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Sample records for fish total diet

  1. Partial and total fish meal replacement by agricultural products in the diets improve sperm quality in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus).

    PubMed

    Nyina-Wamwiza, L; Milla, S; Pierrard, M-A; Rurangwa, E; Mandiki, S N M; Van Look, K J W; Kestemont, P

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the long-term effects of total and partial replacement of dietary fish meal (FM) by a mixture of agricultural products on sperm quality of African catfish Clarias gariepinus. Four isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated containing graded levels of either 50% FM and maize meal (diet 1); 25% FM mixed with crude sunflower oil cake (SFOC) and bean meal (BM) (diet 2); 12.5% FM mixed with sunflower oil cake, BM and ground nut oil cake (GOC) (diet 3) and 0% FM mixed with de-hulled sunflower oil cake (SFOCD), BM and ground nut oil cake (diet 4). Gonadosomatic index (GSI), sperm quality, plasma sex steroids (11-keto testosterone [11-KT]; testosterone [T]; estradiol-17beta [E2]) were evaluated on 10 to 24 fish fed on each diet. Sperm quality was assessed using computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA). Total replacement of fish meal by plant products markedly increased sperm volume, spermatocrit, spermatozoa integrity, and sperm motility. Fish fed diet 3 (12.5% fish meal) provided intermediate results on sperm quality whereas the lowest values were obtained in fish fed diets 1 and 2. In fish fed 0% fish meal (diet 4), androgen levels were higher and estrogen levels were lower than in fish fed fish meal diets. Based on dietary lipid and fatty acid analyses, these results suggest a positive impact of short chain n-6 fatty acids on androgen synthesis and sperm quality. In conclusion, a combination of ground nut oil cake, bean meal and sunflower oil cake (preferably when the sunflower is dehulled) in African catfish diet improves the sperm quality.

  2. Analysis of veterinary drug residues in fish and shrimp composites collected during the Canadian Total Diet Study, 1993-2004.

    PubMed

    Tittlemier, S A; Van de Riet, J; Burns, G; Potter, R; Murphy, C; Rourke, W; Pearce, H; Cao, X L; Dabekai, R W; Dufresne, G

    2007-01-01

    Thirty shrimp, marine fish, freshwater fish, and canned fish composite samples collected and prepared as part of the Canadian Total Diet Study were analysed for 39 different veterinary drug residues. The analyses were undertaken to obtain baseline data that could be used to estimate the dietary exposure of Canadians to these residues. The most frequently observed residue was AOZ (four out of 30 samples), the metabolite of furazolidone, at a range of 0.50 to 2.0 ng g(-1) wet weight. Other residues detected included enrofloxacin (three samples; 0.3-0.73 ng g(-1)), leucomalachite green (three samples; 0.73-1.2 ng g(-1)), oxolinic acid (two samples; 0.3-4.3 ng g(-1)), AMOZ (the metabolite of furaltadone; one sample; 0.40 ng g(-1)), chloramphenicol (one sample; 0.40 ng g(-1)), and SEM (the metabolite of nitrofurazone; one sample; 0.8 ng g(-1)). The results of this survey indicate that Canadians are exposed to low ng g-1 concentrations of some banned and unapproved veterinary drug residues via the consumption of certain fish and shrimp.

  3. Immunostimulants in fish diets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gannam, A.L.; Schrock, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    Various immunostimulants and their methods of application in fish culture are examined in this review. Important variables such as life stage and innate disease resistance of the fish; immunostimulant used, its structure and mode of action; and the fish's environment are discussed. Conflicting results have been published about the efficacy of immunostimulants in fish diets. Some researchers have had positive responses demonstrated as increased fish survival, others have not. Generally, immunostimulants enhance individual components of the non-specific immune response but that does not always translate into increased fish survival. In addition, immunostimulants fed at too high a dose or for too long can be immunosuppressive. [Article copies available for a fee from The Haworth Document Delivery Service: 1-800-342-9678. E-mail address: getinfo@haworthpressinc.com ].

  4. Effects of partial or total fish meal replacement by agricultural by-product diets on gonad maturation, sex steroids and vitellogenin dynamics of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus).

    PubMed

    Nyina-wamwiza, L; Defreyne, P S; Ngendahayo, L; Milla, S; Mandiki, S N M; Kestemont, P

    2012-10-01

    The establishment of the first sexual maturation was characterized in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in order to study the efficiency of replacement of fish meal (FM) by diets composed of local vegetable ingredients. Four diets were formulated containing decreasing levels of FM (50-0% for diet 1 to diet 4) and increasing proportions of vegetable ingredients (50-100%). Gonadosomatic index (GSI), diameter and percentages of developmental stages of oocytes, plasma sex steroids and vitellogenin dynamics were investigated from February to June using one-year-old fish. Fish were individually tagged, and 12 individuals from each diet were investigated monthly. Replacement of FM with plant ingredients did not affect the GSI neither in males, nor in females. All males were spermiating, and no abnormal gonads were found. In females, GSI and percentages of advanced stages of oocytes decreased during the dry season, indicating seasonal changes in gonad development. Moreover, oocytes were in late exogenous vitellogenesis, but no final maturation stages were observed, whatever the diet. Higher plasma levels of E2 in females and of androgens (T and 11-KT) in both sexes were observed in fish fed diet 4 than in those receiving diet 1 depending on the season. Levels of plasma E2 and ALP (indicator for vitellogenin) in males did not differ among treatments and seasons suggesting no phytoestrogenic activity. The results showed that total replacement of FM by vegetable diets composed of groundnut oilcakes, bean and sunflower meals has no deleterious effect on the onset of sexual maturation in African catfish but, may stimulate the sex steroid production and in turns may potentially exert some positive actions on reproductive success.

  5. Total substitution of fish oil by vegetable oils in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) diets: effects on fish performance, biochemical composition, and expression of some glucocorticoid receptor-related genes.

    PubMed

    Benítez-Dorta, Vanessa; Caballero, María J; Izquierdo, Marisol; Manchado, Manuel; Infante, Carlos; Zamorano, María J; Montero, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    To study the substitution of fish oil by vegetable oils in fish diets, juveniles Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) were fed diets (56 % crude protein, 12 % crude lipid) containing either linseed (100LO) or soybean (100SO) oils in comparison with a 100 % fish oil-based diet (100FO) for 90 days. Samples of muscle, liver, and intestine were collected for biochemical analysis and for glucocorticoid receptor-related genes, including GR1 and GR2, and the associated heat shock proteins HSP70, HSP90AA, and HSP90AB. Besides, basal levels of plasma cortisol were also determined. After the feeding period, a stress test, consisting on 5 min of net chasing, was applied to a selected population of each dietary group. Total replacement of fish oil by vegetable oils did not induced changes in fish growth and performance, but affected fatty acid profile of muscle, liver, and intestine, reflecting those tissues the characteristic fatty acids of each type of dietary oil. A tendency to conserve the ARA/EPA ratio could be observed in the different tissues, despite of the level of these fatty acids in diet. Chasing stress induced an increase of muscle GR1 and a reduction in intestinal GR2 relative expressions at any of the experimental diets assayed. In liver, chasing stress induced an increase in both GR1 and GR2 gene expression in fish fed fish oil diets. Similarly, chasing stress induced an increase of muscle HSP70 and decrease of HSP90AB in liver at any of the experimental diet assayed. Besides, vegetable oils decreased the expression of HSP70 in intestine, being the relative expression of liver HSP90AA increased by the inclusion of linseed oil in the diet, at any of the experimental conditions assayed.

  6. Fish oils and human diet.

    PubMed

    Sargent, J R

    1997-07-01

    Trends in global fish catches are described together with fish landings and fish consumption in the UK. The importance of n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids as essential constituents of human diets is considered and the role of oily fish as a dietary source of the long-chain n-3 polyunsaturates, docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, is emphasized. The origin of n-3 polyunsaturates in, the marine phytoplankton and their transmission via zooplankton to fish is described as a means of understanding the composition of different fish body oils. The ease with which the fatty acid composition of fish body oils can be manipulated by altering the fatty acid composition of their feeds is emphasized and the dietary requirements of marine and freshwater fish for n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturates considered. Farming fish on diets containing principally fish meal and fish oil, as used in salmon production in Scotland, generates a high quality product with levels of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturates equalling or exceeding those of wild fish. Farming fish on high quality marine oils rich in docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids is an efficient means of delivering these essential nutrients in human diets and also efficiently exploiting a strictly limited marine bioresource.

  7. Evaluation of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae meal as partial or total replacement of marine fish meal in practical diets for Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) meal, produced from the larvae of Hermetia illucens, has shown promise as a fish meal (FM) replacement in diets for rainbow trout, catfish and tilapia, but has not been examined as an alternative protein source in shrimp diets. Six isonitrogenous (35% crude protein, a...

  8. Evaluation of plant and animal protein sources as partial or total replacement of fish meal in diets for juvenile Nile tilapia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A feeding trial was conducted in a closed system with Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) juveniles (mean weight, 2.84 g) to examine the effects of total replacement of fish meal (FM), with and without supplementation of DL-methionine (Met) and L-lysine (Lys), by plant protein sources. Fish were f...

  9. The response of fish to immunostimulant diets.

    PubMed

    Vallejos-Vidal, Eva; Reyes-López, Felipe; Teles, Mariana; MacKenzie, Simon

    2016-09-01

    In order to maintain fish health and to improve performance immunostimulants have been used as dietary additives to improve weight gain, feed efficiency, and/or disease resistance in cultured fish. In aquaculture, non-specific immunostimulants have been widely used probably due to the limited knowledge of the immune response in fish and the ease of their application. Many studies have been carried out to assess the effect of dietary immunostimulants in fish including algal derivatives, herb and plant extract containing diets using a wide range of downstream analytical techniques. Many immunostimulants are based upon tradition and folklore transferred through generations and specific to certain geographical regions rather than known biological properties. However, there are studies in which it is possible to observe a clear and direct dose-dependent stimulatory effect upon the immune system. Other dietary supplements used contain PAMPs (Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns) as immunostimulants whose recognition depends upon PRR (pathogen recognition receptor) interactions including the TLRs (Toll-like receptor). Despite the growing interest in the use of immunostimulants across the aquaculture industry the underlying mechanisms of ligand recognition, extract composition and activation of the fish immune response remains fragmented. In this review we focus upon the last 15 years of studies addressing the assessment of: (1) plant, herb and algae extracts; and (2) PAMPs, upon non-specific immune parameters of activation and immunostimulant diet efficacy.

  10. Genotype by diet interactions in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.): Nutritional challenge with totally plant-based diets.

    PubMed

    Le Boucher, R; Vandeputte, M; Dupont-Nivet, M; Quillet, E; Ruelle, F; Vergnet, A; Kaushik, S; Allamellou, J M; Médale, F; Chatain, B

    2013-01-01

    Aquaculture of carnivorous species has strongly relied on fish meal and fish oil for feed formulation; however, greater replacement by terrestrial plant-based products is occurring now. This rapid change in dietary environment has been a major revolution and has to be taken into consideration in breeding programs. The present study analyzes potential consequences of this nutritional tendency for selective breeding by estimating genetic parameters of BW and growth rates estimated by the thermal growth coefficient (TGC) over different periods with extremely different diets. European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) from a factorial cross (1,526 fish) between 25 sires and 9 dams were used to estimate heritabilities and genotype by diet interaction. Starting 87 d after fertilization (2.5 g), one-half of the sea bass were fed a diet containing marine products (M), and the other one-half were fed a totally plant-based (PB) diet (without any fish meal or fish oil). The fish were individually tagged, reared in a recirculated system, and genotyped at 13 microsatellites to rebuild parentage of individuals. Body weight and TGC were measured for 335 d until fish fed the M diet reached 108.3 g of BW. These traits were significantly less in fish fed the PB diet (P<0.05) in the very first stages after the dietary shift, but the difference in TGC between diets rapidly disappeared (P>0.1). Survival was significantly less in fish fed the PB diet (PB=64.7%, M=93.7% after 418 d, P<0.05). This work identified moderate heritabilities (0.18 to 0.46) for BW with both diets and high genetic correlations between diets (0.78 to 0.93), meaning low genotype by diet interactions, although diets were extremely different. Heritabilities of TGC (0.11 to 0.3) were less than for BW as well as genetic correlations between diets (0.43 to 0.64). Using such extremely different diets, predicted BW gains in different scenarios indicated that selecting fish for growth on a marine diet should be the most

  11. An oily fish diet increases insulin sensitivity compared to a red meat diet in young iron-deficient women.

    PubMed

    Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Pérez-Granados, Ana M; Schoppen, Stefanie; Vaquero, M Pilar

    2009-08-01

    Beneficial effects of n-3 fatty acids on a variety of physiological functions have been reported, but information related to the effects of oily fish consumed within a varied diet on glucose metabolism and diabetes risk is scarce. The objective of the study was to compare the effects of a diet rich in oily fish to those of a diet rich in red meat on lipid profile, oxidative status, glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in young, iron-deficient women. The study was designed attending the CONSORT statement guidelines. It was a randomised crossover dietary intervention study with two 8-week periods. Two diets were designed differing only in their oily fish or red meat content (four portions per week). Twenty-five young iron-deficient women with normal lipid, glucose and insulin levels participated in the assay. Lipid profile (total, LDL- and HDL-cholesterol, TAG), fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and oxidation (lipoperoxides) and inflammation (soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1) biomarkers were analysed. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) and Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index (QUICKI). Insulin levels significantly decreased and insulin sensitivity significantly increased with the oily fish diet. HDL-cholesterol significantly increased with the oily fish diet. Other parameters did not significantly differ between diets. An increase in oily fish consumption increases insulin sensitivity in young iron-deficient women. This outcome should be considered when giving dietary advice to this population.

  12. Feed of Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens, (Regan, 1910) in open pond: live and formulated diets.

    PubMed

    Sipaúba-Tavares, L H; Appoloni, A M; Fernandes, J B K; Millan, R N

    2016-06-01

    The growth rate and percent survival of Betta splendens when submitted to formulated diet and live food treatments are evaluated. The three different diets were used and designated as: formulated diet (basal diet); live food diet (plankton) and mixed diet (formulated diet with plankton). The live food diet contained plankton belonging to an open pond. High mortality was reported with live food (plankton) treatment whereas higher percent survival occurred with formulated diet. Highest specific growth rate, weight gain and final weight were reported in the mixed diet treatment and were significantly different (p<0.01) from those in formulated diet and live food treatments. The gut contents of B. splendens in mixed diet and live food treatments comprised, Rotifera and Bacillariophyceae species in high percentages or rather, over 78% of total organisms. Lecane sp. was the most ingested zooplankton species by B. splendens in both treatments (mixed diet and live food), with the phytoplankton species Asterionella sp. and Melosira sp. respectively in mixed diet and in live food, respectively. Results indicated that the formulated diet influenced the water parameters dissolved oxygen, total suspended solids, total dissolved solids and pH. The live food in the open pond was not enough to improve the growth rate and percent survival of B. splendens. The growth performance of B. splendens; had the best results with mixed diet which was capable of maintaining species's survival (82%) and development in artificial conditions, benefiting the culture management of ornamental fish.

  13. The effect of diets supplemented with fish broth and fish oil on the health of weaners.

    PubMed

    Bakuła, T; Lis, Ł; Iwaniuk, Z; Ordyński, Z

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of fish-based feed materials, as a source of readily available protein contained in fish broth and essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) found in fish oil, on the health of piglets and rearing results. The experiment was conducted on a commercial pig fattening farm. The study involved a total of 80 weaners with an approximate body weight of 15 kg. The experiment was carried out over a period of 40 days. Feed samples were subjected to laboratory analyses. Blood samples were collected from experimental group animals to determine serum biochemical and immunological parameters. The body weight gains of weaners, mortality rates and average feed intake per animal were calculated for the entire experimental period. The addition of fish broth and fish oil significantly improved the n3:n6 fatty acid ratio in diets. The presence of EPA and DHA in the experimental diet could have had a positive health effect on piglets, comparable with that exerted by therapeutic doses of zinc often administered to pigs of this age group. During the experiment, feed conversion ratio (FCR) gain was considerably reduced in the experimental group, with similar daily gains in the control and experimental group.

  14. Diet niches of major forage fish in Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, B.M.; Savino, J.F.; Ogilvie, L.M.; ,

    2007-01-01

    A large complex of coregonine species historically dominated the fish community of Lake Michigan. The current species complex is simplified with one remaining coregonine, bloater (Coregonus hoyi), deepwater sculpin (Myoxocephalus thompsoni), slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus), and two dominant invaders, alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) and rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax). To better understand the diet relationships of the major offshore forage fishes now in Lake Michigan, diets of bloater, alewife, rainbow smelt, deepwater sculpin, and slimy sculpin were compared. The three sites, chosen to represent northern, central, and southern components of the lake, were sampled during spring, summer, and fall in 1994, and spring and fall in 1995. Forage fishes had diverse and variable diets, with niches differentiated by prey type or location. Diporeia hoyi, Mysis relicta, and zooplankton were the major diet items. The index of relative importance showed benthic (slimy and deepwater sculpins) and pelagic (alewife, rainbow smelt) feeding strategies with opportunistic bloaters incorporating both feeding strategies. Highest diet overlaps were between species of sculpin, and between large and small bloaters; both groups partitioned food by size. Though competition for food may be minimized by spatial segregation of potential competitors, the forage fish in Lake Michigan apparently partition food resources. Fishery management models incorporating food habits of pelagic forage fish would need to take into account diet variation associated with location and season. ?? 2007 E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung.

  15. Diet compositions and trophic guild structure of the eastern Chukchi Sea demersal fish community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitehouse, George A.; Buckley, Troy W.; Danielson, Seth L.

    2017-01-01

    Fishes are an important link in Arctic marine food webs, connecting production of lower trophic levels to apex predators. We analyzed 1773 stomach samples from 39 fish species collected during a bottom trawl survey of the eastern Chukchi Sea in the summer of 2012. We used hierarchical cluster analysis of diet dissimilarities on 21 of the most well sampled species to identify four distinct trophic guilds: gammarid amphipod consumers, benthic invertebrate generalists, fish and shrimp consumers, and zooplankton consumers. The trophic guilds reflect dominant prey types in predator diets. We used constrained analysis of principal coordinates (CAP) to determine if variation within the composite guild diets could be explained by a suite of non-diet variables. All CAP models explained a significant proportion of the variance in the diet matrices, ranging from 7% to 25% of the total variation. Explanatory variables tested included latitude, longitude, predator length, depth, and water mass. These results indicate a trophic guild structure is present amongst the demersal fish community during summer in the eastern Chukchi Sea. Regular monitoring of the food habits of the demersal fish community will be required to improve our understanding of the spatial, temporal, and interannual variation in diet composition, and to improve our ability to identify and predict the impacts of climate change and commercial development on the structure and functioning of the Chukchi Sea ecosystem.

  16. Total Mercury in Six Antarctic Notothenioid Fishes.

    PubMed

    Wintle, Nathan J P; Sleadd, Isaac M; Gundersen, Deke T; Kohl, Kristina; Buckley, Bradley A

    2015-11-01

    We analyzed white muscle samples from six species of Antarctic fish (suborder Notothenioidei) collected in 2011 from McMurdo Sound, Ross Sea, Antarctica, to assess levels of total mercury (THg). Gymnodraco acuticeps and Trematomus bernacchii exhibited the highest concentrations of THg followed by Trematomus pennellii, Trematomus nicolai, Trematomus newnesi and Pagothenia borchgrevinki, (71.3, 53.9±32.1, 45.8±27.3, 37.2±18.6, 35.7±23.6, and 21.9±2.8 ng/g wet weight, respectively). The results from this study suggest that THg has the potential to bioaccumulate from various marine Antarctic ecosystems into biota.

  17. Iron status biomarkers in iron deficient women consuming oily fish versus red meat diet.

    PubMed

    Navas-Carretero, S; Pérez-Granados, A M; Schoppen, S; Sarria, B; Carbajal, A; Vaquero, M P

    2009-06-01

    Specific recommendations for anemic individuals consist in increasing red meat intake, but the population at large is advised to reduce consumption of red meat and increase that of fish, in order to prevent the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to determine the effects of consuming an oily fish compared to a red meat diet on iron status in women with low iron stores. The study was designed attending the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement guidelines. It was a randomised crossover dietary intervention study of two 8-week periods. Twenty-five young women with low iron stores completed the study. Two diets containing a total of 8 portions of fish, meat and poultry per week were designed differing only in their oily fish or red meat content (5 portions per week). At the beginning and the end of each period blood samples were taken and hemoglobin, hematocrit, serum ferritin, serum iron, serum transferrin, serum transferrin receptor-2 and the Zn-protoporphyrin/free-protoporphyrin ratio were determined. Food intake and body weight were monitored. During the oily fish diet, PUFA intake was significantly higher (p=0.010) and iron intake lower (mean+/-SD, 11.5+/-3.4 mg/day vs. 13.9+/-0.1 mg/day, p=0.008), both diets providing lower mean daily iron intake than recommended for menstruating women. Although there were no significant differences after 16 weeks, serum ferritin moderately decreased and soluble transferrin receptor increased with the oily fish, while changes with the red meat diet were the opposite. In conclusion, an oily fish diet compared to a red meat diet does not decrease iron status after 8 weeks in iron deficient women.

  18. Total and inorganic arsenic in foods of the first Hong Kong total diet study.

    PubMed

    Chung, Stephen Wai-cheung; Lam, Chi-ho; Chan, Benny Tsz-pun

    2014-04-01

    Arsenic (As) is a metalloid that occurs in different inorganic and organic forms, which are found in the environment from both natural occurrence and anthropogenic activity. The inorganic forms of As (iAs) are more toxic as compared with the organic As, but so far most of the occurrence data in food collected in the framework of official food control are still reported as total As without differentiating the various As species. In this paper, total As and iAs contents of 600 total diet study (TDS) samples, subdivided into 15 different food groups, were quantified by high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HR-ICP/MS) and hydride generation (HG) ICP/MS respectively. The method detection limits for both total As and iAs were 3 μg As kg(-1). As the samples were prepared for TDS, food items were purchased directly from the market or prepared as for normal consumption, i.e. table ready, in the manner most representative of and consistent with cultural habits in Hong Kong as far as practicable. The highest total As and iAs content were found in 'fish, seafood and their products' and 'vegetables and their products' respectively. Besides, this paper also presents the ratios of iAs and total As content in different ready-to-eat food items. The highest ratio of iAs to total As was found in 'vegetables and their products'. It is likely that iAs in vegetables maintained its status even after cooking.

  19. PCB congener patterns in rats consuming diets containing Great Lakes salmon: Analysis of fish, diets, and adipose tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, S.A.; Feeley, M.M.

    1999-02-01

    As part of a multidisciplinary toxicological investigation into Great Lakes contaminants, chinook salmon were collected from lake Huron (LH) and Lake Ontario (LO) and incorporated into standard rat diets as 20 or 100% of the protein complement. Final PCB concentrations in the experiment ranged from 3.15 ng/g in the control diet to 1,080 ngg in the high-dose LO diet, with maximal estimated daily consumption by the rats of 82 {micro}g PCBs/kg body wt in the LO20 dietary group. Seventeen PCB congeners, PCB 85, 99, 101, 105, 110, 118, 128, 129, 132, 138, 149, 153, 170, 177, 180, 187, and 199, occurred at > 3.0% of the total PCBs in the fish with no major site differences. Cumulatively, these 17 congeners accounted for up to 75% of the total PCBs in the fish compared to 44 and 54% in two commercial Aroclors, 1254 and 1260, respectively. PCB 77 was the major dioxin-like congener in the fish, followed by PCB 126 and then PCB 169. All major dietary congeners bioaccumulated in the adipose tissue of the rats with the exception of PCB congeners 101, 110, 132, and 149.

  20. Formulation of the Total Western Diet (TWD) as a basal diet for rodent cancer studies.

    PubMed

    Hintze, Korry J; Benninghoff, Abby D; Ward, Robert E

    2012-07-11

    Rodent cancer studies typically use defined diets with nutrient profiles optimized for rodent health. However, a defined rodent diet that represents typical American nutrition in all aspects, including calorie sources and macro- and micronutrient composition, is not yet available. Thus, a nutrient density approach was used to formulate the new Total Western Diet (TWD) based on NHANES data for macro- and micronutrient intakes. The TWD has fewer calories from protein and carbohydrate sources and twice that from fat as compared to the AIN-93 diet. The new diet contains more saturated and monounsaturated fats, less polyunsaturated fat, fewer complex carbohydrates, and twice the level of simple sugars. The TWD includes less calcium, copper, folate, thiamin, and vitamins B6, B12, D, and E, but much more sodium. This newly devised diet that better represents typical American nutrition will be highly useful for studies employing animal models of human disease, including cancer.

  1. Neutron activation analysis of total diet food composites for iodine

    SciTech Connect

    Allegrini, M.; Boyer, K.W.; Tanner, J.T.

    1981-09-01

    The iodine content of Total Diet food composites was measured using neutron activation analysis. The interfering element chlorine was separated using a modified combustion and gas phase procedure. The average recovery was 94.8% (standard deviation 2.9) for the 10 matrices that were tested. In addition, iodine was measured in National Bureau of Standards Standard Reference Materials, which have no certified values for this element. Preliminary findings of iodine content of adult Total Diet market baskets collected during Fiscal Year 1980 in different regions of the United States ranged from 292 to 901 ..mu..g/day for a 2900 kcal intake.

  2. A comparison of Oregon pellet and fish-meat diets for administration of sulfamethazine to Chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amend, D.F.; Fryer, J.L.; Pilcher, K.S.

    1967-01-01

    The absorption of sulfamethazine by yearling spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) was compared when administered in the Oregon Pellet and a fish-meat diet. The pelleted diet delivered the drug to the fish approximately twice as efficiently as the fish-meat diet. Dosage levels are recommended for both diets, and the efficacy of administering drugs in fish feed is discussed.

  3. Changes in fish diets and food web mercury bioaccumulation induced by an invasive planktivorous fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Suchanek, Thomas H.; Colwell, Arthur E.; Anderson, Norman L.; Moyle, Peter B.

    2008-01-01

    The invasion, boom, collapse, and reestablishment of a population of the planktivorous threadfin shad in Clear Lake, California, USA, were documented over a 20-year period, as were the effects of changing shad populations on diet and mercury (Hg) bioaccumulation in nearshore fishes. Threadfin shad competitively displaced other planktivorous fish in the lake, such as inland silversides, young-of-year (YOY) largemouth bass, and YOY bluegill, by reducing zooplankton abundance. As a result, all three species shifted from a diet that was dominated by zooplankton to one that was almost entirely zoobenthos. Stable carbon isotopes corroborated this pattern with each species becoming enriched in δ13C, which is elevated in benthic vs. pelagic organisms. Concomitant with these changes, Hg concentrations increased by ∼50% in all three species. In contrast, obligate benthivores such as prickly sculpin showed no relationship between diet or δ13C and the presence of threadfin shad, suggesting that effects of the shad were not strongly linked to the benthic fish community. There were also no changes in Hg concentrations of prickly sculpin. The temporary extirpation of threadfin shad from the lake resulted in zooplankton densities, foraging patterns, isotope ratios, and Hg concentrations in pelagic fishes returning to pre-shad values. These results indicate that even transient perturbations of the structure of freshwater food webs can result in significant alterations in the bioaccumulation of Hg and that food webs in lakes can be highly resilient.

  4. Diets and diet overlap of nonindigenous gobies and small benthic native fishes co-inhabiting the St. Clair River, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, John R. P.; Jude, David J.

    2001-01-01

    Round gobies (Neogobius melanostomus), after successfully reproducing in the early 1990s, decimated populations of mottled sculpins (Cottus bairdi) and possibly logperch (Percina caprodes) in the St. Clair River. Studies were conducted during 1994 to determine whether diets of round and tubenose (Proterorhinus marmoratus) gobies overlapped with those of native forage fishes. In the nearshore zone (depth ≤ 1 m), round and tubenose gobies, logperch, and rainbow darters (Etheostoma caeruleum) of similar sizes (total lengths < 75 mm) consumed mainly small-sized macroinvertebrates (dipterans, Caenis, and amphipods) during June 1994. Logperch and rainbow darters were present in the nearshore zone only during this month. At the crest of the channel slope (depth = 3 m), round gobies and northern madtoms (Noturus stigmosus) ate mostly ephemeropteran nymphs (Hexagenia and Baetisca), while predation on zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and other mollusks by round gobies was minimal. Northern madtoms did not feed on mollusks. Diet overlap between round gobies and native fishes was not observed at the channel slope (depth = 5 m and 7 m) due to heavy predation on mollusks by round gobies. Young-of-the-year (YOY) round gobies migrated to deeper water in autumn and became prey of mottled sculpins and northern madtoms. Eggs and YOY of mottled sculpins may have become vulnerable to predation by both round gobies and native fishes in deeper water, since adult mottled sculpins were apparently confined to the channel with limited home range because aggressive round gobies occupied preferred shallow habitat, including spawning sites.

  5. Determination and assessment of total mercury levels in local, frozen and canned fish in Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Obeid, Pierre J; El-Khoury, Bilal; Burger, Joanne; Aouad, Samer; Younis, Mira; Aoun, Amal; El-Nakat, John Hanna

    2011-01-01

    Fish is an important constituent of the Lebanese diet. However, very little attention in our area is given to bring awareness regarding the effect of the toxicity of mercury (Hg) mainly through fish consumption. This study aimed to report analytical data on total mercury levels in several fish species for the first time in thirty years and to also made individuals aware of the presence and danger from exposure to mercury through fish consumption. Fish samples were selected from local Lebanese markets and fisheries and included 94 samples of which were fresh, frozen, processed, and canned fish. All values were reported as microgram of mercury per gram of fish based on wet weight. The level of mercury ranged from 0.0190 to 0.5700 microg/g in fresh samples, 0.0059 to 0.0665 microg/g in frozen samples, and 0.0305 to 0.1190 microg/g in canned samples. The data clearly showed that higher levels of mercury were detected in local fresh fish as opposed to other types thus placing consumers at higher risk from mercury exposure. Moreover, the data revealed that Mallifa (yellowstripe barracuda/Sphyraena chrysotaenia), Sargous (white seabream/Diplodus sargus), Ghobbos (bogue/Boops boops), and shrimp (Penaeus sp.) were among the types containing the highest amounts of mercury. On the other hand, processed fish such as fish fillet, fish burger, small shrimp and crab are found to contain lower levels of mercury and are associated with lower exposure risks to mercury. Lebanese population should therefore, be aware to consume limited amounts of fresh local fish to minimize exposure to mercury.

  6. Effects of protein hydrolysates supplementation in low fish meal diets on growth performance, innate immunity and disease resistance of red sea bream Pagrus major.

    PubMed

    Khosravi, Sanaz; Rahimnejad, Samad; Herault, Mikaël; Fournier, Vincent; Lee, Cho-Rong; Dio Bui, Hien Thi; Jeong, Jun-Bum; Lee, Kyeong-Jun

    2015-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the supplemental effects of three different types of protein hydrolysates in a low fish meal (FM) diet on growth performance, feed utilization, intestinal morphology, innate immunity and disease resistance of juvenile red sea bream. A FM-based diet was used as a high fish meal diet (HFM) and a low fish meal (LFM) diet was prepared by replacing 50% of FM by soy protein concentrate. Three other diets were prepared by supplementing shrimp, tilapia or krill hydrolysate to the LFM diet (designated as SH, TH and KH, respectively). Triplicate groups of fish (4.9 ± 0.1 g) were fed one of the test diets to apparent satiation twice daily for 13 weeks and then challenged by Edwardsiella tarda. At the end of the feeding trial, significantly (P < 0.05) higher growth performance was obtained in fish fed HFM and hydrolysate treated groups compared to those fed the LFM diet. Significant improvements in feed conversion and protein efficiency ratios were obtained in fish fed the hydrolysates compared to those fed the LFM diet. Significant enhancement in digestibility of protein was found in fish fed SH and KH diets and dry matter digestibility was increased in the group fed SH diet in comparison to LFM group. Fish fed the LFM diet showed significantly higher glucose level than all the other treatments. Whole-body and dorsal muscle compositions were not significantly influenced by dietary treatments. Histological analysis revealed significant reductions in goblet cell numbers and enterocyte length in the proximal intestine of fish fed the LFM diet. Superoxide dismutase activity and total immunoglobulin level were significantly increased in fish fed the diets containing protein hydrolysates compared to the LFM group. Also, significantly higher lysozyme and antiprotease activities were found in fish fed the hydrolysates and HFM diets compared to those offered LFM diet. Fish fed the LFM diet exhibited the lowest disease resistance against E. tarda

  7. Total organochlorine content of fish from the Great Lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Newsome, W.H.; Andrews, P.; Conacher, H.B.; Rao, R.R.; Chatt, A. )

    1993-07-01

    Residues of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides were determined in several species of commercial fish from the Great Lakes and compared to the total organic chlorine determined by neutron activation analysis. The mean organochlorine contents ranged from 44 to 138 ppm (lipid basis) and were 5 to 72 times higher than the contents of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides. Marine fish also contained a large proportion of unidentified organic chlorine. The unknown material in the Great Lakes fish was found to chromatograph with the high molecular weight lipid fraction by gel permeation chromatography.

  8. The Effect of Replacing Fish Meal in the Diet with Enzyme-Treated Soybean Meal (HP310) on Growth and Body Composition of Rainbow Trout Fry.

    PubMed

    Haghbayan, Samira; Shamsaie Mehrgan, Mehdi

    2015-11-26

    The potential of enzyme-treated soybean meal powder (HP310) as fish meal alternative in diets for rainbow trout weighing 1.17 ± 0.3 g was evaluated for 60 days. Fish meal was replaced with HP310 at 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of experimental diets. A control group was also considered. The results showed that diets containing 75% and 100% HP310 had significantly higher feed conversion ratio and lower feed intake, weight gain and specific growth rate compared to fish feed diets containing higher levels of fish protein ingredients (p < 0.05). Results suggested use of 50% HP310 in trout diet had a positive effect on growth performance (p < 0.05). All fish feed diets with HP310 had lower hematocrit, hemoglobin and red blood cells compared to the control group, but the differences between the control and the other treatments up to 75% HP310 replacement levels of diet (p > 0.05). However increasing in level of HP310 in the diet caused a significant increase of the white blood cells (p < 0.05). The fish fed with a diet totally replaced by HP310 showed the highest values of ash and moisture content among the diets and showed significantly different levels when compared with the control and other feeding treatments (p < 0.05).

  9. Choline Essentiality and Its Requirement in Diets for Juvenile Parrot Fish (Oplegnathus fasciatus)

    PubMed Central

    Khosravi, Sanaz; Jang, Ji-Woong; Rahimnejad, Samad; Song, Jin-Woo; Lee, Kyeong-Jun

    2015-01-01

    A 12-wk feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the essentiality of choline supplementation in diets for parrot fish. Five isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets were supplemented with 0 (as control), 500, 1,000, and 2,000 mg choline per kg diet, and a positive control diet without choline contained 0.3% of 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol as choline biosynthesis inhibitor (designated as Con, C500, C1000, C2000 and Con+, respectively). Triplicate groups of fish (body weight, 8.8±0.01 g) were fed one of the experimental diets at a rate of 4% body weight twice daily. The fish fed Con+ diet revealed significantly lower growth performance and feed utilization efficiency than other fish groups. Supplementation of choline to the basal diet did not significantly influence fish growth. The highest liver lipid content was observed in fish fed the Con+ diet and inversely correlated with liver choline concentration although the differences were not significant. Also, significantly higher liver linoleic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid contents were found in fish fed the Con+ diet. Innate immune parameters including respiratory burst and myeloperoxidase activities were not significantly affected by dietary choline levels. The findings in this study conclude that choline concentration of approximately 230 mg kg−1 diet meets the requirement of parrot fish. PMID:25924958

  10. A purified diet for medaka (Oryzias latipes): refining a fish model for toxicological research

    SciTech Connect

    DeKoven, D.L.; Nunez, J.M.; Lester, S.M.; Conklin, D.E.; Marty, G.D.; Parker, L.M.; Hinton, D.E. )

    1992-04-01

    The overall nutritional adequacy of a purified casein-based diet (PC-diet) for the medaka (Oryzias latipes) was evaluated and compared with three diets: commercially available flaked fish food (FL-diet), live newly hatched Artemia (A-diet), and a combination of FL-diet plus A-diet (F/A-diet). Survival, growth, reproductive success, general and liver histopathology, and selected hepatic enzyme activities were compared in medaka from first feeding through reproductive maturity. The PC-diet proved adequate in all of the above criteria. When compared with fish fed F/A-diet, an initial lag in early growth rates (i.e., 0 to 30 days) occurred with the fish fed PC-diet. The FL-diet alone was not nutritionally adequate for medaka, resulting in poor growth, reduced reproductive success, lower survival, and emaciation. A significant number of spinal deformities (5.4%) were noted in medaka fed the F/A diet. Ethoxycoumarin 0-deethylase and glutathione S-transferase activities were monitored and a trend toward increasing activity with age was noted. This suggests that PC- and F/A-diets provide adequate nutrition for development of the xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes necessary for detoxification and activation of endogenous and foreign compounds. The PC-diet supported good survival, growth, reproduction, and normal histology. This diet provides a standardized, nutritionally adequate, and consistent alternative to undefined conventional diets and is less likely to contain the range of xenobiotics possible in whole, live food.

  11. Total and inorganic arsenic in fish samples from Norwegian waters.

    PubMed

    Julshamn, Kaare; Nilsen, Bente M; Frantzen, Sylvia; Valdersnes, Stig; Maage, Amund; Nedreaas, Kjell; Sloth, Jens J

    2012-01-01

    The contents of total arsenic and inorganic arsenic were determined in fillet samples of Northeast Artic cod, herring, mackerel, Greenland halibut, tusk, saithe and Atlantic halibut. In total, 923 individual fish samples were analysed. The fish were mostly caught in the open sea off the coast of Norway, from 40 positions. The determination of total arsenic was carried out by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry following microwave-assisted wet digestion. The determination of inorganic arsenic was carried out by high-performance liquid chromatography-ICP-MS following microwave-assisted dissolution of the samples. The concentrations found for total arsenic varied greatly between fish species, and ranged from 0.3 to 110 mg kg(-1) wet weight. For inorganic arsenic, the concentrations found were very low (<0.006 mg kg(-1)) in all cases. The obtained results question the assumptions made by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) on the inorganic arsenic level in fish used in the recent EFSA opinion on arsenic in food.

  12. Application of food waste based diets in polyculture of low trophic level fish: effects on fish growth, water quality and plankton density.

    PubMed

    Mo, Wing Yin; Cheng, Zhang; Choi, Wai Ming; Man, Yu Bon; Liu, Yihui; Wong, Ming Hung

    2014-08-30

    Food waste was collected from local hotels and fish feed pellets were produced for a 6 months long field feeding trial. Three types of fish feed pellets (control diet: Jinfeng® 613 formulated feed, contains mainly fish meal, plant product and fish oil; Diet A: food waste based diet without meat and 53% cereal; Diet B: food waste based diet with 25% meat and 28% cereal) were used in polyculture fish ponds to investigate the growth of fish (grass carp, bighead and mud carp), changes in water quality and plankton density. No significant differences in the levels of nitrogen and phosphorous compounds of water body were observed between 3 fish ponds after the half-year feeding trial, while pond receiving Diet A had the highest density of plankton. The food waste combination of Diet B seems to be a better formulation in terms of the overall performance on fish growth.

  13. Optimizing fish meal-free commercial diets for Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A feeding trial was conducted in a closed recirculating aquaculture system with Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus juveniles (mean weight, 6.81 g) to examine the response to a practical diet containing protein primarily from menhaden fish meal (FM) and soybean meal (SBM) (control, Diet 1) or to diet...

  14. Effects of a fish oil enriched diet on aspirin intolerant asthmatic patients: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Picado, C; Castillo, J A; Schinca, N; Pujades, M; Ordinas, A; Coronas, A; Agusti-Vidal, A

    1988-02-01

    The effect of a fish oil enriched diet containing about 3 g of eicosapentaenoic acid was studied in 10 patients with aspirin intolerant asthma. Subjects were studied during six weeks on a control diet followed by six weeks on the fish oil diet in a single blind study design. They were asked to record their peak expiratory flow (PEF) twice daily, bronchodilator and steroid doses, and subjective ratings of pulmonary symptoms on diary cards. There were no significant changes in symptom scores over the six weeks of either the control diet or the fish oil diet. PEF values, however, were significantly lower during the fifth and sixth week of the fish oil diet than during the control diet (308 v 262 l/min week 5 and 306 v 256 l/min week 6). Bronchodilator usage was also greater during the fifth and sixth week of the fish oil diet than during the control period (12.0 v 7.4 and 13.0 v 7.4 puffs a day in weeks 5 and 6). This pilot study suggests that fish diets may have a deleterious effect on patients with aspirin intolerant asthma.

  15. Diet variability of forage fishes in the Northern California Current System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Andrew D.; Daly, Elizabeth A.; Brodeur, Richard D.

    2015-06-01

    As fisheries management shifts to an ecosystem-based approach, understanding energy pathways and trophic relationships in the Northern California Current (NCC) will become increasingly important for predictive modeling and understanding ecosystem response to changing ocean conditions. In the NCC, pelagic forage fishes are a critical link between seasonal and interannual variation in primary production and upper trophic groups. We compared diets among dominant forage fish (sardines, anchovies, herring, and smelts) in the NCC collected in May and June of 2011 and June 2012, and found high diet variability between and within species on seasonal and annual time scales, and also on decadal scales when compared to results of past studies conducted in the early 2000s. Copepoda were a large proportion by weight of several forage fish diets in 2011 and 2012, which differed from a preponderance of Euphausiidae found in previous studies, even though all years exhibited cool ocean conditions. We also examined diet overlap among these species and with co-occurring subyearling Chinook salmon and found that surf smelt diets overlapped more with subyearling Chinook diets than any other forage fish. Herring and sardine diets overlapped the most with each other in our interdecadal comparisons and some prey items were common to all forage fish diets. Forage fish that show plasticity in diet may be more adapted to ocean conditions of low productivity or anomalous prey fields. These findings highlight the variable and not well-understood connections between ocean conditions and energy pathways within the NCC.

  16. Effect of a fish oil and arginine-fortified diet in thermally injured patients.

    PubMed

    Wibbenmeyer, Lucy A; Mitchell, Melanie A; Newel, Ingrid M; Faucher, Lee D; Amelon, Margery J; Ruffin, Timothy O; Lewis, Robert D; Latenser, Barbara A; Kealey, Patrick G

    2006-01-01

    Burn injury induces a hypercatabolic inflammatory state, predisposing burn patients to malnutrition, poor wound healing, and infectious complications. We conducted this study to determine what effect a diet fortified with fish oil and arginine (FAD) would have on wound healing in a thermally injured population. Twenty-three thermally injured patients were enrolled in this randomized double blind enteral feeding study from July 2002 to August 2004. All study patients received isonitrogenous enteral intragastric feeding within 48 hours of admission. Patients were randomized to our standard diet (STD, ProBalance with Promix, Probalance from Nestlé, Glendale, CA; ProMix R.D., Navaco Laboratories, Phoenix, AZ) or a diet fortified with fish oil and arginine (FAD, Crucial, Nestlé Nutrition Glendale, CA) Diets were advanced as tolerated to meet 100% of estimated needs. The primary endpoint of the study was time to heal the first donor site. There were no statistical differences between the study groups with respect to baseline characteristics. Both diets were well tolerated, and there were no differences in the daily total kilocalories or protein intake per kilogram between the two diet groups throughout the study. Although nonsignificant, the patients in the FAD group showed a slightly faster healing time than those in the STD group (10.8 +/- 2.7 days vs 12.3 +/- 5.2 days, respectively). This trend was further accelerated when those with body surface area burns less than 30% were examined (patients with body surface area burns <30% in the FAD healed in 9.0 +/- 1.7 vs corresponding patients in the standard group who healed in 12.2 +/- 6.2, P = .63). Patients in the FAD group trended to more infections and more adverse complications. The adverse complications were predominantly associated with inhalation injuries. The role of fortified enteral diets in the outcomes of thermally injured patients deserves further study. Such a future study should be conducted in a

  17. Total Diet Studies as a Tool for Ensuring Food Safety

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joon-Goo; Kim, Sheen-Hee; Kim, Hae-Jung

    2015-01-01

    With the diversification and internationalization of the food industry and the increased focus on health from a majority of consumers, food safety policies are being implemented based on scientific evidence. Risk analysis represents the most useful scientific approach for making food safety decisions. Total diet study (TDS) is often used as a risk assessment tool to evaluate exposure to hazardous elements. Many countries perform TDSs to screen for chemicals in foods and analyze exposure trends to hazardous elements. TDSs differ from traditional food monitoring in two major aspects: chemicals are analyzed in food in the form in which it will be consumed and it is cost-effective in analyzing composite samples after processing multiple ingredients together. In Korea, TDSs have been conducted to estimate dietary intakes of heavy metals, pesticides, mycotoxins, persistent organic pollutants, and processing contaminants. TDSs need to be carried out periodically to ensure food safety. PMID:26483881

  18. Total Diet Studies as a Tool for Ensuring Food Safety.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joon-Goo; Kim, Sheen-Hee; Kim, Hae-Jung; Yoon, Hae-Jung

    2015-09-01

    With the diversification and internationalization of the food industry and the increased focus on health from a majority of consumers, food safety policies are being implemented based on scientific evidence. Risk analysis represents the most useful scientific approach for making food safety decisions. Total diet study (TDS) is often used as a risk assessment tool to evaluate exposure to hazardous elements. Many countries perform TDSs to screen for chemicals in foods and analyze exposure trends to hazardous elements. TDSs differ from traditional food monitoring in two major aspects: chemicals are analyzed in food in the form in which it will be consumed and it is cost-effective in analyzing composite samples after processing multiple ingredients together. In Korea, TDSs have been conducted to estimate dietary intakes of heavy metals, pesticides, mycotoxins, persistent organic pollutants, and processing contaminants. TDSs need to be carried out periodically to ensure food safety.

  19. Egg shell and yolk quality characteristics of layers fed with sugarcane press residue in soya and fish based diets

    PubMed Central

    Suma, N.; Reddy, B. S. Venkatarami; Gloridoss, R. G.; Prabhu, T. M.; Kumar, C. Basavanta; Suresh, B. N.; Shilpa, V. T.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Sugarcane press residue (SPR), a by-product of sugarcane industry, which is rich in inorganic salts was assessed at different levels in both soya based and fish based diets of layers for egg shell and yolk quality characteristics. Materials and Methods: SPR was incorporated in 32-week-old white leghorn layer diets at 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% either in the soya based or fish based diets to form T1 to T8 diets, respectively. Each diet was offered to five replicates of four laying hens each constituting a total of one sixty birds kept for 84 days under colony cages. Results: Mean egg shell thickness obtained from eggs of experimental hens measured was 0.342, 0.329, 0.320, 0.322, 0.319, 0.332, 0.328 and 0.336 mm in T1 through T8 groups, respectively. About the main factor effects, both showed non-significant results. Similarly, influence of different treatment diets, in imparting colour to the yolks, was found to be non-significant (p>0.05) at different 28-day time intervals. Further, the average yolk index values ranged non-significantly from 0.360 (T6) to 0.383 (T4). Conclusion: The SPR can be incorporated into layer diet as a source of inorganic as well as organic nutrients without affecting its egg quality characteristics. PMID:27047079

  20. Temperature and diet effects on omnivorous fish performance: Implications for the latitudinal diversity gradient in herbivorous fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Behrens, M.D.; Lafferty, K.D.

    2007-01-01

    Herbivorous fishes show a clear latitudinal diversity gradient, making up a larger proportion of the fish species in a community in tropical waters than in temperate waters. One proposed mechanism that could drive this gradient is a physiological constraint due to temperature. One prediction based on this mechanism is that if herbivorous fishes could shift their diet to animal material, they would be better able to grow, survive, and reproduce in cold waters. We tested this prediction on the omnivore Girella nigricans under different temperature and diet regimes using RNA-DNA ratios as an indicator of performance. Fish had increased performance (100%) at low temperatures (12??C) when their diet was supplemented with animal material. In contrast, at higher temperatures (17, 22, and 27??C) fish showed no differences between diets. This indicates that omnivorous fishes could increase their performance at low temperatures by consuming more animal matter. This study supports the hypothesis that a relative increase in the nutritional value of plant material at warmer temperatures could drive the latitudinal diversity gradient in herbivorous fishes. ?? 2007 NRC.

  1. A method for measuring total thiaminase activity in fish tissues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zajicek, James L.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Honeyfield, Dale C.; Brown, Scott B.; Fitzsimons, John D.

    2005-01-01

    An accurate, quantitative, and rapid method for the measurement of thiaminase activity in fish samples is required to provide sufficient information to characterize the role of dietary thiaminase in the onset of thiamine deficiency in Great Lakes salmonines. A radiometric method that uses 14C-thiamine was optimized for substrate and co-substrate (nicotinic acid) concentrations, incubation time, and sample dilution. Total thiaminase activity was successfully determined in extracts of selected Great Lakes fishes and invertebrates. Samples included whole-body and selected tissues of forage fishes. Positive control material prepared from frozen alewives Alosa pseudoharengus collected in Lake Michigan enhanced the development and application of the method. The method allowed improved discrimination of thiaminolytic activity among forage fish species and their tissues. The temperature dependence of the thiaminase activity observed in crude extracts of Lake Michigan alewives followed a Q10 = 2 relationship for the 1-37??C temperature range, which is consistent with the bacterial-derived thiaminase I protein. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  2. A study on the meat and bone meal and poultry by-product meal as protein substitutes of fish meal in practical diets for Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Wei; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Baigang; Wang, Fuzhen; Yu, Yu

    2004-10-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of meat and bone meal (MBM) and poultry by-product meal (PBM) as the replacement of fish meal in the diets on the growth performance, survival and apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of Litopenaeus vannamei. The basal diets were formulated with 22% fish meal and other ingredients which provided about 40% protein and 9% lipid in the diet. The experimental diets included MBM or PBM to replace 0, 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% of total fish meal respectively. All diets were iso-nitrogenous and isocaloric in gross terms. The results showed that there were no significant differences (Pτ;0.05) in growth performance and ADC among the treatments fed with the diets in which 0 60% fish meal had been replaced with MBM, while the percent weight gain (WG, %), body length gain (BLG, %) and ADC significantly decreased when the MBM was up to 80% of the fish meal. There were no significant differences (Pτ;0.05) in growth performance and ADC among all the treatments fed with the diets in which 0 80% fish meal had been replaced with PBM.

  3. Maternal diet during oogenesis is the major source of methylmercury in fish embryos.

    PubMed

    Hammerschmidtt, Chad R; Sandheinrich, Mark B

    2005-05-15

    Development of the early life stages of fishes can be affected adversely by methylmercury (MeHg) transferred from the maternal parent to the developing egg. We examined maternal transfer of MeHg to eggs of fathead minnows Pimephales promelas and evaluated the role of maternal MeHg burden versus that in the maternal dietduring oogenesis on egg concentrations. Juvenile fish were fed one of four diets until sexual maturity (phase 1): A control diet (0.06 microg of Hg g(-1) dry weight) and three that were contaminated with MeHg at 0.88 (low), 4.11 (medium), and 8.46 microg of Hg g(-1) (high). At sexual maturity, female fish were paired with a male, again fed one of the four diets, and allowed to reproduce (phase 2). To assess the significance of female dietary exposure during oogenesis on MeHg in eggs, some fish were fed diets during phase 2 that differed from those during phase 1. Mean concentrations and burdens of MeHg in eggs from fish fed the same diet throughout the experiment varied with MeHg content of the maternal diet and were related positively to levels in the carcass of the maternal fish. However, MeHg in eggs was not proportional to that in carcasses among dietary treatments; MeHg in eggs from adults fed the control, low, medium, and high MeHg diets averaged 14%, 25%, 32%, and 35% of that in adults. For fish fed the control diet as juveniles and MeHg-contaminated diets after reaching sexual maturity, MeHg in eggs increased rapidly with duration of maternal dietary exposure prior to spawning. Moreover, concentrations of MeHg in eggs from fish fed the same contaminated diet as both juveniles and sexually mature adults were not related to the duration of adult exposure, and they were not appreciably greater than those from fish fed contaminated diets only just priorto spawning. These results indicate that the diet of the maternal adult during oogenesis, and not adult body burden, is the principal source of MeHg in fish eggs. Accordingly, the exposure of

  4. Individuals' diet diversity influences gut microbial diversity in two freshwater fish (threespine stickleback and Eurasian perch)

    PubMed Central

    Bolnick, Daniel I; Snowberg, Lisa K; Hirsch, Philipp E; Lauber, Christian L; Knight, Rob; Caporaso, J Gregory; Svanbäck, Richard; Post, David

    2014-01-01

    Vertebrates' diets profoundly influence the composition of symbiotic gut microbial communities. Studies documenting diet-microbiota associations typically focus on univariate or categorical diet variables. However, in nature individuals often consume diverse combinations of foods. If diet components act independently, each providing distinct microbial colonists or nutrients, we expect a positive relationship between diet diversity and microbial diversity. We tested this prediction within each of two fish species (stickleback and perch), in which individuals vary in their propensity to eat littoral or pelagic invertebrates or mixtures of both prey. Unexpectedly, in most cases individuals with more generalised diets had less diverse microbiota than dietary specialists, in both natural and laboratory populations. This negative association between diet diversity and microbial diversity was small but significant, and most apparent after accounting for complex interactions between sex, size and diet. Our results suggest that multiple diet components can interact non-additively to influence gut microbial diversity. PMID:24847735

  5. Use of fish hydrolysates and fishmeal by-products of the Alaskan fishing industry in diets for Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The suitability of four fish hydrolysates and two fishmeals derived from by-products of the Alaskan fishing industry, as menhaden fishmeal replacements in shrimp diets was determined. A control diet (30% crude protein and 8.5% crude lipid) was produced with menhaden meal (13% of diet). Experimental ...

  6. Long-term consumption of fish oil-enriched diet impairs serotonin hypophagia in rats.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Regina L H; Andrade, Iracema S; Telles, Mônica M; Albuquerque, Kelse T; Nascimento, Cláudia M O; Oyama, Lila M; Casarini, Dulce E; Ribeiro, Eliane B

    2010-10-01

    Hypothalamic serotonin inhibits food intake and stimulates energy expenditure. High-fat feeding is obesogenic, but the role of polyunsaturated fats is not well understood. This study examined the influence of different high-PUFA diets on serotonin-induced hypophagia, hypothalamic serotonin turnover, and hypothalamic protein levels of serotonin transporter (ST), and SR-1B and SR-2C receptors. Male Wistar rats received for 9 weeks from weaning a diet high in either soy oil or fish oil or low fat (control diet). Throughout 9 weeks, daily intake of fat diets decreased such that energy intake was similar to that of the control diet. However, the fish group developed heavier retroperitoneal and epididymal fat depots. After 12 h of either 200 or 300 μg intracerebroventricular serotonin, food intake was significantly inhibited in control group (21-25%) and soy group (37-39%) but not in the fish group. Serotonin turnover was significantly lower in the fish group than in both the control group (-13%) and the soy group (-18%). SR-2C levels of fish group were lower than those of control group (50%, P = 0.02) and soy group (37%, P = 0.09). ST levels tended to decrease in the fish group in comparison to the control group (16%, P = 0.339) and the soy group (21%, P = 0.161). Thus, unlike the soy-oil diet, the fish-oil diet decreased hypothalamic serotonin turnover and SR-2C levels and abolished serotonin-induced hypophagia. Fish-diet rats were potentially hypophagic, suggesting that, at least up to this point in its course, the serotonergic impairment was either compensated by other factors or not of a sufficient extent to affect feeding. That fat pad weight increased in the absence of hyperphagia indicates that energy expenditure was affected by the serotonergic hypofunction.

  7. Sampling variability and uncertainty in total diet studies.

    PubMed

    Tsukakoshi, Yoshiki

    2011-02-07

    Here, the uncertainty budget for a total diet study (TDS) was clarified by separating the total measurement uncertainty into the uncertainty arising from the compositional heterogeneity of food items between cities (referred to as inter-city variance), the heterogeneity of food items within cities (intra-city variance), and the chemical analysis of the food samples (analytical variance) at one study design. TDS samples were collected from 14 cities in Japan. Duplicate samples collected in each city were prepared from food items purchased from different shops, and the cadmium concentrations were measured individually to obtain the intra-city variance. These results were used to show the importance of sampling design in TDSs, by evaluating a sampling method known as a multi-stage design, in which multiple samples are collected from several cities. Such schemes have been applied to TDSs, but the uncertainty involved has not been assessed. An intra-city correlation was observed between the cadmium concentrations in samples from the same city, demonstrating that the effective sample size was not simply the number of cities and shops sampled. The TDS results showed a high intra-city variance, which was greater than the inter-city variance for all of the food groups studied, and particularly for the bean and potato groups. By combining the sampling and analytical uncertainties obtained, the sampling uncertainty across different primary sampling unit sizes and secondary sampling unit sizes was obtained. As suggested by the analysis of potatoes and beans, grouping food samples from different shops in the same city can improve the representativeness of the results.

  8. A description on pharyngeal jaw apparatus and diets of halfbeak fish Zenarchopterus buffonis (Valenciennes 1847) in Malaysian waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abidin, Diana Atiqah Zainal; Hashim, Marina; Das, Simon K.; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.

    2015-09-01

    Information on the feeding mechanism and diet of halfbeak fish species in harsh estuarine environment ecosystem is still lacking. The present study investigates the fine structure of pharyngeal jaw apparatus and diets of halfbeak fish Zenarchopterus buffonis. A total of 84 halfbeak fish samples have been collected from the coastal water of Peninsular Malaysia using fishing rod. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the micrographs of fine microstructure of the pharyngeal teeth. The fundamental anatomy of pharyngeal jaw apparatus displayed that the upper pharyngeal jaw (third pharyngobranchials) displays larger size of hook-like or tricuspid teeth which was analogous to tricuspid morphology. The lower pharyngeal jaw (fifth ceratobranchial) bears mainly conical teeth and appears triangular shape with two, short projections. The estimated TROPH values (1 - 3.2±0.55) denoted that halfbeak fish were omnivores in nature. The findings of this study was found to be useful as a baseline information for a better representation of the trophic flows associated with large medium and small surface water fishes.

  9. A description on pharyngeal jaw apparatus and diets of halfbeak fish Zenarchopterus buffonis (Valenciennes 1847) in Malaysian waters

    SciTech Connect

    Abidin, Diana Atiqah Zainal Hashim, Marina; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.; Das, Simon K.

    2015-09-25

    Information on the feeding mechanism and diet of halfbeak fish species in harsh estuarine environment ecosystem is still lacking. The present study investigates the fine structure of pharyngeal jaw apparatus and diets of halfbeak fish Zenarchopterus buffonis. A total of 84 halfbeak fish samples have been collected from the coastal water of Peninsular Malaysia using fishing rod. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the micrographs of fine microstructure of the pharyngeal teeth. The fundamental anatomy of pharyngeal jaw apparatus displayed that the upper pharyngeal jaw (third pharyngobranchials) displays larger size of hook-like or tricuspid teeth which was analogous to tricuspid morphology. The lower pharyngeal jaw (fifth ceratobranchial) bears mainly conical teeth and appears triangular shape with two, short projections. The estimated TROPH values (1 − 3.2±0.55) denoted that halfbeak fish were omnivores in nature. The findings of this study was found to be useful as a baseline information for a better representation of the trophic flows associated with large medium and small surface water fishes.

  10. Mucus: A new tissue fraction for rapid determination of fish diet switching using stable isotope analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stable isotope analysis of diet switching by fishes often is hampered by slow turnover rates of the tissues analyzed (usually muscle or fins). We examined epidermal mucus as a potentially faster turnover “tissue” that might provide a more rapid assessment of diet switching. In a ...

  11. Mucus: a new tissue fraction for rapid determination of fish diet switching using stable isotope analysis.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stable isotope analysis of diet switching by fishes is often hampered by slow turnover rates of the tissues analyzed (usually muscle or fins). We examined epidermal mucus as a potentially faster turnover “tissue” that might provide a more rapid assessment of diet switching. In a controlled hatchery...

  12. Nursery function of mangrove: A comparison with mudflat in terms of fish species composition and fish diet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tse, P.; Nip, T. H. M.; Wong, C. K.

    2008-11-01

    Shallow soft-bottom habitats including mangroves and mudflats provide important nursery functions for juvenile fishes, but little information exists concerning the relative nursery value of these habitats for juvenile fishes. We compared the potential of a mangrove and a mudflat in a semi-enclosed bay in Hong Kong to serve as fish nurseries by measuring species composition, dietary composition, gut fullness and diet breadth of juvenile fishes. Fish abundance was higher in mangrove than mudflat, but species richness was almost similar between the two habitats. After excluding Ambassis gymnocephalus, which was found mainly in the mangrove, difference in fish abundance between the two habitats was small. The gut fullness and diet breath of most species did not differ between mangrove and mudflat, suggesting that the two habitats were very similar in terms of providing feeding opportunity for juvenile fishes. While the importance of mangrove as nursery of fishes has been repeatedly emphasized, our data suggest that other soft-bottom habitats, such as mudflats, are also important and need to be protected.

  13. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) adipate in selected total diet food composite samples.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xu-Liang; Zhao, Wendy; Churchill, Robin; Dabeka, Robert

    2013-11-01

    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) food-wrapping films plasticized with di-(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA) are commonly used by grocery stores in Canada to rewrap meat, poultry, fish, cheese, and other foods. DEHA was assessed as part of the Government of Canada's Chemicals Management Plan. The main source of exposure for most age groups was expected to be food. Although the margin of exposure from food and beverages is considered to be adequately protective, the Government of Canada committed to performing targeted surveys of DEHA in foods and food packaging materials to better define Canadian exposure to DEHA through dietary intake. In order to determine whether more-comprehensive targeted surveys on DEHA in foods should be conducted, 26 food composite samples from the 2011 Canadian total diet study were selected and analyzed for DEHA using a method based on solvent and dispersive solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. These 26 food composites include cheese, meat, poultry, fish, and fast foods, and PVC films were likely used in packaging the individual foods used to make the composites. DEHA was detected in most of the meat, poultry, and fish composite samples, with the highest concentration found in ground beef (11 μg/g), followed by beef steak (9.9 μg/g), freshwater fish (7.8 μg/g), poultry liver pâté (7.4 μg/g), fresh pork (6.9 μg/g), cold cuts and luncheon meats (2.8 μg/g), veal cutlets (2.1 μg/g), roast beef (1.3 μg/g), lamb (1.2 μg/g), and organ meats (0.20 μg/g). Targeted surveys should be conducted to investigate the presence of DEHA in various foods packaged with PVC films in more detail and provide updated occurrence data for accurate human exposure assessment.

  14. Echium oil and linseed oil as alternatives for fish oil in the maternal diet: Blood fatty acid profiles and oxidative status of sows and piglets.

    PubMed

    Tanghe, S; Millet, S; De Smet, S

    2013-07-01

    Echium oil (source of stearidonic acid) and linseed oil (source of α-linolenic acid) were evaluated as alternatives for fish oil in the diet of sows to increase the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) status of the offspring. The hypothesis was that echium oil would be more efficient than linseed oil to increase the DHA concentration, as it bypasses the enzyme Δ6-desaturase. In addition, it was determined whether adding PUFA to the diet affected the plasma oxidative status. Sows were fed either a palm oil diet or a diet containing 1% linseed oil, echium oil, or fish oil from d 73 of gestation and during lactation (n = 16 per dietary treatment). Total oil concentrations in the diets were similar among dietary treatments. Blood samples were taken for fatty acid analysis and oxidative status of sows on d 73 and 93 of gestation and at parturition and the lightest and heaviest piglet per litter at birth and weaning. Colostrum was also sampled. No effect of diet was observed on total number of piglets born (13.7 ± 0.4), number of weaned piglets (10.8 ± 0.4), and gestation length (114.8 ± 0.2 d). Piglets from sows fed fish oil had lighter birth weights (1.41 ± 0.03 kg) than piglets from the linseed oil diet (1.54 ± 0.03 kg; P = 0.006), with no difference between the palm oil (1.45 ± 0.03 kg) and echium oil diet (1.49 ± 0.03 kg). Daily BW gain until weaning was less for piglets from sows fed the fish oil diet (214 ± 5 g) compared with piglets from sows fed the echium oil (240 ± 5 g; P < 0.001) or linseed oil diet (234 ± 5 g; P = 0.02). Compared with the palm oil diet, echium and linseed oil in the maternal diet increased the DHA concentration in the colostrum and the sow and piglet plasma to the same extent (1.1 to 1.4-fold; P < 0.001). On the fish oil diet, 20.7-fold, 10-fold, and 2.4-fold increases in DHA in colostrum, sow, and piglet plasma, respectively, were observed (P < 0.001). At 1% in the maternal diet, echium oil had, thus, no benefit over linseed oil and

  15. Ontogenetic, spatial and temporal variation in trophic level and diet of Chukchi Sea fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, Jennifer M.; Mueter, Franz J.; Iken, Katrin; Danielson, Seth

    2017-01-01

    Climate warming and increasing development are expected to alter the ecosystem of the Chukchi Sea, including its fish communities. As a component of the Arctic Ecosystem Integrated Survey, we assessed the ontogenetic, spatial and temporal variability of the trophic level and diet of key fish species in the Chukchi Sea using N and C stable isotopes. During August and September of 2012 and 2013, 16 common fish species and two primary, invertebrate consumers were collected from surface, midwater and bottom trawls within the eastern Chukchi Sea. Linear mixed-effects models were used to detect possible variation in the relationship between body length and either δ13C or δ15N values among water masses and years for 13 fish species with an emphasis on Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida). We also examined the fish community isotopic niche space, trophic redundancy, and trophic separation within each water mass as measures of resiliency of the fish food web. Ontogenetic shifts in trophic level and diet were observed for most species and these changes tended to vary by water mass. As they increased in length, most fish species relied more on benthic prey with the exception of three forage fish species (walleye pollock, Gadus chalcogrammus, capelin, Mallotus villosus, and Pacific sandlance, Ammodytes hexapterus). Species that exhibited interannual differences in diet and trophic level were feeding at lower trophic levels and consumed a more pelagic diet in 2012 when zooplankton densities were higher. Fish communities occupied different isotopic niche spaces depending on water mass association. In more northerly Arctic waters, the fish community occupied the smallest isotopic niche space and relied heavily on a limited range of intermediate δ13C prey, whereas in warmer, nutrient-rich Bering Chukchi Summer Water, pelagic prey was important. In the warmest, Pacific-derived coastal water, fish consumed both benthic and pelagic prey. Examining how spatial gradients in trophic

  16. Shaping development through mechanical strain: the transcriptional basis of diet-induced phenotypic plasticity in a cichlid fish.

    PubMed

    Gunter, Helen M; Fan, Shaohua; Xiong, Fan; Franchini, Paolo; Fruciano, Carmelo; Meyer, Axel

    2013-09-01

    Adaptive phenotypic plasticity, the ability of an organism to change its phenotype to match local environments, is increasingly recognized for its contribution to evolution. However, few empirical studies have explored the molecular basis of plastic traits. The East African cichlid fish Astatoreochromis alluaudi displays adaptive phenotypic plasticity in its pharyngeal jaw apparatus, a structure that is widely seen as an evolutionary key innovation that has contributed to the remarkable diversity of cichlid fishes. It has previously been shown that in response to different diets, the pharyngeal jaws change their size, shape and dentition: hard diets induce an adaptive robust molariform tooth phenotype with short jaws and strong internal bone structures, while soft diets induce a gracile papilliform tooth phenotype with elongated jaws and slender internal bone structures. To gain insight into the molecular underpinnings of these adaptations and enable future investigations of the role that phenotypic plasticity plays during the formation of adaptive radiations, the transcriptomes of the two divergent jaw phenotypes were examined. Our study identified a total of 187 genes whose expression differs in response to hard and soft diets, including immediate early genes, extracellular matrix genes and inflammatory factors. Transcriptome results are interpreted in light of expression of candidate genes-markers for tooth size and shape, bone cells and mechanically sensitive pathways. This study opens up new avenues of research at new levels of biological organization into the roles of phenotypic plasticity during speciation and radiation of cichlid fishes.

  17. Fish condensate as effective replacer of fish meal protein in diet for striped snakehead, Channa striata (Bloch).

    PubMed

    Wattanakul, Wattana; Wattanakul, Uraiwan; Thongprajukaew, Karun; Muenpo, Chutchawan

    2017-02-01

    The optimal protein replacement of fish meal (FM) by fish condensate (FC) was investigated in striped snakehead, Channa striata (Bloch) (1.78 ± 0.02 g initial weight). The FM-based diet (0FC) was replaced by substituting protein from FC for 100 (100FC), 200 (200FC), 300 (300FC), 400 (400FC), 500 (500FC) or 600 (600FC) g kg(-1) of the FM, and a commercial diet (CD) for carnivorous fish was included for comparison. The experiment was conducted indoors under completely randomized design (8 treatments × 3 replications × 60 fish per pond) over a 6-month trial. There were no significant differences in water quality during the experiment. The fish fed with 500FC had superior growth performance and feed utilization. This dietary treatment gave similar levels to all observed specific activities of digestive enzymes as did baseline 0FC. Survival, carcass composition, hematological parameters and liver histopathology were not negatively impacted by this protein replacement level. Economic analysis also supports the use of this by-product as a potent protein replacer in striped snakehead diet. Findings from the current study indicate that a 500 g kg(-1) protein replacement of FM by FC is near optimal for striped snakehead, and similar use of it in the aquafeed of other species appears worth further studies.

  18. [Comparison of a rural town and a fishing town: diet and circulatory system diseases].

    PubMed

    Liang, H; Ozasa, K; Higashi, A; Watanabe, Y; Hayashi, K; Aoike, A; Kawai, K

    1993-10-01

    We report a comparative study of the Standardized Mortality Ratio (SMR) for circulatory system diseases and diet in a rural town and a fishing town in Kyoto Prefecture. SMR was assessed during the 5-year period from 1983 through 1987, and compared with the standard age- and sex-adjusted demographic and mortality statistics compiled by the National Census Bureau of Japan in 1985. A food frequency questionnaire in which the respondents evaluated their food consumption during the previous 1-year period was used to assess diet. The questionnaire was administered during February 1989 in the rural town and during February 1990 in the fishing town. In comparison with the standard statistics, SMR was higher in the rural town and lower in the fishing town. The inhabitants of the fishing town more frequently consumed low-fat and low-sodium foods, such as fish, potatoes, tofu, and green, yellow and other vegetables, and less frequently consumed high-fat and high-sodium foods, such as meat, fried food, pickles, than did the inhabitants of the rural town. The residents of the fishing town also consumed a greater variety of foods in one week. The two towns differ in geography and economic structure, and their inhabitants have different life-styles and eating habits. The lower SMR for circulatory system diseases in the fishing town may be related to the greater consumption of fish and vegetables with lower meat and salt intake, as well as the balanced of diet.

  19. Replacement of fish oil with thraustochytrid Schizochytrium sp. L oil in Atlantic salmon parr (Salmo salar L) diets.

    PubMed

    Miller, Matthew R; Nichols, Peter D; Carter, Chris G

    2007-10-01

    Replacing fish oil with that from a docosahexaenoic acid (22:6omega3, DHA) rich single cell micro-organism, thraustochytrid Schizochytrium sp. L, in diets for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) was investigated. Four experimental diets containing 100% thraustochytrid oil (TO), 100% palm oil (PO) and a 4:1 palm and thraustochytrid oil mixture (MX) were compared to a fish oil (FO) diet over 9 weeks. A saltwater transfer challenge occurred at the end of the trial for 14 days to test the diet treatments on the ability of salmon to smolt. There were no significant differences in the feed consumption of the diets or the digestibility of the omega3 or omega6 PUFA, indicating no differences in the digestibility of fatty acids between diets. No significant differences were noted between the growth of fish on the four diet treatments. Significant differences were noted in the fatty acid profiles of the fish muscle tissues between all diets. Fish on the TO diet had a significantly greater percentage of DHA in muscle tissue compared with fish on all other diets. Blood osmolarity, which is inversely related to the ability of salmon to smolt, from the TO and FO fed fish was significantly lower than that of fish on the PO diet. This study showed that thraustochytrid oil can be used to replace fish oil in Atlantic salmon diets without detriment to the growth of parr. Including thraustochytrid oil in fish diets significantly increases the amount of DHA in Atlantic salmon muscle and therefore is a candidate for use in oil blends for salmon diets. Thraustochytrid oil provides a renewable source of essential fatty acids, in particular DHA, for aquafeeds.

