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Sample records for fission time obtained

  1. Fission dynamics within time-dependent Hartree-Fock. II. Boost-induced fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goddard, Philip; Stevenson, Paul; Rios, Arnau

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nuclear fission is a complex large-amplitude collective decay mode in heavy nuclei. Microscopic density functional studies of fission have previously concentrated on adiabatic approaches based on constrained static calculations ignoring dynamical excitations of the fissioning nucleus and the daughter products. Purpose: We explore the ability of dynamic mean-field methods to describe induced fission processes, using quadrupole boosts in the nuclide 240Pu as an example. Methods: Following upon the work presented in Goddard et al. [Phys. Rev. C 92, 054610 (2015)], 10.1103/PhysRevC.92.054610, quadrupole-constrained Hartree-Fock calculations are used to create a potential energy surface. An isomeric state and a state beyond the second barrier peak are excited by means of instantaneous as well as temporally extended gauge boosts with quadrupole shapes. The subsequent deexcitation is studied in a time-dependent Hartree-Fock simulation, with emphasis on fissioned final states. The corresponding fission fragment mass numbers are studied. Results: In general, the energy deposited by the quadrupole boost is quickly absorbed by the nucleus. In instantaneous boosts, this leads to fast shape rearrangements and violent dynamics that can ultimately lead to fission. This is a qualitatively different process than the deformation-induced fission. Boosts induced within a finite time window excite the system in a relatively gentler way and do induce fission but with a smaller energy deposition. Conclusions: The fission products obtained using boost-induced fission in time-dependent Hartree-Fock are more asymmetric than the fragments obtained in deformation-induced fission or the corresponding adiabatic approaches.

  2. Time dependent particle emission from fission products

    SciTech Connect

    Holloway, Shannon T; Kawano, Toshihiko; Moller, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Decay heating following nuclear fission is an important factor in the design of nuclear facilities; impacting a variety of aspects ranging from cooling requirements to shielding design. Calculations of decay heat, often assumed to be a simple product of activity and average decay product energy, are complicated by the so called 'pandemonium effect'. Elucidated in the 1970's this complication arises from beta-decays feeding high-energy nuclear levels; redistributing the available energy between betas and gammas. Increased interest in improving the theoretical predictions of decay probabilities has been, in part, motivated by the recent experimental effort utilizing the Total Absorption Gamma-ray Spectrometer (TAGS) to determine individual beta-decay transition probabilities to individual nuclear levels. Accurate predictions of decay heating require a detailed understanding of these transition probabilities, accurate representation of particle decays as well as reliable predictions of temporal inventories from fissioning systems. We will discuss a recent LANL effort to provide a time dependent study of particle emission from fission products through a combination of Quasiparticle Random Phase Approximation (QRPA) predictions of beta-decay probabilities, statistical Hauser-Feshbach techniques to obtain particle and gamma-ray emissions in statistical Hauser-Feshbach and the nuclear inventory code, CINDER.

  3. Fission dynamics within time-dependent Hartree-Fock: Deformation-induced fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goddard, Philip; Stevenson, Paul; Rios, Arnau

    2015-11-01

    Background: Nuclear fission is a complex large-amplitude collective decay mode in heavy nuclei. Microscopic density functional studies of fission have previously concentrated on adiabatic approaches based on constrained static calculations ignoring dynamical excitations of the fissioning nucleus and the daughter products. Purpose: We explore the ability of dynamic mean-field methods to describe fast fission processes beyond the fission barrier, using the nuclide Pu240 as an example. Methods: Time-dependent Hartree-Fock calculations based on the Skyrme interaction are used to calculate nonadiabatic fission paths, beginning from static constrained Hartree-Fock calculations. The properties of the dynamic states are interpreted in terms of the nature of their collective motion. Fission product properties are compared to data. Results: Parent nuclei constrained to begin dynamic evolution with a deformation less than the fission barrier exhibit giant-resonance-type behavior. Those beginning just beyond the barrier explore large-amplitude motion but do not fission, whereas those beginning beyond the two-fragment pathway crossing fission to final states which differ according to the exact initial deformation. Conclusions: Time-dependent Hartree-Fock is able to give a good qualitative and quantitative description of fast fission, provided one begins from a sufficiently deformed state.

  4. Fundamental Fission Research with the NIFFTE Time Projection Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinrath, Verena; Niffte Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    The Neutron Induced Fission Fragment Tracking Experiment (NIFFTE) has developed a novel instrument for fission research - a Time Projection Chamber (TPC), which enables detailed tracking of charged particles emitted in neutron-induced fission. While the primary goal of the project is to measure fission cross sections with unprecedented precision, the TPC can also facilitate more fundamental fission studies. The detector's high efficiency (4-pi acceptance) and precise tracking capabilities (including energy deposition) provide a large amount of valuable information. Recent data collected during engineering runs using a U238/U235 target will be used to generate fission fragment angular distributions and yields as a function of incident neutron energy. These experimental results can lend insight into the evolution of nuclear shapes with respect to energy on the path to scission and therefore immediately drive fission theory development. Preliminary angular distributions and yields using the NIFFTE TPC will be presented. Neutron Induced Fission Fragment Tracking Experiment.

  5. Innovative Fission Measurements with a Time Projection Chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Heffner, M D; Barnes, P D; Klay, J L

    2005-11-16

    This study explores a pioneering idea to utilize a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) to measure fission cross sections and other fission quantities. The TPC is inherently capable of measuring fragments from fission events, decay alphas, and beam-material scatters. This document explores whether the TPC can improve the precision of the {sup 239}Pu(n,f) cross section and measure other new and significant fission quantities simultaneously. This work shows that the TPC can in fact deliver sub-1% cross section measurements and should provide breakthroughs in both the quality and quantity of information available from neutron-induced fission experiments.

  6. New Fission Cross Section Measurements using a Time Projection Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadler, Michael

    2008-03-01

    A group of six universities (ACU, California Polytechnic, Colorado School of Mines, Georgia Institute of Technology, Ohio, and Oregon State) and three national laboratories (Los Alamos, Lawrence Livermore, and Idaho) have undertaken the task of building a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) to measure the fission cross sections needed for the next generation of nuclear reactors. The fission TPC concept will be presented, and why we think we can improve on 50 years of fission study.

  7. Late-time emission of prompt fission γ rays

    DOE PAGES

    Talou, Patrick; Kawano, Toshihiko; Stetcu, Ionel; ...

    2016-12-22

    The emission of prompt fission γ rays within a few nanoseconds to a few microseconds following the scission point is studied in the Hauser-Feshbach formalism applied to the deexcitation of primary excited fission fragments. Neutron and γ-ray evaporations from fully accelerated fission fragments are calculated in competition at each stage of the decay, and the role of isomers in the fission products, before β decay, is analyzed. The time evolution of the average total γ-ray energy, the average total γ-ray multiplicity, and the fragment-specific γ-ray spectra is presented in the case of neutron-induced fission reactions of 235U and 239Pu, asmore » well as spontaneous fission of 252Cf. The production of specific isomeric states is calculated and compared to available experimental data. About 7% of all prompt fission γ rays are predicted to be emitted between 10 ns and 5 μs following fission, in the case of 235U and 239Pu(nth,f) reactions, and up to 3% in the case of 252Cf spontaneous fission. The cumulative average total γ-ray energy increases by 2% to 5% in the same time interval. Lastly, those results are shown to be robust against significant changes in the model input parameters.« less

  8. Late-time emission of prompt fission γ rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talou, P.; Kawano, T.; Stetcu, I.; Lestone, J. P.; McKigney, E.; Chadwick, M. B.

    2016-12-01

    The emission of prompt fission γ rays within a few nanoseconds to a few microseconds following the scission point is studied in the Hauser-Feshbach formalism applied to the deexcitation of primary excited fission fragments. Neutron and γ -ray evaporations from fully accelerated fission fragments are calculated in competition at each stage of the decay, and the role of isomers in the fission products, before β decay, is analyzed. The time evolution of the average total γ -ray energy, the average total γ -ray multiplicity, and the fragment-specific γ -ray spectra is presented in the case of neutron-induced fission reactions of 235U and 239Pu, as well as spontaneous fission of 252Cf. The production of specific isomeric states is calculated and compared to available experimental data. About 7% of all prompt fission γ rays are predicted to be emitted between 10 ns and 5 μ s following fission, in the case of 235U and 239Pu(nth,f ) reactions, and up to 3% in the case of 252Cf spontaneous fission. The cumulative average total γ -ray energy increases by 2% to 5% in the same time interval. Finally, those results are shown to be robust against significant changes in the model input parameters.

  9. Monte-Carlo Generation of Time Evolving Fission Chains

    SciTech Connect

    Verbeke, Jerome M.; Kim, Kenneth S.; Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.

    2013-08-01

    About a decade ago, a computer code was written to model neutrons from their “birth” to their final “death” in thermal neutron detectors (3He tubes): SrcSim had enough physics to track the neutrons in multiplying systems, appropriately increasing and decreasing the neutron population as they interacted by absorption, fission and leakage. The theory behind the algorithms assumed that all neutrons produced in a fission chain were all produced simultaneously, and then diffused to the neutron detectors. For cases where the diffusion times are long compared to the fission chains, SrcSim is very successful. Indeed, it works extraordinarily well for thermal neutron detectors and bare objects, because it takes tens of microseconds for fission neutrons to slow down to thermal energies, where they can be detected. Microseconds are a very long time compared to the lengths of the fission chains. However, this inherent assumption in the theory prevents its use to cases where either the fission chains are long compared to the neutron diffusion times (water-cooled nuclear reactors, or heavily moderated object, where the theory starts failing), or the fission neutrons can be detected shortly after they were produced (fast neutron detectors). For these cases, a new code needs to be written, where the underlying assumption is not made. The purpose of this report is to develop an algorithm to generate the arrival times of neutrons in fast neutron detectors, starting from a neutron source such as a spontaneous fission source (252Cf) or a multiplying source (Pu). This code will be an extension of SrcSim to cases where correlations between neutrons in the detectors are on the same or shorter time scales as the fission chains themselves.

  10. Long Fission Times of Super-Heavy Compound Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Drouart, A.; Charvet, J. L.; Dayras, R.; Nalpas, L.; Volant, C.; Jacquet, D.

    2008-04-17

    The blocking technique in single crystals is a direct method to investigate the presence of long fission time components. With a lead beam impinging on a germanium single crystal, we tried to produce compound nuclei (CN) with atomic number Z = 114 at high excitation energy. Blocking patterns for reaction products are reconstructed with position sensitive detectors at 20 deg. relative to the beam direction. The Z and the energies of all products are measured with {delta}E-E telescopes of the 4{pi} INDRA array, so that all reaction channels are unambiguously identified. With this setup, we can reach long fission times (>10{sup -18} s) that can be associated with CN fissions. However, in contrast to previous experiments in which such long fission times could be measured for Z = 120 and 124, no hint of long lifetimes within our sensitivity limit for Z = 114 was observed, which may be due to the neutron deficiency of the formed isotopes.

  11. FITPULS: a code for obtaining analytic fits to aggregate fission-product decay-energy spectra. [In FORTRAN

    SciTech Connect

    LaBauve, R.J.; George, D.C.; England, T.R.

    1980-03-01

    The operation and input to the FITPULS code, recently updated to utilize interactive graphics, are described. The code is designed to retrieve data from a library containing aggregate fine-group spectra (150 energy groups) from fission products, collapse the data to few groups (up to 25), and fit the resulting spectra along the cooling time axis with a linear combination of exponential functions. Also given in this report are useful results for aggregate gamma and beta spectra from the decay of fission products released from /sup 235/U irradiated with a pulse (10/sup -4/ s irradiation time) of thermal neutrons. These fits are given in 22 energy groups that are the first 22 groups of the LASL 25-group decay-energy group structure, and the data are expressed both as MeV per fission second and particles per fission second; these pulse functions are readily folded into finite fission histories. 65 figures, 11 tables.

