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Sample records for fission gene dnm1l

  1. A Mutation in the Mitochondrial Fission Gene Dnm1l Leads to Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Ashrafian, Houman; Docherty, Louise; Leo, Vincenzo; Towlson, Christopher; Neilan, Monica; Steeples, Violetta; Lygate, Craig A.; Hough, Tertius; Townsend, Stuart; Williams, Debbie; Wells, Sara; Norris, Dominic; Glyn-Jones, Sarah; Land, John; Barbaric, Ivana; Lalanne, Zuzanne; Denny, Paul; Szumska, Dorota; Bhattacharya, Shoumo; Griffin, Julian L.; Hargreaves, Iain; Fernandez-Fuentes, Narcis; Cheeseman, Michael; Watkins, Hugh; Dear, T. Neil

    2010-01-01

    Mutations in a number of genes have been linked to inherited dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). However, such mutations account for only a small proportion of the clinical cases emphasising the need for alternative discovery approaches to uncovering novel pathogenic mutations in hitherto unidentified pathways. Accordingly, as part of a large-scale N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenesis screen, we identified a mouse mutant, Python, which develops DCM. We demonstrate that the Python phenotype is attributable to a dominant fully penetrant mutation in the dynamin-1-like (Dnm1l) gene, which has been shown to be critical for mitochondrial fission. The C452F mutation is in a highly conserved region of the M domain of Dnm1l that alters protein interactions in a yeast two-hybrid system, suggesting that the mutation might alter intramolecular interactions within the Dnm1l monomer. Heterozygous Python fibroblasts exhibit abnormal mitochondria and peroxisomes. Homozygosity for the mutation results in the death of embryos midway though gestation. Heterozygous Python hearts show reduced levels of mitochondria enzyme complexes and suffer from cardiac ATP depletion. The resulting energy deficiency may contribute to cardiomyopathy. This is the first demonstration that a defect in a gene involved in mitochondrial remodelling can result in cardiomyopathy, showing that the function of this gene is needed for the maintenance of normal cellular function in a relatively tissue-specific manner. This disease model attests to the importance of mitochondrial remodelling in the heart; similar defects might underlie human heart muscle disease. PMID:20585624

  2. Postnatal microcephaly and pain insensitivity due to a de novo heterozygous DNM1L mutation causing impaired mitochondrial fission and function.

    PubMed

    Sheffer, Ruth; Douiev, Liza; Edvardson, Simon; Shaag, Avraham; Tamimi, Khaled; Soiferman, Devorah; Meiner, Vardiella; Saada, Ann

    2016-06-01

    An emerging class of mitochondrial disorders is caused by mutations in nuclear genes affecting mitochondrial dynamics and function. One of these is the DNM1L gene encoding the dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1), which is pivotal in the mitochondrial fission process. Here, we describe a patient with a novel dominant-negative, de novo DNM1L mutation, which expands the clinical spectrum. The patient reported here exhibits a chronic neurological disorder, characterized by postnatal microcephaly, developmental delay, and pain insensitivity. Muscle biopsy disclosed decreased respiratory chain complex IV activity. Exome sequencing showed a de novo heterozygous c.1084G>A (p.G362S) mutation. Subsequent studies of patient skin fibroblasts showed markedly impaired mitochondrial fission and a partial respiratory chain defect while peroxisomal morphology remained intact. Human foreskin fibroblasts over-expressing the mutant DNM1L gene displayed aberrant mitochondrial morphology. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. A novel de novo dominant negative mutation in DNM1L impairs mitochondrial fission and presents as childhood epileptic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Fahrner, Jill A; Liu, Raymond; Perry, Michael Scott; Klein, Jessica; Chan, David C

    2016-08-01

    DNM1L encodes dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1/DLP1), a key component of the mitochondrial fission machinery that is essential for proper functioning of the mammalian brain. Previously reported probands with de novo missense mutations in DNM1L presented in the first year of life with severe encephalopathy and refractory epilepsy, with several dying within the first several weeks after birth. In contrast, we report identical novel missense mutations in DNM1L in two unrelated probands who experienced normal development for several years before presenting with refractory focal status epilepticus and subsequent rapid neurological decline. We expand the phenotype of DNM1L-related mitochondrial fission defects, reveal common unique clinical characteristics and imaging findings, and compare the cellular impact of this novel mutation to the previously reported A395D lethal variant. We demonstrate that our R403C mutation, which resides in the assembly region of DRP1, acts by a dominant-negative mechanism and reduces oligomerization, mitochondrial fission activity, and mitochondrial recruitment of DRP1, but to a lesser extent compared to the A395D mutation. In contrast to the initial report of neonatal lethality resulting from DNM1L mutation and DRP1 dysfunction, our results show that milder DRP1 impairment is compatible with normal early development and subsequently results in a distinct set of neurological findings. In addition, we identify a common pathogenic mechanism whereby DNM1L mutations impair mitochondrial fission. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Knockdown of Mtfp1 can minimize doxorubicin cardiotoxicity by inhibiting Dnm1l-mediated mitochondrial fission.

    PubMed

    Aung, Lynn H H; Li, Ruibei; Prabhakar, Bellur S; Li, Peifeng

    2017-06-23

    The long-term usage of doxorubicin (DOX) is largely limited due to the development of severe cardiomyopathy. Many studies indicate that DOX-induced cardiac injury is related to reactive oxygen species generation and ultimate activation of apoptosis. The role of novel mitochondrial fission protein 1 (Mtfp1) in DOX-induced cardiotoxicity remains elusive. Here, we report the pro-mitochondrial fission and pro-apoptotic roles of Mtfp1 in DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. DOX up-regulates the Mtfp1 expression in HL-1 cardiac myocytes. Knockdown of Mtfp1 prevents cardiac myocyte from undergoing mitochondrial fission, and subsequently reduces the DOX-induced apoptosis by preventing dynamin 1-like (Dnm1l) accumulation in mitochondria. In contrast, when Mtfp1 is overexpressed, a suboptimal dose of DOX can induce a significant percentage of cells to undergo mitochondrial fission and apoptosis. These data suggest that knocking down of Mtfp1 can minimize the cardiomyocytes loss in DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Thus, the regulation of Mtfp1 expression could be a novel therapeutic approach in chemotherapy-induced cardiotoxicity. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  5. Cannabidiol normalizes caspase 3, synaptophysin, and mitochondrial fission protein DNM1L expression levels in rats with brain iron overload: implications for neuroprotection.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Vanessa Kappel; de Freitas, Betânia Souza; da Silva Dornelles, Arethuza; Nery, Laura Roesler; Falavigna, Lucio; Ferreira, Rafael Dal Ponte; Bogo, Maurício Reis; Hallak, Jaime Eduardo Cecílio; Zuardi, Antônio Waldo; Crippa, José Alexandre S; Schröder, Nadja

    2014-02-01

    We have recently shown that chronic treatment with cannabidiol (CBD) was able to recover memory deficits induced by brain iron loading in a dose-dependent manner in rats. Brain iron accumulation is implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's and Alzheimer's, and has been related to cognitive deficits in animals and human subjects. Deficits in synaptic energy supply have been linked to neurodegenerative diseases, evidencing the key role played by mitochondria in maintaining viable neural cells and functional circuits. It has also been shown that brains of patients suffering from neurodegenerative diseases have increased expression of apoptosisrelated proteins and specific DNA fragmentation. Here, we have analyzed the expression level of brain proteins involved with mitochondrial fusion and fission mechanisms (DNM1L and OPA1), the main integral transmembrane protein of synaptic vesicles (synaptophysin), and caspase 3, an apoptosis-related protein, to gain a better understanding of the potential of CBD in restoring the damage caused by iron loading in rats. We found that CBD rescued iron-induced effects, bringing hippocampal DNM1L, caspase 3, and synaptophysin levels back to values comparable to the control group. Our results suggest that iron affects mitochondrial dynamics, possibly trigging synaptic loss and apoptotic cell death and indicate that CBD should be considered as a potential molecule with memory-rescuing and neuroprotective properties to be used in the treatment of cognitive deficits observed in neurodegenerative disorders.

  6. Missense variants in the middle domain of DNM1L in cases of infantile encephalopathy alter peroxisomes and mitochondria when assayed in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Chao, Yu-Hsin; Robak, Laurie A; Xia, Fan; Koenig, Mary K; Adesina, Adekunle; Bacino, Carlos A; Scaglia, Fernando; Bellen, Hugo J; Wangler, Michael F

    2016-05-01

    Defects in organelle dynamics underlie a number of human degenerative disorders, and whole exome sequencing (WES) is a powerful tool for studying genetic changes that affect the cellular machinery. WES may uncover variants of unknown significance (VUS) that require functional validation. Previously, a pathogenic de novo variant in the middle domain of DNM1L (p.A395D) was identified in a single patient with a lethal defect of mitochondrial and peroxisomal fission. We identified two additional patients with infantile encephalopathy and partially overlapping clinical features, each with a novel VUS in the middle domain of DNM1L (p.G350R and p.E379K). To evaluate pathogenicity, we generated transgenic Drosophila expressing wild-type or variant DNM1L. We find that human wild-type DNM1L rescues the lethality as well as specific phenotypes associated with the loss of Drp1 in Drosophila. Neither the p.A395D variant nor the novel variant p.G350R rescue lethality or other phenotypes. Moreover, overexpression of p.A395D and p.G350R in Drosophila neurons, salivary gland and muscle strikingly altered peroxisomal and mitochondrial morphology. In contrast, the other novel variant (p.E379K) rescued lethality and did not affect organelle morphology, although it was associated with a subtle mitochondrial trafficking defect in an in vivo assay. Interestingly, the patient with the p.E379K variant also has a de novo VUS in pyruvate dehydrogenase 1 (PDHA1) affecting the same amino acid (G150) as another case of PDHA1 deficiency suggesting the PDHA1 variant may be pathogenic. In summary, detailed clinical evaluation and WES with functional studies in Drosophila can distinguish different functional consequences of newly-described DNM1L alleles. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. HIV alters neuronal mitochondrial fission/fusion in the brain during HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders.

    PubMed

    Fields, Jerel Adam; Serger, Elisabeth; Campos, Sofia; Divakaruni, Ajit S; Kim, Changyoun; Smith, Kendall; Trejo, Margarita; Adame, Anthony; Spencer, Brian; Rockenstein, Edward; Murphy, Anne N; Ellis, Ronald J; Letendre, Scott; Grant, Igor; Masliah, Eliezer

    2016-02-01

    HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) still occur in approximately 50% of HIV patients, and therapies to combat HAND progression are urgently needed. HIV proteins are released from infected cells and cause neuronal damage, possibly through mitochondrial abnormalities. Altered mitochondrial fission and fusion is implicated in several neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we hypothesized that mitochondrial fission/fusion may be dysregulated in neurons during HAND. We have identified decreased mitochondrial fission protein (dynamin 1-like; DNM1L) in frontal cortex tissues of HAND donors, along with enlarged and elongated mitochondria localized to the soma of damaged neurons. Similar pathology was observed in the brains of GFAP-gp120 tg mice. In vitro, recombinant gp120 decreased total and active DNM1L levels, reduced the level of Mitotracker staining, and increased extracellular acidification rate (ECAR) in primary neurons. DNM1L knockdown enhanced the effects of gp120 as measured by reduced Mitotracker signal in the treated cells. Interestingly, overexpression of DNM1L increased the level of Mitotracker staining in primary rat neurons and reduced neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in the GFAP-gp120-tg mice. These data suggest that mitochondrial biogenesis dynamics are shifted towards mitochondrial fusion in brains of HAND patients and this may be due to gp120-induced reduction in DNM1L activity. Promoting mitochondrial fission during HIV infection of the CNS may restore mitochondrial biogenesis and prevent neurodegeneration.

  8. HIV alters neuronal mitochondrial fission/fusion in the brain during HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Fields, Jerel Adam; Serger, Elisabeth; Campos, Sofia; Divakaruni, Ajit S.; Kim, Changyoun; Smith, Kendall; Trejo, Margarita; Adame, Anthony; Spencer, Brian; Rockenstein, Edward; Murphy, Anne N.; Ellis, Ronald J.; Letendre, Scott; Grant, Igor; Masliah, Eliezer

    2015-01-01

    HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) still occur in approximately 50% of HIV patients, and therapies to combat HAND progression are urgently needed. HIV proteins are released from infected cells and cause neuronal damage, possibly through mitochondrial abnormalities. Altered mitochondrial fission and fusion is implicated in several neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we hypothesized that mitochondrial fission/fusion may be dysregulated in neurons during HAND. We have identified decreased mitochondrial fission protein (dynamin 1-like; DNM1L) in frontal cortex tissues of HAND donors, along with enlarged and elongated mitochondria localized to the soma of damaged neurons. Similar pathology was observed in the brains of GFAP-gp120 tg mice. In vitro, recombinant gp120 decreased total and active DNM1L levels, reduced the level of Mitotracker staining, and increased extracellular acidification rate (ECAR) in primary neurons. DNM1L knockdown enhanced the effects of gp120 as measured by reduced Mitotracker signal in the treated cells. Interestingly, overexpression of DNM1L increased the level of Mitotracker staining in primary rat neurons and reduced neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in the GFAP-gp120-tg mice. These data suggest that mitochondrial biogenesis dynamics are shifted towards mitochondrial fusion in brains of HAND patients and this may be due to gp120-induced reduction in DNM1L activity. Promoting mitochondrial fission during HIV infection of the CNS may restore mitochondrial biogenesis and prevent neurodegeneration. PMID:26611103

  9. Cooperative and independent roles of the Drp1 adaptors Mff, MiD49 and MiD51 in mitochondrial fission.

    PubMed

    Osellame, Laura D; Singh, Abeer P; Stroud, David A; Palmer, Catherine S; Stojanovski, Diana; Ramachandran, Rajesh; Ryan, Michael T

    2016-06-01

    Cytosolic dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1, also known as DNM1L) is required for both mitochondrial and peroxisomal fission. Drp1-dependent division of these organelles is facilitated by a number of adaptor proteins at mitochondrial and peroxisomal surfaces. To investigate the interplay of these adaptor proteins, we used gene-editing technology to create a suite of cell lines lacking the adaptors MiD49 (also known as MIEF2), MiD51 (also known as MIEF1), Mff and Fis1. Increased mitochondrial connectivity was observed following loss of individual adaptors, and this was further enhanced following the combined loss of MiD51 and Mff. Moreover, loss of adaptors also conferred increased resistance of cells to intrinsic apoptotic stimuli, with MiD49 and MiD51 showing the more prominent role. Using a proximity-based biotin labeling approach, we found close associations between MiD51, Mff and Drp1, but not Fis1. Furthermore, we found that MiD51 can suppress Mff-dependent enhancement of Drp1 GTPase activity. Our data indicates that Mff and MiD51 regulate Drp1 in specific ways to promote mitochondrial fission.

  10. Identifying genes required for respiratory growth of fission yeast

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We have used both auxotroph and prototroph versions of the latest deletion-mutant library to identify genes required for respiratory growth on solid glycerol medium in fission yeast. This data set complements and enhances our recent study on functional and regulatory aspects of energy metabolism by providing additional proteins that are involved in respiration. Most proteins identified in this mutant screen have not been implicated in respiration in budding yeast. We also provide a protocol to generate a prototrophic mutant library, and data on technical and biological reproducibility of colony-based high-throughput screens. PMID:27918601

  11. Periodic gene expression program of the fission yeast cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Rustici, Gabriella; Mata, Juan; Kivinen, Katja; Lió, Pietro; Penkett, Christopher J; Burns, Gavin; Hayles, Jacqueline; Brazma, Alvis; Nurse, Paul; Bähler, Jürg

    2004-08-01

    Cell-cycle control of transcription seems to be universal, but little is known about its global conservation and biological significance. We report on the genome-wide transcriptional program of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe cell cycle, identifying 407 periodically expressed genes of which 136 show high-amplitude changes. These genes cluster in four major waves of expression. The forkhead protein Sep1p regulates mitotic genes in the first cluster, including Ace2p, which activates transcription in the second cluster during the M-G1 transition and cytokinesis. Other genes in the second cluster, which are required for G1-S progression, are regulated by the MBF complex independently of Sep1p and Ace2p. The third cluster coincides with S phase and a fourth cluster contains genes weakly regulated during G2 phase. Despite conserved cell-cycle transcription factors, differences in regulatory circuits between fission and budding yeasts are evident, revealing evolutionary plasticity of transcriptional control. Periodic transcription of most genes is not conserved between the two yeasts, except for a core set of approximately 40 genes that seem to be universally regulated during the eukaryotic cell cycle and may have key roles in cell-cycle progression.

  12. Identification of cell cycle-regulated genes in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xu; Karuturi, R Krishna Murthy; Miller, Lance D; Lin, Kui; Jia, Yonghui; Kondu, Pinar; Wang, Long; Wong, Lim-Soon; Liu, Edison T; Balasubramanian, Mohan K; Liu, Jianhua

    2005-03-01

    Cell cycle progression is both regulated and accompanied by periodic changes in the expression levels of a large number of genes. To investigate cell cycle-regulated transcriptional programs in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, we developed a whole-genome oligonucleotide-based DNA microarray. Microarray analysis of both wild-type and cdc25 mutant cell cultures was performed to identify transcripts whose levels oscillated during the cell cycle. Using an unsupervised algorithm, we identified 747 genes that met the criteria for cell cycle-regulated expression. Peaks of gene expression were found to be distributed throughout the entire cell cycle. Furthermore, we found that four promoter motifs exhibited strong association with cell cycle phase-specific expression. Examination of the regulation of MCB motif-containing genes through the perturbation of DNA synthesis control/MCB-binding factor (DSC/MBF)-mediated transcription in arrested synchronous cdc10 mutant cell cultures revealed a subset of functional targets of the DSC/MBF transcription factor complex, as well as certain gene promoter requirements. Finally, we compared our data with those for the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and found approximately 140 genes that are cell cycle regulated in both yeasts, suggesting that these genes may play an evolutionarily conserved role in regulation of cell cycle-specific processes. Our complete data sets are available at http://giscompute.gis.a-star.edu.sg/~gisljh/CDC.

  13. Increased mitochondrial fission promotes autophagy and hepatocellular carcinoma cell survival through the ROS-modulated coordinated regulation of the NFKB and TP53 pathways.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qichao; Zhan, Lei; Cao, Haiyan; Li, Jibin; Lyu, Yinghua; Guo, Xu; Zhang, Jing; Ji, Lele; Ren, Tingting; An, Jiaze; Liu, Bingrong; Nie, Yongzhan; Xing, Jinliang

    2016-06-02

    Mitochondrial morphology is dynamically remodeled by fusion and fission in cells, and dysregulation of this process is closely implicated in tumorigenesis. However, the mechanism by which mitochondrial dynamics influence cancer cell survival is considerably less clear, especially in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, we systematically investigated the alteration of mitochondrial dynamics and its functional role in the regulation of autophagy and HCC cell survival. Furthermore, the underlying molecular mechanisms and therapeutic application were explored in depth. Mitochondrial fission was frequently upregulated in HCC tissues mainly due to an elevated expression ratio of DNM1L to MFN1, which significantly contributed to poor prognosis of HCC patients. Increased mitochondrial fission by forced expression of DNM1L or knockdown of MFN1 promoted the survival of HCC cells both in vitro and in vivo mainly by facilitating autophagy and inhibiting mitochondria-dependent apoptosis. We further demonstrated that the survival-promoting role of increased mitochondrial fission was mediated via elevated ROS production and subsequent activation of AKT, which facilitated MDM2-mediated TP53 degradation, and NFKBIA- and IKK-mediated transcriptional activity of NFKB in HCC cells. Also, a crosstalk between TP53 and NFKB pathways was involved in the regulation of mitochondrial fission-mediated cell survival. Moreover, treatment with mitochondrial division inhibitor-1 significantly suppressed tumor growth in an in vivo xenograft nude mice model. Our findings demonstrate that increased mitochondrial fission plays a critical role in regulation of HCC cell survival, which provides a strong evidence for this process as drug target in HCC treatment.

  14. Increased mitochondrial fission promotes autophagy and hepatocellular carcinoma cell survival through the ROS-modulated coordinated regulation of the NFKB and TP53 pathways

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Qichao; Zhan, Lei; Cao, Haiyan; Li, Jibin; Lyu, Yinghua; Guo, Xu; Zhang, Jing; Ji, Lele; Ren, Tingting; An, Jiaze; Liu, Bingrong; Nie, Yongzhan; Xing, Jinliang

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mitochondrial morphology is dynamically remodeled by fusion and fission in cells, and dysregulation of this process is closely implicated in tumorigenesis. However, the mechanism by which mitochondrial dynamics influence cancer cell survival is considerably less clear, especially in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, we systematically investigated the alteration of mitochondrial dynamics and its functional role in the regulation of autophagy and HCC cell survival. Furthermore, the underlying molecular mechanisms and therapeutic application were explored in depth. Mitochondrial fission was frequently upregulated in HCC tissues mainly due to an elevated expression ratio of DNM1L to MFN1, which significantly contributed to poor prognosis of HCC patients. Increased mitochondrial fission by forced expression of DNM1L or knockdown of MFN1 promoted the survival of HCC cells both in vitro and in vivo mainly by facilitating autophagy and inhibiting mitochondria-dependent apoptosis. We further demonstrated that the survival-promoting role of increased mitochondrial fission was mediated via elevated ROS production and subsequent activation of AKT, which facilitated MDM2-mediated TP53 degradation, and NFKBIA- and IKK-mediated transcriptional activity of NFKB in HCC cells. Also, a crosstalk between TP53 and NFKB pathways was involved in the regulation of mitochondrial fission-mediated cell survival. Moreover, treatment with mitochondrial division inhibitor-1 significantly suppressed tumor growth in an in vivo xenograft nude mice model. Our findings demonstrate that increased mitochondrial fission plays a critical role in regulation of HCC cell survival, which provides a strong evidence for this process as drug target in HCC treatment. PMID:27124102

  15. Exercise training decreases activation of the mitochondrial fission protein dynamin-related protein-1 in insulin-resistant human skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Fealy, Ciaran E.; Mulya, Anny; Lai, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Defects in mitochondrial dynamics, the processes of fission, fusion, and mitochondrial autophagy, may contribute to metabolic disease including type 2 diabetes. Dynamin-related protein-1 (Drp1) is a GTPase protein that plays a central role in mitochondrial fission. We hypothesized that aerobic exercise training would decrease Drp1 Ser616 phosphorylation and increase fat oxidation and insulin sensitivity in obese (body mass index: 34.6 ± 0.8 kg/m2) insulin-resistant adults. Seventeen subjects performed supervised exercise for 60 min/day, 5 days/wk at 80–85% of maximal heart rate for 12 wk. Insulin sensitivity was measured by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, and fat oxidation was determined by indirect calorimetry. Skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle before and after the 12-wk program. The exercise intervention increased insulin sensitivity 2.1 ± 0.2-fold (P < 0.01) and fat oxidation 1.3 ± 0.3-fold (P < 0.01). Phosphorylation of Drp1 at Ser616 was decreased (pre vs. post: 0.81 ± 0.15 vs. 0.58 ± 0.14 arbitrary units; P < 0.05) following the intervention. Furthermore, reductions in Drp1 Ser616 phosphorylation were negatively correlated with increases in fat oxidation (r = −0.58; P < 0.05) and insulin sensitivity (rho = −0.52; P < 0.05). We also examined expression of genes related to mitochondrial dynamics. Dynamin1-like protein (DNM1L; P < 0.01), the gene that codes for Drp1, and Optic atrophy 1 (OPA1; P = 0.05) were significantly upregulated following the intervention, while there was a trend towards an increase in expression of both mitofusin protein MFN1 (P = 0.08) and MFN2 (P = 0.07). These are the first data to suggest that lifestyle-mediated improvements in substrate metabolism and insulin sensitivity in obese insulin-resistant adults may be regulated through decreased activation of the mitochondrial fission protein Drp1. PMID:24947026

  16. Analysis of a genome-wide set of gene deletions in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Uk; Hayles, Jacqueline; Kim, Dongsup; Wood, Valerie; Park, Han-Oh; Won, Misun; Yoo, Hyang-Sook; Duhig, Trevor; Nam, Miyoung; Palmer, Georgia; Han, Sangjo; Jeffery, Linda; Baek, Seung-Tae; Lee, Hyemi; Shim, Young Sam; Lee, Minho; Kim, Lila; Heo, Kyung-Sun; Noh, Eun Joo; Lee, Ah-Reum; Jang, Young-Joo; Chung, Kyung-Sook; Choi, Shin-Jung; Park, Jo-Young; Park, Youngwoo; Kim, Hwan Mook; Park, Song-Kyu; Park, Hae-Joon; Kang, Eun-Jung; Kim, Hyong Bai; Kang, Hyun-Sam; Park, Hee-Moon; Kim, Kyunghoon; Song, Kiwon; Song, Kyung Bin; Nurse, Paul; Hoe, Kwang-Lae

    2010-06-01

    We report the construction and analysis of 4,836 heterozygous diploid deletion mutants covering 98.4% of the fission yeast genome providing a tool for studying eukaryotic biology. Comprehensive gene dispensability comparisons with budding yeast--the only other eukaryote for which a comprehensive knockout library exists--revealed that 83% of single-copy orthologs in the two yeasts had conserved dispensability. Gene dispensability differed for certain pathways between the two yeasts, including mitochondrial translation and cell cycle checkpoint control. We show that fission yeast has more essential genes than budding yeast and that essential genes are more likely than nonessential genes to be present in a single copy, to be broadly conserved and to contain introns. Growth fitness analyses determined sets of haploinsufficient and haploproficient genes for fission yeast, and comparisons with budding yeast identified specific ribosomal proteins and RNA polymerase subunits, which may act more generally to regulate eukaryotic cell growth.

  17. A series of promoters for constitutive expression of heterologous genes in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Matsuyama, Akihisa; Shirai, Atsuko; Yoshida, Minoru

    2008-05-01

    Inducible/repressible promoters are useful for the maintenance of toxic genes or timely expression. For ectopic expression of cloned genes in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the thiamine-regulatable nmt1 promoter has been widely used, since the transcriptional activity of this promoter can be controlled by thiamine. However, this property sometimes limits a certain type of research, since the expression inevitably requires cells to be cultivated under the conditions that induce promoter activation. To allow constitutive expression of heterologous genes, we cloned three promoters of cam1+, tif51+ and ef1a-c+. Construction of a series of vectors comprising these promoters and their introduction into the fission yeast cells demonstrated that the activity was different among these promoters but was not affected by cultured media commonly used in fission yeast. Therefore, a promoter with appropriate strength would be selectable from these promoters, depending on the genes to be expressed.

  18. Evolution of regeneration and fission in annelids: insights from engrailed- and orthodenticle-class gene expression.

    PubMed

    Bely, A E; Wray, G A

    2001-07-01

    The recent explosion of information on the role of regulatory genes in embryogenesis provides an excellent opportunity to study how these genes participate in post-embryonic developmental processes. We present a detailed comparison of regulatory gene expression during regeneration and asexual reproduction (by fission) in the segmented worm Pristina leidyi (Annelida: Oligochaeta). We isolated three genes from Pristina, one homolog of engrailed and two homologs of orthodenticle, and characterized their expression in different developmental contexts. In situ hybridization studies on worms undergoing normal growth, regeneration and fission demonstrate that in all three processes, Pl-en is expressed primarily in the developing nervous system, and Pl-Otx1 and Pl-Otx2 are expressed primarily in the anterior body wall, foregut and developing nervous system. Our data reveal extensive similarities between expression during regeneration and fission, consistent with the idea that similar developmental processes underlie these two types of development. Thus, we argue that in these annelids fission may have evolved by recruitment of regenerative processes. Furthermore, by comparing our data to existing data from leech embryos, we find evidence that embryonic processes are re-deployed during regeneration and fission.

  19. An IF-FISH Approach for Covisualization of Gene Loci and Nuclear Architecture in Fission Yeast.

    PubMed

    Kim, K-D; Iwasaki, O; Noma, K

    2016-01-01

    Recent genomic studies have revealed that chromosomal structures are formed by a hierarchy of organizing processes ranging from gene associations, including interactions among enhancers and promoters, to topologically associating domain formations. Gene associations identified by these studies can be characterized by microscopic analyses. Fission yeast is a model organism, in which gene associations have been broadly mapped across the genome, although many of those associations have not been further examined by cell biological approaches. To address the technically challenging process of the visualization of associating gene loci in the fission yeast nuclei, we provide, in detail, an IF-FISH procedure that allows for covisualizing both gene loci and nuclear structural markers such as the nuclear membrane and nucleolus.

  20. Fission Yeast CSL Transcription Factors: Mapping Their Target Genes and Biological Roles

    PubMed Central

    Převorovský, Martin; Oravcová, Martina; Tvarůžková, Jarmila; Zach, Róbert; Folk, Petr; Půta, František; Bähler, Jürg

    2015-01-01

    Background Cbf11 and Cbf12, the fission yeast CSL transcription factors, have been implicated in the regulation of cell-cycle progression, but no specific roles have been described and their target genes have been only partially mapped. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a combination of transcriptome profiling under various conditions and genome-wide analysis of CSL-DNA interactions, we identify genes regulated directly and indirectly by CSL proteins in fission yeast. We show that the expression of stress-response genes and genes that are expressed periodically during the cell cycle is deregulated upon genetic manipulation of cbf11 and/or cbf12. Accordingly, the coordination of mitosis and cytokinesis is perturbed in cells with genetically manipulated CSL protein levels, together with other specific defects in cell-cycle progression. Cbf11 activity is nutrient-dependent and Δcbf11-associated defects are mitigated by inactivation of the protein kinase A (Pka1) and stress-activated MAP kinase (Sty1p38) pathways. Furthermore, Cbf11 directly regulates a set of lipid metabolism genes and Δcbf11 cells feature a stark decrease in the number of storage lipid droplets. Conclusions/Significance Our results provide a framework for a more detailed understanding of the role of CSL proteins in the regulation of cell-cycle progression in fission yeast. PMID:26366556

  1. RNAi mediates post-transcriptional repression of gene expression in fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    SciTech Connect

    Smialowska, Agata; Djupedal, Ingela; Wang, Jingwen; Kylsten, Per; Swoboda, Peter; Ekwall, Karl

    2014-02-07

    Highlights: • Protein coding genes accumulate anti-sense sRNAs in fission yeast S. pombe. • RNAi represses protein-coding genes in S. pombe. • RNAi-mediated gene repression is post-transcriptional. - Abstract: RNA interference (RNAi) is a gene silencing mechanism conserved from fungi to mammals. Small interfering RNAs are products and mediators of the RNAi pathway and act as specificity factors in recruiting effector complexes. The Schizosaccharomyces pombe genome encodes one of each of the core RNAi proteins, Dicer, Argonaute and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (dcr1, ago1, rdp1). Even though the function of RNAi in heterochromatin assembly in S. pombe is established, its role in controlling gene expression is elusive. Here, we report the identification of small RNAs mapped anti-sense to protein coding genes in fission yeast. We demonstrate that these genes are up-regulated at the protein level in RNAi mutants, while their mRNA levels are not significantly changed. We show that the repression by RNAi is not a result of heterochromatin formation. Thus, we conclude that RNAi is involved in post-transcriptional gene silencing in S. pombe.

  2. Global analysis of fission yeast mating genes reveals new autophagy factors.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ling-Ling; Li, Ming; Suo, Fang; Liu, Xiao-Man; Shen, En-Zhi; Yang, Bing; Dong, Meng-Qiu; He, Wan-Zhong; Du, Li-Lin

    2013-01-01

    Macroautophagy (autophagy) is crucial for cell survival during starvation and plays important roles in animal development and human diseases. Molecular understanding of autophagy has mainly come from the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and it remains unclear to what extent the mechanisms are the same in other organisms. Here, through screening the mating phenotype of a genome-wide deletion collection of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, we obtained a comprehensive catalog of autophagy genes in this highly tractable organism, including genes encoding three heretofore unidentified core Atg proteins, Atg10, Atg14, and Atg16, and two novel factors, Ctl1 and Fsc1. We systematically examined the subcellular localization of fission yeast autophagy factors for the first time and characterized the phenotypes of their mutants, thereby uncovering both similarities and differences between the two yeasts. Unlike budding yeast, all three Atg18/WIPI proteins in fission yeast are essential for autophagy, and we found that they play different roles, with Atg18a uniquely required for the targeting of the Atg12-Atg5·Atg16 complex. Our investigation of the two novel factors revealed unforeseen autophagy mechanisms. The choline transporter-like protein Ctl1 interacts with Atg9 and is required for autophagosome formation. The fasciclin domain protein Fsc1 localizes to the vacuole membrane and is required for autophagosome-vacuole fusion but not other vacuolar fusion events. Our study sheds new light on the evolutionary diversity of the autophagy machinery and establishes the fission yeast as a useful model for dissecting the mechanisms of autophagy.

  3. Global Analysis of Fission Yeast Mating Genes Reveals New Autophagy Factors

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ling-Ling; Shen, En-Zhi; Yang, Bing; Dong, Meng-Qiu; He, Wan-Zhong; Du, Li-Lin

    2013-01-01

    Macroautophagy (autophagy) is crucial for cell survival during starvation and plays important roles in animal development and human diseases. Molecular understanding of autophagy has mainly come from the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and it remains unclear to what extent the mechanisms are the same in other organisms. Here, through screening the mating phenotype of a genome-wide deletion collection of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, we obtained a comprehensive catalog of autophagy genes in this highly tractable organism, including genes encoding three heretofore unidentified core Atg proteins, Atg10, Atg14, and Atg16, and two novel factors, Ctl1 and Fsc1. We systematically examined the subcellular localization of fission yeast autophagy factors for the first time and characterized the phenotypes of their mutants, thereby uncovering both similarities and differences between the two yeasts. Unlike budding yeast, all three Atg18/WIPI proteins in fission yeast are essential for autophagy, and we found that they play different roles, with Atg18a uniquely required for the targeting of the Atg12–Atg5·Atg16 complex. Our investigation of the two novel factors revealed unforeseen autophagy mechanisms. The choline transporter-like protein Ctl1 interacts with Atg9 and is required for autophagosome formation. The fasciclin domain protein Fsc1 localizes to the vacuole membrane and is required for autophagosome-vacuole fusion but not other vacuolar fusion events. Our study sheds new light on the evolutionary diversity of the autophagy machinery and establishes the fission yeast as a useful model for dissecting the mechanisms of autophagy. PMID:23950735

  4. Conserved and novel gene expression between regeneration and asexual fission in Nematostella vectensis.

    PubMed

    Burton, Patrick M; Finnerty, John R

    2009-02-01

    Due to work in model systems (e.g., flies and mice), the molecular mechanisms of embryogenesis are known in exquisite detail. However, these organisms are incapable of asexual reproduction and possess limited regenerative abilities. Thus, the mechanisms of alternate developmental trajectories and their relation to embryonic mechanisms remain understudied. Because these developmental trajectories are present in a diverse group of animal phyla spanning the metazoan phylogeny, including cnidarians, annelids, and echinoderms, they are likely to have played a major role in animal evolution. The starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis, an emerging model system, undergoes larval development, asexual fission, and complete bi-directional regeneration in the field and laboratory. In order to investigate to what extent embryonic patterning mechanisms are utilized during alternate developmental trajectories, we examined expression of developmental regulatory genes during regeneration and fission. When compared to previously reported embryonic expression patterns, we found that all genes displayed some level of expression consistent with embryogenesis. However, five of seven genes investigated also displayed striking differences in gene expression between one or more developmental trajectory. These results demonstrate that alternate developmental trajectories utilize distinct molecular mechanisms upstream of major developmental regulatory genes such as fox, otx, and Hox-like.

  5. CSL protein regulates transcription of genes required to prevent catastrophic mitosis in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Převorovský, Martin; Oravcová, Martina; Zach, Róbert; Jordáková, Anna; Bähler, Jürg; Půta, František; Folk, Petr

    2016-11-16

    For every eukaryotic cell to grow and divide, intricately coordinated action of numerous proteins is required to ensure proper cell-cycle progression. The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe has been instrumental in elucidating the fundamental principles of cell-cycle control. Mutations in S. pombe 'cut' (cell untimely torn) genes cause failed coordination between cell and nuclear division, resulting in catastrophic mitosis. Deletion of cbf11, a fission yeast CSL transcription factor gene, triggers a 'cut' phenotype, but the precise role of Cbf11 in promoting mitotic fidelity is not known. We report that Cbf11 directly activates the transcription of the acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase gene cut6, and the biotin uptake/biosynthesis genes vht1 and bio2, with the former 2 implicated in mitotic fidelity. Cbf11 binds to a canonical, metazoan-like CSL response element (GTGGGAA) in the cut6 promoter. Expression of Cbf11 target genes shows apparent oscillations during the cell cycle using temperature-sensitive cdc25-22 and cdc10-M17 block-release experiments, but not with other synchronization methods. The penetrance of catastrophic mitosis in cbf11 and cut6 mutants is nutrient-dependent. We also show that drastic decrease in biotin availability arrests cell proliferation but does not cause mitotic defects. Taken together, our results raise the possibility that CSL proteins play conserved roles in regulating cell-cycle progression, and they could guide experiments into mitotic CSL functions in mammals.

  6. Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein Is a Principal Regulator of Anaerobic Gene Expression in Fission Yeast†

    PubMed Central

    Todd, Bridget L.; Stewart, Emerson V.; Burg, John S.; Hughes, Adam L.; Espenshade, Peter J.

    2006-01-01

    Fission yeast sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP), called Sre1p, functions in an oxygen-sensing pathway to allow adaptation to fluctuating oxygen concentrations. The Sre1p-Scp1p complex responds to oxygen-dependent sterol synthesis as an indirect measure of oxygen availability. To examine the role of Sre1p in anaerobic gene expression in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, we performed transcriptional profiling experiments after a shift to anaerobic conditions for 1.5 h. Of the 4,940 genes analyzed, expression levels of 521 (10.5%) and 686 (13.9%) genes were significantly increased and decreased, respectively, under anaerobic conditions. Sre1p controlled 68% of genes induced ≥2-fold. Oxygen-requiring biosynthetic pathways for ergosterol, heme, sphingolipid, and ubiquinone were primary targets of Sre1p. Induction of glycolytic genes and repression of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation genes largely did not require Sre1p. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation, we demonstrated that Sre1p acts directly at target gene promoters and stimulates its own transcription under anaerobic conditions. sre1+ promoter analysis identified two DNA elements that are both necessary and sufficient for oxygen-dependent, Sre1p-dependent transcription. Interestingly, these elements are homologous to sterol regulatory elements bound by mammalian SREBP, highlighting the evolutionary conservation between Sre1p and SREBP. We conclude that Sre1p is a principal activator of anaerobic gene expression, upregulating genes required for nonrespiratory oxygen consumption. PMID:16537923

  7. A large gene family in fission yeast encodes spore killers that subvert Mendel's law.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wen; Jiang, Zhao-Di; Suo, Fang; Zheng, Jin-Xin; He, Wan-Zhong; Du, Li-Lin

    2017-06-20

    Spore killers in fungi are selfish genetic elements that distort Mendelian segregation in their favor. It remains unclear how many species harbor them and how diverse their mechanisms are. Here, we discover two spore killers from a natural isolate of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Both killers belong to the previously uncharacterized wtf gene family with 25 members in the reference genome. These two killers act in strain-background-independent and genome-location-independent manners to perturb the maturation of spores not inheriting them. Spores carrying one killer are protected from its killing effect but not that of the other killer. The killing and protecting activities can be uncoupled by mutation. The numbers and sequences of wtf genes vary considerably between S. pombe isolates, indicating rapid divergence. We propose that wtf genes contribute to the extensive intraspecific reproductive isolation in S. pombe, and represent ideal models for understanding how segregation-distorting elements act and evolve.

  8. A Genetic Screen for Fission Yeast Gene Deletion Mutants Exhibiting Hypersensitivity to Latrunculin A

    PubMed Central

    Asadi, Farzad; Michalski, Dorothy; Karagiannis, Jim

    2016-01-01

    Fission yeast cells treated with low doses of the actin depolymerizing drug, latrunculin A (LatA), delay entry into mitosis via a mechanism that is dependent on both the Clp1p and Rad24p proteins. During this delay, cells remain in a cytokinesis-competent state that is characterized by continuous repair and/or reestablishment of the actomyosin ring. In this manner, cells ensure the faithful completion of the preceding cytokinesis in response to perturbation of the cell division machinery. To uncover other genes with a role in this response, or simply genes with roles in adapting to LatA-induced stress, we carried out a genome-wide screen and identified a group of 38 gene deletion mutants that are hyper-sensitive to the drug. As expected, we found genes affecting cytokinesis and/or the actin cytoskeleton within this set (ain1, acp2, imp2). We also identified genes with roles in histone modification (tra1, ngg1), intracellular transport (apl5, aps3), and glucose-mediated signaling (git3, git5, git11, pka1, cgs2). Importantly, while the identified gene deletion mutants are prone to cytokinesis failure in the presence of LatA, they are nevertheless fully capable of cell division in the absence of the drug. These results indicate that fission yeast cells make use of a diverse set of regulatory modules to counter abnormal cytoskeletal perturbations, and furthermore, that these modules act redundantly to ensure cell survival and proliferation. PMID:27466272

  9. Splicing Factor Spf30 Assists Exosome-Mediated Gene Silencing in Fission Yeast▿

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, Pascal; Drogat, Julie; Dheur, Sonia; Genier, Sylvie; Javerzat, Jean-Paul

    2010-01-01

    Heterochromatin assembly in fission yeast relies on the processing of cognate noncoding RNAs by both the RNA interference and the exosome degradation pathways. Recent evidence indicates that splicing factors facilitate the cotranscriptional processing of centromeric transcripts into small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). In contrast, how the exosome contributes to heterochromatin assembly and whether it also relies upon splicing factors were unknown. We provide here evidence that fission yeast Spf30 is a splicing factor involved in the exosome pathway of heterochromatin silencing. Spf30 and Dis3, the main exosome RNase, colocalize at centromeric heterochromatin and euchromatic genes. At the centromeres, Dis3 helps recruiting Spf30, whose deficiency phenocopies the dis3-54 mutant: heterochromatin is impaired, as evidenced by reduced silencing and the accumulation of polyadenylated centromeric transcripts, but the production of siRNAs appears to be unaffected. Consistent with a direct role, Spf30 binds centromeric transcripts and locates at the centromeres in an RNA-dependent manner. We propose that Spf30, bound to nascent centromeric transcripts, perhaps with other splicing factors, assists their processing by the exosome. Splicing factor intercession may thus be a common feature of gene silencing pathways. PMID:20028739

  10. An estradiol-inducible promoter enables fast, graduated control of gene expression in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Ohira, Makoto J; Hendrickson, David G; Scott McIsaac, R; Rhind, Nicholas

    2017-08-01

    The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe lacks a diverse toolkit of inducible promoters for experimental manipulation. Available inducible promoters suffer from slow induction kinetics, limited control of expression levels and/or a requirement for defined growth medium. In particular, no S. pombe inducible promoter systems exhibit a linear dose-response, which would allow expression to be tuned to specific levels. We have adapted a fast, orthogonal promoter system with a large dynamic range and a linear dose response, based on β-estradiol-regulated function of the human oestrogen receptor, for use in S. pombe. We show that this promoter system, termed Z3 EV, turns on quickly, can reach a maximal induction of 20-fold, and exhibits a linear dose response over its entire induction range, with few off-target effects. We demonstrate the utility of this system by regulating the mitotic inhibitor Wee1 to create a strain in which cell size is regulated by β-estradiol concentration. This promoter system will be of great utility for experimentally regulating gene expression in fission yeast. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Four mating-type genes control sexual differentiation in the fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Kelly, M; Burke, J; Smith, M; Klar, A; Beach, D

    1988-05-01

    The mating-type region of fission yeast consists of three components, mat1, mat2-P and mat3-M, each separated by 15 kb. Cell-type is determined by the alternate allele present at mat1, either P in an h+ or M in an h- cell. mat2-P and mat3-M serve as donors of information that is transposed to mat1 during a switch of mating type. We have determined the nucleotide sequence of each component of mat. The P and M specific regions are 1104 and 1128 bp, respectively, and bounded by sequences common to each mating-type cassette (H1; 59 bp and H2; 135 bp). A third sequence is present at mat2-P and mat3-M but absent at mat1 (H3; 57 bp), and may be involved in transcriptional repression of these cassettes. mat1-P and mat1-M each encode two genes (Pc; 118 amino acids, Pi; 159 amino acids, Mc; 181 amino acids and Mi; 42 amino acids). Introduction of opal or frame-shift mutations into the open-reading-frame of each gene revealed that Pc and Mc are necessary and sufficient for mating and confer an h+ or h- mating type respectively. All four genes are required for meiotic competence in an h+/h- diploid. The transcription of each mat gene is strongly influenced by nutritional conditions and full induction was observed only in nitrogen-free medium. The predicted product of the Pi gene contains a region of homology with the homeobox sequence, suggesting that this gene encodes a DNA binding protein that directly regulates the expression of other genes.

  12. A large gene family in fission yeast encodes spore killers that subvert Mendel’s law

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Wen; Jiang, Zhao-Di; Suo, Fang; Zheng, Jin-Xin; He, Wan-Zhong; Du, Li-Lin

    2017-01-01

    Spore killers in fungi are selfish genetic elements that distort Mendelian segregation in their favor. It remains unclear how many species harbor them and how diverse their mechanisms are. Here, we discover two spore killers from a natural isolate of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Both killers belong to the previously uncharacterized wtf gene family with 25 members in the reference genome. These two killers act in strain-background-independent and genome-location-independent manners to perturb the maturation of spores not inheriting them. Spores carrying one killer are protected from its killing effect but not that of the other killer. The killing and protecting activities can be uncoupled by mutation. The numbers and sequences of wtf genes vary considerably between S. pombe isolates, indicating rapid divergence. We propose that wtf genes contribute to the extensive intraspecific reproductive isolation in S. pombe, and represent ideal models for understanding how segregation-distorting elements act and evolve. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.26057.001 PMID:28631610

  13. Genes required for initiation and resolution steps of mating-type switching in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Egel, R; Beach, D H; Klar, A J

    1984-06-01

    The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe switches mating type by transposition of a copy of DNA derived from either of the two storage cassettes, mat2 -P and mat3 -M, into the expression locus, mat1 . The recombinational event of switching is initiated by a double-stranded DNA break present in approximately 20% of the molecules at mat1 . Fifty-three mutants defective in switching of mating type have been isolated previously, and each has been assigned to 1 of 10 linkage groups. One group consists of cis-acting mutations at mat1 , which reduce the amount of the DNA double-strand cut. The remaining nine groups are mutations in genes that are unlinked to the mating-type locus and are studied here. Three ( swi1 , -3, -7) are required for formation of the double-strand cut, whereas the others are not. Mutants of three genes ( swi4 , -8, -9) undergo high-frequency rearrangement of the mating-type locus indicative of errors of resolution of recombinational intermediates. The remaining three ( swi2 , -5, -6) have normal levels of cut, do not make errors of resolution, and possibly are required either for efficient utilization of the cut or determining the directionality of switching. The data suggest that the switching process can be dissected into genetically distinguishable steps.

  14. Gene activation by copy transposition in mating-type switching of a homothallic fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Egel, R; Gutz, H

    1981-04-01

    Mating-type switching in homothallic clones of the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, appears to follow the same route as previously found for "mutations" from homothallism to heterothallic ⊕ strains. A copy of mat2-P is transposed to and inserted at mat1, where it functionally replaces the mat1-M allele, and only the mat1 segment is expressed (!) to determine the actual mating type: mat1-M(!) mat2-P = ⊖ ⇌ ⊕ = mat1-P(!) mat2-P. This phenomenon has hitherto been concealed by the high switch-back rate from ⊕ to ⊖ observed in homothallic wild-type strains. It only becomes apparent in the presence of mutant "switching genes", which retard the rates of mating-type interconversion and temporarily freeze one or the other state of gene activation at the mat1 segment. Mutations to lowered rates of switching are found to map both inside and outside the mating-type locus. While the internal mutations of this kind exert their effect autonomously in the cis-configuration, the unlinked mutations are recessive to their wild-type alleles.

  15. Genes required for initiation and resolution steps of mating-type switching in fission yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Egel, R; Beach, D H; Klar, A J

    1984-01-01

    The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe switches mating type by transposition of a copy of DNA derived from either of the two storage cassettes, mat2 -P and mat3 -M, into the expression locus, mat1 . The recombinational event of switching is initiated by a double-stranded DNA break present in approximately 20% of the molecules at mat1 . Fifty-three mutants defective in switching of mating type have been isolated previously, and each has been assigned to 1 of 10 linkage groups. One group consists of cis-acting mutations at mat1 , which reduce the amount of the DNA double-strand cut. The remaining nine groups are mutations in genes that are unlinked to the mating-type locus and are studied here. Three ( swi1 , -3, -7) are required for formation of the double-strand cut, whereas the others are not. Mutants of three genes ( swi4 , -8, -9) undergo high-frequency rearrangement of the mating-type locus indicative of errors of resolution of recombinational intermediates. The remaining three ( swi2 , -5, -6) have normal levels of cut, do not make errors of resolution, and possibly are required either for efficient utilization of the cut or determining the directionality of switching. The data suggest that the switching process can be dissected into genetically distinguishable steps. Images PMID:6587363

  16. Characterisation of functional domains in fission yeast Ams2 that are required for core histone gene transcription

    PubMed Central

    Takayama, Yuko; Shirai, Masaki; Masuda, Fumie

    2016-01-01

    Histone gene expression is regulated in a cell cycle-dependent manner, with a peak at S phase, which is crucial for cell division and genome integrity. However, the detailed mechanisms by which expression of histone genes are tightly regulated remain largely unknown. Fission yeast Ams2, a GATA-type zinc finger motif-containing factor, is required for activation of S phase-specific core histone gene transcription. Here we report the molecular characterisation of Ams2. We show that the zinc finger motif in Ams2 is necessary to bind the histone gene promoter region and to activate histone gene transcription. An N-terminal region of Ams2 acts as a self-interaction domain. Intriguingly, N-terminally truncated Ams2 binds to the histone gene promoters, but does not fully activate histone gene transcription. These observations imply that Ams2 self-interactions are required for efficient core histone gene transcription. Moreover, we show that Ams2 interacts with Teb1, which itself binds to the core histone gene promoters. We discuss the relationships between Ams2 domains and efficient transcription of the core histone genes in fission yeast. PMID:27901072

  17. A genome–wide screen to identify genes controlling the rate of entry into mitosis in fission yeast

    PubMed Central

    Moris, Naomi; Nurse, Paul

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We have carried out a haploinsufficiency (HI) screen in fission yeast using heterozygous deletion diploid mutants of a genome-wide set of cell cycle genes to identify genes encoding products whose level determines the rate of progression through the cell cycle. Cell size at division was used as a measure of advancement or delay of the G2-M transition of rod-shaped fission yeast cells. We found that 13 mutants were significantly longer or shorter (greater than 10%) than control cells at cell division. These included mutants of the cdc2, cdc25, wee1 and pom1 genes, which have previously been shown to play a role in the timing of entry into mitosis, and which validate this approach. Seven of these genes are involved in regulation of the G2-M transition, 5 for nuclear transport and one for nucleotide metabolism. In addition we identified 4 more genes that were 8–10% longer or shorter than the control that also had roles in regulation of the G2-M transition or in nuclear transport. The genes identified here are all conserved in human cells, suggesting that this dataset will be useful as a basis for further studies to identify rate-limiting steps for progression through the cell cycle in other eukaryotes. PMID:27736299

  18. A genome-wide screen to identify genes controlling the rate of entry into mitosis in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Moris, Naomi; Shrivastava, Jaya; Jeffery, Linda; Li, Juan-Juan; Hayles, Jacqueline; Nurse, Paul

    2016-11-16

    We have carried out a haploinsufficiency (HI) screen in fission yeast using heterozygous deletion diploid mutants of a genome-wide set of cell cycle genes to identify genes encoding products whose level determines the rate of progression through the cell cycle. Cell size at division was used as a measure of advancement or delay of the G2-M transition of rod-shaped fission yeast cells. We found that 13 mutants were significantly longer or shorter (greater than 10%) than control cells at cell division. These included mutants of the cdc2, cdc25, wee1 and pom1 genes, which have previously been shown to play a role in the timing of entry into mitosis, and which validate this approach. Seven of these genes are involved in regulation of the G2-M transition, 5 for nuclear transport and one for nucleotide metabolism. In addition we identified 4 more genes that were 8-10% longer or shorter than the control that also had roles in regulation of the G2-M transition or in nuclear transport. The genes identified here are all conserved in human cells, suggesting that this dataset will be useful as a basis for further studies to identify rate-limiting steps for progression through the cell cycle in other eukaryotes.

  19. rqh1+, a fission yeast gene related to the Bloom's and Werner's syndrome genes, is required for reversible S phase arrest.

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, E; Chapman, C R; Al-Khodairy, F; Carr, A M; Enoch, T

    1997-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, S phase can be reversibly arrested by drugs that inhibit DNA synthesis or DNA damage. Here we show that recovery from such treatments is under genetic control and is defective in fission yeast rqh1 mutants. rqh1+, previously known as hus2+, encodes a putative DNA helicase related to the Escherichia coli RecQ helicase, with particular homology to the gene products of the human BLM and WRN genes and the Saccharomyces cerevisiae SGS1 gene. BLM and WRN are mutated in patients with Bloom's syndrome and Werner's syndrome respectively. Both syndromes are associated with genomic instability and cancer susceptibility. We show that, like BLM and SGS1, rqh1+ is required to prevent recombination and that in fission yeast suppression of inappropriate recombination is essential for reversible S phase arrest. PMID:9184215

  20. H3K9me-Independent Gene Silencing in Fission Yeast Heterochromatin by Clr5 and Histone Deacetylases

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Klavs R.; Hazan, Idit; Shanker, Sreenath; Watt, Stephen; Verhein-Hansen, Janne; Bähler, Jürg; Martienssen, Robert A.; Partridge, Janet F.; Cohen, Amikam; Thon, Geneviève

    2011-01-01

    Nucleosomes in heterochromatic regions bear histone modifications that distinguish them from euchromatic nucleosomes. Among those, histone H3 lysine 9 methylation (H3K9me) and hypoacetylation have been evolutionarily conserved and are found in both multicellular eukaryotes and single-cell model organisms such as fission yeast. In spite of numerous studies, the relative contributions of the various heterochromatic histone marks to the properties of heterochromatin remain largely undefined. Here, we report that silencing of the fission yeast mating-type cassettes, which are located in a well-characterized heterochromatic region, is hardly affected in cells lacking the H3K9 methyltransferase Clr4. We document the existence of a pathway parallel to H3K9me ensuring gene repression in the absence of Clr4 and identify a silencing factor central to this pathway, Clr5. We find that Clr5 controls gene expression at multiple chromosomal locations in addition to affecting the mating-type region. The histone deacetylase Clr6 acts in the same pathway as Clr5, at least for its effects in the mating-type region, and on a subset of other targets, notably a region recently found to be prone to neo-centromere formation. The genomic targets of Clr5 also include Ste11, a master regulator of sexual differentiation. Hence Clr5, like the multi-functional Atf1 transcription factor which also modulates chromatin structure in the mating-type region, controls sexual differentiation and genome integrity at several levels. Globally, our results point to histone deacetylases as prominent repressors of gene expression in fission yeast heterochromatin. These deacetylases can act in concert with, or independently of, the widely studied H3K9me mark to influence gene silencing at heterochromatic loci. PMID:21253571

  1. Split-Doa10: a naturally split polytopic eukaryotic membrane protein generated by fission of a nuclear gene.

    PubMed

    Stuerner, Elisabeth; Kuraku, Shigehiro; Hochstrasser, Mark; Kreft, Stefan G

    2012-01-01

    Large polytopic membrane proteins often derive from duplication and fusion of genes for smaller proteins. The reverse process, splitting of a membrane protein by gene fission, is rare and has been studied mainly with artificially split proteins. Fragments of a split membrane protein may associate and reconstitute the function of the larger protein. Most examples of naturally split membrane proteins are from bacteria or eukaryotic organelles, and their exact history is usually poorly understood. Here, we describe a nuclear-encoded split membrane protein, split-Doa10, in the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis. In most species, Doa10 is encoded as a single polypeptide with 12-16 transmembrane helices (TMs), but split-KlDoa10 is encoded as two fragments, with the split occurring between TM2 and TM3. The two fragments assemble into an active ubiquitin-protein ligase. The K. lactis DOA10 locus has two ORFs separated by a 508-bp intervening sequence (IVS). A promoter within the IVS drives expression of the C-terminal KlDoa10 fragment. At least four additional Kluyveromyces species contain an IVS in the DOA10 locus, in contrast to even closely related genera, allowing dating of the fission event to the base of the genus. The upstream Kluyveromyces Doa10 fragment with its N-terminal RING-CH and two TMs resembles many metazoan MARCH (Membrane-Associated RING-CH) and related viral RING-CH proteins, suggesting that gene splitting may have contributed to MARCH enzyme diversification. Split-Doa10 is the first unequivocal case of a split membrane protein where fission occurred in a nuclear-encoded gene. Such a split may allow divergent functions for the individual protein segments.

  2. TORC1 signaling inhibition by rapamycin and caffeine affect lifespan, global gene expression, and cell proliferation of fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Rallis, Charalampos; Codlin, Sandra; Bähler, Jürg

    2013-08-01

    Target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) is implicated in growth control and aging from yeast to humans. Fission yeast is emerging as a popular model organism to study TOR signaling, although rapamycin has been thought to not affect cell growth in this organism. Here, we analyzed the effects of rapamycin and caffeine, singly and combined, on multiple cellular processes in fission yeast. The two drugs led to diverse and specific phenotypes that depended on TORC1 inhibition, including prolonged chronological lifespan, inhibition of global translation, inhibition of cell growth and division, and reprograming of global gene expression mimicking nitrogen starvation. Rapamycin and caffeine differentially affected these various TORC1-dependent processes. Combined drug treatment augmented most phenotypes and effectively blocked cell growth. Rapamycin showed a much more subtle effect on global translation than did caffeine, while both drugs were effective in prolonging chronological lifespan. Rapamycin and caffeine did not affect the lifespan via the pH of the growth media. Rapamycin prolonged the lifespan of nongrowing cells only when applied during the growth phase but not when applied after cells had stopped proliferation. The doses of rapamycin and caffeine strongly correlated with growth inhibition and with lifespan extension. This comprehensive analysis will inform future studies into TORC1 function and cellular aging in fission yeast and beyond. © 2013 The Authors. Aging Cell published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and the Anatomical Society.

  3. TORC1 signaling inhibition by rapamycin and caffeine affect lifespan, global gene expression, and cell proliferation of fission yeast

    PubMed Central

    Rallis, Charalampos; Codlin, Sandra; Bähler, Jürg

    2013-01-01

    Target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) is implicated in growth control and aging from yeast to humans. Fission yeast is emerging as a popular model organism to study TOR signaling, although rapamycin has been thought to not affect cell growth in this organism. Here, we analyzed the effects of rapamycin and caffeine, singly and combined, on multiple cellular processes in fission yeast. The two drugs led to diverse and specific phenotypes that depended on TORC1 inhibition, including prolonged chronological lifespan, inhibition of global translation, inhibition of cell growth and division, and reprograming of global gene expression mimicking nitrogen starvation. Rapamycin and caffeine differentially affected these various TORC1-dependent processes. Combined drug treatment augmented most phenotypes and effectively blocked cell growth. Rapamycin showed a much more subtle effect on global translation than did caffeine, while both drugs were effective in prolonging chronological lifespan. Rapamycin and caffeine did not affect the lifespan via the pH of the growth media. Rapamycin prolonged the lifespan of nongrowing cells only when applied during the growth phase but not when applied after cells had stopped proliferation. The doses of rapamycin and caffeine strongly correlated with growth inhibition and with lifespan extension. This comprehensive analysis will inform future studies into TORC1 function and cellular aging in fission yeast and beyond. PMID:23551936

  4. Combining random gene fission and rational gene fusion to discover near-infrared fluorescent protein fragments that report on protein-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Naresh; Nobles, Christopher L; Zechiedrich, Lynn; Maresso, Anthony W; Silberg, Jonathan J

    2015-05-15

    Gene fission can convert monomeric proteins into two-piece catalysts, reporters, and transcription factors for systems and synthetic biology. However, some proteins can be challenging to fragment without disrupting function, such as near-infrared fluorescent protein (IFP). We describe a directed evolution strategy that can overcome this challenge by randomly fragmenting proteins and concomitantly fusing the protein fragments to pairs of proteins or peptides that associate. We used this method to create libraries that express fragmented IFP as fusions to a pair of associating peptides (IAAL-E3 and IAAL-K3) and proteins (CheA and CheY) and screened for fragmented IFP with detectable near-infrared fluorescence. Thirteen novel fragmented IFPs were identified, all of which arose from backbone fission proximal to the interdomain linker. Either the IAAL-E3 and IAAL-K3 peptides or CheA and CheY proteins could assist with IFP fragment complementation, although the IAAL-E3 and IAAL-K3 peptides consistently yielded higher fluorescence. These results demonstrate how random gene fission can be coupled to rational gene fusion to create libraries enriched in fragmented proteins with AND gate logic that is dependent upon a protein-protein interaction, and they suggest that these near-infrared fluorescent protein fragments will be suitable as reporters for pairs of promoters and protein-protein interactions within whole animals.

  5. Mitophagy in yeast is independent of mitochondrial fission and requires the stress response gene WHI2.

    PubMed

    Mendl, Nadine; Occhipinti, Angelo; Müller, Matthias; Wild, Philipp; Dikic, Ivan; Reichert, Andreas S

    2011-04-15

    Dysfunctional mitochondria show a reduced capacity for fusion and, as mitochondrial fission is maintained, become spatially separated from the intact network. By that mechanism, dysfunctional mitochondria have been proposed to be targeted for selective degradation by mitophagy, thereby providing a quality control system for mitochondria. In yeast, conflicting results concerning the role of mitochondrial dynamics in mitophagy have been reported. Here, we investigate the effects on mitophagy of altering mitochondrial fission and fusion, using biochemical, as well as fluorescence-based, assays. Rapamycin-induced mitophagy was shown to depend upon the autophagy-related proteins Atg11, Atg20 and Atg24, confirming that a selective type of autophagy occurred. Both fragmentation of mitochondria and inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation were not sufficient to trigger mitophagy, and neither deletion of the fission factors Dnm1, Fis1, Mdv1 or Caf4 nor expression of dominant-negative variants of Dnm1 impaired mitophagy. The diminished mitophagy initially observed in a Δfis1 mutant was not due to the absence of Fis1 but rather due to a secondary mutation in WHI2, which encodes a factor reported to function in the general stress response and the Ras-protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway. We propose that, in yeast, mitochondrial fission is not a prerequisite for the selective degradation of mitochondria, and that mitophagy is linked to the general stress response and the Ras-PKA signaling pathway.

  6. Nuclear Fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denschlag, J. O.

    This chapter first gives a survey on the history of the discovery of nuclear fission. It briefly presents the liquid-drop and shell models and their application to the fission process. The most important quantities accessible to experimental determination such as mass yields, nuclear charge distribution, prompt neutron emission, kinetic energy distribution, ternary fragment yields, angular distributions, and properties of fission isomers are presented as well as the instrumentation and techniques used for their measurement. The contribution concentrates on the fundamental aspects of nuclear fission. The practical aspects of nuclear fission are discussed in http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-0720-2_57 of Vol. 6.

  7. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 2 deficiency is a novel disorder of mitochondrial fission.

    PubMed

    Shahni, Rojeen; Cale, Catherine M; Anderson, Glenn; Osellame, Laura D; Hambleton, Sophie; Jacques, Thomas S; Wedatilake, Yehani; Taanman, Jan-Willem; Chan, Emma; Qasim, Waseem; Plagnol, Vincent; Chalasani, Annapurna; Duchen, Michael R; Gilmour, Kimberly C; Rahman, Shamima

    2015-10-01

    Defects of mitochondrial dynamics are emerging causes of neurological disease. In two children presenting with severe neurological deterioration following viral infection we identified a novel homozygous STAT2 mutation, c.1836 C>A (p.Cys612Ter), using whole exome sequencing. In muscle and fibroblasts from these patients, and a third unrelated STAT2-deficient patient, we observed extremely elongated mitochondria. Western blot analysis revealed absence of the STAT2 protein and that the mitochondrial fission protein DRP1 (encoded by DNM1L) is inactive, as shown by its phosphorylation state. All three patients harboured decreased levels of DRP1 phosphorylated at serine residue 616 (P-DRP1(S616)), a post-translational modification known to activate DRP1, and increased levels of DRP1 phosphorylated at serine 637 (P-DRP1(S637)), associated with the inactive state of the DRP1 GTPase. Knockdown of STAT2 in SHSY5Y cells recapitulated the fission defect, with elongated mitochondria and decreased P-DRP1(S616) levels. Furthermore the mitochondrial fission defect in patient fibroblasts was rescued following lentiviral transduction with wild-type STAT2 in all three patients, with normalization of mitochondrial length and increased P-DRP1(S616) levels. Taken together, these findings implicate STAT2 as a novel regulator of DRP1 phosphorylation at serine 616, and thus of mitochondrial fission, and suggest that there are interactions between immunity and mitochondria. This is the first study to link the innate immune system to mitochondrial dynamics and morphology. We hypothesize that variability in JAK-STAT signalling may contribute to the phenotypic heterogeneity of mitochondrial disease, and may explain why some patients with underlying mitochondrial disease decompensate after seemingly trivial viral infections. Modulating JAK-STAT activity may represent a novel therapeutic avenue for mitochondrial diseases, which remain largely untreatable. This may also be relevant for more

  8. Negative regulation of meiotic gene expression by the nuclear poly(a)-binding protein in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    St-André, Olivier; Lemieux, Caroline; Perreault, Audrey; Lackner, Daniel H; Bähler, Jürg; Bachand, François

    2010-09-03

    Meiosis is a cellular differentiation process in which hundreds of genes are temporally induced. Because the expression of meiotic genes during mitosis is detrimental to proliferation, meiotic genes must be negatively regulated in the mitotic cell cycle. Yet, little is known about mechanisms used by mitotic cells to repress meiosis-specific genes. Here we show that the poly(A)-binding protein Pab2, the fission yeast homolog of mammalian PABPN1, controls the expression of several meiotic transcripts during mitotic division. Our results from chromatin immunoprecipitation and promoter-swapping experiments indicate that Pab2 controls meiotic genes post-transcriptionally. Consistently, we show that the nuclear exosome complex cooperates with Pab2 in the negative regulation of meiotic genes. We also found that Pab2 plays a role in the RNA decay pathway orchestrated by Mmi1, a previously described factor that functions in the post-transcriptional elimination of meiotic transcripts. Our results support a model in which Mmi1 selectively targets meiotic transcripts for degradation via Pab2 and the exosome. Our findings have therefore uncovered a mode of gene regulation whereby a poly(A)-binding protein promotes RNA degradation in the nucleus to prevent untimely expression.