  20. Use of meatpacking by-products in fish diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since fish meal is of limited supply and more expensive than most other protein sources, reducing its use in fish feeds will increase profits and improve sustainability of the aquaculture industry. Meat meal, meat and bone meal, and blood meal are by-products of the animal rendering industry and ar...

  1. Diet dynamics of the adult piscivorous fish community in Spirit Lake, Iowa, USA 1995-1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liao, H.; Pierce, C.L.; Larscheid, J.G.

    2002-01-01

    Diets of adults of six important piscivorous fish species, black crappie Pomoxis nigromaculatus, largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, northern pike Esox lucius, smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieui, walleye Stizostedion vitreum, and yellow perch Perca flavescens were quantified in Spirit Lake, Iowa, USA from May to October in 1995-1997. Forty-one prey taxa were found in the diets of these species, including 19 species of fish. The most important prey taxa overall were yellow perch, amphipods and dipterans. Diets of northern pike and walleye were dominated by yellow perch. Largemouth bass diets included large percentages of both yellow perch and black bullhead Ameiurus melas. Smallmouth bass diets included large percentages of both yellow perch and crayfish. Black crappie and yellow perch diets were dominated by invertebrates, primarily amphipods and dipterans. There were pronounced differences in diets among species, among size classes within species and over time. Most of the dominant prey taxa we documented in the diets of piscivorous species were in accordance with previous studies, but a few deviated significantly from expectations. Many of the temporal diet changes were asynchronous among piscivorous species and size classes, suggesting different responses to common prey resources over time.

  2. Fish Oil–Rich Diet Promotes Hematopoiesis and Alters Hematopoietic Niche

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao-ping; Cheng, Lu; Han, Mu-tian; Zhang, Miao-miao; Shao, Qi-xiang; Xu, Hua-xi

    2015-01-01

    The self-renewal and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in bone marrow are essential to replenish all blood cell types, but how this process is influenced by diet remains largely unclear. Here we show that a diet rich in fish oils promotes self-renewal of HSCs and extramedullary hematopoiesis. Chronic intake of a fish oil–rich diet increases the abundance of HSCs, alters the hematopoietic microenvironment, and, intriguingly, induces the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 12 (MMP12) in the bone marrow. Pointing to a direct effect of fish oil on MMP12 expression, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids induce the expression of MMP12 in a dose-dependent manner in bone marrow cells. Importantly, down-regulation of MMP12 activity using an MMP12-specific inhibitor attenuates diet-induced myelopoiesis in both bone marrow and spleen. Thus, a fish oil–rich diet promotes hematopoiesis in the bone marrow and spleen, in part via the activity of MMP12. Taken together, these data provide new insights into diet-mediated regulation of hematopoiesis. PMID:26061726

  3. Investigation of Total and Methyl Mercury in Fish and Sediment of Lake Michigan

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment cores and fish collected between 1994 and 1996 as part of the Lake Michigan Mass Balance Project were analyzed for total and methyl mercury. Results of the fish analyses are being used to describe total and methyl mercury concentrations in forage fish and lake trout, re...

  4. [Is a fish oil enriched diet therapeutically beneficial?].

    PubMed

    Machura, E; Kalaciński, W; Brus, R

    1995-07-01

    The metabolism of arachidonic acid (AA) and significance of leukotrienes in the pathogenesis of asthma are presented in this article. The effect of a diet containing eicosapentaenoic acid in the treatment of a variety of diseases is discussed as well.

  5. Efficacy of phytosterols and fish-oil supplemented high-oleic-sunflower oil rich diets in hypercholesterolemic growing rats.

    PubMed

    Alsina, Estefania; Macri, Elisa V; Lifshitz, Fima; Bozzini, Clarisa; Rodriguez, Patricia N; Boyer, Patricia M; Friedman, Silvia M

    2016-06-01

    Phytosterols (P) and fish-oil (F) efficacy on high-oleic-sunflower oil (HOSO) diets were assessed in hypercholesterolemic growing rats. Controls (C) received a standard diet for 8 weeks; experimental rats were fed an atherogenic diet (AT) for 3 weeks, thereafter were divided into four groups fed for 5 weeks a monounsaturated fatty acid diet (MUFA) containing either: extra virgin olive oil (OO), HOSO or HOSO supplemented with P or F. The diets did not alter body weight or growth. HOSO-P and HOSO-F rats showed reduced total cholesterol (T-chol), non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (non-HDL-chol) and triglycerides and increased HDL-chol levels, comparably to the OO rats. Total body fat (%) was similar among all rats; but HOSO-F showed the lowest intestinal, epididymal and perirenal fat. However, bone mineral content and density, and bone yield stress and modulus of elasticity were unchanged. Growing hypercholesterolemic rats fed HOSO with P or F improved serum lipids and fat distribution, but did not influence material bone quality.

  6. Diet dynamics of the juvenile piscivorous fish community in Spirit Lake, Iowa, USA, 1997-1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pelham, M.E.; Pierce, C.L.; Larscheid, J.G.

    2001-01-01

    We assessed temporal dynamics and variation among species and age-classes in the diets of age 0 and age 1 piscivorous fish species in Spirit Lake, Iowa, USA during 1997 and 1998. Species included walleye Stizostedion vitreum, yellow perch Perca flavescens, smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieui, largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, black crappie Pomoxis nigromaculatus and white bass Morone chrysops. Thirty taxa were identified in diets, including 12 species of fish. We found dramatic differences in diets among species, among age-classes within species and over time. Walleye, largemouth bass, smallmouth bass and white bass were piscivorous at age 0. Black crappie began piscivory at age 1. Yellow perch also began piscivory at age 1, but fish were a very small fraction of age-1 diets. The primary temporal pattern, seen in several species and age- classes, was an increase in piscivory from spring to fall. This pattern was due to the lack of small, age-0 prey fish in spring. Although some patterns were evident, the taxonomic composition of the diets of all species was highly variable over time, making generalizations difficult. A surprising result was the absence of yellow perch in the diet of age-0 walleye, despite their abundance in Spirit Lake and prominence in diets of age-1 walleye and other age 1-piscivores. Age-0 yellow perch were consistently too large to be eaten by age-0 piscivores, which preyed primarily on invertebrates and smaller fish such as johnny darters Etheostoma nigrum and age 0 bluegill Lepomis macrochirus. This finding suggests that predator-prey interactions and resulting population dynamics may be quite different in Spirit Lake than in other systems dominated by walleye and yellow perch.

  7. Evaluation of fruit-vegetable and fish wastes as alternative feedstuffs in pig diets.

    PubMed

    Esteban, M B; García, A J; Ramos, P; Márquez, M C

    2007-01-01

    Fruit-vegetable and fish wastes were evaluated as potential feedstuffs for growing-finishing pigs. Wastes were collected from shops in the city of Salamanca (Spain) and their nutritional composition, mineral content and digestibility were determined. The dry matter of the wastes under study was relatively low (12% for fruit-vegetable waste and 26% for fish waste), but they presented all of the nutrient requirements for swine diets. The fish waste contained 58% crude protein, 22% ash, 19% ether extract and 1% crude fibre, whereas the fruit-vegetable waste contained 65% nitrogen free extract, 13% crude fibre, 12% crude protein, 8% ash and 2% ether extract. Waste digestibility decreased with temperature, and hence temperatures over 65 degrees C for fruit-vegetable waste and 105 degrees C for fish waste should not be used in the treatment to reduce the moisture and to ensure the microbiology quality. Therefore, two diets were formulated using linear programming. The analysed waste was included in approximately 20% of one of the diets, while another diet was formulated without any type of waste. These data showed that this part of biodegradable municipal waste could be managed as alternative feedstuffs in swine diets, reducing the amount of biodegradable municipal waste going to landfills.

  8. Constraints on Energy Intake in Fish: The Link between Diet Composition, Energy Metabolism, and Energy Intake in Rainbow Trout

    PubMed Central

    Saravanan, Subramanian; Schrama, Johan W.; Figueiredo-Silva, A. Claudia; Kaushik, Sadasivam J.; Verreth, Johan A. J.; Geurden, Inge

    2012-01-01

    The hypothesis was tested that fish fed to satiation with iso-energetic diets differing in macronutrient composition will have different digestible energy intakes (DEI) but similar total heat production. Four iso-energetic diets (2×2 factorial design) were formulated having a contrast in i) the ratio of protein to energy (P/E): high (HP/E) vs. low (LP/E) and ii) the type of non-protein energy (NPE) source: fat vs. carbohydrate which were iso-energetically exchanged. Triplicate groups (35 fish/tank) of rainbow trout were hand-fed each diet twice daily to satiation for 6 weeks under non-limiting water oxygen conditions. Feed intake (FI), DEI (kJ kg−0.8 d−1) and growth (g kg−0.8 d−1) of trout were affected by the interaction between P/E ratio and NPE source of the diet (P<0.05). Regardless of dietary P/E ratio, the inclusion of carbohydrate compared to fat as main NPE source reduced DEI and growth of trout by ∼20%. The diet-induced differences in FI and DEI show that trout did not compensate for the dietary differences in digestible energy or digestible protein contents. Further, changes in body fat store and plasma glucose did not seem to exert a homeostatic feedback control on DEI. Independent of the diet composition, heat production of trout did not differ (P>0.05). Our data suggest that the control of DEI in trout might be a function of heat production, which in turn might reflect a physiological limit related with oxidative metabolism. PMID:22496852

  9. Growth and diet of fish in Waldo Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swanson, Nicola L.; Liss, W.J.; Ziller, Jeffrey S.; Wade, M.; Gresswell, R.E.

    2000-01-01

    Waldo Lake, located in the Oregon Cascades, is considered to be one of the most dilute lakes in the world. Even with low nutrient concentrations and sparse populations of zooplankton, introduced fish in the lake are large in size and in good condition when compared to fish from other lakes. This apparent anomaly is due to the availability of benthic macroinvertebrates. Taxa found in the stomach contents offish captured in Waldo Lake consist primarily of Chironomidae larvae and pupae, Trichoptera larvae and pupae, amphipods, Ephemeroptera larvae, and Odonata larvae.

  10. The ratio of fish to meat in the diet is positively associated with favorable intake of food groups and nutrients among young Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Okubo, Hitomi; Sasaki, Satoshi; Murakami, Kentaro; Takahashi, Yoshiko

    2011-03-01

    Although fish and meat may exert opposing influences on chronic disease, information on the balance of intake between fish and meat to overall diet quality is limited, particularly in Japanese, who have a much higher fish intake than Western populations. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to test the hypothesis that intake balance between fish and meat is associated with food and nutrient intakes in young Japanese women. The subjects were 3716 Japanese dietetic students aged 18 to 20 years. Diet was assessed by a validated, self-administered diet history questionnaire. The dietary ratio of fish to meat was calculated from fish and meat intakes as a temporal indicator of overall intake balance. The ratio of fish to meat intake was associated positively with intakes of vegetables, fruits, pulses, dairy products, and alcohol, and negatively with those of energy-containing beverages and fat and oils. At the nutrient level, the ratio of fish to meat intake was associated negatively with intakes of energy, total fat, saturated fatty acids, n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamin B(1), and zinc, and positively with those of protein, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, dietary fiber, and key vitamins and minerals. After limiting analysis to nutrients derived from foods other than fish and meat, the ratio of fish to meat intake was positively associated with intakes of almost all vitamins and minerals examined. In conclusion, women who consumed more fish than meat (ratio >1) tended to choose more favorable food groups that included higher amounts of vegetables and fruits, resulting in a better profile of nutrient intake patterns.

  11. Effect of Supplementation of Fish and Canola Oil in the Diet on Milk Fatty Acid Composition in Early Lactating Holstein Cows

    PubMed Central

    Vafa, Toktam S.; Naserian, Abbas A.; Heravi Moussavi, Ali R.; Valizadeh, Reza; Mesgaran, Mohsen Danesh

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of supplementation of fish oil and canola oil in the diet on milk yield, milk components and fatty acid composition of Holstein dairy cows in early lactation. Eight multiparous early lactation Holstein cows (42±12 DIM, 40±6 kg daily milk yield) were fed a total mixed ration supplemented with either 0% oil (Control), 2% fish oil (FO), 1% canola oil +1% fish oil (FOCO), or 2% canola oil (CO) according to a double 4×4 Latin square design. Each period lasted 3 wk; experimental analyses were restricted to the last week of each period. Supplemental oils were added to a basal diet which was formulated according to NRC (2001) and consisted of 20% alfalfa, 20% corn silage and 60% concentrate. Milk yield was similar between diets (p>0.05), but dry matter intake (DMI) was lower (p<0.05) in cows fed FO diet compared to other diets. Milk fat percentage and daily yield decreased (p<0.01) with the supplementation of fish and canola oil. The daily yield and percentage of milk protein, lactose and solids-not-fat (SNF) were not affected by diets (p>0.05). The proportion (g/100 g fatty acids) of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) decreased and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) increased (p<0.05) in milk of all cows fed diets supplemented with oil. The proportions of 6:0, 8:0, 10:0 12:0 and 14:0 fatty acids in milk fat decreased (p<0.01) for all diets supplemented with oil, but the proportions of 14:1, 16:0 and 16:1 fatty acids were not affected by diets (p>0.05). The proportion of trans(t)-18:1 increased (p<0.01) in milk fat of cows fed FO and FOCO diets, but CO diet had the highest proportion of cis(c)-11 18:1 (p<0.01). The concentration of t-10, c-12 18:2, c-9 t-11 18:2, 18:3, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6) increased (p<0.05) in FO and FOCO diets in comparison with the other two diets. These data indicate that including fish oil in combination with canola oil significantly modifies the fatty acid composition of

  12. Insect protein as a partical replacement of fishmeal in the diets of juvenile fish and crustaceans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter represents a review of the published literature to determine if insect protein is an important supplement to - or even a replacement for - fishmeal in diets for juvenile fish and crustaceans. Fishmeal is becoming a finite resource. This chapter highlights areas of opportunity for prod...

  13. Insect Protein as a partial Replacement of Fishmeal in the Diets of Juvenile Fish and Crustaceans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter represents a review of the published literature to determine if insect protein is an important supplement to - or even a replacement for - fishmeal in diets for juvenile fish and crustaceans. Fishmeal is becoming a finite resource. This chapter highlights areas of opportunity for produc...

  14. Insect protein as a partial replacement of fishmeal in the diets of juvenile fish and crustaceans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter represents a review of the published literature to determine if insect protein is an important supplement to - or even a replacement for - fishmeal in diets for juvenile fish and crustaceans. Fishmeal is becoming a finite resource. This chapter highlights areas of opportunity for produc...

  15. Effects of Copper, Cadmium, Lead, and Arsenic in a Live Diet on Juvenile Fish Growth

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of dietborne copper, cadmium, lead, and arsenic on juvenile fish were evaluated using a live diet consisting of the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus. In 30-d exposures, no effects on growth and survival of rainbow trout, fathead minnow, and channel catfish were obs...

  16. Empirical assessment of indices of prey importance in the diets of predacious fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liao, H.; Pierce, C.L.; Larscheid, J.G.

    2001-01-01

    Determining the importance of prey taxa in the diets of predacious species is a frequent objective in fisheries research. Various indices of prey importance are in common use, and all give different results because of their emphasis on different aspects of fish diets. We explored these differences by empirically comparing four well-known indices-percent weight (%W), percent occurrence (%O), percent number (%N), and percent index of relative importance (%IRI)-as well as a modified %IRI (%MIRI), as applied to an extensive data set on the diets of six fish species in Spirit Lake, Iowa. Correlations among all indices were positive but were weaker among component indices (%W, %O, and %N) than between the two compound indices (%IRI and %MIRI); correlations among component indices were also weaker than correlations of compound with component indices. Correlation strength of %MIRI with the three component indices varied greatly (%N %O %W), whereas the correlation strength of %IRI with component indices was similar. Importance values based on %W, %MIRI, and %N depend more on prey size than those based on %IRI and %O. The %W and %MIRI emphasized the importance of large prey taxa, whereas %N emphasized small prey in diets; %IRI and %O were similarly unbiased with respect to prey size. The %O yielded substantially higher importance values than all other indices. Thus, for use as a general index of dietary importance, we believe %IRI provides the optimal balancing of frequency of occurrence, numerical abundance, and abundance by weight of taxa in fish diets.

  17. [Estimation of the intake of radioactive cesium based on analysis of total diet samples in Nagoya].

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Hitoshi; Kato, Haruyasu; Kato, Yukari; Tsuchiyama, Tomoyuki; Terada, Hisaya

    2013-01-01

    Food samples were purchased in Nagoya based on daily intake in the Tokai region, and prepared as total diet samples according to the market basket method. The contents of radioactive cesium (Cs) were determined by using a γ-ray spectrometer with a germanium semiconductor detector, and a committed effective dose was estimated. Radioactive Cs was not detected in samples collected in 2006 before the Fukushima nuclear plant accident. Radioactive Cs was detected in samples prepared in August, 2011, five months after the accident. The sources were sugar and confectioneries (3rd food group), other vegetables, seaweeds and mushrooms (8th food group) and fishes, shellfishes and processed seafoods (10th food group). Only Cs-137 was detected in samples prepared in August, 2012, one year and five months after the accident. The sources were the 8th and the 10th food groups. The estimated committed effective dose for radioactive Cs was 0.0015 mSv in 2011 and 0.00016 mSv in 2012.

  18. Diet and Diversification in the Evolution of Coral Reef Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Lobato, Fabio L.; Barneche, Diego R.; Siqueira, Alexandre C.; Liedke, Ana M. R.; Lindner, Alberto; Pie, Marcio R.; Bellwood, David R.; Floeter, Sergio R.

    2014-01-01

    The disparity in species richness among evolutionary lineages is one of the oldest and most intriguing issues in evolutionary biology. Although geographical factors have been traditionally thought to promote speciation, recent studies have underscored the importance of ecological interactions as one of the main drivers of diversification. Here, we test if differences in species richness of closely related lineages match predictions based on the concept of density-dependent diversification. As radiation progresses, ecological niche-space would become increasingly saturated, resulting in fewer opportunities for speciation. To assess this hypothesis, we tested whether reef fish niche shifts toward usage of low-quality food resources (i.e. relatively low energy/protein per unit mass), such as algae, detritus, sponges and corals are accompanied by rapid net diversification. Using available molecular information, we reconstructed phylogenies of four major reef fish clades (Acanthuroidei, Chaetodontidae, Labridae and Pomacentridae) to estimate the timing of radiations of their subclades. We found that the evolution of species-rich clades was associated with a switch to low quality food in three of the four clades analyzed, which is consistent with a density-dependent model of diversification. We suggest that ecological opportunity may play an important role in understanding the diversification of reef-fish lineages. PMID:25029229

  19. Supplementing oregano essential oil to boar diet with strengthened fish oil: Effects on semen antioxidant status and semen quality parameters.

    PubMed

    Liu, Q; Duan, R J; Zhou, Y F; Wei, H K; Peng, J; Li, J L

    2017-02-22

    Previous research has shown benefits of dietary fish oil supplementation on semen quality of boars. However, little is known about how antioxidant protects lipid peroxidation on spermatozoa from n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) addition. This study evaluated the effect of oregano essential oil (OEO) supplementation on semen antioxidant status and semen quality in boars fed a diet enriched with fish oil. Thirty-four mature boars of proven fertility, received daily 2.5 kg basal diet top-dressed with 45 g soybean oil and 15 g fish oil to meet the n-3 PUFA requirement of spermatozoa, randomly allocated to one of four groups supplemented with 100 mg α-tocopheryl acetate kg(-1) (control), or 250 or 500 or 750 mg OEO kg(-1) for 16 weeks. Semen was collected at weeks 0, 8, 12 and 16 for measurements of sperm production, motion characteristics, sperm α-tocopherol content, antioxidant enzyme activities, reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA damage (8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, 8-OHdG), lipoperoxidation (malondialdehyde, MDA) and seminal total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Sperm production and motion characteristics were similar (p > .05) among groups throughout the experimental week 16, but increased (p < .01) with experimental week. Although higher α-tocopherol content and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were in OEO group spermatozoa, feeding diet with 500 mg/kg OEO resulted in elevation in seminal TAC, decrease in sperm ROS, MDA and 8-OHdG than control group (p < .05). Overall, these results support the view that oregano essential oil has a positive effect on antioxidant capacity in boar when used fish oil.

  20. Identifying core foods for total diet studies: a comparison of four different approaches.

    PubMed

    Devlin, Niamh F C; McNulty, Breige A; Turrini, Aida; Tlustos, Christina; Hearty, Aine P; Volatier, Jean-Luc; Kelleher, Cecily C; Nugent, Anne P

    2014-01-01

    Total diet studies (TDS) are recognised as a cost-effective approach in estimating dietary exposure to chemicals in food. It has been advised that candidate foods for inclusion in TDS analysis should represent a large part of the typical diet to estimate accurately the exposure of a population group. To date a variety of approaches have been used to determine which foods should be included in a core TDS food list, with no agreed method. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare four of these approaches by creating TDS food lists for adult populations in Europe using summary statistics data from the EFSA Comprehensive Food Consumption Database. Both a food group approach and a total diet approach were employed, and foods were selected for inclusion in the TDS food lists if they met the criteria as defined by consumption weight and/or a 5% consumer rate. Using all four approaches the representation of the diet across the TDS food lists was > 85%. The food group approach showed a slight advantage in diet representation, but produced considerably longer TDS food lists in comparison with the total diet approach. The addition of a 5% consumer rate to both approaches had little impact on results. In conclusion, the total diet approach may act as a more cost-effective approach in comparison with the food group approach while still achieving comprehensive results in the creation of core TDS food lists.

  1. Diet shifts by planktivorous and benthivorous fishes in northern Lake Michigan in response to ecosystem changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bunnell, David B.; Davis, Bruce M.; Chriscinske, Margret Ann; Keeler, Kevin M.; Mychek-Londer, Justin G.

    2015-01-01

    In Lake Michigan, diets of planktivorous and benthivorous fishes have varied over the past decades, in part owing to food web changes. To update diet information and compare them to a similar effort in 1994–1995, we analyzed the diets of seven benthivorous and planktivorous fish species collected along two northern Lake Michigan transects that spanned nearshore (18 m), intermediate (46 m), and offshore (91, 110, 128 m) bottom depths during spring, summer, and autumn of 2010. Calanoid copepods (e.g., Limnocalanus macrurus, Leptodiaptomus sicilis, and Senecella calanoides) comprised a majority of the diets in at least one season for all sizes of alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus), bloater (Coregonus hoyi), and rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax). Similarly, Mysis diluviana was the highest proportion in at least one season for large sizes of alewife, bloater, and rainbow smelt, as well as slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus) and deepwater sculpin (Myoxocephalus thompsonii). The diets of the remaining two species, ninespine stickleback (Pungitius pungitius) and round goby (Neogobius melanostomus), were dominated by herbivorous cladocerans or dreissenid mussels, respectively. Interspecific diet overlap was minimal at 18 and 46 m. In offshore waters, however, overlap was relatively high, driven by frequent consumption of Mysis. Relative to 1994–1995, 2010 diets revealed increased feeding on calanoid copepods and Mysis, with corresponding declining consumption of Diporeia spp. and herbivorous cladocerans. Relative diet weight was also higher in 1994–1995 than in 2010 for small and large bloater and both sculpin species. We hypothesize that the shifts in diets are reflective of community-level changes in invertebrate prey availability.

  2. Effect of phytate, microbial phytase, fiber, and soybean oil on calculated values for apparent and standardized total tract digestibility of calcium and apparent total tract digestibility of phosphorus in fish meal fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    González-Vega, J C; Walk, C L; Stein, H H

    2015-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of phytate, phytase, fiber, and soybean oil on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of Ca and on ATTD of P in fish meal fed to growing pigs. In Exp. 1, 40 growing pigs (initial average BW: 19.16 ± 2.04 kg) were randomly allotted to 1 of 5 diets with 8 pigs per treatment and placed in metabolism crates. Four diets were used in a 2 ´ 2 factorial design with 2 levels of phytate (0 or 0.7%) and 2 levels of microbial phytase (0 or 500 phytase units/kg). The diet containing no phytate was based on sucrose, cornstarch, fish meal, casein, and soybean oil, and the diet containing 0.7% phytate was based on corn, corn germ, fish meal, casein, and soybean oil. A Ca-free diet was used to determine basal endogenous losses of Ca. Feces were collected from d 6 to 13 after a 5-d adaptation period. Results indicated that the ATTD and STTD of Ca in fish meal and the ATTD of P increased ( < 0.001) if phytase was used and were greater ( < 0.05) in the diets based on corn and corn germ. Experiment 2 was conducted to determine the effects of fiber and soybean oil on the ATTD and STTD of Ca and the ATTD of P in fish meal. Fifty growing pigs (initial average BW: 19.36 ± 0.99 kg) were randomly allotted to 1 of 5 diets with 10 pigs per treatment. Two diets contained sucrose, cornstarch, fish meal, casein, and either 0 or 8% of a synthetic source of fiber. Two additional diets contained fish meal, casein, corn, and either 1 or 7% soybean oil. A Ca-free diet was also used. Pigs were housed individually in metabolism crates and fecal samples were collected. Results indicated that fiber increased ( < 0.001) the ATTD and STTD of Ca and the ATTD of P, but the ATTD and STTD of Ca or the ATTD of P were not affected by soybean oil. In agreement with the results of Exp. 1, the ATTD and STTD of Ca and the ATTD of P in the corn-based diet were greater ( < 0.05) than those in the cornstarch

  3. Blood pressure and serum lipids from SHR after diets supplemented with evening primrose, sunflowerseed or fish oil.

    PubMed

    Singer, P; Moritz, V; Wirth, M; Berger, I; Forster, D

    1990-05-01

    Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) at 4 weeks of age were fed a diet supplemented with sunflowerseed oil (SO), evening primrose oil (EPO), fish oil (FO) or EPO + FO for 22 weeks. A diet with commercially available pellets served as control. Systolic blood pressure was significantly lower during and after FO, EPO and EPO + FO, whereas the lower level after SO was not significant when compared with the controls. Serum triglycerides and total cholesterol were lowest after EPO followed FO. The combination of both EPO and FO resulted in unexpected high values of triglycerides and cholesterol. HDL-cholesterol was likewise highest after EPO + FO. The results indicate a quantitatively different depression of blood pressure and serum lipids from SHR by individual polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA).

  4. Milk conjugated linoleic acid response to fish oil supplementation of diets differing in fatty acid profiles.

    PubMed

    AbuGhazaleh, A A; Schingoethe, D J; Hippen, A R; Kalscheur, K F

    2003-03-01

    The objective of this experiment was to examine the effect of feeding fish oil (FO) along with fat sources that varied in their fatty acid compositions (high stearic, high oleic, high linoleic, or high linolenic acids) to determine which combination would lead to maximum conjugated linoleic acid (cis-9,trans-11 CLA) and transvaccenic acid (TVA) concentrations in milk fat. Twelve Holstein cows (eight multiparous and four primiparous cows) at 73 (+/- 32) DIM were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square with 4-wk periods. Treatment diets were 1) 1% FO plus 2% fat source high in stearic acid (HS), 2) 1% FO plus 2% fat from high oleic acid sunflower seeds (HO), 3) 1% FO plus 2% fat from high linoleic acid sunflower seeds (HLO), and 4) 1% FO plus 2% fat from flax seeds (high linolenic; HLN). Diets formulated to contain 18% crude protein were composed of 50% (dry basis) concentrate mix, 25% corn silage, 12.5% alfalfa haylage, and 12.5% alfalfa hay. Milk production (35.8, 36.3, 34.9, and 35.0 kg/d for diets 1 to 4) was similar for all diets. Milk fat percentages (3.14, 2.81, 2.66, and 3.08) and yields (1.13, 1.02, 0.93, and 1.08 kg/d) for diets 1 to 4 were lowest for HLO. Milk protein percentages (3.04, 3.03, 3.10, and 3.08) and dry matter intake (DMI) (25.8, 26.0, 26.2, and 26.2 kg/d) for diets 1 to 4 were similar for all diets. Milk cis-9,trans-11 CLA concentrations (0.70, 1.04, 1.70, and 1.06 g/100 g fatty acids) for diet 1 to 4 and yields (7.7, 10.7, 15.8, and 11.3 g/d) for diets 1 to 4 were greatest with HLO and were least with HS. Milk cis-9,trans-11 CLA concentrations and yields were similar for cows fed the HO and the HLN diets. Similar to milk cis-9,trans-11 CLA, milk TVA concentration (1.64, 2.49, 3.74, and 2.41 g/100 g fatty acids) for diets 1 to 4 was greatest with the HLO diet and least with the HS diet. Feeding a high linoleic acid fat source with fish oil most effectively increased concentrations and yields of milk cis-9,trans-11 CLA and TVA.

  5. Transcriptomic Analysis of the Effects of a Fish Oil Enriched Diet on Murine Brains

    PubMed Central

    Gautam, Aarti; Miller, Stacy-Ann; Muhie, Seid; Meyerhoff, James; Jett, Marti

    2014-01-01

    The health benefits of fish oil enriched with high omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) are widely documented. Fish oil as dietary supplements, however, show moderate clinical efficacy, highlighting an immediate scope of systematic in vitro feedback. Our transcriptomic study was designed to investigate the genomic shift of murine brains fed on fish oil enriched diets. A customized fish oil enriched diet (FD) and standard lab diet (SD) were separately administered to two randomly chosen populations of C57BL/6J mice from their weaning age until late adolescence. Statistical analysis mined 1,142 genes of interest (GOI) differentially altered in the hemibrains collected from the FD- and SD-fed mice at the age of five months. The majority of identified GOI (∼40%) encodes proteins located in the plasma membrane, suggesting that fish oil primarily facilitated the membrane-oriented biofunctions. FD potentially augmented the nervous system's development and functions by selectively stimulating the Src-mediated calcium-induced growth cascade and the downstream PI3K-AKT-PKC pathways. FD reduced the amyloidal burden, attenuated oxidative stress, and assisted in somatostatin activation—the signatures of attenuation of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and affective disorder. FD induced elevation of FKBP5 and suppression of BDNF, which are often linked with the improvement of anxiety disorder, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Hence we anticipate efficacy of FD in treating illnesses such as depression that are typically triggered by the hypoactivities of dopaminergic, adrenergic, cholinergic, and GABAergic networks. Contrastingly, FD's efficacy could be compromised in treating illnesses such as bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, which are triggered by hyperactivities of the same set of neuromodulators. A more comprehensive investigation is recommended to elucidate the implications of fish oil on disease pathomechanisms, and the result

  6. Transcriptomic analysis of the effects of a fish oil enriched diet on murine brains.

    PubMed

    Hammamieh, Rasha; Chakraborty, Nabarun; Gautam, Aarti; Miller, Stacy-Ann; Muhie, Seid; Meyerhoff, James; Jett, Marti

    2014-01-01

    The health benefits of fish oil enriched with high omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) are widely documented. Fish oil as dietary supplements, however, show moderate clinical efficacy, highlighting an immediate scope of systematic in vitro feedback. Our transcriptomic study was designed to investigate the genomic shift of murine brains fed on fish oil enriched diets. A customized fish oil enriched diet (FD) and standard lab diet (SD) were separately administered to two randomly chosen populations of C57BL/6J mice from their weaning age until late adolescence. Statistical analysis mined 1,142 genes of interest (GOI) differentially altered in the hemibrains collected from the FD- and SD-fed mice at the age of five months. The majority of identified GOI (∼ 40%) encodes proteins located in the plasma membrane, suggesting that fish oil primarily facilitated the membrane-oriented biofunctions. FD potentially augmented the nervous system's development and functions by selectively stimulating the Src-mediated calcium-induced growth cascade and the downstream PI3K-AKT-PKC pathways. FD reduced the amyloidal burden, attenuated oxidative stress, and assisted in somatostatin activation-the signatures of attenuation of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and affective disorder. FD induced elevation of FKBP5 and suppression of BDNF, which are often linked with the improvement of anxiety disorder, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Hence we anticipate efficacy of FD in treating illnesses such as depression that are typically triggered by the hypoactivities of dopaminergic, adrenergic, cholinergic, and GABAergic networks. Contrastingly, FD's efficacy could be compromised in treating illnesses such as bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, which are triggered by hyperactivities of the same set of neuromodulators. A more comprehensive investigation is recommended to elucidate the implications of fish oil on disease pathomechanisms, and the result

  7. Protective effect of soybean oil- or fish oil-rich diets on allergic airway inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Navarro-Xavier, Roberta Araujo; de Barros, Karina Vieira; de Andrade, Iracema Senna; Palomino, Zaira; Casarini, Dulce Elena; Flor Silveira, Vera Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Background The increased prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases in westernized societies has been associated with increased intake of diets rich in n-6 fatty acids (FAs) and poor in n-3 FAs. This study aimed to analyze the prophylactic effects of treatment with a soybean oil-rich diet (rich in n-6) or fish oil (rich in n-3) in an allergic airway inflammation model on lung inflammation score, leukocyte migration, T-helper cell (Th)-2 (interleukin [IL]-4, IL-5) and Th1 (interferon [IFN]-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α) cytokines, lipoxin A4, nitric oxide, bradykinin, and corticosterone levels in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) or lungs. Methods Male Wistar rats fed with soybean oil- or fish oil-rich diet or standard rat chow were sensitized twice with ovalbumin–alumen and challenged twice with ovalbumin aerosol. The BAL and lungs were examined 24 hours later. Results Both diets, rich in n-6 or n-3 FAs, impaired the allergic lung inflammation and reduced leukocyte migration, eosinophil and neutrophil percentages, and IL-4/IL-5/bradykinin levels in BAL and/or lungs, as well as increased the nitric oxide levels in BAL. The soybean oil-rich diet additionally increased the levels of lipoxin A4 and corticosterone in the lungs. Conclusion Data presented demonstrated that the n-6 FA-rich diet had protective effect upon allergic airway inflammation and was as anti-inflammatory as the n-3 FA-rich diet, although through different mechanisms, suggesting that both diets could be considered as complementary therapy or a prophylactic alternative for allergic airway inflammation. PMID:27274303

  8. Potential of Psidium guajava supplemented fish diets in controlling Aeromonas hydrophila infection in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    PubMed

    Pachanawan, Adithepchaikarn; Phumkhachorn, Parichat; Rattanachaikunsopon, Pongsak

    2008-11-01

    Fourteen herbs were extracted in water, 95% ethanol, and ether, and tested in vitro for antimicrobial activities against Aeromonas hydrophila, a fish pathogen causing motile Aeromonas septicemia. Using swab paper disc assays and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) determinations, we noted that the ethanol extract of Psidium guajava leaf exhibited the strongest antimicrobial activity. The extract allowed growth-inhibited A. hydrophila cells to regrow in fresh BHI broth indicating a bacteriostatic mode of action. In a pathogenicity test, the median lethal dose (LD(50)) of A. hydrophila for tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) by intraperitoneal injection was 3.44 x 10(6) CFU/ml. In vivo experiments showed that fish diets containing either dry leaf powder of P. guajava or dried ethanol extract of P. guajava leaf reduced mortality of A. hydrophila infected tilapia with no detected adverse effect on the fish. This study suggests that P. guajava leaf has the potential to control fish diseases caused by A. hydrophila.

  9. Fish Oil Decreases Hepatic Lipogenic Genes in Rats Fasted and Refed on a High Fructose Diet

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, Gabriela S.; Cardoso, João Felipe R.; Calder, Philip C.; Jordão, Alceu A.; Vannucchi, Helio

    2015-01-01

    Fasting and then refeeding on a high-carbohydrate diet increases serum and hepatic triacylglycerol (TAG) concentrations compared to standard diets. Fructose is a lipogenic monosaccharide which stimulates de novo fatty acid synthesis. Omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids stimulate hepatic β-oxidation, partitioning fatty acids away from TAG synthesis. This study investigated whether dietary n-3 fatty acids from fish oil (FO) improve the hepatic lipid metabolic response seen in rats fasted and then refed on a high-fructose diet. During the post-prandial (fed) period, rats fed a FO rich diet showed an increase in hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR-α) gene expression and decreased expression of carbohydrate responsive element binding protein (ChREBP), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP). Feeding a FO rich diet for 7 days prior to 48 h of fasting resulted in lower hepatic TAG, lower PPAR-α expression and maintenance of hepatic n-3 fatty acid content. Refeeding on a high fructose diet promoted an increase in hepatic and serum TAG and in hepatic PPAR-α, ChREBP and MTTP expression. FO did not prevent the increase in serum and hepatic TAG after fructose refeeding, but did decrease hepatic expression of lipogenic genes and increased the n-3 fatty acid content of the liver. n-3 Fatty acids can modify some components of the hepatic lipid metabolic response to later feeding with a high fructose diet. PMID:25751821

  10. Fish oil decreases hepatic lipogenic genes in rats fasted and refed on a high fructose diet.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Gabriela S; Cardoso, João Felipe R; Calder, Philip C; Jordão, Alceu A; Vannucchi, Helio

    2015-03-05

    Fasting and then refeeding on a high-carbohydrate diet increases serum and hepatic triacylglycerol (TAG) concentrations compared to standard diets. Fructose is a lipogenic monosaccharide which stimulates de novo fatty acid synthesis. Omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids stimulate hepatic β-oxidation, partitioning fatty acids away from TAG synthesis. This study investigated whether dietary n-3 fatty acids from fish oil (FO) improve the hepatic lipid metabolic response seen in rats fasted and then refed on a high-fructose diet. During the post-prandial (fed) period, rats fed a FO rich diet showed an increase in hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR-α) gene expression and decreased expression of carbohydrate responsive element binding protein (ChREBP), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP). Feeding a FO rich diet for 7 days prior to 48 h of fasting resulted in lower hepatic TAG, lower PPAR-α expression and maintenance of hepatic n-3 fatty acid content. Refeeding on a high fructose diet promoted an increase in hepatic and serum TAG and in hepatic PPAR-α, ChREBP and MTTP expression. FO did not prevent the increase in serum and hepatic TAG after fructose refeeding, but did decrease hepatic expression of lipogenic genes and increased the n-3 fatty acid content of the liver. n-3 Fatty acids can modify some components of the hepatic lipid metabolic response to later feeding with a high fructose diet.

  11. Distribution of total mercury and methyl mercury in water, sediment, and fish from South Florida estuaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kannan, K.; Smith, R.G.; Lee, R.F.; Windom, H.L.; Heitmuller, P.T.; Macauley, J.M.; Summers, J.K.

    1998-01-01

    Concentrations of total mercury and methyl mercury were determined in sediment and fish collected from estuarine waters of Florida to understand their distribution and partitioning. Total mercury concentrations in sediments ranged from 1 to 219 ng/g dry wt. Methyl mercury accounted for, on average, 0.77% of total mercury in sediment. Methyl mercury concentrations were not correlated with total mercury or organic carbon content in sediments. The concentrations of total mercury in fish muscle were between 0.03 and 2.22 (mean: 0.31) ??g/g, wet wt, with methyl mercury contributing 83% of total mercury. Methyl mercury concentrations in fish muscle were directly proportional to total mercury concentrations. The relationship of total and methyl mercury concentrations in fish to those of sediments from corresponding locations was fish-species dependent, in addition to several abiotic factors. Among fish species analyzed, hardhead catfish, gafftopsail catfish, and sand seatrout contained the highest concentrations of mercury. Filtered water samples from canals and creeks that discharge into the Florida Bay showed mercury concentrations of 3-7.4 ng/L, with methyl mercury accounting for <0.03-52% of the total mercury. Consumption of fish containing 0.31 ??g mercury/g wet wt, the mean concentration found in this study, at rates greater than 70 g/day, was estimated to be hazardous to human health.

  12. Batch spawning facilitates transfer of an essential nutrient from diet to eggs in a marine fish

    PubMed Central

    Fuiman, Lee A.; Faulk, Cynthia K.

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acid composition of eggs affects development, growth and ecological performance of fish embryos and larvae, with potential consequences for recruitment success. Essential fatty acids in eggs derive from the maternal diet, and the time between ingestion and deposition in eggs is ecologically important but unknown. We examined the dynamics of diet–egg transfer of arachidonic acid (ARA) in the batch-spawning fish, red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus), by measuring ARA concentrations in eggs after a single diet shift and during a period of irregular variations in diet. ARA concentrations in eggs changed within 2–16 days of a diet shift. The rate of change was proportional to the magnitude of the shift, with no evidence of equilibration. These results are not consistent with eggs being assembled entirely from accumulated body stores. The immediate source of ARA in eggs appears to be the recent diet. We propose that batch spawning produces rapid diet–egg transfer of ARA because it removes large amounts of fatty acids from the body and prevents equilibration. The immediacy of the diet–egg connection suggests that spawning migration combined with short-interval batch spawning may have evolved to take advantage of nutrients critical for offspring survival that are available at the spawning site. PMID:23985349

  13. The influence of external subsidies on diet, growth and Hg concentrations of freshwater sport fish: implications for management and fish consumption advisories

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lepak, J.M.; Hooten, M.B.; Johnson, B.M.

    2012-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination in sport fish is a global problem. In freshwater systems, food web structure, sport fish sex, size, diet and growth rates influence Hg bioaccumulation. Fish stocking is a common management practice worldwide that can introduce external energy and contaminants into freshwater systems. Thus, stocking can alter many of the factors that influence Hg concentrations in sport fish. Here we evaluated the influence of external subsidies, in the form of hatchery-raised rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss on walleye Sander vitreus diet, growth and Hg concentrations in two freshwater systems. Stocking differentially influenced male and female walleye diets and growth, producing a counterintuitive size-contamination relationship. Modeling indicated that walleye growth rate and diet were important explanatory variables when predicting Hg concentrations. Thus, hatchery contributions to freshwater systems in the form of energy and contaminants can influence diet, growth and Hg concentrations in sport fish. Given the extensive scale of fish stocking, and the known health risks associated with Hg contamination, this represents a significant issue for managers monitoring and manipulating freshwater food web structures, and policy makers attempting to develop fish consumption advisories to protect human health in stocked systems.

  14. The influence of external subsidies on diet, growth and Hg concentrations of freshwater sport fish: implications for management and fish consumption advisories.

    PubMed

    Lepak, Jesse M; Hooten, Mevin B; Johnson, Brett M

    2012-10-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination in sport fish is a global problem. In freshwater systems, food web structure, sport fish sex, size, diet and growth rates influence Hg bioaccumulation. Fish stocking is a common management practice worldwide that can introduce external energy and contaminants into freshwater systems. Thus, stocking can alter many of the factors that influence Hg concentrations in sport fish. Here we evaluated the influence of external subsidies, in the form of hatchery-raised rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss on walleye Sander vitreus diet, growth and Hg concentrations in two freshwater systems. Stocking differentially influenced male and female walleye diets and growth, producing a counterintuitive size-contamination relationship. Modeling indicated that walleye growth rate and diet were important explanatory variables when predicting Hg concentrations. Thus, hatchery contributions to freshwater systems in the form of energy and contaminants can influence diet, growth and Hg concentrations in sport fish. Given the extensive scale of fish stocking, and the known health risks associated with Hg contamination, this represents a significant issue for managers monitoring and manipulating freshwater food web structures, and policy makers attempting to develop fish consumption advisories to protect human health in stocked systems.

  15. Contribution of anadromous fish to the diet of European catfish in a large river system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syväranta, Jari; Cucherousset, Julien; Kopp, Dorothée; Martino, Aurélia; Céréghino, Régis; Santoul, Frédéric

    2009-05-01

    Many anadromous fish species, when migrating from the sea to spawn in fresh waters, can potentially be a valuable prey for larger predatory fish, thereby efficiently linking these two ecosystems. Here, we assess the contribution of anadromous fish to the diet of European catfish ( Silurus glanis) in a large river system (Garonne, southwestern France) using stable isotope analysis and allis shad ( Alosa alosa) as an example of anadromous fish. Allis shad caught in the Garonne had a very distinct marine δ13C value, over 8‰ higher after lipid extraction compared to the mean δ13C value of all other potential freshwater prey fish. The δ13C values of European catfish varied considerably between these two extremes and some individuals were clearly specializing on freshwater prey, whereas others specialized on anadromous fish. The mean contribution of anadromous fish to the entire European catfish population was estimated to be between 53% and 65%, depending on the fractionation factor used for δ13C.

  16. Use of the oligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus, as a prey organism for toxicant exposure of fish through the diet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mount, D.R.; Highland, T.L.; Mattson, V.R.; Dawson, T.D.; Lott, K.G.; Ingersoll, C.G.

    2006-01-01

    The oligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus, has several characteristics that make it desirable as a prey organism for conducting dietary exposure studies with fish. We conducted 21- and 30-d experiments with young fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), respectively, to determine whether a diet consisting solely of L. variegatus would support normal growth and to compare performance with standard diets (Artemia nauplii, frozen brine shrimp, or trout chow). All diets were readily accepted, and fish survived and grew well. Food conversion in both fathead minnows and rainbow trout was as high as or higher for the oligochaete diet compared with others, although this comparison is influenced by differences in ration, ingestion rate, or both. The oligochaete diet had gross nutritional analysis similar to the other diets, and meets fish nutrition guidelines for protein and essential amino acids. Methodologies and practical considerations for successfully using oligochaetes as an experimental diet are discussed. Considering their ready acceptance by fish, their apparent nutritional sufficiency, the ease of culturing large numbers, and the ease with which they can be loaded with exogenous chemicals, we believe that L. variegatus represents an excellent choice of exposure vector for exposing fish to toxicants via the diet. ?? 2006 SETAC.

  17. Use of the oligochaete, Lumbricuilus variegatus, as a prey organism for toxicant exposure of fish through the diet.

    PubMed

    Mount, David R; Highland, Terry L; Mattson, Vincent R; Dawson, Timothy D; Lott, Kevin G; Ingersoll, Christopher G

    2006-10-01

    The oligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus, has several characteristics that make it desirable as a prey organism for conducting dietary exposure studies with fish. We conducted 21- and 30-d experiments with young fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), respectively, to determine whether a diet consisting solely of L. variegatus would support normal growth and to compare performance with standard diets (Artemia nauplii, frozen brine shrimp, or trout chow). All diets were readily accepted, and fish survived and grew well. Food conversion in both fathead minnows and rainbow trout was as high as or higher for the oligochaete diet compared with others, although this comparison is influenced by differences in ration, ingestion rate, or both. The oligochaete diet had gross nutritional analysis similar to the other diets, and meets fish nutrition guidelines for protein and essential amino acids. Methodologies and practical considerations for successfully using oligochaetes as an experimental diet are discussed. Considering their ready acceptance by fish, their apparent nutritional sufficiency, the ease of culturing large numbers, and the ease with which they can be loaded with exogenous chemicals, we believe that L. variegatus represents an excellent choice of exposure vector for exposing fish to toxicants via the diet.

  18. Comparison of ruminal lipid metabolism in dairy cows and goats fed diets supplemented with starch, plant oil, or fish oil.

    PubMed

    Toral, P G; Bernard, L; Belenguer, A; Rouel, J; Hervás, G; Chilliard, Y; Frutos, P

    2016-01-01

    Direct comparison of cow and goat performance and milk fatty acid responses to diets known to induce milk fat depression (MFD) in the bovine reveals relevant species-by-diet interactions in ruminal lipid metabolism. Thus, this study was conducted to infer potential mechanisms responsible for differences in the rumen microbial biohydrogenation (BH) due to diet and ruminant species. To meet this objective, 12 cows and 15 goats were fed a basal diet (control), a similar diet supplemented with 2.2% fish oil (FO), or a diet containing 5.3% sunflower oil and additional starch (+38%; SOS) according to a 3 × 3 Latin square design with 25-d experimental periods. On the last day of each period, fatty acid composition (by gas chromatography) and bacterial community (by terminal-RFLP), as well as fermentation characteristics, were measured in rumen fluid samples. Results showed significant differences in the response of cows and goats to dietary treatments, although variations in some fermentation parameters (e.g., decreases in the acetate-to-propionate ratio due to FO or SOS) were similar in both species. Main alterations in ruminal BH pathways potentially responsible for MFD on the SOS diet (i.e., the shift from trans-11 to trans-10 18:1 and related increases in trans-10,cis-12 18:2) tended to be more pronounced in cows, which is consistent with an associated MFD only in this species. However, changes linked to FO-induced MFD (e.g., decreases in 18:0 and increases in total trans-18:1) were stronger in caprine rumen fluid, which may explain their unexpected susceptibility (although less marked than in bovine) to the negative effect of FO on milk fat content. Altogether, these results suggest that distinct ruminal mechanisms lead to each type of diet-induced MFD and confirm a pronounced interaction with species. With regard to microbiota, differences between cows and goats in the composition of the rumen bacterial community might be behind the disparity in the microorganisms

  19. Position of the American Dietetic Association: total diet approach to communicating food and nutrition information.

    PubMed

    Nitzke, Susan; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne

    2007-07-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that the total diet or overall pattern of food eaten is the most important focus of a healthful eating style. All foods can fit within this pattern, if consumed in moderation with appropriate portion size and combined with regular physical activity. The American Dietetic Association strives to communicate healthful eating messages to the public that emphasize a balance of foods, rather than any one food or meal. Public policies that support the total diet approach include the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, MyPyramid, the DASH Diet (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension), Dietary Reference Intakes, and nutrition labeling. The value of a food should be determined within the context of the total diet because classifying foods as "good" or "bad" may foster unhealthful eating behaviors. Alternative approaches may be necessary in some health conditions. Eating practices are dynamic and influenced by many factors, including taste and food preferences, weight concerns, physiology, lifestyle, time challenges, economics, environment, attitudes and beliefs, social/cultural influences, media, food technology, and food product safety. To increase the effectiveness of nutrition education in promoting sensible food choices, food and nutrition professionals should utilize appropriate behavioral theory and evidence-based strategies. A focus on moderation and proportionality in the context of a healthful lifestyle, rather than specific nutrients or foods, can help reduce consumer confusion. Proactive, empowering, and practical messages that emphasize the total diet approach promote positive lifestyle changes.

  20. Position of the American Dietetic Association: total diet approach to communicating food and nutrition information.

    PubMed

    Freeland-Graves, Jeanne; Nitzke, Susan

    2002-01-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that all foods can fit into a healthful eating style. The ADA strives to communicate healthful eating messages to the public that emphasize the total diet, or overall pattern of food eaten, rather than any one food or meal. If consumed in moderation with appropriate portion size and combined with regular physical activity, all foods can fit into a healthful diet. Public policies that support the total diet approach include Reference Dietary Intakes, Food Guide Pyramid, Dietary Guidelines for Americans, Nutrition Labeling and Healthy People 2010. The value of a food should be determined within the context of the total diet because classifying foods as "good" or "bad" may foster unhealthy eating behaviors. Eating practices are influenced by taste and food preferences, concerns about nutrition and weight control, physiology, lifestyle, environment, and food product safety. To increase the effectiveness of nutrition education in promoting sensible food choices, dietetics professionals plan communications and educational programs that utilize theories and models related to human behavior. Communication campaigns/programs should implement an active, behaviorally focused approach within the larger context of food choices. Nutrition confusion can be reduced by emphasizing moderation, appropriate portion size, balance and adequacy of the total diet over time, the importance of obtaining nutrients from foods, and physical activity.

  1. Position of the academy of nutrition and dietetics: total diet approach to healthy eating.

    PubMed

    Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H; Nitzke, Susan

    2013-02-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that the total diet or overall pattern of food eaten is the most important focus of healthy eating. All foods can fit within this pattern if consumed in moderation with appropriate portion size and combined with physical activity. The Academy strives to communicate healthy eating messages that emphasize a balance of food and beverages within energy needs, rather than any one food or meal. Public policies and dietary patterns that support the total diet approach include the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) Diet, MyPlate, Let's Move, Nutrition Facts labels, Healthy People 2020, and the Dietary Reference Intakes. In contrast to the total diet approach, classification of specific foods as good or bad is overly simplistic and can foster unhealthy eating behaviors. Alternative approaches are necessary in some situations. Eating practices are dynamic and influenced by many factors, including taste and food preferences, weight concerns, physiology, time and convenience, environment, abundance of foods, economics, media/marketing, perceived product safety, culture, and attitudes/beliefs. To increase the effectiveness of nutrition education in promoting sensible food choices, skilled food and nutrition practitioners utilize appropriate behavioral theory and evidence-based strategies. Focusing on variety, moderation, and proportionality in the context of a healthy lifestyle, rather than targeting specific nutrients or foods, can help reduce consumer confusion and prevent unnecessary reliance on supplements. Proactive, empowering, and practical messages that emphasize the total diet approach promote positive lifestyle changes.

  2. Replacement of fish meal protein by surimi by-product protein in the diet of blue gourami Trichogaster trichopterus fingerlings.

    PubMed

    Mohanta, K N; Subramanian, S; Korikanthimath, V S

    2013-02-01

    Based on the nutrient requirement of Trichogaster trichopterus, a fish meal-based basal diet with 350 g/kg diet crude protein and 16.7 MJ/kg energy was formulated, in which the fish meal protein was replaced by surimi by-product protein at 0.0 (control), 12.5, 25, 50, 75 and 100% levels. The formulated diets were fed ad libitum to T. trichopterus fingerlings (4.80 ± 0.03 g) in triplicate groups for 45 days in a closed water system. Eighteen fibre-reinforced plastic tanks with 200 l of water were used for rearing the fish. Weight gain, specific growth rate, feed/gain ratio, protein efficiency ratio, nutrient retention and digestibility (protein and energy) of fish were not affected (p > 0.05) up to 50% fish meal protein replacement level by surimi by-product protein. While whole-body protein content of fish was marginally decreased, the lipid content was increased with increase in surumi by-product incorporation level in the diet. The study results suggest that the fish meal protein, which is scarce and costly nowadays, could be replaced up to 50% by surimi by-product protein in the diet of blue gourami without hampering the growth and nutrient utilization of fish.

  3. Parasites of the deep-sea fish Mora moro (Risso, 1810) from the NW Mediterranean Sea and relationship with fish diet and enzymatic biomarkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallarés, Sara; Constenla, María; Padrós, Francesc; Cartes, Joan E.; Solé, Montse; Carrassón, Maite

    2014-10-01

    Specimens of Mora moro were collected in two seasons and three localities of the Balearic Sea (NW Mediterranean Sea) and parasitological, dietary (to prey-species level), enzymatic and histological data were obtained, alongside with environmental information (T, S, O2). The relationships among fish parasite load, condition indices, diet, enzymatic activity of muscular acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), intensity of splenic melano-macrophage centres (MMC) and hepatic granulomas were tested. M. moro showed a rich and abundant parasite fauna, and was a new host record for 17 out of the 18 different endoparasite taxa found. Significant differences were detected among locality-season groups, in turn related to different environmental variables, for Anisakidae gen. sp., Anisakis Type II and Tetraphyllidea fam. gen. sp.; thus, they are proposed as potentially useful as biological tags for geographical discrimination of M. moro in the NW Mediterranean Sea. Detailed relationships were found between parasite taxa and prey ingested (e.g. Anisakidae gen. sp. related with meso-bathypelagic crustaceans; Anisakis Type I with benthopelagic squids). Most parasites were linked to samples with highest levels of near-bottom O2, which is consistent with direct relationships found between near-bottom O2 and zooplankton biomass in the Balearic Basin. Total parasite abundance and the abundance of Tetraphyllidea fam. gen. sp. showed a significant relationship with the activity of AChE and the abundance of Anisakis Type II with LDH. AChE was associated with hepatosomatic index (HSI) and condition factor (K); LDH with gonadosomatic index (GSI), K and fish total length (TL). LDH activity showed differences among sampling groups. Splenic MMC and hepatic granulomas were not associated with fish parasite load. A positive relationship was found between MMC area and fish TL and LDH activity.

  4. Angler-caught piscivore diets reflect fish community changes in Lake Huron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roseman, Edward F.; Schaeffer, Jeff; Bright, Ethan; Fielder, David G.

    2014-01-01

    Examination of angler-caught piscivore stomachs revealed that Lake Trout Salvelinus namaycush, Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, and Walleyes Sander vitreus altered theirdiets in response to unprecedented declines in Lake Huron's main-basin prey fish community.Diets varied by predator species, season, and location but were nearly always dominated numerically by some combination of Alewife Alosa pseudoharengus, Rainbow Smelt Osmerus mordax, Emerald Shiner Notropis atherinoides, Round Goby Neogobius melanostomus, or terrestrial insects. Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (steelhead), Coho Salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch, and Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar had varied diets that reflected higher contributions of insects. Compared with an earlier (1983–1986) examination of angler-caught predator fishes from Lake Huron, the contemporary results showed an increase in consumption of nontraditional prey (including conspecifics), use of smaller prey, and an increase in insects in the diet, suggesting that piscivores were faced with chronic prey limitation during this study. The management of all piscivores in Lake Huron will likely require consideration of the pervasive effects of changes in food webs, especially if prey fish remain at low levels.

  5. Influence of host diet and phylogeny on parasite sharing by fish in a diverse tropical floodplain.

    PubMed

    Lima, L B; Bellay, S; Giacomini, H C; Isaac, A; Lima-Junior, D P

    2016-03-01

    The patterns of parasite sharing among hosts have important implications for ecosystem structure and functioning, and are influenced by several ecological and evolutionary factors associated with both hosts and parasites. Here we evaluated the influence of fish diet and phylogenetic relatedness on the pattern of infection by parasites with contrasting life history strategies in a freshwater ecosystem of key ecological importance in South America. The studied network of interactions included 52 fish species, which consumed 58 food types and were infected with 303 parasite taxa. Our results show that both diet and evolutionary history of hosts significantly explained parasite sharing; phylogenetically close fish species and/or species sharing food types tend to share more parasites. However, the effect of diet was observed only for endoparasites in contrast to ectoparasites. These results are consistent with the different life history strategies and selective pressures imposed on these groups: endoparasites are in general acquired via ingestion by their intermediate hosts, whereas ectoparasites actively seek and attach to the gills, body surface or nostrils of its sole host, thus not depending directly on its feeding habits.

  6. Mink reproductive and physiological response to diets supplemented with PCB and mercury contaminated fish collected on the Oak Ridge Reservation

    SciTech Connect

    Halbrook, R.; Aulerich, R.; Bursian, S.; Lewis, L.

    1995-12-31

    Plant operations and waste disposal at the Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) have resulted in increased concentrations of PCBs and mercury (Hg) in fish inhabiting streams located on the reservation. As a component of environmental restoration investigation, fish were collected from streams on the reservation, analyzed for tissue concentrations of PCBs and Hg, and fed to ranch mink 3 months prior to and during the breeding season. As reference, fish also were collected from the Clinch River (CR) above the ORR and from the ocean (O), and fed to mink following similar procedures. Five prepared diets containing either 75% O, 75% CR, 25% ORR + 50% O, 50% ORR + 25% O, or 75% ORR fish and 25% standard mink diet were fed to 8 female and 2 male mink, each, following normal mink farm practices. PCB (Aroclor 1260 and CB congeners) and Hg concentrations were greatest in fish collected from the ORR and diets containing ORR fish exhibited a progressive increase in PCBs and Hg concentration with increased percentage of ORR fish. Female mink fed diets containing 75% ORR fish had decreased litter size and decreased mean whole body weights, Mean weight of male offspring of females fed 75% ORR fish also were decreased. Do to the contaminated environment, other aquatic prey of mink probably have elevated contaminant burdens that would contribute to effects in mink. Adverse reproductive and health effects in mink living on the ORR are speculative at this time.

  7. A marine fish diet reduces spontaneous lymphoma in outbred Swiss-Webster mice.

    PubMed

    Somers, Christopher M; Kwiecien, Jacek M; Quinn, James S

    2005-12-01

    Diets rich in marine organisms or their oils are known to suppress solid tumor development in humans and rodents, but the potential for marine foods to affect hematopoietic system cancers is not well understood. As part of a toxicology study, we fed groups of mice three different diets for 10 weeks: marine fish, 58% homogenized Atlantic smelt and herring; freshwater fish, 58% smelt and alewife from the North American Great Lakes, and commercial dry rodent chow. Between 1 and 15 weeks following dietary treatment, 20 of 103 (19.4%) mice unexpectedly developed spontaneous lymphoma. Disease incidence peaked when the mice were 7-8 months old, and was not distributed equally across treatment groups. Mice in the control (30%) and fresh water fish (27.5%) groups had significantly higher incidences of lymphoma than those fed Atlantic fish species (5%). Although our experiment was not originally designed for this purpose, our results indicate that consumption of fat-rich Atlantic smelt and herring protected mice against hematopoietic tumor development.

  8. Bioenergetics assessment of fish and crayfish consumption by river otter (Lontra canadensis): integrating prey availability, diet, and field metabolic rate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dekar, Matthew P.; Magoulick, Daniel D.; Beringer, J.

    2010-01-01

    River otters (Lontra canadensis) are important predators in aquatic ecosystems, but few studies quantify their prey consumption. We trapped crayfish monthly as an index of availability and collected otter scat for diet analysis in the Ozark Mountains of northwestern Arkansas, USA. We measured otter daily energy expenditure (DEE) with the doubly labeled water method to develop a bioenergetics model for estimating monthly prey consumption. Meek's crayfish (Orconectes meeki) catch-per-unit-effort was positively related to stream temperature, indicating that crayfish were more available during warmer months. The percentage frequency of occurrence for crayfish in scat samples peaked at 85.0% in summer and was lowest (42.3%) in winter. In contrast, the percentage occurrence of fish was 13.3% in summer and 57.7% in winter. Estimates of DEE averaged 4738 kJ·day-1 for an otter with a body mass of 7842 g. Total biomass consumption ranged from 35 079 to 52 653 g·month-1 (wet mass), corresponding to a high proportion of fish and crayfish in the diet, respectively. Otter consumption represents a large fraction of prey production, indicating potentially strong effects of otters on trophic dynamics in stream ecosystems.

  9. DETERMINATION OF TOTAL MERCURY IN FISH TISSUES USING PYROLYSIS ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROMETRY WITH GOLD AMALGAMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A simple and rapid procedure for measuring total mercury in fish tissues is evaluated and
    compared with conventional techniques. Using an automated instrument incorporating combustion, preconcentration by amalgamation with gold, and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), mill...

  10. Total and organic mercury in Barents sea pelagic fish

    SciTech Connect

    Joiris, C.R.; Ali, I.B.; Hoisbeek, L. Bossicart, M.; Tapia, G.

    1995-11-01

    One of the main questions, when studying mercury levels in natural samples, is to define how far the measured concentrations correspond to natural- or background-levels or to actual contamination due to human activities. To establish background pristine levels of Hg in the marine environment, areas of very low human activities are often proposed. Arctic and Antarctic waters, together with deep oceans waters, are best suited and provide themselves for such studies. Barents Sea areas were used in this study, even if the existence of an important atmospheric transport of Hg probably caused an increase of Hg levels at a global scale. Instead of analyzing mercury from the very low concentrations in sea water, it is much easier to identify it from the higher concentrations which organisms, used as bioindicators, have built up in their tissues. By using these bioindicators to study the bioavailable fraction of the stable residues, one also integrates small scale temporal and spatial variations. Pelagic fish were used in this work to study the ecotoxicology of Hg in the Barents Sea. This study has been made possible due to recent access of the Barents Sea to western scientists and it is to serve as a complement to existing studies by the same team in the Greenland and Norwegian seas, and the southwestern part of the Barents Sea. 19 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Total mercury levels in commercial fish species from Italian fishery and aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Di Lena, Gabriella; Casini, Irene; Caproni, Roberto; Fusari, Andrea; Orban, Elena

    2017-06-01

    Total mercury levels were measured in 42 commercial fish species caught off the Central Adriatic and Tyrrhenian coasts of Italy and in 6 aquaculture species. The study on wild fish covered species differing in living habitat and trophic level. The study on farmed fish covered marine and freshwater species from intensive and extensive aquaculture and their feed. Mercury levels were analysed by thermal decomposition-amalgamation-atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Total mercury concentrations in the muscle of wild fish showed a high variability among species (0.025-2.20 mg kg(-1) wet weight). The lowest levels were detected in low trophic-level demersal and pelagic-neritic fish and in young individuals of high trophic-level species. Levels exceeding the European Commission limits were found in large-size specimens of high trophic-level pelagic and demersal species. Fish from intensive farming showed low levels of total mercury (0.008-0.251 mg kg(-1)). Fish from extensive rearing showed variable contamination levels, depending on the area of provenience. An estimation of the human intake of mercury associated to the consumption of the studied fish and its comparison with the tolerable weekly intake is provided.

  12. Contrasting Population and Diet Influences on Gut Length of an Omnivorous Tropical Fish, the Trinidadian Guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    PubMed

    Zandonà, Eugenia; Auer, Sonya K; Kilham, Susan S; Reznick, David N

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is advantageous for organisms that live in variable environments. The digestive system is particularly plastic, responding to changes in diet. Gut length is the result of a trade-off between maximum nutrient absorption and minimum cost for its maintenance and it can be influenced by diet and by evolutionary history. We assessed variation in gut length of Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata) as a function of diet, season, ontogeny, and local adaptation. Populations of guppies adapted to different predation levels have evolved different life history traits and have different diets. We sampled guppies from sites with low (LP) and high predation (HP) pressure in the Aripo and Guanapo Rivers in Trinidad. We collected fish during both the dry and wet season and assessed their diet and gut length. During the dry season, guppies from HP sites fed mostly on invertebrates, while guppies in the LP sites fed mainly on detritus. During the wet season, the diet of LP and HP populations became very similar. We did not find strong evidence of an ontogenetic diet shift. Gut length was negatively correlated with the proportion of invertebrates in diet across fish from all sites, supporting the hypothesis that guppy digestive systems adapt in length to changes in diet. Population of origin also had an effect on gut length, as HP and LP fish maintained different gut lengths even in the wet season, when their diets were very similar and individuals in both types of populations fed mostly on detritus. Thus, both environment and population of origin influenced guppies gut length, but population of origin seemed to have a stronger effect. Our study also showed that, even in omnivorous fish, gut length adapted to different diets, being more evident when the magnitude of difference between animal and plant material in the diet was very large.

  13. Application of isotope dilution mass spectrometry: determination of ochratoxin A in the Canadian Total Diet Study

    PubMed Central

    Tam, J.; Pantazopoulos, P.; Scott, P.M.; Moisey, J.; Dabeka, R.W.; Richard, I.D.K.

    2011-01-01

    Analytical methods are generally developed and optimized for specific commodities. Total Diet Studies, representing typical food products ‘as consumed’, pose an analytical challenge since every food product is different. In order to address this technical challenge, a selective and sensitive analytical method was developed suitable for the quantitation of ochratoxin A (OTA) in Canadian Total Diet Study composites. The method uses an acidified solvent extraction, an immunoaffinity column (IAC) for clean-up, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for identification and quantification, and a uniformly stable isotope-labelled OTA (U-[13C20]-OTA) as an internal recovery standard. Results are corrected for this standard. The method is accurate (101% average recovery) and precise (5.5% relative standard deviation (RSD)) based on 17 duplicate analysis of various food products over 2 years. A total of 140 diet composites were analysed for OTA as part of the Canadian Total Diet Study. Samples were collected at retail level from two Canadian cities, Quebec City and Calgary, in 2008 and 2009, respectively. The results indicate that 73% (102/140) of the samples had detectable levels of OTA, with some of the highest levels of OTA contamination found in the Canadian bread supply. PMID:21623499

  14. Increasing Fish Oil Levels in Commercial Diets Influence Hematology and Immune Responses of Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultured freshwater fish including channel catfish are commonly fed grain-soybean meal based feeds high in linoleic series (n-6) fatty acids. Published studies have shown that supplementation of catfish diets with marine fish oil rich in n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 HUFA) significantly in...

  15. Trophic structure of a coastal fish community determined with diet and stable isotope analyses.

    PubMed

    Malek, A J; Collie, J S; Taylor, D L

    2016-09-01

    A combination of dietary guild analysis and nitrogen (δ(15) N) and carbon (δ(13) C) stable-isotope analysis was used to assess the trophic structure of the fish community in Rhode Island and Block Island Sounds, an area off southern New England identified for offshore wind energy development. In the autumn of 2009, 2010 and 2011, stomach and tissue samples were taken from 20 fish and invertebrate species for analysis of diet composition and δ(15) N and δ(13) C signatures. The food chain in Rhode Island and Block Island Sounds comprises approximately four trophic levels within which the fish community is divided into distinct dietary guilds, including planktivores, benthivores, crustacivores and piscivores. Within these guilds, inter-species isotopic and dietary overlap is high, suggesting that resource partitioning or competitive interactions play a major role in structuring the fish community. Carbon isotopes indicate that most fishes are supported by pelagic phytoplankton, although there is evidence that benthic production also plays a role, particularly for obligate benthivores such as skates Leucoraja spp. This type of analysis is useful for developing an ecosystem-based approach to management, as it identifies species that act as direct links to basal resources as well as species groups that share trophic roles.

  16. Does the invasive plant Elymus athericus modify fish diet in tidal salt marshes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laffaille, P.; Pétillon, J.; Parlier, E.; Valéry, L.; Ysnel, F.; Radureau, A.; Feunteun, E.; Lefeuvre, J.-C.

    2005-12-01

    The invasion of Mont-Saint-Michel Bay salt marshes (France) by a grass species ( Elymus athericus) has led to important changes in vegetation cover, which is likely to modify the habitat for many invertebrates. Some of them constitute the main food items for several fish species, such as young sea bass ( Dicentrarchus labrax) and sand goby ( Pomatoschistus minutus), that feed in salt marsh creeks during high tides. As a result, fish nursery functions of salt marshes could be modified by the E. athericus invasion. In order to test this hypothesis, gut contents of the two most abundant fish species (sea bass and sand goby) were compared before and after E. athericus invasion in the same salt marsh creek and using the same methodology. The accessibility and availability of the main food item, the semi-terrestrial amphipod Orchestia gammarella, were estimated and compared between invaded (dominated by E. athericus) and original areas (dominated by Atriplex portulacoides). Gut content analysis showed a significantly greater percentage of fish leaving with empty guts from E. athericus areas than from A. portulacoides areas. The sea bass diet composition study showed a major shift in the relative importance of the main food items: before E. athericus invasion, diets were dominated by the semi-terrestrial species O. gammarella, whereas after the E. athericus invasion they were dominated by a marine mysid Neomysis integer. The same trend was found for sand gobies, with a shift of the main food item from O. gammarella before invasion to the polychaete Hediste diversicolor after invasion. These trophic changes may be explained by the lower accessibility and availability of O. gammarella in invaded communities than in natural ones. The E. athericus invasion, observed throughout northern Europe, is thus likely to disturb trophic function of natural salt marshes for fish. This preliminary study of the E. athericus invasion is also an illustration that invasive species are an

  17. DNA Methylation Pattern in Overweight Women under an Energy-Restricted Diet Supplemented with Fish Oil

    PubMed Central

    do Amaral, Cátia Lira; Milagro, Fermín I.; Curi, Rui; Martínez, J. Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Dietary factors modulate gene expression and are able to alter epigenetic signatures in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). However, there are limited studies about the effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) on the epigenetic mechanisms that regulate gene expression. This research investigates the effects of n-3-rich fish oil supplementation on DNA methylation profile of several genes whose expression has been reported to be downregulated by n-3 PUFA in PBMC: CD36, FFAR3, CD14, PDK4, and FADS1. Young overweight women were supplemented with fish oil or control in a randomized 8-week intervention trial following a balanced diet with 30% energy restriction. Fatty acid receptor CD36 decreased DNA methylation at CpG +477 due to energy restriction. Hypocaloric diet-induced weight loss also reduced the methylation percentages of CpG sites located in CD14, PDK4, and FADS1. The methylation patterns of these genes were only slightly affected by the fish oil supplementation, being the most relevant to the attenuation of the weight loss-induced decrease in CD36 methylation after adjusting by baseline body weight. These results suggest that the n-3 PUFA-induced changes in the expression of these genes in PBMC are not mediated by DNA methylation, although other epigenetic mechanisms cannot be discarded. PMID:24579084

  18. DNA methylation pattern in overweight women under an energy-restricted diet supplemented with fish oil.

    PubMed

    do Amaral, Cátia Lira; Milagro, Fermín I; Curi, Rui; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Dietary factors modulate gene expression and are able to alter epigenetic signatures in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). However, there are limited studies about the effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) on the epigenetic mechanisms that regulate gene expression. This research investigates the effects of n-3-rich fish oil supplementation on DNA methylation profile of several genes whose expression has been reported to be downregulated by n-3 PUFA in PBMC: CD36, FFAR3, CD14, PDK4, and FADS1. Young overweight women were supplemented with fish oil or control in a randomized 8-week intervention trial following a balanced diet with 30% energy restriction. Fatty acid receptor CD36 decreased DNA methylation at CpG +477 due to energy restriction. Hypocaloric diet-induced weight loss also reduced the methylation percentages of CpG sites located in CD14, PDK4, and FADS1. The methylation patterns of these genes were only slightly affected by the fish oil supplementation, being the most relevant to the attenuation of the weight loss-induced decrease in CD36 methylation after adjusting by baseline body weight. These results suggest that the n-3 PUFA-induced changes in the expression of these genes in PBMC are not mediated by DNA methylation, although other epigenetic mechanisms cannot be discarded.