  12. Fission Fragment Angular Distributions measured with a Time Projection Chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinrath, Verena

    2015-04-28

    The subject is presented in a series of slides with the following organization: Introduction (What is anisotropy? Relevance (Theory and ratio cross section), Previous measurements); Experiment (Particle tracking in the fissionTPC, Neutron time of flight, Data analysis & uncertainty calculation, Preliminary result for 235U); and Future Work (Refine 235U result, Process 239Pu data).

  13. Microscopic description of fission dynamics: Toward a 3D computation of the time dependent GCM equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regnier, D.; Dubray, N.; Schunck, N.; Verrière, M.

    2017-09-01

    Accurate knowledge of fission fragment yields is an essential ingredient of numerous applications ranging from the formation of elements in the r-process to fuel cycle optimization in nuclear energy. The need for a predictive theory applicable where no data is available, together with the variety of potential applications, is an incentive to develop a fully microscopic approach to fission dynamics. One of the most promising theoretical frameworks is the time dependent generator coordinate method (TDGCM) applied under the Gaussian overlap approximation (GOA). However, the computational cost of this method makes it difficult to perform calculations with more than two collective degree of freedom. Meanwhile, it is well-known from both semi-phenomenological and fully microscopic approaches that at least four or five dimensions may play a role in the dynamics of fission. To overcome this limitation, we develop the code FELIX aiming to solve the TDGCM+GOA equation for an arbitrary number of collective variables. In this talk, we report the recent progress toward this enriched description of fission dynamics. We will briefly present the numerical methods adopted as well as the status of the latest version of FELIX. Finally, we will discuss fragments yields obtained within this approach for the low energy fission of major actinides.

  14. A time projection chamber for high accuracy and precision fission cross-section measurements

    DOE PAGES

    Heffner, M.; Asner, D. M.; Baker, R. G.; ...

    2014-05-22

    The fission Time Projection Chamber (fissionTPC) is a compact (15 cm diameter) two-chamber MICROMEGAS TPC designed to make precision cross-section measurements of neutron-induced fission. The actinide targets are placed on the central cathode and irradiated with a neutron beam that passes axially through the TPC inducing fission in the target. The 4π acceptance for fission fragments and complete charged particle track reconstruction are powerful features of the fissionTPC which will be used to measure fission cross-sections and examine the associated systematic errors. This study provides a detailed description of the design requirements, the design solutions, and the initial performance ofmore » the fissionTPC.« less

  15. A time projection chamber for high accuracy and precision fission cross-section measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Heffner, M.; Asner, D. M.; Baker, R. G.; Baker, J.; Barrett, S.; Brune, C.; Bundgaard, J.; Burgett, E.; Carter, D.; Cunningham, M.; Deaven, J.; Duke, D. L.; Greife, U.; Grimes, S.; Hager, U.; Hertel, N.; Hill, T.; Isenhower, D.; Jewell, K.; King, J.; Klay, J. L.; Kleinrath, V.; Kornilov, N.; Kudo, R.; Laptev, A. B.; Leonard, M.; Loveland, W.; Massey, T. N.; McGrath, C.; Meharchand, R.; Montoya, L.; Pickle, N.; Qu, H.; Riot, V.; Ruz, J.; Sangiorgio, S.; Seilhan, B.; Sharma, S.; Snyder, L.; Stave, S.; Tatishvili, G.; Thornton, R. T.; Tovesson, F.; Towell, D.; Towell, R. S.; Watson, S.; Wendt, B.; Wood, L.; Yao, L.

    2014-05-22

    The fission Time Projection Chamber (fissionTPC) is a compact (15 cm diameter) two-chamber MICROMEGAS TPC designed to make precision cross-section measurements of neutron-induced fission. The actinide targets are placed on the central cathode and irradiated with a neutron beam that passes axially through the TPC inducing fission in the target. The 4π acceptance for fission fragments and complete charged particle track reconstruction are powerful features of the fissionTPC which will be used to measure fission cross-sections and examine the associated systematic errors. This study provides a detailed description of the design requirements, the design solutions, and the initial performance of the fissionTPC.

  16. A Time Projection Chamber for High Accuracy and Precision Fission Cross-Section Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    T. Hill; K. Jewell; M. Heffner; D. Carter; M. Cunningham; V. Riot; J. Ruz; S. Sangiorgio; B. Seilhan; L. Snyder; D. M. Asner; S. Stave; G. Tatishvili; L. Wood; R. G. Baker; J. L. Klay; R. Kudo; S. Barrett; J. King; M. Leonard; W. Loveland; L. Yao; C. Brune; S. Grimes; N. Kornilov; T. N. Massey; J. Bundgaard; D. L. Duke; U. Greife; U. Hager; E. Burgett; J. Deaven; V. Kleinrath; C. McGrath; B. Wendt; N. Hertel; D. Isenhower; N. Pickle; H. Qu; S. Sharma; R. T. Thornton; D. Tovwell; R. S. Towell; S.

    2014-09-01

    The fission Time Projection Chamber (fissionTPC) is a compact (15 cm diameter) two-chamber MICROMEGAS TPC designed to make precision cross-section measurements of neutron-induced fission. The actinide targets are placed on the central cathode and irradiated with a neutron beam that passes axially through the TPC inducing fission in the target. The 4p acceptance for fission fragments and complete charged particle track reconstruction are powerful features of the fissionTPC which will be used to measure fission cross-sections and examine the associated systematic errors. This paper provides a detailed description of the design requirements, the design solutions, and the initial performance of the fissionTPC.

  17. A time projection chamber for high accuracy and precision fission cross-section measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heffner, M.; Asner, D. M.; Baker, R. G.; Baker, J.; Barrett, S.; Brune, C.; Bundgaard, J.; Burgett, E.; Carter, D.; Cunningham, M.; Deaven, J.; Duke, D. L.; Greife, U.; Grimes, S.; Hager, U.; Hertel, N.; Hill, T.; Isenhower, D.; Jewell, K.; King, J.; Klay, J. L.; Kleinrath, V.; Kornilov, N.; Kudo, R.; Laptev, A. B.; Leonard, M.; Loveland, W.; Massey, T. N.; McGrath, C.; Meharchand, R.; Montoya, L.; Pickle, N.; Qu, H.; Riot, V.; Ruz, J.; Sangiorgio, S.; Seilhan, B.; Sharma, S.; Snyder, L.; Stave, S.; Tatishvili, G.; Thornton, R. T.; Tovesson, F.; Towell, D.; Towell, R. S.; Watson, S.; Wendt, B.; Wood, L.; Yao, L.

    2014-09-01

    The fission Time Projection Chamber (fissionTPC) is a compact (15 cm diameter) two-chamber MICROMEGAS TPC designed to make precision cross-section measurements of neutron-induced fission. The actinide targets are placed on the central cathode and irradiated with a neutron beam that passes axially through the TPC inducing fission in the target. The 4π acceptance for fission fragments and complete charged particle track reconstruction are powerful features of the fissionTPC which will be used to measure fission cross-sections and examine the associated systematic errors. This paper provides a detailed description of the design requirements, the design solutions, and the initial performance of the fissionTPC.

  18. Fission rate and transient time of highly excited nuclei in multi-dimensional stochastic calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Anischenko, Yu. A.; Gegechkori, A. E.; Nadtochy, P. N.; Adeev, G. D.

    2010-04-30

    The influence of the dynamical model dimensionality in use on the fission rates studied within the stochastic approach to fission dynamics [1]. Time dependence of the fission rate was calculated with the use of multidimensional Langevin equation. Particle evaporation was not taken into account. One-, two- and three-dimensional cases were considered on the basis of the left bracec, h, alpharight brace-parametrization of the nuclear surface shape. Calculations were performed for the large number of compound nuclei with Z{sup 2}/A parameter in the range 20fission rate in the transition from one-dimensional to three-dimensional case was revealed [2]. This increase is about two times for the nuclei around {sup 224}Th and about 10{sup 2} for the light nuclei near the Businaro-Gallone point. The influence of the dissipation mechanism on the transient time is studied for multidimensional systems. It was shown that the ratios of the stationary fission rates obtained in the calculations with the different dimensionalities: R{sup 3D}{sub st}/R{sup 1D}{sub st} and R{sup 2D}{sub st}/R{sup 1D}{sub st} remain almost the same for different dissipation mechanisms. Thus we conclude that the fission rate is mostly determined by the structure of the potential energy surface of the system. For one-body dissipation mechanism it was shown that the transient time tau{sub tr} is about 5 or 6 times greater at k{sub s} = 1.0 than at k{sub s} = 0.25. Two-body dissipation mechanism leads to the smaller tau{sub tr} values in comparison with the one-body dissipation mechanism at k{sub s} = 0.25. The transient time does not change significantly in the dynamical calculations with the different dimensionality. We also compared the dynamically calculated stationary fission rate to the Kramers rate.

  19. Measurements of the neutron-induced fission cross section of sup 242 Cm and sup 238 Pu by lead slowing down time spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Alam, B.

    1987-01-01

    The neutron-induced fission cross section of {sup 242}Cm and {sup 238}Pu have been measured from 0.1 eV to 100 keV energy range using the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute's Gaerttner Laboratory Electron Linac as a pulsed neutron source and the Rensselaer Intense Neutron Spectrometer (RINS) system to obtain an adequate ratio of the neutron-induced fission signal to that due to spontaneous fission background. A special fission chamber design employing multiple pairs of hemispherical electrodes coupled with fast electronics ({approx}nsec rise-time) combine to suppress the alpha pileup effects. The fission cross section of {sup 242}Cm and {sup 238}Pu reported in this thesis were obtained from simultaneous measurements on {sup 235}U, {sup 238}Pu and {sup 242}Cm, and these data were normalized to the resolution-broadened ENDF/B-V {sup 235} U fission cross section. The fission areas and the widths for the resolved low-energy resonances of {sup 242}Cm and {sup 238}Pu were determined. The resolution-broadened ENDF/B-V {sup 238}Pu fission data are generally in poor agreement with the measured fission data and a new evaluation on {sup 238}Pu has been recommended. The measured fission cross section of {sup 242}Cm cannot be compared because no evaluation or measurement on this nuclide is available in the energy region of the present measurements.

  20. Developments toward Understanding and Improving the Low Energy Measurement Capabilities of a Fission Time Projection Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bundgaard, Jeremy J.

    Nuclear physicists have been recently called upon for new, high precision fission measurements to improve existing fission models, ultimately enabling engineers to design next generation reactors as well as guarding the nation's stockpile. In response, a resurgence in fission research is aimed at developing detectors to design and build new experiments to meet these needs. The Neutron Induced Fission Fragment Tracking Experiment (NIFFTE) collaboration has developed the fission Time Projection Chamber (fissionTPC) to measure neutron induced fission with unprecedented precision. The fissionTPC is annually deployed to the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center LANSCE where it operates with a neutron beam passing axially through the drift volume, irradiating heavy actinide targets to induce fission. The fissionTPC was developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) TPC lab, where it is tested with spontaneous fission (SF) from radioactive sources, typically 252Cf and 244Cm, to characterize detector response, improve performance, and evolve the design. One of the experiments relevant for both nuclear energy and nonproliferation is to measure the neutron induced fission of 239Pu, which exhibits a high alpha activity, generating a large unwanted background for the fission measurements. The ratio of alpha to fission present in our neutron induced fission measurement of 239Pu is on the same order of magnitude as the 244Cm alpha/SF branching ratio. The high alpha rate required the TPC to be triggering on fission signals during beam time and we set out to build a trigger system, which, using 244Cm to produce a similar alpha to fission ratio as 239Pu in the neutron beam, we successfully demonstrated the viability of this approach. The trigger design has been evolved for use in NIFFTE's current measurements at LANSCE. In addition to several hardware and software contributions in the development and operation of the fissionTPC, a central purpose of this thesis was

  1. Reducing Uncertainties in Neutron-Induced Fission Cross Sections Using a Time Projection Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, Brett; Niffte Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    Neutron-induced fission cross sections for actinides have long been of great interest for nuclear energy and stockpile stewardship. Traditionally, measurements were performed using fission chambers which provided limited information about the detected fission events. For the case of 239Pu(n,f), sensitivity studies have shown a need for more precise measurements. Recently the Neutron Induced Fission Fragment Tracking Experiment (NIFFTE) has developed the fission Time Projection Chamber (fissionTPC) to measure fission cross sections to better than 1% uncertainty by providing 3D tracking of fission fragments. The fissionTPC collected data to calculate the 239Pu(n,f) cross section at the Weapons Neutron Research facility at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center during the 2014 run cycle. Preliminary analysis has been focused on studying particle identification and target and beam non-uniformities to reduce the uncertainty on the cross section. Additionally, the collaboration is investigating other systematic errors that could not be well studied with a traditional fission chamber. LA-UR-15-24906.