  9. The more the merrier: comparative analysis of microarray studies on cell cycle-regulated genes in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Marguerat, Samuel; Jensen, Thomas S; de Lichtenberg, Ulrik; Wilhelm, Brian T; Jensen, Lars J; Bähler, Jürg

    2006-03-01

    The last two years have seen the publication of three genome-wide gene expression studies of the fission yeast cell cycle. While these microarray papers largely agree on the main patterns of cell cycle-regulated transcription and its control, there are discrepancies with regard to the identity and numbers of periodically expressed genes. We present benchmark and reproducibility analyses showing that the main discrepancies do not reflect differences in the data themselves (microarray or synchronization methods seem to lead only to minor biases) but rather in the interpretation of the data. Our reanalysis of the three datasets reveals that combining all independent information leads to an improved identification of periodically expressed genes. These evaluations suggest that the available microarray data do not allow reliable identification of more than about 500 cell cycle-regulated genes. The temporal expression pattern of the top 500 periodically expressed genes is generally consistent across experiments and the three studies, together with our integrated analysis, provide a coherent and rich source of information on cell cycle-regulated gene expression in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The reanalysed datasets and other supplementary information are available from an accompanying website: http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/cellcycle/. We hope that this paper will resolve the apparent discrepancies between the previous studies and be useful both for wet-lab biologists and for theoretical scientists who wish to take advantage of the data for follow-up work. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Trans-acting factors and properly positioned DNA elements repress mating-type genes in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Ekwall, K; Olsson, T; Ruusala, T

    1992-04-01

    Repression of the mating-type P genes at the silent mat2-P locus in fission yeast is dependent on four cis-acting DNA elements, two on each side of the coding sequences. The mechanism by which these elements exert their influence on the mating-type promoter is studied here by insertion of a bacterial antibiotic resistance gene at several positions in the silent region. The behavior of the resistance gene itself, and the changes its insertion causes in mating-type expression, reveal that the repressive elements have a limited range of action and that the four elements have unequal effects on gene expression. Repression of the antibiotic resistance gene inside the silent region leads to an antibiotic-sensitive phenotype and facilitates the selection of resistant mutants. These mutants can de-repress the resistance gene at other positions than the one used for their selection. Strong antibiotic resistance correlates with derepression of the plasmid-borne mating-type cassette. These data argue that mat2-P repression is dependent on trans-acting factors and the positioning of the repressive DNA elements, but less dependent on the nature of the affected promoter.

  11. Long non-coding RNA-mediated transcriptional interference of a permease gene confers drug tolerance in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Ard, Ryan; Tong, Pin; Allshire, Robin C

    2014-11-27

    Most long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) encoded by eukaryotic genomes remain uncharacterized. Here we focus on a set of intergenic lncRNAs in fission yeast. Deleting one of these lncRNAs exhibited a clear phenotype: drug sensitivity. Detailed analyses of the affected locus revealed that transcription of the nc-tgp1 lncRNA regulates drug tolerance by repressing the adjacent phosphate-responsive permease gene transporter for glycerophosphodiester 1 (tgp1(+)). We demonstrate that the act of transcribing nc-tgp1 over the tgp1(+) promoter increases nucleosome density, prevents transcription factor access and thus represses tgp1(+) without the need for RNA interference or heterochromatin components. We therefore conclude that tgp1(+) is regulated by transcriptional interference. Accordingly, decreased nc-tgp1 transcription permits tgp1(+) expression upon phosphate starvation. Furthermore, nc-tgp1 loss induces tgp1(+) even in repressive conditions. Notably, drug sensitivity results directly from tgp1(+) expression in the absence of the nc-tgp1 RNA. Thus, transcription of an lncRNA governs drug tolerance in fission yeast.

  12. [Molecular cloning of some components of the translation apparatus of fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe and a list of its cytoplasm ic proteins genes].

    PubMed

    Shpakovskiĭ, G V; Baranova, G M; Wood, V; Gwilliam, R G; Shematorova, E K; Korol'chuk, O L; Lebedenko, E N

    1999-06-01

    Full-length cDNAs of four new genes encoding cytoplasmic ribosomal proteins L14 and L20 (large ribosomal subunit) and S1 and S27 (small ribosomal subunit) were isolated and sequenced during the analysis of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe genome. One of the Sz. pombe genes encoding translation elongation factor EF-2 was also cloned and its precise position on chromosome I established. A unified nomenclature was proposed, and the list of all known genetic determinants encoding cytoplasmic ribosomal proteins of Sz. pombe was compiled. By now, 76 genes/cDNAs encoding different ribosomal proteins have been identified in the fission yeast genome. Among them, 35 genes are duplicated and three homologous genes are identified for each of the ribosomal proteins L2, L16, P1, and P2.

  13. Nitrogen depletion in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe causes nucleosome loss in both promoters and coding regions of activated genes

    PubMed Central

    Kristell, Carolina; Orzechowski Westholm, Jakub; Olsson, Ida; Ronne, Hans; Komorowski, Jan; Bjerling, Pernilla

    2010-01-01

    Gene transcription is associated with local changes in chromatin, both in nucleosome positions and in chemical modifications of the histones. Chromatin dynamics has mostly been studied on a single-gene basis. Those genome-wide studies that have been made primarily investigated steady-state transcription. However, three studies of genome-wide changes in chromatin during the transcriptional response to heat shock in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae revealed nucleosome eviction in promoter regions but only minor effects in coding regions. Here, we describe the short-term response to nitrogen starvation in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Nitrogen depletion leads to a fast induction of a large number of genes in S. pombe and is thus suitable for genome-wide studies of chromatin dynamics during gene regulation. After 20 min of nitrogen removal, 118 transcripts were up-regulated. The distribution of regulated genes throughout the genome was not random; many up-regulated genes were found in clusters, while large parts of the genome were devoid of up-regulated genes. Surprisingly, this up-regulation was associated with nucleosome eviction of equal magnitudes in the promoters and in the coding regions. The nucleosome loss was not limited to induction by nitrogen depletion but also occurred during cadmium treatment. Furthermore, the lower nucleosome density persisted for at least 60 min after induction. Two highly induced genes, urg1+ and urg2+, displayed a substantial nucleosome loss, with only 20% of the nucleosomes being left in the coding region. We conclude that nucleosome loss during transcriptional activation is not necessarily limited to promoter regions. PMID:20086243

  14. Spontaneous Fission

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Segre, Emilio

    1950-11-22

    The first attempt to discover spontaneous fission in uranium was made by [Willard] Libby, who, however, failed to detect it on account of the smallness of effect. In 1940, [K. A.] Petrzhak and [G. N.] Flerov, using more sensitive methods, discovered spontaneous fission in uranium and gave some rough estimates of the spontaneous fission decay constant of this substance. Subsequently, extensive experimental work on the subject has been performed by several investigators and will be quoted in the various sections. [N.] Bohr and [A.] Wheeler have given a theory of the effect based on the usual ideas of penetration of potential barriers. On this project spontaneous fission has been studied for the past several years in an effort to obtain a complete picture of the phenomenon. For this purpose the spontaneous fission decay constants {lambda} have been measured for separated isotopes of the heavy elements wherever possible. Moreover, the number {nu} of neutrons emitted per fission has been measured wherever feasible, and other characteristics of the spontaneous fission process have been studied. This report summarizes the spontaneous fission work done at Los Alamos up to January 1, 1945. A chronological record of the work is contained in the Los Alamos monthly reports.

  15. Structural insights into oligomerization and mitochondrial remodelling of dynamin 1-like protein

    PubMed Central

    Fröhlich, Chris; Grabiger, Stefan; Schwefel, David; Faelber, Katja; Rosenbaum, Eva; Mears, Jason; Rocks, Oliver; Daumke, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Dynamin 1-like protein (DNM1L) mediates fission of mitochondria and peroxisomes, and dysfunction of DNM1L has been implicated in several neurological disorders. To study the molecular basis of mitochondrial remodelling, we determined the crystal structure of DNM1L that is comprised of a G domain, a bundle signalling element and a stalk. DNM1L assembled via a central stalk interface, and mutations in this interface disrupted dimerization and interfered with membrane binding and mitochondrial targeting. Two sequence stretches at the tip of the stalk were shown to be required for ordered assembly of DNM1L on membranes and its function in mitochondrial fission. In the crystals, DNM1L dimers further assembled via a second, previously undescribed, stalk interface to form a linear filament. Mutations in this interface interfered with liposome tubulation and mitochondrial remodelling. Based on these results and electron microscopy reconstructions, we propose an oligomerization mode for DNM1L which differs from that of dynamin and might be adapted to the remodelling of mitochondria. PMID:23584531

  16. A DMSO-sensitive conditional mutant of the fission yeast orthologue of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae SEC13 gene is defective in septation.

    PubMed

    Poloni, Deborah; Simanis, Viesturs

    2002-01-30

    Dissection of complex processes using model organisms such as yeasts relies heavily upon the use of conditional mutants. We have generated a collection of fission yeast mutants sensitive to dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO). Among these we have found a mutant in the Schizosaccharomyces pombe orthologue of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae SEC13 gene, which fails to cleave the division septum. Generation of a null allele demonstrates that the S. pombe sec13 gene is essential.

  17. Gene amplification at a locus encoding a putative Na+/H+ antiporter confers sodium and lithium tolerance in fission yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Z P; McCullough, N; Martel, R; Hemmingsen, S; Young, P G

    1992-01-01

    We have identified a new locus, sodium 2 (sod2) based on selection for increased LiCl tolerance in fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Tolerant strains have enhanced pH-dependent Na+ export capacity and sodium transport experiments suggest that the gene encodes an Na+/H+ antiport. The predicted sod2 gene product can be placed in the broad class of transporters which possess 12 hydrophobic transmembrane domains. The protein shows some sequence similarity to the human and bacterial Na+/H+ antiporters. Overexpression of sod2 increased Na+ export capacity and conferred sodium tolerance. Osmotolerance was not affected and sod2 cells were unaffected for growth in K+. In a sod2 disruption strain cells were incapable of exporting sodium. They were hypersensitive to Na+ or Li+ and could not grow under conditions that approximate pH7. The sod2 gene amplification could be selected stepwise and the degree of such amplification correlated with the level of Na+ or Li+ tolerance. Images PMID:1314171

  18. Individual letters of the RNA polymerase II CTD code govern distinct gene expression programs in fission yeast

    PubMed Central

    Schwer, Beate; Bitton, Danny Asher; Sanchez, Ana M.; Bähler, Jürg; Shuman, Stewart

    2014-01-01

    The primary structure and phosphorylation pattern of the tandem Y1S2P3T4S5P6S7 repeats of the RNA polymerase II carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) comprise an informational code that coordinates transcription, chromatin modification, and RNA processing. To gauge the contributions of individual CTD coding “letters” to gene expression, we analyzed the poly(A)+ transcriptomes of fission yeast mutants that lack each of the four inessential CTD phosphoacceptors: Tyr1, Ser2, Thr4, and Ser7. There was a hierarchy of CTD mutational effects with respect to the number of dysregulated protein-coding RNAs, with S2A (n = 227) >> Y1F (n = 71) > S7A (n = 58) >> T4A (n = 7). The majority of the protein-coding RNAs affected in Y1F cells were coordinately affected by S2A, suggesting that Tyr1-Ser2 constitutes a two-letter code “word.” Y1F and S2A elicited increased expression of genes encoding proteins involved in iron uptake (Frp1, Fip1, Fio1, Str3, Str1, Sib1), without affecting the expression of the genes that repress the iron regulon, implying that Tyr1-Ser2 transduces a repressive signal. Y1F and S2A cells had increased levels of ferric reductase activity and were hypersensitive to phleomycin, indicative of elevated intracellular iron. The T4A and S7A mutations had opposing effects on the phosphate response pathway. T4A reduced the expression of two genes encoding proteins involved in phosphate acquisition (the Pho1 acid phosphatase and the phosphate transporter SPBC8E4.01c), without affecting the expression of known genes that regulate the phosphate response pathway, whereas S7A increased pho1+ expression. These results highlight specific cellular gene expression programs that are responsive to distinct CTD cues. PMID:24591591

  19. A unique RPW8-encoding class of genes that originated in early land plants and evolved through domain fission, fusion, and duplication

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Yan; Cheng, Zong-Ming (Max)

    2016-01-01

    Duplication, lateral gene transfer, domain fusion/fission and de novo domain creation play a key role in formation of initial common ancestral protein. Abundant protein diversities are produced by domain rearrangements, including fusions, fissions, duplications, and terminal domain losses. In this report, we explored the origin of the RPW8 domain and examined the domain rearrangements that have driven the evolution of RPW8-encoding genes in land plants. The RPW8 domain first emerged in the early land plant, Physcomitrella patens, and it likely originated de novo from a non-coding sequence or domain divergence after duplication. It was then incorporated into the NBS-LRR protein to create a main sub-class of RPW8-encoding genes, the RPW8-NBS-encoding genes. They evolved by a series of genetic events of domain fissions, fusions, and duplications. Many species-specific duplication events and tandemly duplicated clusters clearly demonstrated that species-specific and tandem duplications played important roles in expansion of RPW8-encoding genes, especially in gymnosperms and species of the Rosaceae. RPW8 domains with greater Ka/Ks values than those of the NBS domains indicated that they evolved faster than the NBS domains in RPW8-NBSs. PMID:27678195

  20. Failed gene conversion leads to extensive end processing and chromosomal rearrangements in fission yeast

    PubMed Central

    Tinline-Purvis, Helen; Savory, Andrew P; Cullen, Jason K; Davé, Anoushka; Moss, Jennifer; Bridge, Wendy L; Marguerat, Samuel; Bähler, Jürg; Ragoussis, Jiannis; Mott, Richard; A Walker, Carol; Humphrey, Timothy C

    2009-01-01

    Loss of heterozygosity (LOH), a causal event in cancer and human genetic diseases, frequently encompasses multiple genetic loci and whole chromosome arms. However, the mechanisms by which such extensive LOH arises, and how it is suppressed in normal cells is poorly understood. We have developed a genetic system to investigate the mechanisms of DNA double-strand break (DSB)-induced extensive LOH, and its suppression, using a non-essential minichromosome, Ch16, in fission yeast. We find extensive LOH to arise from a new break-induced mechanism of isochromosome formation. Our data support a model in which Rqh1 and Exo1-dependent end processing from an unrepaired DSB leads to removal of the broken chromosome arm and to break-induced replication of the intact arm from the centromere, a considerable distance from the initial lesion. This process also promotes genome-wide copy number variation. A genetic screen revealed Rhp51, Rhp55, Rhp57 and the MRN complex to suppress both isochromosome formation and chromosome loss, in accordance with these events resulting from extensive end processing associated with failed homologous recombination repair. PMID:19798055

  1. Involvement of the spliceosomal U4 small nuclear RNA in heterochromatic gene silencing at fission yeast centromeres.

    PubMed

    Chinen, Madoka; Morita, Misato; Fukumura, Kazuhiro; Tani, Tokio

    2010-02-19

    prp13-1 is one of the mutants isolated in a screen for defective pre-mRNA splicing at a nonpermissive temperature in fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. We cloned the prp13(+) gene and found that it encodes U4 small nuclear RNA (snRNA) involved in the assembly of the spliceosome. The prp13-1 mutant produced elongated cells, a phenotype similar to cell division cycle mutants, and displays a high incidence of lagging chromosomes on anaphase spindles. The mutant is hypersensitive to the microtubule-destabilizing drug thiabendazole, supporting that prp13-1 has a defect in chromosomal segregation. We found that the prp13-1 mutation resulted in expression of the ura4(+) gene inserted in the pericentromeric heterochromatin region and reduced recruitment of the heterochromatin protein Swi6p to that region, indicating defects in the formation of pericentromeric heterochromatin, which is essential for the segregation of chromosomes, in prp13-1. The formation of centromeric heterochromatin is induced by the RNA interference (RNAi) system in S. pombe. In prp13-1, the processing of centromeric noncoding RNAs to siRNAs, which direct the heterochromatin formation, was impaired and unprocessed noncoding RNAs were accumulated. These results suggest that U4 snRNA is required for the RNAi-directed heterochromatic gene silencing at the centromeres. In relation to the linkage between the spliceosomal U4 snRNA and the RNAi-directed formation of heterochromatin, we identified a mRNA-type intron in the centromeric noncoding RNAs. We propose a model in which the assembly of the spliceosome or a sub-spliceosome complex on the intron-containing centromeric noncoding RNAs facilitates the RNAi-directed formation of heterochromatin at centromeres, through interaction with the RNA-directed RNA polymerase complex.

  2. Involvement of the Spliceosomal U4 Small Nuclear RNA in Heterochromatic Gene Silencing at Fission Yeast Centromeres*

    PubMed Central

    Chinen, Madoka; Morita, Misato; Fukumura, Kazuhiro; Tani, Tokio

    2010-01-01

    prp13-1 is one of the mutants isolated in a screen for defective pre-mRNA splicing at a nonpermissive temperature in fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. We cloned the prp13+ gene and found that it encodes U4 small nuclear RNA (snRNA) involved in the assembly of the spliceosome. The prp13-1 mutant produced elongated cells, a phenotype similar to cell division cycle mutants, and displays a high incidence of lagging chromosomes on anaphase spindles. The mutant is hypersensitive to the microtubule-destabilizing drug thiabendazole, supporting that prp13-1 has a defect in chromosomal segregation. We found that the prp13-1 mutation resulted in expression of the ura4+ gene inserted in the pericentromeric heterochromatin region and reduced recruitment of the heterochromatin protein Swi6p to that region, indicating defects in the formation of pericentromeric heterochromatin, which is essential for the segregation of chromosomes, in prp13-1. The formation of centromeric heterochromatin is induced by the RNA interference (RNAi) system in S. pombe. In prp13-1, the processing of centromeric noncoding RNAs to siRNAs, which direct the heterochromatin formation, was impaired and unprocessed noncoding RNAs were accumulated. These results suggest that U4 snRNA is required for the RNAi-directed heterochromatic gene silencing at the centromeres. In relation to the linkage between the spliceosomal U4 snRNA and the RNAi-directed formation of heterochromatin, we identified a mRNA-type intron in the centromeric noncoding RNAs. We propose a model in which the assembly of the spliceosome or a sub-spliceosome complex on the intron-containing centromeric noncoding RNAs facilitates the RNAi-directed formation of heterochromatin at centromeres, through interaction with the RNA-directed RNA polymerase complex. PMID:20018856

  3. The bamA gene for anaerobic ring fission is widely distributed in the environment

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Abigail W.; Young, Lily Y.

    2013-01-01

    Benzoyl-CoA is the signature central metabolite associated with the anaerobic metabolism of a diverse range of compounds such as humic acid, lignin, amino acids, and industrial chemicals. Aromatic chemicals with different upstream degradation pathways all funnel into the downstream benzoyl-CoA pathway. Different genes encoding enzymes of the benzoyl-CoA pathway could be used as biomarkers for the anaerobic benzoyl-CoA pathway, however, the ring opening hydrolase, encoded by the bamA gene, is ideal because it is detected under a range of respiratory conditions, including under denitrifying, iron-reducing, sulfate-reducing, and fermentative conditions. This work evaluated DNA samples from six diverse environments for the presence of the bamA gene, and had positive results for every sample. Individual bamA gene clones from these sites were compared to published genome sequences. The clone sequences were distributed amongst the genome sequences, although there were clone sequences from two of the analyzed sites that formed a unique clade. Clone sequences were then grouped by site and analyzed with a functional operational taxonomic unit based clustering program to compare the bamA gene diversity of these sites to that of several locations reported in the literature. The results showed that the sequence diversity of the sites separated into two clusters, but there was no clear trend that could be related to the site characteristics. Interestingly, two pristine freshwater sites formed a subgroup within one of the larger clusters. Thus far the bamA gene has only been examined within the context of contaminated environments, however, this study demonstrates that the bamA gene is also detected in uncontaminated sites. The widespread presence of the bamA gene in diverse environments suggests that the anaerobic benzoyl-CoA pathway plays an important role in the global carbon cycle that has thus far been understudied. PMID:24133487

  4. Fission yeast Cdk7 controls gene expression through both its CAK and C-terminal domain kinase activities.

    PubMed

    Devos, Maxime; Mommaerts, Elise; Migeot, Valerie; van Bakel, Harm; Hermand, Damien

    2015-05-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) activation and RNA polymerase II transcription are linked by the Cdk7 kinase, which phosphorylates Cdks as a trimeric Cdk-activating kinase (CAK) complex, and serine 5 within the polymerase II (Pol II) C-terminal domain (CTD) as transcription factor TFIIH-bound CAK. However, the physiological importance of integrating these processes is not understood. Besides the Cdk7 ortholog Mcs6, fission yeast possesses a second CAK, Csk1. The two enzymes have been proposed to act redundantly to activate Cdc2. Using an improved analogue-sensitive Mcs6-as kinase, we show that Csk1 is not a relevant CAK for Cdc2. Further analyses revealed that Csk1 lacks a 20-amino-acid sequence required for its budding yeast counterpart, Cak1, to bind Cdc2. Transcriptome profiling of the Mcs6-as mutant in the presence or absence of the budding yeast Cak1 kinase, in order to uncouple the CTD kinase and CAK activities of Mcs6, revealed an unanticipated role of the CAK branch in the transcriptional control of the cluster of genes implicated in ribosome biogenesis and cell growth. The analysis of a Cdc2 CAK site mutant confirmed these data. Our data show that the Cdk7 kinase modulates transcription through its well-described RNA Pol II CTD kinase activity and also through the Cdc2-activating kinase activity.

  5. Fission Yeast Cdk7 Controls Gene Expression through both Its CAK and C-Terminal Domain Kinase Activities

    PubMed Central

    Devos, Maxime; Mommaerts, Elise; Migeot, Valerie; van Bakel, Harm

    2015-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) activation and RNA polymerase II transcription are linked by the Cdk7 kinase, which phosphorylates Cdks as a trimeric Cdk-activating kinase (CAK) complex, and serine 5 within the polymerase II (Pol II) C-terminal domain (CTD) as transcription factor TFIIH-bound CAK. However, the physiological importance of integrating these processes is not understood. Besides the Cdk7 ortholog Mcs6, fission yeast possesses a second CAK, Csk1. The two enzymes have been proposed to act redundantly to activate Cdc2. Using an improved analogue-sensitive Mcs6-as kinase, we show that Csk1 is not a relevant CAK for Cdc2. Further analyses revealed that Csk1 lacks a 20-amino-acid sequence required for its budding yeast counterpart, Cak1, to bind Cdc2. Transcriptome profiling of the Mcs6-as mutant in the presence or absence of the budding yeast Cak1 kinase, in order to uncouple the CTD kinase and CAK activities of Mcs6, revealed an unanticipated role of the CAK branch in the transcriptional control of the cluster of genes implicated in ribosome biogenesis and cell growth. The analysis of a Cdc2 CAK site mutant confirmed these data. Our data show that the Cdk7 kinase modulates transcription through its well-described RNA Pol II CTD kinase activity and also through the Cdc2-activating kinase activity. PMID:25691663

  6. Benchmarking nuclear fission theory

    DOE PAGES

    Bertsch, G. F.; Loveland, W.; Nazarewicz, W.; ...

    2015-05-14

    We suggest a small set of fission observables to be used as test cases for validation of theoretical calculations. Thus, the purpose is to provide common data to facilitate the comparison of different fission theories and models. The proposed observables are chosen from fission barriers, spontaneous fission lifetimes, fission yield characteristics, and fission isomer excitation energies.

  7. Benchmarking nuclear fission theory

    SciTech Connect

    Bertsch, G. F.; Loveland, W.; Nazarewicz, W.; Talou, P.

    2015-05-14

    We suggest a small set of fission observables to be used as test cases for validation of theoretical calculations. Thus, the purpose is to provide common data to facilitate the comparison of different fission theories and models. The proposed observables are chosen from fission barriers, spontaneous fission lifetimes, fission yield characteristics, and fission isomer excitation energies.

  8. RACH2, a novel human gene that complements a fission yeast cell cycle checkpoint mutation.

    PubMed Central

    Davey, S; Beach, D

    1995-01-01

    We have identified a novel human gene by virtue of its ability to complement the rad1-1 checkpoint mutant of Schizosaccharomyces pombe. This gene, called RACH2, rescues the temperature-sensitive lethality of a rad1-1 wee1-50 double mutant of S. pombe. Expression of RACH2 in S. pombe rad1-1 strains partially restores UV resistance to the rad1-1 mutant strain. Expression of RACH2 in a rad1-1 cdc25-22 double mutant partially restores the dose-dependent delay in mitotic entry after irradiation that is lost in rad1-1 checkpoint-deficient mutants. Overexpression of RACH2 in human tissue culture cells induces apoptosis. Images PMID:8573795

  9. Fission Spectrum

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Bloch, F.; Staub, H.

    1943-08-18

    Measurements of the spectrum of the fission neutrons of 25 are described, in which the energy of the neutrons is determined from the ionization produced by individual hydrogen recoils. The slow neutrons producing fission are obtained by slowing down the fast neutrons from the Be-D reaction of the Stanford cyclotron. In order to distinguish between fission neutrons and the remaining fast cyclotron neutrons both the cyclotron current and the pusle amplifier are modulated. A hollow neutron container, in which slow neutrons have a lifetime of about 2 milliseconds, avoids the use of large distances. This method results in much higher intensities than the usual modulation arrangement. The results show a continuous distribution of neutrons with a rather wide maximum at about 0.8 MV falling off to half of its maximum value at 2.0 MV. The total number of netrons is determined by comparison with the number of fission fragments. The result seems to indicate that only about 30% of the neutrons have energies below .8 MV. Various tests are described which were performed in order to rule out modification of the spectrum by inelastic scattering. Decl. May 4, 1951

  10. Bimodal fission

    SciTech Connect

    Hulet, E.K.

    1989-04-19

    In recent years, we have measured the mass and kinetic-energy distributions from the spontaneous fission of /sup 258/Fm, /sup 259/Md, /sup 260/Md, /sup 258/No, /sup 262/No, and /sup 260/(104). All are observed to fission with a symmetrical division of mass, whereas the total-kinetic-energy (TKE) distributions strongly deviated from the Gaussian shape characteristically found in the fission of all other actinides. When the TKE distributions are resolved into two Gaussians the constituent peaks lie near 200 and near 233 MeV. We conclude two modes or bimodal fission is occurring in five of the six nuclides studied. Both modes are possible in the same nuclides, but one generally predominates. We also conclude the low-energy but mass-symmetrical mode is likely to extend to far heavier nuclei; while the high-energy mode will be restricted to a smaller region, a region of nuclei defined by the proximity of the fragments to the strong neutron and proton shells in /sup 132/Sn. 16 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Deletion of Genes Encoding Arginase Improves Use of “Heavy” Isotope-Labeled Arginine for Mass Spectrometry in Fission Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Borek, Weronika E.; Zou, Juan; Rappsilber, Juri; Sawin, Kenneth E.

    2015-01-01

    The use of “heavy” isotope-labeled arginine for stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) mass spectrometry in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe is hindered by the fact that under normal conditions, arginine is extensively catabolized in vivo, resulting in the appearance of “heavy”-isotope label in several other amino acids, most notably proline, but also glutamate, glutamine and lysine. This “arginine conversion problem” significantly impairs quantification of mass spectra. Previously, we developed a method to prevent arginine conversion in fission yeast SILAC, based on deletion of genes involved in arginine catabolism. Here we show that although this method is indeed successful when 13C6-arginine (Arg-6) is used for labeling, it is less successful when 13C615N4-arginine (Arg-10), a theoretically preferable label, is used. In particular, we find that with this method, “heavy”-isotope label derived from Arg-10 is observed in amino acids other than arginine, indicating metabolic conversion of Arg-10. Arg-10 conversion, which severely complicates both MS and MS/MS analysis, is further confirmed by the presence of 13C515N2-arginine (Arg-7) in arginine-containing peptides from Arg-10-labeled cells. We describe how all of the problems associated with the use of Arg-10 can be overcome by a simple modification of our original method. We show that simultaneous deletion of the fission yeast arginase genes car1+ and aru1+ prevents virtually all of the arginine conversion that would otherwise result from the use of Arg-10. This solution should enable a wider use of heavy isotope-labeled amino acids in fission yeast SILAC. PMID:26075619

  12. Characterization of the ptr5{sup +} gene involved in nuclear mRNA export in fission yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Nobuyoshi; Ikeda, Terumasa; Mizuki, Fumitaka; Tani, Tokio

    2012-02-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We cloned the ptr5{sup +} gene involved in nuclear mRNA export in fission yeast. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ptr5{sup +} gene was found to encode nucleoporin 85 (Nup85). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Seh1p and Mlo3p are multi-copy suppressors for the ptr5 mutation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ptr5p/Nup85p functions in nuclear mRNA export through the mRNA export factor Rae1p. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ptr5p/Nup85p interacts genetically with pre-mRNA splicing factors. -- Abstract: To analyze the mechanisms of mRNA export from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, we have isolated eleven mutants, ptr [poly(A){sup +} RNA transport] 1 to 11, which accumulate poly(A){sup +} RNA in the nucleus at a nonpermissive temperature in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Of those, the ptr5-1 mutant shows dots- or a ring-like accumulation of poly(A){sup +} RNA at the nuclear periphery after shifting to the nonpermissive temperature. We cloned the ptr5{sup +} gene and found that it encodes a component of the nuclear pore complex (NPC), nucleoporin 85 (Nup85). The ptr5-1 mutant shows no defects in protein transport, suggesting the specific involvement of Ptr5p/Nup85p in nuclear mRNA export in S. pombe. We identified Seh1p, a nucleoporin interacting with Nup85p, an mRNA-binding protein Mlo3p, and Sac3p, a component of the TREX-2 complex involved in coupling of nuclear mRNA export with transcription, as multi-copy suppressors for the ptr5-1 mutation. In addition, we found that the ptr5-1 mutation is synthetically lethal with a mutation of the mRNA export factor Rae1p, and that the double mutant exaggerates defective nuclear mRNA export, suggesting that Ptr5p/Nup85p is involved in nuclear mRNA export through Rae1p. Interestingly, the ptr5-1 mutation also showed synthetic effects with several prp pre-mRNA splicing mutations, suggesting a functional linkage between the NPCs and the splicing apparatus in the yeast nucleus.

  13. Cell-cycle control of gene expression in budding and fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Bähler, Jürg

    2005-01-01

    Cell-cycle control of transcription seems to be a universal feature of proliferating cells, although relatively little is known about its biological significance and conservation between organisms. The two distantly related yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe have provided valuable complementary insight into the regulation of periodic transcription as a function of the cell cycle. More recently, genome-wide studies of proliferating cells have identified hundreds of periodically expressed genes and underlying mechanisms of transcriptional control. This review discusses the regulation of three major transcriptional waves, which roughly coincide with three main cell-cycle transitions (initiation of DNA replication, entry into mitosis, and exit from mitosis). I also compare and contrast the transcriptional regulatory networks between the two yeasts and discuss the evolutionary conservation and possible roles for cell cycle-regulated transcription.

  14. Filamentous invasive growth of mutants of the genes encoding ammonia-metabolizing enzymes in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Yoshie; Kojima, Ayumi; Shibata, Yuriko; Mitsuzawa, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe undergoes a switch from yeast to filamentous invasive growth in response to certain environmental stimuli. Among them is ammonium limitation. Amt1, one of the three ammonium transporters in this yeast, is required for the ammonium limitation-induced morphological transition; however, the underlying molecular mechanism remains to be understood. Cells lacking Amt1 became capable of invasive growth upon increasing concentrations of ammonium in the medium, suggesting that the ammonium taken up into the cell or a metabolic intermediate in ammonium assimilation might serve as a signal for the ammonium limitation-induced morphological transition. To investigate the possible role of ammonium-metabolizing enzymes in the signaling process, deletion mutants were constructed for the gdh1, gdh2, gln1, and glt1 genes, which were demonstrated by enzyme assays to encode NADP-specific glutamate dehydrogenase, NAD-specific glutamate dehydrogenase, glutamine synthetase, and glutamate synthase, respectively. Growth tests on various nitrogen sources revealed that a gln1Δ mutant was a glutamine auxotroph and that a gdh1Δ mutant had a defect in growth on ammonium, particularly at high concentrations. The latter observation indicates that the NADP-specific glutamate dehydrogenase of S. pombe plays a major role in ammonium assimilation under high ammonium concentrations. Invasive growth assays showed that gdh1Δ and glt1Δ mutants underwent invasive growth to a lesser extent than did wild-type strains. Increasing the ammonium concentration in the medium suppressed the invasive growth defect of the glt1Δ mutant, but not the gdh1Δ mutant. These results suggest that the nitrogen status of the cell is important in the induction of filamentous invasive growth in S. pombe.

  15. Regulation of cell cycle-specific gene expression in fission yeast by the Cdc14p-like phosphatase Clp1p.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulou, Kyriaki; Chen, Jun-Song; Mead, Emma; Feoktistova, Anna; Petit, Claudia; Agarwal, Monica; Jamal, Mohhammed; Malik, Asrar; Spanos, Adonis; Sedgwick, Steven G; Karagiannis, Jim; Balasubramanian, Mohan K; Gould, Kathleen L; McInerny, Christopher J

    2010-12-15

    Regulated gene expression makes an important contribution to cell cycle control mechanisms. In fission yeast, a group of genes is coordinately expressed during a late stage of the cell cycle (M phase and cytokinesis) that is controlled by common cis-acting promoter motifs named pombe cell cycle boxes (PCBs), which are bound by a trans-acting transcription factor complex, PCB binding factor (PBF). PBF contains at least three transcription factors, a MADS box protein Mbx1p and two forkhead transcription factors, Sep1p and Fkh2p. Here we show that the fission yeast Cdc14p-like phosphatase Clp1p (Flp1p) controls M-G1 specific gene expression through PBF. Clp1p binds in vivo both to Mbx1p, a MADS box-like transcription factor, and to the promoters of genes transcribed at this cell cycle time. Because Clp1p dephosphorylates Mbx1p in vitro, and is required for Mbx1p cell cycle-specific dephosphorylation in vivo, our observations suggest that Clp1p controls cell cycle-specific gene expression through binding to and dephosphorylating Mbx1p.

  16. Improved tools for efficient mapping of fission yeast genes: identification of microtubule nucleation modifier mod22-1 as an allele of chromatin- remodelling factor gene swr1

    PubMed Central

    Anders, Andreas; Watt, Stephen; Bähler, Jürg; Sawin, Kenneth E

    2008-01-01

    Fission yeast genes identified in genetic screens are usually cloned by transformation of mutants with plasmid libraries. However, for some genes this can be difficult, and positional cloning approaches are required. The mutation swi5-39 reduces recombination frequency in homozygous crosses and has been used as a tool in mapping gene position (Schmidt, 1993). However, strain construction in swi5-39-based mapping is significantly more laborious than is desirable. Here we describe a set of strains designed to make swi5-based mapping more efficient and more powerful. The first improvement is the use of a swi5Δ strain marked with kanamycin (G418) resistance, which greatly facilitates identification of swi5 mutants. The second improvement, which follows directly from the first, is the introduction of a large number of auxotrophic markers into mapping strains, increasing the likelihood of finding close linkage between a marker and the mutation of interest. We combine these new mapping strains with a rec12Δ-based approach for initial mapping of a mutation to an individual chromosome. Together, the two methods allow an approximate determination of map position in only a small number of crosses. We used these to determine that mod22-1, a modifier of microtubule nucleation phenotypes, encodes a truncation allele of Swr1, a chromatin-remodelling factor involved in nucleosomal deposition of H2A.Z histone variant Pht1. Expression microarray analysis of mod22-1, swr1Δ and pht1Δ cells suggests that the modifier phenotype of mod22-1 mutants may be due to small changes in expression of one or more genes involved in tubulin function. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:19160458

  17. Genome-Wide Screen of Genes Required for Caffeine Tolerance in Fission Yeast

    PubMed Central

    García-Santamarina, Sarela; Hoe, Kwang-Lae; Kim, Dong Uk; Sansó, Miriam; Zuin, Alice; Pérez, Pilar; Ayté, José; Hidalgo, Elena

    2009-01-01

    Background An excess of caffeine is cytotoxic to all eukaryotic cell types. We aim to study how cells become tolerant to a toxic dose of this drug, and the relationship between caffeine and oxidative stress pathways. Methodology/Principal Findings We searched for Schizosaccharomyces pombe mutants with inhibited growth on caffeine-containing plates. We screened a collection of 2,700 haploid mutant cells, of which 98 were sensitive to caffeine. The genes mutated in these sensitive clones were involved in a number of cellular roles including the H2O2-induced Pap1 and Sty1 stress pathways, the integrity and calcineurin pathways, cell morphology and chromatin remodeling. We have investigated the role of the oxidative stress pathways in sensing and promoting survival to caffeine. The Pap1 and the Sty1 pathways are both required for normal tolerance to caffeine, but only the Sty1 pathway is activated by the drug. Cells lacking Pap1 are sensitive to caffeine due to the decreased expression of the efflux pump Hba2. Indeed, ?hba2 cells are sensitive to caffeine, and constitutive activation of the Pap1 pathway enhances resistance to caffeine in an Hba2-dependent manner. Conclusions/Significance With our caffeine-sensitive, genome-wide screen of an S. pombe deletion collection, we have demonstrated the importance of some oxidative stress pathway components on wild-type tolerance to the drug. PMID:19672306

  18. Characterization of the ptr5+ gene involved in nuclear mRNA export in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Nobuyoshi; Ikeda, Terumasa; Mizuki, Fumitaka; Tani, Tokio

    2012-02-03

    To analyze the mechanisms of mRNA export from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, we have isolated eleven mutants, ptr [poly(A)(+) RNA transport] 1 to 11, which accumulate poly(A)(+) RNA in the nucleus at a nonpermissive temperature in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Of those, the ptr5-1 mutant shows dots- or a ring-like accumulation of poly(A)(+) RNA at the nuclear periphery after shifting to the nonpermissive temperature. We cloned the ptr5(+) gene and found that it encodes a component of the nuclear pore complex (NPC), nucleoporin 85 (Nup85). The ptr5-1 mutant shows no defects in protein transport, suggesting the specific involvement of Ptr5p/Nup85p in nuclear mRNA export in S. pombe. We identified Seh1p, a nucleoporin interacting with Nup85p, an mRNA-binding protein Mlo3p, and Sac3p, a component of the TREX-2 complex involved in coupling of nuclear mRNA export with transcription, as multi-copy suppressors for the ptr5-1 mutation. In addition, we found that the ptr5-1 mutation is synthetically lethal with a mutation of the mRNA export factor Rae1p, and that the double mutant exaggerates defective nuclear mRNA export, suggesting that Ptr5p/Nup85p is involved in nuclear mRNA export through Rae1p. Interestingly, the ptr5-1 mutation also showed synthetic effects with several prp pre-mRNA splicing mutations, suggesting a functional linkage between the NPCs and the splicing apparatus in the yeast nucleus.

  19. Fission meter

    DOEpatents

    Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA

    2012-04-10

    A neutron detector system for discriminating fissile material from non-fissile material wherein a digital data acquisition unit collects data at high rate, and in real-time processes large volumes of data directly into information that a first responder can use to discriminate materials. The system comprises counting neutrons from the unknown source and detecting excess grouped neutrons to identify fission in the unknown source.

  20. Screening for long-lived genes identifies Oga1, a guanine-quadruplex associated protein that affects the chronological lifespan of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuka, Hokuto; Ogawa, Shingo; Kawamura, Hideaki; Sakai, Erika; Ichinose, Keiko; Murakami, Hiroshi; Aiba, Hirofumi

    2013-06-01

    Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Saccharomyces cerevisiae are excellent model organisms to study lifespan. We conducted screening to identify novel genes that, when overexpressed, extended the chronological lifespan of fission yeast. We identified seven genes, among which we focused on SPBC16A3.08c. The gene product showed similarity to Ylr150w of S. cerevisiae, which has affinity for guanine-quadruplex nucleic acids (G4). The SPBC16A3.08c product associated with G4 in vitro and complemented the phenotype of an S. cerevisiae Ylr150w deletion mutant. From these results, we proposed that SPBC16A3.08c encoded for a functional homolog of Ylr150w, which we designated ortholog of G4-associated protein (oga1 (+)). oga1 (+) overexpression extended the chronological lifespan and also decreased mating efficiency and caused both high and low temperature-sensitive growth. Deleting oga1 (+) resulted in caffeine-sensitive and canavanine-resistant phenotypes. Based on these results, we discuss the function of Oga1 on the chronological lifespan of fission yeast.

  1. Amiloride toxicity in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe is released by thiamine and mutations in the thiamine-repressible gene car1.

    PubMed

    Niederberger, C; Fankhauser, H; Edenharter, E; Schweingruber, M E

    1996-05-24

    Amiloride (Am) inhibits growth in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. We show that the toxic effect of this drug is relieved by low concentrations of thiamine (Th) and that the pyrimidine moiety of the Th molecule is responsible for growth inhibition release. A putative membrane protein encoded by the car1 gene is the target for Am action. It is responsible for Am sensitivity and is involved in the utilization of Th and its biosynthetic precursor, 4-amino-5-hydroxymethyl-2-methylpyrimidine. Its expression is repressed by Th and is under the genetic control of the genes, thi1, tnr1, tnr2 and tnr3, which have previously been shown to be responsible for the transcriptional control of genes involved in the biosynthesis and dephosphorylation of Th.

  2. Plasmids with E2 epitope tags: tagging modules for N- and C-terminal PCR-based gene targeting in both budding and fission yeast, and inducible expression vectors for fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Tamm, Tiina

    2009-01-01

    A single-step PCR-based epitope tagging enables fast and efficient gene targeting with various epitope tags. This report presents a series of plasmids for the E2 epitope tagging of proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe. E2Tags are 10-amino acids (epitope E2a: SSTSSDFRDR)- and 12 amino acids (epitope E2b: GVSSTSSDFRDR)-long peptides derived from the E2 protein of bovine papillomavirus type 1. The modules for C-terminal tagging with E2a and E2b epitopes were constructed by the modification of the pYM-series plasmid. The N-terminal E2a and E2b tagging modules were based on pOM-series plasmid. The pOM-series plasmids were selected for this study because of their use of the Cre-loxP recombination system. The latter enables a marker cassette to be removed after integration into the loci of interest and, thereafter, the tagged protein is expressed under its endogenous promoter. Specifically for fission yeast, high copy pREP plasmids containing the E2a epitope tag as an N-terminal or C-terminal tag were constructed. The properties of E2a and E2b epitopes and the sensitivity of two anti-E2 monoclonal antibodies (5E11 and 3F12) were tested using several S. cerevisiae and Sz. pombe E2-tagged strains.

  3. PRIMED: PRIMEr database for deleting and tagging all fission and budding yeast genes developed using the open-source genome retrieval script (GRS).

    PubMed

    Cummings, Michael T; Joh, Richard I; Motamedi, Mo

    2015-01-01

    The fission (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) and budding (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) yeasts have served as excellent models for many seminal discoveries in eukaryotic biology. In these organisms, genes are deleted or tagged easily by transforming cells with PCR-generated DNA inserts, flanked by short (50-100 bp) regions of gene homology. These PCR reactions use especially designed long primers, which, in addition to the priming sites, carry homology for gene targeting. Primer design follows a fixed method but is tedious and time-consuming especially when done for a large number of genes. To automate this process, we developed the Python-based Genome Retrieval Script (GRS), an easily customizable open-source script for genome analysis. Using GRS, we created PRIMED, the complete PRIMEr D atabase for deleting and C-terminal tagging genes in the main S. pombe and five of the most commonly used S. cerevisiae strains. Because of the importance of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) in many biological processes, we also included the deletion primer set for these features in each genome. PRIMED are accurate and comprehensive and are provided as downloadable Excel files, removing the need for future primer design, especially for large-scale functional analyses. Furthermore, the open-source GRS can be used broadly to retrieve genome information from custom or other annotated genomes, thus providing a suitable platform for building other genomic tools by the yeast or other research communities.

  4. PRIMED: PRIMEr Database for Deleting and Tagging All Fission and Budding Yeast Genes Developed Using the Open-Source Genome Retrieval Script (GRS)

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Michael T.; Joh, Richard I.; Motamedi, Mo

    2015-01-01

    The fission (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) and budding (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) yeasts have served as excellent models for many seminal discoveries in eukaryotic biology. In these organisms, genes are deleted or tagged easily by transforming cells with PCR-generated DNA inserts, flanked by short (50-100bp) regions of gene homology. These PCR reactions use especially designed long primers, which, in addition to the priming sites, carry homology for gene targeting. Primer design follows a fixed method but is tedious and time-consuming especially when done for a large number of genes. To automate this process, we developed the Python-based Genome Retrieval Script (GRS), an easily customizable open-source script for genome analysis. Using GRS, we created PRIMED, the complete PRIMEr D atabase for deleting and C-terminal tagging genes in the main S. pombe and five of the most commonly used S. cerevisiae strains. Because of the importance of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) in many biological processes, we also included the deletion primer set for these features in each genome. PRIMED are accurate and comprehensive and are provided as downloadable Excel files, removing the need for future primer design, especially for large-scale functional analyses. Furthermore, the open-source GRS can be used broadly to retrieve genome information from custom or other annotated genomes, thus providing a suitable platform for building other genomic tools by the yeast or other research communities. PMID:25643023

  5. Loss of Msp1p in Schizosaccharomyces pombe induces a ROS-dependent nuclear mutator phenotype that affects mitochondrial fission genes.

    PubMed

    Delerue, Thomas; Khosrobakhsh, Farnoosh; Daloyau, Marlène; Emorine, Laurent Jean; Dedieu, Adrien; Herbert, Christopher J; Bonnefoy, Nathalie; Arnauné-Pelloquin, Laetitia; Belenguer, Pascale

    2016-10-01

    Mitochondria continually fuse and divide to dynamically adapt to changes in metabolism and stress. Mitochondrial dynamics are also required for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) integrity; however, the underlying reason is not known. In this study, we examined the link between mitochondrial fusion and mtDNA maintenance in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, which cannot survive without mtDNA, by screening for suppressors of the lethality induced by loss of the dynamin-related large GTPase Msp1p. Our findings reveal that inactivation of Msp1p induces a ROS-dependent nuclear mutator phenotype that affects mitochondrial fission genes involved in suppressing mitochondrial fragmentation and mtDNA depletion. This indicates that mitochondrial fusion is crucial for maintaining the integrity of both mitochondrial and nuclear genetic information. Furthermore, our study suggests that the primary roles of Msp1p are to organize mitochondrial membranes, thus making them competent for fusion, and maintain the integrity of mtDNA.

  6. Induced rates of mitotic crossing over and possible mitotic gene conversion per wing anlage cell in Drosophila melanogaster by X rays and fission neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Ayaki, T.; Fujikawa, K.; Ryo, H.; Itoh, T.; Kondo, S. )

    1990-09-01

    As a model for chromosome aberrations, radiation-induced mitotic recombination of mwh and flr genes in Drosophila melanogaster strain (mwh +/+ flr) was quantitatively studied. Fission neutrons were five to six times more effective than X rays per unit dose in producing either crossover-mwh/flr twins and mwh singles-or flr singles, indicating that common processes are involved in the production of crossover and flr singles. The X-ray-induced rate/wing anlage cell/Gy for flr singles was 1 X 10(-5), whereas that of crossover was 2 x 10(-4); the former and the latter rate are of the same order of magnitude as those of gene conversion and crossover in yeast, respectively. Thus, we conclude that proximal-marker flr singles induced in the transheterozygote are gene convertants. Using the model based on yeast that recombination events result from repair of double-strand breaks or gaps, we propose that mitotic recombination in the fly is a secondary result of recombinational DNA repair. Evidence for recombinational misrepair in the fly is given. The relative ratio of radiation-induced mitotic crossover to spontaneous meiotic crossover is one order of magnitude higher in the fly than in yeast and humans.

  7. The fission yeast RNA binding protein Mmi1 regulates meiotic genes by controlling intron specific splicing and polyadenylation coupled RNA turnover.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huei-Mei; Futcher, Bruce; Leatherwood, Janet

    2011-01-01

    The polyA tails of mRNAs are monitored by the exosome as a quality control mechanism. We find that fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, adopts this RNA quality control mechanism to regulate a group of 30 or more meiotic genes at the level of both splicing and RNA turnover. In vegetative cells the RNA binding protein Mmi1 binds to the primary transcripts of these genes. We find the novel motif U(U/C/G)AAAC highly over-represented in targets of Mmi1. Mmi1 can specifically regulate the splicing of particular introns in a transcript: it inhibits the splicing of introns that are in the vicinity of putative Mmi1 binding sites, while allowing the splicing of other introns that are far from such sites. In addition, binding of Mmi1, particularly near the 3' end, alters 3' processing to promote extremely long polyA tails of up to a kilobase. The hyperadenylated transcripts are then targeted for degradation by the nuclear exonuclease Rrp6. The nuclear polyA binding protein Pab2 assists this hyperadenylation-mediated RNA decay. Rrp6 also targets other hyperadenylated transcripts, which become hyperadenylated in an unknown, but Mmi1-independent way. Thus, hyperadenylation may be a general signal for RNA degradation. In addition, binding of Mmi1 can affect the efficiency of 3' cleavage. Inactivation of Mmi1 in meiosis allows meiotic expression, through splicing and RNA stabilization, of at least 29 target genes, which are apparently constitutively transcribed.

  8. Modulation of Cell Cycle–specific Gene Expressions at the Onset of S Phase Arrest Contributes to the Robust DNA Replication Checkpoint Response in Fission Yeas

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Zhaoqing; Li, Juntao; Eshaghi, Majid; Peng, Xu; Karuturi, R. Krishna M.

    2007-01-01

    Fission yeast replication checkpoint kinases Rad3p and Cds1p are essential for maintaining cell viability after transient treatment with hydroxyurea (HU), an agent that blocks DNA replication. Although current studies have focused on the cyclin-dependent protein kinase Cdc2p that is regulated by these checkpoint kinases, other aspects of their functions at the onset of S phase arrest have not been fully understood. In this study, we use genome-wide DNA microarray analyses to show that HU-induced change of expression profiles in synchronized G2 cells occurs specifically at the onset of S phase arrest. Induction of many core environmental stress response genes and repression of ribosomal genes happen during S phase arrest. Significantly, peak expression level of the MluI-like cell cycle box (MCB)-cluster (G1) genes is maintained at the onset of S phase arrest in a Rad3p- and Cds1p-dependent manner. Expression level maintenance of the MCB-cluster is mediated through the accumulation of Rep2p, a putative transcriptional activator of the MBF complex. Conversely, the FKH-cluster (M) genes are repressed during the onset of S phase arrest in a Rad3p-dependent manner. Repression of the FKH-cluster genes is mediated through the decreased levels of one of the putative forkhead transcription factors, Sep1p, but not Fkh2p. Together, our results demonstrate that Rad3p and Cds1p modulate transcriptional response during the onset of S phase arrest. PMID:17332498

  9. Transcription organization and mRNA levels of the genes for all 12 subunits of the fission yeast RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, H; Ishihama, A

    2001-01-01

    The RNA polymerase II (Pol II) of eukaryotes is composed of 12 subunits, of which five are shared among Pol I, Pol II and Pol III. At present, however, little is known about the regulation of synthesis and assembly of the 12 Pol II subunits. To obtain an insight into the regulation of synthesis of these 12 Pol II subunits, Rpb1 to Rpb12, in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, we analysed the transcriptional organization of the rpb genes by use of the oligo capping method, and determined mRNA levels by quantitative competitive PCR assay. The intracellular concentrations of the 12 Rpb subunits in growing S. pombe cells are different, within a range of 15-fold difference between the least abundant Rpb3 and the most abundant Rpb12. The transcription of one group of genes including rpb3, rpb4, rpb5, rpb6, rpb7 and rpb10 is mainly initiated at a single site, while that of the other group of genes for rpb1, rpb2, rpb8, rpb9, rpb11 and rpb12 is initiated at multiple sites. The promoters of the first group of genes contain the TATA box sequence between -26 and -62, while the second group of genes carry TATA-less promoters. Several common sequence segments, tentatively designated 'Rpb motifs', were identified in the promoter regions of the rpb genes. Competitive PCR analysis indicated that mRNAs for Rpb1, Rpb3, Rpb7 and Rpb9 were among the group which had a low abundance, while the levels of Rpb6 and Rpb10 mRNAs were about fivefold, and that of Rpb2 mRNA was about 40-fold higher than the Rpb3 mRNA level. The levels of rpb mRNAs do not correlate with those of Rpb proteins. The protein-to-mRNA ratio or the translation efficiency is low for the rpb1, rpb2, rpb3 and rpb11 genes, encoding the homologues of subunits beta', beta, alpha and alpha, respectively, of the prokaryotic RNA polymerase core enzyme.

  10. Diabetes regulates mitochondrial biogenesis and fission in neurons

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, J.L.; Quattrini, A.; Lentz, S.I.; Figueroa-Romero, C.; Cerri, F.; Backus, C.; Hong, Y.; Feldman, E.L.

    2014-01-01

    Aims Normal mitochondrial (Mt) activity is a critical component of neuronal metabolism and function. Disruption of Mt activity by altered Mt fission and fusion is the root cause of both neurodegenerative disorders and Charcot-Marie-Tooth Type 2A inherited neuropathy. The current study addressed the role of Mt fission in the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy (DN). Methods Mt biogenesis and fission were assayed in both in vivo and in vitro models of DN. Gene, protein, mitochondrial DNA and ultrastructural analyses were used to assess Mt biogenesis and fission. Results Our data reveal increased Mt biogenesis in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons from diabetic compared to non-diabetic mice. An essential step in Mt biogenesis is Mt fission, regulated by the Mt fission protein Drp1. Evaluation of in vivo diabetic neurons indicated small, fragmented Mt, suggesting increased fission. In vitro studies reveal short-term hyperglycemic exposure increased expression of Drp1. The influence of hyperglycemia-mediated Mt fission on cellular viability was evaluated by knockdown of Drp1. Knockdown of Drp1 resulted in decreased susceptibility to hyperglycemic damage. Conclusions We propose that: 1) Mt undergo biogenesis in response to hyperglycemia, but the increased biogenesis is insufficient to accommodate the metabolic load; 2) hyperglycemia causes an excess of Mt fission, creating small, damaged mitochondria; and 3) reduction of aberrant Mt fission increases neuronal survival and indicates an important role for the fission-fusion equilibrium in the pathogenesis of DN. PMID:19847394

  11. Fission Reaction Event Yield Algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Hagmann, Christian; Verbeke, Jerome; Vogt, Ramona; Roundrup, Jorgen

    2016-05-31

    FREYA (Fission Reaction Event Yield Algorithm) is a code that simulated the decay of a fissionable nucleus at specified excitation energy. In its present form, FREYA models spontaneous fission and neutron-induced fission up to 20 MeV. It includes the possibility of neutron emission from the nuclear prior to its fussion (nth chance fission).

  12. swi6, a gene required for mating-type switching, prohibits meiotic recombination in the mat2-mat3 "cold spot" of fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Klar, A J; Bonaduce, M J

    1991-12-01

    Mitotic interconversion of the mating-type locus (mat1) of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe is initiated by a double-strand break at mat1. The mat2 and mat3 loci act as nonrandom donors of genetic information for mat1 switching such that switches occur primarily (or only) to the opposite mat1 allele. Location of the mat1 "hot spot" for transposition should be contrasted with the "cold spot" of meiotic recombination located within the adjoining mat2-mat3 interval. That is, meiotic interchromosomal recombination in mat2, mat3 and the intervening 15-kilobase region does not occur at all. swi2 and swi6 switching-deficient mutants possess the normal level of double-strand break at mat1, yet they fail to switch efficiently. By testing for meiotic recombination in the cold spot, we found the usual lack of recombination in a swi2 mutant but a significant level of recombination in a swi6 mutant. Therefore, the swi6 gene function is required to keep the donor loci inert for interchromosomal recombination. This finding, combined with the additional result that switching primarily occurs intrachromosomally, suggests that the donor loci are made accessible for switching by folding them onto mat1, thus causing the cold spot of recombination.

  13. Swi6, a Gene Required for Mating-Type Switching, Prohibits Meiotic Recombination in the Mat2-Mat3 ``cold Spot'' of Fission Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Klar, AJS.; Bonaduce, M. J.

    1991-01-01

    Mitotic interconversion of the mating-type locus (mat1) of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe is initiated by a double-strand break at mat1. The mat2 and mat3 loci act as nonrandom donors of genetic information for mat1 switching such that switches occur primarily (or only) to the opposite mat1 allele. Location of the mat1 ``hot spot'' for transposition should be contrasted with the ``cold spot'' of meiotic recombination located within the adjoining mat2-mat3 interval. That is, meiotic interchromosomal recombination in mat2, mat3 and the intervening 15-kilobase region does not occur at all. swi2 and swi6 switching-deficient mutants possess the normal level of double-strand break at mat1, yet they fail to switch efficiently. By testing for meiotic recombination in the cold spot, we found the usual lack of recombination in a swi2 mutant but a significant level of recombination in a swi6 mutant. Therefore, the swi6 gene function is required to keep the donor loci inert for interchromosomal recombination. This finding, combined with the additional result that switching primarily occurs intrachromosomally, suggests that the donor loci are made accessible for switching by folding them onto mat1, thus causing the cold spot of recombination. PMID:1783290

  14. Zinc finger protein Loz1 is required for zinc-responsive regulation of gene expression in fission yeast

    PubMed Central

    Corkins, Mark E.; May, Margot; Ehrensberger, Kate M.; Hu, Ya-Mei; Liu, Yi-Hsuan; Bloor, Sean D.; Jenkins, Blair; Runge, Kurt W.; Bird, Amanda J.

    2013-01-01

    In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, alcohol dehydrogenase 1 (Adh1) is an abundant zinc-requiring enzyme that catalyses the conversion of acetaldehyde to ethanol during fermentation. In a zinc-replete cell, adh1 is highly expressed. However, in zinc-limited cells, adh1 gene expression is repressed, and cells induce the expression of an alternative alcohol dehydrogenase encoded by the adh4 gene. In our studies examining this zinc-dependent switch in alcohol dehydrogenase gene expression, we isolated an adh1Δ strain containing a partial loss of function mutation that resulted in higher levels of adh4 transcripts in zinc-replete cells. This mutation also led to the aberrant expression of other genes that are typically regulated by zinc. Using linkage analysis, we have mapped the position of this mutation to a single gene called Loss Of Zinc sensing 1 (loz1). Loz1 is a 55-kDa protein that contains a double C2H2-type zinc finger domain. The mapped mutation that disrupts Loz1 function leads to an arginine to glycine substitution in the second zinc finger domain, suggesting that the double zinc finger domain is important for Loz1 function. We show that loz1Δ cells hyperaccumulate zinc and that Loz1 is required for gene repression in zinc-replete cells. We also have found that Loz1 negatively autoregulates its own expression. We propose that Loz1 is a unique metalloregulatory factor that plays a central role in zinc homeostasis in S. pombe. PMID:24003116

  15. The effects of antenatal depression and antidepressant treatment on placental gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Olivier, Jocelien D. A.; Åkerud, Helena; Skalkidou, Alkistis; Kaihola, Helena; Sundström-Poromaa, Inger

    2015-01-01

    The effects of antenatal depression and antidepressant treatment during pregnancy on both mother and child are vigorously studied, but the underlying biology for these effects is largely unknown. The placenta plays a crucial role in the growth and development of the fetus. We performed a gene expression study on the fetal side of the placenta to investigate gene expression patterns in mothers with antenatal depression and in mothers using antidepressant treatment during pregnancy. Placental samples from mothers with normal pregnancies, from mothers with antenatal depression, and from mothers using antidepressants were collected. We performed a pilot microarray study to investigate alterations in the gene expression and selected several genes from the microarray for biological validation with qPCR in a larger sample. In mothers with antenatal depression 108 genes were differentially expressed, whereas 109 genes were differentially expressed in those using antidepressants. Validation of the microarray revealed more robust gene expression differences in the seven genes picked for confirmation in antidepressant-treated women than in depressed women. Among the genes that were validated ROCK2 and C12orf39 were differentially expressed in both depressed and antidepressant-treated women, whereas ROCK1, GCC2, KTN1, and DNM1L were only differentially expressed in the antidepressant-treated women. In conclusion, antenatal depression and antidepressant exposure during pregnancy are associated with altered gene expression in the placenta. Findings on those genes picked for validation were more robust among antidepressant-treated women than in depressed women, possibly due to the fact that depression is a multifactorial condition with varying degrees of endocrine disruption. It remains to be established whether the alterations found in the gene expression of the placenta are found in the fetus as well. PMID:25628539

  16. The respiratory gene OXA1 has two fission yeast orthologues which together encode a function essential for cellular viability.

    PubMed

    Bonnefoy, N; Kermorgant, M; Groudinsky, O; Dujardin, G

    2000-03-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae nuclear gene OXA1, which is conserved from prokaryotes to human, was shown to be essential for cytochrome c oxidase and F1F0-ATP synthase biogenesis. We have searched for an orthologue of OXA1 in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, another yeast that is highly diverged from S. cerevisiae and which could more closely model higher eukaryotes. In particular, S. pombe exhibits a limited growth under anaerobic conditions and is petite negative, that is it does not tolerate large deletions of its mitochondrial DNA. Surprisingly, two S. pombe cDNAs able to complement an S. cerevisiae oxa1 mutation were isolated. The corresponding genes have different chromosomal locations and intron contents. They encode distinct proteins, both sharing a weak sequence identity one with the other and with Oxa1p. A phenotypic analysis of both single inactivations demonstrates that only one gene is essential for respiration in S. pombe. However, the double inactivation is lethal. This work gives new insight into the dependence of S. pombe viability upon oxa1 function, providing evidence of a connection between petite negativity, a functional respiratory chain and F1F0-ATP synthase complex in S. pombe.

  17. Fission gas detection system

    DOEpatents

    Colburn, Richard P.

    1985-01-01

    A device for collecting fission gas released by a failed fuel rod which device uses a filter to pass coolant but which filter blocks fission gas bubbles which cannot pass through the filter due to the surface tension of the bubble.

  18. Fission Xenon on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathew, K. J.; Marti, K.; Marty, B.

    2002-01-01

    Fission Xe components due to Pu-244 decay in the early history of Mars have been identified in nakhlites; as in the case of ALH84001 and Chassigny the fission gas was assimilated into indigenous solar-type Xe. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  19. Geometry of membrane fission.

    PubMed

    Frolov, Vadim A; Escalada, Artur; Akimov, Sergey A; Shnyrova, Anna V

    2015-01-01

    Cellular membranes define the functional geometry of intracellular space. Formation of new membrane compartments and maintenance of complex organelles require division and disconnection of cellular membranes, a process termed membrane fission. Peripheral membrane proteins generally control membrane remodeling during fission. Local membrane stresses, reflecting molecular geometry of membrane-interacting parts of these proteins, sum up to produce the key membrane geometries of fission: the saddle-shaped neck and hour-glass hemifission intermediate. Here, we review the fundamental principles behind the translation of molecular geometry into membrane shape and topology during fission. We emphasize the central role the membrane insertion of specialized protein domains plays in orchestrating fission in vitro and in cells. We further compare individual to synergistic action of the membrane insertion during fission mediated by individual protein species, proteins complexes or membrane domains. Finally, we describe how local geometry of fission intermediates defines the functional design of the protein complexes catalyzing fission of cellular membranes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Fission Barrier Landscape

    SciTech Connect

    Phair, L.; Moretto, L. G.

    2008-04-17

    Fission excitation functions have been measured for a chain of neighboring compound nuclei from {sup 207}Po to {sup 212}Po. We present a new analysis which provides a determination of the fission barriers and ground state shell effects with nearly spectroscopic accuracy. The accuracy achieved in this analysis may lead to a future detailed exploration of the saddle mass surface and its spectroscopy.

  1. Identification and Functional Analysis of the erh1+ Gene Encoding Enhancer of Rudimentary Homolog from the Fission Yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    PubMed Central

    Krzyzanowski, Marek K.; Kozlowska, Ewa; Kozlowski, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    The ERH gene encodes a highly conserved small nuclear protein with a unique amino acid sequence and three-dimensional structure but unknown function. The gene is present in animals, plants, and protists but to date has only been found in few fungi. Here we report that ERH homologs are also present in all four species from the genus Schizosaccharomyces, S. pombe, S. octosporus, S. cryophilus, and S. japonicus, which, however, are an exception in this respect among Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. The ERH protein sequence is moderately conserved within the genus (58% identity between S. pombe and S. japonicus), but the intron-rich genes have almost identical intron-exon organizations in all four species. In S. pombe, erh1+ is expressed at a roughly constant level during vegetative growth and adaptation to unfavorable conditions such as nutrient limitation and hyperosmotic stress caused by sorbitol. Erh1p localizes preferentially to the nucleus with the exception of the nucleolus, but is also present in the cytoplasm. Cells lacking erh1+ have an aberrant cell morphology and a comma-like shape when cultured to the stationary phase, and exhibit a delayed recovery from this phase followed by slower growth. Loss of erh1+ in an auxotrophic background results in enhanced arrest in the G1 phase following nutritional stress, and also leads to hypersensitivity to agents inducing hyperosmotic stress (sorbitol), inhibiting DNA replication (hydroxyurea), and destabilizing the plasma membrane (SDS); this hypersensitivity can be abolished by expression of S. pombe erh1+ and, to a lesser extent, S. japonicus erh1+ or human ERH. Erh1p fails to interact with the human Ciz1 and PDIP46/SKAR proteins, known molecular partners of human ERH. Our data suggest that in Schizosaccharomyces sp. erh1+ is non-essential for normal growth and Erh1p could play a role in response to adverse environmental conditions and in cell cycle regulation. PMID:23145069

  2. Biomodal spontaneous fission

    SciTech Connect

    Hulet, E.K. )

    1989-09-26

    Investigations of mass and kinetic-energy distributions from spontaneous fission have been extended in recent years to an isotope of element 104 and, for half-lives, to an isotope of element 108. The results have been surprising in that spontaneous fission half-lives have turned out to be much longer than expected and mass and kinetic- energy distributions were found to abruptly shift away from those of the lighter actinides, showing two modes of fission. These new developments have caused a re-evaluation of our understanding of the fission process, bringing an even deeper appreciation of the role played by nuclear shell effects upon spontaneous fission properties. 16 refs., 10 figs.

  3. Fission Measurements with Dance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jandel, M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Fowler, M. M.; Bond, E. M.; Chadwick, M. B.; Clement, R. R.; Couture, A.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Haight, R. C.; Keksis, A. L.; Reifarth, R.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wouters, J. M.; Agvaanluvsan, U.; Dashdorj, D.; Macri, R. A.; Parker, W. E.; Wilk, P. A.; Wu, C. Y.; Becker, J. A.; Angell, C. T.; Tonchev, A. P.; Baker, J. D.

