Science.gov

Sample records for fission poisons

  1. Separation of the rare-earth fission product poisons from spent nuclear fuel

    DOEpatents

    Christian, Jerry D.; Sterbentz, James W.

    2016-08-30

    A method for the separation of the rare-earth fission product poisons comprising providing a spent nuclear fuel. The spent nuclear fuel comprises UO.sub.2 and rare-earth oxides, preferably Sm, Gd, Nd, Eu oxides, with other elements depending on the fuel composition. Preferably, the provided nuclear fuel is a powder, preferably formed by crushing the nuclear fuel or using one or more oxidation-reduction cycles. A compound comprising Th or Zr, preferably metal, is provided. The provided nuclear fuel is mixed with the Th or Zr, thereby creating a mixture. The mixture is then heated to a temperature sufficient to reduce the UO.sub.2 in the nuclear fuel, preferably to at least to 850.degree. C. for Th and up to 600.degree. C. for Zr. Rare-earth metals are then extracted to form the heated mixture thereby producing a treated nuclear fuel. The treated nuclear fuel comprises the provided nuclear fuel having a significant reduction in rare-earths.

  2. Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... gas heater and any other gas-, oil- or wood-fueled appliances serviced regularly. Be sure these appliances ... on the skin, rinse it off with running water and remove any poisoned clothing. If the poison ...

  3. Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... talking with the Poison Control Center. GETTING HELP Call the Poison Control Center emergency number at 1-800-222-1222. DO NOT wait until the person has symptoms before you call. Try to have the following information ready: The ...

  4. Lanolin poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Wool wax poisoning; Wool alcohol poisoning; Glossylan poisoning; Golden dawn poisoning; Sparklelan poisoning ... Symptoms of lanolin poisoning include: Diarrhea Rash Swelling and redness of skin Vomiting

  5. Refrigerant poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Coolant poisoning; Freon poisoning; Fluorinated hydrocarbon poisoning; Sudden sniffing death syndrome ... should call if you have any questions about poisoning or poison prevention. It does NOT need to ...

  6. Diazinon poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Bazinon poisoning; Diazol poisoning; Gardentox poisoning; Knox-Out poisoning; Spectracide poisoning ... Below are symptoms of diazinon poisoning in different parts of the ... No breathing Bladder and kidneys: Increased urination Eyes, ...

  7. Malathion poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Carbofos poisoning; Compound 4049 poisoning; Cythion poisoning; Fosfothion poisoning; Mercaptothion poisoning ... Below are symptoms of malathion poisoning in different parts of the ... No breathing Bladder and kidneys Increased urination Eyes, ...

  8. Paraffin poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Wax poisoning - paraffin ... number will let you talk to experts in poisoning. They will give you further instructions. This is ... should call if you have any questions about poisoning or poison prevention. It does NOT need to ...

  9. Methanol poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Wood alcohol poisoning ... number will let you talk to experts in poisoning. They will give you further instructions. This is ... should call if you have any questions about poisoning or poison prevention. You can call 24 hours ...

  10. Lead Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Experiments Stories Lessons Topics Games Activities Lessons MENU Lead Poisoning Kids Homepage Topics Pollution Lead Poisoning What is ... you can avoid contact with it! Sources of Lead Poisoning HOUSE PAINTS: Before1950, lead-based paint was used ...

  11. Lead Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Lead Poisoning What is it and who is affected? Lead is a highly toxic substance, exposure to which ... and children can suffer from the effects of lead poisoning, but childhood lead poisoning is much more frequent. ...

  12. Acetone poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Dimethyl formaldehyde poisoning; Dimethyl ketone poisoning; Nail polish remover poisoning ... Acetone can be found in: Nail polish remover Some cleaning solutions Some glues, including rubber cement Some lacquers Other products may also contain acetone.

  13. Foxglove poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Foxglove poisoning most often occurs from sucking the flowers or eating the seeds, stems, or leaves of ... The poisonous substances are found in: Flowers, leaves, stems, and seeds of the foxglove plant Heart medicine (digitalis glycoside)

  14. Ethanol poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002644.htm Ethanol poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Ethanol poisoning is caused by drinking too much alcohol. ...

  15. Starch poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Cooking starch poisoning; Laundry starch poisoning ... Cooking and laundry starch are both made from vegetable products, most commonly: Corn Potatoes Rice Wheat Both are usually considered nonpoisonous (nontoxic), but ...

  16. Poisonous Plants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH POISONOUS PLANTS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Photo courtesy ... U.S. Department of Agriculture Many native and exotic plants are poisonous to humans when ingested or if ...

  17. Copper poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 75. Holland MG. Pulmonary toxicology. ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 9. Jones AL, Dargan PI. ...

  18. Carbolic acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Phenol poisoning; Phenylic acid poisoning; Hydroxybenzene poisoning; Phenic acid poisoning; Benzenol poisoning ... Below are symptoms of carbolic acid poisoning in different parts of the ... urine Decreased urine output No urine output EYES, EARS, ...

  19. Sodium carbonate poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Sal soda poisoning; Soda ash poisoning; Disodium salt poisoning; Carbonic acid poisoning; Washing soda poisoning ... number will let you talk to experts in poisoning. They will give you further instructions. This is ...

  20. Black nightshade poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Nightshade poisoning; Morelle noire poisoning; Wonderberry poisoning ... Black nightshade poisoning can affect many areas of the body. EYES, EARS, NOSE, MOUTH, AND THROAT Dry mouth Enlarged (dilated) pupils ...

  1. Blue nightshade poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Bittersweet poisoning; Bitter nightshade poisoning; Scarlet berry poisoning; Weedy nightshade poisoning ... slow Shock LUNGS Slow breathing NERVOUS SYSTEM Delirium Fever Hallucinations Headache Loss of sensation Paralysis WHOLE BODY ...

  2. Poisonous plants.

    PubMed

    Kellerman, T S

    2009-03-01

    South Africa is blessed with one of the richest floras in the world, which--not surprisingly--includes many poisonous plants. Theiler in the founding years believed that plants could be involved in the aetiologies of many of the then unexplained conditions of stock, such as gousiekte and geeldikkop. His subsequent investigations of plant poisonings largely laid the foundation for the future Sections of Toxicology at the Institute and the Faculty of Veterinary Science (UP). The history of research into plant poisonings over the last 100 years is briefly outlined. Some examples of sustained research on important plant poisonings, such as cardiac glycoside poisoning and gousiekte, are given to illustrate our approach to the subject and the progress that has been made. The collation and transfer of information and the impact of plant poisonings on the livestock industry is discussed and possible avenues of future research are investigated.

  3. Stonefish poisoning.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Richard Mark

    2004-01-01

    Scuba diving is becoming an increasingly popular recreation. Divers are traveling further afield, often to remote dive locations. These locations are often home to poisonous marine creatures such as stonefish. A case of acute stonefish poisoning in a scuba diver is described, including his treatment, the difficulties encountered with his management and evacuation, and his subsequent return to full health. The proper management of stonefish poisoning is reviewed, and the implications for divers traveling to remote locations are given.

  4. Outsmarting Poison Ivy and Other Poisonous Plants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Consumer Updates Outsmarting Poison Ivy and Other Poisonous Plants Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... hang in loose clusters. back to top Poison Plant Rashes Aren’t Contagious Poison ivy and other ...

  5. Jerusalem cherry poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Christmas cherry poisoning; Winter cherry poisoning; Ground cherry poisoning ... The effects of Jerusalem cherry poisoning mostly affect the primarily gastrointestinal (often delayed 8 to10 hours), and central nervous system. This type of poisoning can be very ...

  6. Depletion optimization of lumped burnable poisons in pressurized water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Kodah, Z.H.

    1982-01-01

    Techniques were developed to construct a set of basic poison depletion curves which deplete in a monotonical manner. These curves were combined to match a required optimized depletion profile by utilizing either linear or non-linear programming methods. Three computer codes, LEOPARD, XSDRN, and EXTERMINATOR-2 were used in the analyses. A depletion routine was developed and incorporated into the XSDRN code to allow the depletion of fuel, fission products, and burnable poisons. The Three Mile Island Unit-1 reactor core was used in this work as a typical PWR core. Two fundamental burnable poison rod designs were studied. They are a solid cylindrical poison rod and an annular cylindrical poison rod with water filling the central region.These two designs have either a uniform mixture of burnable poisons or lumped spheroids of burnable poisons in the poison region. Boron and gadolinium are the two burnable poisons which were investigated in this project. Thermal self-shielding factor calculations for solid and annular poison rods were conducted. Also expressions for overall thermal self-shielding factors for one or more than one size group of poison spheroids inside solid and annular poison rods were derived and studied. Poison spheroids deplete at a slower rate than the poison mixture because each spheroid exhibits some self-shielding effects of its own. The larger the spheroid, the higher the self-shielding effects due to the increase in poison concentration.

  7. Detergent poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002777.htm Detergent poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Detergents are powerful cleaning products that may contain strong ...

  8. Wax poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Crayons poisoning ... This ingredient is found in: Crayons Candles Canning wax Note: This list may not be all-inclusive. ... If a child eats a small amount of crayon, the wax will pass through the child's system ...

  9. Pokeweed poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... highest amounts of poison are found in the roots, leaves, and stems. Small amounts are in the ... is no guarantee that they are safe. The roots should never be eaten. Symptoms most often appear ...

  10. Yew poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... poisoning occurs when someone eats pieces of this plant. This article is for information only. DO NOT use it ... information: Person's age, weight, and condition Name and part of the plant that was swallowed, if known Time it was ...

  11. Gasoline poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    The poisonous ingredients in gasoline are chemicals called hydrocarbons, which are substances that contain only hydrogen and ... Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ...

  12. Lacquer poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Poisoning from lacquers is due to hydrocarbons, which are substances that contain only hydrogen and carbon. ... Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  13. Menthol poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Menthol is used to add peppermint flavor to candy and other products. It is also used in certain skin lotions and ointments. This article discusses menthol poisoning from swallowing pure menthol. This article is ...

  14. Food poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... at picnics, school cafeterias, large social functions, or restaurants. When germs get into the food, it is ... an unsafe way during preparation in grocery stores, restaurants, or homes. Food poisoning can occur after eating ...

  15. Mistletoe poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002883.htm Mistletoe poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Mistletoe is an evergreen plant with white berries. Mistletoe ...

  16. Merthiolate poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... once widely used as germ-killer and a preservative in many different products, including vaccines. Merthiolate poisoning ... the throat (endoscopy) to see burns in the food pipe (esophagus) and stomach Chest x-ray EKG ( ...

  17. Spontaneous Fission

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Segre, Emilio

    1950-11-22

    The first attempt to discover spontaneous fission in uranium was made by [Willard] Libby, who, however, failed to detect it on account of the smallness of effect. In 1940, [K. A.] Petrzhak and [G. N.] Flerov, using more sensitive methods, discovered spontaneous fission in uranium and gave some rough estimates of the spontaneous fission decay constant of this substance. Subsequently, extensive experimental work on the subject has been performed by several investigators and will be quoted in the various sections. [N.] Bohr and [A.] Wheeler have given a theory of the effect based on the usual ideas of penetration of potential barriers. On this project spontaneous fission has been studied for the past several years in an effort to obtain a complete picture of the phenomenon. For this purpose the spontaneous fission decay constants {lambda} have been measured for separated isotopes of the heavy elements wherever possible. Moreover, the number {nu} of neutrons emitted per fission has been measured wherever feasible, and other characteristics of the spontaneous fission process have been studied. This report summarizes the spontaneous fission work done at Los Alamos up to January 1, 1945. A chronological record of the work is contained in the Los Alamos monthly reports.

  18. Shaving cream poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Shaving lotion poisoning ... number will let you talk to experts in poisoning. They will give you further instructions. This is ... should call if you have any questions about poisoning or poison prevention. It does NOT need to ...

  19. Lip moisturizer poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Chapstick poisoning ... number will let you talk to experts in poisoning. They will give you further instructions. This is ... should call if you have any questions about poisoning or poison prevention. It does NOT need to ...

  20. Photographic fixative poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Photographic developer poisoning; Hydroquinone poisoning; Quinone poisoning; Sulfite poisoning ... Hydroquinones Quinones Sodium thiosulfate Sodium sulfite/bisulfite Boric acid Photographic fixative can also break down (decompose) to form sulfur dioxide gas.

  1. Arsenic poisoning.

    PubMed

    Schoolmeester, W L; White, D R

    1980-02-01

    Arsenic poisoning continues to require awareness of its diverse clinical manifestations. Industry is the major source of arsenic exposure. Although epidemiologic studies strongly contend that arsenic is carcinogenic, there are little supportive research data. Arsenic poisoning, both acute and chronic, is often overlooked initially in the evaluation of the patient with multisystem disease, but once it is suspected, many accurate methods are available to quantitate the amount and duration of exposure. Treatment with dimercaprol remains the mainstay of therapy, and early treatment is necessary to prevent irreversible complications.

  2. Scombroid Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Lerke, Peter A.; Werner, S. Benson; Taylor, Stephen L.; Guthertz, Linda S.

    1978-01-01

    An outbreak of scombroid poisoning occurred in San Francisco in the fall of 1977. The vehicle was sashimi prepared from spoiled tuna fish. Prompt public health measures prevented further consumption of the implicated food. Laboratory studies showed the presence in the tuna of bacterial species capable of producing large amounts of histamine, a substance strongly implicated in scombroid poisoning. Chemical analysis showed that histamine is very unevenly distributed in the flesh of spoiling tuna, therefore accounting for the sometimes random occurrence of disease among people eating the same food at the same table. PMID:569397

  3. Poison Ivy

    MedlinePlus

    ... poison ivy”. The plant is found around the world, but it usually doesn’t grow in the desert or in high elevations. It usually grows in clusters in the woods, up in trees, and on the ground. Every part of the ...

  4. Paradichlorobenzene poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... level of alertness). Before Calling Emergency Have this information ready: Person's age, weight, and condition (for example, is the person awake or alert?) Name of the product Time it was swallowed Amount swallowed However, DO NOT delay calling ... Poison Control Your local ...

  5. Lead poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Rekus, J.F.

    1992-08-01

    Construction workers who weld, cut or blast structural steel coated with lead-based paint are at significant risk of lead poisoning. Although technology to control these exposures may not have existed when the lead standard was promulgated, it is available today. Employers who do not take steps to protect their employees from lead exposure may be cited and fined severely for their failure.

  6. Antifreeze poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... breathing machine Chest x-ray CT scan (advanced brain imaging) EKG (electrocardiogram or heart tracing) Intravenous fluids (through a vein) Medicines to reverse the effects of the poison Tube placed ... Sometimes the person will need it for the rest of their life.

  7. Poison Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Safety & Prevention ... Content Article Body Post the Poison Help number 1-800-222-1222 on the emergency list next to every phone in your home and in your cell phone. A toddler or preschooler who vomits may ...

  8. Poison Ivy

    MedlinePlus

    ... ground. It is usually found in groups of many plants and looks like weeds growing from 6 inches ... or anything else that may have touched the plant (like camping, sporting, fishing or hunting gear). If you develop a poison ivy rash, it will go away on its own in 1 to 3 ...

  9. Spontaneous fission

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.C.

    1993-09-01

    The spontaneous fission (SF) of the heaviest actinides and the transactinides is of particular interest because of the dramatic changes in properties observed in the region of the heavy fermion isotopes and for still heavier elements. The existing experimental information on SF properties including half-life systematics, fragment kinetic-energy and mass-yield distributions, prompt neutron emission, and gamma emission will be reviewed. Possibility for extending studies of SF properties to other regions are considered and the potential for obtaining additional information about low-energy fission properties is discussed.

  10. [Superwarfarine Poisoning].

    PubMed

    Freixo, Ana; Lopes, Luís; Carvalho, Manuela; Araújo, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The superwarfarin-type anticoagulant rodenticides are used throughout the world and distinguish themselves from warfarin for its high potency and long acting anticoagulant activity. Easy access to these products enables the accidental or deliberate human poisoning. A case of voluntary rodenticide poisoning (RATIBRONÂ) by a woman who ingested an estimated 27.5 mg of bromadiolone total quantity for two weeks, with minor bleeding episodes, whose reversal of the anticoagulant effect with the correction of the abnormal values of the clotting tests took about one month to reverse is reported here. The correction of the haemostasis defects takes usually a long time and there are no treatment guidelines, but a gradually vitamin K dosage reduction, as out patients, along with the monitoring of the International Normalized Ratio levels, allows a safe evaluation of the therapeutic response.

  11. [Superwarfarine Poisoning].

    PubMed

    Freixo, Ana; Lopes, Luís; Carvalho, Manuela; Araújo, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The superwarfarin-type anticoagulant rodenticides are used throughout the world and distinguish themselves from warfarin for its high potency and long acting anticoagulant activity. Easy access to these products enables the accidental or deliberate human poisoning. A case of voluntary rodenticide poisoning (RATIBRONÂ) by a woman who ingested an estimated 27.5 mg of bromadiolone total quantity for two weeks, with minor bleeding episodes, whose reversal of the anticoagulant effect with the correction of the abnormal values of the clotting tests took about one month to reverse is reported here. The correction of the haemostasis defects takes usually a long time and there are no treatment guidelines, but a gradually vitamin K dosage reduction, as out patients, along with the monitoring of the International Normalized Ratio levels, allows a safe evaluation of the therapeutic response. PMID:26421794

  12. Benchmarking nuclear fission theory

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bertsch, G. F.; Loveland, W.; Nazarewicz, W.; Talou, P.

    2015-05-14

    We suggest a small set of fission observables to be used as test cases for validation of theoretical calculations. Thus, the purpose is to provide common data to facilitate the comparison of different fission theories and models. The proposed observables are chosen from fission barriers, spontaneous fission lifetimes, fission yield characteristics, and fission isomer excitation energies.

  13. Lead poisoning.

    PubMed Central

    Landrigan, P J; Todd, A C

    1994-01-01

    Lead poisoning is the most common disease of environmental origin in the United States today. Adult lead poisoning results primarily from exposure by inhalation in the workplace. Pediatric lead poisoning results principally from the ingestion of lead from environmental media, including paint chips, dust, soil, drinking water, ceramics, and medications. Lead is toxic to many organ systems, among them developing erythrocytes, the kidneys, and the nervous system. Lead-induced toxicity to the central nervous system causes delayed development, diminished intelligence, and altered behavior. In young children, this effect has been demonstrated convincingly to occur at blood lead levels between 10 and 20 micrograms per dl. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has recommended that a blood lead level of 10 micrograms per dl or higher be considered evidence of increased lead absorption, and the National Academy of Sciences has concurred in that recommendation. Unresolved issues in need of further study include the frequency of screening young children for lead, the question of whether women should be offered screening for lead before conceiving a pregnancy, the role of x-ray fluorescence analysis in assessing lead in bone, and the appropriate legislative response of the United States government to lead-based paint abatement. PMID:7941534

  14. [Drug poisoning].

    PubMed

    Gainza, I; Nogué, S; Martínez Velasco, C; Hoffman, R S; Burillo-Putze, G; Dueñas, A; Gómez, J; Pinillos, M A

    2003-01-01

    A review is made of acute poisoning by opiates and its treatment in the emergency services, bearing in mind the progressive decline in the number of cases presented with the arrival of new forms of their administration, as well as the presence of new addictive drugs that have resulted in a shift in consumption habits. Reference is also made to the way in which the different types of existing substances originated, with the aim of achieving a better understanding of their use and in order to administer the most suitable treatment when poisoning occurs. Cocaine poisoning is discussed, with reference to its clinical picture, diagnosis and treatment. The consumption of illegal drugs in our country has undergone a notable change in recent years, with heroin being relegated and the incorporation of cocaine, amphetamine derivatives such as "ecstasy" (MDMA), "liquid ecstasy" (GHB) and, to a lesser extent, ketamine. A review is made of cannabis and its derivates, from the history of its consumption and the preparations employed to the effects produced in the different bodily systems. A brief explanation is also given of its metabolites and its principal mechanisms of action. Finally, we comment on the effects of LSD and hallucinogenic mushrooms.

  15. Fission Spectrum

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Bloch, F.; Staub, H.

    1943-08-18

    Measurements of the spectrum of the fission neutrons of 25 are described, in which the energy of the neutrons is determined from the ionization produced by individual hydrogen recoils. The slow neutrons producing fission are obtained by slowing down the fast neutrons from the Be-D reaction of the Stanford cyclotron. In order to distinguish between fission neutrons and the remaining fast cyclotron neutrons both the cyclotron current and the pusle amplifier are modulated. A hollow neutron container, in which slow neutrons have a lifetime of about 2 milliseconds, avoids the use of large distances. This method results in much higher intensities than the usual modulation arrangement. The results show a continuous distribution of neutrons with a rather wide maximum at about 0.8 MV falling off to half of its maximum value at 2.0 MV. The total number of netrons is determined by comparison with the number of fission fragments. The result seems to indicate that only about 30% of the neutrons have energies below .8 MV. Various tests are described which were performed in order to rule out modification of the spectrum by inelastic scattering. Decl. May 4, 1951

  16. Bimodal fission

    SciTech Connect

    Hulet, E.K.

    1989-04-19

    In recent years, we have measured the mass and kinetic-energy distributions from the spontaneous fission of /sup 258/Fm, /sup 259/Md, /sup 260/Md, /sup 258/No, /sup 262/No, and /sup 260/(104). All are observed to fission with a symmetrical division of mass, whereas the total-kinetic-energy (TKE) distributions strongly deviated from the Gaussian shape characteristically found in the fission of all other actinides. When the TKE distributions are resolved into two Gaussians the constituent peaks lie near 200 and near 233 MeV. We conclude two modes or bimodal fission is occurring in five of the six nuclides studied. Both modes are possible in the same nuclides, but one generally predominates. We also conclude the low-energy but mass-symmetrical mode is likely to extend to far heavier nuclei; while the high-energy mode will be restricted to a smaller region, a region of nuclei defined by the proximity of the fragments to the strong neutron and proton shells in /sup 132/Sn. 16 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Clinitest tablets poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Urine sugar reagent poisoning; Anhydrous Benedict's reagent poisoning ... Symptoms of poisoning from Clinitest tablets are: Blood in urine Burns and burning pain in the mouth and throat Collapse Convulsions ...

  18. Mercuric chloride poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mercuric chloride is a very poisonous form of mercury. It is a type of mercury salt. There are different types of mercury poisonings . This article discusses poisoning from swallowing mercuric ...

  19. Plastic casting resin poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Epoxy poisoning; Resin poisoning ... Epoxy and resin can be poisonous if they are swallowed or their fumes are breathed in. ... Plastic casting resins are found in various plastic casting resin products.

  20. Lead Poisoning Prevention Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... CDC.gov . Lead Home Calendar of Events National Lead Poisoning Prevention Week Archived Materials CDC's Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program Advisory Committee (ACCLPP) Current Activities Blood ...

  1. Protecting Yourself from Poisonous Plants

    MedlinePlus

    ... NIOSH NIOSH Fast Facts: Protecting Yourself from Poisonous Plants Language: English Español (Spanish) Kreyol Haitien (Hatian Creole) ... outdoors is at risk of exposure to poisonous plants, such as poison ivy, poison oak, and poison ...

  2. Fission meter

    DOEpatents

    Rowland, Mark S.; Snyderman, Neal J.

    2012-04-10

    A neutron detector system for discriminating fissile material from non-fissile material wherein a digital data acquisition unit collects data at high rate, and in real-time processes large volumes of data directly into information that a first responder can use to discriminate materials. The system comprises counting neutrons from the unknown source and detecting excess grouped neutrons to identify fission in the unknown source.

  3. House of Poison: Poisons in the Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Rosanne

    One of a series of instructional materials produced by the Literacy Council of Alaska, this booklet provides information about common household poisons. Using a simplified vocabulary and shorter sentences, it provides statistics concerning accidental poisonings; a list of the places poisons are usually found in the home; steps to make the home…

  4. [Mercury poisoning].

    PubMed

    Bensefa-Colas, L; Andujar, P; Descatha, A

    2011-07-01

    Mercury is a widespread heavy metal with potential severe impacts on human health. Exposure conditions to mercury and profile of toxicity among humans depend on the chemical forms of the mercury: elemental or metallic mercury, inorganic or organic mercury compounds. This article aims to reviewing and synthesizing the main knowledge of the mercury toxicity and its organic compounds that clinicians should know. Acute inhalation of metallic or inorganic mercury vapours mainly induces pulmonary diseases, whereas chronic inhalation rather induces neurological or renal disorders (encephalopathy and interstitial or glomerular nephritis). Methylmercury poisonings from intoxicated food occurred among some populations resulting in neurological disorders and developmental troubles for children exposed in utero. Treatment using chelating agents is recommended in case of symptomatic acute mercury intoxication; sometimes it improves the clinical effects of chronic mercury poisoning. Although it is currently rare to encounter situations of severe intoxication, efforts remain necessary to decrease the mercury concentration in the environment and to reduce risk on human health due to low level exposure (dental amalgam, fish contamination by organic mercury compounds…). In case of occupational exposure to mercury and its compounds, some disorders could be compensated in France. Clinicians should work with toxicologists for the diagnosis and treatment of mercury intoxication.

  5. Prevention of Food Poisoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Army Quartermaster School, Ft. Lee, VA.

    The programed text provides a single lesson, four-hour, correspondence subcourse on the prevention of food poisoning. It covers the following areas: a definition of food poisoning; chemical food poisoning; biological food poisoning; causes and prevention of trichinosis; six factors controlling bacteria growth; bacterial infection; prevention of…

  6. Poisons information in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Chao, T C; Tay, M K; Bloodworth, B C; Lim, K H

    1993-03-01

    The Poisons Information Centre (PIC) provides viral and timely information to prevent and manage poisoning episodes. Comprehensive information on household, agricultural and industrial chemicals, natural toxins, pharmaceuticals, local antidote stocks and local poisons experts is retrieved from the Centre's computerised information system and printed literature. Public subscribers can obtain poisons information through Teleview.

  7. Neurotoxic marine poisoning.

    PubMed

    Isbister, Geoffrey K; Kiernan, Matthew C

    2005-04-01

    Marine poisoning results from the ingestion of marine animals that contain toxic substances and causes substantial illness in coastal regions. Three main clinical syndromes of marine poisoning have important neurological symptoms-ciguatera, tetrodotoxin poisoning, and paralytic shellfish poisoning. Ciguatera is the commonest syndrome of marine poisoning and is characterised by moderate to severe gastrointestinal effects (vomiting, diarrhoea, and abdominal cramps) and neurological effects (myalgia, paraesthesia, cold allodynia, and ataxia), but is rarely lethal. Tetrodotoxin poisoning and paralytic shellfish poisoning are less common but have a higher fatality rate than ciguatera. Mild gastrointestinal effects and a descending paralysis are characteristic of these types of poisoning. In severe poisoning, paralysis rapidly progresses to respiratory failure. Diagnosis of all types of marine poisoning is made from the circumstances of ingestion (type of fish and location) and the clinical effects. Because there are no antidotes, supportive care, including mechanical ventilation in patients with severe paralysis, is the mainstay of treatment.

  8. Arsenic: the forgotten poison?

    PubMed

    Barton, E N; Gilbert, D T; Raju, K; Morgan, O S

    1992-03-01

    Chronic arsenic poisoning is an uncommon cause of peripheral neuropathy in Jamaica. A patient with this disorder is described. The insidious nature of chronic arsenic poisoning, with its disabling complications, is emphasised.

  9. Household glue poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 94. Zosel AE. General approach to the poisoned patient. In: Adams JG, ...

  10. Hand lotion poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002708.htm Hand lotion poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hand lotion poisoning occurs when someone swallows hand lotion or ...

  11. Bubble bath soap poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002762.htm Bubble bath soap poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Bubble bath soap poisoning occurs when someone swallows bubble bath soap. ...

  12. Furniture polish poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... eyes, or ears Severe stomach pain Throat swelling Vomiting, possibly bloody Blood in your stools If the poison touched your skin or eyes you may have: Skin burns and irritation Vision loss If the poison is ...

  13. Potassium hydroxide poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    This article discusses poisoning from swallowing or touching potassium hydroxide or products that contain this chemical. This article is for information only. Do NOT use it to treat or manage an actual poison exposure. If ...

  14. Toluene and xylene poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Xylene poisoning ... Below are symptoms of toluene and xylene poisoning in different parts of the body. EYES, EARS, NOSE, AND THROAT Blurred vision Burning pain Hearing loss STOMACH AND INTESTINES Bloody stools Abdominal ...

  15. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... them in. The most common symptoms of CO poisoning are Headache Dizziness Weakness Nausea Vomiting Chest pain ... often hard to tell if someone has CO poisoning, because the symptoms may be like those of ...

  16. Cold wave lotion poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Thioglycolate poisoning ... Below are symptoms of cold wave lotion poisoning in different parts of the body. EYES, EARS, NOSE, AND THROAT Mouth irritation Burning and redness of the eyes Possibly serious damage to ...

  17. Boric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Borax poisoning ... The main symptoms of boric acid poisoning are blue-green vomit, diarrhea, and a bright red rash on the skin. Other symptoms may include: Blisters Collapse Coma Convulsions Drowsiness ...

  18. Hair bleach poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002702.htm Hair bleach poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair bleach poisoning occurs when someone swallows hair bleach or ...

  19. Plant fertilizer poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Plant fertilizers and household plant foods are used to improve plant growth. Poisoning can occur if someone swallows these products. Plant fertilizers are mildly poisonous if small amounts are swallowed. ...

  20. Bracken fern poisoning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) is found throughout the world and enzootic hematuria, bright blindness, and bracken staggers. This chapter reviews the plant, the various poisoning syndrome that it produces, the current strategies to prevent poisoning, and recommended treatments....

  1. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... By Syndrome Life Cycle Impacts Human Health Wildlife Ecosystems Socioeconomic Freshwater Regions Distribution - U.S. Distribution - World Maps ... Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning Cyanobacteria Medical Community ... Fish Poisoning Causative organisms: Gambierdiscus ...

  2. Hydrochloric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Hydrochloric acid is a clear, poisonous liquid. It is highly corrosive, which means it immediately causes severe ... discusses poisoning due to swallowing or breathing in hydrochloric acid. This article is for information only. Do ...

  3. [Natural toxin poisoning].

    PubMed

    Tsunematsu, Satoshi

    2012-08-01

    Natural toxin poisoning often occurs when amateur who has no expert knowledge of food collects and cooks the wrong material. In many cases, the symptoms of natural toxin poisoning are mild and the patients recover from illness within a day. However, if the patients have respiratory or neurological symptoms after several hours of intake, the patients must go to hospital immediately. Mushroom poisoning is often reported and puffer fish poisoning is sometimes reported in Japan.

  4. Lead Poisoning (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Lead Poisoning KidsHealth > For Parents > Lead Poisoning Print A A ... Family en español La intoxicación por plomo About Lead Poisoning If you have young kids, it's important to ...

  5. Lead Poisoning in Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pueschel, Siegfried M., Ed.; Linakis, James G., Ed.; Anderson, Angela C., Ed.

    The magnitude of childhood lead poisoning has been inexplicably neglected by modern medicine and by legislators. However, since the 1970s, increased attention has been focused on lead poisoning, and advances have been made in several areas, including understanding of the neurodevelopmental and behavioral ramifications of lead poisoning, and…

  6. Lead Poisoning in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drummond, A. H., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Early symptoms of lead poisoning in children are often overlooked. Lead poisoning has its greatest effects on the brain and nervous system. The obvious long-term solution to the lead poisoning problem is removal of harmful forms of the metal from the environment. (JN)

  7. Lead poisoning: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gendel, Neil

    1993-01-01

    A problem that should be of great concern to all of us is the lead poisoning of children. First, I would like to present a short overview concerning the reasons everyone should care about lead poisoning, then discuss the history of lead poisoning, what is happening today across the country, and the future.

  8. Seminar on Fission VI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagemans, Cyriel; Wagemans, Jan; D'Hondt, Pierre

    2008-04-01

    Topical reviews. Angular momentum in fission / F. Gönnenwein ... [et al.]. The processes of fusion-fission and quasi-fission of heavy and super-heavy nuclei / M. G. Itkis ... [et al.] -- Fission cross sections and fragment properties. Minor-actinides fission cross sections and fission fragment mass yields via the surrogate reaction technique / B. Jurado ... [et al.]. Proton-induced fission on actinide nuclei at medium energy / S. Isaev ... [et al.]. Fission cross sections of minor actinides and application in transmutation studies / A. Letourneau ... [et al.]. Systematics on even-odd effects in fission fragments yields: comparison between symmetric and asymmetric splits / F. Rejmund, M Caamano. Measurement of kinetic energy distributions, mass and isotopic yields in the heavy fission products region at Lohengrin / A. Bail ... [et al.] -- Ternary fission. On the Ternary [symbol] spectrum in [symbol]Cf(sf) / M. Mutterer ... [et al.]. Energy degrader technique for light-charged particle spectroscopy at LOHENGRIN / A. Oberstedt, S. Oberstedt, D. Rochman. Ternary fission of Cf isotopes / S. Vermote ... [et al.]. Systematics of the triton and alpha particle emission in ternary fission / C. Wagemans, S. Vermote, O. Serot -- Neutron emission in fission. Scission neutron emission in fission / F.-J. Hambsch ... [et al.]. At and beyond the Scission point: what can we learn from Scission and prompt neutrons? / P. Talou. Fission prompt neutron and gamma multiplicity by statistical decay of fragments / S. Perez-Martin, S. Hilaire, E. Bauge -- Fission theory. Structure and fission properties of actinides with the Gogny force / H. Goutte ... [et al.]. Fission fragment properties from a microscopic approach / N. Dubray, H. Goutte, J.-P. Delaroche. Smoker and non-smoker neutron-induced fission rates / I. Korneev ... [et al.] -- Facilities and detectors. A novel 2v2E spectrometer in Manchester: new development in identification of fission fragments / I. Tsekhanovich ... [et al

  9. Poison centers, poison prevention, and the pediatrician.

    PubMed

    Lovejoy, F H; Robertson, W O; Woolf, A D

    1994-08-01

    The first poison centers were established in the United States in the early 1950s, stimulated by an American Academy of Pediatrics' survey of office-based pediatric practices which ascertained that its members had no place to turn for ingredient information on medications and household products. With the help of the Academy, pediatrician Dr. Edward Press, the Illinois Department of Health, and several community hospitals, the first poison center emerged. Over the subsequent 40 years, remarkable progress has occurred in the fields of clinical toxicology, poison control, and poison prevention. Yet despite these accomplishments, challenging clouds are appearing on the horizon which threaten these gains. This commentary, by the authors who have viewed and participated in a large part of the history of this progress, will focus on these major accomplishments with an emphasis on (a) poison prevention utilizing the pre-event (primary prevention), (b) the event (secondary prevention), and (c) the postevent (tertiary prevention) model.

  10. Poisoning: Effective Clinical Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Turner, T. J.

    1982-01-01

    Poisoning accounts for 40-60% of suicides, is the commonest medical emergency in small children, and an important source of occupational injury. Prevention of unintentional poisoning involves primarily education of parents. In intervention, the patient—not the poison—must be treated. Self-poisoners require supportive but firm handling. Treatment is directed towards prevention of further absorption, removal of absorbed poison, symptomatic or supportive therapy, and administration of systemic antidotes. Careful attention should be paid to the physician's legal responsibilities in cases of poisoning. Imagesp2032-a PMID:21286544

  11. Glyphosate poisoning.

    PubMed

    Bradberry, Sally M; Proudfoot, Alex T; Vale, J Allister

    2004-01-01

    Glyphosate is used extensively as a non-selective herbicide by both professional applicators and consumers and its use is likely to increase further as it is one of the first herbicides against which crops have been genetically modified to increase their tolerance. Commercial glyphosate-based formulations most commonly range from concentrates containing 41% or more glyphosate to 1% glyphosate formulations marketed for domestic use. They generally consist of an aqueous mixture of the isopropylamine (IPA) salt of glyphosate, a surfactant, and various minor components including anti-foaming and colour agents, biocides and inorganic ions to produce pH adjustment. The mechanisms of toxicity of glyphosate formulations are complicated. Not only is glyphosate used as five different salts but commercial formulations of it contain surfactants, which vary in nature and concentration. As a result, human poisoning with this herbicide is not with the active ingredient alone but with complex and variable mixtures. Therefore, It is difficult to separate the toxicity of glyphosate from that of the formulation as a whole or to determine the contribution of surfactants to overall toxicity. Experimental studies suggest that the toxicity of the surfactant, polyoxyethyleneamine (POEA), is greater than the toxicity of glyphosate alone and commercial formulations alone. There is insufficient evidence to conclude that glyphosate preparations containing POEA are more toxic than those containing alternative surfactants. Although surfactants probably contribute to the acute toxicity of glyphosate formulations, the weight of evidence is against surfactants potentiating the toxicity of glyphosate. Accidental ingestion of glyphosate formulations is generally associated with only mild, transient, gastrointestinal features. Most reported cases have followed the deliberate ingestion of the concentrated formulation of Roundup (The use of trade names is for product identification purposes only and

  12. Marijuana poisoning.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Kevin T; Bronstein, Alvin C; Newquist, Kristin L

    2013-02-01

    , tremors, hypothermia, and bradycardia. Higher dosages may additionally cause nystagmus, agitation, tachypnea, tachycardia, ataxia, hyperexcitability, and seizures. Treatment of marijuana ingestion in animals is largely supportive. Vital signs including temperature and heart rate and rhythm must be continually monitored. Stomach content and urine can be tested for cannabinoids. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry can be utilized for THC detection but usually may take several days and are not practical for initiation of therapy. Human urine drug-screening tests can be unreliable for confirmation of marijuana toxicosis in dogs owing to the interference of a large number of the metabolites in canine urine. False negatives may also arise if testing occurs too recently following THC ingestion. Thus, the use of human urine drug-screening tests in dogs remains controversial. No specific antidote presently exists for THC poisoning. Sedation with benzodiazepines may be necessary if dogs are severely agitated. Intravenous fluids may be employed to counter prolonged vomiting and to help control body temperature. Recently, the use of intralipid therapy to bind the highly lipophilic THC has been utilized to help reduce clinical signs. The majority of dogs experiencing intoxication after marijuana ingestion recover completely without sequellae. Differential diagnoses of canine THC toxicosis include human pharmaceuticals with central nervous system stimulatory effects, drugs with central nervous system depressant effects, macrolide parasiticides, xylitol, and hallucinogenic mushrooms.

  13. Marijuana poisoning.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Kevin T; Bronstein, Alvin C; Newquist, Kristin L

    2013-02-01

    , tremors, hypothermia, and bradycardia. Higher dosages may additionally cause nystagmus, agitation, tachypnea, tachycardia, ataxia, hyperexcitability, and seizures. Treatment of marijuana ingestion in animals is largely supportive. Vital signs including temperature and heart rate and rhythm must be continually monitored. Stomach content and urine can be tested for cannabinoids. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry can be utilized for THC detection but usually may take several days and are not practical for initiation of therapy. Human urine drug-screening tests can be unreliable for confirmation of marijuana toxicosis in dogs owing to the interference of a large number of the metabolites in canine urine. False negatives may also arise if testing occurs too recently following THC ingestion. Thus, the use of human urine drug-screening tests in dogs remains controversial. No specific antidote presently exists for THC poisoning. Sedation with benzodiazepines may be necessary if dogs are severely agitated. Intravenous fluids may be employed to counter prolonged vomiting and to help control body temperature. Recently, the use of intralipid therapy to bind the highly lipophilic THC has been utilized to help reduce clinical signs. The majority of dogs experiencing intoxication after marijuana ingestion recover completely without sequellae. Differential diagnoses of canine THC toxicosis include human pharmaceuticals with central nervous system stimulatory effects, drugs with central nervous system depressant effects, macrolide parasiticides, xylitol, and hallucinogenic mushrooms. PMID:23796481

  14. Scombroid poisoning: a review.

    PubMed

    Hungerford, James M

    2010-08-15

    Scombroid poisoning, also called histamine fish poisoning, is an allergy-like form of food poisoning that continues to be a major problem in seafood safety. The exact role of histamine in scombroid poisoning is not straightforward. Deviations from the expected dose-response have led to the advancement of various possible mechanisms of toxicity, none of them proven. Histamine action levels are used in regulation until more is known about the mechanism of scombroid poisoning. Scombroid poisoning and histamine are correlated but complicated. Victims of scombroid poisoning respond well to antihistamines, and chemical analyses of fish implicated in scombroid poisoning generally reveal elevated levels of histamine. Scombroid poisoning is unique among the seafood toxins since it results from product mishandling rather than contamination from other trophic levels. Inadequate cooling following harvest promotes bacterial histamine production, and can result in outbreaks of scombroid poisoning. Fish with high levels of free histidine, the enzyme substrate converted to histamine by bacterial histidine decarboxylase, are those most often implicated in scombroid poisoning. Laboratory methods and screening methods for detecting histamine are available in abundance, but need to be compared and validated to harmonize testing. Successful field testing, including dockside or on-board testing needed to augment HACCP efforts will have to integrate rapid and simplified detection methods with simplified and rapid sampling and extraction. Otherwise, time-consuming sample preparation reduces the impact of gains in detection speed on the overall analysis time.

  15. Molten salt extraction of transuranic and reactive fission products from used uranium oxide fuel

    DOEpatents

    Herrmann, Steven Douglas

    2014-05-27

    Used uranium oxide fuel is detoxified by extracting transuranic and reactive fission products into molten salt. By contacting declad and crushed used uranium oxide fuel with a molten halide salt containing a minor fraction of the respective uranium trihalide, transuranic and reactive fission products partition from the fuel to the molten salt phase, while uranium oxide and non-reactive, or noble metal, fission products remain in an insoluble solid phase. The salt is then separated from the fuel via draining and distillation. By this method, the bulk of the decay heat, fission poisoning capacity, and radiotoxicity are removed from the used fuel. The remaining radioactivity from the noble metal fission products in the detoxified fuel is primarily limited to soft beta emitters. The extracted transuranic and reactive fission products are amenable to existing technologies for group uranium/transuranic product recovery and fission product immobilization in engineered waste forms.

  16. Geometry of membrane fission.

    PubMed

    Frolov, Vadim A; Escalada, Artur; Akimov, Sergey A; Shnyrova, Anna V

    2015-01-01

    Cellular membranes define the functional geometry of intracellular space. Formation of new membrane compartments and maintenance of complex organelles require division and disconnection of cellular membranes, a process termed membrane fission. Peripheral membrane proteins generally control membrane remodeling during fission. Local membrane stresses, reflecting molecular geometry of membrane-interacting parts of these proteins, sum up to produce the key membrane geometries of fission: the saddle-shaped neck and hour-glass hemifission intermediate. Here, we review the fundamental principles behind the translation of molecular geometry into membrane shape and topology during fission. We emphasize the central role the membrane insertion of specialized protein domains plays in orchestrating fission in vitro and in cells. We further compare individual to synergistic action of the membrane insertion during fission mediated by individual protein species, proteins complexes or membrane domains. Finally, we describe how local geometry of fission intermediates defines the functional design of the protein complexes catalyzing fission of cellular membranes. PMID:25062896

  17. [Acute salicylate poisoning].

