effect persisted over the observation period of 80 days. Permitting the animals free access to food, the body weight of the diet group increased by 25%. The degree of hypertrophy as evaluated by relating left ventricular weight to tibial length was significantly reduced (10%) in the diet fed group. Heart rate was increased by 53%. The study demonstrates that a diet rich in fish oil can lower arterial blood pressure over several weeks without a recognizable loss in function despite a considerable increase in body weight. It can be assumed that a more marked regression of left ventricular hypertrophy is counteracted by a reflex increase in sympathetic efferentation to the heart.

  3. Ecosystem fragmentation drives increased diet variation in an endemic livebearing fish of the Bahamas

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Márcio S; Langerhans, R Brian; Giery, Sean T; Layman, Craig A

    2014-01-01

    One consequence of human-driven habitat degradation in general, and habitat fragmentation in particular, is loss of biodiversity. An often-underappreciated aspect of habitat fragmentation relates to changes in the ecology of species that persist in altered habitats. In Bahamian wetlands, ecosystem fragmentation causes disruption of hydrological connectivity between inland fragmented wetlands and adjacent marine areas, with the consequent loss of marine piscivores from fragmented sections. We took advantage of this environmental gradient to investigate effects of ecosystem fragmentation on patterns of resource use in the livebearing fish Gambusia hubbsi (Family Poeciliidae), using both population- and individual-level perspectives. We show that fragmentation-induced release from predation led to increased G. hubbsi population densities, which consequently led to lower mean growth rates, likely as a result of higher intraspecific competition for food. This was accompanied by a broadening of dietary niches via increased interindividual diet variation, suggesting a negative effect of predation and a positive effect of intraspecific competition on the degree of diet variation in natural populations. Our results therefore indicate that habitat fragmentation can greatly impact the ecology of resilient populations, with potentially important ecological and evolutionary implications. PMID:25473482

  4. Ecosystem fragmentation drives increased diet variation in an endemic livebearing fish of the Bahamas.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Márcio S; Langerhans, R Brian; Giery, Sean T; Layman, Craig A

    2014-08-01

    One consequence of human-driven habitat degradation in general, and habitat fragmentation in particular, is loss of biodiversity. An often-underappreciated aspect of habitat fragmentation relates to changes in the ecology of species that persist in altered habitats. In Bahamian wetlands, ecosystem fragmentation causes disruption of hydrological connectivity between inland fragmented wetlands and adjacent marine areas, with the consequent loss of marine piscivores from fragmented sections. We took advantage of this environmental gradient to investigate effects of ecosystem fragmentation on patterns of resource use in the livebearing fish Gambusia hubbsi (Family Poeciliidae), using both population- and individual-level perspectives. We show that fragmentation-induced release from predation led to increased G. hubbsi population densities, which consequently led to lower mean growth rates, likely as a result of higher intraspecific competition for food. This was accompanied by a broadening of dietary niches via increased interindividual diet variation, suggesting a negative effect of predation and a positive effect of intraspecific competition on the degree of diet variation in natural populations. Our results therefore indicate that habitat fragmentation can greatly impact the ecology of resilient populations, with potentially important ecological and evolutionary implications.

  5. Determination of PCBs and total lipids in edible fish and crab tissue using supercritical fluid extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Gavlor, M.; Hale, R.; Smith, C.; Thames, J.; Mothershead, R.

    1995-12-31

    An offline supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) method has been developed to determine PCB congeners and total tissue lipid content in edible fish and crab tissues collected from several river systems in Virginia. The method is rapid and safe, requiring only 40 minutes per sample and uses nonorganic solvents for total lipid extraction and only 1.5 mL isooctane for PCB extraction. The SFE approach compares favorably with soxhlet extraction, ASE and column elution. Over 800 fish and crab tissue samples were analyzed successfully, thus demonstrating the robustness of the method. Total lipid values obtained using SFE showed considerable spatial and interspecies variability ranging from 1.8% in blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) to 36.4% in striped bass (Morone saxatilis). Total PCB concentrations also varied greatly by site and species. These ranged from below the quantitation limit (1.0 {micro}1 g/kg) to 9,910 {micro}g/kg on a dry weight basis using GCELCD. Dominant PCB congeners detected were in good agreement with those reported by other researchers. Mean total PCB concentrations did not correlate well with total tissue lipid content.

  6. Effects of diets supplemented by fish oil on sex ratio of pups in bitch

    PubMed Central

    Gharagozlou, Faramarz; Youssefi, Reza; Akbarinejad, Vahid

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of fish oil supplementation prior to mating on secondary sex ratio of pups (the proportion of males at birth) in bitches. Sixty five bitches (German Shepherd, n = 35; Husky, n = 30) were enrolled in the study. Bitches (140-150 days post-estrus) were given 2% per dry matter intake palm oil and fish oil in the control (n = 33) and treatment (n = 32) groups, respectively. To induce estrus, bitches were received equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) administration (50 IU kg-1) 30 days after nutritional supplementation followed by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration (500 IU per dog) seven days later. Bitches were introduced to dogs of the same breed after hCG administration. The weight of bitches was increased over time (p < 0.05), but their weight change was not different between two groups (p > 0.05). The mating rate, pregnancy rate and litter size were not influenced by treatment and breed. Secondary sex ratio was higher in the treatment (105/164; 64.00%) than in the control (68/147; 46.30%) group (p < 0.05; adjusted odds ratio = 2.068). Moreover, secondary sex ratio was higher in Husky bitches (88/141; 62.40%) compared to German Shepherd (85/170; 50.00%; p < 0.05; adjusted odds ratio = 1.661). In conclusion, the present study showed that inclusion of fish oil in the diet of bitches prior to mating could increase the proportion of male pups at birth. In addition, it appears that there might be variation among dog breeds with regard to the sex ratio of offspring. PMID:27482354

  7. Effects of diets supplemented by fish oil on sex ratio of pups in bitch.

    PubMed

    Gharagozlou, Faramarz; Youssefi, Reza; Akbarinejad, Vahid

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of fish oil supplementation prior to mating on secondary sex ratio of pups (the proportion of males at birth) in bitches. Sixty five bitches (German Shepherd, n = 35; Husky, n = 30) were enrolled in the study. Bitches (140-150 days post-estrus) were given 2% per dry matter intake palm oil and fish oil in the control (n = 33) and treatment (n = 32) groups, respectively. To induce estrus, bitches were received equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) administration (50 IU kg(-1)) 30 days after nutritional supplementation followed by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration (500 IU per dog) seven days later. Bitches were introduced to dogs of the same breed after hCG administration. The weight of bitches was increased over time (p < 0.05), but their weight change was not different between two groups (p > 0.05). The mating rate, pregnancy rate and litter size were not influenced by treatment and breed. Secondary sex ratio was higher in the treatment (105/164; 64.00%) than in the control (68/147; 46.30%) group (p < 0.05; adjusted odds ratio = 2.068). Moreover, secondary sex ratio was higher in Husky bitches (88/141; 62.40%) compared to German Shepherd (85/170; 50.00%; p < 0.05; adjusted odds ratio = 1.661). In conclusion, the present study showed that inclusion of fish oil in the diet of bitches prior to mating could increase the proportion of male pups at birth. In addition, it appears that there might be variation among dog breeds with regard to the sex ratio of offspring.

  8. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of effects of dietary fish oil on total fatty acid composition in mouse skin

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Peiru; Sun, Min; Ren, Jianwei; Djuric, Zora; Fisher, Gary J.; Wang, Xiuli; Li, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Altering the fatty acid (FA) composition in the skin by dietary fish oil could provide therapeutic benefits. Although it has been shown that fish oil supplementation enhances EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) abundance in the skin, comprehensive skin FA profiling is needed. We established a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method, which allows precise quantification of FA profile using small (<24 mm2 for mice and <12 mm2 for humans) skin specimens that can be readily obtained from live mice and humans. We determined mouse skin FA composition after 2, 4 and 8 weeks of consuming a control diet or a diet supplemented with fish oil. Fish oil markedly enhanced EPA and DHA in mouse skin within 2 weeks, and this increase plateaued after 4 weeks. The FA composition in mouse skin was different from that of serum, indicating that skin has homeostatic control of FA metabolism. Mice fed the control diet designed to simulate Western human diet displayed similar skin FA composition as that of humans. The present study presents a validated method for FA quantification that is needed to investigate the mechanisms of actions of dietary treatments in both mouse and human skin. PMID:28195161

  9. Dietary mercury exposure resulted in behavioral differences in mice contaminated with fish-associated methylmercury compared to methylmercury chloride added to diet.

    PubMed

    Bourdineaud, Jean-Paul; Marumoto, Masumi; Yasutake, Akira; Fujimura, Masatake

    2012-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a potent neurotoxin, and humans are mainly exposed to this pollutant through fish consumption. However, in classical toxicological studies, pure methylmercury chloride (MeHgCl) is injected, given to drink or incorporated within feed assuming that its effects are identical to those of MeHg naturally associated to fish. In the present study, we wanted to address the question whether a diet containing MeHg associated to fish could result in observable adverse effects in mice as compared to a diet containing the same concentration of MeHg added pure to the diet and whether beneficial nutriments from fish were able to counterbalance the deleterious effects of fish-associated mercury, if any. After two months of feeding, the fish-containing diet resulted in significant observable effects as compared to the control and MeHg-containing diets, encompassing altered behavioral performances as monitored in a Y-shaped maze and an open field, and an increased dopamine metabolic turnover in hippocampus, despite the fact that the fish-containing diet was enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids and selenium compared to the fish-devoid diets.

  10. Dietary Mercury Exposure Resulted in Behavioral Differences in Mice Contaminated with Fish-Associated Methylmercury Compared to Methylmercury Chloride Added to Diet

    PubMed Central

    Bourdineaud, Jean-Paul; Marumoto, Masumi; Yasutake, Akira; Fujimura, Masatake

    2012-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a potent neurotoxin, and humans are mainly exposed to this pollutant through fish consumption. However, in classical toxicological studies, pure methylmercury chloride (MeHgCl) is injected, given to drink or incorporated within feed assuming that its effects are identical to those of MeHg naturally associated to fish. In the present study, we wanted to address the question whether a diet containing MeHg associated to fish could result in observable adverse effects in mice as compared to a diet containing the same concentration of MeHg added pure to the diet and whether beneficial nutriments from fish were able to counterbalance the deleterious effects of fish-associated mercury, if any. After two months of feeding, the fish-containing diet resulted in significant observable effects as compared to the control and MeHg-containing diets, encompassing altered behavioral performances as monitored in a Y-shaped maze and an open field, and an increased dopamine metabolic turnover in hippocampus, despite the fact that the fish-containing diet was enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids and selenium compared to the fish-devoid diets. PMID:22899888

  11. Effects of therapeutic lifestyle change diets high and low in dietary fish-derived fatty acids on lipoprotein metabolism in middle-aged and elderly subjects

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effects of Therapeutic Lifestyle Change (TLC) diets, low and high in dietary fish on apolipoprotein metabolism were examined. Subjects were provided with a Western diet for 6-weeks followed by 24-weeks of either of two TLC diets (10/group). Apolipoprotein kinetics were determined in the fed stat...

  12. Fish oil diet affects on oxidative senescence of red blood cells linked to degeneration of spleen cells in mice.

    PubMed

    Oarada, M; Furukawa, H; Majima, T; Miyazawa, T

    2000-08-24

    The effect of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and alpha-tocopherol supplementation on erythrocyte lipid peroxidation and immunocompetent cells in mice was studied comparatively using seven dietary oils (15% oil/diet, w/w) including fish oil rich in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5, n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6, n-3). A 43% increase in spleen weight, about twice as many spleen cells and no change in the subpopulations of spleen cells, as well as a significant depression of mitogen-induced blastogenesis of both T and B cells in the spleen were observed in mice fed fish oil for 30 days in comparison with soybean oil diet-fed mice. In the fish oil diet-fed mice, membranous lipid hydroperoxide (hydroperoxides of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine) accumulation as a marker of oxidative senescence in red blood cells (RBC) was 2.7-3.5 times higher than that in mice fed soybean oil, although there was no difference in the plasma phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide concentration. In spite of the supplementation of alpha-tocopherol to up to 10 times the level in the basal diet, the degeneration of spleen cells and the stimulated oxidative senescence of RBC found by the fish oil feeding could not be prevented. The results suggest that oral intake of excess polyunsaturated fatty acids, i.e. EPA and DHA, in a fish oil diet can lead to acceleration of membrane lipid peroxidation resulting in RBC senescence linked to the lowering of immune response of spleen cells, and that supplementation of alpha-tocopherol as antioxidant does not always effectively prevent such oxidative degeneration as observed in spleen cells and RBC in vivo.

  13. Three-Year Breeding Cycle of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Fed a Plant-Based Diet, Totally Free of Marine Resources: Consequences for Reproduction, Fatty Acid Composition and Progeny Survival

    PubMed Central

    Lazzarotto, Viviana; Corraze, Geneviève; Leprevost, Amandine; Quillet, Edwige; Dupont-Nivet, Mathilde; Médale, Françoise

    2015-01-01

    Terrestrial plant resources are increasingly used as substitutes for fish meal and fish oil in fish feed in order to reduce the reliance of aquaculture on marine fishery resources. Although many studies have been conducted to assess the effects of such nutritional transition, no whole breeding cycles of fish fed diets free from marine resources has been reported to date. We therefore studied the reproductive performance of trout after a complete cycle of breeding while consuming a diet totally devoid of marine ingredients and thus of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFAs) that play a major role in the formation of ova. Two groups of female rainbow trout were fed from first feeding either a commercial diet (C, marine and plant ingredients), or a 100% plant-based diet (V, blend of plant proteins and vegetable oils). Livers, viscera, carcasses and ova were sampled at spawning and analyzed for lipids and fatty acids. Although the V-diet was devoid of n-3 LC-PUFAs, significant amounts of EPA and DHA were found in livers and ova, demonstrating efficient bioconversion of linolenic acid and selective orientation towards the ova. Some ova were fertilized to assess the reproductive performance and offspring survival. We observed for the first time that trout fed a 100% plant-based diet over a 3-year breeding cycle were able to produce ova and viable alevins, although the ova were smaller. The survival of offspring from V-fed females was lower (-22%) at first spawning, but not at the second. Our study showed that, in addition to being able to grow on a plant-based diet, rainbow trout reared entirely on such a diet can successfully produce ova in which neo-synthesized n-3 LC-PUFAs are accumulated, leading to viable offspring. However, further adjustment of the feed formula is still needed to optimize reproductive performance. PMID:25658483

  14. Three-year breeding cycle of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed a plant-based diet, totally free of marine resources: consequences for reproduction, fatty acid composition and progeny survival.

    PubMed

    Lazzarotto, Viviana; Corraze, Geneviève; Leprevost, Amandine; Quillet, Edwige; Dupont-Nivet, Mathilde; Médale, Françoise

    2015-01-01

    Terrestrial plant resources are increasingly used as substitutes for fish meal and fish oil in fish feed in order to reduce the reliance of aquaculture on marine fishery resources. Although many studies have been conducted to assess the effects of such nutritional transition, no whole breeding cycles of fish fed diets free from marine resources has been reported to date. We therefore studied the reproductive performance of trout after a complete cycle of breeding while consuming a diet totally devoid of marine ingredients and thus of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFAs) that play a major role in the formation of ova. Two groups of female rainbow trout were fed from first feeding either a commercial diet (C, marine and plant ingredients), or a 100% plant-based diet (V, blend of plant proteins and vegetable oils). Livers, viscera, carcasses and ova were sampled at spawning and analyzed for lipids and fatty acids. Although the V-diet was devoid of n-3 LC-PUFAs, significant amounts of EPA and DHA were found in livers and ova, demonstrating efficient bioconversion of linolenic acid and selective orientation towards the ova. Some ova were fertilized to assess the reproductive performance and offspring survival. We observed for the first time that trout fed a 100% plant-based diet over a 3-year breeding cycle were able to produce ova and viable alevins, although the ova were smaller. The survival of offspring from V-fed females was lower (-22%) at first spawning, but not at the second. Our study showed that, in addition to being able to grow on a plant-based diet, rainbow trout reared entirely on such a diet can successfully produce ova in which neo-synthesized n-3 LC-PUFAs are accumulated, leading to viable offspring. However, further adjustment of the feed formula is still needed to optimize reproductive performance.

  15. Total Diet Study: For a Closer-to-real Estimate of Dietary Exposure to Chemical Substances

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeeyeon; Kwon, Sungok; Yoon, Hae-Jung

    2015-01-01

    Recent amendment on the Food Sanitation Act in Korea mandated the Minister of Food & Drug Safety to secure the scientific basis for management and reevaluation of standards and specifications of foods. Especially because the current food safety control is limited within the scope of ‘Farm to Market’ covering from production to retail in Korea, safety control at the plane of true ‘Farm to Fork’ scope is urgently needed and should include ‘total diet’ of population instead of individual food items. Therefore, ‘Total Diet Study (TDS)’ which provides ‘closer-to-real’ estimates of exposure to hazardous materials through analysis on table-ready (cooked) samples of foods would be the solution to more comprehensive food safety management, as suggested by World Health Organization and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Although the protection of diets from hazards must be considered as one of the most essential public health functions of any country, we may need to revisit the value of foods which has been too much underrated by the meaningless amount of some hazardous materials in Korea. Considering the primary value of foods lies on sustaining life, growth, development, and health promotion of human being, food safety control should be handled not only by the presence or absence of hazardous materials but also by maximizing the value of foods via balancing with the preservation of beneficial components in foods embracing total diet. In this regard, this article aims to provide an overview on TDS by describing procedures involved except chemical analysis which is beyond our scope. Also, details on the ongoing TDS in Korea are provided as an example. Although TDS itself might not be of keen interest for most readers, it is the main user of the safety reference values resulted from toxicological research in the public health perspective. PMID:26483882

  16. Dietary exposure of the Italian population to inorganic arsenic: The 2012-2014 Total Diet Study.

    PubMed

    Cubadda, Francesco; D'Amato, Marilena; Aureli, Federica; Raggi, Andrea; Mantovani, Alberto

    2016-12-01

    Dietary exposure of the Italian population to inorganic arsenic has been assessed in the national Total Diet Study (TDS) carried out in 2012-2014. Within the TDS, food samples (>3000) were collected to be representative of the whole diet of the population, prepared as consumed, and pooled into 51 food groups, thus modelling the Italian diet. Inorganic arsenic was determined by HPLC-ICP-MS after chemical extraction and quantified in all samples. Occurrence data were combined with national individual consumption data to estimate mean and high level dietary exposure of the general population and of population subgroups according to age and gender, both at the national level and for each of the four main geographical areas of Italy. The intakes assessed are in the lower range of iAs exposure estimates in other European countries carried out without the support of the TDS approach. However, taking the lower limit of the BMDL01 range established by the EFSA as reference point, the margins of exposure are <2 for the mean intake in infants and toddlers and <1 for the 95th percentile intakes in all younger age groups. Our results indicate the goal to check and further reduce the dietary exposure to inorganic arsenic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. TDS exposure project: relevance of the total diet study approach for different groups of substances.

    PubMed

    Vin, Karine; Papadopoulos, Alexandra; Cubadda, Francesco; Aureli, Federica; Oktay Basegmez, Hatice Imge; D'Amato, Marilena; De Coster, Sam; D'Evoli, Laura; López Esteban, María Teresa; Jurkovic, Martina; Lucarini, Massimo; Ozer, Hayrettin; Fernández San Juan, Pedro Mario; Sioen, Isabelle; Sokolic, Darja; Turrini, Aida; Sirot, Véronique

    2014-11-01

    A method to validate the relevance of the Total Diet Study (TDS) approach for different types of substances is described. As a first step, a list of >2800 chemicals classified into eight main groups of relevance for food safety (natural components, environmental contaminants, substances intentionally added to foods, residues, naturally occurring contaminants, process contaminants, contaminants from packaging and food contact materials, other substances) has been established. The appropriateness of the TDS approach for the different substance groups has then been considered with regard to the three essential principles of a TDS: representativeness of the whole diet, pooling of foods and food analyzed as consumed. Four criteria were considered for that purpose (i) the substance has to be present in a significant part of the diet or predominantly present in specific food groups, (ii) a robust analytical method has to be available to determine it in potential contributors to the dietary exposure of the population, and (iii) the dilution impact of pooling and (iv) the impact of everyday food preparation methods on the concentration of the substance are assessed. For most of the substances the TDS approach appeared to be relevant and any precautions to be taken are outlined. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of fish meal in beef cattle diets on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and fatty acid composition of longissimus muscle.

    PubMed

    Mandell, I B; Buchanan-Smith, J G; Holub, B J; Campbell, C P

    1997-04-01

    We investigated the effects of fish meal (FM) in beef cattle diets on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and fatty acid (FA) composition of longissimus muscle in 63 yearling steers (335 +/- 23 kg). High-moisture corn and alfalfa silage diets were supplemented with either a corn gluten/blood meal mixture or FM at 10% of the diet. Fish meal contained (as-is basis) 5.87 g/kg eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 9.84 g/kg docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Seven strategies were developed to feed either a control diet (no FM) or diets containing 5 or 10% FM with FM fed for either 56, 112, or 168 d before slaughter. Average daily gain and feed efficiency were not affected (P > .10) by FM feeding but DMI decreased. Within FM diets, cattle fed 5% FM consumed more (P < .01) DM and gained more (P < .02) than cattle fed 10% FM. Carcass traits were not affected (P > .05) by feeding strategy except for fatter (P < .05) and lower (P < .06) yielding carcasses in cattle fed 5 vs 10% FM diets. Fish meal feeding increased (P < .01) concentrations of (n-3) FA, including EPA and DHA, and decreased (P < .05) concentrations of arachidonic acid. Increasing the amount of dietary FM further increased (P < .01) concentrations of EPA and DHA and decreased (P < .05) concentrations of (n-6) FA. We estimate that a 114-g steak from cattle fed 10% FM would supply 35 to 90% of the current average daily intake of EPA and DHA in North America. The results indicate that FM may have a role in niche marketing of beef provided that eating quality is not compromised.

  19. Diets and standing stocks of benthopelagic fishes at two bathymetrically different midoceanic localities in the northeast Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Bettina; Christiansen, Bernd

    1997-04-01

    Deep-sea benthopelagic fishes were sampled by trawl and free-fall longline at two latitudinally and bathymetrically separated stations in the northeastern Atlantic. The catch structure and the contents of the fish stomachs were analysed. The northern, 3000 m deep station in the Iceland Basin exceeded the deeper (4500 m) site in terms of demersal fish biomass and abundance by factors of 5 and 10, respectively. Synaphobranchidae of the species Histiobranchus bathybius and several species of Macrouridae contributed to the samples, the latter dominating with Coryphaenoides (Nematonurus) armatus most abundant in the north and with Coryphaenoides (Chalinura) leptolepis in the south. Diet composition was studied for numerical abundance and wet weight of prey organisms. In the Iceland Basin, where two size classes of C. (N.) armatuscould be analysed separately, an ontogenetic change in diet was noted. Individuals shorter than 30 cm in length fed mainly on benthic and epibenthic Crustacea whereas the larger specimens showed a high proportion of fish and Cephalopoda in their stomachs. At the southern site (BIOTRANS station in the West European Basin) Amphipoda, fish and Cephalopoda were the main food source. Coryphaenoides (Chalinura) leptolepisfed on Malacostraca and fish at the northern site, but on Polychaeta and Cephalopoda at the southern station. Stomachs of H. bathybius contained food only in the Iceland Basin. Their diet consisted mainly of Malacostraca and Cephalopoda. Despite their state of digestion, most Cephalopoda could be identified by means of their beaks, which also allowed a recalculation of their original size. The taxonomic composition and the size structure led to the assumption that most Cephalopoda were epi- or mesopelagic and had been preyed upon near the bottom as carcasses. The possible trophic position of the predominant benthopelagic fishes in the benthic boundary layer is discussed.

  20. Stable isotope ratio analysis as a tool to discriminate between rainbow trout (O. mykiss) fed diets based on plant or fish-meal proteins.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Rojas, J M; Tulli, F; Messina, M; Tibaldi, E; Guillou, C

    2008-12-01

    The use of stable isotope ratio analysis (SIRA) as a rapid analytical tool to characterize and discriminate farmed fish on the basis of the feedstuffs included in the diet formulation is discussed. Two isoproteic (44.8%) and isolipidic (19.6%) extruded diets were formulated: a fish-meal-based diet (FM diet), containing fish meal as the sole protein source; a plant-protein-based diet (PP diet), where pea protein concentrate and wheat gluten meal replaced 80% of fish meal protein. The diets were fed to eight groups of rainbow trout (initial body weight: 106.6g) for 103 days in two daily meals under controlled rearing conditions. Growth performance (final body weight: 318.5 g; specific growth rate: 1.06%) and feed-to-gain ratio (0.79) were not affected by the dietary treatment. The differences in isotopic values of the two diets were clearly reflected in the different carbon and nitrogen isotopic values in rainbow trout fillets. The delta(13)C and delta(15)N values of muscle of farmed rainbow trout showed differences between farmed fish fed a fish-protein-based diet (-20.47 +/- 0.34 and 12.38 +/- 0.57 for delta(13)C and delta(15)N, respectively) and those fed a plant-protein-based diet (-23.96 +/- 0.38 and 7.15 +/- 0.51 for delta(13)C and delta(15)N, respectively). The results suggest that SIRA provides a robust and verifiable analytical tool to discriminate between fish fed on a plant or a fish protein diet.

  1. Changes in total body calcium and diet of breeding house sparrows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krementz, D.G.; Ankney, C.D.

    1995-01-01

    We collected House Sparrows Passer domesticus around London, Ontario, estimated their total body calcium masses, food habits and egg production to test for the effects of endogenous calcium levels on control of clutch size. Before egg production began, calcium levels increased significantly and remained high through the end of egg laying, and then declined significantly after egg laying. We found no evidence that clutch size was related to endogenous calcium levels. Upon first ovulation, House Sparrows greatly increased consumption of calciferous materials such as snail shells, bird eggshells and calciferous grit. Their diet returned to normal after the final egg was ovulated. Daily calcium intake was sufficient to meet eggshell calcium needs.

  2. Ancient fish and recent invaders: white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus diet response to invasive-species-mediated changes in a benthic prey assemblage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zeug, Steven C; Brodsky, Annie; Kogut, Nina; Stewart, Robin; Merz, Joe

    2014-01-01

    Invasive organisms can have significant impacts on native species, and the San Francisco Estuary (SFE), California, USA, is one of the world's most invaded estuaries. Decline of native white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus abundance in the SFE has been acknowledged, but underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Invasion by the overbite clam Potamocorbula amurensis has drastically altered the SFE benthic prey community, yet little is known about how this change has affected sturgeon diets. We investigated changes in the diet of white sturgeon following the overbite clam invasion and subsequent shift in the SFE benthic prey assemblage. Gut content analysis was used to compare white sturgeon prey composition and importance between the pre- and post-invasion periods. Additionally, stable isotope analysis was employed to estimate the assimilation of prey items to sturgeon biomass. Overbite clams dominated diets in the post-invasion period, accounting for 82 to 93% of total volume. Stable isotope analysis confirmed the importance of this prey item, although their assimilated contribution to sturgeon biomass was estimated to be less (70 to 83%) than gut contents indicated. The frequency of fish in white sturgeon guts increased in the post-invasion period, and isotope analysis indicated relatively large contributions of fish to sturgeon biomass (3.7 to 19%). The trophic adaptability of white sturgeon has allowed them to exploit this new prey source (overbite clam). Future conservation and restoration efforts must consider a potentially destabilized food web given the large importance of a single prey item.

  3. A diet containing alpha-cellulose and fish oil reduces aberrant crypt foci formation and modulates other possible markers for colon cancer risk in azoxymethane-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Leana J; Landström, Eva K; Royle, Peter J; Bird, Anthony R; McIntosh, Graeme H

    2002-08-01

    There is a need for better understanding of the roles of dietary fats and fibers in colon cancer risk. We examined the effect of different dietary fiber and fat sources on an azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colon cancer in rats. In a 2 x 3 factorial design, rats were fed a semipurified diet containing soy-derived fiber (Fibrim), alpha-cellulose (Solkafloc) or resistant starch (RS; Hi-maize) at 10 g dietary fiber/100 g diet, combined with fish oil (FO) or sunflower seed oil (SSO) at 10 g/100 g diet, and lard added to all diets at 10 g/100 g, to provide a total of 20 g mixed fat/100 g diet. Sprague-Dawley rats (28 d of age) consumed diets for 4 wk and then two doses of AOM (15 mg/kg body) were administered 1 wk apart by subcutaneous injection. Rats were killed after 13 wk of consuming experimental diets. Colons were fixed in formalin and aberrant crypt foci (ACF) were quantified after staining. ACF counts were higher (+66%, P < 0.01) in rats fed SSO and RS, than in those fed alpha-cellulose and FO. Rats fed FO had 19% fewer ACF than those fed SSO (P < 0.05). alpha-Cellulose was associated with the highest cecal butyrate concentration (P < 0.001), the highest beta-glucuronidase specific activity (P < 0.001) and the lowest cecal water cytotoxicity (P < 0.001) relative to soy fiber- and RS-fed rats. There were inverse correlations between the number of ACF and cecal butyrate concentration (r = -0.33, P < 0.05) and between cecal water cytotoxicity and beta-glucuronidase activity (r = -0.70, P < 0.001). The greatest protection was associated with alpha-cellulose as the fiber source and FO as the fat source as measured by colon ACF numbers in rats.

  4. Effects of habitual diet on ethnic differences in serum total ghrelin

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Amy C.; Chandler-Laney, Paula; Casazza, Krista; Goree, Laura Lee; Gower, Barbara A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Ghrelin, an orexigenic hormone, may be involved in the etiology of obesity. African Americans (AA) experience higher obesity rates than European Americans (EA), but it is unclear whether ghrelin differs with ethnicity. This study was designed to compare ghrelin concentrations between overweight African American (AA) and European American (EA) adults in a postabsorptive state, in response to a standard meal, and after 8-week habituation to diets of differing macronutrient profiles. Methods Sixty-one overweight men and women (31 EA and 30 AA) were assigned to either a higher-carbohydrate/lower-fat diet (55% CHO, 18% PRO, 27% FAT) or a lower-carbohydrate/higher-fat diet (43% CHO, 18% PRO, 39% FAT) for 8 weeks. At baseline and week 8, participants ingested a standard liquid mixed meal. Blood was sampled before the meal and serially after ingestion to measure total ghrelin and insulin. Hunger was assessed with a visual analog scale. Composite scores for ghrelin, insulin, and hunger were calculated as area under the curve (AUC), and ghrelin suppression was calculated as the change from fasting concentration. Results Fasting ghrelin and ghrelin AUC were higher among EA at baseline and week 8 (p<0.001), and these differences were not affected by diet habituation. Despite greater postprandial ghrelin suppression, EA displayed greater hunger immediately following the test meal (p<0.05). Conclusions Overweight EA displayed higher circulating ghrelin and greater ghrelin suppression compared to AA. Further study is warranted to explore the physiological basis for these ethnic differences and to determine whether they may relate to higher obesity rates among AA. PMID:22481313

  5. Effects of habitual diet on ethnic differences in serum total ghrelin.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Amy C; Chandler-Laney, Paula; Casazza, Krista; Goree, Laura Lee; Gower, Barbara A

    2012-10-01

    Ghrelin, an orexigenic hormone, may be involved in the etiology of obesity. African Americans (AA) experience higher obesity rates than European Americans (EA), but it is unclear whether ghrelin differs with ethnicity. This study was designed to compare ghrelin concentrations between overweight AA and EA adults in a post absorptive state, in response to a standard meal, and after 8-week habituation to diets of differing macronutrient profiles. Sixty-one overweight men and women (31 EA and 30 AA) were assigned to either a higher-carbohydrate/lower-fat diet (55% CHO, 18% PRO, 27% FAT) or a lower-carbohydrate/higher-fat diet (43% CHO, 18% PRO, 39% FAT) for 8 weeks. At baseline and week 8, participants ingested a standard liquid mixed meal. Blood was sampled before the meal and serially after ingestion to measure total ghrelin and insulin. Hunger was assessed with a visual analog scale. Composite scores for ghrelin, insulin, and hunger were calculated as area under the curve (AUC), and ghrelin suppression was calculated as the change from fasting concentration. Fasting ghrelin and ghrelin AUC were higher among EA at baseline and week 8 (p < 0.001), and these differences were not affected by diet habituation. Despite greater postprandial ghrelin suppression, EA displayed greater hunger immediately following the test meal (p < 0.05). Overweight EA displayed higher circulating ghrelin and greater ghrelin suppression compared to AA. Further study is warranted to explore the physiological basis for these ethnic differences and to determine whether they may relate to higher obesity rates among AA.