    2008-08-01

    Neutron capture cross section measurements on actinides are complicated by the presence of neutron-induced fission. An efficient fission tagging detector used in coincidence with the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) provides a powerful tool in undertaking simultaneous measurements of (n,γ) and (n,f) cross sections. Preliminary results on 235U(n,γ) and (n,f) and 242mAm(n,f) cross sections measured with DANCE and a custom fission-tagging parallel plate avalanche counter (PPAC) are presented. Additional measurements of γ-ray cluster multiplicity distributions for neutron-induced fission of 235U and 242mAm and spontaneous fission of 252Cf are shown, as well as γ-ray energy and average γ-ray energy distributions.

  4. Bimodal fission of Hs*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itkis, I. M.; Itkis, M. G.; Knyazheva, G. N.; Kozulin, E. M.; Loktev, T. A.; Novikov, K. V.; Hanappe, F.; Vardaci, E.

    2014-05-01

    Mass and energy distributions of fission fragments obtained in the reactions 22Ne + 249Cf, 26Mg + 248Cm, and 22Ne + 238U have been measured. A special attention will be paid on the properties of mass-energy distribution of fission fragments obtained in the reaction 26Mg + 248Cm at an excitation energy of 35 MeV. At this energy shell effects should become more effective in fission, the TKE distribution of symmetric fragments obtained in the reaction 26Mg + 248Cm differs strongly from a Gaussian shape. Besides a low-energy component, a high-energy component, not foreseen in the LDM, arises. This is attributed to the fact that both fission fragments are close to the spherical neutron shell N = 82. It means that for the compound nucleus 274Hs*, formed in the reaction 26Mg + 248Cm, the phenomenon of bimodal fission was observed for the first time. For the compound nucleus 260No* formed in the reaction 22Ne + 238U at the initial excitation energy of 41 MeV the bimodal fission as well as superasymmetric fission were observed.

  5. Nuclear fission of Fm isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Asano, T.; Wada, T.; Ohta, M.; Chiba, S.

    2010-06-01

    Multi-modal fission has been systematically investigated for the series of isotopes of Fm and Cf. The multi-dimensional Langevin-type stochastic differential equation is used for the dynamical calculation. The primary fission mode changes from mass-asymmetric fission to mass-symmetric fission with the increase of neutron numbers for both Fm and Cf cases.

  6. Fission Systems for Mars Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Kim, T.; Dorney, D. J.; Swint, Marion Shayne

    2012-01-01

    Fission systems are used extensively on earth, and 34 such systems have flown in space. The energy density of fission is over 10 million times that of chemical reactions, giving fission the potential to eliminate energy density constraints for many space missions. Potential safety and operational concerns with fission systems are well understood, and strategies exist for affordably developing such systems. By enabling a power-rich environment and highly efficient propulsion, fission systems could enable affordable, sustainable exploration of Mars.

  7. True ternary fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayaraghavan, K. R.; Balasubramaniam, M.; von Oertzen, W.

    2015-04-01

    The study of the ternary fission of nuclei has received new interest recently. It is of general interest for nuclear dynamics, although the process is very rare. In the present work, we discuss the possibilities of true ternary fission (fragment masses A >30 ) in 252Cf for different mass splits. These mass splits are strongly favored in a collinear geometry. Based on the three cluster model (TCM), it is shown that the true ternary fission into fragments with almost equal masses is one of the possible fission modes in 252Cf . For general decays it is shown that the formation of the lightest fragment at the center has the highest probability. Further the formation of tin isotopes and/or other closed shell fragments are favored. For the decay products the presence of closed shell nuclei among the three fragments enhances the decay probabilities.

  8. Fission in a Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Younes, W.

    2016-10-26

    A three-year theory project was undertaken to study the fission process in extreme astrophysical environments, such as the crust of neutron stars. In the first part of the project, the effect of electron screening on the fission process was explored using a microscopic approach. For the first time, these calculations were carried out to the breaking point of the nucleus. In the second part of the project, the population of the fissioning nucleus was calculated within the same microscopic framework. These types of calculations are extremely computer-intensive and have seldom been applied to heavy deformed nuclei, such as fissioning actinides. The results, tools and methodologies produced in this work will be of interest to both the basic-science and nuclear-data communities.

  9. Microscopic Theory of Fission

    SciTech Connect

    Younes, W.; Gogny, D.

    2008-04-17

    In recent years, the microscopic method has been applied to the notoriously difficult problem of nuclear fission with unprecedented success. In this paper, we discuss some of the achievements and promise of the microscopic method, as embodied in the Hartree-Fock method using the Gogny finite-range effective interaction, and beyond-mean-field extensions to the theory. The nascent program to describe induced fission observables using this approach at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is presented.

  10. Singlet exciton fission photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jiye; Jadhav, Priya; Reusswig, Philip D; Yost, Shane R; Thompson, Nicholas J; Congreve, Daniel N; Hontz, Eric; Van Voorhis, Troy; Baldo, Marc A

    2013-06-18

    Singlet exciton fission, a process that generates two excitons from a single photon, is perhaps the most efficient of the various multiexciton-generation processes studied to date, offering the potential to increase the efficiency of solar devices. But its unique characteristic, splitting a photogenerated singlet exciton into two dark triplet states, means that the empty absorption region between the singlet and triplet excitons must be filled by adding another material that captures low-energy photons. This has required the development of specialized device architectures. In this Account, we review work to develop devices that harness the theoretical benefits of singlet exciton fission. First, we discuss singlet fission in the archetypal material, pentacene. Pentacene-based photovoltaic devices typically show high external and internal quantum efficiencies. They have enabled researchers to characterize fission, including yield and the impact of competing loss processes, within functional devices. We review in situ probes of singlet fission that modulate the photocurrent using a magnetic field. We also summarize studies of the dissociation of triplet excitons into charge at the pentacene-buckyball (C60) donor-acceptor interface. Multiple independent measurements confirm that pentacene triplet excitons can dissociate at the C60 interface despite their relatively low energy. Because triplet excitons produced by singlet fission each have no more than half the energy of the original photoexcitation, they limit the potential open circuit voltage within a solar cell. Thus, if singlet fission is to increase the overall efficiency of a solar cell and not just double the photocurrent at the cost of halving the voltage, it is necessary to also harvest photons in the absorption gap between the singlet and triplet energies of the singlet fission material. We review two device architectures that attempt this using long-wavelength materials: a three-layer structure that uses

  11. Modernizing the Fission Basis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonchev, Anton; Henderson, Roger; Schunck, Nicolas; Sroyer, Mark; Vogt, Ramona

    2016-09-01

    In 1939, Niels Bohr and John Wheeler formulated a theory of neutron-induced nuclear fission based on the hypothesis of the compound nucleus. Their theory, the so-called ``Bohr hypothesis,'' is still at the heart of every theoretical fission model today and states that the decay of a compound nucleus for a given excitation energy, spin, and parity is independent of its formation. We propose the first experiment to validate to 1-2% absolute uncertainties the practical consequences of the Bohr hypothesis during induced nuclear fission. We will compare the fission product yields (FPYs) of the same 240Pu compound nucleus produced via two different reactions (i) n+239Pu and (ii) γ+240 Pu. These high-precision FPYs measurements will be extremely beneficial for our fundamental understanding of the nuclear fission process and nuclear reactions from first principles. This work was performed under the auspices of US DOE by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. Funding was provided via the LDRD-ERD-069 project.

  12. Fission Product Library and Resource

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, J. T.; Padgett, S.

    2016-09-29

    Fission product yields can be extracted from an irradiated sample by performing gamma ray spectroscopy on the whole sample post irradiation. There are several pitfalls to avoid when trying to determine a specific isotope's fission product yield.

  13. Process for treating fission waste

    DOEpatents

    Rohrmann, Charles A.; Wick, Oswald J.

    1983-01-01

    A method is described for the treatment of fission waste. A glass forming agent, a metal oxide, and a reducing agent are mixed with the fission waste and the mixture is heated. After melting, the mixture separates into a glass phase and a metal phase. The glass phase may be used to safely store the fission waste, while the metal phase contains noble metals recovered from the fission waste.

  14. Fission modelling with FIFRELIN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litaize, Olivier; Serot, Olivier; Berge, Léonie

    2015-12-01

    The nuclear fission process gives rise to the formation of fission fragments and emission of particles (n,γ , e-) . The particle emission from fragments can be prompt and delayed. We present here the methods used in the FIFRELIN code, which simulates the prompt component of the de-excitation process. The methods are based on phenomenological models associated with macroscopic and/or microscopic ingredients. Input data can be provided by experiment as well as by theory. The fission fragment de-excitation can be performed within Weisskopf (uncoupled neutron and gamma emission) or a Hauser-Feshbach (coupled neutron/gamma emission) statistical theory. We usually consider five free parameters that cannot be provided by theory or experiments in order to describe the initial distributions required by the code. In a first step this set of parameters is chosen to reproduce a very limited set of target observables. In a second step we can increase the statistics to predict all other fission observables such as prompt neutron, gamma and conversion electron spectra but also their distributions as a function of any kind of parameters such as, for instance, the neutron, gamma and electron number distributions, the average prompt neutron multiplicity as a function of fission fragment mass, charge or kinetic energy, and so on. Several results related to different fissioning systems are presented in this work. The goal in the next decade will be i) to replace some macroscopic ingredients or phenomenological models by microscopic calculations when available and reliable, ii) to be a support for experimentalists in the design of detection systems or in the prediction of necessary beam time or count rates with associated statistics when measuring fragments and emitted particle in coincidence iii) extend the model to be able to run a calculation when no experimental input data are available, iv) account for multiple chance fission and gamma emission before fission, v) account for the

  15. Uncertainties in nuclear fission data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talou, Patrick; Kawano, Toshihiko; Chadwick, Mark B.; Neudecker, Denise; Rising, Michael E.

    2015-03-01

    We review the current status of our knowledge of nuclear fission data, and quantify uncertainties related to each fission observable whenever possible. We also discuss the roles that theory and experiment play in reducing those uncertainties, contributing to the improvement of our fundamental understanding of the nuclear fission process as well as of evaluated nuclear data libraries used in nuclear applications.

  16. Student Experiments in Spontaneous Fission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becchetti, F. D.; Ying, J. S.

    1981-01-01

    Advanced undergraduate experiments utilizing a commercially available, thin spontaneous fission source are described, including studies of the energy and mass distribution of the fission fragments and their energy and angular correlation. The experiments provide a useful introduction to fission, nuclear mass equations, heavy-ion physics, and…

  17. Student Experiments in Spontaneous Fission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becchetti, F. D.; Ying, J. S.

    1981-01-01

    Advanced undergraduate experiments utilizing a commercially available, thin spontaneous fission source are described, including studies of the energy and mass distribution of the fission fragments and their energy and angular correlation. The experiments provide a useful introduction to fission, nuclear mass equations, heavy-ion physics, and…

  18. Elastocapillary Instability in Mitochondrial Fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Rodriguez, David; Sart, Sébastien; Babataheri, Avin; Tareste, David; Barakat, Abdul I.; Clanet, Christophe; Husson, Julien

    2015-08-01

    Mitochondria are dynamic cell organelles that constantly undergo fission and fusion events. These dynamical processes, which tightly regulate mitochondrial morphology, are essential for cell physiology. Here we propose an elastocapillary mechanical instability as a mechanism for mitochondrial fission. We experimentally induce mitochondrial fission by rupturing the cell's plasma membrane. We present a stability analysis that successfully explains the observed fission wavelength and the role of mitochondrial morphology in the occurrence of fission events. Our results show that the laws of fluid mechanics can describe mitochondrial morphology and dynamics.

  19. The Parkinson's disease-associated gene PINK1 protects neurons from ischemic damage by decreasing mitochondrial translocation of the fission promoter Drp1.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanxin; Chen, Fangzhe; Chen, Shufen; Liu, Xueyuan; Cui, Mei; Dong, Qiang

    2013-12-01

    Our previous study has shown that PTEN-induced novel kinase 1 (PINK1) knocking down significantly induced mitochondrial fragmentation. Although PINK1 is proved to be associated with autosomal recessive parkinsonism and its function in this chronic pathological process is widely studied, its role in acute energy crisis such as ischemic stroke is poorly known. In this study by employing an oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) neuronal model, we explored the function of PINK1 in cerebral ischemia. Human PINK1, two PINK1 mutants W437X and K219M, or Pink1 shRNA were transduced before OGD using lentiviral delivery. Our results showed that over-expression of wild-type PINK1 significantly ameliorated OGD induced cell death and energy disturbance including reduced ATP generation and collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential. PINK1 over-expression also reversed OGD increased mitochondrial fragmentation, and suppressed the translocation of the mitochondrial fission protein dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) from the cytosol to the mitochondria. Transduction of the mutant PINK1 failed to provide any protective effect, while knockdown of Pink1 significantly increased the severity of OGD-induced neuronal damage. Importantly, inhibition of Drp1 reversed the effects of knocking down Pink1 on neuronal death and ATP production in response to OGD. This study demonstrates that PINK1 prevents ischemic damage in neurons by attenuating mitochondrial translocation of Drp1, which maintains mitochondrial function and inhibits ischemia-induced mitochondrial fission. These novel findings implicate a pivotal role of PINK1 regulated mitochondrial dynamics in the pathology of ischemic stroke. In this study by employing an oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) neuronal model, we explored the function of PINK1 in cerebral ischemia. We indicated that PINK1 significantly ameliorated OGD induced cell death and energy disturbance including reduced ATP generation and collapse of mitochondrial membrane

  20. Membrane fission by protein crowding.

    PubMed

    Snead, Wilton T; Hayden, Carl C; Gadok, Avinash K; Zhao, Chi; Lafer, Eileen M; Rangamani, Padmini; Stachowiak, Jeanne C

    2017-04-18

    Membrane fission, which facilitates compartmentalization of biological processes into discrete, membrane-bound volumes, is essential for cellular life. Proteins with specific structural features including constricting rings, helical scaffolds, and hydrophobic membrane insertions are thought to be the primary drivers of fission. In contrast, here we report a mechanism of fission that is independent of protein structure-steric pressure among membrane-bound proteins. In particular, random collisions among crowded proteins generate substantial pressure, which if unbalanced on the opposite membrane surface can dramatically increase membrane curvature, leading to fission. Using the endocytic protein epsin1 N-terminal homology domain (ENTH), previously thought to drive fission by hydrophobic insertion, our results show that membrane coverage correlates equally with fission regardless of the hydrophobicity of insertions. Specifically, combining FRET-based measurements of membrane coverage with multiple, independent measurements of membrane vesiculation revealed that fission became spontaneous as steric pressure increased. Further, fission efficiency remained equally potent when helices were replaced by synthetic membrane-binding motifs. These data challenge the view that hydrophobic insertions drive membrane fission, suggesting instead that the role of insertions is to anchor proteins strongly to membrane surfaces, amplifying steric pressure. In line with these conclusions, even green fluorescent protein (GFP) was able to drive fission efficiently when bound to the membrane at high coverage. Our conclusions are further strengthened by the finding that intrinsically disordered proteins, which have large hydrodynamic radii yet lack a defined structure, drove fission with substantially greater potency than smaller, structured proteins.

  1. Mitochondrial fusion, fission, and mitochondrial toxicity.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Joel N; Leuthner, Tess C; Luz, Anthony L

    2017-08-05

    Mitochondrial dynamics are regulated by two sets of opposed processes: mitochondrial fusion and fission, and mitochondrial biogenesis and degradation (including mitophagy), as well as processes such as intracellular transport. These processes maintain mitochondrial homeostasis, regulate mitochondrial form, volume and function, and are increasingly understood to be critical components of the cellular stress response. Mitochondrial dynamics vary based on developmental stage and age, cell type, environmental factors, and genetic background. Indeed, many mitochondrial homeostasis genes are human disease genes. Emerging evidence indicates that deficiencies in these genes often sensitize to environmental exposures, yet can also be protective under certain circumstances. Inhibition of mitochondrial dynamics also affects elimination of irreparable mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage and transmission of mtDNA mutations. We briefly review the basic biology of mitodynamic processes with a focus on mitochondrial fusion and fission, discuss what is known and unknown regarding how these processes respond to chemical and other stressors, and review the literature on interactions between mitochondrial toxicity and genetic variation in mitochondrial fusion and fission genes. Finally, we suggest areas for future research, including elucidating the full range of mitodynamic responses from low to high-level exposures, and from acute to chronic exposures; detailed examination of the physiological consequences of mitodynamic alterations in different cell types; mechanism-based testing of mitotoxicant interactions with interindividual variability in mitodynamics processes; and incorporating other environmental variables that affect mitochondria, such as diet and exercise. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Predicting the fission yeast protein interaction network.

    PubMed

    Pancaldi, Vera; Saraç, Omer S; Rallis, Charalampos; McLean, Janel R; Převorovský, Martin; Gould, Kathleen; Beyer, Andreas; Bähler, Jürg

    2012-04-01

    A systems-level understanding of biological processes and information flow requires the mapping of cellular component interactions, among which protein-protein interactions are particularly important. Fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) is a valuable model organism for which no systematic protein-interaction data are available. We exploited gene and protein properties, global genome regulation datasets, and conservation of interactions between budding and fission yeast to predict fission yeast protein interactions in silico. We have extensively tested our method in three ways: first, by predicting with 70-80% accuracy a selected high-confidence test set; second, by recapitulating interactions between members of the well-characterized SAGA co-activator complex; and third, by verifying predicted interactions of the Cbf11 transcription factor using mass spectrometry of TAP-purified protein complexes. Given the importance of the pathway in cell physiology and human disease, we explore the predicted sub-networks centered on the Tor1/2 kinases. Moreover, we predict the histidine kinases Mak1/2/3 to be vital hubs in the fission yeast stress response network, and we suggest interactors of argonaute 1, the principal component of the siRNA-mediated gene silencing pathway, lost in budding yeast but preserved in S. pombe. Of the new high-quality interactions that were discovered after we started this work, 73% were found in our predictions. Even though any predicted interactome is imperfect, the protein network presented here can provide a valuable basis to explore biological processes and to guide wet-lab experiments in fission yeast and beyond. Our predicted protein interactions are freely available through PInt, an online resource on our website (www.bahlerlab.info/PInt).

  3. Predicting the Fission Yeast Protein Interaction Network

    PubMed Central

    Pancaldi, Vera; Saraç, Ömer S.; Rallis, Charalampos; McLean, Janel R.; Převorovský, Martin; Gould, Kathleen; Beyer, Andreas; Bähler, Jürg

    2012-01-01

    A systems-level understanding of biological processes and information flow requires the mapping of cellular component interactions, among which protein–protein interactions are particularly important. Fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) is a valuable model organism for which no systematic protein-interaction data are available. We exploited gene and protein properties, global genome regulation datasets, and conservation of interactions between budding and fission yeast to predict fission yeast protein interactions in silico. We have extensively tested our method in three ways: first, by predicting with 70–80% accuracy a selected high-confidence test set; second, by recapitulating interactions between members of the well-characterized SAGA co-activator complex; and third, by verifying predicted interactions of the Cbf11 transcription factor using mass spectrometry of TAP-purified protein complexes. Given the importance of the pathway in cell physiology and human disease, we explore the predicted sub-networks centered on the Tor1/2 kinases. Moreover, we predict the histidine kinases Mak1/2/3 to be vital hubs in the fission yeast stress response network, and we suggest interactors of argonaute 1, the principal component of the siRNA-mediated gene silencing pathway, lost in budding yeast but preserved in S. pombe. Of the new high-quality interactions that were discovered after we started this work, 73% were found in our predictions. Even though any predicted interactome is imperfect, the protein network presented here can provide a valuable basis to explore biological processes and to guide wet-lab experiments in fission yeast and beyond. Our predicted protein interactions are freely available through PInt, an online resource on our website (www.bahlerlab.info/PInt). PMID:22540037

  4. Extended optical model for fission

    DOE PAGES

    Sin, M.; Capote, R.; Herman, M. W.; ...

    2016-03-07

    A comprehensive formalism to calculate fission cross sections based on the extension of the optical model for fission is presented. It can be used for description of nuclear reactions on actinides featuring multi-humped fission barriers with partial absorption in the wells and direct transmission through discrete and continuum fission channels. The formalism describes the gross fluctuations observed in the fission probability due to vibrational resonances, and can be easily implemented in existing statistical reaction model codes. The extended optical model for fission is applied for neutron induced fission cross-section calculations on 234,235,238U and 239Pu targets. A triple-humped fission barrier ismore » used for 234,235U(n,f), while a double-humped fission barrier is used for 238U(n,f) and 239Pu(n,f) reactions as predicted by theoretical barrier calculations. The impact of partial damping of class-II/III states, and of direct transmission through discrete and continuum fission channels, is shown to be critical for a proper description of the measured fission cross sections for 234,235,238U(n,f) reactions. The 239Pu(n,f) reaction can be calculated in the complete damping approximation. Calculated cross sections for 235,238U(n,f) and 239Pu(n,f) reactions agree within 3% with the corresponding cross sections derived within the Neutron Standards least-squares fit of available experimental data. Lastly, the extended optical model for fission can be used for both theoretical fission studies and nuclear data evaluation.« less

  5. Extended optical model for fission

    SciTech Connect

    Sin, M.; Capote, R.; Herman, M. W.; Trkov, A.

    2016-03-07

    A comprehensive formalism to calculate fission cross sections based on the extension of the optical model for fission is presented. It can be used for description of nuclear reactions on actinides featuring multi-humped fission barriers with partial absorption in the wells and direct transmission through discrete and continuum fission channels. The formalism describes the gross fluctuations observed in the fission probability due to vibrational resonances, and can be easily implemented in existing statistical reaction model codes. The extended optical model for fission is applied for neutron induced fission cross-section calculations on 234,235,238U and 239Pu targets. A triple-humped fission barrier is used for 234,235U(n,f), while a double-humped fission barrier is used for 238U(n,f) and 239Pu(n,f) reactions as predicted by theoretical barrier calculations. The impact of partial damping of class-II/III states, and of direct transmission through discrete and continuum fission channels, is shown to be critical for a proper description of the measured fission cross sections for 234,235,238U(n,f) reactions. The 239Pu(n,f) reaction can be calculated in the complete damping approximation. Calculated cross sections for 235,238U(n,f) and 239Pu(n,f) reactions agree within 3% with the corresponding cross sections derived within the Neutron Standards least-squares fit of available experimental data. Lastly, the extended optical model for fission can be used for both theoretical fission studies and nuclear data evaluation.

  6. Extended optical model for fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sin, M.; Capote, R.; Herman, M. W.; Trkov, A.

    2016-03-01

    A comprehensive formalism to calculate fission cross sections based on the extension of the optical model for fission is presented. It can be used for description of nuclear reactions on actinides featuring multi-humped fission barriers with partial absorption in the wells and direct transmission through discrete and continuum fission channels. The formalism describes the gross fluctuations observed in the fission probability due to vibrational resonances, and can be easily implemented in existing statistical reaction model codes. The extended optical model for fission is applied for neutron induced fission cross-section calculations on 234,235,238U and 239Pu targets. A triple-humped fission barrier is used for U,235234(n ,f ) , while a double-humped fission barrier is used for 238U(n ,f ) and 239Pu(n ,f ) reactions as predicted by theoretical barrier calculations. The impact of partial damping of class-II/III states, and of direct transmission through discrete and continuum fission channels, is shown to be critical for a proper description of the measured fission cross sections for 234,235,238U(n ,f ) reactions. The 239Pu(n ,f ) reaction can be calculated in the complete damping approximation. Calculated cross sections for U,238235(n ,f ) and 239Pu(n ,f ) reactions agree within 3% with the corresponding cross sections derived within the Neutron Standards least-squares fit of available experimental data. The extended optical model for fission can be used for both theoretical fission studies and nuclear data evaluation.

  7. Fission-induced plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harries, W. L.; Shiu, Y. J.

    1979-01-01

    The possibility of creating a plasma from fission fragments, and to utilize the energy of the particles to create population inversion that would lead to laser action is investigated. An investigation was made of various laser materials which could be used for nuclear-pumped lasing. The most likely candidate for a fissioning material in the gaseous form is uranium hexafluoride - UF6, and experiments were performed to investigate materials that would be compatible with it. One of the central problems in understanding a fission-induced plasma is to obtain a model of the electron behavior, and some preliminary calculations are presented. In particular, the rates of various processes are discussed. A simple intuitive model of the electron energy distribution function is also shown. The results were useful for considering a mathematical model of a nuclear-pumped laser. Next a theoretical model of a (3)He-Ar nuclear-pumped laser is presented. The theory showed good qualitative agreement with the experimental results.

  8. Fission yield measurements at IGISOL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lantz, M.; Al-Adili, A.; Gorelov, D.; Jokinen, A.; Kolhinen, V. S.; Mattera, A.; Moore, I.; Penttilä, H.; Pomp, S.; Prokofiev, A. V.; Rakopoulos, V.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Simutkin, V.; Solders, A.

    2016-06-01

    The fission product yields are an important characteristic of the fission process. In fundamental physics, knowledge of the yield distributions is needed to better understand the fission process. For nuclear energy applications good knowledge of neutroninduced fission-product yields is important for the safe and efficient operation of nuclear power plants. With the Ion Guide Isotope Separator On-Line (IGISOL) technique, products of nuclear reactions are stopped in a buffer gas and then extracted and separated by mass. Thanks to the high resolving power of the JYFLTRAP Penning trap, at University of Jyväskylä, fission products can be isobarically separated, making it possible to measure relative independent fission yields. In some cases it is even possible to resolve isomeric states from the ground state, permitting measurements of isomeric yield ratios. So far the reactions U(p,f) and Th(p,f) have been studied using the IGISOL-JYFLTRAP facility. Recently, a neutron converter target has been developed utilizing the Be(p,xn) reaction. We here present the IGISOL-technique for fission yield measurements and some of the results from the measurements on proton induced fission. We also present the development of the neutron converter target, the characterization of the neutron field and the first tests with neutron-induced fission.

  9. The SPIDER fission fragment spectrometer for fission product yield measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Meierbachtol, K.; Tovesson, F.; Shields, D.; Arnold, C.; Blakeley, R.; Bredeweg, T.; Devlin, M.; Hecht, A. A.; Heffern, L. E.; Jorgenson, J.; Laptev, A.; Mader, D.; O׳Donnell, J. M.; Sierk, A.; White, M.

    2015-04-01

    We developed the SPectrometer for Ion DEtermination in fission Research (SPIDER) for measuring mass yield distributions of fission products from spontaneous and neutron-induced fission. The 2E–2v method of measuring the kinetic energy (E) and velocity (v) of both outgoing fission products has been utilized, with the goal of measuring the mass of the fission products with an average resolution of 1 atomic mass unit (amu). Moreover, the SPIDER instrument, consisting of detector components for time-of-flight, trajectory, and energy measurements, has been assembled and tested using 229Th and 252Cf radioactive decay sources. For commissioning, the fully assembled system measured fission products from spontaneous fission of 252Cf. Individual measurement resolutions were met for time-of-flight (250 ps FWHM), spacial resolution (2 mm FHWM), and energy (92 keV FWHM for 8.376 MeV). Finally, these mass yield results measured from 252Cf spontaneous fission products are reported from an E–v measurement.

  10. The SPIDER fission fragment spectrometer for fission product yield measurements

    DOE PAGES

    Meierbachtol, K.; Tovesson, F.; Shields, D.; ...

    2015-04-01

    We developed the SPectrometer for Ion DEtermination in fission Research (SPIDER) for measuring mass yield distributions of fission products from spontaneous and neutron-induced fission. The 2E–2v method of measuring the kinetic energy (E) and velocity (v) of both outgoing fission products has been utilized, with the goal of measuring the mass of the fission products with an average resolution of 1 atomic mass unit (amu). Moreover, the SPIDER instrument, consisting of detector components for time-of-flight, trajectory, and energy measurements, has been assembled and tested using 229Th and 252Cf radioactive decay sources. For commissioning, the fully assembled system measured fission productsmore » from spontaneous fission of 252Cf. Individual measurement resolutions were met for time-of-flight (250 ps FWHM), spacial resolution (2 mm FHWM), and energy (92 keV FWHM for 8.376 MeV). Finally, these mass yield results measured from 252Cf spontaneous fission products are reported from an E–v measurement.« less

  11. Measurement of Fission Product Yields from Fast-Neutron Fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, C. W.; Bond, E. M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Fowler, M. M.; Moody, W. A.; Rusev, G.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Becker, J. A.; Henderson, R.; Kenneally, J.; Macri, R.; McNabb, D.; Ryan, C.; Sheets, S.; Stoyer, M. A.; Tonchev, A. P.; Bhatia, C.; Bhike, M.; Fallin, B.; Gooden, M. E.; Howell, C. R.; Kelley, J. H.; Tornow, W.

    2014-09-01

    One of the aims of the Stockpile Stewardship Program is a reduction of the uncertainties on fission data used for analyzing nuclear test data [1,2]. Fission products such as 147Nd are convenient for determining fission yields because of their relatively high yield per fission (about 2%) and long half-life (10.98 days). A scientific program for measuring fission product yields from 235U,238U and 239Pu targets as a function of bombarding neutron energy (0.1 to 15 MeV) is currently underway using monoenergetic neutron beams produced at the 10 MV Tandem Accelerator at TUNL. Dual-fission chambers are used to determine the rate of fission in targets during activation. Activated targets are counted in highly shielded HPGe detectors over a period of several weeks to identify decaying fission products. To date, data have been collected at neutron bombarding energies 4.6, 9.0, 14.5 and 14.8 MeV. Experimental methods and data reduction techniques are discussed, and some preliminary results are presented.

  12. FYPO: the fission yeast phenotype ontology.

    PubMed

    Harris, Midori A; Lock, Antonia; Bähler, Jürg; Oliver, Stephen G; Wood, Valerie

    2013-07-01

    To provide consistent computable descriptions of phenotype data, PomBase is developing a formal ontology of phenotypes observed in fission yeast. The fission yeast phenotype ontology (FYPO) is a modular ontology that uses several existing ontologies from the open biological and biomedical ontologies (OBO) collection as building blocks, including the phenotypic quality ontology PATO, the Gene Ontology and Chemical Entities of Biological Interest. Modular ontology development facilitates partially automated effective organization of detailed phenotype descriptions with complex relationships to each other and to underlying biological phenomena. As a result, FYPO supports sophisticated querying, computational analysis and comparison between different experiments and even between species. FYPO releases are available from the Subversion repository at the PomBase SourceForge project page (https://sourceforge.net/p/pombase/code/HEAD/tree/phenotype_ontology/). The current version of FYPO is also available on the OBO Foundry Web site (http://obofoundry.org/).

  13. Fission: The first 50 years

    SciTech Connect

    Vandenbosch, R.

    1989-01-01

    The possibility of fission had been largely unanticipated prior to its discovery in 1938. This process, with its dramatically large energy release and its formation of previously unknown nuclides, immediately captured the imagination of the scientific community. Both theoretical and experimental developments occurred at a rapid pace. I will begin my discussion of fission with the far-reaching paper of Bohr and Wheeler, who in little more than half a year laid out a framework for understanding many features of the fission process. I will then turn to our current understanding of a number of aspects of fission. One of these is the pronounced tendency of many nuclear species to fission asymmetrically. In fact, the discovery of fission was based on the identification of barium isotopes produced in asymmetric fission. The dramatic changes in the preferred mass division and kinetic energy release with the addition of only a few neutrons to the spontaneously fissioning Fermium isotopes will be emphasized. The problem of the dynamics of saddle to scission will be discussed---this is one aspect of fission for which we do not have all the answers. Another dynamical effect to be discussed is the apparent failure of transition state theory at high excitation energies. The role of single particle (shell) effects in enriching the structure if the potential energy surface will be explored. Spontaneously fissioning isomers and intermediate structure resonances will be discussed. The recognition that short-lived fission isomers are superdeformed shape isomers has been followed by the recent observation of superdeformed shape isomers in the rare earth region. 18 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Ternary fission of nuclei into comparable fragments

    SciTech Connect

    Karpeshin, F. F.

    2015-07-15

    The problem of nuclear fission into three comparable fragments is considered. A mechanism of true ternary fission is proposed. In contrast to sequential fission, where the three fragments arise upon two sequential events of binary fission, the mechanism in question relies on a scenario that originally involves fission into three fragments. This mechanism is driven by a hexadecapole deformation of the fissioning nucleus, in contrast to binary fission associated with quadrupole vibrations of the nuclear surface. The fragment-mass ratios are estimated. The dynamics of formation of collinear fragments and their subsequent motion in opposite directions is traced. The calculated probability of true ternary fission complies with observed values.

  15. TREATMENT OF FISSION PRODUCT WASTE

    DOEpatents

    Huff, J.B.

    1959-07-28

    A pyrogenic method of separating nuclear reactor waste solutions containing aluminum and fission products as buring petroleum coke in an underground retort, collecting the easily volatile gases resulting as the first fraction, he uminum chloride as the second fraction, permitting the coke bed to cool and ll contain all the longest lived radioactive fission products in greatly reduced volume.

  16. Membrane biology: fission behind BARs.

    PubMed

    Haucke, Volker

    2012-06-05

    Membrane bending is accomplished in part by amphipathic helix insertion into the bilayer and the assembly of BAR domain scaffolds preparing the membrane for fission. Two recent studies highlight the roles of amphipathic helices and BAR scaffolds in membrane fission and establish the structural basis of membrane bending by the N-BAR protein endophilin.

  17. Fission fragment driven neutron source

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Lowell G.; Young, Robert C.; Brugger, Robert M.

    1976-01-01

    Fissionable uranium formed into a foil is bombarded with thermal neutrons in the presence of deuterium-tritium gas. The resulting fission fragments impart energy to accelerate deuterium and tritium particles which in turn provide approximately 14 MeV neutrons by the reactions t(d,n).sup.4 He and d(t,n).sup.4 He.

  18. Nuclear Fission Research at IRMM

    SciTech Connect

    Hambsch, Franz-Josef

    2005-05-24

    The Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) will celebrate its 45th anniversary in 2005. With its 150-MeV Geel Electron Linear Accelerator (GELINA) and 7-MV Van de Graaff accelerator as multi-purpose neutron sources, it served the nuclear physics community for this period.The research in the field of nuclear fission was focused in recent years on both the measurement and calculation of fission cross sections, and the measurement of fission fragment properties.Fission cross sections were determined for 233Pa and 234U; the fission process was studied in the resolved resonance region of 239Pu(n,f) and for 251Cf(nth,f). These measurements derive their interest from accelerator driven systems, the thorium fuel cycle, high temperature reactors, safety issues of current reactors, and basic physics. The measurements are supported by several modeling efforts that aim at improving model codes and nuclear data evaluation.

  19. Spontaneous fission properties of superheavy elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heßberger, F. P.

    2017-04-01

    Spontaneous fission properties of transuranium isotopes are reviewed. Specific emphasis was laid on brief historical overviews of theoretical descriptions and experimental determination of basic properties as spontaneous fission half-lives, fission barriers, or total kinetic energy release in fission. Experimental spontaneous fission half-lives are compared with the results of recent theoretical predictions. Hindrance factors for spontaneous fission of odd-mass nuclei are discussed in context with the configuration (spin, parity) of the fissioning states and the change in energy of single particle levels at deformation. Kinetic energy release and mass distributions are discussed in the context of different fission modes, as symmetric and asymmetric or fission from elongated or compact shapes of the nascent fission fragments. An overview of recent fission barrier calculations of superheavy elements on the basis of macroscopic-microscopic models or self-consistent calculations is given, and the results are compared for selected examples.

  20. Fifty years with nuclear fission

    SciTech Connect

    Behrens, J.W.; Carlson, A.D. )

    1989-01-01

    The news of the discovery of nuclear fission, by Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann in Germany, was brought to the United States by Niels Bohr in January 1939. Since its discovery, the United States, and the world for that matter, has never been the same. It therefore seemed appropriate to acknowledge the fifieth anniversary of its discovery by holding a topical meeting entitled, Fifty Years with Nuclear Fission,'' in the United States during the year 1989. The objective of the meeting was to bring together pioneers of the nuclear industry and other scientists and engineers to report on reminiscences of the past and on the more recent development in fission science and technology. The conference highlighted the early pioneers of the nuclear industry by dedicated a full day (April 26), consisting of two plenary sessions, at the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) in Washington, DC. More recent developments in fission science and technology in addition to historical reflections were topics for two fully days of sessions (April 27 and 28) at the main site of the NIST in Gaithersburg, Maryland. The wide range of topics covered in this Volume 1 by this topical meeting included plenary invited, and contributed sessions entitled: Preclude to the First Chain Reaction -- 1932 to 1942; Early Fission Research -- Nuclear Structure and Spontaneous Fission; 50 Years of Fission, Science, and Technology; Nuclear Reactors, Secure Energy for the Future; Reactors 1; Fission Science 1; Safeguards and Space Applications; Fission Data; Nuclear Fission -- Its Various Aspects; Theory and Experiments in Support of Theory; Reactors and Safeguards; and General Research, Instrumentation, and By-Product. The individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  1. Dynamical Aspects of Nuclear Fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kliman, J.; Itkis, M. G.; Gmuca, Š.

    2008-11-01

    Fission dynamics. Dependence of scission-neutron yield on light-fragment mass for [symbol]=1/2 [et al.]. Dynamics of capture quasifission and fusion-fission competition / L. Stuttgé ... [et al.] -- Fission-fission. The processes of fusion-fission and quasi-fission of superheavy nuclei / M. G. Itkis ... [et al.]. Fission and quasifission in the reactions [symbol]Ca+[symbol]Pb and [symbol]Ni+[symbol]W / G. N. Knyazheva ... [et al.]. Mass-energy characteristics of reactions [symbol]Fe+[symbol][symbol][symbol]266Hs and [symbol]Mg+[symbol]Cm[symbol][symbol]Hs at Coulomb barrier / L. Krupa ... [et al.]. Fusion of heavy ions at extreme sub-barrier energies / Ş. Mişicu and H. Esbensen. Fusion and fission dynamics of heavy nuclear system / V. Zagrebaev and W. Greiner. Time-dependent potential energy for fusion and fission processes / A. V. Karpov ... [et al.] -- Superheavy elements. Advances in the understanding of structure and production mechanisms for superheavy elements / W. Greiner and V. Zagrebaev. Fission barriers of heaviest nuclei / A. Sobiczewski ... [et al.]. Possibility of synthesizing doubly magic superheavy nuclei / Y Aritomo ... [et al.]. Synthesis of superheavy nuclei in [symbol]Ca-induced reactions / V. K. Utyonkov ... [et al.] -- Fragmentation. Production of neutron-rich nuclei in the nucleus-nucleus collisions around the Fermi energy / M. Veselský. Signals of enlarged core in [symbol]Al / Y. G. Ma ... [et al.] -- Exotic modes. New insight into the fission process from experiments with relativistic heavy-ion beams / K.-H. Schmidt ... [et al.]. New results for the intensity of bimodal fission in binary and ternary spontaneous fission of [symbol]Cf / C. Goodin ... [et al.]. Rare fission modes: study of multi-cluster decays of actinide nuclei / D. V. Kamanin ... [et al.]. Energy distribution of ternary [symbol]-particles in [symbol]Cf(sf) / M. Mutterer ... [et al.]. Preliminary results of experiment aimed at searching for collinear cluster tripartition of

  2. Fifty years with nuclear fission

    SciTech Connect

    Behrens, J.W.; Carlson, A.D. )

    1989-01-01

    The news of the discovery of nucler fission, by Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann in Germany, was brought to the United States by Niels Bohr in January 1939. Since its discovery, the United States, and the world for that matter, has never been the same. It therefore seemed appropriate to acknowledge the fiftieth anniversary of its discovery by holding a topical meeting entitled, Fifty years with nuclear fission,'' in the United States during the year 1989. The objective of the meeting was to bring together pioneers of the nuclear industry and other scientists and engineers to report on reminiscences of the past and on the more recent developments in fission science and technology. The conference highlighted the early pioneers of the nuclear industry by dedicating a full day (April 26), consisting of two plenary sessions, at the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) in Washington, DC. More recent developments in fission science and technology in addition to historical reflections were topics for two full days of sessions (April 27 and 28) at the main sites of the NIST in Gaithersburg, Maryland. The wide range of topics covered by Volume 2 of this topical meeting included plenary invited, and contributed sessions entitled, Nuclear fission -- a prospective; reactors II; fission science II; medical and industrial applications by by-products; reactors and safeguards; general research, instrumentation, and by-products; and fission data, astrophysics, and space applications. The individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  3. Spallation-induced fission reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benlliure, J.; Rodríguez-Sánchez, J. L.

    2017-03-01

    During the last decade spallation-induced fission reactions have received particular attention because of their impact in the design of spallation-neutron sources or radioactive beam facilities, but also in the understanding of the fission process at high excitation energy. In this paper, we review the main progress brought by modern experimental techniques, in particular those based in the inverse kinematic, as well as the achievements in modelling these reactions. We will also address future possibilities for improving the investigation of fission dynamics.

  4. Fission at intermediate nucleon energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Meo, S.; Mancusi, D.; Massimi, C.; Vannini, G.; Ventura, A.

    2014-07-01

    In the present work Monte Carlo calculations of fission of actinides and pre- actinides induced by protons and neutrons in the energy range from 100 MeV to 1 GeV are carried out by means of a recent version of the Liège Intranuclear Cascade Model, INCL++, coupled with different evaporation-fission codes, in particular GEMINI++ and ABLA07. Fission model parameters are adjusted on experimental (p, f) cross sections and used to predict (n, f) cross sections, in order to provide a theoretical support to the campaign of neutron cross section measurements at the n_TOF facility at CERN.

  5. The binary fission origin of the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binder, Alan B.

    1986-01-01

    The major arguments for and against the binary fission model of lunar origin are reviewed. Unresolved problems include: (1) how the protoearth acquired sufficient angular velocity to fission, and (2) how the earth-moon system lost its excess angular momentum after fission. Despite these uncertainties, the compositional similarities between the earth's mantle and the bulk moon suggest that the fission model is worth considering. The proposed sequence of events in the formation of the moon by binary fission is given.

  6. Flp1, a fission yeast orthologue of the s. cerevisiae CDC14 gene, is not required for cyclin degradation or rum1p stabilisation at the end of mitosis.

    PubMed

    Cueille, N; Salimova, E; Esteban, V; Blanco, M; Moreno, S; Bueno, A; Simanis, V

    2001-07-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the phosphoprotein phosphatase Cdc14p plays a central role in exit from mitosis, by promoting B-type cyclin degradation and allowing accumulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor Sic1p. Cdc14p is sequestered in the nucleolus during interphase, from where it is released at the end of mitosis, dependent upon mitotic exit network function. The CDC14 gene is essential and loss-of-function mutants arrest at the end of mitosis. We have identified a fission yeast orthologue of CDC14 through database searches. A Schizosaccharomyces pombe flp1 (cdc fourteen-like-phosphatase) null mutant is viable, divides at a reduced size and shows defects in septation. flp1p is not the essential effector of the S. pombe septation initiation network, but may potentiate signalling of the onset of septation. In contrast to S. cerevisiae Cdc14p, flp1p is not required for the accumulation or destruction of the B-type cyclin cdc13p, the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor rum1p, or for dephosphorylation of the APC/C specificity factor ste9p in G1. Like its budding yeast counterpart, flp1p is restricted to the nucleolus until mitosis, when it is dispersed through the nucleus. In contrast to S. cerevisiae Cdc14p, flp1p is also present on the mitotic spindle and contractile ring. The potential roles of flp1p in cell cycle control are discussed.

  7. Brain region-specific altered expression and association of mitochondria-related genes in autism

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    DNAJC19, DNM1L, LRPPRC, SLC25A12, SLC25A14, SLC25A24 and TOMM20 were reduced in at least two of the brain regions of autism patients. Conclusions Our study, though preliminary, brings to light some new genes associated with MtD in autism. If MtD is detected in early stages, treatment strategies aimed at reducing its impact may be adopted. PMID:23116158

  8. Fission of rotating fermium isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baran, A.; Staszczak, A.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper we discuss the process of fission of even fermium isotopes, on the basis of their rotational states. The nuclear intrinsic vorticity and its coupling to the global rotation of the nucleus are used to simulate the interaction between the rotational motion and the pairing field, and lead to pairing quenching in the case of higher angular momentum states. The rotation leads to a decreasing of the fission barrier heights. The ingredients of the model—ground state fission barriers, pairing correlation energies and the cranking moments of inertia—are obtained within the self-consistent Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov framework using the Skyrme \\text{Sk}{{\\text{M}}^{*}} energy density functional. Fission barriers and half-lives are estimated for spins I up to I = 16ℏ.

  9. Ternary Fission of CF Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermote, S.; Wagemans, C.; Serot, O.; Soldner, T.; Geltenbort, P.; Almahamid, I.; Lukens, W.; Floyd, J.

    2008-04-01

    During the last years, different Cm and Cf isotopes have been studied by our research group in the frame of a systematic investigation of gas emission characteristics in ternary fission. In this paper we report on the energy distribution and the emission probability of 3H, 4He and 6He particles emitted in neutron induced ternary fission of 249Cf and 251Cf. Both measurements were performed at the high flux reactor of the Institute Laue-Langevin (Grenoble, France), using suited ΔE-E telescope detectors, consisting of well-calibrated silicon surface barrier detectors. In this way, the available database can be expanded with new results for Z=98 isotopes, for which the information on neutron induced ternary fission is almost nonexistent. These measurements are important for the systematic investigation of gas emission characteristics in ternary fission.

  10. Advanced Space Fission Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Borowski, Stanley K.

    2010-01-01

    Fission has been considered for in-space propulsion since the 1940s. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) systems underwent extensive development from 1955-1973, completing 20 full power ground tests and achieving specific impulses nearly twice that of the best chemical propulsion systems. Space fission power systems (which may eventually enable Nuclear Electric Propulsion) have been flown in space by both the United States and the Former Soviet Union. Fission is the most developed and understood of the nuclear propulsion options (e.g. fission, fusion, antimatter, etc.), and fission has enjoyed tremendous terrestrial success for nearly 7 decades. Current space nuclear research and technology efforts are focused on devising and developing first generation systems that are safe, reliable and affordable. For propulsion, the focus is on nuclear thermal rockets that build on technologies and systems developed and tested under the Rover/NERVA and related programs from the Apollo era. NTP Affordability is achieved through use of previously developed fuels and materials, modern analytical techniques and test strategies, and development of a small engine for ground and flight technology demonstration. Initial NTP systems will be capable of achieving an Isp of 900 s at a relatively high thrust-to-weight ratio. The development and use of first generation space fission power and propulsion systems will provide new, game changing capabilities for NASA. In addition, development and use of these systems will provide the foundation for developing extremely advanced power and propulsion systems capable of routinely and affordably accessing any point in the solar system. The energy density of fissile fuel (8 x 10(exp 13) Joules/kg) is more than adequate for enabling extensive exploration and utilization of the solar system. For space fission propulsion systems, the key is converting the virtually unlimited energy of fission into thrust at the desired specific impulse and thrust

  11. The Microscopic Theory of Fission

    SciTech Connect

    Younes, W; Gogny, D

    2009-06-09

    Fission-fragment properties have been calculated for thermal neutron-induced fission on a {sup 239}Pu target, using constrained Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov calculations with a finite-range effective interaction. A quantitative criterion based on the interaction energy between the nascent fragments is introduced to define the scission configurations. The validity of this criterion is benchmarked against experimental measurements of the kinetic energies and of multiplicities of neutrons emitted by the fragments.

  12. Fission Yeast Model Study for Dissection of TSC Pathway

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    have also generated two mutants, rhb1-DA4 and rhb1-DA8. In fission yeast, two events, induction of a meiosis initiating gene mei2+ and cell division... meiosis are less induced. Under the same condition, retrotransposons, G1-cyclin (pas1+) and inv1+ are more induced. We have also demonstrated that...responsible for rhb1-DA4, and Q52R I76F within the switch II domain for rhb1-DA8. In fission yeast, two events, induction of a meiosis initiating

  13. Mutations in rik1, clr2, clr3 and clr4 genes asymmetrically derepress the silent mating-type loci in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Ekwall, K; Ruusala, T

    1994-01-01

    In Schizosaccharomyces pombe the mating-type information is stored at two transcriptionally silent loci (mat2 and mat3). The region between these sites (K region) is inert for meiotic crossing over. The mating-type genes (M or P) are expressed only when present at a third, active locus (mat1). We have earlier shown that the positional regulation of P genes is based on repression at the silent site, caused by elements in the flanking DNA sequences. In this study we have mutagenized a sterile mat1 deleted strain and selected for cells that are able to conjugate. Recessive mutations of this type should define genes encoding trans-acting factors involved in repression of the silent mating-type loci. Before this work mutations in two genes, clr1 and swi6, had been shown to allow both expression of the silent loci and recombination in the K region. The sensitivity of the present selection is demonstrated by the isolation of new mutations that derepress one or both of the silent loci (M-mating or bi-mating). The frequency of M-mating mutants was almost two orders of magnitude higher than that of bi-mating mutants and in all mutants analyzed mat3-M expression was significantly higher than mat2-P expression. The mutations define three new genes, clr2, clr3 and clr4. In addition we show that the rik1 mutant previously known to allow recombination in the K region also depresses the silent loci.

  14. DRP3 and ELM1 are required for mitochondrial fission in the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha.

    PubMed

    Nagaoka, Nagisa; Yamashita, Akihiro; Kurisu, Rina; Watari, Yuta; Ishizuna, Fumiko; Tsutsumi, Nobuhissro; Ishizaki, Kimitsune; Kohchi, Takayuki; Arimura, Shin-Ichi

    2017-07-04

    Mitochondria increase in number by the fission of existing mitochondria. Mitochondrial fission is needed to provide mitochondria to daughter cells during cell division. In Arabidopsis thaliana, four kinds of genes have been reported to be involved in mitochondrial fission. Two of them, DRP3 (dynamin-related protein3) and FIS1 (FISSION1), are well conserved in eukaryotes. The other two are plant-specific ELM1 (elongated mitochondria1) and PMD (peroxisomal and mitochondrial division). To better understand the commonality and diversity of mitochondrial fission factors in land plants, we examined mitochondrial fission-related genes in a liverwort, Marchantia polymorpha. As a bryophyte, M. polymorpha has features distinct from those of the other land plant lineages. We found that M. polymorpha has single copies of homologues for DRP3, FIS1 and ELM1, but does not appear to have a homologue of PMD. Citrine-fusion proteins with MpDRP3, MpFIS1 and MpELM1 were localized to mitochondria in M. polymorpha. MpDRP3- and MpELM1-defective mutants grew slowly and had networked mitochondria, indicating that mitochondrial fission was blocked in the mutants, as expected. However, knockout of MpFIS1 did not affect growth or mitochondrial morphology. These results suggest that MpDRP3 and MpELM1 but neither MpFIS1 nor PMD are needed for mitochondrial fission in M. polymorpha.

  15. Chromatin architectures at fission yeast transcriptional promoters and replication origins

    PubMed Central

    Givens, Robert M.; Lai, William K. M.; Rizzo, Jason M.; Bard, Jonathan E.; Mieczkowski, Piotr A.; Leatherwood, Janet; Huberman, Joel A.; Buck, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    We have used micrococcal nuclease (MNase) digestion followed by deep sequencing in order to obtain a higher resolution map than previously available of nucleosome positions in the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Our data confirm an unusually short average nucleosome repeat length, ∼152 bp, in fission yeast and that transcriptional start sites (TSSs) are associated with nucleosome-depleted regions (NDRs), ordered nucleosome arrays downstream and less regularly spaced upstream nucleosomes. In addition, we found enrichments for associated function in four of eight groups of genes clustered according to chromatin configurations near TSSs. At replication origins, our data revealed asymmetric localization of pre-replication complex (pre-RC) proteins within large NDRs—a feature that is conserved in fission and budding yeast and is therefore likely to be conserved in other eukaryotic organisms. PMID:22573177

  16. Neutron Emission in Fission And Quasi-Fission of Hs

    SciTech Connect

    Itkis, I. M.; Itkis, M. G.; Knyazheva, G. N.; Kozulin, E. M.; Krupa, L.; Hanappe, F.; Dorvaux, O.; Stuttge, L.

    2010-04-30

    Mass and energy distributions of fission-like fragments obtained in the reactions {sup 26}Mg+{sup 248}Cm, {sup 36}S+{sup 238}U and {sup 58}Fe+{sup 208}Pb leading to the formation of {sup 266,274}Hs are reported. From the analysis of TKE distributions for symmetric fragment it was found that at energies below the Coulomb barrier the bimodal fission of {sup 274}Hs, formed in the reaction {sup 26}Mg+{sup 248}Cm, is observed, while in the reaction {sup 36}S+{sup 238}U at these energies the main part of the symmetric fragments arises from the quasi-fission process. At energies above the Coulomb barrier the fusion-fission is a main process leading to the formation of symmetric fragment for the both reactions. In the case of {sup 58}Fe+{sup 208}Pb reaction the quasi-fission process is the main reaction mechanism at all measured energies. The pre- and post-scission neutron multiplicities as a function of the fragment mass have been obtained for all studied reactions.

  17. Switching gene swi6, involved in repression of silent mating-type loci in fission yeast, encodes a homologue of chromatin-associated proteins from Drosophila and mammals.

    PubMed

    Lorentz, A; Ostermann, K; Fleck, O; Schmidt, H

    1994-05-27

    The switching gene swi6 of Schizosaccharomyces pombe is involved in the repression of the silent mating-type loci mat2 and mat3. We have cloned the gene by functional complementation of the switching defect of the swi6-115 mutation. DNA sequence analyses revealed an open reading frame of 984 bp coding for a putative protein of 328 amino acids (aa). The isolation of a swi6 cDNA confirmed this result. Gene replacement showed that swi6 is not essential for viability. The Swi6 protein is very hydrophilic; it contains 41% charged aa. A region of 48 aa is homologous to a sequence motif found in the chromatin-associated proteins, HP1 and Polycomb (Drosophila melanogaster), M31, M32 and M33 (mouse), and the human HSM1 protein. This motif is called chromo domain (chromatin organization modifier). Our results indicate that Swi6 is a structural component of chromatin. Swi6 may have the function to compact mat2 and mat3 into a heterochromatin-like conformation which represses the transcription of these silent cassettes.

  18. Mapping of ure1, ure2 and ure3 markers in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Lubbers, M W; Thornton, R J; Honey, N K

    1997-09-30

    The following urease genes of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe have been mapped by induced haploidization and tetrad analysis--ure1: chromosome are III-L; ure2 and ure3: chromosome are I-R. The previously determined tps19-rad1 interval (11-12 cM) has been increased to 18 cM. A convenient medium for rapidly scoring the ure gene markers of fission yeast was developed.

  19. Energy production using fission fragment rockets

    SciTech Connect

    Chapline, G.; Matsuda, Y.

    1991-08-01

    Fission fragment rockets are nuclear reactors with a core consisting of thin fibers in a vacuum, and which use magnetic fields to extract the fission fragments from the reactor core. As an alternative to ordinary nuclear reactors, fission fragment rockets would have the following advantages: Approximately twice as efficient if one can directly convert the fission fragment energy into electricity; by reducing the buildup of a fission fragment inventory in the reactor one could avoid a Chernobyl type disaster; and collecting the fission fragments outside the reactor could simplify the waste disposal problem. 6 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. HIV-1 Protease in the Fission Yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Benko, Zsigmond; Elder, Robert T; Li, Ge; Liang, Dong; Zhao, Richard Y

    2016-01-01

    HIV-1 protease (PR) is an essential viral enzyme. Its primary function is to proteolyze the viral Gag-Pol polyprotein for production of viral enzymes and structural proteins and for maturation of infectious viral particles. Increasing evidence suggests that PR cleaves host cellular proteins. However, the nature of PR-host cellular protein interactions is elusive. This study aimed to develop a fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) model system and to examine the possible interaction of HIV-1 PR with cellular proteins and its potential impact on cell proliferation and viability. A fission yeast strain RE294 was created that carried a single integrated copy of the PR gene in its chromosome. The PR gene was expressed using an inducible nmt1 promoter so that PR-specific effects could be measured. HIV-1 PR from this system cleaved the same indigenous viral p6/MA protein substrate as it does in natural HIV-1 infections. HIV-1 PR expression in fission yeast cells prevented cell proliferation and induced cellular oxidative stress and changes in mitochondrial morphology that led to cell death. Both these PR activities can be prevented by a PR-specific enzymatic inhibitor, indinavir, suggesting that PR-mediated proteolytic activities and cytotoxic effects resulted from enzymatic activities of HIV-1 PR. Through genome-wide screening, a serine/threonine kinase, Hhp2, was identified that suppresses HIV-1 PR-induced protease cleavage and cell death in fission yeast and in mammalian cells, where it prevented PR-induced apoptosis and cleavage of caspase-3 and caspase-8. This is the first report to show that HIV-1 protease is functional as an enzyme in fission yeast, and that it behaves in a similar manner as it does in HIV-1 infection. HIV-1 PR-induced cell death in fission yeast could potentially be used as an endpoint for mechanistic studies, and this system could be used for developing a high-throughput system for drug screenings.

  1. Fission gas in thoria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuganathan, Navaratnarajah; Ghosh, Partha S.; Galvin, Conor O. T.; Arya, Ashok K.; Dutta, Bijon K.; Dey, Gautam K.; Grimes, Robin W.

    2017-03-01

    The fission gases Xe and Kr, formed during normal reactor operation, are known to degrade fuel performance, particularly at high burn-up. Using first-principles density functional theory together with a dispersion correction (DFT + D), in ThO2 we calculate the energetics of neutral and charged point defects, the di-vacancy (DV), different neutral tri-vacancies (NTV), the charged tetravacancy (CTV) defect cluster geometries and their interaction with Xe and Kr. The most favourable incorporation point defect site for Xe or Kr in defective ThO2 is the fully charged thorium vacancy. The lowest energy NTV in larger supercells of ThO2 is NTV3, however, a single Xe atom is most stable when accommodated within a NTV1. The di-vacancy (DV) is a significantly less favoured incorporation site than the NTV1 but the CTV offers about the same incorporation energy. Incorporation of a second gas atom in a NTV is a high energy process and more unfavourable than accommodation within an existing Th vacancy. The bi-NTV (BNTV) cluster geometry studied will accommodate one or two gas atoms with low incorporation energies but the addition of a third gas atom incurs a high energy penalty. The tri-NTV cluster (TNTV) forms a larger space which accommodates three gas atoms but again there is a penalty to accommodate a fourth gas atom. By considering the energy to form the defect sites, solution energies were generated showing that in ThO2-x the most favourable solution equilibrium site is the NTV1 while in ThO2 it is the DV.

  2. Compact fission counter for DANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, C Y; Chyzh, A; Kwan, E; Henderson, R; Gostic, J; Carter, D; Bredeweg, T; Couture, A; Jandel, M; Ullmann, J

    2010-11-06

    The Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) consists of 160 BF{sub 2} crystals with equal solid-angle coverage. DANCE is a 4{pi} {gamma}-ray calorimeter and designed to study the neutron-capture reactions on small quantities of radioactive and rare stable nuclei. These reactions are important for the radiochemistry applications and modeling the element production in stars. The recognition of capture event is made by the summed {gamma}-ray energy which is equivalent of the reaction Q-value and unique for a given capture reaction. For a selective group of actinides, where the neutron-induced fission reaction competes favorably with the neutron capture reaction, additional signature is needed to distinguish between fission and capture {gamma} rays for the DANCE measurement. This can be accomplished by introducing a detector system to tag fission fragments and thus establish a unique signature for the fission event. Once this system is implemented, one has the opportunity to study not only the capture but also fission reactions. A parallel-plate avalanche counter (PPAC) has many advantages for the detection of heavy charged particles such as fission fragments. These include fast timing, resistance to radiation damage, and tolerance of high counting rate. A PPAC also can be tuned to be insensitive to {alpha} particles, which is important for experiments with {alpha}-emitting actinides. Therefore, a PPAC is an ideal detector for experiments requiring a fast and clean trigger for fission. A PPAC with an ingenious design was fabricated in 2006 by integrating amplifiers into the target assembly. However, this counter was proved to be unsuitable for this application because of issues related to the stability of amplifiers and the ability to separate fission fragments from {alpha}'s. Therefore, a new design is needed. A LLNL proposal to develop a new PPAC for DANCE was funded by NA22 in FY09. The design goal is to minimize the mass for the proposed counter

  3. Thorium-uranium fission radiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, E. L.; Weiss, J. R.; Burnett, D. S.; Woolum, D. S.

    1976-01-01

    Results are described for studies designed to develop routine methods for in-situ measurement of the abundance of Th and U on a microscale in heterogeneous samples, especially rocks, using the secondary high-energy neutron flux developed when the 650 MeV proton beam of an accelerator is stopped in a 42 x 42 cm diam Cu cylinder. Irradiations were performed at three different locations in a rabbit tube in the beam stop area, and thick metal foils of Bi, Th, and natural U as well as polished silicate glasses of known U and Th contents were used as targets and were placed in contact with mica which served as a fission track detector. In many cases both bare and Cd-covered detectors were exposed. The exposed mica samples were etched in 48% HF and the fission tracks counted by conventional transmitted light microscopy. Relative fission cross sections are examined, along with absolute Th track production rates, interaction tracks, and a comparison of measured and calculated fission rates. The practicality of fast neutron radiography revealed by experiments to data is discussed primarily for Th/U measurements, and mixtures of other fissionable nuclei are briefly considered.

  4. Thorium-uranium fission radiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, E. L.; Weiss, J. R.; Burnett, D. S.; Woolum, D. S.

    1976-01-01

    Results are described for studies designed to develop routine methods for in-situ measurement of the abundance of Th and U on a microscale in heterogeneous samples, especially rocks, using the secondary high-energy neutron flux developed when the 650 MeV proton beam of an accelerator is stopped in a 42 x 42 cm diam Cu cylinder. Irradiations were performed at three different locations in a rabbit tube in the beam stop area, and thick metal foils of Bi, Th, and natural U as well as polished silicate glasses of known U and Th contents were used as targets and were placed in contact with mica which served as a fission track detector. In many cases both bare and Cd-covered detectors were exposed. The exposed mica samples were etched in 48% HF and the fission tracks counted by conventional transmitted light microscopy. Relative fission cross sections are examined, along with absolute Th track production rates, interaction tracks, and a comparison of measured and calculated fission rates. The practicality of fast neutron radiography revealed by experiments to data is discussed primarily for Th/U measurements, and mixtures of other fissionable nuclei are briefly considered.

  5. The Fission Yeast spo14+ Gene Encoding a Functional Homologue of Budding Yeast Sec12 Is Required for the Development of Forespore Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura-Kubo, Michiko; Nakamura, Taro; Hirata, Aiko; Shimoda, Chikashi

    2003-01-01

    The Schizosaccharomyces pombe spo14-B221 mutant was originally isolated as a sporulation-deficient mutant. However, the spo14+ gene is essential for cell viability and growth. spo14+ is identical to the previously characterized stl1+ gene encoding a putative homologue of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sec12, which is essential for protein transport from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi apparatus. In the spo14 mutant cells, ER-like membranes were accumulated beneath the plasma membrane and the ER/Golgi shuttling protein Rer1 remained in the ER. Sec12 is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the Sar1 GTPase. Overproduction of psr1+ coding for an S. pombe Sar1 homologue suppressed both the sporulation defect of spo14-B221 and cold-sensitive growth of newly isolated spo14-6 and spo14-7 mutants. These results indicate that Spo14 is involved in early steps of the protein secretory pathway. The spo14-B221 allele carries a single nucleotide change in the branch point consensus of the fifth intron, which reduces the abundance of the spo14 mRNA. During meiosis II, the forespore membrane was initiated near spindle pole bodies; however, subsequent extension of the membrane was arrested before its closure into a sac. We conclude that Spo14 is responsible for the assembly of the forespore membrane by supplying membrane vesicles. PMID:12631727

  6. Position effect variegation at the mating-type locus of fission yeast: a cis-acting element inhibits covariegated expression of genes in the silent and expressed domains.

    PubMed Central

    Ayoub, N; Goldshmidt, I; Cohen, A

    1999-01-01

    Schizosaccharomyces pombe switches its mating type by transposing a copy of unexpressed genes from the respective mat2 or mat3 cassettes to mat1. The donor cassettes are located in a silent domain that is separated from the expressed mat1 cassette by the L region. We monitored the expression of ade6 from sites in the L region and examined the relationship between the expression state at these sites and at sites within the silent domain. Results indicate that: (1) the silent domain extends into the L region, but repression is gradually alleviated with increasing distance from mat2, and overexpression of swi6 enhances PEV in the L region; (2) a transcriptionally active chromatin state, associated with reporter gene expression in the L region, spreads toward the silent domain; (3) a cis-acting element, located at the junction between the L region and mat2-P, ensures repression in the silent domain, regardless of the expression state in the L region; and (4) repression in mat1-P cells is less stringently controlled than in mat1-M cells. We discuss the functional organization of the mat region and genetic elements that ensure separation between repressed and derepressed domains. PMID:10353894

  7. Position effect variegation at the mating-type locus of fission yeast: a cis-acting element inhibits covariegated expression of genes in the silent and expressed domains.

    PubMed

    Ayoub, N; Goldshmidt, I; Cohen, A

    1999-06-01

    Schizosaccharomyces pombe switches its mating type by transposing a copy of unexpressed genes from the respective mat2 or mat3 cassettes to mat1. The donor cassettes are located in a silent domain that is separated from the expressed mat1 cassette by the L region. We monitored the expression of ade6 from sites in the L region and examined the relationship between the expression state at these sites and at sites within the silent domain. Results indicate that: (1) the silent domain extends into the L region, but repression is gradually alleviated with increasing distance from mat2, and overexpression of swi6 enhances PEV in the L region; (2) a transcriptionally active chromatin state, associated with reporter gene expression in the L region, spreads toward the silent domain; (3) a cis-acting element, located at the junction between the L region and mat2-P, ensures repression in the silent domain, regardless of the expression state in the L region; and (4) repression in mat1-P cells is less stringently controlled than in mat1-M cells. We discuss the functional organization of the mat region and genetic elements that ensure separation between repressed and derepressed domains.

  8. Papulacandin B resistance in budding and fission yeasts: isolation and characterization of a gene involved in (1,3)beta-D-glucan synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Castro, C; Ribas, J C; Valdivieso, M H; Varona, R; del Rey, F; Duran, A

    1995-01-01

    Papulacandin B, an antifungal agent that interferes with the synthesis of yeast cell wall (1,3)beta-D-glucan, was used to isolate resistant mutants in Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The resistance to papulacandin B always segregated as a recessive character that defines a single complementation group in both yeasts (pbr1+ and PBR1, respectively). Determination of several kinetic parameters of (1,3)beta-D-glucan synthase activity revealed no differences between S. pombe wild-type and pbr1 mutant strains except in the 50% inhibitory concentration for papulacandin B of the synthases (about a 50-fold increase in mutant activity). Inactivation of the synthase activity of both yeasts after in vivo treatment with the antifungal agent showed that mutant synthases were more resistant than the corresponding wild-type ones. Detergent dissociation of the S. pombe synthase into soluble and particulate fractions and subsequent reconstitution indicated that the resistance character of pbr1 mutants resides in the particulate fraction of the enzyme. Cloning and sequencing of PBR1 from S. cerevisiae revealed a gene identical to others recently reported (FKS1, ETG1, CWH53, and CND1). Its disruption leads to reduced levels of both (1,3)beta-D-glucan synthase activity and the alkali-insoluble cell wall fraction. Transformants containing the PBR1 gene reverse the defect in (1,3)beta-D-glucan synthase. It is concluded that Pbr1p is probably part of the (1,3)beta-D-glucan synthase complex. PMID:7592316

  9. Status of fission yield data

    SciTech Connect

    England, T.R.; Blachot, J.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper we summarize the current status of the recent US evaluation for 34 fissioning nuclides at one or more neutron incident energies and for spontaneous fission. Currently there are 50 yields sets, and for each we have independent and cumulative yields and uncertainties for approximately 1100 fission products. When finalized the recommended data will become part of Version VI of the US ENDF/B. Other major evaluations in progress that are included in a recently formed IAEA Coordinated Research Program are also summarized. In a second part we review two empirical models in use to estimate independent yields. Comparison of model estimates with measured data is presented, including a comparison with some recent data obtained from Lohengrin (Cf-249 T). 18 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. PRODUCING ENERGY AND RADIOACTIVE FISSION PRODUCTS

    DOEpatents

    Segre, E.; Kennedy, J.W.; Seaborg, G.T.