  19. Let the pyramid guide your food choices: capturing the total diet concept.

    PubMed

    Dixon, L B; Cronin, F J; Krebs-Smith, S M

    2001-02-01

    This paper discusses how the guideline "Eat a variety of foods" became "Let the Pyramid guide your food choices," presents background information on the food guidance system upon which the Food Guide Pyramid is based and reviews methods that have been used to assess aspects of the total diet, i.e., the variety, moderation and proportionality, promoted by this guidance. The methods include measures of dietary variety, patterns based on Pyramid food group intakes and scoring methods comprised of multiple dietary components. Highlights of results from these methods include the following. Although approximately one third of the U.S. population eat at least some food from all Pyramid food groups, only approximately 1-3% eat the recommended number of servings from all food groups on a given day. Fruits are the most commonly omitted food group. Vegetables and meat are the groups most commonly met by adults, and dairy the most commonly met by youth. Intakes of specific types of vegetables (i.e., dark green, deep yellow) and of grains (i.e., whole grains) are well below that recommended; intakes of total fat and added sugars exceed current recommendations. Scoring methods show those diets of the majority of the population require improvement, and that diets improve with increases in education and income. This paper also discusses the limitations and strengths of these approaches, and concludes with suggestions to improve current food guidance and methods to assess the total diet.

  20. Feeding a Modified Fish Diet to Bottlenose Dolphins Leads to an Increase in Serum Adiponectin and Sphingolipids

    PubMed Central

    Sobolesky, Philip M.; Harrell, Tyler S.; Parry, Celeste; Venn-Watson, Stephanie; Janech, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    Feeding a modified fish diet has been suggested to improve insulin sensitivity in bottlenose dolphins; however, insulin sensitivity was not directly measured. Since demonstrating an improvement in insulin sensitivity is technically difficult in dolphins, we postulated that directional changes in the hormone axis: fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21)/Adiponectin/Ceramide (Cer), could provide further support to this hypothesis. We measured 2-h post-prandial serum FGF21, total adiponectin, percent unmodified adiponectin, ceramide, and sphingosine levels from dolphins fed a diet rich in heptadecanoic acid (C17:0) over 24 weeks. Serum FGF21 was quantified by ELISA with an observed range of 129–1599 pg/ml, but did not significantly change over the 24-week study period. Total adiponectin levels (mean ± SD) significantly increased from 776 ± 400 pmol/ml at week 0 to 1196 ± 467 pmol/ml at week 24. The percent unmodified adiponectin levels (mean ± SD) decreased from 23.8 ± 6.0% at week 0 to 15.2 ± 5.2% at week 24. Interestingly, although FGF21 levels did not change, there was a good correlation between FGF21 and total adiponectin (ρ = 0.788, P < 0.001). We quantified the abundances of serum ceramides and sphingosines (SPH) because adiponectin has a defined role in sphingolipid metabolism through adiponectin receptor-mediated activation of ceramidases. The most abundant ceramide in dolphin sera was Cer 24:1 comprising 49% of the ceramides measured. Significant reductions were observed in the unsaturated Cer 18:1, Cer 20:1, and Cer 24:1, whereas significant increases were observed in saturated Cer 22:0, Cer 24:0, and Cer 26:0. However, total serum ceramides did not change. Significant elevations were detected for total sphingosine, dihydrosphingosine, sphingosine-1-phosphate, and dihydrosphingosine-1-phosphate. Proteomic analysis of the serum proteins revealed few changes in serum proteins over the study period. In conclusion

  1. Role of self-caught fish in total fish consumption rates for recreational fishermen: Average consumption for some species exceeds allowable intake.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Studies of fish consumption focus on recreational or subsistence fishing, on awareness and adherence to advisories, consumption patterns, and contaminants in fish. Yet the general public obtains their fish from commercial sources. In this paper I examine fish consumption patterns of recreational fishermen in New Jersey to determine: 1) consumption rates for self-caught fish and for other fish, 2) meals consumed per year, 3) average meal size, and average daily intake of mercury, and 4) variations in these parameters for commonly-consumed fish, and different methods of computing intake. Over 300 people were interviewed at fishing sites and fishing clubs along the New Jersey shore. Consumption patterns of anglers varied by species of fish. From 2 to 90 % of the anglers ate the different fish species, and between 9 and 75 % gave fish away to family or friends. Self-caught fish made up 7 to 92 % of fish diets. On average, self-caught fish were eaten for only 2 to 6 months of the year, whereas other fish (commercial or restaurant) were eaten up to 10 months a year. Anglers consumed from 5 to 36 meals of different fish a year, which resulted in intake of mercury ranging from 0.01 to 0.22 ug/kg/day. Average intake of Mako shark, swordfish, and tuna (sushi, canned tuna, self-caught tuna) exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's oral, chronic reference dose for mercury of 0.1 ug/kg/day. However, computing intake using consumption for the highest month results in average mercury intake exceeding the reference dose for striped bass and bluefish as well. These data, and the variability in consumption patterns, have implications for risk assessors, risk managers, and health professionals.

  2. Role of self-caught fish in total fish consumption rates for recreational fishermen: Average consumption for some species exceeds allowable intake

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Studies of fish consumption focus on recreational or subsistence fishing, on awareness and adherence to advisories, consumption patterns, and contaminants in fish. Yet the general public obtains their fish from commercial sources. In this paper I examine fish consumption patterns of recreational fishermen in New Jersey to determine: 1) consumption rates for self-caught fish and for other fish, 2) meals consumed per year, 3) average meal size, and average daily intake of mercury, and 4) variations in these parameters for commonly-consumed fish, and different methods of computing intake. Over 300 people were interviewed at fishing sites and fishing clubs along the New Jersey shore. Consumption patterns of anglers varied by species of fish. From 2 to 90 % of the anglers ate the different fish species, and between 9 and 75 % gave fish away to family or friends. Self-caught fish made up 7 to 92 % of fish diets. On average, self-caught fish were eaten for only 2 to 6 months of the year, whereas other fish (commercial or restaurant) were eaten up to 10 months a year. Anglers consumed from 5 to 36 meals of different fish a year, which resulted in intake of mercury ranging from 0.01 to 0.22 ug/kg/day. Average intake of Mako shark, swordfish, and tuna (sushi, canned tuna, self-caught tuna) exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s oral, chronic reference dose for mercury of 0.1 ug/kg/day. However, computing intake using consumption for the highest month results in average mercury intake exceeding the reference dose for striped bass and bluefish as well. These data, and the variability in consumption patterns, have implications for risk assessors, risk managers, and health professionals. PMID:23914136

  3. Using diets to reveal overlap and egg predation among benthivorous fishes in Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mychek-Londer, Justin G.; Bunnell, David B.; Stott, Wendylee; Diana, James S.; French, John R. P.; Chriscinske, Margret

    2013-01-01

    Ecological stability in the Laurentian Great Lakes has been altered by nonindigenous species, such as the Round Goby Neogobius melanostomus and dreissenid mussels, and by declines in native amphipods Diporeia spp. We evaluated whether these changes could influence diet overlap between three benthivorous fishes (Slimy Sculpin Cottus cognatus, Deepwater Sculpin Myoxocephalus thompsonii, and Round Goby) and whether predation on eggs of native species was occurring. We examined diets of fish collected at depths of 69–128 m in Lake Michigan offshore of Frankfort and Muskegon, Michigan, and Two Rivers and Sturgeon Bay, Wisconsin, during January–May 2009 and 2010. Important prey (by dry weight proportion and by percent frequency of occurrence) for Slimy Sculpin were Mysis (0.34; 45%), Diporeia (0.16; 34%), and Limnocalanus macrurus (0.22; 68%); important prey for Deepwater Sculpin were Mysis (0.74; 92%) and Diporeia (0.16; 54%). Round Goby consumed mainly bivalves (i.e., dreissenids: 0.68; 95%) and Mysis (0.15; 37%). The two sculpin species consumed the eggs of Bloaters Coregonus hoyi (Slimy Sculpin: 0.04, 11%; Deepwater Sculpin: 0.02, 7%) and the eggs of Deepwater Sculpin (Slimy Sculpin: 0.03, 13%; Deepwater Sculpin: 0.05, 16%) during February–May at all sites. Round Goby also consumed eggs of these species but at lower levels (≤0.01; <1%). Diet overlap was identified between sculpin species at Frankfort and Sturgeon Bay, suggesting possible interspecific competition, but their diets did not overlap at Two Rivers; diet overlap was never observed between Round Goby and either sculpin species. Given that (1) diet overlap varied by site and (2) diet proportions varied spatially more than temporally, benthivores appear to be exhibiting localized responses to recent ecological changes. Overall, these results reveal that egg predation and interspecific competition could be important interactions to consider in future examinations of the population dynamics of these

  4. Variability in Isotope Discrimination Factors in Coral Reef Fishes: Implications for Diet and Food Web Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Wyatt, Alex S. J.; Waite, Anya M.; Humphries, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    Interpretation of stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen (δ13C and δ15N) is generally based on the assumption that with each trophic level there is a constant enrichment in the heavier isotope, leading to diet-tissue discrimination factors of 3.4‰ for 15N (ΔN) and ∼0.5‰ for 13C (ΔC). Diet-tissue discrimination factors determined from paired tissue and gut samples taken from 152 individuals from 26 fish species at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia demonstrate a large amount of variability around constant values. While caution is necessary in using gut contents to represent diet due to the potential for high temporal variability, there were significant effects of trophic position and season that may also lead to variability in ΔN under natural conditions. Nitrogen enrichment increased significantly at higher trophic levels (higher tissue δ15N), with significantly higher ΔN in carnivorous species. Changes in diet led to significant changes in ΔN, but not tissue δ15N, between seasons for several species: Acanthurus triostegus, Chromis viridis, Parupeneus signatus and Pomacentrus moluccensis. These results confirm that the use of meta-analysis averages for ΔN is likely to be inappropriate for accurately determining diets and trophic relationships using tissue stable isotope ratios. Where feasible, discrimination factors should be directly quantified for each species and trophic link in question, acknowledging the potential for significant variation away from meta-analysis averages and, perhaps, controlled laboratory diets and conditions. PMID:21060681

  5. Addition of fish oil to diets for dairy cows. II. Effects on milk fat and gene expression of mammary lipogenic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Ahnadi, Charaf E; Beswick, Naomi; Delbecchi, Louis; Kennelly, John J; Lacasse, Pierre

    2002-11-01

    Sixteen Holstein cows in mid-lactation were used to determine whether alterations of mammary fatty acid metabolism are responsible for the milk fat depression associated with consumption of fish oil. Cows were given a total mixed ration with no added fish oil (control), unprotected fish oil (3.7 % of dry matter), or glutaraldehyde-protected microcapsules of fish oil (1.5% or 3.0% of dry matter) for 4 weeks. Milk samples were taken once a week and a mammary biopsy was taken from a rear quarter at the end of the treatment period. Milk fat content was lower in cows given unprotected fish oil (26.0 g/kg), 1.5% protected fish oil (24.6 g/kg) and 3% protected fish oil (20.4 g/kg) than in cows fed the control diet (36.0 g/kg). This was mainly due to a decrease in the synthesis of short-chain fatty acids. Consumption of protected fish oil decreased the abundance of lipogenic enzymes mRNA in the mammary gland. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthase, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase mRNAs for cows given 3% protected fish oil averaged only 30%, 25% and 25% of control values, respectively. Dietary addition of unprotected fish oil slightly decreased mRNA abundance of these enzymes but markedly reduced the amount of lipoprotein lipase mRNA. Milk fat content was significantly correlated with gene expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthase, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase but not lipoprotein lipase. These results suggest that fish oil reduces milk fat percentage by inhibiting gene expression of mammary lipogenic enzymes.

  6. Partial replacements of Stylosanthes scabra forage for lucerne in total mixed ration diet of Saanen goats.

    PubMed

    Mpanza, Thamsanqa Doctor Empire; Hassen, Abubeker

    2015-10-01

    The inclusion of Stylosanthes scabra cv. Seca forage in the total mixed ration (TMR) as partial replacement of lucerne (alfalfa) was evaluated for its effects on voluntary feed intake, nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance in Saanen goats. Three experimental diets were formulated having 0 % Seca (T1), 15 % Seca (T2) and 30 % Seca (T3) as partial replacement of lucerne forage in the TMR diet for goats. Eighteen Saanen goats of about 7 months old were divided into three groups of six animals per group. Each group was randomly assigned to one of the three dietary treatments in a complete randomised design, and the study lasted for a period of 21 days. There was an increase in fibre and mineral content of the diets as Seca inclusion increased, but this resulted in the decrease of crude protein contents and in vitro organic matter digestibility. Animals that were fed 15 % Seca recorded higher voluntary dry matter and nutrient (organic matter and fibres) intake, but the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05) as compared to the other treatments. Nutrient digestibility as well as nitrogen balance was not significantly different across the three diets. The lack of significant differences in feed intake, nutrient digestibility and nitrogen utilisation following the inclusion of Seca in the TMR suggests that S. scabra forage can partially replace lucerne in the TMR diet of goats.

  7. High diet overlap between native small-bodied fishes and nonnative fathead minnow in the Colorado River, Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seegert, Sarah E. Zahn; Rosi-Marshall, Emma J.; Baxter, Colden V.; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Hall, Robert O.; Cross, Wyatt F.

    2014-01-01

    River regulation may mediate the interactions among native and nonnative species, potentially favoring nonnative species and contributing to the decline of native populations. We examined food resource use and diet overlap among small-bodied fishes in the Grand Canyon section of the Colorado River as a first step in evaluating potential resource competition. We compared the diets of the predominant small-bodied fishes (native Speckled Dace Rhinichthys osculus, juvenile Flannelmouth Sucker Catostomus latipinnis, and juvenile Bluehead Sucker C. discobolus, and nonnative Fathead Minnow Pimephales promelas) across seasons at four sites downstream of Glen Canyon Dam using nonmetric multidimensional scaling and Schoener's similarity index. The diets of these fishes included diatoms, amorphous detritus, aquatic invertebrates (especially simuliid and chironomid larvae), terrestrial invertebrates, and terrestrial vegetation. Diets varied with season and were affected by high turbidity. Fish consumed more amorphous detritus and terrestrial vegetation during the summer monsoon season (July–September), when turbidity was higher. The diets of all species overlapped, but there was large variation in the degree of overlap. The diets of juvenile suckers and Fathead Minnows were most similar, while Speckled Dace had relatively distinct diets. The differences took the form of higher proportions of diatoms and amorphous detritus in the diets of Bluehead Suckers and Fathead Minnows and higher proportions of simuliids and chironomids in those of Speckled Dace. If food resources are or become limiting, diet overlap suggests that competition may occur among native and nonnative species, which could have implications for the population dynamics of these fishes and for the management of the Colorado River ecosystem in Grand Canyon.

  8. Diets of emerald and spottail shiners and potential interactions with other western Lake Erie planktivorous fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartman, Kyle J.; Vondracek, Bruce; Parrish, Donna L.; Muth, Kenneth M.

    1992-01-01

    Emerald shiner (Notropis atherinoides) and spottail shiner (N. hudsonius) were abundant historically in western Lake Erie. Recent changes in the fish community suggest that shiners may not compete favorably with the invading white perch (Morone americana) or the gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum). We examined the diets of emerald and spottail shiner and compared them to other planktivores in western Lake Erie. Emerald and spottail shiner ate cladocerans such as Daphnia spp.,Leptodora, and Bythotrephes. Biologically significant overlaps (Schoener 1970 index ≥ 0.6) among zooplanktivores occurred from July through September, but most occurred during July. The frequency of significant diet overlaps among planktivores declined since an earlier study in the mid-1970s (Muth and Busch 1989) possibly indicating that competitive interactions have eased since 1975. In addition to competitive interactions, other factors such as increased eutrophication and predator mediated mortality likely played a role in planktivore community changes since the early 1970s.

  9. A history of total mercury in edible muscle of fish from lakes in northern Canada.

    PubMed

    Lockhart, W L; Stern, G A; Low, G; Hendzel, M; Boila, G; Roach, P; Evans, M S; Billeck, B N; DeLaronde, J; Friesen, S; Kidd, K; Atkins, S; Muir, D C G; Stoddart, M; Stephens, G; Stephenson, S; Harbicht, S; Snowshoe, N; Grey, B; Thompson, S; DeGraff, N

    2005-12-01

    Subsistence fishing has been an important source of food for Native People in northern Canada since prehistoric time. Measurements of the levels of mercury in edible muscle of northern fish have been undertaken for over three decades in efforts to evaluate the risks of consuming northern fish. This report summarizes the data obtained from 7974 fish of 25 species from sites distributed from the Yukon to Labrador. The most abundant species were lake trout, lake whitefish, arctic char, walleye, northern pike and burbot. The question being asked was essentially "Are the fish safe to eat?" The results were used to support decisions on fishing and consumption of fish. They were sorted in several ways, into concentration ranges corresponding to human consumption guidelines, into political jurisdictions and into types of bedrock geology. Overall walleye, northern pike and lake trout, usually exceeded the subsistence consumption guideline of 0.2 microg g-1 total mercury and often exceeded the higher guideline of 0.5 microg g-1 total mercury for commercial sales of fish. Mercury in burbot, another facultative predator, was often lower but several still exceeding a guideline. Arctic char collections were mostly from anadromous populations and these had very low levels of mercury, presumably reflecting marine food sources. Lake whitefish were among the cleanest fish examined with 69 of 81 collections falling in the lowest range. Most collections were from sites in sedimentary rock. However a few sites were in metamorphic, intrusive or volcanic rocks and these, taken together, tended to have a higher proportion of sites in the higher ranges of mercury. These results indicate a widespread problem with mercury in subsistence fisheries for predator species of fish with the problem being most problematic for Nunavut.

  10. [Risk-benefit of some mollusks and processed fishes in the renal patient's diet].

    PubMed

    Castro-González, M I; Miranda-Becerra, D; Pérez-Gil, R F

    2010-03-01

    The renal diet must include limited amounts of high quality protein, phosphorus P and potassium K. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFA EPA and DHA), present in fishes and mollusks, render beneficial properties against progression of renal damage. The aim of this study was to evaluate protein PR, phosphorus P, potassium K, calcium Ca and n-3PUFA in processed fishes and mollusks as an alimentary option for renal patients. Canned tuna (water AA and oil AC), sardine in tomate sauce ST and chipotle SC and smoked salmon SA, fresh jumbo flying squid CA, common octopus PU and oyster OS were evaluated. Significant difference was detected (p <.0.05) for K between different types of fish. SA contained 38g/100g PR, 307 mg/100g of P, 371 mg/ 100g K and 106 mg/100g n-3PUFA. Sardines contained (279-304 mg/100g of P and 283-322 mg/100g K and tunas 142-160 mg/100g P and 141-154 mg/100g K. Tunas and sardines had elevated concentration of n-3PUFA (4114 and 4790 mg/ 100g respectively), P:n-3PUFA and K:n-3PUFA ratio was low in tunas (0.03) and sardines (0.06). AA and AC contained (10.1 and 11.1 mgP/gPR), while ST and SC provided 26.4-19.1 mg/P/gPR. n-3PUFA/gPR were similar for tunas and sardines (302-424mg/gPR). Mollusks: CA presented the highest values of P and PR (2.4 mg/100g and 18.4g/100g). n-3PUFA ranged from 4.3 to 79 mg/100g in PU and OS respectively. Among processed fishes, only canned tunas are recommended for the diet of renal patients, in an individualized basis. The risk-benefit ratio of sardines in the renal diet should be evaluated, due to their high content of P and n-3PUFA. Salmon and mollusks are not recommended for the renal diet.

  11. Protective effect of clove oil-supplemented fish diets on experimental Lactococcus garvieae infection in tilapia.

    PubMed

    Rattanachaikunsopon, Pongsak; Phumkhachorn, Parichat

    2009-09-01

    The essential oils extracted from the four herbs, cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum), clove (Syzygium aromaticum), ginger (Zingiber officinale) and holy basil (Ocimum sanctum), were investigated for their antimicrobial activity and mode of action against Lactococcus garvieae, a fish pathogenic bacteria causing lactococcosis. Of all the tested oils, clove oil had the strongest inhibitory effect and exhibited a bactericidal mode of action against the pathogenic bacterium. When an intraperitoneal infection of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) with L. garvieae was performed, the median lethal dose (LD(50)) was determined to be 1.78x10(2) CFU/fish. For an in vivo trial, no mortality was apparent in fish fed on the fish diets supplemented with 3% (w/w) of clove oil and with 0.5% (w/w) of oxytetracycline 5 d prior to the infection with L. garvieae. These results indicate that clove oil had a protective effect on experimental L. garvieae infection in tilapia and the potential to replace antibiotics for controlling the disease.

  12. Vulnerability and diet breadth predict larval and adult parasite diversity in fish of the Bothnian Bay.

    PubMed

    Locke, Sean A; Marcogliese, David J; Valtonen, E Tellervo

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies of aquatic food webs show that parasite diversity is concentrated in nodes that likely favour transmission. Various aspects of parasite diversity have been observed to be correlated with the trophic level, size, diet breadth, and vulnerability to predation of hosts. However, no study has attempted to distinguish among all four correlates, which may have differential importance for trophically transmitted parasites occurring as larvae or adults. We searched for factors that best predict the diversity of larval and adult endoparasites in 4105 fish in 25 species studied over a three-year period in the Bothnian Bay, Finland. Local predator-prey relationships were determined from stomach contents, parasites, and published data in 8,229 fish in 31 species and in seals and piscivorous birds. Fish that consumed more species of prey had more diverse trophically transmitted adult parasites. Larval parasite diversity increased with the diversity of both prey and predators, but increases in predator diversity had a greater effect. Prey diversity was more strongly associated with the diversity of adult parasites than with that of larvae. The proportion of parasite species present as larvae in a host species was correlated with the diversity of its predators. There was a notable lack of association with the diversity of any parasite guild and fish length, trophic level, or trophic category. Thus, diversity is associated with different nodal properties in larval and adult parasites, and association strengths also differ, strongly reflecting the life cycles of parasites and the food chains they follow to complete transmission.

  13. Survey of total mercury in total diet food composites and an estimation of the dietary intake of mercury by adults and children from two Canadian cities, 1998-2000.

    PubMed

    Dabeka, R W; McKenzie, A D; Bradley, P

    2003-07-01

    Total mercury was measured in 259 total diet food composites from two Canadian cities. Levels were generally low, with 46% of the composites having concentrations below the limit of detection, which ranged from 0.026 to 0.506 ng g(-1). The fish category contained the highest mercury concentrations, which averaged 67 ng g(-1) and ranged from 24 to 148 ng g(-1). All composites were below the Canadian guideline for total mercury in fish of 0.5 ppm. Dietary intakes of mercury averaged 0.022 microg kg(-1) body weight/day (microg kg(-1) day(-1)), and ranged from 0.012 microg kg(-1) day(-1) for females over 65 years old to 0.062 microg kg(-1) day(-1) for 0-1-month-old infants. For fish consumers, fish contributed to more than half of the ingested mercury. All intakes were well below Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intakes, expressed on a daily basis, of 0.71 microg kg(-1) day(-1) total mercury and 0.47 microg kg(-1) day(-1) methyl mercury, and also below a recent Health Canada recommended maximum methyl mercury intake of 0.2 microg kg(-1) day(-1) for children and women of child-bearing age.

  14. Occurrence of the Great Lake's most recent invader, Hemimysis anomala, in the diet of fishes in southeastern Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lantry, B.F.; Walsh, M.G.; Johnson, J.H.; McKenna, J.E.

    2010-01-01

    The Ponto-Caspian mysid, Hemimysis anomala, was first observed in southeastern Lake Ontario in May 2006. During July and August 2007, gill nets were fished in 6 to 8 m of water at two locations of known Hemimysis colonization in southeastern Lake Ontario to determine if fish that consume macroinvertebrates were beginning to include this new invasive mysid in their diets. Of nine fish species captured in August, September, and October 2007, three species had consumed Hemimysis: alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus), rock bass (Ambloplites rupestris), and yellow perch (Perca flavescens); and six species had not: round goby Apollonia melanostoma, smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, spottail shiner Notropis hudsonius, gizzard shad Dorosoma cepedianum, white perch Morone americana and log perch Percina caprodes. Diets of alewives from all samples were composed predominantly of Hemimysis (69.6% -100% frequency of occurrence, 46.0%–74.5% dry weight diet composition). Two of 6 rock bass stomachs sampled in August contained ≥ 98.9% Hemimysis (10 and 40 individuals each) and one of 61 yellow perch stomachs sampled in September contained 10.0% Hemimysis (6 individuals) and 90.0% fish. While Hemimysis were observed only sparsely in the diet of most nearshore fish, their predominance in alewife diets and their omnivorous feeding behavior indicated that they have the potential to alter energy flow in Great Lakes' foodwebs.

  15. Feeding ecology and ontogenic diet shifts of juvenile fish species in an inverse estuary: The Sine-Saloum, Senegal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gning, Ndombour; Vidy, Guy; Thiaw, Omar Thiom

    2008-01-01

    We examined the diet of juvenile fish of four species - Eucinostomus melanopterus (Gerreidae), Ethmalosa fimbriata (Clupeidae), Monodactylus sebae (Monodactylidae), and Sarotherodon melanotheron (Cichlidae) - between their appearance on the nursery ground and the end of the recruitment season, when they began to shift to deeper parts of the estuary. Fish were collected from the Sine-Saloum, an inverse estuary in Senegal, West Africa. Sampling was conducted at six sites located along the salinity gradient. The study was conducted in the context of an inverse estuary where increasing salinity leads to the disappearance of mangroves. Stomach contents were sorted and the preferred prey determined to the lowest possible taxonomic level. Ontogenic changes in diet were characterized and results expressed as the frequency of occurrence of the prey. The results showed that almost all juveniles began with a "classical" zooplanktonic diet. Following that first stage, they then preyed on items belonging to the periphytic community in the vicinity of mangroves (when present). Juvenile Ethmalosa fimbriata, a phytoplankton feeder as an adult, displayed that kind of transitory diet, a finding not previously recorded. Plant material (algae and leaves) occurred frequently in the stomach contents. All four species began the ontogenic shift toward their adult diet at a length of 50 mm. The periphytic community supported on mangrove prop roots contributes to the diet of juvenile fish living in proximity to mangroves; this may not be verified for those fish living in open waters.

  16. Nitrogen utilization from diets with refined and blended poultry by-products as partial fish meal replacements in diets for low-salinity cultured Florida pompano, Trachinotus carolinus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three trials were performed to evaluate partial fish meal (FM) replacement with poultry by-products in a practical-type diet for Florida pompano, Trachinotus carolinus reared in low-salinity. Two refined and blended meals (BP67, BP70), two chicken concentrates (CC66, CC70) and one standard pet-food ...

  17. Substituting fish oil with crude palm oil in the diet of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) affects muscle fatty acid composition and hepatic fatty acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Bell, J Gordon; Henderson, R James; Tocher, Douglas R; McGhee, Fiona; Dick, James R; Porter, Allan; Smullen, Richard P; Sargent, John R

    2002-02-01

    Supplies of marine fish oils (FO) are limited and continued growth in aquaculture production dictates that substitutes must be found that do not compromise fish health and product quality. In this study the suitability of crude palm oil (PO) as a replacement for FO in diets of Atlantic salmon was investigated. Duplicate groups of Atlantic salmon post-smolts were fed four practical-type diets in which the added lipid was either 100% FO and 0% crude PO (0% PO); 75% FO and 25% PO (25% PO); 50% FO and 50% PO (50% PO); and 100% PO, for 30 wk. There were no effects of diet on growth rate or feed conversion ratio nor were any histopathological lesions found in liver, heart or muscle. Lipid deposition was greatest in fish fed 0% PO and was significantly greater than in fish fed 50% and 100% PO. Fatty acid compositions of muscle total lipid were correlated with dietary PO inclusion such that the concentrations of 16:0, 18:1(n-9), 18:2(n-6), total saturated fatty acids and total monoenoic fatty acids increased linearly with increasing dietary PO. The concentration of eicosapentaenoic acid [20:5(n-3)] was reduced significantly with increasing levels of dietary PO but the concentration of docosahexaenoic acid [22:6(n-3)] was significantly reduced only in fish fed 100% PO, compared with the other three treatments. Similar diet-induced changes were seen in liver total lipid fatty acid compositions. Hepatic fatty acid desaturation and elongation activities were approximately 10-fold greater in fish fed 100% PO than in those fed 0% PO. This study suggests that PO can be used successfully as a substitute for FO in the culture of Atlantic salmon in sea water. However, at levels of PO inclusion above 50% of dietary lipid, significant reductions in muscle 20:5(n-3), 22:6(n-3) and the (n-3):(n-6) PUFA ratio occur, resulting in reduced availability of these essential (n-3) highly unsaturated fatty acids to the consumer.

  18. Maintaining Coral Snakes (Micrurus nigrocinctus, Serpentes: Elapidae) for venom production on an alternative fish-based diet.

    PubMed

    Chacón, Danilo; Rodríguez, Santos; Arias, Jazmín; Solano, Gabriela; Bonilla, Fabián; Gómez, Aarón

    2012-09-01

    American Elapid snakes (Coral Snakes) comprise the genera Leptomicrurus, Micruroides and Micrurus, which form a vast taxonomic assembly of 330 species distributed from the South of United States to the southern region of South America. In order to obtain venom for animal immunizations aimed at antivenom production, Coral Snakes must be kept in captivity and submitted periodically to venom extraction procedures. Thus, to maintain a snake colony in good health for this purpose, a complete alternative diet utilizing an easily obtained prey animal is desirable. The development of a diet based on fish is compared to the wild diet based on colubrid snakes, and assessed in terms of gain in body weight rate (g/week), longevity (weeks), venom yield (mg/individual), venom median lethal dose (LD₅₀) and venom chromatographic profiles. The animals fed with the fish-based diet gained more weight, lived longer, and produced similar amount of venom whose biological and biochemical characteristics were similar to those of venom collected from specimens fed with the wild diet. This fish-based diet appears to be suitable (and preferable to the wild diet) to supply the nutritional requirements of a Micrurus nigrocinctus snake collection for the production of antivenom.

  19. EFFECTS OF COMMONLY USED COOKING PRACTICES ON TOTAL MERCURY CONCENTRATION IN FISH AND THEIR IMPACT ON EXPOSURE ASSESSMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of cooking practices commonly used by Native Americans on total mercury concentrations in fish were investigated. A preparation factor relating mercury concentrations in fish as prepared for consumption to mercury concentration data as measured in typical environmenta...

  20. Breakfast Dietary Patterns among Mexican Children Are Related to Total-Day Diet Quality.

    PubMed

    Afeiche, Myriam C; Taillie, Lindsey Smith; Hopkins, Sinead; Eldridge, Alison L; Popkin, Barry M

    2017-03-01

    Background: Mexico has experienced shifts in food availability and consumption patterns over the past few decades from traditional diets to those containing more high-energy density foods, resulting in the development of unhealthful dietary patterns among children and adults. However, to our knowledge it is not known whether breakfast consumption patterns contribute to the overall daily diet of Mexican children.Objective: We examined total-day diet among breakfast consumers compared with breakfast skippers, identified and investigated breakfast dietary patterns in relation to energy and nutrient intakes at breakfast and across the day, and examined these patterns in relation to sociodemographic characteristics.Methods: With the use of nationally representative dietary data (one 24-h recall) from the 2012 Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey, 3760 children aged 4-13 y were categorized into mutually exclusive breakfast patterns with the use of cluster analysis. The association between breakfast patterns and breakfast skippers with dietary intake at breakfast and for the total day was investigated with the use of multivariate linear regression.Results: Most children (83%) consumed breakfast. Six breakfast dietary patterns were identified (milk and sweetened breads, tortillas and beans, sweetened beverages, sandwiches and quesadillas, eggs, and cereal and milk) and reflected both traditional and more Westernized dietary patterns. Sugar-sweetened beverages were consumed across all patterns. Compared with all breakfast dietary patterns, breakfast skippers had the lowest intake of several nutrients of public health concern. Nutrients to limit that were high at breakfast tended to be high for the total day and vice versa for nutrients to encourage.Conclusions: There was not a single pattern that complied perfectly with the Mexican School Breakfast Guidelines, but changes such as increasing dietary fiber by encouraging more whole grains, fruits, vegetables, and

  1. Diet and feeding strategies of mesopelagic fishes in the western Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernal, Ainhoa; Olivar, M. Pilar; Maynou, Francesc; Fernández de Puelles, M. Luz

    2015-06-01

    Myctophids, gonostomatids and sternoptychids are the most abundant teleosteans worldwide and constitute an important assemblage of the mesopelagic ecosystem, functioning as vehicles of energy and matter through trophic webs. This study concentrates on the trophic ecology of the most abundant mesopelagic fishes of the western Mediterranean (WM) based on stomach content analysis. The myctophids (in this study: Benthosema glaciale, Ceratoscopelus maderensis, Lobianchia dofleini, Myctophum punctatum, Hygophum benoiti, Hygophum hygomii, Lampanyctus crocodilus, Lampanyctus pusillus and Notoscopelus elongatus) perform extensive diel migrations across the water column, between the surface to as deep as 1000 m, interacting with plankton and micronekton at multiple depths, and generally feeding in the epipelagic layers at night. In contrast, the gonostomatids Cyclothone braueri, Cyclothone pygmaea, and the sternoptychid Argyropelecus hemigymnus remain below epipelagic layers, feeding at different times throughout the day and night. The diet composition, trophic niche breadth and prey selectivity of 11 of these fish species were determined for juvenile and adult individuals from two surveys performed in December 2009 and July 2010 in the western Mediterranean Sea. The number of prey items varied among species, e.g. Myctophum punctatum was the species with the highest feeding intensity, reaching ca. 700 prey items in a stomach, whereas the mean number of prey in Cyclothone braueri was low (usually 1 or 2 prey per stomach). A dietary shift towards larger prey was evident from juveniles to the largest and oldest adult individuals, despite trophic niche breadths did not increase with body length for any of these mesopelagic species. The diets of the small gonostomatids, sternoptychid and early juveniles of myctophids were dominated by non-calanoid copepods, ostracods, and other small zooplankton, whereas medium-sized myctophids, e.g. L. dofleini or H. benoiti, preyed mainly on

  2. Response of fish communities to multiple pressures: Development of a total anthropogenic pressure intensity index.

    PubMed

    Poikane, Sandra; Ritterbusch, David; Argillier, Christine; Białokoz, Witold; Blabolil, Petr; Breine, Jan; Jaarsma, Nicolaas G; Krause, Teet; Kubečka, Jan; Lauridsen, Torben L; Nõges, Peeter; Peirson, Graeme; Virbickas, Tomas

    2017-05-15

    Lakes in Europe are subject to multiple anthropogenic pressures, such as eutrophication, habitat degradation and introduction of alien species, which are frequently inter-related. Therefore, effective assessment methods addressing multiple pressures are needed. In addition, these systems have to be harmonised (i.e. intercalibrated) to achieve common management objectives across Europe. Assessments of fish communities inform environmental policies on ecological conditions integrating the impacts of multiple pressures. However, the challenge is to ensure consistency in ecological assessments through time, across ecosystem types and across jurisdictional boundaries. To overcome the serious comparability issues between national assessment systems in Europe, a total anthropogenic pressure intensity (TAPI) index was developed as a weighted combination of the most common pressures in European lakes that is validated against 10 national fish-based water quality assessment systems using data from 556 lakes. Multi-pressure indices showed significantly higher correlations with fish indices than single-pressure indices. The best-performing index combines eutrophication, hydromorphological alterations and human use intensity of lakes. For specific lake types also biological pressures may constitute an important additional pressure. The best-performing index showed a strong correlation with eight national fish-based assessment systems. This index can be used in lake management for assessing total anthropogenic pressure on lake ecosystems and creates a benchmark for comparison of fish assessments independent of fish community composition, size structure and fishing-gear. We argue that fish-based multiple-pressure assessment tools should be seen as complementary to single-pressure tools offering the major advantage of integrating direct and indirect effects of multiple pressures over large scales of space and time.

  3. Peripheral nerve metabolism and zinc levels in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Effect of diets high in fish and corn oil

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, J.P.; Fenton, M.R. )

    1991-03-15

    This study was designed to assess the effects of diets high in fish and corn oil on peripheral nerve metabolism in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. A type I diabetic state was induced in female Sprague-Dawley rats by injection of STZ. Animals were divided into three dietary groups; normal rat chow, high corn oil diet and high fish oil diet. After 4 weeks animals were analyzed for nerve conduction velocity, bled and then sacrificed. Sciatic nerves were removed, processed and several biochemical parameters determined. Plasma zinc levels were elevated in the STZ normal chow group compared to non-diabetic controls. Both corn oil and fish oil diets tended to eliminate the rise in plasma zinc. Differences in subcellular distribution of zinc in sciatic nerves were also observed. Normal chow STZ animals displayed a 20% decrease in nerve conduction velocity compared to control. Dietary supplementation with either fish or corn oil seemed to ameliorate these effects. Biochemical analysis of Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase and protein kinase C revealed a decrease in activity in normal chow animals compared to control groups. Again, dietary intervention with either fish or corn oil seemed to return these activities back to normal. The results suggest a link between zinc metabolism and peripheral nerve metabolism which can be modified by dietary intervention.

  4. Total and Inorganic Arsenic in Mid-Atlantic Marine Fish and Shellfish and Implications for Fish Advisories

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, Richard; Crecelius, Eric A.

    2006-02-06

    Up to 33.3 metric tons of arsenic trioxide were spilled off the Middle Atlantic coast of the United States in January of 1992 during a shipping accident. Historical fish tissue data for samples collected in the Delaware Inland Bays before and after the spill reveal a prominent spike in total arsenic in summer flounder following the spill and a gradual decline ever since. In 2002, a small study was conducted to determine whether summer flounder migrating into the Delaware Inland Bays from the Continental Shelf in the spring contain higher body burdens of arsenic than summer flounder migrating out of the Inland Bays in the fall. Total arsenic was significantly higher in the incoming fish. Considering that summer flounder overwinter at the spill site, that arsenic trioxide is a dense powder of limited solubility that would tend to incorporate into the sediments, and that summer flounder are demersal fish, we conclude that summer flounder accumulate arsenic offshore and that the likely source of their extra body burden is the spilled arsenic. Speciation of arsenic in the summer flounder, as well as in Atlantic croaker, striped bass, and hard clam reveal low concentrations (0.5 ? 20 ug/kg ww) of toxic inorganic arsenic. DMA was more than an order of magnitude greater in hard clam meats than in the other species tested, a finding attributed to arsenic uptake by phytoplankton and subsequent dietary uptake by the clam. Risk assessment using the inorganic arsenic concentrations was used to conclude that a fish advisory is not warranted.

  5. Fish-oil high-fat diet intake of dams after day 5 of pregnancy and during lactation guards against excessive fat consumption of their weaning pups.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Yoko

    2008-02-01

    To investigate the influence of parental fat intake on preferential fat intake by pups after weaning, two groups of dams in study 1 were fed either a low-fat diet (LFD) or a lard high-fat diet (HFD) and those in study 2 were fed either a LFD or a fish-oil HFD after day 5 of pregnancy and during lactation. In study 1, when pups were placed on a self-selection regimen of the LFD and the lard HFD within the first week after weaning, the ratio of the lard HFD intake [lard HFD intake (g)/total intake (g)] by pups of both groups was about 70%. Although pups nursed by dams fed the lard HFD continued to eat the same ratio of the lard HFD, the ratio for pups nursed by dams fed the LFD gradually decreased to 20% in week 3 after weaning. In study 2, when pups were placed on a self-selection regimen of the LFD and the fish-oil HFD after weaning, the ratio of the fish-oil HFD intake in both groups of pups nursed by dams fed the LFD and the fish-oil HFD was about 20% for 3 wk after weaning. In studies 1 and 2, although no significant difference in dietary intake or body weight of dams and pups was observed among all groups through the experimental period, perirenal fat tissue weight of dams fed the lard HFD was higher than that of dams fed the LFD. These findings indicate that (1) fat preference of weaning pups nursed by dams fed the lard HFD is higher than that of weaning pups nursed by dams fed the LFD, and (2) intake of dam's fish-oil HFD diet guards against pups' intake of excessive fat.

  6. 50 CFR 600.516 - Total allowable level of foreign fishing (TALFF).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Total allowable level of foreign fishing (TALFF). 600.516 Section 600.516 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS...

  7. 50 CFR 600.516 - Total allowable level of foreign fishing (TALFF).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Total allowable level of foreign fishing (TALFF). 600.516 Section 600.516 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS...

  8. Dietary Butyrate Helps to Restore the Intestinal Status of a Marine Teleost (Sparus aurata) Fed Extreme Diets Low in Fish Meal and Fish Oil

    PubMed Central

    Estensoro, Itziar; Ballester-Lozano, Gabriel; Benedito-Palos, Laura; Grammes, Fabian; Martos-Sitcha, Juan Antonio; Mydland, Liv-Torunn; Calduch-Giner, Josep Alvar; Fuentes, Juan; Karalazos, Vasileios; Ortiz, Álvaro; Øverland, Margareth; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume

    2016-01-01

    There is a constant need to find feed additives that improve health and nutrition of farmed fish and lessen the intestinal inflammation induced by plant-based ingredients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of adding an organic acid salt to alleviate some of the detrimental effects of extreme plant-ingredient substitution of fish meal (FM) and fish oil (FO) in gilthead sea bream diet. Three experiments were conducted. In a first trial (T1), the best dose (0.4%) of sodium butyrate (BP-70 ®NOREL) was chosen after a short (9-weeks) feeding period. In a second longer trial (T2) (8 months), four diets were used: a control diet containing 25% FM (T2-D1) and three experimental diets containing 5% FM (T2-D2, T2-D3, T2-D4). FO was the only added oil in D1, while a blend of plant oils replaced 58% and 84% of FO in T2-D2, and T2-D3 and T2-D4, respectively. The latter was supplemented with 0.4% BP-70. In a third trial (T3), two groups of fish were fed for 12 and 38 months with D1, D3 and D4 diets of T2. The effects of dietary changes were studied using histochemical, immunohistochemical, molecular and electrophysiological tools. The extreme diet (T2-D3) modified significantly the transcriptomic profile, especially at the anterior intestine, up-regulating the expression of inflammatory markers, in coincidence with a higher presence of granulocytes and lymphocytes in the submucosa, and changing genes involved in antioxidant defences, epithelial permeability and mucus production. Trans-epithelial electrical resistance (Rt) was also decreased (T3-D3). Most of these modifications were returned to control values with the addition of BP-70. None of the experimental diets modified the staining pattern of PCNA, FABP2 or ALPI. These results further confirm the potential of this additive to improve or reverse the detrimental effects of extreme fish diet formulations. PMID:27898676

  9. Dietary Butyrate Helps to Restore the Intestinal Status of a Marine Teleost (Sparus aurata) Fed Extreme Diets Low in Fish Meal and Fish Oil.

    PubMed

    Estensoro, Itziar; Ballester-Lozano, Gabriel; Benedito-Palos, Laura; Grammes, Fabian; Martos-Sitcha, Juan Antonio; Mydland, Liv-Torunn; Calduch-Giner, Josep Alvar; Fuentes, Juan; Karalazos, Vasileios; Ortiz, Álvaro; Øverland, Margareth; Sitjà-Bobadilla, Ariadna; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume

    2016-01-01

    There is a constant need to find feed additives that improve health and nutrition of farmed fish and lessen the intestinal inflammation induced by plant-based ingredients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of adding an organic acid salt to alleviate some of the detrimental effects of extreme plant-ingredient substitution of fish meal (FM) and fish oil (FO) in gilthead sea bream diet. Three experiments were conducted. In a first trial (T1), the best dose (0.4%) of sodium butyrate (BP-70 ®NOREL) was chosen after a short (9-weeks) feeding period. In a second longer trial (T2) (8 months), four diets were used: a control diet containing 25% FM (T2-D1) and three experimental diets containing 5% FM (T2-D2, T2-D3, T2-D4). FO was the only added oil in D1, while a blend of plant oils replaced 58% and 84% of FO in T2-D2, and T2-D3 and T2-D4, respectively. The latter was supplemented with 0.4% BP-70. In a third trial (T3), two groups of fish were fed for 12 and 38 months with D1, D3 and D4 diets of T2. The effects of dietary changes were studied using histochemical, immunohistochemical, molecular and electrophysiological tools. The extreme diet (T2-D3) modified significantly the transcriptomic profile, especially at the anterior intestine, up-regulating the expression of inflammatory markers, in coincidence with a higher presence of granulocytes and lymphocytes in the submucosa, and changing genes involved in antioxidant defences, epithelial permeability and mucus production. Trans-epithelial electrical resistance (Rt) was also decreased (T3-D3). Most of these modifications were returned to control values with the addition of BP-70. None of the experimental diets modified the staining pattern of PCNA, FABP2 or ALPI. These results further confirm the potential of this additive to improve or reverse the detrimental effects of extreme fish diet formulations.

  10. Contributions of allochthonous inputs of food to the diets of benthopelagic fish over the northwest Mediterranean slope (to 2300 m)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartes, Joan E.; Soler-Membrives, A.; Stefanescu, C.; Lombarte, A.; Carrassón, M.

    2016-03-01

    The contributions of allochthonous inputs of food (food falls, plastics and other anthropogenic remains) in the diets of large fish (6 teleosteans, 3 sharks) were analyzed for depths between 500 and 2300 m in the deep Balearic basin (western Mediterranean). The analyses were based on gut contents. The identification was based on a multi-analytic approach, comprising morphological features (including morphometric analysis) and molecular genetics (DNA barcoding method). Remains of a number of anthropogenic, inorganic materials (microplastic fibres, plastic bags and cartons) appeared regularly in the guts of deep-sea fish (e.g., in Trachyrhynchus scabrus and Mora moro), though always at low occurrence (9.1% of fish at most) and negligible weights (< 2%W of diet). In our sampling, covering an area of ca. 12 km2, large food falls contribute only a little to fish diets by weight, W, e.g., in shark diets they represented 4.5%W for Centroscymnus coelolepis and 11%W for Galeus melastomus. However, the importance of food falls (e.g., cetacean blubber and carcharhinid shark remains) was substantial locally (up to 70.8%W of C. coelolepis diet) particularly near canyons. The arrival of livestock remains (beef flesh, goat ribs and vertebrae) was shown by molecular analyses to contributed to deep-sea shark diets (ca. 5.5%W) comparably to natural food falls. These remains, which originate from human activity, may locally alter the food webs of oligotrophic environments like that of the deep Mediterranean. Food falls of both natural and anthropogenic origin were mainly found in fish collected close to canyon axes. The only cetacean fall documented in the deep Balearic Basin was also near a canyon, the carcass of a small (ca. 1.2 m) striped dolphin, Stenella coeruleoalba, collected in a haul at 1750 m off Barcelona.

  11. Fish diets in a freshwater-deprived semiarid estuary (The Coorong, Australia) as inferred by stable isotope analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamontagne, S.; Deegan, B. M.; Aldridge, K. T.; Brookes, J. D.; Geddes, M. C.

    2016-09-01

    In 2007, high rates of water extraction combined with a regional drought stopped freshwater discharge to the Coorong, a ∼120 km estuarine and coastal lagoon system at the outlet of the River Murray (Australia). The sources of organic matter sustaining the Coorong food web in the absence of river-borne organic matter and nutrient inputs were evaluated by measuring δ13C, δ15N and δ34S in large-bodied fish and their prey. In general, the δ34S of the food web (mean = 11.3‰; range = 4.32-18.9‰) suggested a comparable contribution from autochthonous pelagic (∼21‰) and benthic (<5‰) primary production. A relatively high δ13C in all organisms (-20 to -9.2‰) was also consistent with a dominant contribution from autochtonous sources to the food web. A Bayesian mixing model framework (SIMMR) was used to estimate the diet of large-bodied fish for statistically-determined prey groups based on their similarity in isotopic composition. Argyrosomus japonicus preyed primarily on Fish Group 1 (small pelagic fish like galaxiids and Hyperlophus vittatus), Rhombosolea tapirina on Invertebrate Group 2 (polychaetes like Capitella spp.) but Acanthopagrus butcheri fed on a wide variety of fish and invertebrate groups. A partial switch in diet to other prey groups suggested larger Ar. japonicus fed on larger prey, such as crabs and adult Aldrichetta forsteri. Despite being numerically abundant at the time, Fish Group 2 (benthic species) was a relatively low proportion of large-bodied fish diets. This probably reflected the tendency of some salt-tolerant members of this group (such as Atherinosoma microstoma) to prefer hypersaline habitats, which the large-bodied fish avoided. As the heavily preyed-on Fish Group 1 included species with a marine component to their life-cycle, marine productivity may also help to maintain this estuarine ecosystem in the absence of river-borne organic matter inputs.

  12. Total Diet Study: For a Closer-to-real Estimate of Dietary Exposure to Chemical Substances

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeeyeon; Kwon, Sungok; Yoon, Hae-Jung

    2015-01-01

    Recent amendment on the Food Sanitation Act in Korea mandated the Minister of Food & Drug Safety to secure the scientific basis for management and reevaluation of standards and specifications of foods. Especially because the current food safety control is limited within the scope of ‘Farm to Market’ covering from production to retail in Korea, safety control at the plane of true ‘Farm to Fork’ scope is urgently needed and should include ‘total diet’ of population instead of individual food items. Therefore, ‘Total Diet Study (TDS)’ which provides ‘closer-to-real’ estimates of exposure to hazardous materials through analysis on table-ready (cooked) samples of foods would be the solution to more comprehensive food safety management, as suggested by World Health Organization and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Although the protection of diets from hazards must be considered as one of the most essential public health functions of any country, we may need to revisit the value of foods which has been too much underrated by the meaningless amount of some hazardous materials in Korea. Considering the primary value of foods lies on sustaining life, growth, development, and health promotion of human being, food safety control should be handled not only by the presence or absence of hazardous materials but also by maximizing the value of foods via balancing with the preservation of beneficial components in foods embracing total diet. In this regard, this article aims to provide an overview on TDS by describing procedures involved except chemical analysis which is beyond our scope. Also, details on the ongoing TDS in Korea are provided as an example. Although TDS itself might not be of keen interest for most readers, it is the main user of the safety reference values resulted from toxicological research in the public health perspective. PMID:26483882

  13. TDS exposure project: relevance of the total diet study approach for different groups of substances.

    PubMed

    Vin, Karine; Papadopoulos, Alexandra; Cubadda, Francesco; Aureli, Federica; Oktay Basegmez, Hatice Imge; D'Amato, Marilena; De Coster, Sam; D'Evoli, Laura; López Esteban, María Teresa; Jurkovic, Martina; Lucarini, Massimo; Ozer, Hayrettin; Fernández San Juan, Pedro Mario; Sioen, Isabelle; Sokolic, Darja; Turrini, Aida; Sirot, Véronique

    2014-11-01

    A method to validate the relevance of the Total Diet Study (TDS) approach for different types of substances is described. As a first step, a list of >2800 chemicals classified into eight main groups of relevance for food safety (natural components, environmental contaminants, substances intentionally added to foods, residues, naturally occurring contaminants, process contaminants, contaminants from packaging and food contact materials, other substances) has been established. The appropriateness of the TDS approach for the different substance groups has then been considered with regard to the three essential principles of a TDS: representativeness of the whole diet, pooling of foods and food analyzed as consumed. Four criteria were considered for that purpose (i) the substance has to be present in a significant part of the diet or predominantly present in specific food groups, (ii) a robust analytical method has to be available to determine it in potential contributors to the dietary exposure of the population, and (iii) the dilution impact of pooling and (iv) the impact of everyday food preparation methods on the concentration of the substance are assessed. For most of the substances the TDS approach appeared to be relevant and any precautions to be taken are outlined.

  14. Dietary exposure of the Italian population to inorganic arsenic: The 2012-2014 Total Diet Study.

    PubMed

    Cubadda, Francesco; D'Amato, Marilena; Aureli, Federica; Raggi, Andrea; Mantovani, Alberto

    2016-12-01

    Dietary exposure of the Italian population to inorganic arsenic has been assessed in the national Total Diet Study (TDS) carried out in 2012-2014. Within the TDS, food samples (>3000) were collected to be representative of the whole diet of the population, prepared as consumed, and pooled into 51 food groups, thus modelling the Italian diet. Inorganic arsenic was determined by HPLC-ICP-MS after chemical extraction and quantified in all samples. Occurrence data were combined with national individual consumption data to estimate mean and high level dietary exposure of the general population and of population subgroups according to age and gender, both at the national level and for each of the four main geographical areas of Italy. The intakes assessed are in the lower range of iAs exposure estimates in other European countries carried out without the support of the TDS approach. However, taking the lower limit of the BMDL01 range established by the EFSA as reference point, the margins of exposure are <2 for the mean intake in infants and toddlers and <1 for the 95th percentile intakes in all younger age groups. Our results indicate the goal to check and further reduce the dietary exposure to inorganic arsenic.

  15. A new method for total mercury and methyl mercury analysis in muscle of seawater fish.

    PubMed

    Carbonell, G; Bravo, J C; Fernández, C; Tarazona, J V

    2009-08-01

    In this work we have developed a cost-effective method for the analysis of methyl mercury (MeHg) in seawater fish muscle. The novelty of this method lies in the use of microwave-assisted extraction with acidic solution (HCl), addition of toluene, and subsequent extraction with cysteine acetate solution where only MeHg is present because of its affinity for cysteine groups. MeHg in cysteine phase and total mercury in the homogenate muscle tissue were determined using a direct Hg analyzer (DMA-80). Validation, precision, and accuracy of the method were evaluated and monitored with a tuna fish certified reference material (CRM 463) containing MeHg.

  16. Effects of habitual diet on ethnic differences in serum total ghrelin

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Amy C.; Chandler-Laney, Paula; Casazza, Krista; Goree, Laura Lee; Gower, Barbara A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Ghrelin, an orexigenic hormone, may be involved in the etiology of obesity. African Americans (AA) experience higher obesity rates than European Americans (EA), but it is unclear whether ghrelin differs with ethnicity. This study was designed to compare ghrelin concentrations between overweight African American (AA) and European American (EA) adults in a postabsorptive state, in response to a standard meal, and after 8-week habituation to diets of differing macronutrient profiles. Methods Sixty-one overweight men and women (31 EA and 30 AA) were assigned to either a higher-carbohydrate/lower-fat diet (55% CHO, 18% PRO, 27% FAT) or a lower-carbohydrate/higher-fat diet (43% CHO, 18% PRO, 39% FAT) for 8 weeks. At baseline and week 8, participants ingested a standard liquid mixed meal. Blood was sampled before the meal and serially after ingestion to measure total ghrelin and insulin. Hunger was assessed with a visual analog scale. Composite scores for ghrelin, insulin, and hunger were calculated as area under the curve (AUC), and ghrelin suppression was calculated as the change from fasting concentration. Results Fasting ghrelin and ghrelin AUC were higher among EA at baseline and week 8 (p<0.001), and these differences were not affected by diet habituation. Despite greater postprandial ghrelin suppression, EA displayed greater hunger immediately following the test meal (p<0.05). Conclusions Overweight EA displayed higher circulating ghrelin and greater ghrelin suppression compared to AA. Further study is warranted to explore the physiological basis for these ethnic differences and to determine whether they may relate to higher obesity rates among AA. PMID:22481313

  17. Estimation of total antioxidant capacity from diet and supplements in US adults.

    PubMed

    Yang, Meng; Chung, Sang-Jin; Chung, Chin Eun; Kim, Dae-Ok; Song, Won O; Koo, Sung I; Chun, Ock K

    2011-07-01

    Given the importance of dietary antioxidants in reducing the risks of chronic diseases, the present study aimed to estimate the intake of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) from diet and dietary supplements of US adults. We utilised the US Department of Agriculture flavonoid and proanthocyanidin databases, dietary supplement data and food consumption data of 4391 US adults aged 19+ years in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2. In order to convert the intake data of individual antioxidant compounds to TAC values, the vitamin C equivalent (VCE) of forty-three antioxidant nutrients measured previously was also applied. Daily TAC averaged 503.3 mg VCE/d (approximately 75 % from diet and 25 % from supplements). The energy-adjusted daily TAC level from diet and supplements was higher in women (except for carotenoids), older adults, Caucasian (except for carotenoids), non-alcohol consumers (for vitamin E and proanthocyanidins), subjects with higher income (except for carotenoids) and higher exercise levels than their counterparts (P < 0.05). TAC was positively associated with daily consumption of fruits and fruit juices, vegetables and vegetable products, beverages, wines and teas (P < 0.001). Teas, dietary supplements, and fruits and fruit juices were the major sources of dietary TAC of the US population (28, 25 and 17 %, respectively), while the contribution of vegetables and vegetable products to TAC was minimal ( < 2 %). The present study indicates that antioxidant intake from various diet and supplements contributes to TAC status. TAC levels are different in sociodemographic subgroups of the US population. The relationship between TAC intake and risks of chronic disease warrants further investigation.

  18. Three-Year Breeding Cycle of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Fed a Plant-Based Diet, Totally Free of Marine Resources: Consequences for Reproduction, Fatty Acid Composition and Progeny Survival

    PubMed Central

    Lazzarotto, Viviana; Corraze, Geneviève; Leprevost, Amandine; Quillet, Edwige; Dupont-Nivet, Mathilde; Médale, Françoise

    2015-01-01

    Terrestrial plant resources are increasingly used as substitutes for fish meal and fish oil in fish feed in order to reduce the reliance of aquaculture on marine fishery resources. Although many studies have been conducted to assess the effects of such nutritional transition, no whole breeding cycles of fish fed diets free from marine resources has been reported to date. We therefore studied the reproductive performance of trout after a complete cycle of breeding while consuming a diet totally devoid of marine ingredients and thus of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFAs) that play a major role in the formation of ova. Two groups of female rainbow trout were fed from first feeding either a commercial diet (C, marine and plant ingredients), or a 100% plant-based diet (V, blend of plant proteins and vegetable oils). Livers, viscera, carcasses and ova were sampled at spawning and analyzed for lipids and fatty acids. Although the V-diet was devoid of n-3 LC-PUFAs, significant amounts of EPA and DHA were found in livers and ova, demonstrating efficient bioconversion of linolenic acid and selective orientation towards the ova. Some ova were fertilized to assess the reproductive performance and offspring survival. We observed for the first time that trout fed a 100% plant-based diet over a 3-year breeding cycle were able to produce ova and viable alevins, although the ova were smaller. The survival of offspring from V-fed females was lower (-22%) at first spawning, but not at the second. Our study showed that, in addition to being able to grow on a plant-based diet, rainbow trout reared entirely on such a diet can successfully produce ova in which neo-synthesized n-3 LC-PUFAs are accumulated, leading to viable offspring. However, further adjustment of the feed formula is still needed to optimize reproductive performance. PMID:25658483

  19. Three-year breeding cycle of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed a plant-based diet, totally free of marine resources: consequences for reproduction, fatty acid composition and progeny survival.

    PubMed

    Lazzarotto, Viviana; Corraze, Geneviève; Leprevost, Amandine; Quillet, Edwige; Dupont-Nivet, Mathilde; Médale, Françoise

    2015-01-01

    Terrestrial plant resources are increasingly used as substitutes for fish meal and fish oil in fish feed in order to reduce the reliance of aquaculture on marine fishery resources. Although many studies have been conducted to assess the effects of such nutritional transition, no whole breeding cycles of fish fed diets free from marine resources has been reported to date. We therefore studied the reproductive performance of trout after a complete cycle of breeding while consuming a diet totally devoid of marine ingredients and thus of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFAs) that play a major role in the formation of ova. Two groups of female rainbow trout were fed from first feeding either a commercial diet (C, marine and plant ingredients), or a 100% plant-based diet (V, blend of plant proteins and vegetable oils). Livers, viscera, carcasses and ova were sampled at spawning and analyzed for lipids and fatty acids. Although the V-diet was devoid of n-3 LC-PUFAs, significant amounts of EPA and DHA were found in livers and ova, demonstrating efficient bioconversion of linolenic acid and selective orientation towards the ova. Some ova were fertilized to assess the reproductive performance and offspring survival. We observed for the first time that trout fed a 100% plant-based diet over a 3-year breeding cycle were able to produce ova and viable alevins, although the ova were smaller. The survival of offspring from V-fed females was lower (-22%) at first spawning, but not at the second. Our study showed that, in addition to being able to grow on a plant-based diet, rainbow trout reared entirely on such a diet can successfully produce ova in which neo-synthesized n-3 LC-PUFAs are accumulated, leading to viable offspring. However, further adjustment of the feed formula is still needed to optimize reproductive performance.

  20. USE OF THE OLIGOCHAETE, LUMBRICULUS VARIEGATUS, AS A PREY ORGANISM FOR THE TOXICANT EXPOSURE OF FISH THROUGH THE DIET

    EPA Science Inventory

    The oligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus, has several characteristics that make it desirable as a prey organism for conducting dietary exposure studies with fish, but its sufficiency as a stand alone diet has not been evaluated. We conducted 21-d and 30-d experiments with young fa...

  1. Ecosystem fragmentation drives increased diet variation in an endemic livebearing fish of the Bahamas

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Márcio S; Langerhans, R Brian; Giery, Sean T; Layman, Craig A

    2014-01-01

    One consequence of human-driven habitat degradation in general, and habitat fragmentation in particular, is loss of biodiversity. An often-underappreciated aspect of habitat fragmentation relates to changes in the ecology of species that persist in altered habitats. In Bahamian wetlands, ecosystem fragmentation causes disruption of hydrological connectivity between inland fragmented wetlands and adjacent marine areas, with the consequent loss of marine piscivores from fragmented sections. We took advantage of this environmental gradient to investigate effects of ecosystem fragmentation on patterns of resource use in the livebearing fish Gambusia hubbsi (Family Poeciliidae), using both population- and individual-level perspectives. We show that fragmentation-induced release from predation led to increased G. hubbsi population densities, which consequently led to lower mean growth rates, likely as a result of higher intraspecific competition for food. This was accompanied by a broadening of dietary niches via increased interindividual diet variation, suggesting a negative effect of predation and a positive effect of intraspecific competition on the degree of diet variation in natural populations. Our results therefore indicate that habitat fragmentation can greatly impact the ecology of resilient populations, with potentially important ecological and evolutionary implications. PMID:25473482

  2. Development of harmonised food and sample lists for total diet studies in five European countries.

    PubMed

    Dofkova, Marcela; Nurmi, Tanja; Berg, Katharina; Reykdal, Ólafur; Gunnlaugsdóttir, Helga; Vasco, Elsa; Dias, Maria Graça; Blahova, Jitka; Rehurkova, Irena; Putkonen, Tiina; Ritvanen, Tiina; Lindtner, Oliver; Desnica, Natasa; Jörundsdóttir, Hrönn Ó; Oliveira, Luísa; Ruprich, Jiri

    2016-06-01

    A total diet study (TDS) is a public health tool for determination of population dietary exposure to chemicals across the entire diet. TDSs have been performed in several countries but the comparability of data produced is limited. Harmonisation of the TDS methodology is therefore desirable and the development of comparable TDS food lists is considered essential to achieve the consistency between countries. The aim of this study is to develop and test the feasibility of a method for establishing harmonised TDS food and sample lists in five European countries with different consumption patterns (Czech Republic, Finland, Germany, Iceland and Portugal). The food lists were intended to be applicable for exposure assessment of wide range of chemical substances in adults (18-64 years) and the elderly (65-74 years). Food consumption data from recent dietary surveys measured on individuals served as the basis for this work. Since the national data from these five countries were not comparable, all foods were linked to the EFSA FoodEx2 classification and description system. The selection of foods for TDS was based on the weight of food consumed and was carried out separately for each FoodEx2 level 1 food group. Individual food approach was respected as much as possible when the TDS samples were defined. TDS food lists developed with this approach represented 94.7-98.7% of the national total diet weights. The overall number of TDS samples varied from 128 in Finland to 246 in Germany. The suggested method was successfully implemented in all five countries. Mapping of data to the EFSA FoodEx2 coding system was recognised as a crucial step in harmonisation of the developed TDS food lists.

  3. Effects of therapeutic lifestyle change diets high and low in dietary fish-derived fatty acids on lipoprotein metabolism in middle-aged and elderly subjects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of Therapeutic Lifestyle Change (TLC) diets, low and high in dietary fish on apolipoprotein metabolism were examined. Subjects were provided with a Western diet for 6-weeks followed by 24-weeks of either of two TLC diets (10/group). Apolipoprotein kinetics were determined in the fed stat...

  4. Preliminary study: fibre content in pet rabbit diets, crude fibre versus total dietary fibre.

    PubMed

    Molina, J; Martorell, J; Hervera, M; Pérez-Accino, J; Fragua, V; Villaverde, C

    2015-04-01

    Fibre is an important nutrient for rabbit health, and, on commercial pet rabbit packaging, it is labelled as crude fibre (CF). In several species, it is considered that CF is not an accurate representation of the fibre content in feedstuffs. The objective of this study was to compare the CF stated on the label (CFL) with laboratory analysis of CF (CFA) and the analysed content of total dietary fibre (TDF) in different commercial pet rabbit feeds. We selected 15 commercial diets and analysed CF and TDF. A mixed model was used to evaluate differences between CFL, CFA and TDF, and linear regression was performed to study the correlation between CFL and CFA with TDF. CFA and CFL were not significantly different (p = 0.836) in the feeds studied, and both were lower than TDF (p < 0.001). The correlations between TDF and both CFA and CFL were significant (p < 0.001 and p = 0.02, respectively), but the correlation was better with CFA (R = 0.86) than with CFL (R = 0.53). As expected, TDF content was higher than CF content, an average of two times. These results suggest that the CF content in rabbit diets reported on the label is not an appropriate indicator of their total fibre content, although further work with a larger sample size is required to confirm these results.

  5. Effects of diets supplemented by fish oil on sex ratio of pups in bitch

    PubMed Central

    Gharagozlou, Faramarz; Youssefi, Reza; Akbarinejad, Vahid

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of fish oil supplementation prior to mating on secondary sex ratio of pups (the proportion of males at birth) in bitches. Sixty five bitches (German Shepherd, n = 35; Husky, n = 30) were enrolled in the study. Bitches (140-150 days post-estrus) were given 2% per dry matter intake palm oil and fish oil in the control (n = 33) and treatment (n = 32) groups, respectively. To induce estrus, bitches were received equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) administration (50 IU kg-1) 30 days after nutritional supplementation followed by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration (500 IU per dog) seven days later. Bitches were introduced to dogs of the same breed after hCG administration. The weight of bitches was increased over time (p < 0.05), but their weight change was not different between two groups (p > 0.05). The mating rate, pregnancy rate and litter size were not influenced by treatment and breed. Secondary sex ratio was higher in the treatment (105/164; 64.00%) than in the control (68/147; 46.30%) group (p < 0.05; adjusted odds ratio = 2.068). Moreover, secondary sex ratio was higher in Husky bitches (88/141; 62.40%) compared to German Shepherd (85/170; 50.00%; p < 0.05; adjusted odds ratio = 1.661). In conclusion, the present study showed that inclusion of fish oil in the diet of bitches prior to mating could increase the proportion of male pups at birth. In addition, it appears that there might be variation among dog breeds with regard to the sex ratio of offspring. PMID:27482354

  6. Effects of diets supplemented by fish oil on sex ratio of pups in bitch.

    PubMed

    Gharagozlou, Faramarz; Youssefi, Reza; Akbarinejad, Vahid

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of fish oil supplementation prior to mating on secondary sex ratio of pups (the proportion of males at birth) in bitches. Sixty five bitches (German Shepherd, n = 35; Husky, n = 30) were enrolled in the study. Bitches (140-150 days post-estrus) were given 2% per dry matter intake palm oil and fish oil in the control (n = 33) and treatment (n = 32) groups, respectively. To induce estrus, bitches were received equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) administration (50 IU kg(-1)) 30 days after nutritional supplementation followed by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration (500 IU per dog) seven days later. Bitches were introduced to dogs of the same breed after hCG administration. The weight of bitches was increased over time (p < 0.05), but their weight change was not different between two groups (p > 0.05). The mating rate, pregnancy rate and litter size were not influenced by treatment and breed. Secondary sex ratio was higher in the treatment (105/164; 64.00%) than in the control (68/147; 46.30%) group (p < 0.05; adjusted odds ratio = 2.068). Moreover, secondary sex ratio was higher in Husky bitches (88/141; 62.40%) compared to German Shepherd (85/170; 50.00%; p < 0.05; adjusted odds ratio = 1.661). In conclusion, the present study showed that inclusion of fish oil in the diet of bitches prior to mating could increase the proportion of male pups at birth. In addition, it appears that there might be variation among dog breeds with regard to the sex ratio of offspring.

  7. Fish oil diet affects on oxidative senescence of red blood cells linked to degeneration of spleen cells in mice.

    PubMed

    Oarada, M; Furukawa, H; Majima, T; Miyazawa, T

    2000-08-24

    The effect of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and alpha-tocopherol supplementation on erythrocyte lipid peroxidation and immunocompetent cells in mice was studied comparatively using seven dietary oils (15% oil/diet, w/w) including fish oil rich in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5, n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6, n-3). A 43% increase in spleen weight, about twice as many spleen cells and no change in the subpopulations of spleen cells, as well as a significant depression of mitogen-induced blastogenesis of both T and B cells in the spleen were observed in mice fed fish oil for 30 days in comparison with soybean oil diet-fed mice. In the fish oil diet-fed mice, membranous lipid hydroperoxide (hydroperoxides of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine) accumulation as a marker of oxidative senescence in red blood cells (RBC) was 2.7-3.5 times higher than that in mice fed soybean oil, although there was no difference in the plasma phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide concentration. In spite of the supplementation of alpha-tocopherol to up to 10 times the level in the basal diet, the degeneration of spleen cells and the stimulated oxidative senescence of RBC found by the fish oil feeding could not be prevented. The results suggest that oral intake of excess polyunsaturated fatty acids, i.e. EPA and DHA, in a fish oil diet can lead to acceleration of membrane lipid peroxidation resulting in RBC senescence linked to the lowering of immune response of spleen cells, and that supplementation of alpha-tocopherol as antioxidant does not always effectively prevent such oxidative degeneration as observed in spleen cells and RBC in vivo.

  8. Dietary mercury exposure resulted in behavioral differences in mice contaminated with fish-associated methylmercury compared to methylmercury chloride added to diet.

    PubMed

    Bourdineaud, Jean-Paul; Marumoto, Masumi; Yasutake, Akira; Fujimura, Masatake

    2012-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a potent neurotoxin, and humans are mainly exposed to this pollutant through fish consumption. However, in classical toxicological studies, pure methylmercury chloride (MeHgCl) is injected, given to drink or incorporated within feed assuming that its effects are identical to those of MeHg naturally associated to fish. In the present study, we wanted to address the question whether a diet containing MeHg associated to fish could result in observable adverse effects in mice as compared to a diet containing the same concentration of MeHg added pure to the diet and whether beneficial nutriments from fish were able to counterbalance the deleterious effects of fish-associated mercury, if any. After two months of feeding, the fish-containing diet resulted in significant observable effects as compared to the control and MeHg-containing diets, encompassing altered behavioral performances as monitored in a Y-shaped maze and an open field, and an increased dopamine metabolic turnover in hippocampus, despite the fact that the fish-containing diet was enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids and selenium compared to the fish-devoid diets.

  9. A diet containing alpha-cellulose and fish oil reduces aberrant crypt foci formation and modulates other possible markers for colon cancer risk in azoxymethane-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Leana J; Landström, Eva K; Royle, Peter J; Bird, Anthony R; McIntosh, Graeme H

    2002-08-01

    There is a need for better understanding of the roles of dietary fats and fibers in colon cancer risk. We examined the effect of different dietary fiber and fat sources on an azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colon cancer in rats. In a 2 x 3 factorial design, rats were fed a semipurified diet containing soy-derived fiber (Fibrim), alpha-cellulose (Solkafloc) or resistant starch (RS; Hi-maize) at 10 g dietary fiber/100 g diet, combined with fish oil (FO) or sunflower seed oil (SSO) at 10 g/100 g diet, and lard added to all diets at 10 g/100 g, to provide a total of 20 g mixed fat/100 g diet. Sprague-Dawley rats (28 d of age) consumed diets for 4 wk and then two doses of AOM (15 mg/kg body) were administered 1 wk apart by subcutaneous injection. Rats were killed after 13 wk of consuming experimental diets. Colons were fixed in formalin and aberrant crypt foci (ACF) were quantified after staining. ACF counts were higher (+66%, P < 0.01) in rats fed SSO and RS, than in those fed alpha-cellulose and FO. Rats fed FO had 19% fewer ACF than those fed SSO (P < 0.05). alpha-Cellulose was associated with the highest cecal butyrate concentration (P < 0.001), the highest beta-glucuronidase specific activity (P < 0.001) and the lowest cecal water cytotoxicity (P < 0.001) relative to soy fiber- and RS-fed rats. There were inverse correlations between the number of ACF and cecal butyrate concentration (r = -0.33, P < 0.05) and between cecal water cytotoxicity and beta-glucuronidase activity (r = -0.70, P < 0.001). The greatest protection was associated with alpha-cellulose as the fiber source and FO as the fat source as measured by colon ACF numbers in rats.