  6. Estimation of total antioxidant capacity from diet and supplements in US adults.

    PubMed

    Yang, Meng; Chung, Sang-Jin; Chung, Chin Eun; Kim, Dae-Ok; Song, Won O; Koo, Sung I; Chun, Ock K

    2011-07-01

    Given the importance of dietary antioxidants in reducing the risks of chronic diseases, the present study aimed to estimate the intake of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) from diet and dietary supplements of US adults. We utilised the US Department of Agriculture flavonoid and proanthocyanidin databases, dietary supplement data and food consumption data of 4391 US adults aged 19+ years in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2. In order to convert the intake data of individual antioxidant compounds to TAC values, the vitamin C equivalent (VCE) of forty-three antioxidant nutrients measured previously was also applied. Daily TAC averaged 503.3 mg VCE/d (approximately 75 % from diet and 25 % from supplements). The energy-adjusted daily TAC level from diet and supplements was higher in women (except for carotenoids), older adults, Caucasian (except for carotenoids), non-alcohol consumers (for vitamin E and proanthocyanidins), subjects with higher income (except for carotenoids) and higher exercise levels than their counterparts (P < 0.05). TAC was positively associated with daily consumption of fruits and fruit juices, vegetables and vegetable products, beverages, wines and teas (P < 0.001). Teas, dietary supplements, and fruits and fruit juices were the major sources of dietary TAC of the US population (28, 25 and 17 %, respectively), while the contribution of vegetables and vegetable products to TAC was minimal ( < 2 %). The present study indicates that antioxidant intake from various diet and supplements contributes to TAC status. TAC levels are different in sociodemographic subgroups of the US population. The relationship between TAC intake and risks of chronic disease warrants further investigation.

  7. Fish Oil Feeding Modulates the Expression of Hepatic MicroRNAs in a Western-Style Diet-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Yang; Feng, Han; Li, Na; Zhang, Hongyu

    2017-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most prevalent chronic liver diseases worldwide. Recent studies have indicated that fish oil supplementation has benefits against NAFLD. Our previous transcriptomic study has validated the effect of fish oil supplementation on altering hepatic gene expression in a NAFLD rat model. In the current study, we examined the effects of fish oil on the expression of hepatic microRNAs. Male Sprague–Dawley rats were fed with a lab chow (CON), high-fat high-cholesterol diet (WD), or WD supplemented with fish oil (FOH), respectively. Small RNAs were extracted from livers for RNA-sequencing. A total of 79 miRNAs were identified as differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs) between FOH and WD groups, exemplified by rno-miR-29c-3p, rno-miR-30d-5p, rno-miR-33-5p, rno-miR-34a, and rno-miR-328a-3p. Functional annotation of DEMs predicted target genes suggested that the altered hepatic miRNAs contributed to fish oil modification of hepatic lipid metabolism and signaling transduction. Integrative analysis of DEMs and differentially expressed genes suggested that the expression difference of Pcsk9, Insig2, Per3, and Socs1/3 between FOH and WD groups may be due to miRNA modification. Our study reveals that fish oil supplementation alters hepatic expression of miRNAs, which may contribute to fish oil amelioration of NAFLD in rats. PMID:28691019

  8. Fish Oil Feeding Modulates the Expression of Hepatic MicroRNAs in a Western-Style Diet-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hualin; Shao, Yang; Yuan, Fahu; Feng, Han; Li, Na; Zhang, Hongyu; Wu, Chaodong; Liu, Zhiguo

    2017-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most prevalent chronic liver diseases worldwide. Recent studies have indicated that fish oil supplementation has benefits against NAFLD. Our previous transcriptomic study has validated the effect of fish oil supplementation on altering hepatic gene expression in a NAFLD rat model. In the current study, we examined the effects of fish oil on the expression of hepatic microRNAs. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with a lab chow (CON), high-fat high-cholesterol diet (WD), or WD supplemented with fish oil (FOH), respectively. Small RNAs were extracted from livers for RNA-sequencing. A total of 79 miRNAs were identified as differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs) between FOH and WD groups, exemplified by rno-miR-29c-3p, rno-miR-30d-5p, rno-miR-33-5p, rno-miR-34a, and rno-miR-328a-3p. Functional annotation of DEMs predicted target genes suggested that the altered hepatic miRNAs contributed to fish oil modification of hepatic lipid metabolism and signaling transduction. Integrative analysis of DEMs and differentially expressed genes suggested that the expression difference of Pcsk9, Insig2, Per3, and Socs1/3 between FOH and WD groups may be due to miRNA modification. Our study reveals that fish oil supplementation alters hepatic expression of miRNAs, which may contribute to fish oil amelioration of NAFLD in rats.

  9. Dietary intake estimations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) based on a total diet study in Osaka, Japan.

    PubMed

    Akutsu, K; Takatori, S; Nakazawa, H; Hayakawa, K; Izumi, S; Makino, T

    2008-01-01

    This study presents the results of a total diet study performed for estimating the dietary intake of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Osaka, Japan. The concentrations of 36 PBDEs were measured in samples from 14 food groups (Groups I-XIV). PBDEs were detected only in Groups IV (oils and fats), V (legumes and their products), X (fish, shellfish, and their products), and XI (meat and eggs) at concentrations of 1.8, 0.03, 0.48, and 0.01 ng g⁻¹, respectively. For an average person, the lower bound dietary intakes of penta- and deca-formulations were estimated to be 46 and 21 ng day⁻¹, respectively. A high proportion of the decabrominated congener (DeBDE-209) was observed in Group IV. To confirm the presence of DeBDE-209 in vegetable oils, an additional analysis was performed using 18 vegetable oil samples. Of these, seven contained ng g⁻¹ levels of DeBDE-209.

  10. Superfetation increases total fecundity in a viviparous fish regardless of the ecological context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zúñiga-Vega, J. Jaime; Olivera-Tlahuel, Claudia; Molina-Moctezuma, Alejandro

    2017-10-01

    Superfetation is the ability of females to simultaneously carry multiple broods of embryos at different developmental stages. This is an uncommon reproductive strategy that has evolved independently several times in viviparous fishes. The ecological conditions that favor higher degrees of superfetation (the presence of more simultaneous broods) still remain unclear. In this study we tested hypotheses about the potential effects of three particular ecological factors (water flow velocity, population density, and adult mortality) on superfetation. We used data on six populations of one fish species from the family Poeciliidae (Poeciliopsis baenschi) and a multimodel inference framework to test these hypotheses. We found no clear associations between the degree of superfetation and these ecological factors. Instead, we found a positive relationship between the total number of embryos carried by females and superfetation. Females increased their total fecundity as they overlapped more broods and this pattern was independent of the particular ecological conditions. Thus, in P. baenschi superfetation may facilitate a greater reproductive output. In addition, this positive relationship between total number of embryos and superfetation was stronger in small- and medium-sized females, whereas large females produced few or no simultaneous broods regardless of their total fecundity. The observed lack of association between superfetation and ecological variables is noteworthy because previous studies on other congeneric species have found that superfetation may vary as a function of water flow velocity or food availability. Our results indicate that the effect of particular selective factors on the degree of superfetation may differ among closely related species.

  11. Bacterial protein meal produced on natural gas replacing soybean meal or fish meal in broiler chicken diets.

    PubMed

    Schøyen, Hilde F; Svihus, Birger; Storebakken, Trond; Skrede, Anders

    2007-08-01

    The effects of replacing soybean meal or fish meal with 2, 4 or 6% bacterial protein meal (BPM) on growth performance, ileal digestibility of amino acids and sensory quality of meat, were examined using 630 broiler chickens. Weight gain from 7-32 days of age did not differ significantly among the treatments. Efficiency of feed conversion was increased when BPM replaced soybean meal, and abdominal fat deposition tended to decline. Feed conversion was not affected when BPM replaced fish meal. Amino acid digestibility was unaffected or improved when BPM replaced soybean meal, whereas replacement of fishmeal with BPM resulted in similar digestibility. Sensory quality of fresh thigh meat was similar among treatments, but for freeze-stored chest meat replacement of fish meal with BPM reduced off-odour and off-flavour and increased juiciness. It was concluded that 6% BPM can replace soybean meal or fish meal protein in broiler chicken diets.

  12. Development of harmonised food and sample lists for total diet studies in five European countries.

    PubMed

    Dofkova, Marcela; Nurmi, Tanja; Berg, Katharina; Reykdal, Ólafur; Gunnlaugsdóttir, Helga; Vasco, Elsa; Dias, Maria Graça; Blahova, Jitka; Rehurkova, Irena; Putkonen, Tiina; Ritvanen, Tiina; Lindtner, Oliver; Desnica, Natasa; Jörundsdóttir, Hrönn Ó; Oliveira, Luísa; Ruprich, Jiri

    2016-06-01

    A total diet study (TDS) is a public health tool for determination of population dietary exposure to chemicals across the entire diet. TDSs have been performed in several countries but the comparability of data produced is limited. Harmonisation of the TDS methodology is therefore desirable and the development of comparable TDS food lists is considered essential to achieve the consistency between countries. The aim of this study is to develop and test the feasibility of a method for establishing harmonised TDS food and sample lists in five European countries with different consumption patterns (Czech Republic, Finland, Germany, Iceland and Portugal). The food lists were intended to be applicable for exposure assessment of wide range of chemical substances in adults (18-64 years) and the elderly (65-74 years). Food consumption data from recent dietary surveys measured on individuals served as the basis for this work. Since the national data from these five countries were not comparable, all foods were linked to the EFSA FoodEx2 classification and description system. The selection of foods for TDS was based on the weight of food consumed and was carried out separately for each FoodEx2 level 1 food group. Individual food approach was respected as much as possible when the TDS samples were defined. TDS food lists developed with this approach represented 94.7-98.7% of the national total diet weights. The overall number of TDS samples varied from 128 in Finland to 246 in Germany. The suggested method was successfully implemented in all five countries. Mapping of data to the EFSA FoodEx2 coding system was recognised as a crucial step in harmonisation of the developed TDS food lists.

  13. Fish oil prevents changes induced by a high-fat diet on metabolism and adipokine secretion in mice subcutaneous and visceral adipocytes.

    PubMed

    de Sá, Roberta D C da Cunha; Crisma, Amanda R; Cruz, Maysa M; Martins, Amanda R; Masi, Laureane N; do Amaral, Catia L; Curi, R; Alonso-Vale, Maria I C

    2016-11-01

    Fish oil (FO), rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, has beneficial effects on changes induced by obesity and partially prevents associated comorbidities. The effects of FO on adipocytes from different adipose tissue depots in high-fat (HF) diet induced obese mice have not been uninvestigated. This is the first study to examine the effects of FO on changes in metabolism and adipokine production in adipocytes from s.c. (inguinal; ING) or visceral (retroperitoneal; RP) white adipose depots in a HF diet-induced obese mice. Unlike most studies performed previously, FO supplementation was initiated 4 weeks before the induction of obesity. HF diet caused marked changes in ING (glucose uptake and secretion of adiponectin, tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 in ING) and RP (lipolysis, de novo lipogenesis and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines) adipose depots. Previous and concomitant FO administration prevented the changes in ING and RP adipocytes induced by the HF diet. In the present study, we investigated the effect of fish oil (FO) on metabolism and adipokine production by adipocytes from s.c. (inguinal; ING) and visceral (retroperitoneal; RP) white adipose depots in high-fat (HF) diet-induced obese mice. Mice were divided into CO (control diet), CO+FO, HF and HF+FO groups. The HF group presented higher body weight, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, higher plasma total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and greater weights of ING and RP adipose depots accompanied by hypertrophy of the adipocytes. FO exerted anti-obesogenic effects associated with beneficial effects on dyslipidaemia and insulin resistance in mice fed a HF diet (HF+FO group). HF raised RP adipocyte lipolysis and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and reduced de novo synthesis of fatty acids, whereas, in ING adipocytes, it decreased glucose uptake and adiponectin secretion but did not change lipolysis. Therefore, the adipose depots play different roles in

  14. Total Dissolved Gas Effects on Fishes of the Lower Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    McGrath, Kathy E.; Dawley, Earl; Geist, David R.

    2006-03-31

    Gas supersaturation problems generated by spill from dams on the Columbia River were first identified in the 1960s. Since that time, considerable research has been conducted on effects of gas supersaturation on aquatic life, primarily juvenile salmonids. Also since that time, modifications to dam structures and operations have reduced supersaturated gas levels produced by the dams. The limit for total dissolved gas saturation (TDGS) as mandated by current Environmental Protection Agency water quality standards is 110%. State management agencies issue limited waivers to water quality, allowing production of levels of up to 120% TDGS to facilitate the downstream migration of juvenile salmonids. Recently, gas supersaturation as a water quality issue has resurfaced as concerns have grown regarding chronic effects of spill-related total dissolved gas on salmonids, including incubating embryos and larvae, resident fish species, and other aquatic organisms. Because of current concerns, and because the last comprehensive review of research on supersaturation effects on fishes was conducted in 1997, we reviewed recent supersaturation literature to identify new or ongoing issues that may not be adequately addressed by the current 110% TDGS limit and the 120% TDGS water quality waiver. We found that recent work supports older research indicating that short-term exposure to levels up to 120% TDGS does not produce acute effects on migratory juvenile or adult salmonids when compensating depths are available. Monitoring programs at Snake and Columbia river dams from 1995 to the early 2000s documented a low incidence of significant gas bubble disease or mortality in Columbia River salmonids, resident fishes, or other taxa. We did, however, identify five areas of concern in which total dissolved gas levels lower than water quality limits may produce sublethal effects on fishes of the Columbia River. These areas of concern are 1) sensitive and vulnerable species or life stages, 2

  15. Little Galloo Island, Lake Ontario: A review of nine years of double-crested cormorant diet and fish consumption information

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, James H.; Ross, Robert M.; McCullough, Russ D.

    2002-01-01

    The diet of double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) on Little Galloo Island (LGI) in the eastern basin of Lake Ontario has been quantified since 1992. Over the past nine years considerable information has been generated on cormorant feeding ecology through the examination of approximately 12,000 pellets collected on LGI, where three distinct cormorant feeding periods, pre-chick, chick, and post-chick, are delineated by differences in diet composition and daily fish consumption. Yellow perch (Perca flavescens) were the major prey during pre-chick and post-chick feeding periods. Alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus), which move inshore to spawn in mid-June, dominated (>60%) cormorant diets during the chick feeding period. Mean daily fish consumption (14.6) during the pre-chick feeding period was significantly greater than during the chick feeding (9.3) or post-chick feeding (8.0) periods. The proportion of smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) in the diet increased over the season (0.8% to 7.2%), while the size of bass consumed declined (214 mm to 143 mm). Forage fish (mainly alewife, three-spine sticklebacks [Gasterosteus aculeatus] and minnows) comprised 58% of the diet of LGI cormorants, followed by panfish (37%) (yellow perch, pumpkinseed [Lepomis gibbosus], rock bass [Ambloplites rupestris]) and gamefish (5%) (mostly smallmouth bass). On the average LGI cormorants consumed about 32.8 million fish annually, weighing about 1.4 million kilograms. Cormorants from LGI consumed more biomass of smallmouth bass and yellow perch annually than is taken by sport (bass and yellow perch) and commercial (perch) fishermen.

  16. Preliminary study: fibre content in pet rabbit diets, crude fibre versus total dietary fibre.

    PubMed

    Molina, J; Martorell, J; Hervera, M; Pérez-Accino, J; Fragua, V; Villaverde, C

    2015-04-01

    Fibre is an important nutrient for rabbit health, and, on commercial pet rabbit packaging, it is labelled as crude fibre (CF). In several species, it is considered that CF is not an accurate representation of the fibre content in feedstuffs. The objective of this study was to compare the CF stated on the label (CFL) with laboratory analysis of CF (CFA) and the analysed content of total dietary fibre (TDF) in different commercial pet rabbit feeds. We selected 15 commercial diets and analysed CF and TDF. A mixed model was used to evaluate differences between CFL, CFA and TDF, and linear regression was performed to study the correlation between CFL and CFA with TDF. CFA and CFL were not significantly different (p = 0.836) in the feeds studied, and both were lower than TDF (p < 0.001). The correlations between TDF and both CFA and CFL were significant (p < 0.001 and p = 0.02, respectively), but the correlation was better with CFA (R = 0.86) than with CFL (R = 0.53). As expected, TDF content was higher than CF content, an average of two times. These results suggest that the CF content in rabbit diets reported on the label is not an appropriate indicator of their total fibre content, although further work with a larger sample size is required to confirm these results.

  17. Synergistic effects of fish oil diet and dimethylthiourea in acute adriamycin nephrosis.

    PubMed

    Milner, L S; Wei, S; Kazakoff, P; Watkins, L; Houser, M T

    1994-11-01

    The synergistic effects of combining fish oil (FO) diet, which reduces thromboxane A production, with the free radical scavenger, dimethylthiourea (DMTU), were evaluated in acute adriamycin nephrosis, because proteinuria in adriamycin nephrosis is mediated by increased renal thromboxane A and free radical production. The effects of combined evening primrose oil (EPO) and DMTU were compared with the DMTU + FO combination because EPO increases prostaglandin E but not thromboxane A. After 7, 14, and 21 days, proteinuria was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced in rats receiving either DMTU + corn oil (CO) or DMTU + FO compared with untreated control rats. However, after 21 days, rats receiving DMTU + FO had significantly reduced urine protein excretion compared with those receiving DMTU + CO (103.9 +/- 20 mg daily vs 351.8 +/- 29.8 mg daily; P < 0.05). In contrast to FO, rats receiving EPO + DMTU had similar urine protein excretion to rats receiving DMTU + CO after 21 days (170.2 +/- 20.34 mg daily vs 179.45 +/- 26.38 mg daily). The mean serum cholesterol concentration was significantly (P < 0.01) reduced in rats receiving DMTU + FO (195.2 +/- 23.8 mg/dL) compared with DMTU + CO (377.9 +/- 28.5 mg/dL). Serum triglyceride levels also were significantly (P < 0.01) reduced in rats receiving DMTU + FO (52.5 +/- 26.4 mg/dL) compared with DMTU + CO (100.5 +/- 36.9 mg/dL). No significant differences in serum cholesterol concentrations or triglycerides occurred between rats receiving DMTU + CO and DMTU + EPO. Renal glutathione content was significantly (P < 0.05) increased by 23% in normal rats receiving FO diet and by 34% in rats receiving combined DMTU + FO compared with CO alone.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Total and inorganic arsenic in fish, seafood and seaweeds--exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Mania, Monika; Rebeniak, Małgorzata; Szynal, Tomasz; Wojciechowska-Mazurek, Maria; Starska, Krystyna; Ledzion, Ewa; Postupolski, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    According to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), fish, seafood and seaweeds are foodstuffs that significantly contribute to dietary arsenic intake. With the exception of some algal species, the dominant compounds of arsenic in such food products are the less toxic organic forms. Both the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) and EFSA recommend that speciation studies be performed to determine the different chemical forms in which arsenic is present in food due to the differences in their toxicity. Knowing such compositions can thus enable a complete exposure assessment to be made. Determination of total and inorganic arsenic contents in fish, their products, seafood and seaweeds present on the Polish market. This was then followed by an exposure assessment of consumers to inorganic arsenic in these foodstuffs. Total and inorganic arsenic was determined in 55 samples of fish, their products, seafood as well as seaweeds available on the market. The analytical method was hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HGAAS), after dry ashing of samples and reduction of arsenic to arsenic hydride using sodium borohydride. In order to isolate only the inorganic forms of arsenic prior to mineralisation, samples were subjected to concentrated HCl hydrolysis, followed by reduction with hydrobromic acid and hydrazine sulphate after which triple chloroform extractions and triple 1M HCl re-extractions were performed. Exposure of adults was estimated in relation to the Benchmark Dose Lower Confidence Limit (BMDL0.5) as set by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) that resulted in a 0.5% increase in lung cancer (3.0 μg/kg body weight (b.w.) per day). Mean total arsenic content from all investigated fish samples was 0.46 mg/kg (90th percentile 0.94 mg/kg), whilst the inorganic arsenic content never exceeded the detection limit of the analytical method used (0.025 mg/kg). In fish products, mean total arsenic concentration was

  19. Omega-3 fatty acid profile of eggs from laying hens fed diets supplemented with chia, fish oil, and flaxseed.

    PubMed

    Coorey, Ranil; Novinda, Agnes; Williams, Hannah; Jayasena, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of diets supplemented with fish oil, flaxseed, and chia seed on the omega-3 fatty acid composition and sensory properties of hens' eggs. No significant difference in yolk fat content was found between treatments. The fatty acid composition of egg yolk was significantly affected by the dietary treatments. Inclusion of chia at 300 g/kg into the diet produced eggs with the highest concentration of omega-3 fatty acid. Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were only detected in eggs from laying hens fed the diet supplemented with fish oil. Diet had a significant effect on color, flavor and overall acceptability of eggs. Types and levels of omega-3 fatty acids in feed influence the level of yolk omega-3 fatty acids in egg yolk. Inclusion of chia into the hens' diet significantly increased the concentration of yolk omega-3 fatty acid without significant change in sensory properties. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. The growth performance of Jade Tiger cultured abalone fed diets supplemented with fish oil and vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Mateos, Hintsa T; Lewandowski, Paul A; Su, Xiao Q

    2013-04-01

    The effects of fish oil (FO) supplementation and the dietary replacement of FO with flaxseed oil (FlaxO) and canola oil (CO) on the growth of cultured abalone was investigated. The study involved three growth experiments: (E1) diets containing 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5% of FO, respectively; (E2) diets in which FO was serially replaced by 25, 50, 75 and 100% FlaxO, respectively; and (E3) diets in which FO was serially replaced by 25, 50, 75 and 100% CO, respectively. In Experiment 1, abalone fed a diet supplemented with 1.5% FO showed a significantly higher (121.2 ± 1.1 mg day(-1)) daily growth rate of weight (DGRw ) compared to control (70.1 ± 1.71 mg day(-1)). In Experiment 2, abalone fed 1.5% FO diet and diets containing 25-75% FlaxO showed no significant differences in DGRw. The diet containing 100% FlaxO showed significantly lower (63.3 ± 6.7 mg day(-1)) DGRw. In Experiment 3, abalone fed diets containing 25% and 50% CO showed similar DGRw as those fed a 1.5% FO diet. The diet containing 75% and 100% CO showed significantly lower (63.7 ± 5.0 to 95.4 ± 5.1 mg day(-1)) DGRw. Supplementation with 1.5% of dietary FO can improve growth performance in cultured abalone. It is feasible to replace 75% of dietary FO with FlaxO and 50% of dietary FO with CO, without negative effect on growth performance. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Food selectivity and diet switch can explain the slow feeding of herbivorous coral-reef fishes during the morning.

    PubMed

    Khait, Ruth; Obolski, Uri; Hadany, Lilach; Genin, Amatzia

    2013-01-01

    Most herbivorous coral-reef fishes feed slower in the morning than in the afternoon. Given the typical scarcity of algae in coral reefs, this behavior seems maladaptive. Here we suggest that the fishes' slow feeding during the morning is an outcome of highly selective feeding on scarcely found green algae. The rarity of the food requires longer search time and extended swimming tracks, resulting in lower bite rates. According to our findings by noon the fish seem to stop their search and switch to indiscriminative consumption of benthic algae, resulting in apparent higher feeding rates. The abundance of the rare preferable algae gradually declines from morning to noon and seems to reach its lowest levels around the switch time. Using in situ experiments we found that the feeding pattern is flexible, with the fish exhibiting fast feeding rates when presented with ample supply of preferable algae, regardless of the time of day. Analyses of the fish's esophagus content corroborated our conclusion that their feeding was highly selective in the morning and non-selective in the afternoon. Modeling of the fishes' behavior predicted that the fish should perform a diel diet shift when the preferred food is relatively rare, a situation common in most coral reefs found in a warm, oligotrophic ocean.

  2. Effects of Therapeutic Lifestyle Change diets high and low in dietary fish-derived FAs on lipoprotein metabolism in middle-aged and elderly subjects

    PubMed Central

    Ooi, Esther M. M.; Lichtenstein, Alice H.; Millar, John S.; Diffenderfer, Margaret R.; Lamon-Fava, Stefania; Rasmussen, Helen; Welty, Francine K.; Barrett, P. Hugh R.; Schaefer, Ernst J.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of Therapeutic Lifestyle Change (TLC) diets, low and high in dietary fish, on apolipoprotein metabolism were examined. Subjects were provided with a Western diet for 6 weeks, followed by 24 weeks of either of two TLC diets (10/group). Apolipoprotein kinetics were determined in the fed state using stable isotope methods and compartmental modeling at the end of each phase. Only the high-fish diet decreased median triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRL) apoB-100 concentration (−23%), production rate (PR, −9%), and direct catabolism (−53%), and increased TRL-to-LDL apoB-100 conversion (+39%) as compared with the baseline diet (all P < 0.05). This diet also decreased TRL apoB-48 concentration (−24%), fractional catabolic rate (FCR, −20%), and PR (−50%) as compared with the baseline diet (all P < 0.05). The high-fish and low-fish diets decreased LDL apoB-100 concentration (−9%, −23%), increased LDL apoB-100 FCR (+44%, +48%), and decreased HDL apoA-I concentration (−15%, −14%) and PR (−11%, −12%) as compared with the baseline diet (all P < 0.05). On the high-fish diet, changes in TRL apoB-100 PR were negatively correlated with changes in plasma eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids. In conclusion, the high-fish diet decreased TRL apoB-100 and TRL apoB-48 concentrations chiefly by decreasing their PR. Both diets decreased LDL apoB-100 concentration by increasing LDL apoB-100 FCR and decreased HDL apoA-I concentration by decreasing HDL apoA-I PR. PMID:22773687

  3. Proficiency testing pilot for determination of total mercury in fresh fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Santana, L. V.; Sarkis, J. E. S.; Ulrich, J. C.; Hortellani, M. A.

    2016-07-01

    A proficiency-testing scheme concerning total mercury determination in fish tissue involved 10 laboratories as participants, who used their regular in-house analytical methods, and the assigned value and the standard deviation used in proficiency testing program was derived from calibration against the certified reference values of the CRMs. The majority of participants obtained satisfactory Z-scores, and laboratories that need to revise their procedures were singled out. The objective these exercises were makes a useful contribution towards the production of proficiency test in Brazil. The uncertainty expanded calculated for the reference material was 22%.

  4. Total substitution of dietary fish oil by vegetable oils stimulates muscle hypertrophic growth in Senegalese sole and the upregulation of fgf6.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Graciliana; Castro, Luís Filipe Costa; Valente, Luísa Maria Pinheiro

    2017-05-24

    The long term effects of fish oil (FO) substitution by increasing the levels of vegetable oils (VO), 0% (CTR), 50% (VO50) and 100% (VO100), in diets for Senegalese sole were evaluated in terms of skeletal muscle cellularity and expression of related genes. After 140 days of feeding, all fish had similar body weight and length. The inclusion of 50% VO did not result in differences in muscle cellularity, but dorsal muscle cross-sectional area and fast-twitch fibre diameter increased in fish fed total FO substitution, whilst fibre density was reduced (P < 0.05) in relation to CTR. The total number of fibres was similar in all treatments. FO substitution did not affect the transcript levels of myogenic genes (myf5, mrf4, myog, myod1, myod2), but resulted in a two-fold increase of fgf6 transcript levels compared to CTR (P < 0.05). The relative expression of igf-I was higher in VO100 than in VO50, but was similar to CTR. FO substitution resulted in cellularity changes related to the stimulation of muscle hypertrophic growth, but not hyperplastic growth, and associated with a nutritional modulation of fgf6 by dietary VO. This study indicates that 50% VO does not affect the muscle phenotype, but total FO substitution stimulates muscle hypertrophy.

  5. Dietary exposure of Hong Kong secondary school students to total mercury and methylmercury from fish intake.

    PubMed

    Tang, Anna Shiu Ping; Kwong, Ka Ping; Chung, Stephen Wai Cheung; Ho, Yuk Yin; Xiao, Ying

    2009-01-01

    Fish is the main source of dietary exposure to methylmercury (MeHg), which is a public health concern owing to its potential neurotoxicity. To evaluate the public health risk, this study estimated the total mercury (tHg) and MeHg exposure from fish intake in Hong Kong secondary school students. Median tHg and MeHg concentrations of 280 samples purchased from different commercial outlets (covering 89 species of whole fish and three types of canned tuna), together with the local food consumption data of secondary school students obtained by semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire in 2000, were used to estimate dietary exposure from fish intake for the average and high consumer (95th percentile exposure). For tHg, the median concentration was 63 µg kg(-1) (range 3-1370 µg kg(-1)) and estimated exposures ranged 0.5-0.6 µg kg(-1) body weight (bw) week(-1) for an average consumer and 1.6-1.9 µg kg(-1) bw week(-1) for a high consumer. For MeHg, median concentration was 48 µg kg(-1) (range 3-1010 µg kg(-1)) and estimated dietary exposures were 0.4-0.5 µg kg(-1) bw week(-1) for an average consumer and 1.2-1.4 µg kg(-1) bw week(-1) for a high consumer. These values are below the respective provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) established by the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). The health risk is greater for high consumers since MeHg exposures may approach or exceed the PTWI when other dietary sources are taken into account.

  6. Comparison of lymphocyte DNA damage levels and total antioxidant capacity in Korean and American diet.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min Young; Kim, Hyun A; Kang, Myung Hee

    2017-02-01

    This study aims to measure the in vitro antioxidant capacity of Korean diet (KD) with American diet (AD) as a control group and to examine the ex vivo DNA damage reduction effect on human lymphocytes. The KD applied in this study is the standard one-week meals for Koreans (2,000 kcal/day) suggested by 2010 Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans. The AD, which is the control group, is a one-week menu (2,000 kcal/day) that consists of foods that Americans would commonly take in according to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The antioxidant capacity of each menu was measured by means of the total phenolic assay and 3 in vitro antioxidant activity assays (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORACROO·)), while the extent of ex vivo lymphocyte DNA damage was measured by means of the comet assay. When measured by means of TEAC assay, the in vitro antioxidant capacity of the KD of the day was higher than that of the AD (P < 0.05) while there was no significant difference in total phenolic contents and DPPH and ORAC assays. The ex vivo lymphocyte DNA damage protective effect of the KD was significantly higher than that of the AD (P < 0.01). As for the one-week menu combining the menus for 7 days, the total phenolic assay (P < 0.05) and in vitro antioxidant capacity (P < 0.001, DPPH; P < 0.01, TEAC) of the KD menu were significantly higher than those of the AD menu. Likewise, the ex vivo DNA damage reduction rate of the Korean seven-day menu was significantly higher than that of the American menu (P < 0.01). This study demonstrates that the high antioxidant capacity and DNA damage protective effect of KD, which consists generally of various plant foods, are higher than those of typical AD.

  7. Effects of fish meal and sodium bentonite on daily gain, wool growth, carcass characteristics, and ruminal and blood characteristics of lambs fed concentrate diets.