    1959-10-13

    This patent broadly discloses the production of plutonium by the neutron bombardment of uranium to produce neptunium which decays to plutonium, and the fissionability of plutonium by neutrons, both fast and thermal, to produce energy and fission products.

  11. Fission properties of the heaviest elements

    SciTech Connect

    Moller, P. |||; Nix, R.

    1995-03-01

    The authors discuss fission properties of the heaviest elements. In particular they focus on stability with respect to spontaneous fission and on the prospects of extending the region of known nuclei beyond the peninsula of currently known nuclides.

  12. Fission Matrix Capability for MCNP Monte Carlo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Forrest; Carney, Sean; Kiedrowski, Brian; Martin, William

    2014-06-01

    We describe recent experience and results from implementing a fission matrix capability into the MCNP Monte Carlo code. The fission matrix can be used to provide estimates of the fundamental mode fission distribution, the dominance ratio, the eigenvalue spectrum, and higher mode forward and adjoint eigenfunctions of the fission neutron source distribution. It can also be used to accelerate the convergence of the power method iterations and to provide basis functions for higher-order perturbation theory. The higher-mode fission sources can be used in MCNP to determine higher-mode forward fluxes and tallies, and work is underway to provide higher-mode adjoint-weighted fluxes and tallies. Past difficulties and limitations of the fission matrix approach are overcome with a new sparse representation of the matrix, permitting much larger and more accurate fission matrix representations. The new fission matrix capabilities provide a significant advance in the state-of-the-art for Monte Carlo criticality calculations.

  13. Computer program FPIP-REV calculates fission product inventory for U-235 fission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W. S.; Call, D. W.

    1967-01-01

    Computer program calculates fission product inventories and source strengths associated with the operation of U-235 fueled nuclear power reactor. It utilizes a fission-product nuclide library of 254 nuclides, and calculates the time dependent behavior of the fission product nuclides formed by fissioning of U-235.

  14. Process for treating fission waste. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Rohrmann, C.A.; Wick, O.J.

    1981-11-17

    A method is described for the treatment of fission waste. A glass forming agent, a metal oxide, and a reducing agent are mixed with the fission waste and the mixture is heated. After melting, the mixture separates into a glass phase and a metal phase. The glass phase may be used to safely store the fission waste, while the metal phase contains noble metals recovered from the fission waste.

  15. Nuclear fission with diffusive dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, D.; Bertsch, G. F.

    1992-07-01

    We investigate the dynamics of nuclear fission, assuming purely diffusive motion up to the saddle point. The resulting Smoluchowski equation is solved for conditions appropriate to the 16O+142Nd-->158Er reaction at 207 MeV. The solution is characterized by an equilibration time τ0 for the system to reach steady state, and the fission decay rate in steady state, Λ. We find that the equilibration time τ0 plays a very small role in determining the number of prescission neutrons. The diffusion coefficient extracted from the experimental data is larger than the theoretical in the work of Bush, Bertsch, and Brown by a factor of 5-11.

  16. Search for Singlet Fission Chromophores

    SciTech Connect

    Havlas, Z.; Akdag, A.; Smith, M. B.; Dron, P.; Johnson, J. C.; Nozik, A. J.; Michl, J.

    2012-01-01

    Singlet fission, in which a singlet excited chromophore shares its energy with a ground-state neighbor and both end up in their triplet states, is of potential interest for solar cells. Only a handful of compounds, mostly alternant hydrocarbons, are known to perform efficiently. In view of the large number of conditions that a successful candidate for a practical cell has to meet, it appears desirable to extend the present list of high performers to additional classes of compounds. We have (i) identified design rules for new singlet fission chromophores and for their coupling to covalent dimers, (ii) synthesized them, and (iii) evaluated their performance as neat solids or covalent dimers.

  17. Ballistic piston fissioning plasma experiment.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, B. E.; Schneider, R. T.; Thom, K.; Lalos, G. T.

    1971-01-01

    The production of fissioning uranium plasma samples such that the fission fragment stopping distance is less than the dimensions of the plasma is approached by using a ballistic piston device for the compression of uranium hexafluoride. The experimental apparatus is described. At room temperature the gun can be loaded up to 100 torr UF6 partial pressure, but at compression a thousand fold increase of pressure can be obtained at a particle density on the order of 10 to the 19th power per cu cm. Limited spectral studies of UF6 were performed while obtaining the pressure-volume data. The results obtained and their implications are discussed.

  18. Fission at intermediate neutron energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Meo, S.; Mancusi, D.; Massimi, C.; Vannini, G.; Ventura, A.

    2014-09-01

    In the present work, as a theoretical support to the campaign of neutron cross section measurements at the n_TOF facility at CERN[1], Monte Carlo calculations of fission induced by neutrons in the energy range from 100 MeV to 1 GeV are carried out by means of a recent version of the Liege Intranuclear Cascade Model, INCL++[6], coupled with different evaporation-fission codes, such as Gemini++[7] and ABLA07[8]. Theoretical cross sections are compared with experimental data obtained by the n_TOF collaboration and perspectives for future theoretical work are outlined.

  19. Spontaneous fission properties of the heavy elements: Bimodal fission

    SciTech Connect

    Hulet, E.K.

    1988-11-11

    We have measured the mass and kinetic-energy distributions from the spontaneous fission of SVYFm, SVYNo, SVZMd, SWMd, SW(104), and SWSNo. All are observed to fission with a symmetrical division of mass, whereas the total-kinetic-energy (TKE) distributions strongly deviated from the Gaussian shape characteristically found in the fission of all other actinides. When the TKE distributions are resolved into two Gaussian's, the constituent peaks lie near 200 and near 233 MeV. We conclude two modes or bimodal fission is occurring in five of the six nuclides studied. Both modes are possible in the same nuclide, but one generally predominates. We also conclude the low-energy but mass-symmetrical mode is likely to extend to far heavier nuclei; while the high-energy mode will be restricted to a smaller region, a region of nuclei defined by the proximity of the fragments to the strong neutron and proton shells in TSSn. 21 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Neutronics for critical fission reactors and subcritical fission in hybrids

    SciTech Connect

    Salvatores, Massimo

    2012-06-19

    The requirements of future innovative nuclear fuel cycles will focus on safety, sustainability and radioactive waste minimization. Critical fast neutron reactors and sub-critical, external source driven systems (accelerator driven and fusion-fission hybrids) have a potential role to meet these requirements in view of their physics characteristics. This paper provides a short introduction to these features.

  1. Evolution of a novel developmental trajectory: fission is distinct from regeneration in the annelid Pristina leidyi.

    PubMed

    Zattara, Eduardo E; Bely, Alexandra E

    2011-01-01

    Understanding how novelty arises has been a major focus of evolutionary developmental biology. While the origin of new genes, gene functions, and morphological features has been studied intensely, the origin of entire developmental trajectories, such as regeneration or agametic reproduction, remains poorly understood. Agametic reproduction by fission is a novel trajectory evolved numerous times among animal phyla, including Annelida, in which it is thought to arise by co-option of regeneration. To gain insight into how a novel trajectory may evolve, we investigated a relatively recent origin of fission. We performed a detailed comparison of morphogenesis during regeneration and fission in the annelid Pristina leidyi (Clitellata, Naididae), from the onset of these trajectories to the achievement of the final morphology. We find extensive similarities between fission and regeneration morphogenesis, and, of particular note, find evidence for a synapomorphy of fission and regeneration (apparently not shared with embryogenesis) in peripheral nervous system development, providing strong support for the hypothesis that fission is derived from regeneration. We also find important differences between fission and regeneration, during development of multiple organ systems. These are manifested by temporal shifts in developmental events and by the presence of elements unique to only one process. Differences are not obviously temporally clustered at the beginning, middle, or end of development but rather occur throughout, indicating that divergence has occurred along the entire developmental course of these trajectories. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Radiochemistry and the Study of Fission

    SciTech Connect

    Rundberg, Robert S.

    2016-11-14

    These are slides from a lecture given at UC Berkeley. Radiochemistry has been used to study fission since it’ discovery. Radiochemical methods are used to determine cumulative mass yields. These measurements have led to the two-mode fission hypothesis to model the neutron energy dependence of fission product yields. Fission product yields can be used for the nuclear forensics of nuclear explosions. The mass yield curve depends on both the fuel and the neutron spectrum of a device. Recent studies have shown that the nuclear structure of the compound nucleus can affect the mass yield distribution. The following topics are covered: In the beginning: the discovery of fission; forensics using fission products: what can be learned from fission products, definitions of R-values and Q-values, fission bases, K-factors and fission chambers, limitations; the neutron energy dependence of the mass yield distribution (the two mode fission hypothesis); the influence of nuclear structure on the mass yield distribution. In summary: Radiochemistry has been used to study fission since it’s discovery. Radiochemical measurement of fission product yields have provided the highest precision data for developing fission models and for nuclear forensics. The two-mode fission hypothesis provides a description of the neutron energy dependence of the mass yield curve. However, data is still rather sparse and more work is needed near second and third chance fission. Radiochemical measurements have provided evidence for the importance of nuclear states in the compound nucleus in predicting the mass yield curve in the resonance region.

  3. Centromeric chromatin in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Partridge, Janet F

    2008-05-01

    A fundamental requirement for life is the ability of cells to divide properly and to pass on to their daughters a full complement of genetic material. The centromere of the chromosome is essential for this process, as it provides the DNA sequences on which the kinetochore (the proteinaceous structure that links centromeric DNA to the spindle microtubules) assembles to allow segregation of the chromosomes during mitosis. It has long been recognized that kinetochore assembly is subject to epigenetic control, and deciphering how centromeres promote faithful chromosome segregation provides a fascinating intellectual challenge. This challenge is made more difficult by the scale and complexity of DNA sequences in metazoan centromeres, thus much research has focused on dissecting centromere function in the single celled eukaryotic yeasts. Interestingly, in spite of similarities in the genome size of budding and fission yeasts, they seem to have adopted some striking differences in their strategy for passing on their chromosomes. Budding yeast have "point" centromeres, where a 125 base sequence is sufficient for mitotic propagation, whereas fission yeast centromeres are more reminiscent of the large repetitive centromeres of metazoans. In addition, the centromeric heterochromatin which coats centromeric domains of fission yeast and metazoan centromeres and is critical for their function, is largely absent from budding yeast centromeres. This review focuses on the assembly and maintenance of centromeric chromatin in the fission yeast.

  4. Space Fission System Test Effectiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Houts, Mike; Schmidt, Glen L.; Van Dyke, Melissa; Godfroy, Tom; Martin, James; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon; Dickens, Ricky; Salvail, Pat; Harper, Roger

    2004-02-04

    Space fission technology has the potential to enable rapid access to any point in the solar system. If fission propulsion systems are to be developed to their full potential, however, near-term customers need to be identified and initial fission systems successfully developed, launched, and utilized. One key to successful utilization is to develop reactor designs that are highly testable. Testable reactor designs have a much higher probability of being successfully converted from paper concepts to working space hardware than do designs which are difficult or impossible to realistically test. ''Test Effectiveness'' is one measure of the ability to realistically test a space reactor system. The objective of this paper is to discuss test effectiveness as applied to the design, development, flight qualification, and acceptance testing of space fission systems. The ability to perform highly effective testing would be particularly important to the success of any near-term mission, such as NASA's Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter, the first mission under study within NASA's Project Prometheus, the Nuclear Systems Program.

  5. Energetics of the fission process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gönnenwein, Friedrich

    1994-09-01

    The mass asymmetry of fragments from nuclear fission of heavy nuclei is reviewed. While mass asymmetry is a common and well-known phenomenon for low-energy fission of the lighter actinides, more recent experiments have demonstrated that, for the heaviest actinides, the mass distribution switches to a symmetric one. On the other hand, it has been discovered that, though for fissioning nuclei with mass numbers A225 the mass distribution is basically symmetric, an asymmetric component is clearly to be identified for nuclei down to the Pb-region. In the absence of a generally accepted dynamical theory of fission, the above experimental findings are discussed in terms of static energy considerations. Triggered from the outset by the structure of the potential energy surface at the saddlepoint, the energy balance at the scission point between the available energy ( Q-value) of the reaction and the Coulomb and deformation energy of the nascent fragments is shown to steer the characteristics of the fragment mass distributions.

  6. Multimodal fission and neutron evaporation

    SciTech Connect

    Brosa, U.

    1988-10-01

    The average multiplicities nu-bar(A) of prompt neutrons emitted in the spontaneous fission of /sup 252/Cf and /sup 258/Fm are derived. Two new features are predicted: A simple sawtooth for /sup 258/Fm and a triple one for /sup 252/Cf. Experiments to check these predictions should be feasible now.

  7. Space Fission System Test Effectiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houts, Mike; Schmidt, Glen L.; van Dyke, Melissa; Godfroy, Tom; Martin, James; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon; Dickens, Ricky; Salvail, Pat; Harper, Roger

    2004-02-01

    Space fission technology has the potential to enable rapid access to any point in the solar system. If fission propulsion systems are to be developed to their full potential, however, near-term customers need to be identified and initial fission systems successfully developed, launched, and utilized. One key to successful utilization is to develop reactor designs that are highly testable. Testable reactor designs have a much higher probability of being successfully converted from paper concepts to working space hardware than do designs which are difficult or impossible to realistically test. ``Test Effectiveness'' is one measure of the ability to realistically test a space reactor system. The objective of this paper is to discuss test effectiveness as applied to the design, development, flight qualification, and acceptance testing of space fission systems. The ability to perform highly effective testing would be particularly important to the success of any near-term mission, such as NASA's Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter, the first mission under study within NASA's Project Prometheus, the Nuclear Systems Program.

  8. Etching fission tracks in zircons.

    PubMed

    Naeser, C W

    1969-07-25

    A new technique has been developed whereby fission tracks can be etched in zircon with a solution of sodiuim hydroxide at 220 degrees C. Etching time varied between 15 minutes and 5 houtrs. Colored zircon required less etching time than the colorless varieties.

  9. Space Fission Propulsion System Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Mike; VanDyke, Melissa; Godfroy, Tom; Pedersen, Kevin; Martin, James; Dickens, Ricky; Williams, Eric; Harper, Roger; Salvail, Pat; Hrbud, Ivana; hide

    2001-01-01

    The world's first man-made self-sustaining fission reaction was achieved in 1942. Since then fission has been used to propel submarines, generate tremendous amounts of electricity, produce medical isotopes, and provide numerous other benefits to society. Fission systems operate independently of solar proximity or orientation, and are thus well suited for deep spare or planetary surface missions. In addition, the fuel for fission systems (enriched uranium) is virtually non-radioactive. The primary safety issue with fission systems is avoiding inadvertent system start - addressing this issue through proper system design is straightforward. Despite the relative simplicity and tremendous potential of space fission systems, the development and utilization of these systems has proven elusive. The first use of fission technology in space occurred 3 April 1965 with the US launch of the SNAP-10A reactor. There have been no additional US uses of space fission system. While space fission system were used extensively by the former Soviet Union, their application was limited to earth-orbital missions. Early space fission systems must be safely and affordably utilized if Ae are to reap the benefits of advanced space fission systems.

  10. Two neutron correlations in photo-fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dale, D. S.; Kosinov, O.; Forest, T.; Burggraf, J.; Stave, S.; Warren, G.; Starovoitova, V.

    2016-09-01

    A large body of experimental work has established the strong kinematical correlation between fission fragments and fission neutrons. Here, we report on the progress of investigations of the potential for strong two neutron correlations arising from the nearly back-to-back nature of the two fission fragments that emit these neutrons in the photo-fission process. In initial measurements, a pulsed electron linear accelerator was used to generate bremsstrahlung photons that impinged upon an actinide target, and the energy and opening angle distributions of coincident neutrons were measured using a large acceptance neutron detector array. A planned comprehensive set of measurements of two neutron correlations in the photo-fission of actinides is expected to shed light on several fundamental aspects of the fission process including the multiplicity distributions associated with the light and heavy fission fragments, the nuclear temperatures of the fission fragments, and the mass distribution of the fission fragments as a function of energy released. In addition to these measurements providing important nuclear data, the unique kinematics of fission and the resulting two neutron correlations have the potential to be the basis for a new tool to detect fissionable materials. A key technical challenge of this program arises from the need to perform coincidence measurements with a low duty factor, pulsed electron accelerator. This has motivated the construction of a large acceptance neutron detector array, and the development of data analysis techniques to directly measure uncorrelated two neutron backgrounds.

  11. Space Fission Propulsion System Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Mike; VanDyke, Melissa; Godfroy, Tom; Pedersen, Kevin; Martin, James; Dickens, Ricky; Williams, Eric; Harper, Roger; Salvail, Pat; Hrbud, Ivana; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The world's first man-made self-sustaining fission reaction was achieved in 1942. Since then fission has been used to propel submarines, generate tremendous amounts of electricity, produce medical isotopes, and provide numerous other benefits to society. Fission systems operate independently of solar proximity or orientation, and are thus well suited for deep spare or planetary surface missions. In addition, the fuel for fission systems (enriched uranium) is virtually non-radioactive. The primary safety issue with fission systems is avoiding inadvertent system start - addressing this issue through proper system design is straightforward. Despite the relative simplicity and tremendous potential of space fission systems, the development and utilization of these systems has proven elusive. The first use of fission technology in space occurred 3 April 1965 with the US launch of the SNAP-10A reactor. There have been no additional US uses of space fission system. While space fission system were used extensively by the former Soviet Union, their application was limited to earth-orbital missions. Early space fission systems must be safely and affordably utilized if Ae are to reap the benefits of advanced space fission systems.

  12. Two neutron correlations in photo-fission

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, D. S.; Kosinov, O.; Forest, T.; Burggraf, J.; Stave, S.; Warren, G.; Starovoitova, V.

    2016-01-01

    A large body of experimental work has established the strong kinematical correlation between fission fragments and fission neutrons. Here, we report on the progress of investigations of the potential for strong two neutron correlations arising from the nearly back-to-back nature of the two fission fragments that emit these neutrons in the photo-fission process. In initial measurements, a pulsed electron linear accelerator was used to generate bremsstrahlung photons that impinged upon an actinide target, and the energy and opening angle distributions of coincident neutrons were measured using a large acceptance neutron detector array. A planned comprehensive set of measurements of two neutron correlations in the photo-fission of actinides is expected to shed light on several fundamental aspects of the fission process including the multiplicity distributions associated with the light and heavy fission fragments, the nuclear temperatures of the fission fragments, and the mass distribution of the fission fragments as a function of energy released. In addition to these measurements providing important nuclear data, the unique kinematics of fission and the resulting two neutron correlations have the potential to be the basis for a new tool to detect fissionable materials. A key technical challenge of this program arises from the need to perform coincidence measurements with a low duty factor, pulsed electron accelerator. This has motivated the construction of a large acceptance neutron detector array, and the development of data analysis techniques to directly measure uncorrelated two neutron backgrounds.

  13. Functional and regulatory profiling of energy metabolism in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Malecki, Michal; Bitton, Danny A; Rodríguez-López, Maria; Rallis, Charalampos; Calavia, Noelia Garcia; Smith, Graeme C; Bähler, Jürg

    2016-11-25

    The control of energy metabolism is fundamental for cell growth and function and anomalies in it are implicated in complex diseases and ageing. Metabolism in yeast cells can be manipulated by supplying different carbon sources: yeast grown on glucose rapidly proliferates by fermentation, analogous to tumour cells growing by aerobic glycolysis, whereas on non-fermentable carbon sources metabolism shifts towards respiration. We screened deletion libraries of fission yeast to identify over 200 genes required for respiratory growth. Growth media and auxotrophic mutants strongly influenced respiratory metabolism. Most genes uncovered in the mutant screens have not been implicated in respiration in budding yeast. We applied gene-expression profiling approaches to compare steady-state fermentative and respiratory growth and to analyse the dynamic adaptation to respiratory growth. The transcript levels of most genes functioning in energy metabolism pathways are coherently tuned, reflecting anticipated differences in metabolic flows between fermenting and respiring cells. We show that acetyl-CoA synthase, rather than citrate lyase, is essential for acetyl-CoA synthesis in fission yeast. We also investigated the transcriptional response to mitochondrial damage by genetic or chemical perturbations, defining a retrograde response that involves the concerted regulation of distinct groups of nuclear genes that may avert harm from mitochondrial malfunction. This study provides a rich framework of the genetic and regulatory basis of energy metabolism in fission yeast and beyond, and it pinpoints weaknesses of commonly used auxotroph mutants for investigating metabolism. As a model for cellular energy regulation, fission yeast provides an attractive and complementary system to budding yeast.

  14. Fission yield studies at the IGISOL facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penttilä, H.; Elomaa, V.-V.; Eronen, T.; Hakala, J.; Jokinen, A.; Kankainen, A.; Moore, I. D.; Rahaman, S.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Rissanen, J.; Rubchenya, V.; Saastamoinen, A.; Weber, C.; Äystö, J.

    2012-04-01

    Low-energy-particle-induced fission is a cost-effective way to produce neutron-rich nuclei for spectroscopic studies. Fission has been utilized at the IGISOL to produce isotopes for decay and nuclear structure studies, collinear laser spectroscopy and precision mass measurements. The ion guide technique is also very suitable for the fission yield measurements, which can be performed very efficiently by using the Penning trap for fission fragment identification and counting. The proton- and neutron-induced fission yield measurements at the IGISOL are reviewed, and the independent isotopic yields of Zn, Ga, Rb, Sr, Cd and In in 25MeV deuterium-induced fission are presented for the first time. Moving to a new location next to the high intensity MCC30/15 light-ion cyclotron will allow also the use of the neutron-induced fission to produce the neutron rich nuclei at the IGISOL in the future.

  15. Space Fission Propulsion System Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, M.; Van Dyke, M. K.; Godfroy, T. J.; Pedersen, K. W.; Martin, J. J.; Dickens, R.; Williams, E.; Harper, R.; Salvail, P.; Hrbud, I.

    2001-01-01

    The world's first man-made self-sustaining fission reaction was achieved in 1942. Since then fission has been used to propel submarines, generate tremendous amounts of electricity, produce medical isotopes, and provide numerous other benefits to society. Fission systems operate independently of solar proximity or orientation, and are thus well suited for deep space or planetary surface missions. In addition, the fuel for fission systems (enriched uranium) is virtually non-radioactive. The primary safety issue with fission systems is avoiding inadvertent system start. Addressing this issue through proper system design is straight-forward. Despite the relative simplicity and tremendous potential of space fission systems, the development and utilization of these systems has proven elusive. The first use of fission technology in space occurred 3 April 1965 with the US launch of the SNAP-10A reactor. There have been no additional US uses of space fission systems. While space fission systems were used extensively by the former Soviet Union, their application was limited to earth-orbital missions. Early space fission systems must be safely and affordably utilized if we are to reap the benefits of advanced space fission systems. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, working with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Sandia National Laboratories, and others, has conducted preliminary research related to a Safe Affordable Fission Engine (SAFE). An unfueled core has been fabricated by LANL, and resistance heaters used to verify predicted core thermal performance by closely mimicking heat from fission. The core is designed to use only established nuclear technology and be highly testable. In FY01 an energy conversion system and thruster will be coupled to the core, resulting in an 'end-to-end' nuclear electric propulsion demonstrator being tested using resistance heaters to closely mimic heat from fission. Results of the SAFE test program will be presented. The applicability

  16. Space Fission Propulsion System Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, M.; Van Dyke, M. K.; Godfroy, T. J.; Pedersen, K. W.; Martin, J. J.; Dickens, R.; Williams, E.; Harper, R.; Salvail, P.; Hrbud, I.

    2001-01-01

    The world's first man-made self-sustaining fission reaction was achieved in 1942. Since then fission has been used to propel submarines, generate tremendous amounts of electricity, produce medical isotopes, and provide numerous other benefits to society. Fission systems operate independently of solar proximity or orientation, and are thus well suited for deep space or planetary surface missions. In addition, the fuel for fission systems (enriched uranium) is virtually non-radioactive. The primary safety issue with fission systems is avoiding inadvertent system start. Addressing this issue through proper system design is straight-forward. Despite the relative simplicity and tremendous potential of space fission systems, the development and utilization of these systems has proven elusive. The first use of fission technology in space occurred 3 April 1965 with the US launch of the SNAP-10A reactor. There have been no additional US uses of space fission systems. While space fission systems were used extensively by the former Soviet Union, their application was limited to earth-orbital missions. Early space fission systems must be safely and affordably utilized if we are to reap the benefits of advanced space fission systems. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, working with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Sandia National Laboratories, and others, has conducted preliminary research related to a Safe Affordable Fission Engine (SAFE). An unfueled core has been fabricated by LANL, and resistance heaters used to verify predicted core thermal performance by closely mimicking heat from fission. The core is designed to use only established nuclear technology and be highly testable. In FY01 an energy conversion system and thruster will be coupled to the core, resulting in an 'end-to-end' nuclear electric propulsion demonstrator being tested using resistance heaters to closely mimic heat from fission. Results of the SAFE test program will be presented. The applicability

  17. Prompt fission γ-ray data from spontaneous fission and the mechanism of fission-fragment de-excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberstedt, Stephan; Dragic, Aleksandar; Gatera, Angelique; Göök, Alf; Hambsch, Franz-Josef; Oberstedt, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    The investigation of prompt γ-ray emission in nuclear fission has a great relevance for the assessment of prompt heat generation in a reactor core and for the better understanding of the de-excitation mechanism of fission fragments. Some years ago experimental data was scarce and available only from a few fission reactions, 233,235U(nth, f), 239Pu(nth, f), and 252Cf(sf). Initiated by a high priority data request published by the OECD/NEA a dedicated prompt fission γ-ray measurement program is being conducted at the Joint Research Centre Geel. In recent years we obtained new and accurate prompt fission γ-ray spectrum (PFGS) characteristics (average number of photons per fission, average total energy per fission and mean photon energy) from 252Cf(sf), 235U(nth, f) and 239,241Pu(nth, f) within 2% of uncertainty. In order to understand the dependence of prompt fission γ-ray emission on the compound nuclear mass and excitation energy, we started a first measurement campaign on spontaneously fissioning plutonium and curium isotopes. Results on PFGS characteristics from 240,242Pu(sf) show a dependence on the fragment mass distribution rather than on the average prompt neutron multiplicity, pointing to a more complex competition between prompt fission γ-ray and neutron emission.

  18. Cyclin C mediates stress-induced mitochondrial fission and apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kun; Yan, Ruilan; Cooper, Katrina F.; Strich, Randy

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that undergo constant fission and fusion cycles. In response to cellular damage, this balance is shifted dramatically toward fission. Cyclin C–Cdk8 kinase regulates transcription of diverse gene sets. Using knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), we demonstrate that cyclin C directs the extensive mitochondrial scission induced by the anticancer drug cisplatin or oxidative stress. This activity is independent of transcriptional regulation, as Cdk8 is not required for this activity. Furthermore, adding purified cyclin C to unstressed permeabilized MEF cultures induced complete mitochondrial fragmentation that was dependent on the fission factors Drp1 and Mff. To regulate fission, a portion of cyclin C translocates from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, where it associates with Drp1 and is required for its enhanced mitochondrial activity in oxidatively stressed cells. In addition, although HeLa cells regulate cyclin C in a manner similar to MEF cells, U2OS osteosarcoma cultures display constitutively cytoplasmic cyclin C and semifragmented mitochondria. Finally, cyclin C, but not Cdk8, is required for loss of mitochondrial outer membrane permeability and apoptosis in cells treated with cisplatin. In conclusion, this study suggests that cyclin C connects stress-induced mitochondrial hyperfission and programmed cell death in mammalian cells. PMID:25609094

  19. A fission fragment detector for correlated fission output studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosby, S.; Tovesson, F.; Couture, A.; Duke, D. L.; Kleinrath, V.; Meharchand, R.; Meierbachtol, K.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Perdue, B.; Richman, D.; Shields, D.

    2014-09-01

    A digital data acquisition system has been combined with a double Frisch gridded ionization chamber for use at both moderated and unmoderated neutron sources at the Los Alamos Neutron Science (LANSCE) facility. The high efficiency of the instrument combined with intense LANSCE beams and new acquisition system permits fission output measurements across 11 orders of magnitude incident neutron energy. The acquisition and analysis system is presented along with the first in-beam performance tests of the setup.

  20. DSP Algorithms for Fission Fragment and Prompt Fission Neutron Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Zeynalova, O.; Zeynalov, Sh.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Oberstedt, S.; Fabry, I.

    2009-10-29

    Digital signal processing (DSP) algorithms are in high demand for modern nuclear fission investigation due to importance of increase the accuracy of fissile nuclear data for new generation of nuclear power stations. DSP algorithms for fission fragment (FF) and prompt fission neutron (PFN) spectroscopy are described in the present work. The twin Frisch-grid ionization chamber (GTIC) is used to measure the kinetic energy-, mass- and angular distributions of the FF in the {sup 252}Cf(SF) reaction. Along with the neutron time-of-flight (TOF) measurement the correlation between neutron emission and FF mass and energy is investigated. The TOF is measured between common cathode of the GTIC and the neutron detector (ND) pulses. Waveform digitizers (WFD) having 12 bit amplitude resolution and 100 MHz sampling frequency are used for the detector pulse sampling. DSP algorithms are developed as recursive procedures to perform the signal processing, similar to those available in various nuclear electronics modules, such as constant fraction discriminator (CFD), pulse shape discriminator (PSD), peak-sensitive analogue-to-digital converter (pADC) and pulse shaping amplifier (PSA). To measure the angle between FF and the cathode plane normal to the GTIC a new algorithm is developed having advantage over the traditional analogue pulse processing schemes. Algorithms are tested by comparing the numerical simulation of the data analysis of the {sup 252}Cf(SF) reaction with data available from literature.

  1. Bright fission: singlet fission into a pair of emitting states.

    PubMed

    Casanova, David

    2015-06-09

    This paper reintroduces and explores the generation of two bright states from a single photon via a singlet fission mechanism in organic materials. This particular photophysical process is labeled here as bright fission (BF). The central part of the study is devoted to set the theoretical foundations of BF by discussing possible electronic mechanisms, the role of different excited states with various physical nature, the presence of competing deactivation channels, and the possible requirements for the BF viability. In a second part, some of the properties related to BF are computationally explored in anthracene. The analysis of computed high-lying excited states identifies several optical transitions as good candidates to trigger BF in anthracene. The approximation of excitonic couplings of these high energy levels to other electronic states within the same energy range suggests possible paths to populate electronic configurations potentially able to split in two independent spin singlets, i.e. singlet-singlet states. The study also explores the electronic structure of the energetically lowest singlet-singlet states in anthracene dimers and discusses the presence of charge transfer configurations and their relation to the singlet-singlet manifold. The computational results suggest fast relaxation to the lowest singlet-singlet state, from which the excitonic fission may occur. All in all, the present work aims at motivating to pursue further efforts in the study of the BF process in organic materials.

  2. Fission Yeast Scp3 Potentially Maintains Microtubule Orientation through Bundling

    PubMed Central

    Ozaki, Kanako; Chikashige, Yuji; Hiraoka, Yasushi; Matsumoto, Tomohiro

    2015-01-01

    Microtubules play important roles in organelle transport, the maintenance of cell polarity and chromosome segregation and generally form bundles during these processes. The fission yeast gene scp3+ was identified as a multicopy suppressor of the cps3-81 mutant, which is hypersensitive to isopropyl N-3-chlorophenylcarbamate (CIPC), a poison that induces abnormal multipolar spindle formation in higher eukaryotes. In this study, we investigated the function of Scp3 along with the effect of CIPC in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Microscopic observation revealed that treatment with CIPC, cps3-81 mutation and scp3+ gene deletion disturbed the orientation of microtubules in interphase cells. Overexpression of scp3+ suppressed the abnormal orientation of microtubules by promoting bundling. Functional analysis suggested that Scp3 functions independently from Ase1, a protein largely required for the bundling of the mitotic spindle. A strain lacking the ase1+ gene was more sensitive to CIPC, with the drug affecting the integrity of the mitotic spindle, indicating that CIPC has a mitotic target that has a role redundant with Ase1. These results suggested that multiple systems are independently involved to ensure microtubule orientation by bundling in fission yeast. PMID:25767875

  3. Marmot-Fission-Gas-Diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson, Anders; Matthews, Christopher

    2016-10-22

    The MARMOT-FISSION-GAS-DIFFUSION software solves a coupled set of partial differential equations describing fission gas evolution in UO2 nuclear fuel. It is part of the MARMOT code, which builds on the MOOSE framework. Both the MARMOT code and the MOOSE framework are developed and maintained by Idaho National Laboratory. The model in MARMOT-FISSION-GAS-DIFFUSION consists of a set of continuum reaction-diffusion equations capturing formation and annihilation of defects, reactions between defects, diffusion of defects and segregation of defects to grain boundaries. Defects refer to vacancies and interstitials as well fission gas atoms (Xe) occupying various trap sites such as uranium and oxygen vacancies and interstitials sites. The code can treat a large number of defect types. The model is formulated within the phase field framework to be compatible with other MARMOT kernels. The driving forces for all reactions, diffusion and segregation events are consistently formulated as a variational derivatives of the free energy of the system. The rates of the reactions are controlled by the corresponding kinetic coefficients. The free energy and the kinetic coefficients for UO2 have been parameterized by lower length scale simulations. The code can be used to simulate defect evolution in a prescribed UO2 microstructure as well as to solve defect clustering problems that control effective diffusivities under both thermal and irradiation conditions. It I possible to extend the current UO2 model to other fuel types such as accident tolerant fuels based on the U3Si2 compound. This would obviously require a new set of material properties describing the behavior of defects in U3Si2 rather than UO2. The framework is however designed to be generic.

  4. Vimar Is a Novel Regulator of Mitochondrial Fission through Miro.

    PubMed

    Ding, Lianggong; Lei, Ye; Han, Yanping; Li, Yuhong; Ji, Xunming; Liu, Lei

    2016-10-01

    As fundamental processes in mitochondrial dynamics, mitochondrial fusion, fission and transport are regulated by several core components, including Miro. As an atypical Rho-like small GTPase with high molecular mass, the exchange of GDP/GTP in Miro may require assistance from a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF). However, the GEF for Miro has not been identified. While studying mitochondrial morphology in Drosophila, we incidentally observed that the loss of vimar, a gene encoding an atypical GEF, enhanced mitochondrial fission under normal physiological conditions. Because Vimar could co-immunoprecipitate with Miro in vitro, we speculated that Vimar might be the GEF of Miro. In support of this hypothesis, a loss-of-function (LOF) vimar mutant rescued mitochondrial enlargement induced by a gain-of-function (GOF) Miro transgene; whereas a GOF vimar transgene enhanced Miro function. In addition, vimar lost its effect under the expression of a constitutively GTP-bound or GDP-bound Miro mutant background. These results indicate a genetic dependence of vimar on Miro. Moreover, we found that mitochondrial fission played a functional role in high-calcium induced necrosis, and a LOF vimar mutant rescued the mitochondrial fission defect and cell death. This result can also be explained by vimar's function through Miro, because Miro's effect on mitochondrial morphology is altered upon binding with calcium. In addition, a PINK1 mutant, which induced mitochondrial enlargement and had been considered as a Drosophila model of Parkinson's disease (PD), caused fly muscle defects, and the loss of vimar could rescue these defects. Furthermore, we found that the mammalian homolog of Vimar, RAP1GDS1, played a similar role in regulating mitochondrial morphology, suggesting a functional conservation of this GEF member. The Miro/Vimar complex may be a promising drug target for diseases in which mitochondrial fission and fusion are dysfunctional.

  5. Comparative evaluation of solar, fission, fusion, and fossil energy resources. Part 2: Power from nuclear fission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    Different types of nuclear fission reactors and fissionable materials are compared. Special emphasis is placed upon the environmental impact of such reactors. Graphs and charts comparing reactor facilities in the U. S. are presented.

  6. Coherent singlet fission activated by symmetry breaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyata, Kiyoshi; Kurashige, Yuki; Watanabe, Kazuya; Sugimoto, Toshiki; Takahashi, Shota; Tanaka, Shunsuke; Takeya, Jun; Yanai, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Yoshiyasu

    2017-10-01

    Singlet fission, in which a singlet exciton is converted to two triplet excitons, is a process that could be beneficial in photovoltaic applications. A full understanding of the dynamics of singlet fission in molecular systems requires detailed knowledge of the relevant potential energy surfaces and their (conical) intersections. However, obtaining such information is a nontrivial task, particularly for molecular aggregates. Here we investigate singlet fission in rubrene crystals using transient absorption spectroscopy and state-of-the-art quantum chemical calculations. We observe a coherent and ultrafast singlet-fission channel as well as the well-known and conventional thermally assisted incoherent channel. This coherent channel is accessible because the conical intersection for singlet fission on the excited-state potential energy surface is located very close to the equilibrium position of the ground-state potential energy surface and also because of the excitation of an intermolecular symmetry-breaking mode, which activates the electronic coupling necessary for singlet fission.

  7. MODELING AND FISSION CROSS SECTIONS FOR AMERICIUM.

    SciTech Connect

    ROCHMAN, D.; HERMAN, M.; OBLOZINSKY, P.

    2005-05-01

    This is the final report of the work performed under the LANL contract on the modeling and fission cross section for americium isotopes (May 2004-June 2005). The purpose of the contract was to provide fission cross sections for americium isotopes with the nuclear reaction model code EMPIRE 2.19. The following work was performed: (1) Fission calculations capability suitable for americium was implemented to the EMPIRE-2.19 code. (2) Calculations of neutron-induced fission cross sections for {sup 239}Am to {sup 244g}Am were performed with EMPIRE-2.19 for energies up to 20 MeV. For the neutron-induced reaction of {sup 240}Am, fission cross sections were predicted and uncertainties were assessed. (3) Set of fission barrier heights for each americium isotopes was chosen so that the new calculations fit the experimental data and follow the systematics found in the literature.

  8. RECOVERY OF ALUMINUM FROM FISSION PRODUCTS

    DOEpatents

    Blanco, R.E.; Higgins, I.R.

    1962-11-20

    A method is given for recovertng aluminum values from aqueous solutions containing said values together with fission products. A mixture of Fe/sub 2/O/ sub 3/ and MnO/sub 2/ is added to a solution containing aluminum and fission products. The resulting aluminum-containing supernatant is then separated from the fission product-bearing metal oxide precipitate and is contacted with a cation exchange resin. The aluminum sorbed on the resin is then eluted and recovered. (AEC)

  9. Fission-product retention in HTGR fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Homan, F.J.; Kania, M.J.; Tiegs, T.N.

    1982-01-01

    Retention data for gaseous and metallic fission products are presented for both Triso-coated and Biso-coated HTGR fuel particles. Performance trends are established that relate fission product retention to operating parameters, such as temperature, burnup, and neutron exposure. It is concluded that Biso-coated particles are not adequately retentive of fission gas or metallic cesium, and Triso-coated particles which retain cesium still lose silver. Design implications related to these performance trends are identified and discussed.

  10. Yeast mitochondrial fission proteins induce antagonistic Gaussian membrane curvatures to regulate apoptosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Michelle; Hwee Lai, Ghee; Schmidt, Nathan; Xian, Wujing; Wong, Gerard C. L.

    2013-03-01

    Mitochondria form a dynamic and interconnected network, which disintegrates during apoptosis to generate numerous smaller mitochondrial fragments. This process is at present not well understood. Yeast mitochondrial fission machinery proteins, Dnm1 and Fis1, are believed to regulate programmed cell death in yeast. Yeast Dnm1 has been previously shown to promote mitochondrial fragmentation and degradation characteristic of apoptotic cells, while yeast Fis1 inhibits cell death by limiting the mitochondrial fission induced by Dnm1 [Fannjiang et al, Genes & Dev. 2004. 18: 2785-2797]. To better understand the mechanisms of these antagonistic fission proteins, we use synchrotron small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) to investigate their interaction with model cell membranes. The relationship between each protein, Dnm1 and Fis1, and protein-induced changes in membrane curvature and topology is examined. Through the comparison of the membrane rearrangement and phase behavior induced by each protein, we will discuss their respective roles in the regulation of mitochondrial fission.

  11. FISSION PRODUCT REMOVAL FROM ORGANIC SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Moore, R.H.

    1960-05-10

    The decontamination of organic solvents from fission products and in particular the treatment of solvents that were used for the extraction of uranium and/or plutonium from aqueous acid solutions of neutron-irradiated uranium are treated. The process broadly comprises heating manganese carbonate in air to a temperature of between 300 and 500 deg C whereby manganese dioxide is formed; mixing the manganese dioxide with the fission product-containing organic solvent to be treated whereby the fission products are precipitated on the manganese dioxide; and separating the fission product-containing manganese dioxide from the solvent.

  12. Theoretical Description of the Fission Process

    SciTech Connect

    Witold Nazarewicz

    2003-07-01

    The main goals of the project can be summarized as follows: Development of effective energy functionals that are appropriate for the description of heavy nuclei. Our goal is to improve the existing energy density (Skyrme) functionals to develop a force that will be used in calculations of fission dynamics. Systematic self-consistent calculations of binding energies and fission barriers of actinide and trans-actinide nuclei using modern density functionals. This will be followed by calculations of spontaneous fission lifetimes and mass and charge divisions using dynamic adiabatic approaches based on the WKB approximation. Investigate novel microscopic (non-adiabatic) methods to study the fission process.

  13. METHOD FOR SEPARATING PLUTONIUM AND FISSION PRODUCTS EMPLOYING AN OXIDE AS A CARRIER FOR FISSION PRODUCTS

    DOEpatents

    Davies, T.H.

    1961-07-18

    Carrier precipitation processes for separating plutonium values from uranium fission products are described. Silicon dioxide or titanium dioxide in a finely divided state is added to an acidic aqueous solution containing hexavalent plutonium ions together with ions of uranium fission products. The supernatant solution containing plutonium ions is then separated from the oxide and the fission products associated therewith.

  14. A hemi-fission intermediate links two mechanistically distinct stages of membrane fission.

    PubMed

    Mattila, Juha-Pekka; Shnyrova, Anna V; Sundborger, Anna C; Hortelano, Eva Rodriguez; Fuhrmans, Marc; Neumann, Sylvia; Müller, Marcus; Hinshaw, Jenny E; Schmid, Sandra L; Frolov, Vadim A

    2015-08-06

    Fusion and fission drive all vesicular transport. Although topologically opposite, these reactions pass through the same hemi-fusion/fission intermediate, characterized by a 'stalk' in which only the outer membrane monolayers of the two compartments have merged to form a localized non-bilayer connection. Formation of the hemi-fission intermediate requires energy input from proteins catalysing membrane remodelling; however, the relationship between protein conformational rearrangements and hemi-fusion/fission remains obscure. Here we analysed how the GTPase cycle of human dynamin 1, the prototypical membrane fission catalyst, is directly coupled to membrane remodelling. We used intramolecular chemical crosslinking to stabilize dynamin in its GDP·AlF4(-)-bound transition state. In the absence of GTP this conformer produced stable hemi-fission, but failed to progress to complete fission, even in the presence of GTP. Further analysis revealed that the pleckstrin homology domain (PHD) locked in its membrane-inserted state facilitated hemi-fission. A second mode of dynamin activity, fuelled by GTP hydrolysis, couples dynamin disassembly with cooperative diminishing of the PHD wedging, thus destabilizing the hemi-fission intermediate to complete fission. Molecular simulations corroborate the bimodal character of dynamin action and indicate radial and axial forces as dominant, although not independent, drivers of hemi-fission and fission transformations, respectively. Mirrored in the fusion reaction, the force bimodality might constitute a general paradigm for leakage-free membrane remodelling.

  15. A hemi-fission intermediate links two mechanistically distinct stages of membrane fission

    PubMed Central

    Sundborger, Anna C.; Hortelano, Eva Rodriguez; Fuhrmans, Marc; Neumann, Sylvia; Müller, Marcus; Hinshaw, Jenny E.; Schmid, Sandra L.; Frolov, Vadim A.

    2015-01-01

    Fusion and fission drive all vesicular transport. Although topologically opposite, these reactions pass through the same hemi-fusion/fission intermediate1,2, characterized by a ‘stalk’ in which only the inner monolayers of the two compartments have merged to form a localized non-bilayer connection1-3. Formation of the hemi-fission intermediate requires energy input from proteins catalyzing membrane remodeling; however the relationship between protein conformational rearrangements and hemi-fusion/fission remains obscure. Here we analyzed how the GTPase cycle of dynamin, the prototypical membrane fission catalyst4-6, is directly coupled to membrane remodeling. We used intra-molecular chemical cross-linking to stabilize dynamin in its GDP•AlF4--bound transition-state. In the absence of GTP this conformer produced stable hemi-fission, but failed to progress to complete fission, even in the presence of GTP. Further analysis revealed that the pleckstrin homology domain (PHD) locked in its membrane-inserted state facilitated hemi-fission. A second mode of dynamin activity, fueled by GTP hydrolysis, couples dynamin disassembly with cooperative diminishing of the PHD wedging, thus destabilizing the hemi-fission intermediate to complete fission. Molecular simulations corroborate the bimodal character of dynamin action and indicate radial and axial forces as dominant, although not independent drivers of hemi-fission and fission transformations, respectively. Mirrored in the fusion reaction7-8, the force bimodality might constitute a general paradigm for leakage-free membrane remodeling. PMID:26123023

  16. HIV-1 Protease in the Fission Yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    PubMed Central

    Benko, Zsigmond; Elder, Robert T.; Li, Ge; Liang, Dong; Zhao, Richard Y.

    2016-01-01

    Background HIV-1 protease (PR) is an essential viral enzyme. Its primary function is to proteolyze the viral Gag-Pol polyprotein for production of viral enzymes and structural proteins and for maturation of infectious viral particles. Increasing evidence suggests that PR cleaves host cellular proteins. However, the nature of PR-host cellular protein interactions is elusive. This study aimed to develop a fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) model system and to examine the possible interaction of HIV-1 PR with cellular proteins and its potential impact on cell proliferation and viability. Results A fission yeast strain RE294 was created that carried a single integrated copy of the PR gene in its chromosome. The PR gene was expressed using an inducible nmt1 promoter so that PR-specific effects could be measured. HIV-1 PR from this system cleaved the same indigenous viral p6/MA protein substrate as it does in natural HIV-1 infections. HIV-1 PR expression in fission yeast cells prevented cell proliferation and induced cellular oxidative stress and changes in mitochondrial morphology that led to cell death. Both these PR activities can be prevented by a PR-specific enzymatic inhibitor, indinavir, suggesting that PR-mediated proteolytic activities and cytotoxic effects resulted from enzymatic activities of HIV-1 PR. Through genome-wide screening, a serine/threonine kinase, Hhp2, was identified that suppresses HIV-1 PR-induced protease cleavage and cell death in fission yeast and in mammalian cells, where it prevented PR-induced apoptosis and cleavage of caspase-3 and caspase-8. Conclusions This is the first report to show that HIV-1 protease is functional as an enzyme in fission yeast, and that it behaves in a similar manner as it does in HIV-1 infection. HIV-1 PR-induced cell death in fission yeast could potentially be used as an endpoint for mechanistic studies, and this system could be used for developing a high-throughput system for drug screenings. PMID:26982200

  17. The phebus fission product project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von der Hardt, P.; Tattegrain, A.

    1992-06-01

    A new facility is being built at the Phebus test reactor in Cadarache, France, for investigations into phenomena of fuel damage and fission product (FP) release under severe power reactor accident conditions, as part of a large international research program. Phebus FP simulates core, cooling system and containment of an accidented reactor by appropriate scaled-down experimental components. The test fuel, with 25 to 30 GWd/t burnup, is re-irradiated in situ and then overheated up to UO 2 melting. Fission products and other aerosols are swept through the primary pipework into the containment vessel, by hot steam and hydrogen. Experimental instrumentation and posttest analyses will enable the following main phenomena to be studied: structural material and fuel dislocation, final fuel state; release, chemical form and transport/depletion of fission products in the facility, particularly aerosol physics, including nonfission product material and iodine chemistry in terms of volatile species formation through radiolysis, reactions with organic material, aerosol-vapor reactions, etc. Design and development of equipment and experimental procedures are supported by modeling and code calculations with the scope of predicting the experimental sequence, on one hand, and to prepare code validation through the results, on the other hand. More than 25 organisation from Europe and overseas, collaborate in the scientific and technological development of the Phebus FP program. The first in-pile test is planned for spring 1993, and five subsequent experiments are scheduled to follow in yearly intervals. This paper describes facility and support activities, and highlights a number of nuclear materials aspects involved.

  18. Fission fragment excited laser system

    DOEpatents

    McArthur, David A.; Tollefsrud, Philip B.

    1976-01-01

    A laser system and method for exciting lasing action in a molecular gas lasing medium which includes cooling the lasing medium to a temperature below about 150 K and injecting fission fragments through the lasing medium so as to preferentially excite low lying vibrational levels of the medium and to cause population inversions therein. The cooled gas lasing medium should have a mass areal density of about 5 .times. 10.sup.-.sup.3 grams/square centimeter, relaxation times of greater than 50 microseconds, and a broad range of excitable vibrational levels which are excitable by molecular collisions.

  19. Fission dynamics within time-dependent Hartree-Fock: Deformation-induced fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goddard, Philip; Stevenson, Paul; Rios, Arnau

    2015-11-01

    Background: Nuclear fission is a complex large-amplitude collective decay mode in heavy nuclei. Microscopic density functional studies of fission have previously concentrated on adiabatic approaches based on constrained static calculations ignoring dynamical excitations of the fissioning nucleus and the daughter products. Purpose: We explore the ability of dynamic mean-field methods to describe fast fission processes beyond the fission barrier, using the nuclide Pu240 as an example. Methods: Time-dependent Hartree-Fock calculations based on the Skyrme interaction are used to calculate nonadiabatic fission paths, beginning from static constrained Hartree-Fock calculations. The properties of the dynamic states are interpreted in terms of the nature of their collective motion. Fission product properties are compared to data. Results: Parent nuclei constrained to begin dynamic evolution with a deformation less than the fission barrier exhibit giant-resonance-type behavior. Those beginning just beyond the barrier explore large-amplitude motion but do not fission, whereas those beginning beyond the two-fragment pathway crossing fission to final states which differ according to the exact initial deformation. Conclusions: Time-dependent Hartree-Fock is able to give a good qualitative and quantitative description of fast fission, provided one begins from a sufficiently deformed state.

  20. Nuclear Fission and Fission{minus}Product Spectroscopy: Second International Workshop. Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Fioni, G.; Faust, H.; Oberstedt, S.; Hambsch, F.

    1998-10-01

    These proceedings represent papers presented at the Second International Workshop on Nuclear Fission and Fission{minus}Product Spectroscopy held in Seyssins, France in April, 1998. The objective was to bring together the specialists in the field to overview the situation and to assess our present understanding of the fission process. The topics presented at the conference included nuclear waste management, incineration, neutron driven transmutation, leakage etc., radioactive beams, neutron{minus}rich nuclei, neutron{minus}induced and spontaneous fission, ternary fission phenomena, angular momentum, parity and time{minus}reversal phenomena, and nuclear fission at higher excitation energy. Modern spectroscopic tools for gamma spectroscopy as applied to fission were also discussed. There were 53 papers presented at the conference,out of which 3 have been abstracted for the Energy,Science and Technology database.(AIP)

  1. Effects of fission neutrons on human thyroid tissues maintained in SCID mice.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Shigeki; Ryo, Haruko; Hongyo, Tadashi; Nakajima, Hiroo; Tsuboi-Kikuya, Rie; Tokita, Yoriko; Matsuzuka, Fumio; Hiramatsu, Keizo; Fujikawa, Kazuo; Itoh, Tetsuo; Nomura, Taisei

    2010-02-01

    Morphology and function (secretion of thyroid hormone) of human thyroid tissues from Graves' disease patients are well maintained in C57BL/6J-scid mice. Serum level of thyroid hormone was reduced by fission neutrons from the nuclear reactor UTR-KINKI, and changes in thyroid hormone by fission neutrons were bigger than those by low LET radiations, X-rays and (137)Cs gamma-rays, suggesting high relative biological effectiveness (RBE; 6.5) of fission neutrons. Microarray analyses revealed that about 3% of genes showed more than 4-fold change in gene expression in the unexposed thyroid tissues against surgically resected thyroid tissues from the same patient, probably due to the difficult oxygen and nutrient supply shortly after transplantation. Dose-dependent changes in gene expression against unexposed concurrent controls were observed with increasing doses of fission neutrons (0.2-0.6Gy) and (137)Cs gamma-rays (1.0-3.0Gy) and showed high RBE (4.2). Furthermore, there were some specific genes which showed more than 4-fold change in gene expression in all the thyroid tissues exposed to higher doses of radiation, especially neutrons (0.4 and 0.6Gy), but none at lower doses (0.2Gy of neutrons and 1.0 and 2.0Gy of gamma-rays). These genes related to degeneration, regeneration, apoptosis, and transcription, respond specifically and very sensitively to neutron injury in human thyroid tissues. This is the first experimental report that fission neutrons can induce some morphological and functional disorders in human tissues, showing high RBE against gamma-ray exposure. These results are useful to evaluate the risks of fission neutrons and cosmic rays to humans.

  2. Spontaneous fission properties and lifetime systematics

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.C.

    1989-03-01

    Half-lives for spontaneous fission of nuclides with even and odd numbers of particles are compared with recent theoretical calculations. A summary of odd particle hindrance factors is given. The most recent measurements of kinetic-energy and mass distributions and neutron emission for spontaneous fission of the heaviest nuclides are summarized and discussed. 51 refs., 9 figs.

  3. Prompt fission neutron spectra of actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Capote, R.; Chen, Y. -J.; Hambsch, F. -J.; Kornilov, N. V.; Lestone, J. P.; Litaize, O.; Morillon, B.; Neudecker, D.; Oberstedt, S.; Ohsawa, T.; Otuka, N.; Pronyaev, V. G.; Saxena, A.; Serot, O.; Shcherbakov, O. A.; Shu, N. -C.; Smith, D. L.; Talou, P.; Trkov, A.; Tudora, A. C.; Vogt, R.; Vorobyev, A. S.

    2016-01-06

    Here, the energy spectrum of prompt neutrons emitted in fission (PFNS) plays a very important role in nuclear science and technology. A Coordinated Research Project (CRP) "Evaluation of Prompt Fission Neutron Spectra of Actinides" was established by the IAEA Nuclear Data Section in 2009, with the major goal to produce new PFNS evaluations with uncertainties for actinide nuclei.

  4. Prompt fission neutron spectra of actinides

    DOE PAGES

    Capote, R.; Chen, Y. -J.; Hambsch, F. -J.; ...

    2016-01-06

    Here, the energy spectrum of prompt neutrons emitted in fission (PFNS) plays a very important role in nuclear science and technology. A Coordinated Research Project (CRP) "Evaluation of Prompt Fission Neutron Spectra of Actinides" was established by the IAEA Nuclear Data Section in 2009, with the major goal to produce new PFNS evaluations with uncertainties for actinide nuclei.

  5. Options for Affordable Fission Surface Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Mike; Gaddis, Steve; Porter, Ron; VanDyke, Melissa; Martin Jim; Godfroy, Tom; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon; Garber, Anne; Pearson, Boise

    2006-01-01

    Fission surface power systems could provide abundant power anywhere on free surface of the moon or Mars. Locations could include permanently shaded regions on the moon and high latitudes on Mars. To be fully utilized; however, fission surface power systems must be safe, have adequate performance, and be affordable. This paper discusses options for the design and development of such systems.

  6. Prompt fission neutron spectrum of actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Capote, R.; Chen, Y. -J.; Hambsch, F. J.; Jurado, B.; Lestone, J. P.; Litaize, O.; Morillon, B.; Neudecker, D.; Oberstedt, S.; Ohsawa, T.; Otuka, N.; Pronyaev, V. G.; Saxena, A.; Schmidt, K. H.; Shcherbakov, O. A.; Shu, N. -C.; Smith, D. L.; Talou, P.; Trkov, A.; Tudora, A. C.; Vogt, R.; Vorobyev, A. S.

    2016-01-06

    Here, the energy spectrum of prompt neutron emitted in fission (PFNS) plays a very important role in nuclear science and technology. A Coordinated Research Project (CRP) "Evaluation of Prompt Fission Neutron Spectra of Actinides" was established by the IAEA Nuclear Data Section in 2009, with the major goal to produce new PFNS evaluations with uncertainties for actinide nuclei.

  7. SOURCE OF PRODUCTS OF NUCLEAR FISSION

    DOEpatents

    Harteck, P.; Dondes, S.

    1960-03-15

    A source of fission product recoil energy suitable for use in radiation chemistry is reported. The source consists of thermal neutron irradiated glass wool having a diameter of 1 to 5 microns and containing an isotope fissionable by thermal neutrons, such as U/sup 235/.

  8. Coulomb fission of a dusty plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Merlino, R. L. Meyer, J. K.; Avinash, K.; Sen, A.

    2016-06-15

    Experimental observations are presented of the splitting (fission) of a suspension of charged microparticles (dusty plasma) into two fragments when the plasma was suddenly turned off. The triggering mechanism for fissioning of the dust cloud is discussed in terms of a pinching instability driven by the ion drag force.

  9. PROCESS FOR SEPARATING URANIUM FISSION PRODUCTS

    DOEpatents

    Spedding, F.H.; Butler, T.A.; Johns, I.B.

    1959-03-10

    The removal of fission products such as strontium, barium, cesium, rubidium, or iodine from neutronirradiated uranium is described. Uranium halide or elemental halogen is added to melted irradiated uranium to convert the fission products to either more volatile compositions which vaporize from the melt or to higher melting point compositions which separate as solids.

  10. Nuclear Power from Fission Reactors. An Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Technical Information Center.

    The purpose of this booklet is to provide a basic understanding of nuclear fission energy and different fission reaction concepts. Topics discussed are: energy use and production, current uses of fuels, oil and gas consumption, alternative energy sources, fossil fuel plants, nuclear plants, boiling water and pressurized water reactors, the light…

  11. Theoretical Description of the Fission Process

    SciTech Connect

    Witold Nazarewicz

    2009-10-25

    Advanced theoretical methods and high-performance computers may finally unlock the secrets of nuclear fission, a fundamental nuclear decay that is of great relevance to society. In this work, we studied the phenomenon of spontaneous fission using the symmetry-unrestricted nuclear density functional theory (DFT). Our results show that many observed properties of fissioning nuclei can be explained in terms of pathways in multidimensional collective space corresponding to different geometries of fission products. From the calculated collective potential and collective mass, we estimated spontaneous fission half-lives, and good agreement with experimental data was found. We also predicted a new phenomenon of trimodal spontaneous fission for some transfermium isotopes. Our calculations demonstrate that fission barriers of excited superheavy nuclei vary rapidly with particle number, pointing to the importance of shell effects even at large excitation energies. The results are consistent with recent experiments where superheavy elements were created by bombarding an actinide target with 48-calcium; yet even at high excitation energies, sizable fission barriers remained. Not only does this reveal clues about the conditions for creating new elements, it also provides a wider context for understanding other types of fission. Understanding of the fission process is crucial for many areas of science and technology. Fission governs existence of many transuranium elements, including the predicted long-lived superheavy species. In nuclear astrophysics, fission influences the formation of heavy elements on the final stages of the r-process in a very high neutron density environment. Fission applications are numerous. Improved understanding of the fission process will enable scientists to enhance the safety and reliability of the nation’s nuclear stockpile and nuclear reactors. The deployment of a fleet of safe and efficient advanced reactors, which will also minimize radiotoxic

  12. Fission Surface Power Technology Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palac, Donald T.; Mason, Lee S.; Houts, Michael G.; Harlow, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Power is a critical consideration in planning exploration of the surfaces of the Moon, Mars, and beyond. Nuclear power is an important option, especially for locations in the solar system where sunlight is limited in availability or intensity. NASA is maintaining the option for fission surface power for the Moon and Mars by developing and demonstrating technology for an affordable fission surface power system. Because affordability drove the determination of the system concept that this technology will make possible, low development and recurring costs result, while required safety standards are maintained. However, an affordable approach to fission surface power also provides the benefits of simplicity, robustness, and conservatism in design. This paper will illuminate the multiplicity of benefits to an affordable approach to fission surface power, and will describe how the foundation for these benefits is being developed and demonstrated in the Exploration Technology Development Program s Fission Surface Power Project.

  13. Investigations of fission characteristics and correlation effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gundorin, N. A.; Zeinalov, Sh. S.; Kopach, Yu. N.; Popov, A. B.; Furman, V. I.

    2016-07-01

    We review the experimental results on the P-even and P-odd angular correlations of fission fragments in the fission of the 235U and 239Pu nuclei induced by unpolarized and polarized resonance neutrons, and on the TRI and ROT effects in the ternary and binary fission of actinides induced by polarized thermal neutrons. Also reported are the measured yields of prompt and delayed neutrons per fission event. The experimental data are analyzed within a novel theoretical framework developed by the JINR—RNC KI Collaboration, whereby the reduction of the multidimensional phase space of fission fragments to the JπK-channel space is consistently validated and the role of resonance interference in the observed correlation effects is revealed.

  14. Event-by-Event Fission with FREYA

    SciTech Connect

    Randrup, J; Vogt, R

    2010-11-09

    The recently developed code FREYA (Fission Reaction Event Yield Algorithm) generates large samples of complete fission events, consisting of two receding product nuclei as well as a number of neutrons and photons, all with complete kinematic information. Thus it is possible to calculate arbitrary correlation observables whose behavior may provide unique insight into the fission process. The presentation first discusses the present status of FREYA, which has now been extended up to energies where pre-equilibrium emission becomes significant and one or more neutrons may be emitted prior to fission. Concentrating on {sup 239}Pu(n,f), we discuss the neutron multiplicity correlations, the dependence of the neutron energy spectrum on the neutron multiplicity, and the relationship between the fragment kinetic energy and the number of neutrons and their energies. We also briefly suggest novel fission observables that could be measured with modern detectors.

  15. Cold fission as heavy ion emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poenaru, D. N.; Maruhn, J. A.; Greiner, W.; Ivaşcu, M.; Mazilu, D.; Gherghescu, R.

    1987-09-01

    The last version of the analytical superasymmetric fission model is applied to study cold fission processes. Strong shell effects are present either in one or both fission fragments. A smooth behaviour is observed when the proton or the neutron numbers are changed by four units. Increasing Z and N, in the transuranium region, a sharp transition from asymmetry with a large peak-to-valley ratio to symmetry at Z=100 and/or N=164 is obtained. The transition toward asymmetry at higher Z and N is much smoother. The most probable cold fission light fragments from234U,236U,239Np and240Pu are100Zr,104Mo,106Mo and106Mo, respectively, in good agreement with experimental data. The unified treatment of alpha decay, heavy ion radioactivities and cold fission is illustrated for234U — the first nucleus in which all three groups have been already observed.

  16. Mechanisms of Mitochondrial Fission and Fusion

    PubMed Central

    van der Bliek, Alexander M.; Shen, Qinfang; Kawajiri, Sumihiro

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondria continually change shape through the combined actions of fission, fusion, and movement along cytoskeletal tracks. The lengths of mitochondria and the degree to which they form closed networks are determined by the balance between fission and fusion rates. These rates are influenced by metabolic and pathogenic conditions inside mitochondria and by their cellular environment. Fission and fusion are important for growth, for mitochondrial redistribution, and for maintenance of a healthy mitochondrial network. In addition, mitochondrial fission and fusion play prominent roles in disease-related processes such as apoptosis and mitophagy. Three members of the Dynamin family are key components of the fission and fusion machineries. Their functions are controlled by different sets of adaptor proteins on the surface of mitochondria and by a range of regulatory processes. Here, we review what is known about these proteins and the processes that regulate their actions. PMID:23732471

  17. Fission Models of Population Variability

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, E. A.