  2. Neutron-induced fission measurements at the time-of-flight facility nELBE

    DOE PAGES

    Kögler, T.; Beyer, R.; Junghans, A. R.; ...

    2015-05-18

    Neutron-induced fission of ²⁴²Pu is studied at the photoneutron source nELBE. The relative fast neutron fission cross section was determined using actinide fission chambers in a time-of-flight experiment. A good agreement of present nuclear data with evalua- tions has been achieved in the range of 100 keV to 10 MeV.

  3. Neutron-induced fission measurements at the time-of-flight facility nELBE

    SciTech Connect

    Kögler, T.; Junghans, A. R.; Massarczyk, R.; Schwengner, R.; Wagner, A.

    2015-05-18

    Neutron-induced fission of ²⁴²Pu is studied at the photoneutron source nELBE. The relative fast neutron fission cross section was determined using actinide fission chambers in a time-of-flight experiment. A good agreement of present nuclear data with evalua- tions has been achieved in the range of 100 keV to 10 MeV.

  4. Effect of the fissile bead's and thermocouple wires’ sizes on the response time of a fission couple

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Wenfeng Lu, Yi; Li, Meng; Fan, Xiaoqiang; Lu, Wei

    2014-05-15

    The fission couple is proposed as a fast response miniature neutron detector in the measurement of time dependent energy depositions within the fissile material based on theoretical analysis, but the response time of a fission couple is relatively slow in practice. The time lag originated from heat transfer process was demonstrated to be the dominating factor by theoretical simulations and experimental verification in this paper. The response of a fission couple as a function of the bead size and the thermocouple wires’ sizes are simulated using ANSYS workbench. The decrease of wires’ diameter results in the decrease of response time, and the increase of bead's diameter leads to a slight increase of response time. During a pulse heating transient in the fuel of Chinese Fast Burst Reactor II with a FWHM of 181μs, the time lag originated from heat transfer process is about tens of microseconds for the peaks of the change rate of temperature, and is of the order of milliseconds to achieve 85% of the temperature rise for a typical fission couple with a Φ 1 mm fissile bead and two Φ 0.05 mm thermocouple wires. The results obtained provide foundation for the optimization of fission couples.

  5. Effect of the fissile bead's and thermocouple wires' sizes on the response time of a fission couple.

    PubMed

    Liang, Wenfeng; Lu, Yi; Li, Meng; Fan, Xiaoqiang; Lu, Wei

    2014-05-01

    The fission couple is proposed as a fast response miniature neutron detector in the measurement of time dependent energy depositions within the fissile material based on theoretical analysis, but the response time of a fission couple is relatively slow in practice. The time lag originated from heat transfer process was demonstrated to be the dominating factor by theoretical simulations and experimental verification in this paper. The response of a fission couple as a function of the bead size and the thermocouple wires' sizes are simulated using ANSYS workbench. The decrease of wires' diameter results in the decrease of response time, and the increase of bead's diameter leads to a slight increase of response time. During a pulse heating transient in the fuel of Chinese Fast Burst Reactor II with a FWHM of 181 μs, the time lag originated from heat transfer process is about tens of microseconds for the peaks of the change rate of temperature, and is of the order of milliseconds to achieve 85% of the temperature rise for a typical fission couple with a Φ 1 mm fissile bead and two Φ 0.05 mm thermocouple wires. The results obtained provide foundation for the optimization of fission couples.

  6. Impact of material thicknesses on fission observables obtained with the FALSTAFF experimental setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thulliez, L.; Doré, D.; Berthoumieux, E.; Panebianco, S.; Legou, P.; Kebbiri, M.; Piret, Y.; Mols, J. P.; Combet, M.; Riallot, M.; Marcel, A.; Farget, F.; Pancin, J.; Frégeau, M. O.; Ledoux, X.; Lecolley, F.-R.; Perronnel, J.; Goupillère, D.; Oberstedt, S.

    2017-09-01

    In the past years, the fission studies have been mainly focused on thermal fission because most of the current nuclear reactors work in this energy domain. With the development of GEN-IV reactor concepts, mainly working in the fast energy domain, new nuclear data are needed. The FALSTAFF spectrometer under development at CEA-Saclay, France, is a two-arm spectrometer which will provide mass yields before (2V method) and after (EV method) neutron evaporation and consequently will have access to the neutron multiplicity as a function of mass. The axial ionization chamber, in addition to the kinetic energy value, will measure the energy loss profile of the fragment along its track. This energy loss profile will give information about the fragment nuclear charge. This paper will focus on recent developments on the FALSTAFF design. A special attention will be paid to the impact of the detector material thickness on the uncertainty of different observables.

  7. Late-time emission of prompt fission γ rays

    SciTech Connect

    Talou, Patrick; Kawano, Toshihiko; Stetcu, Ionel; Lestone, John Paul; McKigney, Edward Allen; Chadwick, Mark Benjamin

    2016-12-22

    The emission of prompt fission γ rays within a few nanoseconds to a few microseconds following the scission point is studied in the Hauser-Feshbach formalism applied to the deexcitation of primary excited fission fragments. Neutron and γ-ray evaporations from fully accelerated fission fragments are calculated in competition at each stage of the decay, and the role of isomers in the fission products, before β decay, is analyzed. The time evolution of the average total γ-ray energy, the average total γ-ray multiplicity, and the fragment-specific γ-ray spectra is presented in the case of neutron-induced fission reactions of 235U and 239Pu, as well as spontaneous fission of 252Cf. The production of specific isomeric states is calculated and compared to available experimental data. About 7% of all prompt fission γ rays are predicted to be emitted between 10 ns and 5 μs following fission, in the case of 235U and 239Pu(nth,f) reactions, and up to 3% in the case of 252Cf spontaneous fission. The cumulative average total γ-ray energy increases by 2% to 5% in the same time interval. Lastly, those results are shown to be robust against significant changes in the model input parameters.

  8. Inversion of the Odd-Even Effect in Cold Fission from the Time-Dependent Pairing Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirea, M.

    2016-06-01

    A peculiar phenomenon was observed experimentally in cold fission: the odd partition yields are favored over the even ones for excitations energies of the fragments smaller than 4 MeV. In this contribution, a microscopic model is proposed for the explanation of this odd-even effect in cold fission. This explanation is based on a mixing configuration mechanism that is produced during the fission process. This configuration mixing mechanism is obtained dynamically by solving a the generalized system of time-dependent pairing equations, which include a pair-breaking effect. The time dependent equations of motion for the pair breaking effect were corroborated with a condition that fixes dynamically the number of particles on the two fission fragment. The single particle level scheme was calculated with the Woods-Saxon superasymmetric two center shell model, providing a continuous variation of the single particle energies and of the wave functions from one nucleus up to two separated fragments. A first rule can be extracted from this model. The even-even fission products cannot be obtained at zero excitation energies because of the existence of dynamical excitations produced in the avoided- level-crossing regions when the nuclear system deforms slowly.

  9. The Data Analysis Framework for the NIFFTE Fission Time Projection Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stave, S.; Asner, D. M.; Baker, R. G.; Bundgaard, J.; Burgett, E.; Cunningham, M.; Deaven, J.; Duke, D. L.; Greife, U.; Grimes, S.; Heffner, M.; Hill, T.; Isenhower, D.; Klay, J. L.; Kleinrath, V.; Kornilov, N.; Laptev, A. B.; Loveland, W.; Massey, T. N.; Meharchand, R.; Qu, H.; Ruz, J.; Sangiorgio, S.; Seilhan, B.; Snyder, L.; Tatishvili, G.; Thornton, R. T.; Tovesson, F.; Towell, D.; Towell, R. S.; Watson, S.; Wendt, B.; Wood, L.

    2014-05-01

    The NIFFTE collaboration has developed a time projection chamber to study neutron-induced fission events in actinide targets by tracking and identifying fission fragments in three dimensions as they traverse a gas volume. This paper will provide an overview of the analysis software that has been developed by the NIFFTE collaboration, as well as examples of its success in analyzing data.

  10. Report on Fission Time Projection Chamber M3FT-12IN0210052

    SciTech Connect

    James K. Jewell

    2012-08-01

    The Time Projection Chamber is a collaborative effort to implement an innovative approach and deliver unprecedented fission measurements to DOE programs. This 4?-detector system will provide unrivaled 3-D data about the fission process. Shown here is a half populated TPC (2?) at the LLNL TPC laboratory as it undergoes testing before being shipped to LANSCE for beam experiments.

  11. Cyclin C influences the timing of mitosis in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Banyai, Gabor; Szilagyi, Zsolt; Baraznenok, Vera; Khorosjutina, Olga; Gustafsson, Claes M

    2017-07-01

    The multiprotein Mediator complex is required for the regulated transcription of nearly all RNA polymerase II-dependent genes. Mediator contains the Cdk8 regulatory subcomplex, which directs periodic transcription and influences cell cycle progression in fission yeast. Here we investigate the role of CycC, the cognate cyclin partner of Cdk8, in cell cycle control. Previous reports suggested that CycC interacts with other cellular Cdks, but a fusion of CycC to Cdk8 reported here did not cause any obvious cell cycle phenotypes. We find that Cdk8 and CycC interactions are stabilized within the Mediator complex and the activity of Cdk8-CycC is regulated by other Mediator components. Analysis of a mutant yeast strain reveals that CycC, together with Cdk8, primarily affects M-phase progression but mutations that release Cdk8 from CycC control also affect timing of entry into S phase. © 2017 Banyai et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  12. ER contact sites define the position and timing of endosome fission

    PubMed Central

    Rowland, Ashley A.; Chitwood, Patrick J.; Phillips, Melissa J.; Voeltz, Gia K.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Endocytic cargo and Rab GTPases are segregated to distinct domains of an endosome. These domains maintain their identity until they undergo fission to traffic cargo. It is not fully understood how segregation of cargo or Rab proteins is maintained along the continuous endosomal membrane, or what machinery is required for fission. Endosomes form contact sites with the ER that are maintained during trafficking. Here, we show that stable contacts form between the ER and endosome at constricted sorting domains and that free diffusion of cargo is limited at these positions. We demonstrate that the site of constriction and fission for early and late endosomes is spatially and temporally linked to contact sites with the ER. Lastly, we show that altering ER structure and dynamics reduces the efficiency of endosome fission. Together these data reveal a surprising role for ER contact in defining the timing and position of endosome fission. PMID:25416943

  13. Component Repair Times Obtained from MSPI Data

    SciTech Connect

    Eide, Steven A.