    PubMed

    Walz, L S; White, T W; Fernandez, J M; Gentry, L R; Blouin, D C; Froetschel, M A; Brown, T F; Lupton, C J; Chapa, A M

    1998-08-01

    We evaluated the effects of replacing some soybean meal (SBM) protein with fish meal (FM) protein in diets adequate and slightly deficient in CP, with or without .75% sodium bentonite (NaB) on performance and ruminal and blood metabolites of individually fed Suffolk lambs. Diets were based on corn, SBM, and cottonseed hulls. In Exp. 1, five lambs were assigned to each of the three dietary treatments (11% CP with 3% FM, 13% CP with 0 or 3% FM). Lambs fed diets that contained 11% CP with 3% FM or 13% CP with 0% FM had similar DMI and ADG. Gain and feed efficiency were slightly improved (P = .18) by the 13% CP diet with 3% FM. In Exp. 2, 32 lambs were assigned to four dietary treatments (13.5% CP of DM) in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement (0 or 3% FM, and 0 or .75% NaB on an as-fed basis). The DMI and ADG were increased (P < .05) by FM and NaB supplementation. Interactions (P < .05) revealed that NaB increased DMI, ADG, gain per feed (g/kg of DMI), and plasma urea N concentration in the absence of FM but not in the presence of FM in the diet. Neither FM nor NaB influenced (P = .25) wool growth. Total ruminal VFA were increased (P < .06) by FM and NaB. Differences in mineral content of phalanx bone, liver, and kidney were small and may be related to the mineral content of diets and the effect of NaB on mineral solubilities. Similar DMI and ADG of lambs fed FM and NaB separately and in combination suggest that their beneficial effect is not additive.

  8. [Influence of vegetarian diet on serum values of homocysteine and total antioxidant status in children].

    PubMed

    Chełchowska, Magdalena; Ambroszkiewicz, Jadwiga; Klemarczyk, Witold; Gajewska, Joanna; Ołtarzewski, Mariusz; Laskowska-Klita, Teresa

    2010-09-01

    The vegetarian diet may play a preventive role in the development of chronic diseases such as coronary heart and cardiovascular disease. However increase of homocysteine (Hcy) concentration in peoples avoiding animal products may contribute to an increased atherosclerotic risk in these subjects. Recent evidence has suggested that role of hyperhomocysteinemia in atherogenesis is associated with process of autooxidation, which can promote the production of hydroxyl radicals, resulting in oxidative modification of low density lipoprotein and endothelium injury. The oxidant-antioxidant imbalance depends not only on the amount of enhanced free oxygen species but also insufficiency of antioxidant defence system. Total antioxidant status (TAS) expresses capacity for scavenging of free radicals minimizes oxidative damage. The aim of this study was to asses concentrations of homocysteine and total antioxidant status in serum of children on vegetarian and omnivorous diet. We also studied levels of vitamin A (retinol) and vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) particular components of TAS. The study included 35 children, aged 5-16 who had been referred to Institute of Mother and Child for dietary consultation. From those, 17 were lacto-ovo-vegetarians and 18 omnivores. Dietary constituents were analyzed using the nutritional programme Dietetyk2 and completed with supplementation data. Concentration of homocysteine was estimated in serum with fluorescence polarization immunoassay and TAS by colorimetric method. Levels of vitamin A and E were determined using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The mean concentration of homocysteine was similar in both studied groups (vegetarians: 6.13 +/- 1.01 micromol/l vs. omnivores: 5.45 +/- 0.98 micromol/l). In vegetarian children serum level of TAS was significantly lower (1.21 +/- 0.06 mmol/I) as compared to those in non-vegetarian ones (1.30 +/- 0.05 mmol/l, p < 0.0001), but remained within the physiological range (1.16-1.40 mmol/l). The

  9. Dietary exposure and risk assessment of mercury from the Korean total diet study.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Young Min; Lee, Haeng Shin; Yoo, Dong Chul; Kim, Chun Huem; Kim, Gi Sun; Kim, Ji Ae; Lee, Yu Na; Kim, Young Soon; Kang, Kyung Mo; No, Ki Mi; Paek, Ock Jin; Seo, Jung Hyuk; Choi, Hoon; Park, Sung Kug; Choi, Dong Mi; Kim, Dong Sul; Choi, Dal Woong

    2009-01-01

    As a national project, obtaining information on the amount of heavy metal exposure of individuals through food intake is an important basic parameter for risk assessment. This study was conducted to evaluate dietary exposure levels and various risks from mercury (Hg) in Korean foods. In total, 342 samples comprising 114 food items were collected and then cooked prior to analysis. As found by Hg analysis, the mean content of metal in the fish and shellfish group was highest among the 15 Korean food groups. The total daily amount of Hg intake from typical Korean foods was 2.40 microg/person/d. The daily amount (microg/person/d) of Hg intake from each food group was 0.155 in grains and cereals, 0.008 potatoes and starch, 0.005 sugars and sweets, 0.0093 pulses, 0.0018 nuts and seeds, 0.203 vegetables, 0.027 fruits, 0.021 meats and poultry, 0.004 eggs, 1.826 fish and shellfish, 0.022 seaweed, 0.043 milk and dairy products, 0.008 oils and fats, 0.042 beverages, and 0.023 seasonings. The fish and shellfish group contributed most to total dietary intake at 76%. For risk assessment, probable daily intake (PDI) was calculated and compared with provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). The level of Hg intake through fish and shellfish of 0.001 mg/kg body weight bw/wk corresponded to 4.54% of the PTWI value of 0.005 mg/kg bw/wk, the safety standard for JECFA. The level of Hg intake through selected foods from the Food list for Koreans was 0.001 mg/kg bw/wk, corresponding to 5.95% of PTWI value. Therefore, overall intake was at levels below the recommended JECFA levels. The relative gender Hg hazard from Korean foods was 6.26% and 5.5% for males and females, respectively. The relative age Hg hazard from Korean foods was, 8.9% in those 3-6 yr old, 6.7% in those 7-12 yr old, 5.2% in those 13-19 yr old, 5.9% in those 20-29 yr old, 6.3% in those 30-49 yr old, 5.6% in those ages 50-64 yr, and 3.7% in the group of

  10. Additive effect of diets and training on total insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in rats.

    PubMed

    El Elj, N; Lac, G; Alya, B; Lasram, M; Zaouali, M; Tabka, Z; Kammoun, A; Gharbi, N; El Fezaa, S

    2010-09-01

    Although it is known that circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) are influenced by both physical exercise and dietary intake separately, there is little information regarding the additive effect of diets and training on IGF-1 regulation. To test this, we examined the combined effect of 30 days of two different diets (high-protein and high-carbohydrate) and exercise training on total IGF-1. The study was carried out with four groups of rats; the sedentary group with standard diet (SS) (control group), standard diet with exercise (SE), high-protein diet with exercise (PE) and high-carbohydrate diet with exercise (CE). Serum IGF-1, insulin, corticosterone were analyzed. IGF-1 concentrations were decreased by exercise training (p<0.001) and only with protein diet (p<0.05). Physical training, with and without diet, decreased body weight and food intake (p<0.01) and increased corticosterone levels (p<0.05). Carbohydrate diet did not cause major hormonal and metabolic alterations. The main result of this study was the decreased levels of IGF-1 in spite of high-protein diet, which is known to enhance IGF-1 secretion, and the little changes with carbohydrate diet. This may be related to the negative energy balance as a result of the catabolic state induced by exercise training and decreased calorie intake in protein diet. Thus, it can be concluded that the caloric restriction, regardless of dietary composition, decreased IGF-1 secretion. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of thiamine deficiencies and early mortality syndrome in lake trout by feeding experimental and feral fish diets containing thiaminase

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Hinterkopf, J.P.; Fitzsimons, J.D.; Tillitt, D.E.; Zajicek, J.L.; Brown, S.B.

    2005-01-01

    We conducted a laboratory investigation on the consequences of feeding predatory salmonids either experimental diets low in thiamine or diets containing alewife Alosa pseudoharengus. In experiment 1, adult lake trout Salvelinus namaycush were fed experimental diets containing bacterial thiaminase. In experiment 2, adult lake trout were fed natural prey species, alewives, and bloaters Coregonus hoyi. The diets consisted of four combinations of alewives and bloaters from Lake Michigan (100% alewives, 65% alewives–35% bloaters, 35% alewives–65% bloaters, and 100% bloaters), alewives from Cayuga Lake, a casein bacterial thiaminase, and a commercial trout diet. We assessed the effects of each diet on egg thiamine concentration and incidence of an embryonic early mortality syndrome (EMS). In experiment 1, incidence of EMS ranged from 0% to 100%. Significant relationships were found between the incidence of EMS and thiamine. In experiment 2, adult lake trout fed 100% alewives from either Lake Michigan or Cayuga Lake or fish fed the casein bacterial thiaminase diet produced eggs with low thiamine and swim-up fry with EMS. At either 35% or 65% alewives in the diet, egg thiamine was significantly lowered. The number of females that produced offspring that died from EMS were low but demonstrated the negative potential if feral lake trout foraged on either 35% or 65% alewives. Depleted egg thiamine and the onset of EMS required diets containing thiaminase for a minimum of 2 years in lake trout initially fully thiamine replete. We conclude that EMS can be caused by extensive feeding on 100% alewives and dietary levels of 35% or greater may prove detrimental to sustainable reproduction of salmonids in the Great Lakes. The data are consistent with that observed in feral lake trout, and it is concluded that EMS is the result of a thiamine deficiency.

  12. A calorie-restriction diet supplemented with fish oil and high-protein powder is associated with reduced severity of metabolic syndrome in obese women.

    PubMed

    Su, H-Y; Lee, H-C; Cheng, W-Y; Huang, S-Y

    2015-03-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and obesity has increased worldwide, as well as in Taiwan, particularly in women aged>40 years. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effects of a calorie-restriction diet (CR) supplemented with protein and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on women with MetS. A total of 143 eligible female participants were recruited and assigned to four dietary interventions such as 1500-kcal CR, calorie-restriction meal-replacement diet (CRMR), calorie-restriction diet with fish oil supplementation (CRF) and calorie-restriction meal-replacement diet with fish oil supplementation (CRMRF). The changes in anthropometric measures, metabolic profiles, inflammatory response and the Z-score of severity of MetS were evaluated. Among 143 female MetS patients enrolled, 136 patients completed the 12-week study. After the 12-week dietary interventions, we observed reductions in body weight (BW), body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in all groups. BMI and triglyceride (TG) levels decreased significantly in the CRMR, CRF and CRMRF groups, but not in the CR group. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) had significantly improved in all four groups, and the levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) had significantly decreased in the CRF and CRMRF groups. Following the interventions, the changes in waist circumference (WC), mean arterial pressure (MAP), fasting blood glucose (FBG), TGs, HOMA-IR, CRP and IL-6 significantly correlated with the reductions in Z-score of MetS severity. Our study results indicate that a calorie-restriction dietary intervention combined with various macronutrients can reduce the severity of MetS in women and increase recovery from MetS by almost twofold in comparison with a CR alone.

  13. The effect of fixative on total length of small-bodied stream fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brinkley, P.D.; Fischer, John R.; Paukert, C.P.

    2008-01-01

    Longnose dace (Rhinichthys cataractae), red shiner (Cyprinella lutrensis), and green sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus) were fixed in 5% and 10% formalin and 70% and 95% ethyl alcohol to determine fixative effects on total length (TL). Total length reduced over the first 24h for all species (P<0.0001) but then stabilized. Longnose dace and green sunfish TL reduction was less for 5% formalin than for either 70% or 95% ethanol (both P<0.0001), whereas the fixative solution had no effect on red shiner TL (P=0.347). A greater percentage of change in TL was observed in green sunfish and red shiner than in longnose dace, suggesting that body form (compressiform vs. fusiform) may affect shrinkage rate among adult stream fishes.

  14. Upregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in rat aorta after ingestion of fish oil-rich diet.

    PubMed

    López, Diego; Orta, Xavier; Casós, Kelly; Sáiz, M Puy; Puig-Parellada, Pere; Farriol, Mireia; Mitjavila, M Teresa

    2004-08-01

    A previous study with aortic segments isolated from rats fed a fish oil-rich diet indicated an increase in acetylcholine-induced nitric oxide (.NO)-mediated relaxation. However, it remained to be elucidated whether a fish oil-rich diet affects the vascular activity per se and the point of the.NO-cGMP pathway at which fish oil acts. For this purpose, two groups of Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a semipurified diet containing 5% lipids, either corn oil (CO) or menhaden oil (MO), for 8 wk. We studied the mRNA and protein levels of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and NOS activity. The bioavailability of vascular.NO was assessed directly by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. The levels of cGMP, l-arginine, and l-citrulline were also evaluated in homogenates. Superoxide anion (O(2)(-).) production and related antioxidant activities were also studied in aortic segments. The aortic content of eNOS mRNA was increased in rats fed the MO-rich diet. This resulted in increases in both eNOS protein levels (70% relative to the rats fed the CO-rich diet) and NOS activity (102%);.NO production increased by 90%, cGMP levels increased by 100%, and l-arginine decreased by 30%. No change in aortic O(2)(-). production was caused by dietary MO. The upregulation of the eNOS-cGMP pathway induced by dietary MO may contribute to the maintenance of vascular homeostasis and explain its beneficial effect in the prevention of arterial diseases.

  15. Total and Methyl Mercury Distribution in Water, Sediment, and Fish tissue in New England Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalmers, A. T.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.

    2001-05-01

    Conditions that are conducive to the methylation of mercury are of particular concern because methyl mercury (MeHg) is the most toxic mercury species and is rapidly bioaccumulated and biomagnified in wildlife and man. The New England Coastal Basins study unit, as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water Quality Assessment program, has evaluated relations between concentrations of total mercury (HgT) and MeHg in stream water and bed sediment, and HgT in fish tissue at sites with a variety of watershed characteristics. Fifty-five stream sites from Rhode Island to Maine were sampled for water and bed sediment during 1998 - 2000. A subset of 27 sites was sampled for fish tissue. Sediment, water, and fish tissue samples were collected during summer low flow conditions within a week of each other to show patterns of MeHg accumulation and partitioning relative to site and watershed conditions. Concentrations of HgT in water and bed sediment ranged from 1 to 13 nanograms per liter (ng/L) and from 7 to 3,100 nanograms per gram (ng/g) dry weight, respectively. Concentrations of MeHg in water and sediment ranged from 0.04 to 1.8 ng/L and from 1 to 38 ng/g dry weight, respectively, and were positively correlated with concentrations of organic carbon. Methylation efficiency, as estimated by MeHg/HgT, ranged from 0.003 to 0.282 for sediment and water samples, with a median value of 0.071. Methylation efficiency was highest at sampling sites with low urbanization and high organic carbon concentrations. HgT concentrations in fish tissue (mixed sunfish species) ranged from 42 to 349 ng/g wet weight and were positively correlated with concentrations of MeHg in water and bed sediment. A positive relation was not observed between HgT concentrations in fish tissue and HgT concentrations in water and bed sediment. These preliminary results indicate a high potential for mercury bioaccumulation in aquatic organisms in New England streams.

  16. A model for determining total ketogenic ratio (TKR) for evaluating the ketogenic property of a weight-reduction diet.

    PubMed

    Cohen, I A

    2009-09-01

    Ketogenic weight-reduction dieting methods have existed since antiquity. Recent research has demonstrated their value in controlling type 2 diabetes. Although research done in the 1920s provided a mathematical model of non-weight-reduction ketogenic clinical diets using the concept of a ketogenic ratio (KR), little has been done to evaluate the ketogenic nature of purported ketogenic weight-reduction diets. The mathematical model of Woodyatt is valid only under isocaloric conditions where dietary energy intake is balanced by energy use. It is hypothesised that under certain conditions of weight loss, energy deficit can predict utilization of stored lipid so that a modified formula for total ketogenic ratio (TKR) may be derived. Such a predictive mathematical model may be a useful tool in predicting the efficacy of weight-reduction diets and adapting such diets to individual patient needs.

  17. Dietary total antioxidant capacity is associated with diet and plasma antioxidant status in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Yang, Meng; Lee, Sang-Gil; Davis, Catherine G; Koo, Sung I; Chun, Ock K

    2012-10-01

    Dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC), based on the cumulative antioxidant activities of all the antioxidants present in food, has been shown to be inversely associated with risks of chronic diseases. However, dietary TAC has not been validated for its relevance in a healthy young population or for reliability and predictability for antioxidant status. Our study aimed to validate TAC as a tool in assessing antioxidant intake and to investigate whether dietary TAC predicts plasma antioxidant status in a healthy young population. Sixty healthy, nonsmoking college students at the University of Connecticut ages 18 to 25 years were recruited. Thirty-day food records and two 12-hour fasting blood samples were collected for dietary and plasma antioxidant assessments. After adjustment for total energy intake, TAC from diet and supplement was positively correlated with intakes of carotenoids (P<0.01), beta carotene (P<0.05), β-cryptoxanthin (P<0.05), flavonoids (P<0.0001), isoflavones (P<0.01), flavan-3-ols (P<0.01), flavones (P<0.05), and flavonols (P<0.0001). Dietary TAC was an independent predictor of plasma TAC determined by vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity (P<0.01) and by ferric-reducing ability of plasma (P<0.0001), plasma glutathione peroxidase (P<0.01), red blood cell glutathione peroxidase (P<0.05), α-tocopherol (P<0.05), and lutein (P<0.05). Results were similar for TAC from diet sources only. The findings suggest that dietary TAC is a good predictor of dietary and plasma antioxidant status in this sample of young adult men and women. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Total iron concentrations in waters and fish tissues in the Nam Theun 2 Reservoir area (Lao PDR).

    PubMed

    Cottet, Maud; Descloux, Stéphane; Guédant, Pierre; Godon, Arnaud; Cerdan, Philippe; Vigouroux, Régis

    2015-08-01

    Data on total iron concentrations in waters and freshwater fish tissues in man-made reservoirs are scarce, especially in Southeast Asia. Changes in total iron concentrations in water and in fish tissues were studied after the impoundment of the Nam Theun 2 Reservoir (central Lao PDR). Water quality parameters were monitored at 11 stations (reservoir, upstream area and downstream areas) from 2008 to 2010. In 2009 and 2010, total iron concentrations were measured in three different fish tissues (viscera, gills and flesh) from 14 species belonging to the omnivorous and carnivorous feeding groups. The results indicated that iron concentrations in the water were influenced by the reservoir impoundment during the first year after the creation of the reservoir. Intra-annual variations of the total iron concentration in these waters appeared to be driven by the soil leaching processes mainly during the wet season. In fish, total iron accumulated preferentially in viscera, followed by gills and flesh. Iron concentration was highly species dependant and related to the ecology of the species whereas feeding habits (omnivorous or carnivorous) did not influence total iron concentration in fish tissues. Finally, reservoir impoundment did not affect iron concentrations in fish from the reservoir and from both downstream areas.

  19. 18S rRNA V9 metabarcoding for diet characterization: a critical evaluation with two sympatric zooplanktivorous fish species.

    PubMed

    Albaina, Aitor; Aguirre, Mikel; Abad, David; Santos, María; Estonba, Andone

    2016-03-01

    The potential of the 18S rRNA V9 metabarcoding approach for diet assessment was explored using MiSeq paired-end (PE; 2 × 150 bp) technology. To critically evaluate the method's performance with degraded/digested DNA, the diets of two zooplanktivorous fish species from the Bay of Biscay, European sardine (Sardina pilchardus) and European sprat (Sprattus sprattus), were analysed. The taxonomic resolution and quantitative potential of the 18S V9 metabarcoding was first assessed both in silico and with mock and field plankton samples. Our method was capable of discriminating species within the reference database in a reliable way providing there was at least one variable position in the 18S V9 region. Furthermore, it successfully discriminated diet between both fish species, including habitat and diel differences among sardines, overcoming some of the limitations of traditional visual-based diet analysis methods. The high sensitivity and semi-quantitative nature of the 18S V9 metabarcoding approach was supported by both visual microscopy and qPCR-based results. This molecular approach provides an alternative cost and time effective tool for food-web analysis.

  20. Blood redox status is associated with the likelihood of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease irrespectively of diet's total antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Georgoulis, Michael; Fragopoulou, Elisabeth; Kontogianni, Meropi D; Margariti, Aikaterini; Boulamatsi, Olga; Detopoulou, Paraskeui; Tiniakos, Dina; Zafiropoulou, Rodessa; Papatheodoridis, George

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that oxidative stress is implicated in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease pathogenesis, whereas the dietary intake of antioxidants has been reported to be low in patients with the disease. We hypothesized that blood redox status measurements would be associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease presence and severity, and that diet's total antioxidant capacity could moderate the aforementioned association. The study sample consisted of 73 patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, of which 58 were matched by age, sex, and body mass index with 58 controls. Diet's total antioxidant capacity was estimated through the ferric-reducing antioxidant power, the total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter, and the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity scores, whereas blood redox status was assessed by measuring thiobarbituric acid reactive substances levels, the enzymatic activity of glutathione peroxidase, and serum resistance to oxidation. Diet's total antioxidant capacity scores and glutathione peroxidase activity were not significantly associated with the disease presence or severity. Both thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and serum resistance to oxidation were significantly associated with the likelihood of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (odds ratios [ORs], 7.769 [P= .007] and 0.936 [P= .033], respectively), independently of abdominal fat level, degree of insulin resistance, blood lipid levels, markers of subclinical inflammation, and diet's total antioxidant capacity, but not with the disease histologic severity or stage. Our results support the association between blood redox status and the likelihood of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease regardless of diet's total antioxidant capacity.

  1. Diet and feeding of fish from Grande River, located below the Volta Grande Reservoir, MG-SP.

    PubMed

    Andrade, P M; Braga, F M S

    2005-08-01

    We compare the classic model of feeding of tropical fish by means of six bimonthly samplings using gillnets of varying mesh sizes that were inspected every twelve hours throughout a forty-eight hour period. The stomachs of the fish caught were classified in three categories according to quantity of food found. The amount of fat in the visceral cavity with respect to the energetic reserve deposition was also studied. The relative frequencies of the different categories of stomach repletion and fat deposition were examined for patterns of feeding seasonality. The stomachs considered full were examined to record diet composition. To assess the relative importance of the different food resources, we applied Feeding Importance Degree (FID), which is a useful index when difficulties exist in determining a common basis for volume, number, or weight of a given food item in different species, a common problem when dealing with fish species having different feeding habits. The fish species whose stomach contents were analyzed using the FID index were Serrasalmus spilopleura (Characidae), L. prolixa (Loricaridae), Schizodon nasutus (Anostomidae), and Pimelodus maculatus (Pimelodidae). Our findings indicate some contrasting elements, in dietary composition in relation to the classic model for tropical rivers. These factors include the importance of aquatic macrophytes, the lack of piscivorous species, and a lesser presence of allochthonous vegetation in the diet of the species studied.

  2. Diets and trophic-guild structure of a diverse fish assemblage in Chesapeake Bay, U.S.A.

    PubMed

    Buchheister, A; Latour, R J

    2015-03-01

    Dietary habits and trophic-guild structure were examined in a fish assemblage (47 species) of the Chesapeake Bay estuary, U.S.A., using 10 years of data from >25 000 fish stomachs. The assemblage was comprised of 10 statistically significant trophic guilds that were principally differentiated by the relative amounts of Mysida, Bivalvia, Polychaeta, Teleostei and other Crustacea in the diets. These guilds were broadly aggregated into five trophic categories: piscivores, zooplanktivores, benthivores, crustacivores and miscellaneous consumers. Food web structure was largely dictated by gradients in habitat (benthic to pelagic) and prey size. Size classes within piscivorous species were more likely to be classified into different guilds, reflecting stronger dietary changes through ontogeny relative to benthivores and other guilds. Relative to predator species and predator size, the month of sampling had negligible effects on dietary differences within the assemblage. A majority of sampled fishes derived most of their nutrition from non-pelagic prey sources, suggesting a strong coupling of fish production to benthic and demersal food resources. Mysida (predominantly the opossum shrimp Neomysis americana) contributed substantially to the diets of over 25% of the sampled predator groups, indicating that this species is a critical, but underappreciated, node in the Chesapeake Bay food web.

  3. Fish oil ameliorates trimethylamine N-oxide-exacerbated glucose intolerance in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiang; Xu, Jie; Jiang, Chengzi; Zhang, Yi; Xue, Yong; Li, Zhaojie; Wang, Jingfeng; Xue, Changhu; Wang, Yuming

    2015-04-01

    Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a component commonly present in seafood, has been found to have a harmful impact on glucose tolerance in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. However, seafood also contains fish oil (FO), which has been shown to have beneficial effects on metabolism. Here, we investigated the effect of FO on TMAO-induced impaired glucose tolerance in HFD-fed mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to the high fat (HF), TMAO, and fish oil groups. The HF group was fed a diet containing 25% fat, the TMAO group was fed the HFD plus 0.2% TMAO, and the FO group was fed the HFD plus 0.2% TMAO and 2% fish oil for 12 weeks. After 10 weeks of feeding, oral glucose tolerance tests were performed. Dietary FO improved the fasting glucose level, the fasting insulin level, HOMA-IR value, QUICKI score and ameliorated TMAO-induced exacerbated impaired glucose tolerance in HFD-fed mice. These effects were associated with the expression of genes related to the insulin signalling pathway, glycogen synthesis, gluconeogenesis, and glucose transport in peripheral tissues. Dietary fish oil also decreased TMAO-aggravated adipose tissue inflammation. Our results suggested that dietary FO ameliorated TMAO-induced impaired glucose tolerance, insulin signal transduction in peripheral tissue, and adipose tissue inflammation in HFD-fed mice.

  4. Changes in the Total Fecal Bacterial Population in Individual Horses Maintained on a Restricted Diet Over 6 Weeks.

    PubMed

    Dougal, Kirsty; Harris, Patricia A; Girdwood, Susan E; Creevey, Christopher J; Curtis, Gemma C; Barfoot, Clare F; Argo, Caroline M; Newbold, Charles J

    2017-01-01

    Twelve mature (aged 5-16 years) horses and ponies of mixed breed and type were fed restricted (1.25% BM Dry matter) quantities of one of two fiber based diets formulated to be iso-caloric. Diet 1 comprised of 0.8% body mass (BM) of chaff based complete feed plus 0.45% BM low energy grass hay (the same hay used for both diets). Diet 2 comprised 0.1% BM of a nutrient balancer plus 1.15% BM grass hay. Fecal samples were collected at week 10 and week 16. DNA was extracted and the V1-V2 regions of 16SrDNA were 454-pyrosequenced to investigate the bacterial microbiome of the horse. The two most abundant phyla found in both diets and sampling periods were the Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. There was a clear reduction in Bacteroidetes with a concordant increase in Firmicutes over time. There was a limited degree of stability within the bacterial community of the hindgut of horses, with 65% of bacteria retained, over a 6 week period whilst on a uniform diet. The presence of a core community defined by being present in all samples (each animal/diet combination) included in the study and being present at 0.1% relative abundance (or greater) was identified. In total 65 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified that fit the definition of core making up 21-28% of the total sequences recovered. As with total population the most abundant phyla were the Bacteroidetes followed by the Firmicutes, however there was no obvious shift in phyla due to period. Indeed, when the relative abundance of OTUs was examined across diets and periods there was no significant effect of diet or period alone or in combination on the relative abundance of the core OTUs.

  5. A statistical approach for estimating fish diet compositions from multiple, data sources: Gulf of California case study.

    PubMed

    Ainsworth, Cameron H; Kaplan, Isaac C; Levin, Phillip S; Mangel, Marc

    2010-12-01

    Trophic ecosystem models are one promising tool for providing ecosystem-based management advice. Diet and interaction rate parameters are critical in defining the behavior of these models, and will greatly influence any predictions made in response to management perturbations. However, most trophic ecosystem models must rely on a patchwork of data availability and must contend with knowledge gaps and poor quantification of uncertainty. Here we present a statistical method for combining diet information from field samples and literature to describe trophic relationships at the level of functional groups. In this example, original fieldwork in the northern Gulf of California, Mexico, provides gut content data for targeted and untargeted fish species. The field data are pooled with diet composition information from FishBase, an online data repository. Diet information is averaged across stomachs to represent an average predator, and then the data are bootstrapped to generate likelihood profiles. These are fit to a Dirichlet function, and from the resulting marginal distributions, maximum-likelihood estimates are generated with confidence intervals representing the likely contribution to diet for each predator-prey combination. We characterize trophic linkages into two broad feeding guilds, pelagic and demersal feeders, and explore differentiation within those guilds. We present an abbreviated food web for the northern Gulf of California based on the results of this study. This food web will form the basis of a trophic dynamic model. Compared to the common method of averaging diet compositions across predators, this statistical approach is less influenced by the presence of long tails in the distributions, which correspond to rare feeding events, and is therefore better suited to small data sets.

  6. Metabarcoding dietary analysis of coral dwelling predatory fish demonstrates the minor contribution of coral mutualists to their highly partitioned, generalist diet

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Christopher P.; Mills, Suzanne C.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the role of predators in food webs can be challenging in highly diverse predator/prey systems composed of small cryptic species. DNA based dietary analysis can supplement predator removal experiments and provide high resolution for prey identification. Here we use a metabarcoding approach to provide initial insights into the diet and functional role of coral-dwelling predatory fish feeding on small invertebrates. Fish were collected in Moorea (French Polynesia) where the BIOCODE project has generated DNA barcodes for numerous coral associated invertebrate species. Pyrosequencing data revealed a total of 292 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTU) in the gut contents of the arc-eye hawkfish (Paracirrhites arcatus), the flame hawkfish (Neocirrhites armatus) and the coral croucher (Caracanthus maculatus). One hundred forty-nine (51%) of them had species-level matches in reference libraries (>98% similarity) while 76 additional OTUs (26%) could be identified to higher taxonomic levels. Decapods that have a mutualistic relationship with Pocillopora and are typically dominant among coral branches, represent a minor contribution of the predators’ diets. Instead, predators mainly consumed transient species including pelagic taxa such as copepods, chaetognaths and siphonophores suggesting non random feeding behavior. We also identified prey species known to have direct negative interactions with stony corals, such as Hapalocarcinus sp, a gall crab considered a coral parasite, as well as species of vermetid snails known for their deleterious effects on coral growth. Pocillopora DNA accounted for 20.8% and 20.1% of total number of sequences in the guts of the flame hawkfish and coral croucher but it was not detected in the guts of the arc-eye hawkfish. Comparison of diets among the three fishes demonstrates remarkable partitioning with nearly 80% of prey items consumed by only one predator. Overall, the taxonomic resolution provided by the metabarcoding approach

  7. Determination of total arsenic in fish by hydride-generation atomic absorption spectrometry: method validation, traceability and uncertainty evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nugraha, W. C.; Elishian, C.; Ketrin, R.

    2017-03-01

    Fish containing arsenic compound is one of the important indicators of arsenic contamination in water monitoring. The high level of arsenic in fish is due to absorption through food chain and accumulated in their habitat. Hydride generation (HG) coupled with atomic absorption spectrometric (AAS) detection is one of the most popular techniques employed for arsenic determination in a variety of matrices including fish. This study aimed to develop a method for the determination of total arsenic in fish by HG-AAS. The method for sample preparation from American of Analytical Chemistry (AOAC) Method 999.10-2005 was adopted for acid digestion using microwave digestion system and AOAC Method 986.15 - 2005 for dry ashing. The method was developed and validated using Certified Reference Material DORM 3 Fish Protein for trace metals for ensuring the accuracy and the traceability of the results. The sources of uncertainty of the method were also evaluated. By using the method, it was found that the total arsenic concentration in the fish was 45.6 ± 1.22 mg.Kg-1 with a coverage factor of equal to 2 at 95% of confidence level. Evaluation of uncertainty was highly influenced by the calibration curve. This result was also traceable to International Standard System through analysis of Certified Reference Material DORM 3 with 97.5% of recovery. In summary, it showed that method of preparation and HG-AAS technique for total arsenic determination in fish were valid and reliable.

  8. Total petroleum hydrocarbon in the tissues of some commercially important fishes of the Bay of Bengal.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Zakir A; Desilva, Classy; Badesab, Shahin

    2012-11-01

    The present study reports the level of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) in 27 commercially important fish, crustaceans and cephalopods from Orissa coast, Bay of Bengal to provide the baseline data for oil contamination in marine biota. The results showed significant differences in the TPH concentration in different species. Of all fish, Carangoides malabaricus showed the maximum TPH level (av. 13.70 μg g(-1)). In cephalopods, Loligo recorded the maximum TPH (av. 14.87 μg g(-1)) while Metapenaeus dobsoni recorded the maximum TPH (av. 13.18 μg g(-1)) among crustaceans. The concentration of TPH recorded in the present study were higher than the reported values from other studies in Bay of Bengal but were comparable with those of other Indian coast and Gulf water. The species recording maximum concentration and giving significant correlation coefficient may be of interest in oil pollution monitoring and can be used as indicator of hydrocarbon pollution in the region.