  10. Widespread omnivory and low temporal and spatial variation in the diet of fishes in a hydrologically variable northern Australian river.

    PubMed

    Pusey, B J; Arthington, A H; Stewart-Koster, B; Kennard, M J; Read, M G

    2010-08-01

    This article examines the trophic ecology of freshwater fishes (22 species in 15 families) in a wet and dry tropical Australian river of high intra-annual and interannual hydrological variability. Seven major trophic groups were identified by cluster analysis; however, four food items (filamentous algae, chironomid larvae, Trichoptera larvae and Ephemeroptera nymphs) comprised almost half of the average diet of all species. The influence of species, fish size, spatial effects and temporal effects on food use was investigated using redundancy analysis. Size, time and space accounted for little of the perceived variation. Ontogenetic changes in diet were minor and limited to a few large species. Spatial variation in trophic composition of the fish assemblages reflected the effects of the Burdekin Falls and dam, a major geographic barrier, on species distributions. Little spatial variation in diet was detected after accounting for this biogeographical effect. Temporal variations in flow, although marked, had little effect on variations in fish diet composition due to the low temporal diversity of food resources in physically monotonous sand and gravel channels. Species identity accounted for<50% of the observed variation in food choice; omnivory and generalism were pronounced. The aquatic food web of the Burdekin River appears simple, supported largely by autochthonous production (filamentous and benthic microalgae, and to some extent, aquatic macrophytes). Allochthonous food resources appear to be unimportant. The generalist feeding strategies, widespread omnivory and absence of pronounced trophic segregation reported here for Burdekin River fishes may be common to variable and intermittent rivers of subtropical and tropical northern Australia with similar fish communities and may be a general feature of rivers of low habitat diversity and characterized by flow regimes that vary greatly both within and between years.

  11. Ancient fish and recent invaders: white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus diet response to invasive-species-mediated changes in a benthic prey assemblage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zeug, Steven C; Brodsky, Annie; Kogut, Nina; Stewart, Robin; Merz, Joe

    2014-01-01

    Invasive organisms can have significant impacts on native species, and the San Francisco Estuary (SFE), California, USA, is one of the world's most invaded estuaries. Decline of native white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus abundance in the SFE has been acknowledged, but underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Invasion by the overbite clam Potamocorbula amurensis has drastically altered the SFE benthic prey community, yet little is known about how this change has affected sturgeon diets. We investigated changes in the diet of white sturgeon following the overbite clam invasion and subsequent shift in the SFE benthic prey assemblage. Gut content analysis was used to compare white sturgeon prey composition and importance between the pre- and post-invasion periods. Additionally, stable isotope analysis was employed to estimate the assimilation of prey items to sturgeon biomass. Overbite clams dominated diets in the post-invasion period, accounting for 82 to 93% of total volume. Stable isotope analysis confirmed the importance of this prey item, although their assimilated contribution to sturgeon biomass was estimated to be less (70 to 83%) than gut contents indicated. The frequency of fish in white sturgeon guts increased in the post-invasion period, and isotope analysis indicated relatively large contributions of fish to sturgeon biomass (3.7 to 19%). The trophic adaptability of white sturgeon has allowed them to exploit this new prey source (overbite clam). Future conservation and restoration efforts must consider a potentially destabilized food web given the large importance of a single prey item.

  12. Stable isotope ratio analysis as a tool to discriminate between rainbow trout (O. mykiss) fed diets based on plant or fish-meal proteins.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Rojas, J M; Tulli, F; Messina, M; Tibaldi, E; Guillou, C

    2008-12-01

    The use of stable isotope ratio analysis (SIRA) as a rapid analytical tool to characterize and discriminate farmed fish on the basis of the feedstuffs included in the diet formulation is discussed. Two isoproteic (44.8%) and isolipidic (19.6%) extruded diets were formulated: a fish-meal-based diet (FM diet), containing fish meal as the sole protein source; a plant-protein-based diet (PP diet), where pea protein concentrate and wheat gluten meal replaced 80% of fish meal protein. The diets were fed to eight groups of rainbow trout (initial body weight: 106.6g) for 103 days in two daily meals under controlled rearing conditions. Growth performance (final body weight: 318.5 g; specific growth rate: 1.06%) and feed-to-gain ratio (0.79) were not affected by the dietary treatment. The differences in isotopic values of the two diets were clearly reflected in the different carbon and nitrogen isotopic values in rainbow trout fillets. The delta(13)C and delta(15)N values of muscle of farmed rainbow trout showed differences between farmed fish fed a fish-protein-based diet (-20.47 +/- 0.34 and 12.38 +/- 0.57 for delta(13)C and delta(15)N, respectively) and those fed a plant-protein-based diet (-23.96 +/- 0.38 and 7.15 +/- 0.51 for delta(13)C and delta(15)N, respectively). The results suggest that SIRA provides a robust and verifiable analytical tool to discriminate between fish fed on a plant or a fish protein diet.

  13. Determination of PCBs and total lipids in edible fish and crab tissue using supercritical fluid extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Gavlor, M.; Hale, R.; Smith, C.; Thames, J.; Mothershead, R.

    1995-12-31

    An offline supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) method has been developed to determine PCB congeners and total tissue lipid content in edible fish and crab tissues collected from several river systems in Virginia. The method is rapid and safe, requiring only 40 minutes per sample and uses nonorganic solvents for total lipid extraction and only 1.5 mL isooctane for PCB extraction. The SFE approach compares favorably with soxhlet extraction, ASE and column elution. Over 800 fish and crab tissue samples were analyzed successfully, thus demonstrating the robustness of the method. Total lipid values obtained using SFE showed considerable spatial and interspecies variability ranging from 1.8% in blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) to 36.4% in striped bass (Morone saxatilis). Total PCB concentrations also varied greatly by site and species. These ranged from below the quantitation limit (1.0 {micro}1 g/kg) to 9,910 {micro}g/kg on a dry weight basis using GCELCD. Dominant PCB congeners detected were in good agreement with those reported by other researchers. Mean total PCB concentrations did not correlate well with total tissue lipid content.

  14. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of effects of dietary fish oil on total fatty acid composition in mouse skin

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Peiru; Sun, Min; Ren, Jianwei; Djuric, Zora; Fisher, Gary J.; Wang, Xiuli; Li, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Altering the fatty acid (FA) composition in the skin by dietary fish oil could provide therapeutic benefits. Although it has been shown that fish oil supplementation enhances EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) abundance in the skin, comprehensive skin FA profiling is needed. We established a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method, which allows precise quantification of FA profile using small (<24 mm2 for mice and <12 mm2 for humans) skin specimens that can be readily obtained from live mice and humans. We determined mouse skin FA composition after 2, 4 and 8 weeks of consuming a control diet or a diet supplemented with fish oil. Fish oil markedly enhanced EPA and DHA in mouse skin within 2 weeks, and this increase plateaued after 4 weeks. The FA composition in mouse skin was different from that of serum, indicating that skin has homeostatic control of FA metabolism. Mice fed the control diet designed to simulate Western human diet displayed similar skin FA composition as that of humans. The present study presents a validated method for FA quantification that is needed to investigate the mechanisms of actions of dietary treatments in both mouse and human skin. PMID:28195161

  15. Little Galloo Island, Lake Ontario: A review of nine years of double-crested cormorant diet and fish consumption information

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, James H.; Ross, Robert M.; McCullough, Russ D.

    2002-01-01

    The diet of double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) on Little Galloo Island (LGI) in the eastern basin of Lake Ontario has been quantified since 1992. Over the past nine years considerable information has been generated on cormorant feeding ecology through the examination of approximately 12,000 pellets collected on LGI, where three distinct cormorant feeding periods, pre-chick, chick, and post-chick, are delineated by differences in diet composition and daily fish consumption. Yellow perch (Perca flavescens) were the major prey during pre-chick and post-chick feeding periods. Alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus), which move inshore to spawn in mid-June, dominated (>60%) cormorant diets during the chick feeding period. Mean daily fish consumption (14.6) during the pre-chick feeding period was significantly greater than during the chick feeding (9.3) or post-chick feeding (8.0) periods. The proportion of smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) in the diet increased over the season (0.8% to 7.2%), while the size of bass consumed declined (214 mm to 143 mm). Forage fish (mainly alewife, three-spine sticklebacks [Gasterosteus aculeatus] and minnows) comprised 58% of the diet of LGI cormorants, followed by panfish (37%) (yellow perch, pumpkinseed [Lepomis gibbosus], rock bass [Ambloplites rupestris]) and gamefish (5%) (mostly smallmouth bass). On the average LGI cormorants consumed about 32.8 million fish annually, weighing about 1.4 million kilograms. Cormorants from LGI consumed more biomass of smallmouth bass and yellow perch annually than is taken by sport (bass and yellow perch) and commercial (perch) fishermen.

  16. Synergistic effects of fish oil diet and dimethylthiourea in acute adriamycin nephrosis.

    PubMed

    Milner, L S; Wei, S; Kazakoff, P; Watkins, L; Houser, M T

    1994-11-01

    The synergistic effects of combining fish oil (FO) diet, which reduces thromboxane A production, with the free radical scavenger, dimethylthiourea (DMTU), were evaluated in acute adriamycin nephrosis, because proteinuria in adriamycin nephrosis is mediated by increased renal thromboxane A and free radical production. The effects of combined evening primrose oil (EPO) and DMTU were compared with the DMTU + FO combination because EPO increases prostaglandin E but not thromboxane A. After 7, 14, and 21 days, proteinuria was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced in rats receiving either DMTU + corn oil (CO) or DMTU + FO compared with untreated control rats. However, after 21 days, rats receiving DMTU + FO had significantly reduced urine protein excretion compared with those receiving DMTU + CO (103.9 +/- 20 mg daily vs 351.8 +/- 29.8 mg daily; P < 0.05). In contrast to FO, rats receiving EPO + DMTU had similar urine protein excretion to rats receiving DMTU + CO after 21 days (170.2 +/- 20.34 mg daily vs 179.45 +/- 26.38 mg daily). The mean serum cholesterol concentration was significantly (P < 0.01) reduced in rats receiving DMTU + FO (195.2 +/- 23.8 mg/dL) compared with DMTU + CO (377.9 +/- 28.5 mg/dL). Serum triglyceride levels also were significantly (P < 0.01) reduced in rats receiving DMTU + FO (52.5 +/- 26.4 mg/dL) compared with DMTU + CO (100.5 +/- 36.9 mg/dL). No significant differences in serum cholesterol concentrations or triglycerides occurred between rats receiving DMTU + CO and DMTU + EPO. Renal glutathione content was significantly (P < 0.05) increased by 23% in normal rats receiving FO diet and by 34% in rats receiving combined DMTU + FO compared with CO alone.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Blood redox status is associated with the likelihood of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease irrespectively of diet's total antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Georgoulis, Michael; Fragopoulou, Elisabeth; Kontogianni, Meropi D; Margariti, Aikaterini; Boulamatsi, Olga; Detopoulou, Paraskeui; Tiniakos, Dina; Zafiropoulou, Rodessa; Papatheodoridis, George

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that oxidative stress is implicated in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease pathogenesis, whereas the dietary intake of antioxidants has been reported to be low in patients with the disease. We hypothesized that blood redox status measurements would be associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease presence and severity, and that diet's total antioxidant capacity could moderate the aforementioned association. The study sample consisted of 73 patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, of which 58 were matched by age, sex, and body mass index with 58 controls. Diet's total antioxidant capacity was estimated through the ferric-reducing antioxidant power, the total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter, and the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity scores, whereas blood redox status was assessed by measuring thiobarbituric acid reactive substances levels, the enzymatic activity of glutathione peroxidase, and serum resistance to oxidation. Diet's total antioxidant capacity scores and glutathione peroxidase activity were not significantly associated with the disease presence or severity. Both thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and serum resistance to oxidation were significantly associated with the likelihood of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (odds ratios [ORs], 7.769 [P= .007] and 0.936 [P= .033], respectively), independently of abdominal fat level, degree of insulin resistance, blood lipid levels, markers of subclinical inflammation, and diet's total antioxidant capacity, but not with the disease histologic severity or stage. Our results support the association between blood redox status and the likelihood of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease regardless of diet's total antioxidant capacity.

  18. Effects of fish meal and sodium bentonite on daily gain, wool growth, carcass characteristics, and ruminal and blood characteristics of lambs fed concentrate diets.

    PubMed

    Walz, L S; White, T W; Fernandez, J M; Gentry, L R; Blouin, D C; Froetschel, M A; Brown, T F; Lupton, C J; Chapa, A M

    1998-08-01

    We evaluated the effects of replacing some soybean meal (SBM) protein with fish meal (FM) protein in diets adequate and slightly deficient in CP, with or without .75% sodium bentonite (NaB) on performance and ruminal and blood metabolites of individually fed Suffolk lambs. Diets were based on corn, SBM, and cottonseed hulls. In Exp. 1, five lambs were assigned to each of the three dietary treatments (11% CP with 3% FM, 13% CP with 0 or 3% FM). Lambs fed diets that contained 11% CP with 3% FM or 13% CP with 0% FM had similar DMI and ADG. Gain and feed efficiency were slightly improved (P = .18) by the 13% CP diet with 3% FM. In Exp. 2, 32 lambs were assigned to four dietary treatments (13.5% CP of DM) in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement (0 or 3% FM, and 0 or .75% NaB on an as-fed basis). The DMI and ADG were increased (P < .05) by FM and NaB supplementation. Interactions (P < .05) revealed that NaB increased DMI, ADG, gain per feed (g/kg of DMI), and plasma urea N concentration in the absence of FM but not in the presence of FM in the diet. Neither FM nor NaB influenced (P = .25) wool growth. Total ruminal VFA were increased (P < .06) by FM and NaB. Differences in mineral content of phalanx bone, liver, and kidney were small and may be related to the mineral content of diets and the effect of NaB on mineral solubilities. Similar DMI and ADG of lambs fed FM and NaB separately and in combination suggest that their beneficial effect is not additive.

  19. Food selectivity and diet switch can explain the slow feeding of herbivorous coral-reef fishes during the morning.

    PubMed

    Khait, Ruth; Obolski, Uri; Hadany, Lilach; Genin, Amatzia

    2013-01-01

    Most herbivorous coral-reef fishes feed slower in the morning than in the afternoon. Given the typical scarcity of algae in coral reefs, this behavior seems maladaptive. Here we suggest that the fishes' slow feeding during the morning is an outcome of highly selective feeding on scarcely found green algae. The rarity of the food requires longer search time and extended swimming tracks, resulting in lower bite rates. According to our findings by noon the fish seem to stop their search and switch to indiscriminative consumption of benthic algae, resulting in apparent higher feeding rates. The abundance of the rare preferable algae gradually declines from morning to noon and seems to reach its lowest levels around the switch time. Using in situ experiments we found that the feeding pattern is flexible, with the fish exhibiting fast feeding rates when presented with ample supply of preferable algae, regardless of the time of day. Analyses of the fish's esophagus content corroborated our conclusion that their feeding was highly selective in the morning and non-selective in the afternoon. Modeling of the fishes' behavior predicted that the fish should perform a diel diet shift when the preferred food is relatively rare, a situation common in most coral reefs found in a warm, oligotrophic ocean.

  20. Development of thiamine deficiencies and early mortality syndrome in lake trout by feeding experimental and feral fish diets containing thiaminase

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Hinterkopf, J.P.; Fitzsimons, J.D.; Tillitt, D.E.; Zajicek, J.L.; Brown, S.B.

    2005-01-01

    We conducted a laboratory investigation on the consequences of feeding predatory salmonids either experimental diets low in thiamine or diets containing alewife Alosa pseudoharengus. In experiment 1, adult lake trout Salvelinus namaycush were fed experimental diets containing bacterial thiaminase. In experiment 2, adult lake trout were fed natural prey species, alewives, and bloaters Coregonus hoyi. The diets consisted of four combinations of alewives and bloaters from Lake Michigan (100% alewives, 65% alewives–35% bloaters, 35% alewives–65% bloaters, and 100% bloaters), alewives from Cayuga Lake, a casein bacterial thiaminase, and a commercial trout diet. We assessed the effects of each diet on egg thiamine concentration and incidence of an embryonic early mortality syndrome (EMS). In experiment 1, incidence of EMS ranged from 0% to 100%. Significant relationships were found between the incidence of EMS and thiamine. In experiment 2, adult lake trout fed 100% alewives from either Lake Michigan or Cayuga Lake or fish fed the casein bacterial thiaminase diet produced eggs with low thiamine and swim-up fry with EMS. At either 35% or 65% alewives in the diet, egg thiamine was significantly lowered. The number of females that produced offspring that died from EMS were low but demonstrated the negative potential if feral lake trout foraged on either 35% or 65% alewives. Depleted egg thiamine and the onset of EMS required diets containing thiaminase for a minimum of 2 years in lake trout initially fully thiamine replete. We conclude that EMS can be caused by extensive feeding on 100% alewives and dietary levels of 35% or greater may prove detrimental to sustainable reproduction of salmonids in the Great Lakes. The data are consistent with that observed in feral lake trout, and it is concluded that EMS is the result of a thiamine deficiency.

  1. Total Dissolved Gas Effects on Fishes of the Lower Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    McGrath, Kathy E.; Dawley, Earl; Geist, David R.

    2006-03-31

    Gas supersaturation problems generated by spill from dams on the Columbia River were first identified in the 1960s. Since that time, considerable research has been conducted on effects of gas supersaturation on aquatic life, primarily juvenile salmonids. Also since that time, modifications to dam structures and operations have reduced supersaturated gas levels produced by the dams. The limit for total dissolved gas saturation (TDGS) as mandated by current Environmental Protection Agency water quality standards is 110%. State management agencies issue limited waivers to water quality, allowing production of levels of up to 120% TDGS to facilitate the downstream migration of juvenile salmonids. Recently, gas supersaturation as a water quality issue has resurfaced as concerns have grown regarding chronic effects of spill-related total dissolved gas on salmonids, including incubating embryos and larvae, resident fish species, and other aquatic organisms. Because of current concerns, and because the last comprehensive review of research on supersaturation effects on fishes was conducted in 1997, we reviewed recent supersaturation literature to identify new or ongoing issues that may not be adequately addressed by the current 110% TDGS limit and the 120% TDGS water quality waiver. We found that recent work supports older research indicating that short-term exposure to levels up to 120% TDGS does not produce acute effects on migratory juvenile or adult salmonids when compensating depths are available. Monitoring programs at Snake and Columbia river dams from 1995 to the early 2000s documented a low incidence of significant gas bubble disease or mortality in Columbia River salmonids, resident fishes, or other taxa. We did, however, identify five areas of concern in which total dissolved gas levels lower than water quality limits may produce sublethal effects on fishes of the Columbia River. These areas of concern are 1) sensitive and vulnerable species or life stages, 2

  2. Comparison of lymphocyte DNA damage levels and total antioxidant capacity in Korean and American diet

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Min Young; Kim, Hyun A

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE This study aims to measure the in vitro antioxidant capacity of Korean diet (KD) with American diet (AD) as a control group and to examine the ex vivo DNA damage reduction effect on human lymphocytes. MATERIALS/METHODS The KD applied in this study is the standard one-week meals for Koreans (2,000 kcal/day) suggested by 2010 Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans. The AD, which is the control group, is a one-week menu (2,000 kcal/day) that consists of foods that Americans would commonly take in according to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The antioxidant capacity of each menu was measured by means of the total phenolic assay and 3 in vitro antioxidant activity assays (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORACROO·)), while the extent of ex vivo lymphocyte DNA damage was measured by means of the comet assay. RESULTS When measured by means of TEAC assay, the in vitro antioxidant capacity of the KD of the day was higher than that of the AD (P < 0.05) while there was no significant difference in total phenolic contents and DPPH and ORAC assays. The ex vivo lymphocyte DNA damage protective effect of the KD was significantly higher than that of the AD (P < 0.01). As for the one-week menu combining the menus for 7 days, the total phenolic assay (P < 0.05) and in vitro antioxidant capacity (P < 0.001, DPPH; P < 0.01, TEAC) of the KD menu were significantly higher than those of the AD menu. Likewise, the ex vivo DNA damage reduction rate of the Korean seven-day menu was significantly higher than that of the American menu (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION This study demonstrates that the high antioxidant capacity and DNA damage protective effect of KD, which consists generally of various plant foods, are higher than those of typical AD. PMID:28194263

  3. Progressive risk assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls through a Total Diet Study in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Shin, Eun-su; Nguyen, Khanh-Hoang; Kim, Jongchul; Kim, Cho-il; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2015-12-01

    Human exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from foods was investigated through a Total Diet Study (TDS) for the first time in Korea. A representative food list was developed from food intake data. Non-selected foods were also included in the TDS through the mapping process to anticipate practical risk assessment. For better representativeness, data (2008-2011) from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) were combined with the TDS data set. And also, we estimated the dietary exposure to PCBs from various food items using a 'best-fit' mapping process and assessed the differences in PCB exposures by sex and age. In this study, we examined total PCBs (62 congeners) including dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs) and indicator PCBs, which are congeners that are mainly detected in various environmental matrices. The average dietary exposure (3.94 ng/kg body weight/day) that was estimated through food intake was 19.7% of the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendation.

  4. A New Model For Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis in the Rat Utilizing Total Enteral Nutrition to Overfeed a High Polyunsaturated Fat Diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have used total enteral nutrition (TEN) to moderately overfeed rats high polyunsaturated fat diets to develop a model for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed by TEN a 187 kcal/kg 3/4 /d diet containing 5% (total calories) corn oil or a 220 kcal/kg 3/4 /d diet i...

  5. Proficiency testing pilot for determination of total mercury in fresh fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Santana, L. V.; Sarkis, J. E. S.; Ulrich, J. C.; Hortellani, M. A.

    2016-07-01

    A proficiency-testing scheme concerning total mercury determination in fish tissue involved 10 laboratories as participants, who used their regular in-house analytical methods, and the assigned value and the standard deviation used in proficiency testing program was derived from calibration against the certified reference values of the CRMs. The majority of participants obtained satisfactory Z-scores, and laboratories that need to revise their procedures were singled out. The objective these exercises were makes a useful contribution towards the production of proficiency test in Brazil. The uncertainty expanded calculated for the reference material was 22%.

  6. Total zinc absorption in young women, but not fractional zinc absorption, differs between vegetarian and meat-based diets with equal phytic acid content.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Mette Bach; Hels, Ole; Morberg, Catrine M; Marving, Jens; Bügel, Susanne; Tetens, Inge

    2006-05-01

    Zn bioavailability is often lower in vegetarian diets mainly due to low Zn and high phytic acid contents. The objective of the present study was to determine the fractional and total absorption of Zn from a vegetarian diet in comparison with meat diets with equal concentrations of phytic acid. A randomized cross-over design, comprising three whole-day diet periods of 5 d each, with a vegetarian diet or diets containing Polish-produced meat or Danish-produced meat, was conducted. Twelve healthy female subjects completed the study. All diets had a high content of phytic acid (1250 micromol/d) and in the meat diets the main meals contained 60 g pork meat. All main meals were extrinsically labelled with the radioactive isotope 65Zn and absorption of Zn was measured in a whole-body counter. The mean Zn content of the whole-day diet was: Polish meat diet 9.9 (SE 0.14) mg, Danish meat diet 9.4 (SE 0.19) mg and vegetarian diet 7.5 (SE 0.18) mg. No difference was observed in the fractional absorption of Zn (Polish meat diet: 27 (SE 1.2) %, Danish meat diet: 27 (SE 1.9) % and vegetarian diet: 23 (SE 2.6) %). A significantly lower amount of total Zn was absorbed from the vegetarian diet (mean Zn absorption of Polish meat diet: 2.7 (SE 0.12) mg/d (P<0.001), Danish meat diet: 2.6 (SE 0.17) mg/d (P=0.006) and vegetarian diet: 1.8 (SE 0.20) mg/d). In conclusion, the vegetarian diet compared with the meat-based diets resulted in lower amounts of absorbed Zn due to a higher content of Zn in the meat diets, but no difference was observed in the fractional absorption of Zn.

  7. Digestive response of dairy cows fed diets combining fresh forage with a total mixed ration.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, A; Cajarville, C; Repetto, J L

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this experiment was to quantify the response of dairy cows fed a total mixed ration (TMR) to increasing access to high-quality temperate fresh forage with respect to energy intake, rumen fermentation, microbial protein flow, passage rate, nutrient digestion and utilization, and metabolic and endocrine profiles. Nine Holstein cows fed a TMR were assigned to the following treatments according to a 3×3 Latin square replicated 3 times with 20-d periods and sampling on the last 10 d of each period: 0 (T0), 4 (T4), or 8 (T8) h of daily access to fresh forage. The forage (Lolium multiflorum; 17.1% crude protein, 26.5% acid detergent fiber) was cut daily and offered ad libitum beginning at 0800h, and a TMR (16.1% crude protein, 22.9% acid detergent fiber) was offered ad libitum during the remaining time. Energy intake and balance were higher in T0 than in T8, which was reflected in higher blood glucose and insulin concentrations in T0. Total volatile fatty acid concentrations in the rumen were higher in T0 and T4 than in T8, pH was lower in T4 than in T8, and ammonia-N was higher in T0 than in T8. No differences among treatments were detected in microbial protein flow to the duodenum, digestibility of nutrients, apparent efficiency of energy, or N utilization for milk production, but the total mean retention time of feed in the digestive tract was higher in T8 than in T0. It is concluded that more than 4h of daily access to high-quality fresh forage in the diet of dairy cows fed a TMR reduced energy intake and balance but had no effects on nutrient digestion or utilization.

  8. Skin surface lipids and skin and hair coat condition in dogs fed increased total fat diets containing polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Kirby, N A; Hester, S L; Rees, C A; Kennis, R A; Zoran, D L; Bauer, J E

    2009-08-01

    It is generally believed that diets containing increased amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) result in improved canine skin and hair coat (SHC). However, the extent to which dietary fat amount and type play a role remains to be systematically investigated. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of both increased dietary fat amount and type on SHC assessments of dogs. Improvements of SHC conditions were investigated after feeding three diets containing increased total dietary fat (i.e. 13% total fat) for 12 weeks in relation to a lower fat acclimation diet (i.e. 9% total fat). The higher fat diets varied in polyunsaturated and saturated fat types and amounts but total fat was kept constant. Skin and hair coat assessments were performed at selected intervals by a trained group of veterinarians and graduate students. In addition, hair lipids were fractionated by thin layer chromatography after extraction of plucked hair samples. Significant improvements were found in hair coat glossiness and softness in all dogs fed the higher fat diets in relation to the acclimation diet. Improvements as a result of fat type were also seen but only at 12 weeks. A parallel finding was a marked increase in hair cholesteryl ester content determined at the end of the study at which time SHC scores were significantly improved. Skin and hair coat condition improvements may thus be related to increased cholesteryl ester deposited on the hair shaft surface when high fat diets are fed. Whereas this finding is preliminary, hair lipid analysis may be a useful, non-invasive technique with which to help assess dietary effects on canine SHC.

  9. Dietary exposure of Hong Kong secondary school students to total mercury and methylmercury from fish intake.

    PubMed

    Tang, Anna Shiu Ping; Kwong, Ka Ping; Chung, Stephen Wai Cheung; Ho, Yuk Yin; Xiao, Ying

    2009-01-01

    Fish is the main source of dietary exposure to methylmercury (MeHg), which is a public health concern owing to its potential neurotoxicity. To evaluate the public health risk, this study estimated the total mercury (tHg) and MeHg exposure from fish intake in Hong Kong secondary school students. Median tHg and MeHg concentrations of 280 samples purchased from different commercial outlets (covering 89 species of whole fish and three types of canned tuna), together with the local food consumption data of secondary school students obtained by semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire in 2000, were used to estimate dietary exposure from fish intake for the average and high consumer (95th percentile exposure). For tHg, the median concentration was 63 µg kg(-1) (range 3-1370 µg kg(-1)) and estimated exposures ranged 0.5-0.6 µg kg(-1) body weight (bw) week(-1) for an average consumer and 1.6-1.9 µg kg(-1) bw week(-1) for a high consumer. For MeHg, median concentration was 48 µg kg(-1) (range 3-1010 µg kg(-1)) and estimated dietary exposures were 0.4-0.5 µg kg(-1) bw week(-1) for an average consumer and 1.2-1.4 µg kg(-1) bw week(-1) for a high consumer. These values are below the respective provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) established by the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). The health risk is greater for high consumers since MeHg exposures may approach or exceed the PTWI when other dietary sources are taken into account.

  10. A statistical approach for estimating fish diet compositions from multiple, data sources: Gulf of California case study.

    PubMed

    Ainsworth, Cameron H; Kaplan, Isaac C; Levin, Phillip S; Mangel, Marc

    2010-12-01

    Trophic ecosystem models are one promising tool for providing ecosystem-based management advice. Diet and interaction rate parameters are critical in defining the behavior of these models, and will greatly influence any predictions made in response to management perturbations. However, most trophic ecosystem models must rely on a patchwork of data availability and must contend with knowledge gaps and poor quantification of uncertainty. Here we present a statistical method for combining diet information from field samples and literature to describe trophic relationships at the level of functional groups. In this example, original fieldwork in the northern Gulf of California, Mexico, provides gut content data for targeted and untargeted fish species. The field data are pooled with diet composition information from FishBase, an online data repository. Diet information is averaged across stomachs to represent an average predator, and then the data are bootstrapped to generate likelihood profiles. These are fit to a Dirichlet function, and from the resulting marginal distributions, maximum-likelihood estimates are generated with confidence intervals representing the likely contribution to diet for each predator-prey combination. We characterize trophic linkages into two broad feeding guilds, pelagic and demersal feeders, and explore differentiation within those guilds. We present an abbreviated food web for the northern Gulf of California based on the results of this study. This food web will form the basis of a trophic dynamic model. Compared to the common method of averaging diet compositions across predators, this statistical approach is less influenced by the presence of long tails in the distributions, which correspond to rare feeding events, and is therefore better suited to small data sets.

  11. Are plant-based diets efficacious in lowering total serum cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein levels?

    PubMed

    Ware, Kathrine M

    2014-06-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the U.S. and around the globe. A large body of literature accumulated over the past several decades has shown the benefit of lowering serum total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels to reduce cardiovascular risk. National guidelines suggest therapeutic lifestyle changes, beginning with diet, as a first step toward lowering TC and LDL-C. It has been suggested a plant-based, low fat diet can substantially reduce TC and LDL- C and thereby reduce risk of cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this review is to examine the state of the science regarding the efficacy of plant-based diets in reducing serum TC and LDL-C levels. While results of the research review indicate some benefit, strong evidence supporting the efficacy of plant-based diet in reducing atherogenic lipids is lacking.

  12. Diets and trophic-guild structure of a diverse fish assemblage in Chesapeake Bay, U.S.A.

    PubMed

    Buchheister, A; Latour, R J

    2015-03-01

    Dietary habits and trophic-guild structure were examined in a fish assemblage (47 species) of the Chesapeake Bay estuary, U.S.A., using 10 years of data from >25 000 fish stomachs. The assemblage was comprised of 10 statistically significant trophic guilds that were principally differentiated by the relative amounts of Mysida, Bivalvia, Polychaeta, Teleostei and other Crustacea in the diets. These guilds were broadly aggregated into five trophic categories: piscivores, zooplanktivores, benthivores, crustacivores and miscellaneous consumers. Food web structure was largely dictated by gradients in habitat (benthic to pelagic) and prey size. Size classes within piscivorous species were more likely to be classified into different guilds, reflecting stronger dietary changes through ontogeny relative to benthivores and other guilds. Relative to predator species and predator size, the month of sampling had negligible effects on dietary differences within the assemblage. A majority of sampled fishes derived most of their nutrition from non-pelagic prey sources, suggesting a strong coupling of fish production to benthic and demersal food resources. Mysida (predominantly the opossum shrimp Neomysis americana) contributed substantially to the diets of over 25% of the sampled predator groups, indicating that this species is a critical, but underappreciated, node in the Chesapeake Bay food web.

  13. Diet and feeding of fish from Grande River, located below the Volta Grande Reservoir, MG-SP.

    PubMed

    Andrade, P M; Braga, F M S

    2005-08-01

    We compare the classic model of feeding of tropical fish by means of six bimonthly samplings using gillnets of varying mesh sizes that were inspected every twelve hours throughout a forty-eight hour period. The stomachs of the fish caught were classified in three categories according to quantity of food found. The amount of fat in the visceral cavity with respect to the energetic reserve deposition was also studied. The relative frequencies of the different categories of stomach repletion and fat deposition were examined for patterns of feeding seasonality. The stomachs considered full were examined to record diet composition. To assess the relative importance of the different food resources, we applied Feeding Importance Degree (FID), which is a useful index when difficulties exist in determining a common basis for volume, number, or weight of a given food item in different species, a common problem when dealing with fish species having different feeding habits. The fish species whose stomach contents were analyzed using the FID index were Serrasalmus spilopleura (Characidae), L. prolixa (Loricaridae), Schizodon nasutus (Anostomidae), and Pimelodus maculatus (Pimelodidae). Our findings indicate some contrasting elements, in dietary composition in relation to the classic model for tropical rivers. These factors include the importance of aquatic macrophytes, the lack of piscivorous species, and a lesser presence of allochthonous vegetation in the diet of the species studied.

  14. Metabarcoding dietary analysis of coral dwelling predatory fish demonstrates the minor contribution of coral mutualists to their highly partitioned, generalist diet

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Christopher P.; Mills, Suzanne C.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the role of predators in food webs can be challenging in highly diverse predator/prey systems composed of small cryptic species. DNA based dietary analysis can supplement predator removal experiments and provide high resolution for prey identification. Here we use a metabarcoding approach to provide initial insights into the diet and functional role of coral-dwelling predatory fish feeding on small invertebrates. Fish were collected in Moorea (French Polynesia) where the BIOCODE project has generated DNA barcodes for numerous coral associated invertebrate species. Pyrosequencing data revealed a total of 292 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTU) in the gut contents of the arc-eye hawkfish (Paracirrhites arcatus), the flame hawkfish (Neocirrhites armatus) and the coral croucher (Caracanthus maculatus). One hundred forty-nine (51%) of them had species-level matches in reference libraries (>98% similarity) while 76 additional OTUs (26%) could be identified to higher taxonomic levels. Decapods that have a mutualistic relationship with Pocillopora and are typically dominant among coral branches, represent a minor contribution of the predators’ diets. Instead, predators mainly consumed transient species including pelagic taxa such as copepods, chaetognaths and siphonophores suggesting non random feeding behavior. We also identified prey species known to have direct negative interactions with stony corals, such as Hapalocarcinus sp, a gall crab considered a coral parasite, as well as species of vermetid snails known for their deleterious effects on coral growth. Pocillopora DNA accounted for 20.8% and 20.1% of total number of sequences in the guts of the flame hawkfish and coral croucher but it was not detected in the guts of the arc-eye hawkfish. Comparison of diets among the three fishes demonstrates remarkable partitioning with nearly 80% of prey items consumed by only one predator. Overall, the taxonomic resolution provided by the metabarcoding approach

  15. The effect of fixative on total length of small-bodied stream fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brinkley, P.D.; Fischer, John R.; Paukert, C.P.

    2008-01-01

    Longnose dace (Rhinichthys cataractae), red shiner (Cyprinella lutrensis), and green sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus) were fixed in 5% and 10% formalin and 70% and 95% ethyl alcohol to determine fixative effects on total length (TL). Total length reduced over the first 24h for all species (P<0.0001) but then stabilized. Longnose dace and green sunfish TL reduction was less for 5% formalin than for either 70% or 95% ethanol (both P<0.0001), whereas the fixative solution had no effect on red shiner TL (P=0.347). A greater percentage of change in TL was observed in green sunfish and red shiner than in longnose dace, suggesting that body form (compressiform vs. fusiform) may affect shrinkage rate among adult stream fishes.

  16. Dietary exposure of acrylamide from the fifth Chinese Total Diet Study.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jie; Zhao, Yunfeng; Zhu, Feng; Ma, Yongjian; Li, Xiaowei; Miao, Hong; Wu, Yongning

    2016-01-01

    The levels of acrylamide in 240 food composite samples from the 5th Chinese Total Diet Study (TDS) were measured using an LC-MS/MS method and the exposure estimates for the general population were evaluated. The samples were collected from 20 provinces in China, covering about two thirds of the Chinese population. Acrylamide was detected in 40.0% of composite samples with the concentrations ranged from 0.8 to 211.8 μg/kg. The average dietary intakes from the 5th Chinese TDS were 0.319 μg kg(-1) bw day(-1) and an increase with about 70% was observed from the 3rd Chinese TDS in 2000 to the 5th Chinese TDS between 2009 and 2012. The main food group contributors to acrylamide exposure were vegetables (35.2%), cereals (34.3%) and potatoes (15.7%). Based on the benchmark dose lower confidence limit at 10% risk (BMDL10) of 0.31 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1) for the induction of mammary tumors in rats and 0.18 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1) for Harderian gland tumors in mice, the margins of exposure (MOEs) were 973 and 565 for Chinese general population, respectively. These MOEs indicate a human health concern.

  17. Total and Methyl Mercury Distribution in Water, Sediment, and Fish tissue in New England Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalmers, A. T.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.

    2001-05-01

    Conditions that are conducive to the methylation of mercury are of particular concern because methyl mercury (MeHg) is the most toxic mercury species and is rapidly bioaccumulated and biomagnified in wildlife and man. The New England Coastal Basins study unit, as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water Quality Assessment program, has evaluated relations between concentrations of total mercury (HgT) and MeHg in stream water and bed sediment, and HgT in fish tissue at sites with a variety of watershed characteristics. Fifty-five stream sites from Rhode Island to Maine were sampled for water and bed sediment during 1998 - 2000. A subset of 27 sites was sampled for fish tissue. Sediment, water, and fish tissue samples were collected during summer low flow conditions within a week of each other to show patterns of MeHg accumulation and partitioning relative to site and watershed conditions. Concentrations of HgT in water and bed sediment ranged from 1 to 13 nanograms per liter (ng/L) and from 7 to 3,100 nanograms per gram (ng/g) dry weight, respectively. Concentrations of MeHg in water and sediment ranged from 0.04 to 1.8 ng/L and from 1 to 38 ng/g dry weight, respectively, and were positively correlated with concentrations of organic carbon. Methylation efficiency, as estimated by MeHg/HgT, ranged from 0.003 to 0.282 for sediment and water samples, with a median value of 0.071. Methylation efficiency was highest at sampling sites with low urbanization and high organic carbon concentrations. HgT concentrations in fish tissue (mixed sunfish species) ranged from 42 to 349 ng/g wet weight and were positively correlated with concentrations of MeHg in water and bed sediment. A positive relation was not observed between HgT concentrations in fish tissue and HgT concentrations in water and bed sediment. These preliminary results indicate a high potential for mercury bioaccumulation in aquatic organisms in New England streams.

  18. Phase II Prospective Randomized Trial of a Low-Fat Diet with Fish Oil Supplementation in Men Undergoing Radical Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Aronson, William J.; Kobayashi, Naoko; Barnard, R. James; Henning, Susanne; Jardack, Patricia M.; Liu, Bingrong; Gray, Ashley; Wan, Junxiang; Konijeti, Ramdev; Freedland, Stephen J.; Castor, Brandon; Heber, David; Elashoff, David; Said, Jonathan; Cohen, Pinchas; Galet, Colette

    2011-01-01

    Preclinical studies suggest lowering dietary fat and decreasing the ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids decreases the risk of prostate cancer development and progression. We conducted a phase II randomized trial to test the effect of decreasing dietary fat combined with decreasing the dietary omega-6:omega-3 ratio on biomarkers related to prostate cancer development and progression. Patients undergoing radical prostatectomy were randomly assigned to receive a low-fat diet with 5 grams of fish oil daily (dietary omega-6:omega-3 ratio of 2:1) or a control western diet (omega-6:omega-3 ratio of 15:1) for 4–6 weeks prior to surgery. The primary endpoint was change in serum IGF-1 between arms. Secondary endpoints were serum IGFBP-1, prostate prostaglandin E-2 levels, omega-6:omega-3 fatty acid ratios, COX-2 and markers of proliferation and apoptosis. Fifty-five patients were randomized and 48 completed the trial. There was no treatment difference in the primary outcome. Positive secondary outcomes in the low-fat fish oil vs. western group were reduced benign and malignant prostate tissue omega-6:omega-3 ratios, reduced proliferation (Ki67 index), and reduced proliferation in an ex-vivo bioassay when patient sera was applied to prostate cancer cells in vitro. In summary, 4–6 weeks of a low-fat diet and fish oil capsules to achieve an omega-6:omega-3 fatty acid ratio of 2:1 had no effect on serum IGF-1 levels, though in secondary analyses the intervention resulted in decreased prostate cancer proliferation and decreased prostate tissue omega-6:omega-3 ratios. These results support further studies evaluating reduction of dietary fat with fish oil supplementation on modulating prostate cancer biology. PMID:22027686

  19. A pulse-based diet is effective for reducing total and LDL-cholesterol in older adults.

    PubMed

    Abeysekara, Saman; Chilibeck, Philip D; Vatanparast, Hassanali; Zello, Gordon A

    2012-08-01

    Our purpose was to determine the effects of a pulse-based diet in individuals 50 years or older for reducing CVD risk factors. A total of 108 participants were randomised to receive pulse-based foods (two servings daily of beans, chickpeas, peas or lentils; about 150 g/d dry weight) or their regular diet for 2 months, followed by a washout of 1 month and a cross-over to the other diet for 2 months. Anthropometric measures, body composition and biochemical markers (i.e. serum LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), as the primary outcome, and other lipids, glucose, insulin and C-reactive protein) were assessed before and after each diet phase. A total of eighty-seven participants (thirty males and fifty-seven females; 59·7 (sd 6·3) years, body mass 76 (sd 16) kg) completed the study. Compared with the regular diet, the pulse-based diet decreased total cholesterol by 8·3 % (pulse, 4·57 (sd 0·93) to 4·11 (sd 0·91) mmol/l; regular, 4·47 (sd 0·94) to 4·39 (sd 0·97) mmol/l; P < 0·001) and LDL-C by 7·9 % (pulse, 2·93 (sd 0·84) to 2·55 (sd 0·75) mmol/l; regular, 2·96 (sd 0·86) to 2·81 (sd 0·83) mmol/l; P = 0·01). In a sub-analysis of individuals with high lipid levels at baseline (twenty individuals with high cholesterol), the pulse-based diet reduced cholesterol by 6 % compared with the regular diet (pulse, 5·62 (sd 0·78) to 5·26 (sd 0·68) mmol/l; regular, 5·60 (sd 0·91) to 5·57 (sd 0·85) mmol/l; P = 0·05). A pulse-based diet is effective for reducing total cholesterol and LDL-C in older adults and therefore reduces the risk of CVD.

  20. Fishmeal-free Atlantic salmon feed formulation shows promise - Joint research between TCFFI, USDA and EWOS uses new diet for post-smolt to food-size fish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2 MT/week of Atlantic salmon that The Conservation Fund Freshwater Institute provided to market in March and April of 2016 were fed a custom diet during nearly 90% of their growth that met the following sustainability criteria: - Fishmeal free - GMO free - Zero wild fish in: fish out according t...

  1. [Effects of diets on growth, serum biochemical indices and lipid metabolism in Coilia nasus].

    PubMed

    Wei, Guang-Lian; Xu, Gang-Chun; Gu, Ruo-Bo; Xu, Pao

    2013-12-01

    Effects of diets on growth, serum biochemical indices, and enzyme activities related to lipid metabolism in fingerlings Coilia nasus at age of 6 months were investigated during 60-day experiment in this study. Fingerlings with similar body length and mass were fed with one of 3 types of diets (diet 1: soft pellet; diet 2: soft pellet mixed with fish oil; diet 3: slow-sinking hard pellet). Fish fed with diets 2 or 3 had significantly higher total body mass, rate of mass gain, specific growth rate, and fullness coefficient than those fed with diet 1. Fish fed with diet 3 exhibited the lower food coefficient compared to those fed with diets 1 or 2. Growth traits (length, length to mass ratio, length to width ratio, hepatopancreas somatic indices and viscera somatic index) and serum biochemical indices (total protein, albumin, blood glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides) in all three treatments were not significantly different. Fish fed with diet 1 exhibited significantly higher carnitine palmitoyltransferase-I than those fed with diets 2 or 3, while fish fed with diet 2 exhibited significantly lower carnitine palmitoyltransferase-II. However, amylase, pepsin, lipase activity, lipoprotein lipase and acetyl-coa carboxylase had no significant difference in fish body among all groups. Results suggested that fish oil as a diet supplement highly facilitated fish growing. The slow-sinking pellet had the highest utilization efficiency and was suitable to feed fish fingerlings of C. nasus.

  2. To which chemical mixtures is the French population exposed? Mixture identification from the second French Total Diet Study.

    PubMed

    Traoré, T; Béchaux, C; Sirot, V; Crépet, A

    2016-12-01

    Through their diet, humans are exposed to a wide range of substances with possible adverse effects. Total diet studies (TDS) assess exposure and risk for many single substances or mixtures from the same chemical family. This research aims to identify from 440 substances in the second French TDS, the major mixtures to which the French population is exposed and their associated diet. Firstly, substances with a contamination value over the detection limit were selected. Secondly, consumption systems comprising major consumed foods were identified using non-negative matrix factorisation and combined with concentration levels to form the main mixture. Thirdly, individuals were clustered to identify "diet clusters" with similar consumption patterns and co-exposure profiles. Six main consumption systems and their associated mixtures were identified. For example, a mixture of ten pesticides, six trace elements and bisphenol A was identified. Exposure to this mixture is related to fruit and vegetables consumed by a diet cluster comprising 62% of women with a mean age of 51 years. Six other clusters are described with their associated diets and mixtures. Cluster co-exposures were compared to the whole population. This work helps prioritise mixtures for which it is crucial to investigate possible toxicological effects.

  3. Individual diet variation in a marine fish assemblage: Optimal Foraging Theory, Niche Variation Hypothesis and functional identity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cachera, M.; Ernande, B.; Villanueva, M. C.; Lefebvre, S.

    2017-02-01

    Individual diet variation (i.e. diet variation among individuals) impacts intra- and inter-specific interactions. Investigating its sources and relationship with species trophic niche organization is important for understanding community structure and dynamics. Individual diet variation may increase with intra-specific phenotypic (or "individual state") variation and habitat variability, according to Optimal Foraging Theory (OFT), and with species trophic niche width, according to the Niche Variation Hypothesis (NVH). OFT proposes "proximate sources" of individual diet variation such as variations in habitat or size whereas NVH relies on "ultimate sources" related to the competitive balance between intra- and inter-specific competitions. The latter implies as a corollary that species trophic niche overlap, taken as inter-specific competition measure, decreases as species niche width and individual niche variation increase. We tested the complementary predictions of OFT and NVH in a marine fish assemblage using stomach content data and associated trophic niche metrics. The NVH predictions were tested between species of the assemblage and decomposed into a between- and a within-functional group component to assess the potential influence of species' ecological function. For most species, individual diet variation and niche overlap were consistently larger than expected. Individual diet variation increased with intra-specific variability in individual state and habitat, as expected from OFT. It also increased with species niche width but in compliance with the null expectation, thus not supporting the NVH. In contrast, species niche overlap increased significantly less than null expectation with both species niche width and individual diet variation, supporting NVH corollary. The between- and within-functional group components of the NVH relationships were consistent with those between species at the assemblage level. Changing the number of prey categories used to

  4. The Addition of Medium-Chain Triglycerides to a Purified Fish Oil Based Diet Alters Inflammatory Profiles in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, SJ; Nandivada, P; Chang, MI; Mitchell, PD; O’Loughlin, A; Cowan, E; Gura, KM; Nose, V; Bistrian, B; Puder, M

    2014-01-01

    Objective Parenteral nutrition associated liver disease (PNALD) is a deadly complication of long term parenteral nutrition (PN) use in infants. Fish oil-based lipid emulsion has been shown in recent years to effectively treat PNALD. Alternative fat sources free of essential fatty acids have recently been investigated for health benefits related to decreased inflammatory response. We hypothesized that the addition of medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) to a purified fish oil-based diet would decrease the response to inflammatory challenge in mice, while allowing for sufficient growth and development. Materials/Methods Six groups of ten adult male C57/Bl6 mice were pair-fed different dietary treatments for a period of twelve weeks, varying only in fat source (percent calories by weight): 10.84% soybean oil (SOY), 10% coconut oil (HCO), 10% medium-chain triglycerides (MCT), 3% purified fish oil (PFO), 3% purified fish oil with 3% medium-chain triglycerides (50:50 MCT:PFO) and 3% purified fish oil with 7.59% medium-chain triglycerides (70:30 MCT:PFO). An endotoxin challenge was administered to half of the animals in each group at the completion of dietary treatment. Results All groups demonstrated normal growth throughout the study period. Groups fed MCT and HCO diets demonstrated biochemical essential fatty acid deficiency and decreased IL-6 and TNF-α response to endotoxin challenge. Groups containing PFO had increased inflammatory response to endotoxin challenge, and the addition of MCT to PFO mitigated this inflammatory response. Conclusion These results suggest that the addition of MCT to PFO formulations may decrease the host response to inflammatory challenge, which may pose potential for optimized PN formulations. Inclusion of MCT in lipid emulsions given with PN formulations may be of use in therapeutic interventions for disease states resulting from chronic inflammation. PMID:25458829

  5. Environmental mercury concentrations in cultured low-trophic-level fish using food waste-based diets.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhang; Mo, Wing Yin; Man, Yu Bon; Lam, Cheung Lung; Choi, Wai Ming; Nie, Xiang Ping; Liu, Yi Hui; Wong, Ming Hung

    2015-01-01

    In this study, different types of food wastes were used as the major source of protein to replace the fish meal in fish feeds to produce quality fish (polyculture of different freshwater fish). During October 2011-April 2012, the concentrations of Hg in water, suspended particulate matter, and sediment of the three experimental fish ponds located in Sha Tau Kok Organic Farm were monitored, and the results were similar to or lower than those detected in commercial fish ponds around the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region (by comparing data of previous and present studies). Health risk assessments indicated that human consumption of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), a herbivore which fed food waste feed pellets would be safer than other fish species: mud carp (Cirrhina molitorella), bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), and largemouth bass (Lepomis macrochirus). Due to the lower species diversity and substantially shorter food chains of the polyculture system consisting of only three fish species, the extent of Hg biomagnification was significantly lower than other polyculture ponds around PRD. Furthermore, the use of food waste instead of fish meal (mainly consisted of contaminated trash fish) further reduced the mercury accumulation in the cultured fish.

  6. Growth performance and feed utilization of keureling fish Tor tambra (Cyprinidae) fed formulated diet supplemented with enhanced probiotic.

    PubMed Central

    Muchlisin, Zainal Abidin; Murda, Tanzil; Yulvizar, Cut; Dewiyanti, Irma; Fadli, Nur; Afrido, Fardin; Siti-Azizah, Mohd Nor; Muhammadar, Abdullah A.

    2017-01-01

    Background The objective of the present study was to determine the optimum dosage of probiotic in the diet of keureling fish ( Tor tambra) fry. Methods Lactobacillus casei from Yakult® was used as a starter, and enhanced with Curcuma xanthorrhiza, Kaempferia galanga and molasses. The mixture was fermented for 7 days prior to use as probiotic in a formulated diet containing 30% crude protein. Four levels of probiotic dosage; 0 ml kg -1 (control), 5 ml kg -1, 10 ml kg -1 and 15 ml kg -1 were tested in this study. The fish was fed twice a day at 08.00 AM and 06.00 PM at the ration of 5% body weight for 80 days. Results The results showed that growth performance and feed efficiency increased with increasing probiotic dosage in the diet from control (no probiotic) to 10 ml kg -1 of probiotic dosage and then decreased when the dosage was increased up to 15 ml kg -1. Conclusions The best values for all measured parameters were recorded at the dosage of 10 ml kg -1. Therefore, it was concluded that the optimum dosage of enhanced probiotic for T. tambra fry was 10 ml kg -1 of feed. PMID:28357045

  7. Growth performance and feed utilization of keureling fish Tor tambra (Cyprinidae) fed formulated diet supplemented with enhanced probiotic.

    PubMed

    Muchlisin, Zainal Abidin; Murda, Tanzil; Yulvizar, Cut; Dewiyanti, Irma; Fadli, Nur; Afrido, Fardin; Siti-Azizah, Mohd Nor; Muhammadar, Abdullah A

    2017-01-01

    Background The objective of the present study was to determine the optimum dosage of probiotic in the diet of keureling fish ( Tor tambra) fry. MethodsLactobacillus casei from Yakult® was used as a starter, and enhanced with Curcuma xanthorrhiza, Kaempferia galanga and molasses. The mixture was fermented for 7 days prior to use as probiotic in a formulated diet containing 30% crude protein. Four levels of probiotic dosage; 0 ml kg (-1) (control), 5 ml kg (-1), 10 ml kg (-1) and 15 ml kg (-1) were tested in this study. The fish was fed twice a day at 08.00 AM and 06.00 PM at the ration of 5% body weight for 80 days. Results The results showed that growth performance and feed efficiency increased with increasing probiotic dosage in the diet from control (no probiotic) to 10 ml kg (-1) of probiotic dosage and then decreased when the dosage was increased up to 15 ml kg (-1). Conclusions The best values for all measured parameters were recorded at the dosage of 10 ml kg (-1). Therefore, it was concluded that the optimum dosage of enhanced probiotic for T. tambra fry was 10 ml kg (-1) of feed.

  8. Dietary exposure to mycotoxins of the Hong Kong adult population from a Total Diet Study.

    PubMed

    Yau, Arthur Tin-Chung; Chen, Melva Yung-Yung; Lam, Chi-Ho; Ho, Yuk-Yin; Xiao, Ying; Chung, Stephen Wai-Cheung

    2016-06-01

    Dietary exposure of Hong Kong adults to mycotoxins and their metabolites including aflatoxins (AFs), ochratoxin A (OTA), fumonisins (FNs), deoxynivalenol (DON), acetyldeoxynivalenols (AcDONs) and zearalenone (ZEA) was estimated using the Total Diet Study (TDS) approach to assess the associated health risk to the local people. Sixty commonly consumed food items, collected in four seasons, were sampled and prepared as consumed. These mycotoxins were primarily found at low levels. The highest mean levels (upper bound) were: AFs, 1.50 µg kg(-)(1) in legumes, nuts and seed; OTA, 0.22 µg kg(-)(1) in sugars and confectionery; FNs, 9.76 µg kg(-)(1) in cereals and their products; DON and AcDONs, 33.1 µg kg(-)(1) in cereals and their products; and ZEA, 53.8 µg kg(-)(1) in fats and oils. The estimated dietary exposures of Hong Kong adults to the mycotoxins analysed were well below the respective health-based guidance values, where available. For AFs, the upper-bound exposure for high consumers is 0.0049 µg kg bw(-)(1) day(-)(1), which was estimated to contribute to about 7.7 (< 1%) of liver cancer cases when compared with 1222 liver cancer cases per year in Hong Kong. The percentage contributions of the estimated 95th percentile dietary exposures (lower and upper bound) to the health-based guidance values of individual mycotoxins were: ochratoxin A, 3.6-9.2%; fumonisins, 0.04-8.5%; deoxynivalenol and acetyldeoxynivalenols, 21.7-28.2%; and zearalenone 3.3-34.5%. The findings indicate that dietary exposures to all the mycotoxins analysed in this study were unlikely to pose an unacceptable health risk to the Hong Kong population.

  9. Trait-based diet selection: prey behaviour and morphology predict vulnerability to predation in reef fish communities.

    PubMed

    Green, Stephanie J; Côté, Isabelle M

    2014-11-01

    Understanding how predators select their prey can provide important insights into community structure and dynamics. However, the suite of prey species available to a predator is often spatially and temporally variable. As a result, species-specific selectivity data are of limited use for predicting novel predator-prey interactions because they are assemblage specific. We present a method for predicting diet selection that is applicable across prey assemblages, based on identifying general morphological and behavioural traits of prey that confer vulnerability to predation independent of species identity. We apply this trait-based approach to examining prey selection by Indo-Pacific lionfish (Pterois volitans and Pterois miles), invasive predators that prey upon species-rich reef fish communities and are rapidly spreading across the western Atlantic. We first generate hypotheses about morphological and behavioural traits recurring across fish species that could facilitate or deter predation by lionfish. Constructing generalized linear mixed-effects models that account for relatedness among prey taxa, we test whether these traits predict patterns of diet selection by lionfish within two independent data sets collected at different spatial scales: (i) in situ visual observations of prey consumption and availability for individual lionfish and (ii) comparisons of prey abundance in lionfish stomach contents to availability on invaded reefs at large. Both analyses reveal that a number of traits predicted to affect vulnerability to predation, including body size, body shape, position in the water column and aggregation behaviour, are important determinants of diet selection by lionfish. Small, shallow-bodied, solitary fishes found resting on or just above reefs are the most vulnerable. Fishes that exhibit parasite cleaning behaviour experience a significantly lower risk of predation than non-cleaning fishes, and fishes that are nocturnally active are at significantly

  10. Influence of a ketogenic diet, fish-oil, and calorie restriction on plasma metabolites and lipids in C57BL/6J mice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Diet therapies including calorie restriction, ketogenic diets, and fish-oil supplementation have been used to improve health and to treat a variety of neurological and non-neurological diseases. Methods We investigated the effects of three diets on circulating plasma metabolites (glucose and β-hydroxybutyrate), hormones (insulin and adiponectin), and lipids over a 32-day period in C57BL/6J mice. The diets evaluated included a standard rodent diet (SD), a ketogenic diet (KD), and a standard rodent diet supplemented with fish-oil (FO). Each diet was administered in either unrestricted (UR) or restricted (R) amounts to reduce body weight by 20%. Results The KD-UR increased body weight and glucose levels and promoted a hyperlipidemic profile, whereas the FO-UR decreased body weight and glucose levels and promoted a normolipidemic profile, compared to the SD-UR. When administered in restricted amounts, all three diets produced a similar plasma metabolite profile, which included decreased glucose levels and a normolipidemic profile. Linear regression analysis showed that circulating glucose most strongly predicted body weight and triglyceride levels, whereas calorie intake moderately predicted glucose levels and strongly predicted ketone body levels. Conclusions These results suggest that biomarkers of health can be improved when diets are consumed in restricted amounts, regardless of macronutrient composition. PMID:24910707

  11. Fish protein hydrolysates affect cholesterol metabolism in rats fed non-cholesterol and high-cholesterol diets.

    PubMed

    Hosomi, Ryota; Fukunaga, Kenji; Arai, Hirofumi; Kanda, Seiji; Nishiyama, Toshimasa; Yoshida, Munehiro

    2012-03-01

    Fish consumption is well known to provide health benefits in both experimental animals and human subjects. Numerous studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of various protein hydrolysates on lipid metabolism. In this context, this study examined the effect of fish protein hydrolysates (FPH) on cholesterol metabolism compared with the effect of casein. FPHs were prepared from Alaska pollock meat using papain as a protease. Male Wistar rats were divided into the following four dietary groups of seven rats each: either casein (20%) or FPH (10%) + casein (10%), with or without 0.5% cholesterol and 0.1% sodium cholate. Serum and liver lipid levels, fecal cholesterol and bile acid excretions, and the hepatic expression of genes encoding proteins involved in cholesterol homeostasis were examined. In rats fed the FPH diets compared with casein diets with or without cholesterol and sodium cholate, the indexes of cholesterol metabolism-namely, serum cholesterol, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels-were significantly lower, whereas fecal cholesterol and bile acid excretions were higher. Rats fed the FPH diets compared with casein with cholesterol exhibited a lower liver cholesterol level via an increased liver cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) expression level. This study demonstrates that the intake of FPH has hypocholesterolemic effects through the enhancement of fecal cholesterol and bile acid excretions and CYP7A1 expression levels. Therefore, fish peptides prepared by papain digestion might provide health benefits by decreasing the cholesterol content in the blood, which would contribute to the prevention of circulatory system diseases such as arteriosclerosis.

  12. Levels and temporal trend of bisphenol A in composite food samples from Canadian Total Diet Study 2008-2012.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xu-Liang; Perez-Locas, Carolina; Robichaud, André; Clement, Genevieve; Popovic, Svetlana; Dufresne, Guy; Dabeka, Robert W

    2015-01-01

    Food composite samples from the Canadian Total Diet Study which was conducted each year from 2008 to 2012 rotating between different cities were analysed for bisphenol A (BPA). The overall levels of BPA in the composite food samples from each of the five years from 2008 to 2012 were similar in general with averages (range) of 7.7 ng/g (0.20-106 ng/g), 7.8 ng/g (0.26-110 ng/g), 6.9 ng/g (0.20-84 ng/g), 7.7 ng/g (0.20-105 ng/g) and 9.0 ng/g (0.15-90 ng/g) for 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012, respectively. Levels of BPA in most of the non-canned food composite samples were low and no particular trends were observed. In contrast, the trend of BPA levels in canned food composite samples over the five years (2008-2012) varies. BPA levels in most of the canned food composite samples from 2008 to 2012 were consistent in general (e.g. canned luncheon meat: 10-18 ng/g, canned baked beans: 18-25 ng/g). While BPA levels over the five years were found to decrease for some canned food composite samples (e.g., canned fish: 109 ng/g in 2009 vs. 51 ng/g in 2012), they were also found to increase for some other canned food composite samples (e.g. canned meat soups: 90-104 ng/g in 2011-2012 vs. 29 ng/g in 2008). Thus, recent changes in can coating for food packaging to BPA-free alternatives may have not been fully reflected in all canned food products over the period from 2008 to 2012. Continued monitoring is necessary to more fully assess the potential impact on dietary exposure by the use of BPA alternatives in food contact materials.

  13. Identification and ruminal outflow of long-chain fatty acid biohydrogenation intermediates in cows fed diets containing fish oil.

    PubMed

    Kairenius, Piia; Toivonen, Vesa; Shingfield, Kevin J

    2011-07-01

    The abundance of 20- to 24-carbon fatty acids in omasal digesta of cows fed grass silage-based diets supplemented with 0 (Control) and 250 g/day of fish oil (FO) was examined to investigate the fate of long-chain unsaturated fatty acids in the rumen. Complimentary argentation thin-layer chromatography and gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry analysis of fatty acid methyl esters and corresponding 4,4-dimethyloxazoline derivatives prepared from fish oil and omasal digesta enabled the structure of novel 20- to 22-carbon fatty acids to be elucidated. Compared with the Control, the FO treatment resulted in the formation and accumulation of 27 novel 20- and 22-carbon biohydrogenation intermediates containing at least one trans double bond and the appearance of cis-14 20:1, 20:2n-3, 21:4n-3 and 22:3n-6 not contained in fish oil. No conjugated ≥ 20-carbon fatty acids were detected in Control or FO digesta. In conclusion, fish oil in the diet results in the formation of numerous long-chain biohydrogenation intermediates in the rumen of lactating cows. Comparison of the intake and flow of 20-, 21- and 22-carbon fatty acids at the omasum in cows fed the Control and FO treatments suggests that the first committed steps of 20:5n-3, 21:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 hydrogenation in the rumen involve the reduction and/or isomerisation of double bonds closest to the carboxyl group.

  14. Occurrence of 13 volatile organic compounds in foods from the Canadian total diet study.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xu-Liang; Sparling, Melissa; Dabeka, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are ubiquitous in the environment due to evaporation and incomplete combustion of fuels, use of consumer and personal care products, etc. and they can accumulate in foods. Some VOCs in foods can also be formed during food processing and preparation and migrate from food packaging. In this pilot study, a GC-MS method based on headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was validated and used to analyse selected individual foods which can be consumed directly and 153 different total diet composite food samples for 13 VOCs. Vinyl chloride was not detected in any of the 153 composite food samples, while the other 12 VOCs were detected at various frequencies, with m-xylene being the most frequently detected (in 151 of the 153 samples), followed by toluene (145), 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (140), ethylbenzene (139), styrene (133), 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene (122), benzene (96), p-dichlorobenzene (95), n-butylbenzene (55), chloroform (45), naphthalene (45) and trichloroethylene (31). Concentrations of the 12 VOCs in most of the food composite samples were low, with the 90th percentiles from 1.6 ng g(-1) for n-butylbenzene to 20 ng g(-1) for toluene. However, some VOCs were detected at higher levels with maxima, for example, of 948 ng g(-1) for m-xylene and 320 ng g(-1) for ethylbenzene in chewing gum, 207 ng g(-1) for styrene and 157 ng g(-1) for toluene in herbs and spices. VOCs were detected at higher levels in most of the individual food items than their corresponding composite samples, for example, the average chloroform concentration in the individual canned soft drinks was 20 ng g(-1) compared with 3.0 ng g(-1) in their composite, and the average toluene concentration in the individual canned citrus juice was 96 ng g(-1) compared with 0.68 ng g(-1) in their composite. Thus, for determination of VOCs in foods which can be consumed directly, their individual food items should be analysed whenever possible for accurate

  15. Survey of total mercury in some edible fish and shellfish species collected in Canada in 2002.

    PubMed

    Dabeka, R; McKenzie, A D; Forsyth, D S; Conacher, H B S

    2004-05-01

    Total mercury was measured in the edible portions of 244 selected fish and shellfish purchased in Canada at the retail level. By species, average mercury concentrations ranged from 0.011 microg g(-1) for oysters to 1.82 microg g(-1) for swordfish. The predatory fish contained the highest concentrations of mercury: swordfish (mean 1.82 microg g(-1), range 0.40-3.85 microg g(-1)), marlin (1.43, 0.34-3.19 microg g(-1)), shark (1.26, 0.087-2.73 microg g(-1)), and canned, fresh and frozen tuna (0.35, 0.020-2.12 microg g(-1)). Levels of mercury in the fresh and frozen tuna contained a mean of 0.93 microg g(-1) (range 0.077-2.12 microg g(-1)) and were substantially higher than in the canned tuna (0.15, 0.02-0.59 microg g(-1)). In the canned tuna, mercury concentrations varied with subspecies, with the highest average concentrations being found in Albacore tuna (mean 0.26 microg g(-1), range 0.19-0.38 microg g(-1)) and the lowest (0.047, 0.025-0.069 microg g(-1)) in five samples for which the subspecies of tuna were not identified. Mean concentrations of mercury in swordfish and fresh and frozen tuna were up to three times higher than reported for the USA. Dietary intake estimations found that provided fresh and frozen tuna, marlin, swordfish or shark are consumed once a month or less, the dietary intakes of total mercury by women of child-bearing age, averaged over 1 month, would fall below the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives provisional tolerable weekly intake for total mercury. The current Canadian advisory to children and women of child-bearing age is to limit their consumption of fresh and frozen tuna, swordfish and shark to no more than one meal per month.

  16. Decreasing the number of small eating occasions (<15 % of total energy intake) regardless of the time of day may be important to improve diet quality but not adiposity: a cross-sectional study in British children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Kentaro; Livingstone, M Barbara E

    2016-01-28

    Evidence of associations between meal frequency (MF) and snack frequency (SF) and diet and obesity in young populations is limited. This cross-sectional study examined MF and SF in relation to dietary intake and adiposity measures in British children aged 4-10 years (n 818) and adolescents aged 11-18 years (n 818). Based on data from a 7-d weighed dietary record, all eating occasions were divided into meals or snacks on the basis of contribution to energy intake (≥15 or <15 %) or time (06.00-10.00, 12.00-15.00 and 18.00-21.00 hours or others). All measures of MF and SF showed positive associations with energy intake, except for MF based on energy contribution in children. Irrespective of the definition of snacks, SF was associated with higher intakes of soft drinks, confectionery and total sugar, lower intakes of cereals, fish, meat, protein, PUFA, starch and dietary fibre, and a lower diet quality (assessed by the Mediterranean diet score, except for SF based on energy contribution in adolescents). MF based on time, but not based on energy contribution, was associated with higher intakes of confectionery and total sugar, lower intakes of fish, protein, PUFA and starch, and, only in children, a lower diet quality. All measures of MF and SF showed no association with adiposity measures. In conclusion, this cross-sectional study in British children and adolescents suggests that decreasing the number of small eating occasions (<15 % of total energy intake) regardless of the time of day may be important to improve diet quality but not adiposity.

  17. Effects of Single Cell Protein Replacing Fish Meal in Diet on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Intestinal Morphology in Weaned Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, H. Y.; Piao, X. S.; Li, P.; Yi, J. Q.; Zhang, Q.; Li, Q. Y.; Liu, J. D.; Wang, G. Q.

    2013-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the ME value, standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) of fish meal, and the effects of single cell protein (Prosin and Protide) replacing fish meal in diet on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and intestinal morphology in weaned piglets. In Exp. 1, twenty-four barrows with initial BW of 30.8±2.6 kg were allotted to one of four dietary treatments. Diet 1 contained corn as the only energy source. The other three diets replaced 20% of the corn in diet 1 with one of the three protein feeds (fish meal, Prosin and Protide), and the DE and ME contents were determined by difference. In Exp. 2, eight barrows (initial BW of 25.6±3.2 kg) were fitted with ileal T-cannulas and allotted to a replicated 4×4 Latin square design. Three cornstarch-based diets were formulated using each of the protein feeds as the sole source of AA. A nitrogen-free diet was also formulated to measure endogenous losses of AA. In Exp. 3, one hundred and eighty piglets (initial BW of 7.95±1.59 kg) weaned at 28±2 d were blocked by weight and assigned to one of five treatments for a 28-d growth performance study, each treatment was fed to six pens with six pigs (three barrows and three gilts) per pen. The five treatments consisted of the control group (CON), which was a corn-soybean meal diet containing 5% fish meal, and the other four treatments, which replaced a set amount of fish meal with either Prosin (2.5% or 5%) or Protide (2.5% or 5%). The diets were formulated to provide same nutrient levels. The results showed that on a DM basis, both of the DE and ME contents were lower in Prosin and Protide than that of fish meal (p<0.05). The SID of CP and all essential AA were greater in fish meal than in Prosin and Protide (p<0.05). The pigs fed CON diet had greater weight gain and lower feed conversion rate (FCR) than pigs fed 5% Prosin and 5% Protide diets (p<0.05). The digestibility of CP was greater in pigs fed CON, 2

  18. Little Galloo Island, Lake Ontario: Two decades of studies on the diet, fish consumption, and management of double-crested cormorants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, James H.; McCullough, Russell D.; Farquhar, James F.; Mazzocchi, Irene

    2015-01-01

    The double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) colony at Little Galloo Island, Lake Ontario has been a Great Lakes focal point of controversy regarding cormorant–fish interactions for over two decades. We examined cormorant diet and fish consumption at the colony from 1992 to 2013. During this time period, two events, management actions and round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) invasion, occurred that affected the number of fish consumed by cormorants and their diet composition. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of round goby on the feeding ecology of cormorants and evaluate the efficacy of management actions on meeting cormorant population targets at the colony. Round goby first appeared in the diet in 2004 (0.8%) and within one year were the primary prey (29.3%). The presence of round goby in the diet of cormorants: (1) eliminated seasonal variability in diet composition, (2) reversed seasonal trends in the number of fish consumed daily, (3) increased daily fish consumption, and (4) significantly reduced the consumption of other species including yellow perch and smallmouth bass. Management actions, such as egg oiling and culling, were also effective in reducing nesting activity and the number of cormorant feeding days at the Little Galloo Island colony. There is evidence that the combination of management actions and round goby may have allowed some population recovery of yellow perch and smallmouth bass in eastern Lake Ontario.