    PubMed

    Reingardiene, Dagmara; Lazauskas, Robertas

    2006-01-01

    Although aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) has become widely available without prescription, cases of self-poisoning due to overdose of salicylates are quite uncommon, with a low reported mortality. However, severe poisoning with these preparations is life threatening. Besides the aspirin, there are other sources of salicylate poisoning, such as an excessive application of topical agents, ingestion of salicylate containing ointments, use of keratolytic agents or agents containing methyl salicylate (e.g. oil of wintergreen). Most of these preparations are liquid, highly concentrated and lipid soluble, and, therefore, they are able to provoke a severe, rapid salicylate poisoning. On the basis of clinical and metabolic features or salicylate concentration in plasma it is very important to diagnose severe poisoning with salicylates in time and prescribe an adequate treatment. In the present review article various aspects of salicylate poisoning and its treatment are discussed: epidemiology, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of salicylates, clinical manifestations of their toxicity, management, enhanced elimination and prognosis.

  18. Phosphorus poisoning in waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coburn, D.R.; DeWitt, J.B.; Derby, J.V.; Ediger, E.

    1950-01-01

    Black ducks and mallards were found to be highly susceptible to phosphorus poisoning. 3 mg. of white phosphorus per kg. of body weight given in a single dose resulted in death of a black duck in 6 hours. Pathologic changes in both acute and chronic poisoning were studied. Data are presented showing that diagnosis can be made accurately by chemical analysis of stored tissues in cases of phosphorus poisoning.

  19. Grass and weed killer poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Weedoff poisoning; Roundup poisoning ... Glyphosate is the poisonous ingredient in some weed killers. ... Glyphosate is in weed killers with these brand names: Roundup Bronco Glifonox Kleen-up Rodeo Weedoff Other ...

  20. Poison Ivy, Oak, and Sumac

    MedlinePlus

    ... U.S.) is a delayed allergic reaction. Brushing the plant on the skin results in blisters and slightly ... of poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac plants. People typically have itchy bumps (papules) and blisters ( ...

  1. Sweet clover poisoning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet clover poisoning occurs when spoiled sweet clover (Melilotus officinalis and M. alva) hay or silage that contain dicumarol are consumed by livestock. This updated chapter is a succinct review of the clinical disease and pathologic lesions of poisoning. It also reviews current strategies and ...

  2. Suspected Pesticide Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Sellar, Christine; Ferguson, Joyce A.

    1991-01-01

    Of 1125 calls to a regional poison control center about suspected pesticide poisonings, more than half concerned children younger than 6 years, most of whom had ingested small amounts and required no treatment other than drinking fluids. Adults represented a small proportion of victims, but were more likely to have consumed moderate or large quantities, to have symptoms, and to need referral. PMID:21228985

  3. Sweet clover poisoning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet clover poisoning is a hemorrhagic disease produced when spoiled sweet clover (Melilotus officinalis and M. alba) hay or silage that contain dicumarol are consumed by livestock. This chapter reviews the clinical and pathologic lesions or poisoning. It also reviews current strategies and treat...

  4. Lead Poisoning in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin-Fu, Jane S.

    This publication is a guide to help social and health workers plan a preventive campaign against lead poisoning, a cause of mental retardation other neurological handicaps, and death among children. The main victims are 1- to 6-year-olds living in areas where deteriorating housing prevails. Among the causes of lead poisoning are: ingestion of…

  5. Look Out! It's Poison Ivy!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darlington, Elizabeth, Day

    1986-01-01

    Provides background information on poison ivy and offers suggestions for instructional activities. Includes illustrations of the varieties of poison ivy leaf forms and poison ivy look-alikes. Highlights interesting facts and cases associated with poison ivy and its relatives. (ML)

  6. The Fission Barrier Landscape

    SciTech Connect

    Phair, L.; Moretto, L. G.

    2008-04-17

    Fission excitation functions have been measured for a chain of neighboring compound nuclei from {sup 207}Po to {sup 212}Po. We present a new analysis which provides a determination of the fission barriers and ground state shell effects with nearly spectroscopic accuracy. The accuracy achieved in this analysis may lead to a future detailed exploration of the saddle mass surface and its spectroscopy.

  7. Fission Spectrum Related Uncertainties

    SciTech Connect

    G. Aliberti; I. Kodeli; G. Palmiotti; M. Salvatores

    2007-10-01

    The paper presents a preliminary uncertainty analysis related to potential uncertainties on the fission spectrum data. Consistent results are shown for a reference fast reactor design configuration and for experimental thermal configurations. However the results obtained indicate the need for further analysis, in particular in terms of fission spectrum uncertainty data assessment.

  8. Fission gas detection system

    DOEpatents

    Colburn, Richard P.

    1985-01-01

    A device for collecting fission gas released by a failed fuel rod which device uses a filter to pass coolant but which filter blocks fission gas bubbles which cannot pass through the filter due to the surface tension of the bubble.

  9. Window cleaner poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2007:chap 32. Mycyk MB. Toxic alcohols. In: Adams JG, ed. Emergency Medicine . 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: ... AE. General approach to the poisoned patient. In: Adams JG, ed. Emergency Medicine . 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  10. Poisoning - fish and shellfish

    MedlinePlus

    ... poisoning, you may receive: Blood and urine tests EKG (electrocardiogram, or heart tracing) Fluids by IV (through ... and breathing machine (ventilator) Blood and urine tests EKG (electrocardiogram, or heart tracing) Fluids by IV (through ...

  11. Sodium bisulfate poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... in large amounts. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing sodium bisulfate. This article is for information only. ... Symptoms from swallowing more than a tablespoon of this acid may include: Burning pain in the mouth Chest pain from burns ...

  12. Cloth dye poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... poisonous ingredient in most household cloth dyes. Most common household cloth dyes are made from nonpoisonous substances, such as: Mild soaps Pigments Salts Although these substances are generally considered not dangerous, ...

  13. Poison Ivy Dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... familiar skin rash. No one is born with sensitivity to Poison ivy, but if exposed enough most ... sensitized at some time and remain allergic. A sensitivity can change at any time. There's no way ...

  14. Occupational cyanide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Amizet, Loic; Pruvot, Gauthier; Remy, Sophie; Kfoury, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Cyanide poisoning has existed for centuries. In most cases, cyanide is combined with other toxic substances; for example with carbon monoxide in fire smoke. Cases of pure cyanide poisoning are rare, and usually due to accidental exposure. Their treatment is based on oxygenation and the infusion of hydroxocobalamin. The seriousness of this type of poisoning calls for a rapid and specific response, which demonstrates the usefulness of non-hospital based medical treatment. The authors report here the case of a man who was the victim of occupational poisoning with sodium cyanide and who was treated at the workplace by fire-fighters and the Service Mobile d'Urgence et Reanimation emergency ambulance service. PMID:22674698

  15. Tips to Prevent Poisonings

    MedlinePlus

    ... local take back programs in your community . Household Chemicals and Carbon Monoxide Always read the label before using a product that may be poisonous. Keep chemical products in their original bottles or containers. Do ...

  16. Potassium carbonate poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Potassium carbonate is a white powder used to make soap, glass, and other items. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing or breathing in potassium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do ...

  17. Bracken fern poisoning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) has worldwide distribution and in some areas dominated plant communities replacing desirable forages. Poisoning is identified as enzootic hematuria, bright blindness, and bracken staggers. This chapter reviews updates new information on the plant, the various poi...

  18. Poison plants (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... exposure to sunlight, or by poor circulation, even stress. An example of contact dermatitis is the reaction of a sensitive person's skin to poison ivy, oak or sumac. Contact with these plants, which contain a chemical called urushiol, produces an ...

  19. Ethylene glycol poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... kidneys. The poisoning causes disturbances in the body's chemistry, including metabolic acidosis . The disturbances may be severe ... other tests such as: Arterial blood gas analysis Chemistry panel and liver function studies Chest x-ray ( ...

  20. Cedar leaf oil poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Cedar leaf oil is made from some types of cedar trees. Cedar leaf oil poisoning occurs when someone swallows this substance. ... The substance in cedar leaf oil that can be harmful is thujone (a hydrocarbon).

  1. Mineral spirits poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Mineral spirits are liquid chemicals used to thin paint and as a degreaser. Mineral spirits poisoning occurs ... be found in: Mineral spirits ( Stoddard solvent ) Some paints Some floor and furniture waxes and polishes Some ...

  2. The Poisons Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Barbara A.

    1998-01-01

    Details a project in which students explore and study the poisons in their environment by asking and finding answers to their own research questions. Includes some suggestions for involving students successfully in inquiry-based learning. (DDR)

  3. Hair dye poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... are: Arsenic Bismuth Denatured alcohol Lead ( lead poisoning ) Mercury Pyrogallol Silver Hair dyes may contain other harmful ... bleeding and infection. Continued exposure to lead or mercury can lead to permanent brain and nervous system ...

  4. Occupational cyanide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Amizet, Loic; Pruvot, Gauthier; Remy, Sophie; Kfoury, Michel

    2011-11-21

    Cyanide poisoning has existed for centuries. In most cases, cyanide is combined with other toxic substances; for example with carbon monoxide in fire smoke. Cases of pure cyanide poisoning are rare, and usually due to accidental exposure. Their treatment is based on oxygenation and the infusion of hydroxocobalamin. The seriousness of this type of poisoning calls for a rapid and specific response, which demonstrates the usefulness of non-hospital based medical treatment. The authors report here the case of a man who was the victim of occupational poisoning with sodium cyanide and who was treated at the workplace by fire-fighters and the Service Mobile d'Urgence et Reanimation emergency ambulance service.

  5. Occupational cyanide poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Amizet, Loic; Pruvot, Gauthier; Remy, Sophie; Kfoury, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Cyanide poisoning has existed for centuries. In most cases, cyanide is combined with other toxic substances; for example with carbon monoxide in fire smoke. Cases of pure cyanide poisoning are rare, and usually due to accidental exposure. Their treatment is based on oxygenation and the infusion of hydroxocobalamin. The seriousness of this type of poisoning calls for a rapid and specific response, which demonstrates the usefulness of non-hospital based medical treatment. The authors report here the case of a man who was the victim of occupational poisoning with sodium cyanide and who was treated at the workplace by fire-fighters and the Service Mobile d’Urgence et Reanimation emergency ambulance service. PMID:22674698

  6. Hydrofluoric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... your skin or eyes, you may have: Blisters Burns Pain Vision loss Hydrofluoric acid poisoning can have ... urine tests Camera down the throat to see burns in the esophagus and the stomach (endoscopy) Fluids ...

  7. Fission Measurements with Dance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jandel, M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Fowler, M. M.; Bond, E. M.; Chadwick, M. B.; Clement, R. R.; Couture, A.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Haight, R. C.; Keksis, A. L.; Reifarth, R.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wouters, J. M.; Agvaanluvsan, U.; Dashdorj, D.; Macri, R. A.; Parker, W. E.; Wilk, P. A.; Wu, C. Y.; Becker, J. A.; Angell, C. T.; Tonchev, A. P.; Baker, J. D.

    2008-08-01

    Neutron capture cross section measurements on actinides are complicated by the presence of neutron-induced fission. An efficient fission tagging detector used in coincidence with the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) provides a powerful tool in undertaking simultaneous measurements of (n,γ) and (n,f) cross sections. Preliminary results on 235U(n,γ) and (n,f) and 242mAm(n,f) cross sections measured with DANCE and a custom fission-tagging parallel plate avalanche counter (PPAC) are presented. Additional measurements of γ-ray cluster multiplicity distributions for neutron-induced fission of 235U and 242mAm and spontaneous fission of 252Cf are shown, as well as γ-ray energy and average γ-ray energy distributions.

  8. Biomodal spontaneous fission

    SciTech Connect

    Hulet, E.K. )

    1989-09-26

    Investigations of mass and kinetic-energy distributions from spontaneous fission have been extended in recent years to an isotope of element 104 and, for half-lives, to an isotope of element 108. The results have been surprising in that spontaneous fission half-lives have turned out to be much longer than expected and mass and kinetic- energy distributions were found to abruptly shift away from those of the lighter actinides, showing two modes of fission. These new developments have caused a re-evaluation of our understanding of the fission process, bringing an even deeper appreciation of the role played by nuclear shell effects upon spontaneous fission properties. 16 refs., 10 figs.

  9. Fission induced plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harries, W. L.

    1977-01-01

    The possibility of creating a plasma from fission fragments was investigated, as well as the probability of utilizing the energy of these particles to create population inversion leading to laser action. Eventually, it is hoped that the same medium could be used for both fissioning and lasing, thus avoiding inefficiences in converting one form of energy to the other. A central problem in understanding a fission induced plasma is to obtain an accurate model of the electron behavior; some calculations are presented to this end. The calculations are simple, providing a compendium of processes for reference.

  10. American Association of Poison Control Centers

    MedlinePlus

    ... View all alerts right left National Poison Prevention Week is March 20-26! Be a part of ... is poison-proof. Read more › National Poison Prevention Week Congress established National Poison Prevention Week (NPPW) on ...

  11. Nuclear fission of Fm isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Asano, T.; Wada, T.; Ohta, M.; Chiba, S.

    2010-06-01

    Multi-modal fission has been systematically investigated for the series of isotopes of Fm and Cf. The multi-dimensional Langevin-type stochastic differential equation is used for the dynamical calculation. The primary fission mode changes from mass-asymmetric fission to mass-symmetric fission with the increase of neutron numbers for both Fm and Cf cases.

  12. The fissionTPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heffner, Mike

    2014-03-01

    A new instument to study fission, called the fission TPC, has been constructed to make high accuracy measurements of neutron induced fission cross-sections of the major actinides. Most of the cross sections have been measured over the last 60 years, although improvements in the accuracy of the data appear unlikely with the current technology. A potential breakthrough is the deployment of the Time Projection Chamber (TPC) which was developed within the particle physics community. The NIFFTE collaboration, a group of 7 universities and 4 national laboratories, has undertaken the task of building the first TPC for this purpose. In this talk I will present the fission TPC design, challenges that had to be addressed, and the performance of the detector.

  13. True ternary fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayaraghavan, K. R.; Balasubramaniam, M.; von Oertzen, W.

    2015-04-01

    The study of the ternary fission of nuclei has received new interest recently. It is of general interest for nuclear dynamics, although the process is very rare. In the present work, we discuss the possibilities of true ternary fission (fragment masses A >30 ) in 252Cf for different mass splits. These mass splits are strongly favored in a collinear geometry. Based on the three cluster model (TCM), it is shown that the true ternary fission into fragments with almost equal masses is one of the possible fission modes in 252Cf . For general decays it is shown that the formation of the lightest fragment at the center has the highest probability. Further the formation of tin isotopes and/or other closed shell fragments are favored. For the decay products the presence of closed shell nuclei among the three fragments enhances the decay probabilities.

  14. Fission Systems for Mars Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Kim, T.; Dorney, D. J.; Swint, Marion Shayne

    2012-01-01

    Fission systems are used extensively on earth, and 34 such systems have flown in space. The energy density of fission is over 10 million times that of chemical reactions, giving fission the potential to eliminate energy density constraints for many space missions. Potential safety and operational concerns with fission systems are well understood, and strategies exist for affordably developing such systems. By enabling a power-rich environment and highly efficient propulsion, fission systems could enable affordable, sustainable exploration of Mars.

  15. Vector soliton fission.

    PubMed

    Lu, F; Lin, Q; Knox, W H; Agrawal, Govind P

    2004-10-29

    We investigate the vectorial nature of soliton fission in an isotropic nonlinear medium both theoretically and experimentally. As a specific example, we show that supercontinuum generation in a tapered fiber is extremely sensitive to the input state of polarization. Multiple vector solitons generated through soliton fission exhibit different states of elliptical polarization while emitting nonsolitonic radiation with complicated polarization features. Experiments performed with a tapered fiber agree with our theoretical description.

  16. Poison control center - emergency number

    MedlinePlus

    For a POISON EMERGENCY call: 1-800-222-1222 ANYWHERE IN THE UNITED STATES This national hotline number will let you ... is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this ...

  17. Acute organophosphorus poisoning.

    PubMed

    Chowdhary, Sheemona; Bhattacharyya, Rajasri; Banerjee, Dibyajyoti

    2014-04-20

    Acute organophosphorus poisoning continues to be a detrimental problem and a potential cause of mortality especially in developing countries. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase enzyme is the main mechanism of toxicity of such pesticides and measurement of acetylcholinesterase activity is the commonly used laboratory diagnosis approved for the purpose. It is now proved beyond any doubt that early intervention is beneficial for cases of acute organophosphorus poisoning and, therefore, considerable current interest has been generated for development of point of care testing tool for screening of the same. However, to the best of our knowledge so far the matter is not reviewed from the view of point of care testing tool development. In this paper, this subject is reviewed highlighting the methodological aspects and point of care testing tool development in the context of organophosphorus poisoning.

  18. [Acute carbon monoxide poisoning].

    PubMed

    Raphaël, Jean-Claude

    2008-04-30

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is still complicated by a high mortality and morbidity rate. Diagnosis can be obvious but is most of time difficult and sometimes remained unknown. It is usually based on clinical signs and must be confirmed by assessment of CO level in room air or in patient's expired breathing or blood and detection of a source. Mild neurological sequelae are very common. Normobaric oxygen is the first line treatment. Comatose and pregnant patients must undergo hyperbaric oxygen. All CO poisoning has to be declared to sanitary authority, which will in turn conduct a technical inspection to remove the source. The patient must be informed that he is at risk of new poisoning and of neurological complications. Progress in prevention and research in therapeutics are needed in order to reduce CO related morbidity.

  19. [Electronic poison information management system].

    PubMed

    Kabata, Piotr; Waldman, Wojciech; Kaletha, Krystian; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    We describe deployment of electronic toxicological information database in poison control center of Pomeranian Center of Toxicology. System was based on Google Apps technology, by Google Inc., using electronic, web-based forms and data tables. During first 6 months from system deployment, we used it to archive 1471 poisoning cases, prepare monthly poisoning reports and facilitate statistical analysis of data. Electronic database usage made Poison Center work much easier. PMID:24466697

  20. [Electronic poison information management system].

    PubMed

    Kabata, Piotr; Waldman, Wojciech; Kaletha, Krystian; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    We describe deployment of electronic toxicological information database in poison control center of Pomeranian Center of Toxicology. System was based on Google Apps technology, by Google Inc., using electronic, web-based forms and data tables. During first 6 months from system deployment, we used it to archive 1471 poisoning cases, prepare monthly poisoning reports and facilitate statistical analysis of data. Electronic database usage made Poison Center work much easier.

  1. Singlet exciton fission photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jiye; Jadhav, Priya; Reusswig, Philip D; Yost, Shane R; Thompson, Nicholas J; Congreve, Daniel N; Hontz, Eric; Van Voorhis, Troy; Baldo, Marc A

    2013-06-18

    Singlet exciton fission, a process that generates two excitons from a single photon, is perhaps the most efficient of the various multiexciton-generation processes studied to date, offering the potential to increase the efficiency of solar devices. But its unique characteristic, splitting a photogenerated singlet exciton into two dark triplet states, means that the empty absorption region between the singlet and triplet excitons must be filled by adding another material that captures low-energy photons. This has required the development of specialized device architectures. In this Account, we review work to develop devices that harness the theoretical benefits of singlet exciton fission. First, we discuss singlet fission in the archetypal material, pentacene. Pentacene-based photovoltaic devices typically show high external and internal quantum efficiencies. They have enabled researchers to characterize fission, including yield and the impact of competing loss processes, within functional devices. We review in situ probes of singlet fission that modulate the photocurrent using a magnetic field. We also summarize studies of the dissociation of triplet excitons into charge at the pentacene-buckyball (C60) donor-acceptor interface. Multiple independent measurements confirm that pentacene triplet excitons can dissociate at the C60 interface despite their relatively low energy. Because triplet excitons produced by singlet fission each have no more than half the energy of the original photoexcitation, they limit the potential open circuit voltage within a solar cell. Thus, if singlet fission is to increase the overall efficiency of a solar cell and not just double the photocurrent at the cost of halving the voltage, it is necessary to also harvest photons in the absorption gap between the singlet and triplet energies of the singlet fission material. We review two device architectures that attempt this using long-wavelength materials: a three-layer structure that uses

  2. Cow dung powder poisoning.

    PubMed

    Sherfudeen, Khaja Mohideen; Kaliannan, Senthil Kumar; Dammalapati, Pavan Kumar

    2015-11-01

    Cow dung, which has germicidal property, was used in ancient days to clean living premises in South India. Nowadays, people are using commercially available synthetic cow dung powder. It is locally known as "saani powder" in Tamil Nadu. It is freely available in homes and is sometimes accidentally consumed by children. It is available in two colors - yellow and green. Cow dung powder poisoning is common in districts of Tamil Nadu such as Coimbatore, Tirupur, and Erode. We report two cases of yellow cow dung powder poisoning from our hospital. PMID:26730123

  3. Thermal fission rates with temperature dependent fission barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yi; Pei, J. C.

    2016-08-01

    Background: The fission processes of thermal excited nuclei are conventionally studied by statistical models which rely on inputs of phenomenological level densities and potential barriers. Therefore the microscopic descriptions of spontaneous fission and induced fission are very desirable for a unified understanding of various fission processes. Purpose: We propose to study the fission rates, at both low and high temperatures, with microscopically calculated temperature-dependent fission barriers and collective mass parameters. Methods: The fission barriers are calculated by the finite-temperature Skyrme-Hartree-Fock+BCS method. The mass parameters are calculated by the temperature-dependent cranking approximation. The thermal fission rates can be obtained by the imaginary free energy approach at all temperatures, in which fission barriers are naturally temperature dependent. The fission at low temperatures can be described mainly as a barrier-tunneling process. While the fission at high temperatures has to incorporate the reflection above barriers. Results: Our results of spontaneous fission rates reasonably agree with other studies and experiments. The temperature dependencies of fission barrier heights and curvatures have been discussed. The temperature dependent behaviors of mass parameters have also been discussed. The thermal fission rates from low to high temperatures with a smooth connection have been given by different approaches. Conclusions: Since the temperature dependencies of fission barrier heights and curvatures, and the mass parameters can vary rapidly for different nuclei, the microscopic descriptions of thermal fission rates are very valuable. Our studies without free parameters provide a consistent picture to study various fissions such as that in fast-neutron reactors, astrophysical environments, and fusion reactions for superheavy nuclei.

  4. Methylmercury Poisoning in Iraq

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakir, F.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Discusses incidence of methylmercury poisoning throughout the world with increasing industrial and agricultural use of mercury compounds. Describes recent epidemic in Iraq resulting from use of wheat treated with methylmercurial fungicide. New data are presented on the toxicity of methylmercury and its metabolic fate in the human body. (JR)

  5. Lead Poisoning in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeckx, Roger L.

    1986-01-01

    Urban children are exposed to lead through the air they breathe, the water they drink, and the food and nonfood substances they ingest. The history, diagnosis, and treatment of lead poisoning in these children are discussed. Includes information on the toxicology of lead and the various risk classes. (JN)

  6. [Acute arsenic poisoning].

    PubMed

    Montelescaut, Etienne; Vermeersch, Véronique; Commandeur, Diane; Huynh, Sophie; Danguy des Deserts, Marc; Sapin, Jeanne; Ould-Ahmed, Mehdi; Drouillard, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Acute arsenic poisoning is a rare cause of suicide attempt. It causes a multiple organs failure caused by cardiogenic shock. We report the case of a patient admitted twelve hours after an ingestion of trioxide arsenic having survived thanks to a premature treatment.

  7. [Acute arsenic poisoning].

    PubMed

    Montelescaut, Etienne; Vermeersch, Véronique; Commandeur, Diane; Huynh, Sophie; Danguy des Deserts, Marc; Sapin, Jeanne; Ould-Ahmed, Mehdi; Drouillard, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Acute arsenic poisoning is a rare cause of suicide attempt. It causes a multiple organs failure caused by cardiogenic shock. We report the case of a patient admitted twelve hours after an ingestion of trioxide arsenic having survived thanks to a premature treatment. PMID:25486670

  8. Tainted Water, Poison Paint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natale, Jo Anna

    1991-01-01

    Recent research shows lead poisoning is more widespread and even more dangerous to infants and young children than previously thought. A bill proposed in Congress would require schools and day-care centers to test for lead. Summarizes lead's health hazards and how to test drinking water. (MLF)

  9. Lead Poisoning in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin-Fu, Jane S.

    Designed as a public information pamphlet, the text discusses the problem of lead poisoning in children. The preventable nature of the problem is stressed as well as needed action on the part of the public, physicians and other health workers, and the legislators. The pamphlet emphasizes that each of these areas is essential in preventing death or…

  10. [Amitriptyline and imipramine poisoning].

    PubMed

    Paul, H; Ehrenthal, W; Wahlen, W

    1980-01-01

    Two cases of severe poisoning by tricyclic antidepressants (Amitriptylin, Imipramin) are reported. Both patients 3 and 11 years old children, developed a typical clinical picture with cardiovascular, neurological and atropine features. Beside a general supportive management, in one case physostigmin was used as antidote. Alternative treatments of enuresis in childhood are recommended.

  11. Age and criminal poisonings.

    PubMed

    Stankova, Evgenia; Gesheva, Margarita; Hubenova, Aneta

    2005-01-01

    We present a series of 8 cases of acute combined poisonings, occurred in an identical way in patients over 70 years of age for a period of 6 months. The way of exposure, characteristic of the clinical presentation, complications and the outcome of the intoxications, as well as the therapeutic approach is described. In all of the cases combined drug intoxication with benzodiazepines and opiates have been proved. The impact of the combination of two toxic substances: the first causing rapid and brief suppression of the consciousness and the second, causing prolonged continuation of the already suppressed consciousness, on the clinical course is discussed. The similarities in the circumstances of the exposure, clinical course of the poisonings, the identified toxic substances, lead to the consideration of criminal characteristic of the poisonings. The contact with the corresponding authorities brought off the disclosure of a group of criminals, committed the intentional intoxications with the aim of robbery. Age, with all its various characteristics, has been discussed as a factor for occurrence of criminal poisonings. PMID:16225098

  12. Puffer fish poisoning.

    PubMed Central

    Field, J

    1998-01-01

    Regarded by many as a delicacy, puffer fish (Lagocephalus scleratus) is a lethal source of food poisoning with a high mortality. It contains tetrodotoxin which can cause death by muscular paralysis, respiratory depression, and circulatory failure. A case of mild intoxication is reported and the literature reviewed. Images p336-a PMID:9785165

  13. Fission modelling with FIFRELIN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litaize, Olivier; Serot, Olivier; Berge, Léonie

    2015-12-01

    The nuclear fission process gives rise to the formation of fission fragments and emission of particles (n,γ , e-) . The particle emission from fragments can be prompt and delayed. We present here the methods used in the FIFRELIN code, which simulates the prompt component of the de-excitation process. The methods are based on phenomenological models associated with macroscopic and/or microscopic ingredients. Input data can be provided by experiment as well as by theory. The fission fragment de-excitation can be performed within Weisskopf (uncoupled neutron and gamma emission) or a Hauser-Feshbach (coupled neutron/gamma emission) statistical theory. We usually consider five free parameters that cannot be provided by theory or experiments in order to describe the initial distributions required by the code. In a first step this set of parameters is chosen to reproduce a very limited set of target observables. In a second step we can increase the statistics to predict all other fission observables such as prompt neutron, gamma and conversion electron spectra but also their distributions as a function of any kind of parameters such as, for instance, the neutron, gamma and electron number distributions, the average prompt neutron multiplicity as a function of fission fragment mass, charge or kinetic energy, and so on. Several results related to different fissioning systems are presented in this work. The goal in the next decade will be i) to replace some macroscopic ingredients or phenomenological models by microscopic calculations when available and reliable, ii) to be a support for experimentalists in the design of detection systems or in the prediction of necessary beam time or count rates with associated statistics when measuring fragments and emitted particle in coincidence iii) extend the model to be able to run a calculation when no experimental input data are available, iv) account for multiple chance fission and gamma emission before fission, v) account for the

  14. Process for treating fission waste

    DOEpatents

    Rohrmann, Charles A.; Wick, Oswald J.

    1983-01-01

    A method is described for the treatment of fission waste. A glass forming agent, a metal oxide, and a reducing agent are mixed with the fission waste and the mixture is heated. After melting, the mixture separates into a glass phase and a metal phase. The glass phase may be used to safely store the fission waste, while the metal phase contains noble metals recovered from the fission waste.

  15. Student Experiments in Spontaneous Fission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becchetti, F. D.; Ying, J. S.

    1981-01-01

    Advanced undergraduate experiments utilizing a commercially available, thin spontaneous fission source are described, including studies of the energy and mass distribution of the fission fragments and their energy and angular correlation. The experiments provide a useful introduction to fission, nuclear mass equations, heavy-ion physics, and…

  16. Organophosphate and carbamate poisoning.

    PubMed

    Bardin, P G; van Eeden, S F; Moolman, J A; Foden, A P; Joubert, J R

    1994-07-11

    Organophosphate insecticides may cause serious poisoning either accidentally or by deliberate ingestion. Toxic symptoms are produced by acetylcholine accumulation at cholinergic receptors. Diagnosis is based on history of exposure or ingestion, symptoms and signs of cholinergic overactivity and a decrease in serum pseudocholinesterase levels. Following diagnosis, grading of disease severity may identify patients with serious poisoning who should receive treatment in intensive care using adequate doses of anticholinergic drugs. Complications, particularly ventricular arrhythmias, central nervous system depression or seizures, and respiratory failure, should be anticipated and treated. Relapse may occur after seemingly successful treatment. Public education with regard to symptoms of toxicity must be encouraged, and physicians must provide skilled treatment for a potentially lethal condition.

  17. Ciguatera poisoning in Vanuatu.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Anna; Williams, Thomas N; Maitland, Kathryn

    2003-02-01

    Ciguatera poisoning is endemic in many tropical and subtropical countries. We conducted a retrospective study of admissions to two hospitals on the islands of Vanuatu in the southwestern Pacific region. We estimated the annual hospital admission rate for fish poisoning to be 65 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 55-75)/100,000 population on the island of Santo and 29 (95% CI = 19-43)/100,000 population on the island of Ambae. Hospital admission was more common in males 20-29 years old. Death was a rare complication. In the face of increases in both tourism and in the global trade in tropical and exotic fish, physicians in both endemic and non-endemic areas should be familiar with the epidemiology and clinical features of this important condition.

  18. Lead poisoning in children.

    PubMed

    Dapul, Heda; Laraque, Danielle

    2014-08-01

    There is no safe lead level in children. Primary prevention is the most effective way to bring about the complete removal of lead from the environment and eliminate lead poisoning as a public health concern. The National Lead Information Center can be reached via the Internet at www.epa.gov/lead and www.hud.gov/lead, or via phone at 1-800-424-LEAD (5323).

  19. Poisons and fever.

    PubMed

    Gordon, C J; Rowsey, P J

    1998-02-01

    1. Dysfunction of the thermoregulatory system is one of many pathologies documented in experimental animals and humans exposed to toxic chemicals. The mechanism of action responsible for many types of poison-induced fevers is not understood. Some elevations in body temperature are attributed to the peripheral actions of some poisons that stimulate metabolic rate and cause a forced hyperthermia. Exposure to organophosphate (OP) pesticides and certain metal fumes appears to cause a prolonged, regulated elevation in body temperature (Tb). 2. Activation of cyclo-oxygenase (COX) and the production of prostaglandin (PG)E2 in central nervous system (CNS) thermoregulatory centres is required to elicit a fever. Activating the COX-PGE2 pathway by a poison may occur by one of three mechanisms: (i) induction of cell-mediated immune responses and the subsequent release of cytokines; (ii) induction of lipid peroxidation in the CNS; and (iii) direct neurochemical activation. 3. Radiotelemetric monitoring of core temperature in unstressed rodents has led to an experimental animal model of poison-induced fever. Rats administered the OP agents chlorpyrifos and diisopropyl fluorophosphate display an initial hypothermic response lasting approximately 24 h, followed by an elevation in diurnal core temperature for 24-72 h after exposure. The hyperthermia is apparently a result of the activation of the COX-PGE2 pathway because it is blocked by the anti-pyretic sodium salicylate. Overall, the delayed hyperthermia resulting from OP exposure involves activation of thermoregulatory pathways that may be similar to infection-mediated fever. PMID:9493505

  20. Lead Poison Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    With NASA contracts, Whittaker Corporations Space Science division has developed an electro-optical instrument to mass screen for lead poisoning. Device is portable and detects protoporphyrin in whole blood. Free corpuscular porphyrins occur as an early effect of lead ingestion. Also detects lead in urine used to confirm blood tests. Test is inexpensive and can be applied by relatively unskilled personnel. Similar Whittaker fluorometry device called "drug screen" can measure morphine and quinine in urine much faster and cheaper than other methods.

  1. Homicidal arsenic poisoning.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Andrew; Taylor, Andrew; Leese, Elizabeth; Allen, Sam; Morton, Jackie; McAdam, Julie

    2015-07-01

    The case of a 50-year-old man who died mysteriously after being admitted to hospital is reported. He had raised the possibility of being poisoned prior to his death. A Coroner's post-mortem did not reveal the cause of death but this was subsequently established by post-mortem trace element analysis of liver, urine, blood and hair all of which revealed very high arsenic concentrations.

  2. [Acute phostoxin poisoning].

    PubMed

    Idali, B; Miguil, M; Moutawakkil, S; Bouaggad, A; Guartit, A; Abassi, O; Ben Aguida, M

    1995-04-01

    Phostoxin is a mixture of aluminium phosphide and ammonium carbonate. When exposed to water, it releases phosphorus hydrogen (PH3), a highly-poisonous gas. In Morocco, death rate from suicide due to self-administration of phostoxin pills is high. Clinical signs include abrupt digestive and nervous disorders. Pulmonary oedema or cardiogenic shock dominate early prognosis. Liver and renal damage is secondary. Prevention requires both legal constraints and regulation of sales. PMID:7761363

  3. Pulsed Fission Propulsion Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In the 1960's U.S. Government laboratories, under Project Orion, investigated a pulsed nuclear fission propulsion system. Small nuclear pulse units would be sequentially discharged from the aft end of the vehicle. A blast shield and shock absorber system would protect the crew and convert the shock loads into a continuous propusive force.

  4. Pulsed Fission Propulsion Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In the 1960's U.S. Government laboratories, under Project Orion, investigated a pulsed nuclear fission propulsion system. Small nuclear pulse units would be sequentially discharged from the aft end of the vehicle. A blast shield and shock absorber system would protect the crew and convert the shock loads into a continuous propulsive force.

  5. Chronic arsenic poisoning.

    PubMed

    Hall, Alan H

    2002-03-10

    Symptomatic arsenic poisoning is not often seen in occupational exposure settings. Attempted homicide and deliberate long-term poisoning have resulted in chronic toxicity. Skin pigmentation changes, palmar and plantar hyperkeratoses, gastrointestinal symptoms, anemia, and liver disease are common. Noncirrhotic portal hypertension with bleeding esophageal varices, splenomegaly, and hypersplenism may occur. A metallic taste, gastrointestinal disturbances, and Mee's lines may be seen. Bone marrow depression is common. 'Blackfoot disease' has been associated with arsenic-contaminated drinking water in Taiwan; Raynaud's phenomenon and acrocyanosis also may occur. Large numbers of persons in areas of India, Pakistan, and several other countries have been chronically poisoned from naturally occurring arsenic in ground water. Toxic delirium and encephalopathy can be present. CCA-treated wood (chromated copper arsenate) is not a health risk unless burned in fireplaces or woodstoves. Peripheral neuropathy may also occur. Workplace exposure or chronic ingestion of arsenic-contaminated water or arsenical medications is associated with development of skin, lung, and other cancers. Treatment may incklude the use of chelating agents such as dimercaprol (BAL), dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), and dimercaptopanesulfonic acid (DMPS).

  6. Endrin-food-poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Weeks, D. E.

    1967-01-01

    Between 3 June and 15 July 1967 four explosive outbreaks of acute poisoning with the insecticide endrin occurred in Doha in Qatar and Hofuf in Saudi Arabia. Altogether 874 persons were hospitalized and 26 died. It is estimated that many others were poisoned whose symptoms were not so severe as to cause them to seek medical care or to enter hospital. The author describes the course of the outbreaks and the measures taken to ascertain their cause and prevent their extension and recurrence. It was found that the victims had eaten bread made from flour contaminated with endrin. In two different ships, both of them loaded and off-loaded at different ports, flour and endrin had been stowed in the same hold, with the endrin above the flour. In both ships the endrin containers had leaked and penetrated the sacks of flour which was later used to make bread. These two unconnected but nearly simultaneous mass poisonings emphasize the importance of regulating the carriage of insecticides and other toxic chemicals in such a way as to prevent the contamination of foodstuffs and similar substances during transport; both the World Health Organization and the Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization are working towards the establishment of regulations and practices to that end. PMID:5301732

  7. OXYGEN POISONING IN MAMMALS.

    PubMed

    Binger, C A; Faulkner, J M; Moore, R L

    1927-04-30

    1. Oxygen in concentrations of over 70 per cent of an atmosphere is poisonous to dogs, rabbits, guinea pigs and mice. 2. The poisonous effects manifest themselves in drowsiness, anorexia, loss of weight, increasing dyspnea, cyanosis and death from oxygen want. 3. The cause of oxygen want is a destructive lesion of the lungs. 4. The lesion may be characterized grossly as an hemorrhagic edema. Microscopically there is to be seen in varying degrees of intensity (a) capillary engorgement with hemorrhage, (b) the presence of interstitial and intraalveolar serum, (c) hypertrophy and desquamation of alveolar cells, (d) interstitial and alveolar infiltration of mononuclear cells. 5. The type of tissue reaction is not characteristic of an infectious process and no organisms have been recovered at autopsy from the heart's blood or from lung puncture. 6. The poisonous effects of inhalations of oxygen-rich mixtures do not appear to be related to impurities in the oxygen, nor are they related to faulty ventilation, excessive moisture or increased carbon dioxide in the atmosphere of the chambers in which the experimental animals were confined. PMID:19869294

  8. AMP-activated protein kinase mediates mitochondrial fission in response to energy stress

    PubMed Central

    Courchet, Julien; Lewis, Tommy L.; Losón, Oliver C.; Hellberg, Kristina; Young, Nathan P.; Chen, Hsiuchen; Polleux, Franck; Chan, David C.; Shaw, Reuben J.

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria undergo fragmentation in response to electron transport chain (ETC) poisons and mitochondrial DNA–linked disease mutations, yet how these stimuli mechanistically connect to the mitochondrial fission and fusion machinery is poorly understood. We found that the energy-sensing adenosine monophosphate (AMP)–activated protein kinase (AMPK) is genetically required for cells to undergo rapid mitochondrial fragmentation after treatment with ETC inhibitors. Moreover, direct pharmacological activation of AMPK was sufficient to rapidly promote mitochondrial fragmentation even in the absence of mitochondrial stress. A screen for substrates of AMPK identified mitochondrial fission factor (MFF), a mitochondrial outer-membrane receptor for DRP1, the cytoplasmic guanosine triphosphatase that catalyzes mitochondrial fission. Nonphosphorylatable and phosphomimetic alleles of the AMPK sites in MFF revealed that it is a key effector of AMPK-mediated mitochondrial fission. PMID:26816379

  9. Chemical and Biological Summer Poisons

    PubMed Central

    Lees, Ronald E. M.

    1972-01-01

    Summer has its own special poisoning hazards for the vacationer, gardener or outdoorsman. Because of the comparative variety of accidental human poisonings from contact with these seasonal toxic substances, either artificial or natural, many family physicians are unfamiliar with their effects. Some of us, unfortunately, will be called upon to deal with them over the next few months. This article highlights some of the hazards, outlines their toxicology and summarizes the treatment of the poisoned patient. PMID:20468771

  10. Moonshine-related arsenic poisoning.

    PubMed

    Gerhardt, R E; Crecelius, E A; Hudson, J B

    1980-02-01

    Twelve sequential cases of arsenic poisoning were reviewed for possible sources of ingestion. Contaminated illicit whiskey (moonshine) appeared to be the source in approximately 50% of the patients. An analysis of.confiscated moonshine revealed that occasional specimens contained high levels of arsenic as a contaminant. Although arsenic poisoning occurs relatively infrequently, contaminated moonshine may be an important cause of the poisoning in some areas of the country.

  11. The affliction of Job: poisoned!

    PubMed

    Gorman, S; Kaplan, D L

    1999-01-01

    The story of Job has been an inspiration for centuries to those familiar with the story. It has also been a source of curiosity as to what affliction he suffered. A critical reappraisal of the clinical manifestations of his illness support the contention that he was a victim of poisoning. There is historical evidence to support that the poison was available in his time and already in use for poisoning. Finally, there is even documentation in the story of Job as to the identity of his poisoner. PMID:9922031

  12. Household Safety: Preventing Poisoning (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Do I Get My Child Tested for Lead Poisoning? What You Need to Know in an Emergency ... Aid: Poisoning First-Aid Kit Emergency Contact Sheet Lead Poisoning Childproofing and Preventing Household Accidents Babysitting: Dealing With ...

  13. The power of poison: pesticide poisoning of Africa's wildlife.

    PubMed

    Ogada, Darcy L

    2014-08-01

    Poisons have long been used to kill wildlife throughout the world. An evolution has occurred from the use of plant- and animal-based toxins to synthetic pesticides to kill wildlife, a method that is silent, cheap, easy, and effective. The use of pesticides to poison wildlife began in southern Africa, and predator populations were widely targeted and eliminated. A steep increase has recently been observed in the intensity of wildlife poisonings, with corresponding population declines. However, the majority of poisonings go unreported. Under national laws, it is illegal to hunt wildlife using poisons in 83% of African countries. Pesticide regulations are inadequate, and enforcement of existing legislation is poor. Few countries have forensic field protocols, and most lack storage and testing facilities. Methods used to poison wildlife include baiting carcasses, soaking grains in pesticide solution, mixing pesticides to form salt licks, and tainting waterholes. Carbofuran is the most widely abused pesticide in Africa. Common reasons for poisoning are control of damage-causing animals, harvesting fish and bushmeat, harvesting animals for traditional medicine, poaching for wildlife products, and killing wildlife sentinels (e.g., vultures because their aerial circling alerts authorities to poachers' activities). Populations of scavengers, particularly vultures, have been decimated by poisoning. Recommendations include banning pesticides, improving pesticide regulations and controlling distribution, better enforcement and stiffer penalties for offenders, increasing international support and awareness, and developing regional pesticide centers.