  9. Comparison of lymphocyte DNA damage levels and total antioxidant capacity in Korean and American diet

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Min Young; Kim, Hyun A

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE This study aims to measure the in vitro antioxidant capacity of Korean diet (KD) with American diet (AD) as a control group and to examine the ex vivo DNA damage reduction effect on human lymphocytes. MATERIALS/METHODS The KD applied in this study is the standard one-week meals for Koreans (2,000 kcal/day) suggested by 2010 Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans. The AD, which is the control group, is a one-week menu (2,000 kcal/day) that consists of foods that Americans would commonly take in according to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The antioxidant capacity of each menu was measured by means of the total phenolic assay and 3 in vitro antioxidant activity assays (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORACROO·)), while the extent of ex vivo lymphocyte DNA damage was measured by means of the comet assay. RESULTS When measured by means of TEAC assay, the in vitro antioxidant capacity of the KD of the day was higher than that of the AD (P < 0.05) while there was no significant difference in total phenolic contents and DPPH and ORAC assays. The ex vivo lymphocyte DNA damage protective effect of the KD was significantly higher than that of the AD (P < 0.01). As for the one-week menu combining the menus for 7 days, the total phenolic assay (P < 0.05) and in vitro antioxidant capacity (P < 0.001, DPPH; P < 0.01, TEAC) of the KD menu were significantly higher than those of the AD menu. Likewise, the ex vivo DNA damage reduction rate of the Korean seven-day menu was significantly higher than that of the American menu (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION This study demonstrates that the high antioxidant capacity and DNA damage protective effect of KD, which consists generally of various plant foods, are higher than those of typical AD. PMID:28194263

  10. Progressive risk assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls through a Total Diet Study in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Shin, Eun-su; Nguyen, Khanh-Hoang; Kim, Jongchul; Kim, Cho-il; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2015-12-01

    Human exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from foods was investigated through a Total Diet Study (TDS) for the first time in Korea. A representative food list was developed from food intake data. Non-selected foods were also included in the TDS through the mapping process to anticipate practical risk assessment. For better representativeness, data (2008-2011) from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) were combined with the TDS data set. And also, we estimated the dietary exposure to PCBs from various food items using a 'best-fit' mapping process and assessed the differences in PCB exposures by sex and age. In this study, we examined total PCBs (62 congeners) including dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs) and indicator PCBs, which are congeners that are mainly detected in various environmental matrices. The average dietary exposure (3.94 ng/kg body weight/day) that was estimated through food intake was 19.7% of the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendation.

  11. [Chinese Total Diet Study in 2000. Cadium intakes by different age-sex population groups].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Gao, Junquan; Li, Xiaowei

    2008-05-01

    To estimate the dietary cadium intakes by different age-sex groups in China. The cadium concentrations of food sample from 3rd Chinese total diet study were determined, and then combine these data with the food consumption by population of ten age-sex groups, The cadium intakes, and its distribution and dietary sources were obtained. It was found that the mean and median concentrations of cadium in all food samples were 0.046 and 0.006 mg/kg, respectively. The cadium contents in shellfish and liver were far higher than other food staffs. The cadium intakes by different age-sex groups were estimated to be 12.0 - 25.9 microg/day, ranged from 30.3% to 67.0% of PTWI. The individual dietary cadium intakes by 14% children in 2 - 7 years old group exceed PTWI. Cereals, vegetables and seafood were the main sources of cadium exposure, and contributed about 80% of total intakes. Although the dietary cadium intakes by different age-sex groups are all lower than PTWI, they are increased in the past decade. Moreover, in some provinces, the cadium burden of people is heavy.

  12. High variation of PCDDs, PCDFs, and dioxin-like PCBs ratio in cooked food from the first total diet survey in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, H L; Su, H J; Hsu, J F; Liao, P C; Lee, C C

    2008-01-01

    This study determined the levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) in 240 individual food samples, belonging to 37 different foodstuffs in first total diet study (TDS) in Taiwan. The foods were collected from markets located in eight cities or counties around Taiwan. The food was cooked in a laboratory according to recipes typically used in Taiwan. In this study, PCDD/Fs were lower than the limits proposed by the European Union (EU) regulation for commercialized food, except for a notable PCDD/Fs level in ducks (3.660 pg WHO-TEQ/g, fat) obtained from central Taiwan. We hypothesize the duck meat might be probably polluted via emission of a fly ash recycling plant located near the duck farms. In addition to fish, most foods had high PCDD/Fs to dl-PCBs ratio. Needle fish and sea perch had relatively lower PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs levels compared with those in other fish. Data from this study can be utilized for further consideration about dietary intake.

  13. Fishmeal-free Atlantic salmon feed formulation shows promise - Joint research between TCFFI, USDA and EWOS uses new diet for post-smolt to food-size fish

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The 2 MT/week of Atlantic salmon that The Conservation Fund Freshwater Institute provided to market in March and April of 2016 were fed a custom diet during nearly 90% of their growth that met the following sustainability criteria: - Fishmeal free - GMO free - Zero wild fish in: fish out according t...

  14. Phase II prospective randomized trial of a low-fat diet with fish oil supplementation in men undergoing radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Aronson, William J; Kobayashi, Naoko; Barnard, R James; Henning, Susanne; Huang, Min; Jardack, Patricia M; Liu, Bingrong; Gray, Ashley; Wan, Junxiang; Konijeti, Ramdev; Freedland, Stephen J; Castor, Brandon; Heber, David; Elashoff, David; Said, Jonathan; Cohen, Pinchas; Galet, Colette

    2011-12-01

    Preclinical studies suggest lowering dietary fat and decreasing the ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids decreases the risk of prostate cancer development and progression. We conducted a phase II randomized trial to test the effect of decreasing dietary fat combined with decreasing the dietary omega-6:omega-3 ratio on biomarkers related to prostate cancer development and progression. Patients undergoing radical prostatectomy were randomly assigned to receive a low-fat diet with 5 grams of fish oil daily (dietary omega-6:omega-3 ratio of 2:1) or a control Western diet (omega-6:omega-3 ratio of 15:1) for four to six weeks prior to surgery. The primary endpoint was change in serum insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1) between arms. Secondary endpoints were serum IGFBP-1, prostate prostaglandin E2 levels, omega-6:omega-3 fatty acid ratios, COX-2, and markers of proliferation and apoptosis. Fifty-five patients were randomized and 48 completed the trial. There was no treatment difference in the primary outcome. Positive secondary outcomes in the low-fat fish oil versus Western group were reduced benign and malignant prostate tissue omega-6:omega-3 ratios, reduced proliferation (Ki-67 index), and reduced proliferation in an ex vivo bioassay when patient sera was applied to prostate cancer cells in vitro. In summary, four to six weeks of a low-fat diet and fish oil capsules to achieve an omega-6:omega-3 fatty acid ratio of 2:1 had no effect on serum IGF-1 levels, though in secondary analyses, the intervention resulted in decreased prostate cancer proliferation and decreased prostate tissue omega-6:omega-3 ratios. These results support further studies evaluating reduction of dietary fat with fish oil supplementation on modulating prostate cancer biology. 2011 AACR

  15. Phase II Prospective Randomized Trial of a Low-Fat Diet with Fish Oil Supplementation in Men Undergoing Radical Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Aronson, William J.; Kobayashi, Naoko; Barnard, R. James; Henning, Susanne; Jardack, Patricia M.; Liu, Bingrong; Gray, Ashley; Wan, Junxiang; Konijeti, Ramdev; Freedland, Stephen J.; Castor, Brandon; Heber, David; Elashoff, David; Said, Jonathan; Cohen, Pinchas; Galet, Colette

    2011-01-01

    Preclinical studies suggest lowering dietary fat and decreasing the ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids decreases the risk of prostate cancer development and progression. We conducted a phase II randomized trial to test the effect of decreasing dietary fat combined with decreasing the dietary omega-6:omega-3 ratio on biomarkers related to prostate cancer development and progression. Patients undergoing radical prostatectomy were randomly assigned to receive a low-fat diet with 5 grams of fish oil daily (dietary omega-6:omega-3 ratio of 2:1) or a control western diet (omega-6:omega-3 ratio of 15:1) for 4–6 weeks prior to surgery. The primary endpoint was change in serum IGF-1 between arms. Secondary endpoints were serum IGFBP-1, prostate prostaglandin E-2 levels, omega-6:omega-3 fatty acid ratios, COX-2 and markers of proliferation and apoptosis. Fifty-five patients were randomized and 48 completed the trial. There was no treatment difference in the primary outcome. Positive secondary outcomes in the low-fat fish oil vs. western group were reduced benign and malignant prostate tissue omega-6:omega-3 ratios, reduced proliferation (Ki67 index), and reduced proliferation in an ex-vivo bioassay when patient sera was applied to prostate cancer cells in vitro. In summary, 4–6 weeks of a low-fat diet and fish oil capsules to achieve an omega-6:omega-3 fatty acid ratio of 2:1 had no effect on serum IGF-1 levels, though in secondary analyses the intervention resulted in decreased prostate cancer proliferation and decreased prostate tissue omega-6:omega-3 ratios. These results support further studies evaluating reduction of dietary fat with fish oil supplementation on modulating prostate cancer biology. PMID:22027686

  16. Total arsenic in water, fish, and sediments from Lake Xolotlan, Managua, Nicaragua

    SciTech Connect

    Lacayo, M.L.; Cruz, A.; Calero, S.; Lacayo, J.; Fomsgaard, I. )

    1992-09-01

    In recent years there has been increasing concern over arsenic in aquatic environments from such sources as arsenical pesticides, smelters, coal-fired power plants and erosion caused by extensive land use. Another important contribution to As in the environment is the release associated with volcanic activity and hot springs. Lake Xolotlan has a surface area of 1000 km[sup 2]. The content of arsenic in Lake Xolotlan has different origins, such as volcanic activity in the area, waste water from a geothermal plant situated in the Momotombo Volcano on the northwest coast of the lake and a high number of hot springs. The objective of the present study was to determine total As in water, sediments and fish in Lake Xolotlan at different sampling sites. 19 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  17. A New Model For Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis in the Rat Utilizing Total Enteral Nutrition to Overfeed a High Polyunsaturated Fat Diet

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We have used total enteral nutrition (TEN) to moderately overfeed rats high polyunsaturated fat diets to develop a model for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed by TEN a 187 kcal/kg 3/4 /d diet containing 5% (total calories) corn oil or a 220 kcal/kg 3/4 /d diet i...

  18. Contribution of different functional groups to the diet of major predatory fishes at a seagrass meadow in northeastern Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Katsumasa; Hori, Masakazu; Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Hasegawa, Natsuki; Nakaoka, Masahiro

    2010-01-01

    We examined the variation in habitat use and diet of three dominant fish species ( Myoxocephalus brandti, Pholidapus dybowskii, and Pholis crassispina) in a seagrass meadow in the Akkeshi-ko estuary in northeastern Japan, where broad and dense Zostera marina beds exist, using a semi-quantitative census of the fishes and analyses of their stomach contents. Differences among the three fish species in the temporal variation in abundance of each age class (mainly 1- and 2-year age classes) indicated that the temporal pattern of utilization of the seagrass meadow were different among them. In the semi-quantitative dietary analysis, two prey categories, i.e., taxonomic group (order and suborder) and functional group, were used to explain the variation in prey composition with size-dependent changes. The six prey functional groups were classified based on the ecological traits of the prey, i.e., trophic level, size, and life type (habitat and behavior). Ontogenetic shifts in prey of the three fish species could be fully explained by a combination of the two prey categories, and not by the use of only one category (taxonomic or functional group). The pattern of ontogenetic shifts in prey differed among the fish species and size (age) classes. These results indicate that segregation of habitat (seagrass meadow) and prey group (taxonomic and functional group) is performed among the three species, which may contribute to their coexistence in this estuary.

  19. Contribution of cephalopod prey to the diet of large pelagic fish predators in the central North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, John M.; Toppin, Rebecca; Smith, Sean; Galuardi, Benjamin; Porter, Julie; Lutcavage, Molly

    2013-10-01

    Trophic studies documenting the importance of cephalopod prey for large pelagic fish predators have been performed recently for open ocean ecosystems in the Pacific and Indian oceans, but similar data for the central North Atlantic Ocean have been lacking. A series of longline sampling cruises targeting large pelagic fish species was undertaken in the central North Atlantic Ocean in 2001-2002, and stomach samples were analyzed from a variety of tuna, shark, and billfish species to help fill this data gap. Stomach samples were collected from nine species (n=170 non-empty stomachs), with the majority of stomachs from Atlantic swordfish (Xiphias gladius; n=69), yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares; n=31), and albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga; n=28). Ommastrephid squids were the most ubiquitous prey group across predator species and sampling years. Secondary cephalopod prey included octopods, histioteuthids, and architeuthids. Mesopelagic fishes and Sargassum-associated fishes were also identified as important prey. Diet composition varied spatially and prey size increased with predator size for swordfish and yellowfin tuna. Our results support findings in other ocean basins that demonstrate the importance of squid to large pelagic fishes and highlight the need for more research on their ecological and biophysical dynamics.

  20. Digestive response of dairy cows fed diets combining fresh forage with a total mixed ration.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, A; Cajarville, C; Repetto, J L

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this experiment was to quantify the response of dairy cows fed a total mixed ration (TMR) to increasing access to high-quality temperate fresh forage with respect to energy intake, rumen fermentation, microbial protein flow, passage rate, nutrient digestion and utilization, and metabolic and endocrine profiles. Nine Holstein cows fed a TMR were assigned to the following treatments according to a 3×3 Latin square replicated 3 times with 20-d periods and sampling on the last 10 d of each period: 0 (T0), 4 (T4), or 8 (T8) h of daily access to fresh forage. The forage (Lolium multiflorum; 17.1% crude protein, 26.5% acid detergent fiber) was cut daily and offered ad libitum beginning at 0800h, and a TMR (16.1% crude protein, 22.9% acid detergent fiber) was offered ad libitum during the remaining time. Energy intake and balance were higher in T0 than in T8, which was reflected in higher blood glucose and insulin concentrations in T0. Total volatile fatty acid concentrations in the rumen were higher in T0 and T4 than in T8, pH was lower in T4 than in T8, and ammonia-N was higher in T0 than in T8. No differences among treatments were detected in microbial protein flow to the duodenum, digestibility of nutrients, apparent efficiency of energy, or N utilization for milk production, but the total mean retention time of feed in the digestive tract was higher in T8 than in T0. It is concluded that more than 4h of daily access to high-quality fresh forage in the diet of dairy cows fed a TMR reduced energy intake and balance but had no effects on nutrient digestion or utilization. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Environmental mercury concentrations in cultured low-trophic-level fish using food waste-based diets.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhang; Mo, Wing Yin; Man, Yu Bon; Lam, Cheung Lung; Choi, Wai Ming; Nie, Xiang Ping; Liu, Yi Hui; Wong, Ming Hung

    2015-01-01

    In this study, different types of food wastes were used as the major source of protein to replace the fish meal in fish feeds to produce quality fish (polyculture of different freshwater fish). During October 2011-April 2012, the concentrations of Hg in water, suspended particulate matter, and sediment of the three experimental fish ponds located in Sha Tau Kok Organic Farm were monitored, and the results were similar to or lower than those detected in commercial fish ponds around the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region (by comparing data of previous and present studies). Health risk assessments indicated that human consumption of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), a herbivore which fed food waste feed pellets would be safer than other fish species: mud carp (Cirrhina molitorella), bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), and largemouth bass (Lepomis macrochirus). Due to the lower species diversity and substantially shorter food chains of the polyculture system consisting of only three fish species, the extent of Hg biomagnification was significantly lower than other polyculture ponds around PRD. Furthermore, the use of food waste instead of fish meal (mainly consisted of contaminated trash fish) further reduced the mercury accumulation in the cultured fish.

  2. A fish oil diet induces mitochondrial uncoupling and mitochondrial unfolded protein response in epididymal white adipose tissue of mice.

    PubMed

    Bhaskaran, Shylesh; Unnikrishnan, Archana; Ranjit, Rojina; Qaisar, Rizwan; Pharaoh, Gavin; Matyi, Stephanie; Kinter, Michael; Deepa, Sathyaseelan S

    2017-07-01

    White adipose tissue (WAT) mitochondrial dysfunction is linked to the pathogenesis of obesity driven insulin resistance. Dietary conditions that alter fat mass are known to affect white adipocyte mitochondrial function, however, the impact of high calorie diets on white adipocyte mitochondria is not fully understood. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of a diet rich in saturated or polyunsaturated fat on mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPR(mt)), a retrograde signaling response that maintains mitochondrial homeostasis, in epididymal WAT (eWAT). Mice were fed a low fat diet (LFD), saturated fat diet (SFD) or fish oil (unsaturated fat diet, UFD) and assessed changes in eWAT mitochondria. Compared to mice fed a LFD, SFD-fed mice have reduced mitochondrial biogenesis markers, mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation enzymes and TCA cycle enzymes, suggesting an impaired mitochondrial function that could contribute to increased fat mass. In contrast, isocaloric UFD-fed mice have increased expression of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation enzymes suggesting that elevated mitochondrial uncoupling and peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation could contribute to the reduction in fat mass. Interestingly, expression of UPR(mt)-associated proteins caseinolytic peptidase (ClpP) and heat shock protein 60 (Hsp60) are induced by UFD, whereas SFD reduced the expression of ClpP. Based on our data, we propose that induction of UPR(mt) helps to preserve a functional mitochondria and efficient utilization of fat by UFD whereas a dampened UPR(mt) response might impair mitochondrial function and promote fat accumulation by SFD. Thus, our findings suggest a potential role of UPR(mt) in mediating the beneficial effects of fish oil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Total zinc absorption in young women, but not fractional zinc absorption, differs between vegetarian and meat-based diets with equal phytic acid content.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Mette Bach; Hels, Ole; Morberg, Catrine M; Marving, Jens; Bügel, Susanne; Tetens, Inge

    2006-05-01

    Zn bioavailability is often lower in vegetarian diets mainly due to low Zn and high phytic acid contents. The objective of the present study was to determine the fractional and total absorption of Zn from a vegetarian diet in comparison with meat diets with equal concentrations of phytic acid. A randomized cross-over design, comprising three whole-day diet periods of 5 d each, with a vegetarian diet or diets containing Polish-produced meat or Danish-produced meat, was conducted. Twelve healthy female subjects completed the study. All diets had a high content of phytic acid (1250 micromol/d) and in the meat diets the main meals contained 60 g pork meat. All main meals were extrinsically labelled with the radioactive isotope 65Zn and absorption of Zn was measured in a whole-body counter. The mean Zn content of the whole-day diet was: Polish meat diet 9.9 (SE 0.14) mg, Danish meat diet 9.4 (SE 0.19) mg and vegetarian diet 7.5 (SE 0.18) mg. No difference was observed in the fractional absorption of Zn (Polish meat diet: 27 (SE 1.2) %, Danish meat diet: 27 (SE 1.9) % and vegetarian diet: 23 (SE 2.6) %). A significantly lower amount of total Zn was absorbed from the vegetarian diet (mean Zn absorption of Polish meat diet: 2.7 (SE 0.12) mg/d (P<0.001), Danish meat diet: 2.6 (SE 0.17) mg/d (P=0.006) and vegetarian diet: 1.8 (SE 0.20) mg/d). In conclusion, the vegetarian diet compared with the meat-based diets resulted in lower amounts of absorbed Zn due to a higher content of Zn in the meat diets, but no difference was observed in the fractional absorption of Zn.

  4. The addition of medium-chain triglycerides to a purified fish oil-based diet alters inflammatory profiles in mice.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Sarah J; Nandivada, Prathima; Chang, Melissa I; Mitchell, Paul D; O'Loughlin, Alison; Cowan, Eileen; Gura, Kathleen M; Nose, Vania; Bistrian, Bruce R; Puder, Mark

    2015-02-01

    Parenteral nutrition associated liver disease (PNALD) is a deadly complication of long term parenteral nutrition (PN) use in infants. Fish oil-based lipid emulsion has been shown in recent years to effectively treat PNALD. Alternative fat sources free of essential fatty acids have recently been investigated for health benefits related to decreased inflammatory response. We hypothesized that the addition of medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) to a purified fish oil-based diet would decrease the response to inflammatory challenge in mice, while allowing for sufficient growth and development. Six groups of ten adult male C57/Bl6 mice were pair-fed different dietary treatments for a period of twelve weeks, varying only in fat source (percent calories by weight): 10.84% soybean oil (SOY), 10% coconut oil (HCO), 10% medium-chain triglycerides (MCT), 3% purified fish oil (PFO), 3% purified fish oil with 3% medium-chain triglycerides (50:50 MCT:PFO) and 3% purified fish oil with 7.59% medium-chain triglycerides (70:30 MCT:PFO). An endotoxin challenge was administered to half of the animals in each group at the completion of dietary treatment. All groups demonstrated normal growth throughout the study period. Groups fed MCT and HCO diets demonstrated biochemical essential fatty acid deficiency and decreased IL-6 and TNF-α response to endotoxin challenge. Groups containing PFO had increased inflammatory response to endotoxin challenge, and the addition of MCT to PFO mitigated this inflammatory response. These results suggest that the addition of MCT to PFO formulations may decrease the host response to inflammatory challenge, which may pose potential for optimized PN formulations. Inclusion of MCT in lipid emulsions given with PN formulations may be of use in therapeutic interventions for disease states resulting from chronic inflammation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Addition of Medium-Chain Triglycerides to a Purified Fish Oil Based Diet Alters Inflammatory Profiles in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, SJ; Nandivada, P; Chang, MI; Mitchell, PD; O’Loughlin, A; Cowan, E; Gura, KM; Nose, V; Bistrian, B; Puder, M

    2014-01-01

    Objective Parenteral nutrition associated liver disease (PNALD) is a deadly complication of long term parenteral nutrition (PN) use in infants. Fish oil-based lipid emulsion has been shown in recent years to effectively treat PNALD. Alternative fat sources free of essential fatty acids have recently been investigated for health benefits related to decreased inflammatory response. We hypothesized that the addition of medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) to a purified fish oil-based diet would decrease the response to inflammatory challenge in mice, while allowing for sufficient growth and development. Materials/Methods Six groups of ten adult male C57/Bl6 mice were pair-fed different dietary treatments for a period of twelve weeks, varying only in fat source (percent calories by weight): 10.84% soybean oil (SOY), 10% coconut oil (HCO), 10% medium-chain triglycerides (MCT), 3% purified fish oil (PFO), 3% purified fish oil with 3% medium-chain triglycerides (50:50 MCT:PFO) and 3% purified fish oil with 7.59% medium-chain triglycerides (70:30 MCT:PFO). An endotoxin challenge was administered to half of the animals in each group at the completion of dietary treatment. Results All groups demonstrated normal growth throughout the study period. Groups fed MCT and HCO diets demonstrated biochemical essential fatty acid deficiency and decreased IL-6 and TNF-α response to endotoxin challenge. Groups containing PFO had increased inflammatory response to endotoxin challenge, and the addition of MCT to PFO mitigated this inflammatory response. Conclusion These results suggest that the addition of MCT to PFO formulations may decrease the host response to inflammatory challenge, which may pose potential for optimized PN formulations. Inclusion of MCT in lipid emulsions given with PN formulations may be of use in therapeutic interventions for disease states resulting from chronic inflammation. PMID:25458829

  6. Skin surface lipids and skin and hair coat condition in dogs fed increased total fat diets containing polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Kirby, N A; Hester, S L; Rees, C A; Kennis, R A; Zoran, D L; Bauer, J E

    2009-08-01

    It is generally believed that diets containing increased amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) result in improved canine skin and hair coat (SHC). However, the extent to which dietary fat amount and type play a role remains to be systematically investigated. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of both increased dietary fat amount and type on SHC assessments of dogs. Improvements of SHC conditions were investigated after feeding three diets containing increased total dietary fat (i.e. 13% total fat) for 12 weeks in relation to a lower fat acclimation diet (i.e. 9% total fat). The higher fat diets varied in polyunsaturated and saturated fat types and amounts but total fat was kept constant. Skin and hair coat assessments were performed at selected intervals by a trained group of veterinarians and graduate students. In addition, hair lipids were fractionated by thin layer chromatography after extraction of plucked hair samples. Significant improvements were found in hair coat glossiness and softness in all dogs fed the higher fat diets in relation to the acclimation diet. Improvements as a result of fat type were also seen but only at 12 weeks. A parallel finding was a marked increase in hair cholesteryl ester content determined at the end of the study at which time SHC scores were significantly improved. Skin and hair coat condition improvements may thus be related to increased cholesteryl ester deposited on the hair shaft surface when high fat diets are fed. Whereas this finding is preliminary, hair lipid analysis may be a useful, non-invasive technique with which to help assess dietary effects on canine SHC.

  7. Fish oil supplementation to rats fed high-fat diet during pregnancy prevents development of impaired insulin sensitivity in male adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Albert, Benjamin B; Vickers, Mark H; Gray, Clint; Reynolds, Clare M; Segovia, Stephanie A; Derraik, José G B; Garg, Manohar L; Cameron-Smith, David; Hofman, Paul L; Cutfield, Wayne S

    2017-07-17

    We examined whether maternal fish oil supplementation during pregnancy could prevent development of insulin resistance in adult male offspring of rat dams fed a high-fat diet. Time-mated Sprague-Dawley rat dams were randomised into four treatment groups: Con-Con, dams fed a control diet (fat: 15% kcal) and administered water by gavage; Con-FO, control diet with unoxidised fish oil by gavage; HF-Con, high-fat diet (fat: 45% kcal) and water by gavage; and HF-FO, high-fat diet and unoxidised fish oil by gavage. Dams were fed the allocated diet ad libitum during pregnancy and lactation, but daily gavage occurred only during pregnancy. After weaning, male offspring consumed a chow diet ad libitum until adulthood. Maternal high-fat diet led to increased food consumption, adiposity, systolic blood pressure, and triglycerides and plasma leptin in adult HF-Con offspring. HF-Con offspring also exhibited lower insulin sensitivity than Con-Con rats. Male offspring from HF-FO group were similar to HF-Con regarding food consumption and most metabolic parameters. However, insulin sensitivity in the HF-FO group was improved relative to the HF-Con offspring. Supplementation with unoxidised n-3 PUFA rich oils in the setting of a maternal obesogenic diet improved insulin sensitivity, but had no impact on body composition of adult male offspring.

  8. Are plant-based diets efficacious in lowering total serum cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein levels?

    PubMed

    Ware, Kathrine M

    2014-06-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the U.S. and around the globe. A large body of literature accumulated over the past several decades has shown the benefit of lowering serum total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels to reduce cardiovascular risk. National guidelines suggest therapeutic lifestyle changes, beginning with diet, as a first step toward lowering TC and LDL-C. It has been suggested a plant-based, low fat diet can substantially reduce TC and LDL- C and thereby reduce risk of cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this review is to examine the state of the science regarding the efficacy of plant-based diets in reducing serum TC and LDL-C levels. While results of the research review indicate some benefit, strong evidence supporting the efficacy of plant-based diet in reducing atherogenic lipids is lacking.

  9. Interaction of calcium and phytate in broiler diets. 2. Effects on total and soluble phosphorus excretion.

    PubMed

    Leytem, A B; Plumstead, P W; Maguire, R O; Kwanyuen, P; Burton, J W; Brake, J

    2008-03-01

    Dietary Ca has been reported to influence the amount of phytate excreted from broilers and affect the solubility of P in excreta. To address the effects of dietary Ca and phytate on P excretion, 12 dietary treatments were fed to broilers from 16 to 21 d of age. Treatments consisted of 3 levels of phytate P (0.10, 0.24, and 0.28%) and 4 levels of Ca (0.47, 0.70, 0.93, and 1.16%) in a randomized complete block design. Feed phytate concentrations were varied by formulating diets with 3 different soybean meals (SBM): a low-phytate SBM, a commercial SBM, and a high phytate Prolina SBM having phytate P concentrations of 0.15 to 0.51%. Fresh excreta was collected from cages during 2 separate 24-h periods; collection I commenced after the start of dietary treatments (16 to 17 d) and collection II followed a 3-d adaptation period (19 to 20 d). Ileal samples were also collected at 21 d. Excreta samples were analyzed for total P, water soluble P (WSP), and phytate P, whereas ileal samples were analyzed for total P and phytate P. Results indicated that excreta total P could be reduced by up to 63% and WSP by up to 66% with dietary inclusion of low-phytate SBM. There was a significant effect of dietary Ca on both the excreta WSP and the ratio of WSP:total P. As dietary Ca increased, the excreta WSP and WSP:total P decreased, with the effects being more pronounced following a dietary adaptation period. There was a linear relationship between the slope of the response in WSP to dietary Ca and feed phytate content for excreta from collection II (r(2) = 0.99). There was also a negative correlation between excreta phytate concentration and excreta WSP during both excreta collections. The response in WSP to dietary manipulation was important from an environmental perspective because WSP in excreta has been related to potential for off-site P losses following land application.

  10. Growth performance and feed utilization of keureling fish Tor tambra (Cyprinidae) fed formulated diet supplemented with enhanced probiotic.

    PubMed Central

    Muchlisin, Zainal Abidin; Murda, Tanzil; Yulvizar, Cut; Dewiyanti, Irma; Fadli, Nur; Afrido, Fardin; Siti-Azizah, Mohd Nor; Muhammadar, Abdullah A.

    2017-01-01

    Background The objective of the present study was to determine the optimum dosage of probiotic in the diet of keureling fish ( Tor tambra) fry. Methods Lactobacillus casei from Yakult® was used as a starter, and enhanced with Curcuma xanthorrhiza, Kaempferia galanga and molasses. The mixture was fermented for 7 days prior to use as probiotic in a formulated diet containing 30% crude protein. Four levels of probiotic dosage; 0 ml kg -1 (control), 5 ml kg -1, 10 ml kg -1 and 15 ml kg -1 were tested in this study. The fish was fed twice a day at 08.00 AM and 06.00 PM at the ration of 5% body weight for 80 days. Results The results showed that growth performance and feed efficiency increased with increasing probiotic dosage in the diet from control (no probiotic) to 10 ml kg -1 of probiotic dosage and then decreased when the dosage was increased up to 15 ml kg -1. Conclusions The best values for all measured parameters were recorded at the dosage of 10 ml kg -1. Therefore, it was concluded that the optimum dosage of enhanced probiotic for T. tambra fry was 10 ml kg -1 of feed. PMID:28357045

  11. Growth performance and feed utilization of keureling fish Tor tambra (Cyprinidae) fed formulated diet supplemented with enhanced probiotic.

    PubMed

    Muchlisin, Zainal Abidin; Murda, Tanzil; Yulvizar, Cut; Dewiyanti, Irma; Fadli, Nur; Afrido, Fardin; Siti-Azizah, Mohd Nor; Muhammadar, Abdullah A

    2017-01-01

    Background The objective of the present study was to determine the optimum dosage of probiotic in the diet of keureling fish ( Tor tambra) fry. MethodsLactobacillus casei from Yakult® was used as a starter, and enhanced with Curcuma xanthorrhiza, Kaempferia galanga and molasses. The mixture was fermented for 7 days prior to use as probiotic in a formulated diet containing 30% crude protein. Four levels of probiotic dosage; 0 ml kg (-1) (control), 5 ml kg (-1), 10 ml kg (-1) and 15 ml kg (-1) were tested in this study. The fish was fed twice a day at 08.00 AM and 06.00 PM at the ration of 5% body weight for 80 days. Results The results showed that growth performance and feed efficiency increased with increasing probiotic dosage in the diet from control (no probiotic) to 10 ml kg (-1) of probiotic dosage and then decreased when the dosage was increased up to 15 ml kg (-1). Conclusions The best values for all measured parameters were recorded at the dosage of 10 ml kg (-1). Therefore, it was concluded that the optimum dosage of enhanced probiotic for T. tambra fry was 10 ml kg (-1) of feed.