    2015-05-01

    Information concerning times to repair or restore equipment to service given a failure is valuable to probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs). Examples of such uses in modern PRAs include estimation of the probability of failing to restore a failed component within a specified time period (typically tied to recovering a mitigating system before core damage occurs at nuclear power plants) and the determination of mission times for support system initiating event (SSIE) fault tree models. Information on equipment repair or restoration times applicable to PRA modeling is limited and dated for U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. However, the Mitigating Systems Performance Index (MSPI) program covering all U.S. commercial nuclear power plants provides up-to-date information on restoration times for a limited set of component types. This paper describes the MSPI program data available and analyzes the data to obtain median and mean component restoration times as well as non-restoration cumulative probability curves. The MSPI program provides guidance for monitoring both planned and unplanned outages of trains of selected mitigating systems deemed important to safety. For systems included within the MSPI program, plants monitor both train UA and component unreliability (UR) against baseline values. If the combined system UA and UR increases sufficiently above established baseline results (converted to an estimated change in core damage frequency or CDF), a “white” (or worse) indicator is generated for that system. That in turn results in increased oversight by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and can impact a plant’s insurance rating. Therefore, there is pressure to return MSPI program components to service as soon as possible after a failure occurs. Three sets of unplanned outages might be used to determine the component repair durations desired in this article: all unplanned outages for the train type that includes the component of interest, only

  14. Time Evolving Fission Chain Theory and Fast Neutron and Gamma-Ray Counting Distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K. S.; Nakae, L. F.; Prasad, M. K.; Snyderman, N. J.; Verbeke, J. M.

    2015-11-01

    Here, we solve a simple theoretical model of time evolving fission chains due to Feynman that generalizes and asymptotically approaches the point model theory. The point model theory has been used to analyze thermal neutron counting data. This extension of the theory underlies fast counting data for both neutrons and gamma rays from metal systems. Fast neutron and gamma-ray counting is now possible using liquid scintillator arrays with nanosecond time resolution. For individual fission chains, the differential equations describing three correlated probability distributions are solved: the time-dependent internal neutron population, accumulation of fissions in time, and accumulation of leaked neutrons in time. Explicit analytic formulas are given for correlated moments of the time evolving chain populations. The equations for random time gate fast neutron and gamma-ray counting distributions, due to randomly initiated chains, are presented. Correlated moment equations are given for both random time gate and triggered time gate counting. There are explicit formulas for all correlated moments are given up to triple order, for all combinations of correlated fast neutrons and gamma rays. The nonlinear differential equations for probabilities for time dependent fission chain populations have a remarkably simple Monte Carlo realization. A Monte Carlo code was developed for this theory and is shown to statistically realize the solutions to the fission chain theory probability distributions. Combined with random initiation of chains and detection of external quanta, the Monte Carlo code generates time tagged data for neutron and gamma-ray counting and from these data the counting distributions.

  15. Induced Fission of 240Pu within a Real-Time Microscopic Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulgac, Aurel; Magierski, Piotr; Roche, Kenneth J.; Stetcu, Ionel

    2016-03-01

    We describe the fissioning dynamics of 240Pu from a configuration in the proximity of the outer fission barrier to full scission and the formation of the fragments within an implementation of density functional theory extended to superfluid systems and real-time dynamics. The fission fragments emerge with properties similar to those determined experimentally, while the fission dynamics appears to be quite complex, with many excited shape and pairing modes. The evolution is found to be much slower than previously expected, and the ultimate role of the collective inertia is found to be negligible in this fully nonadiabatic treatment of nuclear dynamics, where all collective degrees of freedom (CDOF) are included (unlike adiabatic treatments with a small number of CDOF).

  16. Induced fission of Pu240 within a real-time microscopic framework

    DOE PAGES

    Bulgac, Aurel; Magierski, Piotr; Roche, Kenneth J.; ...

    2016-03-25

    Here, we describe the fissioning dynamics of 240Pu from a configuration in the proximity of the outer fission barrier to full scission and the formation of the fragments within an implementation of density functional theory extended to superfluid systems and real-time dynamics. The fission fragments emerge with properties similar to those determined experimentally, while the fission dynamics appears to be quite complex, with many excited shape and pairing modes. The evolution is found to be much slower than previously expected, and the ultimate role of the collective inertia is found to be negligible in this fully nonadiabatic treatment of nuclearmore » dynamics, where all collective degrees of freedom (CDOF) are included (unlike adiabatic treatments with a small number of CDOF).« less

  17. Induced Fission of (240)Pu within a Real-Time Microscopic Framework.

    PubMed

    Bulgac, Aurel; Magierski, Piotr; Roche, Kenneth J; Stetcu, Ionel

    2016-03-25

    We describe the fissioning dynamics of ^{240}Pu from a configuration in the proximity of the outer fission barrier to full scission and the formation of the fragments within an implementation of density functional theory extended to superfluid systems and real-time dynamics. The fission fragments emerge with properties similar to those determined experimentally, while the fission dynamics appears to be quite complex, with many excited shape and pairing modes. The evolution is found to be much slower than previously expected, and the ultimate role of the collective inertia is found to be negligible in this fully nonadiabatic treatment of nuclear dynamics, where all collective degrees of freedom (CDOF) are included (unlike adiabatic treatments with a small number of CDOF).

  18. Bimodal fission of Hs*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itkis, I. M.; Itkis, M. G.; Knyazheva, G. N.; Kozulin, E. M.; Loktev, T. A.; Novikov, K. V.; Hanappe, F.; Vardaci, E.

    2014-05-01

    Mass and energy distributions of fission fragments obtained in the reactions 22Ne + 249Cf, 26Mg + 248Cm, and 22Ne + 238U have been measured. A special attention will be paid on the properties of mass-energy distribution of fission fragments obtained in the reaction 26Mg + 248Cm at an excitation energy of 35 MeV. At this energy shell effects should become more effective in fission, the TKE distribution of symmetric fragments obtained in the reaction 26Mg + 248Cm differs strongly from a Gaussian shape. Besides a low-energy component, a high-energy component, not foreseen in the LDM, arises. This is attributed to the fact that both fission fragments are close to the spherical neutron shell N = 82. It means that for the compound nucleus 274Hs*, formed in the reaction 26Mg + 248Cm, the phenomenon of bimodal fission was observed for the first time. For the compound nucleus 260No* formed in the reaction 22Ne + 238U at the initial excitation energy of 41 MeV the bimodal fission as well as superasymmetric fission were observed.

  19. Fission origin of the moon - Cause and timing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okeefe, J. A.; Sullivan, E. C.

    1978-01-01

    A new scenario is offered for the origin of the moon. It is assumed that the earth formed initially with about the maximum amount of angular momentum consistent with dynamical stability. This state is approximated by the secularly unstable Maclaurin spheroids (highly flattened hamburger-shaped bodies). It is shown that the earth cannot depart from this state at a reasonable rate as long as its viscosity is in the range of liquid rock. Since core formation supplies about 1600 kJ/kg, the earth will not leave this state until core formation is complete. When cooling produces a rise in viscosity, the earth will necessarily evolve along a path which is approximated by the Riemann ellipsoids (which have rapid internal motion). The evolution is toward a Jacobi ellipsoid, but it is intercepted by the development of a third-harmonic (pear-shaped) instability, which is catastrophic and leads to fission. The process of fission itself may be fundamentally analogous to the breaking of a wave in water. We cannot exclude the possibility that some other planets evolved similarly.

  20. Reducing Uncertainties in Neutron Induced Fission Cross Sections via a Time Projection Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magee, Joshua; Niffte Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    Neutron induced fission cross sections of actinides are of great interest in nuclear energy and stockpile stewardship. Traditionally, measurements of these cross sections have been made with fission chambers, which provide limited information on the actual fragments, and ultimately result in uncertainties on the order of several percent. The Neutron Induced Fission Fragment Tracking Experiment collaboration (NIFFTE) designed and built a fission Time Project Chamber (fission TPC), which provides additional information on these processes, through 3-dimensional tracking, improved particle identification, and in-situ profiles of target and beam non-uniformities. Ultimately, this should provide sub-percent measurements of (n,f) cross-sections. During the 2015 run cycle, measurements of several actinides were performed at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) Weapons Neutron Research (WNR) facility. An overview of the fission TPC will be given, as well as the current progress towards a sub-percent measurement of the 239Pu/235U (n,f) cross-section ratio. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  1. SPECT Imaging of Mice with 99mTc-Radiopharmaceuticals Obtained from 99Mo Produced by 100Mo(n,2n)99Mo and Fission of 235U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Kazuyuki; Nagai, Yasuki; Kawabata, Masako; Sato, Nozomi; Hatsukawa, Yuichi; Saeki, Hideya; Motoishi, Shoji; Ohta, Masayuki; Konno, Chikara; Ochiai, Kentaro; Kawauchi, Yukimasa; Ohta, Akio; Shiina, Takayuki; Takeuchi, Nobuhiro; Ashino, Hiroki; Nakahara, Yuto

    2015-04-01

    The distribution of 99mTc-radiopharmaceutical in mouse was determined by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for the first time using 99mTc, which was separated by thermochromatography from 99Mo produced via the 100Mo(n,2n)99Mo reaction with accelerator neutrons. The SPECT image was comparable to that obtained using the fission product 99Mo. Radionuclidic and radiochemical purities of the separated 99mTc and its aluminum concentration met the United States Pharmacopeia regulatory requirements for 99mTc from the fission product 99Mo. These results provide important evidence that the 99mTc-radiopharmaceutical formulated using the (n,2n) 99Mo can be a promising substitute for the fission product 99Mo. The current and forthcoming problem of ensuring a reliable and constant supply of 99Mo in Japan can be partially mitigated.

  2. Development of position-sensitive time-of-flight spectrometer for fission fragment research

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, C. W.; Tovesson, F.; Meierbachtol, K.; Bredeweg, T.; Jandel, M.; Jorgenson, H. J.; Laptev, A.; Rusev, G.; Shields, D. W.; White, M.; Blakeley, R. E.; Mader, D. M.; Hecht, A. A.

    2014-07-09

    A position-sensitive, high-resolution time-of-flight detector for fission fragments has been developed. The SPectrometer for Ion DEtermination in fission Research (SPIDER) is a 2E–2v spectrometer designed to measure the mass of light fission fragments to a single mass unit. The time pick-off detector pairs to be used in SPIDER have been tested with α-particles from 229Th and its decay chain and α-particles and spontaneous fission fragments from 252Cf. Each detector module is comprised of thin electron conversion foil, electrostatic mirror, microchannel plates, and delay-line anodes. Particle trajectories on the order of 700 mm are determined accurately to within 0.7 mm. Flight times were measured with 250 ps resolution FWHM. Computed particle velocities are accurate to within 0.06 mm/ns corresponding to a precision of 0.5%. As a result, an ionization chamber capable of 400 keV energy resolution coupled with the velocity measurements described here will pave the way for modestly efficient measurements of light fission fragments with unit mass resolution.

  3. Development of position-sensitive time-of-flight spectrometer for fission fragment research

    DOE PAGES

    Arnold, C. W.; Tovesson, F.; Meierbachtol, K.; ...

    2014-07-09

    A position-sensitive, high-resolution time-of-flight detector for fission fragments has been developed. The SPectrometer for Ion DEtermination in fission Research (SPIDER) is a 2E–2v spectrometer designed to measure the mass of light fission fragments to a single mass unit. The time pick-off detector pairs to be used in SPIDER have been tested with α-particles from 229Th and its decay chain and α-particles and spontaneous fission fragments from 252Cf. Each detector module is comprised of thin electron conversion foil, electrostatic mirror, microchannel plates, and delay-line anodes. Particle trajectories on the order of 700 mm are determined accurately to within 0.7 mm. Flightmore » times were measured with 250 ps resolution FWHM. Computed particle velocities are accurate to within 0.06 mm/ns corresponding to a precision of 0.5%. As a result, an ionization chamber capable of 400 keV energy resolution coupled with the velocity measurements described here will pave the way for modestly efficient measurements of light fission fragments with unit mass resolution.« less

  4. Time-zero fission-fragment detector based on low-pressure multiwire proportional chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Assamagan, Ketevi; Baker, O.; Bayatian, G.; Carlini, Roger; Danagoulian, Areg; Eden, Thomas; Egiyan, Kim; Ent, Rolf; Fenker, Howard; Gan, Liping; Gasparian, Ashot; Grigoryan, Hovhannes; Greenwood, Z; Gueye, Paul; Hashimoto, Osamu; Johnston, Kathleen; Keppel, Cynthia; Knyazian, S.; Majewski, Stanislaw; Magaryan, A; Margarian, Yu.; Marikyan, Gagik; Martoff, Charles; Mkrtchyan, Hamlet; PARLAKYAN, L.; Parlakyan, L.; Sato, Ikuro; Sawafta, Reyad; Simicevic, Neven; Tadevosyan, Vardan; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Tang, Liguang; VARTANYAN, G.; Vulcan, William; Wells, Steven; Wood, Stephen

    1999-05-01

    A time-zero fission fragment (FF) detector, based on the technique of low-pressure multiwire proportional chambers (LPMWPC), has been designed and constructed for the heavy hypernuclear lifetime experiment (E95-002) at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. Its characteristics and the method of time-zero reconstruction were investigated using fission fragments from a 252Cf spontaneous fission source. The influence of the ionization energy loss was also studied. It is shown that Heptane, Hexane, and Isobutane gases at a pressure of 1z2Torr are all suitable for such a FF detector. As desired by experiment, a timing resolution of about 200ps (FWHM) for a chamber size of 21z21cm2 was achieved.