  19. From yellow perch to round goby: A review of double-crested cormorant diet and fish consumption at three St. Lawrence River colonies, 1999–2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, James H.; Farquhar, James F; Klindt, Rodger M; Mazzocchi, Irene; Mathers, Alastair

    2015-01-01

    The number of double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) in the upper St. Lawrence River has increased markedly since the early 1990s. In 1999, a binational study was initiated to examine the annual diet composition and fish consumption of cormorants at colonies in the upper river. Since 1999, 14,032 cormorant pellets, collected from May through September each year, have been examined from St. Lawrence River colonies to estimate fish consumption and determine temporal and spatial variation in diet. Seasonal variation in diet composition within a colony was low. Prior to 2006 yellow perch was the primary fish consumed by cormorants in the upper St. Lawrence River. Round goby were first observed in cormorant diets in 2003 and by 2006 were the main fish consumed at two of the three colonies. The time interval it took from the first appearance of round goby in the diet at a colony to when goby were the dominant prey species varied by island, ranging from two to five years. Daily fish consumption at each cormorant colony increased significantly from the pre-round goby to post-round goby period. The mean annual biomass of yellow perch consumed decreased significantly during the post-round goby period at the three colonies. Reduced consumption of yellow perch by cormorants may alleviate suspected localized impacts on perch near some of the larger river colonies.

  20. Tuna fish diet influences cat behavior. [Elevated levels of selenium and mercury in commercial tuna fish cat food

    SciTech Connect

    Houpt, K.A.; Essick, L.A.; Shaw, E.B.; Alo, D.K.; Gilmartin, J.E.; Gutenmann, W.H.; Littman, C.B.; Lisk, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    When observed in their home cages, cats fed commercial tuna fish cat food were less active, vocalized less, and spent more time on the floor and more time eating than cats fed commercial beef cat food. There were no differences in response to human handling between the two groups. There were no differences in learning ability on a two-choice point maze or in reversal learning in the same maze between beef- and tuna-fed cats. The behavior of the groups differed in a 15-min open field test only in the number of toys contacted. Cats fed the tuna had elevated tissue levels of mercury and selenium.

  1. Effects of totally synthetic, low phenylalanine diet on adolescent phenylketonuric patients

    PubMed Central

    McKean, Charles M.

    1971-01-01

    The long-term responses of 5 adolescent phenylketonuric patients to chemically-defined, synthetic diets with normal and low phenylalanine content were determined. The synthetic preparations were found capable of sustaining good health and rapid growth in this group of profoundly retarded, behaviourally disturbed patients over a 3½-year period without clinical or biochemical evidence of nutritional inadequacy. 4 of these patients who were treated for 6 months on a comparable diet, in which 80% of the phenylalanine was replaced by tyrosine, continued to show weight maintenance and height increases. There was no evidence of poor acceptability of the imbalanced diet, whether the blood phenylalanine concentrations were at phenylketonuric or treatment levels. The phenylalanine intake required to maintain blood phenylalanine concentrations of 3-5 mg/100 ml in these 4 patients was well below normal requirements, and ranged between 6·8 and 20·1 mg/kg per day. Predictably, the phenylalanine requirement varied with individual growth rates. All 4 treated patients had objective signs of improved central nervous system function during the six-month period on the phenylalanine-restricted diet. These electrophysiological and behavioural improvements were manifest after blood phenylalanine concentrations fell below 12 mg/100 ml in 3 cases and below 5 mg/100 ml in the fourth. PMID:5118048

  2. Effects of replacing fish meal by soybean meal along with supplementing phosphorus and magnesium in diet on growth performance of Persian sturgeon, Acipenser persicus.

    PubMed

    Imanpoor, Mohamad Reza; Bagheri, Tahere

    2012-04-01

    Looking for replacing fish meal by cheaper and more sustainable protein sources is essential for reducing the cost of fish feeds. Soybean meal is a suitable alternative protein sources for carnivorous fish such as Persian sturgeon, Acipenser persicus. However, it contains antinutritional factors that may affect bioavailability of minerals and lead in reduced growth. Achieving a cost-effective diet that does not have negative effects on growth is the goal of aquaculture programs. A 10-week experiment was conducted with Persian sturgeon (352.07 ± 5.51 g) to determine the combined effects of phosphorous (SP), magnesium and phosphorous (SPMg), phytase (SF), phytase and magnesium (SFMg), phosphorous and phytase (SPF), phosphorous, magnesium and phytase (SPMgF) on weight gain, feed efficiency, specific growth rate, and condition factor. A control diet was prepared with fish meal as a control group. Inclusion of P, Mg, and phytase contents within soybean diets did not improve feed efficiency, and still, the control diet containing fish meal showed better weight gain and feed efficiency. Among soybean meal groups, feed efficiency and specific growth rate were significantly improved for fish fed the diet containing just phytase (SF) and both phytase and phosphorus (P ≤ 0.05). It was true for specific growth rate and condition factor. Phytase significantly enhanced growth whether included with or without phosphorous. This study showed that fish meal is more sufficient for Persian sturgeon, and soybean meal could be partly an alternative protein source if phosphorous supplied for fish by incorporation with microbial phytase or phosphorous.

  3. Diet and heart health: moderate wine drinking strengthens the cardioprotective effects of fish consumption.

    PubMed

    de Leiris, J; Besse, S; Boucher, F

    2010-12-01

    Growing evidence indicates that the Mediterranean diet is beneficial to human health. Many epidemiological and research studies have reported that this diet pattern is able to limit the development and progression of coronary heart disease, one of the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in both developed and developing countries worldwide. There is now a large consensus about recommending Mediterranean diet to reduce atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease and to limit the risk of fatal complications such as sudden cardiac death and heart failure. This review underlines the role of two of the specific components of the Mediterranean diet, namely marine omega-3 fatty acids and wine, and the link between moderate wine consumption and fatty acid profiles.

  4. Assessment of dietary intake of polychlorinated biphenyls from a total diet study conducted in Pavia, Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Turci, R; Turconi, G; Comizzoli, S; Roggi, C; Minoia, C

    2006-09-01

    The diet is considered to be the main source of body burden of polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) in the general population. The most cost-effective and reliable way to estimate the dietary intake is based on total diet studies (TDSs). The aim of the present study was to provide a reliable estimate of recent average dietary intakes of PCBs in Northern Italy. Congener-specific analysis of PCBs was undertaken on total diet samples collected at the cafeteria of the University of Pavia. The average daily intake for total PCBs was calculated to be 0.26 microg/person day-1. The major contributor to PCB intake was accounted for by pooled samples of bread, cereals and potatoes, followed by the protein composite, and fruit and vegetables. Although diverse dietary habits and differences in sampling and analytical procedures make comparison between different studies difficult, the daily intake of PCBs in Northern Italy can be located in the lower part of the range for values reported in the literature.

  5. Evaluation of standardized ileal digestible valine:lysine, total lysine:crude protein, and replacing fish meal, meat and bone meal, and poultry byproduct meal with crystalline amino acids on growth performance of nursery pigs from seven to twelve kilograms.

    PubMed

    Nemechek, J E; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S; Goodband, R D; DeRouchey, J M

    2014-04-01

    Five experiments were conducted to evaluate replacing fish meal, meat and bone meal, and poultry byproduct meal with crystalline AA for 7- to 12-kg pigs. In all experiments, pigs (PIC TR4 × 1050) were fed a common diet for 3 d postweaning, treatment diets for 14 d (d 0 to 14), and, again, a common diet for 14 d (d 14 to 28). Treatment diets were corn-soybean meal based and formulated to contain 1.30% standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lys. Experiment 1 evaluated replacing dietary fish meal with crystalline AA. For the 6 treatments, crystalline Lys, Met, Thr, Trp, Ile, Val, Gln, and Gly all increased to maintain minimum AA ratios as fish meal decreased (4.50, 3.60, 2.70, 1.80, and 0.90 to 0.00%). There was no difference in ADG, ADFI, or G:F among treatments, validating a low-CP, AA-fortified diet for subsequent experiments. Experiment 2 evaluated deleting crystalline AA from a low-CP, AA-fortified diet with 6 treatments: 1) a positive control similar to the diet validated in Exp. 1, 2) positive control with l-Ile deleted, 3) positive control with l-Trp deleted, 4) positive control with l-Val deleted, 5) positive control with l-Gln and l-Gly deleted, and 6) positive control with l-Ile, l-Trp, l-Val, l-Gln, and l-Gly deleted (NC). Pigs fed the positive control or Ile deleted diet had improved (P < 0.05) ADG and ADFI during d 0 to 14 compared with pigs fed diets with l-Trp or l-Val deleted or NC. Experiment 3 evaluated 6 treatments with total Lys:CP of 6.79, 6.92, 7.06, 7.20, 7.35, and 7.51%. Fish meal was adjusted as a source of dispensable N to achieve the target Lys:CP. There were no differences in growth performance among pigs fed different Lys:CP diets. Experiment 4 evaluated increasing SID Val:Lys with Val at 57.4, 59.9, 62.3, 64.7, 67.2, and 69.6% of Lys. Average daily gain and ADFI increased (quadratic, P < 0.01) and G:F improved (linear, P = 0.02) during d 0 to 14 as Val:Lys increased from 57.4 to 64.7%. Experiment 5 was a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of

  6. Total Western Diet (TWD) alters mechanical and thermal sensitivity and prolongs hypersensitivity following Complete Freund’s Adjuvant in mice

    PubMed Central

    Totsch, Stacie K.; Waite, Megan E.; Tomkovich, Ashleigh; Quinn, Tammie L.; Gower, Barbara A.; Sorge, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and chronic pain are often comorbid and their rates are rising. It is currently unknown whether increased pain is due to greater weight or poor diet quality, or both. Therefore, we utilized a Total Western Diet (TWD) to investigate the functional and physiological consequences of nutritionally-poor diet in mice. During thirteen weeks on the commercially-available TWD, based on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), thresholds of TWD-fed mice significantly increased in both thermal and mechanical tests. Quantitative magnetic resonance (QMR) imaging revealed a significant increase in fat mass with a concomitant decrease in lean mass, in the TWD-fed mice. Additionally, there were significant increases in serum leptin and inflammatory cytokines. Following chronic pain induction using Complete Freund’s Adjuvant (CFA), hypersensitivity was more pronounced and significantly prolonged in the TWD-fed mice. Therefore, prolonged exposure to poor diet quality resulted in altered acute nociceptive sensitivity, systemic inflammation and persistent pain following inflammatory pain induction. PMID:26597348

  7. Can diet-dependent factors help explain fish-to-fish variation in thiamine-dependent early mortality syndrome?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, S.B.; Arts, M.T.; Brown, L.R.; Brown, M.; Moore, K.; Villella, M.; Fitzsimons, J.D.; Honeyfield, D.C.; Tillitt, D.E.; Zajicek, J.L.; Wolgamood, M.; Hnath, J.G.

    2005-01-01

    To provide insight into the reasons why offspring of certain salmonine females exhibit early mortality syndrome (EMS) in the Great Lakes whereas others do not, we measured the egg concentrations of potential biochemical markers (stable isotopes of nitrogen and carbon, fatty acid signatures, and lipid-soluble carotenoids and vitamins) that are indicative of differing food web and trophic structure. To corroborate the presence of EMS, we also measured the egg content of thiamine vitamers. For all the stocks of coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch and Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha we studied, there was a very high correspondence between EMS and low concentrations of unphosphorylated thiamine in unfertilized eggs. For salmonine stocks in the Platte River, Thompson Creek, and the Swan River, Michigan, small but significant shifts occurred in measures of egg carotenoids, retinoids, ??15N depletion, and fatty acid profiles of fish producing normal offspring relative to those exhibiting EMS. Egg thiamine concentrations in Chinook salmon from the Little Manistee River, Michigan, in the low-EMS group were only marginally above the threshold for EMS induction. Along with this small thiamine differential, there was no evidence of differing food web or dietary factors between EMS-positive and normal Chinook salmon from the Little Manistee River. Further investigations are required to determine the potential dietary sources for the observed differences in biochemical markers between EMS-positive and normal fish. These findings are generally consistent with the hypothesis that a more diverse forage base may help to limit overall dietary content of species that contain thiaminase, such as alewives Alosa pseudoharengus, and may lead to improved embryonic survival for feral salmonids. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  8. [Estimation of dietary intake of radioactive materials by total diet methods].

    PubMed

    Uekusa, Yoshinori; Nabeshi, Hiromi; Tsutsumi, Tomoaki; Hachisuka, Akiko; Matsuda, Rieko; Teshima, Reiko

    2014-01-01

    Radioactive contamination in foods is a matter of great concern after the Tokyo Electric Power Company's Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant disaster caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake. In order to estimate human intake and annual committed effective dose of radioactive materials, market basket and duplicate diet samples from various areas in Japan were analyzed for cesium-134 ((134)Cs), -137 ((137)Cs), and natural radionuclide potassium-40 ((40)K) by γ-ray spectroscopy. Dietary intake of radioactive cesium around Fukushima area was somewhat higher than in other areas. However, maximum committed effective doses obtained by the market basket and duplicate diet samples were 0.0094 and 0.027 mSv/year, respectively, which are much lower than the maximum permissible dose (1 mSv/year) in foods in Japan.

  9. A reusable and sensitive biosensor for total mercury in canned fish based on fluorescence polarization.

    PubMed

    Shen, Tongfei; Yue, Qiaoli; Jiang, Xiuxiu; Wang, Lei; Xu, Shuling; Li, Haibo; Gu, Xiaohong; Zhang, Shuqiu; Liu, Jifeng

    2013-12-15

    In this work, we developed a sensitive and selective sensor technique for total mercury (Hg) detection in canned fish samples based on the fluorescence polarization (FP) method. The detection principle was that ssDNA containing thymine (T) bases was modified on magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), which were used as enhancement probe. In the presence of Hg(2+), the ssDNA on MNPs can hybridize with the fluorophore labeled aptamer owing to the specific interaction between T bases and Hg(2+). The formation of thymine-Hg(2+)-thymine (T-Hg(2+)-T) complexes leads to the molar mass increase of fluorophore molecules, resulting in the enhancement of FP signal. The increase of FP was in a good linearity with the concentration of Hg(2+) in range of 2.0 nM-1.0 mM and the limit of detection was 0.49 nM (3.29 SB/m, according to the recent recommendation of IUPAC). Moreover, the proposed biosensor can be reused for 6 cycling times and was successfully applied in monitoring Hg(2+) in real samples.

  10. You are what you eat: diet-induced chemical crypsis in a coral-feeding reef fish

    PubMed Central

    Brooker, Rohan M.; Munday, Philip L.; Chivers, Douglas P.; Jones, Geoffrey P.

    2015-01-01

    The vast majority of research into the mechanisms of camouflage has focused on forms that confound visual perception. However, many organisms primarily interact with their surroundings using chemosensory systems and may have evolved mechanisms to ‘blend in’ with chemical components of their habitat. One potential mechanism is ‘chemical crypsis' via the sequestration of dietary elements, causing a consumer's odour to chemically match that of its prey. Here, we test the potential for chemical crypsis in the coral-feeding filefish, Oxymonacanthus longirostris, by examining olfactory discrimination in obligate coral-dwelling crabs and a predatory cod. The crabs, which inhabit the corals consumed by O. longirostris, were used as a bioassay to determine the effect of coral diet on fish odour. Crabs preferred the odour of filefish fed their preferred coral over the odour of filefish fed a non-preferred coral, suggesting coral-specific dietary elements that influence odour are sequestered. Crabs also exhibited a similar preference for the odour of filefish fed their preferred coral and odour directly from that coral, suggesting a close chemical match. In behavioural trials, predatory cod were less attracted to filefish odour when presented alongside the coral it had been fed on, suggesting diet can reduce detectability. This is, we believe, the first evidence of diet-induced chemical crypsis in a vertebrate. PMID:25621328

  11. Changes in forage fish community indicated by the diet of the Brandt's cormorant (Phalacrocorax penicillatus) in the central California Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, Meredith L.; Bradley, Russell W.; Robinette, Dan P.; Jahncke, Jaime

    2015-06-01

    The population, productivity and diet of two Brandt's cormorant (Phalacrocorax penicillatus) colonies located in the central California Current were compared. The offshore colony on Southeast Farallon Island has experienced a declining population over time and anomalously low productivity in recent years. The nearshore colony near Point Arguello has been increasing and its productivity has remained stable. The diets of cormorants at the two colonies elucidated by analysis of regurgitated pellets, while different, have shown similar decreases in the consumption of northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax) since 2008, followed by increased consumption of rockfish (Sebastes spp.) and flatfish (order Pleuronectiformes). By using the diet results from another seabird nesting in central California, the rhinoceros auklet (Cerorhinca monocerata), and one from which whole fish can be obtained, we found that the rockfish species assemblage has changed with offshore rockfish species decreasing while nearshore ones have increased. This change in the rockfish species has negatively impacted Brandt's cormorants at the offshore colony by forcing them to make longer foraging trips to meet energy needs of themselves and their chicks; this has led to low breeding success and a declining population at this site. On the other hand, the nearshore colony has abundant nearby food resources, and it has prospered. These results underscore the value of using seabird data from multiple colonies to better understand changes occurring in the marine environment.

  12. You are what you eat: diet-induced chemical crypsis in a coral-feeding reef fish.

    PubMed

    Brooker, Rohan M; Munday, Philip L; Chivers, Douglas P; Jones, Geoffrey P

    2015-01-22

    The vast majority of research into the mechanisms of camouflage has focused on forms that confound visual perception. However, many organisms primarily interact with their surroundings using chemosensory systems and may have evolved mechanisms to 'blend in' with chemical components of their habitat. One potential mechanism is 'chemical crypsis' via the sequestration of dietary elements, causing a consumer's odour to chemically match that of its prey. Here, we test the potential for chemical crypsis in the coral-feeding filefish, Oxymonacanthus longirostris, by examining olfactory discrimination in obligate coral-dwelling crabs and a predatory cod. The crabs, which inhabit the corals consumed by O. longirostris, were used as a bioassay to determine the effect of coral diet on fish odour. Crabs preferred the odour of filefish fed their preferred coral over the odour of filefish fed a non-preferred coral, suggesting coral-specific dietary elements that influence odour are sequestered. Crabs also exhibited a similar preference for the odour of filefish fed their preferred coral and odour directly from that coral, suggesting a close chemical match. In behavioural trials, predatory cod were less attracted to filefish odour when presented alongside the coral it had been fed on, suggesting diet can reduce detectability. This is, we believe, the first evidence of diet-induced chemical crypsis in a vertebrate.

  13. A macadamia nut-rich diet reduces total and LDL-cholesterol in mildly hypercholesterolemic men and women.

    PubMed

    Griel, Amy E; Cao, Yumei; Bagshaw, Deborah D; Cifelli, Amy M; Holub, Bruce; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2008-04-01

    Epidemiologic studies and clinical trials have demonstrated that the unique fatty acid profile of nuts beneficially affects serum lipids/lipoproteins, reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Nuts are low in SFA and high in PUFA and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). Macadamia nuts are a rich source of MUFA. A randomized, crossover, controlled feeding study (5-wk diet periods) compared a Macadamia nut-rich diet [42.5 g (1.5 ounces)/8.79 MJ (2100 kcal)] [MAC; 33% total fat (7% SFA, 18% MUFA, 5% PUFA)] vs. an average American diet [AAD; 33% total fat (13% SFA, 11% MUFA, 5% PUFA)] on the lipid/lipoprotein profile of mildly hypercholesterolemic (n = 25; 15 female, 10 male) subjects. Serum concentrations of total cholesterol (TC) and LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) following the MAC (4.94 +/- 0.17 mmol/L, 3.14 +/- 0.14 mmol/L) were lower than the AAD (5.45 +/- 0.17 mmol/L, 3.44 +/- 0.14 mmol/L; P < 0.05). The serum non-HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration and the ratios of TC:HDL-C and LDL-C:HDL-C were reduced following consumption of the MAC diet (3.83 +/- 0.17, 4.60 +/- 0.24, and 2.91 +/- 0.17, respectively) compared with the AAD (4.26 +/- 0.17, 4.89 +/- 0.24, and 3.09 +/- 0.18, respectively; P < 0.05). There was no change in serum triglyceride concentration. Thus, macadamia nuts can be included in a heart-healthy dietary pattern that reduces lipid/lipoprotein CVD risk factors. Nuts as an isocaloric substitute for high SFA foods increase the proportion of unsaturated fatty acids and decrease SFA, thereby lowering CVD risk.

  14. Improvement of nutritive value of grass pea (Lathyrus sativus) seed meal in the formulated diets for rohu, Labeo rohita (Hamilton) fingerlings after fermentation with a fish gut bacterium.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, S; Bairagi, A; Ray, A K

    2005-09-01

    Eight isonitrogenous (35% crude protein approximately) and isocaloric (4.0 kcalg(-1) approximately) diets were formulated incorporating raw and fermented grass pea (Lathyrus sativus) seed meal at 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% levels by weight into a fish meal based diet and fed to rohu, Labeo rohita, fingerlings for 80 days and fish performance was studied. A particular bacterial strain (Bacillus sp.) isolated from the intestine of adult common carp (Cyprinus carpio) reared in the wild having significant amylolytic, cellulolytic, lipolytic and proteolytic activities were used for fermentation of seed meal for 15 days at 37 degrees C. Fermentation of grass pea seed meal was effective in significantly reducing the crude fibre content and anti-nutritional factors, such as tannins, phytic acid and the neurotoxin, beta-ODAP and enhancing the available free amino acids and fatty acids. In terms of growth response, feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio, 30% fermented grass pea seed meal incorporated diet resulted in significantly (P < 0.05) better performance of rohu fingerlings. In general, growth and feed utilization efficiencies of fish fed diets containing fermented seed meal were superior to those fed diets containing raw seed meal. The apparent protein digestibility (APD) values decreased with increasing levels of raw seed meal in the diets. The APD for raw seed meal was lower at all levels of inclusion in comparison to those for the fermented seed meals. The highest deposition of carcass protein was recorded in fish fed the diet containing 40% fermented seed meal. The results indicated that fermented grass pea seed meal can be incorporated in carp diets up to 30% level compared to 10% level of raw seed meal.

  15. Effect of estrogenic activity, and phytoestrogen and organochlorine pesticide contents in an experimental fish diet on reproduction and hepatic vitellogenin production in medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    PubMed

    Inudo, Makiko; Ishibashi, Hiroshi; Matsumura, Naomi; Matsuoka, Munekazu; Mori, Taiki; Taniyama, Shigeto; Kadokami, Kiwao; Koga, Minoru; Shinohara, Ryota; Hutchinson, T H; Iguchi, Taisen; Arizono, Koji

    2004-12-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are giving rise to serious concerns for humans and wildlife. Phytoestrogens, such as daidzein and genistein in plants, and organochlorine pesticides are suspected EDCs, because their chemical structure is similar to that of natural or synthetic estrogens and they have estrogenic activity in vitro and in vivo. We assessed estrogenic activity and dietary phytoestrogen and organochlorine pesticide contents of various fish diets made in the United Kingdom, and compared them with those features of diets made in Japan that were tested in a previous study. Genistein and daidzein were detected in all of the diets. Using an in vitro bioassay, many of these diets had higher activation of estrogen beta-receptors than estrogen alpha-receptors. Organochlorine pesticides such as hexachlorobenzene, beta-benzene hexachloride (BHC), and gamma-BHC were detected in all fish diets. On the basis of these data, we investigated the effect of differing dietary phytoestrogen content in Japanese fish diets on hepatic vitellogenin production and reproduction (fecundity and fertility) in medaka (Oryzias latipes). Assessment of the effects of a 28-day feeding period on reproduction of paired medaka did not indicate significant differences in the number of eggs produced and fertility among all feeding groups. However, hepatic vitellogenin values were significantly higher for male medaka fed diet C (genistein, 58.5 +/- 0.6 microg/g; daidzein, 37.3 +/- 0.2 microg/g) for 28 days compared with those fed diet A (genistein, < 0.8 microg/g; daidzein, < 0.8 microg/g) or diet B (genistein, 1.4 +/- 0.1 microg/g; daidzein, 2.0 +/- 0.1 microg/g). Our findings indicate that fish diets containing high amounts of phytoestrogens, such as diet C, have the potential to induce hepatic vitellogenin production in male medaka, even if reproductive parameters are unaffected. Therefore, some diets, by affecting vitellogenin production in males, may alter estrogenic activity of in

  16. An evaluation of extraction techniques for arsenic in staple diets (fish and rice) utilising both classical and enzymatic extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Sadee, Bashdar A; Foulkes, Mike E; Hill, Steve J

    2016-01-01

    Enzymatic extraction methods were evaluated with classical extraction approaches for the determination of arsenic in food. The extraction efficiency for total arsenic was determined by analysing CRM materials DORM-3 fish protein, NIES 106 rice flour and GBW10015 spinach. These were compared with total arsenic concentration determined using microwave-assisted acid digestion and ICP-MS. The total arsenic concentrations in the CRM materials were in good agreement with the certified values. Enzymatic hydrolysis using trypsin has been successfully employed to extract arsenic species in DORM-3 and fish samples. Whilst this method of hydrolysing the proteins worked well for the fish samples, an alternative approach was required to facilitate the digestion of cellulose in plant materials. However, enzymatic extraction using cellulase was found to give unsatisfactory results for both the NIES and GBW10015 CRM materials. Dilute nitric acid (1% HNO3) was found to give a more efficient extraction for arsenic species in the same CRM materials and rice samples. The study was extended to evaluate a range of real samples. Total arsenic concentrations in 13 different types of fish tissue were determined following microwave-assisted acid digestion using nitric acid/hydrogen peroxide, followed by measurement using HPLC-ICP-MS for speciation analysis. The results obtained for fish were in the range of 3.53-98.80 µg g(-1) As (dry weight). Similarly, the results of 17 rice samples were in the range of 0.054-0.823 µg g(-1). This study demonstrates the importance of selecting an appropriate extraction technique for the quantitative measurement of arsenic species in food.

  17. Fish are central in the diet of Amazonian riparians: should we worry about their mercury concentrations?

    PubMed

    Dorea, Jose G

    2003-07-01

    The Amazon rain forest extends over an area of 7.8x10(6)km(2) in nine countries. It harbors a diverse human population distributed in dense cities and isolated communities with extreme levels of infrastructure. Amazonian forest people, either autochthons or frontier riparians (ribeirinhos) living in isolated areas, share the same environment for survival and nutritional status. The peculiarities of the hydrological cycle determine disease patterns, agricultural conditions, and food availability. Feeding strategies depend heavily on cassava products and fish. These two foods carry toxic substances such as linamarin (naturally present in cassava) and monomethyl mercury (MMHg) (bioconcentrated in fish flesh) that cause neurotoxic diseases in other parts of the world but not in Amazonia, where neurotoxic cases of food origin are rare and not related to these staples. While cassava detoxification processes may partly explain its safe consumption, the Hg concentrations in Amazonian fish are within traditionally safe limits for this population and contribute to an important metabolic interaction with cassava. The gold rush of the 1970s and 1980s brought large-scale environmental disruption and physical destruction of ecosystems at impact points, along with a heavy discharge of metallic Hg. The discharged Hg has not yet impacted on MMHg concentrations in fish or in hair of fish consumers. Hair Hg concentration, used as a biomarker of fish consumption, indicates that the Amazonian riparians are acquiring an excellent source of protein carrying important nutrients, the lack of which could aggravate their existing health problems. Therefore, in a scenario of insufficient health services and an unhealthy environment, food habits based on fish consumption are part of a successful survival strategy and recommendations for changes are not yet justifiable.

  18. Performance and apparent total tract phosphorus and calcium digestibility in grower-finisher pigs fed diets with and without phytase.

    PubMed

    Kühn, I; Männer, K

    2012-12-01

    The efficacy of a thermotolerant 6-phytase on performance and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of P and Ca was evaluated in 96 crossbred barrows (8 replicates with 3 pigs each) fed 4 diets. Diets based on corn (Zea mays), a heat-treated grain mix, and soybean (Glycine max) meal with recommended [positive control (PC)] or reduced [negative control (NC)] P and Ca levels were fed from 25 to 115 kg BW. The PC diets contained 0.61% P and 0.72% Ca from 25 to 45 kg, 0.59% P and 0.66% Ca from 45 to 70 kg, and 0.48% P and 0.51% Ca from 70 kg to final BW. The NC diets were reduced in digestible P by 2.0, 2.0, and 1.1 g/kg and in Ca by 1.4, 1.0, and 0.8 g/kg, respectively, for the 3 phases. Phytase was added at 0, 250, and 500 phytase units (FTU)/kg to the NC diet. Performance was measured at the end of each feeding period and ATTD of P and Ca evaluated for a 3-d collection following a 7-d adaptation at an average BW of 45, 70, and 116 kg. Final BW of NC pigs (111.9 kg) was increased (P < 0.05) by P addition (120.3 kg; PC) and by phytase inclusion at both rates (116.5 and 117.6 kg, respectively). The ADG of NC pigs (781 g) was increased (P < 0.05) by both phytase levels (5.5 and 6.6%); pigs fed 500 FTU/kg achieved similar ADG as PC pigs (833 and 858 g, respectively). The G:F was reduced (P < 0.05) in NC pigs (0.308) compared to pigs fed the PC diet (0.328) or diets with 250 or 500 FTU phytase/kg (0.324 and 0.330, respectively). The ATTD of P was lowest in all periods for pigs fed NC diets (35.5% in starter, 32.2% in grower, and 32.1% in finisher period). Phytase increased (P < 0.05) ATTD of P in all periods at both application rates. Pigs fed 500 FTU/kg diet had a higher (P < 0.05) ATTD of P than pigs fed 250 FTU/kg and an ATTD of P at least similar to pigs fed PC. Similar but less pronounced effects were observed for ATTD of Ca. The phytase added to grower-finisher diets with reduced P and Ca nearly restored performance to the level of pigs fed diets with adequate P

  19. Effects of commonly used cooking practices on total mercury concentration in fish and their impact on exposure assessments.

    PubMed

    Morgan, J N; Berry, M R; Graves, R L

    1997-01-01

    The effects of cooking practices commonly used by Native Americans on total mercury concentrations in fish were investigated. A preparation factor relating mercury concentrations in fish as prepared for consumption to mercury concentration data as measured in typical environmental monitoring programs was calculated. Preparation factors are needed to provide risk assessors with a more accurate estimate of the actual amount of mercury ingested through consumption of contaminated fish. Data on fish preparation and consumption practices of two communities of Chippewa residing on the shores of Lake Superior in northern Wisconsin were used to select practices for study. The most commonly consumed species, walleye and lake trout, were selected. Whitefish livers were also selected for study. Commonly used cooking techniques including panfrying, deep-frying, baking, boiling, and smoking were duplicated in the laboratory. Total mercury concentrations were determined in fish portions before and after cooking and in a portion representative of that analyzed in programs to assess water quality (skin-on fillets). Total mercury was determined by microwave digestion-cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy. Mercury concentrations (wet weight basis) in panfried, baked, and boiled walleye fillets and deep-fried and baked whitefish livers ranged from 1.1 to 1.5 times higher than in corresponding raw portions. In lake trout, mercury concentrations were 1.5 to 2.0 times higher in cooked portions than in the raw portion. However, total mercury levels were constant before and after cooking, indicating the concentration effect is caused by weight (moisture and fat) loss. The addition of lemon juice to potentially release mercury from its bound state and promote volatilization did not exert any measurable influence on mercury concentrations in cooked walleye. In some cases mercury concentrations were increased with increased cooking times due to further loss of moisture and fat

  20. Dietary supplementation with fish oil alters the expression levels of proteins governing mitochondrial dynamics and prevents high-fat diet-induced endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ruifang; Wang, Xiaoming; Liu, Yan; Xia, Min

    2014-07-28

    Diets supplemented with fish oil (FO), which is rich in n-3 PUFA, have been shown to modify several key risk factors for CVD. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of FO supplementation on mitochondrial dynamic protein expression in the endothelium and on endothelial cell function. Male apoE-deficient (apoE-/-) mice (8 weeks old, n 12 per group) were fed a high-fat diet containing 45% fat (HFD group) or a HFD with partial replacement of lard with 10% (w/w) FO (FO group) (total EPA and DHA content 64.1 g/kg) for 8 weeks. ApoE-/- mice in the FO group had a greater endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation response to acetylcholine (Ach) than those in the HFD group. The atherosclerotic lesion volume in the aortic sinus of mice in the FO group was 54% lower than that in the HFD group (P< 0.01). In addition, the aortas isolated from mice in the FO group had higher expression levels of Mfn2 and Opa1 but lower expression levels of Fis1 than those from the HFD group. Compared with mice fed the HFD, those fed the FO diet showed significantly lower levels of mitochondrial oxidative stress, cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activity (each P< 0.05). Furthermore, FO-fed mice displayed increased NO release and availability and enhanced endothelial NO synthase activity compared with HFD-fed mice. Taken together, these results reveal a novel mechanism by which FO protects against endothelial cell dysfunction, which may result in improved mitochondrial dynamics.

  1. The effect of supplementing organic diets with fish meal and premix on the performance of pigs and some meat and blood characteristics.

    PubMed

    Grela, E R; Matras, J; Pisarski, R K; Sobolewska, S

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of fish meal and mineral-vitamin premix, supplementing organic diets, on the performance of pigs and some meat and blood characteristics. The experiment was conducted on an organic pig fattening farm. The study involved 120 pigs with an approximate 25 kg body weight. Animals were divided into 3 groups, kept in pens, 10 animals each. Group I (control) animals were fed with plant feedstuffs of organic origin. Diets for group II and III were enriched with fish meal or fish meal and vitamin-mineral premix, respectively. The experiment was carried out till pigs reached a weight of 115 kg. Feed samples were subjected to laboratory analyses. Body weight (3 times) and feed intake were recorded. Blood samples were collected (2 times) to determine hematological and biochemical indices. Some parameters in meat samples were also determined. The fish meal addition improved (P < or = 0.05) the average daily gains as well as feed conversion ratio during fattening period and mineral-vitamin premix significantly (P < or = 0.05) fortified fish meal influence. Fish meal supplement improved (P < or = 0.05) also some carcass characteristics. Supplementation of the diet with premix additionally decreased (P < or = 0.05) backfat thickness and increased share of meat in carcass. Fish meal improved (P < or = 0.05) some meat characteristics and elevated content of some polyunsaturated fatty acids. An increase in hemoglobin, red blood cell, white blood cell and cholesterol level in blood of animals from both experimental groups were also found. The results obtained proved the usefulness of fish meal and mineral-vitamin premix in the fatteners nutrition based on organic diets.

  2. Effects of tallow, choice white grease, palm oil, corn oil, or soybean oil on apparent total tract digestibility of minerals in diets fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Merriman, L A; Walk, C L; Parsons, C M; Stein, H H

    2016-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of supplementing diets fed to growing pigs with fat sources differing in their composition of fatty acids on the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of minerals. A diet based on corn, potato protein isolate, and 7% sucrose was formulated. Five additional diets that were similar to the previous diet with the exception that sucrose was replaced by 7% tallow, choice white grease, palm oil, corn oil, or soybean oil were also formulated. Diets were formulated to contain 0.70% Ca and 0.33% standardized total tract digestible P. Growing barrows ( = 60; 15.99 ± 1.48 kg initial BW) were allotted to a randomized complete block design with 2 blocks of 30 pigs, 6 dietary treatments, and 10 replicate pigs per treatment. Experimental diets were provided for 12 d with the initial 5 d being the adaptation period. Total feces were collected for a 5-d collection period using the marker-to-marker approach, and the ATTD of minerals, ether extract, and acid hydrolyzed ether extract was calculated for all diets. Digestibility of DM was greater ( < 0.05) in the diet containing soybean oil compared with the diet containing choice white grease or the basal diet, with all other diets being intermediate. The ATTD of Ca, S, and P was greater ( < 0.05) for pigs fed diets containing soybean oil, corn oil, palm oil, or tallow than for pigs fed the basal diet or the diet containing choice white grease. The ATTD of Mg, Zn, Mn, Na, and K were not different among dietary treatments. The ATTD of ether extract was greater ( < 0.05) in diets containing palm oil, corn oil, or soybean oil compared with the diet containing choice white grease, and the ATTD of acid hydrolyzed ether extract in the diet containing soybean oil was also greater ( < 0.05) than in the diet containing choice white grease. In conclusion, supplementation of a basal diet with tallow, palm oil, corn oil, or soybean oil may increase the ATTD of some macrominerals, but that

  3. Estimation of uncertainty of a reference material for proficiency testing for the determination of total mercury in fish in nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santana, L. V.; Sarkis, J. E. S.; Ulrich, J. C.; Hortellani, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    We provide an uncertainty estimates for homogeneity and stability studies of reference material used in proficiency test for determination of total mercury in fish fresh muscle tissue. Stability was estimated by linear regression and homogeneity by ANOVA. The results indicate that the reference material is both homogeneous and chemically stable over the short term. Total mercury concentration of the muscle tissue, with expanded uncertainty, was 0.294 ± 0.089 μg g-1.

  4. Analysis of stable isotopes in fish mucus during a controlled diet switch

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have used a controlled diet switch in steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) at the Oregon Hatchery Research Center to study the time rates of changes in stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen (13C and 15N) in epidermal mucus, a rapidly responding “tissue.” Because of the ra...

  5. Application of diet theory reveals context-dependent foraging preferences in an herbivorous coral reef fish.

    PubMed

    Hanmer, John; White, J Wilson; Pawlik, Joseph R

    2017-03-23

    Dietary preferences of grazers can drive spatial variability in top-down control of autotroph communities, because diet composition may depend on the relative availability of autotroph species. On Caribbean coral reefs, parrotfish grazing is important in limiting macroalgae, but parrotfish dietary preferences are poorly understood. We applied diet-switching analysis to quantify the foraging preferences of the redband parrotfish (Sparisoma aurofrenatum). At 12 Caribbean reefs, we observed 293 redband parrotfish in 5-min feeding bouts and quantified relative benthic algal cover using quadrats. The primary diet items were macroalgal turfs, Halimeda spp., and foliose macroalgae (primarily Dictyota spp. and Lobophora spp.). When each resource was evaluated independently, there were only weak relationships between resource cover and foraging effort (number of bites taken). Electivity for each resource also showed no pattern, varying from positive (preference for the resource) to negative (avoidance) across sites. However, a diet-switching analysis consisting of pairwise comparisons of relative cover and relative foraging effort revealed clearer patterns: parrotfish (a) preferred Halimeda and macroalgal turfs equally, and those two resources were highly substitutable; (b) preferred Halimeda to foliose macroalgae, but those two resources were complementary; and (c) also preferred turf to foliose macroalgae, and those resources were also complementary. Thus parrotfish grazing rates depend on relative, not absolute, abundance of macroalgal types, due to differences in substitutability among resources. Application of similar analyses may help predict potential changes in foraging effort of benthic grazers over spatial gradients that could inform expectations for reef recovery following the protection of herbivore populations.

  6. Fish mucus as a rapidly responding tissue in diet switching studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    We are using stable isotopes of C, N, O and S (H planned) to study the ecology of coho salmon in streams of the Oregon Coast Range. One aspect of our work focuses on the incorporation of marine-derived nutrients into the diet of overwintering coho salmon juveniles. These studie...

  7. Fish mucus as a rapid responding tissue in diet switching studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    We are using stable isotopes of C, N, O and S (H planned) to study the ecology of coho salmon in streams of the Oregon Coast Range. One aspect of our work focuses on the incorporation of marine-derived nutrients into the diet of overwintering coho salmon juveniles. These studie...

  8. Stable isotope analysis of fish mucus during a controlled diet switch

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have used a controlled diet switch in steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) at the Oregon Hatchery Research Center to study the time rates of changes in stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen (13C and 15N) in epidermal mucus, a rapidly responding “tissue.” Because of the ra...

  9. Comparing the effects of feeding a grain- or a fish meal-based diet on water quality, waste production, and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss performance within low exchange water recirculating aquaculture systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feeding a fish meal-free grain-based diet (GB) was compared to feeding a fish meal-based diet (FM) relative to water quality criteria, waste production, water treatment process performance, and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss performance within six replicated water recirculating aquaculture system...

  10. The effects of diets containing standard soybean oil, soybean oil enhanced with conjugated linoleic acids, menhaden fish oil, or an algal docosahexaenoic acid supplement on juvenile channel catfish performance, hematology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current commercial diets for Channel Catfish contain little or no marine fish oil to reduce diet cost and address environmental concerns. However, there is conflicting data on the effects of fish oil and other lipid sources in juvenile Channel Catfish, and some novel lipids have not been tested agai...

  11. Coconut, Fish, and Olive Oil-Rich Diets Modify Ozone-Induced Metabolic Effects

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pulmonary health effects of ozone (O3) exposure are well known; however, the cardiovascular and metabolic consequences are still under investigation. Fish oil (FO) and olive oil (OO) dietary supplementation have several cardioprotective benefits, but it is not established if thes...

  12. UK dietary exposure to PCDD/Fs, PCBs, PBDD/Fs, PBBs and PBDEs: comparison of results from 24-h duplicate diets and total diet studies.

    PubMed

    Bramwell, Lindsay; Mortimer, David; Rose, Martin; Fernandes, Alwyn; Harrad, Stuart; Pless-Mulloli, Tanja

    2017-01-01

    Chemicals in food are monitored to check for compliance with regulatory limits and to evaluate trends in dietary exposures, among other reasons. This study compared two different methods for estimating human dietary exposure to lipophilic persistent organic pollutants (POPs) during 2011/12: (1) the 2012 Total Diet Study (TDS) conducted by the UK Food Standards Agency (FSA) and (2) a 24-h duplicate diet (DD) study of 20 adults from the North East of England. The equivalence of the two approaches was assessed; anything less than an order of magnitude could be considered reasonable and within three-fold (equivalent to 0.5 log) as good. Adult dietary exposure estimates derived from the DD study for both average and high-level (97.5th percentile) consumers compared well with those from the TDS. Estimates from the DD study when compared with those from the TDS were within 10% for P97.5 for total PCDD/F/PCB with divergence increasing to a factor of 3.4 for average BDE-209. Most estimates derived from the TDS were slightly higher than those derived from the DD. Comparison with earlier UK TDS data over the last 30 years or so confirmed a gradual decline in levels of PCDD/F/PCBs in food. Such comparisons also indicated peaks in dietary exposure to ∑PBDE (excluding BDE-209) between 2000 and 2005. Exposure estimates for all measured compounds using both TDS and DD data were found to be within recommended tolerable daily intakes where available or within acceptable margins of exposure.

  13. Total mercury concentrations in fillets of bluegill, redear sunfish, largemouth bass, and other fishes from Lake Natoma, Sacramento County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saiki, M.K.; Martin, B.A.; May, T.W.; Alpers, C.N.

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted during September-October 2002 to verify preliminary findings of elevated total mercury concentrations in skinless fillets of sportfishes inhabiting Lake Natoma. Although we measured total mercury concentrations, most mercury in fish flesh occurs in the methylated form. In August 2000, other investigators collected a small number of fish containing mercury concentrations that exceeded 0.30 ??g/g wet weight, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) tissue residue criterion derived from a reference dose for methylmercury that may cause undesirable neurological abnormalities in human infants exposed in utero when pregnant women consume mercury-contaminated foods. During our study, skinless fillets of bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus, contained as much as 0.19 ??g Hg/g wet weight (1.06 ??g Hg/g dry weight); redear sunfish, L. microlophus, contained as much as 0.39 ??g Hg/g wetweight (1.99 ??g Hg/g dry weight); and largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides, contained as much as 0.86 ??g Hg/g wet weight (3.85 ??g Hg/g dry weight). Maximum concentrations of mercury in other fish species varied from 0.097 ??g/g wet weight (0.537 ??g/g dry weight) in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, to 0.56 ??g/g wet weight (3.07 ??g/g dry weight) in white catfish, Ameiurus catus. Altogether, 1 of 20 redear sunfish, 14 of 61 largemouth bass, 1 of 1 brown builhead, A. nebulosus, 2 of 3 spotted bass, M. punctulatus, and 1 of 1 white catfish exceeded the USEPA fish tissue methylmercury residue criterion. Only bluegill and largemouth bass exhibited significant correlations between fish total length (TL), weight, and age, and total mercury concentration in fillets. Judging from a best-fit power-curve equation, largemouth bass measuring 273 mm TL (roughly 292g) or larger are estimated to contain total mercury concentrations in their fillets that exceed the USEPA fish tissue methylmercury criterion. These results confirmed that some fish species inhabiting Lake Natoma

  14. Influence of fish oil on skeletal muscle mitochondrial energetics and lipid metabolites during high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Lanza, Ian R; Blachnio-Zabielska, Agnieszka; Johnson, Matthew L; Schimke, Jill M; Jakaitis, Daniel R; Lebrasseur, Nathan K; Jensen, Michael D; Sreekumaran Nair, K; Zabielski, Piotr

    2013-06-15

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) enhance insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis in rodent models of insulin resistance. These beneficial effects have been linked with anti-inflammatory properties, but emerging data suggest that the mechanisms may also converge on mitochondria. We evaluated the influence of dietary n-3 PUFAs on mitochondrial physiology and muscle lipid metabolites in the context of high-fat diet (HFD) in mice. Mice were fed control diets (10% fat), HFD (60% fat), or HFD with fish oil (HFD+FO, 3.4% kcal from n-3 PUFAs) for 10 wk. Body mass and fat mass increased similarly in HFD and HFD+FO, but n-3 PUFAs attenuated the glucose intolerance that developed with HFD and increased expression of genes that regulate glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle. Despite similar muscle triglyceride levels in HFD and HFD+FO, long-chain acyl-CoAs and ceramides were lower in the presence of fish oil. Mitochondrial abundance and oxidative capacity were similarly increased in HFD and HFD+FO compared with controls. Hydrogen peroxide production was similarly elevated in HFD and HFD+FO in isolated mitochondria but not in permeabilized muscle fibers, likely due to increased activity and expression of catalase. These results support a hypothesis that n-3 PUFAs protect glucose tolerance, in part by preventing the accumulation of bioactive lipid mediators that interfere with insulin action. Furthermore, the respiratory function of skeletal muscle mitochondria does not appear to be a major factor in sphingolipid accumulation, glucose intolerance, or the protective effects of n-3 PUFAs.

  15. Perilla Oil Has Similar Protective Effects of Fish Oil on High-Fat Diet-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Gut Dysbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yu; Wang, Hualin; Yuan, Fahu; Li, Na; Huang, Qiang; He, Lei; Wang, Limei

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent chronic liver disease in developed countries. Recent studies indicated that the modification of gut microbiota plays an important role in the progression from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated consumption of fish oil or perilla oil rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) protects against NAFLD. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we adopted 16s rRNA amplicon sequencing technique to investigate the impacts of fish oil and perilla oil on gut microbiomes modification in rats with high-fat diet- (HFD-) induced NAFLD. Both fish oil and perilla oil ameliorated HFD-induced hepatic steatosis and inflammation. In comparison with the low-fat control diet, HFD feeding significantly reduced the relative abundance of Gram-positive bacteria in the gut, which was slightly reversed by either fish oil or perilla oil. Additionally, fish oil and perilla oil consumption abrogated the elevated abundance of Prevotella and Escherichia in the gut from HFD fed animals. Interestingly, the relative abundance of antiobese Akkermansia was remarkably increased only in animals fed fish oil compared with HFD group. In conclusion, compared with fish oil, perilla oil has similar but slightly weaker potency against HFD-induced NAFLD and gut dysbiosis. PMID:27051672

  16. Perilla Oil Has Similar Protective Effects of Fish Oil on High-Fat Diet-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Gut Dysbiosis.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yu; Wang, Hualin; Yuan, Fahu; Li, Na; Huang, Qiang; He, Lei; Wang, Limei; Liu, Zhiguo

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent chronic liver disease in developed countries. Recent studies indicated that the modification of gut microbiota plays an important role in the progression from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated consumption of fish oil or perilla oil rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) protects against NAFLD. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we adopted 16s rRNA amplicon sequencing technique to investigate the impacts of fish oil and perilla oil on gut microbiomes modification in rats with high-fat diet- (HFD-) induced NAFLD. Both fish oil and perilla oil ameliorated HFD-induced hepatic steatosis and inflammation. In comparison with the low-fat control diet, HFD feeding significantly reduced the relative abundance of Gram-positive bacteria in the gut, which was slightly reversed by either fish oil or perilla oil. Additionally, fish oil and perilla oil consumption abrogated the elevated abundance of Prevotella and Escherichia in the gut from HFD fed animals. Interestingly, the relative abundance of antiobese Akkermansia was remarkably increased only in animals fed fish oil compared with HFD group. In conclusion, compared with fish oil, perilla oil has similar but slightly weaker potency against HFD-induced NAFLD and gut dysbiosis.

  17. Evaluation of supplemental fish bone meal made from Alaska seafood processing byproducts and dicalcium phosphate in plant-protein based diets for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report performance of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed a balanced dietary mix of plant-proteins supplemented with either fish bone meal (FBM) derived from Alaskan seafood processing byproducts or dicalcium phosphate. Seven experimental diets were formulated to contain two levels of dicalci...

  18. Full replacement of menhaden fish meal protein by low-gossypol cottonseed flour protein in the diet of juvenile black sea bass Centropristis striata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eight iso-nitrogeneous (46% crude protein) and iso-lipidic (14% crude lipid) diets were formulated and prepared to replace menhaden fish meal (FM) protein (59.5% CP) by low-gossypol glandless meal (GCSM) protein (50.4% CP), solvent-extracted cottonseed meal (SCSM) protein (53.8% protein) and high go...

  19. Dietary exposure and health risk assessment for 14 toxic and essential trace elements in Yaoundé: the Cameroonian total diet study.

    PubMed

    Gimou, Marie-Madeleine; Pouillot, Régis; Charrondiere, U Ruth; Noël, Laurent; Guérin, Thierry; Leblanc, Jean-Charles

    2014-01-01

    Dietary exposure to trace elements (aluminium, antimony, barium, cadmium, lead, nickel, vanadium, copper, manganese, molybdenum, germanium, lithium, strontium and tellurium) was assessed by the total diet study (TDS) method. Sixty-four pooled samples representing 96.5% of the diet in Yaoundé, Cameroon, were prepared "as consumed" before analysis. Consumption data were sourced from a households' budget survey. Dietary exposures were compared with health-based guidance or nutritional values and to worldwide TDS results. The health-based guidance value was exceeded by ≤ 0.2% of the study population for aluminium, antimony, barium, cadmium, nickel and vanadium. For lead, the observed 95th percentile of exposure (3.05 µg kg(-1) body weight day(-1)) equals the critical value considered by JECFA for cardiovascular effects; therefore, risk to health cannot be excluded for certain consumer groups. The population at risk of excess intake for manganese, copper, molybdenum and nickel was considered to be low (≤ 0.3%). The prevalence of inadequate intake was estimated at 5.9% for copper and was nil for molybdenum. Due to the lack of toxicological and/or nutritional consistent data to perform a risk assessment, dietary exposures to germanium, lithium, strontium and tellurium were provided as supplementary data. The food groups highest contributors to exposure were "tubers and starches" for aluminium (27%), lead (39%) and copper (26%), "cereals and cereal products" for cadmium (54%) and manganese (35%), "fruits, vegetables and oilseeds" for barium (34%), molybdenum (49%) and nickel (31%), "beverages" for antimony (27%) and "fish" for vanadium (43% - lower bound). Measures should be recommended to maintain low levels of exposure before the problem could become an important health or trade issue.

  20. The effect of different concentrations of linseed oil or fish oil in the maternal diet on the fatty acid composition and oxidative status of sows and piglets.

    PubMed

    Tanghe, S; Missotten, J; Raes, K; De Smet, S

    2015-10-01

    N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are essential for foetal development. Hence, including n-3 PUFA in the sow diet can be beneficial for reproduction. Both the amount and form (precursor fatty acids vs. long chain PUFA) of supplementation are important in this respect. Furthermore, including n-3 PUFA in the diet can have negative effects, such as decreased arachidonic acid (ARA) concentration and increased oxidative stress. This study aimed to compare the efficacy to increase eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) concentrations in the piglet, when different concentrations of linseed oil (LO, source of precursor α-linolenic acid) or fish oil (FO, source of EPA and DHA) were included in the maternal diet. Sows were fed a palm oil diet or a diet including 0.5% or 2% LO or FO from day 45 of gestation until weaning. Linoleic acid (LA) was kept constant in the diets to prevent a decrease in ARA, and all diets were supplemented with α-tocopherol acetate (150 mg/kg) and organic selenium (0.4 mg/kg) to prevent oxidative stress. Feeding 0.5% LO or 0.5% FO to the sows resulted in comparable EPA concentrations in the 5-day old piglet liver, but both diets resulted in lower EPA concentrations than when 2% LO was fed. The highest EPA concentration was obtained when 2% FO was fed. The DHA level in the piglet liver could only be increased when FO, but not LO, was fed to the sows. The 2% FO diet had no advantage over the 0.5% FO diet to increase DHA in the piglet. Despite the constant LA concentration in the sow diet, a decrease in ARA could not be avoided when LO or FO were included in the diet. Feeding 2% FO to the sows increased the malondialdehyde concentration (marker for lipid peroxidation) in sow plasma, but not in piglets.

  1. Application of DNA barcoding for identification of freshwater carnivorous fish diets: Is number of prey items dependent on size class for Micropterus salmoides?

    PubMed

    Jo, Hyunbin; Gim, Jeong-An; Jeong, Kwang-Seuk; Kim, Heui-Soo; Joo, Gea-Jae

    2014-01-01

    Understanding predator-prey interactions is a major challenge in ecological studies. In particular, the accurate identification of prey is a fundamental requirement in elucidating food-web structure. This study took a molecular approach in determining the species identity of consumed prey items of a freshwater carnivorous fish (largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides), according to their size class. Thirty randomly selected gut samples were categorized into three size classes, based on the total length of the bass. Using the universal primer for the mtDNA cytochrome oxidase I (COI) region, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification was performed on unidentified gut contents and then sequenced after cloning. Two gut samples were completely empty, and DNA materials from 27 of 28 gut samples were successfully amplified by PCR (success rate: 96.4%). Sequence database navigation yielded a total of 308 clones, containing DNA from 26 prey items. They comprised four phyla, including seven classes, 12 orders, and 12 families based on BLAST and BOLD database searches. The results indicate that largemouth bass show selective preferences in prey item consumption as they mature. These results corroborate a hypothesis, presence of ontogenetic diet shift, derived through other methodological approaches. Despite the practical limitations inherent in DNA barcoding analysis, high-resolution (i.e., species level) identification was possible, and the predation patterns of predators of different sizes were identifiable. The utilization of this method is strongly recommended for determining specific predator-prey relationships in complex freshwater ecosystems.

  2. Application of DNA barcoding for identification of freshwater carnivorous fish diets: Is number of prey items dependent on size class for Micropterus salmoides?

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Hyunbin; Gim, Jeong-An; Jeong, Kwang-Seuk; Kim, Heui-Soo; Joo, Gea-Jae

    2014-01-01

    Understanding predator–prey interactions is a major challenge in ecological studies. In particular, the accurate identification of prey is a fundamental requirement in elucidating food-web structure. This study took a molecular approach in determining the species identity of consumed prey items of a freshwater carnivorous fish (largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides), according to their size class. Thirty randomly selected gut samples were categorized into three size classes, based on the total length of the bass. Using the universal primer for the mtDNA cytochrome oxidase I (COI) region, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification was performed on unidentified gut contents and then sequenced after cloning. Two gut samples were completely empty, and DNA materials from 27 of 28 gut samples were successfully amplified by PCR (success rate: 96.4%). Sequence database navigation yielded a total of 308 clones, containing DNA from 26 prey items. They comprised four phyla, including seven classes, 12 orders, and 12 families based on BLAST and BOLD database searches. The results indicate that largemouth bass show selective preferences in prey item consumption as they mature. These results corroborate a hypothesis, presence of ontogenetic diet shift, derived through other methodological approaches. Despite the practical limitations inherent in DNA barcoding analysis, high-resolution (i.e., species level) identification was possible, and the predation patterns of predators of different sizes were identifiable. The utilization of this method is strongly recommended for determining specific predator–prey relationships in complex freshwater ecosystems. PMID:24558577

  3. Effect of marine protected areas (MPAs) on consumer diet: MPA fish feed higher in the food chain

    PubMed Central

    Dell, Claire; Montoya, Joseph; Hay, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are often established to mitigate the effects of overfishing and other human disturbances. In Fiji these are locally managed and, where enforced, have significantly higher coral cover, higher fish biomass, and lower seaweed cover than in the adjacent, unprotected reefs (non-MPAs). We investigated how the isotopic signatures of a common, mid-level consumer, Epinephelus merra, differed among three small (0.5- 0.8km2) MPAs versus adjacent, unprotected reefs. Isotopic ratios suggested that the fish in the MPAs fed higher in the food chain than those in the adjacent non-MPAs, despite being slightly smaller in size. Calculations using a brown alga as representative of the basal level of the food chain estimate this difference to be about half a trophic level. Thus, the isotopic ratio of a mid-level consumer can be noticeably altered over scales of only a few hundred meters. This may result from more complete food webs and hence greater prey choice and availability in the MPAs and implies that MPAs affect not only species’ abundance and diversity, but also diet composition and trophic biology of member individuals. Our findings suggest E. merra exhibits considerable site fidelity in its feeding biology and thus provides a localized isotopic signal of its reef of residence. If the isotopic signal of this mid-level carnivore is reflective of the composition of the food web beneath it, the signal might provide an easily obtained indication of reef conditions in that area. PMID:27340314

  4. Effect of marine protected areas (MPAs) on consumer diet: MPA fish feed higher in the food chain.

    PubMed

    Dell, Claire; Montoya, Joseph; Hay, Mark

    2015-11-26

    Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are often established to mitigate the effects of overfishing and other human disturbances. In Fiji these are locally managed and, where enforced, have significantly higher coral cover, higher fish biomass, and lower seaweed cover than in the adjacent, unprotected reefs (non-MPAs). We investigated how the isotopic signatures of a common, mid-level consumer, Epinephelus merra, differed among three small (0.5- 0.8km(2)) MPAs versus adjacent, unprotected reefs. Isotopic ratios suggested that the fish in the MPAs fed higher in the food chain than those in the adjacent non-MPAs, despite being slightly smaller in size. Calculations using a brown alga as representative of the basal level of the food chain estimate this difference to be about half a trophic level. Thus, the isotopic ratio of a mid-level consumer can be noticeably altered over scales of only a few hundred meters. This may result from more complete food webs and hence greater prey choice and availability in the MPAs and implies that MPAs affect not only species' abundance and diversity, but also diet composition and trophic biology of member individuals. Our findings suggest E. merra exhibits considerable site fidelity in its feeding biology and thus provides a localized isotopic signal of its reef of residence. If the isotopic signal of this mid-level carnivore is reflective of the composition of the food web beneath it, the signal might provide an easily obtained indication of reef conditions in that area.

  5. Feeding mice with diets containing mercury-contaminated fish flesh from French Guiana: a model for the mercurial intoxication of the Wayana Amerindians

    PubMed Central

    Bourdineaud, Jean-Paul; Bellance, Nadège; Bénard, Giovani; Brèthes, Daniel; Fujimura, Masatake; Gonzalez, Patrice; Marighetto, Aline; Maury-Brachet, Régine; Mormède, Cécile; Pédron, Vanessa; Philippin, Jean-Nicolas; Rossignol, Rodrigue; Rostène, William; Sawada, Masumi; Laclau, Muriel

    2008-01-01

    Background In 2005, 84% of Wayana Amerindians living in the upper marshes of the Maroni River in French Guiana presented a hair mercury concentration exceeding the limit set up by the World Health Organization (10 μg/g). To determine whether this mercurial contamination was harmful, mice have been fed diets prepared by incorporation of mercury-polluted fish from French Guiana. Methods Four diets containing 0, 0.1, 1, and 7.5% fish flesh, representing 0, 5, 62, and 520 ng methylmercury per g, respectively, were given to four groups of mice for a month. The lowest fish regimen led to a mercurial contamination pressure of 1 ng mercury per day per g of body weight, which is precisely that affecting the Wayana Amerindians. Results The expression of several genes was modified with mercury intoxication in liver, kidneys, and hippocampus, even at the lowest tested fish regimen. A net genetic response could be observed for mercury concentrations accumulated within tissues as weak as 0.15 ppm in the liver, 1.4 ppm in the kidneys, and 0.4 ppm in the hippocampus. This last value is in the range of the mercury concentrations found in the brains of chronically exposed patients in the Minamata region or in brains from heavy fish consumers. Mitochondrial respiratory rates showed a 35–40% decrease in respiration for the three contaminated mice groups. In the muscles of mice fed the lightest fish-containing diet, cytochrome c oxidase activity was decreased to 45% of that of the control muscles. When mice behavior was assessed in a cross maze, those fed the lowest and mid-level fish-containing diets developed higher anxiety state behaviors compared to mice fed with control diet. Conclusion We conclude that a vegetarian diet containing as little as 0.1% of mercury-contaminated fish is able to trigger in mice, after only one month of exposure, disorders presenting all the hallmarks of mercurial contamination. PMID:18959803

  6. Protective effect of Spirulina and tamarind fruit pulp diet supplement in fish (Gambusia affinis Baird & Girard) exposed to sublethal concentration of fluoride, aluminum and aluminum fluoride.

    PubMed

    Sharma, K P; Upreti, N; Sharma, Shweta; Sharma, S

    2012-12-01

    Protective role of diet supplements (Spirulina, tamarind fruit pulp and their combination) on a freshwater fish G. affinis exposed at sublethal concentration of fluoride (F-) (10 ppm), Al(+3) (3 ppm) and aluminum fluoride (AlF3) (35.4 ppm) in the microcosms (15 L sized) for 30-60 days in winter (90 days in summer) has been reported. Toxic effects of chemicals were manifested as higher fish mortality (4-50%) and acid (approximately -30%) and alkaline phosphatase (25-50%) contents, but reduction in RBC counts (5-55%) and protein content (approximately -29%) compared with controls. Alterations in values of these parameters were found maximum in aluminum exposed fish suggesting it as the most toxic among the tested chemicals. Diet supplements reduced toxicity of tested chemicals, especially when Spirulina and tamarind were given together.

  7. Effects of dietary fat energy restriction and fish oil feeding on hepatic metabolic abnormalities and insulin resistance in KK mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Arai, Takeshi; Kim, Hyoun-ju; Hirako, Satoshi; Nakasatomi, Maki; Chiba, Hiroshige; Matsumoto, Akiyo

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effects of dietary fat energy restriction and fish oil intake on glucose and lipid metabolism in female KK mice with high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity. Mice were fed a lard/safflower oil (LSO50) diet consisting of 50 energy% (en%) lard/safflower oil as the fat source for 12 weeks. Then, the mice were fed various fat energy restriction (25 en% fat) diets - LSO, FO2.5, FO12.5 or FO25 - containing 0, 2.5, 12.5, or 25 en% fish oil, respectively, for 9 weeks. Conversion from a HF diet to each fat energy restriction diet significantly decreased final body weights and visceral and subcutaneous fat mass in all fat energy restriction groups, regardless of fish oil contents. Hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol levels markedly decreased in the FO12.5 and FO25 groups, but not in the LSO group. Although plasma insulin levels did not differ among groups, the blood glucose areas under the curve in the oral glucose tolerance test were significantly lower in the FO12.5 and FO25 groups. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed fatty acid synthase mRNA levels significantly decreased in the FO25 group, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 mRNA levels markedly decreased in the FO12.5 and FO25 groups. These results demonstrate that body weight gains were suppressed by dietary fat energy restriction even in KK mice with HF diet-induced obesity. We also suggested that the combination of fat energy restriction and fish oil feeding decreased fat droplets and ameliorated hepatic hypertrophy and insulin resistance with suppression of de novo lipogenesis in these mice.

  8. Evaluation of vegetable and fish oils diets for the amelioration of diabetes side effects

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In the existing literature, the evidence regarding the effects of certain oils on the amelioration of hyperglycemia contains ambiguities and contradictions; and with regard to other oils, the quantity of existing studies is scant. Objective To assess the influence of sesame, garden rocket, organic olive, thyme, fenugreek, hazelnut, and cod liver oil on serum glucose, liver function, and kidney functions. Methods Male albino rats were injected with streptozotocin (60 mg/kg BW). The duration of the experiment was 28 days. Maximum recovery of occurred wasting attributable to diabetes was found in the sesame and cod liver groups. Results With respect to ameliorating and/or preventing the side effects of diabetes on liver function, this experiment showed that thyme, organic olive, cod liver, and fenugreek oils were efficacious. Turning to serum lipid profile, organic olive oil not only ameliorated but also prevented the changes of TC, HDL, LDL, and AI. Vegetable and cod liver oil diets resulted in a marked amelioration of renal dysfunction, but they were unable to prevent this side effect. Similar, oil diets were unable to mask the increase in serum glucose due to diabetes mellitus. Conclusion On the basis of these findings, it could be recommended that when attempting oil diet treatment for the side effects of diabetes, a blend of the various specific treatments which showed best results should be employed in order to achieve improvement with respect to all parameters; and in part, this is because a synergism between the various treatments can be expected. PMID:23497544

  9. Low total mercury in Caiman yacare (Alligatoridae) as compared to carnivorous, and non-carnivorous fish consumed by Amazonian indigenous communities.

    PubMed

    Rivera, S J; Pacheco, L F; Achá, D; Molina, C I; Miranda-Chumacero, G

    2016-11-01

    Mercury contamination in the River Beni basin is an important health risk factor, primarily for indigenous communities that live along the river. Among them are the Tacana, living in their original territory with sustainable use of their natural resources, consuming fish, Caiman yacare, and other riverine resources as their main source of protein. To assess mercury exposure to Tacana people, total mercury (THg) was evaluated in the muscle of seven commercial fish, and Caiman yacare (yacare caiman) during 2007 and 2008. THg was extracted by acid digestion and concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Mean mercury concentrations in C. yacare was 0.21 ± 0.22 μg g(-1)Hg w.w. (wet weight), which is lower than expected given its high trophic level, and its long life-span. It is possible that mercury in C. yacare is accumulated in other organs, not included in this study; but it is also possible that physiological mechanisms are involved that help caimans get rid of ingested mercury, or simply that C. yacare's diverse diet reduces THg accumulation. Carnivorous fishes (Pygocentrus nattereri, Pseudoplatystoma tigrinum, Zungaro zungaro, Plagioscion squamosissimus, and Leiarius marmoratus) had the highest total mercury concentrations, ranging from 0.35 to 1.27 μg g(-1)Hg w.w. moreover, most were above the limit recommended by WHO (0.5 μg g(-1)Hg w.w.); except for Leiarius marmuratus, which presented a mean of 0.353 ± 0.322 μg g(-1)Hg w.w. The two non-carnivorous fish species (Prochilodus nigricans, and Piaractus brachypomus) present mean concentrations of 0.099 ± 0.027, and 0.041 ± 0.019 μg g(-1)Hg w.w., respectively. Finally, recommendations on the consumption habits of Tacana communities are discussed.

  10. Phytase improves apparent total tract digestibility of phosphorus and calcium in piglets fed diets with adequate or reduced phosphorus content.

    PubMed

    Kühn, I; Partanen, K

    2012-12-01

    The effect of a thermotolerant 6-phytase produced by Trichoderma reesei on performance and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of P and Ca was evaluated in 192 weaned piglets (randomized block design; 16 replicates; 2 piglets each). Diets based on wheat (Triticum aestivum), barley (Hordeum vulgare), oat (Avena sativa), soybean (Glycine max) meal, and whey protein with adequate [positive control (PC)] or reduced [negative control (NC)] Ca and P levels were fed for 46 d after weaning. The PC and NC diets contained 8.0 and 6.4 g/kg Ca and 2.9 and 1.9 g/kg digestible P, respectively. Pelleted diets contained 0, 500, or 1000 phytase units (FTU)/kg. Growth performance and G:F were measured during starter (25 d) and weaner pig (21 d) periods. The ATTD of Ca and P was determined by spot sampling at the end of the weaner pig period (8 pens per treatment over 5 consecutive d). Data were analyzed using a mixed model with random block effect and fixed effect of dietary P and phytase level and their interaction. Dietary P level did not affect ADG or G:F of piglets over the entire feeding period (P > 0.10) whereas phytase increased G:F (P < 0.05). During the starter period, phytase linearly enhanced (P < 0.05) ADG (258, 266, and 292 g) and G:F (639, 677, and 664 g gain/kg feed DM) without further increase in the weaner pig period (P > 0.10). A P × phytase interaction (P < 0.05) was observed for ATTD of P, more so for NC (48, 61, and 68%, respectively) than PC diets (52, 62, and 61%). The ATTD of Ca was higher (P < 0.05) for PC than NC diets (68 vs. 58%) and increased quadratically by phytase (61, 65, and 63%). In conclusion, the phytase tested enhanced piglet performance during the postweaning period and increased ATTD of P and Ca.

  11. Concentrations of bisphenol A in the composite food samples from the 2008 Canadian total diet study in Quebec City and dietary intake estimates.

    PubMed

    Cao, X-L; Perez-Locas, C; Dufresne, G; Clement, G; Popovic, S; Beraldin, F; Dabeka, R W; Feeley, M

    2011-06-01

    A total of 154 food composite samples from the 2008 total diet study in Quebec City were analysed for bisphenol A (BPA), and BPA was detected in less than half (36%, or 55 samples) of the samples tested. High concentrations of BPA were found mostly in the composite samples containing canned foods, with the highest BPA level being observed in canned fish (106 ng g(-1)), followed by canned corn (83.7 ng g(-1)), canned soups (22.2-44.4 ng g(-1)), canned baked beans (23.5 ng g(-1)), canned peas (16.8 ng g(-1)), canned evaporated milk (15.3 ng g(-1)), and canned luncheon meats (10.5 ng g(-1)). BPA levels in baby food composite samples were low, with 2.75 ng g(-1) in canned liquid infant formula, and 0.84-2.46 ng g(-1) in jarred baby foods. BPA was also detected in some foods that are not canned or in jars, such as yeast (8.52 ng g(-1)), baking powder (0.64 ng g(-1)), some cheeses (0.68-2.24 ng g(-1)), breads and some cereals (0.40-1.73 ng g(-1)), and fast foods (1.1-10.9 ng g(-1)). Dietary intakes of BPA were low for all age-sex groups, with 0.17-0.33 µg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for infants, 0.082-0.23 µg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for children aged from 1 to 19 years, and 0.052-0.081 µg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for adults, well below the established regulatory limits. BPA intakes from 19 of the 55 samples account for more than 95% of the total dietary intakes, and most of the 19 samples were either canned or in jars. Intakes of BPA from non-canned foods are low.

  12. The effects of diets containing standard soybean oil, soybean oil enhanced with conjugated linoleic acids, menhaden fish oil, or an algal docosahexaenoic acid supplement on channel catfish performance, body composition,...

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fish consumption is a common method of obtaining beneficial n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs), but increased use of vegetable oils in fish diets to reduce dependence on fish oil dilutes these HUFAs. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are also considered beneficial for human health. Therefore,...

  13. TOTAL AND METHYL MERCURY CONCENTRATIONS IN 1994-5 LAKE MICHIGAN FORAGE FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Forage fish samples were collected between 1194 and 1995 by the USGS Great Lakes Science Center in Ann Arbor, MI. Samples of bloater, slimy sculpin, deep water sculpin, alewife, and rainbow smelt were collected from regions of the lake near Saugatuck, MI and Port Washington and S...

  14. RELATIVE ABUNDANCE OF TOTAL AND METHYL MERCURY IN 1994-5 LAKE MICHIGAN FORAGE FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the Lake Michigan Mass Balance Project, forage fish samples were collected in 1994-5 from three regions within Lake Michigan: Saugatuck, Michigan and Port Washington and Sturgeon Bay, Wisconsin by the USGS Great Lakes Science Center in Ann Arbor, Michigan. Species of ...

  15. Determination of total mercury in fillets of sport fishes collected from Folsom Reservoir, California, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    May, Thomas W.; Brumbaugh, William G.

    2007-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, done in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, to determine mercury concentrations in selected sport fishes from Folsom Reservoir in California. Fillets were collected from each fish sample, and after homogenization and lyophilization of fish fillets, mercury concentrations were determined with a direct mercury analyzer utilizing the process of thermal combustion-gold amalgamation atomic absorption spectroscopy. Mercury concentrations in fillets ranged from 0.031 to 0.20 micrograms per gram wet weight in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) samples and 0.071 to 0.16 micrograms per gram wet weight in bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) samples. Mercury concentration was 0.98 microgram per gram wet weight in a single spotted bass (Micropterus punctulatus) sample, which was the only one in the sample set which exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's fish consumption advisory of 0.30 microgram per gram wet weight.