  12. Differential Effects of High-Fish Oil and High-Lard Diets on Cells and Cytokines Involved in the Inflammatory Process in Rat Insulin-Sensitive Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Lionetti, Lillà; Mollica, Maria Pina; Sica, Raffaella; Donizzetti, Immacolata; Gifuni, Giorgio; Pignalosa, Angelica; Cavaliere, Gina; Putti, Rosalba

    2014-01-01

    Dietary fat sources may differentially affect the development of inflammation in insulin-sensitive tissues during chronic overfeeding. Considering the anti-inflammatory properties of ω-3 fatty acids, this study aimed to compare the effects of chronic high-fish oil and high-lard diets on obesity-related inflammation by evaluating serum and tissue adipokine levels and histological features in insulin-sensitive tissues (white adipose tissue, skeletal muscle and liver). As expected, a high-lard diet induced systemic and peripheral inflammation and insulin resistance. Conversely, compared with a high-lard diet, a high-fish oil diet resulted in a lower degree of systemic inflammation and insulin resistance that were associated with a lower adipocyte diameter as well as lower immunoreactivity for transforming growth factor β 1 (TGFβ1) in white adipose tissue. A high-fish oil diet also resulted in a lower ectopic lipid depot, inflammation degree and insulin resistance in the skeletal muscle and liver. Moreover, a high-fish oil diet attenuated hepatic stellate cell activation and fibrogenesis in the liver, as indicated by the smooth muscle α-actin (α-SMA) and TGFβ1 levels. The replacement of lard (saturated fatty acids) with fish oil (ω-3 fatty acids) in chronic high-fat feeding attenuated the development of systemic and tissue inflammation. PMID:24562331

  13. Differential effects of high-fish oil and high-lard diets on cells and cytokines involved in the inflammatory process in rat insulin-sensitive tissues.

    PubMed

    Lionetti, Lillà; Mollica, Maria Pina; Sica, Raffaella; Donizzetti, Immacolata; Gifuni, Giorgio; Pignalosa, Angelica; Cavaliere, Gina; Putti, Rosalba

    2014-02-20

    Dietary fat sources may differentially affect the development of inflammation in insulin-sensitive tissues during chronic overfeeding. Considering the anti-inflammatory properties of ω-3 fatty acids, this study aimed to compare the effects of chronic high-fish oil and high-lard diets on obesity-related inflammation by evaluating serum and tissue adipokine levels and histological features in insulin-sensitive tissues (white adipose tissue, skeletal muscle and liver). As expected, a high-lard diet induced systemic and peripheral inflammation and insulin resistance. Conversely, compared with a high-lard diet, a high-fish oil diet resulted in a lower degree of systemic inflammation and insulin resistance that were associated with a lower adipocyte diameter as well as lower immunoreactivity for transforming growth factor β 1 (TGFβ1) in white adipose tissue. A high-fish oil diet also resulted in a lower ectopic lipid depot, inflammation degree and insulin resistance in the skeletal muscle and liver. Moreover, a high-fish oil diet attenuated hepatic stellate cell activation and fibrogenesis in the liver, as indicated by the smooth muscle α-actin (α-SMA) and TGFβ1 levels. The replacement of lard (saturated fatty acids) with fish oil (ω-3 fatty acids) in chronic high-fat feeding attenuated the development of systemic and tissue inflammation.

  14. Trait-based diet selection: prey behaviour and morphology predict vulnerability to predation in reef fish communities.

    PubMed

    Green, Stephanie J; Côté, Isabelle M

    2014-11-01

    Understanding how predators select their prey can provide important insights into community structure and dynamics. However, the suite of prey species available to a predator is often spatially and temporally variable. As a result, species-specific selectivity data are of limited use for predicting novel predator-prey interactions because they are assemblage specific. We present a method for predicting diet selection that is applicable across prey assemblages, based on identifying general morphological and behavioural traits of prey that confer vulnerability to predation independent of species identity. We apply this trait-based approach to examining prey selection by Indo-Pacific lionfish (Pterois volitans and Pterois miles), invasive predators that prey upon species-rich reef fish communities and are rapidly spreading across the western Atlantic. We first generate hypotheses about morphological and behavioural traits recurring across fish species that could facilitate or deter predation by lionfish. Constructing generalized linear mixed-effects models that account for relatedness among prey taxa, we test whether these traits predict patterns of diet selection by lionfish within two independent data sets collected at different spatial scales: (i) in situ visual observations of prey consumption and availability for individual lionfish and (ii) comparisons of prey abundance in lionfish stomach contents to availability on invaded reefs at large. Both analyses reveal that a number of traits predicted to affect vulnerability to predation, including body size, body shape, position in the water column and aggregation behaviour, are important determinants of diet selection by lionfish. Small, shallow-bodied, solitary fishes found resting on or just above reefs are the most vulnerable. Fishes that exhibit parasite cleaning behaviour experience a significantly lower risk of predation than non-cleaning fishes, and fishes that are nocturnally active are at significantly

  15. Total mercury levels in nine species of freshwater fish from two hydroelectric reservoirs and a crater lake in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Agorku, E S; Voegborlo, R B; Adimado, A A

    2009-06-01

    Total mercury (Hg) concentrations were determined in the muscle tissue of fish from three reservoirs in Ghana, namely, Lake Bosomtwi, Kpong and Akosombo Hydroelectric Reservoirs. A total of 165 fish samples covering nine species were collected and analysed for total mercury. A mixture of HNO3, H2SO4 and HClO4 were used for complete oxidation of organic tissues. Hg was detected by the Cold Vapour Atomic Absorption Spectrometry technique using an automatic mercury analyzer. Total mercury concentrations in microg g(-1) (wet weight) ranged from below 0.001 to 0.070 for fish from Lake Bosomtwi, 0.010 to 0.275 for fish from Kpong Reservoir and from below 0.001 to 0.042 for fish from Akosombo Reservoir. All the results obtained are below the World Health Organization limit of 0.5 microg g(-1). The low levels of total mercury obtained in this study suggest that the three aquatic environments have not been significantly impacted by mercury contamination.

  16. [Effects of diets on growth, serum biochemical indices and lipid metabolism in Coilia nasus].

    PubMed

    Wei, Guang-Lian; Xu, Gang-Chun; Gu, Ruo-Bo; Xu, Pao

    2013-12-01

    Effects of diets on growth, serum biochemical indices, and enzyme activities related to lipid metabolism in fingerlings Coilia nasus at age of 6 months were investigated during 60-day experiment in this study. Fingerlings with similar body length and mass were fed with one of 3 types of diets (diet 1: soft pellet; diet 2: soft pellet mixed with fish oil; diet 3: slow-sinking hard pellet). Fish fed with diets 2 or 3 had significantly higher total body mass, rate of mass gain, specific growth rate, and fullness coefficient than those fed with diet 1. Fish fed with diet 3 exhibited the lower food coefficient compared to those fed with diets 1 or 2. Growth traits (length, length to mass ratio, length to width ratio, hepatopancreas somatic indices and viscera somatic index) and serum biochemical indices (total protein, albumin, blood glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides) in all three treatments were not significantly different. Fish fed with diet 1 exhibited significantly higher carnitine palmitoyltransferase-I than those fed with diets 2 or 3, while fish fed with diet 2 exhibited significantly lower carnitine palmitoyltransferase-II. However, amylase, pepsin, lipase activity, lipoprotein lipase and acetyl-coa carboxylase had no significant difference in fish body among all groups. Results suggested that fish oil as a diet supplement highly facilitated fish growing. The slow-sinking pellet had the highest utilization efficiency and was suitable to feed fish fingerlings of C. nasus.

  17. Individual diet variation in a marine fish assemblage: Optimal Foraging Theory, Niche Variation Hypothesis and functional identity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cachera, M.; Ernande, B.; Villanueva, M. C.; Lefebvre, S.

    2017-02-01

    Individual diet variation (i.e. diet variation among individuals) impacts intra- and inter-specific interactions. Investigating its sources and relationship with species trophic niche organization is important for understanding community structure and dynamics. Individual diet variation may increase with intra-specific phenotypic (or "individual state") variation and habitat variability, according to Optimal Foraging Theory (OFT), and with species trophic niche width, according to the Niche Variation Hypothesis (NVH). OFT proposes "proximate sources" of individual diet variation such as variations in habitat or size whereas NVH relies on "ultimate sources" related to the competitive balance between intra- and inter-specific competitions. The latter implies as a corollary that species trophic niche overlap, taken as inter-specific competition measure, decreases as species niche width and individual niche variation increase. We tested the complementary predictions of OFT and NVH in a marine fish assemblage using stomach content data and associated trophic niche metrics. The NVH predictions were tested between species of the assemblage and decomposed into a between- and a within-functional group component to assess the potential influence of species' ecological function. For most species, individual diet variation and niche overlap were consistently larger than expected. Individual diet variation increased with intra-specific variability in individual state and habitat, as expected from OFT. It also increased with species niche width but in compliance with the null expectation, thus not supporting the NVH. In contrast, species niche overlap increased significantly less than null expectation with both species niche width and individual diet variation, supporting NVH corollary. The between- and within-functional group components of the NVH relationships were consistent with those between species at the assemblage level. Changing the number of prey categories used to

  18. The Impact of the hyperacid Ijen Crater Lake. Part II: A total diet study.

    PubMed

    Heikens, Alex; Widianarko, Budi; Dewi, Inge C; de Boer, Jan L M; Seinen, Willem; van Leeuwen, Kees

    2005-09-01

    In Asembagus (East Java, Indonesia), surface water is contaminated with effluent from the hyperacid Ijen Crater Lake. In a previous study, we reported that food crops irrigated with this water had increased concentrations of various elements. Here, we present a total diet study for adults and 6-year-old children to determine if the mean daily intake of a broad range of elements is safe and adequate. For children, the intake of B, Mg, Mn and V is high with Hazard Quotients (HQ) of 1.1 (B), 1.4 (Mn) and 1.4 (V), respectively (no TDI is available for Mg). For Mn, the daily intake is high due to the consumption of locally produced rice. Drinking water is the main source of B, Mg and V. For adults, the intake of Mg, Mn and V is also high but HQ values are < or =0.7. For both children and adults, the intake of Ca, Zn and particularly Fe is below the RNI (Fe intake is 90% below the RNI for women). It is concluded the mean intake of elements is unbalanced and Fe deficiency is probably the most serious health problem. Toxic effects cannot be fully excluded since deficiency of essential elements such as Ca, Fe and Zn can increase the absorption and retention of various elements.

  19. Total antioxidant capacity and phenolic content of the Brazilian diet: a real scenario.

    PubMed

    Koehnlein, Eloá Angélica; Bracht, Adelar; Nishida, Verônica Sayuri; Peralta, Rosane Marina

    2014-05-01

    The present study aimed to estimate the total dietary antioxidant capacity (TDAC) taken in by the Brazilian population. For analysis, the 36 most consumed foods in Brazil were evaluated. The foods were prepared according to their usual form of consumption and submitted to in vitro digestion. The daily intake of phenolics and flavonoids was estimated to be 2.31 ± 0.12 g and 374.12 ± 18.17 mg, respectively. The TDAC, evaluated as the ferric-reducing antioxidant power and as the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, was 10.3 and 9.4 mmol/d, respectively. The beverages, especially coffee, followed by beans, rice and salt bread were the most important sources of antioxidants. The average intake of phenolics and flavonoids of the Brazilian diet was comparatively higher than that estimated for several other countries. However, the contribution of fruits and vegetables to the phenolic intake and TDAC was minimal (4-6%).

  20. Dietary exposure of acrylamide from the fifth Chinese Total Diet Study.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jie; Zhao, Yunfeng; Zhu, Feng; Ma, Yongjian; Li, Xiaowei; Miao, Hong; Wu, Yongning

    2016-01-01

    The levels of acrylamide in 240 food composite samples from the 5th Chinese Total Diet Study (TDS) were measured using an LC-MS/MS method and the exposure estimates for the general population were evaluated. The samples were collected from 20 provinces in China, covering about two thirds of the Chinese population. Acrylamide was detected in 40.0% of composite samples with the concentrations ranged from 0.8 to 211.8 μg/kg. The average dietary intakes from the 5th Chinese TDS were 0.319 μg kg(-1) bw day(-1) and an increase with about 70% was observed from the 3rd Chinese TDS in 2000 to the 5th Chinese TDS between 2009 and 2012. The main food group contributors to acrylamide exposure were vegetables (35.2%), cereals (34.3%) and potatoes (15.7%). Based on the benchmark dose lower confidence limit at 10% risk (BMDL10) of 0.31 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1) for the induction of mammary tumors in rats and 0.18 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1) for Harderian gland tumors in mice, the margins of exposure (MOEs) were 973 and 565 for Chinese general population, respectively. These MOEs indicate a human health concern. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Exposure assessment of metal intakes from drinking water relative to those from total diet in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Koichi; Ishikawa, Kohei; Kurosawa, Yuki; Matsui, Yoshihiko; Matsushita, Taku; Magara, Yasumoto

    2010-01-01

    Daily intakes of 17 metals (boron, aluminium, chromium, manganese, nickel, copper, zinc, arsenic, selenium, molybdenum, cadmium, antimony, lead, uranium, magnesium, calcium, and iron) via drinking water and total diet were investigated in six cities in Japan. The daily metal intakes were estimated and compared with tolerable daily intake (TDI) values proposed by the WHO or Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives for toxic metals and with recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) or adequate intake (AI) values proposed for essential metals by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. Among the 13 toxic metals, mean dietary intakes of 10 (except arsenic, selenium, and molybdenum) were less than 50% of TDI, suggesting that for these 10 metals the allocation of intake to drinking water in establishing guidelines or standards could possibly be increased from the normal allocation of 10-20% of TDI. For the 13 toxic metals, the contribution of drinking water to TDI was 2% or less in all six cities. Mean dietary intakes of the essential elements magnesium, calcium, and iron were less than the RDA or AI values. Drinking water did not contribute much to essential metal intake, accounting for less than 10% of RDA or AI.

  2. Survey of total mercury in some edible fish and shellfish species collected in Canada in 2002.

    PubMed

    Dabeka, R; McKenzie, A D; Forsyth, D S; Conacher, H B S

    2004-05-01

    Total mercury was measured in the edible portions of 244 selected fish and shellfish purchased in Canada at the retail level. By species, average mercury concentrations ranged from 0.011 microg g(-1) for oysters to 1.82 microg g(-1) for swordfish. The predatory fish contained the highest concentrations of mercury: swordfish (mean 1.82 microg g(-1), range 0.40-3.85 microg g(-1)), marlin (1.43, 0.34-3.19 microg g(-1)), shark (1.26, 0.087-2.73 microg g(-1)), and canned, fresh and frozen tuna (0.35, 0.020-2.12 microg g(-1)). Levels of mercury in the fresh and frozen tuna contained a mean of 0.93 microg g(-1) (range 0.077-2.12 microg g(-1)) and were substantially higher than in the canned tuna (0.15, 0.02-0.59 microg g(-1)). In the canned tuna, mercury concentrations varied with subspecies, with the highest average concentrations being found in Albacore tuna (mean 0.26 microg g(-1), range 0.19-0.38 microg g(-1)) and the lowest (0.047, 0.025-0.069 microg g(-1)) in five samples for which the subspecies of tuna were not identified. Mean concentrations of mercury in swordfish and fresh and frozen tuna were up to three times higher than reported for the USA. Dietary intake estimations found that provided fresh and frozen tuna, marlin, swordfish or shark are consumed once a month or less, the dietary intakes of total mercury by women of child-bearing age, averaged over 1 month, would fall below the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives provisional tolerable weekly intake for total mercury. The current Canadian advisory to children and women of child-bearing age is to limit their consumption of fresh and frozen tuna, swordfish and shark to no more than one meal per month.

  3. [Lead intakes by different age-sex population groups from Chinese total diet study in 2000].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Gao, Junquan; Li, Xiaowei

    2007-07-01

    To estimate the dietary lead intakes by different age-sex population groups in China. The lead concentrations of food sample from 3rd Chinese total diet study were determined, and then were combined with the food consumption by population of ten age-sex groups, The lead intakes, and its distribution and dietary sources were obtained. It was found that the mean and median concentrations of lead in all food samples were 0.118 and 0.052mg/kg, respectively. The highest concentration of individual sample and mean concentrations of lead in preserved egg were 8.964mg/kg and 2.577mg/kg, respectively. The vegetable samples in Hubei Province were heavily contaminated. The lead intakes by different age-sex groups were estimated to be 54.9-112.7microg/day. The average dietary lead intakes by 2-7 years old group could reach 86.1% of PTWI, and individual lead intakes by about 30% children in this group exceed PTWI. But the average dietary lead intakes of other age-sex population groups ranged from 42.8% to 86.1% of PTWI. The main sources of dietary lead were cereals and vegetables in ten age-sex population groups, and could reach 72%-80% of total lead intakes. Although the dietary lead intakes by different age-sex population groups are all lower than PTWI, it should be decreased to a lower level. Moreover, the dietary exposures to lead are higher enough for 2-7 years old children and population in some provinces to be considered seriously.

  4. Dietary exposure and health risk assessment for 11 minerals and trace elements in Yaoundé: the Cameroonian Total Diet Study.

    PubMed

    Gimou, M-M; Charrondière, U R; Leblanc, J-C; Noël, L; Guérin, T; Pouillot, R

    2013-01-01

    Dietary exposure to 11 elements was assessed by the Total Diet Study (TDS) method. Sixty-four pooled samples representing 96.5% of the diet in Yaoundé, Cameroon, were prepared as consumed before analysis. Consumption data were sourced from a household budget survey. Dietary exposures were compared with nutritional or health-based guidance values (HBGV) and to worldwide TDS results. Elevated prevalence of inadequate intake was estimated for calcium (71.6%), iron (89.7%), magnesium (31.8%), zinc (46.9%) and selenium (87.3%). The percentage of the study population exceeding the tolerable upper intake levels was estimated as <3.2% for calcium, iron, magnesium, zinc and cobalt; 19.1% of the population exceeded the HBGV for sodium. No exceedance of the HBGV for inorganic mercury was predicted in the population. The margin of exposure ranged from 0.91 to 25.0 for inorganic arsenic depending on the reference point. The "Fish" food group was the highest contributor to intake for calcium (65%), cobalt (32%) and selenium (96%). This group was the highest contributor to the exposure to total arsenic (71%) and organic mercury (96%). The "Cereals and cereal products" highly contributed to iron (26%), zinc (26%) and chromium (25%) intakes. The "Tubers and starches" highly contributed to magnesium (39%) and potassium (52%) intakes. This study highlights the dietary deficiency of some essential elements and a low dietary exposure to toxic elements in Yaoundé.

  5. A maternal high n-6 fat diet with fish oil supplementation during pregnancy and lactation in rats decreases breast cancer risk in the female offspring.

    PubMed

    Su, Hui-Min; Hsieh, Pei-Hsuan; Chen, Hui-Feng

    2010-11-01

    The timing of dietary fat intake may modify breast cancer risk. In addition, n-3 fatty acids reduce, and n-6 fatty acids increase, the risk of breast cancer and a maternal high n-6 fat diet results in a greater risk of breast cancer in the female offspring. We hypothesized that the timing of n-3 fatty acid-enriched fish oil supplementation would be important for reducing the risk of breast cancer. Female rats were fed to a high n-6 fat diet containing 20% of the sunflower oil by weight during pregnancy and lactation, and the female offspring were exposed to fish oil by oral gavage either during the perinatal period via maternal intake or during puberty or adulthood. Exposure during the perinatal period to a maternal high n-6 fat diet with fish oil supplementation significantly reduced the incidence of carcinogen-induced mammary tumors in the female offspring compared to a maternal high n-6 fat diet with no fish oil supplementation or fish oil supplementation later in life (P=.0228 by Cox proportional hazards model). We found that a maternal high n-6 fat diet during pregnancy is more important in increasing the risk of mammary tumors in the female offspring than a maternal high n-6 fat diet during lactation. This study suggests that fish oil supplementation during the perinatal period decreases the effect of a maternal high n-6 fat diet on subsequent carcinogen-induced mammary tumor risk, whereas fish oil supplementation during puberty or adulthood does not. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A fish-based diet intervention improves endothelial function in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Keiko; Morino, Katsutaro; Nishio, Yoshihiko; Kondo, Motoyuki; Nakao, Keiko; Nakagawa, Fumiyuki; Ishikado, Atsushi; Sekine, Osamu; Yoshizaki, Takeshi; Kashiwagi, Atsunori; Ugi, Satoshi; Maegawa, Hiroshi

    2014-07-01

    The beneficial effects of fish and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) consumption on atherosclerosis have been reported in numerous epidemiological studies. However, to the best of our knowledge, the effects of a fish-based diet intervention on endothelial function have not been investigated. Therefore, we studied these effects in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Twenty-three postmenopausal women with T2DM were assigned to two four-week periods of either a fish-based diet (n-3 PUFAs ≧ 3.0 g/day) or a control diet in a randomized crossover design. Endothelial function was measured with reactive hyperemia using strain-gauge plethysmography and compared with the serum levels of fatty acids and their metabolites. Endothelial function was determined with peak forearm blood flow (Peak), duration of reactive hyperemia (Duration) and flow debt repayment (FDR). A fish-based dietary intervention improved Peak by 63.7%, Duration by 27.9% and FDR by 70.7%, compared to the control diet. Serum n-3 PUFA levels increased after the fish-based diet period and decreased after the control diet, compared with the baseline (1.49 vs. 0.97 vs. 1.19 mmol/l, p < 0.0001). There was no correlation between serum n-3 PUFA levels and endothelial function. An increased ratio of epoxyeicosatrienoic acid/dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid was observed after a fish-based diet intervention, possibly due to the inhibition of the activity of soluble epoxide hydrolase. A fish-based dietary intervention improves endothelial function in postmenopausal women with T2DM. Dissociation between the serum n-3 PUFA concentration and endothelial function suggests that the other factors may contribute to this phenomenon. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Control of voluntary feed intake in fish: a role for dietary oxygen demand in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed diets with different macronutrient profiles.

    PubMed

    Saravanan, S; Geurden, I; Figueiredo-Silva, A C; Kaushik, S J; Haidar, M N; Verreth, J A J; Schrama, J W

    2012-10-28

    It has been hypothesised that, at non-limiting water oxygen conditions, voluntary feed intake (FI) in fish is limited by the maximal physiological capacity of oxygen use (i.e. an 'oxystatic control of FI in fish'). This implies that fish will adjust FI when fed diets differing in oxygen demand, resulting in identical oxygen consumption. Therefore, FI, digestible energy (DE) intake, energy balance and oxygen consumption were monitored at non-limiting water oxygen conditions in Nile tilapia fed diets with contrasting macronutrient composition. Diets were formulated in a 2 × 2 factorial design in order to create contrasts in oxygen demand: two ratios of digestible protein (DP):DE ('high' v. 'low'); and a contrast in the type of non-protein energy source ('starch' v. 'fat'). Triplicate groups of tilapia were fed each diet twice daily to satiation for 48 d. FI (g DM/kg(0·8) per d) was significantly lower (9·5%) in tilapia fed the starch diets relative to the fat diets. The DP:DE ratio affected DE intakes (P < 0·05), being 11% lower with 'high' than with 'low' DP:DE ratio diets, which was in line with the 11·9% higher oxygen demand of these diets. Indeed, DE intakes of fish showed an inverse linear relationship with dietary oxygen demand (DOD; R 2 0·81, P < 0·001). As hypothesised ('oxystatic' theory), oxygen consumption of fish was identical among three out of the four diets. Altogether, these results demonstrate the involvement of metabolic oxygen use and DOD in the control of FI in tilapia.

  8. Influence of a ketogenic diet, fish-oil, and calorie restriction on plasma metabolites and lipids in C57BL/6J mice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Diet therapies including calorie restriction, ketogenic diets, and fish-oil supplementation have been used to improve health and to treat a variety of neurological and non-neurological diseases. Methods We investigated the effects of three diets on circulating plasma metabolites (glucose and β-hydroxybutyrate), hormones (insulin and adiponectin), and lipids over a 32-day period in C57BL/6J mice. The diets evaluated included a standard rodent diet (SD), a ketogenic diet (KD), and a standard rodent diet supplemented with fish-oil (FO). Each diet was administered in either unrestricted (UR) or restricted (R) amounts to reduce body weight by 20%. Results The KD-UR increased body weight and glucose levels and promoted a hyperlipidemic profile, whereas the FO-UR decreased body weight and glucose levels and promoted a normolipidemic profile, compared to the SD-UR. When administered in restricted amounts, all three diets produced a similar plasma metabolite profile, which included decreased glucose levels and a normolipidemic profile. Linear regression analysis showed that circulating glucose most strongly predicted body weight and triglyceride levels, whereas calorie intake moderately predicted glucose levels and strongly predicted ketone body levels. Conclusions These results suggest that biomarkers of health can be improved when diets are consumed in restricted amounts, regardless of macronutrient composition. PMID:24910707

  9. Fish protein hydrolysates affect cholesterol metabolism in rats fed non-cholesterol and high-cholesterol diets.

    PubMed

    Hosomi, Ryota; Fukunaga, Kenji; Arai, Hirofumi; Kanda, Seiji; Nishiyama, Toshimasa; Yoshida, Munehiro

    2012-03-01

    Fish consumption is well known to provide health benefits in both experimental animals and human subjects. Numerous studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of various protein hydrolysates on lipid metabolism. In this context, this study examined the effect of fish protein hydrolysates (FPH) on cholesterol metabolism compared with the effect of casein. FPHs were prepared from Alaska pollock meat using papain as a protease. Male Wistar rats were divided into the following four dietary groups of seven rats each: either casein (20%) or FPH (10%) + casein (10%), with or without 0.5% cholesterol and 0.1% sodium cholate. Serum and liver lipid levels, fecal cholesterol and bile acid excretions, and the hepatic expression of genes encoding proteins involved in cholesterol homeostasis were examined. In rats fed the FPH diets compared with casein diets with or without cholesterol and sodium cholate, the indexes of cholesterol metabolism-namely, serum cholesterol, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels-were significantly lower, whereas fecal cholesterol and bile acid excretions were higher. Rats fed the FPH diets compared with casein with cholesterol exhibited a lower liver cholesterol level via an increased liver cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) expression level. This study demonstrates that the intake of FPH has hypocholesterolemic effects through the enhancement of fecal cholesterol and bile acid excretions and CYP7A1 expression levels. Therefore, fish peptides prepared by papain digestion might provide health benefits by decreasing the cholesterol content in the blood, which would contribute to the prevention of circulatory system diseases such as arteriosclerosis.

  10. A pulse-based diet is effective for reducing total and LDL-cholesterol in older adults.

    PubMed

    Abeysekara, Saman; Chilibeck, Philip D; Vatanparast, Hassanali; Zello, Gordon A

    2012-08-01

    Our purpose was to determine the effects of a pulse-based diet in individuals 50 years or older for reducing CVD risk factors. A total of 108 participants were randomised to receive pulse-based foods (two servings daily of beans, chickpeas, peas or lentils; about 150 g/d dry weight) or their regular diet for 2 months, followed by a washout of 1 month and a cross-over to the other diet for 2 months. Anthropometric measures, body composition and biochemical markers (i.e. serum LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), as the primary outcome, and other lipids, glucose, insulin and C-reactive protein) were assessed before and after each diet phase. A total of eighty-seven participants (thirty males and fifty-seven females; 59·7 (sd 6·3) years, body mass 76 (sd 16) kg) completed the study. Compared with the regular diet, the pulse-based diet decreased total cholesterol by 8·3 % (pulse, 4·57 (sd 0·93) to 4·11 (sd 0·91) mmol/l; regular, 4·47 (sd 0·94) to 4·39 (sd 0·97) mmol/l; P < 0·001) and LDL-C by 7·9 % (pulse, 2·93 (sd 0·84) to 2·55 (sd 0·75) mmol/l; regular, 2·96 (sd 0·86) to 2·81 (sd 0·83) mmol/l; P = 0·01). In a sub-analysis of individuals with high lipid levels at baseline (twenty individuals with high cholesterol), the pulse-based diet reduced cholesterol by 6 % compared with the regular diet (pulse, 5·62 (sd 0·78) to 5·26 (sd 0·68) mmol/l; regular, 5·60 (sd 0·91) to 5·57 (sd 0·85) mmol/l; P = 0·05). A pulse-based diet is effective for reducing total cholesterol and LDL-C in older adults and therefore reduces the risk of CVD.

  11. To which chemical mixtures is the French population exposed? Mixture identification from the second French Total Diet Study.

    PubMed

    Traoré, T; Béchaux, C; Sirot, V; Crépet, A

    2016-12-01

    Through their diet, humans are exposed to a wide range of substances with possible adverse effects. Total diet studies (TDS) assess exposure and risk for many single substances or mixtures from the same chemical family. This research aims to identify from 440 substances in the second French TDS, the major mixtures to which the French population is exposed and their associated diet. Firstly, substances with a contamination value over the detection limit were selected. Secondly, consumption systems comprising major consumed foods were identified using non-negative matrix factorisation and combined with concentration levels to form the main mixture. Thirdly, individuals were clustered to identify "diet clusters" with similar consumption patterns and co-exposure profiles. Six main consumption systems and their associated mixtures were identified. For example, a mixture of ten pesticides, six trace elements and bisphenol A was identified. Exposure to this mixture is related to fruit and vegetables consumed by a diet cluster comprising 62% of women with a mean age of 51 years. Six other clusters are described with their associated diets and mixtures. Cluster co-exposures were compared to the whole population. This work helps prioritise mixtures for which it is crucial to investigate possible toxicological effects.

  12. Bioaccumulation of trace metals and total petroleum and genotoxicity responses in an edible fish population as indicators of marine pollution.

    PubMed

    D'Costa, Avelyno; Shyama, S K; Praveen Kumar, M K

    2017-08-01

    The present study reports the genetic damage and the concentrations of trace metals and total petroleum hydrocarbons prevailing in natural populations of an edible fish, Arius arius in different seasons along the coast of Goa, India as an indicator of the pollution status of coastal water. Fish were collected from a suspected polluted site and a reference site in the pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. Physico-chemical parameters as well as the concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and trace metals in the water and sediment as well as the tissues of fish collected from these sites were recorded. The genotoxicity status of the fish was assessed employing the micronucleus test and comet assay. A positive correlation (p<0.001) was observed between the tail DNA and micronuclei in all the fish collected. Multiple regression analysis revealed that tissue and environmental pollutant concentrations and genotoxicity were positively associated and higher in the tissues of the fish collected from the polluted site. Pollution indicators and genotoxicity tests, combined with other physiological or biochemical parameters represent an essential integrated approach for efficient monitoring of aquatic ecosystems in Goa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Identification and ruminal outflow of long-chain fatty acid biohydrogenation intermediates in cows fed diets containing fish oil.

    PubMed

    Kairenius, Piia; Toivonen, Vesa; Shingfield, Kevin J

    2011-07-01

    The abundance of 20- to 24-carbon fatty acids in omasal digesta of cows fed grass silage-based diets supplemented with 0 (Control) and 250 g/day of fish oil (FO) was examined to investigate the fate of long-chain unsaturated fatty acids in the rumen. Complimentary argentation thin-layer chromatography and gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry analysis of fatty acid methyl esters and corresponding 4,4-dimethyloxazoline derivatives prepared from fish oil and omasal digesta enabled the structure of novel 20- to 22-carbon fatty acids to be elucidated. Compared with the Control, the FO treatment resulted in the formation and accumulation of 27 novel 20- and 22-carbon biohydrogenation intermediates containing at least one trans double bond and the appearance of cis-14 20:1, 20:2n-3, 21:4n-3 and 22:3n-6 not contained in fish oil. No conjugated ≥ 20-carbon fatty acids were detected in Control or FO digesta. In conclusion, fish oil in the diet results in the formation of numerous long-chain biohydrogenation intermediates in the rumen of lactating cows. Comparison of the intake and flow of 20-, 21- and 22-carbon fatty acids at the omasum in cows fed the Control and FO treatments suggests that the first committed steps of 20:5n-3, 21:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 hydrogenation in the rumen involve the reduction and/or isomerisation of double bonds closest to the carboxyl group.