  5. Fragment Angular Distributions in Neutron-Induced Fission of w235U and 239Pu using a Time Projection Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinrath, Verena

    2014-09-01

    Fission fragment angular distributions can lend insights into fission barrier shapes and level densities at the scission point, both important for fission theory development. Fragment emission anisotropies are also valuable for precision cross section ratio measurements, if the distributions are different for the two isotopes used in the ratio. Available angular data is sparse for 235U and even more so for 239Pu, especially at neutron energies above 5 MeV. The Neutron Induced Fission Fragment Tracking Experiment (NIFFTE) time projection chamber, which enables precise tracking of charged particles, can be used to study angular distributions and emission anisotropies of fission fragments in neutron-induced fission. Analysis of in-beam data collected at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center with a 239Pu/235U target will provide angular distributions as a function of incident neutron energy for these isotopes. Preliminary angular distributions for 235U and 239Pu using the NIFFTE time projection chamber will be presented. Fission fragment angular distributions can lend insights into fission barrier shapes and level densities at the scission point, both important for fission theory development. Fragment emission anisotropies are also valuable for precision cross section ratio measurements, if the distributions are different for the two isotopes used in the ratio. Available angular data is sparse for 235U and even more so for 239Pu, especially at neutron energies above 5 MeV. The Neutron Induced Fission Fragment Tracking Experiment (NIFFTE) time projection chamber, which enables precise tracking of charged particles, can be used to study angular distributions and emission anisotropies of fission fragments in neutron-induced fission. Analysis of in-beam data collected at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center with a 239Pu/235U target will provide angular distributions as a function of incident neutron energy for these isotopes. Preliminary angular distributions for 235U and

  6. Time Evolving Fission Chain Theory and Fast Neutron and Gamma-Ray Counting Distributions

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, K. S.; Nakae, L. F.; Prasad, M. K.; ...

    2015-11-01

    Here, we solve a simple theoretical model of time evolving fission chains due to Feynman that generalizes and asymptotically approaches the point model theory. The point model theory has been used to analyze thermal neutron counting data. This extension of the theory underlies fast counting data for both neutrons and gamma rays from metal systems. Fast neutron and gamma-ray counting is now possible using liquid scintillator arrays with nanosecond time resolution. For individual fission chains, the differential equations describing three correlated probability distributions are solved: the time-dependent internal neutron population, accumulation of fissions in time, and accumulation of leaked neutronsmore » in time. Explicit analytic formulas are given for correlated moments of the time evolving chain populations. The equations for random time gate fast neutron and gamma-ray counting distributions, due to randomly initiated chains, are presented. Correlated moment equations are given for both random time gate and triggered time gate counting. There are explicit formulas for all correlated moments are given up to triple order, for all combinations of correlated fast neutrons and gamma rays. The nonlinear differential equations for probabilities for time dependent fission chain populations have a remarkably simple Monte Carlo realization. A Monte Carlo code was developed for this theory and is shown to statistically realize the solutions to the fission chain theory probability distributions. Combined with random initiation of chains and detection of external quanta, the Monte Carlo code generates time tagged data for neutron and gamma-ray counting and from these data the counting distributions.« less

  7. Modeling of Time-correlated Detection of Fast Neutrons Emitted in Induced SNM Fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guckes, Amber; Barzilov, Alexander; Richardson, Norman

    Neutron multiplicity methods are widely used in the assay of fissile materials. Fission reactions release multiple neutrons simultaneously. Time-correlated detection of neutrons provides a coincidence signature that is unique to fission,which enables distinguishing it from other events. In general, fission neutrons are fast. Thermal neutron sensors require the moderation of neutrons prior to a detection event; therefore, the neutron's energy and the event's timing information may be distorted, resulting in the wide time windows in the correlation analysis. Fastneutron sensing using scintillators allows shortening the time correlation window. In this study, four EJ-299-33A plastic scintillator detectors with neutron/photon pulse shape discrimination properties were modeled usingthe MCNP6 code. This sensor array was studied for time-correlated detection of fast neutrons emitted inthe induced fission of 239Pu and (α,n) neutron sources. This paper presents the results of computational modeling of arrays of these plastic scintillator sensors as well as3He detectors equipped with a moderator.

  8. Spontaneous Fission

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Segre, Emilio

    1950-11-22

    The first attempt to discover spontaneous fission in uranium was made by [Willard] Libby, who, however, failed to detect it on account of the smallness of effect. In 1940, [K. A.] Petrzhak and [G. N.] Flerov, using more sensitive methods, discovered spontaneous fission in uranium and gave some rough estimates of the spontaneous fission decay constant of this substance. Subsequently, extensive experimental work on the subject has been performed by several investigators and will be quoted in the various sections. [N.] Bohr and [A.] Wheeler have given a theory of the effect based on the usual ideas of penetration of potential barriers. On this project spontaneous fission has been studied for the past several years in an effort to obtain a complete picture of the phenomenon. For this purpose the spontaneous fission decay constants {lambda} have been measured for separated isotopes of the heavy elements wherever possible. Moreover, the number {nu} of neutrons emitted per fission has been measured wherever feasible, and other characteristics of the spontaneous fission process have been studied. This report summarizes the spontaneous fission work done at Los Alamos up to January 1, 1945. A chronological record of the work is contained in the Los Alamos monthly reports.

  9. Time delays in heavy-ion-induced fission of medium-Z nuclei, measured by crystal blocking

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, J. U.; Chevallier, J.; Forster, J. S.; Karamian, S. A.; Vane, C Randy; Beene, James R; Gross, Carl J; Krause, Herbert F; Liang, J Felix; Shapira, Dan; Uguzzoni, A.

    2012-01-01

    Time delays in fission induced by bombardment of Mo with 170- and 180-MeV {sup 32}S, 225- and 240-MeV {sup 48}Ti, and 300-MeV {sup 58}Ni have been measured by observation of crystal blocking of fission fragments. In contrast to earlier measurements with a W target, the results are consistent with fission of a compound nucleus in competition with mainly neutron emission. Most of the fissions happen on a time scale much shorter than attoseconds but there is a significant component of fission with much longer lifetimes. The measurements are reproduced with a standard statistical model, including a Kramers correction to fission widths from the viscosity of hot nuclear matter. These new results support the interpretation of our earlier measurements with a W target, which indicate that there is a transition in heavy-ion-induced fission at large atomic number and mass, from multichance fission in the standard Bohr-Wheeler picture to fission without formation of a compound nucleus. The process is slowed down by nuclear viscosity, with measured delays of order attoseconds.

  10. Fission Multiplicity Detection with Temporal Gamma-Neutron Discrimination from Higher-Order Time Correlation Statistics

    SciTech Connect

    Oberer, Richard B.

    2002-10-01

    The current practice of nondestructive assay (NDA) of fissile materials using neutrons is dominated by the 3He detector. This has been the case since the mid 1980s when Fission Multiplicity Detection (FMD) was replaced with thermal well counters and neutron multiplicity counting (NMC). The thermal well counters detect neutrons by neutron capture in the 3He detector subsequent to moderation. The process of detection requires from 30 to 60 μs. As will be explained in Section 3.3 the rate of detecting correlated neutrons (signal) from the same fission are independent of this time but the rate of accidental correlations (noise) are proportional to this time. The well counters are at a distinct disadvantage when there is a large source of uncorrelated neutrons present from (α, n) reactions for example. Plastic scintillating detectors, as were used in FMD, require only about 20 ns to detect neutrons from fission. One thousandth as many accidental coincidences are therefore accumulated. The major problem with the use of fast-plastic scintillation detectors, however, is that both neutrons and gamma rays are detected. The pulses from the two are indistinguishable in these detectors. For this thesis, a new technique was developed to use higher-order time correlation statistics to distinguish combinations of neutron and gamma ray detections in fast-plastic scintillation detectors. A system of analysis to describe these correlations was developed based on simple physical principles. Other sources of correlations from non-fission events are identified and integrated into the analysis developed for fission events. A number of ratios and metric are identified to determine physical properties of the source from the correlations. It is possible to determine both the quantity being measured and detection efficiency from these ratios from a single measurement without a separate calibration. To account for detector dead-time, an alternative analytical technique

  11. Microscopic predictions of fission yields based on the time dependent GCM formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regnier, D.; Dubray, N.; Schunck, N.; Verrière, M.

    2016-03-01

    Accurate knowledge of fission fragment yields is an essential ingredient of numerous applications ranging from the formation of elements in the r-process to fuel cycle optimization in nuclear energy. The need for a predictive theory applicable where no data is available, together with the variety of potential applications, is an incentive to develop a fully microscopic approach to fission dynamics. One of the most promising theoretical frameworks is the time-dependent generator coordinate method (TDGCM) applied under the Gaussian overlap approximation (GOA). Previous studies reported promising results by numerically solving the TDGCM+GOA equation with a finite difference technique. However, the computational cost of this method makes it difficult to properly control numerical errors. In addition, it prevents one from performing calculations with more than two collective variables. To overcome these limitations, we developed the new code FELIX-1.0 that solves the TDGCM+GOA equation based on the Galerkin finite element method. In this article, we briefly illustrate the capabilities of the solver FELIX-1.0, in particular its validation for n+239Pu low energy induced fission. This work is the result of a collaboration between CEA,DAM,DIF and LLNL on nuclear fission theory.

  12. γ-ray studies of the fission of 238U induced by 12C, spectroscopy and fission dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houry, M.; Korten, W.; Le Coz, Y.; Lucas, R.; Theisen, Ch.; Barreau, G.; Doan, T. P.; Aiche, M.; Aleonard, M. M.; Chemin, J. F.; Scheurer, J. N.; Belier, G.; Meot, V.; Ethvignot, Th.; Durell, J.; Grimwood, D.; Phillips, W. R.; Roach, A.; Smith, A. G.; Varley, B. J.; Deloncle, I.; Porquet, M. G.; Astier, A.; Perries, S.; Redon, N.

    1998-10-01

    Fission studies have been known for a long time to provide neutron-rich nuclei in various states of excitation energy, spin and deformation. Although many studies have been performed concerning fission fragments from spontaneous fission and neutron induced fission, a renewed interest in fission-fragment spectroscopy has occurred with the elaboration of large Ge detector arrays such as EUROBALL. We have recently performed an experiment with EUROBALL III using SAPhIR; a fission-fragment detector made from photovoltaic cells. The compact and versatile geometry of SAPhIR allows it to be installed inside the γ-ray detector, and to obtain additional information from the fission process as well as a timing reference. Neutron-rich nuclei have been populated in the fusion-fission reaction 238U+12C leading to the compound nucleus 250Cf. First results of this experiment are presented.