  14. The power of poison: pesticide poisoning of Africa's wildlife.

    PubMed

    Ogada, Darcy L

    2014-08-01

    Poisons have long been used to kill wildlife throughout the world. An evolution has occurred from the use of plant- and animal-based toxins to synthetic pesticides to kill wildlife, a method that is silent, cheap, easy, and effective. The use of pesticides to poison wildlife began in southern Africa, and predator populations were widely targeted and eliminated. A steep increase has recently been observed in the intensity of wildlife poisonings, with corresponding population declines. However, the majority of poisonings go unreported. Under national laws, it is illegal to hunt wildlife using poisons in 83% of African countries. Pesticide regulations are inadequate, and enforcement of existing legislation is poor. Few countries have forensic field protocols, and most lack storage and testing facilities. Methods used to poison wildlife include baiting carcasses, soaking grains in pesticide solution, mixing pesticides to form salt licks, and tainting waterholes. Carbofuran is the most widely abused pesticide in Africa. Common reasons for poisoning are control of damage-causing animals, harvesting fish and bushmeat, harvesting animals for traditional medicine, poaching for wildlife products, and killing wildlife sentinels (e.g., vultures because their aerial circling alerts authorities to poachers' activities). Populations of scavengers, particularly vultures, have been decimated by poisoning. Recommendations include banning pesticides, improving pesticide regulations and controlling distribution, better enforcement and stiffer penalties for offenders, increasing international support and awareness, and developing regional pesticide centers. PMID:24716788

  15. OCCUPATIONAL CARBAMATE POISONING IN THAILAND.

    PubMed

    Tongpoo, Achara; Sriapha, Charuwan; Wongvisawakorn, Sunun; Rittilert, Panee; Trakulsrichai, Satariya; Wananukul, Winai

    2015-07-01

    Carbamate insecticide is a leading cause of poisoning in Thailand. The objective of this study was to characterize the clinical manifestations and modes of occupational exposure in carbamate poisoning cases. We retrospectively studied all the cases of carbamate poisoning due to occupational exposure recorded in the Ramathibodi Poison Center Toxic Exposure Surveillance system during 2005 to 2010. Demographic data, clinical manifestations and severity were analyzed statistically. During the study period, 3,183 cases were identified, of which 170 (5.3%) were deemed to be due to occupational exposure. Ninety-six cases (56.5%) and 35 cases (20.6%) were poisoned by carbofuran and methomyl, respectively. Carbofuran is sold as a 3% grain and applied by sowing; methomyl is sold as a liquid and is applied by spraying. The majority of poisoned patients did not wear personal protective equipment (PPE) while applying the carbamates. The clinical manifestations of occupational carbofuran poisoning recorded were nausea and vomiting (82.3%), headaches (56.3%) and miosis (19.8%). The clinical manifestations of methomyl poisoning were nausea and vomiting (74.3%), headaches (57.1%) and palpitations (11.4%). Most patients in both groups had mild symptoms. Only one case in each group required endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation support. There were no deaths and the lengths of hospitalization ranged from 2 hours to 2 days. Occupational carbamate poisoning cases in our series were mostly mild and the patients recovered quickly. There were only rare cases of serious symptoms. Lack of knowledge and inadequate PPE were the major factors contributing to occupational poisoning. Educating agricultural workers about correct precautions and pesticide use could minimize this type of poisoning.

  16. Clusterization in Ternary Fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamanin, D. V.; Pyatkov, Y. V.

    This lecture notes are devoted to the new kind of ternary decay of low excited heavy nuclei called by us "collinear cluster tri-partition" (CCT) due to the features of the effect observed, namely, decay partners fly away almost collinearly and at least one of them has magic nucleon composition. At the early stage of our work the process of "true ternary fission" (fission of the nucleus into three fragments of comparable masses) was considered to be undiscovered for low excited heavy nuclei. Another possible prototype—three body cluster radioactivity—was also unknown. The most close to the CCT phenomenon, at least cinematically, stands so called "polar emission", but only very light ions (up to isotopes of Be) were observed so far.

  17. SHAPED FISSIONABLE METAL BODIES

    DOEpatents

    Wigner, E.P.; Williamson, R.R.; Young, G.J.

    1958-10-14

    A technique is presented for grooving the surface of fissionable fuel elements so that expansion can take place without damage to the interior structure of the fuel element. The fissionable body tends to develop internal stressing when it is heated internally by the operation of the nuclear reactor and at the same time is subjected to surface cooling by the circulating coolant. By producing a grooved or waffle-like surface texture, the annular lines of tension stress are disrupted at equally spaced intervals by the grooves, thereby relieving the tension stresses in the outer portions of the body while also facilitating the removal of accumulated heat from the interior portion of the fuel element.

  18. Poisonous snakebite in Utah.

    PubMed

    Plowman, D M; Reynolds, T L; Joyce, S M

    1995-12-01

    A retrospective study was done of poisonous snakebite in Utah to determine the current epidemiology and scope of treatment, reviewing emergency department logs and other sources statewide for a 69-month period. Of 61 cases of poisonous snakebite identified, 13 occurred in snake hobbyists or venom laboratory personnel and were considered nonaccidental, and 48 were inflicted by native noncaptive snakes. These bites were considered accidental, and all were presumed to be from rattlesnakes. Nearly three fourths of the victims were male, ranging in age from 2 to 56 years (mean, 22 years). Most accidental bites occurred in areas of high human populations, during the summer months, in the afternoon or evening hours, and during recreational activities. Of the 48 bites, 11 (23%) were provoked. Two thirds of bites were on the upper extremities, and a third were on the lower extremities. More than half of the victims had no first-aid treatment recorded. Of those who did receive first aid, many were subjected to possibly harmful treatments, including tourniquets and ice application. The median time to a hospital was 68 minutes, with a range of 15 to 440 minutes. Swelling and discoloration were the most common signs and pain and paresthesia the most common symptoms. Half the bites resulted in minimal or no envenomation, 17 (35%) produced moderate envenomation, and 6 (12%) severe envenomation. Most patients with moderate or severe envenomation received antivenin, but the dosages given were usually less than recommended dosages. Five patients received surgical treatment based on clinical findings. One child died in a snake-handling incident. Long-term morbidity was unknown due to lack of follow-up. The Utah Poison Control Center was poorly utilized as a reporting and informational resource. PMID:8553638

  19. [Fission product yields of 60 fissioning reactions]. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rider, B.F.

    1995-05-01

    In keeping with the statement of work, I have examined the fission product yields of 60 fissioning reactions. In co-authorship with the UTR (University Technical Representative) Talmadge R. England ``Evaluation and Compilation of Fission Product Yields 1993,`` LA-UR-94-3106(ENDF-349) October, (1994) was published. This is an evaluated set of fission product Yields for use in calculation of decay heat curves with improved accuracy has been prepared. These evaluated yields are based on all known experimental data through 1992. Unmeasured fission product yields are calculated from charge distribution, pairing effects, and isomeric state models developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The current evaluation has been distributed as the ENDF/B-VI fission product yield data set.

  20. Acute lead arsenate poisoning.

    PubMed

    Tallis, G A

    1989-12-01

    Three cases of acute lead arsenate poisoning which occurred in South Australia during a 12 month interval are described. The case reports demonstrate a number of features of the characteristic clinical syndrome which may follow ingestion of lead arsenate. The recommended management is immediate gastric lavage and subsequent chelation therapy with calcium EDTA and dimercaprol. Early gastric lavage may prevent significant lead absorption. However, arsenic acid (produced in the stomach when lead arsenate reacts with hydrochloric acid) is relatively water soluble and prompt gastric lavage is unlikely to prevent extensive arsenic absorption. It remains controversial as to whether chelation with dimercaprol prevents arsenical neuropathy.

  1. Complications of quinine poisoning.

    PubMed

    Boland, M E; Roper, S M; Henry, J A

    1985-02-16

    Of 165 patients admitted to hospital with acute quinine poisoning 70 (42%) had visual symptoms. 19 were left with a permanent visual deficit, though none was left completely blind. 5 patients died. Bilateral stellate ganglion block was carried out on 34 patients with impaired visual acuity or blindness, but an improvement of symptoms was reported in only 4 cases. It is concluded that stellate ganglion blockade is not effective enough to justify its regular use in quinine-induced amblyopia. Quinine overdose can have serious consequences, and the drug should not be prescribed indiscriminately. PMID:2857431

  2. [Bromadiolone poisoning in foxes].

    PubMed

    Kupper, J; Grobosch, T; Kistler, R; Sydler, T; Naegeli, H

    2006-08-01

    Bromadiolone is an anticoagulant rodenticide that inhibits the reactivation of vitamin K1 by the enzyme vitamin K1-epoxide reductase. The present case report originated from the application of bromadiolone against water voles (Arvicola terrestris) in northeastern Switzerland. At least 40 foxes (Vulpes vulpes) were found dead after the inappropriate use of a bait that contained 0.02 % bromadiolone. Anticoagulant rodenticide poisoning was suspected on the basis of the postmortem examination and subsequently confirmed by the detection ofbromadiolone both in the blood and in samples from thoracic and abdominal fluids. PMID:16933704

  3. Fission-induced plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harries, W. L.; Shiu, Y. J.

    1979-01-01

    The possibility of creating a plasma from fission fragments, and to utilize the energy of the particles to create population inversion that would lead to laser action is investigated. An investigation was made of various laser materials which could be used for nuclear-pumped lasing. The most likely candidate for a fissioning material in the gaseous form is uranium hexafluoride - UF6, and experiments were performed to investigate materials that would be compatible with it. One of the central problems in understanding a fission-induced plasma is to obtain a model of the electron behavior, and some preliminary calculations are presented. In particular, the rates of various processes are discussed. A simple intuitive model of the electron energy distribution function is also shown. The results were useful for considering a mathematical model of a nuclear-pumped laser. Next a theoretical model of a (3)He-Ar nuclear-pumped laser is presented. The theory showed good qualitative agreement with the experimental results.

  4. Extended optical model for fission

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sin, M.; Capote, R.; Herman, M. W.; Trkov, A.

    2016-03-07

    A comprehensive formalism to calculate fission cross sections based on the extension of the optical model for fission is presented. It can be used for description of nuclear reactions on actinides featuring multi-humped fission barriers with partial absorption in the wells and direct transmission through discrete and continuum fission channels. The formalism describes the gross fluctuations observed in the fission probability due to vibrational resonances, and can be easily implemented in existing statistical reaction model codes. The extended optical model for fission is applied for neutron induced fission cross-section calculations on 234,235,238U and 239Pu targets. A triple-humped fission barrier ismore » used for 234,235U(n,f), while a double-humped fission barrier is used for 238U(n,f) and 239Pu(n,f) reactions as predicted by theoretical barrier calculations. The impact of partial damping of class-II/III states, and of direct transmission through discrete and continuum fission channels, is shown to be critical for a proper description of the measured fission cross sections for 234,235,238U(n,f) reactions. The 239Pu(n,f) reaction can be calculated in the complete damping approximation. Calculated cross sections for 235,238U(n,f) and 239Pu(n,f) reactions agree within 3% with the corresponding cross sections derived within the Neutron Standards least-squares fit of available experimental data. Lastly, the extended optical model for fission can be used for both theoretical fission studies and nuclear data evaluation.« less

  5. Scombroid Poisoning: A Practical Approach.

    PubMed

    Guergué-Díaz de Cerio, O; Barrutia-Borque, A; Gardeazabal-García, J

    2016-09-01

    Scombroid poisoning is a common cause of food poisoning worldwide. It is caused by ingestion of oily fish contaminated with bacteria that trigger the formation of high concentrations of histamine. Scombroid poisoning manifests mainly as a skin complaint (flushing that spreads downward and/or an erythematous urticarial rash affecting the face and upper trunk). Although the clinical course is usually self-limiting and benign, vascular compromise, bronchospasm, and arrhythmias have been described. It is important to establish a differential diagnosis that includes conditions such as fish allergy. Oral antihistamines are the mainstay of treatment. Scombroid poisoning is best prevented by refrigerating fish properly. The practical review of scombroid poisoning provided here is intended for dermatologists. PMID:27133773

  6. Scombroid Poisoning: A Practical Approach.

    PubMed

    Guergué-Díaz de Cerio, O; Barrutia-Borque, A; Gardeazabal-García, J

    2016-09-01

    Scombroid poisoning is a common cause of food poisoning worldwide. It is caused by ingestion of oily fish contaminated with bacteria that trigger the formation of high concentrations of histamine. Scombroid poisoning manifests mainly as a skin complaint (flushing that spreads downward and/or an erythematous urticarial rash affecting the face and upper trunk). Although the clinical course is usually self-limiting and benign, vascular compromise, bronchospasm, and arrhythmias have been described. It is important to establish a differential diagnosis that includes conditions such as fish allergy. Oral antihistamines are the mainstay of treatment. Scombroid poisoning is best prevented by refrigerating fish properly. The practical review of scombroid poisoning provided here is intended for dermatologists.

  7. Anticholinesterase insecticide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Mackey, C L

    1982-01-01

    Anticholinesterase insecticides can be lethal, especially to small children. Prevention, not treatment, is the key to lowering the mortality rate. However, treatment, when necessary, can be effective if the poisoning agent is identified quickly as an anticholinesterase insecticide and therapy is begun immediately and aggressively. Large doses (up to 5 gm) of atropine, which block the parasympathetic effects of the poison, in conjunction with pralidoxime, a cholinesterase regenerator, need to be administered, second only in priority to establishing an airway. The second line of attack after adequate atropinization is supportive. Assistance with ventilation is individualized according to the degree of patient need. Intake with cautiously vigorous fluid therapy and output via Foley catheter are essential. Gastric lavage, seizure precautions and control as necessary, good body hygiene, and frequent turning are also part of necessary nursing intervention. Prognosis is fairly good if improvement is shown after therapy is begun. Maintaining adequate atropinization seems to be difficult yet essential to the success of the treatment and a good prognosis for the patient. PMID:6921196

  8. [Arsenic - Poison or medicine?].

    PubMed

    Kulik-Kupka, Karolina; Koszowska, Aneta; Brończyk-Puzoń, Anna; Nowak, Justyna; Gwizdek, Katarzyna; Zubelewicz-Szkodzińska, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is commonly known as a poison. Only a few people know that As has also been widely used in medicine. In the past years As and its compounds were used as a medicine for the treatment of such diseases as diabetes, psoriasis, syphilis, skin ulcers and joint diseases. Nowadays As is also used especially in the treatment of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has recognized arsenic as an element with carcinogenic effect evidenced by epidemiological studies, but as previously mentioned it is also used in the treatment of neoplastic diseases. This underlines the specificity of the arsenic effects. Arsenic occurs widely in the natural environment, for example, it is present in soil and water, which contributes to its migration to food products. Long exposure to this element may lead to liver damages and also to changes in myocardium. Bearing in mind that such serious health problems can occur, monitoring of the As presence in the environmental media plays a very important role. In addition, the occupational risk of As exposure in the workplace should be identified and checked. Also the standards for As presence in food should be established. This paper presents a review of the 2015 publications based on the Medical database like PubMed and Polish Medical Bibliography. It includes the most important information about arsenic in both forms, poison and medicine.

  9. Organochlorine poisoning of herons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ohlendorf, H.M.; Swineford, D.M.; Locke, L.N.

    1979-01-01

    Over a period of years interested individuals have submitted many dead or moribund herons of various species to our laboratory to learn whether the birds had been affected by diseases or organochlorine poisoning. Residue concentrations in carcasses of birds and mammals are considered the best measure of sublethal exposure, whereas residues in brains are best to use for diagnosing death by most organochlorine chemicals.... The purpose of the present paper is to document the occurrence and concentration of organochlorine residues in the brains of herons from various areas in the United States. By comparing these residue concentrations with laboratory-determined diagnostic lethal levels, we conclude that some herons were killed by organochlorine poisoning; others were at least seriously endangered by the residues they carried. Complete results of carcass analyses for these and other herons, as well as further details? on residues in brains, will be reported elsewhere. Overall, we analyzed carcasses or brains of more than 70 herons found dead or moribund and 36 others taken in planned collections. Residue levels in carcasses of many herons were not high enough to warrant analysis of brains. In the present paper we compare carcass and brain residues of dieldrin in 23 herons of which both carcass and brain were analyzed.

  10. [Poisonings in pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Schaefer, C; Hoffmann-Walbeck, P

    2012-03-01

    Attempted suicides and poisonings in pregnancy are a challenge for health care professionals because of the unknown effects of the toxic agent and the antidote therapy on the unborn. In case of intoxication, the malformation risk is often overestimated. In contrast, pertinent data show that the risk is not very high as long as the drug is not known as a teratogen and the mother's health is not substantially impaired. This applies to suicide attempts with acetaminophen, iron-containing products, and multidrug overdoses with psychopharmaceuticals as well as snake and spider bites and the ingestion of poisonous mushrooms. It is of utmost importance that the pregnant patient receives the same detoxification and supportive therapy following pertinent guidelines as a non-pregnant patient. The fetus should be followed-up by ultrasound with special focus on its vital parameters, movement pattern, and normal growth and organ differentiation. As long as the maternal health status is not substantially impaired, there is no indication to discuss elective termination of pregnancy "for toxicological reasons". PMID:22349530

  11. Fission yield measurements at IGISOL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lantz, M.; Al-Adili, A.; Gorelov, D.; Jokinen, A.; Kolhinen, V. S.; Mattera, A.; Moore, I.; Penttilä, H.; Pomp, S.; Prokofiev, A. V.; Rakopoulos, V.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Simutkin, V.; Solders, A.

    2016-06-01

    The fission product yields are an important characteristic of the fission process. In fundamental physics, knowledge of the yield distributions is needed to better understand the fission process. For nuclear energy applications good knowledge of neutroninduced fission-product yields is important for the safe and efficient operation of nuclear power plants. With the Ion Guide Isotope Separator On-Line (IGISOL) technique, products of nuclear reactions are stopped in a buffer gas and then extracted and separated by mass. Thanks to the high resolving power of the JYFLTRAP Penning trap, at University of Jyväskylä, fission products can be isobarically separated, making it possible to measure relative independent fission yields. In some cases it is even possible to resolve isomeric states from the ground state, permitting measurements of isomeric yield ratios. So far the reactions U(p,f) and Th(p,f) have been studied using the IGISOL-JYFLTRAP facility. Recently, a neutron converter target has been developed utilizing the Be(p,xn) reaction. We here present the IGISOL-technique for fission yield measurements and some of the results from the measurements on proton induced fission. We also present the development of the neutron converter target, the characterization of the neutron field and the first tests with neutron-induced fission.

  12. Measurement of Fission Product Yields from Fast-Neutron Fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, C. W.; Bond, E. M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Fowler, M. M.; Moody, W. A.; Rusev, G.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Becker, J. A.; Henderson, R.; Kenneally, J.; Macri, R.; McNabb, D.; Ryan, C.; Sheets, S.; Stoyer, M. A.; Tonchev, A. P.; Bhatia, C.; Bhike, M.; Fallin, B.; Gooden, M. E.; Howell, C. R.; Kelley, J. H.; Tornow, W.

    2014-09-01

    One of the aims of the Stockpile Stewardship Program is a reduction of the uncertainties on fission data used for analyzing nuclear test data [1,2]. Fission products such as 147Nd are convenient for determining fission yields because of their relatively high yield per fission (about 2%) and long half-life (10.98 days). A scientific program for measuring fission product yields from 235U,238U and 239Pu targets as a function of bombarding neutron energy (0.1 to 15 MeV) is currently underway using monoenergetic neutron beams produced at the 10 MV Tandem Accelerator at TUNL. Dual-fission chambers are used to determine the rate of fission in targets during activation. Activated targets are counted in highly shielded HPGe detectors over a period of several weeks to identify decaying fission products. To date, data have been collected at neutron bombarding energies 4.6, 9.0, 14.5 and 14.8 MeV. Experimental methods and data reduction techniques are discussed, and some preliminary results are presented.

  13. The SPIDER fission fragment spectrometer for fission product yield measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Meierbachtol, K.; Tovesson, F.; Shields, D.; Arnold, C.; Blakeley, R.; Bredeweg, T.; Devlin, M.; Hecht, A. A.; Heffern, L. E.; Jorgenson, J.; Laptev, A.; Mader, D.; O׳Donnell, J. M.; Sierk, A.; White, M.

    2015-04-01

    The SPectrometer for Ion DEtermination in fission Research (SPIDER) developed for measuring mass yield distributions of fission products from spontaneous and neutron-induced fission. The 2E–2v method of measuring the kinetic energy (E) and velocity (v) of both outgoing fission products utilized, with the goal of measuring the mass of the fission products with an average resolution of 1 atomic mass unit (amu). The SPIDER instrument, consisting of detector components for time-of-flight, trajectory, and energy measurements, assembled and tested using 229Th and 252Cf radioactive decay sources. For commissioning, the fully assembled system measured fission products from spontaneous fission of 252Cf. Finally, individual measurement resolutions were met for time-of-flight (250 ps FWHM), spacial resolution (2 mm FHWM), and energy (92 keV FWHM for 8.376 MeV). These mass yield results measured from 252Cf spontaneous fission products are reported from an E–v measurement.

  14. The SPIDER fission fragment spectrometer for fission product yield measurements

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Meierbachtol, K.; Tovesson, F.; Shields, D.; Arnold, C.; Blakeley, R.; Bredeweg, T.; Devlin, M.; Hecht, A. A.; Heffern, L. E.; Jorgenson, J.; et al

    2015-04-01

    The SPectrometer for Ion DEtermination in fission Research (SPIDER) developed for measuring mass yield distributions of fission products from spontaneous and neutron-induced fission. The 2E–2v method of measuring the kinetic energy (E) and velocity (v) of both outgoing fission products utilized, with the goal of measuring the mass of the fission products with an average resolution of 1 atomic mass unit (amu). The SPIDER instrument, consisting of detector components for time-of-flight, trajectory, and energy measurements, assembled and tested using 229Th and 252Cf radioactive decay sources. For commissioning, the fully assembled system measured fission products from spontaneous fission of 252Cf. Finally,more » individual measurement resolutions were met for time-of-flight (250 ps FWHM), spacial resolution (2 mm FHWM), and energy (92 keV FWHM for 8.376 MeV). These mass yield results measured from 252Cf spontaneous fission products are reported from an E–v measurement.« less

  15. Fission: The first 50 years

    SciTech Connect

    Vandenbosch, R.

    1989-01-01

    The possibility of fission had been largely unanticipated prior to its discovery in 1938. This process, with its dramatically large energy release and its formation of previously unknown nuclides, immediately captured the imagination of the scientific community. Both theoretical and experimental developments occurred at a rapid pace. I will begin my discussion of fission with the far-reaching paper of Bohr and Wheeler, who in little more than half a year laid out a framework for understanding many features of the fission process. I will then turn to our current understanding of a number of aspects of fission. One of these is the pronounced tendency of many nuclear species to fission asymmetrically. In fact, the discovery of fission was based on the identification of barium isotopes produced in asymmetric fission. The dramatic changes in the preferred mass division and kinetic energy release with the addition of only a few neutrons to the spontaneously fissioning Fermium isotopes will be emphasized. The problem of the dynamics of saddle to scission will be discussed---this is one aspect of fission for which we do not have all the answers. Another dynamical effect to be discussed is the apparent failure of transition state theory at high excitation energies. The role of single particle (shell) effects in enriching the structure if the potential energy surface will be explored. Spontaneously fissioning isomers and intermediate structure resonances will be discussed. The recognition that short-lived fission isomers are superdeformed shape isomers has been followed by the recent observation of superdeformed shape isomers in the rare earth region. 18 refs., 3 figs.

  16. [Subacute arsenic poisoning].

    PubMed

    Ghariani, M; Adrien, M L; Raucoules, M; Bayle, J; Jacomet, Y; Grimaud, D

    1991-01-01

    A cas is reported of a 23-year-old man who voluntarily took a massive dose of arsenic (at least 8 g). In spite of the ingested amount and the acute nature of the poisoning, the patient survived 8 days. Gastrointestinal, neurologic and cardiac features were predominant including nausea, vomiting, choleroid diarrhoea, encephalopathy, peripheral neuropathy, and finally a fatal toxic cardiomyopathy. Metabolic acidosis, moderate cytolysis and an anticoagulant effect were also observed. This unique characteristic was partly due to a circulating anticoagulant with prothrombinase activity, as well as direct antivitamin K activity. Postmortem examination revealed: a congestive oesophagitis; a necrosing gastritis involving all the stomach wall; diffuse hepatic steatosis; skin lesions with vascular congestion and dermoepidermal detachment; discrete subepicardial congestive lesions. Arsenic was found in all tissues.

  17. Cleistanthus collinus poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Chrispal, Anugrah

    2012-01-01

    Cleistanthus collinus, a toxic shrub, is used for deliberate self-harm in rural South India. MEDLINE (PUBMED) and Google were searched for published papers using the search/ MeSH terms “Cleistanthus collinus,” “Euphorbiaceae,” “Diphyllin,” “Cleistanthin A,” Cleistanthin B” and “Oduvanthalai.” Non-indexed journals and abstracts were searched by tracing citations in published papers. The toxic principles in the leaf include arylnaphthalene lignan lactones — Diphyllin and its glycoside derivatives Cleistanthin A and B. Toxin effect in animal models demonstrate neuromuscular blockade with muscle weakness, distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) and type 2 respiratory failure with conflicting evidence of cardiac involvement. Studies suggest a likely inhibition of thiol/thiol enzymes by the lignan-lactones, depletion of glutathione and ATPases in tissues. V-type H+ ATPase inhibition in the renal tubule has been demonstrated. Mortality occurs in up to 40% of C. collinus poisonings. Human toxicity results in renal tubular dysfunction, commonly dRTA, with resultant hypokalemia and normal anion gap metabolic acidosis. Aggressive management of these metabolic derangements is crucial. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is seen in severe cases. Cardiac rhythm abnormalities have been demonstrated in a number of clinical studies, though the role of temporary cardiac pacemakers in reducing mortality is uncertain. Consumption of decoctions of C. collinus leaves, hypokalemia, renal failure, severe metabolic acidosis, ARDS and cardiac arrhythmias occur in severe poisonings and predict mortality. Further study is essential to delineate mechanisms of organ injury and interventions, including antidotes, which will reduce mortality. PMID:22787347

  18. [Accidental poisoning and test for it].

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Namiko; Kamijo, Yoshito; Soma, Kazui

    2008-11-30

    There are many dangerous materials which cause poisoning, toxins or poisons, in our lives. We may suddenly suffer from the effects of these materials by inhalation or ingestion before we are aware of the risk. It is very important to identify toxins or poisons to prevent poisoning and treat the poisoned patients. We have to learn from previous accidents the way to resolve future problems.

  19. Fission fragment driven neutron source

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Lowell G.; Young, Robert C.; Brugger, Robert M.

    1976-01-01

    Fissionable uranium formed into a foil is bombarded with thermal neutrons in the presence of deuterium-tritium gas. The resulting fission fragments impart energy to accelerate deuterium and tritium particles which in turn provide approximately 14 MeV neutrons by the reactions t(d,n).sup.4 He and d(t,n).sup.4 He.

  20. Fission Particle Emission Multiplicity Simulation

    2006-09-27

    Simulates discrete neutron and gamma-ray emission from the fission of heavy nuclei that is either spontaneous or neutron induced. This is a function library that encapsulates the fission physics and is intended to be called Monte Carlo transport code.

  1. TREATMENT OF FISSION PRODUCT WASTE

    DOEpatents

    Huff, J.B.

    1959-07-28

    A pyrogenic method of separating nuclear reactor waste solutions containing aluminum and fission products as buring petroleum coke in an underground retort, collecting the easily volatile gases resulting as the first fraction, he uminum chloride as the second fraction, permitting the coke bed to cool and ll contain all the longest lived radioactive fission products in greatly reduced volume.

  2. Ternary fission of nuclei into comparable fragments

    SciTech Connect

    Karpeshin, F. F.

    2015-07-15

    The problem of nuclear fission into three comparable fragments is considered. A mechanism of true ternary fission is proposed. In contrast to sequential fission, where the three fragments arise upon two sequential events of binary fission, the mechanism in question relies on a scenario that originally involves fission into three fragments. This mechanism is driven by a hexadecapole deformation of the fissioning nucleus, in contrast to binary fission associated with quadrupole vibrations of the nuclear surface. The fragment-mass ratios are estimated. The dynamics of formation of collinear fragments and their subsequent motion in opposite directions is traced. The calculated probability of true ternary fission complies with observed values.

  3. Ternary fission of nuclei into comparable fragments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpeshin, F. F.

    2015-07-01

    The problem of nuclear fission into three comparable fragments is considered. A mechanism of true ternary fission is proposed. In contrast to sequential fission, where the three fragments arise upon two sequential events of binary fission, the mechanism in question relies on a scenario that originally involves fission into three fragments. This mechanism is driven by a hexadecapole deformation of the fissioning nucleus, in contrast to binary fission associated with quadrupole vibrations of the nuclear surface. The fragment-mass ratios are estimated. The dynamics of formation of collinear fragments and their subsequent motion in opposite directions is traced. The calculated probability of true ternary fission complies with observed values.

  4. Nuclear Fission Research at IRMM

    SciTech Connect

    Hambsch, Franz-Josef

    2005-05-24

    The Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) will celebrate its 45th anniversary in 2005. With its 150-MeV Geel Electron Linear Accelerator (GELINA) and 7-MV Van de Graaff accelerator as multi-purpose neutron sources, it served the nuclear physics community for this period.The research in the field of nuclear fission was focused in recent years on both the measurement and calculation of fission cross sections, and the measurement of fission fragment properties.Fission cross sections were determined for 233Pa and 234U; the fission process was studied in the resolved resonance region of 239Pu(n,f) and for 251Cf(nth,f). These measurements derive their interest from accelerator driven systems, the thorium fuel cycle, high temperature reactors, safety issues of current reactors, and basic physics. The measurements are supported by several modeling efforts that aim at improving model codes and nuclear data evaluation.

  5. A threshold for dissipative fission

    SciTech Connect

    Thoennessen, M.; Bertsch, G.F.

    1993-09-21

    The empirical domain of validity of statistical theory is examined as applied to fission data on pre-fission data on pre-fission neutron, charged particle, and {gamma}-ray multiplicities. Systematics are found of the threshold excitation energy for the appearance of nonstatistical fission. From the data on systems with not too high fissility, the relevant phenomenological parameter is the ratio of the threshold temperature T{sub thresh} to the (temperature-dependent) fission barrier height E{sub Bar}(T). The statistical model reproduces the data for T{sub thresh}/E{sub Bar}(T) < 0.26 {plus_minus} 0.05, but underpredicts the multiplicities at higher T{sub thresh}/E{sub Bar}(T) independent of mass and fissility of the systems.

  6. Oil-based paint poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Hydrocarbons are the primary poisonous ingredient in oil paints. Some oil paints have heavy metals such as ... Gummin DD. Hydrocarbons. In: Nelson LS, Lewin NA, Howland MA, et al., eds. Goldfrank's Toxicologic Emergencies . 9th ed. New York, NY: ...

  7. Piperonyl butoxide with pyrethrins poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Borron, SW. Pyrethrins, repellants, and other pesticides. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  8. Lead poisoning from Ayurvedic medicines.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Rayji S; Van Schalkwyk, Johan; Spriggs, David

    2013-05-10

    A case of lead poisoning with established exposure to Ayurvedic medicines is presented. This patient migrated from India to New Zealand 8 years previously. He regularly visits India where he purchases "herbal remedies" for his wellbeing.

  9. Antidotes for acute cyanide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Borron, Stephen W; Baud, Frederic J

    2012-08-01

    Cyanide poisoning can present in multiple ways, given its widespread industrial use, presence in combustion products, multiple physical forms, and chemical structures. The primary target of toxicity is mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase. The onset and severity of poisoning depend on the route, dose, physicochemical structure and other variables. Common poisoning features include dyspnea, altered respiratory patterns, abnormal vital signs, altered mental status, seizures, and lactic acidosis. Our present knowledge supports cyanide poisoning treatment based on excellent supportive care with adjunctive antidotal therapy. Multiple antidotes exist and vary in regional availability. All currently marketed antidotes appear to be effective. Antidotal mechanisms include chelation, formation of stable, less toxic complexes, methemoglobin induction, and sulfane sulfur supplementation for detoxification by endogenous rhodanese. Each antidote has advantages and disadvantages. For example, hydroxocobalamin is safer than the methemoglobin inducers in patients with smoke inhalation. Research for new, safer and more effective cyanide antidotes continues.

  10. Fifty years with nuclear fission

    SciTech Connect

    Behrens, J.W.; Carlson, A.D. )

    1989-01-01

    The news of the discovery of nuclear fission, by Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann in Germany, was brought to the United States by Niels Bohr in January 1939. Since its discovery, the United States, and the world for that matter, has never been the same. It therefore seemed appropriate to acknowledge the fifieth anniversary of its discovery by holding a topical meeting entitled, Fifty Years with Nuclear Fission,'' in the United States during the year 1989. The objective of the meeting was to bring together pioneers of the nuclear industry and other scientists and engineers to report on reminiscences of the past and on the more recent development in fission science and technology. The conference highlighted the early pioneers of the nuclear industry by dedicated a full day (April 26), consisting of two plenary sessions, at the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) in Washington, DC. More recent developments in fission science and technology in addition to historical reflections were topics for two fully days of sessions (April 27 and 28) at the main site of the NIST in Gaithersburg, Maryland. The wide range of topics covered in this Volume 1 by this topical meeting included plenary invited, and contributed sessions entitled: Preclude to the First Chain Reaction -- 1932 to 1942; Early Fission Research -- Nuclear Structure and Spontaneous Fission; 50 Years of Fission, Science, and Technology; Nuclear Reactors, Secure Energy for the Future; Reactors 1; Fission Science 1; Safeguards and Space Applications; Fission Data; Nuclear Fission -- Its Various Aspects; Theory and Experiments in Support of Theory; Reactors and Safeguards; and General Research, Instrumentation, and By-Product. The individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  11. [A case of Veratrum poisoning].

    PubMed

    Festa, M; Andreetto, B; Ballaris, M A; Panio, A; Piervittori, R

    1996-05-01

    A poisoning from a Veratrum album infusion mistaken for Gentiana lutea is described. Confusion between these two plants can easily occur because they are very similar, although flowers and disposition of leaves allow their botanic determinat: V. album leaves are alternate and flowers are white, while G. lutea leaves are opposite and flowers yellow. The poisoning involves gastrointestinal (pyrosis, vomiting) and cardiocirculatory systems (bradyarrhy-thmias, A-V dissociation, vasodilatation) Atropine is the drug of choice.

  12. Accidental poisoning in young children.

    PubMed Central

    Basavaraj, D S; Forster, D P

    1982-01-01

    Cases of accidental childhood poisoning admitted to hospital were compared with community controls and hospital controls matched for age and sex. The relative risks of factors in the cases compared with both the control groups were significant for roughness, aggressiveness, noisiness, and pica behaviour in the child, and for large families. Mothers' knowledge of the toxicity of common household products and drugs did not give significant risk differences between cases and controls. The majority of poisonings occurred during the summer months. PMID:7069353

  13. Prompt Fission Neutron Emission in Resonance Fission of 239Pu

    SciTech Connect

    Hambsch, Franz-Josef; Oberstedt, Stephan; Varapai, Natallia; Serot, Olivier

    2005-05-24

    The prompt neutron emission probability from neutron-induced fission in the resonance region is being investigated at the time-of-flight facility GELINA of the IRMM. A double Frisch-gridded ionization chamber is used as a fission-fragment detector. For the data acquisition of both the fission-fragment signals as well as the neutron detector signals the fast digitization technique has been applied. For the neutron detection, large-volume liquid scintillation detectors from the DEMON collaboration are used. A specialized data analysis program taking advantage of the digital filtering technique has been developed to treat the acquired data.Neutron multiplicity investigations for actinides, especially in resonance neutron-induced fission, are rather scarce. They are, however, important for reactor control and safety issues as well as for understanding the basic physics of the fission process. Fission yield measurements on both 235U and 239Pu without prompt neutron emission coincidence have shown that fluctuation of the fission-fragment mass distribution exists from resonance to resonance, larger in the case of 235U. To possibly explain these observations, the question now is whether the prompt neutron multiplicity shows similar fluctuations with resonance energy.

  14. Cholinergic Crisis after Rodenticide Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Waseem, Muhammad; Perry, Christopher; Bomann, Scott; Pai, Meena; Gernsheimer, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Rodenticides have historically been common agents in attempted suicides. As most rodenticides in the United States (U.S.) are superwarfarins, these ingestions are generally managed conservatively with close monitoring for coagulopathy, and if necessary, correction of any resulting coagulopathy. However, alternate forms of rodenticides are imported illegally into the U.S. and may be ingested either accidentally or in suicide attempts. We present an unusual case of poisoning by the illegally imported rodenticide, “Tres Pasitos.” The main ingredient of this rat poison is aldicarb, a potent carbamate pesticide that causes fulminant cholinergic crisis. This case is relevant and timely because carbamates and organophosphates are still used as insecticides and emergency physicians (EP) working in rural areas may have to evaluate and manage patients with these poisonings. As international travel and immigration have increased, so has the possibility of encountering patients who have ingested toxic substances from other countries. In addition, there has been increased concern about the possibility of acts of terrorism using chemical substances that cause cholinergic toxidromes.1,2 EPs must be able to recognize and manage these poisonings. This report describes the mechanism of action, clinical manifestations, laboratory evaluation and management of this type of poisoning. The pertinent medical literature on poisoning with aldicarb and similar substances is reviewed. PMID:21293782

  15. Organelle fission in eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Osteryoung, K W

    2001-12-01

    The cellular machineries that power chloroplast and mitochondrial division in eukaryotes carry out the topologically challenging job of constricting and severing these double-membraned organelles. Consistent with their endosymbiotic origins, mitochondria in protists and chloroplasts in photosynthetic eukaryotes have evolved organelle-targeted forms of FtsZ, the prokaryotic ancestor of tubulin, as key components of their fission complexes. In fungi, animals and plants, mitochondria no longer utilize FtsZ for division, but several mitochondrial division proteins that localize to the outer membrane and intermembrane space, including two related to the filament-forming dynamins, have been identified in yeast and animals. Although the reactions that mediate organelle division are not yet understood, recent progress in uncovering the constituents of the organelle division machineries promises rapid advancement in our understanding of the biochemical mechanisms underlying the distinct but related processes of chloroplast and mitochondrial division in eukaryotes.

  16. Fission yeast septation.

    PubMed

    Cortés, Juan C G; Ramos, Mariona; Osumi, Masako; Pérez, Pilar; Ribas, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    In animal cells cytokinesis relies on the contraction of an actomyosin ring that pulls the plasma membrane to create a cleavage furrow, whose ingression finally divides the mother cell into two daughter cells. Fungal cells are surrounded by a tough and flexible structure called cell wall, which is considered to be the functional equivalent of the extracellular matrix in animal cells. Therefore, in addition to cleavage furrow ingression, fungal cytokinesis also requires the centripetal formation of a septum wall structure that develops between the dividing cells, whose genesis must be strictly coordinated with both the actomyosin ring closure and plasma membrane ingression. Here we briefly review what is known about the septum structure and composition in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the recent progress about the relationship between septum biosynthesis and actomyosin ring constriction, and the importance of the septum and ring in the steady progression of the cleavage furrow. PMID:27574536

  17. Fission yeast septation

    PubMed Central

    Cortés, Juan C. G.; Ramos, Mariona; Osumi, Masako; Pérez, Pilar; Ribas, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In animal cells cytokinesis relies on the contraction of an actomyosin ring that pulls the plasma membrane to create a cleavage furrow, whose ingression finally divides the mother cell into two daughter cells. Fungal cells are surrounded by a tough and flexible structure called cell wall, which is considered to be the functional equivalent of the extracellular matrix in animal cells. Therefore, in addition to cleavage furrow ingression, fungal cytokinesis also requires the centripetal formation of a septum wall structure that develops between the dividing cells, whose genesis must be strictly coordinated with both the actomyosin ring closure and plasma membrane ingression. Here we briefly review what is known about the septum structure and composition in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the recent progress about the relationship between septum biosynthesis and actomyosin ring constriction, and the importance of the septum and ring in the steady progression of the cleavage furrow. PMID:27574536

  18. Dynamical Aspects of Nuclear Fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kliman, J.; Itkis, M. G.; Gmuca, Š.

    2008-11-01

    Fission dynamics. Dependence of scission-neutron yield on light-fragment mass for [symbol]=1/2 [et al.]. Dynamics of capture quasifission and fusion-fission competition / L. Stuttgé ... [et al.] -- Fission-fission. The processes of fusion-fission and quasi-fission of superheavy nuclei / M. G. Itkis ... [et al.]. Fission and quasifission in the reactions [symbol]Ca+[symbol]Pb and [symbol]Ni+[symbol]W / G. N. Knyazheva ... [et al.]. Mass-energy characteristics of reactions [symbol]Fe+[symbol][symbol][symbol]266Hs and [symbol]Mg+[symbol]Cm[symbol][symbol]Hs at Coulomb barrier / L. Krupa ... [et al.]. Fusion of heavy ions at extreme sub-barrier energies / Ş. Mişicu and H. Esbensen. Fusion and fission dynamics of heavy nuclear system / V. Zagrebaev and W. Greiner. Time-dependent potential energy for fusion and fission processes / A. V. Karpov ... [et al.] -- Superheavy elements. Advances in the understanding of structure and production mechanisms for superheavy elements / W. Greiner and V. Zagrebaev. Fission barriers of heaviest nuclei / A. Sobiczewski ... [et al.]. Possibility of synthesizing doubly magic superheavy nuclei / Y Aritomo ... [et al.]. Synthesis of superheavy nuclei in [symbol]Ca-induced reactions / V. K. Utyonkov ... [et al.] -- Fragmentation. Production of neutron-rich nuclei in the nucleus-nucleus collisions around the Fermi energy / M. Veselský. Signals of enlarged core in [symbol]Al / Y. G. Ma ... [et al.] -- Exotic modes. New insight into the fission process from experiments with relativistic heavy-ion beams / K.-H. Schmidt ... [et al.]. New results for the intensity of bimodal fission in binary and ternary spontaneous fission of [symbol]Cf / C. Goodin ... [et al.]. Rare fission modes: study of multi-cluster decays of actinide nuclei / D. V. Kamanin ... [et al.]. Energy distribution of ternary [symbol]-particles in [symbol]Cf(sf) / M. Mutterer ... [et al.]. Preliminary results of experiment aimed at searching for collinear cluster tripartition of

  19. Fifty years with nuclear fission

    SciTech Connect

    Behrens, J.W.; Carlson, A.D. )

    1989-01-01

    The news of the discovery of nucler fission, by Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann in Germany, was brought to the United States by Niels Bohr in January 1939. Since its discovery, the United States, and the world for that matter, has never been the same. It therefore seemed appropriate to acknowledge the fiftieth anniversary of its discovery by holding a topical meeting entitled, Fifty years with nuclear fission,'' in the United States during the year 1989. The objective of the meeting was to bring together pioneers of the nuclear industry and other scientists and engineers to report on reminiscences of the past and on the more recent developments in fission science and technology. The conference highlighted the early pioneers of the nuclear industry by dedicating a full day (April 26), consisting of two plenary sessions, at the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) in Washington, DC. More recent developments in fission science and technology in addition to historical reflections were topics for two full days of sessions (April 27 and 28) at the main sites of the NIST in Gaithersburg, Maryland. The wide range of topics covered by Volume 2 of this topical meeting included plenary invited, and contributed sessions entitled, Nuclear fission -- a prospective; reactors II; fission science II; medical and industrial applications by by-products; reactors and safeguards; general research, instrumentation, and by-products; and fission data, astrophysics, and space applications. The individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  20. Sabatier Catalyst Poisoning Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nallette, Tim; Perry, Jay; Abney, Morgan; Knox, Jim; Goldblatt, Loel

    2013-01-01

    The Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) on the International Space Station (ISS) has been operational since 2010. The CRA uses a Sabatier reactor to produce water and methane by reaction of the metabolic CO2 scrubbed from the cabin air and the hydrogen byproduct from the water electrolysis system used for metabolic oxygen generation. Incorporating the CRA into the overall air revitalization system has facilitated life support system loop closure on the ISS reducing resupply logistics and thereby enhancing longer term missions. The CRA utilizes CO2 which has been adsorbed in a 5A molecular sieve within the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly, CDRA. There is a potential of compounds with molecular dimensions similar to, or less than CO2 to also be adsorbed. In this fashion trace contaminants may be concentrated within the CDRA and subsequently desorbed with the CO2 to the CRA. Currently, there is no provision to remove contaminants prior to entering the Sabatier catalyst bed. The risk associated with this is potential catalyst degradation due to trace organic contaminants in the CRA carbon dioxide feed acting as catalyst poisons. To better understand this risk, United Technologies Aerospace System (UTAS) has teamed with MSFC to investigate the impact of various trace contaminants on the CRA catalyst performance at relative ISS cabin air concentrations and at about 200/400 times of ISS concentrations, representative of the potential concentrating effect of the CDRA molecular sieve. This paper summarizes our initial assessment results.