  14. Association between Dietary Patterns of Meat and Fish Consumption with Bone Mineral Density or Fracture Risk: A Systematic Literature

    PubMed Central

    Avanzato, Ilaria; Nichetti, Mara; D’Antona, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    This systematic review aimed to investigate the association of fish and sea fish dietary patterns (FishDiet) and meat or processed meat dietary patterns (MeatDiet) with bone mineral density (BMD) and/or risk of fractures (RF). This review includes 37 studies with a total of 432,924 subjects. The results suggest that MeatDiet and FishDiet did not affect BMD or RF in 48.2% of the subjects with MeatDiet and in 86.5% of the subjects with FishDiet. Positive effects on bone were found in 3% of subjects with MeatDiet and in 12% with FishDiet. Negative effects on bone were observed in 2.7% of FishDiet and in 47.9% of MeatDiet. Major negative effects of MeatDiet were found in subjects located in the Netherlands, Greece, Germany, Italy, Norway, UK and Spain who do not sustain a Mediterranean diet (92.7%); in Korea (27.1%); in Brazil and Mexico (96.4%); and in Australia (62.5%). This study suggests that protein intake from fish or meat is not harmful to bone. Negative effects on bone linked to FishDiet are almost null. Negative effects on bone were associated to MeatDiet in the setting of a Western Diet but not in Mediterranean or Asian Diets.

  15. Tuna fish diet influences cat behavior. [Elevated levels of selenium and mercury in commercial tuna fish cat food

    SciTech Connect

    Houpt, K.A.; Essick, L.A.; Shaw, E.B.; Alo, D.K.; Gilmartin, J.E.; Gutenmann, W.H.; Littman, C.B.; Lisk, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    When observed in their home cages, cats fed commercial tuna fish cat food were less active, vocalized less, and spent more time on the floor and more time eating than cats fed commercial beef cat food. There were no differences in response to human handling between the two groups. There were no differences in learning ability on a two-choice point maze or in reversal learning in the same maze between beef- and tuna-fed cats. The behavior of the groups differed in a 15-min open field test only in the number of toys contacted. Cats fed the tuna had elevated tissue levels of mercury and selenium.

  16. Dietary exposure to mycotoxins of the Hong Kong adult population from a Total Diet Study.

    PubMed

    Yau, Arthur Tin-Chung; Chen, Melva Yung-Yung; Lam, Chi-Ho; Ho, Yuk-Yin; Xiao, Ying; Chung, Stephen Wai-Cheung

    2016-06-01

    Dietary exposure of Hong Kong adults to mycotoxins and their metabolites including aflatoxins (AFs), ochratoxin A (OTA), fumonisins (FNs), deoxynivalenol (DON), acetyldeoxynivalenols (AcDONs) and zearalenone (ZEA) was estimated using the Total Diet Study (TDS) approach to assess the associated health risk to the local people. Sixty commonly consumed food items, collected in four seasons, were sampled and prepared as consumed. These mycotoxins were primarily found at low levels. The highest mean levels (upper bound) were: AFs, 1.50 µg kg(-)(1) in legumes, nuts and seed; OTA, 0.22 µg kg(-)(1) in sugars and confectionery; FNs, 9.76 µg kg(-)(1) in cereals and their products; DON and AcDONs, 33.1 µg kg(-)(1) in cereals and their products; and ZEA, 53.8 µg kg(-)(1) in fats and oils. The estimated dietary exposures of Hong Kong adults to the mycotoxins analysed were well below the respective health-based guidance values, where available. For AFs, the upper-bound exposure for high consumers is 0.0049 µg kg bw(-)(1) day(-)(1), which was estimated to contribute to about 7.7 (< 1%) of liver cancer cases when compared with 1222 liver cancer cases per year in Hong Kong. The percentage contributions of the estimated 95th percentile dietary exposures (lower and upper bound) to the health-based guidance values of individual mycotoxins were: ochratoxin A, 3.6-9.2%; fumonisins, 0.04-8.5%; deoxynivalenol and acetyldeoxynivalenols, 21.7-28.2%; and zearalenone 3.3-34.5%. The findings indicate that dietary exposures to all the mycotoxins analysed in this study were unlikely to pose an unacceptable health risk to the Hong Kong population.

  17. Dietary exposure to persistent organochlorine pesticides in 2007 Chinese total diet study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Pingping; Zhao, Yunfeng; Li, Jingguang; Wu, Guohua; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Qing; Fan, Sai; Yang, Xin; Li, Xiaowei; Wu, Yongning

    2012-07-01

    Dietary exposure to persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) was assessed for Chinese populations, using the total diet study (TDS) approach in 2007. Multistage random cluster sampling method was used in this study. 108 composite samples, representative of foods "as consumed" by the Chinese were analyzed for residues of OCPs by a multi-residue method. The result showed that hexachlorobenzene (HCB), dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT), chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and heptachlor could be detected in, respectively 84%, 39%, 37%, 13% and 5% of all samples. Concentrations of DDT in all samples ranged from undetectable levels to 72.2 μg/kg. Others were minor components in the OCPs profile. The residual levels of OCPs were significantly below the Extraneous Maximum Residue Limits (EMRLs). Based on the 2000 nationwide food consumption survey, the average dietary exposure of the Chinese to DDT, HCH, HCB, CHLs, and heptachlor was estimated to be 0.016, 0.002, 0.009, 0.006, and 0.001 μg/kg body weight per day respectively, showing a significant decrease trend compared with the past. The major food groups contributing to dietary OCPs were aquatic foods, meats, and cereals. The average and high end estimated daily intakes of different OCPs for the Chinese were both lower than the tolerable daily intake (TDI) suggested by authorities indicating low health risk of OCPs dietary exposure among Chinese adults at present. However, the risk of carcinogenicity of the OCPs should be concerned with if the carcinogenicity effects from the exposures to these OCPs were considered. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Little Galloo Island, Lake Ontario: Two decades of studies on the diet, fish consumption, and management of double-crested cormorants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, James H.; McCullough, Russell D.; Farquhar, James F.; Mazzocchi, Irene

    2015-01-01

    The double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) colony at Little Galloo Island, Lake Ontario has been a Great Lakes focal point of controversy regarding cormorant–fish interactions for over two decades. We examined cormorant diet and fish consumption at the colony from 1992 to 2013. During this time period, two events, management actions and round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) invasion, occurred that affected the number of fish consumed by cormorants and their diet composition. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of round goby on the feeding ecology of cormorants and evaluate the efficacy of management actions on meeting cormorant population targets at the colony. Round goby first appeared in the diet in 2004 (0.8%) and within one year were the primary prey (29.3%). The presence of round goby in the diet of cormorants: (1) eliminated seasonal variability in diet composition, (2) reversed seasonal trends in the number of fish consumed daily, (3) increased daily fish consumption, and (4) significantly reduced the consumption of other species including yellow perch and smallmouth bass. Management actions, such as egg oiling and culling, were also effective in reducing nesting activity and the number of cormorant feeding days at the Little Galloo Island colony. There is evidence that the combination of management actions and round goby may have allowed some population recovery of yellow perch and smallmouth bass in eastern Lake Ontario.

  19. From yellow perch to round goby: A review of double-crested cormorant diet and fish consumption at three St. Lawrence River colonies, 1999–2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, James H.; Farquhar, James F; Klindt, Rodger M; Mazzocchi, Irene; Mathers, Alastair

    2015-01-01

    The number of double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) in the upper St. Lawrence River has increased markedly since the early 1990s. In 1999, a binational study was initiated to examine the annual diet composition and fish consumption of cormorants at colonies in the upper river. Since 1999, 14,032 cormorant pellets, collected from May through September each year, have been examined from St. Lawrence River colonies to estimate fish consumption and determine temporal and spatial variation in diet. Seasonal variation in diet composition within a colony was low. Prior to 2006 yellow perch was the primary fish consumed by cormorants in the upper St. Lawrence River. Round goby were first observed in cormorant diets in 2003 and by 2006 were the main fish consumed at two of the three colonies. The time interval it took from the first appearance of round goby in the diet at a colony to when goby were the dominant prey species varied by island, ranging from two to five years. Daily fish consumption at each cormorant colony increased significantly from the pre-round goby to post-round goby period. The mean annual biomass of yellow perch consumed decreased significantly during the post-round goby period at the three colonies. Reduced consumption of yellow perch by cormorants may alleviate suspected localized impacts on perch near some of the larger river colonies.

  20. A reusable and sensitive biosensor for total mercury in canned fish based on fluorescence polarization.

    PubMed

    Shen, Tongfei; Yue, Qiaoli; Jiang, Xiuxiu; Wang, Lei; Xu, Shuling; Li, Haibo; Gu, Xiaohong; Zhang, Shuqiu; Liu, Jifeng

    2013-12-15

    In this work, we developed a sensitive and selective sensor technique for total mercury (Hg) detection in canned fish samples based on the fluorescence polarization (FP) method. The detection principle was that ssDNA containing thymine (T) bases was modified on magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), which were used as enhancement probe. In the presence of Hg(2+), the ssDNA on MNPs can hybridize with the fluorophore labeled aptamer owing to the specific interaction between T bases and Hg(2+). The formation of thymine-Hg(2+)-thymine (T-Hg(2+)-T) complexes leads to the molar mass increase of fluorophore molecules, resulting in the enhancement of FP signal. The increase of FP was in a good linearity with the concentration of Hg(2+) in range of 2.0 nM-1.0 mM and the limit of detection was 0.49 nM (3.29 SB/m, according to the recent recommendation of IUPAC). Moreover, the proposed biosensor can be reused for 6 cycling times and was successfully applied in monitoring Hg(2+) in real samples.

  1. Effects of Single Cell Protein Replacing Fish Meal in Diet on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Intestinal Morphology in Weaned Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, H. Y.; Piao, X. S.; Li, P.; Yi, J. Q.; Zhang, Q.; Li, Q. Y.; Liu, J. D.; Wang, G. Q.

    2013-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the ME value, standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) of fish meal, and the effects of single cell protein (Prosin and Protide) replacing fish meal in diet on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and intestinal morphology in weaned piglets. In Exp. 1, twenty-four barrows with initial BW of 30.8±2.6 kg were allotted to one of four dietary treatments. Diet 1 contained corn as the only energy source. The other three diets replaced 20% of the corn in diet 1 with one of the three protein feeds (fish meal, Prosin and Protide), and the DE and ME contents were determined by difference. In Exp. 2, eight barrows (initial BW of 25.6±3.2 kg) were fitted with ileal T-cannulas and allotted to a replicated 4×4 Latin square design. Three cornstarch-based diets were formulated using each of the protein feeds as the sole source of AA. A nitrogen-free diet was also formulated to measure endogenous losses of AA. In Exp. 3, one hundred and eighty piglets (initial BW of 7.95±1.59 kg) weaned at 28±2 d were blocked by weight and assigned to one of five treatments for a 28-d growth performance study, each treatment was fed to six pens with six pigs (three barrows and three gilts) per pen. The five treatments consisted of the control group (CON), which was a corn-soybean meal diet containing 5% fish meal, and the other four treatments, which replaced a set amount of fish meal with either Prosin (2.5% or 5%) or Protide (2.5% or 5%). The diets were formulated to provide same nutrient levels. The results showed that on a DM basis, both of the DE and ME contents were lower in Prosin and Protide than that of fish meal (p<0.05). The SID of CP and all essential AA were greater in fish meal than in Prosin and Protide (p<0.05). The pigs fed CON diet had greater weight gain and lower feed conversion rate (FCR) than pigs fed 5% Prosin and 5% Protide diets (p<0.05). The digestibility of CP was greater in pigs fed CON, 2

  2. Restoration of EPA and DHA in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) using a finishing fish oil diet at two different water temperatures.

    PubMed

    Codabaccus, Mohamed B; Ng, Wing-Keong; Nichols, Peter D; Carter, Chris G

    2013-11-01

    Feeding fish a fish oil finishing diet (FOFD) after grow-out on vegetable oil diet is one strategy to restore eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels. We investigated restoration of EPA and DHA in rainbow trout fed a FOFD preceded by a grow-out period on 50% or 75% palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) diets at optimal (15°C) or elevated (20°C) water temperatures. Using the FOFD restored EPA and DHA in fillet and whole carcass of fish previously fed either 50% PFAD diet from 85% to 98% or 75% PFAD from 66% to 93% of values obtained for fish fed FO diet throughout. Water temperature did not influence EPA and DHA restoration. Growing rainbow trout with diets where FO was replaced by either 50% or 75% PFAD followed by a FOFD reduced FO usage by around 30% and 44% at 15°C, respectively, and 32% and 48% at 20°C, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Probable insomnia is associated with future total energy intake and diet quality in men.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Feon W; Li, Yanping; Winkelman, John W; Hu, Frank B; Rimm, Eric B; Gao, Xiang

    2016-08-01

    Insomnia is associated with several adverse health outcomes. Small clinical studies have suggested that an inferior nutrition status is a potential explanation, but to our knowledge, this possibility has not been examined in a large-scale, population-based cohort study. We examined whether individuals with probable insomnia and individual insomnia symptoms had greater energy intake and a lower diet quality as assessed with the use of the Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI) 2 y later. A cohort study of 15,273 US men aged 58-93 y who were free of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes and were participating in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study reported information on insomnia symptoms in 2004. Dietary intake was assessed with the use of a food-frequency questionnaire in 2002 and 2006. We calculated the adjusted mean differences of total energy intake in 2006 and the AHEI-component scores and their 95% CIs between subjects with and without probable insomnia in 2004 and also across categories for each insomnia symptom while adjusting for related covariates. After dietary intake in 2002, major chronic conditions, and other potential confounders were controlled for, men with probable insomnia had a mean higher consumption of 35.8 kcal/d (95% CI: 17.4, 54.1 kcal/d) and had lower scores in 3 individual AHEI components (trans fat, vegetables, and sodium), which denoted higher consumption of trans fat and sodium and lower intake of vegetables (P ≤ 0.01 for all). For individual insomnia symptoms, nonrestorative sleep and a difficulty maintaining sleep were associated with higher energy intake (P-trend ≤ 0.007 for both). A similar trend was observed in men who had difficulty initiating sleep (P-trend = 0.07). We also observed a significant association between the difficulty of initiating sleep and a lower AHEI score 2 y later (P-trend = 0.004). Probable insomnia is associated with higher intakes of total energy, trans fat, and sodium and lower intake of

  4. Effects of replacing fish meal by soybean meal along with supplementing phosphorus and magnesium in diet on growth performance of Persian sturgeon, Acipenser persicus.

    PubMed

    Imanpoor, Mohamad Reza; Bagheri, Tahere

    2012-04-01

    Looking for replacing fish meal by cheaper and more sustainable protein sources is essential for reducing the cost of fish feeds. Soybean meal is a suitable alternative protein sources for carnivorous fish such as Persian sturgeon, Acipenser persicus. However, it contains antinutritional factors that may affect bioavailability of minerals and lead in reduced growth. Achieving a cost-effective diet that does not have negative effects on growth is the goal of aquaculture programs. A 10-week experiment was conducted with Persian sturgeon (352.07 ± 5.51 g) to determine the combined effects of phosphorous (SP), magnesium and phosphorous (SPMg), phytase (SF), phytase and magnesium (SFMg), phosphorous and phytase (SPF), phosphorous, magnesium and phytase (SPMgF) on weight gain, feed efficiency, specific growth rate, and condition factor. A control diet was prepared with fish meal as a control group. Inclusion of P, Mg, and phytase contents within soybean diets did not improve feed efficiency, and still, the control diet containing fish meal showed better weight gain and feed efficiency. Among soybean meal groups, feed efficiency and specific growth rate were significantly improved for fish fed the diet containing just phytase (SF) and both phytase and phosphorus (P ≤ 0.05). It was true for specific growth rate and condition factor. Phytase significantly enhanced growth whether included with or without phosphorous. This study showed that fish meal is more sufficient for Persian sturgeon, and soybean meal could be partly an alternative protein source if phosphorous supplied for fish by incorporation with microbial phytase or phosphorous.

  5. Evaluation of standardized ileal digestible valine:lysine, total lysine:crude protein, and replacing fish meal, meat and bone meal, and poultry byproduct meal with crystalline amino acids on growth performance of nursery pigs from seven to twelve kilograms.

    PubMed

    Nemechek, J E; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S; Goodband, R D; DeRouchey, J M

    2014-04-01

    Five experiments were conducted to evaluate replacing fish meal, meat and bone meal, and poultry byproduct meal with crystalline AA for 7- to 12-kg pigs. In all experiments, pigs (PIC TR4 × 1050) were fed a common diet for 3 d postweaning, treatment diets for 14 d (d 0 to 14), and, again, a common diet for 14 d (d 14 to 28). Treatment diets were corn-soybean meal based and formulated to contain 1.30% standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lys. Experiment 1 evaluated replacing dietary fish meal with crystalline AA. For the 6 treatments, crystalline Lys, Met, Thr, Trp, Ile, Val, Gln, and Gly all increased to maintain minimum AA ratios as fish meal decreased (4.50, 3.60, 2.70, 1.80, and 0.90 to 0.00%). There was no difference in ADG, ADFI, or G:F among treatments, validating a low-CP, AA-fortified diet for subsequent experiments. Experiment 2 evaluated deleting crystalline AA from a low-CP, AA-fortified diet with 6 treatments: 1) a positive control similar to the diet validated in Exp. 1, 2) positive control with l-Ile deleted, 3) positive control with l-Trp deleted, 4) positive control with l-Val deleted, 5) positive control with l-Gln and l-Gly deleted, and 6) positive control with l-Ile, l-Trp, l-Val, l-Gln, and l-Gly deleted (NC). Pigs fed the positive control or Ile deleted diet had improved (P < 0.05) ADG and ADFI during d 0 to 14 compared with pigs fed diets with l-Trp or l-Val deleted or NC. Experiment 3 evaluated 6 treatments with total Lys:CP of 6.79, 6.92, 7.06, 7.20, 7.35, and 7.51%. Fish meal was adjusted as a source of dispensable N to achieve the target Lys:CP. There were no differences in growth performance among pigs fed different Lys:CP diets. Experiment 4 evaluated increasing SID Val:Lys with Val at 57.4, 59.9, 62.3, 64.7, 67.2, and 69.6% of Lys. Average daily gain and ADFI increased (quadratic, P < 0.01) and G:F improved (linear, P = 0.02) during d 0 to 14 as Val:Lys increased from 57.4 to 64.7%. Experiment 5 was a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of

  6. Levels and temporal trend of bisphenol A in composite food samples from Canadian Total Diet Study 2008-2012.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xu-Liang; Perez-Locas, Carolina; Robichaud, André; Clement, Genevieve; Popovic, Svetlana; Dufresne, Guy; Dabeka, Robert W

    2015-01-01

    Food composite samples from the Canadian Total Diet Study which was conducted each year from 2008 to 2012 rotating between different cities were analysed for bisphenol A (BPA). The overall levels of BPA in the composite food samples from each of the five years from 2008 to 2012 were similar in general with averages (range) of 7.7 ng/g (0.20-106 ng/g), 7.8 ng/g (0.26-110 ng/g), 6.9 ng/g (0.20-84 ng/g), 7.7 ng/g (0.20-105 ng/g) and 9.0 ng/g (0.15-90 ng/g) for 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012, respectively. Levels of BPA in most of the non-canned food composite samples were low and no particular trends were observed. In contrast, the trend of BPA levels in canned food composite samples over the five years (2008-2012) varies. BPA levels in most of the canned food composite samples from 2008 to 2012 were consistent in general (e.g. canned luncheon meat: 10-18 ng/g, canned baked beans: 18-25 ng/g). While BPA levels over the five years were found to decrease for some canned food composite samples (e.g., canned fish: 109 ng/g in 2009 vs. 51 ng/g in 2012), they were also found to increase for some other canned food composite samples (e.g. canned meat soups: 90-104 ng/g in 2011-2012 vs. 29 ng/g in 2008). Thus, recent changes in can coating for food packaging to BPA-free alternatives may have not been fully reflected in all canned food products over the period from 2008 to 2012. Continued monitoring is necessary to more fully assess the potential impact on dietary exposure by the use of BPA alternatives in food contact materials.

  7. A chemoprotective fish oil- and pectin-containing diet temporally alters gene expression profiles in exfoliated rat colonocytes throughout oncogenesis.

    PubMed

    Cho, Youngmi; Kim, Hyemee; Turner, Nancy D; Mann, John C; Wei, Jiawei; Taddeo, Stella S; Davidson, Laurie A; Wang, Naisyin; Vannucci, Marina; Carroll, Raymond J; Chapkin, Robert S; Lupton, Joanne R

    2011-06-01

    We have demonstrated that fish oil- and pectin-containing (FO/P) diets protect against colon cancer compared with corn oil and cellulose (CO/C) by upregulating apoptosis and suppressing proliferation. To elucidate the mechanisms whereby FO/P diets induce apoptosis and suppress proliferation during the tumorigenic process, we analyzed the temporal gene expression profiles from exfoliated rat colonocytes. Rats consumed diets containing FO/P or CO/C and were injected with azoxymethane (AOM; 2 times, 15 mg/kg body weight, subcutaneously). Feces collected at initiation (24 h after AOM injection) and at aberrant crypt foci (ACF) (7 wk postinjection) and tumor (28 wk postinjection) stages of colon cancer were used for poly (A)+ RNA extraction. Gene expression signatures were determined using Codelink arrays. Changes in phenotypes (ACF, apoptosis, proliferation, and tumor incidence) were measured to establish the regulatory controls contributing to the chemoprotective effects of FO/P. At initiation, FO/P downregulated the expression of 3 genes involved with cell adhesion and enhanced apoptosis compared with CO/C. At the ACF stage, the expression of genes involved in cell cycle regulation was modulated by FO/P and the zone of proliferation was reduced in FO/P rats compared with CO/C rats. FO/P also increased apoptosis and the expression of genes that promote apoptosis at the tumor endpoint compared with CO/C. We conclude that the effects of chemotherapeutic diets on epithelial cell gene expression can be monitored noninvasively throughout the tumorigenic process and that a FO/P diet is chemoprotective in part due to its ability to affect expression of genes involved in apoptosis and cell cycle regulation throughout all stages of tumorigenesis.

  8. Can diet-dependent factors help explain fish-to-fish variation in thiamine-dependent early mortality syndrome?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, S.B.; Arts, M.T.; Brown, L.R.; Brown, M.; Moore, K.; Villella, M.; Fitzsimons, J.D.; Honeyfield, D.C.; Tillitt, D.E.; Zajicek, J.L.; Wolgamood, M.; Hnath, J.G.

    2005-01-01

    To provide insight into the reasons why offspring of certain salmonine females exhibit early mortality syndrome (EMS) in the Great Lakes whereas others do not, we measured the egg concentrations of potential biochemical markers (stable isotopes of nitrogen and carbon, fatty acid signatures, and lipid-soluble carotenoids and vitamins) that are indicative of differing food web and trophic structure. To corroborate the presence of EMS, we also measured the egg content of thiamine vitamers. For all the stocks of coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch and Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha we studied, there was a very high correspondence between EMS and low concentrations of unphosphorylated thiamine in unfertilized eggs. For salmonine stocks in the Platte River, Thompson Creek, and the Swan River, Michigan, small but significant shifts occurred in measures of egg carotenoids, retinoids, ??15N depletion, and fatty acid profiles of fish producing normal offspring relative to those exhibiting EMS. Egg thiamine concentrations in Chinook salmon from the Little Manistee River, Michigan, in the low-EMS group were only marginally above the threshold for EMS induction. Along with this small thiamine differential, there was no evidence of differing food web or dietary factors between EMS-positive and normal Chinook salmon from the Little Manistee River. Further investigations are required to determine the potential dietary sources for the observed differences in biochemical markers between EMS-positive and normal fish. These findings are generally consistent with the hypothesis that a more diverse forage base may help to limit overall dietary content of species that contain thiaminase, such as alewives Alosa pseudoharengus, and may lead to improved embryonic survival for feral salmonids. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  9. Fish-Free Diet in Patients with Phenylketonuria Is Not Associated with Early Atherosclerotic Changes and Enhanced Platelet Activation.

    PubMed

    Htun, Patrik; Nee, Jens; Ploeckinger, Ursula; Eder, Klaus; Geisler, Tobias; Gawaz, Meinrad; Bocksch, Wolfgang; Fateh-Moghadam, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Since patients with phenylketonuria (PKU) have to follow a lifelong restriction of natural protein to lower phenylalanine-intake, they never eat fish. This diet may lead to a chronic deficit of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids with the risk of early atherosclerotic changes. The aim of the study was to analyse the fatty acid profile of PKU patients and to correlate the results with surrogate markers of early atherosclerotic changes [enhanced carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) and ß-stiffness index] and platelet activation. In 43 PKU patients and in 58 healthy controls we prospectively examined the fatty acid profile, CIMT, ß-stiffness index and platelet activation (flow cytometric determination of markers of platelet activation). CIMT was measured bilaterally by ultrasound. CIMTmean was defined as the mean value of the sum of CIMTleft and CIMTright. Despite of lower HDL-cholesterol and higher triglyceride concentrations in the PKU group, there was no significant difference in the omega-6 or omega-3 fatty acid profile, CIMT, ß-stiffness index between both groups. Platelet activation was not enhanced in the PKU group. Fish-free diet does not induce early atherosclerotic changes or enhanced platelet activation in PKU patients.

  10. Effects of commonly used cooking practices on total mercury concentration in fish and their impact on exposure assessments.

    PubMed

    Morgan, J N; Berry, M R; Graves, R L

    1997-01-01

    The effects of cooking practices commonly used by Native Americans on total mercury concentrations in fish were investigated. A preparation factor relating mercury concentrations in fish as prepared for consumption to mercury concentration data as measured in typical environmental monitoring programs was calculated. Preparation factors are needed to provide risk assessors with a more accurate estimate of the actual amount of mercury ingested through consumption of contaminated fish. Data on fish preparation and consumption practices of two communities of Chippewa residing on the shores of Lake Superior in northern Wisconsin were used to select practices for study. The most commonly consumed species, walleye and lake trout, were selected. Whitefish livers were also selected for study. Commonly used cooking techniques including panfrying, deep-frying, baking, boiling, and smoking were duplicated in the laboratory. Total mercury concentrations were determined in fish portions before and after cooking and in a portion representative of that analyzed in programs to assess water quality (skin-on fillets). Total mercury was determined by microwave digestion-cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy. Mercury concentrations (wet weight basis) in panfried, baked, and boiled walleye fillets and deep-fried and baked whitefish livers ranged from 1.1 to 1.5 times higher than in corresponding raw portions. In lake trout, mercury concentrations were 1.5 to 2.0 times higher in cooked portions than in the raw portion. However, total mercury levels were constant before and after cooking, indicating the concentration effect is caused by weight (moisture and fat) loss. The addition of lemon juice to potentially release mercury from its bound state and promote volatilization did not exert any measurable influence on mercury concentrations in cooked walleye. In some cases mercury concentrations were increased with increased cooking times due to further loss of moisture and fat

  11. Diet and heart health: moderate wine drinking strengthens the cardioprotective effects of fish consumption.

    PubMed

    de Leiris, J; Besse, S; Boucher, F

    2010-12-01

    Growing evidence indicates that the Mediterranean diet is beneficial to human health. Many epidemiological and research studies have reported that this diet pattern is able to limit the development and progression of coronary heart disease, one of the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in both developed and developing countries worldwide. There is now a large consensus about recommending Mediterranean diet to reduce atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease and to limit the risk of fatal complications such as sudden cardiac death and heart failure. This review underlines the role of two of the specific components of the Mediterranean diet, namely marine omega-3 fatty acids and wine, and the link between moderate wine consumption and fatty acid profiles.

  12. Fish oil and olive oil-rich diets modify ozone-induced cardiovascular effect in rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Air pollution exposure has been associated with adverse cardiovascular health effects. Our clinical studies suggest that fish oil (FO) and olive oil (OO) supplementations attenuate the cardiovascular responses to inhaled concentrated ambient particles. This study was...

  13. Decreasing the number of small eating occasions (<15 % of total energy intake) regardless of the time of day may be important to improve diet quality but not adiposity: a cross-sectional study in British children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Kentaro; Livingstone, M Barbara E

    2016-01-28

    Evidence of associations between meal frequency (MF) and snack frequency (SF) and diet and obesity in young populations is limited. This cross-sectional study examined MF and SF in relation to dietary intake and adiposity measures in British children aged 4-10 years (n 818) and adolescents aged 11-18 years (n 818). Based on data from a 7-d weighed dietary record, all eating occasions were divided into meals or snacks on the basis of contribution to energy intake (≥15 or <15 %) or time (06.00-10.00, 12.00-15.00 and 18.00-21.00 hours or others). All measures of MF and SF showed positive associations with energy intake, except for MF based on energy contribution in children. Irrespective of the definition of snacks, SF was associated with higher intakes of soft drinks, confectionery and total sugar, lower intakes of cereals, fish, meat, protein, PUFA, starch and dietary fibre, and a lower diet quality (assessed by the Mediterranean diet score, except for SF based on energy contribution in adolescents). MF based on time, but not based on energy contribution, was associated with higher intakes of confectionery and total sugar, lower intakes of fish, protein, PUFA and starch, and, only in children, a lower diet quality. All measures of MF and SF showed no association with adiposity measures. In conclusion, this cross-sectional study in British children and adolescents suggests that decreasing the number of small eating occasions (<15 % of total energy intake) regardless of the time of day may be important to improve diet quality but not adiposity.

  14. A total diet study and probabilistic assessment risk assessment of dietary mercury exposure among First Nations living on-reserve in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Juric, Amanda K; Batal, Malek; David, Will; Sharp, Donald; Schwartz, Harold; Ing, Amy; Fediuk, Karen; Black, Andrew; Tikhonov, Constantine; Chan, Hing Man

    2017-10-01

    Methyl Mercury (MeHg) exposure is a global environmental health concern. Indigenous peoples around the world are susceptible to MeHg exposure from often higher fish consumption compared to general populations. The objective of this study was to estimate dietary exposure to methylmercury (MeHg) among First Nations living on-reserve in the province of Ontario, Canada. A total diet study was constructed based on a 24-h recall from the First Nations Food, Nutrition, and Environment Study (FNFNES), and measured contaminant concentrations from Health Canada for market foods, and FNFNES for traditional foods. A probabilistic assessment of annual and seasonal traditional food consumptions was conducted for 1429 adult participants. Results were compared to exposures in the general Canadian population and reference values from Health Canada for adults and women of childbearing age (ages 19-50). Results indicated traditional foods to be the primary contributor to the dietary total MeHg intake (72%). The average dietary total MeHg exposure in the First Nations population in Ontario (0.039μg/kg/d) was 1.6 times higher than the general Canadian population; however, the majority (97.8%) of the population was below the reference values. Mercury concentrations in participants' hair samples (n = 744) ranged from 0.03 to 13.54µg/g, with an average of 0.64µg/g (geometric average of 0.27µg/g). Less than 1% of the population had a hair mercury value above the 6µg/g level, and 1.3% of women of child bearing age had values greater than 2µg/g. Fish species contributing to the MeHg intake included pickerel-walleye, pike, perch and trout. Only 7.9% of the population met the recommended fish consumption rate of two, 3.5oz servings per week from the American Heart Association. Therefore, consumption of lower trophic level fish can be promoted to provide the maximum nutritional benefit with minimal risk of MeHg exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Estimation of uncertainty of a reference material for proficiency testing for the determination of total mercury in fish in nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santana, L. V.; Sarkis, J. E. S.; Ulrich, J. C.; Hortellani, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    We provide an uncertainty estimates for homogeneity and stability studies of reference material used in proficiency test for determination of total mercury in fish fresh muscle tissue. Stability was estimated by linear regression and homogeneity by ANOVA. The results indicate that the reference material is both homogeneous and chemically stable over the short term. Total mercury concentration of the muscle tissue, with expanded uncertainty, was 0.294 ± 0.089 μg g-1.