  16. Fish protein hydrolysate reduces plasma total cholesterol, increases the proportion of HDL cholesterol, and lowers acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase activity in liver of Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Wergedahl, Hege; Liaset, Bjørn; Gudbrandsen, Oddrun Anita; Lied, Einar; Espe, Marit; Muna, Ziad; Mørk, Sverre; Berge, Rolf K

    2004-06-01

    There is growing evidence that soy protein improves the blood lipid profiles of animals and humans. We compared the effects of fish protein hydrolysate (FPH), soy protein, and casein (control) on lipid metabolism in Wistar rats and genetically obese Zucker (fa/fa) rats. In Zucker rats, FPH treatment affected the fatty acid composition in liver, plasma, and triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. The mRNA levels of Delta 5 and Delta 6 desaturases were reduced by FPH and soy protein feeding compared with casein feeding. In Zucker rats both FPH and soy protein treatment reduced the plasma cholesterol level. Furthermore, the HDL cholesterol:total cholesterol ratio was greater in these rats and in the Wistar rats fed FPH and soy protein compared with those fed casein. Although fecal total bile acids were greater in soy protein-fed Zucker rats than in casein-fed controls, those fed FPH did not differ from the controls. However, the acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase activity was reduced in Zucker rats fed FPH and tended to be lower (P = 0.13) in those fed soy protein compared with those fed casein. Low ratios of methionine to glycine and lysine to arginine in the FPH and soy protein diets, compared with the casein diet, may be involved in lowering the plasma cholesterol concentration. Our results indicate that the effects of FPH and soy protein on fatty acid metabolism are similar in many respects, but the hypocholesterolemic effects of FPH and soy protein appear to be due to different mechanisms. FPH may have a role as a cardioprotective nutrient.

  17. Estimated intakes and sources of total and added sugars in the Canadian diet.

    PubMed

    Brisbois, Tristin D; Marsden, Sandra L; Anderson, G Harvey; Sievenpiper, John L

    2014-05-08

    National food supply data and dietary surveys are essential to estimate nutrient intakes and monitor trends, yet there are few published studies estimating added sugars consumption. The purpose of this report was to estimate and trend added sugars intakes and their contribution to total energy intake among Canadians by, first, using Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) nutrition survey data of intakes of sugars in foods and beverages, and second, using Statistics Canada availability data and adjusting these for wastage to estimate intakes. Added sugars intakes were estimated from CCHS data by categorizing the sugars content of food groups as either added or naturally occurring. Added sugars accounted for approximately half of total sugars consumed. Annual availability data were obtained from Statistics Canada CANSIM database. Estimates for added sugars were obtained by summing the availability of "sugars and syrups" with availability of "soft drinks" (proxy for high fructose corn syrup) and adjusting for waste. Analysis of both survey and availability data suggests that added sugars average 11%-13% of total energy intake. Availability data indicate that added sugars intakes have been stable or modestly declining as a percent of total energy over the past three decades. Although these are best estimates based on available data, this analysis may encourage the development of better databases to help inform public policy recommendations.

  18. Estimated Intakes and Sources of Total and Added Sugars in the Canadian Diet

    PubMed Central

    Brisbois, Tristin D.; Marsden, Sandra L.; Anderson, G. Harvey; Sievenpiper, John L.

    2014-01-01

    National food supply data and dietary surveys are essential to estimate nutrient intakes and monitor trends, yet there are few published studies estimating added sugars consumption. The purpose of this report was to estimate and trend added sugars intakes and their contribution to total energy intake among Canadians by, first, using Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) nutrition survey data of intakes of sugars in foods and beverages, and second, using Statistics Canada availability data and adjusting these for wastage to estimate intakes. Added sugars intakes were estimated from CCHS data by categorizing the sugars content of food groups as either added or naturally occurring. Added sugars accounted for approximately half of total sugars consumed. Annual availability data were obtained from Statistics Canada CANSIM database. Estimates for added sugars were obtained by summing the availability of “sugars and syrups” with availability of “soft drinks” (proxy for high fructose corn syrup) and adjusting for waste. Analysis of both survey and availability data suggests that added sugars average 11%–13% of total energy intake. Availability data indicate that added sugars intakes have been stable or modestly declining as a percent of total energy over the past three decades. Although these are best estimates based on available data, this analysis may encourage the development of better databases to help inform public policy recommendations. PMID:24815507

  19. Fatty acid facts, Part III: Cardiovascular disease, or, a fish diet is not fishy.

    PubMed

    Pauwels, Ernest K J; Kostkiewicz, Magdalena

    2008-12-01

    Preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) play a significant role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. These fatty acids are called essential fatty acids as they fulfil essential functions and the mammalian cell cannot synthesize them de novo. Dietary sources of n-3 PUFAs include fish oils rich in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The clinical relevance of these molecules is derived from the incorporation of EPA and DHA into cell membranes. The presence of EPA/DHA alters the physical characteristics of the membrane. Both these altered physicochemical membrane properties and the presence of n-3 PUFAs released by the action of phospholipid lipases (resulting in antiinflammatory eicosanoids) improve biological functions such as signal transduction, ion channelling and ligand binding to nuclear receptors. EPA/DHA also reduce or quench gene expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and other enzymes, thereby diminishing the formation of proinflammatory molecules. Increased EPA/DHA concentration also gives rise to antiinflammatory lipid mediators, called lipoxins, resolvins and protectins. Another important function of n-3 PUFAs is scavenging of free radicals, which diminishes inflammatory response and oxidation of lipoprotein particles, notably low density lipoproteins. The interplay of these molecular processes has distinct cardioprotective effects, which involve actions on lipid metabolism, lipoprotein particle size, blood pressure, vascular function, coagulation potential, inflammatory response, atheroma formation and antiarrhythmic. In view of these actions, fish oil preparations and/or intake of oily fish are recommended as primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease and sudden cardiac death. Large, ongoing trials will further elucidate the presumed favorable effects of EPA/DHA in heart failure and diabetes. This review provides a summary of the physiological

  20. The response of the diets of four carnivorous fishes to variations in the Yellow Sea ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Xianshi; Zhang, Bo; Xue, Ying

    2010-06-01

    The stomach contents of Spanish mackerel ( Scomberomorus niphonius), snailfish ( Liparis tanakae), anglerfish ( Lophius litulon), and Pacific cod ( Gadus macrocephalus) from the Yellow Sea during 1985-1987 and 2000-2002 were analyzed. The diets of these four carnivorous species changed over time, showing that the importance of the previous major prey, Japanese anchovy ( Engraulis japonicus), had greatly decreased, owing to its declining abundance, and that intake of Crangon affinis had increased. Spanish mackerel foraged for more food, particularly for other small pelagic species in addition to Japanese anchovy, causing an increase in its niche width in recent years, whereas the other three demersal carnivorous species had mainly targeted the small benthic shrimp C. affinis, and their niche widths had reduced in the later years. This phenomenon may be an adaptive response to changes in the food availability of the ecosystem, indicating a change in the food web and community structure of the Yellow Sea ecosystem. Changes in the composition of the diet of major predators may be an indicator of changes in a marine ecosystem.

  1. A meta-analysis of feed digestion in dairy cows. 1. The effects of forage and concentrate factors on total diet digestibility.

    PubMed

    Nousiainen, J; Rinne, M; Huhtanen, P

    2009-10-01

    A meta-analysis based on published experiments with lactating dairy cows was conducted to study the effects of dietary forage and concentrate factors on apparent total diet digestibility. A data set was collected that included a total of 497 dietary treatment means from 92 studies. The diets were based on grass silage or on legume or whole-crop cereal silages partly or completely substituted for grass silage. The silages were supplemented with concentrates given at a flat rate within a dietary comparison. For the statistical evaluation, the data were divided into 5 subsets to quantify silage (digestibility, 42 diets in 17 studies; fermentation characteristics, 108 diets in 39 studies) and concentrate (amount of supplementation, 142 diets in 59 studies; concentration of crude protein, 215 diets in 82 studies; carbohydrate composition, 66 diets in 23 studies) factors on total diet digestibility. The diet digestibility of dairy cows was determined by total fecal collection or by using acid-insoluble ash as an internal marker. Diet organic matter digestibility (OMD) at a maintenance level of feeding (OMD(m)) was estimated using sheep in vivo or corresponding in vitro digestibility values for the forage and reported ingredient and chemical composition values, with tabulated digestibility coefficients for the concentrate components of the diet. A mixed model regression analysis was used to detect the responses of different dietary factors on apparent total diet digestibility. Improved silage OMD(m) resulting from earlier harvest was translated into improved production-level OMD in cows (OMD(p)). The effects of silage fermentation characteristics on OMD(p) were quantitatively small, although sometimes significant. Concentrate supplementation improved total diet OMD(m), but this was not realized in lactating dairy cows because of linearly decreased neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility as concentrate intake increased. Increasing the concentrate crude protein amount

  2. Effects of supplementation with fish oil and barium selenate on performance, carcass characteristics and muscle fatty acid composition of late season lamb finished on grass-based or concentrate-based diets.

    PubMed

    Annett, R W; Carson, A F; Fearon, A M; Kilpatrick, D J

    2011-12-01

    fat (P < 0.05), and had less fat over the Iliocostalis thoracis (P < 0.001) and Obliquus internus abdominis (P < 0.05). Meat from grass-fed lambs also had lower levels of 18:2n-6 and total n-6 fatty acids compared with those finished indoors. The results of this study demonstrate that fish oil supplementation has some benefits for the health attributes of meat from lambs fed concentrate-based diets but not grass-based diets. Supplementing Se-deficient lambs with barium selenate will improve Se status of lambs fed zero-concentrate diets, but has no additional benefit when lambs are already consuming their daily Se requirement from concentrates or when fish oil-enriched diets are fed.

  3. Heavy metal distribution in tissues of six fish species included in human diet, inhabiting freshwaters of the Nature Park "Hutovo Blato" (Bosnia and Herzegovina).

    PubMed

    Has-Schön, Elizabeta; Bogut, Ivan; Rajković, Valentina; Bogut, Stjepan; Cacić, Milan; Horvatić, Janja

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to quantify heavy metal (mercury, lead, cadmium, and arsenic) concentration in tissues (muscles, liver, kidney, gills, and gonads) of six fish species (carp: Cyprinus carpio, tench: Tinca tinca, pumpkinseed: Lepomis gibosus, prussian carp: Carassius auratus gibelio, hasselquist: Salmo dentex, eel: Anguilla anguilla) from the freshwaters of the Nature Park Hutovo Blato, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and determine whether they are potentially harmful for human health if included in the diet. Fish were angled from the Svitava Lake in the second part of August of the year 2003, and fish tissues were stored at -18 degrees C until analysis. Heavy metal concentration was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry in the Veterinary Institute Brno, Czech Republic, and expressed as mg.kg(-1) of wet tissue. Concentration of mercury, lead, and arsenic in most tissues of all analyzed fish types is lower than the maximal allowed concentration (MAC) in most countries. Cadmium concentration is also low in muscles and gonads, but kidney, liver, and gill concentrations exceed MAC value in most countries. Hasselquist, an endemic type for that region, differs from other fish types in the fact that it has very low cadmium concentration in liver and kidney, but the highest concentration of arsenic in most tissues, especially muscles. In muscles and gonads of all fish types analyzed, Pb is present in higher concentration than Cd, whereas in liver, gills, and particularly kidney, the situation is opposite, suggesting diverse metabolic pathways and unequal bioaccumulation of these two metals in different fish tissues. Although the region of the Nature Park Hutovo Blato in Bosnia and Herzegovina is not an agricultural territory, the intensive agricultural activities in the neighboring regions already result in high cadmium concentration in inner organs of fish species analyzed. Therefore, fish types in the freshwaters of the Park may be included in the human diet

  4. Cancer mortality in Minamata disease patients exposed to methylmercury through fish diet.

    PubMed

    Kinjo, Y; Akiba, S; Yamaguchi, N; Mizuno, S; Watanabe, S; Wakamiya, J; Futatsuka, M; Kato, H

    1996-09-01

    We report here a historical cohort study on cancer mortality among Minamata disease (MD) patients (n = 1,351) in Kagoshima and Kumamoto Prefectures of Japan. Taking into account their living area, sex, age and fish eating habits, the residents (n = 5,667; 40 years of age or over at 1966) living in coastal areas of Kagoshima, who consumed fish daily, were selected as a reference group from the six-prefecture cohort study conducted by Hirayama et al. The observation periods of the MD patients and of the reference group were from 1973 to 1984 and from 1970 to 1981, respectively. Survival analysis using the Poisson regression model was applied for comparison of mortality between the MD patients and the reference group. No excess of relative risk (RR) adjusted for attained age, sex and follow-up period was observed for mortality from all causes, all cancers, and non-cancers combined. Analysis of site-specific cancers showed a statistically significant decrease in mortality from stomach cancer among MD patients (RR, 0.49; 95% confidence interval, 0.26-0.94). In addition, a statistically significant eight-fold excess risk, based on 5 observed deaths, was noted for mortality from leukemia (RR, 8.35; 95 % confidence interval 1.61-43.3). It is, however, unlikely for these observed risks to be derived from methylmercury exposure only. Further studies are needed to understand the mechanisms involved in the observed risks among MD patients.

  5. Contents of total fat, fatty acids, starch, sugars and dietary fibre in Swedish market basket diets.

    PubMed

    Becker, W; Eriksson, A; Haglund, M; Wretling, S

    2015-05-14

    The typical dietary supply of total fat, fatty acids, starch, sugars, polyols and dietary fibre in Sweden was assessed from analyses of market baskets (MB) purchased in 2005 and 2010. MB were based on food balance sheets, with each basket comprising about 130 foods, which represented more than 90% of annual dietary supply. Foods were divided into ten to twelve categories. In 2010, total fat contributed 34% of energy (E%), SFA 14.3 E%, MUFA 12.8 E%, PUFA 4.6 E%, n-6 fatty acids 3.6 E%, n-3 fatty acids 1.0 E% and trans-fatty acids (TFA) 0.5 E%. Glycaemic carbohydrates contributed 47 E%, monosaccharides 9 E%, sucrose 11 E%, disaccharides 15 E% and total sugars 24 E%. Added sugars contributed about 15 E%. Dietary fibre content was about 1.7 g/MJ in the 2010 MB. Compared with the 2005 MB, the dietary supply of TFA and dietary fibre was lower, otherwise differences were small. The present MB survey shows that the content of SFA and added sugars was higher than the current Nordic Nutrition Recommendations, while the content of PUFA and especially dietary fibre was lower. TFA levels decreased and dietary supply was well below the recommendations of the WHO. These results emphasise a focus on quality and food sources of fat and carbohydrates, limiting foods rich in SFA and added sugars and replacing them with foods rich in dietary fibre and cis-unsaturated fatty acids.

  6. Effect of feeding palm oil by-products based diets on total bacteria, cellulolytic bacteria and methanogenic archaea in the rumen of goats.

    PubMed

    Abubakr, Abdelrahim; Alimon, Abdul Razak; Yaakub, Halimatun; Abdullah, Norhani; Ivan, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Rumen microorganisms are responsible for digestion and utilization of dietary feeds by host ruminants. Unconventional feed resources could be used as alternatives in tropical areas where feed resources are insufficient in terms of quality and quantity. The objective of the present experiment was to evaluate the effect of diets based on palm oil (PO), decanter cake (DC) or palm kernel cake (PKC) on rumen total bacteria, selected cellulolytic bacteria, and methanogenic archaea. Four diets: control diet (CD), decanter cake diet (DCD), palm kernel cake diet (PKCD) and CD plus 5% PO diet (CPOD) were fed to rumen cannulated goats and rumen samples were collected at the start of the experimental diets (day 0) and on days 4, 6, 8, 12, 18, 24 and 30 post dietary treatments. Feeding DCD and PKCD resulted in significantly higher (P<0.05) DNA copy number of total bacteria, Fibrobacter succinogenes, Ruminococcus flavefeciens, and Ruminococcus albus. Rumen methanogenic archaea was significantly lower (P<0.05) in goats fed PKCD and CPOD and the trend showed a severe reduction on days 4 and 6 post experimental diets. In conclusion, results indicated that feeding DCD and PKC increased the populations of cellulolytic bacteria and decreased the density of methanogenic archaea in the rumen of goats.

  7. Effect of Feeding Palm Oil By-Products Based Diets on Total Bacteria, Cellulolytic Bacteria and Methanogenic Archaea in the Rumen of Goats

    PubMed Central

    Abubakr, Abdelrahim; Alimon, Abdul Razak; Yaakub, Halimatun; Abdullah, Norhani; Ivan, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Rumen microorganisms are responsible for digestion and utilization of dietary feeds by host ruminants. Unconventional feed resources could be used as alternatives in tropical areas where feed resources are insufficient in terms of quality and quantity. The objective of the present experiment was to evaluate the effect of diets based on palm oil (PO), decanter cake (DC) or palm kernel cake (PKC) on rumen total bacteria, selected cellulolytic bacteria, and methanogenic archaea. Four diets: control diet (CD), decanter cake diet (DCD), palm kernel cake diet (PKCD) and CD plus 5% PO diet (CPOD) were fed to rumen cannulated goats and rumen samples were collected at the start of the experimental diets (day 0) and on days 4, 6, 8, 12, 18, 24 and 30 post dietary treatments. Feeding DCD and PKCD resulted in significantly higher (P<0.05) DNA copy number of total bacteria, Fibrobacter succinogenes, Ruminococcus flavefeciens, and Ruminococcus albus. Rumen methanogenic archaea was significantly lower (P<0.05) in goats fed PKCD and CPOD and the trend showed a severe reduction on days 4 and 6 post experimental diets. In conclusion, results indicated that feeding DCD and PKC increased the populations of cellulolytic bacteria and decreased the density of methanogenic archaea in the rumen of goats. PMID:24756125

  8. Forage fish of the Pacific Rim as revealed by diet of a piscivorous seabird: Synchrony and relationships with sea surface temperature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thayer, J.A.; Bertram, D.F.; Hatch, Shyla A.; Hipfner, M.J.; Slater, L.; Sydeman, W.J.; Watanuki, Y.

    2008-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis of synchronous interannual changes in forage fish dynamics around the North Pacific Rim. To do this, we sampled forage fish communities using a seabird predator, the rhinoceros auklet (Cerorhinca monocerata), at six coastal study sites from Japan to California. We investigated whether take of forage fishes was related to local marine conditions as indexed by sea surface temperature (SST). SST was concordant across sites in the eastern Pacific, but inversely correlated between east and west. Forage fish communities consisted of anchovy (Engraulis spp.), sandlance (Ammodytes spp.), capelin (Mallotus spp.), and juvenile rockfish (Sebastes spp.), among others, and take of forage fish varied in response to interannual and possibly lower-frequency oceanographic variability. Take of primary forage species were significantly related to changes in SST only at the eastern sites. We found synchrony in interannual variation of primary forage fishes across several regions in the eastern Pacific, but no significant east-west correlations. Specifically in the Japan Sea, factors other than local SST or interannual variability may more strongly influence forage fishes. Predator diet sampling offers a fishery-independent, large-scale perspective on forage fish dynamics that may be difficult to obtain using conventional means of study. ?? 2008 NRC.

  9. Quantitative relationships between standardized total tract digestible phosphorus and total calcium intakes and their retention and excretion in growing pigs fed corn-soybean meal diets.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, N A; Serão, N V L; Elsbernd, A J; Hansen, S L; Walk, C L; Bedford, M R; Patience, J F

    2015-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the quantitative relationships between standardized total tract digestible P (STTD P) and total Ca intakes with their retention and excretion by growing pigs fed corn-soybean meal diets. Forty-eight crossbred barrows (BW = 22.7 ± 2.9 kg) were allotted to 1 of 8 diets, housed individually in pens for 3 wk, and then moved to metabolism crates and allowed 4 d for adaptation and 5 d for collection of urine and fecal samples. Eight corn-soybean meal diets were formulated for similar NE, fat, and AA concentrations but to increase the STTD P from 0.16 to 0.62% using monocalcium phosphate. Dietary treatments were formulated for a constant Ca:STTD P ratio (2.2:1). The STTD P intake increased (P < 0.001) from 64 to 242% of the daily requirement (4.59 g/d of STTD P). Fecal and total excretion of P and Ca were linearly associated with mineral intake (P < 0.001). Constant urinary P excretion of 0.03 g/d P was observed, but at 4.96 g/d of STTD P intake, the urinary P excretion increased (P < 0.001). In contrast, Ca excretion in urine decreased (P < 0.001) with Ca intake, but constant excretion of 0.40 g/d Ca was reached at 17.97 g/d of Ca intake. The daily intakes of STTD P and Ca moderately explained the variation in urinary excretion of P (R2= 0.41) and Ca (R2= 0.64). The absorption and retention of P increased linearly (P< 0.001) with dietary P intake, whereas absorption and retention of Ca showed a quadratic response (P < 0.001). Absorption and retention of P and Ca were highly predictable from the STTD P and Ca intakes, with of 0.87 and 0.90, respectively. The femur mineral content (FMC) increased by 2.71 g with STTD P intake (P < 0.001) but reached a plateau (29.54 g of FMC) at 8.84 g/d of STTD P intake. The FMC was highly predictable from the STTD P intake (R2 = 0.89). The FMC affected the urinary P excretion ( P< 0.01), but moderately (R2= 0.19) explained the variation in urinary P. In conclusion, constant excretion of P in urine

  10. Diverticulitis Diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... allowed on a clear liquid diet include: Broth Fruit juices without pulp, such as apple juice Ice chips ... skin) Eggs, fish and poultry Refined white bread Fruit and vegetable juice with no pulp Low-fiber cereals Milk, yogurt ...

  11. Green Tea Increases the Concentration of Total Mercury in the Blood of Rats following an Oral Fish Tissue Bolus

    PubMed Central

    Janle, Elsa M.; Freiser, Helene; Manganais, Christopher; Chen, Tzu-Ying; Craig, Bruce A.; Santerre, Charles R.

    2015-01-01

    Fish has many health benefits but is also the most common source of methylmercury. The bioavailability of methylmercury in fish may be affected by other meal components. In this study, the effect of green tea on the bioavailability of methylmercury from an oral bolus of fish muscle tissue was studied in rats and compared to a water treated control group and a group treated with meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), a compound used medically to chelate mercury. Rats were given a single oral dose of fish tissue via gavage and one of the treatments. Rats were given access to food for 3 h at 12 h intervals. They were dosed with each of the treatments with each meal. Blood samples were collected for 95 hours. Green tea significantly increased the concentration of total mercury in blood relative to the control, whereas DMSA significantly decreased it. In addition, feeding caused a slight increase in blood mercury for several meals following the initial dose. PMID:26301246

  12. Green Tea Increases the Concentration of Total Mercury in the Blood of Rats following an Oral Fish Tissue Bolus.

    PubMed

    Janle, Elsa M; Freiser, Helene; Manganais, Christopher; Chen, Tzu-Ying; Craig, Bruce A; Santerre, Charles R

    2015-01-01

    Fish has many health benefits but is also the most common source of methylmercury. The bioavailability of methylmercury in fish may be affected by other meal components. In this study, the effect of green tea on the bioavailability of methylmercury from an oral bolus of fish muscle tissue was studied in rats and compared to a water treated control group and a group treated with meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), a compound used medically to chelate mercury. Rats were given a single oral dose of fish tissue via gavage and one of the treatments. Rats were given access to food for 3 h at 12 h intervals. They were dosed with each of the treatments with each meal. Blood samples were collected for 95 hours. Green tea significantly increased the concentration of total mercury in blood relative to the control, whereas DMSA significantly decreased it. In addition, feeding caused a slight increase in blood mercury for several meals following the initial dose.

  13. A simulation study of the potential effects of healthy food and beverage substitutions on diet quality and total energy intake in Lower Mississippi Delta adults.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Jessica L; Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa M; Onufrak, Stephen J; Zoellner, Jamie M; Connell, Carol L; Bogle, Margaret L; Yadrick, Kathy

    2011-12-01

    The majority of adult diets in the United States, particularly the South, are of poor quality, putting these individuals at increased risk for chronic diseases. In this study, simulation modeling was used to determine the effects of substituting familiar, more healthful foods and beverages for less healthy ones on diet quality and total energy intake in Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) adults. Dietary data collected in 2000 for 1689 LMD adults who participated in the Foods of Our Delta Study were analyzed. The Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005) was used to measure diet quality. The effects of substituting targeted foods and beverages with more healthful items on diet quality were simulated by replacing the targeted items' nutrient profile with their replacements' profile. For the single food and beverage groups, 100% replacement of grain desserts with juice-packed fruit cocktail and sugar-sweetened beverages with water resulted in the largest improvements in diet quality (4.0 and 3.8 points, respectively) and greatest decreases in total energy intake (98 and 215 kcal/d, respectively). The 100% substitution of all food and beverage groups combined resulted in a 12.0-point increase in HEI-2005 score and a decrease of 785 kcal/d in total energy intake. Community interventions designed to improve the diet of LMD adults through the use of familiar, healthy food and beverage substitutions have the potential to improve diet quality and decrease energy intake of this health disparate population.

  14. Evaluation of the possible inclusion of certain fish species in chronic kidney disease diets based on their adverse and beneficial nutrient ratios.

    PubMed

    Castro-González, I; Maafs-Rodríguez, A G; Silencio-Barrita, J L; Galindo-Gómez, C; Pérez-Gil, F

    2013-02-01

    The goal of this study was to quantify the adverse (phosphorus, protein, sodium, potassium and cholesterol) and beneficial [n-3 fatty acids: eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) + docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); vitamins D(3) and E] nutrients in 14 fish species in order to evaluate their inclusion in chronic kidney disease (CKD) diets. Using AOAC methods, we obtained the following results per 100 g of fish: 50.86-227.52 mg phosphorus, 14.7-30.6 g protein and 3.83-1667.35 mg EPA+DHA. CKD patients with protein or phosphorus restrictions should avoid broadbill swordfish, black bullhead and spotted scorpionfish. However, patients may include parrot sand bass, black bullhead, broadbill swordfish, longjaw leatherjacket, oilfish, Atlantic tripletail, spotted scorpionfish and round herring in their diets based on the (P)/(EPA+DHA) ratios of these fish. Some fish species may be included in CKD diets because of their high biological value protein content - associated with cardiovascular and renal protective nutrients (EPA+DHA) - and low P, Na, K and cholesterol content, their consumption by CKD patients should be encouraged.

  15. Dietary exposure estimates for the food preservatives benzoic acid and sorbic acid in the total diet in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Ling, Min-Pei; Lien, Keng-Wen; Wu, Chiu-Hua; Ni, Shih-Pei; Huang, Hui-Ying; Hsieh, Dennis P H

    2015-02-25

    The purpose was to assess the health risk to general consumers in Taiwan associated with dietary intake of benzoic acid and sorbic acid by conducting a total diet study (TDS). The hazard index (HI) in percent acceptable daily intake (%ADI) of benzoic acid and sorbic acid for eight exposure groups classified by age were calculated. In high-intake consumers, the highest HI of benzoic acid was 54.1%ADI for males aged 1-2 years old at the 95th percentile, whereas for females, the HI was 61.7%ADI for aged over 66 years old. The highest HI of sorbic acid for male and female consumers aged 3-6 years old at the 95th percentile were 14.0%ADI and 12.2%ADI, respectively. These results indicate that the use of benzoic acid and sorbic acid as preservatives at the current level of use in the Taiwanese diet does not constitute a public health and safety concern.

  16. A Mediterranean Diet Enriched with Olive Oil Is Associated with Higher Serum Total Osteocalcin Levels in Elderly Men at High Cardiovascular Risk

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Navarrete, José Maria; Ricart, Wifredo; Ros, Emilio; Estruch, Ramon; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Background: The intake of olive oil has been related to the prevention of osteoporosis in experimental and in in vitro models. Very few prospective studies have evaluated the effects of olive oil intake on circulating osteocalcin (OC) in humans. Objective: The objective of the study was to examine the longitudinal effects of a low-fat control diet (n = 34), a Mediterranean diet enriched with nuts (MedDiet+nuts, n = 51), or a Mediterranean diet enriched with virgin olive oil (MedDiet+VOO, n = 42) on circulating forms of OC and bone formation markers in elderly men at high cardiovascular risk. Design: Longitudinal associations between baseline and follow-up (2 yr) measurements of total OC, undercarboxylated osteocalcin, C-telopeptide of type I collagen, and procollagen I N-terminal propeptide (P1NP) concentrations were examined in 127 elderly men randomized to three healthy dietary interventions. Results: Baseline characteristics (age, body mass index, waist circumference, lipid profile, fasting insulin levels, and bone formation and resorption markers) were similar in all intervention groups. The total osteocalcin concentration increased robustly in the MedDiet+VOO group (P = 0.007) in parallel to increased P1NP levels (P = 0.01) and homeostasis model assessment-β-cell function (P = 0.01) but not in subjects on the MedDiet+nuts (P = 0.32) or after the control diet (P = 0.74). Interestingly, the consumption of olives was associated positively with both baseline total osteocalcin (r = 0.23, P = 0.02) and the 2-yr osteocalcin concentrations (r = 0.21, P = 0.04) in the total cohort. Conclusions: Consumption of a Mediterranean diet enriched with virgin olive oil for 2 years is associated with increased serum osteocalcin and P1NP concentrations, suggesting protective effects on bone. PMID:22855341

  17. A whole-grain cereal-rich diet increases plasma betaine, and tends to decrease total and LDL-cholesterol compared with a refined-grain diet in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Ross, Alastair B; Bruce, Stephen J; Blondel-Lubrano, Anny; Oguey-Araymon, Sylviane; Beaumont, Maurice; Bourgeois, Alexandre; Nielsen-Moennoz, Corine; Vigo, Mario; Fay, Laurent-Bernard; Kochhar, Sunil; Bibiloni, Rodrigo; Pittet, Anne-Cécile; Emady-Azar, Shahram; Grathwohl, Dominik; Rezzi, Serge

    2011-05-01

    Epidemiological studies have repeatedly found that whole-grain (WG) cereal foods reduce the risk of several lifestyle-related diseases, though consistent clinical outcomes and mechanisms are elusive. To compare the effects of a WG-rich diet with a matched refined-grain (RG) diet on plasma biomarkers and bowel health parameters, seventeen healthy subjects (eleven females and six males) completed an exploratory cross-over study with a 2-week intervention diet based on either WG- or RG-based foods, separated by a washout of at least 5 weeks. Both diets were the same except for the use of WG (150 g/d) or RG foods. Subjects undertook a 4 h postprandial challenge on day 8 of each intervention diet. After 2 weeks, the WG diet tended to decrease plasma total and LDL-cholesterol (both P = 0·09), but did not change plasma HDL-cholesterol, fasting glucose, C-reactive protein or homocysteine compared with the RG diet. Plasma betaine and alkylresorcinol concentrations were elevated after 1 week of the WG diet (P = 0·01 and P < 0·0001, respectively). Clostridium leptum populations in faeces were increased after the WG diet, along with a trend for decreased faecal water pH (P = 0·096) and increased stool frequency (P < 0·0001) compared with the RG diet. A short controlled intervention trial with a variety of commercially available WG-based products tended to improve biomarkers of CVD compared with a RG diet. Changes in faecal microbiota related to increased fibre fermentation and increased plasma betaine concentrations point to both fibre and phytochemical components of WG being important in mediating any potential health effects.

  18. Total Homocysteine, Diet, and Lipid Profiles in Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetic and Nondiabetic Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Faulkner, Melissa Spezia; Chao, Wei-Hsun; Kamath, Savitri K.; Quinn, Laurie; Fritschi, Cynthia; Maggiore, Jack A.; Williams, Robert H.; Reynolds, Robert D.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Research Objective Limited research is available on the possible differences in the cardiovascular risk factors of total homocysteine (tHcy), dietary energy, and lipids among adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM), type 2 DM, or healthy controls. This study’s primary aim was to compare the dietary energy and the intake of macronutrients and micronutrients of folate, and vitamins B6 and B12, as well as lipids and tHcy for adolescents with type 1 DM, type 2 DM, and healthy non-DM controls. Subjects and Methods This secondary analysis of the merging of 2 datasets included the following adolescents: 50 with type 1 DM, 14 with type 2 DM, and 53 controls. Mean ages for those with type 1 versus type 2 DM were 15.2 ± 1.9 versus 16.1 ± 1.9 years, respectively. Mean age for the controls was 16.5 ± 1.0 years. Variables included fasting tHcy and lipids, and 24-hour dietary recalls for macronutrients and micronutrients. Hemoglobin A1c was obtained for those with DM. Statistical analyses included one-way analyses of variance, Pearson correlations, and stepwise regression. Results and Conclusions Adolescents with type 1 DM had the lowest tHcy values (P < .05), which were reflective of the limited extant research with this population. Lipid profiles and dietary energy did not differ significantly among the 3 groups. Hemoglobin A1c was related to total cholesterol and triglycerides in those with type 1 DM, confirming the importance of promoting better metabolic control in lipid management for these youth. Future research should continue to explore the validity of tHcy and lipids as predictors of CV risks for youth with type 1 and type 2 DM. PMID:16407737

  19. Dietary exposure to trace elements and radionuclides: the methodology of the Italian Total Diet Study 2012-2014.

    PubMed

    D'Amato, Marilena; Turrini, Aida; Aureli, Federica; Moracci, Gabriele; Raggi, Andrea; Chiaravalle, Eugenio; Mangiacotti, Michele; Cenci, Telemaco; Orletti, Roberta; Candela, Loredana; di Sandro, Alessandra; Cubadda, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the methodology of the Italian Total Diet Study 2012-2014 aimed at assessing the dietary exposure of the general Italian population to selected nonessential trace elements (Al, inorganic As, Cd, Pb, methyl-Hg, inorganic Hg, U) and radionuclides (40K, 134Cs, 137Cs, 90Sr). The establishment of the TDS food list, the design of the sampling plan, and details about the collection of food samples, their standardized culinary treatment, pooling into analytical samples and subsequent sample treatment are described. Analytical techniques and quality assurance are discussed, with emphasis on the need for speciation data and for minimizing the percentage of left-censored data so as to reduce uncertainties in exposure assessment. Finally the methodology for estimating the exposure of the general population and of population subgroups according to age (children, teenagers, adults, and the elderly) and gender, both at the national level and for each of the four main geographical areas of Italy, is presented.

  20. Dietary exposure of Hong Kong adults to acrylamide: results of the first Hong Kong Total Diet Study.

    PubMed

    Wong, Waiky W K; Chung, Stephen W C; Lam, Chi-ho; Ho, Y Y; Xiao, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Acrylamide is a processing contaminant in food formed during cooking at high temperature, such as frying and baking. To assess the associated health risk of the Hong Kong population, the dietary exposure of Hong Kong adults to acrylamide was estimated in the first Hong Kong Total Diet Study (TDS), where food samples were collected and prepared "as consumed". A total of 532 composite food samples were analysed for acrylamide using LC-MS/MS. Dietary exposures were estimated by combining the analytical results with the food consumption data of the Hong Kong adults. The mean and 95th percentile exposures to acrylamide of the Hong Kong population were 0.213 and 0.538 μg kg⁻¹ body weight (bw) day⁻¹, respectively, and their margins of exposure (MOEs) were all below 10,000. The main dietary source of acrylamide was "Vegetables and their products" (52.4% of the total exposure), particularly stir-fried vegetables (44.9%), followed by "Cereals and their products" (14.7%) and "Mixed dishes" (9.43%). The study findings suggest that the relatively low figures for MOE for a genotoxic carcinogen may indicate human health concern of the Hong Kong population. Efforts should continue to be made in the interest of reducing acrylamide levels in food locally.

  1. The new total Western diet for rodents does not induce an overweight phenotype or alter parameters of metabolic syndrome in mice.

    PubMed

    Monsanto, Stephany P; Hintze, Korry J; Ward, Robert E; Larson, Deanna P; Lefevre, Michael; Benninghoff, Abby D

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we determined the impact of the total Western diet (TWD) for rodents and its macro- and micronutrient components on weight gain and biomarkers of metabolic function in mice compared to a 45% fat diet-induced obesity (DIO) diet and the standard AIN93G diet. We hypothesized that mice fed the TWD would have increased body fat with indicators of metabolic syndrome similar to mice consuming the DIO diet. As expected, DIO-fed mice acquired a metabolic syndrome phenotype typified by increased energy intake, increased body weight gain, increased fat mass, higher fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, and higher plasma leptin relative to the AIN93G diet. Mice fed a macronutrient-modified (MM) diet (with standard vitamin and mineral composition) had a similar response, albeit to a lesser degree than mice fed the DIO diet. Mice fed a vitamin- and mineral-modified diet (with standard macronutrient composition) were not different from mice fed the AIN93G diet. Surprisingly, the TWD (with modified macronutrients, vitamins and minerals) did not significantly affect any of these parameters, despite the fact that the TWD macronutrient profile was identical to the MM diet. These data suggest that, in the context of the TWD, vitamin and mineral intakes in mice that reflect a Western dietary pattern inhibit the hyperphagia and resulting increased weight gain associated with the higher fat content of the TWD. In conclusion, these observations underscore the need to consider the influence of micronutrient intakes in pre-clinical models of obesity and metabolic syndrome.

  2. Development of a new method for determination of total haem protein in fish muscle.

    PubMed

    Chaijan, Manat; Undeland, Ingrid

    2015-04-15

    Using classic haem protein quantification methods, the extraction step in buffer or acid acetone often becomes limiting if muscle is oxidised and/or stored; haem-proteins then tend to bind to muscle components like myofibrils and/or biomembranes. The objective of this study was to develop a new haem protein determination method for fish muscle overcoming such extractability problems. The principle was to homogenise and heat samples in an SDS-containing phosphate buffer to dissolve major muscle components and convert ferrous/ferric haem proteins to hemichromes with a unique absorption peak at 535 nm. Hb-recovery tests with the new and classic methods showed that the new method and Hornsey's method performed significantly better on fresh Hb-enriched cod mince than Brown's and Drabkin's methods; recovery was ⩾98%. However, in highly oxidised samples and in cod protein isolates made with acid pH-shift processing, the new method performed better than Hornsey's method (63% and 87% vs. 50% and 68% recovery). Further, the new method performed well in fish muscle with ⩽30% lipid, <5% NaCl and pH 5.5-7.0; it was also unaffected by freezing/frozen storage.

  3. Exploring the nature of ecological specialization in a coral reef fish community: morphology, diet and foraging microhabitat use

    PubMed Central

    Brandl, Simon J.; Robbins, William D.; Bellwood, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Patterns of ecological specialization offer invaluable information about ecosystems. Yet, specialization is rarely quantified across several ecological niche axes and variables beyond the link between morphological and dietary specialization have received little attention. Here, we provide a quantitative evaluation of ecological specialization in a coral reef fish assemblage (f. Acanthuridae) along one fundamental and two realized niche axes. Specifically, we examined ecological specialization in 10 surgeonfish species with regards to morphology and two realized niche axes associated with diet and foraging microhabitat utilization using a recently developed multidimensional framework. We then investigated the potential relationships between morphological and behavioural specialization. These relationships differed markedly from the traditional ecomorphological paradigm. While morphological specialization showed no relationship with dietary specialization, it exhibited a strong relationship with foraging microhabitat specialization. However, this relationship was inverted: species with specialized morphologies were microhabitat generalists, whereas generalized morphotypes were microhabitat specialists. Interestingly, this mirrors relationships found in plant–pollinator communities and may also be applicable to other ecosystems, highlighting the potential importance of including niche axes beyond dietary specialization into ecomorphological frameworks. On coral reefs, it appears that morphotypes commonly perceived as most generalized may, in fact, be specialized in exploiting flat and easily accessible microhabitats. PMID:26354935

  4. Exploring the nature of ecological specialization in a coral reef fish community: morphology, diet and foraging microhabitat use.

    PubMed

    Brandl, Simon J; Robbins, William D; Bellwood, David R

    2015-09-22

    Patterns of ecological specialization offer invaluable information about ecosystems. Yet, specialization is rarely quantified across several ecological niche axes and variables beyond the link between morphological and dietary specialization have received little attention. Here, we provide a quantitative evaluation of ecological specialization in a coral reef fish assemblage (f. Acanthuridae) along one fundamental and two realized niche axes. Specifically, we examined ecological specialization in 10 surgeonfish species with regards to morphology and two realized niche axes associated with diet and foraging microhabitat utilization using a recently developed multidimensional framework. We then investigated the potential relationships between morphological and behavioural specialization. These relationships differed markedly from the traditional ecomorphological paradigm. While morphological specialization showed no relationship with dietary specialization, it exhibited a strong relationship with foraging microhabitat specialization. However, this relationship was inverted: species with specialized morphologies were microhabitat generalists, whereas generalized morphotypes were microhabitat specialists. Interestingly, this mirrors relationships found in plant-pollinator communities and may also be applicable to other ecosystems, highlighting the potential importance of including niche axes beyond dietary specialization into ecomorphological frameworks. On coral reefs, it appears that morphotypes commonly perceived as most generalized may, in fact, be specialized in exploiting flat and easily accessible microhabitats.

  5. Diet variation of a generalist fish predator, grey snapper Lutjanus griseus, across an estuarine gradient: trade-offs of quantity for quality?

    PubMed

    Yeager, L A; Layman, C A; Hammerschlag-Peyer, C M

    2014-08-01

    This study examined diet, prey quality and growth for a generalist fish predator, grey snapper Lutjanus griseus, at five sites across an estuarine gradient in the Loxahatchee River estuary, Florida, U.S.A. Lutjanus griseus diets shifted from dominance by low quality, intertidal crabs upstream to an increased reliance on higher quality shrimp, fishes and benthic crabs downstream. Frequency of L. griseus with empty stomachs was higher at downstream sites. Lutjanus griseus growth rates did not vary among sites. Results indicate that L. griseus may be able to compensate for lower quality prey upstream by consuming more, and thus individuals are able to maintain similar levels of energy balance and growth rates across the estuarine gradient. Elucidating mechanisms, such as compensatory feeding, that enable generalist species to remain successful across habitat conditions are critical to understanding their organismal ecology and may facilitate predictions about the response of generalists to landscape alteration.

  6. Establishing a food list for a Total Diet Study: how does food consumption of specific subpopulations need to be considered?

    PubMed

    Akhandaf, Y; De Henauw, S; Dofkova, M; Ruprich, J; Papadopoulos, A; Sirot, V; Kennedy, M C; Pinchen, H; Blume, K; Lindtner, O; Brantsaeter, A L; Meltzer, H M; Sioen, I

    2015-01-01

    A Total Diet Study (TDS) consists of selecting, collecting and analysing commonly consumed foods to obtain concentration data of different chemical compounds in foods as eaten. A TDS food list summarises the most consumed foods and represents the dietary habits of the general population of the country under study. The work reported here investigated whether TDS food lists that were initially designed for the whole population of the country under study also sufficiently cover the dietary pattern of specific subpopulations that are extra vulnerable for certain contaminants. The work was performed using data of three European countries: the Czech Republic, France and the UK. Each national food consumption database was combined with the corresponding national TDS food list (containing 336, 212 and 119 food items for the Czech Republic, France and the UK, respectively). The data were aggregated on the highest level of hierarchy of FoodEx-1, a pan-European food classification system, including 20 main FoodEx-1 groups. For the group 'milk and dairy products', the coverage of the consumption by the food list was investigated for more refined subgroups. For each food group or subgroup and country, the average percentage of coverage of the diet by the national TDS food list was calculated for different subpopulations, including children versus adults, women versus men, vegetarians versus non-vegetarians, and women of child-bearing age versus older women. The average diet of the different subpopulations was sufficiently covered by the food list of the Czech Republic and France. For the UK the average coverage was low due to a different food-coding approach and because food lists were not derived directly from national food consumption data. At the level of the 20 main food groups, differences between the subpopulations with respect to the average coverage of consumption by the TDS food list were minimal. The differences were more pronounced when looking in detail at the

  7. Total antioxidant capacity of the diet is associated with lower risk of ischemic stroke in a large Italian cohort.

    PubMed

    Del Rio, Daniele; Agnoli, Claudia; Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Krogh, Vittorio; Brighenti, Furio; Mazzeo, Teresa; Masala, Giovanna; Bendinelli, Benedetta; Berrino, Franco; Sieri, Sabina; Tumino, Rosario; Rollo, Patrizia Concetta; Gallo, Valentina; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Mattiello, Amalia; Chiodini, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore

    2011-01-01

    Experimental studies suggest that oxidative stress and systemic inflammation are involved in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke. Consuming a diet with a high total antioxidant capacity (TAC) has been related to reduced inflammation and increased circulating antioxidants in cross-sectional and randomized intervention studies. This study investigates the relation between dietary TAC and risk of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke in 41,620 men and women not previously diagnosed with stroke or myocardial infarction, representing the Italian segment of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Controlling for potential confounders, a diet rich in TAC was associated with a reduction in HR for all types of stroke, but this association was only marginally significant (P-trend = 0.054). When only ischemic stroke cases were considered, data suggest a stronger inverse association with dietary TAC, with HR = 0.41 (95% CI = 0.23-0.74). Regarding single antioxidants, data from subanalyses on stroke types suggest that vitamin C is significantly associated with a decreased risk of ischemic stroke [HR = 0.58 (95% CI = 0.34-0.99)], whereas vitamin E was associated with increased HR of hemorrhagic stroke in the highest tertile of intake [HR = 2.94 (95% CI = 1.13-7.62)]. In conclusion, our findings suggest that antioxidants may play a role in reducing the risk of cerebral infarction but not hemorrhagic stroke. However, a high intake of vitamin E could be positively associated to the risk of brain hemorrhagic events; therefore, more focused investigations about this observation are needed.

  8. Changes in liver proteins of rats fed standard and high-fat and sucrose diets induced by fish omega-3 PUFAs and their combination with grape polyphenols according to quantitative proteomics.

    PubMed

    Méndez, Lucía; Ciordia, Sergio; Fernández, María Soledad; Juárez, Silvia; Ramos, Antonio; Pazos, Manuel; Gallardo, José M; Torres, Josep Lluís; Nogués, M Rosa; Medina, Isabel

    2017-03-01

    This study considered the physiological modulation of liver proteins due to the supplementation with fish oils under two dietary backgrounds: standard or high in fat and sucrose (HFHS), and their combination with grape polyphenols. By using a quantitative proteomics approach, we showed that the capacity of the supplements for regulating proteins depended on the diet; namely, 10 different proteins changed into standard diets, while 45 changed into the HFHS diets and only scarcely proteins were found altered in common. However, in both contexts, fish oils were the main regulatory force, although the addition of polyphenols was able to modulate some fish oils' effects. Moreover, we demonstrated the ability of fish oils and their combination with grape polyphenols in improving biochemical parameters and reducing lipogenesis and glycolysis enzymes, enhancing fatty acid beta-oxidation and insulin signaling and ameliorating endoplasmic reticulum stress and protein oxidation when they are included in an unhealthy diet.

  9. Performance and phosphorus balance of pigs fed diets formulated on the basis of values for standardized total tract digestibility of phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Almeida, F N; Stein, H H

    2010-09-01

    Three experiments were conducted to test the hypotheses that pigs fed diets that are equal in digestible P will perform equally regardless of the concentration of total P in the diets, and that the addition of microbial phytase, distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), or a combination of phytase and DDGS will result in a reduction in P excretion. In Exp. 1, a P-free diet and 6 diets containing corn, soybean meal (SBM), or DDGS without or with microbial phytase (500 phytase units per kg) were formulated. Diets were fed for 12 d to 42 pigs (initial BW = 13.5 +/- 3.9 kg) housed in metabolism cages that allowed for total collections of feces. Basal endogenous P losses were determined to be 199 mg/kg of DMI for pigs fed the P-free diet. Addition of phytase increased (P < 0.01) the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P in corn (64.4 vs. 26.4%) and SBM (74.9 vs. 48.3%), but there was no effect (P > 0.10) of the addition of phytase on the STTD of P in DDGS (75.5 vs. 72.9%). In Exp. 2, a total of 160 pigs (initial BW = 11.25 +/- 1.95 kg; 4 pigs/pen) were allotted to 4 corn- and SBM-based diets with 2 amounts of phytase (0 or 500 phytase units per kg) and 2 amounts of DDGS (0 or 20%) in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. All diets were formulated to contain 0.32% STTD of P according to the STTD values determined in Exp. 1. Diets were fed for 21 d and results indicated that inclusion of phytase in the diet containing no DDGS tended (P < 0.10) to decrease G:F, but inclusion of 20% DDGS in the diets tended (P < 0.10) to increase ADG, ADFI, and final BW. In Exp. 3, the diets used in Exp. 2 were fed to 24 pigs (initial BW = 14.6 +/- 1.4 kg) that were placed in metabolism cages individually. Feces and urine were collected for 5 d. Phytase and DDGS increased (P < 0.01) the apparent total tract digestibility of P in the diets. Absorption of P was greater (P < 0.05) in pigs fed corn-SBM-DDGS diets than pigs fed corn-SBM diets, and phytase, DDGS, or the

  10. Dietary exposure of Hong Kong adults to pesticide residues: results of the first Hong Kong Total Diet Study.

    PubMed

    Wong, Waiky W K; Yau, Arthur T C; Chung, Stephen W C; Lam, Chi-ho; Ma, Stephanie; Ho, Y Y; Xiao, Ying

    2014-01-01

    The use of pesticides and other chemicals has become a common practice in modern agriculture to enhance and stabilise crop yield, protect the nutritional integrity of food, facilitate food storage to assure year-round supplies, and provide attractive and appealing food products. With the adoption of strict good agricultural practice (GAP), only minimal amounts of pesticide residues should remain on the crops or in connected foods of animal origin up the food chain. To assess their associated health risk to local people, the dietary exposure of Hong Kong adults to residues of four groups of pesticides or their metabolites - organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs), carbamates, pyrethrins and pyrethroids, and dithiocarbamate (DTC) metabolites - is estimated in the first Hong Kong Total Diet Study (TDS). A total of 150 commonly consumed food items were collected and prepared "as consumed". A total of 600 composite food samples were analysed for 85 pesticides or their metabolites by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). These pesticides were primarily found at low levels (highest mean = 350 μg kg⁻¹) in food samples of plant origin such as vegetables and fruits. Dietary exposures to pesticide residues were estimated based on the analytical results and the food consumption data of the local residents. The estimated dietary exposures of Hong Kong adults to all individual pesticides were well below their respective acceptable daily intakes (ADIs). The percentage contributions of the estimated mean and 95th percentile dietary exposures to the ADIs of individual pesticides were <6% and <24% for the OPPs, <1% for the carbamates and pyrethrins and pyrethroids, and <1% and <4% for the DTC metabolites, respectively. The findings indicate that dietary exposures to all the pesticide residues analysed in this study were unlikely to pose unacceptable health risks to the Hong Kong population.

  11. High fat/carbohydrate ratio but not total energy intake induces lower striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor availability in diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    van de Giessen, E; la Fleur, S E; Eggels, L; de Bruin, K; van den Brink, W; Booij, J

    2013-05-01

    High-energy diets that induce obesity decrease striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor (DRD2/3) availability. It is however poorly understood which components of these diets are underlying this decrease. This study assessed the role of saturated fat intake on striatal DRD2/3 availability. Forty rats were randomized to a free-choice high-fat high-sugar diet (HFHS) or a standard chow diet for 28 days. Striatal DRD2/3 availability was measured using (123)I-IBZM storage phosphor imaging at day 29. The HFHS group was split in a HFHS-high-fat (HFHS-hf) and HFHS-low-fat (HFHS-lf) group based on the percentage energy intake from fat. Rats of both HFHS subgroups had increased energy intake, abdominal fat stores and plasma leptin levels compared with controls. DRD2/3 availability in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) was significantly lower in HFHS-hf than in HFHS-lf rats, whereas it was similar for HFHS-lf and control rats. Furthermore, DRD2/3 availability in the NAcc was positively correlated with the percentage energy intake from sugar. Total energy intake was lower for HFHS-hf than for HFHS-lf rats. Together these results suggest that a diet with a high fat/carbohydrate ratio, but not total energy intake or the level of adiposity, is the best explanation for the decrease in striatal DRD2/3 availability observed in diet-induced obesity.

  12. Analysis of integrated animal-fish production system under subtropical hill agro ecosystem in India: growth performance of animals, total biomass production and monetary benefit.

    PubMed

    Kumaresan, A; Pathak, K A; Bujarbaruah, K M; Vinod, K

    2009-03-01

    The present study assessed the benefits of integration of animals with fish production in optimizing the bio mass production from unit land in subtropical hill agro ecosystem. Hampshire pigs and Khaki Campbell ducks were integrated with composite fish culture. The pig and duck excreta were directly allowed into the pond and no supplementary feed was given to fish during the period of study. The average levels of N, P and K in dried pig and duck manure were 0.9, 0.7 and 0.6 per cent and 1.3, 0.6 and 0.5 per cent, respectively. The average body weight of pig and duck at 11 months age was 90 and 1.74 kg with an average daily weight gain of 333.33 and 6.44 g, respectively. The fish production in pig-fish and duck-fish systems were 2209 and 2964 kg/ha, respectively while the fish productivity in control pond was only 820 kg/ha. The total biomass (animal and fish) production was higher (p<0.05) in commercial feeding system compared to the traditional system, however the input/output ratio was 1:1.2 and 1:1.55 for commercial and traditional systems, respectively. It was inferred that the total biomass production per unit land was high (p<0.05) when animal and fish were integrated together.

  13. Concentrations of bisphenol A in the composite food samples from the 2008 Canadian total diet study in Quebec City and dietary intake estimates

    PubMed Central

    Cao, X.-L.; Perez-Locas, C.; Dufresne, G.; Clement, G.; Popovic, S.; Beraldin, F.; Dabeka, R.W.; Feeley, M.

    2011-01-01

    A total of 154 food composite samples from the 2008 total diet study in Quebec City were analysed for bisphenol A (BPA), and BPA was detected in less than half (36%, or 55 samples) of the samples tested. High concentrations of BPA were found mostly in the composite samples containing canned foods, with the highest BPA level being observed in canned fish (106 ng g−1), followed by canned corn (83.7 ng g−1), canned soups (22.2–44.4 ng g−1), canned baked beans (23.5 ng g−1), canned peas (16.8 ng g−1), canned evaporated milk (15.3 ng g−1), and canned luncheon meats (10.5 ng g−1). BPA levels in baby food composite samples were low, with 2.75 ng g−1 in canned liquid infant formula, and 0.84–2.46 ng g−1 in jarred baby foods. BPA was also detected in some foods that are not canned or in jars, such as yeast (8.52 ng g−1), baking powder (0.64 ng g−1), some cheeses (0.68–2.24 ng g−1), breads and some cereals (0.40–1.73 ng g−1), and fast foods (1.1–10.9 ng g−1). Dietary intakes of BPA were low for all age–sex groups, with 0.17–0.33 μg kg−1 body weight day−1 for infants, 0.082–0.23 μg kg−1 body weight day−1 for children aged from 1 to 19 years, and 0.052–0.081 μg kg−1 body weight day−1 for adults, well below the established regulatory limits. BPA intakes from 19 of the 55 samples account for more than 95% of the total dietary intakes, and most of the 19 samples were either canned or in jars. Intakes of BPA from non-canned foods are low. PMID:21623504

  14. Total and methyl mercury in the water, sediment, and fishes of Vembanad, a tropical backwater system in India.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, E V; Jayasooryan, K K; Chandran, M S Shylesh; Mohan, Mahesh

    2017-03-01

    Mercury contamination in the water bodies of developing countries is a serious concern due to its toxicity, persistence, and bioaccumulation. Vembanad, a tropical backwater lake situated at the southwest coast of India, is the largest Ramsar site in southern India. The lake supports thousands of people directly and indirectly through its resources and ecosystem services. It is highly polluted with toxic pollutants such as heavy metals, as it receives effluent discharges from Kerala's major industrial zone. In the present study, water, pore water, sediment, and fish samples collected from Vembanad Lake were analysed for total mercury (THg) and methyl mercury (MHg) contents. The maximum concentrations of THg and MHg in surface water samples were31.8 and 0.21 ng/L, respectively, and those in bottom water samples were 206 and 1.22 ng/L, respectively. Maximum concentration of THg in surface sediment was observed during monsoon season (2850 ng/g) followed by that in the pre-monsoon season (2730 ng/g) and the post-monsoon season (2140 ng/g). The highest sediment concentration of MHg (202.02 ng/g) was obtained during monsoon season. The spatial variation in the mercury contamination clearly indicates that the industrial discharge into the Periyar River is a major reason for pollution in the lake. The mercury pollution was found to be much higher in Vembanad Lake than in other wetlands in India. The bioaccumulation was high in carnivorous fishes, followed by benthic carnivores. The THg limit in fish for human consumption (0.5 mg/kg dry wt.) was exceeded for all fish species, except for Glossogobius guiris and Synaptura orientalis. The concentration of THg was five times higher in Megalops cyprinoides and four times higher in Gazza minuta. Significant variation was observed among species with different habits and habitats. Overall, risk assessment factors showed that the mercury levels in the edible fishes of Vembanad Lake can pose serious health impacts to the human

  15. Diet of double-crested cormorants wintering in Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campo, J.J.; Thompson, B.C.; Barron, J.C.; Telfair II, R. C.; Durocher, P.; Gutreuter, S.

    1993-01-01

    The diets of 420 Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) were studied during November 1986-March 1987 on eight public reservoirs in Texas. Prey included 29 fish species and the mean live weight of fish per bird was 122 g. Fishes a??415 mm long were ingested, but those a??125 mm accounted for 90% of cormorant food contents by number. Shad (Dorosoma spp.) and sunfishes (Lepomis spp.) accounted for 90% of the total food items by number. Consumption of fishes (percent by weight) was different for male vs. female and adult vs. juvenile cormorants. Total consumption of fish by weight was consistent throughout the period; however, fewer but much larger fish were consumed after 15 February. Cormorants ate fishes that were most abundant in reservoirs. Sport fishes made up a substantial portion of cormorant food by weight, but not by number on some reservoirs. Cormorants ate very few large sport fish, however.

  16. Comparative ruminal and total tract digestion of a finishing diet containing fresh vs air-dry steam-flaked corn.

    PubMed

    Zinn, R A; Barrajas, R

    1997-07-01

    Ten Holstein steers (465 +/- 6 kg) with cannulas in the rumen and proximal duodenum were used in a crossover design experiment to evaluate the influence of air-dry vs fresh steam-flaked corn on characteristics of ruminal and total tract digestion. The basal diet contained 77% steam-flaked corn (DM basis). Air-dry steam-flaked corn (SFC-AD) was obtained from a single batch that had been allowed to air-dry for 5 d before beginning the trial. Fresh steam-flaked corn (SFC-F) was produced daily Monday through Friday. Following production, the SFC-F was placed in air-tight polybags and stored at 4 degrees C until the time of feeding. There was little difference (P > .20) between SFC-AD and SFC-F with respect to site and extent of digestion of OM, starch, and fiber. Moreover, the two treatments did not differ (P > .20) in ruminal degradability of feed N. Apparent total tract N digestion was slightly greater (2.4%, P < .05) for SFC-F than for SFC-AD. Treatments did not affect ruminal pH (P > .20); however, VFA concentration of ruminal fluid tended to be greater (8.3%, P < .10) for SFC-F than for SFC-AD, indicating that the initial rate of fermentation may have been greater with SFC-F. Ruminal molar proportions of acetate were not affected by treatments (P > .20), but ruminal molar proportions of propionate tended to be greater (9.7%, P < .10) and molar proportions of butyrate tended to be less (10.0%, P < .10) for SFC-F than for SFC-AD. We conclude that the characteristics of digestion and the feeding value of steam-flaked corn is not altered by air drying before feeding.

  17. Levels of total mercury in different fish species and sediments from the Upper Volta Basin at Yeji in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Kwaansa-Ansah, E E; Agorku, S E; Nriagu, J O

    2011-04-01

    In this study, total mercury concentrations were determined in sediments and seven different fish species from the Upper Volta Basin area of Yeji in Ghana. Mercury concentrations found ranged from 44.17 to 85.88 ng/g wet weight for Synodontis gambiesis, from 11.25 to 79.73 ng/g wet weight for Synodontis membranaceus, from 13.11 to 38.64 ng/g wet weight for Synodontis ocellifer, from 16.39 to 25.82 ng/g wet weight for Distishodus rotratus, from 40.80 to 90.30 ng/g wet weight for Bagrus docmac, from 10.48 to 61.90 ng/g wet weight for Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus and from 12.33 to 24.18 ng/g wet weight for Gnathoneus senegalensis. These values are below the 500 ng/g guideline recommended by the WHO/FAO, implying that fish from the Upper Volta Basin area of Yeji are safe for human consumption. Good correlation was observed between mercury concentration and fresh weight (R(2) = 0.6067) and total length (R(2) = 0.8754) for Gnathonemus senegalensis. However, poor correlations were observed between mercury concentration and fresh weight and total length for the other six species. Mercury in sediments ranged from 11.87 to 70.25 ng/g dry weights with a mean of 41.60 ng/g dry weight being below the IAEA threshold of 810 ng/g.. These values show that sections of the Upper Volta River remain relatively clean in spite of substantial loadings of mercury into the river's basin from gold mining activities.

  18. Total diet study on pesticide residues in France: levels in food as consumed and chronic dietary risk to consumers.

    PubMed

    Nougadère, Alexandre; Sirot, Véronique; Kadar, Ali; Fastier, Antony; Truchot, Eric; Vergnet, Claude; Hommet, Frédéric; Baylé, Joëlle; Gros, Philippe; Leblanc, Jean-Charles

    2012-09-15

    Chronic dietary exposure to pesticide residues was assessed for the French population using a total diet study (TDS) to take into account realistic levels in foods as consumed at home (table-ready). Three hundred and twenty-five pesticides and their transformation products, grouped into 283 pesticides according to their residue definition, were sought in 1235 composite samples corresponding to 194 individual food items that cover 90% of the adult and child diet. To make up the composite samples, about 19,000 food products were bought during different seasons from 2007 to 2009 in 36 French cities and prepared according to the food preparation practices recorded in the individual and national consumption survey (INCA2). The results showed that 37% of the samples contained one or more residues. Seventy-three pesticides were detected and 55 quantified at levels ranging from 0.003 to 8.7mg/kg. The most frequently detected pesticides, identified as monitoring priorities in 2006, were the post-harvest insecticides pirimiphos-methyl and chlorpyrifos-methyl-particularly in wheat-based products-together with chlorpyrifos, iprodione, carbendazim and imazalil, mainly in fruit and fruit juices. Dietary intakes were estimated for each subject of INCA2 survey, under two contamination scenarios to handle left-censored data: lower-bound scenario (LB) where undetected results were set to zero, and upper-bound (UB) scenario where undetected results were set to the detection limit. For 90% of the pesticides, exposure levels were below the acceptable daily intake (ADI) under the two scenarios. Under the LB scenario, which tends to underestimate exposure levels, only dimethoate intakes exceeded the ADI for high level consumers of cherry (0.6% of children and 0.4% of adults). This pesticide, authorised in Europe, and its metabolite were detected in both cherries and endives. Under the UB scenario, that overestimates exposure, a chronic risk could not be excluded for nine other pesticides

  19. Diet inclusion of devil fish (Plecostomus spp.) silage and its impacts on ruminal fermentation and growth performance of growing lambs in hot regions of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Tejeda-Arroyo, Eduardo; Cipriano-Salazar, Moisés; Camacho-Díaz, Luis Miguel; Salem, Abdelfattah Zeidan Mohamed; Kholif, Ahmed Eid; Elghandour, Mona Mohamed Mohamed Yasseen; DiLorenzo, Nicolas; Cruz-Lagunas, Blas

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the inclusion of devil fish (Plecostomus spp.-DF) silage in Criollo × Blackbelly lamb diets in hot region of Guerrero state of Mexico. Rumen fermentation including pH, volatile fatty acids (VFA) and ammonia-N (NH3-N) and productive variables including feed intake (FI), average daily gain (ADG), and feed conversion were determined. Twenty lambs with 18 ± 1.2 kg body weight in a completely randomized design were fed a total mixed ration (TMR) of concentrate (based on soybean meal, whole oat hay, ground corn cob, vitamins-minerals supplement) with DF silage at 0 % (DF0), 9 % (DF9), 18 % (DF18), and 27 % (DF27) of the TMR for 75 days. The ruminal pH showed no difference (P > 0.05) between treatments: ranging between 6.21 and 6.36. Propionic acid molar proportions showed an irregular pattern between experimental groups, which only differed (P < 0.05) between DF9 and DF27, without differences between the other treatments. A greater molar proportion of butyric acid was noted (P < 0.05) in DF27 when compared to the other treatments. The ruminal concentration of NH3-N showed some insignificant differences (P > 0.05) among treatments. The daily FI was increased (P < 0.01) in DF27 (1.131 g) when compared with DF0, while DF9 and DF18 showed intermediate consumption with no differences (P > 0.05) among them. The ADG showed only difference (cubic effect, P = 0.02) between DF9 and DF18. The highest feed conversion was observed (cubic effect, P < 0.01) with DF18, with a value of 4.7 kg of feed to gain 1 kg of body weight. It could be concluded that the inclusion of up to 18 % of DF silage in the TMR of growing lamb diets, in hot regions of Mexico, may improve productive performance and ruminal fermentation kinetics, without any negative effects.

  20. Short communication: The effect of substituting fish oil in dairy cow diets with docosahexaenoic acid-micro algae on milk composition and fatty acids profile.

    PubMed

    Abughazaleh, A A; Potu, R B; Ibrahim, S

    2009-12-01

    The effects of substituting fish oil (FO) with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-micro algae on milk chemical and fatty acid composition were examined in this study. Twenty-four Holstein cows in mid lactation grazing on an alfalfa-grass based pasture were divided into 4 treatment groups (6 cows/treatment) and supplemented with 7 kg/d grain mix plus 350 g of soybean oil and one of the following: 1) 150 g of FO, 2) 100 g of FO plus 50 g of algae, 3) 50 g of FO plus 100 g of algae, or 4) 150 g of algae. Cows were fed treatment diets for 3 wk, and milk samples were collected from each cow during the last 3 d of the study. Milk production (17.96, 17.56, 17.55, and 19.26 kg/d for treatment diets 1 to 4, respectively), milk fat percentages (3.17, 3.49, 3.74, and 3.43%), and milk protein percentages (3.35, 3.50, 3.71, and 3.42%) were similar between treatment diets. Concentrations (g/100 g of fatty acids) of milk cis-9 trans-11 (c9t11) conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; 3.41, 3.69, 4.47, and 4.21 for treatment diets 1 to 4, respectively) and vaccenic acid (11.80, 12.83, 13.87, and 13.53) were similar between treatment diets. Results of this study suggest that DHA-micro algae can partially or fully substitute FO in a cow's diet without any adverse effects on milk production, milk composition, or milk c9t11 CLA content. The DHA-micro algae may be used as a viable alternative for FO in cow's diet to modify rumen biohydrogenation to increase milk c9t11 CLA content.

  1. Effect of a low-fat fish oil diet on proinflammatory eicosanoids and cell-cycle progression score in men undergoing radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Galet, Colette; Gollapudi, Kiran; Stepanian, Sevan; Byrd, Joshua B; Henning, Susanne M; Grogan, Tristan; Elashoff, David; Heber, David; Said, Jonathan; Cohen, Pinchas; Aronson, William J

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported that a 4- to 6-week low-fat fish oil (LFFO) diet did not affect serum insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 levels (primary outcome) but resulted in lower omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid ratios in prostate tissue and lower prostate cancer proliferation (Ki67) as compared with a Western diet. In this post hoc analysis, the effect of the LFFO intervention on serum pro-inflammatory eicosanoids, leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and 15-S-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid [15(S)-HETE], and the cell-cycle progression (CCP) score were investigated. Serum fatty acids and eicosanoids were measured by gas chromatography and ELISA. CCP score was determined by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR). Associations between serum eicosanoids, Ki67, and CCP score were evaluated using partial correlation analyses. BLT1 (LTB4 receptor) expression was determined in prostate cancer cell lines and prostatectomy specimens. Serum omega-6 fatty acids and 15(S)-HETE levels were significantly reduced, and serum omega-3 levels were increased in the LFFO group relative to the Western diet group, whereas there was no change in LTB4 levels. The CCP score was significantly lower in the LFFO compared with the Western diet group. The 15(S)-HETE change correlated with tissue Ki67 (R = 0.48; P < 0.01) but not with CCP score. The LTB4 change correlated with the CCP score (r = 0.4; P = 0.02) but not with Ki67. The LTB4 receptor BLT1 was detected in prostate cancer cell lines and human prostate cancer specimens. In conclusion, an LFFO diet resulted in decreased 15(S)-HETE levels and lower CCP score relative to a Western diet. Further studies are warranted to determine whether the LFFO diet antiproliferative effects are mediated through the LTB4/BLT1 and 15(S)-HETE pathways.

  2. Composition and Use of Common Carp Meal as a Marine Fish Meal Replacement in Yellow Perch Diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the use of fish meal derived from a locally abundant, non-native fish species – common carp Cyprinus carpio – with the objective of offsetting the cost of marine fish meal (MFM, ~$1,200/ton) in yellow perch Perca flavescens feed. Biochemical analyses of meals showed that crude protein a...

  3. Demersal fishes from the Antarctic shelf and deep sea: A diet study based on fatty acid patterns and gut content analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Würzberg, Laura; Peters, Janna; Flores, Hauke; Brandt, Angelika

    2011-10-01

    The gut contents and fatty acid composition of 49 fish belonging to five Antarctic demersal families (Nototheniidae, Macrouridae, Channichtyidae, Bathydraconidae and Artedidraconidae) sampled at two stations at the Southern Ocean shelf and deep sea (600 and 2150 m) were analysed in order to identify their main food resource by linking trophic biomarkers with the dietary items found in the fish guts. Main food items of most fish analysed were amphipod crustaceans (e.g. in 63% of Trematomus bernachii guts) and polychaetes (e.g. in 80% of Bathydraco sp. guts), but other food items including fish, other crustaceans and gastropods were also ingested. The most prominent fatty acids found were 20:5( n-3), 16:0, 22:6( n-3) and 18:1( n-9). The results of gut content and fatty acid analyses indicate that all fish except the Channichthyidae share similar food resources irrespective of their depth distribution, i.e. benthic amphipods and polychaetes. A difference of the dietary spectrum can be observed with ontogenetic phases rather than between species, as high values of typical calanoid copepod marker fatty acids as 22:1( n-11) indicate that younger (smaller) specimens include more zooplankton in their diet.

  4. Interaction of molasses and monensin in alfalfa hay- or corn silage-based diets on rumen fermentation, total tract digestibility, and milk production by Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Oelker, E R; Reveneau, C; Firkins, J L

    2009-01-01

    Sugar supplementation can stimulate rumen microbial growth and possibly fiber digestibility; however, excess ruminal carbohydrate availability relative to rumen-degradable protein (RDP) can promote energy spilling by microbes, decrease rumen pH, or depress fiber digestibility. Both RDP supply and rumen pH might be altered by forage source and monensin. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate interactions of a sugar source (molasses) with monensin and 2 forage sources on rumen fermentation, total tract digestibility, and production and fatty acid composition of milk. Seven ruminally cannulated lactating Holstein cows were used in a 5 x 7 incomplete Latin square design with five 28-d periods. Four corn silage diets consisted of 1) control (C), 2) 2.6% molasses (M), 3) 2.6% molasses plus 0.45% urea (MU), or 4) 2.6% molasses plus 0.45% urea plus monensin sodium (Rumensin, at the intermediate dosage from the label, 16 g/909 kg of dry matter; MUR). Three chopped alfalfa hay diets consisted of 1) control (C), 2) 2.6% molasses (M), or 3) 2.6% molasses plus Rumensin (MR). Urea was added to corn silage diets to provide RDP comparable to alfalfa hay diets with no urea. Corn silage C and M diets were balanced to have 16.2% crude protein; and the remaining diets, 17.2% crude protein. Dry matter intake was not affected by treatment, but there was a trend for lower milk production in alfalfa hay diets compared with corn silage diets. Despite increased total volatile fatty acid and acetate concentrations in the rumen, total tract organic matter digestibility was lower for alfalfa hay-fed cows. Rumensin did not affect volatile fatty acid concentrations but decreased milk fat from 3.22 to 2.72% in corn silage diets but less in alfalfa hay diets. Medium-chain milk fatty acids (% of total fat) were lower for alfalfa hay compared with corn silage diets, and short-chain milk fatty acids tended to decrease when Rumensin was added. In whole rumen contents, concentrations of

  5. Growth performance and total tract nutrient digestion for Holstein heifers limit-fed diets high in distillers grains with different forage particle size

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated dairy heifer growth performance and total tract nutrient digestion when fed diets high in dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) with different forage particle size. An 8-wk randomized complete block design study was conducted utilizing twenty-two Holstein heifers (123 ±...

  6. Nutrient contribution of total and lean beef in diets of US children and adolescents: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the nutritional contribution of total beef and lean beef (LB) to the diet of US children and adolescents using the US Department of Agriculture definition of LB as defined in MyPyramid. Twenty-four hour dietary recall data from children 4-8 years of age [y] (n=2474), 9-13 y (n=32...

  7. An exclusive human milk-based diet in extremely premature infants reduces the probability of remaining on total parenteral nutrition: A reanalysis of the data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have previously shown that an exclusively human-milk-based diet is beneficial for extremely premature infants who are at risk for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). However, no significant difference in the other primary study endpoint, the length of time on total parenteral nutrition (TPN), was fo...