  13. SOFIA, a Next-Generation Facility for Fission Yields Measurements and Fission Study. First Results and Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audouin, L.; Pellereau, E.; Taieb, J.; Boutoux, G.; Béliera, G.; Chatillon, A.; Ebran, A.; Gorbinet, T.; Laurent, B.; Martin, J.-F.; Tassan-Got, L.; Jurado, B.; Alvarez-Pol, H.; Ayyad, Y.; Benlliure, J.; Caamano, M.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Fernandez-Dominguez, B.; Paradela, C.; Rodriguez-Sanchez, J.-L.; Vargas, J.; Casarejos, E.; Heinz, A.; Kelic-Heil, A.; Kurz, N.; Nociforo, C.; Pietri, S.; Prochazka, A.; Rossi, D.; Schmidt, K.-H.; Simon, H.; Voss, B.; Weick, H.; Winfield, J. S.

    2015-10-01

    Fission fragments play an important role in nuclear reactors evolution and safety. However, fragments yields are poorly known : data are essentially limited to mass yields from thermal neutron-induced fissions on a very few nuclei. SOFIA (Study On FIssion with Aladin) is an innovative experimental program on nuclear fission carried out at the GSI facility, which aims at providing isotopic yields on a broad range of fissioning systems. Relativistic secondary beams of actinides and pre-actinides are selected by the Fragment Separator (FRS) and their fission is triggered by electromagnetic interaction. The resulting excitation energy is comparable to the result of an interaction with a low-energy neutron, thus leading to useful data for reactor simulations. For the first time ever, both fission fragments are completely identified in charge and mass in a new recoil spectrometer, allowing for precise yields measurements. The yield of prompt neutrons can then be deduced, and the fission mechanism can be ascribed, providing new constraints for fission models. During the first experiment, all the technical challenges were matched : we have thus set new experimental standards in the measurements of relativistic heavy ions (time of flight, position, energy loss).This communication presents a first series of results obtained on the fission of 238U; many other fissioning systems have also been measured and are being analyzed presently. A second SOFIA experiment is planned in September 2014, and will be focused on the measurement of the fission of 236U, the analog of 235U+n.

  14. Track Reconstruction in a Time Projection Chamber Designed to Make High Precision Fission Cross Section Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Sarvagya

    2010-10-01

    The TPC (Time Projection Chamber), being constructed by the NIFFTE (Neutron Induced Fission Fragment Tracking Experiment) collaboration will be used for high-precision fission cross-section measurements. These measurements will aid in the design of future generations of nuclear power plants. The NIFFTE track reconstruction effort has developed two approaches consisting of a variety of statistical estimators. The first, consists of traditional cluster and hit finding algorithms that are performed on 2D planes. A least squares is performed on the hits to produce a track in the TPC. The alternate approach uses the Hough Transform, a brute force attempt at finding tracks that isolates features in the TPC volume through data binning. To determine fit parameters, a Kalman Filter has been implemented that accounts for multiple scattering and kinks in the track. Comparing simulated and reconstructed tracks have shown the validity of these methods. The software uses open source packages to ensure re-usability for future TPC projects. In my talk, I will describe these methods in detail.

  15. Photophysical characterization and time-resolved spectroscopy of a anthradithiophene dimer: exploring the role of conformation in singlet fission.

    PubMed

    Dean, Jacob C; Zhang, Ruomeng; Hallani, Rawad K; Pensack, Ryan D; Sanders, Samuel N; Oblinsky, Daniel G; Parkin, Sean R; Campos, Luis M; Anthony, John E; Scholes, Gregory D

    2017-08-30

    Quantitative singlet fission has been observed for a variety of acene derivatives such as tetracene and pentacene, and efforts to extend the library of singlet fission compounds is of current interest. Preliminary calculations suggest anthradithiophenes exhibit significant exothermicity between the first optically-allowed singlet state, S1, and 2 × T1 with an energy difference of >5000 cm(-1). Given the fulfillment of this ingredient for singlet fission, here we investigate the singlet fission capability of a difluorinated anthradithiophene dimer (2ADT) covalently linked by a (dimethylsilyl)ethane bridge and derivatized by triisobutylsilylethynyl (TIBS) groups. Photophysical characterization of 2ADT and the single functionalized ADT monomer were carried out in toluene and acetone solution via absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, and their photo-initiated dynamics were investigated with time-resolved fluorescence (TRF) and transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy. In accordance with computational predictions, two conformers of 2ADT were observed via fluorescence spectroscopy and were assigned to structures with the ADT cores trans or cis to one another about the covalent bridge. The two conformers exhibited markedly different excited state deactivation mechanisms, with the minor trans population being representative of the ADT monomer showing primarily radiative decay, while the dominant cis population underwent relaxation into an excimer geometry before internally converting to the ground state. The excimer formation kinetics were found to be solvent dependent, yielding time constants of ∼1.75 ns in toluene, and ∼600 ps in acetone. While the difference in rates elicits a role for the solvent in stabilizing the excimer structure, the rate is still decidedly long compared to most singlet fission rates of analogous dimers, suggesting that the excimer is neither a kinetic nor a thermodynamic trap, yet singlet fission was still not observed. The result

  16. Neutron science facility for neutron time-of-flight and fission cross-section measurements at RAON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jae Cheon; Kim, Gi Dong; Son, Jae Bum; Lee, Cheol Woo; Lee, Young-Ouk

    2015-02-01

    In the middle of 2018, a heavy-ion accelerator complex that will be built in South Korea plans to provide the first primary beams into the neutron science facility (NSF) for producing fast neutrons. Deuteron with a maximum energy of 53 MeV and protons with a maximum energy of 88 MeV accelerated by superconducting driver linac (SCL1) will be delivered into the target hall at the NSF. A pulsed neutron beam will be provided for neutron time-of-flight (TOF) and neutron-induced reaction cross-section measurements. At the NSF, white and mono-energetic fast neutrons will be produced when either a deuteron or a proton beam bombards a light nuclei target such as C and Li. Preliminary thermal calculations have been performed with a rotating C (graphite) target and its maximum temperature was about 530 °C, much less than its melting point. For neutron TOF measurements, two flight paths of 5 m and 20 m are considered for high-flux and low-energy neutron beams, respectively. Basically, 0° and 30° neutron collimators will be considered to obtain various neutron energies for the neutron TOF measurements. A clearing magnet is used to deflect the proton beam to a beam dump when it crosses a thin target. In addition, the neutron beam dump will be designed to generate a background due to back-scattered neutrons and photons that should be as low as possible in the TOF area. Fission cross-section measurements with a few percent uncertainties are set to be a short-term ultimate goal after building the neutron TOF facility at the NSF. In order to achieve few-percent fission cross-section measurements at the NSF, we plan to employ a time projection chamber (TPC). It can measure charged particle trajectories in the active volume in three dimensions, as well as the energy deposition, and it can significantly improve the accuracies of the fission cross-section measurements.

  17. Fission Spectrum

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Bloch, F.; Staub, H.

    1943-08-18

    Measurements of the spectrum of the fission neutrons of 25 are described, in which the energy of the neutrons is determined from the ionization produced by individual hydrogen recoils. The slow neutrons producing fission are obtained by slowing down the fast neutrons from the Be-D reaction of the Stanford cyclotron. In order to distinguish between fission neutrons and the remaining fast cyclotron neutrons both the cyclotron current and the pusle amplifier are modulated. A hollow neutron container, in which slow neutrons have a lifetime of about 2 milliseconds, avoids the use of large distances. This method results in much higher intensities than the usual modulation arrangement. The results show a continuous distribution of neutrons with a rather wide maximum at about 0.8 MV falling off to half of its maximum value at 2.0 MV. The total number of netrons is determined by comparison with the number of fission fragments. The result seems to indicate that only about 30% of the neutrons have energies below .8 MV. Various tests are described which were performed in order to rule out modification of the spectrum by inelastic scattering. Decl. May 4, 1951

  18. Scaling laws, transient times and shell effects in helium induced nuclear fission

    SciTech Connect

    Rubehn, T.; Jing, Kexing; Moretto, L.G.; Phair, L.; Tso, Kin; Wozniak, G.J.

    1996-02-01

    Fission excitation functions are analyzed and discussed according to a method which allows one to check the validity of the transition state rate predictions over a large range of excitation energies and a regime of compound nuclei masses characterized by strong shell effects. Once these shell effects are accounted for, no deviation from transition state rates can be observed. Furthermore, shell effects can be determined directly from the experiment by using the above described procedure. In contrast to the standard method, there is no need to include liquid drop model calculations. Finally, plotting the quantity R{sub f} allows one to search for evidence of transition times (discussed in a series of papers): our results set an upper limit of 10{sup {minus}20} seconds.

  19. Nuclear Fission: A Review of Experimental Advances and Phenomenology.

    PubMed

    Andreyev, Andrei; Nishio, Katsuhisa; Schmidt, Karl-Heinz

    2017-07-28

    In the last two decades, through technological, experimental and theoretical advances, the situation in experimental fission studies has changed dramatically. With the use of advanced production and detection techniques both much more detailed and precise information can now be obtained for the traditional regions of fission research and, crucially, new regions of nuclei have become routinely accessible for fission studies. This work first of all reviews the recent developments in experimental fission techniques, in particular the resurgence of transfer-induced fission reactions with light and heavy ions, the emerging use of inverse-kinematic approaches, both at Coulomb and relativistic energies, and of fission studies with radioactive beams. The emphasis on the fission-fragment mass and charge distributions will be made in this work, though some of the other fission observables, such as prompt neutron and γ-ray emission will also be reviewed. A particular attention will be given to the low-energy fission in the so far scarcely explored nuclei in the very neutron-deficient lead region. They recently became the focus for several complementary experimental studies, such as β-delayed fission with radioactive beams at ISOLDE(CERN), Coulex-induced fission of relativistic secondary beams at FRS(GSI), and several prompt fusion-fission studies. The synergy of these approaches allows a unique insight in the new region of asymmetric fission around <sup>180</sup>Hg, recently discovered at ISOLDE. Recent extensive theoretical efforts in this region will also be outlined. The unprecedented high-quality data for fission fragments, completely identified in <i>Z</i> and <i>A</i>, by means of reactions in inverse kinematics at FRS(GSI) and VAMOS(GANIL) will be also reviewed. These experiments explored an extended range of mercury-to-californium elements, spanning from the neutron-deficient to neutron-rich nuclides, and

  20. Fission Systems for Mars Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Kim, T.; Dorney, D. J.; Swint, Marion Shayne

    2012-01-01

    Fission systems are used extensively on earth, and 34 such systems have flown in space. The energy density of fission is over 10 million times that of chemical reactions, giving fission the potential to eliminate energy density constraints for many space missions. Potential safety and operational concerns with fission systems are well understood, and strategies exist for affordably developing such systems. By enabling a power-rich environment and highly efficient propulsion, fission systems could enable affordable, sustainable exploration of Mars.

  1. Recent advances to obtain real - Time displacements for engineering applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Celebi, M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents recent developments and approaches (using GPS technology and real-time double-integration) to obtain displacements and, in turn, drift ratios, in real-time or near real-time to meet the needs of the engineering and user community in seismic monitoring and assessing the functionality and damage condition of structures. Drift ratios computed in near real-time allow technical assessment of the damage condition of a building. Relevant parameters, such as the type of connections and story structural characteristics (including geometry) are used in computing drifts corresponding to several pre-selected threshold stages of damage. Thus, drift ratios determined from real-time monitoring can be compared to pre-computed threshold drift ratios. The approaches described herein can be used for performance evaluation of structures and can be considered as building health-monitoring applications.