  1. Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Sharon M.; Reich, Andrew; Fleming, Lora E.; Hammond, Roberta

    2008-01-01

    Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) is caused by consumption of molluscan shellfish contaminated with brevetoxins primarily produced by the dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. Blooms of K. brevis, called Florida red tide, occur frequently along the Gulf of Mexico. Many shellfish beds in the US (and other nations) are routinely monitored for presence of K. brevis and other brevetoxin-producing organisms. As a result, few NSP cases are reported annually from the US. However, infrequent larger outbreaks do occur. Cases are usually associated with recreationally-harvested shellfish collected during or post red tide blooms. Brevetoxins are neurotoxins which activate voltage-sensitive sodium channels causing sodium influx and nerve membrane depolarization. No fatalities have been reported, but hospitalizations occur. NSP involves a cluster of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms: nausea and vomiting, paresthesias of the mouth, lips and tongue as well as distal paresthesias, ataxia, slurred speech and dizziness. Neurological symptoms can progress to partial paralysis; respiratory distress has been recorded. Recent research has implicated new species of harmful algal bloom organisms which produce brevetoxins, identified additional marine species which accumulate brevetoxins, and has provided additional information on the toxicity and analysis of brevetoxins. A review of the known epidemiology and recommendations for improved NSP prevention are presented. PMID:19005578

  2. Fatal poisoning by vanadium.

    PubMed

    Boulassel, Brahim; Sadeg, Nouredine; Roussel, Olivier; Perrin, Martine; Belhadj-Tahar, Hafid

    2011-03-20

    We report here a fatal intoxication case involving ammonium vanadate. A 24-year-old woman was admitted to the Emergency Department for abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, multiple daily diarrheas, hypoglycaemia (0.2g/L) and severe acute renal failure with glomerular filtration rate estimated at 21 ml/min. This patient had taken an undetermined amount of ammonium vanadate 12h after ingesting. She died next morning in the context of respiratory distress despite intensive care and oxygen therapy. The autopsy revealed widespread asphyxia syndrome and erosive gastritis. Determination of vanadium concentration in blood was carried out by means of mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) using rhodium ((103)Rh) as the internal standard. The vanadium concentration was 6.22 mg/L, corresponding to 6000 times higher than normal concentration in the general population. The latency and the brutality of clinical picture degradation seem to be in consideration of systemic poisoning by vanadium leading to inhibition of the cellular respiratory process.

  3. [Chronic ethylene glycol poisoning].

    PubMed

    Kaiser, W; Steinmauer, H G; Biesenbach, G; Janko, O; Zazgornik, J

    1993-04-30

    Over a six-week period a 60-year-old patient had several unexplained intoxication-like episodes. He finally had severe abdominal cramps with changes in the level of consciousness and oligoanuric renal failure (creatinine 4.7 mg/dl). The history, marked metabolic acidosis (pH 7.15, HCO3- 2.2 mmol/l, pCO2 6.6 mmHg) as well as raised anion residue (43 mmol/l) and the presence of oxalates in urine suggested poisoning by ethylene glycol contained in antifreeze liquid. Intensive haemodialysis adequately eliminated ethylene glycol and its toxic metabolites (glycol aldehyde, glycolic acid). Renal function returned within 10 days, although the concentrating power of the kidney remained impaired for several weeks because of interstitial nephritis. The intoxication had been caused by a defective heating-pipe system from which the antifreeze had leaked into the hot-water boiler (the patient had habitually prepared hot drinks by using water from the hot-water tap). Gas chromatography demonstrated an ethylene glycol concentration of 21 g per litre of water.

  4. Serial cholinesterase estimation in carbamate poisoning.

    PubMed

    Pinakini, K S; Kumar, T S Mohan

    2006-07-01

    Poisoning is one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in developing countries like India. Anticholinesterase compounds like organophosphates (OP) and carbamates account for the majority of these poisoning cases because of their easy availability and agricultural use. Carbamates are as popular as OPs as insecticides that often go undiagnosed. A fatal case of carbofuran poisoning is presented where serial cholinesterase estimation played a major role in the diagnosis of the same. The pertinent medical literature on carbofuran poisoning is reviewed. The establishment of poison information center in each state is needed for proper diagnosis and management of poisoning cases.

  5. Fusion, fission, and quasi-fission using TDHF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umar, Sait; Oberacker, Volker

    2014-03-01

    We study fusion, fission, and quasi-fission reactions using the time-dependent Hartee-Fock (TDHF) approach together with the density-constrained TDHF method for fusion. The only input is the Skyrme NN interaction, there are no adjustable parameters. We discuss the identification of quasi-fission in 40Ca+238U, the scission dynamics in symmetric fission of 264Fm, as well as calculating heavy-ion interaction potentials V (R) , mass parameters M (R) , and total fusion cross sections from light to heavy systems. Some of the effects naturally included in these calculations are: neck formation, mass exchange, internal excitations, deformation effects, as well as nuclear alignment for deformed systems. Supported by DOE grant DE-FG02-96ER40975.

  6. Spontaneous Fission: A Kinetic Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Bonasera, A.; Iwamoto, A.; Bonasera, A.

    1997-01-01

    We present an attempt towards the many-body description of spontaneous fission based on the semiclassical Vlasov equation and the Feynman path integral method. We define suitable collective variables from the Vlasov solution and use the imaginary time technique for the dynamics below the Coulomb barrier. We demonstrate (1) the stability of the Vlasov solution, (2) the ability of this model to calculate the basic features of the whole spontaneous fission process, (3) the sensitivity of the dynamics below the barrier to the mean field potential, and (4) the important role of collective excitations and of particle emission during the fission process. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  7. Cluster aspects of binary fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreev, A. V.; Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.

    2013-04-01

    With the improved scission-point model the mass distributions are calculated for induced fission of different Hg isotopes with even mass numbers A =180, 184, 188, 192, 196, 198. The calculated mass distribution and mean total kinetic energy of fission fragments are in a good agreement with the existing experimental data. The change in the shape of the mass distribution from asymmetric to more symmetric is revealed with increasing A of the fissioning AHg nucleus, and the reactions are proposed to verify this prediction experimentally.

  8. Neutron Emission in Fission and Quasi-Fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itkis, I.; Bogatchev, A. A.; Chizhov, A. Yu.; Itkis, M. G.; Kliman, J.; Knyazheva, G. N.; Kondratiev, N. A.; Kozulin, E. M.; Korzyukov, I. V.; Krupa, L.; Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Pokrovski, I. V.; Prokhorova, E. V.; Sagaidak, R. N.; Voskressenski, V. M.; Rusanov, A. Ya.; Corradi, L.; Stefanini, A. M.; Trotta, M.; Beghini, S.; Montagnoli, G.; Scarlassara, F.; Chubarian, G.; Hanappe, F.; Materna, T.; Dorvaux, O.; Rowley, N.; Stuttge, L.; Giardina, G.

    2005-09-01

    The work presents the results of the study of characteristics of the neutron emission in fission and quasi-fission of heavy and super-heavy nuclei, produced in the reactions with heavy ions. These experiments have been performed at the U-400 accelerator of the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (JINR), tandem accelerator in Legnaro (LNL) and VIVITRON accelerator in Strasbourg (IReS) with the use of the time-of-flight spectrometer of fission fragments CORSET and neutron multidetector DEMON. Mass-energy distributions (MED) of the 48Ca + 168Er, 208Pb, 238U and 18O + 208Pb reactions products at energies close to and below the Coulomb barrier have been studied. The pre- and post-fission neutron multiplicities as a function of the fragment mass have been obtained. A significant yield of the asymmetric component observed in the fragment mass distributions in the case of 18O + 208Pb reaction denotes the multimodal nature of the fission process. At the same time an increase in the yield of fragment masses ML ≅ 75-85 and MH ≅ 200-210 in the case 48Ca+208Pb, 238U reactions and ML ≅ 75-85 and MH ≅ 130-140 in the case 48Ca+168Er is rather connected with a quasi-fission process. The obtained neutron multiplicities dependences on fragment masses showed the validity of these assumptions.

  9. Histamine poisoning (scombroid fish poisoning): an allergy-like intoxication.

    PubMed

    Taylor, S L; Stratton, J E; Nordlee, J A

    1989-01-01

    Histamine poisoning results from the consumption of foods, typically certain types of fish and cheeses, that contain unusually high levels of histamine. Spoiled fish of the families, Scombridae and Scomberesocidae (e.g. tuna, mackerel, bonito), are commonly implicated in incidents of histamine poisoning, which leads to the common usage of the term, "scombroid fish poisoning", to describe this illness. However, certain non-scombroid fish, most notably mahi-mahi, bluefish, and sardines, when spoiled are also commonly implicated in histamine poisoning. Also, on rare occasions, cheeses especially Swiss cheese, can be implicated in histamine poisoning. The symptoms of histamine poisoning generally resemble the symptoms encountered with IgE-mediated food allergies. The symptoms include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, an oral burning sensation or peppery taste, hives, itching, red rash, and hypotension. The onset of the symptoms usually occurs within a few minutes after ingestion of the implicated food, and the duration of symptoms ranges from a few hours to 24 h. Antihistamines can be used effectively to treat this intoxication. Histamine is formed in foods by certain bacteria that are able to decarboxylate the amino acid, histidine. However, foods containing unusually high levels of histamine may not appear to be outwardly spoiled. Foods with histamine concentrations exceeding 50 mg per 100 g of food are generally considered to be hazardous. Histamine formation in fish can be prevented by proper handling and refrigerated storage while the control of histamine formation in cheese seems dependent on insuring that histamine-producing bacteria are not present in significant numbers in the raw milk.

  10. Management of carbon monoxide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Ilano, A L; Raffin, T A

    1990-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is a major cause of illness and death in the United States. Most cases result from exposure to the internal combustion engine and to stoves burning fossil fuels. Most cases of accidental exposure are preventable if proper precautions are taken; however, when cases arise, their presenting signs and symptoms are nonspecific and often lead to a misdiagnosis resembling a flu-like viral illness. As a result, the incidence of acute CO poisoning is underestimated. The effects of CO poisoning are due to tissue hypoxia, with the CNS and the heart being the most susceptible target organs due to their high oxygen needs. Prolonged hypoxia due to high CO levels may lead to cardiac arrhythmias or arrest (or both) and a variety of neurologic sequelae. Treatment is directed toward the relief of tissue hypoxia and the removal of CO from the body. Severity of poisoning can be divided into three levels based on CO levels in the blood. Administration of normobaric 100 percent oxygen is the therapy of choice for most cases, while hyperbaric oxygen therapy is reserved for severe poisonings.

  11. Fission of rotating fermium isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baran, A.; Staszczak, A.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper we discuss the process of fission of even fermium isotopes, on the basis of their rotational states. The nuclear intrinsic vorticity and its coupling to the global rotation of the nucleus are used to simulate the interaction between the rotational motion and the pairing field, and lead to pairing quenching in the case of higher angular momentum states. The rotation leads to a decreasing of the fission barrier heights. The ingredients of the model—ground state fission barriers, pairing correlation energies and the cranking moments of inertia—are obtained within the self-consistent Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov framework using the Skyrme \\text{Sk}{{\\text{M}}^{*}} energy density functional. Fission barriers and half-lives are estimated for spins I up to I = 16ℏ.

  12. The binary fission origin of the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binder, Alan B.

    1986-01-01

    The major arguments for and against the binary fission model of lunar origin are reviewed. Unresolved problems include: (1) how the protoearth acquired sufficient angular velocity to fission, and (2) how the earth-moon system lost its excess angular momentum after fission. Despite these uncertainties, the compositional similarities between the earth's mantle and the bulk moon suggest that the fission model is worth considering. The proposed sequence of events in the formation of the moon by binary fission is given.

  13. Advanced Space Fission Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Borowski, Stanley K.

    2010-01-01

    Fission has been considered for in-space propulsion since the 1940s. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) systems underwent extensive development from 1955-1973, completing 20 full power ground tests and achieving specific impulses nearly twice that of the best chemical propulsion systems. Space fission power systems (which may eventually enable Nuclear Electric Propulsion) have been flown in space by both the United States and the Former Soviet Union. Fission is the most developed and understood of the nuclear propulsion options (e.g. fission, fusion, antimatter, etc.), and fission has enjoyed tremendous terrestrial success for nearly 7 decades. Current space nuclear research and technology efforts are focused on devising and developing first generation systems that are safe, reliable and affordable. For propulsion, the focus is on nuclear thermal rockets that build on technologies and systems developed and tested under the Rover/NERVA and related programs from the Apollo era. NTP Affordability is achieved through use of previously developed fuels and materials, modern analytical techniques and test strategies, and development of a small engine for ground and flight technology demonstration. Initial NTP systems will be capable of achieving an Isp of 900 s at a relatively high thrust-to-weight ratio. The development and use of first generation space fission power and propulsion systems will provide new, game changing capabilities for NASA. In addition, development and use of these systems will provide the foundation for developing extremely advanced power and propulsion systems capable of routinely and affordably accessing any point in the solar system. The energy density of fissile fuel (8 x 10(exp 13) Joules/kg) is more than adequate for enabling extensive exploration and utilization of the solar system. For space fission propulsion systems, the key is converting the virtually unlimited energy of fission into thrust at the desired specific impulse and thrust

  14. The Microscopic Theory of Fission

    SciTech Connect

    Younes, W; Gogny, D

    2009-06-09

    Fission-fragment properties have been calculated for thermal neutron-induced fission on a {sup 239}Pu target, using constrained Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov calculations with a finite-range effective interaction. A quantitative criterion based on the interaction energy between the nascent fragments is introduced to define the scission configurations. The validity of this criterion is benchmarked against experimental measurements of the kinetic energies and of multiplicities of neutrons emitted by the fragments.

  15. Fission Modes of Mercury Isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Warda, M.; Staszczak, A.; Nazarewicz, Witold

    2012-01-01

    Background: Recent experiments on -delayed fission in the mercury-lead region and the discovery of asymmetric fission in 180Hg [A. N. Andreyev et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 252502 (2010)] have stimulated theoretical interest in the mechanism of fission in heavy nuclei.

    Purpose: We study fission modes and fusion valleys in 180Hg and 198Hg to reveal the role of shell effects in the prescission region and explain the experimentally observed fragment mass asymmetry and its variation with A.

    Methods: We use the self-consistent nuclear density functional theory employing Skyrme and Gogny energy density functionals.

    Results: The potential energy surfaces in multidimensional space of collective coordinates, including elongation, triaxiality, reflection-asymmetry, and necking, are calculated for 180Hg and 198Hg. The asymmetric fission valleys well separated from fusion valleys associated with nearly spherical fragments are found in both cases. The density distributions at scission configurations are studied and related to the experimentally observed mass splits.

    Conclusions: The energy density functionals SkM and D1S give a very consistent description of the fission process in 180Hg and 198Hg. We predict a transition from asymmetric fission in 180Hg toward a more symmetric distribution of fission fragments in 198Hg. For 180Hg, both models yield 100Ru/80Kr as the most probable split. For 198Hg, the most likely split is 108Ru/90Kr in HFB-D1S and 110Ru/88Kr in HFB-SkM .

  16. CDC Vital Signs: Alcohol Poisoning Deaths

    MedlinePlus

    ... Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Alcohol Poisoning Deaths A deadly consequence of binge drinking ... less binge drinking. Problem There are 2,200 alcohol poisoning deaths in the US each year. Alcohol ...

  17. "Suicide" as Seen in Poison Control Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntire, Matilda S.; Angle, Carol R.

    1971-01-01

    Data on age and sex characteristics, intent and diagnosis of suicide, and toxicology are presented for 1,103 cases of poisoning (children ages 6-18 years) admitted to 50 poison control centers during 1 year. (KW)

  18. Lead Poisoning - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Lead Poisoning URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Lead Poisoning - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  19. Paint, lacquer, and varnish remover poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Paint remover poisoning ... Paint lacquer and varnish remover poisoning can cause symptoms in various parts of the body. AIRWAYS AND LUNGS Breathing difficulty (from inhalation) Throat swelling (may also cause ...

  20. Non-accidental salt poisoning.

    PubMed Central

    Meadow, R

    1993-01-01

    The clinical features of 12 children who incurred non-accidental salt poisoning are reported. The children usually presented to hospital in the first six months of life with unexplained hypernatraemia and associated illness. Most of the children suffered repetitive poisoning before detection. The perpetrator was believed to the mother for 10 children, the father for one, and either parent for one. Four children had serum sodium concentrations above 200 mmol/l. Seven children had incurred other fabricated illness, drug ingestion, physical abuse, or failure to thrive/neglect. Two children died; the other 10 remained healthy in alternative care. Features are described that should lead to earlier detection of salt poisoning; the importance of checking urine sodium excretion, whenever hypernatraemia occurs, is stressed. PMID:8503665

  1. Pesticide poisonings in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Wesseling, C; Castillo, L; Elinder, C G

    1993-08-01

    A descriptive epidemiologic study, conducted in Costa Rica, investigated the incidence of pesticide poisonings with special attention to agricultural workers and occupational exposure. Information from three national registers (occupational accident and disease reports, hospitalizations, and deaths) were used. During 1986, 1800 occupational accidents caused by pesticides were reported; between 1980 and 1986 altogether 3330 persons were hospitalized and 429 died. Cholinesterase inhibitors caused 71% of the reported occupational accidents, 63% of the hospitalizations, and 36% of the deaths. Paraquat caused 21% of the occupational accidents, 24% of the hospitalizations, and 60% of the deaths. Hospitalizations and deaths were 13 and 11 times, respectively, more frequent among agricultural workers than among the rest of the population. High-risk groups for occupational poisonings included agricultural workers aged 15-29 years, female workers, and banana plantation workers. The yearly incidence of symptomatic occupational pesticide poisonings among agricultural workers was estimated at 4.5%.

  2. Poisonous birds: A timely review.

    PubMed

    Ligabue-Braun, Rodrigo; Carlini, Célia Regina

    2015-06-01

    Until very recently, toxicity was not considered a trait observed in birds, but works published in the last two decades started to shed light on this subject. Poisonous birds are rare (or little studied), and comprise Pitohui and Ifrita birds from Papua New Guinea, the European quail, the Spoor-winged goose, the Hoopees, the North American Ruffed grouse, the Bronzewings, and the Red warbler. A hundred more species are considered unpalatable or malodorous to humans and other animals. The present review intends to present the current understanding of bird toxicity, possibly pointing to an ignored research field. Whenever possible, biochemical characteristics of these poisons and their effects on humans and other animals are discussed, along with historical aspects of poison discovery and evolutionary hypothesis regarding their function.

  3. Poisoning in the United States: 2012 emergency medicine report of the National Poison Data System.

    PubMed

    Dart, Richard C; Bronstein, Alvin C; Spyker, Daniel A; Cantilena, Louis R; Seifert, Steven A; Heard, Stuart E; Krenzelok, Edward P

    2015-04-01

    Deaths from drug overdose have become the leading cause of injury death in the United States, where the poison center system is available to provide real-time advice and collect data about a variety of poisonings. In 2012, emergency medical providers were confronted with new poisonings, such as bath salts (substituted cathinones) and Spice (synthetic cannabinoid drugs), as well as continued trends in established poisonings such as from prescription opioids. This article addresses current trends in opioid poisonings; new substances implicated in poisoning cases, including unit-dose laundry detergents, bath salts, Spice, and energy drinks; and the role of poison centers in public health emergencies such as the Fukushima radiation incident.

  4. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label...

  5. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label...

  6. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label...

  7. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label...

  8. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label...

  9. Venomous bites, stings, and poisoning.

    PubMed

    Warrell, David A

    2012-06-01

    This article discusses the epidemiology, prevention, clinical features, first aid and medical treatment of venomous bites by snakes, lizards, and spiders; stings by fish, jellyfish, echinoderms, and insects; and poisoning by fish and molluscs, in all parts of the world. Of these envenoming and poisonings, snake bite causes the greatest burden of human suffering, killing 46,000 people each year in India alone and more than 100,000 worldwide and resulting in physical handicap in many survivors. Specific antidotes (antivenoms/antivenins) are available to treat envenoming by many of these taxa but supply and distribution is inadequate in many tropical developing countries.

  10. Captain Cook on poison fish.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Michael J

    2005-12-13

    On his second voyage of discovery, Captain James Cook charted much of the South Pacific. The journey was long, from 1772 to 1775. During the exploration, the geographic, ethnographic, and scientific variety provided no shortage of work for the accompanying naturalists, astronomers, navigators, and painters. Culinary discoveries included new species of fish, many of which were sketched, dressed, and ultimately eaten. The examined journals and correspondence document clinical poisonings after ingestion of two different species of fish. The clinical findings are described and likely represent ciguatera and tetrodotoxin poisonings. Mechanisms of these toxin's actions are discussed in light of more recent studies. PMID:16344524

  11. Plasma catecholamine activity in chronic lead poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    deCastro, F.J.

    1990-04-01

    Plasma catecholamines where measured in 15 children with chronic lead poisoning and 15 matched controls by radioimmunassay. The data suggest that plasma catecholamines (norepinephrine and epinphrine) were significantly elevated in chronic lead poisoning. Plasma catecholamine elevation may well be important in the clinical finding of hyperactivity and hypertension associated with chronic lead poisoning.

  12. Childhood Lead Poisoning: Blueprint for Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochow, K. W. James; Rapuano, Maria

    Current programs to deal with childhood lead poisoning, the primary environmental disease of U.S. children, screen individual children, treat those with serious cases of lead poisoning, and subsequently return children to hazardous environments. This approach has led to repeated diagnoses of lead poisoning. This handbook is designed to convince…

  13. Helping Parents Prevent Lead Poisoning. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binns, Helen J.; Ricks, Omar Benton

    Children are at greater risk than adults for lead poisoning because children absorb lead more readily than adults, and a small amount of lead in children's bodies can do a great deal of harm. Some of the causes and effects of childhood lead poisoning and suggests some lead poisoning prevention strategies that parent educators can share with…

  14. 76 FR 9585 - Poison Control Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Poison Control Program AGENCY: Health... SUNY d.b.a. the Upstate New York Poison Control Center. HRSA will also transfer funds and duties from... Control Center. These transfers are necessary in order to maintain poison control services and...

  15. Lead Poisoning: A Need for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipnickey, Susan Cross

    1981-01-01

    Each year approximately 200 children die of lead poisoning. Especially vulnerable to the toxic effects of lead poisoning are the nervous system, kidneys, and the bones. Physiological effects of lead on the school-age child, screening processes, and roles of school personnel in dealing with suspected victims of lead poisoning are discussed. (JN)

  16. 49 CFR 172.554 - POISON placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false POISON placard. 172.554 Section 172.554... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.554 POISON placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON placard must be as follows: EC02MR91.057 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.519, the background on the...

  17. 49 CFR 172.554 - POISON placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false POISON placard. 172.554 Section 172.554... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.554 POISON placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON placard must be as follows: EC02MR91.057 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.519, the background on the...

  18. 49 CFR 172.554 - POISON placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON placard. 172.554 Section 172.554... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.554 POISON placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON placard must be as follows: EC02MR91.057 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.519, the background on the...

  19. 49 CFR 172.554 - POISON placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false POISON placard. 172.554 Section 172.554... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.554 POISON placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON placard must be as follows: EC02MR91.057 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.519, the background on the...

  20. 49 CFR 172.554 - POISON placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false POISON placard. 172.554 Section 172.554... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.554 POISON placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON placard must be as follows: EC02MR91.057 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.519, the background on the...

  1. National Poison Prevention Week Promotional Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poison Prevention Week Council, Washington, DC.

    This collection of materials for parents, early childhood workers, the elderly, and anyone in situations requiring safeguards against poisoning, spans the years 1993 and 1994 and is intended to promote National Poison Prevention Week. The materials included are: (1) the 31-page, illustrated report on National Poison Prevention Week for 1993,…

  2. Neutron Emission in Fission And Quasi-Fission of Hs

    SciTech Connect

    Itkis, I. M.; Itkis, M. G.; Knyazheva, G. N.; Kozulin, E. M.; Krupa, L.; Hanappe, F.; Dorvaux, O.; Stuttge, L.

    2010-04-30

    Mass and energy distributions of fission-like fragments obtained in the reactions {sup 26}Mg+{sup 248}Cm, {sup 36}S+{sup 238}U and {sup 58}Fe+{sup 208}Pb leading to the formation of {sup 266,274}Hs are reported. From the analysis of TKE distributions for symmetric fragment it was found that at energies below the Coulomb barrier the bimodal fission of {sup 274}Hs, formed in the reaction {sup 26}Mg+{sup 248}Cm, is observed, while in the reaction {sup 36}S+{sup 238}U at these energies the main part of the symmetric fragments arises from the quasi-fission process. At energies above the Coulomb barrier the fusion-fission is a main process leading to the formation of symmetric fragment for the both reactions. In the case of {sup 58}Fe+{sup 208}Pb reaction the quasi-fission process is the main reaction mechanism at all measured energies. The pre- and post-scission neutron multiplicities as a function of the fragment mass have been obtained for all studied reactions.

  3. Future Scenarios for Fission Based Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, S.

    2005-04-01

    The coming century will see the exhaustion of standard fossil fuels, coal, gas and oil, which today represent 75% of the world energy production. Moreover, their use will have caused large-scale emission of greenhouse gases (GEG), and induced global climate change. This problem is exacerbated by a growing world energy demand. In this context, nuclear power is the only GEG-free energy source available today capable of responding significantly to this demand. Some scenarios consider a nuclear energy production of around 5 Gtoe in 2050, wich would represent a 20% share of the world energy supply. Present reactors generate energy from the fission of U-235 and require around 200 tons of natural Uranium to produce 1GWe.y of energy, equivalent to the fission of one ton of fissile material. In a scenario of a significant increase in nuclear energy generation, these standard reactors will consume the whole of the world's estimated Uranium reserves in a few decades. However, natural Uranium or Thorium ore, wich are not themselves fissile, can produce a fissile material after a neutron capture ( 239Pu and 233U respectively). In a breeder reactor, the mass of fissile material remains constant, and the fertile ore is the only material to be consumed. In this case, only 1 ton of natural ore is needed to produce 1GWe.y. Thus, the breeding concept allows optimal use of fertile ore and development of sustainable nuclear energy production for several thousand years into the future. Different sustainable nuclear reactor concepts are studied in the international forum "generation IV". Different types of coolant (Na, Pb and He) are studied for fast breeder reactors based on the Uranium cycle. The thermal Thorium cycle requires the use of a liquid fuel, which can be reprocessed online in order to extract the neutron poisons. This paper presents these different sustainable reactors, based on the Uranium or Thorium fuel cycles and will compare the different options in term of fissile

  4. Development of Improved Burnable Poisons for Commercial Nuclear Power Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Renier, J.A.

    2002-04-17

    water reactor fuel core was chosen for the study, and state-of-the-art neutronic reactor core computer codes were used for analysis. Power distribution, fuel burnup, reactivity due to burnable poisons and other fission products, spectrum shift, core reactivity, moderator void coefficients, as well as other parameters were calculated as a function of time and fuel burnup. The results not only showed advantages of separation of burnable poison isotopes but revealed benefits to be achieved by careful selection of the configuration of even naturally occurring elements used as burnable poisons. The savings in terms of additional days of operation is shown in Figure 1, where the savings is plotted for each of six favorable isotopes in the four configurations. The benefit of isotope separation is most dramatic for dysprosium, but even the time savings in the case of gadolinium is several days. For a modern nuclear plant, one day's worth of electricity is worth about one million dollars, so the resulting savings of only a few days is considerable. It is also apparent that the amount of savings depends upon the configuration of the burnable poison.

  5. Acute arsenical poisoning in Dunedin.

    PubMed

    Gillies, A J; Taylor, A J

    1979-05-23

    Four cases of acute poisoning with arsenic are described. Although no new approach to therapy is proposed it is suggested from the data of arsenic recovery from the dialysate of one of the patients studied, that peritoneal dialysis is unlikely to be satisfactory.

  6. Staphylococcal food poisoning and botulism

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    Staphylococcal food poisoning and botulism are caused by the ingestion of food containing exotoxins. Outbreaks of both are still a problem in many countries. This paper attempts to summarize information relating to these illnesses, together with advice on how their incidence may be reduced, or better still prevented. PMID:4619651

  7. Lead poisoning by contaminated flour.

    PubMed

    Hershko, C; Eisenberg, A; Avni, A; Grauer, F; Acker, C; Hamdallah, M; Shahin, S; Moreb, J; Richter, E; Weissenberg, E

    1989-01-01

    Between October 1982 and June 1983, 43 patients were identified with symptomatic lead poisoning in three Arab villages of the Nablus district. Because of the clustering of clinical poisoning by household units, investigation was focussed on potential sources common to all members of the households. After excluding water, olive oil and a variety of foodstuff, lead in high concentrations was discovered in locally ground flour in all affected households. The source of poisoning was lead poured into the fissures between the metal housing and the driveshaft of the millstone. Significant lead contamination of freshly ground flour was demonstrated in 23% of the 146 community flour mills operating in West Bank villages. Since the completion of these studies, similar outbreaks of lead poisoning caused by contaminated flourmills have been identified in the Upper Galilee and in Spain. As the methods of milling in the Mediterranean area are similar, a coordinated international effort is needed in order to eliminate this health hazard from countries where similar community stone mills are still in use.

  8. [Arsenic poisoning: a special gastroenteritis...].

    PubMed

    Ganster, F; Kuteifan, K; Mootien, Y; Harry, P; Guiot, P

    2009-06-01

    Arsenic (As) intoxication is nowadays extremely rare. Two cases of acute and chronic As criminal poisoning leading to death of a couple of retired people, are reported. Clinical presentation was simulating a gastro-enteritidis with fast evolution to refractory shock. Toxicological analysis confirmed this diagnostic, with respectively blood As concentrations at 579 and 21 765 microg/l for our two patients.

  9. Acute arsenic poisoning diagnosed late.

    PubMed

    Shumy, Farzana; Anam, Ahmad Mursel; Kamruzzaman, A K M; Amin, Md Robed; Chowdhury, M A Jalil

    2016-04-01

    Acute arsenicosis, although having a 'historical' background, is not common in our times. This report describes a case of acute arsenic poisoning, missed initially due to its gastroenteritis-like presentation, but suspected and confirmed much later, when the patient sought medical help for delayed complications after about 2 months.

  10. Lead Poisoning in Jewellery Enamellers

    PubMed Central

    Fothergill, R.; Kipling, M. D.; Weber, A. B.

    1967-01-01

    Lead poisoning in jewellery enamellers in Birmingham has been described both at the beginning of this century and again in recent years. The condition arises from the habit of some workers of placing the enamel applicator in the mouth. The history of the hazard is reviewed and an investigation described. PMID:6073093

  11. [Poisonous animals registration in Poland].

    PubMed

    Mitrus, Małgorzata; Szkolnicka, Beata; Satora, Leszek; Morawska, Jowanka

    2005-01-01

    The Act on Nature Conservation of 16.04.2004 (Official Journal, 2004, No 92, item 880) imposes on private individuals the duty to register some animals. The data collected by Kraków municipal authorities and delivered to the Poison Information Centre (Colleglum Medicum, Jagiellonian University) indicate that there are following species in private hands in the city and its surroundings: 11 individuals of Naja naja, 2--Hydrodynates gigas and 55-- Dendrobates spp. According to these information the employees of the PIC elaborated the advice on the treatment of specific animals' poisoning. In the period May 2003 - May 2004 (before the above Act came into force) there were 143 individuals from Brachypelma genus and 3 scorpions (Pandinus imperator) registered in Krakow. These species produce venoms which take local effect. According to art. 64 (1) of the above Act it is compulsory to register amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. However, it would be desirable to introduce the duty to register also dangerous species of invertebrates and fishes. It would provide the complete list of poisonous animals kept in private hands. Thus, it would be possible to estimate any possible threats and to elaborate adequate treatment in case of specific animals' poisoning.

  12. [Poisonous animals registration in Poland].

    PubMed

    Mitrus, Małgorzata; Szkolnicka, Beata; Satora, Leszek; Morawska, Jowanka

    2005-01-01

    The Act on Nature Conservation of 16.04.2004 (Official Journal, 2004, No 92, item 880) imposes on private individuals the duty to register some animals. The data collected by Kraków municipal authorities and delivered to the Poison Information Centre (Colleglum Medicum, Jagiellonian University) indicate that there are following species in private hands in the city and its surroundings: 11 individuals of Naja naja, 2--Hydrodynates gigas and 55-- Dendrobates spp. According to these information the employees of the PIC elaborated the advice on the treatment of specific animals' poisoning. In the period May 2003 - May 2004 (before the above Act came into force) there were 143 individuals from Brachypelma genus and 3 scorpions (Pandinus imperator) registered in Krakow. These species produce venoms which take local effect. According to art. 64 (1) of the above Act it is compulsory to register amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. However, it would be desirable to introduce the duty to register also dangerous species of invertebrates and fishes. It would provide the complete list of poisonous animals kept in private hands. Thus, it would be possible to estimate any possible threats and to elaborate adequate treatment in case of specific animals' poisoning. PMID:16225138

  13. Acute arsenic poisoning diagnosed late.

    PubMed

    Shumy, Farzana; Anam, Ahmad Mursel; Kamruzzaman, A K M; Amin, Md Robed; Chowdhury, M A Jalil

    2016-04-01

    Acute arsenicosis, although having a 'historical' background, is not common in our times. This report describes a case of acute arsenic poisoning, missed initially due to its gastroenteritis-like presentation, but suspected and confirmed much later, when the patient sought medical help for delayed complications after about 2 months. PMID:26508422

  14. Compact fission counter for DANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, C Y; Chyzh, A; Kwan, E; Henderson, R; Gostic, J; Carter, D; Bredeweg, T; Couture, A; Jandel, M; Ullmann, J

    2010-11-06

    The Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) consists of 160 BF{sub 2} crystals with equal solid-angle coverage. DANCE is a 4{pi} {gamma}-ray calorimeter and designed to study the neutron-capture reactions on small quantities of radioactive and rare stable nuclei. These reactions are important for the radiochemistry applications and modeling the element production in stars. The recognition of capture event is made by the summed {gamma}-ray energy which is equivalent of the reaction Q-value and unique for a given capture reaction. For a selective group of actinides, where the neutron-induced fission reaction competes favorably with the neutron capture reaction, additional signature is needed to distinguish between fission and capture {gamma} rays for the DANCE measurement. This can be accomplished by introducing a detector system to tag fission fragments and thus establish a unique signature for the fission event. Once this system is implemented, one has the opportunity to study not only the capture but also fission reactions. A parallel-plate avalanche counter (PPAC) has many advantages for the detection of heavy charged particles such as fission fragments. These include fast timing, resistance to radiation damage, and tolerance of high counting rate. A PPAC also can be tuned to be insensitive to {alpha} particles, which is important for experiments with {alpha}-emitting actinides. Therefore, a PPAC is an ideal detector for experiments requiring a fast and clean trigger for fission. A PPAC with an ingenious design was fabricated in 2006 by integrating amplifiers into the target assembly. However, this counter was proved to be unsuitable for this application because of issues related to the stability of amplifiers and the ability to separate fission fragments from {alpha}'s. Therefore, a new design is needed. A LLNL proposal to develop a new PPAC for DANCE was funded by NA22 in FY09. The design goal is to minimize the mass for the proposed counter

  15. Thorium-uranium fission radiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, E. L.; Weiss, J. R.; Burnett, D. S.; Woolum, D. S.

    1976-01-01

    Results are described for studies designed to develop routine methods for in-situ measurement of the abundance of Th and U on a microscale in heterogeneous samples, especially rocks, using the secondary high-energy neutron flux developed when the 650 MeV proton beam of an accelerator is stopped in a 42 x 42 cm diam Cu cylinder. Irradiations were performed at three different locations in a rabbit tube in the beam stop area, and thick metal foils of Bi, Th, and natural U as well as polished silicate glasses of known U and Th contents were used as targets and were placed in contact with mica which served as a fission track detector. In many cases both bare and Cd-covered detectors were exposed. The exposed mica samples were etched in 48% HF and the fission tracks counted by conventional transmitted light microscopy. Relative fission cross sections are examined, along with absolute Th track production rates, interaction tracks, and a comparison of measured and calculated fission rates. The practicality of fast neutron radiography revealed by experiments to data is discussed primarily for Th/U measurements, and mixtures of other fissionable nuclei are briefly considered.

  16. Choice of poison for intentional self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Eddleston, Michael; Karunaratne, Ayanthi; Weerakoon, Manjula; Kumarasinghe, Subashini; Rajapakshe, Manjula; Sheriff, MH Rezvi; Buckley, Nick A; Gunnell, David

    2007-01-01

    Background Although intentional self-poisoning is a major public health problem in rural parts of the Asia-Pacific region, relatively little is known of its epidemiology. We aimed to determine why Sri Lankan self-poisoning patients choose particular poisons, and whether acts of self-harm with highly dangerous poisons were associated with more premeditation and effort. Methods We interviewed 268 self-poisoning patients presenting to two district general hospitals in rural Sri Lanka. Results 85% of patients cited easy availability as the basis for their choice of poison. There was little premeditation: more than 50% ingested the poison less than 30 minutes after deciding to self-harm. Patients had little knowledge about treatment options or lethality of the poison chosen. We found no difference in reasons for choice of poison between people ingesting different poisons, despite marked differences in toxicity, and between people who died and those who survived. Conclusions Poisons were chosen on the basis of availability, often at short notice. There was no evidence that people using highly toxic poisons made a more serious or premeditated attempt. Restrictions on availability of highly toxic poisons in rural communities must be considered in strategies to reduce the number of intentional self-poisoning deaths in the Asia Pacific region. PMID:16749546

  17. Velocity fluctuations of fission fragments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llanes-Estrada, Felipe J.; Carmona, Belén Martínez; Martínez, Jose L. Muñoz

    2016-02-01

    We propose event by event velocity fluctuations of nuclear fission fragments as an additional interesting observable that gives access to the nuclear temperature in an independent way from spectral measurements and relates the diffusion and friction coefficients for the relative fragment coordinate in Kramers-like models (in which some aspects of fission can be understood as the diffusion of a collective variable through a potential barrier). We point out that neutron emission by the heavy fragments can be treated in effective theory if corrections to the velocity distribution are needed.

  18. PRODUCING ENERGY AND RADIOACTIVE FISSION PRODUCTS

    DOEpatents

    Segre, E.; Kennedy, J.W.; Seaborg, G.T.

    1959-10-13

    This patent broadly discloses the production of plutonium by the neutron bombardment of uranium to produce neptunium which decays to plutonium, and the fissionability of plutonium by neutrons, both fast and thermal, to produce energy and fission products.

  19. Neutronics for critical fission reactors and subcritical fission in hybrids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvatores, Massimo

    2012-06-01

    The requirements of future innovative nuclear fuel cycles will focus on safety, sustainability and radioactive waste minimization. Critical fast neutron reactors and sub-critical, external source driven systems (accelerator driven and fusion-fission hybrids) have a potential role to meet these requirements in view of their physics characteristics. This paper provides a short introduction to these features.

  20. Spontaneous fission properties of the heavy elements: Bimodal fission

    SciTech Connect

    Hulet, E.K.

    1988-11-11

    We have measured the mass and kinetic-energy distributions from the spontaneous fission of SVYFm, SVYNo, SVZMd, SWMd, SW(104), and SWSNo. All are observed to fission with a symmetrical division of mass, whereas the total-kinetic-energy (TKE) distributions strongly deviated from the Gaussian shape characteristically found in the fission of all other actinides. When the TKE distributions are resolved into two Gaussian's, the constituent peaks lie near 200 and near 233 MeV. We conclude two modes or bimodal fission is occurring in five of the six nuclides studied. Both modes are possible in the same nuclide, but one generally predominates. We also conclude the low-energy but mass-symmetrical mode is likely to extend to far heavier nuclei; while the high-energy mode will be restricted to a smaller region, a region of nuclei defined by the proximity of the fragments to the strong neutron and proton shells in TSSn. 21 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Neutronics for critical fission reactors and subcritical fission in hybrids

    SciTech Connect

    Salvatores, Massimo

    2012-06-19

    The requirements of future innovative nuclear fuel cycles will focus on safety, sustainability and radioactive waste minimization. Critical fast neutron reactors and sub-critical, external source driven systems (accelerator driven and fusion-fission hybrids) have a potential role to meet these requirements in view of their physics characteristics. This paper provides a short introduction to these features.

  2. Process for treating fission waste. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Rohrmann, C.A.; Wick, O.J.

    1981-11-17

    A method is described for the treatment of fission waste. A glass forming agent, a metal oxide, and a reducing agent are mixed with the fission waste and the mixture is heated. After melting, the mixture separates into a glass phase and a metal phase. The glass phase may be used to safely store the fission waste, while the metal phase contains noble metals recovered from the fission waste.

  3. Datura stramonium poisoning in children.

    PubMed

    Adegoke, S A; Alo, L A

    2013-01-01

    Although substance abuse is fairly common among adolescents, poisoning from Datura stramonium (a broadleaf annual erect herb with spine-covered seed capsule) is uncommon in children and has not been reported in our locality. We present the case of two children admitted at the Children Emergency Room of a teaching hospital following ingestion of extract of Datura stramonium. They developed neurotoxicity (confusion, agitation, mydriasis, and hallucination) and were managed symptomatically with good outcome. A high index of suspicion and early management of poison in children is imperative if a favorable outcome is expected. Early presentation and the presence of an eyewitness contributed to the very good outcome in these index cases. In this report, we discussed the symptomatology and management of Datura toxicity in children. PMID:23377485

  4. Malignant hyperthermia in endosulfan poisoning.

    PubMed

    Jain, Gaurav; Singh, Dinesh K; Yadav, Ghanshyam

    2012-01-01

    We are reporting a case of endosulfan poisoning, admitted in a state of altered consciousness, vomiting, and seizure. The diagnosis was based on history, physical examination and positive reports from toxicological screening. After 8 hrs of admission, a sudden rise in EtCO(2), respiratory rate, heart rate, blood pressure, and body temperature was noted. Masseter spasm was there and patient's elbow/knees could not be bent upon manipulation. Caffeine halothane contraction test later confirmed it to be malignant hyperthermia (MH). We suggest that if there is a sudden rise in body temperature, stiffness in limbs or massater spasm in a case of endosulfan poisoning, the diagnosis of MH should be considered as one possibility when etiology is not certain. PMID:22736908

  5. Fatal poisonings in Trabzon (Turkey).

    PubMed

    Birincioglu, Ismail; Karadeniz, Hulya; Teke, Hacer Yasar

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to present the characteristics of medicolegal autopsies of fatal poisonings in Trabzon (Turkey), performed from 1998 to 2008, to contribute to the available data on this topic. A retrospective study of the forensic records and the toxicological data of all autopsies performed over that period revealed that 285 cases (6.34%) of the 4492 total autopsies performed were attributed to fatal poisoning. Major toxic substances were classified in five categories as follows: carbon monoxide (CO), insecticides, prescription medications, narcotic drugs, and alcohol (methyl and ethyl). CO was the most frequent cause of death (63.2%), followed by insecticides (17.2%), prescription medications and narcotic drugs (9.8%), alcohol (7.7%), and others (mushroom, rodenticide, and botulism) (2.1%). Ages of the patients ranged from 1 to 86 years (21.55 ± 36.56). PMID:21447071

  6. Multimodal fission and neutron evaporation

    SciTech Connect

    Brosa, U.