  16. Occurrence of 13 volatile organic compounds in foods from the Canadian total diet study.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xu-Liang; Sparling, Melissa; Dabeka, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are ubiquitous in the environment due to evaporation and incomplete combustion of fuels, use of consumer and personal care products, etc. and they can accumulate in foods. Some VOCs in foods can also be formed during food processing and preparation and migrate from food packaging. In this pilot study, a GC-MS method based on headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was validated and used to analyse selected individual foods which can be consumed directly and 153 different total diet composite food samples for 13 VOCs. Vinyl chloride was not detected in any of the 153 composite food samples, while the other 12 VOCs were detected at various frequencies, with m-xylene being the most frequently detected (in 151 of the 153 samples), followed by toluene (145), 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (140), ethylbenzene (139), styrene (133), 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene (122), benzene (96), p-dichlorobenzene (95), n-butylbenzene (55), chloroform (45), naphthalene (45) and trichloroethylene (31). Concentrations of the 12 VOCs in most of the food composite samples were low, with the 90th percentiles from 1.6 ng g(-1) for n-butylbenzene to 20 ng g(-1) for toluene. However, some VOCs were detected at higher levels with maxima, for example, of 948 ng g(-1) for m-xylene and 320 ng g(-1) for ethylbenzene in chewing gum, 207 ng g(-1) for styrene and 157 ng g(-1) for toluene in herbs and spices. VOCs were detected at higher levels in most of the individual food items than their corresponding composite samples, for example, the average chloroform concentration in the individual canned soft drinks was 20 ng g(-1) compared with 3.0 ng g(-1) in their composite, and the average toluene concentration in the individual canned citrus juice was 96 ng g(-1) compared with 0.68 ng g(-1) in their composite. Thus, for determination of VOCs in foods which can be consumed directly, their individual food items should be analysed whenever possible for accurate

  17. Changes in forage fish community indicated by the diet of the Brandt's cormorant (Phalacrocorax penicillatus) in the central California Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, Meredith L.; Bradley, Russell W.; Robinette, Dan P.; Jahncke, Jaime

    2015-06-01

    The population, productivity and diet of two Brandt's cormorant (Phalacrocorax penicillatus) colonies located in the central California Current were compared. The offshore colony on Southeast Farallon Island has experienced a declining population over time and anomalously low productivity in recent years. The nearshore colony near Point Arguello has been increasing and its productivity has remained stable. The diets of cormorants at the two colonies elucidated by analysis of regurgitated pellets, while different, have shown similar decreases in the consumption of northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax) since 2008, followed by increased consumption of rockfish (Sebastes spp.) and flatfish (order Pleuronectiformes). By using the diet results from another seabird nesting in central California, the rhinoceros auklet (Cerorhinca monocerata), and one from which whole fish can be obtained, we found that the rockfish species assemblage has changed with offshore rockfish species decreasing while nearshore ones have increased. This change in the rockfish species has negatively impacted Brandt's cormorants at the offshore colony by forcing them to make longer foraging trips to meet energy needs of themselves and their chicks; this has led to low breeding success and a declining population at this site. On the other hand, the nearshore colony has abundant nearby food resources, and it has prospered. These results underscore the value of using seabird data from multiple colonies to better understand changes occurring in the marine environment.

  18. You are what you eat: diet-induced chemical crypsis in a coral-feeding reef fish

    PubMed Central

    Brooker, Rohan M.; Munday, Philip L.; Chivers, Douglas P.; Jones, Geoffrey P.

    2015-01-01

    The vast majority of research into the mechanisms of camouflage has focused on forms that confound visual perception. However, many organisms primarily interact with their surroundings using chemosensory systems and may have evolved mechanisms to ‘blend in’ with chemical components of their habitat. One potential mechanism is ‘chemical crypsis' via the sequestration of dietary elements, causing a consumer's odour to chemically match that of its prey. Here, we test the potential for chemical crypsis in the coral-feeding filefish, Oxymonacanthus longirostris, by examining olfactory discrimination in obligate coral-dwelling crabs and a predatory cod. The crabs, which inhabit the corals consumed by O. longirostris, were used as a bioassay to determine the effect of coral diet on fish odour. Crabs preferred the odour of filefish fed their preferred coral over the odour of filefish fed a non-preferred coral, suggesting coral-specific dietary elements that influence odour are sequestered. Crabs also exhibited a similar preference for the odour of filefish fed their preferred coral and odour directly from that coral, suggesting a close chemical match. In behavioural trials, predatory cod were less attracted to filefish odour when presented alongside the coral it had been fed on, suggesting diet can reduce detectability. This is, we believe, the first evidence of diet-induced chemical crypsis in a vertebrate. PMID:25621328

  19. You are what you eat: diet-induced chemical crypsis in a coral-feeding reef fish.

    PubMed

    Brooker, Rohan M; Munday, Philip L; Chivers, Douglas P; Jones, Geoffrey P

    2015-01-22

    The vast majority of research into the mechanisms of camouflage has focused on forms that confound visual perception. However, many organisms primarily interact with their surroundings using chemosensory systems and may have evolved mechanisms to 'blend in' with chemical components of their habitat. One potential mechanism is 'chemical crypsis' via the sequestration of dietary elements, causing a consumer's odour to chemically match that of its prey. Here, we test the potential for chemical crypsis in the coral-feeding filefish, Oxymonacanthus longirostris, by examining olfactory discrimination in obligate coral-dwelling crabs and a predatory cod. The crabs, which inhabit the corals consumed by O. longirostris, were used as a bioassay to determine the effect of coral diet on fish odour. Crabs preferred the odour of filefish fed their preferred coral over the odour of filefish fed a non-preferred coral, suggesting coral-specific dietary elements that influence odour are sequestered. Crabs also exhibited a similar preference for the odour of filefish fed their preferred coral and odour directly from that coral, suggesting a close chemical match. In behavioural trials, predatory cod were less attracted to filefish odour when presented alongside the coral it had been fed on, suggesting diet can reduce detectability. This is, we believe, the first evidence of diet-induced chemical crypsis in a vertebrate.

  20. Distributions of total mercury and methylmercury in surface sediments and fishes in Lake Shihwa, Korea.

    PubMed

    Oh, Sehee; Kim, Moon-Kyung; Yi, Seung-Muk; Zoh, Kyung-Duk

    2010-02-01

    The concentrations of total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in the sediments of Lake Shihwa, an artificial salt lake in Korea located near two large industrial complexes, were determined to investigate the state of Hg contamination in the lake sediments and the effect of local Hg source. THg and MeHg concentrations in the sediments, monitored for 2 years, ranged from 0.02 to 0.28 microg g(-1) and fish species in this lake ranged from 9.8 to 35 ng g(-1), suggesting that the bioavailability of sediment Hg in the lake may be low. Although the THg concentrations in Lake Shihwa sediment were lower than those in other foreign study sites, they were higher than in neighboring coastal regions, and are constantly increasing. This result indicates that the nearby industrial complexes may be the major source of Hg found in the sediments of Lake Shihwa. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. An evaluation of extraction techniques for arsenic in staple diets (fish and rice) utilising both classical and enzymatic extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Sadee, Bashdar A; Foulkes, Mike E; Hill, Steve J

    2016-01-01

    Enzymatic extraction methods were evaluated with classical extraction approaches for the determination of arsenic in food. The extraction efficiency for total arsenic was determined by analysing CRM materials DORM-3 fish protein, NIES 106 rice flour and GBW10015 spinach. These were compared with total arsenic concentration determined using microwave-assisted acid digestion and ICP-MS. The total arsenic concentrations in the CRM materials were in good agreement with the certified values. Enzymatic hydrolysis using trypsin has been successfully employed to extract arsenic species in DORM-3 and fish samples. Whilst this method of hydrolysing the proteins worked well for the fish samples, an alternative approach was required to facilitate the digestion of cellulose in plant materials. However, enzymatic extraction using cellulase was found to give unsatisfactory results for both the NIES and GBW10015 CRM materials. Dilute nitric acid (1% HNO3) was found to give a more efficient extraction for arsenic species in the same CRM materials and rice samples. The study was extended to evaluate a range of real samples. Total arsenic concentrations in 13 different types of fish tissue were determined following microwave-assisted acid digestion using nitric acid/hydrogen peroxide, followed by measurement using HPLC-ICP-MS for speciation analysis. The results obtained for fish were in the range of 3.53-98.80 µg g(-1) As (dry weight). Similarly, the results of 17 rice samples were in the range of 0.054-0.823 µg g(-1). This study demonstrates the importance of selecting an appropriate extraction technique for the quantitative measurement of arsenic species in food.

  2. Fish are central in the diet of Amazonian riparians: should we worry about their mercury concentrations?

    PubMed

    Dorea, Jose G

    2003-07-01

    The Amazon rain forest extends over an area of 7.8x10(6)km(2) in nine countries. It harbors a diverse human population distributed in dense cities and isolated communities with extreme levels of infrastructure. Amazonian forest people, either autochthons or frontier riparians (ribeirinhos) living in isolated areas, share the same environment for survival and nutritional status. The peculiarities of the hydrological cycle determine disease patterns, agricultural conditions, and food availability. Feeding strategies depend heavily on cassava products and fish. These two foods carry toxic substances such as linamarin (naturally present in cassava) and monomethyl mercury (MMHg) (bioconcentrated in fish flesh) that cause neurotoxic diseases in other parts of the world but not in Amazonia, where neurotoxic cases of food origin are rare and not related to these staples. While cassava detoxification processes may partly explain its safe consumption, the Hg concentrations in Amazonian fish are within traditionally safe limits for this population and contribute to an important metabolic interaction with cassava. The gold rush of the 1970s and 1980s brought large-scale environmental disruption and physical destruction of ecosystems at impact points, along with a heavy discharge of metallic Hg. The discharged Hg has not yet impacted on MMHg concentrations in fish or in hair of fish consumers. Hair Hg concentration, used as a biomarker of fish consumption, indicates that the Amazonian riparians are acquiring an excellent source of protein carrying important nutrients, the lack of which could aggravate their existing health problems. Therefore, in a scenario of insufficient health services and an unhealthy environment, food habits based on fish consumption are part of a successful survival strategy and recommendations for changes are not yet justifiable.

  3. Improvement of nutritive value of grass pea (Lathyrus sativus) seed meal in the formulated diets for rohu, Labeo rohita (Hamilton) fingerlings after fermentation with a fish gut bacterium.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, S; Bairagi, A; Ray, A K

    2005-09-01

    Eight isonitrogenous (35% crude protein approximately) and isocaloric (4.0 kcalg(-1) approximately) diets were formulated incorporating raw and fermented grass pea (Lathyrus sativus) seed meal at 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% levels by weight into a fish meal based diet and fed to rohu, Labeo rohita, fingerlings for 80 days and fish performance was studied. A particular bacterial strain (Bacillus sp.) isolated from the intestine of adult common carp (Cyprinus carpio) reared in the wild having significant amylolytic, cellulolytic, lipolytic and proteolytic activities were used for fermentation of seed meal for 15 days at 37 degrees C. Fermentation of grass pea seed meal was effective in significantly reducing the crude fibre content and anti-nutritional factors, such as tannins, phytic acid and the neurotoxin, beta-ODAP and enhancing the available free amino acids and fatty acids. In terms of growth response, feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio, 30% fermented grass pea seed meal incorporated diet resulted in significantly (P < 0.05) better performance of rohu fingerlings. In general, growth and feed utilization efficiencies of fish fed diets containing fermented seed meal were superior to those fed diets containing raw seed meal. The apparent protein digestibility (APD) values decreased with increasing levels of raw seed meal in the diets. The APD for raw seed meal was lower at all levels of inclusion in comparison to those for the fermented seed meals. The highest deposition of carcass protein was recorded in fish fed the diet containing 40% fermented seed meal. The results indicated that fermented grass pea seed meal can be incorporated in carp diets up to 30% level compared to 10% level of raw seed meal.

  4. The effect of supplementing organic diets with fish meal and premix on the performance of pigs and some meat and blood characteristics.

    PubMed

    Grela, E R; Matras, J; Pisarski, R K; Sobolewska, S

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of fish meal and mineral-vitamin premix, supplementing organic diets, on the performance of pigs and some meat and blood characteristics. The experiment was conducted on an organic pig fattening farm. The study involved 120 pigs with an approximate 25 kg body weight. Animals were divided into 3 groups, kept in pens, 10 animals each. Group I (control) animals were fed with plant feedstuffs of organic origin. Diets for group II and III were enriched with fish meal or fish meal and vitamin-mineral premix, respectively. The experiment was carried out till pigs reached a weight of 115 kg. Feed samples were subjected to laboratory analyses. Body weight (3 times) and feed intake were recorded. Blood samples were collected (2 times) to determine hematological and biochemical indices. Some parameters in meat samples were also determined. The fish meal addition improved (P < or = 0.05) the average daily gains as well as feed conversion ratio during fattening period and mineral-vitamin premix significantly (P < or = 0.05) fortified fish meal influence. Fish meal supplement improved (P < or = 0.05) also some carcass characteristics. Supplementation of the diet with premix additionally decreased (P < or = 0.05) backfat thickness and increased share of meat in carcass. Fish meal improved (P < or = 0.05) some meat characteristics and elevated content of some polyunsaturated fatty acids. An increase in hemoglobin, red blood cell, white blood cell and cholesterol level in blood of animals from both experimental groups were also found. The results obtained proved the usefulness of fish meal and mineral-vitamin premix in the fatteners nutrition based on organic diets.

  5. Improvement in the high-fat diet-induced dyslipidemia and adiponectin levels by fish oil feeding combined with food restriction in obese KKAy mice.

    PubMed

    Wakutsu, Masaki; Tsunoda, Nobuyo; Mochi, Yasuki; Numajiri, Mitsuki; Shiba, Sachiko; Muraki, Etsuko; Kasono, Keizo

    2012-01-01

    The effect on weight reduction of fish oil combined with food restriction in comparison with that of beef tallow was investigated in high-fat diet-induced obese KKAy mice. Although the reduction of body and white adipose tissue weight was similar in the two groups, fish oil increased adiponectin levels in the plasma, improved dyslipidemia accompanied by suppression of lipid synthesis in the liver when compared with beef tallow.

  6. Effects of totally synthetic, low phenylalanine diet on adolescent phenylketonuric patients

    PubMed Central

    McKean, Charles M.

    1971-01-01

    The long-term responses of 5 adolescent phenylketonuric patients to chemically-defined, synthetic diets with normal and low phenylalanine content were determined. The synthetic preparations were found capable of sustaining good health and rapid growth in this group of profoundly retarded, behaviourally disturbed patients over a 3½-year period without clinical or biochemical evidence of nutritional inadequacy. 4 of these patients who were treated for 6 months on a comparable diet, in which 80% of the phenylalanine was replaced by tyrosine, continued to show weight maintenance and height increases. There was no evidence of poor acceptability of the imbalanced diet, whether the blood phenylalanine concentrations were at phenylketonuric or treatment levels. The phenylalanine intake required to maintain blood phenylalanine concentrations of 3-5 mg/100 ml in these 4 patients was well below normal requirements, and ranged between 6·8 and 20·1 mg/kg per day. Predictably, the phenylalanine requirement varied with individual growth rates. All 4 treated patients had objective signs of improved central nervous system function during the six-month period on the phenylalanine-restricted diet. These electrophysiological and behavioural improvements were manifest after blood phenylalanine concentrations fell below 12 mg/100 ml in 3 cases and below 5 mg/100 ml in the fourth. PMID:5118048

  7. Effect of estrogenic activity, and phytoestrogen and organochlorine pesticide contents in an experimental fish diet on reproduction and hepatic vitellogenin production in medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    PubMed

    Inudo, Makiko; Ishibashi, Hiroshi; Matsumura, Naomi; Matsuoka, Munekazu; Mori, Taiki; Taniyama, Shigeto; Kadokami, Kiwao; Koga, Minoru; Shinohara, Ryota; Hutchinson, T H; Iguchi, Taisen; Arizono, Koji

    2004-12-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are giving rise to serious concerns for humans and wildlife. Phytoestrogens, such as daidzein and genistein in plants, and organochlorine pesticides are suspected EDCs, because their chemical structure is similar to that of natural or synthetic estrogens and they have estrogenic activity in vitro and in vivo. We assessed estrogenic activity and dietary phytoestrogen and organochlorine pesticide contents of various fish diets made in the United Kingdom, and compared them with those features of diets made in Japan that were tested in a previous study. Genistein and daidzein were detected in all of the diets. Using an in vitro bioassay, many of these diets had higher activation of estrogen beta-receptors than estrogen alpha-receptors. Organochlorine pesticides such as hexachlorobenzene, beta-benzene hexachloride (BHC), and gamma-BHC were detected in all fish diets. On the basis of these data, we investigated the effect of differing dietary phytoestrogen content in Japanese fish diets on hepatic vitellogenin production and reproduction (fecundity and fertility) in medaka (Oryzias latipes). Assessment of the effects of a 28-day feeding period on reproduction of paired medaka did not indicate significant differences in the number of eggs produced and fertility among all feeding groups. However, hepatic vitellogenin values were significantly higher for male medaka fed diet C (genistein, 58.5 +/- 0.6 microg/g; daidzein, 37.3 +/- 0.2 microg/g) for 28 days compared with those fed diet A (genistein, < 0.8 microg/g; daidzein, < 0.8 microg/g) or diet B (genistein, 1.4 +/- 0.1 microg/g; daidzein, 2.0 +/- 0.1 microg/g). Our findings indicate that fish diets containing high amounts of phytoestrogens, such as diet C, have the potential to induce hepatic vitellogenin production in male medaka, even if reproductive parameters are unaffected. Therefore, some diets, by affecting vitellogenin production in males, may alter estrogenic activity of in

  8. Total mercury concentrations in fillets of bluegill, redear sunfish, largemouth bass, and other fishes from Lake Natoma, Sacramento County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saiki, M.K.; Martin, B.A.; May, T.W.; Alpers, C.N.

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted during September-October 2002 to verify preliminary findings of elevated total mercury concentrations in skinless fillets of sportfishes inhabiting Lake Natoma. Although we measured total mercury concentrations, most mercury in fish flesh occurs in the methylated form. In August 2000, other investigators collected a small number of fish containing mercury concentrations that exceeded 0.30 ??g/g wet weight, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) tissue residue criterion derived from a reference dose for methylmercury that may cause undesirable neurological abnormalities in human infants exposed in utero when pregnant women consume mercury-contaminated foods. During our study, skinless fillets of bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus, contained as much as 0.19 ??g Hg/g wet weight (1.06 ??g Hg/g dry weight); redear sunfish, L. microlophus, contained as much as 0.39 ??g Hg/g wetweight (1.99 ??g Hg/g dry weight); and largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides, contained as much as 0.86 ??g Hg/g wet weight (3.85 ??g Hg/g dry weight). Maximum concentrations of mercury in other fish species varied from 0.097 ??g/g wet weight (0.537 ??g/g dry weight) in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, to 0.56 ??g/g wet weight (3.07 ??g/g dry weight) in white catfish, Ameiurus catus. Altogether, 1 of 20 redear sunfish, 14 of 61 largemouth bass, 1 of 1 brown builhead, A. nebulosus, 2 of 3 spotted bass, M. punctulatus, and 1 of 1 white catfish exceeded the USEPA fish tissue methylmercury residue criterion. Only bluegill and largemouth bass exhibited significant correlations between fish total length (TL), weight, and age, and total mercury concentration in fillets. Judging from a best-fit power-curve equation, largemouth bass measuring 273 mm TL (roughly 292g) or larger are estimated to contain total mercury concentrations in their fillets that exceed the USEPA fish tissue methylmercury criterion. These results confirmed that some fish species inhabiting Lake Natoma

  9. A low-fat diet enriched in fish oil increased lipogenesis and fetal outcome of C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Akerele, Olatunji A; Cheema, Sukhinder K

    2017-08-01

    There is clear evidence that nutritional strategy employed during pregnancy has profound influence on the offspring health outcomes. However, the effect of the quality and the quantity of maternal fat intake on maternal metabolic profile during different stages of pregnancy and its impact on pregnancy sustainability is not known. Female C57BL/6 mice (7 weeks old) were fed diets varying in the quantity of fat (5% vs 11%) for two weeks prior to mating and throughout pregnancy. The 5% fat diet was enriched with longer chain omega (n)-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) from fish oil. Maternal plasma and tissues were collected before mating and during pregnancy at days 6.5, 12.5 and 18.5. Plasma lipids, glucose, insulin, progesterone and estradiol levels were measured. Cholesterol efflux capacity of maternal plasma as well as the mRNA expression of placental steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and hepatic lipogenic genes (acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1, fatty acid synthase, diacylglycerol acyltransferase-2 and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1) was determined. Feto-placental weight and fetuses sustained throughout gestation were recorded. A low-fat maternal diet enriched with n-3 PUFA increased maternal plasma triacylglycerol and the mRNA expression of rate-limiting lipogenic enzymes, along with increasing cholesterol efflux capacity (P < 0.05), likely to meet fetal lipid demand during pregnancy. Furthermore, diet enriched with longer chain n-3 PUFA increased the maternal plasma concentration of progesterone and estradiol during pregnancy (P < 0.05), which coincides with an increase in the number of fetuses sustained till day 18.5. These novel findings may be important when designing dietary strategies to optimize reproductive capability and pregnancy outcomes. © 2017 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  10. Dietary supplementation with fish oil alters the expression levels of proteins governing mitochondrial dynamics and prevents high-fat diet-induced endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ruifang; Wang, Xiaoming; Liu, Yan; Xia, Min

    2014-07-28

    Diets supplemented with fish oil (FO), which is rich in n-3 PUFA, have been shown to modify several key risk factors for CVD. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of FO supplementation on mitochondrial dynamic protein expression in the endothelium and on endothelial cell function. Male apoE-deficient (apoE-/-) mice (8 weeks old, n 12 per group) were fed a high-fat diet containing 45% fat (HFD group) or a HFD with partial replacement of lard with 10% (w/w) FO (FO group) (total EPA and DHA content 64.1 g/kg) for 8 weeks. ApoE-/- mice in the FO group had a greater endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation response to acetylcholine (Ach) than those in the HFD group. The atherosclerotic lesion volume in the aortic sinus of mice in the FO group was 54% lower than that in the HFD group (P< 0.01). In addition, the aortas isolated from mice in the FO group had higher expression levels of Mfn2 and Opa1 but lower expression levels of Fis1 than those from the HFD group. Compared with mice fed the HFD, those fed the FO diet showed significantly lower levels of mitochondrial oxidative stress, cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activity (each P< 0.05). Furthermore, FO-fed mice displayed increased NO release and availability and enhanced endothelial NO synthase activity compared with HFD-fed mice. Taken together, these results reveal a novel mechanism by which FO protects against endothelial cell dysfunction, which may result in improved mitochondrial dynamics.

  11. Assessment of dietary intake of polychlorinated biphenyls from a total diet study conducted in Pavia, Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Turci, R; Turconi, G; Comizzoli, S; Roggi, C; Minoia, C

    2006-09-01

    The diet is considered to be the main source of body burden of polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) in the general population. The most cost-effective and reliable way to estimate the dietary intake is based on total diet studies (TDSs). The aim of the present study was to provide a reliable estimate of recent average dietary intakes of PCBs in Northern Italy. Congener-specific analysis of PCBs was undertaken on total diet samples collected at the cafeteria of the University of Pavia. The average daily intake for total PCBs was calculated to be 0.26 microg/person day-1. The major contributor to PCB intake was accounted for by pooled samples of bread, cereals and potatoes, followed by the protein composite, and fruit and vegetables. Although diverse dietary habits and differences in sampling and analytical procedures make comparison between different studies difficult, the daily intake of PCBs in Northern Italy can be located in the lower part of the range for values reported in the literature.

  12. Determination of total mercury in fish and sea products by direct thermal decomposition atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Panichev, N A; Panicheva, S E

    2015-01-01

    A Zeeman Mercury analyzer Model RA-915(+) (Lumex, St. Petersburg, Russia), based on the direct thermal evaporation of Hg from solid samples was used for developing a method for the determination of Hg in fish and other seafood. The method does not require any chemical pretreatment of samples. This greatly simplifies the analytical procedure and minimises potential sources of contamination. The limit of detection (3s criteria) and limit of quantification (10 s criteria) for the determination of Hg in wet fish samples with a mass of 250 mg was found to be 0.6 ng g(-1) and 2.0 ng g(-1), respectively. Time taken for the analysis of one sample is about 3 min. The accuracy of the method was confirmed by the analysis of certified reference materials of different types and by comparative analysis of fish samples using the accepted method of cold vapour generation. Excellent correspondence to the certified values was obtained. It was found that the mercury concentration in most fish species purchased from the Tshwane fish market were below the 0.5 mg kg(-1) (500 ng g(-1)), wet weight, recommended by the FAO/WHO. It was also found that the direct thermal decomposition method for the determination of mercury is a more environmentally friendly alternative since it does not generate chemical waste. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Stable isotope analysis of fish mucus during a controlled diet switch

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have used a controlled diet switch in steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) at the Oregon Hatchery Research Center to study the time rates of changes in stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen (13C and 15N) in epidermal mucus, a rapidly responding “tissue.” Because of the ra...

  14. Fish mucus as a rapidly responding tissue in diet switching studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    We are using stable isotopes of C, N, O and S (H planned) to study the ecology of coho salmon in streams of the Oregon Coast Range. One aspect of our work focuses on the incorporation of marine-derived nutrients into the diet of overwintering coho salmon juveniles. These studie...

  15. Fish mucus as a rapid responding tissue in diet switching studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    We are using stable isotopes of C, N, O and S (H planned) to study the ecology of coho salmon in streams of the Oregon Coast Range. One aspect of our work focuses on the incorporation of marine-derived nutrients into the diet of overwintering coho salmon juveniles. These studie...

  16. Fish mucus as a rapid responding tissue in diet switching studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    We are using stable isotopes of C, N, O and S (H planned) to study the ecology of coho salmon in streams of the Oregon Coast Range. One aspect of our work focuses on the incorporation of marine-derived nutrients into the diet of overwintering coho salmon juveniles. These studie...

  17. Fish mucus as a rapidly responding tissue in diet switching studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    We are using stable isotopes of C, N, O and S (H planned) to study the ecology of coho salmon in streams of the Oregon Coast Range. One aspect of our work focuses on the incorporation of marine-derived nutrients into the diet of overwintering coho salmon juveniles. These studie...

  18. Analysis of stable isotopes in fish mucus during a controlled diet switch

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have used a controlled diet switch in steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) at the Oregon Hatchery Research Center to study the time rates of changes in stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen (13C and 15N) in epidermal mucus, a rapidly responding “tissue.” Because of the ra...

  19. Stable isotope analysis of fish mucus during a controlled diet switch

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have used a controlled diet switch in steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) at the Oregon Hatchery Research Center to study the time rates of changes in stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen (13C and 15N) in epidermal mucus, a rapidly responding “tissue.” Because of the ra...

  20. Application of diet theory reveals context-dependent foraging preferences in an herbivorous coral reef fish.

    PubMed

    Hanmer, John; White, J Wilson; Pawlik, Joseph R

    2017-03-23

    Dietary preferences of grazers can drive spatial variability in top-down control of autotroph communities, because diet composition may depend on the relative availability of autotroph species. On Caribbean coral reefs, parrotfish grazing is important in limiting macroalgae, but parrotfish dietary preferences are poorly understood. We applied diet-switching analysis to quantify the foraging preferences of the redband parrotfish (Sparisoma aurofrenatum). At 12 Caribbean reefs, we observed 293 redband parrotfish in 5-min feeding bouts and quantified relative benthic algal cover using quadrats. The primary diet items were macroalgal turfs, Halimeda spp., and foliose macroalgae (primarily Dictyota spp. and Lobophora spp.). When each resource was evaluated independently, there were only weak relationships between resource cover and foraging effort (number of bites taken). Electivity for each resource also showed no pattern, varying from positive (preference for the resource) to negative (avoidance) across sites. However, a diet-switching analysis consisting of pairwise comparisons of relative cover and relative foraging effort revealed clearer patterns: parrotfish (a) preferred Halimeda and macroalgal turfs equally, and those two resources were highly substitutable; (b) preferred Halimeda to foliose macroalgae, but those two resources were complementary; and (c) also preferred turf to foliose macroalgae, and those resources were also complementary. Thus parrotfish grazing rates depend on relative, not absolute, abundance of macroalgal types, due to differences in substitutability among resources. Application of similar analyses may help predict potential changes in foraging effort of benthic grazers over spatial gradients that could inform expectations for reef recovery following the protection of herbivore populations.

  1. Analysis of stable isotopes in fish mucus during a controlled diet switch

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have used a controlled diet switch in steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) at the Oregon Hatchery Research Center to study the time rates of changes in stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen (13C and 15N) in epidermal mucus, a rapidly responding “tissue.” Because of the ra...

  2. The effects of diets containing standard soybean oil, soybean oil enhanced with conjugated linoleic acids, menhaden fish oil, or an algal docosahexaenoic acid supplement on juvenile channel catfish performance, hematology

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Current commercial diets for Channel Catfish contain little or no marine fish oil to reduce diet cost and address environmental concerns. However, there is conflicting data on the effects of fish oil and other lipid sources in juvenile Channel Catfish, and some novel lipids have not been tested agai...

  3. Comparing the effects of feeding a grain- or a fish meal-based diet on water quality, waste production, and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss performance within low exchange water recirculating aquaculture systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Feeding a fish meal-free grain-based diet (GB) was compared to feeding a fish meal-based diet (FM) relative to water quality criteria, waste production, water treatment process performance, and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss performance within six replicated water recirculating aquaculture system...

  4. [Estimation of dietary intake of radioactive materials by total diet methods].

    PubMed

    Uekusa, Yoshinori; Nabeshi, Hiromi; Tsutsumi, Tomoaki; Hachisuka, Akiko; Matsuda, Rieko; Teshima, Reiko

    2014-01-01

    Radioactive contamination in foods is a matter of great concern after the Tokyo Electric Power Company's Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant disaster caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake. In order to estimate human intake and annual committed effective dose of radioactive materials, market basket and duplicate diet samples from various areas in Japan were analyzed for cesium-134 ((134)Cs), -137 ((137)Cs), and natural radionuclide potassium-40 ((40)K) by γ-ray spectroscopy. Dietary intake of radioactive cesium around Fukushima area was somewhat higher than in other areas. However, maximum committed effective doses obtained by the market basket and duplicate diet samples were 0.0094 and 0.027 mSv/year, respectively, which are much lower than the maximum permissible dose (1 mSv/year) in foods in Japan.

  5. Coconut, Fish, and Olive Oil-Rich Diets Modify Ozone-Induced Metabolic Effects

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pulmonary health effects of ozone (O3) exposure are well known; however, the cardiovascular and metabolic consequences are still under investigation. Fish oil (FO) and olive oil (OO) dietary supplementation have several cardioprotective benefits, but it is not established if thes...

  6. Coconut, Fish, and Olive Oil-Rich Diets Modify Ozone-Induced Metabolic Effects

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pulmonary health effects of ozone (O3) exposure are well known; however, the cardiovascular and metabolic consequences are still under investigation. Fish oil (FO) and olive oil (OO) dietary supplementation have several cardioprotective benefits, but it is not established if thes...

  7. Total Western Diet (TWD) alters mechanical and thermal sensitivity and prolongs hypersensitivity following Complete Freund’s Adjuvant in mice

    PubMed Central

    Totsch, Stacie K.; Waite, Megan E.; Tomkovich, Ashleigh; Quinn, Tammie L.; Gower, Barbara A.; Sorge, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and chronic pain are often comorbid and their rates are rising. It is currently unknown whether increased pain is due to greater weight or poor diet quality, or both. Therefore, we utilized a Total Western Diet (TWD) to investigate the functional and physiological consequences of nutritionally-poor diet in mice. During thirteen weeks on the commercially-available TWD, based on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), thresholds of TWD-fed mice significantly increased in both thermal and mechanical tests. Quantitative magnetic resonance (QMR) imaging revealed a significant increase in fat mass with a concomitant decrease in lean mass, in the TWD-fed mice. Additionally, there were significant increases in serum leptin and inflammatory cytokines. Following chronic pain induction using Complete Freund’s Adjuvant (CFA), hypersensitivity was more pronounced and significantly prolonged in the TWD-fed mice. Therefore, prolonged exposure to poor diet quality resulted in altered acute nociceptive sensitivity, systemic inflammation and persistent pain following inflammatory pain induction. PMID:26597348

  8. Total mercury distribution in different tissues of six species of freshwater fish from the Kpong hydroelectric reservoir in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Atta, Alhassan; Voegborlo, Ray Bright; Agorku, Eric Selorm

    2012-05-01

    Total mercury concentrations were determined in seven tissues of 38 fish samples comprising six species from the Kpong hydroelectric reservoir in Ghana by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry technique using an automatic mercury analyzer. Mercury concentration in all the tissues ranged from 0.005 to 0.022 μg/g wet weight. In general, the concentration of mercury in all the tissues were decreasing in the order; liver > muscle > intestine > stomach > gonad > gill > swim bladder. Mercury concentration was generally greater in the tissues of high-trophic-level fish such as Clarotes laticeps, Mormyrops anguilloides and Chrysichthys aurutus whereas low-trophic-level fish such as Oreochromis niloticus recorded low mercury concentration in their tissues. The results obtained for total mercury concentration in the muscle tissues analysed in this study are below the WHO/FAO threshold limit of 0.5 μg/g. This suggests that the exposure of the general public to Hg through fish consumption can be considered negligible.