  2. Fragment Angular Distributions in Neutron-Induced Fission of {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu using a Time Projection Chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinrath, Verena

    2015-07-01

    Fission fragment angular distributions can lend insights into fission barrier shapes and level densities at the scission point, both important for fission theory development. Fragment emission anisotropies are also valuable for precision cross section ratio measurements, if the distributions are different for the two isotopes used in the ratio. Available angular data is sparse for {sup 235}U and even more so for {sup 239}Pu, especially at neutron energies above 5 MeV. The Neutron Induced Fission Fragment Tracking Experiment (NIFFTE) time projection chamber, which enables precise tracking of charged particles, can be used to study angular distributions and emission anisotropies of fission fragments in neutron-induced fission. In-beam data collected at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center with a {sup 235}U/{sup 239}Pu target during the 2014 run-cycle will provide angular distributions as a function of incident neutron energy for these isotopes. (LA-UR-1426972). (authors)

  3. Fission meter

    DOEpatents

    Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA

    2012-04-10

    A neutron detector system for discriminating fissile material from non-fissile material wherein a digital data acquisition unit collects data at high rate, and in real-time processes large volumes of data directly into information that a first responder can use to discriminate materials. The system comprises counting neutrons from the unknown source and detecting excess grouped neutrons to identify fission in the unknown source.

  4. Dose-response relationship of dicentric chromosomes in human lymphocytes obtained for the fission neutron therapy facility MEDAPP at the research reactor FRM II.

    PubMed

    Schmid, E; Wagner, F M; Romm, H; Walsh, L; Roos, H

    2009-02-01

    The biological effectiveness of neutrons from the neutron therapy facility MEDAPP (mean neutron energy 1.9 MeV) at the new research reactor FRM II at Garching, Germany, has been analyzed, at different depths in a polyethylene phantom. Whole blood samples were exposed to the MEDAPP beam in special irradiation chambers to total doses of 0.14-3.52 Gy at 2-cm depth, and 0.18-3.04 Gy at 6-cm depth of the phantom. The neutron and gamma-ray absorbed dose rates were measured to be 0.55 Gy min(-1) and 0.27 Gy min(-1) at 2-cm depth, while they were 0.28 and 0.25 Gy min(-1) at 6-cm depth. Although the irradiation conditions at the MEDAPP beam and the RENT beam of the former FRM I research reactor were not identical, neutrons from both facilities gave a similar linear-quadratic dose-response relationship for dicentric chromosomes at a depth of 2 cm. Different dose-response curves for dicentrics were obtained for the MEDAPP beam at 2 and 6 cm depth, suggesting a significantly lower biological effectiveness of the radiation with increasing depth. No obvious differences in the dose-response curves for dicentric chromosomes estimated under interactive or additive prediction between neutrons or gamma-rays and the experimentally obtained dose-response curves could be determined. Relative to (60)Co gamma-rays, the values for the relative biological effectiveness at the MEDAPP beam decrease from 5.9 at 0.14 Gy to 1.6 at 3.52 Gy at 2-cm depth, and from 4.1 at 0.18 Gy to 1.5 at 3.04 Gy at 6-cm depth. Using the best possible conditions of consistency, i.e., using blood samples from the same donor and the same measurement techniques for about two decades, avoiding the inter-individual variations in sensitivity or the differences in methodology usually associated with inter-laboratory comparisons, a linear-quadratic dose-response relationship for the mixed neutron and gamma-ray MEDAPP field as well as for its fission neutron part was obtained. Therefore, the debate on whether the fission

  5. Neutron-induced fission cross section of U234 and Np237 measured at the CERN Neutron Time-of-Flight (n_TOF) facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paradela, C.; Tassan-Got, L.; Audouin, L.; Berthier, B.; Duran, I.; Ferrant, L.; Isaev, S.; Le Naour, C.; Stephan, C.; Tarrío, D.; Trubert, D.; Abbondanno, U.; Aerts, G.; Álvarez, H.; Álvarez-Velarde, F.; Andriamonje, S.; Andrzejewski, J.; Assimakopoulos, P.; Badurek, G.; Baumann, P.; Bečvář, F.; Berthoumieux, E.; Calviño, F.; Calviani, M.; Cano-Ott, D.; Capote, R.; Carrapiço, C.; Cennini, P.; Chepel, V.; Chiaveri, E.; Colonna, N.; Cortes, G.; Couture, A.; Cox, J.; Dahlfors, M.; David, S.; Dillmann, I.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Dridi, W.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Embid-Segura, M.; Ferrari, A.; Ferreira-Marques, R.; Fujii, K.; Furman, W.; Goncalves, I.; González-Romero, E.; Gramegna, F.; Guerrero, C.; Gunsing, F.; Haas, B.; Haight, R.; Heil, M.; Herrera-Martinez, A.; Igashira, M.; Jericha, E.; Kadi, Y.; Käppeler, F.; Karadimos, D.; Karamanis, D.; Kerveno, M.; Koehler, P.; Kossionides, E.; Krtička, M.; Lampoudis, C.; Leeb, H.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, I.; Lozano, M.; Lukic, S.; Marganiec, J.; Marrone, S.; Martínez, T.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P.; Mengoni, A.; Milazzo, P. M.; Moreau, C.; Mosconi, M.; Neves, F.; Oberhummer, H.; O'Brien, S.; Oshima, M.; Pancin, J.; Papachristodoulou, C.; Papadopoulos, C.; Patronis, N.; Pavlik, A.; Pavlopoulos, P.; Perrot, L.; Pigni, M. T.; Plag, R.; Plompen, A.; Plukis, A.; Poch, A.; Praena, J.; Pretel, C.; Quesada, J.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Rubbia, C.; Rudolf, G.; Rullhusen, P.; Salgado, J.; Santos, C.; Sarchiapone, L.; Savvidis, I.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J. L.; Tavora, L.; Terlizzi, R.; Vannini, G.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Villamarin, D.; Vincente, M. C.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Voss, F.; Walter, S.; Wiescher, M.; Wisshak, K.

    2010-09-01

    A high-resolution measurement of the neutron-induced fission cross section of U234 and Np237 has been performed at the CERN Neutron Time-of-Flight facility. The cross sections have been determined in a wide energy range from 1 eV to 1 GeV using the evaluated U235 cross section as reference. In these measurements the energy determination for the U234 resonances could be improved, whereas previous discrepancies for the Np237 resonances were confirmed. New cross-section data are provided for high neutron energies that go beyond the limits of prior evaluations, obtaining important differences in the case of Np237.

  6. Using a Time Projection Chamber to Measure High Precision Neutron-Induced Fission Cross Sections

    SciTech Connect

    Manning, Brett

    2015-08-06

    2014 LANSCE run cycle data will provide a preliminary 239Pu(n,f) cross section and will quantify uncertainties: PID and Target/beam non-uniformities. Continued running during the 2015 LANSCE run cycle: Thin targets to see both fission fragments and 239Pu(n,f) cross section and fully quantified uncertainties

  7. 252Cf fission-neutron spectrum using a simplified time-of-flight setup: An advanced teaching laboratory experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becchetti, F. D.; Febbraro, M.; Torres-Isea, R.; Ojaruega, M.; Baum, L.

    2013-02-01

    The removal of PuBe and AmBe neutron sources from many university teaching laboratories (due to heightened security issues) has often left a void in teaching various aspects of neutron physics. We have recently replaced such sources with sealed 252Cf oil-well logging sources (nominal 10-100 μCi), and developed several experiments using them as neutron sources. This includes a fission-neutron time-of-flight experiment using plastic scintillators, which utilizes the prompt γ rays emitted in 252Cf spontaneous fission as a fast timing start signal. The experiment can be performed with conventional nuclear instrumentation and a 1-D multi-channel pulse-height analyzer, available in most advanced teaching laboratories. Alternatively, a more sophisticated experiment using liquid scintillators and n/γ pulse-shape discrimination can be performed. Several other experiments using these neutron sources are also feasible. The experiments can introduce students to the problem of detecting the dark matter thought to dominate the universe and to the techniques used to detect contraband fissionable nuclear materials.

  8. Fission barriers of two odd-neutron actinide nuclei taking into account the time-reversal symmetry breaking at the mean-field level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koh, Meng-Hock; Bonneau, L.; Quentin, P.; Hao, T. V. Nhan; Wagiran, Husin

    2017-01-01

    Background: For a long time, fission barriers of actinide nuclei have been mostly microscopically calculated for even-even fissioning systems. Calculations in the case of odd nuclei have been performed merely within a so-called equal-filling approximation (EFA) as opposed to an approach taking explicitly into account the time-reversal-breaking properties at the mean-field level—and for only one single-particle configuration. Purpose: We study the dependence of the fission barriers on various relevant configurations (e.g., to evaluate the so-called specialization energy). In addition, we want to assess the relevance of the EFA approach as a function of the deformation, which has been already found for the ground-state deformation. Methods: Calculations within the Hartree-Fock plus BCS approach with self-consistent particle blocking have been performed by using the SkM* Skyrme effective interaction in the particle-hole channel and a seniority force in the particle-particle channel. Axial symmetry has been imposed throughout the whole fission path while the intrinsic parity symmetry has been allowed to be broken in the outer fission barrier region. Results: Potential-energy curves have been determined for six different configurations in 235U and four in 239Pu. Inner and outer fission barriers have been calculated along with some spectroscopic properties in the fission isomeric well. These results have been compared with available data. The influence of time-reversal-breaking mean fields on the solutions has been investigated. Conclusions: A sizable configuration dependence of the fission barrier (width and height) has been demonstrated. A reasonable agreement with available systematic evaluations of fission-barrier heights has been found. The EFA approach has been validated at the large elongations occurring at the outer-barrier region.

  9. Nuclear Fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denschlag, J. O.

    This chapter first gives a survey on the history of the discovery of nuclear fission. It briefly presents the liquid-drop and shell models and their application to the fission process. The most important quantities accessible to experimental determination such as mass yields, nuclear charge distribution, prompt neutron emission, kinetic energy distribution, ternary fragment yields, angular distributions, and properties of fission isomers are presented as well as the instrumentation and techniques used for their measurement. The contribution concentrates on the fundamental aspects of nuclear fission. The practical aspects of nuclear fission are discussed in http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-0720-2_57 of Vol. 6.

  10. Many pediatric residents seek and obtain part-time positions.

    PubMed

    Cull, William L; Caspary, Gretchen L; Olson, Lynn M

    2008-02-01

    The goal was to monitor the number of pediatric residents seeking part-time employment after graduation and to examine the difficulty of their job searches, compared with residents seeking full-time employment. As part of the American Academy of Pediatrics Graduating Resident Survey, national random samples of 500 graduating, categorical pediatrics residents were surveyed from 2003 through 2005, between May and August of each year. Responses were pooled to examine resident interest in and experience with part-time employment. Totals of 308 (62%), 307 (61%), and 281 (56%) residents completed the survey in 2003, 2004, and 2005, respectively. Analyses focused on residents who applied for nonfellowship jobs. A total of 51% of residents applied for nonfellowship jobs. Of those who applied for such jobs, 38% reported that they applied for part-time positions and 21% actually accepted part-time positions. Residents who applied for part-time positions were more likely to report moderate or considerable job search difficulty (part-time: 36%; full-time: 25%). The average starting salary for residents who accepted part-time jobs was almost $34,000 less than that for residents working full-time (part-time: $71,615; full-time: $105,598). Residents who accepted part-time positions expected to work 15 hours less per week in practice (38 vs 23 hours) and were more likely to accept a position in the same city/area as their residency (part-time: 60%; full-time: 47%). Approximately 4 of 10 pediatric residents seek part-time employment after graduation, and 2 of 10 accept part-time positions. Strong interest in part-time positions is likely to continue, and this important trend has implications for the pediatric workforce.

  11. Computational analysis of experimental results on spatial distributions of fission reaction rates in the annular core of a modular HTGR, obtained at the ASTRA critical facility

    SciTech Connect

    Boyarinov, V. F.; Glushkov, E. S.; Fomichenko, P. A.; Kompaniets, G. V.; Krutov, A. M.; Marova, E. V.; Nevinitsa, V. A.; Polyakov, D. N.; Smirnov, O. N.; Sukharev, Y. P.; Zimin, A. A.