    1988-10-01

    The average multiplicities nu-bar(A) of prompt neutrons emitted in the spontaneous fission of /sup 252/Cf and /sup 258/Fm are derived. Two new features are predicted: A simple sawtooth for /sup 258/Fm and a triple one for /sup 252/Cf. Experiments to check these predictions should be feasible now.

  7. Etching fission tracks in zircons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naeser, C.W.

    1969-01-01

    A new technique has been developed whereby fission tracks can be etched in zircon with a solution of sodium hydroxide at 220??C. Etching time varied between 15 minutes and 5 hours. Colored zircon required less etching time than the colorless varieties.

  8. Space Fission System Test Effectiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Houts, Mike; Schmidt, Glen L.; Van Dyke, Melissa; Godfroy, Tom; Martin, James; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon; Dickens, Ricky; Salvail, Pat; Harper, Roger

    2004-02-04

    Space fission technology has the potential to enable rapid access to any point in the solar system. If fission propulsion systems are to be developed to their full potential, however, near-term customers need to be identified and initial fission systems successfully developed, launched, and utilized. One key to successful utilization is to develop reactor designs that are highly testable. Testable reactor designs have a much higher probability of being successfully converted from paper concepts to working space hardware than do designs which are difficult or impossible to realistically test. ''Test Effectiveness'' is one measure of the ability to realistically test a space reactor system. The objective of this paper is to discuss test effectiveness as applied to the design, development, flight qualification, and acceptance testing of space fission systems. The ability to perform highly effective testing would be particularly important to the success of any near-term mission, such as NASA's Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter, the first mission under study within NASA's Project Prometheus, the Nuclear Systems Program.

  9. Congenital PCB poisoning: a reevaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.W.

    1985-05-01

    A review of the literature reveals a need to clarify the pathologic physiology of congenital polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) poisoning, which is characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, brown staining of the skin and mucous membranes as in Addison's disease, natal teeth, widely open fontanelles and sagittal suture and apparent overgrowth of the gingiva. The skull abnormalities may represent irregular calcification, with natal teeth appearing because the bone of the mandible is penetrated more easily than usual. Some fetuses were poisoned at the time the mothers ingested the oil; others were affected in the subsequent years from residual contamination in the mothers' bodies. The misadventure in Japan was repeated in Taiwan in 1979. The seven congenital cases in Taiwan reported thus far seem to differ from those in Japan. In Taiwan the noses were somewhat black, two of the infants did not have low birth weight and the osseous abnormalities of the skull and gingival hyperplasia were not observed. Systematic followup studies should be made in Taiwan of the children born within 2 years of maternal poisoning with PCBs. Special attention should be given to age at first dentition and skull-X-rays for spotty calcification, among other measures of physical, neurologic and intellectual development.

  10. Dermoscopy of black-spot poison ivy.

    PubMed

    Rader, Ryan K; Mu, Ruipu; Shi, Honglan; Stoecker, William V; Hinton, Kristen A

    2012-10-01

    Black-spot poison ivy is an uncommon presentation of poison ivy (Toxicodendron) allergic contact dermatitis. A 78-year-old sought evaluation of a black spot present on her right hand amid pruritic vesicles. The presentation of a black spot on the skin in a clinical context suggesting poison ivy is indicative of black-spot poison ivy. Dermoscopy revealed a jagged, centrally homogeneous, dark brown lesion with a red rim. A skin sample was obtained and compared against a poison ivy standard using ultra-fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS). This finding confirmed the presence of multiple urushiol congeners in the skin sample. Black-spot poison ivy may be added to the list of diagnoses that show a specific dermoscopic pattern.

  11. Metabolic complications of organophosphate and carbamate poisoning.

    PubMed

    Saadeh, A M

    2001-07-01

    The clinical manifestations of acute organophosphate (OP) and carbamate poisoning have already been well described. Most of these reports were on the cardiac, neurologic, respiratory and other clinical complications of these compounds. However, very little attention has been given to the metabolic aspects of this problem, particularly those accompanying carbamate poisoning. This paper describes the metabolic complications seen in 84 adult patients after acute poisoning with these compounds.

  12. Nephropathy in Chronic Lead Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Lilis, Ruth; Gavrilescu, N.; Nestorescu, B.; Dumitriu, C.; Roventa, Ana

    1968-01-01

    This paper presents a study of renal function in 102 patients with lead poisoning admitted to the Occupational Diseases Clinic in Bucharest during the past 10 years; nearly half the patients had no history of lead colic. Every possible cause of renal damage, other than lead, was excluded by a careful differential diagnosis. Renal function was investigated by repeated determinations of blood urea, creatinine and uric acid, urea clearance, and endogenous creatinine clearance tests. Significant decreases of the clearance values (less than 50 ml./min. urea clearance and less than 80 ml./min. creatinine clearance), persistent high blood urea (more than 50 mg./100 ml.), and high blood creatinine (more than 1·2 mg./100 ml.) were found in a significant number of cases. These signs of impaired renal function were more frequent in the group of patients with chronic lead poisoning who had had several episodes of colic and an occupational exposure of more than 10 years. A high blood pressure was also found more frequently in this group of patients. Undercompensated and decompensated renal failure was found in 17 patients, most of whom had been exposed to lead for more than 10 years and had a history of several attacks of colic. Arterial hypertension accompanied the chronic renal failure in 13 patients, the renal impairment generally preceding the rise in blood pressure by several years. The duration of occupational lead exposure, the high absorption in the past, and the long period of observation of these patients, most of whom were repeatedly hospitalized, may explain the relatively high incidence (17 cases) of nephropathy with chronic renal failure in the present group. Impairment of urea clearance seems to be the earliest sign, at a time when the creatinine clearance is still normal. As the duration of exposure lengthens and the patient is subjected to active episodes of poisoning the creatinine clearance also deteriorates. Persistent urea retention and high creatininaemia

  13. Two neutron correlations in photo-fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dale, D. S.; Kosinov, O.; Forest, T.; Burggraf, J.; Stave, S.; Warren, G.; Starovoitova, V.

    2016-09-01

    A large body of experimental work has established the strong kinematical correlation between fission fragments and fission neutrons. Here, we report on the progress of investigations of the potential for strong two neutron correlations arising from the nearly back-to-back nature of the two fission fragments that emit these neutrons in the photo-fission process. In initial measurements, a pulsed electron linear accelerator was used to generate bremsstrahlung photons that impinged upon an actinide target, and the energy and opening angle distributions of coincident neutrons were measured using a large acceptance neutron detector array. A planned comprehensive set of measurements of two neutron correlations in the photo-fission of actinides is expected to shed light on several fundamental aspects of the fission process including the multiplicity distributions associated with the light and heavy fission fragments, the nuclear temperatures of the fission fragments, and the mass distribution of the fission fragments as a function of energy released. In addition to these measurements providing important nuclear data, the unique kinematics of fission and the resulting two neutron correlations have the potential to be the basis for a new tool to detect fissionable materials. A key technical challenge of this program arises from the need to perform coincidence measurements with a low duty factor, pulsed electron accelerator. This has motivated the construction of a large acceptance neutron detector array, and the development of data analysis techniques to directly measure uncorrelated two neutron backgrounds.

  14. Space Fission Propulsion System Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Mike; VanDyke, Melissa; Godfroy, Tom; Pedersen, Kevin; Martin, James; Dickens, Ricky; Williams, Eric; Harper, Roger; Salvail, Pat; Hrbud, Ivana; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The world's first man-made self-sustaining fission reaction was achieved in 1942. Since then fission has been used to propel submarines, generate tremendous amounts of electricity, produce medical isotopes, and provide numerous other benefits to society. Fission systems operate independently of solar proximity or orientation, and are thus well suited for deep spare or planetary surface missions. In addition, the fuel for fission systems (enriched uranium) is virtually non-radioactive. The primary safety issue with fission systems is avoiding inadvertent system start - addressing this issue through proper system design is straightforward. Despite the relative simplicity and tremendous potential of space fission systems, the development and utilization of these systems has proven elusive. The first use of fission technology in space occurred 3 April 1965 with the US launch of the SNAP-10A reactor. There have been no additional US uses of space fission system. While space fission system were used extensively by the former Soviet Union, their application was limited to earth-orbital missions. Early space fission systems must be safely and affordably utilized if Ae are to reap the benefits of advanced space fission systems.

  15. Hemlock (Conium Maculatum) Poisoning In A Child.

    PubMed

    Konca, Capan; Kahramaner, Zelal; Bosnak, Mehmet; Kocamaz, Halil

    2014-03-01

    Poison hemlock (Conium maculatum) is a plant that is poisonous for humans and animals. Accidental ingestion of the plant may result in central nervous system depression, respiratory failure, acute rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure and even death. The main treatment of hemlock poisoning is supportive care. The case of a 6-year-old girl who was admitted to the emergency department with complaints of burning sensation in mouth, hypersalivation, tremor in hands and ataxia after ingestion of poison hemlock is presented here with clinical and laboratory features. In this case, we aim to report that accidental ingestion of plants resembling vegetables that are consumed daily can lead to serious complications and even death.

  16. Profile of poisoning admissions in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Rajasuriar, R; Awang, R; Hashim, S B H; Rahmat, H R B H

    2007-02-01

    We retrospectively reviewed poisoning admissions to all government health facilities from 1999 to 2001, in an effort to expand our current knowledge on poisoning in Malaysia to a level that better reflects a nationwide burden. There were 21 714 admissions reported with 779 deaths. The case-fatality rate was 35.88/1000 admissions. The majority of admissions (89.7%) and deaths (98.9%) occurred in adults. Some 55.1% of all admissions were female, mostly involving pharmaceutical agents. Male poisoning admissions were more often due to chemical substances. The prevalence of poisoning and death was highest among Indians compared to all other races in Malaysia. Overall, the majority of poisoning admissions were due to pharmaceutical agents, with agents classified as non-opioid analgesics, anti-pyretics and anti-rheumatics the most common. Pesticides accounted for the largest number of fatalities. It was also the commonest substance reported in cases of intentional self-harm. Most cases of poisoning admissions occurred due to accidental exposure (47%), followed by cases of intentional self-harm (20.7%). Overall, this study has managed to contribute substantial additional information regarding the epidemiology of poisoning in Malaysia, highlighting important issues, such as the rampant poisonings involving pesticides and analgesics, as well as the high prevalence of poisoning among Indians in Malaysia.

  17. Space Fission Propulsion System Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, M.; Van Dyke, M. K.; Godfroy, T. J.; Pedersen, K. W.; Martin, J. J.; Dickens, R.; Williams, E.; Harper, R.; Salvail, P.; Hrbud, I.

    2001-01-01

    The world's first man-made self-sustaining fission reaction was achieved in 1942. Since then fission has been used to propel submarines, generate tremendous amounts of electricity, produce medical isotopes, and provide numerous other benefits to society. Fission systems operate independently of solar proximity or orientation, and are thus well suited for deep space or planetary surface missions. In addition, the fuel for fission systems (enriched uranium) is virtually non-radioactive. The primary safety issue with fission systems is avoiding inadvertent system start. Addressing this issue through proper system design is straight-forward. Despite the relative simplicity and tremendous potential of space fission systems, the development and utilization of these systems has proven elusive. The first use of fission technology in space occurred 3 April 1965 with the US launch of the SNAP-10A reactor. There have been no additional US uses of space fission systems. While space fission systems were used extensively by the former Soviet Union, their application was limited to earth-orbital missions. Early space fission systems must be safely and affordably utilized if we are to reap the benefits of advanced space fission systems. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, working with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Sandia National Laboratories, and others, has conducted preliminary research related to a Safe Affordable Fission Engine (SAFE). An unfueled core has been fabricated by LANL, and resistance heaters used to verify predicted core thermal performance by closely mimicking heat from fission. The core is designed to use only established nuclear technology and be highly testable. In FY01 an energy conversion system and thruster will be coupled to the core, resulting in an 'end-to-end' nuclear electric propulsion demonstrator being tested using resistance heaters to closely mimic heat from fission. Results of the SAFE test program will be presented. The applicability

  18. Bright fission: singlet fission into a pair of emitting states.

    PubMed

    Casanova, David

    2015-06-01

    This paper reintroduces and explores the generation of two bright states from a single photon via a singlet fission mechanism in organic materials. This particular photophysical process is labeled here as bright fission (BF). The central part of the study is devoted to set the theoretical foundations of BF by discussing possible electronic mechanisms, the role of different excited states with various physical nature, the presence of competing deactivation channels, and the possible requirements for the BF viability. In a second part, some of the properties related to BF are computationally explored in anthracene. The analysis of computed high-lying excited states identifies several optical transitions as good candidates to trigger BF in anthracene. The approximation of excitonic couplings of these high energy levels to other electronic states within the same energy range suggests possible paths to populate electronic configurations potentially able to split in two independent spin singlets, i.e. singlet-singlet states. The study also explores the electronic structure of the energetically lowest singlet-singlet states in anthracene dimers and discusses the presence of charge transfer configurations and their relation to the singlet-singlet manifold. The computational results suggest fast relaxation to the lowest singlet-singlet state, from which the excitonic fission may occur. All in all, the present work aims at motivating to pursue further efforts in the study of the BF process in organic materials.

  19. Fission Properties for R-Process Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Erler, J.

    2012-01-01

    We present a systematics of fission barriers and fission lifetimes for the whole landscape of superheavy elements (SHE), i.e., nuclei with Z 100. The fission lifetimes are also compared with the -decay half-lives. The survey is based on a self-consistent description in terms of the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock (SHF) approach. Results for various different SHF parametrizations are compared to explore the robustness of the predictions. The fission path is computed by quadrupole constrained SHF. The computation of fission lifetimes takes care of the crucial ingredients of the large-amplitude collective dynamics along the fission path, as self-consistent collective mass and proper quantum corrections. We discuss the different topologies of fission landscapes which occur in the realm of SHE (symmetric versus asymmetric fission, regions of triaxial fission, bimodal fission, and the impact of asymmetric ground states). The explored region is extended deep into the regime of very neutron-rich isotopes as they are expected to be produced in the astrophysical r process.

  20. Technical Application of Nuclear Fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denschlag, J. O.

    The chapter is devoted to the practical application of the fission process, mainly in nuclear reactors. After a historical discussion covering the natural reactors at Oklo and the first attempts to build artificial reactors, the fundamental principles of chain reactions are discussed. In this context chain reactions with fast and thermal neutrons are covered as well as the process of neutron moderation. Criticality concepts (fission factor η, criticality factor k) are discussed as well as reactor kinetics and the role of delayed neutrons. Examples of specific nuclear reactor types are presented briefly: research reactors (TRIGA and ILL High Flux Reactor), and some reactor types used to drive nuclear power stations (pressurized water reactor [PWR], boiling water reactor [BWR], Reaktor Bolshoi Moshchnosti Kanalny [RBMK], fast breeder reactor [FBR]). The new concept of the accelerator-driven systems (ADS) is presented. The principle of fission weapons is outlined. Finally, the nuclear fuel cycle is briefly covered from mining, chemical isolation of the fuel and preparation of the fuel elements to reprocessing the spent fuel and conditioning for deposit in a final repository.

  1. [Hydrofluoric acid poisoning: case report].

    PubMed

    Cortina, Tatiana Judith; Ferrero, Hilario Andrés

    2013-01-01

    Hydrofluoric acid is a highly dangerous substance with industrial and domestically appliances. Clinical manifestations of poisoning depend on exposure mechanism, acid concentration and exposed tissue penetrability. Gastrointestinal tract symptoms do not correlate with injury severity. Patients with history of hydrofluoric acid ingestion should undergo an endoscopy of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Intoxication requires immediate intervention because systemic toxicity can take place. We present a 5 year old girl who accidentally swallowed 5 ml of 20% hydrofluoric acid. We performed gastrointestinal tract endoscopy post ingestion, which revealed erythematous esophagus and stomach with erosive lesions. Two months later, same study was performed and revealed esophagus and stomach normal mucous membrane.

  2. Five cases of Thermopsis poisoning.

    PubMed

    Spoerke, D G; Murphy, M M; Wruk, K M; Rumack, B H

    1988-01-01

    Various Thermopsis species are found in the foothills and plains of the Rocky Mountains. There are no reported cases of human ingestion to Thermopsis reported in the literature. We report 5 cases of ingestion of seeds or flowers where the primary symptoms were nausea, vomiting and headache of several hours duration. As few as 6 seeds produced symptoms. The common names used by parents when calling the poison center could have easily lead to misidentification and a careful history and subsequent professional identification were required to ascertain the actual plant involved. PMID:3193493

  3. [Occupational arsine poisoning: description of a case].

    PubMed

    Marchiori, L; Rozio, L; Bressan, A; Biasoli, S; Cesaro, A; Peretti, A; Tommasi, I; Perbellini, L

    1989-01-01

    A case of occupational arsine poisoning is described that occurred in a small family workshop during blackening operations on zinc/aluminium alloy manufactured parts with acid solutions. This report shows that occupational poisonings wrongly believed to have disappeared can still occur, especially in small and often unsafe working environments.

  4. Acute arsenic toxicity--an opaque poison.

    PubMed

    Gray, J R; Khalil, A; Prior, J C

    1989-08-01

    We report a patient with fatal acute arsenic poisoning presenting as vomiting and diarrhea with the finding of intra-abdominal radiopacities on radiographs. These represent the classic features of acute arsenic toxicity and are detailed here as a reminder to others facing a similar puzzling patient with this potentially treatable poisoning.

  5. Diagnosis & Treatment of Poisoning by Pesticides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Pesticide Programs.

    This report succinctly discusses the steps necessary to diagnose and treat poisoning from pesticides, especially organophosphates, carbamates and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Immediate and continuing steps in the care of poisoning victims are outlined with supportive information on where to locate emergency assistance. (CS)

  6. Childhood Lead Poisoning: Resources for Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance to End Childhood Lead Poisoning, Washington, DC.

    The current approach to dealing with childhood lead poisoning has led to repeated diagnoses of poisoning because such children are treated and then returned to their hazardous environments. This handbook, the third in a three-volume set, provides examples of specific materials currently or recently used in ongoing state and local childhood lead…

  7. Argument Strategies: Antidote to Tylenol's Poisoned Image.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benoit, William L.; Lindsey, James J.

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes how the manufacturer dealt with the Tylenol poisonings: the link between Tylenol and the poisoning was denied, its image as a safe product was bolstered, capsules were differentiated from other products, and as a result, sales recovered. Extends the applicability of apologia as a way to analyze other media campaigns. (SKC)

  8. Poison control center - Emergency number (image)

    MedlinePlus

    For a poison emergency call 1-800-222-1222 anywhere in the United States. This national hotline number will let you ... is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the U.S. use this national ...

  9. The Poison Control Center--Its Role

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manoguerra, Anthony S.

    1976-01-01

    Poison Control Centers are being utilized by more schools of pharmacy each year as training sites for students. This paper discusses what such a center is, its services, changes anticipated in the poison center system in the next several years and how they may influence pharmacy education, specifically as it relates to clinical toxicology.…

  10. Upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage caused by superwarfarin poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Shu-Lei; Li, Peng; Ji, Ming; Zong, Ye; Zhang, Shu-Tian

    2010-01-01

    Superwarfarins are a class of rodenticides. Gastrointestinal hemorrhage is a fatal complication of superwarfarin poisoning, requiring immediate treatment. Here, we report a 55-year-old woman with tardive upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage caused by superwarfarin poisoning after endoscopic cold mucosal biopsy. PMID:20355251

  11. Poison Awareness: A Discussion Leader's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Evaluation Systems, Inc., Amherst, MA.

    Because over 40,000 children are annually poisoned by household products, this guide for group leaders emphasizes hazards and preventive actions. Major objectives are defined: (1) to raise the audience's knowledge/awareness level concerning major hazards associated with potentially poisonous household products, (2) to point out primary hazard…

  12. Management of the critically poisoned patient

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, Jennifer S; Bechtel, Laura K; Holstege, Christopher P

    2009-01-01

    Background Clinicians are often challenged to manage critically ill poison patients. The clinical effects encountered in poisoned patients are dependent on numerous variables, such as the dose, the length of exposure time, and the pre-existing health of the patient. The goal of this article is to introduce the basic concepts for evaluation of poisoned patients and review the appropriate management of such patients based on the currently available literature. Methods An unsystematic review of the medical literature was performed and articles pertaining to human poisoning were obtained. The literature selected was based on the preference and clinical expertise of authors. Discussion If a poisoning is recognized early and appropriate testing and supportive care is initiated rapidly, the majority of patient outcomes will be good. Judicious use of antidotes should be practiced and clinicians should clearly understand the indications and contraindications of antidotes prior to administration. PMID:19563673

  13. Mad honey poisoning mimicking acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sammy P L; Lam, Y H; Ng, Vember C H; Lau, F L; Sze, Y C; Chan, W T; Mak, Tony W L

    2013-08-01

    We report a case of acute poisoning in a 48-year-old man who presented with chest pain, abdominal pain, dizziness, sweatiness, blurred vision, and severe hypotension after ingestion of honey. His electrocardiogram showed sinus bradycardia and transient ST elevation. He made a good recovery after treatment with atropine and close monitoring. Grayanotoxin was detected in his urine and the honey he ingested, which confirmed a diagnosis of mad honey poisoning. This is a condition prevalent in the Black Sea region around Turkey but rarely seen locally. Although mad honey poisoning is life-threatening, early use of atropine is life-saving. Such poisoning may present with ST elevation in the electrocardiogram and symptoms mimicking acute myocardial infarction. It is therefore essential for clinicians to recognise this unusual form of poisoning and avoid the disastrous use of thrombolytic therapy.

  14. [New causes of animal poisoning in Switzerland].

    PubMed

    Schediwy, M; Mevissen, M; Demuth, D; Kupper, J; Naegeli, H

    2015-03-01

    This retrospective study evaluated the frequency, etiology, therapy and prognosis of animal poisoning registered from 2003 to 2012. The relevant cases reported to the Swiss Toxicological Information Center (STIC) were compared with those from previously examined periods. Human medicines not approved for animals and pesticides represented the most common causes of poisoning in dogs. Novel cases occurred as a consequence of the exposure of dogs to ricinus fertilizers, grape residues from wineries, pepper lachrymatory spray and dry bouillon. Cats are still freequently poisoned by pyrethroid drugs that should be administered only to dogs. Agrochmical products are the main source of toxicities in farm animals. Most poisonings in horses and exotic animals took place due to toxic plants. In addition, two tigers died of a secondary poisoning after ingestion of meat from euthanized calves. PMID:26753326

  15. MODELING AND FISSION CROSS SECTIONS FOR AMERICIUM.

    SciTech Connect

    ROCHMAN, D.; HERMAN, M.; OBLOZINSKY, P.

    2005-05-01

    This is the final report of the work performed under the LANL contract on the modeling and fission cross section for americium isotopes (May 2004-June 2005). The purpose of the contract was to provide fission cross sections for americium isotopes with the nuclear reaction model code EMPIRE 2.19. The following work was performed: (1) Fission calculations capability suitable for americium was implemented to the EMPIRE-2.19 code. (2) Calculations of neutron-induced fission cross sections for {sup 239}Am to {sup 244g}Am were performed with EMPIRE-2.19 for energies up to 20 MeV. For the neutron-induced reaction of {sup 240}Am, fission cross sections were predicted and uncertainties were assessed. (3) Set of fission barrier heights for each americium isotopes was chosen so that the new calculations fit the experimental data and follow the systematics found in the literature.

  16. The epidemiology of childhood poisonings in Cyprus.

    PubMed

    Koliou, Maria; Ioannou, Chrystalla; Andreou, Kyriaki; Petridou, Alexandra; Soteriades, Elpidoforos Soterakis

    2010-07-01

    Information on childhood poisonings in Cyprus is limited. Our objective was to examine the epidemiology of poisonings among children in Cyprus. All children up to 15 years of age admitted for poisoning to the Archbishop Makarios Hospital in Nicosia, Cyprus between 2005 and 2008 were included in our study. All hospital poisoning records were reviewed. A total of 257 children were admitted for poisoning. The mean age of children was 3.1 years, of which 83.7% were below the age of 5 years old, while 53% were boys. The poisoning hospitalizations accounted for about 3% of all admissions to the pediatric department during the study period (4 years). The annual cumulative incidence of childhood poisoning hospitalizations was 116 per 100,000 children. Medications accounted for 46.1% of all poisonings, the most frequent cause being paracetamol (9.8%), cardiovascular medications (5.3%), antitussive medications (4.5%), and other painkillers (4.1%). Another 37.6% of hospitalizations involved household products such as household cleaning products (11.8%), petroleum products (11.0%), and rodenticides (5.7%). Among children who ingested petroleum distillates, 55.6% developed clinical symptomatology. The vast majority of cases were accidental (93.8%). Suicidal cases involved children 8-14 years old, mainly girls, and the most frequent poisoning ingested was paracetamol (46.7%). Poisoning hospitalizations represent an important cause of morbidity among children in Cyprus. Preventive strategies should include the education of caregivers on the handling of medications and household products as well as legislation requiring child-resistant packaging for all medications and household products including petroleum distillates.

  17. Lead poisoning in six captive avian species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.; Spann, J.W.; Sileo, L.; Franson, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater), common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus), and eastern screech-owls (Otus asio) were poisoned with a concentration of lead (Pb) acetate in the diet which was increased by 60% each week until half of the birds in each treatment group died; surviving birds and all control birds except screech-owis were then killed by euthanasia. An additional group of mallards was poisoned with Pb shot. The gizzards of mallards poisoned either way usually were stained with bile; some of these birds also had proventricular impaction. Most poisoned birds of the other species were emaciated but lacked other gross lesions caused by Pb poisoning. In birds other than mallards, Pb poisoning could not be diagnosed without histological or hematological examinations or analysis of tissues. Poisoned birds of all six species could be reliably separated from control birds by an increase in the protoporphyrin concentrations in the blood and by a decrease in the activity of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in red blood cells. Hepatic iron (Fe) concentrations varied so much among individual birds that even though median hepatic Fe concentrations increased in poisoned birds, hepatic Fe concentrations were not useful in identifying poisoned birds. Renal intranuclear inclusion bodies occurred in 83% of all birds dying from Pb poisoning. Nephrosis, myocardial necrosis, and arterial fibrinoid necrosis were occasionally present. Median hepatic Pb concentrations varied from 20 ppm (wet wt) in male red-winged blackbirds to 111 ppm in female northern bobwhites. Median renal Pb concentrations varied from 22 ppm in redwinged blackbirds to 190 ppm in female northern bobwhites. Hepatic and renal Pb concentrations varied substantially among birds within each species. Median hepatic and renal Pb concentrations of birds that died were not statistically

  18. Lead poisoning in six captive avian species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.; Spann, J.W.; Sileo, L.; Franson, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater), common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus), and eastern screech-owls (Otus asio) were poisoned with a concentration of lead (Pb) acetate in the diet which was increased by 60% each week until half of the birds in each treatment group died; surviving birds and all control birds except screech-owls were then killed by euthanasia. An additional group of mallards was poisoned with Pb shot. The gizzards of mallards poisoned either way usually were stained with bile; some of these birds also had proventricular impaction. Most poisoned birds of the other species were emaciated but lacked other gross lesions caused by Pb poisoning. In birds other than mallards, Pb poisoning could not be diagnosed without histological or hematological examinations or analysis of tissues. Poisoned birds of all six species could be reliably separated from control birds by an increase in the protoporphyrin concentrations in the blood and by a decrease in the activity of delta-aminoievulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in red blood cells. Hepatic iron (Fe) concentrations varied so much among individual birds that even though median hepatic Fe concentrations increased in poisoned birds, hepatic Fe concentrations were not useful in identifying poisoned birds. Renal intranuclear inclusion bodies occurred in 83% of all birds dying from Pb poisoning. Nephrosis, myocardial necrosis, and arterial fibrinoid necrosis were occasionally present. Median hepatic Pb concentrations varied from 20 ppm (wet wt) in male red-winged blackbirds to III ppm in female northern bobwhites. Median renal Pb concentrations varied from 22 ppm in red-winged blackbirds to 190 ppm in female northern bobwhites. Hepatic and renal Pb concentrations varied substantially among birds within each species. Median hepatic and renal Pb concentrations of birds that died were not statistically

  19. Open air carbon monoxide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Jumbelic, M I

    1998-01-01

    An unusual manner of carbon monoxide poisoning claimed the lives of two adults in two separate incidents. In the first case, a young man was four wheeling in a swampy area when his jeep became stuck in the mud as he continued to floor the accelerator. Carbon monoxide fumes entered the vehicle through the rusted floorboards, killing the driver. In the second case, two teens were skinny dipping behind a motor boat when they became affected by the boat exhaust. One of the youths was overcome and submerged into the lake. Both incidents were initially attributed to incorrect causes--a car accident and a drowning--because of the false notion that carbon monoxide is not a hazard in a ventilated area. The carboxyhemoglobin levels in these victims were 78 and 62% respectively. It was only through laboratory testing that carbon monoxide poisoning was identified as the cause of their demise. Physicians as well as the public need to be aware of the potential for this life threatening hazard to occur so that there can be proper emergency treatment and the prevention of fatalities.

  20. The treatment of acetaminophen poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Prescott, L.F.; Critchley, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    Acetaminophen has become a very popular over-the-counter analgesic in some countries and as a result it is used increasingly as an agent for self-poisoning. Without treatment only a minority of patients develop severe liver damage and 1 to 2% die in hepatic failure. Until Mitchell and his colleagues discovered the biochemical mechanisms of toxicity in 1973 there was no effective treatment. They showed that the metabolic activation of acetaminophen resulted in the formation of a reactive arylating intermediate, and that hepatic reduced glutathione played an essential protective role by preferential conjugation and inactivation of the metabolite. Early treatment with sulphydryl compounds and glutathione precursors has been dramatically effective in preventing liver damage, renal failure, and death following acetaminophen overdosage. It seems likely that these agents act primarily by stimulating glutathione synthesis. Inhibition of the metabolic activation of acetaminophen is another potential therapeutic approach that has not yet been put to the test clinically. The clinical management of acetaminophen poisoning has been transformed and it is particularly gratifying to have effective treatment based on a well established biochemical mechanism of toxicity. It is likely that effective treatment will be developed for toxicity caused through similar mechanisms by other agents.

  1. [Acute and chronic cadmium poisoning].

    PubMed

    Andujar, P; Bensefa-Colas, L; Descatha, A

    2010-02-01

    Cadmium is a metallic impurity in various minerals. The two main cadmium exposure sources in general population are food and tobacco smoking. Its industrial exploitation has grown in the early twentieth century. Cadmium is used in accumulators or alkaline batteries (80%) and in pigments for paints or plastics (10%), in electrolytic process by deposit or by cadmium plating on metals or to reduce melting points (welding rods...). Cadmium is a cumulative toxic substance whose half-time for elimination is about 20 to 40 years and it is mainly stored in the liver and kidneys. Inhalation of cadmium oxide fumes may cause inhalation fevers or chemical pneumonitis. Cadmium chronic poisoning causes mainly renal tubulopathy and could be the cause of osteomalacia and diffuse osteoporosis. Cadmium is classified as certain carcinogen agent for humans by International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). The most relevant biological index exposure is the urinary cadmium. According to literature, no chelating agent can be still used in human cadmium poisonings. In France, some diseases caused by occupational exposure to cadmium may be compensated.

  2. Comparative evaluation of solar, fission, fusion, and fossil energy resources. Part 2: Power from nuclear fission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    Different types of nuclear fission reactors and fissionable materials are compared. Special emphasis is placed upon the environmental impact of such reactors. Graphs and charts comparing reactor facilities in the U. S. are presented.

  3. RECOVERY OF ALUMINUM FROM FISSION PRODUCTS

    DOEpatents

    Blanco, R.E.; Higgins, I.R.

    1962-11-20

    A method is given for recovertng aluminum values from aqueous solutions containing said values together with fission products. A mixture of Fe/sub 2/O/ sub 3/ and MnO/sub 2/ is added to a solution containing aluminum and fission products. The resulting aluminum-containing supernatant is then separated from the fission product-bearing metal oxide precipitate and is contacted with a cation exchange resin. The aluminum sorbed on the resin is then eluted and recovered. (AEC)

  4. Fissioning in planarians: control by the brain.

    PubMed

    Best, J B; Goodman, A B; Pigon, A

    1969-05-01

    Reduced population densities lead to increased rates of fissioning in planarians whereas higher population densities suppress fissioning. This effect is not primarily due to mucus deposition or substances secreted into the water. Experiments are presented which show a system of population feedback control. In the presence of other planarians, the brain exerts an influence (probably neurohormonal) to suppress fissioning. This influence becomes attenuated with axial distance from the brain.

  5. Monte carlo sampling of fission multiplicity.

    SciTech Connect

    Hendricks, J. S.

    2004-01-01

    Two new methods have been developed for fission multiplicity modeling in Monte Carlo calculations. The traditional method of sampling neutron multiplicity from fission is to sample the number of neutrons above or below the average. For example, if there are 2.7 neutrons per fission, three would be chosen 70% of the time and two would be chosen 30% of the time. For many applications, particularly {sup 3}He coincidence counting, a better estimate of the true number of neutrons per fission is required. Generally, this number is estimated by sampling a Gaussian distribution about the average. However, because the tail of the Gaussian distribution is negative and negative neutrons cannot be produced, a slight positive bias can be found in the average value. For criticality calculations, the result of rejecting the negative neutrons is an increase in k{sub eff} of 0.1% in some cases. For spontaneous fission, where the average number of neutrons emitted from fission is low, the error also can be unacceptably large. If the Gaussian width approaches the average number of fissions, 10% too many fission neutrons are produced by not treating the negative Gaussian tail adequately. The first method to treat the Gaussian tail is to determine a correction offset, which then is subtracted from all sampled values of the number of neutrons produced. This offset depends on the average value for any given fission at any energy and must be computed efficiently at each fission from the non-integrable error function. The second method is to determine a corrected zero point so that all neutrons sampled between zero and the corrected zero point are killed to compensate for the negative Gaussian tail bias. Again, the zero point must be computed efficiently at each fission. Both methods give excellent results with a negligible computing time penalty. It is now possible to include the full effects of fission multiplicity without the negative Gaussian tail bias.

  6. Heavy element fission products on earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukoliukov, Iu. A.

    Current data on the products of spontaneous fission in radioactive minerals, lithospheric rocks, and atmosphere are presented. Methods of nuclear geochronology are discussed together with the role of Pu-244 in the isotopic balance of the earth. Natural chain fission reactions are examined with particular reference to the Oklo phenomenon. The discussion covers geological and chemical features of the Oklo deposits, evaluation of the Oklo fission-product data, and prospects for discovering other natural reactors of this type.

  7. Fission-product retention in HTGR fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Homan, F.J.; Kania, M.J.; Tiegs, T.N.

    1982-01-01

    Retention data for gaseous and metallic fission products are presented for both Triso-coated and Biso-coated HTGR fuel particles. Performance trends are established that relate fission product retention to operating parameters, such as temperature, burnup, and neutron exposure. It is concluded that Biso-coated particles are not adequately retentive of fission gas or metallic cesium, and Triso-coated particles which retain cesium still lose silver. Design implications related to these performance trends are identified and discussed.

  8. Fission Product Decay Heat Calculations for Neutron Fission of 232Th

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, P. N.; Hai, N. X.

    2016-06-01

    Precise information on the decay heat from fission products following times after a fission reaction is necessary for safety designs and operations of nuclear-power reactors, fuel storage, transport flasks, and for spent fuel management and processing. In this study, the timing distributions of fission products' concentrations and their integrated decay heat as function of time following a fast neutron fission reaction of 232Th were exactly calculated by the numerical method with using the DHP code.

  9. FISSION PRODUCT REMOVAL FROM ORGANIC SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Moore, R.H.

    1960-05-10

    The decontamination of organic solvents from fission products and in particular the treatment of solvents that were used for the extraction of uranium and/or plutonium from aqueous acid solutions of neutron-irradiated uranium are treated. The process broadly comprises heating manganese carbonate in air to a temperature of between 300 and 500 deg C whereby manganese dioxide is formed; mixing the manganese dioxide with the fission product-containing organic solvent to be treated whereby the fission products are precipitated on the manganese dioxide; and separating the fission product-containing manganese dioxide from the solvent.

  10. Theoretical Description of the Fission Process

    SciTech Connect

    Witold Nazarewicz

    2003-07-01

    The main goals of the project can be summarized as follows: Development of effective energy functionals that are appropriate for the description of heavy nuclei. Our goal is to improve the existing energy density (Skyrme) functionals to develop a force that will be used in calculations of fission dynamics. Systematic self-consistent calculations of binding energies and fission barriers of actinide and trans-actinide nuclei using modern density functionals. This will be followed by calculations of spontaneous fission lifetimes and mass and charge divisions using dynamic adiabatic approaches based on the WKB approximation. Investigate novel microscopic (non-adiabatic) methods to study the fission process.

  11. A hemi-fission intermediate links two mechanistically distinct stages of membrane fission

    PubMed Central

    Sundborger, Anna C.; Hortelano, Eva Rodriguez; Fuhrmans, Marc; Neumann, Sylvia; Müller, Marcus; Hinshaw, Jenny E.; Schmid, Sandra L.; Frolov, Vadim A.

    2015-01-01

    Fusion and fission drive all vesicular transport. Although topologically opposite, these reactions pass through the same hemi-fusion/fission intermediate1,2, characterized by a ‘stalk’ in which only the inner monolayers of the two compartments have merged to form a localized non-bilayer connection1-3. Formation of the hemi-fission intermediate requires energy input from proteins catalyzing membrane remodeling; however the relationship between protein conformational rearrangements and hemi-fusion/fission remains obscure. Here we analyzed how the GTPase cycle of dynamin, the prototypical membrane fission catalyst4-6, is directly coupled to membrane remodeling. We used intra-molecular chemical cross-linking to stabilize dynamin in its GDP•AlF4--bound transition-state. In the absence of GTP this conformer produced stable hemi-fission, but failed to progress to complete fission, even in the presence of GTP. Further analysis revealed that the pleckstrin homology domain (PHD) locked in its membrane-inserted state facilitated hemi-fission. A second mode of dynamin activity, fueled by GTP hydrolysis, couples dynamin disassembly with cooperative diminishing of the PHD wedging, thus destabilizing the hemi-fission intermediate to complete fission. Molecular simulations corroborate the bimodal character of dynamin action and indicate radial and axial forces as dominant, although not independent drivers of hemi-fission and fission transformations, respectively. Mirrored in the fusion reaction7-8, the force bimodality might constitute a general paradigm for leakage-free membrane remodeling. PMID:26123023

  12. METHOD FOR SEPARATING PLUTONIUM AND FISSION PRODUCTS EMPLOYING AN OXIDE AS A CARRIER FOR FISSION PRODUCTS

    DOEpatents

    Davies, T.H.

    1961-07-18

    Carrier precipitation processes for separating plutonium values from uranium fission products are described. Silicon dioxide or titanium dioxide in a finely divided state is added to an acidic aqueous solution containing hexavalent plutonium ions together with ions of uranium fission products. The supernatant solution containing plutonium ions is then separated from the oxide and the fission products associated therewith.

  13. 49 CFR 172.540 - POISON GAS placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON GAS placard. 172.540 Section 172.540... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.540 POISON GAS placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON GAS... the POISON GAS placard and the symbol must be white. The background of the upper diamond must be...

  14. 49 CFR 172.416 - POISON GAS label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false POISON GAS label. 172.416 Section 172.416... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.416 POISON GAS label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON GAS label... POISON GAS label and the symbol must be white. The background of the upper diamond must be black and...

  15. 49 CFR 172.540 - POISON GAS placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false POISON GAS placard. 172.540 Section 172.540... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.540 POISON GAS placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON GAS... the POISON GAS placard and the symbol must be white. The background of the upper diamond must be...

  16. 49 CFR 172.540 - POISON GAS placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false POISON GAS placard. 172.540 Section 172.540... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.540 POISON GAS placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON GAS... the POISON GAS placard and the symbol must be white. The background of the upper diamond must be...

  17. 49 CFR 172.416 - POISON GAS label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false POISON GAS label. 172.416 Section 172.416... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.416 POISON GAS label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON GAS label... POISON GAS label and the symbol must be white. The background of the upper diamond must be black and...

  18. 49 CFR 172.416 - POISON GAS label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON GAS label. 172.416 Section 172.416... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.416 POISON GAS label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON GAS label... POISON GAS label and the symbol must be white. The background of the upper diamond must be black and...

  19. 49 CFR 172.416 - POISON GAS label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false POISON GAS label. 172.416 Section 172.416... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.416 POISON GAS label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON GAS label... POISON GAS label and the symbol must be white. The background of the upper diamond must be black and...

  20. 49 CFR 172.540 - POISON GAS placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false POISON GAS placard. 172.540 Section 172.540... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.540 POISON GAS placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON GAS... the POISON GAS placard and the symbol must be white. The background of the upper diamond must be...

  1. Recognition and management of acute pesticide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Simpson, William M; Schuman, Stanley H

    2002-04-15

    Most poisonings from pesticides do not have a specific antidote, making decontamination the most important intervention. For maximal benefit to the patient, skin, eye, and gastric decontamination should be undertaken while specifics of the poisoning are being determined. As in most illnesses and injuries, the history of the poisoning is of great importance and will determine specific needs for decontamination and therapy, if any exist. Protection of health care workers during the decontamination process is important and frequently overlooked. Skin decontamination is primarily accomplished with large volumes of water, soap, and shampoo. Gastric decontamination by lavage is indicated if ingestion of the poisoning has occurred within 60 minutes of patient presentation. Activated charcoal, combined with a cathartic, is also indicated in most poisonings presenting within 60 minutes of ingestion. With large volume ingestion poisonings, activated charcoal may be used after 60 minutes, but little data exist to support this practice. Syrup of ipecac is no longer recommended for routine use. The cholinergic syndrome "all faucets on" characterizes poisoning by organophosphates and carbamates. Organochlorine insecticides (lindane and other treatments for scabies and lice) can produce seizures with excessive use or use on large areas of nonintact skin. Non-dipyridyl herbicides, biocides (including pyrethrins, pyrethroids, and Bacillus thuringiensis) rarely produce anything other than mild skin, eye, and/or gastrointestinal irritation on topical exposure or ingestion.

  2. [Descriptive epidemiology of mushroom poisoning in Japan].