    1979-01-01

    Most models in population genetics are models of allele frequency, making implicit or explicit assumptions of equilibrium or constant population size. In recent papers, we have attempted to develop more appropriate models for the analysis of rare variant data in South American Indian tribes; these are branching process models for the total number of replicates of a variant allele. The spatial distribution of a variant may convey information about its history and characteristics, and this paper extends previous models to take this factor into consideration. A model of fission into subdivisions is superimposed on the previous branching process, and variation between subdivisions is considered. The case where fission is nonrandom and the locations of like alleles are initially positively associated, as would happen were a tribal cluster or village to split on familial lines, is also analyzed. The statistics developed are applied to Yanomama Indian data on rare genetic variants. Due to insufficient time depth, no definitive new inferences can be drawn, but the analysis shows that this model provides results consistent with previous conclusions, and demonstrates the general type of question that may be answered by the approach taken here. In particular, striking confirmation of a higher-than-average growth rate, and hence smaller-than-previously-estimated age, is obtained for the Yan2 serum albumen variant. PMID:535728

  18. Fifty years with nuclear fission. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Behrens, J.W.; Carlson, A.D.

    1989-12-31

    The news of the discovery of nuclear fission, by Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann in Germany, was brought to the United States by Niels Bohr in January 1939. Since its discovery, the United States, and the world for that matter, has never been the same. It therefore seemed appropriate to acknowledge the fifieth anniversary of its discovery by holding a topical meeting entitled, ``Fifty Years with Nuclear Fission,`` in the United States during the year 1989. The objective of the meeting was to bring together pioneers of the nuclear industry and other scientists and engineers to report on reminiscences of the past and on the more recent development in fission science and technology. The conference highlighted the early pioneers of the nuclear industry by dedicated a full day (April 26), consisting of two plenary sessions, at the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) in Washington, DC. More recent developments in fission science and technology in addition to historical reflections were topics for two fully days of sessions (April 27 and 28) at the main site of the NIST in Gaithersburg, Maryland. The wide range of topics covered in this Volume 1 by this topical meeting included plenary invited, and contributed sessions entitled: Preclude to the First Chain Reaction -- 1932 to 1942; Early Fission Research -- Nuclear Structure and Spontaneous Fission; 50 Years of Fission, Science, and Technology; Nuclear Reactors, Secure Energy for the Future; Reactors 1; Fission Science 1; Safeguards and Space Applications; Fission Data; Nuclear Fission -- Its Various Aspects; Theory and Experiments in Support of Theory; Reactors and Safeguards; and General Research, Instrumentation, and By-Product. The individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  19. Fission Yeast CSL Proteins Function as Transcription Factors

    PubMed Central

    Oravcová, Martina; Teska, Mikoláš; Půta, František; Folk, Petr; Převorovský, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Background Transcription factors of the CSL (CBF1/RBP-Jk/Suppressor of Hairless/LAG-1) family are key regulators of metazoan development and function as the effector components of the Notch receptor signalling pathway implicated in various cell fate decisions. CSL proteins recognize specifically the GTG[G/A]AA sequence motif and several mutants compromised in their ability to bind DNA have been reported. In our previous studies we have identified a number of novel putative CSL family members in fungi, organisms lacking the Notch pathway. It is not clear whether these represent genuine CSL family members. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a combination of in vitro and in vivo approaches we characterized the DNA binding properties of Cbf11 and Cbf12, the antagonistic CSL paralogs from the fission yeast, important for the proper coordination of cell cycle events and the regulation of cell adhesion. We have shown that a mutation of a conserved arginine residue abolishes DNA binding in both CSL paralogs, similar to the situation in mouse. We have also demonstrated the ability of Cbf11 and Cbf12 to activate gene expression in an autologous fission yeast reporter system. Conclusions/Significance Our results indicate that the fission yeast CSL proteins are indeed genuine family members capable of functioning as transcription factors, and provide support for the ancient evolutionary origin of this important protein family. PMID:23555033

  20. Prompt fission neutron spectra of n+235U above the (n,nf) fission threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Neng-Chuan; Jia, Min; Chen, Yong-Jing; Liu, Ting-Jin

    2015-05-01

    Calculations of prompt fission neutron spectra (PFNS) from the 235U(n, f) reaction were performed with a semi-empirical method for En = 7.0 and 14.7 MeV neutron energies. The total PFNS were obtained as a superposition of (n,xnf) pre-fission neutron spectra and post-fission spectra of neutrons which were evaporated from fission fragments, and these two kinds of spectra were taken as an expression of the evaporation spectrum. The contributions of (n,xnf) fission neutron spectra on the calculated PFNS were discussed. The results show that emission of one or two neutrons in the (n,nf) or (n,2nf) reactions influences the PFNS shape, and the neutron spectra of the (n,xnf) fission-channel are soft compared with the neutron spectra of the (n,f) fission channel. In addition, analysis of the multiple-chance fission component showed that second-chance fission dominates the PFNS with an incident neutron energy of 14.7 MeV whereas first-chance fission dominates the 7 MeV case. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11205246, 91126010, U1230127, 91226102), IAEA CRP (15905), and Defense Industrial Technology Development Program (B0120110034)

  1. Membrane Fission: Model for Intermediate Structures

    PubMed Central

    Kozlovsky, Yonathan; Kozlov, Michael M.

    2003-01-01

    Membrane budding-fission is a fundamental process generating intracellular carriers of proteins. Earlier works were focused only on formation of coated buds connected to the initial membrane by narrow membrane necks. We present the theoretical analysis of the whole pathway of budding-fission, including the crucial stage where the membrane neck undergoes fission and the carrier separates from the donor membrane. We consider two successive intermediates of the reaction: 1), a constricted membrane neck coming out of aperture of the assembling protein coat, and 2), hemifission intermediate resulting from self-fusion of the inner monolayer of the neck, while its outer monolayer remains continuous. Transformation of the constricted neck into the hemifission intermediate is driven by the membrane stress produced in the neck by the protein coat. Although apparently similar to hemifusion, the fission is predicted to have an opposite dependence on the monolayer spontaneous curvature. Analysis of the further stages of the process demonstrates that in all practically important cases the hemifission intermediate decays spontaneously into two separate membranes, thereby completing the fission process. We formulate the “job description” for fission proteins by calculating the energy they have to deliver and the radii of the protein coat aperture which have to be reached to drive the fission process. PMID:12829467

  2. Fifty years with nuclear fission. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Behrens, J.W.; Carlson, A.D.

    1989-12-31

    The news of the discovery of nucler fission, by Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann in Germany, was brought to the United States by Niels Bohr in January 1939. Since its discovery, the United States, and the world for that matter, has never been the same. It therefore seemed appropriate to acknowledge the fiftieth anniversary of its discovery by holding a topical meeting entitled, ``Fifty years with nuclear fission,`` in the United States during the year 1989. The objective of the meeting was to bring together pioneers of the nuclear industry and other scientists and engineers to report on reminiscences of the past and on the more recent developments in fission science and technology. The conference highlighted the early pioneers of the nuclear industry by dedicating a full day (April 26), consisting of two plenary sessions, at the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) in Washington, DC. More recent developments in fission science and technology in addition to historical reflections were topics for two full days of sessions (April 27 and 28) at the main sites of the NIST in Gaithersburg, Maryland. The wide range of topics covered by Volume 2 of this topical meeting included plenary invited, and contributed sessions entitled, Nuclear fission -- a prospective; reactors II; fission science II; medical and industrial applications by by-products; reactors and safeguards; general research, instrumentation, and by-products; and fission data, astrophysics, and space applications. The individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  3. Molecular characterization of HIV-1 genome in fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Nkeze, Joseph; Li, Lin; Benko, Zsigmond; Li, Ge; Zhao, Richard Y

    2015-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) genome (~9 kb RNA) is flanked by two long terminal repeats (LTR) promoter regions with nine open reading frames, which encode Gag, Pol and Env polyproteins, four accessory proteins (Vpu, Vif, Vpr, Nef) and two regulatory proteins (Rev, Tat). In this study, we carried out a genome-wide and functional analysis of the HIV-1 genome in fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe). Each one of the HIV-1 genes was cloned and expressed individually in fission yeast. Subcellular localization of each viral protein was first examined. The effect of protein expression on cellular proliferation and colony formations, an indication of cytotoxicity, were observed. Overall, there is a general correlation of subcellular localization of each viral protein between fission yeast and mammalian cells. Three viral proteins, viral protein R (Vpr), protease (PR) and regulator of expression of viral protein (Rev), were found to inhibit cellular proliferation. Rev was chosen for further analysis in fission yeast and mammalian cells. Consistent with the observation in fission yeast, expression of HIV-1 rev gene also caused growth retardation in mammalian cells. However, the observed growth delay was neither due to the cytotoxic effect nor due to alterations in cell cycling. Mechanistic testing of the Rev effect suggests it triggers transient induction of cellular oxidative stress. Some of the behavioral and functional similarities of Rev between fission yeast and mammalian cells suggest fission yeast might be a useful model system for further studies of molecular functions of Rev and other HIV-1 viral proteins.

  4. Downstream behavior of fission products

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, I.; Farahat, M.K.; Settle, J.L.; Johnson, C.E.; Ritzman, R.

    1986-01-01

    The downstream behavior of fission products has been investigated by injecting mixtures of CsOH, CsI, and Te into a flowing steam/hydrogen stream and determining the physical and chemical changes that took place as the gaseous mixture flowed down a reaction duct on which a temperature gradient (1000/sup 0/ to 200/sup 0/C) had been imposed. Deposition on the wall of the duct occurred by vapor condensation in the higher temperature regions and by aerosol deposition in the remainder of the duct. Reactions in the gas stream between CsOH and CsI and between CsOH and Te had an effect on the vapor condensation. The aerosol was characterized by the use of impingement tabs placed in the gas stream.

  5. Recovery and use of fission product noble metals

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, G.A.; Rohmann, C.A.; Perrigo, L.D.

    1980-06-01

    Noble metals in fission products are of strategic value. Market prices for noble metals are rising more rapidly than recovery costs. A promising concept has been developed for recovery of noble metals from fission product waste. Although the assessment was made only for the three noble metal fission products (Rh, Pd, Ru), there are other fission products and actinides which have potential value. (DLC)

  6. Experimental Constraints on Neutrino Spectra Following Fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Napolitano, Jim; Daya Bay Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    We discuss new initiatives to constrain predictions of fission neutrino spectra from nuclear reactors. These predictions are germane to the understanding of reactor flux anomalies; are needed to reduce systematic uncertainty in neutrino oscillation spectra; and inform searches for the diffuse supernova neutrino background. The initiatives include a search for very high- Q beta decay components to the neutrino spectrum from the Daya Bay power plant; plans for a measurement of the β- spectrum from 252Cf fission products; and precision measurements of the 235U fission neutrino spectrum from PROSPECT and other very short baseline reactor experiments.

  7. Mitochondrial fission facilitates mitophagy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Mao, Kai; Klionsky, Daniel J

    2013-11-01

    As a highly dynamic organelle, mitochondria undergo constitutive fusion and fission as well as biogenesis and degradation. Mitophagy, selective mitochondrial degradation through autophagy, is a conserved cellular process used for the elimination of excessive and damaged mitochondria in eukaryotes. Despite the significance of mitophagy in cellular physiology and pathophysiologies, the underlying mechanism of this process is far from clear. In this report, we studied the role of mitochondrial fission during mitophagy, and uncover a direct link between the fission complex and mitophagy machinery in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  8. Thermodynamic analysis of volatile organometallic fission products.

    PubMed

    Auxier, John D; Jordan, Jacob A; Stratz, S Adam; Shahbazi, Shayan; Hanson, Daniel E; Cressy, Derek; Hall, Howard L

    The ability to perform rapid separations in a post nuclear weapon detonation scenario is an important aspect of national security. In the past, separations of fission products have been performed using solvent extraction, precipitation, etc. The focus of this work is to explore the feasibility of using thermochromatography, a technique largely employed in superheavy element chemistry, to expedite the separation of fission products from fuel components. A series of fission product complexes were synthesized and the thermodynamic parameters were measured using TGA/DSC methods. Once measured, these parameters were used to predict their retention times using thermochromatography.

  9. Fission induced by nucleons at intermediate energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Meo, S.; Mancusi, D.; Massimi, C.; Vannini, G.; Ventura, A.

    2015-01-01

    Monte Carlo calculations of fission of actinides and pre-actinides induced by protons and neutrons in the energy range from 100 MeV to 1 GeV are carried out by means of a recent version of the Liège Intranuclear Cascade Model, INCL++, coupled with two different evaporation-fission codes, GEMINI++ and ABLA07. In order to reproduce experimental fission cross sections, model parameters are usually adjusted on available (p , f) cross sections and used to predict (n , f) cross sections for the same isotopes.

  10. Fission dynamics within time-dependent Hartree-Fock. II. Boost-induced fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goddard, Philip; Stevenson, Paul; Rios, Arnau

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nuclear fission is a complex large-amplitude collective decay mode in heavy nuclei. Microscopic density functional studies of fission have previously concentrated on adiabatic approaches based on constrained static calculations ignoring dynamical excitations of the fissioning nucleus and the daughter products. Purpose: We explore the ability of dynamic mean-field methods to describe induced fission processes, using quadrupole boosts in the nuclide 240Pu as an example. Methods: Following upon the work presented in Goddard et al. [Phys. Rev. C 92, 054610 (2015)], 10.1103/PhysRevC.92.054610, quadrupole-constrained Hartree-Fock calculations are used to create a potential energy surface. An isomeric state and a state beyond the second barrier peak are excited by means of instantaneous as well as temporally extended gauge boosts with quadrupole shapes. The subsequent deexcitation is studied in a time-dependent Hartree-Fock simulation, with emphasis on fissioned final states. The corresponding fission fragment mass numbers are studied. Results: In general, the energy deposited by the quadrupole boost is quickly absorbed by the nucleus. In instantaneous boosts, this leads to fast shape rearrangements and violent dynamics that can ultimately lead to fission. This is a qualitatively different process than the deformation-induced fission. Boosts induced within a finite time window excite the system in a relatively gentler way and do induce fission but with a smaller energy deposition. Conclusions: The fission products obtained using boost-induced fission in time-dependent Hartree-Fock are more asymmetric than the fragments obtained in deformation-induced fission or the corresponding adiabatic approaches.

  11. Microscopic description of complex nuclear decay: Multimodal fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staszczak, A.; Baran, A.; Dobaczewski, J.; Nazarewicz, W.

    2009-07-01

    Our understanding of nuclear fission, a fundamental nuclear decay, is still incomplete due to the complexity of the process. In this paper, we describe a study of spontaneous fission using the symmetry-unrestricted nuclear density functional theory. Our results show that the observed bimodal fission can be explained in terms of pathways in multidimensional collective space corresponding to different geometries of fission products. We also predict a new phenomenon of trimodal spontaneous fission for some rutherfordium, seaborgium, and hassium isotopes.

  12. Microscopic description of complex nuclear decay: Multimodal fission

    SciTech Connect

    Staszczak, A.; Baran, A.; Dobaczewski, J.; Nazarewicz, W.

    2009-07-15

    Our understanding of nuclear fission, a fundamental nuclear decay, is still incomplete due to the complexity of the process. In this paper, we describe a study of spontaneous fission using the symmetry-unrestricted nuclear density functional theory. Our results show that the observed bimodal fission can be explained in terms of pathways in multidimensional collective space corresponding to different geometries of fission products. We also predict a new phenomenon of trimodal spontaneous fission for some rutherfordium, seaborgium, and hassium isotopes.

  13. Oxidative stress response pathways: Fission yeast as archetype.

    PubMed

    Papadakis, Manos A; Workman, Christopher T

    2015-01-01

    Schizosaccharomyces pombe is a popular model eukaryotic organism to study diverse aspects of mammalian biology, including responses to cellular stress triggered by redox imbalances within its compartments. The review considers the current knowledge on the signaling pathways that govern the transcriptional response of fission yeast cells to elevated levels of hydrogen peroxide. Particular attention is paid to the mechanisms that yeast cells employ to promote cell survival in conditions of intermediate and acute oxidative stress. The role of the Sty1/Spc1/Phh1 mitogen-activated protein kinase in regulating gene expression at multiple levels is discussed in detail.

  14. β-delayed fission of 180Tl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elseviers, J.; Andreyev, A. N.; Huyse, M.; Van Duppen, P.; Antalic, S.; Barzakh, A.; Bree, N.; Cocolios, T. E.; Comas, V. F.; Diriken, J.; Fedorov, D.; Fedosseev, V. N.; Franchoo, S.; Ghys, L.; Heredia, J. A.; Ivanov, O.; Köster, U.; Marsh, B. A.; Nishio, K.; Page, R. D.; Patronis, N.; Seliverstov, M. D.; Tsekhanovich, I.; Van den Bergh, P.; Van De Walle, J.; Venhart, M.; Vermote, S.; Veselský, M.; Wagemans, C.

    2013-10-01

    The detailed analysis of the β-delayed fission data of 180Tl is presented. The experiment was performed by producing a pure beam of 180Tl by means of highly selective resonance laser ionization followed by mass separation with the ISOLDE (CERN, Geneva) isotope separator. A surprising asymmetric mass distribution of fission fragments from 180Hg, the daughter of 180Tl β decays, was observed. Here, the energy calibration of the silicon detectors, which is crucial for a proper determination of the fission fragments’ energy and mass split, is presented and the total kinetic energy and its dependence on the mass split ratio is discussed. A more precise β-delayed fission probability PβDF(180Tl)=3.2(2)×10-3% was deduced.

  15. The Coincident Fission Fragment Detector (CFFD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakhle, A.; Hammerton, K.; Kohley, Z.; Yurkon, J.; Stiefel, K.

    2017-08-01

    A Parallel Plate Avalanche Counter (PPAC) based fission detector system, called the Coincident Fission Fragment Detector (CFFD), has been developed for the ReA3 re-accelerator facility of the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL). Binary reaction kinematics are reconstructed based on position and time-of-flight measurements of fission fragments. Large area PPACs provide 1 ns level time resolution and mm level position resolution. The detectors allow measurements of fission product angular and mass distributions of heavy-ion induced fusion reactions. The 30 cm by 40 cm active area of each PPAC provides large solid angle coverage well suited for measurements of low intensity rare-isotope beams (RIBs).

  16. Porous fission fragment tracks in fluorapatite

    SciTech Connect

    Li Weixing; Ewing, Rodney C.; Wang Lumin; Sun Kai; Lang, Maik; Trautmann, Christina

    2010-10-01

    Fission tracks caused by the spontaneous fission of {sup 238}U in minerals, as revealed by chemical etching, are extensively used to determine the age and thermal history of Earth's crust. Details of the structure and annealing of tracks at the atomic scale have remained elusive, as the original track is destroyed during chemical etching. By combining transmission electron microscopy with in situ heating, we demonstrate that fission tracks in fluorapatite are actually porous tubes, instead of having an amorphous core, as generally assumed. Direct observation shows thermally induced track fragmentation in fluoapatite, in clear contrast to the amorphous tracks in zircon, which gradually ''fade'' without fragmentation. Rayleigh instability and the thermal emission of vacancies control the annealing of porous fission tracks in fluorapatite.

  17. Electron spectra from decay of fission products

    SciTech Connect

    Dickens, J K

    1982-09-01

    Electron spectra following decay of individual fission products (72 less than or equal to A less than or equal to 162) are obtained from the nuclear data given in the compilation using a listed and documented computer subroutine. Data are given for more than 500 radionuclides created during or after fission. The data include transition energies, absolute intensities, and shape parameters when known. An average beta-ray energy is given for fission products lacking experimental information on transition energies and intensities. For fission products having partial or incomplete decay information, the available data are utilized to provide best estimates of otherwise unknown decay schemes. This compilation is completely referenced and includes data available in the reviewed literature up to January 1982.

  18. The scission point configuration of fissioning nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanyuk, Fedir

    2016-06-01

    We define the optimal shape which fissioning nuclei attain just before the scission and calculate the deformation energy as function of the mass asymmetry at the scission point. The calculated deformation energy is used in quasi-static approximation for the estimation of mass distribution, total kinetic and excitation energy of fission fragments, and the total number of prompt neutrons. The calculated results reproduce rather well the experimental data on the position of the peaks in the mass distribution of fission fragments, the total kinetic and excitation energy of fission fragments. The calculated value of neutron multiplicity is somewhat larger than experimental results. The saw-tooth structure of neutron multiplicity is qualitatively reproduced.

  19. Advanced modeling of prompt fission neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Talou, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Theoretical and numerical studies of prompt fission neutrons are presented. The main results of the Los Alamos model often used in nuclear data evaluation work are reviewed briefly, and a preliminary assessment of uncertainties associated with the evaluated prompt fission neutron spectrum for n (0.5 MeV)+{sup 239}Pu is discussed. Advanced modeling of prompt fission neutrons is done by Monte Carlo simulations of the evaporation process of the excited primary fission fragments. The successive emissions of neutrons are followed in the statistical formalism framework, and detailed information, beyond average quantities, can be inferred. This approach is applied to the following reactions: {sup 252}Cf (sf), n{sub th} + {sup 239}Pu, n (0.5 MeV)+{sup 235}U, and {sup 236}Pu (sf). A discussion on the merits and present limitations of this approach concludes this presentation.

  20. Characteristics of spontaneous fission of 250No

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svirikhin, A. I.; Andreev, A. V.; Yeremin, A. V.; Izosimov, I. N.; Isaev, A. V.; Kuznetsov, A. N.; Kuznetsova, A. A.; Malyshev, O. N.; Popeko, A. G.; Popov, Y. A.; Sokol, E. A.; Chelnokov, M. L.; Chepigin, V. I.; Schneidman, T. M.; Gall, B.; Dorvaux, O.; Brione, P.; Hauschild, K.; Lopez-Martenz, A.; Rezynkina, K.; Mullins, S.; Jones, P.; Mosat, P.

    2017-07-01

    This study describes an experiment on investigating the properties of spontaneous fission of shortlived neutron-deficient nuclei synthesized in the reaction of complete fusion 48Ca + 204Pb = 252No*. The experiment is performed using the SHELS separator and the beam of multicharged ions at U-400 accelerator (LNR, JINR). Two activities undergoing spontaneous fission, which can be related to the ground and isomeric states of 250No nucleus, are registered. The half-lives, total kinetic energies of fission fragments, and neutron multiplicities are measured for the short-lived nuclei. The average number of neutrons per fission for the activity with t 1/2 = 5.1 ± 0.3 μs is = 4.38 ± 0.13 μs, and for nuclei with the half-life t 1/2 = 36 ± 3 μs it is xxxxx.

  1. Aqueous cutting fluid for machining fissionable materials

    DOEpatents

    Duerksen, Walter K.; Googin, John M.; Napier, Jr., Bradley

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a cutting fluid for machining fissionable material. The cutting fluid is formed of glycol, water and boron compound in an adequate concentration for effective neutron attenuation so as to inhibit criticality incidents during machining.

  2. Fission Surface Power Technology Demonstration Unit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-09

    NASA Glenn Technician Mark Springowski works on a 10-kilowatt Stirling Power Conversion Unit, which is part of the Fission Surface Power Technology Demonstration Unit. This is a system level demonstration of a surface power system, which could potentially be used to support manned missions to the moon or Mars. A flight system would use 180 kilowatt nuclear fission reactor and four Stirling PCU’s to produce 40 kW of electricity for manned surface missions.

  3. Transport properties of fission product vapors

    SciTech Connect

    Im, K.H.; Ahluwalia, R.K.

    1983-07-01

    Kinetic theory of gases is used to calculate the transport properties of fission product vapors in a steam and hydrogen environment. Provided in tabular form is diffusivity of steam and hydrogen, viscosity and thermal conductivity of the gaseous mixture, and diffusivity of cesium iodide, cesium hydroxide, diatomic tellurium and tellurium dioxide. These transport properties are required in determining the thermal-hydraulics of and fission product transport in light water reactors.

  4. Fission-fragment excitation of metal electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Martynenko, Yu.V.; Yavlinskii, Yu.N.

    1987-08-01

    The authors mathematically formulate the formation and relaxation of excited-electron regions along the paths of fission fragments under conditions of first wall sputtering and ionization and fission fragment transport into the wall. Their model incorporates all collisional and absorptional aspects of energy transfer between fragments and electrons and includes thermal diffusion and heat transfer between electrons and the metal lattice. Interactions with quasi particles in the solid-state regime are also given consideration.

  5. Our 50-year odyssey with fission: Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Nix, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    On the occasion of this International Conference on Fifty Years Research in Nuclear Fission, we summarize our present understanding of the fission process and the challenges that lie ahead. The basic properties of fission arise from a delicate competition between disruptive Coulomb forces, cohesive nuclear forces, and fluctuating shell and pairing forces. These static forces are primarily responsible for such experimental phenomena as deformed ground-state nuclear shapes, fission into fragments of unequal size, sawtooth neutron yields, spontaneously fissioning isomers, broad resonances and narrow intermediate structure in fission cross sections, and cluster radioactivity. However, inertial and dissipative forces also play decisive roles in the dynamical evolution of a fissioning nucleus. The energy dissipated between the saddle and scission points is small for low initial excitation energy at the saddle point and increases with increasing excitation energy. At moderate excitation energies, the dissipation of collective energy into internal single-particle excitation energy proceeds largely through the interaction of nucleons with the mean field and with each other in the vicinity of the nuclear surface, as well as through the transfer of nucleons between the two portions of the evolving dumbell-like system. These unique dissipation mechanisms arise from the Pauli exclusion principle for fermions and the details of the nucleon-nucleon interaction, which make the mean free path of a nucleon near the Fermi surface at low excitation energy longer than the nuclear radius. With its inverse process of heavy-ion fusion reactions, fission continues to yield surprises in the study of large-amplitude collective nuclear motion. 87 refs., 12 figs.

  6. MCNP6 Fission Multiplicity with FMULT Card

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcox, Trevor; Fensin, Michael Lorne; Hendricks, John S.; James, Michael R.; McKinney, Gregg W.

    2012-06-18

    With the merger of MCNPX and MCNP5 into MCNP6, MCNP6 now provides all the capabilities of both codes allowing the user to access all the fission multiplicity data sets. Detailed in this paper is: (1) the new FMULT card capabilities for accessing these different data sets; (2) benchmark calculations, as compared to experiment, detailing the results of selecting these separate data sets for thermal neutron induced fission on U-235.

  7. Modeling Fission Product Sorption in Graphite Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Szlufarska, Izabela; Morgan, Dane; Allen, Todd

    2013-04-08

    The goal of this project is to determine changes in adsorption and desorption of fission products to/from nuclear-grade graphite in response to a changing chemical environment. First, the project team will employ principle calculations and thermodynamic analysis to predict stability of fission products on graphite in the presence of structural defects commonly observed in very high- temperature reactor (VHTR) graphites. Desorption rates will be determined as a function of partial pressure of oxygen and iodine, relative humidity, and temperature. They will then carry out experimental characterization to determine the statistical distribution of structural features. This structural information will yield distributions of binding sites to be used as an input for a sorption model. Sorption isotherms calculated under this project will contribute to understanding of the physical bases of the source terms that are used in higher-level codes that model fission product transport and retention in graphite. The project will include the following tasks: Perform structural characterization of the VHTR graphite to determine crystallographic phases, defect structures and their distribution, volume fraction of coke, and amount of sp2 versus sp3 bonding. This information will be used as guidance for ab initio modeling and as input for sorptivity models; Perform ab initio calculations of binding energies to determine stability of fission products on the different sorption sites present in nuclear graphite microstructures. The project will use density functional theory (DFT) methods to calculate binding energies in vacuum and in oxidizing environments. The team will also calculate stability of iodine complexes with fission products on graphite sorption sites; Model graphite sorption isotherms to quantify concentration of fission products in graphite. The binding energies will be combined with a Langmuir isotherm statistical model to predict the sorbed concentration of fission

  8. Live Cell Imaging in Fission Yeast.

    PubMed

    Mulvihill, Daniel P

    2017-10-03

    Live cell imaging complements the array of biochemical and molecular genetic approaches to provide a comprehensive insight into functional dependencies and molecular interactions in fission yeast. Fluorescent proteins and vital dyes reveal dynamic changes in the spatial distribution of organelles and the proteome and how each alters in response to changes in environmental and genetic composition. This introduction discusses key issues and basic image analysis for live cell imaging of fission yeast. © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  9. Accurate Fission Data for Nuclear Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solders, A.; Gorelov, D.; Jokinen, A.; Kolhinen, V. S.; Lantz, M.; Mattera, A.; Penttilä, H.; Pomp, S.; Rakopoulos, V.; Rinta-Antila, S.

    2014-05-01

    The Accurate fission data for nuclear safety (AlFONS) project aims at high precision measurements of fission yields, using the renewed IGISOL mass separator facility in combination with a new high current light ion cyclotron at the University of Jyväskylä. The 30 MeV proton beam will be used to create fast and thermal neutron spectra for the study of neutron induced fission yields. Thanks to a series of mass separating elements, culminating with the JYFLTRAP Penning trap, it is possible to achieve a mass resolving power in the order of a few hundred thousands. In this paper we present the experimental setup and the design of a neutron converter target for IGISOL. The goal is to have a flexible design. For studies of exotic nuclei far from stability a high neutron flux (1012 neutrons/s) at energies 1 - 30 MeV is desired while for reactor applications neutron spectra that resembles those of thermal and fast nuclear reactors are preferred. It is also desirable to be able to produce (semi-)monoenergetic neutrons for benchmarking and to study the energy dependence of fission yields. The scientific program is extensive and is planed to start in 2013 with a measurement of isomeric yield ratios of proton induced fission in uranium. This will be followed by studies of independent yields of thermal and fast neutron induced fission of various actinides.

  10. Spontaneous fission of the heaviest elements

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.C.

    1989-04-01

    Although spontaneous fission was discovered in /sup 238/U in 1940, detailed studies of the process were first made possible in the 1960's with the availability of milligram quantities of /sup 252/Cf. The advent of solid-state detectors made it possible to perform measurements of coincident fission fragments from even very short-lived spontaneous fission activities or those available in only very small quantities. Until 1971 it was believed that the main features of the mass and kinetic-energy distributions were essentially the same as those for thermal neutron-induced fission and that all low-energy fission proceeded via asymmetric mass division with total kinetic energies which could be derived by linear extrapolation from those of lighter elements. In 1971, measurements of /sup 257/Fm showed an increase in symmetric mass division with anomalously high TKE's. Subsequent experiments showed that in /sup 258/Fm and /sup 259/Fm, the most probable mass split was symmetric with very high total kinetic energy. Measurements for the heavier elements have shown symmetric mass distributions with both high and low total kinetic energies. Recent results for spontaneous fission properties of the heaviest elements are reviewed and compared with theory. 31 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Complete event simulations of nuclear fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, Ramona

    2015-10-01

    For many years, the state of the art for treating fission in radiation transport codes has involved sampling from average distributions. In these average fission models energy is not explicitly conserved and everything is uncorrelated because all particles are emitted independently. However, in a true fission event, the energies, momenta and multiplicities of the emitted particles are correlated. Such correlations are interesting for many modern applications. Event-by-event generation of complete fission events makes it possible to retain the kinematic information for all particles emitted: the fission products as well as prompt neutrons and photons. It is therefore possible to extract any desired correlation observables. Complete event simulations can be included in general Monte Carlo transport codes. We describe the general functionality of currently available fission event generators and compare results for several important observables. This work was performed under the auspices of the US DOE by LLNL, Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. We acknowledge support of the Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation Research and Development in DOE/NNSA.

  12. Experimental studies of quasi-fission reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Back, B.B.

    1988-01-01

    A large number of recent experimental studies have shown that a substantial fraction of the total reaction cross section in heavy-ion reactions is found in fission-like processes, which do not result from the fission decay of a completely fused system. Following the suggestion of Swiatecki such processes, which represents a complete relaxation of the relative kinetic energy and a substantial amount of net mass transfer between the two fragments, are denoted quasi-fission reactions. They are distinct from compound fission reactions by bypassing the stage of a completely fused-system. This typically means that they are associated with short reaction times, which results in several measurable characteristics such as broken forward-backward symmetries, large anisotropies of the angular distributions and increased widths of the fragment mass distributions. The distinction between quasi-fission and deep inelastic reactions is less stringent and has the character of a gradual evolution from one reaction type to the other, as found also as quasi-elastic reaction evolves into deeply inelastic processes as a function of the total kinetic energy loss. In the present paper some of the experimental data characterizing quasi-fission reactions are reviewed and discussed. 22 refs., 6 figs.

  13. Ionization Chamber for Prompt Fission Neutron Investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeynalov, Sh.; Zeynalova, O.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Sedyshev, P.; Shvetsov, V.

    In this work we report recent achievements in design of twin back-to-back ionization chamber (TIC) for fission fragment (FF) mass and kinetic energy measurement. Correlated FF kinetic energies, their masses and the angle of FF in respect to the axes in 3D Cartesian coordinates can be determined from analysis of the heights and shapes of the pulses induced by the fission fragments on the anodes of TIC. Anodes of TIC were designed as consisting of isolated strips each having independent electronic circuitry and special multi-channel pulse processing apparatus. Mathematical formulae provided for FF angles measured in respect to the coordinate axes. It was shown how the point of fission fragments origin on the target plane may be determined using the same measured data. The last feature made the TIC a rather powerful tool for prompt fission neutron (PFN) emission investigation in event-by-event analysis of individual fission reactions from non- point fissile source. Position sensitive neutron induced fission detector for neutron-imaging applications with both thermal and low energy neutrons was found as another possible implementation of the designed TIC.

  14. Novel roles for actin in mitochondrial fission.

    PubMed

    Hatch, Anna L; Gurel, Pinar S; Higgs, Henry N

    2014-11-01

    Mitochondrial dynamics, including fusion, fission and translocation, are crucial to cellular homeostasis, with roles in cellular polarity, stress response and apoptosis. Mitochondrial fission has received particular attention, owing to links with several neurodegenerative diseases. A central player in fission is the cytoplasmic dynamin-related GTPase Drp1, which oligomerizes at the fission site and hydrolyzes GTP to drive membrane ingression. Drp1 recruitment to the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) is a key regulatory event, which appears to require a pre-constriction step in which the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondrion interact extensively, a process termed ERMD (ER-associated mitochondrial division). It is unclear how ER-mitochondrial contact generates the force required for pre-constriction or why pre-constriction leads to Drp1 recruitment. Recent results, however, show that ERMD might be an actin-based process in mammals that requires the ER-associated formin INF2 upstream of Drp1, and that myosin II and other actin-binding proteins might be involved. In this Commentary, we present a mechanistic model for mitochondrial fission in which actin and myosin contribute in two ways; firstly, by supplying the force for pre-constriction and secondly, by serving as a coincidence detector for Drp1 binding. In addition, we discuss the possibility that multiple fission mechanisms exist in mammals. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. Novel roles for actin in mitochondrial fission

    PubMed Central

    Hatch, Anna L.; Gurel, Pinar S.; Higgs, Henry N.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mitochondrial dynamics, including fusion, fission and translocation, are crucial to cellular homeostasis, with roles in cellular polarity, stress response and apoptosis. Mitochondrial fission has received particular attention, owing to links with several neurodegenerative diseases. A central player in fission is the cytoplasmic dynamin-related GTPase Drp1, which oligomerizes at the fission site and hydrolyzes GTP to drive membrane ingression. Drp1 recruitment to the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) is a key regulatory event, which appears to require a pre-constriction step in which the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondrion interact extensively, a process termed ERMD (ER-associated mitochondrial division). It is unclear how ER–mitochondrial contact generates the force required for pre-constriction or why pre-constriction leads to Drp1 recruitment. Recent results, however, show that ERMD might be an actin-based process in mammals that requires the ER-associated formin INF2 upstream of Drp1, and that myosin II and other actin-binding proteins might be involved. In this Commentary, we present a mechanistic model for mitochondrial fission in which actin and myosin contribute in two ways; firstly, by supplying the force for pre-constriction and secondly, by serving as a coincidence detector for Drp1 binding. In addition, we discuss the possibility that multiple fission mechanisms exist in mammals. PMID:25217628

  16. Measurement of prompt fission neutron spectrum for spontaneous fission of 252Cf using γ multiplicity tagging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blain, E.; Daskalakis, A.; Block, R. C.; Danon, Y.

    2017-06-01

    The prompt fission neutron spectrum from spontaneous fission of 252Cf is an integral part of several aspects of nuclear data. Not only is the spectrum itself of interest, but neutron detectors often use the spectrum for calibration, and other prompt fission neutron spectra are measured as a ratio to 252Cf. Therefore, reducing the uncertainties in this spectrum will allow for more accurate nuclear data to be available across a wide range of fields. The prompt fission neutron spectrum for the spontaneous fission of 252Cf was measured at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute using the multiple γ tagging method with a 18.4-ng fission sample. An EJ-301 liquid scintillator fast neutron detector was used to measure the high energy portion of the spectrum, 0.5-7 MeV, and a thin EJ-204 plastic scintillator was used to measure the low energy portion of the spectrum, from 50 keV to 2 MeV. These spectra both show good agreement with the current evaluation of 252Cf and have low associated uncertainties providing a new high precision measurement that helps reduce the uncertainties in the prompt fission neutron spectrum for the spontaneous fission of 252Cf.

  17. A new design of fission detector for prompt fission neutron investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeynalov, Sh.; Zeynalova, O.; Nazarenko, M. A.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Oberstedt, S.

    2012-10-01

    In this work we report recent achievements in design of twin back-to-back ionization chamber (TIC) for fission fragment (FF) mass and kinetic energy spectroscopy. Correlated FF kinetic energies, their masses and the angle of the fission axes in 3D Cartesian coordinates can be determined from analysis of the heights and shapes of the pulses induced by the fission fragments on the anodes of TIC. Anodes of TIC were designed as consisting of isolated strips each having independent electronic circuitry and special multi-channel pulse processing apparatus. Mathematical algorithms were provided along with formulae derived for fission axis angles determination. It was shown how the point of fission fragments origin on the target plane may be determined using the same measured data. The last feature made the TIC a rather powerful tool for prompt fission neutron (PFN) emission investigation in event by event analysis of individual fission reactions from non point fissile source. Position sensitive neutron induced fission detector for neutron imaging applications with both thermal and low energy neutrons was found as another possible implementation of the designed TIC.

  18. Event-by-event fission simulation code, generates complete fission events

    SciTech Connect

    2013-04-01

    FREYA is a computer code that generates complete fission events. The output includes the energy and momentum of these final state particles: fission products, prompt neutrons and prompt photons. The version of FREYA that is to be released is a module for MCNP6.

  19. Dual-fission chamber and neutron beam characterization for fission product yield measurements using monoenergetic neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatia, C.; Fallin, B.; Gooden, M. E.; Howell, C. R.; Kelley, J. H.; Tornow, W.; Arnold, C. W.; Bond, E. M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Fowler, M. M.; Moody, W. A.; Rundberg, R. S.; Rusev, G.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Becker, J. A.; Macri, R.; Ryan, C.; Sheets, S. A.; Stoyer, M. A.; Tonchev, A. P.

    2014-09-01

    A program has been initiated to measure the energy dependence of selected high-yield fission products used in the analysis of nuclear test data. We present out initial work of neutron activation using a dual-fission chamber with quasi-monoenergetic neutrons and gamma-counting method. Quasi-monoenergetic neutrons of energies from 0.5 to 15 MeV using the TUNL 10 MV FM tandem to provide high-precision and self-consistent measurements of fission product yields (FPY). The final FPY results will be coupled with theoretical analysis to provide a more fundamental understanding of the fission process. To accomplish this goal, we have developed and tested a set of dual-fission ionization chambers to provide an accurate determination of the number of fissions occurring in a thick target located in the middle plane of the chamber assembly. Details of the fission chamber and its performance are presented along with neutron beam production and characterization. Also presented are studies on the background issues associated with room-return and off-energy neutron production. We show that the off-energy neutron contribution can be significant, but correctable, while room-return neutron background levels contribute less than <1% to the fission signal.

  20. Inhibition of peroxisome fission, but not mitochondrial fission, increases yeast chronological lifespan.

    PubMed

    Lefevre, Sophie D; Kumar, Sanjeev; van der Klei, Ida J

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria are key players in aging and cell death. It has been suggested that mitochondrial fragmentation, mediated by the Dnm1/Fis1 organelle fission machinery, stimulates aging and cell death. This was based on the observation that Saccharomyces cerevisiae Δdnm1 and Δfis1 mutants show an enhanced lifespan and increased resistance to cell death inducers. However, the Dnm1/Fis1 fission machinery is also required for peroxisome division. Here we analyzed the significance of peroxisome fission in yeast chronological lifespan, using yeast strains in which fission of mitochondria was selectively blocked. Our data indicate that the lifespan extension caused by deletion of FIS1 is mainly due to a defect in peroxisome fission and not caused by a block in mitochondrial fragmentation. These observations are underlined by our observation that deletion of FIS1 does not lead to lifespan extension in yeast peroxisome deficient mutant cells.

  1. Comparative 3D genome structure analysis of the fission and the budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Gong, Ke; Tjong, Harianto; Zhou, Xianghong Jasmine; Alber, Frank

    2015-01-01

    We studied the 3D structural organization of the fission yeast genome, which emerges from the tethering of heterochromatic regions in otherwise randomly configured chromosomes represented as flexible polymer chains in an nuclear environment. This model is sufficient to explain in a statistical manner many experimentally determined distinctive features of the fission yeast genome, including chromatin interaction patterns from Hi-C experiments and the co-locations of functionally related and co-expressed genes, such as genes expressed by Pol-III. Our findings demonstrate that some previously described structure-function correlations can be explained as a consequence of random chromatin collisions driven by a few geometric constraints (mainly due to centromere-SPB and telomere-NE tethering) combined with the specific gene locations in the chromosome sequence. We also performed a comparative analysis between the fission and budding yeast genome structures, for which we previously detected a similar organizing principle. However, due to the different chromosome sizes and numbers, substantial differences are observed in the 3D structural genome organization between the two species, most notably in the nuclear locations of orthologous genes, and the extent of nuclear territories for genes and chromosomes. However, despite those differences, remarkably, functional similarities are maintained, which is evident when comparing spatial clustering of functionally related genes in both yeasts. Functionally related genes show a similar spatial clustering behavior in both yeasts, even though their nuclear locations are largely different between the yeast species.

  2. Comparative 3D Genome Structure Analysis of the Fission and the Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Ke; Tjong, Harianto; Zhou, Xianghong Jasmine; Alber, Frank

    2015-01-01

    We studied the 3D structural organization of the fission yeast genome, which emerges from the tethering of heterochromatic regions in otherwise randomly configured chromosomes represented as flexible polymer chains in an nuclear environment. This model is sufficient to explain in a statistical manner many experimentally determined distinctive features of the fission yeast genome, including chromatin interaction patterns from Hi-C experiments and the co-locations of functionally related and co-expressed genes, such as genes expressed by Pol-III. Our findings demonstrate that some previously described structure-function correlations can be explained as a consequence of random chromatin collisions driven by a few geometric constraints (mainly due to centromere-SPB and telomere-NE tethering) combined with the specific gene locations in the chromosome sequence. We also performed a comparative analysis between the fission and budding yeast genome structures, for which we previously detected a similar organizing principle. However, due to the different chromosome sizes and numbers, substantial differences are observed in the 3D structural genome organization between the two species, most notably in the nuclear locations of orthologous genes, and the extent of nuclear territories for genes and chromosomes. However, despite those differences, remarkably, functional similarities are maintained, which is evident when comparing spatial clustering of functionally related genes in both yeasts. Functionally related genes show a similar spatial clustering behavior in both yeasts, even though their nuclear locations are largely different between the yeast species. PMID:25799503

  3. Molecular Genetic Tools and Techniques in Fission Yeast.

    PubMed

    Murray, Johanne M; Watson, Adam T; Carr, Antony M

    2016-05-02

    The molecular genetic tools used in fission yeast have generally been adapted from methods and approaches developed for use in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Initially, the molecular genetics of Schizosaccharomyces pombe was developed to aid gene identification, but it is now applied extensively to the analysis of gene function and the manipulation of noncoding sequences that affect chromosome dynamics. Much current research using fission yeast thus relies on the basic processes of introducing DNA into the organism and the extraction of DNA for subsequent analysis. Targeted integration into specific genomic loci is often used to create site-specific mutants or changes to noncoding regulatory elements for subsequent phenotypic analysis. It is also regularly used to introduce additional sequences that generate tagged proteins or to create strains in which the levels of wild-type protein can be manipulated through transcriptional regulation and/or protein degradation. Here, we draw together a collection of core molecular genetic techniques that underpin much of modern research using S. pombe We summarize the most useful methods that are routinely used and provide guidance, learned from experience, for the successful application of these methods.

  4. Pom1 and cell size homeostasis in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Wood, Elizabeth; Nurse, Paul

    2013-10-01

    Cells sense their size and use this information to coordinate cell division with cell growth to maintain a constant cell size within a given population. A model has been proposed for cell size control in the rod-shaped cells of the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe. This involves a protein localized to the cell ends, which inhibits mitotic activators in the middle of the cell in a cell size-dependent manner. This protein, Pom1, along with another tip-localized protein, Nif1, have been implicated as direct sensors of cell size controlling the onset of mitosis. Here we have investigated cell size variability and size homeostasis at the G 2/M transition, focusing on the role of pom1 and nif1. Cells deleted for either of these 2 genes show wild-type size homeostasis both in size variability analyses and size homeostasis experiments. This indicates that these genes do not have a critical role as direct cell size sensors in the control mechanism. Cell size homeostasis also seems to be independent of Cdc2-Tyr15 phosphorylation, suggesting that the size sensing mechanism in fission yeast may act through an unidentified pathway regulating CDK activity by an unknown mechanism.

  5. Mathematical model of the cell division cycle of fission yeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Bela; Pataki, Zsuzsa; Ciliberto, Andrea; Tyson, John J.

    2001-03-01

    Much is known about the genes and proteins controlling the cell cycle of fission yeast. Can these molecular components be spun together into a consistent mechanism that accounts for the observed behavior of growth and division in fission yeast cells? To answer this question, we propose a mechanism for the control system, convert it into a set of 14 differential and algebraic equations, study these equations by numerical simulation and bifurcation theory, and compare our results to the physiology of wild-type and mutant cells. In wild-type cells, progress through the cell cycle (G1→S→G2→M) is related to cyclic progression around a hysteresis loop, driven by cell growth and chromosome alignment on the metaphase plate. However, the control system operates much differently in double-mutant cells, wee1- cdc25Δ, which are defective in progress through the latter half of the cell cycle (G2 and M phases). These cells exhibit "quantized" cycles (interdivision times clustering around 90, 160, and 230 min). We show that these quantized cycles are associated with a supercritical Hopf bifurcation in the mechanism, when the wee1 and cdc25 genes are disabled.

  6. Bimodal Fission in the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Staszczak, A.; Dobaczewski, J.; Nazarewicz, Witold

    2007-01-01

    Spontaneous fission properties of 256Fm, 258Fm, and 260Fm isotopes are studied within the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock+BCS framework. In the particle-hole channel we take the Skyrme SkM* effective force, while in the particle-particle channel we employ the seniority pairing interaction. Three static fission paths for all investigated heavy fermium isotopes are found. The analysis of these fission modes allows to describe observed asymmetric fission of 256Fm, as well as bimodal fission of 258Fm and symmetric fission in 260Fm.

  7. Options For Development of Space Fission Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houta, Mike; VanDyke, Melissa; Godfroy, Tom; Pedersen, Kevin; Martin, James; Dickens, Ricky; Salvail, Pat; Hrbud, Ivana; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Fission technology can enable rapid, affordable access to any point in the solar system. Potential fission-based transportation options include high specific power continuous impulse propulsion systems and bimodal nuclear thermal rockets. Despite their tremendous potential for enhancing or enabling deep space and planetary missions, to date space fission system have only been used in Earth orbit. The first step towards utilizing advanced fission propulsion systems is development of a safe, near-term, affordable fission system that can enhance or enable near-term missions of interest. An evolutionary approach for developing space fission propulsion systems is proposed.

  8. A Proteome-wide Fission Yeast Interactome Reveals Network Evolution Principles from Yeasts to Human.

    PubMed

    Vo, Tommy V; Das, Jishnu; Meyer, Michael J; Cordero, Nicolas A; Akturk, Nurten; Wei, Xiaomu; Fair, Benjamin J; Degatano, Andrew G; Fragoza, Robert; Liu, Lisa G; Matsuyama, Akihisa; Trickey, Michelle; Horibata, Sachi; Grimson, Andrew; Yamano, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Minoru; Roth, Frederick P; Pleiss, Jeffrey A; Xia, Yu; Yu, Haiyuan

    2016-01-14

    Here, we present FissionNet, a proteome-wide binary protein interactome for S. pombe, comprising 2,278 high-quality interactions, of which ∼ 50% were previously not reported in any species. FissionNet unravels previously unreported interactions implicated in processes such as gene silencing and pre-mRNA splicing. We developed a rigorous network comparison framework that accounts for assay sensitivity and specificity, revealing extensive species-specific network rewiring between fission yeast, budding yeast, and human. Surprisingly, although genes are better conserved between the yeasts, S. pombe interactions are significantly better conserved in human than in S. cerevisiae. Our framework also reveals that different modes of gene duplication influence the extent to which paralogous proteins are functionally repurposed. Finally, cross-species interactome mapping demonstrates that coevolution of interacting proteins is remarkably prevalent, a result with important implications for studying human disease in model organisms. Overall, FissionNet is a valuable resource for understanding protein functions and their evolution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A proteome-wide fission yeast interactome reveals network evolution principles from yeasts to human

    PubMed Central

    Vo, Tommy V.; Das, Jishnu; Meyer, Michael J.; Cordero, Nicolas A.; Akturk, Nurten; Wei, Xiaomu; Fair, Benjamin J.; Degatano, Andrew G.; Fragoza, Robert; Liu, Lisa G.; Matsuyama, Akihisa; Trickey, Michelle; Horibata, Sachi; Grimson, Andrew; Yamano, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Minoru; Roth, Frederick P.; Pleiss, Jeffrey A.; Xia, Yu; Yu, Haiyuan

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Here, we present FissionNet, a proteome-wide binary protein interactome for S. pombe, comprising 2,278 high-quality interactions, of which ~50% were previously not reported in any species. FissionNet unravels previously unreported interactions implicated in processes such as gene silencing and pre-mRNA splicing. We developed a rigorous network comparison framework that accounts for assay sensitivity and specificity, revealing extensive species-specific network rewiring between fission yeast, budding yeast, and human. Surprisingly, although genes are better conserved between the yeasts, S. pombe interactions are significantly better conserved in human than in S. cerevisiae. Our framework also reveals that different modes of gene duplication influence the extent to which paralogous proteins are functionally repurposed. Finally, cross-species interactome mapping demonstrates that coevolution of interacting proteins is remarkably prevalent, a result with important implications for studying human disease in model organisms. Overall, FissionNet is a valuable resource for understanding protein functions and their evolution. PMID:26771498

  10. Fission Surface Power Technology Development Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palac, Donald T.; Mason, Lee S.; Houts, Michael G.; Harlow, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Power is a critical consideration in planning exploration of the surfaces of the Moon, Mars, and places beyond. Nuclear power is an important option, especially for locations in the solar system where sunlight is limited or environmental conditions are challenging (e.g., extreme cold, dust storms). NASA and the Department of Energy are maintaining the option for fission surface power for the Moon and Mars by developing and demonstrating technology for a fission surface power system. The Fission Surface Power Systems project has focused on subscale component and subsystem demonstrations to address the feasibility of a low-risk, low-cost approach to space nuclear power for surface missions. Laboratory demonstrations of the liquid metal pump, reactor control drum drive, power conversion, heat rejection, and power management and distribution technologies have validated that the fundamental characteristics and performance of these components and subsystems are consistent with a Fission Surface Power preliminary reference concept. In addition, subscale versions of a non-nuclear reactor simulator, using electric resistance heating in place of the reactor fuel, have been built and operated with liquid metal sodium-potassium and helium/xenon gas heat transfer loops, demonstrating the viability of establishing system-level performance and characteristics of fission surface power technologies without requiring a nuclear reactor. While some component and subsystem testing will continue through 2011 and beyond, the results to date provide sufficient confidence to proceed with system level technology readiness demonstration. To demonstrate the system level readiness of fission surface power in an operationally relevant environment (the primary goal of the Fission Surface Power Systems project), a full scale, 1/4 power Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU) is under development. The TDU will consist of a non-nuclear reactor simulator, a sodium-potassium heat transfer loop, a power

  11. Reaction rate calibration techniques at ZPPR for /sup 239/Pu fission, /sup 235/U fission, /sup 238/U fission, and /sup 238/U capture

    SciTech Connect

    Brumbach, S.B.; Maddison, D.W.

    1982-06-10

    Reaction-rate calibration techniques used at ZPPR are described for /sup 239/Pu fission, /sup 235/U fission, /sup 238/U fission and /sup 238/U capture. In addition to these absolute reaction rates, calibration techniques are described for fission-rate ratios and the ratio of /sup 238/U capture to /sup 239/U capture to /sup 239/Pu fission. Uncertainty estimates are presented for all calibrations. Intercomparison measurements are reported which support the validity of the calibration techniques and their estimated uncertainties.

  12. Average neutronic properties of prompt fission products

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, D.G. Jr.; Arthur, E.D.

    1982-02-01

    Calculations of the average neutronic properties of the ensemble of fission products producted by fast-neutron fission of /sup 235/U and /sup 239/Pu, where the properties are determined before the first beta decay of any of the fragments, are described. For each case we approximate the ensemble by a weighted average over 10 selected nuclides, whose properties we calculate using nuclear-model parameters deduced from the systematic properties of other isotopes of the same elements as the fission fragments. The calculations were performed primarily with the COMNUC and GNASH statistical-model codes. The results, available in ENDF/B format, include cross sections, angular distributions of neutrons, and spectra of neutrons and photons, for incident-neutron energies between 10/sup -5/ eV and 20 MeV. Over most of this energy range, we find that the capture cross section of /sup 239/Pu fission fragments is systematically a factor of two to five greater than for /sup 235/U fission fragments.

  13. Decreasing mitochondrial fission prevents cholestatic liver injury.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tianzheng; Wang, Li; Lee, Hakjoo; O'Brien, Dawn K; Bronk, Steven F; Gores, Gregory J; Yoon, Yisang

    2014-12-05

    Mitochondria frequently change their shape through fission and fusion in response to physiological stimuli as well as pathological insults. Disrupted mitochondrial morphology has been observed in cholestatic liver disease. However, the role of mitochondrial shape change in cholestasis is not defined. In this study, using in vitro and in vivo models of bile acid-induced liver injury, we investigated the contribution of mitochondrial morphology to the pathogenesis of cholestatic liver disease. We found that the toxic bile salt glycochenodeoxycholate (GCDC) rapidly fragmented mitochondria, both in primary mouse hepatocytes and in the bile transporter-expressing hepatic cell line McNtcp.24, leading to a significant increase in cell death. GCDC-induced mitochondrial fragmentation was associated with an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. We found that preventing mitochondrial fragmentation in GCDC by inhibiting mitochondrial fission significantly decreased not only ROS levels but also cell death. We also induced cholestasis in mouse livers via common bile duct ligation. Using a transgenic mouse model inducibly expressing a dominant-negative fission mutant specifically in the liver, we demonstrated that decreasing mitochondrial fission substantially diminished ROS levels, liver injury, and fibrosis under cholestatic conditions. Taken together, our results provide new evidence that controlling mitochondrial fission is an effective strategy for ameliorating cholestatic liver injury. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Singlet fission in linear chains of molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrosio, Francesco E-mail: A.Troisi@warwick.ac.uk; Troisi, Alessandro E-mail: A.Troisi@warwick.ac.uk

    2014-11-28

    We develop a model configuration interaction Hamiltonian to study the electronic structure of a chain of molecules undergoing singlet fission. We first consider models for dimer and trimer and then we use a matrix partitioning technique to build models of arbitrary size able to describe the relevant electronic structure for singlet fission in linear aggregates. We find that the multi-excitonic state (ME) is stabilized at short inter-monomer distance and the extent of this stabilization depends upon the size of orbital coupling between neighboring monomers. We also find that the coupling between ME states located on different molecules is extremely small leading to bandwidths in the order of ∼10 meV. This observation suggests that multi-exciton states are extremely localized by electron-phonon coupling and that singlet fission involves the transition between a relatively delocalized Frenkel exciton and a strongly localized multi-exciton state. We adopt the methodology commonly used to study non-radiative transitions to describe the singlet fission dynamics in these aggregates and we discuss the limit of validity of the approach. The results indicate that the phenomenology of singlet fission in molecular crystals is different in many important ways from what is observed in isolated dimers.

  15. Fusion-fission study at IUAC: Recent results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pullanhiotan, Sugathan

    2016-10-01

    Several properties observed in heavy ion induced fission led to the conclusion that fission is not always originated from fully equilibrated compound nucleus. Soon after the collision of two nuclei, it forms a di-nuclear system than can fission before a compound nucleus is formed. This process termed quasi-fission is a major hurdle to the formation of heavier elements by fusion. Fission originated before complete equilibration showed anomalously large angular anisotropy and mass distribution wider than what is expected from compound nucleus fission. The standard statistical model fails to predict the outcome of quasi-fission and currently no dynamical model is fully developed to predict all the features of quasi-fission. Though much progress has been made in recent times, a full understanding of the fission dynamics is still missing. Experiments identifying the influence of entrance channel parameters on dynamics of fusion-fission showed contrasting results. At IUAC accelerator facility many experiments have been performed to make a systematic study of fission dynamics using mass distribution, angular distribution and neutron multiplicity measurements in mass region around A ∼ 200. Recent measurement on mass distribution of fission fragment from reaction 19 F +206,208 Pb around fusion barrier energy showed the influence of multi-mode fission in enhancing the mass variance at low excitation energy. In this talk I will present some of these results.

  16. Event-by-Event Fission Modeling of Prompt Neutrons and Photons from Neutron-Induced and Spontaneous Fission with FREYA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, Ramona; Randrup, Jorgen

    2013-04-01

    The event-by-event fission Monte Carlo code FREYA (Fission Reaction Event Yield Algorithm) generates large samples of complete fission events. Using FREYA, it is possible to obtain the fission products as well as the prompt neutrons and photons emitted during the fission process, all with complete kinematic information. We can therefore extract any desired correlation observables. Concentrating on ^239Pu(n,f), ^240Pu(sf) and ^252Cf(sf), we compare our FREYA results with available data on prompt neutron and photon emission and present predictions for novel fission observables that could be measured with modern detectors.

  17. Incompatibility with Formin Cdc12p Prevents Human Profilin from Substituting for Fission Yeast Profilin: Insights from Crystal Structures of Fission Yeast Proflin

    SciTech Connect

    Ezezika, O.; Younger, N; Lu, J; Kaiser, D; Corbin, Z; Nolen, B; Kovar, D; Pollard, T

    2009-01-01

    Expression of human profilin-I does not complement the temperature-sensitive cdc3-124 mutation of the single profilin gene in fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, resulting in death from cytokinesis defects. Human profilin-I and S. pombe profilin have similar affinities for actin monomers, the FH1 domain of fission yeast formin Cdc12p and poly-l-proline, but human profilin-I does not stimulate actin filament elongation by formin Cdc12p like S. pombe profilin. Two crystal structures of S. pombe profilin and homology models of S. pombe profilin bound to actin show how the two profilins bind to identical surfaces on animal and yeast actins even though 75% of the residues on the profilin side of the interaction differ in the two profilins. Overexpression of human profilin-I in fission yeast expressing native profilin also causes cytokinesis defects incompatible with viability. Human profilin-I with the R88E mutation has no detectable affinity for actin and does not have this dominant overexpression phenotype. The Y6D mutation reduces the affinity of human profilin-I for poly-l-proline by 1000-fold, but overexpression of Y6D profilin in fission yeast is lethal. The most likely hypotheses to explain the incompatibility of human profilin-I with Cdc12p are differences in interactions with the proline-rich sequences in the FH1 domain of Cdc12p and wider 'wings' that interact with actin.

  18. Coincident measurements of prompt fission γ rays and fission fragments at DANCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, C. L.; Baramsai, B.; Jandel, M.; Rusev, G.; Couture, A.; Mosby, S.; Ullmann, J.; Kawano, T.; Stetcu, I.; Talou, P.

    2015-10-01

    Modern statistical approaches to modeling fission involve the calculation of not only average quantities but also fully correlated distributions of all fission products. Applications such as those involving the detection of special nuclear materials also rely on fully correlated data of fission products. Experimental measurements of correlated data are thus critical to the validation of theory and the development of important applications. The goal of this experiment was to measure properties of prompt fission gamma-ray emission as a function of fission fragments' total kinetic energy in the spontaneous fission of 252Cf. The measurement was carried out at the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE), a 4 π γ-ray calorimeter. A prototype design consisting of two silicon detectors was installed in the center of DANCE, allowing simultaneous measurement of fission fragments and γ rays. Effort has been taken to simulate fragment kinetic energy losses as well as γ-ray attenuation in DANCE using such tools as GEANT4 and SRIM. Theoretical predictions generated by the code CGMF were also incorporated as input for these simulations. Results from the experiment and simulations will be presented, along with plans for future measurements.

  19. METHOD OF MAKING JACKETED FISSIONABLE SLUG

    DOEpatents

    Young, G.J.; Ohlinger, L.A.

    1959-02-10

    BS>A method is described for fabricating a jacketed fissionable body or slug to provide an effective leak-proof seal between the jacket and the end closure. A housing for the fissionable slug is first formed and then tinned on the interior. The fissionable slug is coated on its exterior surface with the same material used to tin the interior of the housing. The coated slug is then inserted into the housing. A disc shaped end closure for the housing, coated with the tinning material, is inserted into the open end of the housing while the tinning material is still liquid. The end of the housing is then swaged into good contact with the periphery of the closure.

  20. Lunar surface fission power supplies: Radiation issues

    SciTech Connect

    Houts, M.G.; Lee, S.K.

    1994-07-01

    A lunar space fission power supply shield that uses a combination of lunar regolith and materials brought from earth may be optimal for early lunar outposts and bases. This type of shield can be designed such that the fission power supply does not have to be moved from its landing configuration, minimizing handling and required equipment on the lunar surface. Mechanisms for removing heat from the lunar regolith are built into the shield, and can be tested on earth. Regolith activation is greatly reduced compared with a shield that uses only regolith, and it is possible to keep the thermal conditions of the fission power supply close to these seen in free space. For a well designed shield, the additional mass required to be brought fro earth should be less than 1000 kg. Detailed radiation transport calculations confirm the feasibility of such a shield.

  1. Fission Barriers of Compound Superheavy Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, J. C.; Nazarewicz, W.; Sheikh, J. A.; Kerman, A. K.

    2009-05-01

    The dependence of fission barriers on the excitation energy of the compound nucleus impacts the survival probability of superheavy nuclei synthesized in heavy-ion fusion reactions. In this work, we investigate the isentropic fission barriers by means of the self-consistent nuclear density functional theory. The relationship between isothermal and isentropic descriptions is demonstrated. Calculations have been carried out for Fm264, Ds272, 127812, 129214, and 131224. For nuclei around 127812 produced in “cold-fusion” reactions, we predict a more rapid decrease of fission barriers with excitation energy as compared to the nuclei around 129214 synthesized in “hot-fusion” experiments. This is explained in terms of the difference between the ground-state and saddle-point temperatures. The effect of the particle gas is found to be negligible in the range of temperatures studied.

  2. Solar vs. Fission Surface Power for Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rucker, Michelle A.; Oleson, Steve; George, Pat; Landis, Geoffrey A.; Fincannon, James; Bogner, Amee; Jones, Robert E.; Turnbull, Elizabeth; Martini, Michael C.; Gyekenyesi, John Z.; hide

    2016-01-01

    A multi-discipline team of experts from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) developed Mars surface power system point design solutions for two conceptual missions. The primary goal of this study was to compare the relative merits of solar- versus fission-powered versions of each surface mission. First, the team compared three different solar power options against a fission power system concept for a sub-scale, uncrewed demonstration mission. The 4.5 meter (m) diameter pathfinder lander's primary mission would be to demonstrate Mars entry, descent, and landing techniques. Once on the Martian surface, the lander's In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) payload would demonstrate liquid oxygen propellant production using atmospheric resources. For the purpose of this exercise, location was assumed to be at the Martian equator. The three solar concepts considered included a system that only operated during daylight hours (at roughly half the daily propellant production rate of a round-the-clock fission design), a battery-augmented system that operated through the night (matching the fission concept's propellant production rate), and a system that operated only during daylight, but at a higher rate (again, matching the fission concept's propellant production rate). Including 30% mass growth allowance, total payload masses for the three solar concepts ranged from 1,116 to 2,396 kg, versus the 2,686 kg fission power scheme. However, solar power masses are expected to approach or exceed the fission payload mass at landing sites further from the equator, making landing site selection a key driver in the final power system decision. The team also noted that detailed reliability analysis should be performed on daytime-only solar power schemes to assess potential issues with frequent ISRU system on/off cycling. Next, the team developed a solar-powered point design solution for a conceptual four-crew, 500-day surface mission consisting of up to four landers per

  3. Molecular control of fission yeast cytokinesis.

    PubMed

    Rincon, Sergio A; Paoletti, Anne

    2016-05-01

    Cytokinesis gives rise to two independent daughter cells at the end of the cell division cycle. The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe has emerged as one of the most powerful systems to understand how cytokinesis is controlled molecularly. Like in most eukaryotes, fission yeast cytokinesis depends on an acto-myosin based contractile ring that assembles at the division site under the control of spatial cues that integrate information on cell geometry and the position of the mitotic apparatus. Cytokinetic events are also tightly coordinated with nuclear division by the cell cycle machinery. These spatial and temporal regulations ensure an equal cleavage of the cytoplasm and an accurate segregation of the genetic material in daughter cells. Although this model system has specificities, the basic mechanisms of contractile ring assembly and function deciphered in fission yeast are highly valuable to understand how cytokinesis is controlled in other organisms that rely on a contractile ring for cell division.

  4. Fission barriers of compound superheavy nuclei.

    PubMed

    Pei, J C; Nazarewicz, W; Sheikh, J A; Kerman, A K

    2009-05-15

    The dependence of fission barriers on the excitation energy of the compound nucleus impacts the survival probability of superheavy nuclei synthesized in heavy-ion fusion reactions. In this work, we investigate the isentropic fission barriers by means of the self-consistent nuclear density functional theory. The relationship between isothermal and isentropic descriptions is demonstrated. Calculations have been carried out for 264Fm, 272Ds, ;{278}112, ;{292}114, and ;{312}124. For nuclei around ;{278}112 produced in "cold-fusion" reactions, we predict a more rapid decrease of fission barriers with excitation energy as compared to the nuclei around ;{292}114 synthesized in "hot-fusion" experiments. This is explained in terms of the difference between the ground-state and saddle-point temperatures. The effect of the particle gas is found to be negligible in the range of temperatures studied.

  5. Dopant-Catalyzed Singlet Exciton Fission.

    PubMed

    Snamina, Mateusz; Petelenz, Piotr

    2017-01-04

    In acene-based molecular crystals, singlet exciton fission occurs through superexchange mediated by two virtual charge-transfer states. Hence, it is sensitive to their energies, which depend on the local environment. The crucial point is the balance between the charge-quadrupole interactions within the pair of molecules directly involved in the process and those with the surrounding crystal matrix, which are governed by local symmetry and may be influenced by breaking this symmetry. This happens, for example, in the vicinity of a vacancy or an impurity and in the latter case is complemented by polarization energy and potentially by dipolar contributions. Our model calculations indicate that the superexchange coupling is sensitive enough to these factors to enable fission to be catalyzed by judiciously designed dopant molecules. In favorable cases, dipolar dopants are expected to increase the fission rate by an order of magnitude.

  6. Measurements of Short-Lived Fission Isomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finch, Sean; Bhike, Megha; Howell, Calvin; Krishichayan, Fnu; Tornow, Werner

    2016-09-01

    Fission yields of the short lived isomers 134mTe (T1 / 2 = 162 ns) and 136mXe (T1 / 2 = 2 . 95 μs) were measured for 235U and 238U. The isomers were detected by the γ rays associated with the decay of the isomeric states using high-purity germanium detectors. Fission was induced using both monoenergetic γ rays and neutrons. At TUNL's High-Intensity Gamma-ray Source (HI γS), γ rays of 9 and 11 MeV were produced . Monoenergetic 8 MeV neutrons were produced at TUNL's tandem accelerator laboratory. Both beams were pulsed to allow for precise time-gated spectroscopy of both prompt and delayed γ rays following fission. This technique offers a non-destructive probe of special nuclear materials that is sensitive to the isotopic identity of the fissile material.

  7. Landau-Zener effect in fission

    SciTech Connect

    Mirea, M.; Tassan-Got, L.; Stephan, C.; Bacri, C. O.; Bobulescu, R. C.

    2007-12-15

    A model that takes into account the Landau-Zener promotion mechanism during fission was developed recently. The structures observed in the subthreshold neutron-induced fission of {sup 232}Th are investigated employing this model. Theoretical single-particle excitations of a phenomenological two-humped barrier are determined by solving a system of coupled differential equations for the motion along the optimal fission path. A rather good agreement with experimental data is obtained using a small number of independent parameters. It is predicted that the structure at 1.4 and 1.6 MeV is mainly dominated by a spin 3/2 partial cross section with a small admixture of spin 1/2, while the structure at 1.7 MeV is given by a large partial cross section of spin 5/2.