  8. Effects of Methylmercury Contained in a Diet Mimicking the Wayana Amerindians Contamination through Fish Consumption: Mercury Accumulation, Metallothionein Induction, Gene Expression Variations, and Role of the Chemokine CCL2

    PubMed Central

    Bourdineaud, Jean-Paul; Laclau, Muriel; Maury-Brachet, Régine; Gonzalez, Patrice; Baudrimont, Magalie; Mesmer-Dudons, Nathalie; Fujimura, Masatake; Marighetto, Aline; Godefroy, David; Rostène, William; Brèthes, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a potent neurotoxin, and human beings are mainly exposed to this pollutant through fish consumption. We addressed the question of whether a diet mimicking the fish consumption of Wayanas Amerindians from French Guiana could result in observable adverse effects in mice. Wayanas adult men are subjected to a mean mercurial dose of 7 g Hg/week/kg of body weight. We decided to supplement a vegetarian-based mice diet with 0.1% of lyophilized Hoplias aimara fish, which Wayanas are fond of and equivalent to the same dose as that afflicting the Wayanas Amerindians. Total mercury contents were 1.4 ± 0.2 and 5.4 ± 0.5 ng Hg/g of food pellets for the control and aimara diets, respectively. After 14 months of exposure, the body parts and tissues displaying the highest mercury concentration on a dry weight (dw) basis were hair (733 ng/g) and kidney (511 ng/g), followed by the liver (77 ng/g). Surprisingly, despite the fact that MeHg is a neurotoxic compound, the brain accumulated low levels of mercury (35 ng/g in the cortex). The metallothionein (MT) protein concentration only increased in those tissues (kidney, muscles) in which MeHg demethylation had occurred. This can be taken as a molecular sign of divalent mercurial contamination since only Hg2+ has been reported yet to induce MT accumulation in contaminated tissues. The suppression of the synthesis of the chemokine CCL2 in the corresponding knockout (KO) mice resulted in important changes in gene expression patterns in the liver and brain. After three months of exposure to an aimara-containing diet, eight of 10 genes selected (Sdhb, Cytb, Cox1, Sod1, Sod2, Mt2, Mdr1a and Bax) were repressed in wild-type mice liver whereas none presented a differential expression in KO Ccl2−/− mice. In the wild-type mice brain, six of 12 genes selected (Cytb, Cox1, Sod1, Sod2, Mdr1a and Bax) presented a stimulated expression, whereas all remained at the basal level of expression in KO Ccl2−/− mice. In the

  9. Effects of methylmercury contained in a diet mimicking the Wayana Amerindians contamination through fish consumption: mercury accumulation, metallothionein induction, gene expression variations, and role of the chemokine CCL2.

    PubMed

    Bourdineaud, Jean-Paul; Laclau, Muriel; Maury-Brachet, Régine; Gonzalez, Patrice; Baudrimont, Magalie; Mesmer-Dudons, Nathalie; Fujimura, Masatake; Marighetto, Aline; Godefroy, David; Rostène, William; Brèthes, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a potent neurotoxin, and human beings are mainly exposed to this pollutant through fish consumption. We addressed the question of whether a diet mimicking the fish consumption of Wayanas Amerindians from French Guiana could result in observable adverse effects in mice. Wayanas adult men are subjected to a mean mercurial dose of 7 g Hg/week/kg of body weight. We decided to supplement a vegetarian-based mice diet with 0.1% of lyophilized Hoplias aimara fish, which Wayanas are fond of and equivalent to the same dose as that afflicting the Wayanas Amerindians. Total mercury contents were 1.4 ± 0.2 and 5.4 ± 0.5 ng Hg/g of food pellets for the control and aimara diets, respectively. After 14 months of exposure, the body parts and tissues displaying the highest mercury concentration on a dry weight (dw) basis were hair (733 ng/g) and kidney (511 ng/g), followed by the liver (77 ng/g). Surprisingly, despite the fact that MeHg is a neurotoxic compound, the brain accumulated low levels of mercury (35 ng/g in the cortex). The metallothionein (MT) protein concentration only increased in those tissues (kidney, muscles) in which MeHg demethylation had occurred. This can be taken as a molecular sign of divalent mercurial contamination since only Hg(2+) has been reported yet to induce MT accumulation in contaminated tissues. The suppression of the synthesis of the chemokine CCL2 in the corresponding knockout (KO) mice resulted in important changes in gene expression patterns in the liver and brain. After three months of exposure to an aimara-containing diet, eight of 10 genes selected (Sdhb, Cytb, Cox1, Sod1, Sod2, Mt2, Mdr1a and Bax) were repressed in wild-type mice liver whereas none presented a differential expression in KO Ccl2(-/-) mice. In the wild-type mice brain, six of 12 genes selected (Cytb, Cox1, Sod1, Sod2, Mdr1a and Bax) presented a stimulated expression, whereas all remained at the basal level of expression in KO Ccl2(-/-) mice. In the

  10. Fishing for feed or fishing for food: increasing global competition for small pelagic forage fish.

    PubMed

    Tacon, Albert G J; Metian, Marc

    2009-09-01

    At present, small pelagic forage fish species (includes anchovies, herring, mackerel, sardines, etc.) represent the largest landed species group in capture fisheries (27.3 million t or 29.7% of total capture fisheries landings in 2006). They also currently constitute the major species group actively fished and targeted for nonfood uses, including reduction into fishmeal and fish oil for use within compound animal feeds, or for direct animal feeding; the aquaculture sector alone consumed the equivalent of about 23.8 million t of fish (live weight equivalent) or 87% in the form of feed inputs in 2006. This article attempts to make a global analysis of the competition for small pelagic forage fish for direct human consumption and nonfood uses, particularly concerning the important and growing role played by small pelagic forage fish in the diet and food security of the poor and needy, especially within the developing countries of Africa and the Sub-Saharan region.

  11. The effect of diet on dorsal fin erosion in steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lellis, W.A.; Barrows, F.T.

    1997-01-01

    A 2 X 2 factorial experiment of diet type (krill vs. fish meal) and steroid supplementation (0 vs. 30 ??g 17??-methyltestosterone kg-1) was conducted to determine the effects on dorsal fin erosion in steelhead trout. Triplicate tanks of 250 fry were fed one of the four diets at a rate calculated to produce 115 g fish in 34 weeks. Fish were transferred to larger tanks when mean density index reached 0.40. Dorsal fin index (DFI, measured as mean dorsal fin height X 100/total fish length) was greater (P < 0.001) among fish fed krill-based diets than for fish fed fish-based diets at weeks 12, 22, and 34 of the trial. Added testosterone decreased (p = 0.04) DFI among fish fed the krill diet at week 12 but otherwise had no effect on fin condition. Addition of testosterone to either diet type decreased (P = 0.02) critical thermal maximum, which is a measure of fish resistance to thermal stress. The results suggest that diet composition can influence the rate of dorsal fin erosion in steelhead trout through a metabolic, behavioral, or combined change.

  12. Age-Related Loss in Bone Mineral Density of Rats Fed Lifelong on a Fish Oil-Based Diet Is Avoided by Coenzyme Q10 Addition

    PubMed Central

    Varela-López, Alfonso; Ochoa, Julio J.; Llamas-Elvira, José M.; López-Frías, Magdalena; Planells, Elena; Ramirez-Tortosa, MCarmen; Ramirez-Tortosa, Cesar L.; Giampieri, Francesca; Battino, Maurizio; Quiles, José L.

    2017-01-01

    During aging, bone mass declines increasing osteoporosis and fracture risks. Oxidative stress has been related to this bone loss, making dietary compounds with antioxidant properties a promising weapon. Male Wistar rats were maintained for 6 or 24 months on diets with fish oil as unique fat source, supplemented or not with coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), to evaluate the potential of adding this molecule to the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA)-based diet for bone mineral density (BMD) preservation. BMD was evaluated in the femur. Serum osteocalcin, osteopontin, receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand, ostroprotegerin, parathyroid hormone, urinary F2-isoprostanes, and lymphocytes DNA strand breaks were also measured. BMD was lower in aged rats fed a diet without CoQ10 respect than their younger counterparts, whereas older animals receiving CoQ10 showed the highest BMD. F2-isoprostanes and DNA strand breaks showed that oxidative stress was higher during aging. Supplementation with CoQ10 prevented oxidative damage to lipid and DNA, in young and old animals, respectively. Reduced oxidative stress associated to CoQ10 supplementation of this n-3 PUFA-rich diet might explain the higher BMD found in aged rats in this group of animals. PMID:28241421

  13. Age-Related Loss in Bone Mineral Density of Rats Fed Lifelong on a Fish Oil-Based Diet Is Avoided by Coenzyme Q10 Addition.

    PubMed

    Varela-López, Alfonso; Ochoa, Julio J; Llamas-Elvira, José M; López-Frías, Magdalena; Planells, Elena; Ramirez-Tortosa, MCarmen; Ramirez-Tortosa, Cesar L; Giampieri, Francesca; Battino, Maurizio; Quiles, José L

    2017-02-22

    During aging, bone mass declines increasing osteoporosis and fracture risks. Oxidative stress has been related to this bone loss, making dietary compounds with antioxidant properties a promising weapon. Male Wistar rats were maintained for 6 or 24 months on diets with fish oil as unique fat source, supplemented or not with coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), to evaluate the potential of adding this molecule to the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA)-based diet for bone mineral density (BMD) preservation. BMD was evaluated in the femur. Serum osteocalcin, osteopontin, receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand, ostroprotegerin, parathyroid hormone, urinary F₂-isoprostanes, and lymphocytes DNA strand breaks were also measured. BMD was lower in aged rats fed a diet without CoQ10 respect than their younger counterparts, whereas older animals receiving CoQ10 showed the highest BMD. F₂-isoprostanes and DNA strand breaks showed that oxidative stress was higher during aging. Supplementation with CoQ10 prevented oxidative damage to lipid and DNA, in young and old animals, respectively. Reduced oxidative stress associated to CoQ10 supplementation of this n-3 PUFA-rich diet might explain the higher BMD found in aged rats in this group of animals.

  14. Evaluation of skate meal and sablefish viscera meal as fish meal replacement in diets for Pacific threadfin (Polydactylus saxfilis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the nutritional value of skate meal (SM) and black cod viscera meal (BCVM) from Alaska and to ascertain their suitability as replacements for commercial pollock fishmeal in diets for Pacific threadfin (Polydactylus sexfilis). Test diets were made by r...

  15. An Examination of the Importance of Terrestrial Food Sources in the Diets of Fishes in Three Piedmont North Carolina Urban Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Northington, R. M.; Hershey, A. E.

    2005-05-01

    Urban streams are greatly impacted by runoff, construction, and the loss of riparian buffers. Past studies have shown the importance of terrestrial subsidies to aquatic communities in pristine, non-urban systems. During the summer of 2004, I examined how urban stream fish communities are impacted by the degradation of streamside vegetation, which typically provides allochthanous input into their diets. North and South Buffalo Creeks in Greensboro, NC and Little Sugar Creek in Charlotte, NC were used in this study. Stable isotope natural abundances of periphyton, CPOM, benthic and drifting macroinvertebrates, terrestrial macroinvertebrates, seston, FBOM, and fish were examined in restored, unrestored, and forested sites on each stream. Macroinvertebrate samples were also taken for NCBI and EPT. Seston, periphyton, and FBOM showed significant site type differences in isotopic composition in the forested reaches. Fish data also show a significant effect of site type on isotopic composition, with forested sites showing the most dramatic differences. These data suggest that, thus far, these urban stream restorations efforts have not resulted in significant restoration of riparian subsidies to the fish community. The results of this study should be considered in stream restoration projects, which attempt to bring about a rejuvenation of aquatic communities.

  16. Composition and properties of milk and butter from cows fed fish oil.

    PubMed

    Baer, R J; Ryali, J; Schingoethe, D J; Kasperson, K M; Donovan, D C; Hippen, A R; Franklin, S T

    2001-02-01

    A control diet and a fish oil diet were fed to 12 multiparous Holstein cows to determine how the incorporation of Menhaden fish oil in the diet would influence the fatty acid composition, especially the conjugated linoleic acid and transvaccenic acid, contents of milk and butter. The control diet consisted of a 50:50 ratio of forage to concentrate, and the fish oil diet consisted of the control diet with 2% (on a dry matter basis) added fish oil. Milk from cows fed the control diet contained higher average concentrations of milk fat (3.37%) compared with milk from cows fed the fish oil diet (2.29%). Milk from cows fed fish oil contained higher concentrations of conjugated linoleic acid, transvaccenic acid, and total unsaturated fatty acids (0.68 and 2.51; 1.42 and 6.28; and 30.47 and 41.71 g/100 g of fat, respectively). Butter made from the fish oil diet milk also had higher concentrations of conjugated linoleic acid, transvaccenic acid, and unsaturated fatty acids. Penetrometer readings indicated fish oil diet butters were softer at 4 and 20 degrees C than the control diet butters. Acid degree values were similar in the fish oil butters compared with the control butters. No significant difference was found in the flavor characteristics of milk and butter from cows fed the control and fish oil diets. Production of milk and butter with increased amounts of conjugated linoleic acid, transvaccenic acid, and other beneficial fatty acids may have a desirable impact on the health of consumers and lead to increased sales.

  17. Rapid Stable Isotope Turnover of Larval Fish in a Lake Superior Coastal Wetland: Implications for Diet and Life History Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Trophic linkages of larval fish in Lake Superior coastal wetlands, rivers and embayments can be identified using naturally occurring differences in the stable isotope ratios of nitrogen (15N:14N, ?15N) and carbon (13C:12C, ?13C). We sampled pelagic fish larvae weekly during sprin...

  18. Optimizing zinc supplementation levels of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed practical type fish meal and plant based diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fish meal (FM) is the primary protein source used in commercial feeds for rainbow trout. However, FM is a finite resource and availability is increasingly limited due to continued expansion of fish culture worldwide. Limited availability has caused a significant increase in the price of FM. Therefor...

  19. Assessment of total mercury level in fish collected from East Calcutta Wetlands and Titagarh sewage fed aquaculture in West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Subarna; Chaudhuri, Punarbasu; Dutta, Siddartha; Santra, Subhas Chandra

    2010-05-01

    Total mercury levels were quantified in Tilapia mossambicus, Cirrhinus mrigela and Labio rohita, captured from East Calcutta Wetlands and Titagarh sewage fed aquaculture ponds. The bioconcentration factor of collected fish was assessed. Total mercury level ranged from 0.073 to 0.94 microg/g in both pre and post monsoon season. T. mossambicus in both season and C. mrigela at pre monsoon, cross the Indian recommended maximum limit (0.50 microg/g wet weight) for food consumption and according to World Health Organization guidelines all fish were not recommended for pregnant women and individuals under 15 years ages. A significant correlation was observed between mercury content of aquaculture pond water and fish muscle tissue. Total mercury concentration in experimental sites were higher than the control area (Wilcoxon Ranked-Sum test p > 0.05), which suggested the connection between mercury bioaccumulation and sewage fed aquaculture.

  20. Formulation of plant based Rainbow trout feeds on an Ideal Protein Basis can reduce total dietary protein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fish meal has been a primary protein source in trout feeds and any changes that can reduce fish meal levels and total costs are beneficial. Replacing fish meal with plant protein is a first step, but amino acid content of plant based diets can be limiting. Amino acids are needed for many metabolic...

  1. Replacement of fish oil with a DHA-rich algal meal derived from Schizochytrium sp. on the fatty acid and persistent organic pollutant levels in diets and flesh of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar, L.) post-smolts.

    PubMed

    Sprague, M; Walton, J; Campbell, P J; Strachan, F; Dick, J R; Bell, J G

    2015-10-15

    The replacement of fish oil (FO) with a DHA-rich Schizochytrium sp. algal meal (AM) at two inclusion levels (11% and 5.5% of diet) was tested in Atlantic salmon post-smolts compared to fish fed a FO diet of northern (NFO) or southern hemisphere (SFO) origin. Fish were preconditioned prior to the 19-week experimental feeding period to reduce long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) and persistent organic pollutant levels (POPs). Dietary POP levels differed significantly between treatments in the order of NFO>SFO>11 AM/5.5 AM and were subsequently reflected in the flesh. Fish fed the 11 AM diet contained similar DHA levels (g 100 g(-1) flesh) to FO-fed fish, despite percentage differences. However, the low levels of EPA in the diets and flesh of algal-fed fish compromised the overall nutritional value to the final consumer. Nevertheless, further developments in microalgae culture offer a promising alternative lipid source of LC-PUFA to FO in salmon feeds that warrants further investigation.

  2. Determination of total mercury in whole-body fish and fish muscle plugs collected from the South Fork of the Humboldt River, Nevada, September 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    May, Thomas W.; Brumbaugh, William G.

    2007-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, done in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, to determine mercury concentrations in whole-body fish and fish muscle plugs from the South Fork of the Humboldt River near Elko in the Te-Moak Indian Reservation. A single muscle plug was collected from beneath the dorsal fin area in each of the three whole-body fish samples. After homogenization and lyophilization of the muscle plugs and whole-body fish samples, mercury concentrations were determined with a direct mercury analyzer utilizing the process of thermal combustion-gold amalgamation atomic absorption spectroscopy. Mercury concentrations in whole-body fish ranged from 0.048 to 0.061 microgram per gram wet weight, and 0.061 to 0.082 microgram per gram wet weight in muscle plugs. All sample mercury concentrations were well below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's fish consumption advisory of 0.30 microgram per gram wet weight.

  3. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope trophic enrichment factors for Steller sea lion vibrissae relative to milk and fish/invertebrate diets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stricker, Craig A.; Christ, Aaron M.; Wunder, Michael B.; Doll, Andrew C.; Farley, Sean D.; Rea, Lorrie D.; Rosen, David A. S.; Scherer, R. D.; Tollit, Dominic J.

    2015-01-01

    Nutritional constraints have been proposed as a contributor to population declines in the endangered Steller sea lion Eumetopias jubatus in some regions of the North Pacific. Isotopic analysis of vibrissae (whiskers) is a potentially useful approach to resolving the nutritional ecology of this species because long-term (up to 8 yr) dietary information is sequentially recorded and metabolically inert once formed. Additionally, vibrissae are grown in utero, potentially offering indirect inference on maternal diet. However, diet reconstruction using isotopic techniques requires a priori knowledge of trophic enrichment factors (TEFs), which can vary relative to diet quality and among animal species. In this study, we provide new TEF estimates for (1) maternal relative to pup vibrissae during both gestation and nursing and (2) adult vibrissae relative to a complex diet. Further, we refine vibrissa-milk TEFs based on an additional 76 animals with an age distribution ranging from 1 to 20 mo. Mother-pup vibrissae TEF values during gestation and nursing were near zero for δ13C and averaged 0.8 and 1.6‰, respectively, for δ15N. In contrast, vibrissa-fish/invertebrate TEFs averaged 3.3 (± 0.3 SD) and 3.7‰ (±0.3) for lipid-free δ13C and δ15N, respectively. Average lipid-free δ13C and δ15N vibrissa-milk TEFs were 2.5 (±0.9) and 1.8‰ (±0.8), respectively, and did not differ among metapopulations. Empirically determined TEFs are critical for accurate retrospective diet modeling, particularly for evaluating the hypothesis of nutritional deficiency contributing to the lack of Steller sea lion population recovery in some regions of Alaska.

  4. Determination of total mercury in fillets of sport fishes collected from Folsom and New Melones Reservoirs, California, 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    May, Thomas W.; Brumbaugh, William G.

    2007-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, done in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, to determine mercury concentrations in selected sport fishes from Folsom and New Melones Reservoirs in California. Fillets were collected from each fish sample, and after homogenization and lyophilization of fish fillets, mercury concentrations were determined with a direct mercury analyzer utilizing the process of thermal combustion-gold amalgamation atomic absorption spectroscopy. Mercury concentrations in fish fillets from Folsom Reservoir ranged from 0.09 to 1.16 micrograms per gram wet weight, and from New Melones Reservoir ranged from 0.03 to 0.94 microgram per gram wet weight. Most of the fish fillets from Folsom Reservoir (87 percent) and 27 percent of the fillets from New Melones Reservoir exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's fish consumption advisory of 0.30 microgram per gram wet weight.

  5. The contribution of diet to total Bisphenol A body burden in humans: results of a 48 hour fasting study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human biomonitoring studies measuring BPA in urine have shown widespread exposure in the general population. Diet is thought to be a major route of exposure. We studied urinary BPA patterns in five individuals over a 48-hr period of fasting (bottled water only). Personal acti...

  6. [Evaluation of ten fish species to be included as part of renal diet, due to their protein, phosphorus and fatty acids content].

    PubMed

    Castro-González, Maria Isabel; Maafs-Rodríguez, Ana Gabriela; Pérez-Gil Romo, Fernando

    2012-06-01

    Because renal disease is highly complex, its nutritional treatment is complicated and many foods are restricted, including fish because its phosphorus content. The aim of the present study was to analyze ten fillet fish species, commonly consumed in Mexico (Cyprinus carpio carpio, Ophichthus rex, Symphurus elongatus, Eucinostomus entomelas, Chirostoma patzcuaro, Bairdiella chrysoura, Salmo salar Oreochromis urolepis hornorum, Sphyraena guachancho, Istiophorus albicans), to determine their phosphorus (P), protein (Pr), cholesterol, sodium, potassium, vitamins D3 and E, and n-3 PUFA (EPA+DHA) according to the AOAC techniques, in order to identify which species could be included in renal diet; particularly because of their risk:benefit relations (calculated with those results). Protein values ranged from 16.5 to 33.5g/100 g of fillet; the specie with the highest phosphorus contest was Salmo salar, and with the lowest, Symphurus elongatus. EPA+DHA quantity ranged from 79.64 mg/100 g to 1,381.53 mg/100 g. Considering de P/Pr relation recommended to renal patients, all analyzed species (except Salmo salar, Ophichthus rex and Istiophorus albicans) could be included in their diet. As for the P/EPA+DHA relation, the species most recommended to renal patients are Symphurus elongatus, Bairdiella chrysoura and Sphyraena guachancho.

  7. Double-crested Cormorant studies at Little Galloo Island, Lake Ontario in 2013: diet composition, fish consumption and the efficacy of management activities in reducing fish predation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, James H.; McCullough, Russell D.; Mazzocchi, Irene

    2014-01-01

    For almost two decades Little Galloo Island (LGI) has supported a large colony of Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) in the eastern basin of Lake Ontario. Cormorant nest counts on the island since the early 1990's have averaged 4,297 per year. However, less than 2,000 pairs have nested on the island in three of the past five years. The highest count was reached in 1996 with 8,410 nesting pairs on the island. Johnson et al. (2013) estimated that cormorants from LGI alone have consumed 504 million fish since 1992. The proliferation of cormorants in the eastern basin of Lake Ontario coincided with declines in two important recreational fish species, smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolemieu) and yellow perch (Perca falvescens). Lantry et al. (2002) and Burnett et al. (2002) provide convincing evidence linking cormorant population increases to declining eastern basin smallmouth bass and yellow perch stocks. Decline of these fish stocks was evident only in the eastern basin, suggesting a localized problem, which is consistent with the halo effect where large piscivorous waterbird colonies may deplete local fish stocks (Birt et al. 1987). The year 2013 marked the twenty second consecutive year of study of the food habits and fish consumption of LGI cormorants and the fifteenth consecutive year evaluating the efficacy of management activities to control the reproductive success of cormorants nesting at LGI. The program consists mainly of spraying cormorant eggs with food grade vegetable oil as well as the culling of adult and immature birds. This paper reports the findings of work carried out in 2013 at LGI.

  8. Total body nitrogen and total body carbon as indicators of body protein and body lipids in the melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae: effects of methoprene, a juvenile hormone analogue, and of diet supplementation with hydrolyzed yeast.

    PubMed

    ul Haq, Ihsan; Mayr, Leopold; Teal, P E A; Hendrichs, Jorge; Robinson, Alan S; Stauffer, Christian; Hood-Nowotny, Rebecca

    2010-12-01

    The application of methoprene, and providing access to diet including hydrolyzed yeast, are treatments known to enhance mating success in the male melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae), supporting their use in mass rearing protocols for sterile males in the context of sterile insect technique (SIT) programmes. The objective of the present laboratory study was to investigate the effect of methoprene application and diet supplementation with hydrolyzed yeast (protein) on the turnover of body lipids and protein to confirm the feasibility of their application in melon fly SIT mass-rearing programmes. While females had access to a diet that included hydrolyzed yeast (protein), males were exposed to one of the following treatments: (1) topical application of methoprene and access to diet including protein (M+P+); (2) only diet including protein (M-P+); (3) only methoprene (M+P-) and (4) untreated, only sugar-fed, control males (M-P-). Total body carbon (TBC) and total body nitrogen (TBN) of flies were measured at regular intervals from emergence to 35 days of age for each of the different treatments. Nitrogen assimilation and turnover in the flies were measured using stable isotope ((15)N) dilution techniques. Hydrolyzed yeast incorporation into the diet significantly increased male body weight, TBC and TBN as compared to sugar-fed males. Females had significantly higher body weight, TBC and TBN as compared to all males. TBC and TBN showed age-dependent changes, increasing until the age of sexual maturity and decreasing afterwards in both sexes. Methoprene treatment did not significantly affect TBC or TBN. The progressive increase with age of TBC suggests that lipogenesis occurs in adult male B. cucurbitae, as is the case in other tephritids. Stable isotope dilution was shown to be an effective method for determining N uptake in B. cucurbitae. This technique was used to show that sugar-fed males rely solely on larval N reserves and that the N

  9. Substitution of fish oil with camelina oil and inclusion of camelina meal in diets fed to Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and their effects on growth, tissue lipid classes, and fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Hixson, S M; Parrish, C C

    2014-03-01

    Developing a commercially relevant Atlantic cod aquaculture industry will require improvements in feed sustainability. Camelina oil and meal are potential replacements of fish oil and fish meal in aquaculture feeds. Camelina oil is high in 18:3ω3 (30%), with an ω3/ω6 ratio > 1. Camelina meal has a considerable crude protein level (38%), which includes significant amounts of methionine and phenylalanine. Four diets were tested; each diet was fed to triplicate tanks (3 tanks per diet) of Atlantic cod (14.4 g/fish; 70 fish per tank) for 13 wk. The diets included a fish oil/fish meal control (FO) and three diets which replaced 100% of fish oil with camelina oil: one diet contained fish meal (100CO), another solvent extracted fish meal (100COSEFM), and another had fish meal partially reduced by 15% inclusion of camelina meal (100CO15CM). Growth was measured (length and weight) and tissue samples were collected for lipid analysis (muscle, liver, brain, gut, spleen, skin, and carcass) at wk 0 (before feeding the experimental diet) and at wk 13. Cod fed camelina oil had a lower (P < 0.001) final weight than cod fed the FO diet (50.8 ± 10.3 g/fish). Cod fed 100CO15CM had a lower (P < 0.001) final weight (35.0 ± 8.0 g) than those fed 100CO (43.6 ± 8.9 g) and 100COSEFM (46.7 ± 10.7 g). Cod tissues in the 100COSEFM treatment were most impacted by dietary fatty acid profile. Multivariate statistics revealed that FO and 100COSEFM tissue fatty acid profiles were 21 to 31% different, depending on tissue type. The full replacement of fish oil with camelina oil, plus solvent extracted fish meal had an overarching effect on the entire fatty acid profile of the whole animal. Fatty acid mass balance calculations indicated that cod fed 100COSEFM elongated 13% of 18:3ω3 to 20:3ω3 and oxidized the remaining 87%, whereas cod fed fish oil showed a much lower (P < 0.001) elongation of 18:3ω3 of 1.6%. These results suggest that excess 18:3ω3 from camelina oil caused some fatty acid

  10. Effect of diphenyl diselenide diet supplementation on oxidative stress biomarkers in two species of freshwater fish exposed to the insecticide fipronil.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Charlene; Leitemperger, Jossiele; Murussi, Camila; de Souza Viera, Mariela; Adaime, Martha B; Zanella, Renato; Loro, Vania Lucia

    2016-10-01

    The ability of diphenyl diselenide [(PhSe)2] to attenuate oxidative damage was evaluated in the liver, gills, brain, and muscle of carp (Cyprinus carpio) and silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) experimentally exposed to fipronil (FPN). Initially, the fish were fed a diet without (PhSe)2 or a diet containing 3.0 mg/kg of (PhSe)2 for 60 days. After the 60-day period, the fish were exposed to 0.65 µg/L of FPN for 192 h. The results showed that carp exposed to FPN and not fed with (PhSe)2 exhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition in brain and muscle, and increased thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) in liver, gills, and brain. Furthermore, FPN decreased nonprotein thiols (NPSH) and δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (δ-ALA-D) in carp liver and gills, and increased plasma glucose and protein levels. In silver catfish, FPN inhibited AChE and increased TBARS levels in muscle. In addition, glutathione S-transferase (GST) decreased in liver and muscle, and plasma glucose was increased. (PhSe)2 reversed some of these effects. It prevented the increase in TBARS levels in liver, gills, and brain in carp and in silver catfish muscle, and reversed the increase in plasma glucose levels in both species. Additionally, (PhSe)2 increased the NPSH levels in carp and silver catfish that had decreased in response to FPN exposure. However, (PhSe)2 was not effective in reversing the AChE inhibition in brain and muscle or the δ-ALA-D decrease in carp liver. Thus, (PhSe)2 protects tissues of both species of fish, mainly by preventing or counteracting the effects of FPN, on TBARS levels, antioxidants, and present anti-hyperglycemic property.

  11. Offshore wind farms as productive sites or ecological traps for gadoid fishes?--impact on growth, condition index and diet composition.

    PubMed

    Reubens, Jan T; Vandendriessche, Sofie; Zenner, Annemie N; Degraer, Steven; Vincx, Magda

    2013-09-01

    With the construction of wind farms all across the North Sea, numerous artificial reefs are created. These windmill artificial reefs (WARs) harbour high abundances of fish species which can be attracted from elsewhere or can be the result of extra production induced by these wind farms. To resolve the attraction-production debate in suddenly altered ecosystems (cf. wind farms), the possible consequences of attraction should be assessed; thereby bearing in mind that ecological traps may arise. In this paper we investigated whether the wind farms in the Belgian part of the North Sea act as ecological traps for pouting and Atlantic cod. Length-at-age, condition and diet composition of fish present at the windmill artificial reefs was compared to local and regional sandy areas. Fish data from the period 2009-2012 were evaluated. Mainly I- and II-group Atlantic cod were present around the WARs; while the 0- and I-group dominated for pouting. For Atlantic cod, no differences in length were observed between sites, indicating that fitness was comparable at the WARs and in sandy areas. No significant differences in condition index were observed for pouting. At the WARs, they were slightly larger and stomach fullness was enhanced compared to the surrounding sandy areas. Also diet differed considerably among the sites. The outcome of the proxies indicate that fitness of pouting was slightly enhanced compared to the surrounding sandy areas. No evidence was obtained supporting the hypothesis that the WARs act as an ecological trap for Atlantic cod and pouting.

  12. Effect of six different cooking techniques in the nutritional composition of two fish species previously selected as optimal for renal patient's diet.

    PubMed

    Castro-González, Isabel; Maafs-Rodríguez, Ana Gabriela; Pérez-Gil Romo, Fernando

    2015-07-01

    Benefits of fish consumption are widely known, but there is little information about nutrient values of raw and cooked fish. The aim was to study the impact that six cooking techniques have on the nutritional composition of two fish species with low content of adverse nutrients in renal diet. Raw and steamed, foiled with aluminum, foiled with banana leaf, gas oven-baked, microwave oven-coked and fried lightly samples were chemically analyzed to determine their protein, phosphorus and lipid content. Crevalle jack: all methods increased lipid and protein content and fatty acids (FA) varied in all cooking methods. Phosphorus decreased in the steamed and microwave oven-cooked samples. Red drum: foiled and fried lightly increased lipid content compared to the raw sample. FA concentration changed in all cooking methods. Protein increased with every technique and phosphorus decreased in the steamed and gas oven-baked samples. Renal patients should preferably consume crevalle jack steamed or microwave oven-cooked and red drum steamed or gas oven-baked.

  13. The effect of an exogenous amylase on performance and total-tract digestibility in lactating dairy cows fed a high-byproduct diet.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, M M; Engstrom, M A; Azem, E; Gressley, T F

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the performance and digestibility response of lactating dairy cows fed a reduced-starch diet containing a commercial amylase product. Treatments consisted of a normal-starch total mixed ration (NS-), a reduced-starch total mixed ration (RS-), and a reduced-starch total mixed ration with exogenous amylase (RS+) added to the concentrate. Treatments were assigned according to a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 28-d periods. Twenty-three cows completed the study. Starch concentrations in NS-, RS-, and RS+ total mixed rations were 27.7, 23.5, and 22.7%, respectively. Effects of treatment on intake, milk production, milk composition, and total-tract apparent nutrient digestibility were evaluated during the last week of each period. Effects of amylase on in vitro starch digestibility of the NS- and RS- grain mixes were also measured. We hypothesized that the reduction in dietary starch in the RS- ration would decrease diet digestibility and limit milk production compared with NS- due to a decrease in available energy, and that RS+ would alleviate some of this decrease by increasing nutrient digestibility. Contrary to this hypothesis, the RS- diet did not affect intake or milk production relative to the NS- diet, except for increased milk urea nitrogen and a tendency for a decrease in milk protein yield. This lack of response is attributed to both low milk fat concentrations across treatments and greater than predicted dietary energy content preventing the energy deficit that was intended to occur with the reduced-starch rations. Cows fed the RS+ ration had the lowest production performance, with reduced milk, fat-corrected milk, protein, and lactose yields relative to cows fed NS-. Cows fed RS+ also had reduced lactose yield and tended to have reduced milk and fat-corrected milk relative to cows fed RS-. Despite the negative effects of the RS+ treatment on performance, exogenous amylase did increase both in vitro

  14. Double-crested cormorant studies at Little Galloo Island, Lake Ontario in 2008: Diet composition, fish consumption and the efficacy of management activities in reducing fish predation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, James H.; McCullough, Russell D.; Farquhar, James F.

    2008-01-01

    The year 2008 marked the seventeenth consecutive year of study of the food habits and fish consumption of LGI cormorants, and represented the tenth consecutive year evaluating the efficacy of management activities to control the reproductive success of cormorants nesting at LGI. The program consists mainly of spraying cormorant eggs with oil as well as the culling of adult and immature birds.This paper reports the findings of work carried outin 2008 at LGI.

  15. Multipurpose assessment for the quantification of Vibrio spp. and total bacteria in fish and seawater using multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Yeun; Lee, Jung-Lim

    2014-01-01

    Background This study describes the first multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction assay developed, as a multipurpose assessment, for the simultaneous quantification of total bacteria and three Vibrio spp. (V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus and V. anguillarum) in fish and seawater. The consumption of raw finfish as sushi or sashimi has been increasing the chance of Vibrio outbreaks in consumers. Freshness and quality of fishery products also depend on the total bacterial populations present. Results The detection sensitivity of the specific targets for the multiplex assay was 1 CFU mL−1 in pure culture and seawater, and 10 CFU g−1 in fish. While total bacterial counts by the multiplex assay were similar to those obtained by cultural methods, the levels of Vibrio detected by the multiplex assay were generally higher than by cultural methods of the same populations. Among the natural samples without Vibrio spp. inoculation, eight out of 10 seawater and three out of 20 fish samples were determined to contain Vibrio spp. Conclusion Our data demonstrate that this multiplex assay could be useful for the rapid detection and quantification of Vibrio spp. and total bacteria as a multipurpose tool for surveillance of fish and water quality as well as diagnostic method. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture published by JohnWiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:24752974

  16. Quantification of total and specific gram-negative histamine-producing bacteria species in fish using an MPN real-time PCR method.

    PubMed

    Bjornsdottir-Butler, Kristin; Jones, Jessica L; Benner, Ronald A; Burkhardt, William

    2011-10-01

    Quantification of histamine-producing bacteria (HPB) is necessary in order to elucidate the role that HPB play in scombrotoxin (histamine) fish poisoning. We report here the evaluation of a real-time PCR method for the quantification of total and specific Gram-negative HPB species in fish using a most probable number (MPN) format. The species-specific real-time PCR assay was 100% inclusive for independently detecting Morganella morganii, Enterobacter aerogenes, Raoultella planticola/ornithinolytica and Photobacterium damselae and did not cross react with other histamine- or non- histamine-producing bacteria. The efficiency of the reactions in the absence and presence of Spanish mackerel enrichment containing 1 × 10(6) CFU/ml of background microflora were 93-104 and 92-99%, respectively. The MPN-real-time PCR assay accurately quantified total and specific HPB in spiked mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus) and Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus maculates) samples. These methods were used to quantify total and specific HPB in naturally contaminated, decomposing mahi-mahi, Spanish mackerel and tuna (Thunnus albacares) samples. The results of this study indicate that MPN-real-time PCR assays can be used to accurately enumerate total and specific HPB in fish samples. These assays can be applied to assess the effectiveness of mitigation strategies and understand the relationship between HPB and histamine production in decomposing fish.

  17. Dietary fish oil supplements depress milk fat yield and alter milk fatty acid composition in lactating cows fed grass silage-based diets.

    PubMed

    Kairenius, P; Ärölä, A; Leskinen, H; Toivonen, V; Ahvenjärvi, S; Vanhatalo, A; Huhtanen, P; Hurme, T; Griinari, J M; Shingfield, K J

    2015-08-01

    The potential of dietary fish oil (FO) supplements to increase milk 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 concentrations and the associated effects on milk fatty acid (FA) composition, intake, and milk production were examined. Four multiparous lactating cows offered a grass silage-based diet (forage:concentrate ratio 58:42, on a dry matter basis) supplemented with 0, 75, 150, or 300g of FO/d (FO0, FO75, FO150, and FO300, respectively) were used in a 4×4 Latin square with 28-d experimental periods. Milk FA composition was analyzed by complementary silver-ion thin-layer chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and silver-ion HPLC. Supplements of FO decreased linearly dry matter intake, yields of energy-corrected milk, milk fat and protein, and milk fat content. Compared with FO0, milk fat content and yield were decreased by 30.1 and 40.6%, respectively, on the FO300 treatment. Supplements of FO linearly increased milk 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 concentrations from 0.07 to 0.18 and 0.03 to 0.10g/100g of FA, respectively. Enrichment of 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 was accompanied by decreases in 4- to 18-carbon saturated FA and increases in total conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), trans FA, and polyunsaturated FA concentrations. Fish oil elevated milk fat cis-9,trans-11 CLA content in a quadratic manner, reaching a maximum on FO150 (from 0.61 to 2.15g/100g of FA), whereas further amounts of FO increased trans-10 18:1 with no change in trans-11 18:1 concentration. Supplements of FO also resulted in a dose-dependent appearance of 37 unique 20- and 22-carbon intermediates in milk fat. Concentrations of 16-, 18-, 20-, and 22-carbon trans FA were all increased by FO, with enrichment of trans 18:1 and trans 18:2 being quantitatively the most important. Decreases in milk fat yield to FO were not related to changes in milk trans-10,cis-12 CLA concentration or estimated milk fat melting point. Partial least square regression analysis indicated that FO-induced milk fat depression was associated with

  18. Effects of diet supplementation with white tea and methionine on lipid metabolism of gilthead sea bream juveniles (Sparus aurata).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Jiménez, Amalia; Peres, Helena; Rubio, Vera Cruz; Oliva-Teles, Aires

    2013-06-01

    A growth trial was performed with gilthead sea bream juveniles (Sparus aurata) to evaluate the effect of diet supplementation with white tea and methionine on fish performance and lipid metabolism. For that purpose, four diets were formulated: a fish meal-based diet (Control) and diets identical to the control diet but supplemented with 2.9 % white tea (Tea), 0.3 % methionine (Met) or 2.9 % white tea plus 0.3 % methionine (Tea + Met). Growth performance and feed efficiency parameters, whole-body and liver composition, plasma metabolites concentration and liver glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), malic enzyme (ME) and fatty acid synthetase (FAS) activities were determined. Feed intake was higher in fish fed methionine-supplemented diets, whereas this parameter and growth was decreased in fish fed white tea supplementation. Feed efficiency and protein efficiency ratio were not affected by diet composition. Plasma HDL cholesterol and total lipids concentration were higher in fish fed white tea-supplemented diets. Whole-body lipid, plasma glucose, liver glycogen concentration and liver G6PDH, ME and FAS activities were lower in fish fed white tea-supplemented diets. Results of the present study indicate that methionine seems to act as a feed attractant in diets for sea bream juveniles. Additionally, white tea is an important modulator of lipid metabolism in sea bream juveniles.

  19. Determination of polychlorinated biphenyls and total mercury in two fish species (Esox lucius and Carassius auratus) in Anzali Wetland, Iran.

    PubMed

    Sakizadeh, Mohammad; Esmaeili Sari, Abas; Abdoli, Asghar; Bahramifar, Nader; Hashemi, Seyed Hossein

    2012-05-01

    The Anzali Wetland is one of the most important ecosystems in the north of Iran, and parts of it were registered as a Ramsar site in 1975. However, even though, due to many problems, including eutrophication produced by inflow of excess nutrients and organic materials, the wetland was also listed on the Montreux Record indicating the need to take urgent remedial action. This study was conducted to study the levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and total mercury (THg) in two fish species (Esox lucius and Carassius auratus) as bio-indicators of the ecosystem condition in eastern part of Anzali Wetland. The sampling was carried out in six different periods between years 2009 and 2010. The results showed that the amounts of PCBs in the muscle of northern pike were below the detection limit of gas chromatography, whereas the average concentration in goldfish was 0.449 mg/kg wet weight. Some possible reasons for the higher levels of PCBs in goldfish in comparison with pike have been discussed. No significant (p < 0.05) correlation was observed between PCBs and biological factors (weight, length, lipid content) for both species. On the other hand, the mean concentration of THg in the muscle of pike and goldfish were 182.22 and 75.27 ng/g dry weight, respectively. Although these concentrations were below US-EPA criterion for human consumption (0.3 mg/kg), it pointed up a significant deterioration of the ecosystem condition during the past years. Finally, statistical analysis revealed a significant correlation between THg with weight and an insignificant correlation with length for pike specimens.

  20. Vegetarian Diet: How to Get the Best Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... about a diet that doesn't include meat, poultry or fish. But vegetarian diets vary in what ... and exclude: Lacto-vegetarian diets exclude meat, fish, poultry and eggs, as well as foods that contain ...

  1. Effects of fish meals on rumen bacterial fermentation in continuous culture.

    PubMed

    Hoover, W H; Miller, T K; Stokes, S R; Thayne, W V

    1989-11-01

    Effects of various forms of fish meal on microbial metabolism were investigated in continuous cultures of rumen contents. Five diets were formulated to contain 12% ruminally degradable protein and 47 to 48% nonstructural carbohydrate. Soybean meal was the major protein source in the control diet, whereas in the other four diets, various fish meals were substituted for 6% of total diet DM. Fish meals were: fish meal containing 34.4% FFA, fish meal containing 34.4% FFA with CaCl2 added, fish meal containing 65.6% FFA, and fish meal defatted using 1:1 ethanol:ether extraction. The five treatments were fermented with pH either held constant at 6.2 or not controlled. When pH was maintained at 6.2, the inclusion of any fish meal except defatted fish meal reduced the acetate:propionate ratio, decreased protein digestion, and reduced microbial N produced/per kilogram DM digested when compared with the soybean control. When not controlled, pH decreased after feeding to 6.0 or lower. Under these conditions, the soybean control had a lower acetate:propionate ratio and lower NDF digestion than all diets containing fish meal. In this study, oil-containing fish meal affected microbial metabolism more negatively when the fermentation pH was held at 6.2 than when the pH was 6.0 or lower.

  2. The effect of fish meal replacement by soyabean products on fish growth: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sales, James

    2009-12-01

    Meta-analysis was applied to quantify the effect of replacement of fish meal by soyabean products in diets on fish growth. Measurement of growth in different units among studies required the use of a standardised effect size (Hedges' d). From a total of ninety-nine studies concentrating on fish meal replacement by defatted soyabean meal, 53 % were eliminated due to, among others, absence of a fish meal control diet (n 18), or no statistical differences or measurement of dispersion (n 6) indicated. Replacement of 4 to 40 % fish meal by soyabean meal (inclusion levels of 71-366 g/kg) resulted in a mean effect size of - 0.1142 (95 % CI - 0.4665, 0.2382) obtained in forty-eight comparisons evaluated with seventeen different fish species. However, at higher fish meal replacement levels the 95 % CI calculated for combined effect sizes did not overlap with zero. With soya protein concentrate replacing 25 to 100 % of fish meal in diets for seven fish species, methionine supplementation (mean - 2.4373 (95 % CI - 3.9004, - 0.9742); n 10) did not have a substantial influence on the magnitude of cumulative effect sizes relative to no supplementation (mean - 2.7306 (95 % CI - 3.7991, - 1.6620); n 16). Information on other soyabean products (full-fat soyabeans, soya flour) used as protein sources in fish diets was found as too limited for analysis and definite conclusions. The present study contributes by putting a numerical value to the magnitude of growth differences in fish when replacing dietary fish meal by soyabean products.

  3. Vitamins A{sub 1}, A{sub 2}, and E in minks exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (Aroclor 1242{reg{underscore}sign}) and copper, via diet based on freshwater or marine fish

    SciTech Connect

    Kaekelae, R.; Kaekelae, A.; Hyvaerinen, H.; Asikainen, J.; Dahl, S.K.

    1999-11-01

    Minks (Mustela vison) fed diets based on either freshwater fish or marine fish were exposed to 1 mg of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (Aroclor 1242) daily for 28 d. To minks on the freshwater diet, copper was also given with or without PCBs. The marine diet included more vitamin A, and E than the freshwater diet. The authors studied how the exposures affected levels of vitamins A{sub 1}, A{sub 2}, and E in liver and adipose tissues and levels of vitamins A{sub 1} and A{sub 2} in plasma. In females and males on the freshwater diet, the hepatic level of vitamin A{sub 2} was decreased because of the PCBs, and in these males the hepatic levels of vitamin E also decreased. Interestingly, with coexposure to PCBs and copper, the vitamin levels were, in general, close to the control values. In adipose tissues also, the PCBs induced significant changes in the concentrations of vitamins A{sub 1} and A{sub 2}. In plasma, vitamins A{sub 1} and A{sub 2} were decreased in all patterns of exposure and on both diets. However, plasma thyroxine was slightly increased, a finding opposite to that reported previously in rodent studies. The results suggest that, in mink, diet greatly modulates the responses to PCBs, which may also differ in males and females. Furthermore, vitamins A{sub 1} and A{sub 2} may not be metabolized equally during PCB administration.

  4. The evaluation of 3 diets for rearing Hyalella azteca and the influence of diet on acute ammonia toxicity.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Lisa M; Watson-Leung, Trudy L; Poirier, David G

    2016-10-01

    Three Hyalella azteca cultures were reared on different diets since birth, reflecting the recommended diets of various investigators. The 3 diets consisted of fish flakes (FF), a mixture of fish flakes supplemented with the diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii (FF-D), and a mixture of fish flakes supplemented with yeast, cereal grass media, and trout chow (FF-YCT). The 3 diets were evaluated by comparing 20 wk of culturing data, along with the organism's response to standard 96-h toxicity testing with ammonium chloride over a range of pH and temperature. Hyalella azteca fed the FF-D diet had the highest overall survival rate (96.6%, standard deviation [SD] 4.3%) compared to those fed the FF diet (92.0%, SD 12.7%), or the FF-YCT diet (91.1%, SD 14.8%), although difference in survival was not statistically significant. Organisms fed the FF-D diet produced a higher number of young per week per adult (6.1, SD 2.8) than the FF diet (5.1, SD 2.2), or the FF-YCT diet (4.0, SD 1.2), although differences were not statistically significant. Of the diets evaluated, H. azteca reared on the FF-D diet were often significantly more resistant to total and un-ionized ammonia toxicity in acute 96-h testing than those reared on the other 2 diets across the 2 temperatures and 5 pHs tested, suggesting this may be the most optimal diet for this species. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2416-2424. © 2016 SETAC.

  5. Ozone-Induced Pulmonary Injury and Vascular Contractility are Differentially Impacted by Coconut, Fish, and Olive Oil-Rich Diets

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pulmonary and systemic effects of ozone (O3) are mediated by hypothalamus pituitary adrenal (HPA)-axis activation. Fish oil (FO) and olive oil (OO) dietary supplementation have several cardioprotective benefits, but it is not established if these supplements can protect against t...

  6. Minimizing use of fish meal in sunshine bass diets using standard and new varieties of non-genetically modified soybeans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improved plant ingredients are needed to support sustainable culture of carnivorous fish, such as hybrid striped bass (HSB). We are evaluating meals made from new strains of non-genetically-modified soybeans (non-GMO) with high protein and reduced anti-nutritional factors (ANFs) on HSB nutrient dige...

  7. Leucine supplementation improves adiponectin and total cholesterol concentrations despite the lack of changes in adiposity or glucose homeostasis in rats previously exposed to a high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Studies suggest that leucine supplementation (LS) has a therapeutic potential to prevent obesity and to promote glucose homeostasis. Furthermore, regular physical exercise is a widely accepted strategy for body weight maintenance and also for the prevention of obesity. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of chronic LS alone or combined with endurance training (ET) as potential approaches for reversing the insulin resistance and obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) in rats. Methods Forty-seven rats were randomly divided into two groups. Animals were fed a control diet-low fat (n = 10) or HFD (n = 37). After 15 weeks on HFD, all rats received the control diet-low fat and were randomly divided according to treatment: reference (REF), LS, ET, and LS+ET (n = 7-8 rats per group). After 6 weeks of treatment, the animals were sacrificed and body composition, fat cell volume, and serum concentrations of total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triacylglycerol, glucose, adiponectin, leptin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were analyzed. Results At the end of the sixth week of treatment, there was no significant difference in body weight between the REF, LS, ET and LS+ET groups. However, ET increased lean body mass in rats (P = 0.019). In addition, ET was more effective than LS in reducing adiposity (P = 0.019), serum insulin (P = 0.022) and TNF-α (P = 0.044). Conversely, LS increased serum adiponectin (P = 0.021) levels and reduced serum total cholesterol concentration (P = 0.042). Conclusions The results showed that LS had no beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity or adiposity in previously obese rats. On the other hand, LS was effective in increasing adiponectin levels and in reducing total cholesterol concentration. PMID:21899736

  8. Determination of total mercury in scalp hair of pregnant and nursing women resident in fishing villages in the Eighth Region of Chile.

    PubMed

    Bruhn, C G; Rodŕiguez, A A; Barrios, C; Jaramillo, V H; Becerra, J; Gonzáles, U; Gras, N T; Reyes, O; Seremi-Salud

    1994-06-01

    Total mercury (Hg-T) content in scalp hair of 59 pregnant and nursing women-with normal to high fish and seafood consumption-resident in fishing villages distributed throughout the coastal zone of the Eighth Region of Chile, and of 7 pregnant and nursing women-with negligible or no fish and seafood consumption-resident in a town located inland (Pinto) in the same region, was determined. Hair samples were collected, washed and stored according to IAEA recommendations, and were wet-digested in sealed Pyrex ampoules prior to the determination of Hg-T by gold amalgamation cold-vapour atomic absorption spectrometry. The absolute detection limit was estimated as 0.13 +/- 0.01 ng Hg-T (3 x sigma B1). Accuracy and precision were assessed with the aid of various biological and environmental certified and standard reference materials including human hair, and were satisfactory for ppm and sub-ppm Hg-T. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used as a reference method for external quality control. The Hg-T content in hair of the study group (2.06 +/- 1.45(8) mg/Kg) was significantly higher than that of the control group (0.43 +/- 0.18(4) mg/kg) (p = 0.0001). These results were characterized according to geographical location, fish and seafood consumption, age and residence period in the fishing village.

  9. The effects of adding fat to diets of lactating dairy cows on total-tract neutral detergent fiber digestibility: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Weld, K A; Armentano, L E

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this meta-analysis was to determine the effects of supplemental fat on fiber digestibility in lactating dairy cattle. Published papers that evaluated the effects of adding fat to the diets of lactating dairy cattle on total-tract neutral detergent fiber digestibility (ttNDFd) and dry matter intake (DMI) were compiled. The final data set included 108 fat-supplemented treatment means, not including low-fat controls, from 38 publications. The fat-supplemented treatment means exhibited a wide range of ttNDFd (49.4% ± 9.3, mean ± standard deviation) and DMI (21.3 kg/d ± 3.5). Observations were summarized as the difference between the treatment means for fat-supplemented diets minus their respective low-fat control means. Additionally, those differences were divided by the difference in diet fatty acid (FA) concentration between the treatment and control diets. Treatment means were categorized by the type of fat supplement. Supplementing 3% FA in the diet as medium-chain fats (containing predominately 12- and 14-carbon saturated FA) or unsaturated vegetable oil decreased ttNDFd by 8.0 and 1.2 percentage units, respectively. Adding 3% calcium salts of long-chain FA or saturated fats increased ttNDFd by 3.2 and 1.3 percentage units, respectively. No other fat supplement type affected ttNDFd. Except for saturated fats and animal-vegetable fats, supplementing dietary fat decreased DMI. When the values for changes in ttNDFd are regressed on changes in DMI there was a positive relationship, though the coefficient of determination is only 0.20. When changes in ttNDFd were regressed on changes in DMI, within individual fat supplement types, there was no relationship within calcium salt supplements. There was a positive relationship between changes in ttNDFd and changes in DMI for saturated fats. Neither relationship suggested that the increased ttNDFd with calcium salts or saturated FA was due to decreased DMI for these fat sources. A subset of the means

  10. Diet of a piscivorous seabird reveals spatiotemporal variation in abundance of forage fishes in the Monterey Bay region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Lisa A.; Harvey, James T.

    2015-06-01

    Brandt's Cormorant (Phalacrocorax penicillatus) diet was investigated using regurgitated pellets (n = 285) collected on 19 sampling days at three locations during the 2006-07 and 2007-08 nonbreeding seasons in the Monterey Bay region. The efficacy of using nested sieves and the all-structure technique to facilitate prey detection in the pellets was evaluated, but this method did not increase prey enumeration and greatly decreased efficiency. Although 29 prey species were consumed, northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax) dominated and speckled sanddab (Citharichthys stigmaeus) also was important in the diet. Few rockfishes (Sebastes spp.) and market squid (Doryteuthis opalescens) were consumed compared with great prevalence in previous studies during the 1970s. El Niño and La Niña during the study provided a unique opportunity to examine predator response to variation in prey availability. Patterns of prey number and diversity were not consistent among locations. Greatest number and diversity of prey occurred at locations within Monterey Bay during La Niña, results not evident at the outer coast location. Short-term specialization occurred but mean prey diversity indicated a generalist feeding mode. This study demonstrated the importance of periodic sampling at multiple locations within a region to detect spatiotemporal variability in the diet of opportunistic generalists.

  11. Replacement of fish meal with soybean meal, alone or in combination with distiller’s dried grains with solubles in practical diets for Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, grown in a clear-water system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate inclusion of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as partial replacement of commercial, solvent-extracted soybean meal (SBM) in fish meal-free diets for Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquaria connected to a recirculating biofiltratio...

  12. Dietary burden calculations relating to fish metabolism studies

    PubMed Central

    Pucher, Johannes; Michalski, Britta

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Fish farming is increasingly dependent on plant commodities as a source of feed leading to an increased risk for pesticide residues in aquaculture diets and consequently their transfer into aquaculture food products. The European pesticide regulation requires fish metabolism and fish feeding studies where residues in fish feed exceed 0.1 mg kg−1 of the total diet (dry weight basis) to enable the setting of appropriate maximum residue levels in fish commodities. Fish dietary burden calculation is therefore an important prerequisite to decide on further experimental testing as part of the consumer risk assessment. In this review, the different aquaculture production systems are compared with regard to their specific feeding practices and the principles of dietary burden calculation are described. © 2016 Fraunhofer‐Institut für Molekularbiologie und Angewandte Oekologie. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:26749492

  13. Serotonergic outcome, stress and sexual steroid hormones, and growth in a South American cichlid fish fed with an L-tryptophan enriched diet.

    PubMed

    Morandini, Leonel; Ramallo, Martín Roberto; Moreira, Renata Guimarães; Höcht, Christian; Somoza, Gustavo Manuel; Silva, Ana; Pandolfi, Matías

    2015-11-01

    Reared animals for edible or ornamental purposes are frequently exposed to high aggression and stressful situations. These factors generally arise from conspecifics in densely breeding conditions. In vertebrates, serotonin (5-HT) has been postulated as a key neuromodulator and neurotransmitter involved in aggression and stress. The essential amino acid L-tryptophan (trp) is crucial for the synthesis of 5-HT, and so, leaves a gateway for indirectly augmenting brain 5-HT levels by means of a trp-enriched diet. The cichlid fish Cichlasoma dimerus, locally known as chanchita, is an autochthonous, potentially ornamental species and a fruitful laboratory model which behavior and reproduction has been studied over the last 15years. It presents complex social hierarchies, and great asymmetries between subordinate and dominant animals in respect to aggression, stress, and reproductive chance. The first aim of this work was to perform a morphological description of chanchita's brain serotonergic system, in both males and females. Then, we evaluated the effects of a trp-supplemented diet, given during 4weeks, on brain serotonergic activity, stress and sexual steroid hormones, and growth in isolated specimens. Results showed that chanchita's brain serotonergic system is composed of several populations of neurons located in three main areas: pretectum, hypothalamus and raphe, with no clear differences between males and females at a morphological level. Animals fed with trp-enriched diets exhibited higher forebrain serotonergic activity and a significant reduction in their relative cortisol levels, with no effects on sexual steroid plasma levels or growth parameters. Thus, this study points to food trp enrichment as a "neurodietary'' method for elevating brain serotonergic activity and decreasing stress, without affecting growth or sex steroid hormone levels.

  14. Bulgarian Marine and Freshwater Fishes as a Source of Fat-Soluble Vitamins for a Healthy Human Diet

    PubMed Central

    Stancheva, Mona; Dobreva, Diana A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study evaluates the fat-soluble vitamins all-trans retinol (vitamin A), cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) and α-tocopherol (vitamin E) content in the fresh edible tissue of Bulgarian fish species: marine—grey mullet (Mugil cephalus) and bonito (Sarda sarda), and freshwater—rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The sample preparation procedure includes alkaline saponification, followed by liquid-liquid extraction with n-hexane. All-trans retinol, cholecalciferol and α-tocopherol were analyzed simultaneously using RP-HPLC\\UV\\FL system with analytical column C18 ODS2 Hypersil™. The fat soluble vitamins content (μg per 100 g wet weight) in the fresh edible fish tissue of analyzed fishes are in the ranges: vitamin A from 2.7 ± 0.4 to 37.5 ± 3.4 μg/100 g ww; vitamin D3 from 1.1 ± 0.1 to 11.4 ± 0.6 μg/100 g ww; vitamin E from 121.4 ± 9.6 to 1274.2 ± 44.1 μg/100 g ww. Three fat-soluble vitamins occur in higher amounts in rainbow trout and grey mullet species. According to recommended daily intake (RDI), they are a good source of cholecalciferol. PMID:28239118

  15. Measurement of haem and total iron in fish, shrimp and prawn using ICP-MS: Implications for dietary iron intake calculations.

    PubMed

    Wheal, Matthew S; DeCourcy-Ireland, Emma; Bogard, Jessica R; Thilsted, Shakuntala H; Stangoulis, James C R

    2016-06-15

    Twenty-five species of fish, shrimp and prawn from local markets in Bangladesh were analysed for concentrations of total Fe, haem Fe and non-haem Fe by ICP-MS. Total Fe and non-haem Fe concentrations were measured in nitric acid-digested samples and haem Fe was extracted using acidified 80% acetone for 60 min. Total Fe concentrations ranged from 0.55-14.43 mg/100 g FW, and haem Fe% ranged from 18%-93% of total Fe. Repeat extractions with 80% acetone recovered additional haem Fe, suggesting that previous measurement by this technique may have underestimated haem Fe content. Calculation of Fe balance (summing Fe in acetone extracts and Fe in the residue after haem Fe extraction) was not significantly different from total Fe, indicating the two processes recovered the different forms of Fe with similar effectiveness.

  16. Dietary intake of trace elements by the population of Catalonia (Spain): results from a total diet study.

    PubMed

    Perelló, Gemma; Vicente, Emilio; Castell, Victòria; Llobet, Juan M; Nadal, Martí; Domingo, José L

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to analyse the concentrations of Al, Ba, Bi, Cu, Cr, Ge, Mn, Mo, Ni, Sb, Se, Sr and Zn in food samples collected in 2008 in Catalonia (Spain). The dietary intake of these 13 trace elements was subsequently estimated by different age-gender groups of the population: children, adolescents, adults and seniors. In general terms, fish and shellfish, cereals, and pulses were the food groups showing the highest levels for most elements. Higher dietary intakes were associated with male groups (adolescents, adults and seniors). However, none exceeded the tolerable levels. When exposure was estimated based on body weight, children were the group with the highest dietary intake. Notwithstanding, only the weekly intake of Al by children exceeded the recommendations of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). It is a consequence of the higher intake of cereals in relation to their respective body weights. In addition to the periodical food surveillance of toxic metals (As, Cd, Hg and Pb), it is also important to determine the levels of other trace elements in order to ensure that the dietary exposure by the Catalan population is under control.

  17. Summary of total mercury concentrations in fillets of selected sport fishes collected during 2000-2003 from Lake Natoma, Sacramento County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saiki, Michael K.; Slotton, Darrell G.; May, Thomas W.; Ayers, Shaun M.; Alpers, Charles N.

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes results of total mercury measurements in skinless fillets of sport fishes collected during August 2000, September?October 2002, and July 2003 from Lake Natoma, a small (8,760 acre-feet) afterbay for Folsom Dam on the lower American River. The primary objective of the study was to determine if mercury concentrations in fillets approached or exceeded guidelines for human consumption. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) human-health action level for methylmercury in commercially caught fish is 1.0 ?g/g (microgram per gram); the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) human-health criterion for methylmercury residue in fish tissue is 0.30 ?g/g. Wet weight concentrations of total mercury in skinless fillets were as high as 0.19 ?g/g in bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), 0.39 ?g/g in redear sunfish (L. microlophus), 1.02 ?g/g in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), and 1.89 ?g/g in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Maximum concentrations of mercury in other fish species varied from 0.10 ?g/g in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to 0.56 ?g/g in white catfish (A-meiurus catus). Altogether, 1 of 86 largemouth bass and 11 of 11 channel catfish exceeded the FDA human-health action level. In addition, 1 of 20 redear sunfish, 26 of 86 largemouth bass, 2 of 3 spotted bass (M. punctulatus), 1 of 1 brown bullhead (A. nebulosus), and 1 of 1 white catfish exceeded the USEPA human-health criterion. These results indicate that some fish species inhabiting Lake Natoma contain undesirably high concentrations of mercury in their skinless fillets.

  18. Shredded beet pulp substituted for corn silage in diets fed to dairy cows under ambient heat stress: Feed intake, total-tract digestibility, plasma metabolites, and milk production.

    PubMed

    Naderi, N; Ghorbani, G R; Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi, A; Nasrollahi, S M; Beauchemin, K A

    2016-11-01

    The effects of substituting increasing concentrations of dried, shredded beet pulp for corn silage on dry matter intake, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation, blood metabolites, and milk production of lactating dairy cows was evaluated under conditions of ambient heat stress. Four multiparous (126±13d in milk) and 4 primiparous (121±11d in milk) Holstein cows were used in a 4×4 Latin square design experiment with 4 periods of 21d. Each period had 14d of adaptation and 7d of sampling, and parity was the square. Dietary treatments were (dry matter basis): 16% of dietary dry matter as corn silage without BP (0BP, control diet); 8% corn silage and 8% beet pulp (8BP); 4% corn silage and 12% beet pulp (12BP); and 0% corn silage and 16% beet pulp (16BP). Alfalfa hay was included in all diets (24% dietary dry matter). Dietary concentrations of forage neutral detergent fiber and nonfiber carbohydrates were 21.3 and 39.2% (0BP), 16.5 and 40.9% (8BP), 14.1 and 42.2% (12BP), and 11.7 and 43.4% (16BP), respectively (dry matter basis). The ambient temperature-humidity index indicated that the cows were in heat stress for almost the entire duration of the study. Dry matter intake and nutrient digestibilities were similar across treatments and between multi- and primiparous cows. Mean rumen pH tended to decrease with increasing proportions of beet pulp in the diet. Also, increasing proportions of beet pulp in the diet linearly decreased acetate and butyrate concentrations in the rumen and increased propionate concentrations, leading to a linear decrease in acetate:propionate ratio. Milk yield linearly increased (38.5, 39.3, 40.9, and 39.6kg/d for 0BP, 8BP, 12BP, and 16BP, respectively), but fat content linearly decreased (3.46, 3.47, 3.27, and 2.99), such that we observed no effect on fat-corrected milk. Substituting beet pulp for corn silage increased the neutral detergent insoluble crude protein content of the diet, leading to a decrease in rumen concentration of

  19. Fish Oil Diet Associated with Acute Reperfusion Related Hemorrhage, and with Reduced Stroke-Related Sickness Behaviors and Motor Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Pascoe, Michaela C.; Howells, David W.; Crewther, David P.; Constantinou, Nicki; Carey, Leeanne M.; Rewell, Sarah S.; Turchini, Giovanni M.; Kaur, Gunveen; Crewther, Sheila G.

    2014-01-01

    Ischemic stroke is associated with motor impairment and increased incidence of affective disorders such as anxiety/clinical depression. In non-stroke populations, successful management of such disorders and symptoms has been reported following diet supplementation with long chain omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids (PUFAs). However, the potential protective effects of PUFA supplementation on affective behaviors after experimentally induced stroke and sham surgery have not been examined previously. This study investigated the behavioral effects of PUFA supplementation over a 6-week period following either middle cerebral artery occlusion or sham surgery in the hooded-Wistar rat. The PUFA diet supplied during the acclimation period prior to surgery was found to be associated with an increased risk of acute hemorrhage following the reperfusion component of the surgery. In surviving animals, PUFA supplementation did not influence infarct size as determined 6 weeks after surgery, but did decrease omega-6-fatty-acid levels, moderate sickness behaviors, acute motor impairment, and longer-term locomotor hyperactivity and depression/anxiety-like behavior. PMID:24567728

  20. Fish oil diet associated with acute reperfusion related hemorrhage, and with reduced stroke-related sickness behaviors and motor impairment.

    PubMed

    Pascoe, Michaela C; Howells, David W; Crewther, David P; Constantinou, Nicki; Carey, Leeanne M; Rewell, Sarah S; Turchini, Giovanni M; Kaur, Gunveen; Crewther, Sheila G

    2014-01-01

    Ischemic stroke is associated with motor impairment and increased incidence of affective disorders such as anxiety/clinical depression. In non-stroke populations, successful management of such disorders and symptoms has been reported following diet supplementation with long chain omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids (PUFAs). However, the potential protective effects of PUFA supplementation on affective behaviors after experimentally induced stroke and sham surgery have not been examined previously. This study investigated the behavioral effects of PUFA supplementation over a 6-week period following either middle cerebral artery occlusion or sham surgery in the hooded-Wistar rat. The PUFA diet supplied during the acclimation period prior to surgery was found to be associated with an increased risk of acute hemorrhage following the reperfusion component of the surgery. In surviving animals, PUFA supplementation did not influence infarct size as determined 6 weeks after surgery, but did decrease omega-6-fatty-acid levels, moderate sickness behaviors, acute motor impairment, and longer-term locomotor hyperactivity and depression/anxiety-like behavior.

  1. Effect of dietary meat and fish on endogenous nitrosation, inflammation and genotoxicity of faecal water.

    PubMed

    Joosen, Annemiek M C P; Lecommandeur, Emmanuelle; Kuhnle, Gunter G C; Aspinall, Sue M; Kap, Lisanne; Rodwell, Sheila A

    2010-05-01

    N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been associated with reduced colon tumorigenesis. However, their association with colorectal cancer incidence is not conclusive. We investigated the influence of isocaloric replacement of red meat with fatty fish on endogenous nitrosation, inflammation and genotoxicity of faecal water in apparently healthy human volunteers on controlled diets. Fourteen volunteers consumed a high red meat, a combined red meat/fish and a high fish diet for 8 days each. Faecal homogenates were analysed for haem, nitroso compounds (NOC) and calprotectin and associated supernatants for genotoxicity. Both faecal NOC and haem excretion decreased with more fish and less meat in the diet. Nitrosyl iron (FeNO) was the main contributor to total NOC on all diets. The proportion of other NOC increased with more fish and less meat in the diet (P = 0.01), resulting in a non-statistically significant decrease in the proportion of FeNO on the fish diet. There was no statistically significant difference in faecal calprotectin (P = 0.54) and faecal water-induced DNA strand breaks and oxidized purines and pyrimidines between the diets (P > 0.36). Increasing fish intake and reducing the intake of red meat does not seem to have an effect on inflammation and faecal water-induced (oxidative) DNA damage; however, it does reduce the formation of mutagenic and potentially carcinogenic NOC and may as such beneficially affect colorectal risk.

  2. Greater Total Antioxidant Capacity from Diet and Supplements Is Associated with a Less Atherogenic Blood Profile in U.S. Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kijoon; Vance, Terrence M.; Chun, Ock K.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence from epidemiologic studies has shown that total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in the diet might be inversely associated with stroke, heart failure, and inflammatory biomarkers. However, studies on the association of TAC from both diet and supplements with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in the U.S. population are lacking. This cross-sectional population-based study aimed to investigate the association of TAC with both diet and supplements with CVD risk factors among 4039 U.S. adults in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007–2012. TAC from both food sources and dietary supplements was estimated from two 24-h dietary recalls using the NHANES supplement ingredient database, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) proanthocyanidin, flavonoid, and isoflavone databases. Top contributors to TAC were tea, antioxidant supplements, vegetable mixture, orange juice, berries, and wine. Antioxidant supplement users had 1.6 times higher TAC than non-users. Greater TAC was associated with reduced triglycerides (TG) (−1.39% change; 95% CI = −2.56 to −0.21), TG to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio (−2.03% change; 95% CI = −3.45 to −0.60), HDL-C (0.65% change; 95% CI = 0.07 to 1.23), insulin (−1.37% change; 95% CI = −2.64 to −0.09), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (−1.57% change; 95% CI = −3.02 to −0.09) and C-reactive protein (CRP) (−0.83% change; 95% CI = −1.29 to −0.38) after adjusting for potential confounders. There was no significant association between TAC and waist circumference, BMI, blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), and fasting glucose. The findings of this study support the hypothesis that an antioxidant-rich diet and intake of supplements are beneficial to reduce CVD risk. PMID:26742057

  3. Effect of slow-release urea inclusion in diets containing modified corn distillers grains on total tract digestibility and ruminal fermentation in feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Ceconi, I; Ruiz-Moreno, M J; DiLorenzo, N; DiCostanzo, A; Crawford, G I

    2015-08-01

    Ruminal degradable intake protein (DIP) deficit may result when cattle are fed diets containing a greater inclusion of processed corn grain and small to moderate inclusion of corn distillers grains (DG). This deficit may arise from greater proportions of rapidly fermentable carbohydrates and RUP in corn grain. Urea-derived N is 100% DIP; however, rates of degradation of carbohydrates and conventional urea (CU) may not match. Therefore, beneficial effects may result from the use of slow-release urea (SRU) sources over CU when added to DIP-deficient diets. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of increasing DIP concentration through inclusion of 1 of 2 SRU sources or CU in DG-containing feedlot diets on ruminal fermentation and total tract digestibility. In addition, an in situ experiment was conducted to characterize N disappearance of urea sources from polyester bags. Four ruminally cannulated steers (initial BW = 588 ± 8 kg) were arranged in a 4 × 4 Latin square design and assigned randomly to 1 of 4 dietary treatments containing 0% (CON) or 0.6% urea in the form of CU (UREA) or SRU as Optigen II (polymer-encapsulated urea; OPTI) or NitroShure (lipid-encapsulated urea; NITRO), and 30% corn earlage, 20% modified corn DG with solubles, 7.8% corn silage, 4.3% dry supplement, and dry-rolled corn (DM basis). Dietary DIP was estimated at 6.6% and 8.3% for CON and urea-containing dietary treatments, respectively. Steers were fed ad libitum once daily. Differences in purine derivatives-to-creatinine (PDC) index between treatments were used as indicators of differences in microbial CP synthesis. Intake of OM, digestibility of OM, NDF, CP, and starch, ruminal pH, total VFA ruminal concentration, and PDC index were not affected by treatment ( ≥ 0.21). Concentration of ammonia-N noticeably peaked at 4 h after feed delivery for cattle fed UREA (treatment × time, = 0.06) and measured at least 5.5 mg/dL for any treatment and at any hour after feed delivery

  4. Total tract nutrient digestion and milk fatty acid profile of dairy cows fed diets containing different levels of whole raw soya beans.