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Y; Yamaura, Y

    1992-02-01

    The Incidence of mushroom poisoning was surveyed statistically from 1959 to 1988 in Japan. The results are summarized as follows: 1. During the past three decades, the total number of incidents of mushroom poisoning was 2,096, which involved 10,924 patients and 72 deaths. The average number of incidents was 70 cases per year, involving 364 patients and 2.4 deaths, and the number of incidents decreased gradually every year. Mushroom poisoning usually happened most frequently in September and October. 2. Considering regional differences, the incidence of mushroom poisoning was more frequent in the northeastern part of Japan than in the southwestern part. The incidences of mushroom poisoning in the prefectures of Nagano, Hokkaido, Niigata, Iwate and Fukushima were relatively high. 3. Three species of mushrooms, L. japonicus, R. rhodopolius (R. sinuatus) and T. ustale caused the majority of all poisonings. 4. The rates of total patients and fatalities for each type of poisoning, which were classified according to the symptoms caused, were 90.3% and 10.7% in the type with cholera-like symptoms, 90.2% and 0.2% in that with gastro-intestinal irritation, and 74.1% and 0% in that with neurological symptoms, respectively. PMID:1556831

  3. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for carbon monoxide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Lindell K

    2014-01-01

    Despite established exposure limits and safety standards, and the availability of carbon monoxide (CO) alarms, each year 50,000 people in the United States visit emergency departments for CO poisoning. Carbon monoxide poisoning can occur from brief exposures to high levels of CO, or from longer exposures to lower levels. Common symptoms include headaches, nausea and vomiting, dizziness, general malaise, and altered mental status. Some patients may have chest pain, shortness of breath and myocardial ischemia, and may require mechanical ventilation and treatment of shock. Individuals poisoned by CO often go on to develop neurological problems, including cognitive sequelae, anxiety and depression, persistent headaches, dizziness, sleep problems, motor weakness, vestibular and balance problems, gaze abnormalities, peripheral neuropathies, hearing loss, tinnitus and Parkinsonian-like syndrome. While breathing oxygen hastens the removal of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) hastens COHb elimination and favorably modulates inflammatory processes instigated by CO poisoning, an effect not observed with breathing normobaric oxygen. Hyperbaric oxygen improves mitochondrial function, inhibits lipid peroxidation transiently, impairs leukocyte adhesion to injured microvasculature, and reduces brain inflammation caused by the CO-induced adduct formation of myelin basic protein. Based upon three supportive randomized clinical trials in humans and considerable evidence from animal studies, HBO2 should be considered for all cases of acute symptomatic CO poisoning. Hyperbaric oxygen is indicated for CO poisoning complicated by cyanide poisoning, often concomitantly with smoke inhalation.

  4. Fission fragment excited laser system

    DOEpatents

    McArthur, David A.; Tollefsrud, Philip B.

    1976-01-01

    A laser system and method for exciting lasing action in a molecular gas lasing medium which includes cooling the lasing medium to a temperature below about 150 K and injecting fission fragments through the lasing medium so as to preferentially excite low lying vibrational levels of the medium and to cause population inversions therein. The cooled gas lasing medium should have a mass areal density of about 5 .times. 10.sup.-.sup.3 grams/square centimeter, relaxation times of greater than 50 microseconds, and a broad range of excitable vibrational levels which are excitable by molecular collisions.

  5. Suspected poisoning of domestic animals by pesticides.

    PubMed

    Caloni, Francesca; Cortinovis, Cristina; Rivolta, Marina; Davanzo, Franca

    2016-01-01

    A retrospective study was carried out by reviewing all suspected cases of domestic animal poisoning attributed to pesticides, reported to the Milan Poison Control Centre (MPCC) between January 2011 and December 2013. During this period, pesticides were found to be responsible for 37.3% of all suspected poisoning enquiries received (815). The most commonly species involved was the dog (71.1% of calls) followed by the cat (15.8%), while a limited number of cases involved horses, goats and sheep. Most cases of exposure (47.1%) resulted in mild to moderate clinical signs. The outcome was reported in 59.9% of these cases, with death occurring in 10.4% of them. Insecticides (40.8%) proved to be the most common group of pesticides involved and exposure to pyrethrins-pyrethroids accounted for the majority of calls. According to the MPCC data, there has been a decrease in the number of suspected poisonings cases attributed to pesticides that have been banned by the EU, including aldicarb, carbofuran, endosulfan and paraquat. In contrast, there has been an increase of suspected poisoning cases attributed to the neonicotinoids, imidacloprid and acetamiprid, probably due to their widespread use in recent years. Cases of suspected poisoning that involved exposure to rodenticides accounted for 27.6% of calls received by the MPCC and anticoagulant rodenticides were the primary cause of calls, with many cases involving brodifacoum and bromadiolone. Herbicides were involved in 14.2% of calls related to pesticides and glyphosate was the main culprit in cases involving dogs, cats, horses, goats and sheep. As far as exposure to molluscicides (11.5%) and fungicides (5.9%), most of the cases involved dogs and the suspected poisoning agents were metaldehyde and copper compounds respectively. The data collected are useful in determining trends in poisoning episodes and identifying newly emerging toxicants, thus demonstrating the prevalence of pesticides as causative agents in animal

  6. Suspected poisoning of domestic animals by pesticides.

    PubMed

    Caloni, Francesca; Cortinovis, Cristina; Rivolta, Marina; Davanzo, Franca

    2016-01-01

    A retrospective study was carried out by reviewing all suspected cases of domestic animal poisoning attributed to pesticides, reported to the Milan Poison Control Centre (MPCC) between January 2011 and December 2013. During this period, pesticides were found to be responsible for 37.3% of all suspected poisoning enquiries received (815). The most commonly species involved was the dog (71.1% of calls) followed by the cat (15.8%), while a limited number of cases involved horses, goats and sheep. Most cases of exposure (47.1%) resulted in mild to moderate clinical signs. The outcome was reported in 59.9% of these cases, with death occurring in 10.4% of them. Insecticides (40.8%) proved to be the most common group of pesticides involved and exposure to pyrethrins-pyrethroids accounted for the majority of calls. According to the MPCC data, there has been a decrease in the number of suspected poisonings cases attributed to pesticides that have been banned by the EU, including aldicarb, carbofuran, endosulfan and paraquat. In contrast, there has been an increase of suspected poisoning cases attributed to the neonicotinoids, imidacloprid and acetamiprid, probably due to their widespread use in recent years. Cases of suspected poisoning that involved exposure to rodenticides accounted for 27.6% of calls received by the MPCC and anticoagulant rodenticides were the primary cause of calls, with many cases involving brodifacoum and bromadiolone. Herbicides were involved in 14.2% of calls related to pesticides and glyphosate was the main culprit in cases involving dogs, cats, horses, goats and sheep. As far as exposure to molluscicides (11.5%) and fungicides (5.9%), most of the cases involved dogs and the suspected poisoning agents were metaldehyde and copper compounds respectively. The data collected are useful in determining trends in poisoning episodes and identifying newly emerging toxicants, thus demonstrating the prevalence of pesticides as causative agents in animal

  7. Methadone toxicity in a poisoning referral center

    PubMed Central

    Taheri, Fatemeh; Yaraghi, Ahmad; Sabzghabaee, Ali Mohammad; Moudi, Maryam; Eizadi-Mood, Nastaran; Gheshlaghi, Farzad; Farajzadegan, Ziba

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Methadone poisoning can occur accidentally or intentionally for suicide or homicide purposes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiological and clinical manifestations of Methadone poisoning. Methods: A descriptive analytical study was performed from 2010 to 2012 in the poisoning emergency and clinical toxicology departments of Noor hospital affiliated with Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (Isfahan, Iran). All patients with Methadone poisoning within this period of time were investigated. Different variables were recorded in a checklist. Findings: A total of 385 patients were studied. About 85.7% had ingested only Methadone and 14.3% had ingested other medications with Methadone. Mean ± standard deviation of the age was 32.1 ± 15 years (range: 1-90). Most of the patients were male (76.4%). Nearly 40% of the patients were narcotic addicts, 25.5% were addicts under surveillance of Methadone maintenance therapy centers and 34.5% were non-addicts. Intentional poisoning was observed in most of the patients (57.7%). Most of the patients had a low level of consciousness on admission (58.2%). Respiratory depression and hypotension was observed in 35.6% and 12.7% of the cases as the most common symptoms. Regarding vital signs, there was a significant difference in respiratory rate on admission among different evaluated groups (P = 0.02). Length of hospital stay was 18.79 ± 0.72 h (range: 4-240 h, median: 15 h). About 57 patients (25.8%) from the intentionally poisoned patients and 19 patients (12.3%) from the unintentionally poisoned patients had a history of psychiatric disorder (P = 0.001). Most of the patients survived without complications. Conclusion: Addiction, age, gender, attempt to suicide and a history of psychiatric disorder were of the most important factors effective in Methadone poisoning, which should be considered in the public training and prevention of poisoning. PMID:24991620

  8. Five cases of arsine poisoning.

    PubMed

    Phoon, W H; Chan, M O; Goh, C H; Edmondson, R P; Kwek, Y K; Gan, S L; Ngui, S J; Kwok, S F

    1984-04-01

    Arsine is one of the most potent haemolytic agents found in industry. Four workers presented with abdominal pain, jaundice and passing tea-coloured urine. A fifth worker also passed dark urine but had no other symptoms. Investigation revealed that all five workers were from a tin smelting plant where they were involved in mixing tin ore with dross. They were exposed to arsine gas after mixing a particularly large quantity of dross with tin ore which was wet because of rain. Three of the cases developed renal impairment and also a mild sensory neuropathy. All survived with proper management in hospital which included exchange blood transfusions, and peritoneal dialysis where indicated. Prevention of such poisoning includes keeping dross away from all moisture, good ventilation in work areas, and adding dross directly to the furnace.

  9. Carbon monoxide: an old poison with a new way of poisoning.

    PubMed

    Chou, Cheng-Hsiu; Lai, Ching-Huang; Liou, Saou-Hsing; Loh, Ching-Hui

    2012-08-01

    We present two events of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, which spread out through ventilation pipes to kill or injure neighbors. This is a previously undocumented poisoning process. In the first event, three people died and eight others suffered CO poisoning from a gas-powered water heater in an apartment building. Similar to the first event, three people expired and three others were injured by CO poisoning in the second event. We subsequently determined the cause of these tragedies were due to obstructions at the openings of ventilation pipes. CO is one of the most common causes of poisoning worldwide and these cases often result in tragedy. Early recognition of CO poisoning resulting from obstructed ventilation pipes will facilitate proper management and prevent possible lethal disasters. Additionally, all clinicians and other paramedical personnel ought to raise the suspicion of chemical-related casualties when encountering clusters of patients from a single locale.

  10. Radiographic findings in congenital lead poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Pearl, M.; Boxt, L.M.

    1980-07-01

    Because lead crosses the placenta throughout pregnancy, the fetus is at risk for lead poisoning. A full term, asymptomatic child was born with congenital lead poisoning secondary to maternal pica. Radiographic findings of a dense cranial vault, lead lines, and delayed skeletal and deciduous dental development were noted at birth. After chelation therapy, when the patient was seven months old, radiographs revealed normal skeletal maturation. Tooth eruption did not occur until 15 months of age. Newborn infants with these radiographic findings should be screened for subclinical, congenital lead poisoning.

  11. Metal Poisons in Waste Tanks (U)

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, T.G.

    1996-10-14

    Many of the storage tanks with waste from processing fissile materials contain, along with the fissile material, metals which may serve as nuclear criticality poisons. It would be advantageous to the criticality evaluation of these wastes if it can be demonstrated that the poisons remain with the fissile materials and if an always safe poison-to-fissile ratio can be established. The first task, demonstrating that the materials stay together, is the job of the chemist, the second, demonstrating an always safe ratio, is the job of the physicist. The latter task is the object of this paper

  12. Childhood poisoning: the scope for prevention.

    PubMed

    Chan, T Y

    1998-12-01

    Many deaths and disabling sequelae in children following poisoning could be prevented if more attention were given to implementing preventive measures at home. Medications and chemicals should always be safely packed and stored. Education on which products are highly dangerous and the giving of precautionary advice to parents would also help to reduce the incidence of childhood poisoning. In Hong Kong, imported vegetables (contaminated by methamidophos) and coral reef fish (containing ciguatoxins) cause poisoning in both children and adults. Advice on preventive measures should be given to the public.

  13. Phosphide poisoning: a review of literature.

    PubMed

    Bumbrah, Gurvinder Singh; Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj; Sharma, Madhulika; Sodhi, Gurvinder Singh

    2012-01-10

    Metal phosphides in general and aluminium phosphide in particular are potent insecticides and rodenticides. These are commercially used for protection of crops during storage, as well as during transportation. However, these are highly toxic substances. Their detrimental effects may range from nausea and headache to renal failure and death. It is, therefore, pertinent to ensure their circumspect handling to avoid poisoning episodes. Its poisoning has a high mortality and recent years have seen an increase in the number of poisoning cases and deaths caused by suicidal ingestion. Yet due to their broad spectrum applications, these chemicals cannot be written off. The present communication reviews the various aspects of toxicity associated with metal phosphides.

  14. An Unusual Cause of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: Narghile Smoking.

    PubMed

    Ateş, Alpay; Arikan, Müge; Özgök, Ayşegul

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is commonly seen during the winter season in Turkey due to use of charcoal stoves and water heaters, but narghile smoking is a rare cause of CO poisoning. CASE REPORT In this paper, we report a CO poisoning case caused by narghile smoking. The patient was admitted to the ED with nausea, dizziness, vertigo, and syncope. CONCLUSIONS The diagnosis of CO poisoning depends on suspicious anamnesis. The major treatment of CO poisoning is oxygen supply. PMID:27618983

  15. Adsorption and excess fission xenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podosek, F. A.; Bernatowicz, T. J.; Kramer, F. E.

    1982-01-01

    The adsorption of Xe and Kr on lunar soil 10084 was measured by a method that employs only very low fractions of monolayer coverage. Results are presented as parameters for calculation of the Henry constant for adsorption as a function of temperature. The adsorption potentials are about 3 kcal/mole for Kr and 5 kcal/mole for Xe; heating the sample in vacuum increased the Xe potential to nearly 7 kcal/mole. Henry constants at the characteristic lunar temperature are about 0.3 cu cm STP/g-atm. These data were applied to consider whether adsorption is important in producing the excess fission Xe effect characteristic of highland breccias. Sorption equilibrium with a transient lunar atmosphere vented fission Xe produces concentrations seven orders of magnitude lower than observed concentrations. Higher concentrations result because of the resistance of the regolith to upward diffusion of Xe. A diffusion coefficient of 0.26 sq cm/sec is estimated for this process.

  16. Fission Models of Population Variability

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, E. A.

    1979-01-01

    Most models in population genetics are models of allele frequency, making implicit or explicit assumptions of equilibrium or constant population size. In recent papers, we have attempted to develop more appropriate models for the analysis of rare variant data in South American Indian tribes; these are branching process models for the total number of replicates of a variant allele. The spatial distribution of a variant may convey information about its history and characteristics, and this paper extends previous models to take this factor into consideration. A model of fission into subdivisions is superimposed on the previous branching process, and variation between subdivisions is considered. The case where fission is nonrandom and the locations of like alleles are initially positively associated, as would happen were a tribal cluster or village to split on familial lines, is also analyzed. The statistics developed are applied to Yanomama Indian data on rare genetic variants. Due to insufficient time depth, no definitive new inferences can be drawn, but the analysis shows that this model provides results consistent with previous conclusions, and demonstrates the general type of question that may be answered by the approach taken here. In particular, striking confirmation of a higher-than-average growth rate, and hence smaller-than-previously-estimated age, is obtained for the Yan2 serum albumen variant. PMID:535728

  17. Spontaneous fission properties and lifetime systematics

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.C.

    1989-03-01

    Half-lives for spontaneous fission of nuclides with even and odd numbers of particles are compared with recent theoretical calculations. A summary of odd particle hindrance factors is given. The most recent measurements of kinetic-energy and mass distributions and neutron emission for spontaneous fission of the heaviest nuclides are summarized and discussed. 51 refs., 9 figs.

  18. Spectrum of carbonaceous-chondrite fission xenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, D. D.

    1976-01-01

    Estimations of the fission spectrum in xenon isotopes from the progenitor of the strange carbonaceous-chondrite xenon must take account of p-process nucleosynthesis if the latter is the source of anomalous Xe-124, 126. Sample calculations of the p-process yields illustrate the magnitude of the effect, which can greatly increase the estimated Xe-132 fission yield.

  19. Options for Affordable Fission Surface Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Mike; Gaddis, Steve; Porter, Ron; VanDyke, Melissa; Martin Jim; Godfroy, Tom; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon; Garber, Anne; Pearson, Boise

    2006-01-01

    Fission surface power systems could provide abundant power anywhere on free surface of the moon or Mars. Locations could include permanently shaded regions on the moon and high latitudes on Mars. To be fully utilized; however, fission surface power systems must be safe, have adequate performance, and be affordable. This paper discusses options for the design and development of such systems.

  20. PROCESS FOR SEPARATING URANIUM FISSION PRODUCTS

    DOEpatents

    Spedding, F.H.; Butler, T.A.; Johns, I.B.

    1959-03-10

    The removal of fission products such as strontium, barium, cesium, rubidium, or iodine from neutronirradiated uranium is described. Uranium halide or elemental halogen is added to melted irradiated uranium to convert the fission products to either more volatile compositions which vaporize from the melt or to higher melting point compositions which separate as solids.

  1. Prompt fission neutron spectra of actinides

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Capote, R.; Chen, Y. -J.; Hambsch, F. -J.; Kornilov, N. V.; Lestone, J. P.; Litaize, O.; Morillon, B.; Neudecker, D.; Oberstedt, S.; Ohsawa, T.; et al

    2016-01-06

    Here, the energy spectrum of prompt neutrons emitted in fission (PFNS) plays a very important role in nuclear science and technology. A Coordinated Research Project (CRP) "Evaluation of Prompt Fission Neutron Spectra of Actinides" was established by the IAEA Nuclear Data Section in 2009, with the major goal to produce new PFNS evaluations with uncertainties for actinide nuclei.

  2. Nuclear Power from Fission Reactors. An Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Technical Information Center.

    The purpose of this booklet is to provide a basic understanding of nuclear fission energy and different fission reaction concepts. Topics discussed are: energy use and production, current uses of fuels, oil and gas consumption, alternative energy sources, fossil fuel plants, nuclear plants, boiling water and pressurized water reactors, the light…

  3. Options for Affordable Fission Surface Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Houts, Mike; Gaddis, Steve; Porter, Ron; Van Dyke, Melissa; Martin, Jim; Godfroy, Tom; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon; Garber, Anne; Pearson, Boise

    2006-07-01

    Fission surface power systems could provide abundant power anywhere on the surface of the moon or Mars. Locations could include permanently shaded regions on the moon and high latitudes on Mars. To be fully utilized, however, fission surface power systems must be safe, have adequate performance, and be affordable. This paper discusses options for the design and development of such systems. (authors)

  4. SOURCE OF PRODUCTS OF NUCLEAR FISSION

    DOEpatents

    Harteck, P.; Dondes, S.

    1960-03-15

    A source of fission product recoil energy suitable for use in radiation chemistry is reported. The source consists of thermal neutron irradiated glass wool having a diameter of 1 to 5 microns and containing an isotope fissionable by thermal neutrons, such as U/sup 235/.

  5. Nuclear Fission and Fission{minus}Product Spectroscopy: Second International Workshop. Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Fioni, G.; Faust, H.; Oberstedt, S.; Hambsch, F.

    1998-10-01

    These proceedings represent papers presented at the Second International Workshop on Nuclear Fission and Fission{minus}Product Spectroscopy held in Seyssins, France in April, 1998. The objective was to bring together the specialists in the field to overview the situation and to assess our present understanding of the fission process. The topics presented at the conference included nuclear waste management, incineration, neutron driven transmutation, leakage etc., radioactive beams, neutron{minus}rich nuclei, neutron{minus}induced and spontaneous fission, ternary fission phenomena, angular momentum, parity and time{minus}reversal phenomena, and nuclear fission at higher excitation energy. Modern spectroscopic tools for gamma spectroscopy as applied to fission were also discussed. There were 53 papers presented at the conference,out of which 3 have been abstracted for the Energy,Science and Technology database.(AIP)

  6. Theoretical Description of the Fission Process

    SciTech Connect

    Witold Nazarewicz

    2009-10-25

    Advanced theoretical methods and high-performance computers may finally unlock the secrets of nuclear fission, a fundamental nuclear decay that is of great relevance to society. In this work, we studied the phenomenon of spontaneous fission using the symmetry-unrestricted nuclear density functional theory (DFT). Our results show that many observed properties of fissioning nuclei can be explained in terms of pathways in multidimensional collective space corresponding to different geometries of fission products. From the calculated collective potential and collective mass, we estimated spontaneous fission half-lives, and good agreement with experimental data was found. We also predicted a new phenomenon of trimodal spontaneous fission for some transfermium isotopes. Our calculations demonstrate that fission barriers of excited superheavy nuclei vary rapidly with particle number, pointing to the importance of shell effects even at large excitation energies. The results are consistent with recent experiments where superheavy elements were created by bombarding an actinide target with 48-calcium; yet even at high excitation energies, sizable fission barriers remained. Not only does this reveal clues about the conditions for creating new elements, it also provides a wider context for understanding other types of fission. Understanding of the fission process is crucial for many areas of science and technology. Fission governs existence of many transuranium elements, including the predicted long-lived superheavy species. In nuclear astrophysics, fission influences the formation of heavy elements on the final stages of the r-process in a very high neutron density environment. Fission applications are numerous. Improved understanding of the fission process will enable scientists to enhance the safety and reliability of the nation’s nuclear stockpile and nuclear reactors. The deployment of a fleet of safe and efficient advanced reactors, which will also minimize radiotoxic

  7. Fission Surface Power Technology Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palac, Donald T.; Mason, Lee S.; Houts, Michael G.; Harlow, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Power is a critical consideration in planning exploration of the surfaces of the Moon, Mars, and beyond. Nuclear power is an important option, especially for locations in the solar system where sunlight is limited in availability or intensity. NASA is maintaining the option for fission surface power for the Moon and Mars by developing and demonstrating technology for an affordable fission surface power system. Because affordability drove the determination of the system concept that this technology will make possible, low development and recurring costs result, while required safety standards are maintained. However, an affordable approach to fission surface power also provides the benefits of simplicity, robustness, and conservatism in design. This paper will illuminate the multiplicity of benefits to an affordable approach to fission surface power, and will describe how the foundation for these benefits is being developed and demonstrated in the Exploration Technology Development Program s Fission Surface Power Project.

  8. Fission dynamics at low excitation energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aritomo, Y.; Chiba, S.; Ivanyuk, F.

    2014-11-01

    The mass asymmetry in the fission of 236U at low excitation energy is clarified by the analysis of the trajectories obtained by solving the Langevin equations for the shape degrees of freedom. It is demonstrated that the position of the peaks in the mass distribution of fission fragments is determined mainly by the saddle point configuration originating from the shell correction energy. The width of the peaks, on the other hand, results from the shape fluctuations close to the scission point caused by the random force in the Langevin equation. We have found out that the fluctuations between elongated and compact shapes are essential for the fission process. According to our results the fission does not occur with continuous stretching in the prolate direction, similarly to that observed in starch syrup, but is accompanied by the fluctuations between elongated and compact shapes. This picture presents a new viewpoint of fission dynamics and the splitting mechanism.

  9. Investigations of fission characteristics and correlation effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gundorin, N. A.; Zeinalov, Sh. S.; Kopach, Yu. N.; Popov, A. B.; Furman, V. I.

    2016-07-01

    We review the experimental results on the P-even and P-odd angular correlations of fission fragments in the fission of the 235U and 239Pu nuclei induced by unpolarized and polarized resonance neutrons, and on the TRI and ROT effects in the ternary and binary fission of actinides induced by polarized thermal neutrons. Also reported are the measured yields of prompt and delayed neutrons per fission event. The experimental data are analyzed within a novel theoretical framework developed by the JINR—RNC KI Collaboration, whereby the reduction of the multidimensional phase space of fission fragments to the JπK-channel space is consistently validated and the role of resonance interference in the observed correlation effects is revealed.

  10. Sources, symptoms, and signs of arsenic poisoning.

    PubMed

    Hutton, J T; Christians, B L

    1983-09-01

    Arsenic poisoning continues to be a serious medical problem that may easily be overlooked or misdiagnosed. The broad constellation of symptoms and signs in arsenic poisoning, along with changing sources of this toxin, contributes to misdiagnosis. A re-examination of current potential sources was carried out. Sources were determined in 17 of 20 documented cases of arsenic poisoning. Fourteen cases resulted from ingestion of a single, commonly available, arsenic-containing ant killer. In contrast to earlier reports, this survey found that agricultural and industrial sources were relatively uncommon. A peculiar posturing of the hand is commonly seen in the early stages of arsenic poisoning prior to the development of Mee's lines or palmar hyperkeratosis. An illustrative case is reported that resulted from intermittent self-administration of an arsenic-containing ant killer in order to maintain a state of chronic invalidism.

  11. Poison oak rash on the arm (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... appearance of poison oak dermatitis. Note the typical linear streaks produced either by scratching or brushing against the plant. (Image courtesy of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.)

  12. Laundry detergent capsules and pediatric poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Bonney, Asha G.; Mazor, Suzan; Goldman, Ran D.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Question A 4-year-old girl was brought into the emergency department vomiting after having had ingested a laundry detergent capsule (LDC) from under the sink at her house. What is the risk of LDC poisoning? What can be done to treat these children? Answer Laundry detergent capsules are relatively new to supermarket shelves in North America, and there has been an emergence of case reports in the literature describing LDC poisoning, which is worse than poisoning from other laundry detergents. Very little is known about the mechanisms causing these severe reactions, which include airway compromise and esophageal perforation, but the attractive appearance of these capsules and easy access at home has governments and health officials concerned about an increase in poisoning. No residual problems have been associated with these cases to date; however, further research is needed to assess long-term effects. PMID:24336541

  13. Clinical manifestations of tansy ragwort poisoning.

    PubMed

    Pearson, E G

    1977-05-01

    The clinical signs of tansy ragwort poisoning are variable and in 5 cases included diarrhea, tenesmus, ascites, bloody feces, icterus, paresis, CNS involvement, rectal prolapse, poor appetite and weight loss. It is thus apparent that the disease can be confused clinically with many others, and tansy ragwort poisoning should be considered in animals exhibiting ascites, diarrhea and rectal prolapse. Several cases of tansy ragwort (Senecio jacobaea) poisoning occurring from 1969 to 1976 are reported to illustrate the numerous clinical pictures that might confront a practitioner. The disease is sporadic in this area. The poisonous principles in tansy ragwort are pyrrolizidine alkaloids, which cause gradual alteration and necrosis of liver cells with replacement by fibrous tissue. The development of signs in all of these cases could be attributed to failure of one or more liver functions.

  14. Lead poisoning in a Mississippi sandhill crane

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J. Christian; Hereford, Scott G.

    1994-01-01

    Lead poisoning from the ingestion of spent lead shot is well documented in waterfowl (Sanderson and Bellrose 1986) and has been reported in other wetland (Locke et al. 1991, Windingstad et al. 1984) and upland (Hunter and Rosen 1965, Locke and Bagley 1967) avian species. Ingested fishing weights have been implicated in lead poisoning of Trumpeter Swans (Cygnus buccinator) (Blus et al. 1989), Common Loons (Gavia immer) (Locke et al. 1982, Franson and Cliplef 1992, Pokras and Chafe1 1992), Mute Swans (Cygnus olor) (Birkhead 1982), and Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis) (Windingstad et al. 1984). The significance of lead poisoning as a mortality factor in avian species other than waterfowl is probably underestimated (Locke and Friend 1992), and any cause of mortality becomes particularly important in species with small population sizes. We report here the first known case of lead poisoning in a Mississippi Sandhill Crane (Grus canadensis pulla), a critically endangered subspecies.

  15. Lead Poisoning and the Suburban Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Ada; Graham, Frank

    1974-01-01

    Reports on recent findings which suggest that lead poisoning stems not only from paint ingestion, is not limited to ghetto children, and may be linked to some learning and behavioral difficulties in children. (Author/SF)

  16. Lead Poisoning in Remodeling of Old Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Bart

    1973-01-01

    An article based on Dr. Muriel D. Wolf's study of elevated blood lead levels in children and adults present during the remodeling of old homes. Lead poisoning examples, symptoms, and precautions are given. (ST)

  17. Lunar cycle and poison center calls.

    PubMed

    Oderda, G M; Klein-Schwartz, W

    1983-07-01

    An analysis of calls to the Maryland Poison Center was performed to assess whether a relationship exists between the moon periods and poison exposure calls. A given period was defined as the day of the lunar event +/- 2 days. Thirteen lunar cycles in which 22,079 calls occurred were analyzed. A larger proportion of total calls to the center and unintentional poisoning calls occurred during the full moon period. A significantly larger number of unintentional poisonings occurred in the full moon period compared to suicide attempts and drug abuse which occurred most frequently during the new moon period. The lunar cycle had no effect on the distribution of victim's age or sex or the location of treatment.

  18. [Acute poisoning. Apropos of 1200 cases].

    PubMed

    Ginies, G; Lamisse, F; Gautier, J; Choutet, P; Breteau, M; Bourin, M; Renard, J P

    The team studied 1 200 cases of acute intoxications both accidental and self inflicted, self inflicted poisonings are much more frequent than accidental ones and in general occur more often amongst the young and by women; the median age is about thirty. Barbituric are often the means. There is a progressive increase in the use of tranquilizers and of thymo-analeptics as their use becomes greater. A mixture of poisons increases the dangers because this frequently results in more rapid loss of consciousness; also more than one poison increases the risk of shock and of thermo-regulation, respiratory problems necessitate intubation and artificial respiration which both increase the risk of assification. The characteristics of certain poisons are stressed and in particular the thymo-analeptics; also the supervision of the patients in an intensive care unit.

  19. Carbamate and organophosphate poisoning in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Sofer, S; Tal, A; Shahak, E

    1989-12-01

    Twenty-five infants and young children intoxicated by carbamate and organophosphorus compounds are described. Presenting signs and symptoms in children differed from those described in adults and were mainly related to severe CNS depression, coma and stupor, dyspnea, and flaccidity. Other clinical signs such as miosis, excessive salivation and tearing, sweaty, cold skin, and gastrointestinal symptoms were less frequent, while fasciculations and bradycardia were quite uncommon on arrival. Only two patients presented with all typical signs of organophosphate poisoning as described in adults. Signs of carbamate poisoning were indistinguishable from those of organophosphate poisoning and included signs of myoneural and CNS cholinergic receptor involvement, in addition to parasympathetic muscarinic dysfunction. Atropine sulfate was found to have a clear beneficial CNS effect in addition to its known peripheral antimuscarinic effect. Our data suggest that the clinical presentation of carbamate and organophosphate poisoning in early childhood and its response to therapy are quite different from those of adults and older children.

  20. Arsenic poisoning. Ongoing diagnostic and social problem.

    PubMed

    Fuortes, L

    1988-01-01

    Arsenic, commonly found in insecticides, herbicides, and industrial materials, is involved in the majority of heavy metal poisonings reported in the United States. Accidental poisoning appears to be most common in the pediatric age-group, whereas intentional and covert poisonings predominate in adults. Diagnosis is often difficult. The clinical presentations of arsenic poisoning, both acute and chronic types, represent a wide spectrum, largely dependent on route of exposure, chemical form, and dose. Because the patient or others providing the history may suppress information on exposure and because toxic levels of arsenic in the system drop rapidly in the first 24 hours, swift administration of diagnostic tests is important. Physician follow-up is determined by the route of exposure to arsenic and may involve referral to a social service network or a mental health facility.

  1. Protecting Children from Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... monoxide poisoning increases after disasters when gasoline- or diesel-powered generators may be more frequently used to ... can mimic symptoms of sea sickness. Schedule regular engine and exhaust system maintenance. Consider installing a carbon ...

  2. Red Tide and Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Barrie; Yentsch, Clarice M.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the nature and cause of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). Includes toxic dinoflagellate ecology, taxonomy and life history, and chemistry of the toxins. Recent work with trace metals and directions of future research are also given. (MA)

  3. Fifty years with nuclear fission. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Behrens, J.W.; Carlson, A.D.

    1989-12-31

    The news of the discovery of nuclear fission, by Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann in Germany, was brought to the United States by Niels Bohr in January 1939. Since its discovery, the United States, and the world for that matter, has never been the same. It therefore seemed appropriate to acknowledge the fifieth anniversary of its discovery by holding a topical meeting entitled, ``Fifty Years with Nuclear Fission,`` in the United States during the year 1989. The objective of the meeting was to bring together pioneers of the nuclear industry and other scientists and engineers to report on reminiscences of the past and on the more recent development in fission science and technology. The conference highlighted the early pioneers of the nuclear industry by dedicated a full day (April 26), consisting of two plenary sessions, at the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) in Washington, DC. More recent developments in fission science and technology in addition to historical reflections were topics for two fully days of sessions (April 27 and 28) at the main site of the NIST in Gaithersburg, Maryland. The wide range of topics covered in this Volume 1 by this topical meeting included plenary invited, and contributed sessions entitled: Preclude to the First Chain Reaction -- 1932 to 1942; Early Fission Research -- Nuclear Structure and Spontaneous Fission; 50 Years of Fission, Science, and Technology; Nuclear Reactors, Secure Energy for the Future; Reactors 1; Fission Science 1; Safeguards and Space Applications; Fission Data; Nuclear Fission -- Its Various Aspects; Theory and Experiments in Support of Theory; Reactors and Safeguards; and General Research, Instrumentation, and By-Product. The individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  4. Meiotic chromosome mobility in fission yeast is resistant to environmental stress

    PubMed Central

    Illner, Doris; Lorenz, Alexander; Scherthan, Harry

    2016-01-01

    The formation of healthy gametes requires pairing of homologous chromosomes (homologs) as a prerequisite for their correct segregation during meiosis. Initially, homolog alignment is promoted by meiotic chromosome movements feeding into intimate homolog pairing by homologous recombination and/or synaptonemal complex formation. Meiotic chromosome movements in the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, depend on astral microtubule dynamics that drag the nucleus through the zygote; known as horsetail movement. The response of microtubule-led meiotic chromosome movements to environmental stresses such as ionizing irradiation (IR) and associated reactive oxygen species (ROS) is not known. Here, we show that, in contrast to budding yeast, the horsetail movement is largely radiation-resistant, which is likely mediated by a potent antioxidant defense. IR exposure of sporulating S. pombe cells induced misrepair and irreparable DNA double strand breaks causing chromosome fragmentation, missegregation and gamete death. Comparing radiation outcome in fission and budding yeast, and studying meiosis with poisoned microtubules indicates that the increased gamete death after IR is innate to fission yeast. Inhibition of meiotic chromosome mobility in the face of IR failed to influence the course of DSB repair, indicating that paralysis of meiotic chromosome mobility in a genotoxic environment is not a universal response among species. PMID:27074839

  5. Meiotic chromosome mobility in fission yeast is resistant to environmental stress.

    PubMed

    Illner, Doris; Lorenz, Alexander; Scherthan, Harry

    2016-01-01

    The formation of healthy gametes requires pairing of homologous chromosomes (homologs) as a prerequisite for their correct segregation during meiosis. Initially, homolog alignment is promoted by meiotic chromosome movements feeding into intimate homolog pairing by homologous recombination and/or synaptonemal complex formation. Meiotic chromosome movements in the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, depend on astral microtubule dynamics that drag the nucleus through the zygote; known as horsetail movement. The response of microtubule-led meiotic chromosome movements to environmental stresses such as ionizing irradiation (IR) and associated reactive oxygen species (ROS) is not known. Here, we show that, in contrast to budding yeast, the horsetail movement is largely radiation-resistant, which is likely mediated by a potent antioxidant defense. IR exposure of sporulating S. pombe cells induced misrepair and irreparable DNA double strand breaks causing chromosome fragmentation, missegregation and gamete death. Comparing radiation outcome in fission and budding yeast, and studying meiosis with poisoned microtubules indicates that the increased gamete death after IR is innate to fission yeast. Inhibition of meiotic chromosome mobility in the face of IR failed to influence the course of DSB repair, indicating that paralysis of meiotic chromosome mobility in a genotoxic environment is not a universal response among species. PMID:27074839

  6. Acute arsenic poisoning: clinical and histopathological features.

    PubMed

    Bartolomé, B; Córdoba, S; Nieto, S; Fernández-Herrera, J; García-Díez, A

    1999-12-01

    We report a woman with acute arsenic poisoning, who developed an erythroderma with vesicles and pustules after the ingestion of 8-16 g of sodium arsenite. Simultaneously, she presented a herpes simplex virus infection. Skin biopsies showed unique features which included multiple small pigment granules inside and outside the histiocytes. In our opinion, these findings are consistent with acute arsenic poisoning, and constitute the first histological description of this entity in skin.

  7. [Torsades de pointes during sultopride poisoning].

    PubMed

    Montaz, L; Varache, N; Harry, P; Aymes, C; Turcant, A; Delille, F; Simonin, D; Hass, C

    1992-12-01

    A case of sultopride poisoning (ingested dose 16 g) in a 35-year-old, 65 Kg man is described. On admission myoclonus, mydriasis, vomiting and cardio-respiratory arrest were observed. Torsades de pointes were treated with potassium chloride infusion and pace maker stimulation. Plasma sultopride concentration was 25 mg/l and urinary concentration 12 g/l. A prolongation of Q-T interval may announce severe arrhythmias in sultopride poisoning.

  8. [Acute cyanide poisoning in an infant].

    PubMed

    Haasnoot, K; van Vught, A J; Meulenbelt, J; Bergman, L R

    1989-09-01

    An infant of 9 months was admitted to hospital in comatose condition; cyanide poisoning was suspected. This poisoning was caused by the desorption of hydrocyanic acid from building materials after the house had been fumigated with hydrocyanic acid under strict supervision and observed safety measures. Administration of 4-dimethyl-aminophenol, a methaemoglobin inducer, and sodium thiosulphate together with supportive measures, led to complete recovery of the infant, although the general hypotony persisted for a few weeks. PMID:2797290

  9. Cholestatic presentation of yellow phosphorus poisoning.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, C P; Goel, Amit; Basu, Debdatta

    2014-01-01

    Yellow phosphorus, a component of certain pesticide pastes and fireworks, is well known to cause hepatotoxicity. Poisoning with yellow phosphorus classically manifests with acute hepatitis leading to acute liver failure which may need liver transplantation. We present a case of yellow phosphorus poisoning in which a patient presented with florid clinical features of cholestasis highlighting the fact that cholestasis can rarely be a presenting feature of yellow phosphorus hepatotoxicity. PMID:24554916

  10. Facts and fallacies on industrial poisoning.

    PubMed

    THIENES, C H

    1957-09-01

    Misdiagnosis of diseases as due to industrial poisoning leads to much misunderstanding, higher taxes and insurance rates and "compensation neuroses." It is important to know the concentration of the suspected poison and its specific effects in order to logically indict it as the cause of illness. Examples discussed to illustrate some of the pitfalls of diagnosis in industrial medicine are methylbromide, carbon monoxide, ozone, oxides of nitrogen and of sulfur, hydrogen sulfide, benzene analogs, boron and fluorides. PMID:13460717

  11. Ciguatera poisoning in the Cook Islands

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Stephanie; Withers, Tristan

    2014-01-01

    This case report presents two British medical students who contracted ciguatera poisoning while on elective in the Cook Islands. Thirty-six hours after consuming two reef fish they developed paraesthesia of the mouth, hands and feet, myalgia, pruritis and cold allodynia. Neurological examination was normal. Diagnosis of ciguatera poisoning was made on history of reef fish consumption and classical clinical presentation. Management was symptomatic (antihistamines) and both students made a full recovery within 10 weeks. PMID:24966268

  12. Hearts and flowers: Bryophyllum poisoning of cattle.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, R A; Dunster, P J

    1986-07-01

    Findings from natural cases and experiments with cattle emphasise that flowering plants are the most important form of Bryophyllum (Kalanchoe) spp in poisonings in Australia. The main life-threatening lesion is myocardial. The effects on the alimentary tract are less important than was believed previously. B. tubiflorum, B. daigremontianum x B. tubiflorum, B. pinnatum and B. proliferum caused 41 recorded poisoning incidents affecting 379 cattle in Queensland between 1960 and 1984. Poisoning occurred between May and October--the flowering season of these plants. Experimental B. tubiflorum poisoning and natural poisonings produced anorexia, depression, ruminal atony, diarrhoea, heart rate and rhythm abnormalities, dyspnoea and death. Increased plasma concentrations of urea, creatinine and glucose and decreased chloride were measured experimentally. Both natural and experimental cases had myocardial degeneration and necrosis with haemorrhages of the heart and alimentary tract. Cattle with severe dyspnoea had atelectasis and emphysema of the lungs. Some cattle had mild nephrosis. The median lethal doses of B. tubiflorum flowers, roots and leaf plus stem were 0.7, 2.3 and 5.0 g dry matter/kg liveweight respectively (7, 7 and 40 g wet weight/kg). Bufadienolides have been isolated recently from B. tubiflorum flowers and the syndrome is consistent with cardiac glycoside poisoning. PMID:3778371

  13. Acute Plant Poisoning and Antitoxin Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Eddleston, Michael; Persson, Hans

    2007-01-01

    Plant poisoning is normally a problem of young children who unintentionally ingest small quantities of toxic plants with little resulting morbidity and few deaths. In some regions of the world, however, plants are important clinical problems causing much morbidity and mortality. While deaths do occur after unintentional poisoning with plants such as Atractylis gummifera (bird-lime or blue thistle) and Blighia sapida (ackee tree), the majority of deaths globally occur following intentional self-poisoning with plants such as Thevetia peruviana (yellow oleander) and Cerbera manghas (pink-eyed cerbera or sea mango). Antitoxins developed against colchicine and cardiac glycosides would be useful for plant poisonings - anti-digoxin Fab fragments have been shown to be highly effective in T. peruviana poisoning. Unfortunately, their great cost limits their use in the developing world where they would make a major difference in patient management. Therapy for some other plant poisonings might also benefit from the development of antitoxins. However, until issues of cost and supply are worked out, plant anti-toxins are going to remain a dream in many of the areas where they are now urgently required. PMID:12807314

  14. PLANT POISONING IN THAILAND: A 10-YEAR ANALYSIS FROM RAMATHIBODI POISON CENTER.

    PubMed

    Sriapha, Charuwan; Tongpoo, Achara; Wongvisavakorn, Sunun; Rittilert, Panee; Trakulsrichai, Satariya; Srisuma, Sahaphume; Wananukul, Winai

    2015-11-01

    Plant poisoning is not uncommon in Thailand. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence, type, clinical manifestations, severity and outcomes of plant poisoned patients in Thailand over a 10-year period. We retrospectively reviewed data from the Ramathibodi Poison Center Toxic Exposure Surveillance System for 2001-2010. A total of 2,901 poisonous plant exposure cases were identified, comprising 3.1% of the 92,392 poison cases recorded during the study period. This was the fifth most common type of poisoning recorded. Children aged < 13 years comprised the largest percent (69.8%) of the cases. The major type of exposure was unintentional ingestion. Ninety-nine types of poisonous plants were recorded as the causative agents among 99.1%of the cases. Gastrointestinal symptoms were reported in 72.0% of cases with Jatropha curcas (physic nut) comprising 54.1% of these. Most patients had only minor signs and symptoms. The mortality rate among the total plant poisoning cases was 0.9%, with 26 deaths. Thirteen deaths occurred in children aged < 13 years. The greatest number of fatalities were due to ingestion of Manihot esculenta (cassava), primarily due to multi-system organ failure. Children aged < 13 years are at the greatest risk for plant poisoning in Thailand; mostly unintentional. Most cases were minor and the mortality rate was low. Jatropha curcas was the most common cause of poisoning and Manihot esculenta was the most common cause of death. Public education is important to minimize these poisonings.