  9. A macadamia nut-rich diet reduces total and LDL-cholesterol in mildly hypercholesterolemic men and women.

    PubMed

    Griel, Amy E; Cao, Yumei; Bagshaw, Deborah D; Cifelli, Amy M; Holub, Bruce; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2008-04-01

    Epidemiologic studies and clinical trials have demonstrated that the unique fatty acid profile of nuts beneficially affects serum lipids/lipoproteins, reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Nuts are low in SFA and high in PUFA and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). Macadamia nuts are a rich source of MUFA. A randomized, crossover, controlled feeding study (5-wk diet periods) compared a Macadamia nut-rich diet [42.5 g (1.5 ounces)/8.79 MJ (2100 kcal)] [MAC; 33% total fat (7% SFA, 18% MUFA, 5% PUFA)] vs. an average American diet [AAD; 33% total fat (13% SFA, 11% MUFA, 5% PUFA)] on the lipid/lipoprotein profile of mildly hypercholesterolemic (n = 25; 15 female, 10 male) subjects. Serum concentrations of total cholesterol (TC) and LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) following the MAC (4.94 +/- 0.17 mmol/L, 3.14 +/- 0.14 mmol/L) were lower than the AAD (5.45 +/- 0.17 mmol/L, 3.44 +/- 0.14 mmol/L; P < 0.05). The serum non-HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration and the ratios of TC:HDL-C and LDL-C:HDL-C were reduced following consumption of the MAC diet (3.83 +/- 0.17, 4.60 +/- 0.24, and 2.91 +/- 0.17, respectively) compared with the AAD (4.26 +/- 0.17, 4.89 +/- 0.24, and 3.09 +/- 0.18, respectively; P < 0.05). There was no change in serum triglyceride concentration. Thus, macadamia nuts can be included in a heart-healthy dietary pattern that reduces lipid/lipoprotein CVD risk factors. Nuts as an isocaloric substitute for high SFA foods increase the proportion of unsaturated fatty acids and decrease SFA, thereby lowering CVD risk.

  10. Annual variation of parasite communities of deep-sea macrourid fishes from the western Mediterranean Sea and their relationship with fish diet and histopathological alterations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constenla, M.; Montero, F. E.; Padrós, F.; Cartes, J. E.; Papiol, V.; Carrassón, M.

    2015-10-01

    Parasite communities of three abundant benthopelagic macrourid species (Hymenocephalus italicus, Nezumia aequalis and Trachyrincus scabrus) of the upper slope from the western Mediterranean were analysed seasonally. Histopathological, dietary and environmental information (temperature, salinity, O2 and turbidity) were also obtained. The three fish hosts shared only three parasite species (the nematodes Raphidascaris macrouri and Hysterothylacium aduncum and the acanthocephalan Echinorhynchus trachyrinci). H. italicus, the most benthopelagic fish, showed low parasite richness and diversity. The highest total mean abundance of parasites was found in spring for H. italicus and T. scabrus, coinciding with the highest prevalence/abundance of the majority of parasites whereas parasites of N. aequalis exhibited the highest richness, mean abundance and diversity in winter. Parasites related with benthic or infaunal preys were linked to autumn and summer samples off Besós (Barcelona). Some parasites were also linked to high turbidity, which may be due to higher abundances of the intermediate hosts, such as near-bottom zooplaktonic or suprabenthic preys. Few histopathological alterations (e.g. cysts of unknown aetiology) were observed restricted to the two most benthic-feeding fish species inhabiting more closely the near-bottom/sediment level, especially in autumn.

  11. Perilla Oil Has Similar Protective Effects of Fish Oil on High-Fat Diet-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Gut Dysbiosis.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yu; Wang, Hualin; Yuan, Fahu; Li, Na; Huang, Qiang; He, Lei; Wang, Limei; Liu, Zhiguo

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent chronic liver disease in developed countries. Recent studies indicated that the modification of gut microbiota plays an important role in the progression from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated consumption of fish oil or perilla oil rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) protects against NAFLD. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we adopted 16s rRNA amplicon sequencing technique to investigate the impacts of fish oil and perilla oil on gut microbiomes modification in rats with high-fat diet- (HFD-) induced NAFLD. Both fish oil and perilla oil ameliorated HFD-induced hepatic steatosis and inflammation. In comparison with the low-fat control diet, HFD feeding significantly reduced the relative abundance of Gram-positive bacteria in the gut, which was slightly reversed by either fish oil or perilla oil. Additionally, fish oil and perilla oil consumption abrogated the elevated abundance of Prevotella and Escherichia in the gut from HFD fed animals. Interestingly, the relative abundance of antiobese Akkermansia was remarkably increased only in animals fed fish oil compared with HFD group. In conclusion, compared with fish oil, perilla oil has similar but slightly weaker potency against HFD-induced NAFLD and gut dysbiosis.

  12. Perilla Oil Has Similar Protective Effects of Fish Oil on High-Fat Diet-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Gut Dysbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yu; Wang, Hualin; Yuan, Fahu; Li, Na; Huang, Qiang; He, Lei; Wang, Limei

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent chronic liver disease in developed countries. Recent studies indicated that the modification of gut microbiota plays an important role in the progression from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated consumption of fish oil or perilla oil rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) protects against NAFLD. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we adopted 16s rRNA amplicon sequencing technique to investigate the impacts of fish oil and perilla oil on gut microbiomes modification in rats with high-fat diet- (HFD-) induced NAFLD. Both fish oil and perilla oil ameliorated HFD-induced hepatic steatosis and inflammation. In comparison with the low-fat control diet, HFD feeding significantly reduced the relative abundance of Gram-positive bacteria in the gut, which was slightly reversed by either fish oil or perilla oil. Additionally, fish oil and perilla oil consumption abrogated the elevated abundance of Prevotella and Escherichia in the gut from HFD fed animals. Interestingly, the relative abundance of antiobese Akkermansia was remarkably increased only in animals fed fish oil compared with HFD group. In conclusion, compared with fish oil, perilla oil has similar but slightly weaker potency against HFD-induced NAFLD and gut dysbiosis. PMID:27051672

  13. Influence of fish oil on skeletal muscle mitochondrial energetics and lipid metabolites during high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Lanza, Ian R; Blachnio-Zabielska, Agnieszka; Johnson, Matthew L; Schimke, Jill M; Jakaitis, Daniel R; Lebrasseur, Nathan K; Jensen, Michael D; Sreekumaran Nair, K; Zabielski, Piotr

    2013-06-15

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) enhance insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis in rodent models of insulin resistance. These beneficial effects have been linked with anti-inflammatory properties, but emerging data suggest that the mechanisms may also converge on mitochondria. We evaluated the influence of dietary n-3 PUFAs on mitochondrial physiology and muscle lipid metabolites in the context of high-fat diet (HFD) in mice. Mice were fed control diets (10% fat), HFD (60% fat), or HFD with fish oil (HFD+FO, 3.4% kcal from n-3 PUFAs) for 10 wk. Body mass and fat mass increased similarly in HFD and HFD+FO, but n-3 PUFAs attenuated the glucose intolerance that developed with HFD and increased expression of genes that regulate glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle. Despite similar muscle triglyceride levels in HFD and HFD+FO, long-chain acyl-CoAs and ceramides were lower in the presence of fish oil. Mitochondrial abundance and oxidative capacity were similarly increased in HFD and HFD+FO compared with controls. Hydrogen peroxide production was similarly elevated in HFD and HFD+FO in isolated mitochondria but not in permeabilized muscle fibers, likely due to increased activity and expression of catalase. These results support a hypothesis that n-3 PUFAs protect glucose tolerance, in part by preventing the accumulation of bioactive lipid mediators that interfere with insulin action. Furthermore, the respiratory function of skeletal muscle mitochondria does not appear to be a major factor in sphingolipid accumulation, glucose intolerance, or the protective effects of n-3 PUFAs.

  14. Determination of total mercury in fillets of sport fishes collected from Folsom Reservoir, California, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    May, Thomas W.; Brumbaugh, William G.

    2007-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, done in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, to determine mercury concentrations in selected sport fishes from Folsom Reservoir in California. Fillets were collected from each fish sample, and after homogenization and lyophilization of fish fillets, mercury concentrations were determined with a direct mercury analyzer utilizing the process of thermal combustion-gold amalgamation atomic absorption spectroscopy. Mercury concentrations in fillets ranged from 0.031 to 0.20 micrograms per gram wet weight in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) samples and 0.071 to 0.16 micrograms per gram wet weight in bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) samples. Mercury concentration was 0.98 microgram per gram wet weight in a single spotted bass (Micropterus punctulatus) sample, which was the only one in the sample set which exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's fish consumption advisory of 0.30 microgram per gram wet weight.

  15. 50 CFR 648.53 - Target total allowable catch, DAS allocations, and individual fishing quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... a Confirmation of Permit History as described in § 648.4(a)(1)(i)(J) for the entire fishing year... confirmation of permit history shall not be issued more than 2 percent of the TAC allocated to the IFQ scallop... permit history, or issued or renewed a limited access scallop permit or confirmation of permit...

  16. TOTAL AND METHYL MERCURY CONCENTRATIONS IN 1994-5 LAKE MICHIGAN FORAGE FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Forage fish samples were collected between 1194 and 1995 by the USGS Great Lakes Science Center in Ann Arbor, MI. Samples of bloater, slimy sculpin, deep water sculpin, alewife, and rainbow smelt were collected from regions of the lake near Saugatuck, MI and Port Washington and S...

  17. RELATIVE ABUNDANCE OF TOTAL AND METHYL MERCURY IN 1994-5 LAKE MICHIGAN FORAGE FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the Lake Michigan Mass Balance Project, forage fish samples were collected in 1994-5 from three regions within Lake Michigan: Saugatuck, Michigan and Port Washington and Sturgeon Bay, Wisconsin by the USGS Great Lakes Science Center in Ann Arbor, Michigan. Species of ...

  18. The interaction rainfall vs. weight as determinant of total mercury concentration in fish from a tropical estuary.

    PubMed

    Barletta, M; Lucena, L R R; Costa, M F; Barbosa-Cintra, S C T; Cysneiros, F J A

    2012-08-01

    Mercury loads in tropical estuaries are largely controlled by the rainfall regime that may cause biodilution due to increased amounts of organic matter (both live and non-living) in the system. Top predators, as Trichiurus lepturus, reflect the changing mercury bioavailability situations in their muscle tissues. In this work two variables [fish weight (g) and monthly total rainfall (mm)] are presented as being important predictors of total mercury concentration (T-Hg) in fish muscle. These important explanatory variables were identified by a Weibull Regression model, which best fit the dataset. A predictive model using readily available variables as rainfall is important, and can be applied for human and ecological health assessments and decisions. The main contribution will be to further protect vulnerable groups as pregnant women and children. Nature conservation directives could also improve by considering monitoring sample designs that include this hypothesis, helping to establish complete and detailed mercury contamination scenarios. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Performance and apparent total tract phosphorus and calcium digestibility in grower-finisher pigs fed diets with and without phytase.

    PubMed

    Kühn, I; Männer, K

    2012-12-01

    The efficacy of a thermotolerant 6-phytase on performance and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of P and Ca was evaluated in 96 crossbred barrows (8 replicates with 3 pigs each) fed 4 diets. Diets based on corn (Zea mays), a heat-treated grain mix, and soybean (Glycine max) meal with recommended [positive control (PC)] or reduced [negative control (NC)] P and Ca levels were fed from 25 to 115 kg BW. The PC diets contained 0.61% P and 0.72% Ca from 25 to 45 kg, 0.59% P and 0.66% Ca from 45 to 70 kg, and 0.48% P and 0.51% Ca from 70 kg to final BW. The NC diets were reduced in digestible P by 2.0, 2.0, and 1.1 g/kg and in Ca by 1.4, 1.0, and 0.8 g/kg, respectively, for the 3 phases. Phytase was added at 0, 250, and 500 phytase units (FTU)/kg to the NC diet. Performance was measured at the end of each feeding period and ATTD of P and Ca evaluated for a 3-d collection following a 7-d adaptation at an average BW of 45, 70, and 116 kg. Final BW of NC pigs (111.9 kg) was increased (P < 0.05) by P addition (120.3 kg; PC) and by phytase inclusion at both rates (116.5 and 117.6 kg, respectively). The ADG of NC pigs (781 g) was increased (P < 0.05) by both phytase levels (5.5 and 6.6%); pigs fed 500 FTU/kg achieved similar ADG as PC pigs (833 and 858 g, respectively). The G:F was reduced (P < 0.05) in NC pigs (0.308) compared to pigs fed the PC diet (0.328) or diets with 250 or 500 FTU phytase/kg (0.324 and 0.330, respectively). The ATTD of P was lowest in all periods for pigs fed NC diets (35.5% in starter, 32.2% in grower, and 32.1% in finisher period). Phytase increased (P < 0.05) ATTD of P in all periods at both application rates. Pigs fed 500 FTU/kg diet had a higher (P < 0.05) ATTD of P than pigs fed 250 FTU/kg and an ATTD of P at least similar to pigs fed PC. Similar but less pronounced effects were observed for ATTD of Ca. The phytase added to grower-finisher diets with reduced P and Ca nearly restored performance to the level of pigs fed diets with adequate P

  20. Low total mercury in Caiman yacare (Alligatoridae) as compared to carnivorous, and non-carnivorous fish consumed by Amazonian indigenous communities.

    PubMed

    Rivera, S J; Pacheco, L F; Achá, D; Molina, C I; Miranda-Chumacero, G

    2016-11-01

    Mercury contamination in the River Beni basin is an important health risk factor, primarily for indigenous communities that live along the river. Among them are the Tacana, living in their original territory with sustainable use of their natural resources, consuming fish, Caiman yacare, and other riverine resources as their main source of protein. To assess mercury exposure to Tacana people, total mercury (THg) was evaluated in the muscle of seven commercial fish, and Caiman yacare (yacare caiman) during 2007 and 2008. THg was extracted by acid digestion and concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Mean mercury concentrations in C. yacare was 0.21 ± 0.22 μg g(-1)Hg w.w. (wet weight), which is lower than expected given its high trophic level, and its long life-span. It is possible that mercury in C. yacare is accumulated in other organs, not included in this study; but it is also possible that physiological mechanisms are involved that help caimans get rid of ingested mercury, or simply that C. yacare's diverse diet reduces THg accumulation. Carnivorous fishes (Pygocentrus nattereri, Pseudoplatystoma tigrinum, Zungaro zungaro, Plagioscion squamosissimus, and Leiarius marmoratus) had the highest total mercury concentrations, ranging from 0.35 to 1.27 μg g(-1)Hg w.w. moreover, most were above the limit recommended by WHO (0.5 μg g(-1)Hg w.w.); except for Leiarius marmuratus, which presented a mean of 0.353 ± 0.322 μg g(-1)Hg w.w. The two non-carnivorous fish species (Prochilodus nigricans, and Piaractus brachypomus) present mean concentrations of 0.099 ± 0.027, and 0.041 ± 0.019 μg g(-1)Hg w.w., respectively. Finally, recommendations on the consumption habits of Tacana communities are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of supplemental fish bone meal made from Alaska seafood processing byproducts and dicalcium phosphate in plant-protein based diets for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We report performance of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed a balanced dietary mix of plant-proteins supplemented with either fish bone meal (FBM) derived from Alaskan seafood processing byproducts or dicalcium phosphate. Seven experimental diets were formulated to contain two levels of dicalci...

  2. Full replacement of menhaden fish meal protein by low-gossypol cottonseed flour protein in the diet of juvenile black sea bass Centropristis striata

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Eight iso-nitrogeneous (46% crude protein) and iso-lipidic (14% crude lipid) diets were formulated and prepared to replace menhaden fish meal (FM) protein (59.5% CP) by low-gossypol glandless meal (GCSM) protein (50.4% CP), solvent-extracted cottonseed meal (SCSM) protein (53.8% protein) and high go...

  3. Boron deprivation alters rat behaviour and brain mineral composition differently when fish oil instead of safflower oil is the diet fat source.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Forrest H; Penland, James G

    2006-01-01

    To determine whether boron deprivation affects rat behaviour and whether behavioural responses to boron deprivation are modified by differing amounts of dietary long-chain omega-3 fatty acids. Female rats were fed diets containing 0.1 mg (9 micromol)/kg boron in a factorial arrangement with dietary variables of supplemental boron at 0 and 3mg (278 micromol)/kg and fat sources of 75 g/kg safflower oil or 65 g/kg fish (menhaden) oil plus 10 g/kg linoleic acid. After 6 weeks, six females per treatment were bred. Dams and pups continued on their respective diets through gestation, lactation and after weaning. Between ages 6 and 20 weeks, behavioural tests were performed on 13-15 male offspring from three dams in each dietary treatment. The rats were euthanized at age 21 weeks for the collection of tissues and blood. At ages 6 and 19 weeks, auditory startle was evaluated with an acoustic startle system and avoidance behaviour was evaluated by using an elevated plus maze. At ages 7 and 20 weeks, spontaneous behaviour activity was evaluated with a photobeam activity system. A brightness discrimination test was performed on the rats between age 15 and 16 weeks. Brain mineral composition was determined by coupled argon plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Plasma total glutathione was determined by HPLC and total cholesterol and 8-iso-prostaglandin F2alpha (8-iso-PGF2alpha) were determined by using commercially available kits. Boron-deficient rats were less active than boron-adequate rats when fed safflower oil based on reduced number, distance and time of horizontal movements, front entries, margin distance and vertical breaks and jumps in the spontaneous activity evaluation. Feeding fish oil instead of safflower oil attenuated the activity response to boron deprivation. In the plus maze evaluation, the behavioural reactivity of the boron-deficient rats fed fish oil was noticeably different than the other three treatments. They made more entries into both open and closed

  4. Fish oil alleviated high-fat diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease via regulating hepatic lipids metabolism and metaflammation: a transcriptomic study.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Fahu; Wang, Hualin; Tian, Yu; Li, Qi; He, Lei; Li, Na; Liu, Zhiguo

    2016-02-01

    Intake of fish oil rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is believed to be beneficial against development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This study was to gain further understanding of the potential mechanisms of the protective effects of fish oil against NAFLD. Ten male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a control diet (CON), a Western style high-fat and high-cholesterol diet (WD), or a WD diet containing fish oil (FOH) for 16 weeks respectively. The development of liver steatosis and fibrosis were verified by histological and biochemical examination. Hepatic transcriptome were extracted for RNA-seq analysis, and particular results were confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The consumption of fish oil significantly ameliorated WD-induced dyslipidemia, transaminase elevation, hepatic steatosis, inflammatory infiltration, and fibrosis. Hepatic RNA-Seq analysis showed that long-term intake of fish oil restored the expression of circadian clock-related genes per2 and per3, which were reduced in WD fed animals. Fish oil consumption also corrected the expression levels of genes involved in fatty acid and cholesterol metabolism, such as Srebf1, Fasn, Scd1, Insig2, Cd36, Cyp7a1, Abcg5, Abcg8 and Pcsk9. Moreover, the expression levels of pro-inflammation genes Mcp1, Socs2, Sema4a, and Cd44 in the FOH group were lower than that of WD group, implying that fish oil protects the liver against WD-induced hepatic inflammation. The present study demonstrates fish oil protects against WD-induced NALFD via improving lipid metabolism and ameliorating hepatic inflammation. Our findings add to the current understanding on the benefits of n-3 PUFAs against NAFLD.

  5. Transcriptomic Analysis of the Effects of a Fish Oil Enriched Diet on Murine Brains

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-14

    dietary source of n-3 PUFA have been extensively studied as dietary supplements suggesting beneficial effects for the treatment of inflammation [4– 6...the fish oil as dietary supplements for the treatment of psychiatric diseases have yet met with mixed results. Two separate clinical trials on...associated with fatty acids (SLC27a4, FADS2, FA2H, and FADS6; all up-regulated by FD) and insulin treatment (INSIG1 up-regulated and IRS1, IGFBP2

  6. Evaluation of vegetable and fish oils diets for the amelioration of diabetes side effects.

    PubMed

    Al-Amoudi, Nadia Saleh; Abu Araki, Huda A

    2013-02-21

    In the existing literature, the evidence regarding the effects of certain oils on the amelioration of hyperglycemia contains ambiguities and contradictions; and with regard to other oils, the quantity of existing studies is scant. To assess the influence of sesame, garden rocket, organic olive, thyme, fenugreek, hazelnut, and cod liver oil on serum glucose, liver function, and kidney functions. Male albino rats were injected with streptozotocin (60 mg/kg BW). The duration of the experiment was 28 days. Maximum recovery of occurred wasting attributable to diabetes was found in the sesame and cod liver groups. With respect to ameliorating and/or preventing the side effects of diabetes on liver function, this experiment showed that thyme, organic olive, cod liver, and fenugreek oils were efficacious. Turning to serum lipid profile, organic olive oil not only ameliorated but also prevented the changes of TC, HDL, LDL, and AI. Vegetable and cod liver oil diets resulted in a marked amelioration of renal dysfunction, but they were unable to prevent this side effect. Similar, oil diets were unable to mask the increase in serum glucose due to diabetes mellitus. On the basis of these findings, it could be recommended that when attempting oil diet treatment for the side effects of diabetes, a blend of the various specific treatments which showed best results should be employed in order to achieve improvement with respect to all parameters; and in part, this is because a synergism between the various treatments can be expected.

  7. Gut-brain and brain-gut axis in Parkinson's disease models: Effects of a uridine and fish oil diet.

    PubMed

    Perez-Pardo, Paula; Dodiya, Hemraj B; Broersen, Laus M; Douna, Hidde; van Wijk, Nick; Lopes da Silva, Sofia; Garssen, Johan; Keshavarzian, Ali; Kraneveld, Aletta D

    2017-03-09

    Recent investigations have focused on the potential role of gastrointestinal (GI) abnormalities in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). The 'dual-hit' hypothesis of PD speculates that a putative pathogen enters the brain via two routes: the olfactory system and the GI system. Here, we investigated (1) whether local exposures of the neurotoxin rotenone in the gut or the brain of mice could induce PD-like neurological and GI phenotypes as well as a characteristic neuropathology in accordance with this 'dual-hit hypothesis' and (2) the effects of a diet containing uridine and fish oil providing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in both models. Mice were given rotenone either orally or by an injection in the striatum. Dietary interventions were started 1 week before rotenone exposures. We found that (1) both oral and intrastriatal administration of rotenone induced similar PD-like motor deficits, dopaminergic cell loss, delayed intestinal transit, inflammation, and alpha-synuclein accumulation in the colon; (2) the uridine and DHA containing diet prevented rotenone-induced motor and GI dysfunctions in both models. The models suggest possible bidirectional communication between the gut and the brain for the genesis of PD-like phenotype and pathology. The dietary intervention may provide benefits in the prevention of motor and non-motor symptoms in PD.

  8. Fish Oil Accelerates Diet-Induced Entrainment of the Mouse Peripheral Clock via GPR120

    PubMed Central

    Itokawa, Misa; Nagahama, Hiroki; Ohtsu, Teiji; Furutani, Naoki; Kamagata, Mayo; Yang, Zhi-Hong; Hirasawa, Akira; Tahara, Yu; Shibata, Shigenobu

    2015-01-01

    The circadian peripheral clock is entrained by restricted feeding (RF) at a fixed time of day, and insulin secretion regulates RF-induced entrainment of the peripheral clock in mice. Thus, carbohydrate-rich food may be ideal for facilitating RF-induced entrainment, although the role of dietary oils in insulin secretion and RF-induced entrainment has not been described. The soybean oil component of standard mouse chow was substituted with fish or soybean oil containing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and/or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Tuna oil (high DHA/EPA), menhaden oil (standard), and DHA/EPA dissolved in soybean oil increased insulin secretion and facilitated RF-induced phase shifts of the liver clock as represented by the bioluminescence rhythms of PER2::LUCIFERASE knock-in mice. In this model, insulin depletion blocked the effect of tuna oil and fish oil had no effect on mice deficient for GPR120, a polyunsaturated fatty acid receptor. These results suggest food containing fish oil or DHA/EPA is ideal for adjusting the peripheral clock. PMID:26161796

  9. Effect of marine protected areas (MPAs) on consumer diet: MPA fish feed higher in the food chain.

    PubMed

    Dell, Claire; Montoya, Joseph; Hay, Mark

    2015-11-26

    Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are often established to mitigate the effects of overfishing and other human disturbances. In Fiji these are locally managed and, where enforced, have significantly higher coral cover, higher fish biomass, and lower seaweed cover than in the adjacent, unprotected reefs (non-MPAs). We investigated how the isotopic signatures of a common, mid-level consumer, Epinephelus merra, differed among three small (0.5- 0.8km(2)) MPAs versus adjacent, unprotected reefs. Isotopic ratios suggested that the fish in the MPAs fed higher in the food chain than those in the adjacent non-MPAs, despite being slightly smaller in size. Calculations using a brown alga as representative of the basal level of the food chain estimate this difference to be about half a trophic level. Thus, the isotopic ratio of a mid-level consumer can be noticeably altered over scales of only a few hundred meters. This may result from more complete food webs and hence greater prey choice and availability in the MPAs and implies that MPAs affect not only species' abundance and diversity, but also diet composition and trophic biology of member individuals. Our findings suggest E. merra exhibits considerable site fidelity in its feeding biology and thus provides a localized isotopic signal of its reef of residence. If the isotopic signal of this mid-level carnivore is reflective of the composition of the food web beneath it, the signal might provide an easily obtained indication of reef conditions in that area.

  10. Effect of marine protected areas (MPAs) on consumer diet: MPA fish feed higher in the food chain

    PubMed Central

    Dell, Claire; Montoya, Joseph; Hay, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are often established to mitigate the effects of overfishing and other human disturbances. In Fiji these are locally managed and, where enforced, have significantly higher coral cover, higher fish biomass, and lower seaweed cover than in the adjacent, unprotected reefs (non-MPAs). We investigated how the isotopic signatures of a common, mid-level consumer, Epinephelus merra, differed among three small (0.5- 0.8km2) MPAs versus adjacent, unprotected reefs. Isotopic ratios suggested that the fish in the MPAs fed higher in the food chain than those in the adjacent non-MPAs, despite being slightly smaller in size. Calculations using a brown alga as representative of the basal level of the food chain estimate this difference to be about half a trophic level. Thus, the isotopic ratio of a mid-level consumer can be noticeably altered over scales of only a few hundred meters. This may result from more complete food webs and hence greater prey choice and availability in the MPAs and implies that MPAs affect not only species’ abundance and diversity, but also diet composition and trophic biology of member individuals. Our findings suggest E. merra exhibits considerable site fidelity in its feeding biology and thus provides a localized isotopic signal of its reef of residence. If the isotopic signal of this mid-level carnivore is reflective of the composition of the food web beneath it, the signal might provide an easily obtained indication of reef conditions in that area. PMID:27340314

  11. Feeding mice with diets containing mercury-contaminated fish flesh from French Guiana: a model for the mercurial intoxication of the Wayana Amerindians

    PubMed Central

    Bourdineaud, Jean-Paul; Bellance, Nadège; Bénard, Giovani; Brèthes, Daniel; Fujimura, Masatake; Gonzalez, Patrice; Marighetto, Aline; Maury-Brachet, Régine; Mormède, Cécile; Pédron, Vanessa; Philippin, Jean-Nicolas; Rossignol, Rodrigue; Rostène, William; Sawada, Masumi; Laclau, Muriel

    2008-01-01

    Background In 2005, 84% of Wayana Amerindians living in the upper marshes of the Maroni River in French Guiana presented a hair mercury concentration exceeding the limit set up by the World Health Organization (10 μg/g). To determine whether this mercurial contamination was harmful, mice have been fed diets prepared by incorporation of mercury-polluted fish from French Guiana. Methods Four diets containing 0, 0.1, 1, and 7.5% fish flesh, representing 0, 5, 62, and 520 ng methylmercury per g, respectively, were given to four groups of mice for a month. The lowest fish regimen led to a mercurial contamination pressure of 1 ng mercury per day per g of body weight, which is precisely that affecting the Wayana Amerindians. Results The expression of several genes was modified with mercury intoxication in liver, kidneys, and hippocampus, even at the lowest tested fish regimen. A net genetic response could be observed for mercury concentrations accumulated within tissues as weak as 0.15 ppm in the liver, 1.4 ppm in the kidneys, and 0.4 ppm in the hippocampus. This last value is in the range of the mercury concentrations found in the brains of chronically exposed patients in the Minamata region or in brains from heavy fish consumers. Mitochondrial respiratory rates showed a 35–40% decrease in respiration for the three contaminated mice groups. In the muscles of mice fed the lightest fish-containing diet, cytochrome c oxidase activity was decreased to 45% of that of the control muscles. When mice behavior was assessed in a cross maze, those fed the lowest and mid-level fish-containing diets developed higher anxiety state behaviors compared to mice fed with control diet. Conclusion We conclude that a vegetarian diet containing as little as 0.1% of mercury-contaminated fish is able to trigger in mice, after only one month of exposure, disorders presenting all the hallmarks of mercurial contamination. PMID:18959803

  12. Fish oil diet in pregnancy and lactation reduces pup weight and modifies newborn hepatic metabolic adaptations in rats.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Maria J; Bocos, Carlos; Panadero, Maribel; Herrera, Emilio

    2017-02-01

    To determine the effects of a diet containing fish oil (FD) during pregnancy and lactation in rats on the metabolic adaptations made by the offspring during early extrauterine life and to compare it to an olive oil diet (OD). Rats were mated and randomly allocated to OD or FD containing 10 % of the corresponding oil. During lactation, litters were adjusted to eight pups per dam. Fetuses of 20 days and pups of 0, 1, 10, 20 and 30 days of age were studied. Body weight and length were lower in pups of the FD group from birth. The diet, milk, pups' plasma and liver of FD group had higher proportions of n-3 LCPUFA, but the content of arachidonic acid (ARA) was lower. Plasma glucose was higher, but unesterified fatty acids, triacylglycerols (TAG), 3-hydroxybutyrate and liver TAG in 1-day-old pups were lower in the FD group, and differences in some of these variables were also found in pups up to 30 days old. Liver lipoprotein lipase activity and mRNA expression, and the expression of carnitine palmitoyl transferase I, acyl-CoA oxidase and 3-hydroxy 3-methyl glutaryl-CoA synthase increased more at birth in pups of the FD group, but the expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c and Δ6-desaturase mRNA was lower in the FD group. Maternal intake of high n-3 LCPUFA retards postnatal development, which could be the result of impaired ARA synthesis, and affects hepatic metabolic adaptations to extrauterine life.

  13. Effects of tallow, choice white grease, palm oil, corn oil, or soybean oil on apparent total tract digestibility of minerals in diets fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Merriman, L A; Walk, C L; Parsons, C M; Stein, H H

    2016-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of supplementing diets fed to growing pigs with fat sources differing in their composition of fatty acids on the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of minerals. A diet based on corn, potato protein isolate, and 7% sucrose was formulated. Five additional diets that were similar to the previous diet with the exception that sucrose was replaced by 7% tallow, choice white grease, palm oil, corn oil, or soybean oil were also formulated. Diets were formulated to contain 0.70% Ca and 0.33% standardized total tract digestible P. Growing barrows ( = 60; 15.99 ± 1.48 kg initial BW) were allotted to a randomized complete block design with 2 blocks of 30 pigs, 6 dietary treatments, and 10 replicate pigs per treatment. Experimental diets were provided for 12 d with the initial 5 d being the adaptation period. Total feces were collected for a 5-d collection period using the marker-to-marker approach, and the ATTD of minerals, ether extract, and aci