  8. Solution-processable singlet fission photovoltaic devices.

    PubMed

    Yang, Le; Tabachnyk, Maxim; Bayliss, Sam L; Böhm, Marcus L; Broch, Katharina; Greenham, Neil C; Friend, Richard H; Ehrler, Bruno

    2015-01-14

    We demonstrate the successful incorporation of a solution-processable singlet fission material, 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)pentacene (TIPS-pentacene), into photovoltaic devices. TIPS-pentacene rapidly converts high-energy singlet excitons into pairs of triplet excitons via singlet fission, potentially doubling the photocurrent from high-energy photons. Low-energy photons are captured by small-bandgap electron-accepting lead chalcogenide nanocrystals. This is the first solution-processable singlet fission system that performs with substantial efficiency with maximum power conversion efficiencies exceeding 4.8%, and external quantum efficiencies of up to 60% in the TIPS-pentacene absorption range. With PbSe nanocrystal of suitable bandgap, its internal quantum efficiency reaches 170 ± 30%.

  9. Effect of high-frequency modes on singlet fission dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujihashi, Yuta; Chen, Lipeng; Ishizaki, Akihito; Wang, Junling; Zhao, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Singlet fission is a spin-allowed energy conversion process whereby a singlet excitation splits into two spin-correlated triplet excitations residing on adjacent molecules and has a potential to dramatically increase the efficiency of organic photovoltaics. Recent time-resolved nonlinear spectra of pentacene derivatives have shown the importance of high frequency vibrational modes in efficient fission. In this work, we explore impacts of vibration-induced fluctuations on fission dynamics through quantum dynamics calculations with parameters from fitting measured linear and nonlinear spectra. We demonstrate that fission dynamics strongly depends on the frequency of the intramolecular vibrational mode. Furthermore, we examine the effect of two vibrational modes on fission dynamics. Inclusion of a second vibrational mode creates an additional fission channel even when its Huang-Rhys factor is relatively small. Addition of more vibrational modes may not enhance the fission per se, but can dramatically affect the interplay between fission dynamics and the dominant vibrational mode.

  10. Effect of high-frequency modes on singlet fission dynamics.

    PubMed

    Fujihashi, Yuta; Chen, Lipeng; Ishizaki, Akihito; Wang, Junling; Zhao, Yang

    2017-01-28

    Singlet fission is a spin-allowed energy conversion process whereby a singlet excitation splits into two spin-correlated triplet excitations residing on adjacent molecules and has a potential to dramatically increase the efficiency of organic photovoltaics. Recent time-resolved nonlinear spectra of pentacene derivatives have shown the importance of high frequency vibrational modes in efficient fission. In this work, we explore impacts of vibration-induced fluctuations on fission dynamics through quantum dynamics calculations with parameters from fitting measured linear and nonlinear spectra. We demonstrate that fission dynamics strongly depends on the frequency of the intramolecular vibrational mode. Furthermore, we examine the effect of two vibrational modes on fission dynamics. Inclusion of a second vibrational mode creates an additional fission channel even when its Huang-Rhys factor is relatively small. Addition of more vibrational modes may not enhance the fission per se, but can dramatically affect the interplay between fission dynamics and the dominant vibrational mode.

  11. Fundamental Fission Research with the NIFFTE Time Projection Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinrath, Verena; Niffte Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    The Neutron Induced Fission Fragment Tracking Experiment (NIFFTE) has developed a novel instrument for fission research - a Time Projection Chamber (TPC), which enables detailed tracking of charged particles emitted in neutron-induced fission. While the primary goal of the project is to measure fission cross sections with unprecedented precision, the TPC can also facilitate more fundamental fission studies. The detector's high efficiency (4-pi acceptance) and precise tracking capabilities (including energy deposition) provide a large amount of valuable information. Recent data collected during engineering runs using a U238/U235 target will be used to generate fission fragment angular distributions and yields as a function of incident neutron energy. These experimental results can lend insight into the evolution of nuclear shapes with respect to energy on the path to scission and therefore immediately drive fission theory development. Preliminary angular distributions and yields using the NIFFTE TPC will be presented. Neutron Induced Fission Fragment Tracking Experiment.

  12. Transcription of lncRNA prt, clustered prt RNA sites for Mmi1 binding, and RNA polymerase II CTD phospho-sites govern the repression of pho1 gene expression under phosphate-replete conditions in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Debashree; Sanchez, Ana M; Goldgur, Yehuda; Shuman, Stewart; Schwer, Beate

    2016-07-01

    Expression of fission yeast Pho1 acid phosphatase is repressed during growth in phosphate-rich medium. Repression is mediated by transcription of the prt locus upstream of pho1 to produce a long noncoding (lnc) prt RNA. Repression is also governed by RNA polymerase II CTD phosphorylation status, whereby inability to place a Ser7-PO4 mark (as in S7A) derepresses Pho1 expression, and inability to place a Thr4-PO4 mark (as in T4A) hyper-represses Pho1 in phosphate replete cells. Here we find that basal pho1 expression from the prt-pho1 locus is inversely correlated with the activity of the prt promoter, which resides in a 110-nucleotide DNA segment preceding the prt transcription start site. CTD mutations S7A and T4A had no effect on the activity of the prt promoter or the pho1 promoter, suggesting that S7A and T4A affect post-initiation events in prt lncRNA synthesis that make it less and more repressive of pho1, respectively. prt lncRNA contains clusters of DSR (determinant of selective removal) sequences recognized by the YTH-domain-containing protein Mmi1. Altering the nucleobase sequence of two DSR clusters in the prt lncRNA caused hyper-repression of pho1 in phosphate replete cells, concomitant with increased levels of the prt transcript. The isolated Mmi1 YTH domain binds to RNAs with single or tandem DSR elements, to the latter in a noncooperative fashion. We report the 1.75 Å crystal structure of the Mmi1 YTH domain and provide evidence that Mmi1 recognizes DSR RNA via a binding mode distinct from that of structurally homologous YTH proteins that recognize m(6)A-modified RNA.

  13. Solar Versus Fission Surface Power for Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rucker, Michelle A.; Oleson, Steve; George, Pat; Landis, Geoffrey A.; Fincannon, James; Bogner, Amee; Jones, Robert E.; Turnbull, Elizabeth; McNatt, Jeremiah; Martini, Michael C.; Gyekenyesi, John Z.; Colozza, Anthony J.; Schmitz, Paul C.; Packard, Thomas W.

    2016-01-01

    A multi-discipline team of experts from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) developed Mars surface power system point design solutions for two conceptual missions to Mars using In-situ resource utilization (ISRU). The primary goal of this study was to compare the relative merits of solar- versus fission-powered versions of each surface mission. First, the team compared three different solar-power options against a fission power system concept for a sub-scale, uncrewed demonstration mission. This “pathfinder” design utilized a 4.5 meter diameter lander. Its primary mission would be to demonstrate Mars entry, descent, and landing techniques. Once on the Martian surface, the lander’s ISRU payload would demonstrate liquid oxygen propellant production from atmospheric resources. For the purpose of this exercise, location was assumed to be at the Martian equator. The three solar concepts considered included a system that only operated during daylight hours (at roughly half the daily propellant production rate of a round-the-clock fission design), a battery-augmented system that operated through the night (matching the fission concept’s propellant production rate), and a system that operated only during daylight, but at a higher rate (again, matching the fission concept’s propellant production rate). Including 30% mass growth allowance, total payload masses for the three solar concepts ranged from 1,128 to 2,425 kg, versus the 2,751 kg fission power scheme. However, solar power masses increase as landing sites are selected further from the equator, making landing site selection a key driver in the final power system decision. The team also noted that detailed reliability analysis should be performed on daytime-only solar power schemes to assess potential issues with frequent ISRU system on/off cycling.

  14. Fission-gas release from uranium nitride at high fission rate density

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, M. B.; Kirchgessner, T. A.; Tambling, T. N.

    1973-01-01

    A sweep gas facility has been used to measure the release rates of radioactive fission gases from small UN specimens irradiated to 8-percent burnup at high fission-rate densities. The measured release rates have been correlated with an equation whose terms correspond to direct recoil release, fission-enhanced diffusion, and atomic diffusion (a function of temperature). Release rates were found to increase linearly with burnups between 1.5 and 8 percent. Pore migration was observed after operation at 1550 K to over 6 percent burnup.

  15. Optimally moderated nuclear fission reactor and fuel source therefor

    DOEpatents

    Ougouag, Abderrafi M.; Terry, William K.; Gougar, Hans D.

    2008-07-22

    An improved nuclear fission reactor of the continuous fueling type involves determining an asymptotic equilibrium state for the nuclear fission reactor and providing the reactor with a moderator-to-fuel ratio that is optimally moderated for the asymptotic equilibrium state of the nuclear fission reactor; the fuel-to-moderator ratio allowing the nuclear fission reactor to be substantially continuously operated in an optimally moderated state.

  16. Development and Utilization of Space Fission Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael; Mason, Lee S.; Palac, Donald T.; Harlow, Scott E.

    2008-01-01

    Space fission power systems could enable advanced civilian space missions. Terrestrially, thousands of fission systems have been operated since 1942. In addition, the US flew a space fission system in 1965, and the former Soviet Union flew 33 such systems prior to the end of the Cold War. Modern design and development practices, coupled with 65 years of experience with terrestrial reactors, could enable the affordable development of space fission power systems for near-term planetary surface applications.

  17. Development and Utilization of Space Fission Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Mason, Lee S.; Palac, Donald T.; Harlow, Scott E.

    2009-01-01

    Space fission power systems could enable advanced civilian space missions. Terrestrially, thousands of fission systems have been operated since 1942. In addition, the US flew a space fission system in 1965, and the former Soviet Union flew 33 such systems prior to the end of the Cold War. Modern design and development practices, coupled with 65 years of experience with terrestrial reactors, could enable the affordable development of space fission power systems for near-term planetary surface applications.

  18. Fission barriers in a macroscopic-microscopic model

    SciTech Connect

    Dobrowolski, A.; Pomorski, K.; Bartel, J.

    2007-02-15

    In the framework of the macroscopic-microscopic model, this study investigates fission barriers in the region of actinide nuclei. A very effective four-dimensional shape parametrization for fissioning nuclei is proposed. Taking, in particular, the left-right mass asymmetric and nonaxial shapes into account is demonstrated to have a substantial effect on fission barrier heights. The influence of proton versus neutron deformation differences on the potential energy landscape of fissioning nuclei is also discussed.

  19. Prompt Fission Neutrons as Probes to Nuclear Configurations at Scission

    SciTech Connect

    Talou, P.; Kawano, T.; Bonneau, L.

    2008-04-17

    Prompt fission neutrons and gamma-rays emitted by excited primary fission fragments are indirect probes to the nuclear configurations present near the scission point. By studying detailed characteristics of these quantities, it is shown that one can discriminate between various assumptions regarding the sharing of the free energy at scission among the two fragments. The case of low-energy neutron-induced fission on {sup 235}U is studied and interpreted in terms of fission modes.

  20. Cross section for 246Cm subbarrier fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, A. A.; Bergman, A. A.; Berlev, A. I.; Koptelov, E. A.; Samylin, B. F.; Trufanov, A. M.; Fursov, B. I.; Shorin, V. S.

    2010-10-01

    The cross section for 246Cm fission induced by neutrons of energy in the range 0.1 eV-20 keV was measured by the neutron lead slowing-down spectrometer (LSDS-100) of the Institute for Nuclear Research (INR, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow). The parameters of the resonance area and of the fission width were evaluated for several low-lying s-wave neutron resonances. The parameters of the intermediate structure in the cross section for the subbarrier fusion of 246Cm nuclei were found. The results obtained in this way were compared with available experimental data and with recommended evaluated data.

  1. Dynamic fission instability of dissipative protoplanets

    SciTech Connect

    Boss, A.P.; Mizuno, H.

    1985-07-01

    Analytical and numerical approaches are taken to consider if a rapidly rotating, viscous protoearth would have lost mass by a fission process and thereby given birth to the moon. The fast rotation is assumed as the source of the instability in the dissipative liquid protoearth. Governing hydrodynamic equations are defined for the evolution of the protoearth. Account is taken of viscous dissipation, the pressure equation of state for the atmospheric material sent on a ballistic trajectory, and the effective viscosity. The results indicate that dynamic fission was probably not the process by which the protomoon came into existence. 61 references.

  2. Dynamic fission instability of dissipative protoplanets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boss, A. P.; Mizuno, H.

    1985-01-01

    Analytical and numerical approaches are taken to consider if a rapidly rotating, viscous protoearth would have lost mass by a fission process and thereby given birth to the moon. The fast rotation is assumed as the source of the instability in the dissipative liquid protoearth. Governing hydrodynamic equations are defined for the evolution of the protoearth. Account is taken of viscous dissipation, the pressure equation of state for the atmospheric material sent on a ballistic trajectory, and the effective viscosity. The results indicate that dynamic fission was probably not the process by which the protomoon came into existence.

  3. In-beam Fission Study at JAEA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishio, Katsuhisa

    2013-12-01

    Fission fragment mass distributions were measured in heavy-ion induced fissions using 238U target nucleus. The measured mass distributions changed drastically with incident energy. The results are explained by a change of the ratio between fusion and quasifission with nuclear orientation. A calculation based on a fluctuation dissipation model reproduced the mass distributions and their incident energy dependence. Fusion probability was determined in the analysis. Evaporation residue cross sections were calculated with a statistical model in the reactions of 30Si + 238U and 34S + 238U using the obtained fusion probability in the entrance channel. The results agree with the measured cross sections for seaborgium and hassium isotopes.

  4. Italian hybrid and fission reactors scenario analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ciotti, M.; Manzano, J.; Sepielli, M.

    2012-06-19

    Italy is a country where a long tradition of studies both in the fission and fusion field is consolidated; nevertheless a strong public opinion concerned with the destination of the Spent Nuclear Fuel hinders the development of nuclear power. The possibility to a severe reduction of the NSF mass generated from a fleet of nuclear reactors employing an hypothetical fusionfission hybrid reactor has been investigated in the Italian framework. The possibility to produce nuclear fuel for the fission nuclear reactors with the hybrid reactor was analyzed too.

  5. Italian hybrid and fission reactors scenario analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciotti, M.; Manzano, J.; Sepielli, M.

    2012-06-01

    Italy is a country where a long tradition of studies both in the fission and fusion field is consolidated; nevertheless a strong public opinion concerned with the destination of the Spent Nuclear Fuel hinders the development of nuclear power. The possibility to a severe reduction of the NSF mass generated from a fleet of nuclear reactors employing an hypothetical fusionfission hybrid reactor has been investigated in the Italian framework. The possibility to produce nuclear fuel for the fission nuclear reactors with the hybrid reactor was analyzed too.

  6. Centromeric heterochromatin assembly in fission yeast--balancing transcription, RNA interference and chromatin modification.

    PubMed

    Alper, Benjamin J; Lowe, Brandon R; Partridge, Janet F

    2012-07-01

    Distinct regions of the eukaryotic genome are packaged into different types of chromatin, with euchromatin representing gene rich, transcriptionally active regions and heterochromatin more condensed and gene poor. The assembly and maintenance of heterochromatin is important for many aspects of genome control, including silencing of gene transcription, suppression of recombination, and to ensure proper chromosome segregation. The precise mechanisms underlying heterochromatin establishment and maintenance are still unclear, but much progress has been made towards understanding this process during the last few years, particularly from studies performed in fission yeast. In this review, we hope to provide a conceptual model of centromeric heterochromatin in fission yeast that integrates our current understanding of the competing forces of transcription, replication, and RNA decay that influence its assembly and propagation.

  7. Fission products of superheavy elements. An investigation of the naturally occurring fission products of elements heavier than uranium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marti, K.

    1972-01-01

    Fission mass yields in different structural elements and mineral separates were studied for the element X. The fission component for Pu-244, and the element X are discussed along with radiogenic Xe-129 and neutron activitation.

  8. γ-ray studies of the fission of 238U induced by 12C, spectroscopy and fission dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houry, M.; Korten, W.; Le Coz, Y.; Lucas, R.; Theisen, Ch.; Barreau, G.; Doan, T. P.; Aiche, M.; Aleonard, M. M.; Chemin, J. F.; Scheurer, J. N.; Belier, G.; Meot, V.; Ethvignot, Th.; Durell, J.; Grimwood, D.; Phillips, W. R.; Roach, A.; Smith, A. G.; Varley, B. J.; Deloncle, I.; Porquet, M. G.; Astier, A.; Perries, S.; Redon, N.

    1998-10-01

    Fission studies have been known for a long time to provide neutron-rich nuclei in various states of excitation energy, spin and deformation. Although many studies have been performed concerning fission fragments from spontaneous fission and neutron induced fission, a renewed interest in fission-fragment spectroscopy has occurred with the elaboration of large Ge detector arrays such as EUROBALL. We have recently performed an experiment with EUROBALL III using SAPhIR; a fission-fragment detector made from photovoltaic cells. The compact and versatile geometry of SAPhIR allows it to be installed inside the γ-ray detector, and to obtain additional information from the fission process as well as a timing reference. Neutron-rich nuclei have been populated in the fusion-fission reaction 238U+12C leading to the compound nucleus 250Cf. First results of this experiment are presented.

  9. Fission measurements with PPAC detectors using a coincidence technique

    SciTech Connect

    Paradela, C.; Duran, I.; Tarrio, D.; Audouin, L.; Tassan-Got, L.; Stephan, C.

    2011-07-01

    A fission detection setup based on Parallel Plate Avalanche Counters (PPAC) has been constructed and used at the CERN n-TOF facility. The setup takes advantage of the coincidence detection of both fission fragments to discriminate the background reactions produced by high energy neutrons and it allows obtaining neutron-induced fission cross section up to 1 GeV. (authors)

  10. SPIDER Progress Towards High Resolution Correlated Fission Product Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields, Dan; Meierbachtol, Krista; Tovesson, Fredrik; Arnold, Charles; Blackeley, Rick; Bredeweg, Todd; Devlin, Matt; Hecht, Adam; Jandel, Marian; Jorgenson, Justin; Nelson, Ron; White, Morgan; Spider Team

    2014-09-01

    The SPIDER detector (SPectrometer for Ion DEtermination in fission Research) is under development with the goal of obtaining high-resolution, high-efficiency, correlated fission product data needed for many applications including the modeling of next generation nuclear reactors, stockpile stewardship, and the fundamental understanding of the fission process. SPIDER simultaneously measures velocity and energy of both fission products to calculate fission product yields (FPYs), neutron multiplicity (ν), and total kinetic energy (TKE). A detailed description of the prototype SPIDER detector components will be presented. Characterization measurements with alpha and spontaneous fission sources will also be discussed. LA-UR-14-24875. The SPIDER detector (SPectrometer for Ion DEtermination in fission Research) is under development with the goal of obtaining high-resolution, high-efficiency, correlated fission product data needed for many applications including the modeling of next generation nuclear reactors, stockpile stewardship, and the fundamental understanding of the fission process. SPIDER simultaneously measures velocity and energy of both fission products to calculate fission product yields (FPYs), neutron multiplicity (ν), and total kinetic energy (TKE). A detailed description of the prototype SPIDER detector components will be presented. Characterization measurements with alpha and spontaneous fission sources will also be discussed. LA-UR-14-24875. This work is in part supported by LANL Laboratory Directed Research and Development Projects 20110037DR and 20120077DR.

  11. Fission Matrix Capability for MCNP Monte Carlo

    SciTech Connect

    Carney, Sean E.; Brown, Forrest B.; Kiedrowski, Brian C.; Martin, William R.

    2012-09-05

    In a Monte Carlo criticality calculation, before the tallying of quantities can begin, a converged fission source (the fundamental eigenvector of the fission kernel) is required. Tallies of interest may include powers, absorption rates, leakage rates, or the multiplication factor (the fundamental eigenvalue of the fission kernel, k{sub eff}). Just as in the power iteration method of linear algebra, if the dominance ratio (the ratio of the first and zeroth eigenvalues) is high, many iterations of neutron history simulations are required to isolate the fundamental mode of the problem. Optically large systems have large dominance ratios, and systems containing poor neutron communication between regions are also slow to converge. The fission matrix method, implemented into MCNP[1], addresses these problems. When Monte Carlo random walk from a source is executed, the fission kernel is stochastically applied to the source. Random numbers are used for: distances to collision, reaction types, scattering physics, fission reactions, etc. This method is used because the fission kernel is a complex, 7-dimensional operator that is not explicitly known. Deterministic methods use approximations/discretization in energy, space, and direction to the kernel. Consequently, they are faster. Monte Carlo directly simulates the physics, which necessitates the use of random sampling. Because of this statistical noise, common convergence acceleration methods used in deterministic methods do not work. In the fission matrix method, we are using the random walk information not only to build the next-iteration fission source, but also a spatially-averaged fission kernel. Just like in deterministic methods, this involves approximation and discretization. The approximation is the tallying of the spatially-discretized fission kernel with an incorrect fission source. We address this by making the spatial mesh fine enough that this error is negligible. As a consequence of discretization we get a

  12. Nuclear Fission: A Review of Experimental Advances and Phenomenology.

    PubMed

    Andreyev, Andrei; Nishio, Katsuhisa; Schmidt, Karl-Heinz

    2017-07-28

    In the last two decades, through technological, experimental and theoretical advances, the situation in experimental fission studies has changed dramatically. With the use of advanced production and detection techniques both much more detailed and precise information can now be obtained for the traditional regions of fission research and, crucially, new regions of nuclei have become routinely accessible for fission studies. This work first of all reviews the recent developments in experimental fission techniques, in particular the resurgence of transfer-induced fission reactions with light and heavy ions, the emerging use of inverse-kinematic approaches, both at Coulomb and relativistic energies, and of fission studies with radioactive beams. The emphasis on the fission-fragment mass and charge distributions will be made in this work, though some of the other fission observables, such as prompt neutron and γ-ray emission will also be reviewed. A particular attention will be given to the low-energy fission in the so far scarcely explored nuclei in the very neutron-deficient lead region. They recently became the focus for several complementary experimental studies, such as β-delayed fission with radioactive beams at ISOLDE(CERN), Coulex-induced fission of relativistic secondary beams at FRS(GSI), and several prompt fusion-fission studies. The synergy of these approaches allows a unique insight in the new region of asymmetric fission around <sup>180</sup>Hg, recently discovered at ISOLDE. Recent extensive theoretical efforts in this region will also be outlined. The unprecedented high-quality data for fission fragments, completely identified in <i>Z</i> and <i>A</i>, by means of reactions in inverse kinematics at FRS(GSI) and VAMOS(GANIL) will be also reviewed. These experiments explored an extended range of mercury-to-californium elements, spanning from the neutron-deficient to neutron-rich nuclides, and

  13. Inner Kinetochore Protein Interactions with Regional Centromeres of Fission Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Jitendra; Talbert, Paul B.; Henikoff, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Centromeres of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe lack the highly repetitive sequences that make most other "regional" centromeres refractory to analysis. To map fission yeast centromeres, we applied H4S47C-anchored cleavage mapping and native and cross-linked chromatin immunoprecipitation with paired-end sequencing. H3 nucleosomes are nearly absent from the central domain, which is occupied by centromere-specific H3 (cenH3 or CENP-A) nucleosomes with two H4s per particle that are mostly unpositioned and are more widely spaced than nucleosomes elsewhere. Inner kinetochore proteins CENP-A, CENP-C, CENP-T, CENP-I, and Scm3 are highly enriched throughout the central domain except at tRNA genes, with no evidence for preferred kinetochore assembly sites. These proteins are weakly enriched and less stably incorporated in H3-rich heterochromatin. CENP-A nucleosomes protect less DNA from nuclease digestion than H3 nucleosomes, while CENP-T protects a range of fragment sizes. Our results suggest that CENP-T particles occupy linkers between CENP-A nucleosomes and that classical regional centromeres differ from other centromeres by the absence of CENP-A nucleosome positioning. PMID:26275423

  14. The Spontaneous Mutation Rate in the Fission Yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Farlow, Ashley; Long, Hongan; Arnoux, Stéphanie; Sung, Way; Doak, Thomas G; Nordborg, Magnus; Lynch, Michael

    2015-10-01

    The rate at which new mutations arise in the genome is a key factor in the evolution and adaptation of species. Here we describe the rate and spectrum of spontaneous mutations for the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, a key model organism with many similarities to higher eukaryotes. We undertook an ∼1700-generation mutation accumulation (MA) experiment with a haploid S. pombe, generating 422 single-base substitutions and 119 insertion-deletion mutations (indels) across the 96 replicates. This equates to a base-substitution mutation rate of 2.00 × 10(-10) mutations per site per generation, similar to that reported for the distantly related budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, these two yeast species differ dramatically in their spectrum of base substitutions, the types of indels (S. pombe is more prone to insertions), and the pattern of selection required to counteract a strong AT-biased mutation rate. Overall, our results indicate that GC-biased gene conversion does not play a major role in shaping the nucleotide composition of the S. pombe genome and suggest that the mechanisms of DNA maintenance may have diverged significantly between fission and budding yeasts. Unexpectedly, CpG sites appear to be excessively liable to mutation in both species despite the likely absence of DNA methylation. Copyright © 2015 by the Genetics Society of America.

  15. The Spontaneous Mutation Rate in the Fission Yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    PubMed Central

    Farlow, Ashley; Long, Hongan; Arnoux, Stéphanie; Sung, Way; Doak, Thomas G.; Nordborg, Magnus; Lynch, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The rate at which new mutations arise in the genome is a key factor in the evolution and adaptation of species. Here we describe the rate and spectrum of spontaneous mutations for the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, a key model organism with many similarities to higher eukaryotes. We undertook an ∼1700-generation mutation accumulation (MA) experiment with a haploid S. pombe, generating 422 single-base substitutions and 119 insertion-deletion mutations (indels) across the 96 replicates. This equates to a base-substitution mutation rate of 2.00 × 10−10 mutations per site per generation, similar to that reported for the distantly related budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, these two yeast species differ dramatically in their spectrum of base substitutions, the types of indels (S. pombe is more prone to insertions), and the pattern of selection required to counteract a strong AT-biased mutation rate. Overall, our results indicate that GC-biased gene conversion does not play a major role in shaping the nucleotide composition of the S. pombe genome and suggest that the mechanisms of DNA maintenance may have diverged significantly between fission and budding yeasts. Unexpectedly, CpG sites appear to be excessively liable to mutation in both species despite the likely absence of DNA methylation. PMID:26265703

  16. Plant geminivirus rep protein induces rereplication in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Kittelmann, Katharina; Rau, Peter; Gronenborn, Bruno; Jeske, Holger

    2009-07-01

    The replication-associated protein (Rep) of geminiviruses, single-stranded DNA viruses of higher plants, is essential for virus replication. Since these viruses do not encode their own polymerases, Rep induces differentiated plant cells to reenter the cell cycle by interacting with the plant homologues of retinoblastoma proteins in order to activate the host DNA synthesis machinery. We have used fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) as a model organism to analyze the impact of ectopically expressed African cassava mosaic virus Rep protein on the cell division cycle in closer detail. Upon expression, Rep showed its characteristic DNA cleavage activity, and about 10% of the cells exhibited morphological changes. They were elongated threefold, on average, and possessed a single but enlarged and less compact nucleus in comparison to noninduced or vector-only control cells. Flow cytometry of Rep-expressing cultures revealed a distinct subpopulation of Rep protein-containing cells with aberrant morphology. The other 90% of the cells were indistinguishable from control cells, and no Rep was detectable. Rep-expressing cells exhibited DNA contents beyond 2C, indicating ongoing replication without intervening mitosis. Because a second open reading frame (ORF), AC4, is present within the Rep gene, the role of AC4 was examined by destroying its start codon within the AC1 ORF. The results confirmed that Rep is necessary and sufficient to induce rereplication in fission yeast. The unique potential of this well-investigated model for dissecting the cell cycle control by geminiviral proteins is discussed.

  17. Fission yeast meets a legend in Kobe: report of the Eighth International Fission Yeast Meeting.

    PubMed

    Asakawa, Haruhiko; Yamamoto, Takaharu G; Hiraoka, Yasushi

    2015-12-01

    The Eighth International Fission Yeast Meeting, which was held at Ikuta Shrine Hall in Kobe, Japan, from 21 to 26 June 2015, was attended by 327 fission yeast researchers from 25 countries (190 overseas and 137 domestic participants). At this meeting, 124 talks were held and 145 posters were presented. In addition, newly developed database tools were introduced to the community during a workshop. Researchers shared cutting-edge knowledge across broad fields of study, ranging from molecules to evolution, derived from the superior model organism commonly used within the fission yeast community. Intensive discussions and constructive suggestions generated in this meeting will surely advance the understanding of complex biological systems in fission yeast, extending to general eukaryotes.

  18. SOFIA, a Next-Generation Facility for Fission Yields Measurements and Fission Study. First Results and Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audouin, L.; Pellereau, E.; Taieb, J.; Boutoux, G.; Béliera, G.; Chatillon, A.; Ebran, A.; Gorbinet, T.; Laurent, B.; Martin, J.-F.; Tassan-Got, L.; Jurado, B.; Alvarez-Pol, H.; Ayyad, Y.; Benlliure, J.; Caamano, M.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Fernandez-Dominguez, B.; Paradela, C.; Rodriguez-Sanchez, J.-L.; Vargas, J.; Casarejos, E.; Heinz, A.; Kelic-Heil, A.; Kurz, N.; Nociforo, C.; Pietri, S.; Prochazka, A.; Rossi, D.; Schmidt, K.-H.; Simon, H.; Voss, B.; Weick, H.; Winfield, J. S.

    2015-10-01

    Fission fragments play an important role in nuclear reactors evolution and safety. However, fragments yields are poorly known : data are essentially limited to mass yields from thermal neutron-induced fissions on a very few nuclei. SOFIA (Study On FIssion with Aladin) is an innovative experimental program on nuclear fission carried out at the GSI facility, which aims at providing isotopic yields on a broad range of fissioning systems. Relativistic secondary beams of actinides and pre-actinides are selected by the Fragment Separator (FRS) and their fission is triggered by electromagnetic interaction. The resulting excitation energy is comparable to the result of an interaction with a low-energy neutron, thus leading to useful data for reactor simulations. For the first time ever, both fission fragments are completely identified in charge and mass in a new recoil spectrometer, allowing for precise yields measurements. The yield of prompt neutrons can then be deduced, and the fission mechanism can be ascribed, providing new constraints for fission models. During the first experiment, all the technical challenges were matched : we have thus set new experimental standards in the measurements of relativistic heavy ions (time of flight, position, energy loss).This communication presents a first series of results obtained on the fission of 238U; many other fissioning systems have also been measured and are being analyzed presently. A second SOFIA experiment is planned in September 2014, and will be focused on the measurement of the fission of 236U, the analog of 235U+n.

  19. Fission Product Sorptivity in Graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Tompson, Jr., Robert V.; Loyalka, Sudarshan; Ghosh, Tushar; Viswanath, Dabir; Walton, Kyle; Haffner, Robert

    2015-04-01

    Both adsorption and absorption (sorption) of fission product (FP) gases on/into graphite are issues of interest in very high temperature reactors (VHTRs). In the original proposal, we proposed to use packed beds of graphite particles to measure sorption at a variety of temperatures and to use an electrodynamic balance (EDB) to measure sorption onto single graphite particles (a few μm in diameter) at room temperature. The use of packed beds at elevated temperature is not an issue. However, the TPOC requested revision of this initial proposal to included single particle measurements at elevated temperatures up to 1100 °C. To accommodate the desire of NEUP to extend the single particle EDB measurements to elevated temperatures it was necessary to significantly revise the plan and the budget. These revisions were approved. In the EDB method, we levitate a single graphite particle (the size, surface characteristics, morphology, purity, and composition of the particle can be varied) or agglomerate in the balance and measure the sorption of species by observing the changes in mass. This process involves the use of an electron stepping technique to measure the total charge on a particle which, in conjunction with the measured suspension voltages for the particle, allows for determinations of mass and, hence, of mass changes which then correspond to measurements of sorption. Accommodating elevated temperatures with this type of system required a significant system redesign and required additional time that ultimately was not available. These constraints also meant that the grant had to focus on fewer species as a result. Overall, the extension of the original proposed single particle work to elevated temperatures added greatly to the complexity of the proposed project and added greatly to the time that would eventually be required as well. This means that the bulk of the experimental progress was made using the packed bed sorption systems. Only being able to recruit one

  20. Cutting fluid for machining fissionable materials

    SciTech Connect

    Duerksen, W.K.; Googin, J.M.; Napier, B. Jr.

    1982-01-28

    The present invention is directed to a cutting fluid for machining fissionable material. The cutting fluid is formed of glycol, water and a boron compound in an adequate concentration for effective neutron attenuation so as to inhibit criticality incidents during machining.

  1. Fission Energy and Other Sources of Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfven, Hannes

    1974-01-01

    Discusses different forms of energy sources and basic reasons for the opposition to the use of atomic energy. Suggests that research efforts should also be aimed toward the fission technology to make it acceptable besides major research studies conducted in the development of alternative energy sources. (CC)

  2. Liquid uranium alloy-helium fission reactor

    DOEpatents

    Minkov, V.

    1984-06-13

    This invention describes a nuclear fission reactor which has a core vessel and at least one tandem heat exchanger vessel coupled therewith across upper and lower passages to define a closed flow loop. Nuclear fuel such as a uranium alloy in its liquid phase fills these vessels and flow passages. Solid control elements in the reactor core vessel are adapted to be adjusted relative to one another to control fission reaction of the liquid fuel therein. Moderator elements in the other vessel and flow passages preclude fission reaction therein. An inert gas such as helium is bubbled upwardly through the heat exchanger vessel operable to move the liquid fuel upwardly therein and unidirectionally around the closed loop and downwardly through the core vessel. This helium gas is further directed to heat conversion means outside of the reactor vessels to utilize the heat from the fission reaction to generate useful output. The nuclear fuel operates in the 1200 to 1800/sup 0/C range, and even higher to 2500/sup 0/C.

  3. Liquid uranium alloy-helium fission reactor

    DOEpatents

    Minkov, Vladimir

    1986-01-01

    This invention teaches a nuclear fission reactor having a core vessel and at least one tandem heat exchanger vessel coupled therewith across upper and lower passages to define a closed flow loop. Nuclear fuel such as a uranium alloy in its liquid phase fills these vessels and flow passages. Solid control elements in the reactor core vessel are adapted to be adjusted relative to one another to control fission reaction of the liquid fuel therein. Moderator elements in the other vessel and flow passages preclude fission reaction therein. An inert gas such as helium is bubbled upwardly through the heat exchanger vessel operable to move the liquid fuel upwardly therein and unidirectionally around the closed loop and downwardly through the core vessel. This helium gas is further directed to heat conversion means outside of the reactor vessels to utilize the heat from the fission reaction to generate useful output. The nuclear fuel operates in the 1200.degree.-1800.degree. C. range, and even higher to 2500.degree. C., limited only by the thermal effectiveness of the structural materials, increasing the efficiency of power generation from the normal 30-35% with 300.degree.-500.degree. C. upper limit temperature to 50-65%. Irradiation of the circulating liquid fuel, as contrasted to only localized irradiation of a solid fuel, provides improved fuel utilization.

  4. Fission: A Mechanism for Forming Binary Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tohline, J. E.; Cazes, J. E.

    2000-05-01

    We demonstrate that it is possible for short period binary star systems to form from a single, rapidly rotating, equilibrium protostellar gas cloud via a natural fission process. This is analogous to the process by which rapidly spinning drops of fluid have been observed to break in two during drop dynamics experiments onboard the space shuttle. In order to demonstrate that fission works in the context of binary star formation, we have used a three-dimensional, computational fluid dynamics technique to, first, construct a rapidly rotating, self-gravitating, equilibrium barlike structure that, by all accounts, appears to be a compressible analog of an incompressible Riemann ellipsoid. Then by slowly cooling this configuration and following its cooling evolution in a fully self-consistent fashion, we have demonstrated that the system contracts along an ellipsoid-dumbbell-binary sequence. Although the hypothesis that binary stars may form via a process of fission has been around for more than 100 years, it has been a difficult hypothesis to test because of the nonlinear dynamical processes involved. This is the first demonstration that fission works in the context of realistic protostellar gas clouds. This work has been supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation through grant AST-9528424, by NASA through grant NAG5-8497, and by a grant of high-performance-computing time through NPACI on machines at the San Diego Supercomputing Center.

  5. Fission Energy and Other Sources of Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfven, Hannes

    1974-01-01

    Discusses different forms of energy sources and basic reasons for the opposition to the use of atomic energy. Suggests that research efforts should also be aimed toward the fission technology to make it acceptable besides major research studies conducted in the development of alternative energy sources. (CC)

  6. Fission Dynamics with Microscopic Level Densities

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, D.; Carlsson, B. G.; Dossing, Th.; Moller, P.; Randrup, J.; Aberg, S.

    2017-01-01

    We present a consistent framework for treating the energy and angularmomentum dependence of the shape evolution in the nuclear fission. It combines microscopically calculated level densities with the Metropolis-walk method, has no new parameters, and can elucidate the energy-dependent influence of pairing and shell effects on the dynamics of warm nuclei.

  7. Quintet multiexciton dynamics in singlet fission

    SciTech Connect

    Tayebjee, Murad J. Y.; Sanders, Samuel N.; Kumarasamy, Elango; Campos, Luis M.; Sfeir, Matthew Y.; McCamey, Dane R.

    2016-10-17

    Singlet fission, in which two triplet excitons are generated from a single absorbed photon, is a key third-generation solar cell concept. Conservation of angular momentum requires that singlet fission populates correlated multiexciton states, which can subsequently dissociate to generate free triplets. However, little is known about electronic and spin correlations in these systems since, due to its typically short lifetime, the multiexciton state is challenging to isolate and study. Here, we use bridged pentacene dimers, which undergo intramolecular singlet fission while isolated in solution and in solid matrices, as a unimolecular model system that can trap long-lived multiexciton states. We also combine transient absorption and time-resolved electron spin resonance spectroscopies to show that spin correlations in the multiexciton state persist for hundreds of nanoseconds. Furthermore, we confirm long-standing predictions that singlet fission produces triplet pair states of quintet character. Finally, we compare two different pentacene–bridge–pentacene chromophores, systematically tuning the coupling between the pentacenes to understand how differences in molecular structure affect the population and dissociation of multiexciton quintet states.

  8. Quintet multiexciton dynamics in singlet fission

    DOE PAGES

    Tayebjee, Murad J. Y.; Sanders, Samuel N.; Kumarasamy, Elango; ...

    2016-10-17

    Singlet fission, in which two triplet excitons are generated from a single absorbed photon, is a key third-generation solar cell concept. Conservation of angular momentum requires that singlet fission populates correlated multiexciton states, which can subsequently dissociate to generate free triplets. However, little is known about electronic and spin correlations in these systems since, due to its typically short lifetime, the multiexciton state is challenging to isolate and study. Here, we use bridged pentacene dimers, which undergo intramolecular singlet fission while isolated in solution and in solid matrices, as a unimolecular model system that can trap long-lived multiexciton states. Wemore » also combine transient absorption and time-resolved electron spin resonance spectroscopies to show that spin correlations in the multiexciton state persist for hundreds of nanoseconds. Furthermore, we confirm long-standing predictions that singlet fission produces triplet pair states of quintet character. Finally, we compare two different pentacene–bridge–pentacene chromophores, systematically tuning the coupling between the pentacenes to understand how differences in molecular structure affect the population and dissociation of multiexciton quintet states.« less

  9. Transfer-induced fission of superheavy nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.; Zubov, A. S.; Sargsyan, V. V.; Scheid, W.

    2010-07-15

    Possibilities of transfer-induced fission of new isotopes of superheavy nuclei with charge numbers 103-108 are studied for the first time in the reactions {sup 48}Ca+{sup 244,246,248}Cm at energies near the corresponding Coulomb barriers. The predicted cross sections are found to be measurable with the detection of three-body final states.

  10. Spontaneous fission of /sup 259/Fm

    SciTech Connect

    Hulet, E.K.; Lougheed, R.W.; Landrum, J.H.; Wild, J.F.; Hoffman, D.C.; Weber, J.; Wilhelmy, J.B.

    1980-03-01

    A 1.5-s spontaneous fission activity has been produced by irradiating /sup 257/Fm with 16-MeV tritons. On the basis of formation cross sections, fission half-life systematics, and the identification of other possible products, this 1.5-s activity has been attributed to /sup 259/Fm formed by the reaction /sup 257/Fm(t,p)/sup 259/Fm. /sup 259/Fm is the heaviest known isotope of Fm and has more neutrons than any other nuclide thus far identified. This measurement of the spontaneous fission of /sup 259/Fm is the first to show a narrow, predominantly symmetric, mass division from spontaneous fission. It is accompanied by a very high kinetic energy, the most probable total kinetic energy being 242 +- 6 MeV. These features show a marked acceleration in the trend toward more symmetric mass division and higher total kinetic energies than have been observed previously for the Fm isotopes as the mass increased.

  11. Fission Barriers of Compound Superheavy Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Pei, Junchen; Nazarewicz, Witold; Sheikh, J. A.; Kerman, A. K.

    2009-01-01

    The dependence of fission barriers on the excitation energy of the compound nucleus impacts the survival probability of superheavy nuclei synthesized in heavy-ion fusion reactions. We study the temperature-dependent fission barriers by means of the self-consistent nuclear density functional theory. The equivalence of isothermal and isentropic descriptions is demonstrated. The effect of the particle gas is found to be negligible in the range of temperatures studied. Calculations have been carried out for ^{264}Fm, ^{272}Ds, ^{278}112, ^{292}114, and ^{312}124. For nuclei around ^{278}112 produced in "cold fusion" reactions, we predict a more rapid decrease of fission barriers with temperature as compared to the nuclei around ^{292}114 synthesized in "hot fusion" experiments. This is explained in terms of the difference between the ground-state and fission-barrier temperatures. Our calculations are consistent with the long survival probabilities of the superheavy elements produced in Dubna with the ^{48}Ca beam.

  12. Fission Detection Using the Associated Particle Technique

    SciTech Connect

    R.P. Keegan, J.P. Hurley, J.R. Tinsley, R. Trainham, S.C. Wilde

    2008-09-18

    A beam of tagged 14 MeV neutrons from the deuterium-tritium (DT) reaction is used to induce fission in a target composed of depleted uranium. The generator yield is 107 neutrons/second radiated into a 4π solid angle. Two 4 in.×4 in. NaI detectors are used for gamma-ray detection. The fission process is known to produce multiple gamma-rays and neutrons. Triple coincidences (α-γ-γ) are measured as a function of neutron flight time up to 90 ns after fission, where the α-particle arises from the DT reaction. A sudden increase in the triple coincidence rate at the location of the material is used to localize and detect fission in the interrogated target. Comparisons are made with experiment runs where lead, tungsten, and iron were used as target materials. The triple coincidence response profile from depleted uranium is noted to be different to those observed from the other target materials. The response from interrogation targets composed of fissile material is anticipated to be even more unique than that observed from depleted uranium.

  13. Abrasion fission reactions at intermediate energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowry, Michael

    2016-09-01

    In-flight fission of 0.3-1.0 GeV A uranium beams at GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research and RIKEN Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory have demonstrated that the yield of fission fragments is naturally attuned to the N, Z and excitation energy of the projectile prefragments formed in peripheral nuclear collisions. Similar measurements at intermediate energies (less than 0.1 GeV A) are scarce despite the potential proximity to the threshold of limiting fragmentation proposed by Benecke et al. and may provide a sensitive probe of prefragment formation. Cross section measurements spanning 20 different isotopic chains from nickel to silver are presented following in-flight fission reactions of an 80 MeV A uranium-238 beam on a diamond active target at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) at Michigan State University (East Lansing, USA). Fission products were identified on an event-by-event basis by correlating time-of-flight and energy-loss measurements in the S800 spectrograph with in-flight gamma-decays reconstructed by the Gamma-Ray Energy Tracking Array (GRETINA) in the rest frame of the projectile. Transmission through the S800 has been determined using state-of-the-art simulations developed in the LISE + + code. et al. A full author list is available on request.

  14. After Apollo: Fission Origin of the Moon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Keefe, John A.

    1973-01-01

    Presents current ideas about the fission process of the Moon, including loss of mass. Saturnian rings, center of the Moon, binary stars, and uniformitarianism. Indicates that planetary formation may be best explained as a destructive, rather than a constructive process. (CC)

  15. Quintet multiexciton dynamics in singlet fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayebjee, Murad J. Y.; Sanders, Samuel N.; Kumarasamy, Elango; Campos, Luis M.; Sfeir, Matthew Y.; McCamey, Dane R.

    2016-10-01

    Singlet fission, in which two triplet excitons are generated from a single absorbed photon, is a key third-generation solar cell concept. Conservation of angular momentum requires that singlet fission populates correlated multiexciton states, which can subsequently dissociate to generate free triplets. However, little is known about electronic and spin correlations in these systems since, due to its typically short lifetime, the multiexciton state is challenging to isolate and study. Here, we use bridged pentacene dimers, which undergo intramolecular singlet fission while isolated in solution and in solid matrices, as a unimolecular model system that can trap long-lived multiexciton states. We combine transient absorption and time-resolved electron spin resonance spectroscopies to show that spin correlations in the multiexciton state persist for hundreds of nanoseconds. Furthermore, we confirm long-standing predictions that singlet fission produces triplet pair states of quintet character. We compare two different pentacene-bridge-pentacene chromophores, systematically tuning the coupling between the pentacenes to understand how differences in molecular structure affect the population and dissociation of multiexciton quintet states.

  16. Energy Correlation of Prompt Fission Neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elter, Zs.; Pázsit, I.

    2016-03-01

    In all cases where neutron fluctuations in a branching process (such as in multiplicity measurements) are treated in an energy dependent description, the energy correlations of the branching itself (energy correlations of the fission neutrons) need to be known. To date, these are not known from experiments. Such correlations can be theoretically and numerically derived by modelling the details of the fission process. It was suggested earlier that the fact that the prompt neutrons are emitted from the moving fission targets, will influence their energy and angular distributions in the lab system, which possibly induces correlations. In this paper the influence of the neutron emission process from the moving targets on the energy correlations is investigated analytically and via numerical simulations. It is shown that the correlations are generated by the random energy and direction distributions of the fission fragments. Analytical formulas are derived for the two-point energy distributions, and quantitative results are obtained by Monte-Carlo simulations. The results lend insight into the character of the two-point distributions, and give quantitative estimates of the energy correlations, which are generally small.

  17. Formation of asteroid pairs by rotational fission.

    PubMed

    Pravec, P; Vokrouhlický, D; Polishook, D; Scheeres, D J; Harris, A W; Galád, A; Vaduvescu, O; Pozo, F; Barr, A; Longa, P; Vachier, F; Colas, F; Pray, D P; Pollock, J; Reichart, D; Ivarsen, K; Haislip, J; Lacluyze, A; Kusnirák, P; Henych, T; Marchis, F; Macomber, B; Jacobson, S A; Krugly, Yu N; Sergeev, A V; Leroy, A

    2010-08-26

    Pairs of asteroids sharing similar heliocentric orbits, but not bound together, were found recently. Backward integrations of their orbits indicated that they separated gently with low relative velocities, but did not provide additional insight into their formation mechanism. A previously hypothesized rotational fission process may explain their formation-critical predictions are that the mass ratios are less than about 0.2 and, as the mass ratio approaches this upper limit, the spin period of the larger body becomes long. Here we report photometric observations of a sample of asteroid pairs, revealing that the primaries of pairs with mass ratios much less than 0.2 rotate rapidly, near their critical fission frequency. As the mass ratio approaches 0.2, the primary period grows long. This occurs as the total energy of the system approaches zero, requiring the asteroid pair to extract an increasing fraction of energy from the primary's spin in order to escape. We do not find asteroid pairs with mass ratios larger than 0.2. Rotationally fissioned systems beyond this limit have insufficient energy to disrupt. We conclude that asteroid pairs are formed by the rotational fission of a parent asteroid into a proto-binary system, which subsequently disrupts under its own internal system dynamics soon after formation.

  18. After Apollo: Fission Origin of the Moon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Keefe, John A.

    1973-01-01

    Presents current ideas about the fission process of the Moon, including loss of mass. Saturnian rings, center of the Moon, binary stars, and uniformitarianism. Indicates that planetary formation may be best explained as a destructive, rather than a constructive process. (CC)

  19. Delayed neutrons in fission of polonium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Ramazanov, R.; Urikbaev, Z.S.; Maksyutenko, B.P.; Ignat'ev, S.V.

    1988-06-01

    A strong difference is found in the relative yields of delayed neutrons in the production of compound nuclei of polonium isotopes in reactions in which bismuth and lead are bombarded by various charged particles. The effect can be partially explained by the different lengths of the ..beta..-decay chains of the light and heavy fission products.

  20. Energy and Angular Correlations of Fission Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, William; Smith, M. S.; Pain, S. D.; Febbraro, M.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Jones, K. L.; Smith, K.; Grzywacz, R.; Temanson, E.; Cizewski, J. A.

    2016-09-01

    Despite the discovery of fission nearly 80 years ago and its importance to nuclear energy, national security, and astrophysics; there are very few measurements that correlate multiple fission products. A proof-of-principle experiment is underway at Oak Ridge National Lab to measure the energy and angle correlation between prompt fission neutrons, gamma rays, and fragments in time-coincidence. The angular and energy spectrum of the prompt neutrons and /or gamma rays with respect to fragment mass, could reveal new details concerning the energy balance between these products and will be essential for benchmarking advanced fission models. An array of neutron and gamma-ray detectors is positioned opposite dual time-of-flight detectors and a total-energy detector to determine one fragment mass. Preliminary results from a spontaneous 252Cf source will be presented, along with plans for future improvements. Research sponsored in part by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  1. Angular-momentum-bearing modes in fission

    SciTech Connect

    Moretto, L.G.; Peaslee, G.F.; Wozniak, G.J.

    1989-03-01

    The angular-momentum-bearing degrees of freedom involved in the fission process are identified and their influence on experimental observables is discussed. The excitation of these modes is treated in the ''thermal'' limit, and the resulting distributions of observables are calculated. Experiments demonstrating the role of these modes are presented and discussed. 61 refs., 12 figs.

  2. The partial fission of fast spinning asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tardivel, Simon; Sanchez, Paul; Scheeres, Daniel J.

    2016-10-01

    The spin rates of asteroids systematically change over time due the Yarkovsky-O'Keefe-Radzievskii-Paddack (YORP) effect. Above a certain spin rate that depends on the body's density, regions of an asteroid can enter in tension, with components held to the body by cohesive forces. When the body fails, deformation or fission can occur. Catastrophic fission leading to complete disruption has been directly observed in active asteroid P/2013 R3. Partial fission, the loss of only part of the body, has been proposed as a mechanism for the formation of binaries and is explored here.The equatorial cavities of (341843) 2008 EV5 and of (185851) 2000 DP107 (a binary system) are consistent with a localized partial fission of the body (LPSC 2016 #1036). The examination of the gravity field of these bodies reveals that a mass placed within these cavities could be shed. In this mechanism, the outward pull of inertial forces creates an average stress at the cavity interface of ≈1 Pa for 2008 EV5 and ≈3 Pa for 2000 DP107 at spin periods of ≈3.15 h for the assumed densities of 1.3 g/cm3.This work continues the study of this partial, localized fission. Specifically, it addresses the issue of the low cohesion necessary to the mechanism. These cohesion values are typically lower than global strength values inferred on other asteroids (10 - 200 Pa), meaning that partial fission may occur prior to larger-scale deformations. Yet, several processes can explain the discrepancy, as they can naturally segregate particles by size. For instance, landslides or granular convection (Brazil nut effect) could bring larger boulders to the equator of the body, while finer particles are left at higher latitudes or sink to the center. Conversely, failure of the interior could bring boulders to the surface. The peculiar profile shape of these asteroids, shared by many binaries (e.g. 1999 KW4, 1996 FG3) may also be a clue of this heterogeneity, as this "spin top" shape is obtained in simulations with

  3. Langevin model of low-energy fission

    DOE PAGES

    Sierk, Arnold John

    2017-09-05

    Since the earliest days of fission, stochastic models have been used to describe and model the process. For a quarter century, numerical solutions of Langevin equations have been used to model fission of highly excited nuclei, where microscopic potential-energy effects have been neglected. In this paper I present a Langevin model for the fission of nuclei with low to medium excitation energies, for which microscopic effects in the potential energy cannot be ignored. I solve Langevin equations in a five-dimensional space of nuclear deformations. The macroscopic-microscopic potential energy from a global nuclear structure model well benchmarked to nuclear masses ismore » tabulated on a mesh of approximately 107 points in this deformation space. The potential is defined continuously inside the mesh boundaries by use of a moving five-dimensional cubic spline approximation. Because of reflection symmetry, the effective mesh is nearly twice this size. For the inertia, I use a (possibly scaled) approximation to the inertia tensor defined by irrotational flow. A phenomenological dissipation tensor related to one-body dissipation is used. A normal-mode analysis of the dynamical system at the saddle point and the assumption of quasiequilibrium provide distributions of initial conditions appropriate to low excitation energies, and are extended to model spontaneous fission. A dynamical model of postscission fragment motion including dynamical deformations and separation allows the calculation of final mass and kinetic-energy distributions, along with other interesting quantities. The model makes quantitative predictions for fragment mass and kinetic-energy yields, some of which are very close to measured ones. Varying the energy of the incident neutron for induced fission allows the prediction of energy dependencies of fragment yields and average kinetic energies. With a simple approximation for spontaneous fission starting conditions, quantitative predictions are made for

  4. Langevin model of low-energy fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierk, Arnold J.

    2017-09-01

    Background: Since the earliest days of fission, stochastic models have been used to describe and model the process. For a quarter century, numerical solutions of Langevin equations have been used to model fission of highly excited nuclei, where microscopic potential-energy effects have been neglected. Purpose: In this paper I present a Langevin model for the fission of nuclei with low to medium excitation energies, for which microscopic effects in the potential energy cannot be ignored. Method: I solve Langevin equations in a five-dimensional space of nuclear deformations. The macroscopic-microscopic potential energy from a global nuclear structure model well benchmarked to nuclear masses is tabulated on a mesh of approximately 107 points in this deformation space. The potential is defined continuously inside the mesh boundaries by use of a moving five-dimensional cubic spline approximation. Because of reflection symmetry, the effective mesh is nearly twice this size. For the inertia, I use a (possibly scaled) approximation to the inertia tensor defined by irrotational flow. A phenomenological dissipation tensor related to one-body dissipation is used. A normal-mode analysis of the dynamical system at the saddle point and the assumption of quasiequilibrium provide distributions of initial conditions appropriate to low excitation energies, and are extended to model spontaneous fission. A dynamical model of postscission fragment motion including dynamical deformations and separation allows the calculation of final mass and kinetic-energy distributions, along with other interesting quantities. Results: The model makes quantitative predictions for fragment mass and kinetic-energy yields, some of which are very close to measured ones. Varying the energy of the incident neutron for induced fission allows the prediction of energy dependencies of fragment yields and average kinetic energies. With a simple approximation for spontaneous fission starting conditions

  5. Fission Technology for Exploring and Utilizing the Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Mike; VanDyke, Melissa; Godfroy, Tom; Pedersen, Kevin; Martin, James; Dickens, Ricky; Salvail, Pat; Hrbub, Ivana; Schmidt, George R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Fission technology can enable rapid, affordable access to any point in the solar system. Potential fission-based transportation options include bimodal nuclear thermal rockets, high specific energy propulsion systems, and pulsed fission propulsion systems. In-space propellant re-supply enhances the effective performance of all systems, but requires significant infrastructure development. Safe, timely, affordable utilization of first-generation space fission propulsion systems will enable the development of more advanced systems. First generation space systems will build on over 45 years of US and international space fission system technology development to minimize cost,

  6. Innovative Fission Measurements with a Time Projection Chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Heffner, M D; Barnes, P D; Klay, J L

    2005-11-16

    This study explores a pioneering idea to utilize a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) to measure fission cross sections and other fission quantities. The TPC is inherently capable of measuring fragments from fission events, decay alphas, and beam-material scatters. This document explores whether the TPC can improve the precision of the {sup 239}Pu(n,f) cross section and measure other new and significant fission quantities simultaneously. This work shows that the TPC can in fact deliver sub-1% cross section measurements and should provide breakthroughs in both the quality and quantity of information available from neutron-induced fission experiments.

  7. Accurate measurement of a fission chamber efficiency using the prompt fission neutron method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathieu, Ludovic; Aïche, Mourad; Kessedjian, Grégoire; Czajkowski, Serge; Jurado, Beatriz; Marini, Paola; Tsekhanovich, Igor

    2017-09-01

    Fission Chambers (FC) are often used to determine fission cross sections and to measure the neutron beam flux via standard neutron-induced fission reactions. Thus, the fission detection efficiency is a key parameter. Several methods exist to determine this efficiency, with a final accuracy not better than 1%. The detection of prompt fission neutrons allows events related to the fission process to be tagged, and enables the efficiency to be inferred with accuracy of the order of few 0.1%. This method is very robust since it is independent in first order to several factors like geometry, used materials or neutron contour selection. To obtain high accuracy, few corrections have still to be taken into account. In particular, the neutron detectors have to cover several detection angles. In addition, the background contribution of neutrons from cosmic rays or from an accelerator has to be removed. Several experiments based on the use of a 252Cf source are presented to describe all these points.

  8. Fission Reaction Event Yield Algorithm, FREYA - For event-by-event simulation of fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbeke, J. M.; Randrup, J.; Vogt, R.

    2015-06-01

    From nuclear materials accountability to detection of special nuclear material, SNM, the need for better modeling of fission has grown over the past decades. Current radiation transport codes compute average quantities with great accuracy and performance, but performance and averaging come at the price of limited interaction-by-interaction modeling. For fission applications, these codes often lack the capability of modeling interactions exactly: energy is not conserved, energies of emitted particles are uncorrelated, prompt fission neutron and photon multiplicities are uncorrelated. Many modern applications require more exclusive quantities than averages, such as the fluctuations in certain observables (e.g. the neutron multiplicity) and correlations between neutrons and photons. The new computational model, FREYA (Fission Reaction Event Yield Algorithm), aims to meet this need by modeling complete fission events. Thus it automatically includes fluctuations as well as correlations resulting from conservation of energy and momentum. FREYA has been integrated into the LLNL Fission Library, and will soon be part of MCNPX2.7.0, MCNP6, TRIPOLI-4.9, and Geant4.10.

  9. Insights into nuclear structure and the fission process from spontaneous fission

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, J.H.; Butler-Moore, K.; Ramayya, A.V.

    1993-12-31

    The {gamma}-rays emitted following spontaneous and induced fission are rich sources of information about the structure of neutron-rich nuclei and about the fission process itself. The study of spontaneous fissioning isotopes with large Ge detector arrays are providing a wealth of such information as seen, for example, in recent reports. In this paper we present some of our most recent results on nuclear structure studies and conclusions on the fission process itself. In our work, we have employed in spontaneous fission, a triple gamma coincidence study for the first time and a high resolution, X-ray detector-{gamma}-coincidence study. These data provide powerful ways of separating the gamma rays which belong to a particular nucleus. The triple coincidence technique was used to uniquely identify the levels in {sup 136}Te and higher spin states in its N=84 isotones, {sup 138}Xe and {sup 140}Ba{sup 171}. Some other examples of the level structures observed in the low and high mass partners are presented, including a detailed analysis of the backbending of the moment of inertia in {sup 112,114,116}Pd. Finally, we present the first examples of how our analysis allows one to extract a detailed picture of the dependence of the angular momentum on the mass and atomic numbers of the fission fragments and of the long-sought neutron multiplicity distribution from zero-n to ten-n as a function of the charge and mass asymmetry.

  10. Prompt fission neutron spectra in fast-neutron-induced fission of 238U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, V. V.; Nayak, B. K.; Saxena, A.; Suryanarayana, S. V.; Capote, R.

    2015-07-01

    Prompt fission neutron spectrum (PFNS) measurements for the neutron-induced fission of 238U are carried out at incident neutron energies of 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 MeV, respectively. The time-of-flight technique is employed to determine the energy of fission neutrons. The prompt fission neutron energy spectra so obtained are analyzed using Watt parametrization to derive the neutron multiplicity and average prompt fission neutron energy. The present experimental PFNS data are compared with the evaluated spectra taken from the ENDF/B-VII.1 library and the predictive calculations carried out using the empire-3.2 (Malta) code with built-in Los Alamos (LA) and Kornilov PFNS models. The sensitivity of the empire-3.2 LA model-calculated PFNS to the nuclear level density parameter of the average fission fragment and to the total kinetic energy is investigated. empire-3.2 LA model PFNS calculations that use Madland 2006-recommended values [D. G. Madland, Nucl. Phys. A 772, 113 (2006), 10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2006.03.013] of the total kinetic energy and the level density parameter a =A /(10 ±0.5 ) compare very well to measured data at all incident neutron incident energies.

  11. Microscopic Theory of Nuclear Fission: A Review

    DOE PAGES

    Schunck, N.; Robledo, L. M.

    2016-10-11

    This paper reviews how nuclear fission is described within nuclear density functional theory. A distinction should be made between spontaneous fission, where half-lives are the main observables and quantum tunnelling the essential concept, and induced fission, where the focus is on fragment properties and explicitly time-dependent approaches are often invoked. Overall, the cornerstone of the density functional theory approach to fission is the energy density functional formalism. The basic tenets of this method, including some well-known tools such as the Hartree–Fock–Bogoliubov (HFB) theory, effective two-body nuclear potentials such as the Skyrme and Gogny force, finite-temperature extensions and beyond mean-field corrections,more » are presented succinctly. The energy density functional approach is often combined with the hypothesis that the time-scale of the large amplitude collective motion driving the system to fission is slow compared to typical time-scales of nucleons inside the nucleus. In practice, this hypothesis of adiabaticity is implemented by introducing (a few) collective variables and mapping out the many-body Schrödinger equation into a collective Schrödinger-like equation for the nuclear wave-packet. The region of the collective space where the system transitions from one nucleus to two (or more) fragments defines what are called the scission configurations. The inertia tensor that enters the kinetic energy term of the collective Schrödinger-like equation is one of the most essential ingredients of the theory, since it includes the response of the system to small changes in the collective variables. For this reason, the two main approximations used to compute this inertia tensor, the adiabatic time-dependent HFB and the generator coordinate method, are presented in detail, both in their general formulation and in their most common approximations. The collective inertia tensor enters also the Wentzel–Kramers–Brillouin (WKB) formula

  12. Microscopic theory of nuclear fission: a review.

    PubMed

    Schunck, N; Robledo, L M

    2016-11-01

    This article reviews how nuclear fission is described within nuclear density functional theory. A distinction should be made between spontaneous fission, where half-lives are the main observables and quantum tunnelling the essential concept, and induced fission, where the focus is on fragment properties and explicitly time-dependent approaches are often invoked. Overall, the cornerstone of the density functional theory approach to fission is the energy density functional formalism. The basic tenets of this method, including some well-known tools such as the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) theory, effective two-body nuclear potentials such as the Skyrme and Gogny force, finite-temperature extensions and beyond mean-field corrections, are presented succinctly. The energy density functional approach is often combined with the hypothesis that the time-scale of the large amplitude collective motion driving the system to fission is slow compared to typical time-scales of nucleons inside the nucleus. In practice, this hypothesis of adiabaticity is implemented by introducing (a few) collective variables and mapping out the many-body Schrödinger equation into a collective Schrödinger-like equation for the nuclear wave-packet. The region of the collective space where the system transitions from one nucleus to two (or more) fragments defines what are called the scission configurations. The inertia tensor that enters the kinetic energy term of the collective Schrödinger-like equation is one of the most essential ingredients of the theory, since it includes the response of the system to small changes in the collective variables. For this reason, the two main approximations used to compute this inertia tensor, the adiabatic time-dependent HFB and the generator coordinate method, are presented in detail, both in their general formulation and in their most common approximations. The collective inertia tensor enters also the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) formula used to extract

  13. Microscopic theory of nuclear fission: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schunck, N.; Robledo, L. M.

    2016-11-01

    This article reviews how nuclear fission is described within nuclear density functional theory. A distinction should be made between spontaneous fission, where half-lives are the main observables and quantum tunnelling the essential concept, and induced fission, where the focus is on fragment properties and explicitly time-dependent approaches are often invoked. Overall, the cornerstone of the density functional theory approach to fission is the energy density functional formalism. The basic tenets of this method, including some well-known tools such as the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) theory, effective two-body nuclear potentials such as the Skyrme and Gogny force, finite-temperature extensions and beyond mean-field corrections, are presented succinctly. The energy density functional approach is often combined with the hypothesis that the time-scale of the large amplitude collective motion driving the system to fission is slow compared to typical time-scales of nucleons inside the nucleus. In practice, this hypothesis of adiabaticity is implemented by introducing (a few) collective variables and mapping out the many-body Schrödinger equation into a collective Schrödinger-like equation for the nuclear wave-packet. The region of the collective space where the system transitions from one nucleus to two (or more) fragments defines what are called the scission configurations. The inertia tensor that enters the kinetic energy term of the collective Schrödinger-like equation is one of the most essential ingredients of the theory, since it includes the response of the system to small changes in the collective variables. For this reason, the two main approximations used to compute this inertia tensor, the adiabatic time-dependent HFB and the generator coordinate method, are presented in detail, both in their general formulation and in their most common approximations. The collective inertia tensor enters also the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) formula used to extract

  14. Microscopic Theory of Nuclear Fission: A Review

    SciTech Connect

    Schunck, N.; Robledo, L. M.

    2016-10-11

    This paper reviews how nuclear fission is described within nuclear density functional theory. A distinction should be made between spontaneous fission, where half-lives are the main observables and quantum tunnelling the essential concept, and induced fission, where the focus is on fragment properties and explicitly time-dependent approaches are often invoked. Overall, the cornerstone of the density functional theory approach to fission is the energy density functional formalism. The basic tenets of this method, including some well-known tools such as the Hartree–Fock–Bogoliubov (HFB) theory, effective two-body nuclear potentials such as the Skyrme and Gogny force, finite-temperature extensions and beyond mean-field corrections, are presented succinctly. The energy density functional approach is often combined with the hypothesis that the time-scale of the large amplitude collective motion driving the system to fission is slow compared to typical time-scales of nucleons inside the nucleus. In practice, this hypothesis of adiabaticity is implemented by introducing (a few) collective variables and mapping out the many-body Schrödinger equation into a collective Schrödinger-like equation for the nuclear wave-packet. The region of the collective space where the system transitions from one nucleus to two (or more) fragments defines what are called the scission configurations. The inertia tensor that enters the kinetic energy term of the collective Schrödinger-like equation is one of the most essential ingredients of the theory, since it includes the response of the system to small changes in the collective variables. For this reason, the two main approximations used to compute this inertia tensor, the adiabatic time-dependent HFB and the generator coordinate method, are presented in detail, both in their general formulation and in their most common approximations. The collective inertia tensor enters also the Wentzel–Kramers–Brillouin (WKB) formula used to

  15. Fission track dating of kimberlitic zircons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haggerty, S.E.; Raber, E.; Naeser, C.W.