  15. PLANT POISONING IN THAILAND: A 10-YEAR ANALYSIS FROM RAMATHIBODI POISON CENTER.

    PubMed

    Sriapha, Charuwan; Tongpoo, Achara; Wongvisavakorn, Sunun; Rittilert, Panee; Trakulsrichai, Satariya; Srisuma, Sahaphume; Wananukul, Winai

    2015-11-01

    Plant poisoning is not uncommon in Thailand. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence, type, clinical manifestations, severity and outcomes of plant poisoned patients in Thailand over a 10-year period. We retrospectively reviewed data from the Ramathibodi Poison Center Toxic Exposure Surveillance System for 2001-2010. A total of 2,901 poisonous plant exposure cases were identified, comprising 3.1% of the 92,392 poison cases recorded during the study period. This was the fifth most common type of poisoning recorded. Children aged < 13 years comprised the largest percent (69.8%) of the cases. The major type of exposure was unintentional ingestion. Ninety-nine types of poisonous plants were recorded as the causative agents among 99.1%of the cases. Gastrointestinal symptoms were reported in 72.0% of cases with Jatropha curcas (physic nut) comprising 54.1% of these. Most patients had only minor signs and symptoms. The mortality rate among the total plant poisoning cases was 0.9%, with 26 deaths. Thirteen deaths occurred in children aged < 13 years. The greatest number of fatalities were due to ingestion of Manihot esculenta (cassava), primarily due to multi-system organ failure. Children aged < 13 years are at the greatest risk for plant poisoning in Thailand; mostly unintentional. Most cases were minor and the mortality rate was low. Jatropha curcas was the most common cause of poisoning and Manihot esculenta was the most common cause of death. Public education is important to minimize these poisonings. PMID:26867365

  16. Overview of fission yeast septation.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Pilar; Cortés, Juan C G; Martín-García, Rebeca; Ribas, Juan C

    2016-09-01

    Cytokinesis is the final process of the vegetative cycle, which divides a cell into two independent daughter cells once mitosis is completed. In fungi, as in animal cells, cytokinesis requires the formation of a cleavage furrow originated by constriction of an actomyosin ring which is connected to the plasma membrane and causes its invagination. Additionally, because fungal cells have a polysaccharide cell wall outside the plasma membrane, cytokinesis requires the formation of a septum coincident with the membrane ingression. Fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe is a unicellular, rod-shaped fungus that has become a popular model organism for the study of actomyosin ring formation and constriction during cell division. Here we review the current knowledge of the septation and separation processes in this fungus, as well as recent advances in understanding the functional interaction between the transmembrane enzymes that build the septum and the actomyosin ring proteins. PMID:27155541

  17. Fifty years with nuclear fission. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Behrens, J.W.; Carlson, A.D.

    1989-12-31

    The news of the discovery of nucler fission, by Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann in Germany, was brought to the United States by Niels Bohr in January 1939. Since its discovery, the United States, and the world for that matter, has never been the same. It therefore seemed appropriate to acknowledge the fiftieth anniversary of its discovery by holding a topical meeting entitled, ``Fifty years with nuclear fission,`` in the United States during the year 1989. The objective of the meeting was to bring together pioneers of the nuclear industry and other scientists and engineers to report on reminiscences of the past and on the more recent developments in fission science and technology. The conference highlighted the early pioneers of the nuclear industry by dedicating a full day (April 26), consisting of two plenary sessions, at the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) in Washington, DC. More recent developments in fission science and technology in addition to historical reflections were topics for two full days of sessions (April 27 and 28) at the main sites of the NIST in Gaithersburg, Maryland. The wide range of topics covered by Volume 2 of this topical meeting included plenary invited, and contributed sessions entitled, Nuclear fission -- a prospective; reactors II; fission science II; medical and industrial applications by by-products; reactors and safeguards; general research, instrumentation, and by-products; and fission data, astrophysics, and space applications. The individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  18. Membrane Fission: Model for Intermediate Structures

    PubMed Central

    Kozlovsky, Yonathan; Kozlov, Michael M.

    2003-01-01

    Membrane budding-fission is a fundamental process generating intracellular carriers of proteins. Earlier works were focused only on formation of coated buds connected to the initial membrane by narrow membrane necks. We present the theoretical analysis of the whole pathway of budding-fission, including the crucial stage where the membrane neck undergoes fission and the carrier separates from the donor membrane. We consider two successive intermediates of the reaction: 1), a constricted membrane neck coming out of aperture of the assembling protein coat, and 2), hemifission intermediate resulting from self-fusion of the inner monolayer of the neck, while its outer monolayer remains continuous. Transformation of the constricted neck into the hemifission intermediate is driven by the membrane stress produced in the neck by the protein coat. Although apparently similar to hemifusion, the fission is predicted to have an opposite dependence on the monolayer spontaneous curvature. Analysis of the further stages of the process demonstrates that in all practically important cases the hemifission intermediate decays spontaneously into two separate membranes, thereby completing the fission process. We formulate the “job description” for fission proteins by calculating the energy they have to deliver and the radii of the protein coat aperture which have to be reached to drive the fission process. PMID:12829467

  19. Lead Poisoning in Wild Birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lahner, Lesanna L.; Franson, J. Christian

    2009-01-01

    Lead in its various forms has been used for thousands of years, originally in cooking utensils and glazes and more recently in many industrial and commercial applications. However, lead is a potent, potentially deadly toxin that damages many organs in the body and can affect all animals, including humans. By the mid 1990s, lead had been removed from many products in the United States, such as paint and fuel, but it is still commonly used in ammunition for hunting upland game birds, small mammals, and large game animals, as well as in fishing tackle. Wild birds, such as mourning doves, bald eagles, California condors, and loons, can die from the ingestion of one lead shot, bullet fragment, or sinker. According to a recent study on loon mortality, nearly half of adult loons found sick or dead during the breeding season in New England were diagnosed with confirmed or suspected lead poisoning from ingestion of lead fishing weights. Recent regulations in some states have restricted the use of lead ammunition on certain upland game hunting areas, as well as lead fishing tackle in areas frequented by common loons and trumpeter swans. A variety of alternatives to lead are available for use in hunting, shooting sports, and fishing activities.

  20. Researching nature's venoms and poisons.

    PubMed

    Warrell, David A

    2009-09-01

    Our environment hosts a vast diversity of venomous and poisonous animals and plants. Clinical toxinology is devoted to understanding, preventing and treating their effects in humans and domestic animals. In Sri Lanka, yellow oleander (Thevetia peruviana, Sinhala 'kaneru'), a widespread and accessible ornamental shrub, is a popular means of self-harm. Its toxic glycosides resemble those of foxglove, against which therapeutic antibodies have been raised. A randomised placebo-controlled trial proved that this treatment effectively reversed kaneru cardiotoxicity. There are strong scientific grounds for the use of activated charcoal, but encouraging results with multiple-dose activated charcoal were not confirmed by a recent more powerful study. Venom of Russell's viper (Daboia siamensis) in Burma (Myanmar) produces lethal effects in human victims. The case of a 17-year-old rice farmer is described with pathophysiological interpretations. During the first 9 days of hospital admission he suffered episodes of shock, coagulopathy, bleeding, acute renal failure, local tissue necrosis, generally increased capillary permeability and acute symptomatic hypoglycaemia with evidence of acute pituitary/adrenal insufficiency. Antivenom rapidly restored haemostatic function but failed to correct other effects of venom toxins incurred during the 3h before he could be treated.

  1. Acute poisoning with Tricholoma equestre.

    PubMed

    Anand, Jacek Sein; Chwaluk, Paweł; Sut, Michał

    2009-01-01

    Four cases, including three adults and one child, suffering from acute poisoning with Tricholoma equestre were described. The patients had eaten from 100 to 400 grams of the mushroom within a few consecutive meals. After consuming about 1000 grams of Tricholoma equestre for 3-4 days, the subjects developed fatigue, muscle weakness, myalgia, and in two cases acute respiratory failure with the need of respiratorotherapy. Maximal serum CK was 48136 U/L in the adults and 306 U/L in children. Maximal serum levels of AST and ALT were 802 U/L and 446 U/L in adults and 39 U/L, and 56 U/L in a child. All routine biochemical tests were within normal range. No other causes of rhabdomyolysis such as parasitic or viral infections, immune diseases, trauma or exposure to medications were found. Patient, aged 72 yrs., who developed acute respiratory failure, died in the second day of hospitalization. In other patients all the above mentioned symptoms and biochemical abnormalities disappeared from 2 to 3 weeks of hospitalization. Physicians should be aware of the possibility of appearance of rhabdo-myolysis after repeated consumption of large quantities of Tricholoma equestre. PMID:19788144

  2. Toxicological management of chlorophacinone poisoning.

    PubMed

    Lagrange, F; Corniot, A G; Titier, K; Bedry, R; Pehourcq, F

    1999-01-01

    A 33-year-old man was admitted 8 hours after voluntary ingestion of 1875 mg of chlorophacinone (C'Operat 750 mL). The examination revealed excitation and nausea, with a normal prothrombin index (PI). Comprehensive testing for abused and therapeutic drugs in blood confirmed chlorophacinone (maximum plasma level: 27.6 mg/L), an antivitamin K (AVK) rodenticide. In a search for easy toxicological management of chlorophacinone poisoning treated by phytomenadione and a cytochrome P450 inducer (phenobarbital), PI and chlorophacinone plasma levels were monitored concomitantly during 17 days. A simple HPLC procedure for the determination of chlorophacinone in human plasma is reported for that purpose. Under phenobarbital 200 mg/day, chlorophacinone exhibited an apparent elimination half-life (3.27 days) shorter than in previously reported cases. If PI is useful for planning phytomenadione treatment and used for therapeutic monitoring of AVK, the chlorophacinone concentrations follow-up may provide a better estimation of the duration of hospitalisation. Chlorophacinone accumulation in target cells or existence of an unidentified metabolite may explain persistence of the hypocoagulability syndrome at low plasmatic concentrations of chlorophacinone. This case illustrates how toxicological management may facilitate toxicokinetics and therapeutic data acquisition.

  3. Low energy fission: dynamics and scission configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goutte, H.; Berger, J.-F.; Gogny, D.; Younes, W.

    2005-11-01

    In the first part of this paper we recall a recent study concerning low energy fission dynamics. Propagation is made by use of the Time Dependent Generator Coordinate Method, where the basis states are taken from self-consistent Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov calculations with the Gogny force. Theoretical fragment mass distributions are presented and compared with the evaluation made by Wahl. In the second part of this paper, new results concerning scission configurations are shown. Deviations of the fission fragment proton numbers from the Unchanged Charge Distribution prescription and fission fragment deformations are discussed.

  4. Macroscopic and microscopic aspects in nuclear fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strutinsky, V.

    1989-10-01

    Nuclear macroscopic properties are determined as statistical averages and it is then recognized that several levels of macroscopic descriptions may exist. By zooming the averaging scale the gross shell structures are distinguished from the macroscopic background and a theory can be formed consistently combining both the macroscopic and microscopic features. The shell structure varies in the fissioning nucleus on its way to scission leading to a double-humped shape of the fission barrier. This is due to modifications of the classical periodic paths responsible for the quantal non-uniformity of the single-particle phase space. Briefly results of the combined theory for the fission process are outlined.

  5. Pick your poison: what's new in poison control for the preschooler.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Accidental childhood poisonings are a major public health concern despite many efforts to alleviate this problem. While the rate of pediatric fatalities due to poisonings have decreased over the last two decades, poison control centers around the US have collectively fielded over one million calls with regard to toxic exposures in the preschool age group. According to the American Association of Poison Control Centers nearly half of all human exposures reported last year involved children under six. By focusing poison prevention efforts on the preschooler, we can attempt to decrease morbidity and mortality in the most vulnerable age group affected. Although the subject is still prevalent, current discussion on this topic is limited. Newer literature discusses past initiatives such as child resistant packaging and sticker deterrent programs and addresses their efficacy. This article revisits older mechanisms of prevention as well as the science behind the human motivation to change one's own practice and behavior.

  6. An Unusual Cause of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: Narghile Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Ateş, Alpay; Arikan, Müge; Özgök, Ayşegül

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 27 Final Diagnosis: Carbon monoxide poisoning Symptoms: Dizziness • nausea • Syncope Medication: — Clinical Procedure: O2 treatment Specialty: Anesthesiology Objective: Challenging differential diagnosis Background: Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is commonly seen during the winter season in Turkey due to use of charcoal stoves and water heaters, but narghile smoking is a rare cause of CO poisoning. Case Report: In this paper, we report a CO poisoning case caused by narghile smoking. The patient was admitted to the ED with nausea, dizziness, vertigo, and syncope. Conclusions: The diagnosis of CO poisoning depends on suspicious anamnesis. The major treatment of CO poisoning is oxygen supply. PMID:27618983

  7. Future challenges for nuclear data research in fission (u)

    SciTech Connect

    Chadwick, Mark B

    2010-01-01

    I describe some high priority research areas in nuclear fission, where applications in nuclear reactor technologies and in modeling criticality in general are demanding higher accuracies in our databases. We focus on fission cross sections, fission neutron spectra, and fission product data.

  8. 75 FR 66771 - Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention (ACCLPP)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning... lead poisoning prevention efforts. The committee also reviews and reports regularly on childhood lead poisoning prevention practices and recommends improvements in national childhood lead poisoning...

  9. Potential Energy Calculations for Collinear Cluster Tripartition Fission Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unzhakova, A. V.; Pashkevich, V. V.; Pyatkov, Y. V.

    2014-09-01

    Strutinsky shell correction calculations were performed to describe the recent experimental results on collinear ternary fission. Collinear Cluster Tripartion fission events were studied experimentally in neutron induced fission of 235U, where the missing mass in the detected binary decay was suggested to characterize fission event as a collinear tripartition; and in spontaneous fission of 252Cf, where the direct detection of the three fission fragments has been used to confirm the existence of the Collinear Cluster Tripartition channel with a probability of 4.7×10-3 relative to the binary fission events.

  10. A new fission chamber dedicated to Prompt Fission Neutron Spectra measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taieb, J.; Laurent, B.; Bélier, G.; Sardet, A.; Varignon, C.

    2016-10-01

    New fission chambers dedicated to Prompt Fission Neutron Spectra measurements with the time-of-flight technique have been developed. The actinide mass embedded in the chamber was maximized, while the alpha-fission discrimination and the time resolution were optimized. Moreover, to reduce the neutron background and spectra distortions, neutron scattering with the materials were minimized by the choice of material and structure. These chambers were then tested and validated during tests and in-beam experiments.

  11. Fission dynamics within time-dependent Hartree-Fock. II. Boost-induced fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goddard, Philip; Stevenson, Paul; Rios, Arnau

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nuclear fission is a complex large-amplitude collective decay mode in heavy nuclei. Microscopic density functional studies of fission have previously concentrated on adiabatic approaches based on constrained static calculations ignoring dynamical excitations of the fissioning nucleus and the daughter products. Purpose: We explore the ability of dynamic mean-field methods to describe induced fission processes, using quadrupole boosts in the nuclide 240Pu as an example. Methods: Following upon the work presented in Goddard et al. [Phys. Rev. C 92, 054610 (2015)], 10.1103/PhysRevC.92.054610, quadrupole-constrained Hartree-Fock calculations are used to create a potential energy surface. An isomeric state and a state beyond the second barrier peak are excited by means of instantaneous as well as temporally extended gauge boosts with quadrupole shapes. The subsequent deexcitation is studied in a time-dependent Hartree-Fock simulation, with emphasis on fissioned final states. The corresponding fission fragment mass numbers are studied. Results: In general, the energy deposited by the quadrupole boost is quickly absorbed by the nucleus. In instantaneous boosts, this leads to fast shape rearrangements and violent dynamics that can ultimately lead to fission. This is a qualitatively different process than the deformation-induced fission. Boosts induced within a finite time window excite the system in a relatively gentler way and do induce fission but with a smaller energy deposition. Conclusions: The fission products obtained using boost-induced fission in time-dependent Hartree-Fock are more asymmetric than the fragments obtained in deformation-induced fission or the corresponding adiabatic approaches.

  12. Fission yields of In isotopes in the thermal neutron fission of235U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shmid, M.; Engler, G.

    1983-03-01

    Fission yields of124 132In in the thermal neutron fission of235U were determined for the first time. Charge displacements ΔZ= Z p- Z UCD were calculated for the corresponding mass chains. Both fission yields and charge displacement values were compared with those obtained by systematics by Wahl et al. and Wolfsberg. It was found that the fission yields of the In isotopes obey the gaussian distribution. The displacement function of Wolfsberg seems to give the better representation of the experimental results. Half-lives of124 131In were determined from beta decay curves.

  13. Aqueous cutting fluid for machining fissionable materials

    DOEpatents

    Duerksen, Walter K.; Googin, John M.; Napier, Jr., Bradley

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a cutting fluid for machining fissionable material. The cutting fluid is formed of glycol, water and boron compound in an adequate concentration for effective neutron attenuation so as to inhibit criticality incidents during machining.

  14. The scission point configuration of fissioning nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanyuk, Fedir

    2016-06-01

    We define the optimal shape which fissioning nuclei attain just before the scission and calculate the deformation energy as function of the mass asymmetry at the scission point. The calculated deformation energy is used in quasi-static approximation for the estimation of mass distribution, total kinetic and excitation energy of fission fragments, and the total number of prompt neutrons. The calculated results reproduce rather well the experimental data on the position of the peaks in the mass distribution of fission fragments, the total kinetic and excitation energy of fission fragments. The calculated value of neutron multiplicity is somewhat larger than experimental results. The saw-tooth structure of neutron multiplicity is qualitatively reproduced.

  15. Advanced modeling of prompt fission neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Talou, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Theoretical and numerical studies of prompt fission neutrons are presented. The main results of the Los Alamos model often used in nuclear data evaluation work are reviewed briefly, and a preliminary assessment of uncertainties associated with the evaluated prompt fission neutron spectrum for n (0.5 MeV)+{sup 239}Pu is discussed. Advanced modeling of prompt fission neutrons is done by Monte Carlo simulations of the evaporation process of the excited primary fission fragments. The successive emissions of neutrons are followed in the statistical formalism framework, and detailed information, beyond average quantities, can be inferred. This approach is applied to the following reactions: {sup 252}Cf (sf), n{sub th} + {sup 239}Pu, n (0.5 MeV)+{sup 235}U, and {sup 236}Pu (sf). A discussion on the merits and present limitations of this approach concludes this presentation.

  16. Mechanics of Dynamin-Mediated Membrane Fission

    PubMed Central

    Morlot, Sandrine; Roux, Aurélien

    2013-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, membrane compartments are split into two by membrane fission. This ensures discontinuity of membrane containers and thus proper compartmentalization. The first proteic machinery implicated in catalyzing membrane fission was dynamin. Dynamin forms helical collars at the neck of endocytic buds. This structural feature suggested that the helix of dynamin could constrict in order to promote fission of the enclosed membrane. However, verifying this hypothesis revealed itself to be a challenge, which inspired many in vitro and in vivo studies. The primary goal of this review is to discuss recent structural and physical data from biophysical studies that have refined our understanding of the dynamin mechanism. In addition to the constriction hypothesis, other models have been proposed to explain how dynamin induces membrane fission. We present experimental data supporting these various models and assess which model is the most probable. PMID:23541160

  17. An outbreak of foxglove leaf poisoning.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chun-Chi; Yang, Chen-Chang; Phua, Dong-Haur; Deng, Jou-Fang; Lu, Li-Hua

    2010-02-01

    Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) leaves resemble those of foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) when the plant is not in bloom and, therefore, cardiac glycoside poisoning may occur when people confuse foxglove with comfrey. We report an outbreak of foxglove leaf poisoning following the use of alleged "comfrey" herbal tea. Nine patients were involved and initially presented with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and dizziness. Significant cardiotoxicity developed later among the 3 patients who also had mild hyperkalemia. Peak serum digoxin concentration measured by immunoassay was elevated in all patients and ranged from 4.4 ng/mL to 139.5 ng/mL. Patients with severe cardiotoxicity were treated with temporary cardiac pacing. Moreover, 40-80 mg of digoxin-specific antibody therapy was given without any effect. All patients recovered uneventfully. Our report highlights the potential risk of misidentification of herbs; in this case, D. purpurea was mistaken for S. officinale. Physicians should be aware that cardiac glycoside poisoning could arise from such misidentification. Public education about the toxicity of D. purpurea poisoning may reduce the risk of misidentification and subsequent poisoning. PMID:20171590

  18. Hypogonadism in chronically lead-poisoned men.

    PubMed

    Braunstein, G D; Dahlgren, J; Loriaux, D L

    1978-01-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis was evaluated in 10 men with occupational lead exposure, 9 of whom had noted a decrease in libido and frequency of intercourse following this exposure. 6 of these men had clinically apparent lead poisoning while 4 were classified as being only lead-exposed. Results of the endocrine evaluation of these patients were compared to those obtained on 9 age and socioeconomically matched control patients. Both lead poisoned and lead-exposed patients had reduced basal serum testosterone levels and normal basal serum testosterone-estradiol-binding globulin capacity, estradiol, LH, FSH, and prolactin levels. Both groups demonstrated an appropriate rise in serum testosterone following hCG stimulation and a normal increment in serum FSH in response to clomiphene citrate and gonadotropin-releasing hormone in comparison to the control group. The lead poisoned patients demonstrated a significantly reduced increment in serum LH after clomiphene citrate and gonadotropin-releasing hormone administration while the lead-exposed patients had normal LH dynamics. Testicular biopsies carried out on the 2 most severely lead-poisoned men showed peritubular fibrosis, oligospermia, and vacuolization of the Sertoli cells. These results suggest that lead poisoning may lead to a pituitary-hypothalamic defect in LH secretion and may also result in direct testicular seminiferous tubular injury.

  19. Nicotine replacement products: poisoning in children.

    PubMed

    2014-05-01

    Nicotine is widely used in smoking cessation aids. They are marketed in many forms, including: chewing gum, sublingual tablets, lozenges, transdermal patches, cartridges for oral inhalation, and mouth spray. French poison control and toxico-vigilance centres identified 318 cases of exposure to nicotine replacement products in children under the age of 10 years between 2000 and 2010. The exposure provoked symptoms in 62 of these children, about two-thirds of whom were under the age of 4 years. A U.S. analysis identified 1768 cases of poisoning in children under the age of 6 years involving smokeless tobacco products, reported between 2006 and 2008.84% of these cases occurred in children under the age of 3 years. The first signs of nicotine poisoning are gastrointestinal (vomiting, diarrhoea), cardiovascular (tachycardia, hypertension) and neuropsychological (tremor of the extremities). With higher doses, these effects are rapidly followed by loss of consciousness, convulsions or respiratory failure. In children, poisoning can occur after ingestion of 1 mg of nicotine per kilogram of body weight. A dose of this magnitude is sometimes fatal in adults. Most cases of poisoning involving transdermal patches occur when a child finds an unused patch, or a used patch that an adult has discarded in a bin without taking proper precautions. Sometimes they involve patches that have become detached from an adult's skin. In practice, it is important to warn adults using smoking cessation aids containing nicotine that these products are dangerous

  20. Possible role for anisodamine in organophosphate poisoning.

    PubMed

    Eisenkraft, Arik; Falk, Avshalom

    2016-06-01

    In cases of organophosphate poisoning, patients are treated with a combination of antidotes. In addition to these poison-directed antidotes, patients may require extra oxygen and artificial ventilation; other modalities may also be needed due to the wide range of toxic effects. Anisodamine is a belladonna alkaloid, and like other drugs from this family is non subtype-selective muscarinic, and a nicotinic cholinoceptor antagonist, which has been employed in traditional Chinese medicine. As a muscarinic antagonist, it displays similar pharmacological effects to atropine and scopolamine. However, anisodamine is not only less potent than atropine and scopolamine but also less toxic. Current in vitro and animal model studies have demonstrated that anisodamine has protective effects in a variety of diseases. Organophosphate poisoning involves not only the central and peripheral nervous systems, but also the cardiac and respiratory systems, as well as activation of inflammatory processes and oxidative stress. Therefore, the anticholinergic and additional activities of anisodamine appear to be relevant and justify its consideration as an addition to the existing remedies. However, more research is needed, as at present data on the role of anisodamine in the management of organophosphate poisoning are limited. Here, we review the beneficial effects of anisodamine on processes relevant to organophosphate poisoning.

  1. Pancreatitis in wild zinc-poisoned waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sileo, Louis; Beyer, W. Nelson; Mateo, Rafael

    2003-01-01

    Four waterfowl were collected in the TriState Mining District (Oklahoma, Kansas and Missouri, USA), an area known to be contaminated with lead, cadmium and zinc (Zn). They were part of a larger group of 20 waterfowl collected to determine the exposure of birds to metal contamination at the site. The four waterfowl (three Branta canadensis, one Anas platyrhynchos) had mild to severe degenerative abnormalities of the exocrine pancreas, as well as tissue (pancreas, liver) concentrations of Zn that were considered toxic. The mildest condition was characterized by generalized atrophy of exocrine cells that exhibited cytoplasmic vacuoles and a relative lack of zymogen. The most severe condition was characterized by acini with distended lumens and hyperplastic exocrine tissue that completely lacked zymogen; these acini were widely separated by immature fibrous tissue. Because the lesions were nearly identical to the lesions reported in chickens and captive waterfowl that had been poisoned with ingested Zn, and because the concentrations of Zn in the pancreas and liver of the four birds were consistent with the concentrations measured in Zn-poisoned birds, we concluded that these waterfowl were poisoned by Zn. This may be the first reported case of zinc poisoning in free-ranging wild birds poisoned by environmental Zn.

  2. Hypotension in Severe Dimethoate Self-Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Davies, James; Roberts, Darren; Eyer, Peter; Buckley, Nick; Eddleston, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Acute self-poisoning with the organophosphorus (OP) pesticide dimethoate has a human case fatality three-fold higher than poisoning with chlorpyrifos despite similar animal toxicity. The typical clinical presentation of severe dimethoate poisoning is quite distinct from that of chlorpyrifos and other OP pesticides: many patients present with hypotension that progresses to shock and death within 12–48 h post-ingestion. The pathophysiology of this syndrome is not clear. Case reports We present here three patients with proven severe dimethoate poisoning. Clinically, all had inappropriate peripheral vasodilatation and profound hypotension on presentation, which progressed despite treatment with atropine, i.v. fluids, pralidoxime chloride, and inotropes. All died 2.5–32 h post-admission. Continuous cardiac monitoring and quantification of troponin T provided little evidence for a primary cardiotoxic effect of dimethoate. Conclusion Severe dimethoate self-poisoning causes a syndrome characterized by marked hypotension with progression to distributive shock and death despite standard treatments. A lack of cardiotoxicity until just before death suggests that the mechanism is of OP-induced low systemic vascular resistance (SVR). Further invasive studies of cardiac function and SVR, and post-mortem histology, are required to better describe this syndrome and to establish the role of vasopressors and high-dose atropine in therapy. PMID:19003596

  3. Outline of occupational chromium poisoning in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuan; Liu, Hong; Xiang, Xian-hong; Liu, Fu-you

    2013-06-01

    The present study analyzed the feature of occupational chromium poisoning in China since the 1980s. The collected data were acquired from 18 previous surveys of chromium poisoning in 14 cities of China. The method of risk assessment was applied to calculate the relative risk and 95% CI, p < 0.05 was considered as a significant risk. The results showed that nasal disease was the most common sign of occupational chromium poisoning, and the prevalence rate of nasal disease was 17.83% in total population of 6,998. Further, the risk analysis showed that occupational chromium poisoning led to an increased risk of lung or liver cancer in male workers due to the definite carcinogenicity of hexavalent chromium. Significantly, an increased risk of spontaneous or threatened abortion was also found in female workers. In conclusion, these studies suggest that early detection of impaired reproductive function or impaired lung or liver function in female or male workers is essential for controlling occupational chromium poisoning in China. PMID:23604023

  4. Microscopic description of complex nuclear decay: Multimodal fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staszczak, A.; Baran, A.; Dobaczewski, J.; Nazarewicz, W.

    2009-07-01

    Our understanding of nuclear fission, a fundamental nuclear decay, is still incomplete due to the complexity of the process. In this paper, we describe a study of spontaneous fission using the symmetry-unrestricted nuclear density functional theory. Our results show that the observed bimodal fission can be explained in terms of pathways in multidimensional collective space corresponding to different geometries of fission products. We also predict a new phenomenon of trimodal spontaneous fission for some rutherfordium, seaborgium, and hassium isotopes.

  5. Microscopic description of complex nuclear decay: Multimodal fission

    SciTech Connect

    Staszczak, A.; Baran, A.; Dobaczewski, J.; Nazarewicz, W.

    2009-07-15

    Our understanding of nuclear fission, a fundamental nuclear decay, is still incomplete due to the complexity of the process. In this paper, we describe a study of spontaneous fission using the symmetry-unrestricted nuclear density functional theory. Our results show that the observed bimodal fission can be explained in terms of pathways in multidimensional collective space corresponding to different geometries of fission products. We also predict a new phenomenon of trimodal spontaneous fission for some rutherfordium, seaborgium, and hassium isotopes.

  6. An accidental poisoning with mitragynine.

    PubMed

    Karinen, Ritva; Fosen, Jan Toralf; Rogde, Sidsel; Vindenes, Vigdis

    2014-12-01

    An increasing number of drugs of abuse are sold word wide over the internet. Names like "legal highs", "herbal highs" etc. give the impression that these are safe products, although the risk of fatal reactions might be substantial. Leaves from the plant Mitragyna speciosa, contain active compounds like mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine. It has been reported that the potency of 7-hydroxymitragynine at the μ-opioid receptor is 30 times higher than that of mitragynine and 17 times higher than that of morphine. Case reports regarding poisoning with Kratom are reported, but the toxic or lethal ranges for the concentrations of the active substances have not been established, and concentrations of 7-hydroxymitragynine have not been reported previously. We present a case report where a middle aged man was found dead at home. The deceased had a history of drug abuse and mental illness for several years. At autopsy, there were no significant pathological findings. Post-mortem analysis of peripheral blood revealed: zopiclone 0.043mg/L, citalopram 0.36mg/L and lamotrigine 5.4mg/L, i.e. concentrations regularly seen after therapeutic ingestion of these drugs. Additionally mitragynine 1.06mg/L and 7-hydroxymitragynine 0.15mg/L were detected in blood and both also in urine. The high concentrations of mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine indicate that the cause of death is intoxication by these substances; and the circumstances point toward the manner of death being accidental. We recommend that both mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine are analyzed for in cases with suspected Kratom intoxication. PMID:25453780

  7. MCNP6 Fission Multiplicity with FMULT Card

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcox, Trevor; Fensin, Michael Lorne; Hendricks, John S.; James, Michael R.; McKinney, Gregg W.

    2012-06-18

    With the merger of MCNPX and MCNP5 into MCNP6, MCNP6 now provides all the capabilities of both codes allowing the user to access all the fission multiplicity data sets. Detailed in this paper is: (1) the new FMULT card capabilities for accessing these different data sets; (2) benchmark calculations, as compared to experiment, detailing the results of selecting these separate data sets for thermal neutron induced fission on U-235.

  8. Modeling Fission Product Sorption in Graphite Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Szlufarska, Izabela; Morgan, Dane; Allen, Todd

    2013-04-08

    The goal of this project is to determine changes in adsorption and desorption of fission products to/from nuclear-grade graphite in response to a changing chemical environment. First, the project team will employ principle calculations and thermodynamic analysis to predict stability of fission products on graphite in the presence of structural defects commonly observed in very high- temperature reactor (VHTR) graphites. Desorption rates will be determined as a function of partial pressure of oxygen and iodine, relative humidity, and temperature. They will then carry out experimental characterization to determine the statistical distribution of structural features. This structural information will yield distributions of binding sites to be used as an input for a sorption model. Sorption isotherms calculated under this project will contribute to understanding of the physical bases of the source terms that are used in higher-level codes that model fission product transport and retention in graphite. The project will include the following tasks: Perform structural characterization of the VHTR graphite to determine crystallographic phases, defect structures and their distribution, volume fraction of coke, and amount of sp2 versus sp3 bonding. This information will be used as guidance for ab initio modeling and as input for sorptivity models; Perform ab initio calculations of binding energies to determine stability of fission products on the different sorption sites present in nuclear graphite microstructures. The project will use density functional theory (DFT) methods to calculate binding energies in vacuum and in oxidizing environments. The team will also calculate stability of iodine complexes with fission products on graphite sorption sites; Model graphite sorption isotherms to quantify concentration of fission products in graphite. The binding energies will be combined with a Langmuir isotherm statistical model to predict the sorbed concentration of fission

  9. Spontaneous fission of 256Rf, new data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svirikhin, A. I.; Yeremin, A. V.; Izosimov, I. N.; Isaev, A. V.; Kuznetsov, A. N.; Malyshev, O. N.; Popeko, A. G.; Popov, Yu. A.; Sokol, E. A.; Chelnokov, M. L.; Chepigin, V. I.; Andel, B.; Asfari, M. Z.; Gall, B.; Yoshihiro, N.; Kalaninova, Z.; Mullins, S.; Piot, J.; Stefanova, E.; Tonev, D.

    2016-07-01

    Spontaneous fission properties of the short-lived neutron-deficient 256Rf nucleus produced in the complete fusion reaction with a beam of multiply charged heavy 50Ti ions from the U-400 cyclotron (FLNR, JINR) are experimentally investigated. Its half-life and decay branching ratio are measured. The average number of neutrons per spontaneous fission of 256Rf (bar v = 4.47 ± 0.09) is determined for the first time.

  10. Our 50-year odyssey with fission: Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Nix, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    On the occasion of this International Conference on Fifty Years Research in Nuclear Fission, we summarize our present understanding of the fission process and the challenges that lie ahead. The basic properties of fission arise from a delicate competition between disruptive Coulomb forces, cohesive nuclear forces, and fluctuating shell and pairing forces. These static forces are primarily responsible for such experimental phenomena as deformed ground-state nuclear shapes, fission into fragments of unequal size, sawtooth neutron yields, spontaneously fissioning isomers, broad resonances and narrow intermediate structure in fission cross sections, and cluster radioactivity. However, inertial and dissipative forces also play decisive roles in the dynamical evolution of a fissioning nucleus. The energy dissipated between the saddle and scission points is small for low initial excitation energy at the saddle point and increases with increasing excitation energy. At moderate excitation energies, the dissipation of collective energy into internal single-particle excitation energy proceeds largely through the interaction of nucleons with the mean field and with each other in the vicinity of the nuclear surface, as well as through the transfer of nucleons between the two portions of the evolving dumbell-like system. These unique dissipation mechanisms arise from the Pauli exclusion principle for fermions and the details of the nucleon-nucleon interaction, which make the mean free path of a nucleon near the Fermi surface at low excitation energy longer than the nuclear radius. With its inverse process of heavy-ion fusion reactions, fission continues to yield surprises in the study of large-amplitude collective nuclear motion. 87 refs., 12 figs.

  11. Ionization Chamber for Prompt Fission Neutron Investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeynalov, Sh.; Zeynalova, O.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Sedyshev, P.; Shvetsov, V.

    In this work we report recent achievements in design of twin back-to-back ionization chamber (TIC) for fission fragment (FF) mass and kinetic energy measurement. Correlated FF kinetic energies, their masses and the angle of FF in respect to the axes in 3D Cartesian coordinates can be determined from analysis of the heights and shapes of the pulses induced by the fission fragments on the anodes of TIC. Anodes of TIC were designed as consisting of isolated strips each having independent electronic circuitry and special multi-channel pulse processing apparatus. Mathematical formulae provided for FF angles measured in respect to the coordinate axes. It was shown how the point of fission fragments origin on the target plane may be determined using the same measured data. The last feature made the TIC a rather powerful tool for prompt fission neutron (PFN) emission investigation in event-by-event analysis of individual fission reactions from non- point fissile source. Position sensitive neutron induced fission detector for neutron-imaging applications with both thermal and low energy neutrons was found as another possible implementation of the designed TIC.

  12. Novel roles for actin in mitochondrial fission

    PubMed Central

    Hatch, Anna L.; Gurel, Pinar S.; Higgs, Henry N.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mitochondrial dynamics, including fusion, fission and translocation, are crucial to cellular homeostasis, with roles in cellular polarity, stress response and apoptosis. Mitochondrial fission has received particular attention, owing to links with several neurodegenerative diseases. A central player in fission is the cytoplasmic dynamin-related GTPase Drp1, which oligomerizes at the fission site and hydrolyzes GTP to drive membrane ingression. Drp1 recruitment to the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) is a key regulatory event, which appears to require a pre-constriction step in which the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondrion interact extensively, a process termed ERMD (ER-associated mitochondrial division). It is unclear how ER–mitochondrial contact generates the force required for pre-constriction or why pre-constriction leads to Drp1 recruitment. Recent results, however, show that ERMD might be an actin-based process in mammals that requires the ER-associated formin INF2 upstream of Drp1, and that myosin II and other actin-binding proteins might be involved. In this Commentary, we present a mechanistic model for mitochondrial fission in which actin and myosin contribute in two ways; firstly, by supplying the force for pre-constriction and secondly, by serving as a coincidence detector for Drp1 binding. In addition, we discuss the possibility that multiple fission mechanisms exist in mammals. PMID:25217628

  13. The Munich Accelerator for Fission Fragments MAFF

    SciTech Connect

    Habs, D.; Gross, M.; Assmann, W.; Beck, L.; Grossmann, R.; Maier, H.-J.; Schumann, M.; Sewtz, M.; Szerypo, J.; Thirolf, P.G.; Kruecken, R.; Faestermann, T.; Maier-Komor, P.; Nebel, F.; Zech, E.; Hartung, P.; Stoepler, R.; Juettner, Ph.; Tralmer, F.L.

    2005-11-21

    The layout and status of MAFF at the Munich high flux reactor FRM-II is described. At MAFF 1014 fissions/s will be induced by thermal neutrons in a target with approx. 1 g of 235U. The situation is compared to the SPIRAL2 facility where 1014 fissions/s are expected by fast neutron fission in a target containing 5100 g of 238U. A comparison of the yields of SPIRAL2 and MAFF is performed to show the complementarity of the two ISOL-facilities for fission fragments. MAFF has approximately five times the beam intensities of SPIRAL2 for short-lived fission isotopes with lifetimes shorter than 5 s and thus will focus on the most neutron-rich nuclei, while SPIRAL2 has better perspectives for the more intense, less neutron-rich post-accelerated beams.A problem that also deserves attention is the production of {alpha} emitters, in particular plutonium. Here MAFF has the advantage to contain the Pu-producing 238U only as impurity not as the main fissile system. If SPIRAL2 would use 235U instead of 238U this problematic issue could be avoided at the cost of a further reduction in intensity of very neutron-rich fission fragments by a factor of 10. Finally new physics close to the classically doubly-magic nuclei 78Ni and 132Sn is described.

  14. Spontaneous fission of the heaviest elements

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.C.

    1989-04-01

    Although spontaneous fission was discovered in /sup 238/U in 1940, detailed studies of the process were first made possible in the 1960's with the availability of milligram quantities of /sup 252/Cf. The advent of solid-state detectors made it possible to perform measurements of coincident fission fragments from even very short-lived spontaneous fission activities or those available in only very small quantities. Until 1971 it was believed that the main features of the mass and kinetic-energy distributions were essentially the same as those for thermal neutron-induced fission and that all low-energy fission proceeded via asymmetric mass division with total kinetic energies which could be derived by linear extrapolation from those of lighter elements. In 1971, measurements of /sup 257/Fm showed an increase in symmetric mass division with anomalously high TKE's. Subsequent experiments showed that in /sup 258/Fm and /sup 259/Fm, the most probable mass split was symmetric with very high total kinetic energy. Measurements for the heavier elements have shown symmetric mass distributions with both high and low total kinetic energies. Recent results for spontaneous fission properties of the heaviest elements are reviewed and compared with theory. 31 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Shape Isomers - a Key to Fission Barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberstedt, S.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Kornilov, N.; Lövestam, G.; Oberstedt, A.; Gawrys, M.

    2008-04-01

    Quantitative predictions of fission product yields are relevant for the reliable operation of different modern nuclear applications. This concerns the realistic characterizations of the radio-toxicity of the fuel elements after the envisaged extended irradiation, as well as sub-critical assemblies, where the number of delayed neutrons from minor actinides is determined by the characteristic emission yields of the corresponding so-called pre-cursor isotopes. However, to be able to make more reliable quantitative predictions of fission characteristics requires the better understanding of the fission process itself. For this purpose a better knowledge about the distinct structure of the nuclear energy landscape around the fission barrier is indispensable. In particular, the question should be answered, whether the fission barrier is either double- or triple-humped or even multi-humped as been proposed within the multi-modal neck rupture model. Despite quite some effort based on different experimental techniques and theoretical approaches, this question remains still unanswered. There is still no consistent picture of the fission barrier available and hence, different sets of barrier parameters are in use, unable to describe the different observed phenomena in a coherent way. With the systematic investigation of shape isomer population, its decay modes as well as the branching ratio, precise information can be obtained to resolve the puzzling situation. The experimental approach will be discussed and results from first experiments presented.

  16. Fatal pediatric poisoning from leaded paint--Wisconsin, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-03-29

    Although fatal lead poisoning among children occurs rarely in the United States, it represents a medical and public health emergency. This report summarizes the investigation of a child who died from poisoning associated with ingestion of lead-based paint.

  17. [The most popular poisons from Graeco-Roman world].

    PubMed

    Siek, Bartlomiej; Rys, Anna; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    Article presents the most popular antique poisons. Information from encyclopaedic literature and literary texts of the Roman Empire period has been compared with the etymology of the names of some poisons of plant and animal origin.

  18. 77 FR 64997 - Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning... scientific knowledge and technological developments and their practical implications for childhood lead poisoning prevention efforts. The committee also reviews and reports regularly on childhood lead...

  19. The essential role of a poison center in handling an outbreak of barium carbonate poisoning.

    PubMed

    Deng, J F; Jan, I S; Cheng, H S

    1991-04-01

    Acute barium salt poisoning may cause acute hypokalemia and result in respiratory paralysis and ventricular tachyarrhythmias. The early nonspecific gastrointestinal symptoms of barium poisoning due to food contamination could be confused with other benign food poisonings. Early diagnosis and initiation of intensive supportive care is essential. We report an outbreak of acute barium carbonate poisoning, occurring at a family reunion party, which resulted in 9 hospital admissions. All of the victims initially developed nausea, vomiting, abdominal colic, dizziness and watery diarrhea followed by numbness of the face and distal extremities 1-2 h after ingesting fried flour-coated sweet potatoes. The flour was later confirmed to be contaminated with barium carbonate. One person died in the emergency room with a serum potassium level of 0.8 mEq/L. Two other victims developed ventricular tachycardia and respiratory paralysis but completely recovered with the treatment advice provided by the poison center. The poison center was successful in helping to make the correct diagnosis in a timely manner, immediately distribute the treatment protocol, and coordinate the laboratory confirmation of barium carbonate poisoning.