    PubMed

    Venturelli, B C; de Freitas Júnior, J E; Takiya, C S; de Araújo, A P C; Santos, M C B; Calomeni, G D; Gardinal, R; Vendramini, T H A; Rennó, F P

    2015-12-01

    Whole oilseeds such as soya beans have been utilized in dairy rations to supply additional fat and protein. However, antinutritional components contained in soya beans, such as trypsin inhibitors and haemagglutinins (lectins) may alter digestibility of nutrients and consequently affect animal performance. The objective of the present experiment was to quantify the effect of different levels of whole raw soya beans in diets of dairy cows on nutrient intake, total tract digestion, nutrient balances and milk yield and composition. Sixteen mid to late-lactation cows (228 ± 20 days in milk; mean ± SD) were used in four replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment with 21-d periods. Cows were assigned to each square according to milk yield and DIM. The animals were randomly allocated to treatments: control (without soya beans addition; CO), WS9, WS18 and WS27, with addition of 9%, 18% and 27% of whole raw soya bean in diet on a dry matter (DM) basis respectively. All diets contained identical forage and concentrate components and consisted of maize silage and concentrate based on ground corn and soya beans at a ratio of 60:40. There were no differences in OM, CP, NDF and NEL intakes (kg/day and MJ/day) among the treatments (p > 0.05). However, DM and NFC intakes were negatively affected (p = 0.04 and p < 0.01, respectively) and ether extract (EE) intake was positively affected (p < 0.01). Total tract digestion increased linearly with whole raw soya beans for EE (p < 0.01) and NDF (p = 0.01). The excretion (kg/day) of digested soya beans grains increased linearly according to addition of whole raw soya beans. However, the nutritive characteristics of excreted grains were not altered. Milk (kg), milk lactose (kg) and protein (kg) yield decreased linearly (p < 0.01, p < 0.01 and p = 0.04, respectively) milk fat content (%) increased linearly (p < 0.01) with whole raw soya beans inclusion. Increasing addition of whole raw soya beans affected milk fatty acid profile

  5. Effects of a perennial ryegrass diet or total mixed ration diet offered to spring-calving Holstein-Friesian dairy cows on methane emissions, dry matter intake, and milk production.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, B F; Deighton, M H; O'Loughlin, B M; Mulligan, F J; Boland, T M; O'Donovan, M; Lewis, E

    2011-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare the enteric methane (CH4) emissions and milk production of spring-calving Holstein-Friesian cows offered either a grazed perennial ryegrass diet or a total mixed ration (TMR) diet for 10 wk in early lactation. Forty-eight spring-calving Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 nutritional treatments for 10 wk: 1) grass or 2) TMR. The grass group received an allocation of 17 kg of dry matter (DM) of grass per cow per day with a pre-grazing herbage mass of 1,492 kg of DM/ha. The TMR offered per cow per day was composed of maize silage (7.5 kg of DM), concentrate blend (8.6 kg of DM), grass silage (3.5 kg of DM), molasses (0.7 kg of DM), and straw (0.5 kg of DM). Daily CH4 emissions were determined via the emissions from ruminants using a calibrated tracer technique for 5 consecutive days during wk 4 and 10 of the study. Simultaneously, herbage dry matter intake (DMI) for the grass group was estimated using the n-alkane technique, whereas DMI for the TMR group was recorded using the Griffith Elder feeding system. Cows offered TMR had higher milk yield (29.5 vs. 21.1 kg/d), solids-corrected milk yield (27.7 vs. 20.1 kg/d), fat and protein (FP) yield (2.09 vs. 1.54 kg/d), bodyweight change (0.54 kg of gain/d vs. 0.37 kg of loss/d), and body condition score change (0.36 unit gain vs. 0.33 unit loss) than did the grass group over the course of the 10-wk study. Methane emissions were higher for the TMR group than the grass group (397 vs. 251 g/cow per day). The TMR group also emitted more CH4 per kg of FP (200 vs. 174 g/kg of FP) than did the grass group. They also emitted more CH4 per kg of DMI (20.28 vs. 18.06 g/kg of DMI) than did the grass group. In this study, spring-calving cows, consuming a high quality perennial ryegrass diet in the spring, produced less enteric CH4 emissions per cow, per unit of intake, and per unit of FP than did cows offered a standard TMR diet.

  6. Integration of the effects of animal and dietary factors on total dry matter intake of dairy cows fed silage-based diets.

    PubMed

    Huhtanen, P; Rinne, M; Mäntysaari, P; Nousiainen, J

    2011-04-01

    An empirical regression model for the prediction of total dry matter intake (DMI) of dairy cows was developed and compared with four published intake models. The model was constructed to include both animal and dietary factors, which are known to affect DMI. For model development, a data set based on individual cow data from 10 change-over and four continuous milk production studies was collected (n = 1554). Relevant animal (live weight (LW), days in milk (DIM), parity and breed) and dietary (total and concentrate DMI, concentrate composition, forage digestibility and fermentation quality) data were collected. The model factors were limited to those that are available before the diets are fed to animals, that is, standardized energy corrected milk (sECM) yield, LW, DIM and diet quality (total diet DMI index (TDMI index)). As observed ECM yield is a function of both the production potential of the cow and diet quality, ECM yield standardized for DIM, TDMI index and metabolizable protein concentration was used in modelling. In the individual data set, correlation coefficients between sECM and TDMI index or DIM were much weaker (0.16 and 0.03) than corresponding coefficients with observed ECM (0.65 and 0.46), respectively. The model was constructed with a mixed model regression analysis using cow within trial as a random factor. The following mixed model was estimated for DMI prediction: DMI (kg DM/day) = -2.9 (±0.56)+0.258 (±0.011) × sECM (kg/day) + 0.0148 (±0.0009) × LW (kg) -0.0175 (±0.001) × DIM -5.85 (±0.41) × exp (-0.03 × DIM) + 0.09 (±0.002) × TDMI index. The mixed DMI model was evaluated with a treatment mean data set (207 studies, 992 diets), and the following relationship was found: Observed DMI (kg DM/day) = -0.10 (±0.33) + 1.004 (±0.019) × Predicted DMI (kg DM/day) with an adjusted residual mean square error of 0.362 kg/day. Evaluation of the residuals did not result in a significant mean bias or linear slope bias, and random error accounted

  7. Total mercury and methylmercury in fish fillets, water, and bed sediments from selected streams in the Delaware River basin, New Jersery, New York, and Pennsylvania, 1998-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brightbill, Robin A.; Riva-Murray, Karen; Bilger, Michael D.; Byrnes, John D.

    2004-01-01

    Within the Delaware River Basin, fish-tissue samples were analyzed for total mercury (tHg). Water and bed-sediment samples were analyzed for tHg and methylmercury (MeHg), and methylation efficiencies were calculated. This study was part of a National Mercury Pilot Program conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The Delaware River Basin was chosen because it is part of the USGS National Water-Quality Assessment Program that integrates physical, chemical, and biological sampling efforts to determine status and trends in surface-water and ground-water resources. Of the 35 sites in the study, 31 were sampled for fish. The species sampled at these sites include smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), the target species, and where smallmouth bass could not be collected, brown trout (Salmo trutta), chain pickerel (Esox niger), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), and rock bass (Ambloplites rupestris). There were a total of 32 fish samples; 7 of these exceeded the 0.3 ?g/g (micrograms per gram) wet-weight mercury (Hg) concentration set for human health by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and 27 of these exceeded the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service criteria of 0.1 ?g/g wet weight for the protection of fish-eating birds and wildlife. Basinwide analysis of Hg in fish, water, and bed sediment showed tHg concentration in fillets correlated positively with population density, urban land cover, and impervious land surface. Negative correlations included wetland land cover, septic density, elevation, and latitude. Smallmouth bass from the urban sites had a higher median concentration of tHg than fish from agricultural, low intensity-agricultural, or forested sites. Concentrations of tHg and MeHg in water were higher in samples from the more urbanized areas of the basin and were positively correlated with urbanization and negatively correlated with forested land cover. Methylation efficiency of water was negatively correlated with urbanization. Bed

  8. Exposure of great egret (Ardea albus) nestlings to mercury through diet in the Everglades ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frederick, Peter C; Spalding, Marilyn G.; Sepalveda, Maria S.; Williams, Gary E.; Nico, Leo G.; Robins, Robert H.

    1999-01-01

    We estimated exposure of great egret (Ardea albus) nestlings to mercury in food in the Florida Everglades, USA, by collecting regurgitated food samples during the 1993 to 1996 breeding seasons and during 1995 measured concentrations of mercury in individual prey items from those samples. Great egret nestlings had a diet composed predominantly of fish (>95% of biomass), though the species composition of fish in the diet fluctuated considerably among years. Great egrets concentrated on the larger fish available in the marsh, especially members of the Centrarchidae. The importance of all nonnative fish fluctuated from 0 to 32% of the diet by biomass and was dominated by pike killifish (Belonesox belizanus) and cichlids (Cichlidae). Total mercury concentrations in prey fish ranged from 0.04 to 1.40 mg/kg wet weight, and we found a significant relationship between mass of individual fish and mercury concentration. We estimated the concentration of total mercury in the diet as a whole by weighting the mercury concentration in a given fish species by the proportion of that species in the diet. We estimate that total mercury concentrations in the diets ranged among years from 0.37 to 0.47 mg/kg fish (4-year mean = 0.41 mg/kg). We estimated total mercury exposure in great egret nestlings by combining these mercury concentrations with measurements of food intake rate, as measured over the course of the nestling period in both lab and field situations. We estimate that, at the 0.41 mg/kg level, nestlings would ingest 4.32 mg total mercury during an 80-day nestling period. Captive feeding studies reported elsewhere suggest that this level of exposure in the wild could be associated with reduced fledging mass, increased lethargy, decreased appetite, and, possibly, poor health and juvenile survival.

  9. Exposure of great egret (Ardea albus) nestlings to mercury through diet in the Everglades ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Frederick, P.C.; Spalding, M.G.; Sepulveda, M.S.; Williams, G.E.; Nico, L.; Robins, R.

    1999-09-01

    The authors estimated exposure of great egret (Ardea albus) nestlings to mercury in food in the Florida Everglades, USA, by collecting regurgitated food samples during the 1993 to 1996 breeding seasons and during 1995 measured concentrations of mercury in individual prey items from those samples. Great egret nestlings had a diet composed predominantly of fish, though the species composition of fish in the diet fluctuated considerably among years. Great egrets concentrated on the larger fish available in the marsh, especially members of the Centrarchidae. The importance of all nonnative fish fluctuated from 0 to 32% of the diet by biomass and was dominated by pike killifish (Belonesox belizanus) and cichlids (Cichlidae). Total mercury concentrations in prey fish ranged from 0.04 to 1.40 mg/kg wet weight, and they found a significant relationship between mass of individual fish and mercury concentration. The authors estimated the concentration of total mercury in the diet as a whole by weighting the mercury concentration in a given fish species by the proportion of that species in the diet. They estimate that total mercury concentrations in the diets ranged among years from 0.37 to 0.47 mg/kg fish. The authors estimated total mercury exposure in great egret nestlings by combining these mercury concentrations with measurements of food intake rate, as measured over the course of the nestling period in both lab and field situations. They estimate that, at the 0.41 mg/kg level, nestlings would ingest 4.32 mg total mercury during an 80-day nestling period. Captive feeding studies reported elsewhere suggest that this level of exposure in the wild could be associated with reduced fledgling mass, increased lethargy, decreased appetite, and, possibly, poor health and juvenile survival.

  10. [Size structure, gonadic development and diet of the fish Diapterus rhombeus (Gerreidae) in the Pom-Atasta fluvial-deltaic system, Campeche, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Aguirre-León, Arturo; Díaz-Ruiz, Silvia

    2006-06-01

    The fish Diapterus rhombeus was studied during an annual cycle from 1992 to 1993 in the fluvial-deltaic Pom-Atasta system associated with Terminos Lagoon, Campeche, Mexico. It is a dominant species in the system, based on its numeric abundance, weight, high frequency and wide distribution. A total of 745 individuals were obtained, with a weigth of 2 890.2 g and length ranging from 3.0 to 16.7 cm. The annual variation of the allometric coefficient b was from 2.71 to 3.345. The condition factor varied from 0.711 to 0.934. The statistical analysis shows significant differences (p < 0.05) between the seasons of the year and the habitats of the system for the weight, the longitude and the condition factor K, which reflects the space-temporal utilization of the system for the species. The population present at Pom-Atasta, consists mainly by juvenile and few preadults individuals in gonadal stages I, II, and III, and more females than males were recorded. This species utilizes the system as a nursery area, growth and feeding area. It has a varied trophic spectrum, and consumes at least eight different groups. Its principal food items are undetermined organic matter, foraminifers, ostracods and tanaidaceans. It is a first order consumer. The Pom-Atasta system is located in a zone of intense fishing and oil activity, so it is important to advance in the knowledge of its fishing resources.

  11. Free amino acids as indicators of nutritional status of silver bream (Vimba vimba), when using commercial and purified diets.

    PubMed

    Kwasek, Karolina; Zhang, Yongfang; Hliwa, Piotr; Gomułka, Piotr; Ostaszewska, Teresa; Dabrowski, Konrad

    2009-06-01

    Studies on larval rearing of silver bream (Vimba vimba), a migratory cyprinid fish have addressed on limited scale larval and juvenile rearing using commercial and semipurified diets along with live feeds, such as brine shrimp Artemia nauplii. The objectives of the present study were (1) to determine whether experimental, protein-, peptide-, free amino acid-based diets are adequate for larval silver bream, a stomachless fish, (2) to evaluate whether commercial and purified diets are comparable as the first/exclusive feed for growth and survival of silver bream, and (3) to examine whether free amino acid concentrations in fish body are potential indicators of availability of amino acid sources. We report here the differences in diets acceptance, fish growth and diet utilization in silver bream in comparison to other cyprinid fishes. We specifically address the response in free amino acids in the body to dietary treatments. Experimental diets included: a commercial Aglo Norse feed, casein-gelatin based diet (CG), free amino acid mixture diet (FAA), dipeptide (PP), dipeptide-protein (PP50) based diet, and dipeptide diet without arginine (NoArg). In addition, live Artemia were offered to 3 groups and "fasting" control treatment was included during 3 week long trial. Fish offered Artemia overperformed those offered formulated diets both in terms of mass (80.7+/-26.3 mg) and survival (97.2%). We also indicate that commercial and purified diets are comparable as the first/exclusive feed for growth and survival of silver bream. Our experiment also showed that the whole body free amino acid concentrations of 9 indispensable amino acids (IDAA) out of 10 (His, Thr, Arg, Val, Met, Ile, Leu, Trp, Lys) in the PP50 group was the highest among 7 diet treatments and the totalfree amino acid concentration, total dispensable amino acids (DAA) and total IDAA of the PP50 diet fed fish showed the same trend. This may indicate that diets based on 50% of dipeptides and 50% of protein are

  12. Sublethal toxicity of esbiothrin relationship with total antioxidant status and in vivo genotoxicity assessment in fish (Cyprinus carpio L., 1758) using the micronucleus test and comet assay.

    PubMed

    Selvi, Mahmut; Cavaş, Tolga; Cağlan Karasu Benli, A; Koçak Memmi, Burcu; Cinkılıç, Nilüfer; Dinçel, Aylin Sepici; Vatan, Ozgür; Yılmaz, Dilek; Sarıkaya, Rabia; Zorlu, Tolga; Erkoç, Figen

    2013-11-01

    Esbiothrin, synthetic pyrethroid with quick activity against insects, is widely used against household pests and in public health. Despite widespread use, data on ecotoxicity and genotoxic effects are extremely scarce. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the genotoxic potential of esbiothrin on a model fish species Cyprinus carpio L., 1758 (Pisces: Cyprinidae, koi) using the micronucleus test and comet assay in peripheral blood erythrocytes. Effects of two sublethal exposure concentrations on plasma total antioxidant status (TAS mmol/L), and Hct values were examined. On the basis of the 96 h LC50 data from U.S. EPA ecotox database (32 μg/L) two sublethal exposure concentrations (5 and 10 μg/L) were used together with ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) (5 mg/L) as positive control. Five fish were used for each dose/duration group (24, 48, and 72 h) under controlled laboratory conditions. The fish showed behavioral changes at the higher dose. Plasma TAS (mmol/L) levels decreased in 24 h; an increase was observed slightly for 48 and obviously for 72 h in both exposure doses. Similarly, hematocrit (Hct) values differed between exposure duration but no significant differences in mean values were found between groups of the same exposure time. The general trend was a rise after 48 h, which decreased afterwards. Our results revealed significant increases in the frequencies of micronuclei and levels of DNA strand breaks and thus demonstrated the genotoxic potential of this pesticide on fish, a nontarget organism of the aquatic ecosystem. To our knowledge this is the first study to report observable genotoxic effects of esbiothrin on fish.

  13. Effectiveness of Annealing Blocking Primers versus Restriction Enzymes for Characterization of Generalist Diets: Unexpected Prey Revealed in the Gut Contents of Two Coral Reef Fish Species

    PubMed Central

    Leray, Matthieu; Agudelo, Natalia; Mills, Suzanne C.; Meyer, Christopher P.

    2013-01-01

    Characterization of predator-prey interactions is challenging as researchers have to rely on indirect methods that can be costly, biased and too imprecise to elucidate the complexity of food webs. DNA amplification and sequencing techniques of gut and fecal contents are promising approaches, but their success largely depends on the ability to amplify the taxonomic array of prey consumed and then match prey amplicons with reference sequences. When little a priori information on diet is available or a generalist predator is targeted, versatile primer sets (also referred to as universal or general primers) as opposed to group- or species-specific primer sets are the most powerful to unveil the full range of prey consumed. However, versatile primers are likely to preferentially amplify the predominant, less degraded predator DNA if no manipulation is performed to exclude this confounding DNA template. In this study we compare two approaches that eliminate the confounding predator template: restriction digestion and the use of annealing blocking primers. First, we use a preliminary DNA barcode library provided by the Moorea BIOCODE project to 1) evaluate the cutting frequency of commercially available restriction enzymes and 2) design predator specific annealing blocking primers. We then compare the performance of the two predator removal strategies for the detection of prey templates using two versatile primer sets from the gut contents of two generalist coral reef fish species sampled in Moorea. Our study demonstrates that blocking primers should be preferentially used over restriction digestion for predator DNA removal as they recover greater prey diversity. We also emphasize that a combination of versatile primers may be required to best represent the breadth of a generalist's diet. PMID:23579925

  14. N-6 and N-3 PUFA in liver lipids, thromboxane formation and blood pressure from SHR during diets supplemented with evening primrose, sunflowerseed or fish oil.

    PubMed

    Singer, P; Berger, I; Moritz, V; Förster, D; Taube, C

    1990-03-01

    Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) after weaning (at 4 weeks of age) were fed diets supplemented with either sunflowerseed oil (SO), evening primrose oil (EPO), fish oil (FO) or EPO + FO (50%: 50%, v/v) for 22 weeks. A diet with commercially available pellets served as control. Systolic blood pressure was significantly lower in the dietary groups receiving FO, EPO and FO + EPO, the former being most effective. In liver triglycerides (TG) EPO resulted in a markedly increased percentage of linoleic acid (LA; C 18:2, n-6), alpha-linolenic acid (alpha-LNA; C 18:3, n-6) and especially of arachidonic acid (AA; C 20:4, n-6), whereas the long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; C 20:5, n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C 22:6 n-3), were depressed to undetectable and significantly lower levels, respectively. In liver phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) only slight changes of LA and AA were observed. Feeding of FO led to a significant rise of EPA and DHA in liver TG, PC and PE at the expense of n-6 PUFA (except LA in PC and PE). With a combination of both EPO and FO a significant increase of EPA and DHA, but on lower levels as compared to FO alone, was associated with a significant rise of LA, but with a slight decline of AA as compared to the control animals. Nevertheless, the levels of AA in the group fed EPO + FO were still higher than in the FO-group. In the SO-group the increase of LA was even higher when compared with the EPO-group.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Effects of olive and fish oil Ca soaps in ewe diets on milk fat and muscle and subcutaneous tissue fatty-acid profiles of suckling lambs.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, B; Gómez-Cortés, P; Mantecón, A R; Juárez, M; Manso, T; de la Fuente, M A

    2014-07-01

    Enhancing healthy fatty acids (FAs) in ewe milk fat and suckling lamb tissues is an important objective in terms of improving the nutritional value of these foods for the consumer. The present study examined the effects of feeding-protected lipid supplements rich in unsaturated FAs on the lipid composition of ewe milk, and subsequently in the muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissues of lambs suckling such milk. Thirty-six pregnant Churra ewes with their new-born lambs were assigned to one of three experimental diets (forage/concentrate ratio 50 : 50), each supplemented with either 3% Ca soap FAs of palm (Control), olive (OLI) or fish (FO) oil. The lambs were nourished exclusively by suckling for the whole experimental period. When the lambs reached 11 kg BW, they were slaughtered and samples were taken from the Longissimus dorsi and subcutaneous fat depots. Although milk production was not affected by lipid supplementation, the FO diet decreased fat content (P0.05) and other trans-FAs between Control and FO treatments would indicate that FO treatment does not alter rumen biohydrogenation pathways under the assayed conditions. Changes in dam milk FA composition induced differences in the FA profiles of meat and fat depots of lambs, preferentially incorporated polyunsaturated FAs into the muscle rather than storing them in the adipose tissue. In the intramuscular fat of the FO treatment, all the n-3 FAs reached their highest concentrations: 0.97 (18:3 n-3), 2.72 (20:5 n-3), 2.21 (22:5 n-3) and 1.53% (22:6 n-3). In addition, not only did FO intramuscular fat have the most cis-9, trans-11 18:2 (1.66%) and trans-11 18:1 (3.75%), but also the lowest n-6/n-3 ratio (1.80) and saturated FA content were not affected. Therefore, FO exhibited the best FA profile from a nutritional point of view.

  16. Wartime diet for growing bobwhite quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nestler, R.B.; Llewellyn, L.; Benner, M.

    1944-01-01

    -processed meal. At the end of ten weeks only 60 per cent of the quail survived and the average live weight was only 138 grams.....When the level of dried whey was raised to 5 per cent to provide a margin of safety against abnormal feather growth (resulting partly from riboflavin deficiency), the number of survivals was nearly as high as on the diet containing 14 per cent sardine meal, but the average live weight per bird was only 139 grams. The difference between this weight and that for the birds on Diet 11 (3% dried whey) was not statistically significant.....The general rating for the diet was as high as that for Diet 11, when ground wheat replaced ground millet in the diet containing 3 per cent dried whey. Survival of birds was 5 per cent-units lower, the average live weight was about the same, and efficiency of feed utilization was higher.....Using D-activated animal sterol as a source of vitamin D and yellow corn and a good grade of alfalfa leaf meal as sources of vitamin A, fish oils were omitted from the diets without causing symptons of avitaminosis. However because of the instability of vitamin A in storage, it is advisable to include sufficient fish oil, if obtainable, in quail diets to supply at least 2,000 I. U. of vitamin A per pound of feed on a total feed basis.

  17. Replacement of fish meal with black soldier fly meal in practical diets for Pacific whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shrimp account for 15 percent of the total value of internationally traded fishery products, and currently are the largest single aquaculture commodity in value terms. The Pacific whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) generated USD 11 billion from a production volume of 2.7 million metric tons (mm...

  18. Effects of dietary cholesterol supplementation on growth and cholesterol metabolism of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed diets with cottonseed meal or rapeseed meal.

    PubMed

    Deng, Junming; Zhang, Xi; Long, Xiaowen; Tao, Linli; Wang, Zhen; Niu, Guoyi; Kang, Bin

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of cholesterol on growth and cholesterol metabolism of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed diets with cottonseed meal (CSM) or rapeseed meal (RSM). Four experimental diets were formulated to contain 550 g kg(-1) CSM or 450 g kg(-1) RSM with or without 9 g kg(-1) supplemental cholesterol. Growth rate and feed utilization efficiency of fish fed diets with 450 g kg(-1) RSM were inferior to fish fed diets with 550 g kg(-1) CSM regardless of cholesterol level. Dietary cholesterol supplementation increased the growth rate of fish fed diets with RSM, and growth rate and feed utilization efficiency of fish fed diets with CSM. Similarly, dietary cholesterol supplementation increased the plasma total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triiodothyronine levels, but decreased the plasma triglycerides and cortisol levels of fish fed diets with RSM or CSM. In addition, supplemental cholesterol increased the free cholesterol and TC levels in intestinal contents, but decreased the hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase activity of fish fed diets with RSM or CSM. These results indicate that 9 g kg(-1) cholesterol supplementation seems to improve the growth of rainbow trout fed diets with CSM or RSM, and the growth-promoting action may be related to the alleviation of the negative effects caused by antinutritional factors and/or make up for the deficiency of endogenous cholesterol in rainbow trout.

  19. Mercury levels and estimated total daily intakes for children and adults from an electronic waste recycling area in Taizhou, China: Key role of rice and fish consumption.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wei; Cheng, Jinping; Zhao, Wenchang; Wang, Wenhua

    2015-08-01

    In order to assess the potential health risks of Hg pollution, total mercury (T-Hg) and methyl mercury (MeHg) concentrations were determined in air, dust, surface soil, crops, poultry, fish and human hair samples from an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling area in Taizhou, China. High concentrations of T-Hg and MeHg were found in these multiple matrices, and the mean concentration was 30.7 ng/m(3) of T-Hg for atmosphere samples, 3.1 μg/g of T-Hg for soil, 37.6 μg/g of T-Hg for dust, 20.3 ng/g of MeHg for rice and 178.1 ng/g of MeHg for fish, suggesting that the e-waste recycling facility was a significant source of Hg. The inorganic Hg (I-Hg) levels (0.84 μg/g) in hair samples of e-waste workers were much higher than that in the reference samples. Pearson's correlation coefficients showed that strong positive correlations (p<0.01) between hair I-Hg and time staying in industrial area (r=0.81) and between MeHg and fish consumption frequency (r=0.91), imply that workers were mainly exposed to Hg vapor through long-time inhalation of contaminated air and dust, while other population mainly exposed to MeHg through high-frequency fish consumption. The estimated daily intakes of Hg showed that dietary intake was the major Hg exposure source, and Hg intakes from rice and fish were significantly higher than from any other foods. The estimated total daily intakes (TDIs) of MeHg for both children (696.8 ng/(kg·day)) and adults (381.3 ng/(kg·day)) greatly exceeded the dietary reference dose (RfD) of 230 ng/(kg·day), implying greater health risk for humans from Hg exposures around e-waste recycling facilities.

  20. Inhibition of p38 MAPK during cellular activation modulate gene expression of head kidney leukocytes isolated from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fed soy bean oil or fish oil based diets.

    PubMed

    Holen, E; Winterthun, S; Du, Z-Y; Krøvel, A V

    2011-01-01

    Head kidney leukocytes isolated from Atlantic salmon fed either a diet based on fish oil (FO) or soy bean oil (VO) were used in order to evaluate if different lipid sources could contribute to cellular activation of the salmon innate immune system. A specific inhibitor of p38 MAPK, SB202190, was used to investigate the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) signalling in the head kidney leukocytes. The results show that LPS up regulate IL-1β, TNF-α, Cox2 expression in leukocytes isolated from fish fed either diet. The p38 MAPK inhibitor, SB202190, reduced the LPS induced expression of these genes in both dietary groups. In LPS stimulated leukocytes isolated from VO fed fish, SB202190 showed a clear dose dependent inhibitory effect on IL-1β, TNF-α and Cox2 expression. This effect was also observed for Cox2 in leukocytes isolated from FO fed fish. Furthermore, there was a stronger mean induction of Cox2 in LPS stimulated leucocytes isolated from the VO-group compared to LPS stimulated leukocytes isolated from the FO-group. In both dietary groups, LPS stimulation of salmon head kidney leukocytes increased the induction of CD83, a dendrite cell marker, while the inhibitor reduced CD83 expression in the VO fed fish only. The inhibitor also clearly reduced hsp27 expression in VO fed fish. Indicating a p38 MAPK feedback loop, LPS significantly inhibited the expression of p38MAPK itself in both diets, while SB202190 increased p38MAPK expression especially in the VO diet group. hsp70 expression was not affected by any treatment or feed composition. There were also differences in p38MAPK protein phosphorylation comparing treatment groups but no obvious difference comparing the two dietary groups. The results indicate that dietary fatty acids have the ability to modify signalling through p38 MAPK which may have consequences for the fish's ability to handle infections and stress. Signalling through p38MAPK is ligand dependent and affects gene and protein expression differently.

  1. The Hypolipidemic Effect of Total Saponins from Kuding Tea in High-Fat Diet-Induced Hyperlipidemic Mice and Its Composition Characterized by UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Song, Chengwu; Yu, Qingsong; Li, Xiaohua; Jin, Shuna; Li, Sen; Zhang, Yang; Jia, Shuailong; Chen, Cheng; Xiang, Yi; Jiang, Hongliang

    2016-05-01

    Kuding tea are used as a traditional tea material and widely consumed in China. In this study, total saponins (TS) from water extract of Kuding tea was prepared by D101 macroporous resins and analyzed by UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS. Then the hypolipidemic effect of TS extract was investigated in high-fat diet-induced hyperlipidemic mice. For comprehensive identification or characterization of saponins in TS extract, 3 major saponins of Kudinoside A, Kudinoside F, and Kudinoside D were isolated and used as standards to investigate the MS/MS fragmentation pattern. As a result, 52 saponins were identified or characterized in TS extract from Kuding tea. In addition, the increased levels of mice serum TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, and atherogenic index (AI) were significantly reduced after the treatment of TS extract. Also, the liver protective effect of TS extract was obviously judged from the photographs stained with oil red-O staining. Meanwhile, TS extract significantly upregulated the expression of hepatic scavenger receptors including SR-AI, SR-BI, and CD36. Therefore, it is reasonable to assume that the overexpression of hepatic scavenger receptors was involved in the hypolipidemic effect of Kuding tea on the high-fat diet-induced hyperlipidemic mice. The TS extract could influence these scavenger receptors, and this could be the potential mechanism of TS extract from Kuding tea in the treatment of lipid disorders. These results give the evidence that the saponins in Kuding tea could provide benefits in managing hypercholesterolemia and may be a good candidate for development as a functional food and nutraceutical.

  2. The calorically restricted low-fat nutrient-dense diet in Biosphere 2 significantly lowers blood glucose, total leukocyte count, cholesterol, and blood pressure in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Walford, R L; Harris, S B; Gunion, M W

    1992-01-01

    Biosphere 2 is a 3.15-acre space containing an ecosystem that is energetically open (sunlight, electric power, and heat) but materially closed, with air, water, and organic material being recycled. Since September 1991, eight subjects (four women and four men) have been sealed inside, living on food crops grown within. Their diet, low in calories (average, 1780 kcal/day; 1 kcal = 4.184 kJ), low in fat (10% of calories), and nutrient-dense, conforms to that which in numerous animal experiments has promoted health, retarded aging, and extended maximum life span. We report here medical data on the eight subjects, comparing preclosure data with data through 6 months of closure. Significant changes included: (i) weight, 74 to 62 kg (men) and 61 to 54 kg (women); (ii) mean systolic/diastolic blood pressure (eight subjects), 109/74 to 89/58 mmHg (1 mmHg = 133 Pa); (iii) total serum cholesterol, from 191 +/- 11 to 123 +/- 9 mg/dl (mean +/- SD; 36% mean reduction), and high density lipoprotein, from 62 +/- 8 to 38 +/- 5 (risk ratio unchanged); (iv) triglyceride, 139 to 96 mg/dl (men) and 78 to 114 mg/dl (women); (v) fasting glucose, 92 to 74 mg/dl; (vi) leukocyte count, 6.7 to 4.7 x 10(9) cells per liter. We conclude that drastic reductions in cholesterol and blood pressure may be instituted in normal individuals in Western countries by application of a carefully chosen diet and that a low-calorie nutrient-dense regime shows physiologic features in humans similar to those in other animal species. PMID:1454844

  3. Effect of varying levels of formaldehyde treatment of mustard oil cake on rumen fermentation, digestibility in wheat straw based total mixed diets in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Mahima; Kumar, Vinod; Tomar, S. K.; Roy, Debashis; Kumar, Muneendra

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the current study was to protect the protein in mustard cake by different levels of formaldehyde treatment with a view to optimize the level of formaldehyde. Materials and Methods: Different levels of formaldehyde treatment (0, 1, 1.5 and 2% of crude protein) containing concentrate and roughages diet in 40:60 ratio were tested for their effect on nutrients digestibility, in vitro ammonia release, in vitro gas production and change in protein fractions. Non-significant (p≤0.05) effect on pH, microbial biomass, partitioning factor, total gas production (TGP), TGP per g dry matter and TGP per g digestible dry matter (ml/g) was observed in almost all the treatments. Results: Total volatile fatty acids at 2% formaldehyde treatment level of mustard cake was lower (p<0.05) as compared to other groups, while in vitro dry matter digestibility and in vitro organic matter digestibility were reported to be low in 1% formaldehyde treated group. Conclusion: On a holistic view, it could be considered that formaldehyde treatment at 1.5% level was optimal for protection of mustard oil cake protein. PMID:27047133

  4. Comparative contribution of trophic transfer and biotransformation on arsenobetaine bioaccumulation in two marine fish.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Guo, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Yanyan; Chen, Lizhao; Zhang, Li

    2016-10-01

    Marine fish can accumulate high arsenic (As) concentrations, with arsenobetaine (AsB) as the major species in the body. However, whether the high AsB accumulation in fish occurs mainly through trophic transfer from diet or biotransformation in the fish body remains unclear. This study investigated the trophic transfer and biotransformation of As in two marine fish (seabream Acanthopagrus schlegeli and grunt Terapon jarbua) fed artificial and clam diets for 28 d. The different diets contained different proportions of inorganic [As(III) and As(V)] and organic [methylarsenate (MMA), dimethylarsenate (DMA), and AsB] As compounds. Positive correlations were observed between the accumulated As concentrations and AsB concentrations in both fish, suggesting that AsB contributed to the accumulation of total As in marine fish. Based on the calculated total input of AsB and detected AsB concentrations in the muscle of the seabream and grunt, the ingested amounts of AsB accounted for 0.1-0.3%, 8.1-14.4% of detected AsB concentrations, respectively, in the muscle of seabream and grunt fish species, suggesting that AsB was mainly biotransformed versus trophically transferred in these marine fish. In summary, this study demonstrates that marine fish prefer to biotransform inorganic As forms into AsB, resulting in high bioaccumulation of total As.

  5. Mediterranean diet in healthy lifestyle and prevention of stroke.

    PubMed

    Demarin, Vida; Lisak, Marijana; Morović, Sandra

    2011-03-01

    Several studies demonstrated the beneficial and preventive role of Mediterranean diet in the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases, chronic neurodegenerative diseases and neoplasms, obesity and diabetes. In randomized intervention trials, Mediterranean diet improved endothelial function and significantly reduced waist circumference, plasma glucose, serum insulin and homeostasis model assessment score in metabolic syndrome. Several studies support favorable effects of Mediterranean diet on plasma lipid profile: reduction of total and plasma LDL cholesterol levels, plasma triglyceride levels, and apo-B and VLDL concentrations, and an increase in plasma HDL cholesterol levels. This effect is associated with increased plasma antioxidant capacity, improved endothelial function, reduced insulin resistance, and reduced incidence of the metabolic syndrome. The beneficial impact of fish consumption on the risk of cardiovascular diseases is the result of synergistic effects of nutrients in fish. Fish is considered an excellent source of protein with low saturated fat, nutritious trace elements, long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn3PUFAs), and vitamins D and B. Fish consumption may be inversely associated with ischemic stroke but not with hemorrhagic stroke because of the potential antiplatelet aggregation property of LCn3PUFAs. Total stroke risk reduction was statistically significant for fish intake once per week, while the risk of stroke was lowered by 31% in individuals who ate fish 5 times or more per week. In the elderly, moderate consumption of tuna/other fish, but not fried fish, was associated with lower prevalence of subclinical infarcts and white matter abnormalities on MRI examination. Dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids in a moderate-to-high range does not appear to be associated with reduced plaque, but is negatively associated with carotid artery intima-media thickness. Greater adherence to Mediterranean diet is associated with significant

  6. Diets Based on Virgin Olive Oil or Fish Oil but Not on Sunflower Oil Prevent Age-Related Alveolar Bone Resorption by Mitochondrial-Related Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Bullon, Pedro; Battino, Maurizio; Varela-Lopez, Alfonso; Perez-Lopez, Patricia; Granados-Principal, Sergio; Ramirez-Tortosa, Maria C.; Ochoa, Julio J.; Cordero, Mario D.; Gonzalez-Alonso, Adrian; Ramirez-Tortosa, César L.; Rubini, Corrado; Zizzi, Antonio; Quiles, José L.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Objectives Aging enhances frequency of chronic diseases like cardiovascular diseases or periodontitis. Here we reproduced an age-dependent model of the periodontium, a fully physiological approach to periodontal conditions, to evaluate the impact of dietary fat type on gingival tissue of young (6 months old) and old (24 months old) rats. Methods/Findings Animals were fed life-long on diets based on monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) as virgin olive oil, n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6PUFA), as sunflower oil, or n-3PUFA, as fish oil. Age-related alveolar bone loss was higher in n-6PUFA fed rats, probably as a consequence of the ablation of the cell capacity to adapt to aging. Gene expression analysis suggests that MUFA or n-3PUFA allowed mitochondria to maintain an adequate turnover through induction of biogenesis, autophagy and the antioxidant systems, and avoiding mitochondrial electron transport system alterations. Conclusions The main finding is that the enhanced alveolar bone loss associated to age may be targeted by an appropriate dietary treatment. The mechanisms involved in this phenomenon are related with an ablation of the cell capacity to adapt to aging. Thus, MUFA or n-3PUFA might allow mitochondrial maintaining turnover through biogenesis or autophagy. They might also be able to induce the corresponding antioxidant systems to counteract age-related oxidative stress, and do not inhibit mitochondrial electron transport chain. From the nutritional and clinical point of view, it is noteworthy that the potential treatments to attenuate alveolar bone loss (a feature of periodontal disease) associated to age could be similar to some of the proposed for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, a group of pathologies recently associated with age-related periodontitis. PMID:24066124

  7. TDS exposure project: application of the analytic hierarchy process for the prioritization of substances to be analyzed in a total diet study.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, A; Sioen, I; Cubadda, F; Ozer, H; Basegmez, H I Oktay; Turrini, A; Lopez Esteban, M T; Fernandez San Juan, P M; Sokolić-Mihalak, D; Jurkovic, M; De Henauw, S; Aureli, F; Vin, K; Sirot, V

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this article is to develop a general method based on the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) methodology to rank the substances to be studied in a Total Diet Studies (TDS). This method was tested for different substances and groups of substances (N = 113), for which the TDS approach has been considered relevant. This work was performed by a group of 7 experts from different European countries representing their institutes, which are involved in the TDS EXPOSURE project. The AHP methodology is based on a score system taking into account experts' judgments quantified assigning comparative scores to the different identified issues. Hence, the 10 substances of highest interest in the framework of a TDS are trace elements (methylmercury, cadmium, inorganic arsenic, lead, aluminum, inorganic mercury), dioxins, furans and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and some additives (sulfites and nitrites). The priority list depends on both the national situation (geographical variations, consumer concern, etc.) and the availability of data. Thus, the list depends on the objectives of the TDS and on reachable analytical performances. Moreover, such a list is highly variable with time and new data (e.g. social context, vulnerable population groups, emerging substances, new toxicological data or health-based guidance values).

  8. Bisphenol A and nonylphenol in foodstuffs: Chinese dietary exposure from the 2007 total diet study and infant health risk from formulas.

    PubMed

    Niu, Yumin; Zhang, Jing; Duan, Hejun; Wu, Yongning; Shao, Bing

    2015-01-15

    Concentrations of bisphenol A (BPA) and nonylphenol (NP) were measured in food samples from the 2007 Chinese total diet study (TDS). BPA and NP were detected in 72 and 143 of 144 TDS samples, respectively, with concentrations ranging from 20 ng/kg to 267 μg/kg and 30 ng/kg to 1,268 μg/kg, respectively. BPA was highest in Hebei (HB) province for most food groups. NP was much higher in milk than in other foods across all the provinces. Mean exposures to BPA and NP were estimated to be 43 ng/kg bw/day and 520 ng/kg bw/day for a Chinese adult, respectively, well below the tolerable daily intake (TDI). Mean exposure to NP from formula for infants aged 0-6 years ranged from 300 ng/kg bw/day to 17 μg/kg bw/day. For infants aged 0-1 year, intakes ranged from 5 to 17 μg/kg bw/day, which is above the TDI.

  9. Exposure assessment within a Total Diet Study: a comparison of the use of the pan-European classification system FoodEx-1 with national food classification systems.

    PubMed

    Akhandaf, Y; Van Klaveren, J; De Henauw, S; Van Donkersgoed, G; Van Gorcum, T; Papadopoulos, A; Sirot, V; Kennedy, M; Pinchen, H; Ruprich, J; Rehurkova, I; Perelló, G; Sioen, I

    2015-04-01

    A Total Diet Study (TDS) consists of selecting, collecting and preparing commonly consumed foods purchased at retail level and analysing them for harmful and/or beneficial chemical substances. A food classification system is needed to link food consumption data with the contaminant concentration data obtained in the TDS for the exposure assessment. In this study a comparison was made between the use of a national food classification systems and the use of FoodEx-1, developed and recommended by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). The work was performed using data of six European countries: Belgium, Czech Republic, France, The Netherlands, Spain and the UK. For each population, exposure to contaminant A (organic compounds) and/or contaminant B (inorganic compound) was assessed by the Monte Carlo Risk Assessment (MCRA) software using the national classification system and FoodEx-1 for food consumption data and for TDS laboratory results. Minimal differences between both approaches were observed. This observation applied for both contaminant A and contaminant B. In general risk assessment will be similar for both approaches; however, this is not guaranteed. FoodEx-1 proved to be a valuable hierarchic classification system in order to harmonise exposure assessment based on existing TDS results throughout Europe.

  10. Higher fish but lower micronutrient intakes: Temporal changes in fish consumption from capture fisheries and aquaculture in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Bogard, Jessica R; Farook, Sami; Marks, Geoffrey C; Waid, Jillian; Belton, Ben; Ali, Masum; Toufique, Kazi; Mamun, Abdulla; Thilsted, Shakuntala H

    2017-01-01

    Malnutrition is one of the biggest challenges of the 21st century, with one in three people in the world malnourished, combined with poor diets being the leading cause of the global burden of disease. Fish is an under-recognised and undervalued source of micronutrients, which could play a more significant role in addressing this global challenge. With rising pressures on capture fisheries, demand is increasingly being met from aquaculture. However, aquaculture systems are designed to maximise productivity, with little consideration for nutritional quality of fish produced. A global shift away from diverse capture species towards consumption of few farmed species, has implications for diet quality that are yet to be fully explored. Bangladesh provides a useful case study of this transition, as fish is the most important animal-source food in diets, and is increasingly supplied from aquaculture. We conducted a temporal analysis of fish consumption and nutrient intakes from fish in Bangladesh, using nationally representative household expenditure surveys from 1991, 2000 and 2010 (n = 25,425 households), combined with detailed species-level nutrient composition data. Fish consumption increased by 30% from 1991-2010. Consumption of non-farmed species declined by 33% over this period, compensated (in terms of quantity) by large increases in consumption of farmed species. Despite increased total fish consumption, there were significant decreases in iron and calcium intakes from fish (P<0.01); and no significant change in intakes of zinc, vitamin A and vitamin B12 from fish, reflecting lower overall nutritional quality of fish available for consumption over time. Our results challenge the conventional narrative that increases in food supply lead to improvements in diet and nutrition. As aquaculture becomes an increasingly important food source, it must embrace a nutrition-sensitive approach, moving beyond maximising productivity to also consider nutritional quality. Doing

  11. Effect of Phytase on Apparent Total Tract Digestibility of Phosphorus in Corn-Soybean Meal Diets Fed to 100 kg Pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five experiments were conducted to investigate the ability of different sources of phytase supplemented to the diet at graded levels to improve apparent P digestibility in finishing pigs. A corn-soybean meal basal diet containing 0.50% Ca and 0.32% P (0.06% available P) was used in all experiments a...

  12. Update on dietary intake of perchlorate and iodine from U.S. food and drug administration's total diet study: 2008-2012.

    PubMed

    Abt, Eileen; Spungen, Judith; Pouillot, Régis; Gamalo-Siebers, Margaret; Wirtz, Mark

    2016-12-21

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Total Diet Study (TDS) monitors the US food supply for pesticide residues, industrial chemicals, radionuclides, nutrients, and toxic elements. Perchlorate and iodine intakes based on concentrations in TDS samples collected between 2008 and 2012 were estimated in order to update an earlier TDS dietary assessment. Perchlorate is used as an oxidizing agent in rocket and missile fuel, is formed naturally in the atmosphere, and occurs naturally in some soils. Because of perchlorate's presence in soil, and in irrigation, processing, and source water, it is widely found in food. Iodine was included in the study because perchlorate at high doses interferes with iodide uptake in the thyroid. Iodine (the elemental form of iodide) is essential for growth and development, and metabolism. This study uses a novel statistical method based on a clustered zero-inflated lognormal distribution model to estimate mean and 95(th) percentile confidence interval concentrations for perchlorate and iodine in US foods. These estimates were used to estimate mean perchlorate and iodine exposures for the total US population and for 14 age/sex groups in the US population. Estimated mean perchlorate intake for the total US population was 0.13 μg/kg bw/day, with mean intakes for the 14 age/sex groups between 0.09 and 0.43 μg/kg bw/day. The estimated mean intakes of perchlorate for all age/sex groups were below EPA's reference dose (RfD) of 0.7 μg/kg bw/day. The estimated mean iodine intake for the total US population was 216.4 μg/person/day, with mean intakes ranging from 140.9 to 296.3 μg/person/day for the 14 age/sex groups, with all age/sex groups exceeding their respective estimated average requirements (EARs).Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 21 December 2016; doi:10.1038/jes.2016.78.

  13. Effects of feed access after hatch and inclusion of fish oil and medium chain fatty acids in a pre-starter diet on broiler chicken growth performance and humoral immunity.

    PubMed

    Lamot, D M; van der Klein, S A S; van de Linde, I B; Wijtten, P J A; Kemp, B; van den Brand, H; Lammers, A

    2016-09-01

    Delayed feed and water access is known to impair growth performance of day old broiler chickens. Although effects of feed access on growth performance and immune function of broilers have been examined before, effects of dietary composition and its potential interaction with feed access are hardly investigated. This experiment aimed to determine whether moment of first feed and water access after hatch and pre-starter composition (0 to 7 days) affect growth rate and humoral immune function in broiler chickens. Direct fed chickens received feed and water directly after placement in the grow-out facility, whilst delayed fed chickens only after 48 h. Direct and delayed fed chickens received a control pre-starter diet, or a diet containing medium chain fatty acids (MCFA) or fish oil. At 21 days, chickens were immunized by injection of sheep red blood cells. The mortality rate depended on an interaction between feed access and pre-starter composition (P=0.014). Chickens with direct feed access fed the control pre-starter diet had a higher risk for mortality than chickens with delayed feed access fed the control pre-starter diet (16.4% v. 4.2%) whereas the other treatment groups were in-between. BW gain and feed intake till 25 days in direct fed chickens were higher compared with delayed fed chickens, whilst gain to feed ratio was lower. Within the direct fed chickens, the control pre-starter diet resulted in the highest BW at 28 days and the MCFA pre-starter diet the lowest (Δ=2.4%), whereas this was opposite for delayed fed chickens (Δ=3.0%; P=0.033). Provision of MCFA resulted in a 4.6% higher BW gain and a higher gain to feed ratio compared with other pre-starter diets, but only during the period it was provided (2 to 7 days). Minor treatment effects were found for humoral immune response by measuring immunoglobulins, agglutination titers, interferon gamma (IFN- γ ), and complement activity. Concluding, current inclusion levels of fish oil (5 g/kg) and MCFA (30 g

  14. Trophic connections in Lake Superior Part I: the offshore fish community

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gamble, A.E.; Hrabik, T.R.; Stockwell, J.D.; Yule, D.L.

    2011-01-01

    Detailed diet linkages within the offshore (> 80 m bathymetric depth) food web of Lake Superior are currently not well identified. We used analyses of fish stomach contents to create an empirically based food web model of the Lake Superior offshore fish community. Stomachs were collected seasonally (spring, summer, and fall) from nine offshore locations in 2005, using bottom and midwater trawls. In total, 2643 stomachs representing 12 fish species were examined. The predominant fish species collected were deepwater sculpin (Myoxocephalus thompsonii), siscowet (Salvelinus namaycush siscowet), kiyi (Coregonus kiyi), and cisco (Coregonus artedi). Mysis diluviana was the most common prey item, indicating that changes in Mysis abundance could have a profound impact on the entire offshore food web. Mysis was the primary diet item of deepwater sculpin (≥ 53% by mass) and kiyi (≥ 96% by mass) regardless of depth or season. The invasive Bythotrephes was an important diet component of the pelagic cisco in summer and fall. Deepwater sculpin were the primary diet item of siscowet (≥ 52% by mass), with coregonines appearing in the diet of larger (> 400 mm) siscowet. Non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis indicated that there were no statistically significant seasonal or site-specific differences in diets of deepwater sculpin, cisco, or kiyi. Site was the primary structuring factor in siscowet diets. Generally, in Lake Superior, the diet items of the dominant offshore species did not appear to be in danger from those types of major ecological shifts occurring in the lower Laurentian Great Lakes.

  15. Analysis of Total Food Intake and Composition of Individual's Diet Based on the U.S. Department of Agriculture's 1994-96, 1998 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA released the final report, Analysis of Total Food Intake and Composition of Individual’s Diet Based on USDA’s 1994-1996, 98 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII). The consumption of food by the general population is a significant route of potential ...

  16. Apparent total tract energy and macronutrient digestibility of one- to three-day-old, adult ground, extruded, and canned chicken-based diets in domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus).

    PubMed

    Kerr, K R; Morris, C L; Burke, S L; Swanson, K S

    2014-08-01

    There has been a recent increase in the popularity of feeding unconventional diets, including whole prey diets, to domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus). Data are needed that allow animal caretakers to choose and formulate diets that meet the nutritional requirements of their cats. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of feeding 1- to 3-d-old whole chicks (WHO), ground adult chicken product (GRO), a chicken-based canned diet (CAN), and a chicken-based extruded diet (EXT) on apparent total tract energy and macronutrient digestibility, N balance, and blood metabolites of domestic cats (n = 11). Macronutrient, energy, and moisture concentrations of diets varied greatly (e.g., CP: 35 to 72% DM); however, cats fed all diets maintained BW and N balance. In general, cats fed WHO had lower nutrient digestibility than those fed CAN and EXT. Cats fed GRO had greater nutrient digestibility than cats fed commercial diets. For example, apparent OM and GE digestibility coefficients were greater (P ≤ 0.05) for cats fed CAN (86 and 88%, respectively), EXT (88 and 88%), and GRO (94 and 95%) compared with those fed WHO (83 and 83%) and greater (P ≤ 0.05) for cats fed GRO compared with those fed CAN and EXT. Many blood metabolites were modified by diet, but most remained within reference ranges for domestic cats. Serum cholesterol was elevated above the reference range for all treatments and greater (P ≤ 0.05) for cats fed WHO compared with those fed CAN, EXT, and GRO. Serum creatinine concentrations were above the reference range for all treatments and greater (P ≤ 0.05) for cats fed GRO compared with those fed CAN or WHO. These data indicate that the whole prey tested herein maintained short-term health and are adequately digestible for use in companion animal diets. Research is needed to determine the global and long-term health implications of feeding whole or ground diets to domestic cats, which may be different in terms of macronutrient, energy, and moisture

  17. Effect of urea inclusion in diets containing corn dried distillers grains on feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, ruminal fermentation, total tract digestibility, and purine derivatives-to-creatinine index.

    PubMed

    Ceconi, I; Ruiz-Moreno, M J; DiLorenzo, N; DiCostanzo, A; Crawford, G I

    2015-01-01

    Increased availability of rapidly fermentable carbohydrates and a great proportion of corn-derived CP in the diet may result in a degradable intake protein (DIP) deficit. Therefore, ruminal DIP deficit may result from high dietary inclusion of processed corn grain and small to moderate inclusion of corn distillers grains (DG). Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of increasing dietary DIP concentration through the inclusion of urea on feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, ruminal fermentation, total tract digestibility, and purine derivatives-to-creatinine (PDC) index. In Exp. 1, 42 steers (428 ± 5 kg initial BW) were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 diets containing (DM basis) 0 (control [CON]), 0.4 (low urea [LU]), or 0.6% urea (high urea [HU]) to provide 6.4, 7.5, or 8.0% dietary DIP, respectively, and 12% high-moisture corn (HMC), 20% corn dried DG with solubles (DDGS), 10% ryegrass haylage, 2.9% dry supplement, and dry-rolled corn (DRC). Steers were fed ad libitum once daily using a Calan gate system. Carcass-adjusted final BW and DMI were similar among treatments (P ≥ 0.58). Carcass-adjusted ADG was greater (P ≤ 0.04) for the HU diet compared with the LU and CON diets and was similar (P = 0.73) between the LU and CON diets. Carcass-adjusted G:F was greater (P = 0.03) for the HU diet compared with the LU diet, tended (P = 0.09) to be greater compared with the CON diet, and was similar (P = 0.61) between the LU and CON diets. Carcass characteristics were similar (P ≥ 0.34) among treatments. In Exp. 2, 4 ruminally cannulated steers (347 ± 18 kg initial BW) were randomly assigned to a replicated 2 × 2 Latin square design. Steers were fed the same CON or HU diet used in Exp. 1 ad libitum once daily. Differences in the PDC index were used as indicators of differences in microbial CP synthesis. Ruminal pH, OM intake, and starch and CP digestibility were not affected by treatment (P ≥ 0.13). Digestibility of OM and NDF and

  18. Spanish Ketogenic Mediterranean diet: a healthy cardiovascular diet for weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Guisado, Joaquín; Muñoz-Serrano, Andrés; Alonso-Moraga, Ángeles

    2008-01-01

    Background Ketogenic diets are an effective healthy way of losing weight since they promote a non-atherogenic lipid profile, lower blood pressure and decrease resistance to insulin with an improvement in blood levels of glucose and insulin. On the other hand, Mediterranean diet is well known to be one of the healthiest diets, being the basic ingredients of such diet the olive oil, red wine and vegetables. In Spain the fish is an important component of such diet. The objective of this study was to determine the dietary effects of a protein ketogenic diet rich in olive oil, salad, fish and red wine. Methods A prospective study was carried out in 31 obese subjects (22 male and 19 female) with the inclusion criteria whose body mass index and age was 36.46 ± 2.22 and 38.48 ± 2.27, respectively. This Ketogenic diet was called "Spanish Ketogenic Mediterranean Diet" (SKMD) due to the incorporation of virgin olive oil as the principal source of fat (≥30 ml/day), moderate red wine intake (200–400 ml/day), green vegetables and salads as the main source of carbohydrates and fish as the main source of proteins. It was an unlimited calorie diet. Statistical differences between the parameters studied before and after the administration of the "Spanish Ketogenic Mediterranean diet" (week 0 and 12) were analyzed by paired Student's t test. Results There was an extremely significant (p < 0.0001) reduction in body weight (108.62 kg→ 94.48 kg), body mass index (36.46 kg/m2→31.76 kg/m2), systolic blood pressure (125.71 mmHg→109.05 mmHg), diastolic blood pressure (84.52 mmHg→ 75.24 mmHg), total cholesterol (208.24 mg/dl→186.62 mg/dl), triacylglicerols (218.67 mg/dl→113.90 mg/dl) and glucose (109.81 mg/dl→ 93.33 mg/dl). There was a significant (p = 0.0167) reduction in LDLc (114.52 mg/dl→105.95 mg/dl) and an extremely significant increase in HDLc (50.10 mg/dl→54.57 mg/dl). The most affected parameter was the triacylglicerols (47.91% of reduction). Conclusion The

  19. Sodium diformate and extrusion temperature affect nutrient digestibility and physical quality of diets with fish meal and barley protein concentrate for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of the experiment were to evaluate the effects of ingredient, extrusion temperature, and the acid salt sodium diformate (NaDF) in diets for rainbow trout on apparent nutrient digestibility and physical quality of the diets. The experiment was arranged in a 23 factorial design with two...

  20. A Preliminary Estimate of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Water and Some Commercially Important Fish Species in the Amba Estuary, West Coast of India.

    PubMed

    Nageswar Rao, M; Ram, Anirudh; Rokade, M A; Raja, P; Rakesh, P S; Chemburkar, Parul; Gajbhiye, S N

    2016-07-01

    Amba Estuary, which receives effluent from several industries including a petrochemical complex, opens to the southern limits of the Mumbai Harbor. The study was conducted to find out the level of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPHs) in water and their bioconcentration in ten commercially important fishes from Amba Estuary during different months. In water high concentration of TPHs (39.7 μg/L) was obtained during December (middle of estuary) and minimum value (7.2 μg/L) was observed in September (lower estuarine). The maximum concentration of TPHs was found to be in Trichiurus savala (3.2 µg/g) during December and minimum in Boleophthalmus sp (0.4 µg/g) during May. Irrespective of the monthly variations, TPHs accumulation in all the species was considerably lower than hazardous levels. Although there was no statistical significance between TPHs and total length/weight, the T. savala recording maximum concentration during all months and it can be used as indicator of hydrocarbon pollution in this region.

  1. Fish oil supplementation maintains adequate plasma arachidonate in cats, but similar amounts of vegetable oils lead to dietary arachidonate deficiency from nutrient dilution.

    PubMed

    Angell, Rebecca J; McClure, Melena K; Bigley, Karen E; Bauer, John E

    2012-05-01

    Because fatty acid (FA) metabolism of cats is unique, effects of dietary fish and vegetable oil supplementation on plasma lipids, lipoproteins, lecithin/cholesterol acyl transferase activities, and plasma phospholipid and esterified cholesterol (EC) FAs were investigated. Cats were fed a commercial diet supplemented with 8 g oil/100 g diet for 4 weeks using either high-oleic-acid sunflower oil (diet H), Menhaden fish oil (diet M), or safflower oil (diet S). When supplemented, diet M contained sufficient arachidonate (AA), but diets H and S were deficient. We hypothesized that diet M would modify plasma lipid metabolism, increase FA long-chain n-3 (LCn-3) FA content but not deplete AA levels. Also, diet S would show linoleic acid (LA) accumulation without conversion to AA, and both vegetable oil supplements would dilute dietary AA content when fed to meet cats' energy needs. Plasma samples on weeks 0, 2, and 4 showed no alterations in total cholesterol or nonesterified FA concentrations. Unesterified cholesterol decreased and EC increased in all groups, whereas lecithin/cholesterol acyl transferase activities were unchanged. Diet M showed significant triacylglycerol lowering and decreased pre-β-lipoprotein cholesterol. Plasma phospholipid FA profiles revealed significant enrichment of 18:1n-9 with diet H, LA and 20:2n-6 with diet S, and FA LCn-3FA with diet M. Depletion of AA was observed with diets H and S but not with diet M. Diet M EC FA profiles revealed specificities for LA and 20:5n-3 but not 22:5n-3 or 22:6n-3. Oversupplementation of some commercial diets with vegetable oils causes AA depletion in young cats due to dietary dilution. Findings are consistent with the current recommendations for at least 0.2 g AA/kg diet and that fish oil supplements provide both preformed LCn-3 polyunsaturated FA and AA.

  2. Lowering the dietary calcium to total phosphorus ratio increases phosphorus utilization in low-phosphorus corn-soybean meal diets supplemented with microbial phytase for growing-finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Liu, J; Bollinger, D W; Ledoux, D R; Veum, T L

    1998-03-01

    Crossbred growing-finishing pigs (n = 120) were used to investigate the effect of three dietary Ca:total P (tP) ratios (1.5:1, 1.3:1, or 1.0:1) on P utilization in low-P corn-soybean meal diets supplemented with microbial phytase at 500 phytase units/kg. The basal grower (23 to 54 kg BW) diet contained .39% tP including .07% added inorganic P (iP), and the basal finisher (54 to 123 kg BW) diet contained .32% tP without added iP. An adequate-P positive control diet without phytase supplementation contained .60% Ca and .50% tP during the growing phase and .50% Ca and .40% tP during the finishing phase. Lowering the Ca:tP ratio linearly increased ADG during the growing phase (P < .03) and overall (P < .08), gain:feed ratio during the growing phase (P < .001), and P absorption during the finishing phase (P < .04). Lowering the Ca:tP ratio linearly increased BW at slaughter (P < .02), carcass weight (P < .04), bone breaking strength (P < .04), and bone ash weight (P < .06), whereas dressing percentage and backfat depth remained unchanged. In conclusion, pig performance and P utilization were increased by lowering the Ca:tP ratio from 1.5:1 to 1.0:1 in low-P corn-soybean meal diets supplemented with microbial phytase.

  3. Ontogenic and spatial patterns in diet and growth of lake trout in Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; DeSorcie, Timothy J.; Stedman, Ralph M.

    1998-01-01

    Lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in nearshore waters of Lake Michigan grow faster than lake trout residing offshore on Sheboygan Reef, which is in midlake. We examined the stomachs of lake trout, spanning ages 1 through 16, caught in both nearshore and offshore environments of Lake Michigan during 1994 and 1995 to determine whether diet differences may be responsible for the difference in growth rate. A comparison of the diets, coupled with bioenergetics modeling, indicated that juvenile lake trout on Sheboygan Reef experienced slow growth due to low food availability rather than to cold water temperatures. The availability of appropriate-size prey appeared to regulate lake trout growth. Small prey fish were probably not readily available to small (200- to 399-mm total length) lake trout on Sheboygan Reef, a substantial portion of whose diet consisted of invertebrates; in contrast, nearshore juveniles had a nearly 100% fish diet. Growth rate on the reef remained slow through intermediate lake trout sizes (400-599 mm total length), presumably due to low availability of rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax on the reef. Once lake trout achieved total lengths of approximately 600 mm, they grew slightly faster on Sheboygan Reef than near shore, indicating that large (>170-mm total length) prey fish were readily available to lake trout in the reef area. On a wet-weight basis, alewife Alosa pseudoharengus dominated the diet of large (a?Y 600 mm total length) lake trout from both the nearshore and offshore regions of the lake, although bloater Coregonus hoyi composed over 30% of the diet on Sheboygan Reef and in southeastern nearshore Lake Michigan. Size of alewife prey increased with lake trout size. The bloater population currently represents the bulk of the biomass of the adult prey fish community, so our diet analysis suggests that large lake trout are continuing to select alewives.

  4. Selection of diet for culture of juvenile silver pomfret, Pampus argenteus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Shiming; Shi, Zhaohong; Yin, Fei; Sun, Peng; Wang, Jiangang

    2012-03-01

    Juvenile silver pomfret, Pampus argenteus, was grown in culture tanks for 9 weeks on four different diets, and their effects on fish growth, digestive enzyme activity, and body composition were assessed. The feeding regime was as follows: Diet 1: fish meat; Diet 2: fish meat+artificial feed; Diet 3: fish meat+artificial feed+Agamaki clam meat; Diet 4: fish meat+artificial feed+Agamaki clam+copepods. The greatest weight gain was associated with Diet 4, while the lowest weight gain was associated with Diet 1. No significant difference was observed in weight gain between fish receiving Diet 2 and Diet 3. Specific growth rate followed similar trends as weight gain. The feed conversion ratio (FCR) of fish fed Diet 1 was significantly higher than the other fish groups, but no significant differences were observed in FCRs of fish fed Diet 2, Diet 3 or Diet 4. There was also no significant difference in the hepatosomatic index (HSI) between the four diets. For fish that received Diets 2-4, containing artificial feed, higher protease activities were detected. A higher lipid content of the experimental diets also significantly increased lipase activities and body lipid content. No significant differences in amylase activity or body protein content were found between Diets 1-4. In conclusion, a variety of food components, including copepods and artificial feed, in the diet of silver pomfret significantly increased digestive enzyme activity and could improve growth performance.

  5. Bland diet

    MedlinePlus

    Heartburn - bland diet; Nausea - bland diet; Diarrhea - bland diet; Peptic ulcer - bland diet ... changes to help treat ulcers, heartburn, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and gas. You may also need a bland ...

  6. Diet of mid-Atlantic Sowerby's beaked whales Mesoplondon bidens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, J. N.; Neves, V. C.; Prieto, R.; Silva, M. A.; Cascão, I.; Oliveira, C.; Cruz, M. J.; Medeiros, J. V.; Barreiros, J. P.; Porteiro, F. M.; Clarke, D.

    2011-11-01

    The first mid-Atlantic diet of Mesoplodon beaked whales is presented, from ten Sowerby's Mesoplodon bidens stranded in the Azores region between 2002 and 2009. This doubles the worldwide number of stomachs sampled, and reveals new feeding habits for this species. The mean number of prey items per stomach was 85±89 (range: 12-238), with fish accounting for 99.3% and cephalopods contributing less than 1% of total prey. Fish otoliths from 15 families and cephalopod lower mandibles from three families were identified, representing 22 taxa. The diet consisted mainly of small mid-water fish, the most numerous being Diaphus sp., Lampanyctus sp. and Melamphaidae species. Myctophids were present in all stranded individuals, followed by Diretmidae, Melamphaidae and Opisthoproctus soleatus, while the remaining fish species were scarce or single occurrences. Consistency of diet in four different years reveals a divergence from all previous records in continental areas, where mainly neritic and shelf-break benthopelagic fish species have been reported. Mid-Atlantic Sowerby's beaked whales' showed dietary plasticity, feeding on the most abundant mid-water groups occurring between 0 and750 m. Trophic level from prey numerical frequency was estimated at 4.4±0.46.

  7. High levels of vegetable oils in plant protein-rich diets fed to gilthead sea bream ( Sparus aurata L.): growth performance, muscle fatty acid profiles and histological alterations of target tissues.

    PubMed

    Benedito-Palos, Laura; Navarro, Juan C; Sitjà-Bobadilla, Ariadna; Bell, J Gordon; Kaushik, Sadasivam; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume

    2008-11-01

    The feasibility of fish oil (FO) replacement by vegetable oils (VO) was investigated in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) in a growth trial conducted for the duration of 8 months. Four isolipidic and isoproteic diets rich in plant proteins were supplemented with L-lysine (0.55 %) and soya lecithin (1 %). Added oil was either FO (control) or a blend of VO, replacing 33 % (33VO diet), 66 % (66VO diet) and 100 % (VO diet) of FO. No detrimental effects on growth performance were found with the partial FO replacement, but feed intake and growth rates were reduced by about 10 % in fish fed the VO diet. The replacement strategy did not damage the intestinal epithelium, and massive accumulation of lipid droplets was not found within enterocytes. All fish showed fatty livers, but signs of lipoid liver disease were only found in fish fed the VO diet. Muscle fatty acid profiles of total lipids reflected the diet composition with a selective incorporation of unsaturated fatty acids in polar lipids. The robustness of the phospholipid fatty acid profile when essential fatty acid requirements were theoretically covered by the diet was evidenced by multivariate principal components analysis in fish fed control, 33VO and 66VO diets.

  8. A simulation study of the potenial effects of healthy food and beverage substitutions on diet quality and total energy intake in lower Mississippi Delta adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The majority of adult diets in the United States, particularly the South, are of poor quality, putting these individuals at increased risk for chronic diseases. In this study, simulation modeling was used to determine the effects of substituting familiar, more healthful foods and beverages for less...

  9. Nutrient content of the diet when the fat is reduced.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, R M; Fong, A K; Iacono, J M

    1988-10-01

    When the fat content of the typical US diet was reduced from 40 to 44% of total energy (en %) to approximately 25 en % there was a marked improvement in the overall nutrient content of the diet. Cholesterol, saturated fatty acid, and monounsaturated fatty acid intake were decreased and the polyunsaturated fatty acid content was moderately increased. This kind of dietary change was achieved without changing the usual intake of meats, dairy products, fish, and eggs. As the amount of fat was decreased, carbohydrates in the form of grains, fruits, and vegetables were increased, providing an improvement in the vitamin and mineral content of the diet. Vitamin C, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, B-6, B-12, and folates increased in the 25 en % diet. Potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, iron, zinc, and copper intake also increased when the dietary fat decreased.

  10. Widespread microplastic ingestion by fish assemblages in tropical estuaries subjected to anthropogenic pressures.

    PubMed

    Vendel, A L; Bessa, F; Alves, V E N; Amorim, A L A; Patrício, J; Palma, A R T

    2017-04-15

    Our aim was to quantify microplastic ingestion by fish assemblages in two tropical Brazilian estuaries and to evaluate whether biological and ecological factors influence the ingestion of microplastics by fish species. Of 2233 fish from both estuaries (from 69 species) examined in this study, 9% of the individuals (24 species) had microplastics in their gut contents. Microplastic ingestion occurred irrespective of fish size and functional group. The diet of fish species was analyzed based on prey items identified in the fish's full stomach contents and five feeding guilds were defined. Microplastics were common throughout all feeding guilds. Low (average ingestion values 1.06±0.30 items/total fish) but widespread occurrence among estuaries also indicates proliferation of microplastic pollution. Our findings highlight the need to focus on assemblage level studies to understand the real magnitude of the problem and emphasize the urgency of mitigation measures directed at microplastic pollution in estuarine ecosystems.

  11. High diversity of bacterial pathogens and antibiotic resistance in salmonid fish farm pond water as determined by molecular identification employing 16S rDNA PCR, gene sequencing and total antibiotic susceptibility techniques.

    PubMed

    Moore, John E; Huang, Junhua; Yu, Pengbo; Ma, Chaofeng; Moore, Peter Ja; Millar, Beverley C; Goldsmith, Colin E; Xu, Jiru

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the microbiological and related parameters (antibiotic resistance and pathogen identification) of water at two salmonid fish farms in Northern Ireland. Total Bacterial Counts at the Movanagher Fish Farm was 1730 colony forming units (cfu)/ml water (log10 3.24cfu/ml) and 3260cfu/ml (log10 3.51cfu/ml) at the Bushmills Salmon Station. Examination of resulting organisms revealed 10 morphological phenotypes, which were subsequently sequenced to determine their identification. All these organisms were Gram-negative and no Gram-positive organisms were isolated from any water sample. From these phenotypes, eight different genera were identified including Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Chryseobacterium, Erwinia, Flavobacterium, Pseudomonas and Rheinheimera. One unnamed novel taxon was identified from water at the Movanagher Fish Farm, belonging to the genus Acinetobacter and has been tentatively named Acinetobacter movanagherensis. No other novel taxa were observed. All but one of these environmental organisms (Erwinia) are potential pathogens of fish disease. Total antibiotic resistance was observed to varying degrees in water specimens. The most resistant populations were observed in water taken from the Bushmills Salmon Station inlet, followed by water from the Movanagher Fish Farm. No resistance was observed against tetracycline and there was only one occurrence of resistance against ciprofloxacin. Overall, this study indicates that potential fish pathogens made up the majority of environmental organisms identified, even in the absence of recorded fish disease. There was also relatively high levels of total antibiotic resistance in the bacterial water populations examined, where tetracycline was the only antibiotic with zero resistance. These data indicate that the threat of bacterial disease is relatively close due to the indigenous colonization of farm water and that husbandry standards should be maintained at a high standard to avert

  12. Feeding ecology of some fish species occurring in artisanal fishery of Socotra Island (Yemen).

    PubMed

    Hassan Ali', Mohammed Kaed; Belluscio, Andrea; Ventura, Daniele; Ardizzone, Giandomenico

    2016-04-30

    The demersal species Lethrinus borbonicus, Lethrinus mahsena, Lethrinus microdon, Lethrinus nebulosus, Lutjanus bohar, Lutjanus gibbus, Lutjanus kasmira, Epinephelus fasciatus, Epinephelus stoliczkae, Carangoides gymnostethus and Euthynnus affinis are important coastal fishes species of the northern coast of Socotra (Yemen), exploited by local fishery. The biology and feeding ecology of these species are poorly known in the area. A total of 1239 specimens were sampled from the main fishing landing site of the island (Hadibo). Total length and weight were measured, stomach contents were analyzed, diet overlap, Fulton's Condition index, and trophic levels were estimated. C. gymnostethus, L. microdon