    1983-01-01

    The only reliable method for dating kimberlites at present is the lengthy and specialized hydrothermal procedure that extracts 206Pb and 238U from low-uranium zircons. This paper describes a second successful method by fission track dating of large single-crystal zircons, 1.0-1.5 cm in dimension. The use of large crystals overcomes the limitations imposed in conventional fission track analysis which utilizes crushed fragments. Low track densities, optical track dispersion, and the random orientation of polished surfaces in the etch and irradiation cycle are effectively overcome. Fission track ages of zircons from five African kimberlites are reported, from the Kimberley Pool (90.3 ?? 6.5 m.y.), Orapa (87.4 ?? 5.7 and 92.4 ?? 6.1 m.y.), Nzega (51.1 ?? 3.8 m.y.), Koffiefontein (90.0 ?? 8.2 m.y.), and Val do Queve (133.4 ?? 11.5 m.y.). In addition we report the first radiometric ages (707.9 ?? 59.6 and 705.5 ?? 61.0 m.y.) of crustal zircons from kimberlites in northwest Liberia. The fission track ages agree well with earlier age estimates. Most of the zircons examined in this study are zoned with respect to uranium but linear correlations are established (by regression analysis) between zones of variable uranium content, and within zones of constant uranium content (by analysis of variance). Concordance between the fission track method and the U/Pb technique is established and we concluded that track fading from thermal annealing has not taken place. Kimberlitic zircons dated in this study, therefore, record the time of eruption. ?? 1983.

  16. Rapid separation of fresh fission products (draft)

    SciTech Connect

    Dry, D. E.; Bauer, E.; Petersen, L. A.

    2003-01-01

    The fission of highly eruiched uranium by thermal neutrons creates dozens of isotopic products. The Isotope and Nuclear Chemistry Group participates in programs that involve analysis of 'fiesh' fission products by beta counting following radiochemical separations. This is a laborious and time-consuming process that can take several days to generate results. Gamma spectroscopy can provide a more immediate path to isolopic activities, however short-lived, high-yield isotopes can swamp a gamma spectrum, making difficult the identification and quantification of isotopes on the wings and valley of the fission yield curve. The gamma spectrum of a sample of newly produced fission products is dominated by the many emissions of a very few high-yield isotopes. Specilkally, {sup 132}Te (3.2 d), its daughter, {sup 132}I(2 .28 h), {sup 140}Ba (12.75 d), and its daughter {sup 140}La (1.68 d) emit at least 18 gamma rays above 100 keV that are greater than 5% abundance. Additionally, the 1596 keV emission fiom I4'La imposes a Compton background that hinders the detection of isotopes that are neither subject to matrix dependent fractionation nor gaseous or volatile recursors. Some of these isotopes of interest are {sup 111}Ag, {sup 115}Cd, and the rare earths, {sup 153}Sm, {sup 154}Eu, {sup 156}Eu, and {sup 160}Tb. C-INC has performed an HEU irradiation and also 'cold' carrier analyses by ICP-AES to determine methods for rapid and reliable separations that may be used to detect and quantify low-yield fission products by gamma spectroscopy. Results and progress will be presented.

  17. Multimodal Fission in Heavy-Ion Induced Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Pokrovskiy, I. V.; Bogachev, A. A.; Iitkis, M. G.; Iitkis, J. M.; Kondratiev, N. A.; Kozulin, E. M.; Dorvaux, O.; Rowley, N.; Schmitt, Ch.; Stuttge, L.

    2006-08-14

    Mass, energy and folding angle distributions of the fission fragments as well as multiplicities of neutron and gamma-quanta emissions accompanying the fission process were measured for fission of 226Th, 227Pa and 234Pu compound nuclei produced in reactions with 18O and 26Mg projectiles over a wide energy range. Data were analyzed with respect to the presence of fission modes. Asymmetric fission was observed even at very high initial excitation for all the measured systems. The so-called fission mode S1 (caused by the proton shell Z{approx}50 and neutron shell N{approx}82 in heavy fragment) was found to be dominant in asymmetric fission of 234Pu. Reactions with not full linear momentum transfer were observed in the folding spectra for all the measured systems.

  18. A transferable model for singlet-fission kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yost, Shane R.; Lee, Jiye; Wilson, Mark W. B.; Wu, Tony; McMahon, David P.; Parkhurst, Rebecca R.; Thompson, Nicholas J.; Congreve, Daniel N.; Rao, Akshay; Johnson, Kerr; Sfeir, Matthew Y.; Bawendi, Moungi G.; Swager, Timothy M.; Friend, Richard H.; Baldo, Marc A.; van Voorhis, Troy

    2014-06-01

    Exciton fission is a process that occurs in certain organic materials whereby one singlet exciton splits into two independent triplets. In photovoltaic devices these two triplet excitons can each generate an electron, producing quantum yields per photon of >100% and potentially enabling single-junction power efficiencies above 40%. Here, we measure fission dynamics using ultrafast photoinduced absorption and present a first-principles expression that successfully reproduces the fission rate in materials with vastly different structures. Fission is non-adiabatic and Marcus-like in weakly interacting systems, becoming adiabatic and coupling-independent at larger interaction strengths. In neat films, we demonstrate fission yields near unity even when monomers are separated by >5 Å. For efficient solar cells, however, we show that fission must outcompete charge generation from the singlet exciton. This work lays the foundation for tailoring molecular properties like solubility and energy level alignment while maintaining the high fission yield required for photovoltaic applications.

  19. Conservation of Isospin in Neutron-rich Fission Fragments

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, A.K.; Choudhury, D.; Maheshwari, B.

    2014-06-15

    On the occasion of the 75{sup th} anniversary of the fission phenomenon, we present a surprisingly simple result which highlights the important role of isospin and its conservation in neutron rich fission fragments. We have analysed the fission fragment mass distribution from two recent heavyion reactions {sup 238}U({sup 18}O,f) and {sup 208}Pb({sup 18}O,f) as well as a thermal neutron fission reaction {sup 245}Cm(n{sup th},f). We find that the conservation of the total isospin explains the overall trend in the observed relative yields of fragment masses in each fission pair partition. The isospin values involved are very large making the effect dramatic. The findings open the way for more precise calculations of fission fragment distributions in heavy nuclei and may have far reaching consequences for the drip line nuclei, HI fusion reactions, and calculation of decay heat in the fission phenomenon.

  20. A transferable model for singlet-fission kinetics.

    PubMed

    Yost, Shane R; Lee, Jiye; Wilson, Mark W B; Wu, Tony; McMahon, David P; Parkhurst, Rebecca R; Thompson, Nicholas J; Congreve, Daniel N; Rao, Akshay; Johnson, Kerr; Sfeir, Matthew Y; Bawendi, Moungi G; Swager, Timothy M; Friend, Richard H; Baldo, Marc A; Van Voorhis, Troy

    2014-06-01

    Exciton fission is a process that occurs in certain organic materials whereby one singlet exciton splits into two independent triplets. In photovoltaic devices these two triplet excitons can each generate an electron, producing quantum yields per photon of >100% and potentially enabling single-junction power efficiencies above 40%. Here, we measure fission dynamics using ultrafast photoinduced absorption and present a first-principles expression that successfully reproduces the fission rate in materials with vastly different structures. Fission is non-adiabatic and Marcus-like in weakly interacting systems, becoming adiabatic and coupling-independent at larger interaction strengths. In neat films, we demonstrate fission yields near unity even when monomers are separated by >5 Å. For efficient solar cells, however, we show that fission must outcompete charge generation from the singlet exciton. This work lays the foundation for tailoring molecular properties like solubility and energy level alignment while maintaining the high fission yield required for photovoltaic applications.

  1. Fifty years of nuclear fission: Nuclear data and measurements series

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn, J.E.

    1989-06-01

    This report is the written version of a colloquium first presented at Argonne National Laboratory in January 1989. The paper begins with an historical preamble about the events leading to the discovery of nuclear fission. This leads naturally to an account of early results and understanding of the fission phenomena. Some of the key concepts in the development of fission theory are then discussed. The main theme of this discussion is the topography of the fission barrier, in which the interplay of the liquid-drop model and nucleon shell effects lead to a wide range of fascinating phenomena encompassing metastable isomers, intermediate-structure effects in fission cross-sections, and large changes in fission product properties. It is shown how study of these changing effects and theoretical calculations of the potential energy of the deformed nucleus have led to broad qualitative understanding of the nature of the fission process. 54 refs., 35 figs.

  2. Estimation of the number of prompt fission gamma rays

    SciTech Connect

    Valentine, T.E.

    2000-07-01

    The correlation between the total gamma-ray energy from fission and the number of prompt neutrons emitted from fission is used to estimate the average number of prompt gamma rays from fission in lieu of performing a measurement. Competition in the emission of prompt gamma rays and neutrons from the de-excitation of fission fragments has been observed experimentally. Mathematical models were used to estimate the properties of prompt gamma rays from the spontaneous fission of various nuclides that are encountered in nuclear safeguard applications. The estimated prompt gamma-ray parameters for spontaneous fission of {sup 238}U, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 240}Pu, {sup 242}Pu, {sup 242}Cm, and {sup 244}Cm are presented. The total prompt gamma-ray energy was estimated using the average number of neutrons from fission for each nuclide. The average energy of prompt gamma rays from fission was estimated, and the average number of prompt gamma rays from fission was estimated. The data presented can be used to characterize spontaneous fission isotopes commonly encountered in nuclear safeguard applications. This information may prove useful for development of advanced nondestructive assay methods. Furthermore, the models presented in this summary provide a mechanism to estimate gamma-ray properties for any fission process. The use of models to estimate gamma-ray properties from fission highlights the fact that little experimental data exist for many spontaneous fission nuclides. Measurements of the gamma-ray properties not only would be useful for developing nondestructive assay methods but also would provide additional information about the fission process.

  3. Modelling the CDK-dependent transcription cycle in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Sansó, Miriam; Fisher, Robert P

    2013-12-01

    CDKs (cyclin-dependent kinases) ensure directionality and fidelity of the eukaryotic cell division cycle. In a similar fashion, the transcription cycle is governed by a conserved subfamily of CDKs that phosphorylate Pol II (RNA polymerase II) and other substrates. A genetic model organism, the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, has yielded robust models of cell-cycle control, applicable to higher eukaryotes. From a similar approach combining classical and chemical genetics, fundamental principles of transcriptional regulation by CDKs are now emerging. In the present paper, we review the current knowledge of each transcriptional CDK with respect to its substrate specificity, function in transcription and effects on chromatin modifications, highlighting the important roles of CDKs in ensuring quantity and quality control over gene expression in eukaryotes.

  4. Fission studies of secondary beams from relativistic uranium projectiles: The proton even-odd effect in fission fragment charge yields

    SciTech Connect

    Junghans, A. R.; Benlliure, J.; Schmidt, K.-H.; Voss, B.; Boeckstiegel, C.; Clerc, H.-G.; Grewe, A.; Heinz, A.; Jong, M. de; Mueller, J.; Steinhaeuser, S.; Pfuetzner, M.

    1999-09-02

    Nuclear-charge yields of fragments produced by fission of neutron-deficient isotopes of uranium, protactinium, actinium, and radium have been measured. These radioactive isotopes were produced as secondary beams, and electromagnetic fission was induced in a lead target with an average excitation energy around 11 MeV. The local even-odd effect in symmetric and in asymmetric fission of thorium isotopes is found to be independent of Z{sup 2}/A. The charge yields of the fission fragments of the odd-Z fissioning protactinium and actinium show a pronounced even-odd effect. In asymmetric fission the unpaired proton predominantly sticks to the heavy fragment. A statistical model based on the single-particle level density at the Fermi energy is able to reproduce the overall trend of the local even-odd effects both in even-Z and odd-Z fissioning systems.

  5. A novel series of vectors for chromosomal integration in fission yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuyama, Akihisa Shirai, Atsuko; Yoshida, Minoru

    2008-09-19

    A series of fission yeast targeting vectors that can be used for wild-type strains having no selectable markers have been designed. The functions of one of three marker genes, lys1{sup +}, arg1{sup +}, and his3{sup +}, involved in amino acid synthesis, are impaired by integration of the fragments generated by restriction enzyme digestion of the plasmids. Successful integration of the fragments into the targeted loci can be readily verified by their requirement for amino acids, or by the PCR diagnostic analysis. Since these selection markers are not used commonly in fission yeast, these plasmids are likely to facilitate studies that require the co-expression of genes such as co-localization and co-immunoprecipitation experiments, by employing them in combination with most of the previously reported markers.

  6. Stress-Induced Nuclear to Cytoplasmic Translocation of Cyclin C Promotes Mitochondrial Fission in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Katrina F.; Khakhina, Svetlana; Kim, Stephen K.; Strich, Randy

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Mitochondrial morphology is maintained by the opposing activities of dynamin-based fission and fusion machines. In response to stress, this balance is dramatically shifted toward fission. This study reveals that the yeast transcriptional repressor cyclin C is both necessary and sufficient for stress-induced hyper-fission. In response to oxidative stress, cyclin C translocates from the nucleus to the cytoplasm where it is destroyed. Prior to its destruction, cyclin C both genetically and physically interacts with Mdv1p, an adaptor that links the GTPase Dnm1p to the mitochondrial receptor Fis1p. Cyclin C is required for stress-induced Mdv1p mitochondrial recruitment and the efficient formation of functional Dnm1p filaments. Finally, co-immunoprecipitation studies and fluorescence microscopy revealed an elevated association between Mdv1p and Dnm1p in stressed cells that is dependent on cyclin C. This study provides a mechanism by which stress-induced gene induction and mitochondrial fission are coordinated through translocation of cyclin C. PMID:24439911

  7. Axisymmetric Magnetic Mirror Fusion-Fission Hybrid

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R. W.; Martovetsky, N. N.; Molvik, A. W.; Ryutov, D. D.; Simonen, T. C.

    2011-05-13

    The achieved performance of the gas dynamic trap version of magnetic mirrors and today’s technology we believe are sufficient with modest further efforts for a neutron source for material testing (Q=Pfusion/Pinput~0.1). The performance needed for commercial power production requires considerable further advances to achieve the necessary high Q>>10. An early application of the mirror, requiring intermediate performance and intermediate values of Q~1 are the hybrid applications. The Axisymmetric Mirror has a number of attractive features as a driver for a fusion-fission hybrid system: geometrical simplicity, inherently steady-state operation, and the presence of the natural divertors in the form of end tanks. This level of physics performance has the virtue of low risk and only modest R&D needed and its simplicity promises economy advantages. Operation at Q~1 allows for relatively low electron temperatures, in the range of 4 keV, for the DT injection energy ~ 80 keV. A simple mirror with the plasma diameter of 1 m and mirror-to-mirror length of 35 m is discussed. Simple circular superconducting coils are based on today’s technology. The positive ion neutral beams are similar to existing units but designed for steady state. A brief qualitative discussion of three groups of physics issues is presented: axial heat loss, MHD stability in the axisymmetric geometry, microstability of sloshing ions. Burning fission reactor wastes by fissioning actinides (transuranics: Pu, Np, Am, Cm, .. or just minor actinides: Np, Am, Cm, …) in the hybrid will multiply fusion’s energy by a factor of ~10 or more and diminish the Q needed to less than 1 to overcome the cost of recirculating power for good economics. The economic value of destroying actinides by fissioning is rather low based on either the cost of long-term storage or even deep geologic disposal so most of the revenues of hybrids will come from electrical power. Hybrids that obtain revenues from

  8. A correlated electron view of singlet fission.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Paul M; Musgrave, Charles B; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2013-06-18

    Singlet fission occurs when a single exciton splits into multiple electron-hole pairs, and could dramatically increase the efficiency of organic solar cells by converting high energy photons into multiple charge carriers. Scientists might exploit singlet fission to its full potential by first understanding the underlying mechanism of this quantum mechanical process. The pursuit of this fundamental mechanism has recently benefited from the development and application of new correlated wave function methods. These methods-called restricted active space spin flip-can capture the most important electron interactions in molecular materials, such as acene crystals, at low computational cost. It is unrealistic to use previous wave function methods due to the excessive computational cost involved in simulating realistic molecular structures at a meaningful level of electron correlation. In this Account, we describe how we use these techniques to compute single exciton and multiple exciton excited states in tetracene and pentacene crystals in order to understand how a single exciton generated from photon absorption undergoes fission to generate two triplets. Our studies indicate that an adiabatic charge transfer intermediate is unlikely to contribute significantly to the fission process because it lies too high in energy. Instead, we propose a new mechanism that involves the direct coupling of an optically allowed single exciton to an optically dark multiexciton. This coupling is facilitated by intermolecular motion of two acene monomers that drives nonadiabatic population transfer between the two states. This transfer occurs in the limit of near degeneracies between adiabatic states where the Born-Oppenheimer approximation of fixed nuclei is no longer valid. Existing theories for singlet fission have not considered this type of coupling between states and, therefore, cannot describe this mechanism. The direct mechanism through intermolecular motion describes many

  9. Systematic genetic analysis of transcription factors to map the fission yeast transcription-regulatory network.

    PubMed

    Chua, Gordon

    2013-12-01

    Mapping transcriptional-regulatory networks requires the identification of target genes, binding specificities and signalling pathways of transcription factors. However, the characterization of each transcription factor sufficiently for deciphering such networks remains laborious. The recent availability of overexpression and deletion strains for almost all of the transcription factor genes in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe provides a valuable resource to better investigate transcription factors using systematic genetics. In the present paper, I review and discuss the utility of these strain collections combined with transcriptome profiling and genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation to identify the target genes of transcription factors.

  10. Increased Exploration Capacity Promotes Group Fission in Gregarious Foraging Herbivores.

    PubMed

    Lardy, Sophie; Fortin, Daniel; Pays, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Many gregarious species display rapid fission-fusion dynamics with individuals frequently leaving their groups to reunite or to form new ones soon after. The adaptive value of such ephemeral associations might reflect a frequent tilt in the balance between the costs and benefits of maintaining group cohesion. The lack of information on the short-term advantages of group fission, however, hampers our understanding of group dynamics. We investigated the effect of group fission on area-restricted search, a search tactic that is commonly used when food distribution is spatially autocorrelated. Specifically, we determine if roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) improve key aspects of their extensive search mode immediately after fission. We found that groups indeed moved faster and farther over time immediately after than before fission. This gain was highest for the smallest group that resulted from fission, which was more likely to include the fission's initiator. Sex of group members further mediated the immediate gain in search capacity, as post-fission groups moved away at farthest rate when they were only comprised of males. Our study suggests that social conflicts during the extensive search mode can promote group fission and, as such, can be a key determinant of group fission-fusion dynamics that are commonly observed in gregarious herbivores.

  11. A new role for myosin II in vesicle fission.

    PubMed

    Flores, Juan A; Balseiro-Gomez, Santiago; Cabeza, Jose M; Acosta, Jorge; Ramirez-Ponce, Pilar; Ales, Eva

    2014-01-01

    An endocytic vesicle is formed from a flat plasma membrane patch by a sequential process of invagination, bud formation and fission. The scission step requires the formation of a tubular membrane neck (the fission pore) that connects the endocytic vesicle with the plasma membrane. Progress in vesicle fission can be measured by the formation and closure of the fission pore. Live-cell imaging and sensitive biophysical measurements have provided various glimpses into the structure and behaviour of the fission pore. In the present study, the role of non-muscle myosin II (NM-2) in vesicle fission was tested by analyzing the kinetics of the fission pore with perforated-patch clamp capacitance measurements to detect single vesicle endocytosis with millisecond time resolution in peritoneal mast cells. Blebbistatin, a specific inhibitor of NM-2, dramatically increased the duration of the fission pore and also prevented closure during large endocytic events. Using the fluorescent markers FM1-43 and pHrodo Green dextran, we found that NM-2 inhibition greatly arrested vesicle fission in a late phase of the scission event when the pore reached a final diameter of ∼ 5 nm. Our results indicate that loss of the ATPase activity of myosin II drastically reduces the efficiency of membrane scission by making vesicle closure incomplete and suggest that NM-2 might be especially relevant in vesicle fission during compound endocytosis.

  12. Spontaneous fission half-lives and their systematics

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, N.E.

    1998-03-01

    Spontaneous fission is a phenomenon exhibited by heavy nuclei, which can be a major mode of decay of nuclei of elements heavier than thorium and can be a determining factor in their stability. For purposes of this paper, spontaneous fission will be considered a process in which a nucleus breaks up into two approximately equal parts. The emission of light nuclei or heavy ions such as {sup 12}C, {sup 16}O, or {sup 32}S will not be considered. This radioactive decay mode is often much smaller than the spontaneous fission decay mode, although this is not true in all cases. Barwick noted that this might indicate that the assumed half-life for spontaneous fission of some older experiments might be partially due to heavy fragment radioactivity. Other than taking note of this potential correction to spontaneous fission half-lives, this decay mode of heavy fragment radioactivity will be ignored. Excited states of some heavy nuclei may decay via spontaneous fission. These so-called fission isomers will not be discussed here. Electron capture (EC) or beta-delayed fission is a process in which prompt fission of a sufficiently excited daughter state occurs following population by EC or beta decay. The fission activity will appear to decay with the half-life of the parent and was earlier confused in some cases with SF. This process has been discussed in detail in a review and will not be considered in this paper.

  13. Delayed-fission properties of neutron-deficient americium nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, H.L. . Dept. of Chemistry)

    1989-10-23

    Characteristics of the delayed-fission decay mode in light americium nuclei have been investigated. Measurements on the unknown isotopes {sup 230}Am and {sup 236}Am were attempted, and upper limits on the delayed-fission branches of these nuclei were determined. Evidence of the existence of {sup 236}Am was observed in radiochemical separations. Total kinetic energy and mass-yield distributions of the electron-capture delayed-fission mode were measured for {sup 232}Am (t{sub 1/2} = 1.31 {plus minus} 0.04 min) and for {sup 234}Am (t{sub 1/2} = 2.32 {plus minus} 0.08 min), and delayed-fission probabilities of 6.9 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} and 6.6 {times} 10{sup {minus}5}, respectively, were determined. The total kinetic energy and the asymmetric mass-yield distributions are typical of fission of mid-range actinides. No discernible influence of the anomalous triple-peaked mass division characteristic of the thorium-radium region was detected. Measurements of the time correlation between the electron-capture x-rays and the subsequent fission conform that the observed fissions arise from the electron-capture delayed-fission mechanism. Delayed fission has provided a unique opportunity to extend the range of low-energy fission studies to previously inaccessible regions. 71 refs., 44 figs., 13 tabs.

  14. A New Role for Myosin II in Vesicle Fission

    PubMed Central

    Cabeza, Jose M.; Acosta, Jorge; Ramirez-Ponce, Pilar; Ales, Eva

    2014-01-01

    An endocytic vesicle is formed from a flat plasma membrane patch by a sequential process of invagination, bud formation and fission. The scission step requires the formation of a tubular membrane neck (the fission pore) that connects the endocytic vesicle with the plasma membrane. Progress in vesicle fission can be measured by the formation and closure of the fission pore. Live-cell imaging and sensitive biophysical measurements have provided various glimpses into the structure and behaviour of the fission pore. In the present study, the role of non-muscle myosin II (NM-2) in vesicle fission was tested by analyzing the kinetics of the fission pore with perforated-patch clamp capacitance measurements to detect single vesicle endocytosis with millisecond time resolution in peritoneal mast cells. Blebbistatin, a specific inhibitor of NM-2, dramatically increased the duration of the fission pore and also prevented closure during large endocytic events. Using the fluorescent markers FM1-43 and pHrodo Green dextran, we found that NM-2 inhibition greatly arrested vesicle fission in a late phase of the scission event when the pore reached a final diameter of ∼ 5 nm. Our results indicate that loss of the ATPase activity of myosin II drastically reduces the efficiency of membrane scission by making vesicle closure incomplete and suggest that NM-2 might be especially relevant in vesicle fission during compound endocytosis. PMID:24959909

  15. Fusion-fission energy systems evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Teofilo, V.L.; Aase, D.T.; Bickford, W.E.

    1980-01-01

    This report serves as the basis for comparing the fusion-fission (hybrid) energy system concept with other advanced technology fissile fuel breeding concepts evaluated in the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP). As such, much of the information and data provided herein is in a form that meets the NASAP data requirements. Since the hybrid concept has not been studied as extensively as many of the other fission concepts being examined in NASAP, the provided data and information are sparse relative to these more developed concepts. Nevertheless, this report is intended to provide a perspective on hybrids and to summarize the findings of the rather limited analyses made to date on this concept.

  16. Fission Product Release from SLOWPOKE-2 Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harnden, Anne M. C.

    Increasing radiation fields at several SLOWPOKE -2 reactors fuelled with highly enriched uranium aluminum alloy fuel have begun to interfere with the daily operation of these reactors. To investigate this phenomenon, samples of reactor container water and gas from the headspace above the reactor were obtained at four SLOWPOKE-2 reactor facilities and examined by gamma ray spectroscopy methods. These radiation fields are due to the circulation of fission products within the reactor container vessel. The most likely source of the fission product release is an area of uranium-bearing material exposed to the coolant at the end weld line which originated at the time of fuel fabrication. The results of this study are compared with observations from an underwater visual examination of one core and the metallographic examination of archived fuel elements.

  17. Fission Surface Power Technology Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palac, Donald T.; Mason, Lee S.; Harlow, Scott

    2009-01-01

    With the potential future deployment of a lunar outpost there is expected to be a clear need for a high-power, lunar surface power source to support lunar surface operations independent of the day-night cycle, and Fission Surface Power (FSP) is a very effective solution for power levels above a couple 10 s of kWe. FSP is similarly enabling for the poorly illuminated surface of Mars. The power levels/requirements for a lunar outpost option are currently being studied, but it is known that cost is clearly a predominant concern to decision makers. This paper describes the plans of NASA and the DOE to execute an affordable fission surface power system technology development project to demonstrate sufficient technology readiness of an affordable FSP system so viable and cost-effective FSP system options will be available when high power lunar surface system choices are expected to be made in the early 2010s.

  18. Thermochemistry of selected fission product compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, R. G. J.; Bowsher, B. R.; Cordfunke, E. H. P.; Dickinson, S.; Konings, R. J. M.

    Thermochemical data have been determined for a number of compounds of fission products and reactor materials. Critical assessments have also been made of the available thermochemical data on a number of systems. The studies have focused on the vaporization of iodides, such as indium iodide and cadmium iodide, and of ternary oxide compounds, such as caesium ruthenate, borate, molybdate and phosphate. The thermodynamic properties of condensed phases such as CdI 2, Cs 2CdI 4, Cs 2RuO 4, Cs 2Si 4O 9 and Cs 2ZrO 3 have also been measured. The data enable the speciation of fission products and their transport in the event of a severe reactor accident to be predicted with greater confidence.

  19. Microscopic Calculations of 240Pu Fission

    SciTech Connect

    Younes, W; Gogny, D

    2007-09-11

    Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov calculations have been performed with the Gogny finite-range effective interaction for {sup 240}Pu out to scission, using a new code developed at LLNL. A first set of calculations was performed with constrained quadrupole moment along the path of most probable fission, assuming axial symmetry but allowing for the spontaneous breaking of reflection symmetry of the nucleus. At a quadrupole moment of 345 b, the nucleus was found to spontaneously scission into two fragments. A second set of calculations, with all nuclear moments up to hexadecapole constrained, was performed to approach the scission configuration in a controlled manner. Calculated energies, moments, and representative plots of the total nuclear density are shown. The present calculations serve as a proof-of-principle, a blueprint, and starting-point solutions for a planned series of more comprehensive calculations to map out a large set of scission configurations, and the associated fission-fragment properties.

  20. Nuclear organisation and RNAi in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Woolcock, Katrina J; Bühler, Marc

    2013-06-01

    Over the last decade, the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe has been used extensively for investigating RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated heterochromatin assembly. However, only recently have studies begun to shed light on the 3D organisation of chromatin and the RNAi machinery in the fission yeast nucleus. These studies indicate association of repressive and active chromatin with different regions of the nuclear periphery, similar to other model organisms, and clustering of functionally related genomic features. Unexpectedly, RNAi factors were shown to associate with nuclear pores and were implicated in the regulation of genomic features outside of the well-studied heterochromatic regions. Nuclear organisation is likely to contribute to substrate specificity of the RNAi pathway. However, further studies are required to elucidate the exact mechanisms and functional importance of this nuclear organisation.

  1. SABR Fusion-Fission Hybrid Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Chris

    2012-03-01

    The Subcritical Advanced Burner Reactor (SABR) concept is a fast reactor comprised of a tokamak fusion neutron source based on ITER surrounded by an annular fission core adapted from Integral Fast Reactor designs. Previous work has examined SABR used to help close the nuclear fuel cycle by fissioning the transuranics from spent nuclear fuel. One focus of the present work is a SABR Breeder Reactor to achieve tritium self-sufficieny and a Pu breeding ratio significantly above 1 in order to provide fuel for SABR as well as for MOX-fueled LWR's and other fast reactors. Another focus of this research is the dynamic safety simulation of lloss-of-flow loss-of-heat-sink, loss-of-power, and positive reactivity accidents in the TRU fuel SABR burner reactor. The reactivity effect of thermal-induced bowing of fuel pins has been modeled, which is expected to provide passive safety.

  2. System Concepts for Affordable Fission Surface Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Lee; Poston, David; Qualls, Louis

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of an affordable Fission Surface Power (FSP) system that could be used for NASA applications on the Moon and Mars. The proposed FSP system uses a low temperature, uranium dioxide-fueled, liquid metal-cooled fission reactor coupled to free-piston Stirling converters. The concept was determined by a 12 month NASA/DOE study that examined design options and development strategies based on affordability and risk. The system is considered a low development risk based on the use of terrestrial-derived reactor technology, high efficiency power conversion, and conventional materials. The low-risk approach was selected over other options that could offer higher performance and/or lower mass.

  3. Shell effects in fission and quasi-fission of heavy and superheavy nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itkis, M. G.; A¨ysto¨, J.; Beghini, S.; Bogachev, A. A.; Corradi, L.; Dorvaux, O.; Gadea, A.; Giardina, G.; Hanappe, F.; Itkis, I. M.; Jandel, M.; Kliman, J.; Khlebnikov, S. V.; Kniajeva, G. N.; Kondratiev, N. A.; Kozulin, E. M.; Krupa, L.; Latina, A.; Materna, T.; Montagnoli, G.; Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Pokrovsky, I. V.; Prokhorova, E. V.; Rowley, N.; Rubchenya, V. A.; Rusanov, A. Ya.; Sagaidak, R. N.; Scarlassara, F.; Stefanini, A. M.; Stuttge, L.; Szilner, S.; Trotta, M.; Trzaska, W. H.; Vakhtin, D. N.; Vinodkumar, A. M.; Voskressenski, V. M.; Zagrebaev, V. I.

    2004-04-01

    Results of the experiments aimed at the study of fission and quasi-fission processes in the reactions 12C+ 204Pb, 48Ca+ 144,154Sm, 168Er, 208Pb, 244Pu, 248Cm; 58Fe+ 208Pb, 244Pu, 248Cm, and 64Ni+ 186W, 242Pu are presented in the work. The choice of the above-mentioned reactions was inspired by recent experiments on the production of the isotopes 283112, 289114 and 283116 at Dubna [1],[2] using the same reactions. The 58Fe and 64Ni projectiles were chosen since the corresponding projectile-target combinations lead to the synthesis of even heavier elements. The experiments were carried out at the U-400 accelerator of the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (JINR, Russia), the XTU Tandem accelerator of the National Laboratory of Legnaro (LNL, Italy) and the Accelerator of the Laboratory of University of Jyvaskyla (JYFL, Finland) using the time-of-flight spectrometer of fission fragments CORSET[3] and the neutron multi-detector DEMON[4],[5]. The role of shell effects and the influence of the entrance channel on the mechanism of the compound nucleus fusion-fission and the competitive process of quasi-fission are discussed.

  4. Mechanisms of Intron Loss and Gain in the Fission Yeast Schizosaccharomyces

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Tao; Niu, Deng-Ke

    2013-01-01

    The fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, is an important model species with a low intron density. Previous studies showed extensive intron losses during its evolution. To test the models of intron loss and gain in fission yeasts, we conducted a comparative genomic analysis in four Schizosaccharomyces species. Both intronization and de-intronization were observed, although both were at a low frequency. A de-intronization event was caused by a degenerative mutation in the branch site. Four cases of imprecise intron losses were identified, indicating that genomic deletion is not a negligible mechanism of intron loss. Most intron losses were precise deletions of introns, and were significantly biased to the 3′ sides of genes. Adjacent introns tended to be lost simultaneously. These observations indicated that the main force shaping the exon-intron structures of fission yeasts was precise intron losses mediated by reverse transcriptase. We found two cases of intron gains caused by tandem genomic duplication, but failed to identify the mechanisms for the majority of the intron gain events observed. In addition, we found that intron-lost and intron-gained genes had certain similar features, such as similar Gene Ontology categories and expression levels. PMID:23613904

  5. REMOVAL OF FISSION PRODUCTS FROM WATER

    DOEpatents

    Rosinski, J.

    1961-12-19

    A process is given for precipitating fission products from a body of water having a pH of above 6.5. Calcium permanganate and ferrous sulfate are added in a molar ratio of l: 3, whereby a mixed precipitate of manganese dioxide, ferric hydroxide and calcium sulfate is formed; the precipitate carries the fisston products and settles to the bottom of the body of water. (AEC)

  6. Singlet fission: Towards efficient solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Havlas, Zdeněk; Wen, Jin; Michl, Josef

    2015-12-31

    Singlet fission (SF) offers an opportunity to improve solar cell efficiency, but its practical use is hindered by the limited number of known efficient materials, limited knowledge of SF mechanism, mainly the relation between the dimer structure and SF efficiency and diffusion of the triplet states allowing injection of electrons into the solar cell semiconductor band. Here we report on our attempt to design new classes of chromophores and to study the relation between the structure and SF efficiency.

  7. Fission fragment rockets: A new frontier

    SciTech Connect

    Chapline, G.F.; Howard, W.M.; Schnitzler, B.G.

    1989-04-01

    A new reactor concept is described which would enable fission fragments to be continuously extracted from the reactor. Such a reactor has the potential of enabling extremely energetic and ambitious deep space missions. In this talk the basic physics issues involved in the operation of this type of reactor are outlined, and some possible applications to space exploration are described. 3 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Simulating an Exploding Fission-Bomb Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Cameron

    2016-03-01

    A time-dependent desktop-computer simulation of the core of an exploding fission bomb (nuclear weapon) has been developed. The simulation models a core comprising a mixture of two isotopes: a fissile one (such as U-235) and an inert one (such as U-238) that captures neutrons and removes them from circulation. The user sets the enrichment percentage and scattering and fission cross-sections of the fissile isotope, the capture cross-section of the inert isotope, the number of neutrons liberated per fission, the number of ``initiator'' neutrons, the radius of the core, and the neutron-reflection efficiency of a surrounding tamper. The simulation, which is predicated on ordinary kinematics, follows the three-dimensional motions and fates of neutrons as they travel through the core. Limitations of time and computer memory render it impossible to model a real-life core, but results of numerous runs clearly demonstrate the existence of a critical mass for a given set of parameters and the dramatic effects of enrichment and tamper efficiency on the growth (or decay) of the neutron population. The logic of the simulation will be described and results of typical runs will be presented and discussed.

  9. Capture and fission with DANCE and NEUANCE

    DOE PAGES

    Jandel, M.; Baramsai, B.; Bond, E.; ...

    2015-12-23

    A summary of the current and future experimental program at DANCE is presented. Measurements of neutron capture cross sections are planned for many actinide isotopes with the goal to reduce the present uncertainties in nuclear data libraries. Detailed studies of capture gamma rays in the neutron resonance region will be performed in order to derive correlated data on the de-excitation of the compound nucleus. New approaches on how to remove the DANCE detector response from experimental data and retain the correlations between the cascade gamma rays are presented. Studies on 235U are focused on quantifying the population of short-lived isomericmore » states in 236U after neutron capture. For this purpose, a new neutron detector array NEUANCE is under construction. It will be installed in the central cavity of the DANCE array and enable the highly efficient tagging of fission and capture events. In addition, developments of fission fragment detectors are also underway to expand DANCE capabilities to measurements of fully correlated data on fission observables.« less

  10. Capture and fission with DANCE and NEUANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Jandel, M.; Baramsai, B.; Bond, E.; Rusev, G.; Walker, C.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Chadwick, M. B.; Couture, A.; Fowler, M. M.; Hayes, A.; Kawano, T.; Mosby, S.; Stetcu, I.; Taddeucci, T. N.; Talou, P.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.

    2015-12-23

    A summary of the current and future experimental program at DANCE is presented. Measurements of neutron capture cross sections are planned for many actinide isotopes with the goal to reduce the present uncertainties in nuclear data libraries. Detailed studies of capture gamma rays in the neutron resonance region will be performed in order to derive correlated data on the de-excitation of the compound nucleus. New approaches on how to remove the DANCE detector response from experimental data and retain the correlations between the cascade gamma rays are presented. Studies on 235U are focused on quantifying the population of short-lived isomeric states in 236U after neutron capture. For this purpose, a new neutron detector array NEUANCE is under construction. It will be installed in the central cavity of the DANCE array and enable the highly efficient tagging of fission and capture events. In addition, developments of fission fragment detectors are also underway to expand DANCE capabilities to measurements of fully correlated data on fission observables.

  11. Calculated fission properties of the heaviest elements

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, P.; Nix, J.R.; Swiatecki, W.J.

    1986-09-01

    A quantitative calculation is presented that shows where high-kinetic-energy symmetric fission occurs and why it is associated with a sudden and large decrease in fission half-lives. The study is based on calculations of potential-energy surfaces in the macroscopic-microscopic model and a semi-empirical model for the nuclear inertia. For the macroscopic part a Yukawa-plus-exponential model is used and for the microscopic part a folded-Yukawa single-particle potential is used. The three-quadratic-surface parameterization generates shapes for which the potential-energy surfaces are calculated. The use of this parameterization and the use of the finite-range macroscopic model allows for the study of two touching spheres and similar shapes. The results of the calculations in terms of potential-energy surfaces and fission half-lives are presented for heavy even nuclei. The surfaces are displayed in the form of contour diagrams as functions of two moments of the shape. 53 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Fission Barriers of Compound Superheavy Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazarewicz, Witold

    2010-02-01

    The dependence of fission barriers on the excitation energy of the compound nucleus impacts the survival probability of superheavy nuclei synthesized in heavy-ion fusion reactions. In this work [1,2], we investigate the isentropic fission barriers by means of the self-consistent nuclear density functional theory. The relationship between isothermal and isentropic descriptions is demonstrated. Calculations have been carried out for ^264Fm, ^272Ds, ^278Cp, ^292114, and ^312124. For nuclei around ^278Cp produced in ``cold fusion" reactions, we predict a more rapid decrease of fission barriers with excitation energy as compared to the nuclei around ^292114 synthesized in ``hot fusion'' experiments. This is explained in terms of the difference between the ground-state and saddle-point temperatures. [4pt] [1] J.C. Pei, W. Nazarewicz, J.A. Sheikh and A.K. Kerman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 192501 (2009).[0pt] [2] J.A. Sheikh, W. Nazarewicz, and J.C. Pei, Phys. Rev. C 80, 011302(R) (2009). )

  13. Time dependent particle emission from fission products

    SciTech Connect

    Holloway, Shannon T; Kawano, Toshihiko; Moller, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Decay heating following nuclear fission is an important factor in the design of nuclear facilities; impacting a variety of aspects ranging from cooling requirements to shielding design. Calculations of decay heat, often assumed to be a simple product of activity and average decay product energy, are complicated by the so called 'pandemonium effect'. Elucidated in the 1970's this complication arises from beta-decays feeding high-energy nuclear levels; redistributing the available energy between betas and gammas. Increased interest in improving the theoretical predictions of decay probabilities has been, in part, motivated by the recent experimental effort utilizing the Total Absorption Gamma-ray Spectrometer (TAGS) to determine individual beta-decay transition probabilities to individual nuclear levels. Accurate predictions of decay heating require a detailed understanding of these transition probabilities, accurate representation of particle decays as well as reliable predictions of temporal inventories from fissioning systems. We will discuss a recent LANL effort to provide a time dependent study of particle emission from fission products through a combination of Quasiparticle Random Phase Approximation (QRPA) predictions of beta-decay probabilities, statistical Hauser-Feshbach techniques to obtain particle and gamma-ray emissions in statistical Hauser-Feshbach and the nuclear inventory code, CINDER.

  14. Capture and fission with DANCE and NEUANCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jandel, M.; Baramsai, B.; Bond, E.; Rusev, G.; Walker, C.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Chadwick, M. B.; Couture, A.; Fowler, M. M.; Hayes, A.; Kawano, T.; Mosby, S.; Stetcu, I.; Taddeucci, T. N.; Talou, P.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.

    2015-12-01

    A summary of the current and future experimental program at DANCE is presented. Measurements of neutron capture cross sections are planned for many actinide isotopes with the goal to reduce the present uncertainties in nuclear data libraries. Detailed studies of capture gamma rays in the neutron resonance region will be performed in order to derive correlated data on the de-excitation of the compound nucleus. New approaches on how to remove the DANCE detector response from experimental data and retain the correlations between the cascade gamma rays are presented. Studies on 235U are focused on quantifying the population of short-lived isomeric states in 236U after neutron capture. For this purpose, a new neutron detector array NEUANCE is under construction. It will be installed in the central cavity of the DANCE array and enable the highly efficient tagging of fission and capture events. In addition, developments of fission fragment detectors are also underway to expand DANCE capabilities to measurements of fully correlated data on fission observables.

  15. Undergraduate Measurements For Fission Reactor Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, S. F.; Kersting, L. J.; Lueck, C. J.; McDonough, P.; Crider, B. P.; McEllistrem, M. T.; Peters, E. E.; Vanhoy, J. R.

    2011-06-01

    Undergraduate students at the University of Dallas (UD) have investigated elastic and inelastic neutron scattering cross sections on structural materials important for criticality considerations in nuclear fission processes. Neutrons scattered off of 23Na and NatFe were detected using neutron time-of-flight techniques at the University of Kentucky Low-Energy Nuclear Accelerator Facility. These measurements are part of an effort to increase the efficiency of power generation from existing fission reactors in the US and in the design of new fission systems. Students have learned the basics of how to operate the Model CN Van de Graaff generator at the laboratory, setup detectors and electronics, use data acquisition systems, and they are currently analyzing the angular dependence of the scattered neutrons for incident neutron energies of 3.57 and 3.80 MeV. Most students participating in the project will use the research experience as the material for their undergraduate research thesis required for all Bachelor of Science students at the University of Dallas. The first student projects on this topic were completed during the summer of 2010; an overview of student participation in this investigation and their preliminary results will be presented.

  16. Undergraduate Measurements For Fission Reactor Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, S. F.; Kersting, L. J.; Lueck, C. J.; McDonough, P.; Crider, B. P.; McEllistrem, M. T.; Peters, E. E.; Vanhoy, J. R.

    2011-06-01

    Undergraduate students at the University of Dallas (UD) have investigated elastic and inelastic neutron scattering cross sections on structural materials important for criticality considerations in nuclear fission processes. Neutrons scattered off of {sup 23}Na and {sup Nat}Fe were detected using neutron time-of-flight techniques at the University of Kentucky Low-Energy Nuclear Accelerator Facility. These measurements are part of an effort to increase the efficiency of power generation from existing fission reactors in the US and in the design of new fission systems. Students have learned the basics of how to operate the Model CN Van de Graaff generator at the laboratory, setup detectors and electronics, use data acquisition systems, and they are currently analyzing the angular dependence of the scattered neutrons for incident neutron energies of 3.57 and 3.80 MeV. Most students participating in the project will use the research experience as the material for their undergraduate research thesis required for all Bachelor of Science students at the University of Dallas. The first student projects on this topic were completed during the summer of 2010; an overview of student participation in this investigation and their preliminary results will be presented.

  17. Fission product release mechanisms and pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Malinauskas, A.P.

    1981-01-01

    It is axiomatic that the severity of a nuclear reactor accident is determined by the extent of radioactivity escape which results. The main focus of site safety analyses is thus on fission product release and transport. Of all the processes involved, fission product escape from the fuel-cladding region into the primary coolant circuit is perhaps the most simple to describe; even so, it is an extremely complex function of the time/temperature history of the fuel-cladding system during an accident, since many mechanisms for release are involved. Depending upon the particular fission product species, these release mechanisms range from simple gaseous expansion processes at low temperatures to evaporation-condensation processes (aerosol formation) over molten fuel. Because of these complexities, it is convenient to subdivide the time/temperature sequence of an accident into more or less discrete phases over which specific release mechanisms dominate. Four such phases are the periods of (1) gap release, (2) meltdown release, (3) vaporization, and (4) oxidation release. This approach simplifies the problem considerably, although some loss of uniformity results. The methodology applies to BWR and PWR reactors with appropriate adaptations.

  18. KIN241: a gene involved in cell morphogenesis in Paramecium tetraurelia reveals a novel protein family of cyclophilin-RNA interacting proteins (CRIPs) conserved from fission yeast to man.

    PubMed

    Krzywicka, A; Beisson, J; Keller, A M; Cohen, J; Jerka-Dziadosz, M; Klotz, C

    2001-10-01

    In this study, we report cloning, by functional complementation of the KIN241 gene involved in Paramecium cell morphogenesis, cortical organization and nuclear reorganization. This gene is predicted to encode a protein of a novel type, comprising a cyclophilin-type, peptidyl-prolyl isomerase domain, an RNA recognition motif, followed by a region rich in glutamate and lysine (EK domain) and a C-terminal string of serines. As homologues of this protein are present in the genomes of Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, Arabidopsis thaliana and Homo sapiens, the Kin241p predicted sequence defines a new family of proteins that we propose to call 'CRIP', for cyclophilin-RNA interacting protein. We demonstrate that, in Paramecium, Kin241p is localized in the nucleus and that deletion of some nuclear localization signals (NLSs) decreases transport of the protein into the nucleus. No Kin241-1 protein is present in mutant cells, suggesting that the C-terminal serine-rich region is responsible for protein stability.

  19. Comprehensive modeling of prompt fission neutrons and γ rays in the spontaneous fission of 252Cf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talou, Patrick; Stetcu, Ionel; Kawano, Toshihiko

    2017-09-01

    We present a comprehensive set of calculations performed with the Monte Carlo Hauser-Feshbach code CGMF of the prompt fission neutrons and γ rays emitted in the spontaneous fission of Cf-252. This reaction has been studied in depth over the years and provides an almost perfect test for the assumptions, parameters and output of the CGMF code. Here we present results for prompt neutron observables beyond the ubiquitous average prompt fission neutron spectrum and multiplicity. In particular, we compare CGMF calculations to experimental data on neutron data per fragment mass split, neutron-light fragment and neutron-neutron angular distributions, and on the time dependence of the average prompt γ-ray multiplicity. Finally, we briefly discuss the recent integration of CGMF into the MCNP6.2 transport code.

  20. Fission Cross Sections and Fission-Fragment Mass Yields via the Surrogate Reaction Method

    SciTech Connect

    Jurado, B.; Kessedjian, G.; Aiche, M.; Barreau, G.; Bidaud, A.; Czajkowski, S.; Dassie, D.; Haas, B.; Mathieu, L.; Osmanov, B.; Ahmad, I.

    2008-04-17

    The surrogate reaction method is a powerful tool to infer neutron-induced data of short-lived nuclei. After a short overview of the experimental techniques employed in the present surrogate experiments, we will concentrate on a recent measurement to determine neutron-induced fission cross sections for the actinides {sup 242,243}Cm and {sup 241}Am. The latest direct neutron-induced measurement for the {sup 243}Cm fission cross section is questioned by our results, since there are differences of more than 60% in the 0.7 to 7 MeV neutron energy range. Our experimental set-up has also enabled us to measure for the first time the fission fragment ''pseudo-mass'' distributions of {sup 243,244,245}Cm and {sup 242}Am compound nuclei in the excitation energy range from a few MeV to about 25 MeV.

  1. Fission xenon from extinct Pu-244 in 14,301.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drozd, R.; Hohenberg, C. M.; Ragan, D.

    1972-01-01

    Xenon extracted in step-wise heating of lunar breccia 14,301 contains a fission-like component in excess of that attributable to uranium decay during the age of the solar system. There seems to be no adequate source for this component other than Pu-244. Verification that this component is in fact due to the spontaneous fission of extinct Pu-244 comes from the derived spectrum which is similar to that observed from artificially produced Pu-244. It thus appears that Pu-244 was extant at the time lunar crustal material cooled sufficiently to arrest the thermal diffusion of xenon. Subsequent history has apparently maintained the isotopic integrity of plutonium fission xenon. Of major importance are details of the storage itself. Either the fission component is the result of in situ fission of Pu-244 and subsequent storage in 14,301 material, or the fission xenon was stored in an intermediate reservoir before incorporation into 14,301.

  2. Experiments on nuclear fission induced by radioactive beams

    SciTech Connect

    Skobelev, N.K.

    1994-07-01

    The cross sections of {sup 209}Bi nuclear fission induced by secondary beams of {sup 6}He and {sup 4}He are measured under identical conditions. The experimental data are in good agreement with earlier results on the fission cross section of the {sup 4}He + {sup 209}Bi reaction. The measured values of the cross section of {sup 209}Bi fission induced by {sup 6}He ions are much higher than the cross sections of fission induced by {alpha}-particles. It is found that the fission threshold for the {sup 6}He + {sup 209}Bi reaction is shifted as compared to that of the {sup 4}He + {sup 209}Bi reaction. Various factors that can be responsible for the observed peculiarities in the {sup 209}Bi fission induced by the {sup 6}He ions are analyzed. 25 refs., 5 figs.

  3. Prompt fission gamma-ray studies at DANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Jandel, M.; Rusev, G.; Bond, E. M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Chadwick, M. B.; Couture, A.; Fowler, M.. M; Haight, R. C.; Kawano, T.; Keksis, A. L.; Mosby, S. M.; O’Donnell, J. M.; Rundberg, R. S.; Stetcu, I.; Talou, P.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Stoyer, M. A.; Haslett, R. J.; Henderson, R. A.; Becker, J. A.; Wu, C. Y.

    2014-11-26

    Measurements of correlated data on prompt-fission γ-rays (PFG) have been carried out for various actinide isotopes in recent years using the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). We have developed a model that conveniently parametrizes the correlated data of γ-ray multiplicity and energy. New results on two- dimensional prompt-fission γ-ray multiplicity versus energy distributions from spontaneous fission on ²⁵²Cf and neutron-induced fission on 242mAm are presented together with previously obtained results on 233,235U and ²³⁹Pu. Correlated PFG data from ²⁵²Cf are also compared to results of the detailed theoretical model developed at LANL, for different thresholds of PFG energies. Future plans to measure correlated data on fission fragments, prompt fission neutrons and γ-rays at DANCE are presented.

  4. Cross section for the subthreshold fission of {sup 236}U

    SciTech Connect

    Alekseev, A. A.; Bergman, A. A.; Berlev, A. I.; Koptelov, E. A.; Samylin, B. F.; Trufanov, A. M.; Fursov, B. I.; Shorin, V. S.

    2008-08-15

    The cross section for {sup 236}U fission in the neutron-energy range E{sub n} = 0.001-20 keV was measured by using the INR RAS (Institute of Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow) LSDS-100 neutron spectrometer of the lead slowing-down spectrometer type. The resonance fission areas of the resonances at 5.45 eV and 1.28 keV were found, and the fission widths of these resonances were evaluated. The cross section for the {sup 238}U(n, f) fission process was measured, and the threshold sensitivity of the LSDS-100 to small values of fission cross sections was estimated. The well-known intermediate structure in the cross section for the neutron-induced subbarrier fission of {sup 236}U was confirmed.

  5. Cross section for the subthreshold fission of 236U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, A. A.; Bergman, A. A.; Berlev, A. I.; Koptelov, E. A.; Samylin, B. F.; Trufanov, A. M.; Fursov, B. I.; Shorin, V. S.

    2008-08-01

    The cross section for 236U fission in the neutron-energy range E n = 0.001 20 keV was measured by using the INR RAS (Institute of Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow) LSDS-100 neutron spectrometer of the lead slowing-down spectrometer type. The resonance fission areas of the resonances at 5.45 eV and 1.28 keV were found, and the fission widths of these resonances were evaluated. The cross section for the 238U( n, f) fission process was measured, and the threshold sensitivity of the LSDS-100 to small values of fission cross sections was estimated. The well-known intermediate structure in the cross section for the neutron-induced subbarrier fission of 236U was confirmed.

  6. Fission Reaction Event Yield Algorithm FREYA 2.0.2

    DOE PAGES

    Verbeke, J. M.; Randrup, J.; Vogt, R.

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the main differences between FREYA versions 1.0 and 2.0.2. FREYA (Fission Reaction Event Yield Algorithm) is a fission event generator which models complete fission events. As such, it automatically includes fluctuations as well as correlations between observables, resulting from conservation of energy and momentum. The main differences between the two versions are: additional fissionable isotopes, angular momentum conservation, Giant Dipole Resonance form factor for the statistical emission of photons, improved treatment of fission photon emission using RIPL database, and dependence on the incident neutron direction. FREYA 2.0.2 has been integrated into themore » LLNL Fission Library 2.0.2, which has itself been integrated into MCNP6.2, TRIPOLI-4.10, and can be called from Geant4.10.« less

  7. New insights into the function and regulation of mitochondrial fission.

    PubMed

    Otera, Hidenori; Ishihara, Naotada; Mihara, Katsuyoshi

    2013-05-01

    Mitochondrial morphology changes dynamically by coordinated fusion and fission and cytoskeleton-based transport. Cycles of outer and inner membrane fusion and fission are required for the exchange of damaged mitochondrial genome DNA, proteins, and lipids with those of healthy mitochondria to maintain robust mitochondrial structure and function. These dynamics are crucial for cellular life and death, because they are essential for cellular development and homeostasis, as well as apoptosis. Disruption of these functions leads to cellular dysfunction, resulting in neurologic disorders and metabolic diseases. The cytoplasmic dynamin-related GTPase Drp1 plays a key role in mitochondrial fission, while Mfn1, Mfn2 and Opa1 are involved in fusion reaction. Here, we review current knowledge regarding the regulation and physiologic relevance of Drp1-dependent mitochondrial fission: the initial recruitment and assembly of Drp1 on the mitochondrial fission foci, regulation of Drp1 activity by post-translational modifications, and the role of mitochondrial fission in cell pathophysiology.

  8. Phenomenological analysis of fission induced by high-energy protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simbel, M. H.

    1989-06-01

    High-energy proton induced fission is studied in the framework of a two-step model. In the first step, the projectile penetrates the target nucleus, knocks out few nucleons and leaves the residual nucleus with a spectrum of excitation energies depending upon the number of projectile-nucleon collisions. This stage is described in terms of a simplified version of Glauber's multiple-scattering theory. The second stage in which the residual nucleus fissions, is treated by assuming phenomenological expressions for the dependence of the fission probability on excitation energy which take into account the onset of fragmentation at a certain “crack” energy. Comparison with experimental data suggests that high energy fission of heavy nuclei proceeds in a way similar to low-energy fission. Light nuclei, however, require a more violent fission mechanism.

  9. New experimental approaches to investigate the fission dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Benlliure, J. Rodríguez-Sánchez, J. L.; Alvarez-Pol, H.; Ayyad, Y.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Paradela, C.; Pietras, B.; Ramos, D.; Vargas, J.; Audouin, L.; Boutoux, G.; Bélier, G.; Chatillon, A.; Gorbinet, T.; Laurent, B.; Martin, J.-F.; Pellereau, E.; Taïeb, J.; Casarejos, E.; Heinz, A.; and others

    2016-07-07

    The first ever achieved full identification of both fission fragments, in atomic and mass number, made it possible to define new observables sensitive to the fission dynamics along the fission path up to the scission point. Moreover, proton-induced fission of {sup 208}Pb at high energies offers optimal conditions for the investigation of dissipative, and transient effects, because of the high-excitation energy of the fissioning nuclei, its low angular momentum, and limited shape distortion by the reaction. In this work we show that the charge distribution of the final fission fragments can constrain the ground-to-saddle dynamics while the mass distribution is sensitive to the dynamics until the scission point.

  10. Electron-capture delayed fission properties of 244Es

    SciTech Connect

    Shaughnessy, Dawn A.; Gregorich, Kenneth E.; Adams, Jeb L.; Lane, Michael R.; Laue, Carola A.; Lee, Diana M.; McGrath, Christopher A.; Ninov, Victor; Patin, Joshua B.; Strellis, Dan A.; Sylwester, Eric R.; Wilk, Philip A.; Hoffman, Darleane C.

    2001-03-16

    Electron-capture delayed fission was observed in {sup 244}Es produced via the {sup 237}Np({sup 12}C,5n){sup 244}Es reaction at 81 MeV (on target) with a production cross section of 0.31{+-}0.12 {micro}b. The mass-yield distribution of the fission fragments is highly asymmetric. The average preneutron-emission total kinetic energy of the fragments was measured to be 186{+-}19 MeV. Based on the ratio of the number of fission events to the measured number of {alpha} decays from the electron-capture daughter {sup 244}Cf (100% {alpha} branch), the probability of delayed fission was determined to be (1.2{+-}0.4) x 10{sup -4}. This value for the delayed fission probability fits the experimentally observed trend of increasing delayed fission probability with increasing Q value for electron-capture.

  11. Early results utilizing high-energy fission product (gamma) rays to detect fissionable material in cargo

    SciTech Connect

    Slaughter, D R; Accatino, M R; Bernstein, A; Church, J A; Descalle, M A; Gosnell, T B; Hall, J M; Loshak, A; Manatt, D R; Mauger, G J; McDowell, M; Moore, T M; Norman, E B; Pohl, B A; Pruet, J A; Petersen, D C; Walling, R S; Weirup, D L; Prussin, S G

    2004-09-30

    A concept for detecting the presence of special nuclear material ({sup 235}U or {sup 239}Pu) concealed in intermodal cargo containers is described. It is based on interrogation with a pulsed beam of 7 MeV neutrons that produce fission events and their {beta}-delayed neutron emission or {beta}-delayed high-energy {gamma}-radiation between beam pulses provide the detection signature. Fission product {beta}-delayed {gamma}-rays above 3 MeV are nearly ten times more abundant than {beta}-delayed neutrons and are distinct from natural radioactivity and from nearly all of the induced activity in a normal cargo. Detector backgrounds and potential interferences with the fission signature radiation have been identified and quantified. An important goal in the US is the detection of nuclear weapons or special nuclear material (SNM) concealed in intermodal cargo containers. This must be done with high detection probability, low false alarm rates, and without impeding commerce, i.e. about one minute for an inspection. The concept for inspection has been described before and its components are now being evaluated. While normal radiations emitted from plutonium may allow its detection, the majority of {sup 235}U {gamma} ray emission is at 186 keV, is readily attenuated by cargo, and thus not a reliable detection signature for passive detection. Delayed neutron detection following a neutron or photon beam pulse has been used successfully to detect lightly or unshielded SNM targets. While delayed neutrons can be easily distinguished from beam neutrons they have relatively low yield in fission, approximately 0.008 per fission in {sup 239}Pu and 0.017 per fission in {sup 235}U, and are rapidly attenuated in hydrogenous materials making that technique unreliable when challenged by thick hydrogenous cargo overburden. They propose detection of {beta}-delayed high-energy {gamma} radiation as a more robust signature characteristic of SNM.

  12. Neutron flux profile monitor for use in a fission reactor

    DOEpatents

    Kopp, Manfred K.; Valentine, Kenneth H.

    1983-01-01

    A neutron flux monitor is provided which consists of a plurality of fission counters arranged as spaced-apart point detectors along a delay line. As a fission event occurs in any one of the counters, two delayed current pulses are generated at the output of the delay line. The time separation of the pulses identifies the counter in which the particular fission event occured. Neutron flux profiles of reactor cores can be more accurately measured as a result.

  13. New Fission Cross Section Measurements using a Time Projection Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadler, Michael

    2008-03-01

    A group of six universities (ACU, California Polytechnic, Colorado School of Mines, Georgia Institute of Technology, Ohio, and Oregon State) and three national laboratories (Los Alamos, Lawrence Livermore, and Idaho) have undertaken the task of building a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) to measure the fission cross sections needed for the next generation of nuclear reactors. The fission TPC concept will be presented, and why we think we can improve on 50 years of fission study.

  14. A warning on fission resonance intergrals: Caveat utor

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, N.E.

    1988-01-01

    A common error is made in defining the resonance integral in most tabulations and handbooks. Although it has a minor effect on the capture resonance integral and on the fission resonance integral for the fissile nuclides, it leads to gross errors in the fission resonance integral for the fertile nuclides. The errors in the fission resonance integral for fertile nuclides of the elements from thorium through curium in the ENDF/B-V library will be presented. Let the user beware.

  15. Search for {beta}-delayed fission of {sup 228}Ac

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Yanbing; Ding Huajie; Yuan Shuanggui; Yang Weifan; Niu Yanning; Li Yingjun; Xiao Yonghou; Zhang Shengdong; Lu Xiting

    2006-10-15

    Radium was radiochemically separated from natural thorium. Thin {sup 228}Ra{yields}{beta}{sup -228}Ac sources were prepared and exposed to mica fission track detectors, and measured by an HPGe {gamma}-ray detector. The {beta}-delayed fission events of {sup 228}Ac were observed and its {beta}-delayed fission probability was found to be (5{+-}2)x10{sup -12}.

  16. Fission of actinide nuclei using multi-nucleon transfer reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Léguillon, Romain; Nishio, Katsuhisa; Hirose, Kentaro; Orlandi, Riccardo; Makii, Hiroyuki; Nishinaka, Ichiro; Ishii, Tetsuro; Tsukada, Kazuaki; Asai, Masato; Chiba, Satoshi; Ohtsuki, Tsutomu; Araki, Shohei; Watanabe, Yukinobu; Tatsuzawa, Ryotaro; Takaki, Naoyuki

    2014-09-01

    We are promoting a campaign to measure fission-fragment mass distributions for neutron-rich actinide nuclei populated by transfer reactions from their ground state up to an excitation energy of several tens MeV. We thus obtain the excitation energy dependence of the mass distribution. The experiment was carried out at the 20 MV JAEA tandem facility at Tokai. We report on the data obtained in the direct reaction 18 O + 232 Th . Transfer-channels and excitation energies of the fissioning nuclei were identified using silicon dE-E detectors located at forward angle. Two fission fragments were detected in coincidence using multi-wire proportional counters. Fission fragment masses were determined by kinematic consideration. We obtained the fission fragment mass distributions for 13 nuclei from actinium to uranium and some fission barrier heights. We are promoting a campaign to measure fission-fragment mass distributions for neutron-rich actinide nuclei populated by transfer reactions from their ground state up to an excitation energy of several tens MeV. We thus obtain the excitation energy dependence of the mass distribution. The experiment was carried out at the 20 MV JAEA tandem facility at Tokai. We report on the data obtained in the direct reaction 18 O + 232 Th . Transfer-channels and excitation energies of the fissioning nuclei were identified using silicon dE-E detectors located at forward angle. Two fission fragments were detected in coincidence using multi-wire proportional counters. Fission fragment masses were determined by kinematic consideration. We obtained the fission fragment mass distributions for 13 nuclei from actinium to uranium and some fission barrier heights. Present study is supported by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan.

  17. Prompt Fission Neutron Spectra of Actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Capote, R; Chen, Y J; Hambsch, F J; Kornilov, N V; Lestone, J P; Litaize, O; Morillon, B; Neudecker, D; Oberstedt, S; Ohsawa, T; Smith, D. L.

    2016-01-01

    The energy spectrum of prompt neutrons emitted in fission (PFNS) plays a very important role in nuclear science and technology. A Coordinated Research Project (CRP) “Evaluation of Prompt Fission Neutron Spectra of Actinides”was established by the IAEA Nuclear Data Section in 2009, with the major goal to produce new PFNS evaluations with uncertainties for actinide nuclei. The following technical areas were addressed: (i) experiments and uncertainty quantification (UQ): New data for neutron-induced fission of 233U, 235U, 238U, and 239Pu have been measured, and older data have been compiled and reassessed. There is evidence from the experimental work of this CRP that a very small percentage of neutrons emitted in fission are actually scission neutrons; (ii) modeling: The Los Alamos model (LAM) continues to be the workhorse for PFNS evaluations. Monte Carlo models have been developed that describe the fission phenomena microscopically, but further development is needed to produce PFNS evaluations meeting the uncertainty targets; (iii) evaluation methodologies: PFNS evaluations rely on the use of the least-squares techniques for merging experimental and model data. Considerable insight was achieved on how to deal with the problem of too small uncertainties in PFNS evaluations. The importance of considering that all experimental PFNS data are “shape” data was stressed; (iv) PFNS evaluations: New evaluations, including covariance data, were generated for major actinides including 1) non-model GMA evaluations of the 235U(nth,f), 239Pu(nth,f), and 233U(nth,f) PFNS based exclusively on experimental data (0.02 ≤ E ≤ 10 MeV), which resulted in PFNS average energies E of 2.00±0.01, 2.073±0.010, and 2.030±0.013 MeV, respectively; 2) LAM evaluations of neutron-induced fission spectra on uranium and plutonium targets with improved UQ for incident energies from thermal up to 30 MeV; and 3) Point-by-Point calculations for 232Th, 234U and 237Np targets; and (v) data

  18. Angular momentum of fission fragments in low energy fission of actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Naik, H.; Dange, S.P.; Singh, R.J.

    2005-01-01

    Independent isomeric yield ratios (IYR) of {sup 128}Sb, {sup 130}Sb, {sup 132}Sb, {sup 131}Te, {sup 133}Te, {sup 132}I, {sup 134}I, {sup 136}I, {sup 135}Xe, and {sup 138}Cs have been determined in fast neutron induced fission of {sup 232}Th, {sup 238}U, {sup 240}Pu, and {sup 244}Cm as well as in thermal neutron induced fission of {sup 232}U and {sup 238}Pu using radiochemical and offline {gamma}-ray spectrometric techniques. From the IYR, fragment angular momenta (J{sub rms}) have been deduced using a spin-dependent statistical model analysis. These data along with the literature data for {sup 230}Th*, {sup 234}U*, {sup 236}U*, {sup 240}Pu*, {sup 242}Pu*, {sup 244}Cm(SF), {sup 246}Cm*, {sup 250}Cf*, and {sup 252}Cf(SF) for fifteen even-Z fissioning systems show the following important features: (i) The J{sub rms} of the odd-Z fission products are higher than those of the even-Z fission products, indicating the odd-even effect. For both the odd-Z and even-Z fission products, the J{sub rms} increase with Z{sub F}{sup 2}/A{sub F}. (ii) The J{sub rms} of fragments with spherical 50-p and 82-n shells are lower compared to those of fragments outside the spherical shell, indicating the effect of shell closure proximity. (iii) The J{sub rms} of the fission products increase with mass number in spite of fluctuations in shell closure proximity and odd-even effects but do not show any correlation with the neutron emission curve. (iv) In all fifteen even-Z fissioning systems from Th to Cf, the yield-weighted J{sub rms} values show an anticorrelation with the elemental yields. (v) The odd-even fluctuation on J{sub rms} does not change drastically from Th to Cf, unlike the proton odd-even effect ({delta}{sub p}) which decreases significantly with the increase of Coulomb parameter (Z{sub F}{sup 2}/A{sub F}{sup 1/3})

  19. Evaluation of the Prompt Fission Neutron Spectrum of Thermal-neutron Induced Fission in U-235

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trkov, A.; Capote, R.