  20. Fission-fusion neutron source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jinnan; Yu, Gang

    2009-04-01

    In order to meet the requirements of fusion power reactors and nuclear waste treatment, a concept of fission-fusion neutron source is proposed, which consists of a LiD assembly located in the heavy water region of the China Advanced Research Reactor. This assembly of LiD fuel rods will be irradiated with slow neutrons and will produce fusion neutrons in the central hole via the reaction 6Li(n, α). More precisely, tritium ions with a high energy of 2.739 MeV will be produced in LiD by the impinging slow neutrons. The tritium ions will in turn bombard the deuterium ions present in the LiD assembly, which will induce fusion reaction and then the production of 14 MeV neutrons. The fusion reaction rate will increase with the accumulation of tritium in LiD by the reaction between tritium and deuteron recoils produced by the 14 MeV neutrons. When the concentration of tritium reaches 0.5 · 10 22 and the fraction of fusion reactions between tritium and deuteron recoils approaches 1, the 14 MeV neutron flux is doubled and redoubled, an so forth, approaching saturation in which the tritium produced at a time t is exhausted by the fusion reactions to keep constant the tritium concentration in LiD.

  1. Zebrafish Models for Human Acute Organophosphorus Poisoning.

    PubMed

    Faria, Melissa; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Padrós, Francesc; Babin, Patrick J; Sebastián, David; Cachot, Jérôme; Prats, Eva; Arick Ii, Mark; Rial, Eduardo; Knoll-Gellida, Anja; Mathieu, Guilaine; Le Bihanic, Florane; Escalon, B Lynn; Zorzano, Antonio; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Raldúa, Demetrio

    2015-10-22

    Terrorist use of organophosphorus-based nerve agents and toxic industrial chemicals against civilian populations constitutes a real threat, as demonstrated by the terrorist attacks in Japan in the 1990 s or, even more recently, in the Syrian civil war. Thus, development of more effective countermeasures against acute organophosphorus poisoning is urgently needed. Here, we have generated and validated zebrafish models for mild, moderate and severe acute organophosphorus poisoning by exposing zebrafish larvae to different concentrations of the prototypic organophosphorus compound chlorpyrifos-oxon. Our results show that zebrafish models mimic most of the pathophysiological mechanisms behind this toxidrome in humans, including acetylcholinesterase inhibition, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation, and calcium dysregulation as well as inflammatory and immune responses. The suitability of the zebrafish larvae to in vivo high-throughput screenings of small molecule libraries makes these models a valuable tool for identifying new drugs for multifunctional drug therapy against acute organophosphorus poisoning.

  2. A review of lead poisoning in swans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.

    1994-01-01

    Nearly 10,000 swans of six species or subspecies from 14 countries have died from poisoning caused by lead that originated from ingestion of fishing weights, shotgun pellets (shot), or contaminated vegetation or sediments associated with mining and smelting wastes. Lead contamination in mute swans in England caused local population declines during the late 1970s and 1980s. More tundra swans died from lead poisoning than any other species. The extreme record involved an estimated 7200 tundra swans that died over five winters at one locality in North Carolina. The recent legislation to ban lead fishing weights in most of England and Wales and recent replacement of lead shot with steel shot for waterfowl hunting in the United States and a few areas of Europe, including Denmark, are expected to reduce the incidence of lead poisoning in swans.

  3. Poisoned after Dinner: Dolma with Datura Stramonium.

    PubMed

    Disel, Nezihat Rana; Yilmaz, Mustafa; Kekec, Zeynep; Karanlik, Meryem

    2015-03-01

    Datura stramonium, which is also known as Thorn Apple or Jimson Weed, is an alkaloid containing plant that is entirely toxic. The active toxic constituents of the plant are atropine, scopolamine and hyoscyamine. It has been abused worldwide for hundreds of years because of its hallucinogenic properties. Previous reports have shown that herbal medication overdose and accidental food contamination are ways it can cause poisoning. Herein we present a family that had three of its members poisoned after eating a traditional meal "dolma" made of datura flowers. None had fatal complications and all were discharged healthy. Datura stromonium may be used accidentally as a food ingredient. Since its poisonous effects are not known, people should be informed and warned about the effects of this plant. PMID:27437523

  4. Zebrafish Models for Human Acute Organophosphorus Poisoning.

    PubMed

    Faria, Melissa; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Padrós, Francesc; Babin, Patrick J; Sebastián, David; Cachot, Jérôme; Prats, Eva; Arick Ii, Mark; Rial, Eduardo; Knoll-Gellida, Anja; Mathieu, Guilaine; Le Bihanic, Florane; Escalon, B Lynn; Zorzano, Antonio; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Raldúa, Demetrio

    2015-01-01

    Terrorist use of organophosphorus-based nerve agents and toxic industrial chemicals against civilian populations constitutes a real threat, as demonstrated by the terrorist attacks in Japan in the 1990 s or, even more recently, in the Syrian civil war. Thus, development of more effective countermeasures against acute organophosphorus poisoning is urgently needed. Here, we have generated and validated zebrafish models for mild, moderate and severe acute organophosphorus poisoning by exposing zebrafish larvae to different concentrations of the prototypic organophosphorus compound chlorpyrifos-oxon. Our results show that zebrafish models mimic most of the pathophysiological mechanisms behind this toxidrome in humans, including acetylcholinesterase inhibition, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation, and calcium dysregulation as well as inflammatory and immune responses. The suitability of the zebrafish larvae to in vivo high-throughput screenings of small molecule libraries makes these models a valuable tool for identifying new drugs for multifunctional drug therapy against acute organophosphorus poisoning. PMID:26489395

  5. Iguana bites reported to Texas poison centers.

    PubMed

    Forrester, Mathias B

    2010-09-01

    Although thousands of iguanas are kept as pets in the United States, information on their bites is limited. The intent of this investigation was to describe the pattern of iguana bites reported to Texas poison centers. Iguana bites reported during 1998-2008 were identified. The distribution of cases by various factors was determined. Of 59 total bites, 71% were managed on-site, 17% of the patients were at or en route to a health care facility when the poison center was contacted, and 10% were referred to a health care facility. The medical outcome was no effect in 9% of the cases, minor effect in 24%, moderate effect in 2%, not followed but minimal effects possible in 64%, and unable to follow but potentially toxic in 2%. Most iguana bites reported to Texas poison centers did not result in serious effects and were managed on-site.

  6. Fatal parathion poisoning in Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    Etzel, R. A.; Forthal, D. N.; Hill, R. H.; Demby, A.

    1987-01-01

    In May and June 1986, 49 persons in Sierra Leone were acutely poisoned by the organothiophosphate insecticide, parathion. Fourteen people died. Illness occurred in three episodes at two different locations that were 44 km apart. A study of 21 cases and 22 household controls was undertaken to explore which factors were associated with the development of the symptoms. Cases were more likely than controls to have eaten bread in the 4 hours before becoming ill (odds ratio, 12.7; 95% confidence interval, 2.4-83.8). Scrapings of residue from the floor of the truck that had brought the wheat flour from the mill to the general store where the baker purchased it were positive for parathion, suggesting that the flour had been contaminated during transport. Pesticide poisoning is a common problem in the developing world, and public health measures such as restricting the use of parathion may help to prevent fatal poisonings. PMID:3501344

  7. Zebrafish Models for Human Acute Organophosphorus Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Melissa; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Padrós, Francesc; Babin, Patrick J.; Sebastián, David; Cachot, Jérôme; Prats, Eva; Arick II, Mark; Rial, Eduardo; Knoll-Gellida, Anja; Mathieu, Guilaine; Le Bihanic, Florane; Escalon, B. Lynn; Zorzano, Antonio; Soares, Amadeu M.V.M; Raldúa, Demetrio

    2015-01-01

    Terrorist use of organophosphorus-based nerve agents and toxic industrial chemicals against civilian populations constitutes a real threat, as demonstrated by the terrorist attacks in Japan in the 1990 s or, even more recently, in the Syrian civil war. Thus, development of more effective countermeasures against acute organophosphorus poisoning is urgently needed. Here, we have generated and validated zebrafish models for mild, moderate and severe acute organophosphorus poisoning by exposing zebrafish larvae to different concentrations of the prototypic organophosphorus compound chlorpyrifos-oxon. Our results show that zebrafish models mimic most of the pathophysiological mechanisms behind this toxidrome in humans, including acetylcholinesterase inhibition, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation, and calcium dysregulation as well as inflammatory and immune responses. The suitability of the zebrafish larvae to in vivo high-throughput screenings of small molecule libraries makes these models a valuable tool for identifying new drugs for multifunctional drug therapy against acute organophosphorus poisoning. PMID:26489395

  8. Using Poison Center Data for Postdisaster Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Wolkin, Amy; Schnall, Amy H.; Law, Royal; Schier, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    The role of public health surveillance in disaster response continues to expand as timely, accurate information is needed to mitigate the impact of disasters. Health surveillance after a disaster involves the rapid assessment of the distribution and determinants of disaster-related deaths, illnesses, and injuries in the affected population. Public health disaster surveillance is one mechanism that can provide information to identify health problems faced by the affected population, establish priorities for decision makers, and target interventions to meet specific needs. Public health surveillance traditionally relies on a wide variety of data sources and methods. Poison center (PC) data can serve as data sources of chemical exposures and poisonings during a disaster. In the US, a system of 57 regional PCs serves the entire population. Poison centers respond to poison-related questions from the public, health care professionals, and public health agencies. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) uses PC data during disasters for surveillance of disaster-related toxic exposures and associated illnesses to enhance situational awareness during disaster response and recovery. Poison center data can also be leveraged during a disaster by local and state public health to supplement existing surveillance systems. Augmenting traditional surveillance data (ie, emergency room visits and death records) with other data sources, such as PCs, allows for better characterization of disaster-related morbidity and mortality. Poison center data can be used during a disaster to detect outbreaks, monitor trends, track particular exposures, and characterize the epidemiology of the event. This timely and accurate information can be used to inform public health decision making during a disaster and mitigate future disaster-related morbidity and mortality. PMID:25205009

  9. Levothyroxine Poisoning - Symptoms and Clinical Outcome.

    PubMed

    Nygaard, Birgitte; Saedder, Eva A; Dalhoff, Kim; Wikkelsoe, Mette; Jürgens, Gesche

    2015-10-01

    Levothyroxine (LT), T4, poisoning is rarely associated with a severe outcome. However, cases with significant complications have been reported. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with symptoms of poisoning including late-onset symptoms. All enquiries to the Danish Poison Information Centre (DPIC) concerning LT poisoning between March 2007 and September 2012 were reviewed and the following parameters were recorded: age, dose, time from ingestion, multiple drug intake and symptoms. To evaluate the frequency of late-onset symptoms, a subgroup of patients without initial symptoms were contacted. A total of 181 patients were registered (112 children). Ingested LT dose ranged from 10 to 9000 mcg (median 275 mcg). A total of 29 of 181 (16%) patients were symptomatic at the time of enquiry, and there was no difference in ingested LT dose between asymptomatic and symptomatic patients, neither in children nor in adults (age 16-92 years) (p < 0.68 and p < 0.47, respectively). In total, 153 of 181 (85%) patients did not have symptoms of poisoning at the time of enquiry; however, in 9 of 21 (43%) patients, we were able to contact, late-onset symptoms existed. In none of the cases, hospital contact was needed and there were no reports of long-term sequelae. Acute LT poisoning often follows a benign course. The occurrence of symptoms appears not to be dose dependent. Late-onset symptoms seem to be common. However, all symptoms resolved spontaneously without need of medical care.

  10. Management of acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Eddleston, Michael; Buckley, Nick A; Eyer, Peter; Dawson, Andrew H

    2008-01-01

    Summary Organophosphorus pesticide self-poisoning is an important clinical problem in rural regions of the developing world, and kills an estimated 200 000 people every year. Unintentional poisoning kills far fewer people but is a problem in places where highly toxic organophosphorus pesticides are available. Medical management is difficult, with case fatality generally more than 15%. We describe the limited evidence that can guide therapy and the factors that should be considered when designing further clinical studies. 50 years after first use, we still do not know how the core treatments—atropine, oximes, and diazepam—should best be given. Important constraints in the collection of useful data have included the late recognition of great variability in activity and action of the individual pesticides, and the care needed cholinesterase assays for results to be comparable between studies. However, consensus suggests that early resuscitation with atropine, oxygen, respiratory support, and fluids is needed to improve oxygen delivery to tissues. The role of oximes is not completely clear; they might benefit only patients poisoned by specific pesticides or patients with moderate poisoning. Small studies suggest benefit from new treatments such as magnesium sulphate, but much larger trials are needed. Gastric lavage could have a role but should only be undertaken once the patient is stable. Randomised controlled trials are underway in rural Asia to assess the effectiveness of these therapies. However, some organophosphorus pesticides might prove very difficult to treat with current therapies, such that bans on particular pesticides could be the only method to substantially reduce the case fatality after poisoning. Improved medical management of organophosphorus poisoning should result in a reduction in worldwide deaths from suicide. PMID:17706760

  11. The poisonous rocks of Kärkevagge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darmody, R. G.; Allen, C. E.; Thorn, C. E.; Dixon, J. C.

    2001-11-01

    The black schist in Kärkevagge, Swedish Lapland has been reported to weather easily and produce a poisonous effect on vegetation. This research was an investigation of that phenomenon as part of a larger study of weathering in Kärkevagge. In July 1999, soil and plant samples were collected downslope of a "poisonous" boulder. Samples from the adjacent unaffected slope served as references. Biomass, plant elemental composition, and soil fertility were determined. Most plants within 1.4 m downslope of the poison boulder were dead, and effects on plant growth could be seen to about 6 m. Plants near the boulder had elevated levels of K, B, Al, Cd, Se, and Fe, and lower levels of Ca, Mn, and Ba compared to reference plants. In the soil near the poison boulder, extractable S, Cd, and Fe and salt contents were greater, while pH and extractable Cl, P, Ca, Mg, K, Ba, Ni, and Cr were lower than in the reference soil. At 10 m downslope of the boulder, soil and plant chemistry was more similar to the reference materials, but some effects were still noted. Elemental analyses of the poison boulder and soil revealed no particular plant toxins, although contents of Fe and S were higher and Ca lower than in reference materials. We believe the poison is sulfuric acid, which forms as a consequence of pyrite oxidation. The dark color of the boulder is consistent with a pyrite-bearing lithology and other field observations and laboratory analyses support the hypothesis. Coatings on local rocks include jarosite, gypsum, and copiapite, secondary minerals associated with pyrite oxidation and weathering accelerated by sulfuric acid. Radiocarbon dating indicates that the rock fell off the cliff some time before 245 14C years BP.

  12. Using poison center data for postdisaster surveillance.

    PubMed

    Wolkin, Amy; Schnall, Amy H; Law, Royal; Schier, Joshua

    2014-10-01

    The role of public health surveillance in disaster response continues to expand as timely, accurate information is needed to mitigate the impact of disasters. Health surveillance after a disaster involves the rapid assessment of the distribution and determinants of disaster-related deaths, illnesses, and injuries in the affected population. Public health disaster surveillance is one mechanism that can provide information to identify health problems faced by the affected population, establish priorities for decision makers, and target interventions to meet specific needs. Public health surveillance traditionally relies on a wide variety of data sources and methods. Poison center (PC) data can serve as data sources of chemical exposures and poisonings during a disaster. In the US, a system of 57 regional PCs serves the entire population. Poison centers respond to poison-related questions from the public, health care professionals, and public health agencies. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) uses PC data during disasters for surveillance of disaster-related toxic exposures and associated illnesses to enhance situational awareness during disaster response and recovery. Poison center data can also be leveraged during a disaster by local and state public health to supplement existing surveillance systems. Augmenting traditional surveillance data (ie, emergency room visits and death records) with other data sources, such as PCs, allows for better characterization of disaster-related morbidity and mortality. Poison center data can be used during a disaster to detect outbreaks, monitor trends, track particular exposures, and characterize the epidemiology of the event. This timely and accurate information can be used to inform public health decision making during a disaster and mitigate future disaster-related morbidity and mortality.

  13. Prognostic Factors in Cholinesterase Inhibitor Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Sun, In O; Yoon, Hyun Ju; Lee, Kwang Young

    2015-01-01

    Background Organophosphates and carbamates are insecticides that are associated with high human mortality. The purpose of this study is to investigate the prognostic factors affecting survival in patients with cholinesterase inhibitor (CI) poisoning. Material/Methods This study included 92 patients with CI poisoning in the period from January 2005 to August 2013. We divided these patients into 2 groups (survivors vs. non-survivors), compared their clinical characteristics, and analyzed the predictors of survival. Results The mean age of the included patients was 56 years (range, 16–88). The patients included 57 (62%) men and 35 (38%) women. When we compared clinical characteristics between the survivor group (n=81, 88%) and non-survivor group (n=11, 12%), there were no differences in renal function, pancreatic enzymes, or serum cholinesterase level, except for serum bicarbonate level and APACHE II score. The serum bicarbonate level was lower in non-survivors than in survivors (12.45±2.84 vs. 18.36±4.73, P<0.01). The serum APACHE II score was higher in non-survivors than in survivors (24.36±5.22 vs. 12.07±6.67, P<0.01). The development of pneumonia during hospitalization was higher in non-survivors than in survivors (n=9, 82% vs. n=31, 38%, P<0.01). In multiple logistic regression analysis, serum bicarbonate concentration, APACHE II score, and pneumonia during hospitalization were the important prognostic factors in patients with CI poisoning. Conclusions Serum bicarbonate and APACHE II score are useful prognostic factors in patients with CI poisoning. Furthermore, pneumonia during hospitalization was also important in predicting prognosis in patients with CI poisoning. Therefore, prevention and active treatment of pneumonia is important in the management of patients with CI poisoning. PMID:26411989

  14. Hematologic effects of heavy metal poisoning.

    PubMed

    Ringenberg, Q S; Doll, D C; Patterson, W P; Perry, M C; Yarbro, J W

    1988-09-01

    Heavy metal poisoning can cause a variety of hematologic disorders. Exposure to heavy metals is ubiquitous in the industrial environment and must be considered in the differential diagnosis of many types of anemia. The heavy metals most commonly associated with hematologic toxicity are arsenic and its derivative arsine, copper, gold, lead, and zinc. A few distinctive clinical features characterize the hematologic manifestations of many occult heavy metal poisonings. These features have a limited differential diagnosis. A knowledge of these clinical features can assist the astute clinician in making the correct diagnosis.

  15. Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Hurley, William; Wolterstorff, Cameron; MacDonald, Ryan; Schultz, Debora

    2014-01-01

    We describe a case series of seven patients presenting to an emergency department with symptoms of paralytic shellfish poisoning. They developed varying degrees of nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, weakness, ataxia and paresthesias after eating mussels harvested from a beach near their resort. Four patients were admitted to the hospital, one due to increasing respiratory failure requiring endotracheal intubation and the remainder for respiratory monitoring. All patients made a full recovery, most within 24 hours. The ability to recognize and identify paralytic shellfish poisoning and manage its complications are important to providers of emergency medicine. PMID:25035737

  16. Pharmacologic Strategies for Treatment of Poisonings.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Eric; Gooch, Michael D

    2016-03-01

    Poisoning is the leading cause of injury-related mortality in the United States. Data suggest that nonmedical use of pharmaceuticals is increasing, along with a proportional increase in subsequent adverse events. The widespread use of illegal drugs contributes to the challenge, because these drugs may produce a wide array of clinical presentations that warrant time-critical recognition and treatment. Common legal and illegal poisonings highlighting clinical presentations in terms of toxidromes as a means of categorically recognizing these emergencies is the focus of this article. To optimize outcomes for situations such as these, pharmacologic considerations are discussed and explored. PMID:26897424

  17. Important poisonous plants in tibetan ethnomedicine.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lijuan; Gu, Ronghui; Tang, Li; Chen, Ze-E; Di, Rong; Long, Chunlin

    2015-01-01

    Tibetan ethnomedicine is famous worldwide, both for its high effectiveness and unique cultural background. Many poisonous plants have been widely used to treat disorders in the Tibetan medicinal system. In the present review article, some representative poisonous plant species are introduced in terms of their significance in traditional Tibetan medicinal practices. They are Aconitum pendulum, Strychnos nux-vomica, Datura stramonium and Anisodus tanguticus, for which the toxic chemical constituents, bioactivities and pharmacological functions are reviewed herein. The most important toxins include aconitine, strychnine, scopolamine, and anisodamine. These toxic plants are still currently in use for pain-reduction and other purposes by Tibetan healers after processing. PMID:25594733

  18. Ciguatera-like poisoning in the Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Raikhlin-Eisenkraft, B; Finkelstein, Y; Spanier, E

    1988-12-01

    A case of group poisoning from the consumption of the fish Sarpa salpa, caught in the Mediterranean coastal waters of Israel, is presented. Mullets and rabbitfish caught at the same site caused no harm. This is the third case of ciguatera poisoning in the region and the first to be transferred by a fish which is not a Red Sea immigrant. It implies that toxic algae dinoflagellates, originating from the Red Sea, crossed the Suez Canal and found their way to the Mediterranean coastal waters.

  19. ["Junk-food"-intervention in poisoning delusion].

    PubMed

    Schwerthöffer, Dirk; Bäuml, Josef

    2007-11-01

    Case report about a 29-year old US-American patient who suddenly flew to Germany due to a schizoaffektive disorder. During a stay in our psychiatric hospital she refused food, liquid and medication because of fear of being poisoned. After four days her general condition had worsened rapidly so that parenteral nutrition was discussed. Surprisingly her poisoning delusion could be overcome by offering American "Junk-Food". From this moment on compliance in taking of medication improved too, so that renormalisation of her condition was achieved. PMID:17160755

  20. Important Poisonous Plants in Tibetan Ethnomedicine

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Lijuan; Gu, Ronghui; Tang, Li; Chen, Ze-E; Di, Rong; Long, Chunlin

    2015-01-01

    Tibetan ethnomedicine is famous worldwide, both for its high effectiveness and unique cultural background. Many poisonous plants have been widely used to treat disorders in the Tibetan medicinal system. In the present review article, some representative poisonous plant species are introduced in terms of their significance in traditional Tibetan medicinal practices. They are Aconitum pendulum, Strychnos nux-vomica, Datura stramonium and Anisodus tanguticus, for which the toxic chemical constituents, bioactivities and pharmacological functions are reviewed herein. The most important toxins include aconitine, strychnine, scopolamine, and anisodamine. These toxic plants are still currently in use for pain-reduction and other purposes by Tibetan healers after processing. PMID:25594733

  1. [Venomous and poisonous animals--I. Overview].

    PubMed

    Chippaux, J P; Goyffon, M

    2006-06-01

    Venomous animals that are able to innoculate or inject venom and poisonous animals that cannot inject venom but are toxic when ingested belong to all zoological groups. They can be encountered worldwide in any ecosystem on land and at sea but they are more common and more dangerous in tropical areas. This first article of a series to appear in the next issues of Medecine Tropicale presents an overview of species involved in envenomations and poisonings. In addition to a brief reviewing geographic risks and circumstances in which bites, stings or ingestion occur, some information is provided about antivenim therapy, the only etiological treatment.

  2. Important poisonous plants in tibetan ethnomedicine.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lijuan; Gu, Ronghui; Tang, Li; Chen, Ze-E; Di, Rong; Long, Chunlin

    2015-01-14

    Tibetan ethnomedicine is famous worldwide, both for its high effectiveness and unique cultural background. Many poisonous plants have been widely used to treat disorders in the Tibetan medicinal system. In the present review article, some representative poisonous plant species are introduced in terms of their significance in traditional Tibetan medicinal practices. They are Aconitum pendulum, Strychnos nux-vomica, Datura stramonium and Anisodus tanguticus, for which the toxic chemical constituents, bioactivities and pharmacological functions are reviewed herein. The most important toxins include aconitine, strychnine, scopolamine, and anisodamine. These toxic plants are still currently in use for pain-reduction and other purposes by Tibetan healers after processing.

  3. [The viper--Finland's only poisonous snake].

    PubMed

    Vuori, Arno

    2011-01-01

    The viper (Vipera berus) is the most common poisonous snake in Europe, and the only one in Finland. In viper bites, highly varying amounts of venom end up into the victim, whereby prediction of the progression of symptoms of poisoning is very difficult. A severe clinical picture must always be anticipated. The size of the victim has also an effect on the outcome. Adequate monitoring and when necessary, massive fluid therapy are essential in the treatment. Due to possible kidney damage, anti-inflammatory drugs are not recommended. Severe or rapidly progressing symptoms require the use of an antidote.

  4. [Recommendations for the prevention of poisoning].

    PubMed

    Mintegi, S; Esparza, M J; González, J C; Rubio, B; Sánchez, F; Vila, J J; Yagüe, F; Benítez, M T

    2015-12-01

    Poisoning is the fifth leading cause of death from unintentional injury in the WHO European region, while Spain is in the group with a lower rate. Most involuntary poisonings occur in young children while they are at the home, due to unintentional ingestion of therapeutic drugs or household products. Of these, a large percentage is stored in non-original containers and/or within reach of children. In this article, the Committee on Safety and Non-Intentional Injury Prevention in Childhood of the Spanish Association of Pediatrics provides a series of recommendations, educational as well as legal, to prevent such cases.

  5. 21 CFR 509.6 - Added poisonous or deleterious substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Added poisonous or deleterious substances. 509.6...-PACKAGING MATERIAL General Provisions § 509.6 Added poisonous or deleterious substances. (a) Use of an added... approved under the criteria of section 409 of the act, or when the added poisonous or deleterious...

  6. Gastrolobium spp. poisoning in sheep: A case report

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report describes the history and investigation of a suspected plant poisoning event in Western Australia where fifteen sheep died. One of the poisoned sheep was necropsied and gross and microscopic pathology of the poisoned sheep is described. Monofluoroacetate was detected in rumen contents ...

  7. Childhood Lead Poisoning: A Disease for the History Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Needleman, Herbert L.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the mounting evidence for the neurological damage of childhood lead poisoning. Argues that ignoring lead poisoning is more expensive than preventing it. Reviews a recent plan to eradicate lead poisoning and the sociological factors that may impede its implementation. (CJS)

  8. Statistics and Epidemiology of Lead Poisoning (FY 72-L1).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, John H., Jr.; And Others

    This report is the first in a quarterly series which will contain statistics and epidemiologic notes on lead poisoning at both the national and local levels. This report contains (a) statistics on childhood lead poisoning; (b) a status report on the Community Lead Poisoning Data System, which was designed to assist local lead control programs and…

  9. Childhood Lead Poisoning. Rhode Island KIDS COUNT Issue Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Ann-Marie, Ed.; Walsh, Catherine Boisvert, Ed.; Bryant, Elizabeth Burke, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    One of the most common pediatric health problems is childhood lead poisoning. This report examines the preventable problem of lead poisoning. The report describes childhood lead poisoning as both a health problem to which infants and young children are most susceptible, and as a housing problem. More than half the housing units in Rhode Island…

  10. Childhood Lead Poisoning: Developing Prevention Programs and Mobilizing Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochow, K. W. James

    The current approach to dealing with childhood lead poisoning has led to repeated diagnoses of poisoning because such children are treated and then returned to their hazardous environments. This handbook describes in detail the program requirements for effective childhood lead poisoning prevention programs at the local level based on the…

  11. Fight Homemade Poisons: Home Food Care and Preservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Rosanne

    One of a series of instructional materials produced by the Literacy Council of Alaska, this booklet provides information about food poisoning. Using a simplified vocabulary and shorter sentences, it explains the various kinds of food poisoning, how people get food poisoning, and how to prevent it. (FL)

  12. 49 CFR 172.429 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. 172.429 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.429 POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD label must be as follows: ER22JY97.023 (b) In addition to...

  13. 14 CFR 137.39 - Economic poison dispensing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Economic poison dispensing. 137.39 Section... AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.39 Economic poison dispensing. (a) Except as provided in... economic poison that is registered with the U.S. Department of Agriculture under the Federal...

  14. 14 CFR 137.39 - Economic poison dispensing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Economic poison dispensing. 137.39 Section... AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.39 Economic poison dispensing. (a) Except as provided in... economic poison that is registered with the U.S. Department of Agriculture under the Federal...

  15. 49 CFR 172.429 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. 172.429 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.429 POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD label must be as follows: ER22JY97.023 (b) In addition to...

  16. 49 CFR 172.429 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. 172.429 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.429 POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD label must be as follows: ER22JY97.023 (b) In addition to...

  17. 49 CFR 172.429 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. 172.429 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.429 POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD label must be as follows: ER22JY97.023 (b) In addition to...

  18. 49 CFR 172.555 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. 172.555 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.555 POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard must be as follows: ER22JY97.025 (b) In addition...

  19. 14 CFR 137.39 - Economic poison dispensing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Economic poison dispensing. 137.39 Section... AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.39 Economic poison dispensing. (a) Except as provided in... economic poison that is registered with the U.S. Department of Agriculture under the Federal...

  20. 14 CFR 137.39 - Economic poison dispensing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Economic poison dispensing. 137.39 Section... AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.39 Economic poison dispensing. (a) Except as provided in... economic poison that is registered with the U.S. Department of Agriculture under the Federal...

  1. 49 CFR 172.555 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. 172.555 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.555 POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard must be as follows: ER22JY97.025 (b) In addition...

  2. 49 CFR 172.555 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. 172.555 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.555 POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard must be as follows: ER22JY97.025 (b) In addition...

  3. 49 CFR 172.555 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. 172.555 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.555 POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard must be as follows: ER22JY97.025 (b) In addition...

  4. 49 CFR 172.555 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. 172.555 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.555 POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard must be as follows: ER22JY97.025 (b) In addition...

  5. 49 CFR 172.429 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. 172.429 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.429 POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD label must be as follows: ER22JY97.023 (b) In addition to...

  6. Dual-fission chamber and neutron beam characterization for fission product yield measurements using monoenergetic neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatia, C.; Fallin, B.; Gooden, M. E.; Howell, C. R.; Kelley, J. H.; Tornow, W.; Arnold, C. W.; Bond, E. M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Fowler, M. M.; Moody, W. A.; Rundberg, R. S.; Rusev, G.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Becker, J. A.; Macri, R.; Ryan, C.; Sheets, S. A.; Stoyer, M. A.; Tonchev, A. P.

    2014-09-01

    A program has been initiated to measure the energy dependence of selected high-yield fission products used in the analysis of nuclear test data. We present out initial work of neutron activation using a dual-fission chamber with quasi-monoenergetic neutrons and gamma-counting method. Quasi-monoenergetic neutrons of energies from 0.5 to 15 MeV using the TUNL 10 MV FM tandem to provide high-precision and self-consistent measurements of fission product yields (FPY). The final FPY results will be coupled with theoretical analysis to provide a more fundamental understanding of the fission process. To accomplish this goal, we have developed and tested a set of dual-fission ionization chambers to provide an accurate determination of the number of fissions occurring in a thick target located in the middle plane of the chamber assembly. Details of the fission chamber and its performance are presented along with neutron beam production and characterization. Also presented are studies on the background issues associated with room-return and off-energy neutron production. We show that the off-energy neutron contribution can be significant, but correctable, while room-return neutron background levels contribute less than <1% to the fission signal.

  7. A new design of fission detector for prompt fission neutron investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeynalov, Sh.; Zeynalova, O.; Nazarenko, M. A.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Oberstedt, S.

    2012-10-01

    In this work we report recent achievements in design of twin back-to-back ionization chamber (TIC) for fission fragment (FF) mass and kinetic energy spectroscopy. Correlated FF kinetic energies, their masses and the angle of the fission axes in 3D Cartesian coordinates can be determined from analysis of the heights and shapes of the pulses induced by the fission fragments on the anodes of TIC. Anodes of TIC were designed as consisting of isolated strips each having independent electronic circuitry and special multi-channel pulse processing apparatus. Mathematical algorithms were provided along with formulae derived for fission axis angles determination. It was shown how the point of fission fragments origin on the target plane may be determined using the same measured data. The last feature made the TIC a rather powerful tool for prompt fission neutron (PFN) emission investigation in event by event analysis of individual fission reactions from non point fissile source. Position sensitive neutron induced fission detector for neutron imaging applications with both thermal and low energy neutrons was found as another possible implementation of the designed TIC.

  8. Event-by-event fission simulation code, generates complete fission events

    2013-04-01

    FREYA is a computer code that generates complete fission events. The output includes the energy and momentum of these final state particles: fission products, prompt neutrons and prompt photons. The version of FREYA that is to be released is a module for MCNP6.

  9. Inhibition of peroxisome fission, but not mitochondrial fission, increases yeast chronological lifespan.

    PubMed

    Lefevre, Sophie D; Kumar, Sanjeev; van der Klei, Ida J

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria are key players in aging and cell death. It has been suggested that mitochondrial fragmentation, mediated by the Dnm1/Fis1 organelle fission machinery, stimulates aging and cell death. This was based on the observation that Saccharomyces cerevisiae Δdnm1 and Δfis1 mutants show an enhanced lifespan and increased resistance to cell death inducers. However, the Dnm1/Fis1 fission machinery is also required for peroxisome division. Here we analyzed the significance of peroxisome fission in yeast chronological lifespan, using yeast strains in which fission of mitochondria was selectively blocked. Our data indicate that the lifespan extension caused by deletion of FIS1 is mainly due to a defect in peroxisome fission and not caused by a block in mitochondrial fragmentation. These observations are underlined by our observation that deletion of FIS1 does not lead to lifespan extension in yeast peroxisome deficient mutant cells.

  10. Species susceptibility to locoweed poisoning and evaluation of chicks as a small animal model of poisoning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Locoweed poisoning has largely been attributed to the effects of mannosidase inhibiting swainsonine. However, there are many plants that contain mixtures of swainsonine and other glycosidase inhibiting alkaloids such as calystegines, castanospermine, and other minor alkaloids or metabolites like le...

  11. Predicting Outcome in Acute Organophosphorus Poisoning with a Poison Severity Score or the Glasgow Coma Scale

    PubMed Central

    Davies, James O. J.; Eddleston, Michael; Buckley, Nick A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Organophosphorus pesticide poisoning kills around 200,000 people each year, principally due to self poisoning in the Asia-Pacific region. Aim: We wished to assess whether patients at high risk of death could be identified accurately using clinical parameters soon after hospital admission. Design: We evaluated the usefulness of the International Program on Chemical Safety Poison Severity Score (IPCS PSS) and the Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) prospectively for predicting death in patients poisoned by organophosphorus pesticides. Methods: Data were collected as part of a multicentre cohort study in Sri Lanka. Study doctors saw all patients on admission, collecting data on pulse, blood pressure, pupil size, need for intubation, and GCS. Results: 1365 patients with a history of acute organophosphorus poisoning were included. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were calculated for the IPCS PSS and GCS on admission. The IPCS PSS and GCS had similar ROC area under the curves (AUC) and best cut points as determined by Youden's index (AUC/sensitivity/specificity 0.81/0.78/0.79 for IPCS PSS ≥ grade 2 and 0.84/0.79/0.79 for GCS ≤13). The predictive value varied with the pesticide ingested, being more accurate for dimethoate poisoning and less accurate for fenthion poisoning (GCS AUC 0.91 compared to 0.69). Conclusions: GCS and the IPCS PSS were similarly effective at predicting outcome. Patients presenting with a GCS ≤ 13 need intensive monitoring and treatment. However, the identity of the organophosphate must be taken into account since the half of all patients who died from fenthion poisoning only had mild symptoms at presentation. PMID:18319295

  12. Fission Surface Power Technology Development Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palac, Donald T.; Mason, Lee S.; Houts, Michael G.; Harlow, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Power is a critical consideration in planning exploration of the surfaces of the Moon, Mars, and places beyond. Nuclear power is an important option, especially for locations in the solar system where sunlight is limited or environmental conditions are challenging (e.g., extreme cold, dust storms). NASA and the Department of Energy are maintaining the option for fission surface power for the Moon and Mars by developing and demonstrating technology for a fission surface power system. The Fission Surface Power Systems project has focused on subscale component and subsystem demonstrations to address the feasibility of a low-risk, low-cost approach to space nuclear power for surface missions. Laboratory demonstrations of the liquid metal pump, reactor control drum drive, power conversion, heat rejection, and power management and distribution technologies have validated that the fundamental characteristics and performance of these components and subsystems are consistent with a Fission Surface Power preliminary reference concept. In addition, subscale versions of a non-nuclear reactor simulator, using electric resistance heating in place of the reactor fuel, have been built and operated with liquid metal sodium-potassium and helium/xenon gas heat transfer loops, demonstrating the viability of establishing system-level performance and characteristics of fission surface power technologies without requiring a nuclear reactor. While some component and subsystem testing will continue through 2011 and beyond, the results to date provide sufficient confidence to proceed with system level technology readiness demonstration. To demonstrate the system level readiness of fission surface power in an operationally relevant environment (the primary goal of the Fission Surface Power Systems project), a full scale, 1/4 power Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU) is under development. The TDU will consist of a non-nuclear reactor simulator, a sodium-potassium heat transfer loop, a power

  13. Options For Development of Space Fission Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houta, Mike; VanDyke, Melissa; Godfroy, Tom; Pedersen, Kevin; Martin, James; Dickens, Ricky; Salvail, Pat; Hrbud, Ivana; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Fission technology can enable rapid, affordable access to any point in the solar system. Potential fission-based transportation options include high specific power continuous impulse propulsion systems and bimodal nuclear thermal rockets. Despite their tremendous potential for enhancing or enabling deep space and planetary missions, to date space fission system have only been used in Earth orbit. The first step towards utilizing advanced fission propulsion systems is development of a safe, near-term, affordable fission system that can enhance or enable near-term missions of interest. An evolutionary approach for developing space fission propulsion systems is proposed.

  14. Bimodal Fission in the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Staszczak, A.; Dobaczewski, J.; Nazarewicz, Witold

    2007-01-01

    Spontaneous fission properties of 256Fm, 258Fm, and 260Fm isotopes are studied within the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock+BCS framework. In the particle-hole channel we take the Skyrme SkM* effective force, while in the particle-particle channel we employ the seniority pairing interaction. Three static fission paths for all investigated heavy fermium isotopes are found. The analysis of these fission modes allows to describe observed asymmetric fission of 256Fm, as well as bimodal fission of 258Fm and symmetric fission in 260Fm.

  15. Acute poisoning: understanding 90% of cases in a nutshell

    PubMed Central

    Greene, S; Dargan, P; Jones, A

    2005-01-01

    The acutely poisoned patient remains a common problem facing doctors working in acute medicine in the United Kingdom and worldwide. This review examines the initial management of the acutely poisoned patient. Aspects of general management are reviewed including immediate interventions, investigations, gastrointestinal decontamination techniques, use of antidotes, methods to increase poison elimination, and psychological assessment. More common and serious poisonings caused by paracetamol, salicylates, opioids, tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, benzodiazepines, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and cocaine are discussed in detail. Specific aspects of common paediatric poisonings are reviewed. PMID:15811881

  16. [Food poisoning caused by Bacillus cereus].

    PubMed

    Doğanay, M; Bakici, M Z

    1985-10-01

    An outbreak of food poisoning was observed in Sivas on March 27, 1985 involving 25 patients who work at the same place. Clinical picture was characterized with nausea, abdominal pain and watery diarrhea. B. cereus was isolated from the stool of 4 patients. No other enteropathogens were found.

  17. Food poisonings by ingestion of cyprinid fish.

    PubMed

    Asakawa, Manabu; Noguchi, Tamao

    2014-01-28

    Raw or dried gallbladders of cyprinid fish have long been ingested as a traditional medicine in the Asian countries, particularly in China, for ameliorating visual acuity, rheumatism, and general health; however, sporadic poisoning incidences have occurred after their ingestion. The poisoning causes complex symptoms in patients, including acute renal failure, liver dysfunction, paralysis, and convulsions of limbs. The causative substance for the poisoning was isolated, and its basic properties were examined. The purified toxin revealed a minimum lethal dose of 2.6 mg/20 g in mouse, when injected intraperitoneally. The main symptoms were paralysis and convulsions of the hind legs, along with other neurological signs. Liver biopsy of the euthanized mice clearly exhibited hepatocytes necrosis and infiltration of neutrophils and lymphocytes, suggesting the acute dysfunction of the liver. Blood tests disclosed the characteristics of acute renal failure and liver injury. Infrared (IR) spectrometry, fast atom bombardment (FAB) mass spectrometry, and 1H- and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis indicated, a molecular formula of C27H48O8S, containing a sulfate ester group for the toxin. Thus, we concluded that the structure of carp toxin to be 5α-cyprinol sulfate (5α-cholestane-3α, 7α, 12α, 26, 27-pentol 26-sulfate). This indicated that carp toxin is a nephro- and hepato- toxin, which could be the responsible toxin for carp bile poisoning in humans.

  18. Acute Poisoning in Children in Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues Mendonça, Dilton; Menezes, Marta Silva; Matos, Marcos Antônio Almeida; Rebouças, Daniel Santos; Filho, Jucelino Nery da Conceição; de Assis, Reginara Souza; Carneiro, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Acute poisoning is a frequent accident in childhood, particularly in children under 4 years of age. This was a descriptive study with data collected from standardized forms of the Poison Control Center and patient record charts. All the cases of acute poisoning in children aged 0 to 14 years during the period 2008 to 2012 were selected. The variables studied comprised characteristics of the events and toxic agents, clinical development, and outcome. A total of 657 cases of acute poisoning, with higher frequency in the age-group from 1 to 4 years (48.7%) and male sex (53.4%), were recorded. The occurrences were accidental in 92% of the cases, and 5.8% were due to suicide attempts. Among the toxic agents, medications (28.5%), venomous animals (19.3%), nonvenomous animals (10%), household cleaning products (9.0%), and raticide agents (8.7%) predominated. The majority of cases were characterized as light (73.5%) and around 18% required hospitalization, and there was low lethality (0.5%). PMID:27335994

  19. Fatal diphenhydramine poisoning in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Buchweitz, John P.; Raverty, Stephen A.; Johnson, Margaret B.; Lehner, Andreas F.

    2014-01-01

    We report a fatal diphenhydramine poisoning of a 10-year-old, male poodle-cross dog with pre-existing conditions and suspected co-ingestion of ethanol. This case illustrates that diphenhydramine overdose can be fatal in certain circumstances and that analytical toxicology may play an important role in animal death investigations. PMID:25392554

  20. Fatal diphenhydramine poisoning in a dog.

    PubMed

    Buchweitz, John P; Raverty, Stephen A; Johnson, Margaret B; Lehner, Andreas F

    2014-11-01

    We report a fatal diphenhydramine poisoning of a 10-year-old, male poodle-cross dog with pre-existing conditions and suspected co-ingestion of ethanol. This case illustrates that diphenhydramine overdose can be fatal in certain circumstances and that analytical toxicology may play an important role in animal death investigations.