    A new evaluation of the prompt fission neutron spectra (PFNS) for the neutron-induced fission of the U-235 nucleus is presented. By using differential data as "shape data" good consistency was achieved between selected sets of differential data. A fit of differential PFNS data with the generalised least-squares method using the GANDR code allowed the estimation of the uncertainties and correlations. All experimental data were consistently fitted in a model independent way giving a PFNS average energy of2.000 MeV with an estimated 9 keV uncertainty.

  20. The Keap1-Nrf2 Stress Response Pathway Promotes Mitochondrial Hyperfusion Through Degradation of the Mitochondrial Fission Protein Drp1.

    PubMed

    Sabouny, Rasha; Fraunberger, Erik; Geoffrion, Michèle; Ng, Andy Cheuk-Him; Baird, Stephen D; Screaton, Robert A; Milne, Ross; McBride, Heidi M; Shutt, Timothy E

    2017-07-07

    Mitochondrial function is coupled to metabolic and survival pathways through both direct signaling cascades and dynamic changes in mitochondrial morphology. For example, a hyperfused mitochondrial reticulum is activated upon cellular stress and is protective against cell death. As part of a genome-wide small inhibitory ribonucleic acid screen, we identified the central redox regulator, Keap1, as a novel regulator of mitochondrial morphology. Here, we aimed to determine the mechanism through which redox signaling and Keap1 mediate changes in mitochondrial morphology. We found that the Nrf2 transcription factor is required for mitochondrial hyperfusion induced by knockdown of Keap1. Nrf2, which is negatively regulated by Keap1, mediates the cell's response to stress by controlling the expression of several hundred genes, including proteasome expression. We next showed that increased proteasome activity, a result of increased Nrf2 activity, is responsible for the degradation of the mitochondrial fission protein Drp1, which occurs in an ubiquitin-independent manner. Our study described a novel pathway by which Nrf2 activation, known to occur in response to increased oxidative stress, decreases mitochondrial fission and contributes to a hyperfused mitochondrial network. This study has identified the Keap1-Nrf2 nexus and modulation of proteasomal activity as novel avenues to inhibit mitochondrial fission. These findings are important, because inhibiting mitochondrial fission is a promising therapeutic approach to restore the balance between fission and fusion, which is attractive for an increasing number of disorders linked to mitochondrial dysfunction. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 00, 000-000.

  1. Dissipative effects in fission investigated in complete kinematics measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Sánchez, J. L.; Benlliure, J.; Taïeb, J.; Ramos, D.; Álvarez-Pol, H.; Audouin, L.; Ayyad, Y.; Bélier, G.; Boutoux, G.; Casarejos, E.; Chatillon, A.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Gorbinet, T.; Heinz, A.; Kelić-Heil, A.; Laurent, B.; Martin, J.-F.; Paradela, C.; Pellereau, E.; Pietras, B.; Rodríguez-Tajes, C.; Rossi, D. M.; Simon, H.; Vargas, J.; Voss, B.

    2017-09-01

    The study of dissipative effects in fission has been carried out with fusion-fission reactions by using a limited number of observables, such as the fission probabilities, the mass distribution of the fission fragments, or the neutron multiplicities. However, the large angular momenta gained by the compound nucleus in this kind of reaction could affect the conclusions drawn from such experiments. In this work, we propose to investigate the fission dynamics by the use of spallation reactions on 208Pb because the fissioning systems are produced with low angular momentum, small deformations, and high excitation energies, enhancing the dissipative effects. The complete kinematics measurements of the fission fragments and light-charged particles were performed by the use of the SOFIA setup combined with the inverse kinematics technique, allowing us for the first time a full indentification in atomic and mass number of the two fission fragments. These measurements permit us to define new fission observables for the investigation of the temperature and deformation dependencies of the dissipation parameter.

  2. SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM FROM URANIUM AND FISSION PRODUCTS

    DOEpatents

    Boyd, G.E.; Adamson, A.W.; Schubert, J.; Russell, E.R.

    1958-10-01

    A chromatographic adsorption process is presented for the separation of plutonium from other fission products formed by the irradiation of uranium. The plutonium and the lighter element fission products are adsorbed on a sulfonated phenol-formaldehyde resin bed from a nitric acid solution containing the dissolved uranium. Successive washes of sulfuric, phosphoric, and nitric acids remove the bulk of the fission products, then an eluate of dilute phosphoric and nitric acids removes the remaining plutonium and fission products. The plutonium is selectively removed by passing this solution through zirconium phosphate, from which the plutonium is dissolved with nitric acid. This process provides a convenient and efficient means for isolating plutonium.

  3. Fission cross sections in the intermediate energy region

    SciTech Connect

    Lisowski, P.W.; Gavron, A.; Parker, W.E.; Ullmann, J.L.; Balestrini, S.J. ); Carlson, A.D.; Wasson, O.A. ); Hill, N.W. )

    1991-01-01

    Until recently there has been very little cross section data for neutron-induced fission in the intermediate energy region, primarily because no suitable neutron source has existed. At Los Alamos, the WNR target-4 facility provides a high-intensity source of neutrons nearly ideal for fission measurements extending from a fraction of a MeV to several hundred MeV. This paper summarizes the status of fission cross section data in the intermediate energy range (En > 30 MeV) and presents our fission cross section data for {sup 235}U and {sup 238}U compared to intranuclear cascade and statistical model predictions.

  4. The Nature of Singlet Exciton Fission in Carotenoid Aggregates

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Singlet exciton fission allows the fast and efficient generation of two spin triplet states from one photoexcited singlet. It has the potential to improve organic photovoltaics, enabling efficient coupling to the blue to ultraviolet region of the solar spectrum to capture the energy generally lost as waste heat. However, many questions remain about the underlying fission mechanism. The relation between intermolecular geometry and singlet fission rate and yield is poorly understood and remains one of the most significant barriers to the design of new singlet fission sensitizers. Here we explore the structure–property relationship and examine the mechanism of singlet fission in aggregates of astaxanthin, a small polyene. We isolate five distinct supramolecular structures of astaxanthin generated through self-assembly in solution. Each is capable of undergoing intermolecular singlet fission, with rates of triplet generation and annihilation that can be correlated with intermolecular coupling strength. In contrast with the conventional model of singlet fission in linear molecules, we demonstrate that no intermediate states are involved in the triplet formation: instead, singlet fission occurs directly from the initial 1Bu photoexcited state on ultrafast time scales. This result demands a re-evaluation of current theories of polyene photophysics and highlights the robustness of carotenoid singlet fission. PMID:25825939

  5. The nature of singlet exciton fission in carotenoid aggregates.

    PubMed

    Musser, Andrew J; Maiuri, Margherita; Brida, Daniele; Cerullo, Giulio; Friend, Richard H; Clark, Jenny

    2015-04-22

    Singlet exciton fission allows the fast and efficient generation of two spin triplet states from one photoexcited singlet. It has the potential to improve organic photovoltaics, enabling efficient coupling to the blue to ultraviolet region of the solar spectrum to capture the energy generally lost as waste heat. However, many questions remain about the underlying fission mechanism. The relation between intermolecular geometry and singlet fission rate and yield is poorly understood and remains one of the most significant barriers to the design of new singlet fission sensitizers. Here we explore the structure-property relationship and examine the mechanism of singlet fission in aggregates of astaxanthin, a small polyene. We isolate five distinct supramolecular structures of astaxanthin generated through self-assembly in solution. Each is capable of undergoing intermolecular singlet fission, with rates of triplet generation and annihilation that can be correlated with intermolecular coupling strength. In contrast with the conventional model of singlet fission in linear molecules, we demonstrate that no intermediate states are involved in the triplet formation: instead, singlet fission occurs directly from the initial 1B(u) photoexcited state on ultrafast time scales. This result demands a re-evaluation of current theories of polyene photophysics and highlights the robustness of carotenoid singlet fission.

  6. New fission-fragment detector for experiments at DANCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusev, G.; Roman, A. R.; Daum, J. K.; Springs, R. K.; Bond, E. M.; Jandel, M.; Baramsai, B.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Favalli, A.; Ianakiev, K. D.; Iliev, M. L.; Mosby, S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Walker, C. L.

    2015-10-01

    A fission-fragment detector based on thin scintillating films has been built to serve as a veto/trigger detector in neutron-induced fission measurements at DANCE. The fissile material is surrounded by scintillating films providing a 4 π detection of the fission fragments. The scintillation events caused by the fission fragment interactions in the films are registered with silicon photomultipliers. Design of the detector and test measurements are described. Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy through the LANL/LDRD Program and the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Nuclear Physics under the Early Career Award No. LANL20135009.

  7. Late-time emission of prompt fission γ rays

    DOE PAGES

    Talou, Patrick; Kawano, Toshihiko; Stetcu, Ionel; ...

    2016-12-22

    The emission of prompt fission γ rays within a few nanoseconds to a few microseconds following the scission point is studied in the Hauser-Feshbach formalism applied to the deexcitation of primary excited fission fragments. Neutron and γ-ray evaporations from fully accelerated fission fragments are calculated in competition at each stage of the decay, and the role of isomers in the fission products, before β decay, is analyzed. The time evolution of the average total γ-ray energy, the average total γ-ray multiplicity, and the fragment-specific γ-ray spectra is presented in the case of neutron-induced fission reactions of 235U and 239Pu, asmore » well as spontaneous fission of 252Cf. The production of specific isomeric states is calculated and compared to available experimental data. About 7% of all prompt fission γ rays are predicted to be emitted between 10 ns and 5 μs following fission, in the case of 235U and 239Pu(nth,f) reactions, and up to 3% in the case of 252Cf spontaneous fission. The cumulative average total γ-ray energy increases by 2% to 5% in the same time interval. Lastly, those results are shown to be robust against significant changes in the model input parameters.« less

  8. Late-time emission of prompt fission γ rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talou, P.; Kawano, T.; Stetcu, I.; Lestone, J. P.; McKigney, E.; Chadwick, M. B.

    2016-12-01

    The emission of prompt fission γ rays within a few nanoseconds to a few microseconds following the scission point is studied in the Hauser-Feshbach formalism applied to the deexcitation of primary excited fission fragments. Neutron and γ -ray evaporations from fully accelerated fission fragments are calculated in competition at each stage of the decay, and the role of isomers in the fission products, before β decay, is analyzed. The time evolution of the average total γ -ray energy, the average total γ -ray multiplicity, and the fragment-specific γ -ray spectra is presented in the case of neutron-induced fission reactions of 235U and 239Pu, as well as spontaneous fission of 252Cf. The production of specific isomeric states is calculated and compared to available experimental data. About 7% of all prompt fission γ rays are predicted to be emitted between 10 ns and 5 μ s following fission, in the case of 235U and 239Pu(nth,f ) reactions, and up to 3% in the case of 252Cf spontaneous fission. The cumulative average total γ -ray energy increases by 2% to 5% in the same time interval. Finally, those results are shown to be robust against significant changes in the model input parameters.

  9. Magnetic Materials Suitable for Fission Power Conversion in Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, Cheryl L.

    2012-01-01

    Terrestrial fission reactors use combinations of shielding and distance to protect power conversion components from elevated temperature and radiation. Space mission systems are necessarily compact and must minimize shielding and distance to enhance system level efficiencies. Technology development efforts to support fission power generation scenarios for future space missions include studying the radiation tolerance of component materials. The fundamental principles of material magnetism are reviewed and used to interpret existing material radiation effects data for expected fission power conversion components for target space missions. Suitable materials for the Fission Power System (FPS) Project are available and guidelines are presented for bounding the elevated temperature/radiation tolerance envelope for candidate magnetic materials.

  10. A role for myosin II in mammalian mitochondrial fission.

    PubMed

    Korobova, Farida; Gauvin, Timothy J; Higgs, Henry N

    2014-02-17

    Mitochondria are dynamic organelles, undergoing both fission and fusion regularly in interphase cells. Mitochondrial fission is thought to be part of a quality-control mechanism whereby damaged mitochondrial components are segregated from healthy components in an individual mitochondrion, followed by mitochondrial fission and degradation of the damaged daughter mitochondrion. Fission also plays a role in apoptosis. Defects in mitochondrial dynamics can lead to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. Mitochondrial fission requires the dynamin GTPase Drp1, which assembles in a ring around the mitochondrion and appears to constrict both outer and inner mitochondrial membranes. However, mechanisms controlling Drp1 assembly on mammalian mitochondria are unclear. Recent results show that actin polymerization, driven by the endoplasmic reticulum-bound formin protein INF2, stimulates Drp1 assembly at fission sites. Here, we show that myosin II also plays a role in fission. Chemical inhibition by blebbistatin or small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated suppression of myosin IIA or myosin IIB causes an increase in mitochondrial length in both control cells and cells expressing constitutively active INF2. Active myosin II accumulates in puncta on mitochondria in an actin- and INF2-dependent manner. In addition, myosin II inhibition decreases Drp1 association with mitochondria. Based on these results, we propose a mechanistic model in which INF2-mediated actin polymerization leads to myosin II recruitment and constriction at the fission site, enhancing subsequent Drp1 accumulation and fission. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cell Shape and Cell Division in Fission Yeast Minireview

    PubMed Central

    Piel, Matthieu; Tran, Phong T.

    2010-01-01

    The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe has served as an important model organism for investigating cellular morphogenesis. This unicellular rod-shaped fission yeast grows by tip extension and divides by medial fission. In particular, microtubules appear to define sites of polarized cell growth by delivering cell polarity factors to the cell tips. Microtubules also position the cell nucleus at the cell middle, marking sites of cell division. Here, we review the microtubule-dependent mechanisms that regulate cell shape and cell division in fission yeast. PMID:19906584

  12. Increased Exploration Capacity Promotes Group Fission in Gregarious Foraging Herbivores

    PubMed Central

    Lardy, Sophie; Fortin, Daniel; Pays, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Many gregarious species display rapid fission-fusion dynamics with individuals frequently leaving their groups to reunite or to form new ones soon after. The adaptive value of such ephemeral associations might reflect a frequent tilt in the balance between the costs and benefits of maintaining group cohesion. The lack of information on the short-term advantages of group fission, however, hampers our understanding of group dynamics. We investigated the effect of group fission on area-restricted search, a search tactic that is commonly used when food distribution is spatially autocorrelated. Specifically, we determine if roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) improve key aspects of their extensive search mode immediately after fission. We found that groups indeed moved faster and farther over time immediately after than before fission. This gain was highest for the smallest group that resulted from fission, which was more likely to include the fission’s initiator. Sex of group members further mediated the immediate gain in search capacity, as post-fission groups moved away at farthest rate when they were only comprised of males. Our study suggests that social conflicts during the extensive search mode can promote group fission and, as such, can be a key determinant of group fission-fusion dynamics that are commonly observed in gregarious herbivores. PMID:27907143

  13. The Arabidopsis CDC25 induces a short cell length when overexpressed in fission yeast: evidence for cell cycle function.

    PubMed

    Sorrell, D A; Chrimes, D; Dickinson, J R; Rogers, H J; Francis, D

    2005-02-01

    The putative mitotic inducer gene, Arath;CDC25 cloned in Arabidopsis thaliana, was screened for cell cycle function by overexpressing it in Schizosaccharomyces pombe (fission yeast). The expression pattern of Arath;CDC25 was also examined in different tissues of A. thaliana. Fission yeast was transformed with plasmids pREP1 and pREP81 with the Arath;CDC25 gene under the control of the thiamine-repressible nmt promoter. Using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), the expression of Arath;CDC25 was examined in seedlings, flower buds, mature leaves and stems of A. thaliana; actin (ACT2) was used as a control. In three independent transformants of fission yeast, cultured in the absence of thiamine (T), pREP1::Arath;CDC25 induced a highly significant reduction in mitotic cell length compared with wild type, pREP::Arath;CDC25 +T, and empty vector (pREP1 +/- T). The extent of cell shortening was greater using the stronger pREP1 compared with the weaker pREP81. However, Arath;CDC25 was expressed at low levels in all tissues examined. The data indicate that Arath;CDC25 can function as a mitotic accelerator in fission yeast. However, unlike other plant cell cycle genes, expression of Arath;CDC25 was not enhanced in rapidly dividing compared with non-proliferative Arabidopsis tissues.

  14. Structure of fragment energy spectra in spontaneous fission of sup 242 Cm and fast-neutron fission of sup 242 m Am

    SciTech Connect

    Fomushkin, E.F.; Vinogradov, Y.I.; Gavrilov, V.V.; Novoselov, G.F.; Shvetsov, A.M.

    1989-05-01

    A technique for measurement of the energy spectra of fission fragments is discussed. The fine structure found in the spectra of fragments from spontaneous fission of {sup 242}Cm and fast-neutron fission of {sup 242{ital m}}Am is analyzed. The quantitative parameters of the structure and their analogy with the characteristics of cold fission are discussed.

  15. Astaxanthin prevents pulmonary fibrosis by promoting myofibroblast apoptosis dependent on Drp1-mediated mitochondrial fission

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jinjin; Xu, Pan; Wang, Youlei; Wang, Meirong; Li, Hongbo; Lin, Shengcui; Mao, Cuiping; Wang, Bingsi; Song, Xiaodong; Lv, Changjun

    2015-01-01

    Promotion of myofibroblast apoptosis is a potential therapeutic strategy for pulmonary fibrosis. This study investigated the antifibrotic effect of astaxanthin on the promotion of myofibroblast apoptosis based on dynamin-related protein-1 (Drp1)-mediated mitochondrial fission in vivo and in vitro. Results showed that astaxanthin can inhibit lung parenchymal distortion and collagen deposition, as well as promote myofibroblast apoptosis. Astaxanthin demonstrated pro-apoptotic function in myofibroblasts by contributing to mitochondrial fission, thereby leading to apoptosis by increasing the Drp1 expression and enhancing Drp1 translocation into the mitochondria. Two specific siRNAs were used to demonstrate that Drp1 is necessary to promote astaxanthin-induced mitochondrial fission and apoptosis in myofibroblasts. Drp1-associated genes, such as Bcl-2-associated X protein, cytochrome c, tumour suppressor gene p53 and p53-up-regulated modulator of apoptosis, were highly up-regulated in the astaxanthin group compared with those in the sham group. This study revealed that astaxanthin can prevent pulmonary fibrosis by promoting myofibroblast apoptosis through a Drp1-dependent molecular pathway. Furthermore, astaxanthin provides a potential therapeutic value in pulmonary fibrosis treatment. PMID:26119034

  16. Astaxanthin prevents pulmonary fibrosis by promoting myofibroblast apoptosis dependent on Drp1-mediated mitochondrial fission.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinjin; Xu, Pan; Wang, Youlei; Wang, Meirong; Li, Hongbo; Lin, Shengcui; Mao, Cuiping; Wang, Bingsi; Song, Xiaodong; Lv, Changjun

    2015-09-01

    Promotion of myofibroblast apoptosis is a potential therapeutic strategy for pulmonary fibrosis. This study investigated the antifibrotic effect of astaxanthin on the promotion of myofibroblast apoptosis based on dynamin-related protein-1 (Drp1)-mediated mitochondrial fission in vivo and in vitro. Results showed that astaxanthin can inhibit lung parenchymal distortion and collagen deposition, as well as promote myofibroblast apoptosis. Astaxanthin demonstrated pro-apoptotic function in myofibroblasts by contributing to mitochondrial fission, thereby leading to apoptosis by increasing the Drp1 expression and enhancing Drp1 translocation into the mitochondria. Two specific siRNAs were used to demonstrate that Drp1 is necessary to promote astaxanthin-induced mitochondrial fission and apoptosis in myofibroblasts. Drp1-associated genes, such as Bcl-2-associated X protein, cytochrome c, tumour suppressor gene p53 and p53-up-regulated modulator of apoptosis, were highly up-regulated in the astaxanthin group compared with those in the sham group. This study revealed that astaxanthin can prevent pulmonary fibrosis by promoting myofibroblast apoptosis through a Drp1-dependent molecular pathway. Furthermore, astaxanthin provides a potential therapeutic value in pulmonary fibrosis treatment.

  17. Rupturing the hemi-fission intermediate in membrane fission under tension: Reaction coordinates, kinetic pathways, and free-energy barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guojie; Müller, Marcus

    2017-08-01

    Membrane fission is a fundamental process in cells, involved inter alia in endocytosis, intracellular trafficking, and virus infection. Its underlying molecular mechanism, however, is only incompletely understood. Recently, experiments and computer simulation studies have revealed that dynamin-mediated membrane fission is a two-step process that proceeds via a metastable hemi-fission intermediate (or wormlike micelle) formed by dynamin's constriction. Importantly, this hemi-fission intermediate is remarkably metastable, i.e., its subsequent rupture that completes the fission process does not occur spontaneously but requires additional, external effects, e.g., dynamin's (unknown) conformational changes or membrane tension. Using simulations of a coarse-grained, implicit-solvent model of lipid membranes, we investigate the molecular mechanism of rupturing the hemi-fission intermediate, such as its pathway, the concomitant transition states, and barriers, as well as the role of membrane tension. The membrane tension is controlled by the chemical potential of the lipids, and the free-energy landscape as a function of two reaction coordinates is obtained by grand canonical Wang-Landau sampling. Our results show that, in the course of rupturing, the hemi-fission intermediate undergoes a "thinning → local pinching → rupture/fission" pathway, with a bottle-neck-shaped cylindrical micelle as a transition state. Although an increase of membrane tension facilitates the fission process by reducing the corresponding free-energy barrier, for biologically relevant tensions, the free-energy barriers still significantly exceed the thermal energy scale kBT.

  18. Fission Product Data Measured at Los Alamos for Fission Spectrum and Thermal Neutrons on 239Pu, 235U, 238U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selby, H. D.; Mac Innes, M. R.; Barr, D. W.; Keksis, A. L.; Meade, R. A.; Burns, C. J.; Chadwick, M. B.; Wallstrom, T. C.

    2010-12-01

    We describe measurements of fission product data at Los Alamos that are important for determining the number of fissions that have occurred when neutrons are incident on plutonium and uranium isotopes. The fission-spectrum measurements were made using a fission chamber designed by the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) in the BIG TEN critical assembly, as part of the Inter-laboratory Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) Reaction Rate (ILRR) collaboration. The thermal measurements were made at Los Alamos' Omega West Reactor. A related set of measurements were made of fission-product ratios (so-called R-values) in neutron environments provided by a number of Los Alamos critical assemblies that range from having average energies causing fission of 400-600 keV (BIG TEN and the outer regions of the Flattop-25 assembly) to higher energies (1.4-1.9 MeV) in the Jezebel, and in the central regions of the Flattop-25 and Flattop-Pu, critical assemblies. From these data we determine ratios of fission product yields in different fuel and neutron environments (Q-values) and fission product yields in fission spectrum neutron environments for 99Mo, 95Zr, 137Cs, 140Ba, 141,143Ce, and 147Nd. Modest incident-energy dependence exists for the 147Nd fission product yield; this is discussed in the context of models for fission that include thermal and dynamical effects. The fission product data agree with measurements by Maeck and other authors using mass-spectrometry methods, and with the ILRR collaboration results that used gamma spectroscopy for quantifying fission products. We note that the measurements also contradict earlier 1950s historical Los Alamos estimates by ˜5-7%, most likely owing to self-shielding corrections not made in the early thermal measurements. Our experimental results provide a confirmation of the England-Rider ENDF/B-VI evaluated fission-spectrum fission product yields that were carried over to the ENDF/B-VII.0 library, except for 99Mo

  19. Rupturing the hemi-fission intermediate in membrane fission under tension: Reaction coordinates, kinetic pathways, and free-energy barriers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guojie; Müller, Marcus

    2017-08-14

    Membrane fission is a fundamental process in cells, involved inter alia in endocytosis, intracellular trafficking, and virus infection. Its underlying molecular mechanism, however, is only incompletely understood. Recently, experiments and computer simulation studies have revealed that dynamin-mediated membrane fission is a two-step process that proceeds via a metastable hemi-fission intermediate (or wormlike micelle) formed by dynamin's constriction. Importantly, this hemi-fission intermediate is remarkably metastable, i.e., its subsequent rupture that completes the fission process does not occur spontaneously but requires additional, external effects, e.g., dynamin's (unknown) conformational changes or membrane tension. Using simulations of a coarse-grained, implicit-solvent model of lipid membranes, we investigate the molecular mechanism of rupturing the hemi-fission intermediate, such as its pathway, the concomitant transition states, and barriers, as well as the role of membrane tension. The membrane tension is controlled by the chemical potential of the lipids, and the free-energy landscape as a function of two reaction coordinates is obtained by grand canonical Wang-Landau sampling. Our results show that, in the course of rupturing, the hemi-fission intermediate undergoes a "thinning → local pinching → rupture/fission" pathway, with a bottle-neck-shaped cylindrical micelle as a transition state. Although an increase of membrane tension facilitates the fission process by reducing the corresponding free-energy barrier, for biologically relevant tensions, the free-energy barriers still significantly exceed the thermal energy scale kBT.

  20. A thiamine-regulatable epitope-tagged protein expression system in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Tamm, Tiina

    2012-01-01

    Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the fission yeast, has been a popular and useful model system for investigating the mechanisms of biological processes for a long time. To facilitate purification, localization, and functional analysis of gene products, a wide range of expression vectors have been developed. Several of these vectors utilize the inducible/repressible promoter systems and enable the episomal expression of proteins as fusion proteins with epitope tags attached to their N terminus or C terminus.This chapter provides a detailed protocol for expression of the epitope-tagged proteins from thiamine-regulatable nmt promoter in fission yeast. The yeast culture conditions and procedures for yeast transformation, expression induction, preparation of whole-cell extracts, and analysis of epitope-tagged protein expression by Western blotting are described.

  1. Fission neutron spectra measurements at LANSCE - status and plans

    SciTech Connect

    Haight, Robert C; Noda, Shusaku; Nelson, Ronald O; O' Donnell, John M; Devlin, Matt; Chatillon, Audrey; Granier, Thierry; Taieb, Julien; Laurent, Benoit; Belier, Gilbert; Becker, John A; Wu, Ching - Yen

    2009-01-01

    A program to measure fission neutron spectra from neutron-induced fission of actinides is underway at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) in a collaboration among the CEA laboratory at Bruyeres-le-Chatel, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory. The spallation source of fast neutrons at LANSCE is used to provide incident neutron energies from less than 1 MeV to 100 MeV or higher. The fission events take place in a gas-ionization fission chamber, and the time of flight from the neutron source to that chamber gives the energy of the incident neutron. Outgoing neutrons are detected by an array of organic liquid scintillator neutron detectors, and their energies are deduced from the time of flight from the fission chamber to the neutron detector. Measurements have been made of the fission neutrons from fission of {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 237}Np and {sup 239}Pu. The range of outgoing energies measured so far is from 1 MeV to approximately 8 MeV. These partial spectra and average fission neutron energies are compared with evaluated data and with models of fission neutron emission. Results to date will be presented and a discussion of uncertainties will be given in this presentation. Future plans are to make significant improvements in the fission chambers, neutron detectors, signal processing, data acquisition and the experimental environment to provide high fidelity data including mea urements of fission neutrons below 1 MeV and improvements in the data above 8 MeV.

  2. Pairing-induced speedup of nuclear spontaneous fission

    SciTech Connect

    Sadhukhan, Jhilam; Dobaczewski, J.; Nazarewicz, W.; Sheikh, J. A.; Baran, A.

    2014-12-22

    Collective inertia is strongly influenced at the level crossing at which the quantum system changes its microscopic configuration diabatically. Pairing correlations tend to make the large-amplitude nuclear collective motion more adiabatic by reducing the effect of these configuration changes. Competition between pairing and level crossing is thus expected to have a profound impact on spontaneous fission lifetimes. To elucidate the role of nucleonic pairing on spontaneous fission, we study the dynamic fission trajectories of 264Fm and 240Pu using the state-of-the-art self-consistent framework. We employ the superfluid nuclear density functional theory with the Skyrme energy density functional SkM* and a density-dependent pairing interaction. Along with shape variables, proton and neutron pairing correlations are taken as collective coordinates. The collective inertia tensor is calculated within the nonperturbative cranking approximation. The fission paths are obtained by using the least action principle in a four-dimensional collective space of shape and pairing coordinates. Pairing correlations are enhanced along the minimum-action fission path. For the symmetric fission of 264Fm, where the effect of triaxiality on the fission barrier is large, the geometry of the fission pathway in the space of the shape degrees of freedom is weakly impacted by pairing. This is not the case for 240Pu, where pairing fluctuations restore the axial symmetry of the dynamic fission trajectory. The minimum-action fission path is strongly impacted by nucleonic pairing. In some cases, the dynamical coupling between shape and pairing degrees of freedom can lead to a dramatic departure from the static picture. As a result, in the dynamical description of nuclear fission, particle-particle correlations should be considered on the same footing as those associated with shape degrees of freedom.

  3. Pairing-induced speedup of nuclear spontaneous fission

    DOE PAGES

    Sadhukhan, Jhilam; Dobaczewski, J.; Nazarewicz, W.; ...

    2014-12-22

    Collective inertia is strongly influenced at the level crossing at which the quantum system changes its microscopic configuration diabatically. Pairing correlations tend to make the large-amplitude nuclear collective motion more adiabatic by reducing the effect of these configuration changes. Competition between pairing and level crossing is thus expected to have a profound impact on spontaneous fission lifetimes. To elucidate the role of nucleonic pairing on spontaneous fission, we study the dynamic fission trajectories of 264Fm and 240Pu using the state-of-the-art self-consistent framework. We employ the superfluid nuclear density functional theory with the Skyrme energy density functional SkM* and a density-dependentmore » pairing interaction. Along with shape variables, proton and neutron pairing correlations are taken as collective coordinates. The collective inertia tensor is calculated within the nonperturbative cranking approximation. The fission paths are obtained by using the least action principle in a four-dimensional collective space of shape and pairing coordinates. Pairing correlations are enhanced along the minimum-action fission path. For the symmetric fission of 264Fm, where the effect of triaxiality on the fission barrier is large, the geometry of the fission pathway in the space of the shape degrees of freedom is weakly impacted by pairing. This is not the case for 240Pu, where pairing fluctuations restore the axial symmetry of the dynamic fission trajectory. The minimum-action fission path is strongly impacted by nucleonic pairing. In some cases, the dynamical coupling between shape and pairing degrees of freedom can lead to a dramatic departure from the static picture. As a result, in the dynamical description of nuclear fission, particle-particle correlations should be considered on the same footing as those associated with shape degrees of freedom.« less

  4. Antiproton Powered Gas Core Fission Rocket

    SciTech Connect

    Kammash, Terry

    2005-02-06

    Extensive research in recent years has demonstrated that 'at rest' annihilation of antiprotons in the uranium isotope U238 leads to fission at nearly 100% efficiency. The resulting highly-ionizing, energetic fission fragments can heat a suitable medium to very high temperatures, making such a process particularly suitable for space propulsion applications. Such an ionized medium, which would serve as a propellant, can be confined by a magnetic field during the heating process, and subsequently ejected through a magnetic nozzle to generate thrust. The gasdynamic mirror (GDM) magnetic configuration is especially suited for this application since the underlying confinement principle is that the plasma be of such density and temperature as to make the ion-ion collision mean free path shorter than the plasma length. Under these conditions the plasma behaves like a fluid, and its escape from the system is analogous to the flow of a gas into vacuum from a vessel with a hole. For the system we propose we envisage radially injecting atomic or U238 plasma beam at a pre-determined position and axially pulsing an antiproton beam which upon interaction with the uranium target gives rise to near isotropic ejection of fission fragments with a total mass of 212 amu and total energy of about 160 MeV. These particles, along with the annihilation products (i.e. pions and muons) will heat the background U238 gas - inserted into the chamber just prior to the release of the antiproton - to one keV temperature. Preliminary analysis reveals that such a propulsion system can produce a specific impulse of about 3000 seconds at a thrust of about 50 kN. When applied to a round trip Mars mission, we find that such a journey can be accomplished in about 142 days with 2 days of thrusting and requiring only one gram of antiprotons to achieve it.

  5. ORNL fission product release tests VI-6

    SciTech Connect

    Osborne, M.F.; Lorenz, R.A.; Collins, J.L.; Lee, C.S.

    1991-01-01

    The ORNL fission product release tests investigate release and transport of the major fission products from high-burnup fuel under LWR accident conditions. The two most recent tests (VI-4 and VI-5) were conducted in hydrogen. In three previous tests in this series (VI-1, VI-2, and VI-3), which had been conducted in steam, the oxidized Zircaloy cladding remained largely intact and acted as a barrier to steam reaction with the UO{sub 2}. Test VI-6 was designed to insure significant oxidation of the UO{sub 2} fuel, which has been shown to enhance release of certain fission products, especially molybdenum and ruthenium. The BR3 fuel specimen used in test VI-6 will be heated in hydrogen to 2300 K; the Zircaloy cladding is expected to melt and runoff at {approximately}2150 K. Upon reaching the 2300 K test temperature, the test atmosphere will be changed to steam, and that temperature will be maintained for 60 min, with the three collection trains being operated for 2-, 18-, and 40-min periods. The releases of {sup 85}Kr and {sup 137}Cs will be monitored continuously throughout the test. Posttest analyses of the material collected on the three trains will provide results on the release and transport of Mo, Ru, Sb, Te, Ba, Ce, and Eu as a function of time at 2300 K. Continuous monitoring of the hydrogen produced during the steam atmosphere period at high temperature will provide a measure of the oxidation rate of the cladding and fuel. Following delays in approval of the safety documentation and in decontamination of the hot cell and test apparatus, test VI-6 will be conducted in late May.

  6. Adiabatic fission barriers in superheavy nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jachimowicz, P.; Kowal, M.; Skalski, J.

    2017-01-01

    Using the microscopic-macroscopic model based on the deformed Woods-Saxon single-particle potential and the Yukawa-plus-exponential macroscopic energy, we calculated static fission barriers Bf for 1305 heavy and superheavy nuclei 98 ≤Z ≤126 , including even-even, odd-even, even-odd and odd-odd systems. For odd and odd-odd nuclei, adiabatic potential-energy surfaces were calculated by a minimization over configurations with one blocked neutron or/and proton on a level from the 10th below to the 10th above the Fermi level. The parameters of the model that have been fixed previously by a fit to masses of even-even heavy nuclei were kept unchanged. A search for saddle points has been performed by the "imaginary water flow" method on a basic five-dimensional deformation grid, including triaxiality. Two auxiliary grids were used for checking the effects of the mass asymmetry and hexadecapole nonaxiality. The ground states (g.s.) were found by energy minimization over configurations and deformations. We find that the nonaxiality significantly changes first and second fission saddle in many nuclei. The effect of the mass asymmetry, known to lower the second, very deformed saddles in actinides, in the heaviest nuclei appears at the less deformed saddles in more than 100 nuclei. It happens for those saddles in which the triaxiality does not play any role, which suggests a decoupling between effects of the mass asymmetry and triaxiality. We studied also the influence of the pairing interaction strength on the staggering of Bf for odd- and even-particle numbers. Finally, we provide a comparison of our results with other theoretical fission barrier evaluations and with available experimental estimates.

  7. Dissecting the fission yeast regulatory network reveals phase-specific control elements of its cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Bushel, Pierre R; Heard, Nicholas A; Gutman, Roee; Liu, Liwen; Peddada, Shyamal D; Pyne, Saumyadipta

    2009-09-16

    Fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe and budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are among the original model organisms in the study of the cell-division cycle. Unlike budding yeast, no large-scale regulatory network has been constructed for fission yeast. It has only been partially characterized. As a result, important regulatory cascades in budding yeast have no known or complete counterpart in fission yeast. By integrating genome-wide data from multiple time course cell cycle microarray experiments we reconstructed a gene regulatory network. Based on the network, we discovered in addition to previously known regulatory hubs in M phase, a new putative regulatory hub in the form of the HMG box transcription factor SPBC19G7.04. Further, we inferred periodic activities of several less known transcription factors over the course of the cell cycle, identified over 500 putative regulatory targets and detected many new phase-specific and conserved cis-regulatory motifs. In particular, we show that SPBC19G7.04 has highly significant periodic activity that peaks in early M phase, which is coordinated with the late G2 activity of the forkhead transcription factor fkh2. Finally, using an enhanced Bayesian algorithm to co-cluster the expression data, we obtained 31 clusters of co-regulated genes 1) which constitute regulatory modules from different phases of the cell cycle, 2) whose phase order is coherent across the 10 time course experiments, and 3) which lead to identification of phase-specific control elements at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels in S. pombe. In particular, the ribosome biogenesis clusters expressed in G2 phase reveal new, highly conserved RNA motifs. Using a systems-level analysis of the phase-specific nature of the S. pombe cell cycle gene regulation, we have provided new testable evidence for post-transcriptional regulation in the G2 phase of the fission yeast cell cycle. Based on this comprehensive gene regulatory network, we

  8. SEPARATION OF URANIUM, PLUTONIUM AND FISSION PRODUCTS

    DOEpatents

    Nicholls, C.M.; Wells, I.; Spence, R.

    1959-10-13

    The separation of uranium and plutonium from neutronirradiated uranium is described. The neutron-irradiated uranium is dissolved in nitric acid to provide an aqueous solution 3N in nitric acid. The fission products of the solution are extruded by treating the solution with dibutyl carbitol substantially 1.8N in nitric acid. The organic solvent phase is separated and neutralized with ammonium hydroxide and the plutonium reduced with hydroxylamine base to the trivalent state. Treatment of the mixture with saturated ammonium nitrate extracts the reduced plutonium and leaves the uranium in the organic solvent.

  9. Higher-order corrections to Coulomb fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Raymond T.; Norbury, John W.

    1995-03-01

    Fission cross sections resulting from a 120 MeV/nucleon 238U beam incident upon Be, Al, Cu, Ag, and U targets have recently been measured by Justice et al. [Phys. Rev. C 49, R5 (1994)]. The electromagnetic contribution to these experimental cross sections have been compared to Weizsäcker-Williams theory which is based on first-order perturbation theory. The present work calculates the contribution to these cross sections due to higher-order excitations. Our results show that these corrections are insignificant in comparison to experimental error.

  10. (Fission product transport processes in reactor accidents)

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, S.A.; Beahm, E.C.; Kress, T.S.; Malinauskas, A.P.

    1989-06-14

    The purpose of this trip was to participate in and to hold informal discussions with other participants in the International Centre for Heat and Mass Transfer (ICHMT) International Seminar on Fission Product Transport Processes held at Dubrovnik, Yugoslavia, during the week of May 22--26, 1989. There were 129 participants from 20 countries at the Seminar. The travelers delivered two invited lectures and presented four invited papers based upon NRC-sponsored work at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. One of the travelers also served as Chairman of the Session entitled Transport Phenomena in the Reactor Coolant System'' and appeared as a Panelist in the Closing Session of the Seminar.

  11. Fission Beta Particles Emitted into the Geomagnetosphere.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-15

    Energy Deposition by Monoenergetic Electrons ................................... 17 Accession For NTis GRA&I DTIC TAB Unannounned j.stification ’By...Carter ..." (p. 8-58). This spectrum is from thermal neutrons on 235U. As the results of Carter et al. (ref. 2) do not extend below 1 MeV or above 7 MeV... neutron -induced fission are tabulated. The power in each range is given as the sum of about 16 fitted terms. Each term is of the form ce " , the

  12. Fission Fragment Properties from a Microscopic Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Dubray, N.; Goutte, H.; Delaroche, J.-P.

    2008-04-17

    We calculate potential energy surfaces in the elongation-asymmetry plane, up to very large deformations, with the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov method and the Gogny nucleon-nucleon effective interaction DIS, for the {sup 226}Th and {sup 256,258,260}Fm fissioning systems. We then define a criterion based on the nuclear density, in order to discriminate between pre- and post-scission configurations. Using this criterion, many scission configurations are identified, and are used for the calculation of several fragment properties, like fragment deformations, deformation energies, energy partitioning, neutron binding energies at scission, charge polarization, total fragment kinetic energies and neutron multiplicities.

  13. Fission energy program of the US Department of Energy, FY 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, Robert L.

    1980-03-01

    Information is presented concerning the National Energy Plan and fission energy policy; fission energy program management; converter reactor systems; breeder reactor systems; and special nuclear evaluations and systems.

  14. New Discoveries Bring us Closer to a Predictive Theory of Fission

    SciTech Connect

    Younes, W.

    2011-08-29

    LLNL fission theorists Younes et al. have taken an important step in quantifying a part of the fission process known as scission: the point at which one fissioning nucleus becomes two fission fragments. In doing so, they are now determining how the total energy release during fission is partitioned to individual fission fragments. Coupled with HPC, these calculations represent a key first step in understanding the properties of fission fragments and their impact on program metrics, and ultimately lead to a predictive theory of fission.

  15. Bulk Segregant Analysis Reveals the Genetic Basis of a Natural Trait Variation in Fission Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Wen; Suo, Fang; Du, Li-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Although the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe is a well-established model organism, studies of natural trait variations in this species remain limited. To assess the feasibility of segregant-pool-based mapping of phenotype-causing genes in natural strains of fission yeast, we investigated the cause of a maltose utilization defect (Mal-) of the S. pombe strain CBS5557 (originally known as Schizosaccharomyces malidevorans). Analyzing the genome sequence of CBS5557 revealed 955 nonconservative missense substitutions, and 61 potential loss-of-function variants including 47 frameshift indels, 13 early stop codons, and 1 splice site mutation. As a side benefit, our analysis confirmed 146 sequence errors in the reference genome and improved annotations of 27 genes. We applied bulk segregant analysis to map the causal locus of the Mal- phenotype. Through sequencing the segregant pools derived from a cross between CBS5557 and the laboratory strain, we located the locus to within a 2.23-Mb chromosome I inversion found in most S. pombe isolates including CBS5557. To map genes within the inversion region that occupies 18% of the genome, we created a laboratory strain containing the same inversion. Analyzing segregants from a cross between CBS5557 and the inversion-containing laboratory strain narrowed down the locus to a 200-kb interval and led us to identify agl1, which suffers a 5-bp deletion in CBS5557, as the causal gene. Interestingly, loss of agl1 through a 34-kb deletion underlies the Mal- phenotype of another S. pombe strain CGMCC2.1628. This work adapts and validates the bulk segregant analysis method for uncovering trait-gene relationship in natural fission yeast strains. PMID:26615217

  16. Fission product yield measurements using monoenergetic photon beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishichayan; Bhike, M.; Tonchev, A. P.; Tornow, W.

    2017-09-01

    Measurements of fission products yields (FPYs) are an important source of information on the fission process. During the past couple of years, a TUNL-LANL-LLNL collaboration has provided data on the FPYs from quasi monoenergetic neutron-induced fission on 235U, 238U, and 239Pu and has revealed an unexpected energy dependence of both asymmetric fission fragments at energies below 4 MeV. This peculiar FPY energy dependence was more pronounced in neutron-induced fission of 239Pu. In an effort to understand and compare the effect of the incoming probe on the FPY distribution, we have carried out monoenergetic photon-induced fission experiments on the same 235U, 238U, and 239Pu targets. Monoenergetic photon beams of Eγ = 13.0 MeV were provided by the HIγS facility, the world's most intense γ-ray source. In order to determine the total number of fission events, a dual-fission chamber was used during the irradiation. These irradiated samples were counted at the TUNL's low-background γ-ray counting facility using high efficient HPGe detectors over a period of 10 weeks. Here we report on our first ever photofission product yield measurements obtained with monoenegetic photon beams. These results are compared with neutron-induced FPY data.

  17. Fission foil detector calibrations with high energy protons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.

    1995-01-01

    Fission foil detectors (FFD's) are passive devices composed of heavy metal foils in contact with muscovite mica films. The heavy metal nuclei have significant cross sections for fission when irradiated with neutrons and protons. Each isotope is characterized by threshold energies for the fission reactions and particular energy-dependent cross sections. In the FFD's, fission fragments produced by the reactions are emitted from the foils and create latent particle tracks in the adjacent mica films. When the films are processed surface tracks are formed which can be optically counted. The track densities are indications of the fluences and spectra of neutrons and/or protons. In the past, detection efficiencies have been calculated using the low energy neutron calibrated dosimeters and published fission cross sections for neutrons and protons. The problem is that the addition of a large kinetic energy to the (n,nucleus) or (p,nucleus) reaction could increase the energies and ranges of emitted fission fragments and increase the detector sensitivity as compared with lower energy neutron calibrations. High energy calibrations are the only method of resolving the uncertainties in detector efficiencies. At high energies, either proton or neutron calibrations are sufficient since the cross section data show that the proton and neutron fission cross sections are approximately equal. High energy proton beams have been utilized (1.8 and 4.9 GeV, 80 and 140 MeV) for measuring the tracks of fission fragments emitted backward and forward.

  18. Immobilization of fission products in phosphate ceramic waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, D.

    1996-10-01

    The goal of this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a novel low-temperature solidification/stabilization (S/S) technology for immobilizing waste streams containing fission products such as cesium, strontium, and technetium in a chemically bonded phosphate ceramic. This technology can immobilize partitioned tank wastes and decontaminate waste streams containing volatile fission products.

  19. Whole-rock uranium analysis by fission track activation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiss, J. R.; Haines, E. L.

    1974-01-01

    We report a whole-rock uranium method in which the polished sample and track detector are separated in a vacuum chamber. Irradiation with thermal neutrons induces uranium fission in the sample, and the detector records the integrated fission track density. Detection efficiency and geometric factors are calculated and compared with calibration experiments.

  20. On the fission of the heaviest fermium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    C-acute-accentwiok, S.; Rozmej, P.; Sobiczewski, A.

    1987-12-10

    Potential energy of /sup 258/Fm is calculated in multidimensional deformation spaceias a function of both (reflection-) symmetric and asymmetric shapes. The inclusion of the asymmetric shapes is found important as it ''opens a pass'' between the two fission valleys: one corresponding to compact and the other to elongated shapes of the nucleus. Thus, it makes both valleys accessible to the fissioning nucleus.

  1. Experimental fission study using multi-nucleon transfer reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishio, Katsuhisa; Hirose, Kentaro; Léguillon, Romain; Makii, Hiroyuki; Orlandi, Riccardo; Tsukada, Kazuaki; Smallcombe, James; Chiba, Satoshi; Aritomo, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Shouya; Ohtsuki, Tsutomu; Tsekhanovich, Igor; Petrache, Costel M.; Andreyev, Andrei

    2017-09-01

    It is shown that the multi-nucleon transfer reactions is a powerful tool to study fission of exotic neutron-rich actinide nuclei, which cannot be accessed by particle-capture or heavy-ion fusion reactions. In this work, multi-nucleon transfer channels of the reactions of 18O+232Th, 18O+238U and 18O+248Cm are used to study fission for various nuclei from many excited states. Identification of fissioning nuclei and of their excitation energy is performed on an event-by-event basis, through the measurement of outgoing ejectile particle in coincidence with fission fragments. Fission fragment mass distributions are measured for each transfer channel. Predominantly asymmetric fission is observed at low excitation energies for all studied cases, with a gradual increase of the symmetric mode towards higher excitation energy. The experimental distributions are found to be in general agreement with predictions of the fluctuation-dissipation model. Role of multi-chance fission in fission fragment mass distributions is discussed, where it is shown that mass-asymmetric structure remaining at high excitation energies originates from low-excited nuclei by evaporation of neutrons.

  2. Fission foil detector calibrations with high energy protons

    SciTech Connect

    Benton, E.V.; Frank, A.L.

    1995-03-01

    Fission foil detectors (FFD`s) are passive devices composed of heavy metal foils in contact with muscovite mica films. The heavy metal nuclei have significant cross sections for fission when irradiated with neutrons and protons. Each isotope is characterized by threshold energies for the fission reactions and particular energy-dependent cross sections. In the FFD`s, fission fragments produced by the reactions are emitted from the foils and create latent particle tracks in the adjacent mica films. When the films are processed surface tracks are formed which can be optically counted. The track densities are indications of the fluences and spectra of neutrons and/or protons. In the past, detection efficiencies have been calculated using the low energy neutron calibrated dosimeters and published fission cross sections for neutrons and protons. The problem is that the addition of a large kinetic energy to the (n,nucleus) or (p,nucleus) reaction could increase the energies and ranges of emitted fission fragments and increase the detector sensitivity as compared with lower energy neutron calibrations. High energy calibrations are the only method of resolving the uncertainties in detector efficiencies. At high energies, either proton or neutron calibrations are sufficient since the cross section data show that the proton and neutron fission cross sections are approximately equal. High energy proton beams have been utilized (1.8 and 4.9 GeV, 80 and 140 MeV) for measuring the tracks of fission fragments emitted backward and forward.

  3. Fission of Uranium Nuclei in Flight at Relativistic Energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, P. L.; Aggarwal, M. M.; El-Nagdy, M. S.; Ismail, A. Z. M.

    1984-05-01

    The charge, mass, and energy spectra of clean binary-fission events of 238U projectiles at energies up to 1 GeV/nucleon are presented. The inelastic interaction cross section and the cross section for the production of binary fission (50% of all interactions) are found to be constant over the entire energy range.

  4. Development Progress in Phase 1 Fission Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; VanDyke, Melissa; Godfroy, Tom; Martin, Jim; Dickens, Ricky; Pedersen, Kevin; Poston, David; Reid, Bob; Lipinski, Ron; Wright, Steve; hide

    2000-01-01

    Phase 1 fission propulsion systems are those fission propulsion systems that are highly testable and require no development of nuclear fuels or materials. The systems can be developed without new or significantly modified facilities, have adequate performance for numerous missions of interest, and demonstrate technologies and programmatics that are traceable to Phase 2 and Phase 3 systems. Phase 1 fission propulsion systems focus on safety, cost and schedule. Phase 1 flight units can be tested at full thrust using resistance heaters to simulate heat from fission. The development and use of Phase 1 systems will help enable Phase 2 or Phase 3 fission propulsion systems capable of giving rapid, affordable access to any point in the solar system. A Phase 1 fission propulsion system under development at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in collaboration with individuals from Department of Energy Laboratories and industry is the Safe Affordable Fission Engine (SAFE). The propellant energy source of a 30 kW SAFE unit (SAFE-30) is being fabricated, and will begin testing at MSFC in FY00. The conceptual design of a 300 kW SAFE unit (SAFE-300)is nearing completion. Experiments have been performed on both SAFE-30 and SAFE-300 components. Module tests have confirmed the performance potential of the SAFE series of propulsion systems. This paper will report on the development status of the Phase 1 SAFE fission propulsion system.

  5. Singlet fission in pentacene through multiple exciton quantum states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhiyong; Zimmerman, Paul; Musgrave, Charles

    2010-03-01

    Multi-exciton generation (MEG) has been reported for several materials and may dramatically increase solar cell efficiency. Singlet fission is the molecular analogue of MEG and has been observed in various systems, including tetracene and pentacene, however, no fundamental mechanism for singlet fission has yet been described, although it may govern MEG processes in a variety of materials. Because photoexcited states have single-exciton character, singlet fission to produce a pair of triplet excitons must involve an intermediate state that: (1) exhibits multi-exciton (ME) character, (2) is accessible from S1 and satisfies the fission energy requirement, and (3) efficiently dissociates into multiple electron-hole pairs. Here, we use sophisticated ab initio calculations to show that singlet fission in pentacene proceeds through a dark state (D) of ME character that lies just below S1, satisfies the fission energy requirement (ED>2ET0), and splits into two triplets (2xT0). In tetracene, D lies just above S1, consistent with the observation that singlet fission is thermally activated in tetracene. Rational design of photovoltaic systems that exploit singlet fission will require ab initio analysis of ME states such as D.

  6. Monte Carlo simulation based toy model for fission process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurniadi, Rizal; Waris, Abdul; Viridi, Sparisoma

    2016-09-01

    Nuclear fission has been modeled notoriously using two approaches method, macroscopic and microscopic. This work will propose another approach, where the nucleus is treated as a toy model. The aim is to see the usefulness of particle distribution in fission yield calculation. Inasmuch nucleus is a toy, then the Fission Toy Model (FTM) does not represent real process in nature completely. The fission event in FTM is represented by one random number. The number is assumed as width of distribution probability of nucleon position in compound nuclei when fission process is started. By adopting the nucleon density approximation, the Gaussian distribution is chosen as particle distribution. This distribution function generates random number that randomizes distance between particles and a central point. The scission process is started by smashing compound nucleus central point into two parts that are left central and right central points. The yield is determined from portion of nuclei distribution which is proportional with portion of mass numbers. By using modified FTM, characteristic of particle distribution in each fission event could be formed before fission process. These characteristics could be used to make prediction about real nucleons interaction in fission process. The results of FTM calculation give information that the γ value seems as energy.

  7. Mitochondrial Morphological Features Are Associated with Fission and Fusion Events

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Katie R.; Hlavacek, William S.; MacKeigan, Jeffrey P.

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that undergo constant remodeling through the regulation of two opposing processes, mitochondrial fission and fusion. Although several key regulators and physiological stimuli have been identified to control mitochondrial fission and fusion, the role of mitochondrial morphology in the two processes remains to be determined. To address this knowledge gap, we investigated whether morphological features extracted from time-lapse live-cell images of mitochondria could be used to predict mitochondrial fate. That is, we asked if we could predict whether a mitochondrion is likely to participate in a fission or fusion event based on its current shape and local environment. Using live-cell microscopy, image analysis software, and supervised machine learning, we characterized mitochondrial dynamics with single-organelle resolution to identify features of mitochondria that are predictive of fission and fusion events. A random forest (RF) model was trained to correctly classify mitochondria poised for either fission or fusion based on a series of morphological and positional features for each organelle. Of the features we evaluated, mitochondrial perimeter positively correlated with mitochondria about to undergo a fission event. Similarly mitochondrial solidity (compact shape) positively correlated with mitochondria about to undergo a fusion event. Our results indicate that fission and fusion are positively correlated with mitochondrial morphological features; and therefore, mitochondrial fission and fusion may be influenced by the mechanical properties of mitochondrial membranes. PMID:24733410

  8. Mitochondrial morphological features are associated with fission and fusion events.

    PubMed

    Westrate, Laura M; Drocco, Jeffrey A; Martin, Katie R; Hlavacek, William S; MacKeigan, Jeffrey P

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that undergo constant remodeling through the regulation of two opposing processes, mitochondrial fission and fusion. Although several key regulators and physiological stimuli have been identified to control mitochondrial fission and fusion, the role of mitochondrial morphology in the two processes remains to be determined. To address this knowledge gap, we investigated whether morphological features extracted from time-lapse live-cell images of mitochondria could be used to predict mitochondrial fate. That is, we asked if we could predict whether a mitochondrion is likely to participate in a fission or fusion event based on its current shape and local environment. Using live-cell microscopy, image analysis software, and supervised machine learning, we characterized mitochondrial dynamics with single-organelle resolution to identify features of mitochondria that are predictive of fission and fusion events. A random forest (RF) model was trained to correctly classify mitochondria poised for either fission or fusion based on a series of morphological and positional features for each organelle. Of the features we evaluated, mitochondrial perimeter positively correlated with mitochondria about to undergo a fission event. Similarly mitochondrial solidity (compact shape) positively correlated with mitochondria about to undergo a fusion event. Our results indicate that fission and fusion are positively correlated with mitochondrial morphological features; and therefore, mitochondrial fission and fusion may be influenced by the mechanical properties of mitochondrial membranes.

  9. Electroplating method for producing ultralow-mass fissionable deposits

    DOEpatents

    Ruddy, Francis H.

    1989-01-01

    A method for producing ultralow-mass fissionable deposits for nuclear reactor dosimetry is described, including the steps of holding a radioactive parent until the radioactive parent reaches secular equilibrium with a daughter isotope, chemically separating the daughter from the parent, electroplating the daughter on a suitable substrate, and holding the electroplated daughter until the daughter decays to the fissionable deposit.

  10. SEPARATION OF FISSION PRODUCTS FROM PLUTONIUM BY PRECIPITATION

    DOEpatents

    Seaborg, G.T.; Thompson, S.G.; Davidson, N.R.

    1959-09-01

    Fission product separation from hexavalent plutonium by bismuth phosphate precipitation of the fission products is described. The precipitation, according to this invention, is improved by coprecipitating ceric and zirconium phosphates (0.05 to 2.5 grams/liter) with the bismuth phosphate.

  11. REGENERATION OF FISSION-PRODUCT-CONTAINING MAGNESIUM-THORIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Chiotti, P.

    1964-02-01

    A process of regenerating a magnesium-thorium alloy contaminated with fission products, protactinium, and uranium is presented. A molten mixture of KCl--LiCl-MgCl/sub 2/ is added to the molten alloy whereby the alkali, alkaline parth, and rare earth fission products (including yttrium) and some of the thorium and uranium are chlorinated and

  12. Chemical factors affecting fission product transport in severe LMFBR accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Wichner, R.P.; Jolley, R.L.; Gat, U.; Rodgers, B.R.

    1984-10-01

    This study was performed as a part of a larger evaluation effort on LMFBR accident, source-term estimation. Purpose was to provide basic chemical information regarding fission product, sodium coolant, and structural material interactions required to perform estimation of fission product transport under LMFBR accident conditions. Emphasis was placed on conditions within the reactor vessel; containment vessel conditions are discussed only briefly.

  13. Module-based construction of plasmids for chromosomal integration of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Kakui, Yasutaka; Sunaga, Tomonari; Arai, Kunio; Dodgson, James; Ji, Liang; Csikász-Nagy, Attila; Carazo-Salas, Rafael; Sato, Masamitsu

    2015-06-01

    Integration of an external gene into a fission yeast chromosome is useful to investigate the effect of the gene product. An easy way to knock-in a gene construct is use of an integration plasmid, which can be targeted and inserted to a chromosome through homologous recombination. Despite the advantage of integration, construction of integration plasmids is energy- and time-consuming, because there is no systematic library of integration plasmids with various promoters, fluorescent protein tags, terminators and selection markers; therefore, researchers are often forced to make appropriate ones through multiple rounds of cloning procedures. Here, we establish materials and methods to easily construct integration plasmids. We introduce a convenient cloning system based on Golden Gate DNA shuffling, which enables the connection of multiple DNA fragments at once: any kind of promoters and terminators, the gene of interest, in combination with any fluorescent protein tag genes and any selection markers. Each of those DNA fragments, called a 'module', can be tandemly ligated in the order we desire in a single reaction, which yields a circular plasmid in a one-step manner. The resulting plasmids can be integrated through standard methods for transformation. Thus, these materials and methods help easy construction of knock-in strains, and this will further increase the value of fission yeast as a model organism.

  14. Construction of an expression vector for the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed Central

    Kudla, B; Persuy, M A; Gaillardin, C; Heslot, H

    1988-01-01

    We have isolated and characterized a S. pombe promoter using a functional heterologous gene product assay. Random S. pombe genomic fragments were cloned upstream from the promoterless 'lacZ gene and tested in vivo for their efficiency to promote expression of the beta-galactosidase protein in the fission yeast. An efficient S. pombe promoter called 54/1 was isolated and shown to drive up to 5% of total protein synthesis as beta-galactosidase. The structure and nucleotide sequence of this promoter were determined, precise localization of its mRNA transcriptional start points established. Translational fusion of the Pseudomonas putida XylE gene with the 54/1 gene was shown to allow expression of catechol oxidase activity in S. pombe. An expression vector suitable for transcriptional fusions was then constructed from engineered 54/1 promoter sequences and used to drive expression of the E. coli Tn5 ble gene, thus confering resistance to the fission yeast against bleomycin and phleomycin antibiotics. PMID:2843820

  15. Module-based construction of plasmids for chromosomal integration of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    PubMed Central

    Kakui, Yasutaka; Sunaga, Tomonari; Arai, Kunio; Dodgson, James; Ji, Liang; Csikász-Nagy, Attila; Carazo-Salas, Rafael; Sato, Masamitsu

    2015-01-01

    Integration of an external gene into a fission yeast chromosome is useful to investigate the effect of the gene product. An easy way to knock-in a gene construct is use of an integration plasmid, which can be targeted and inserted to a chromosome through homologous recombination. Despite the advantage of integration, construction of integration plasmids is energy- and time-consuming, because there is no systematic library of integration plasmids with various promoters, fluorescent protein tags, terminators and selection markers; therefore, researchers are often forced to make appropriate ones through multiple rounds of cloning procedures. Here, we establish materials and methods to easily construct integration plasmids. We introduce a convenient cloning system based on Golden Gate DNA shuffling, which enables the connection of multiple DNA fragments at once: any kind of promoters and terminators, the gene of interest, in combination with any fluorescent protein tag genes and any selection markers. Each of those DNA fragments, called a ‘module’, can be tandemly ligated in the order we desire in a single reaction, which yields a circular plasmid in a one-step manner. The resulting plasmids can be integrated through standard methods for transformation. Thus, these materials and methods help easy construction of knock-in strains, and this will further increase the value of fission yeast as a model organism. PMID:26108218

  16. Activated singlet exciton fission in a semiconducting polymer.

    PubMed

    Musser, Andrew J; Al-Hashimi, Mohammed; Maiuri, Margherita; Brida, Daniele; Heeney, Martin; Cerullo, Giulio; Friend, Richard H; Clark, Jenny

    2013-08-28

    Singlet exciton fission is a spin-allowed process to generate two triplet excitons from a single absorbed photon. This phenomenon offers great potential in organic photovoltaics, but the mechanism remains poorly understood. Most reports to date have addressed intermolecular fission within small-molecular crystals. However, through appropriate chemical design chromophores capable of intramolecular fission can also be produced. Here we directly observe sub-100 fs activated singlet fission in a semiconducting poly(thienylenevinylene). We demonstrate that fission proceeds directly from the initial 1Bu exciton, contrary to current models that involve the lower-lying 2Ag exciton. In solution, the generated triplet pairs rapidly recombine and decay through the 2Ag state. In films, exciton diffusion breaks this symmetry and we observe long-lived triplets which form charge-transfer states in photovoltaic blends.

  17. Angular momentum effects in multimodal fission of {sup 226}Th

    SciTech Connect

    Chubarian, G.G.; Hurst, B.J.; OKelly, D.; Schmitt, R.P.; Itkis, M.G.; Kondratiev, N.A.; Kozulin, E.M.; Oganessian, Y.T.; Pashkevich, V.V.; Pokrovsky, I.V.; Salamatin, V.S.; Rusanov, A.Y.; Calabretta, L.; Maiolino, C.; Lukashin, K.; Agodi, C.; Bellia, G.; Hanappe, F.; Liatard, E.; Huck, A.; Stuttge, L.

    1998-12-01

    The {gamma}-rays from the multimodal fission of the {sup 226}Th formed in {sup 18}O+{sup 208}Pb was investigated at the near- and sub-barrier energies. The corresponding excitation energies at the saddle point, E{sub sp}{sup {asterisk}}, ranged from 23 to 26 MeV. The average {gamma}-ray multiplicities and relative {gamma}-ray energies as a function of the mass of the fission fragments exhibits a complex structure and strong variations. Such strong variations have never been previously observed in heavy ion-induced fusion-fission reactions. Obtained results may be explained with the influence of shell effects on the properties of the fission fragments. Present work is the one in series of investigation of the multimodal fission phenomena in At-Th region. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  18. A nonproteolytic proteasome activity controls organelle fission in yeast.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Line; Saunier, Rémy; Cossard, Raynald; Esposito, Michela; Rinaldi, Teresa; Delahodde, Agnès

    2009-10-15

    To understand the processes underlying organelle function, dynamics and inheritance, it is necessary to identify and characterize the regulatory components involved. Recently in yeast and mammals, proteins of the membrane fission machinery (Dnm1-Mdv1-Caf4-Fis1 in yeast and DLP1-FIS1 in human) have been shown to have a dual localization on mitochondria and peroxisomes, where they control mitochondrial fission and peroxisome division. Here, we show that whereas vacuole fusion is regulated by the proteasome degradation function, mitochondrial fission and peroxisomal division are not controlled by the proteasome activity but rather depend on a new function of the proteasomal lid subunit Rpn11. Rpn11 was found to regulate the Fis1-dependent fission machinery of both organelles. These findings indicate a unique role of the Rpn11 protein in mitochondrial fission and peroxisomal proliferation that is independent of its role in proteasome-associated deubiquitylation.

  19. Mitochondrial fission - a drug target for cytoprotection or cytodestruction?

    PubMed

    Rosdah, Ayeshah A; K Holien, Jessica; Delbridge, Lea M D; Dusting, Gregory J; Lim, Shiang Y

    2016-06-01

    Mitochondria are morphologically dynamic organelles constantly undergoing processes of fission and fusion that maintain integrity and bioenergetics of the organelle: these processes are vital for cell survival. Disruption in the balance of mitochondrial fusion and fission is thought to play a role in several pathological conditions including ischemic heart disease. Proteins involved in regulating the processes of mitochondrial fusion and fission are therefore potential targets for pharmacological therapies. Mdivi-1 is a small molecule inhibitor of the mitochondrial fission protein Drp1. Inhibiting mitochondrial fission with Mdivi-1 has proven cytoprotective benefits in several cell types involved in a wide array of cardiovascular injury models. On the other hand, Mdivi-1 can also exert antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects, particularly in hyperproliferative cells. In this review, we discuss these divergent effects of Mdivi-1 on cell survival, as well as the potential and limitations of Mdivi-1 as a therapeutic agent.

  20. Angular momentum effects in multimodal fission of 226Th

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubarian, G. G.; Hurst, B. J.; O'Kelly, D.; Schmitt, R. P.; Itkis, M. G.; Kondratiev, N. A.; Kozulin, E. M.; Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Pashkevich, V. V.; Pokrovsky, I. V.; Salamatin, V. S.; Rusanov, A. Ya.; Calabretta, L.; Maiolino, C.; Lukashin, K.; Agodi, C.; Bellia, G.; Hanappe, F.; Liatard, E.; Huck, A.; Stuttgé, L.

    1998-12-01

    The γ-rays from the multimodal fission of the 226Th formed in 18O+208Pb was investigated at the near- and sub-barrier energies. The corresponding excitation energies at the saddle point, Esp*, ranged from 23 to 26 MeV. The average γ-ray multiplicities and relative γ-ray energies as a function of the mass of the fission fragments exhibits a complex structure and strong variations. Such strong variations have never been previously observed in heavy ion-induced fusion-fission reactions. Obtained results may be explained with the influence of shell effects on the properties of the fission fragments. Present work is the one in series of investigation of the multimodal fission phenomena in At-Th region.