    2006-07-01

    The paper presents computational analysis of some experimental results on spatial distribution of {sup 235}U fission reaction rates in a critical assembly with the annular core and different configurations of safety rods, placed into the inner reflector, made of graphite. Presented computational analysis of experimental data was performed with the set of codes used in HTGR design calculations. (authors)

  12. Computational methods to obtain time optimal jet engine control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basso, R. J.; Leake, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    Dynamic Programming and the Fletcher-Reeves Conjugate Gradient Method are two existing methods which can be applied to solve a general class of unconstrained fixed time, free right end optimal control problems. New techniques are developed to adapt these methods to solve a time optimal control problem with state variable and control constraints. Specifically, they are applied to compute a time optimal control for a jet engine control problem.

  13. Time Series Analysis of Monte Carlo Fission Sources - I: Dominance Ratio Computation

    SciTech Connect

    Ueki, Taro; Brown, Forrest B.; Parsons, D. Kent; Warsa, James S.

    2004-11-15

    In the nuclear engineering community, the error propagation of the Monte Carlo fission source distribution through cycles is known to be a linear Markov process when the number of histories per cycle is sufficiently large. In the statistics community, linear Markov processes with linear observation functions are known to have an autoregressive moving average (ARMA) representation of orders p and p - 1. Therefore, one can perform ARMA fitting of the binned Monte Carlo fission source in order to compute physical and statistical quantities relevant to nuclear criticality analysis. In this work, the ARMA fitting of a binary Monte Carlo fission source has been successfully developed as a method to compute the dominance ratio, i.e., the ratio of the second-largest to the largest eigenvalues. The method is free of binning mesh refinement and does not require the alteration of the basic source iteration cycle algorithm. Numerical results are presented for problems with one-group isotropic, two-group linearly anisotropic, and continuous-energy cross sections. Also, a strategy for the analysis of eigenmodes higher than the second-largest eigenvalue is demonstrated numerically.

  14. The spontaneous fission of 8Be and the fusion at sub-coloumb barrier energies in the time-dependent cluster theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drożdż, S.; Okolowicz, J.; Ploszajczak, M.

    1983-08-01

    The time-dependent cluster theory is applied for a description of the spontaneous fission of 8Be and for a calculation of the α-α fusion cross section at sub-Coulomb barrier energies. The calculated spontaneous fission decay width Γ(cal) ≅ 7.5 eV reproduces the experimental value Γ(ex) = 6.8 +/- 1.7 eV.

  15. A method for obtaining time-periodic Lp estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyed, Mads; Sauer, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a method for showing a prioriLp estimates for time-periodic, linear, partial differential equations set in a variety of domains such as the whole space, the half space and bounded domains. The method is generic and can be applied to a wide range of problems. We demonstrate it on the heat equation. The main idea is to replace the time axis with a torus in order to reformulate the problem on a locally compact abelian group and to employ Fourier analysis on this group. As a by-product, maximal Lp regularity for the corresponding initial-value problem follows without the notion of R-boundedness. Moreover, we introduce the concept of a time-periodic fundamental solution.

  16. A cyclic time optimization approach to the study of 252Cf fission products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, R. I.; Ebong, I. D. U.; Adams, John A.; Roy, R. R.

    1980-05-01

    A K X-ray-beta particle coincidence technique has been investigated for the study of the beta decay of fission products from 252Cf. A fission-fragments transport system has been developed and its optimization curve used for the identification of the half-life associated with the K X-ray peak originating from the Mo → Tc decay high-resolution lithium-drifted silicon spectrometer and a plastic scintillation spectrometer were used in the analysis of the K X-rays and beta particles respectively. A half-life of (0.98 ± 0.03) min was associated with the K X-rays from technetium. A Kurie plot of the coincidence beta spectrum revealed at least three beta groups with end-point energies of (2.19 ± 0.19) MeV, (1.64 ± 0.14) MeV and (1.04 ± 0.10) MeV.

  17. Fission Multiplicity Detection With Temporal Gamma-Neutron Discrimination From Higher Order Time Correlation Statistics

    SciTech Connect

    Oberer, R.B.

    2002-01-17

    The subject of this thesis is the nondestructive assay (NDA) of nuclear materials. NDA is made possible by the fact that fissile and fertile transuranic isotopes emit characteristic radiations. Fission Multiplicity Detection (FMD) is the name of the standard technique used in NDA of nuclear materials in the 1960s and 1970s. It was characterized by the use of fast plastic scintillating detectors. These systems were used in both active and passive mode. These FMD systems were eventually replaced by thermal well counters as the standard NDA technique. The thermal well counters use {sup 3}He detectors embedded in a moderator. Among the passive neutron assay techniques, neutron multiplicity counting (NMC) in a thermal well counter is the preferred technique for the determination of fissile mass when spontaneous fission yields are significant. it is used in conjunction with gamma-ray spectroscopy to determine the isotopic composition of a sample. The major problem with the use of fast plastic detectors as used in FMD is that both neutrons and gamma rays are detected. The pulses from the two are indistinguishable. The disadvantages of this indistinguishability between neutron and gamma rays is explained further in the explanation of NMIS multiplicity in Section 2.5.

  18. Computer program FPIP-REV calculates fission product inventory for U-235 fission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W. S.; Call, D. W.

    1967-01-01

    Computer program calculates fission product inventories and source strengths associated with the operation of U-235 fueled nuclear power reactor. It utilizes a fission-product nuclide library of 254 nuclides, and calculates the time dependent behavior of the fission product nuclides formed by fissioning of U-235.

  19. Fission in a Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Younes, W.

    2016-10-26

    A three-year theory project was undertaken to study the fission process in extreme astrophysical environments, such as the crust of neutron stars. In the first part of the project, the effect of electron screening on the fission process was explored using a microscopic approach. For the first time, these calculations were carried out to the breaking point of the nucleus. In the second part of the project, the population of the fissioning nucleus was calculated within the same microscopic framework. These types of calculations are extremely computer-intensive and have seldom been applied to heavy deformed nuclei, such as fissioning actinides. The results, tools and methodologies produced in this work will be of interest to both the basic-science and nuclear-data communities.

  20. Actinide neutron-induced fission cross section measurements at LANSCE

    SciTech Connect

    Tovesson, Fredrik K; Laptev, Alexander B; Hill, Tony S

    2010-01-01

    Fission cross sections of a range of actinides have been measured at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) in support of nuclear energy applications in a wide energy range from sub-thermal energies up to 200 MeV. A parallel-plate ionization chamber are used to measure fission cross sections ratios relative to the {sup 235}U standard while incident neutron energies are determined using the time-of-flight method. Recent measurements include the {sup 233,238}U, {sup 239-242}Pu and {sup 243}Am neutron-induced fission cross sections. Obtained data are presented in comparison with ex isting evaluations and previous data.

  1. Measurement of the neutron-induced fission cross-section of 241Am at the time-of-flight facility n_TOF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belloni, F.; Calviani, M.; Colonna, N.; Mastinu, P.; Milazzo, P. M.; Abbondanno, U.; Aerts, G.; Álvarez, H.; Alvarez-Velarde, F.; Andriamonje, S.; Andrzejewski, J.; Audouin, L.; Badurek, G.; Barbagallo, M.; Baumann, P.; Bečvář, F.; Berthoumieux, E.; Calviño, F.; Cano-Ott, D.; Capote, R.; Carrapiço, C.; Cennini, P.; Chepel, V.; Chiaveri, E.; Cortes, G.; Couture, A.; Cox, J.; Dahlfors, M.; David, S.; Dillmann, I.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Dridi, W.; Duran, I.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Embid-Segura, M.; Ferrari, A.; Ferreira-Marques, R.; Fujii, K.; Furman, W.; Goncalves, I.; Gonzalez-Romero, E.; Goverdovski, A.; Gramegna, F.; Guerrero, C.; Gunsing, F.; Haas, B.; Haight, R.; Heil, M.; Herrera-Martinez, A.; Igashira, M.; Jericha, E.; Käppeler, F.; Kadi, Y.; Karadimos, D.; Karamanis, D.; Kerveno, M.; Koehler, P.; Kossionides, E.; Krtička, M.; Lamboudis, C.; Leeb, H.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, I.; Lozano, M.; Lukic, S.; Marganiec, J.; Marrone, S.; Martínez, T.; Massimi, C.; Meaze, M. H.; Mengoni, A.; Moreau, C.; Mosconi, M.; Neves, F.; Oberhummer, H.; O'Brien, S.; Papachristodoulou, C.; Papadopoulos, C.; Paradela, C.; Patronis, N.; Pavlik, A.; Pavlopoulos, P.; Perrot, L.; Pigni, M. T.; Plag, R.; Plompen, A.; Plukis, A.; Poch, A.; Praena, J.; Pretel, C.; Quesada, J.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Rosetti, M.; Rubbia, C.; Rudolf, G.; Rullhusen, P.; Salgado, J.; Santos, C.; Sarchiapone, L.; Savvidis, I.; Stephan, C.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J. L.; Tarrio, D.; Tassan-Got, L.; Tavora, L.; Terlizzi, R.; Vannini, G.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Villamarin, D.; Vincente, M. C.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Voss, F.; Walter, S.; Wiescher, M.; Wisshak, K.

    2013-01-01

    The neutron-induced fission cross-section of 241Am has been measured relative to the standard fission cross-section of 235U between 0.5 and 20MeV. The experiment was performed at the CERN n_TOF facility. Fission fragments were detected by a fast ionization chamber by discriminating against the α-particles from the high radioactivity of the samples. The high instantaneous neutron flux and the low background of the n_TOF facility enabled us to obtain uncertainties of ≈ 5%. With the present results it was possible to resolve discrepancies between previous data sets and to confirm current evaluations, thus providing important information for design studies of future reactors with improved fuel burn-up.

  2. Benchmarking singlet and triplet excitation energies of molecular semiconductors for singlet fission: Tuning the amount of HF exchange and adjusting local correlation to obtain accurate functionals for singlet-triplet gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brückner, Charlotte; Engels, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    Vertical and adiabatic singlet and triplet excitation energies of molecular p-type semiconductors calculated with various DFT functionals and wave-function based approaches are benchmarked against MS-CASPT2/cc-pVTZ reference values. A special focus lies on the singlet-triplet gaps that are very important in the process of singlet fission. Singlet fission has the potential to boost device efficiencies of organic solar cells, but the scope of existing singlet-fission compounds is still limited. A computational prescreening of candidate molecules could enlarge it; yet it requires efficient methods accurately predicting singlet and triplet excitation energies. Different DFT formulations (Tamm-Dancoff approximation, linear response time-dependent DFT, Δ-SCF) and spin scaling schemes along with several ab initio methods (CC2, ADC(2)/MP2, CIS(D), CIS) are evaluated. While wave-function based methods yield rather reliable singlet-triplet gaps, many DFT functionals are shown to systematically underestimate triplet excitation energies. To gain insight, the impact of exact exchange and correlation is in detail addressed.

  3. Prompt fission neutron spectra in fast-neutron-induced fission of 238U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, V. V.; Nayak, B. K.; Saxena, A.; Suryanarayana, S. V.; Capote, R.

    2015-07-01

    Prompt fission neutron spectrum (PFNS) measurements for the neutron-induced fission of 238U are carried out at incident neutron energies of 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 MeV, respectively. The time-of-flight technique is employed to determine the energy of fission neutrons. The prompt fission neutron energy spectra so obtained are analyzed using Watt parametrization to derive the neutron multiplicity and average prompt fission neutron energy. The present experimental PFNS data are compared with the evaluated spectra taken from the ENDF/B-VII.1 library and the predictive calculations carried out using the empire-3.2 (Malta) code with built-in Los Alamos (LA) and Kornilov PFNS models. The sensitivity of the empire-3.2 LA model-calculated PFNS to the nuclear level density parameter of the average fission fragment and to the total kinetic energy is investigated. empire-3.2 LA model PFNS calculations that use Madland 2006-recommended values [D. G. Madland, Nucl. Phys. A 772, 113 (2006), 10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2006.03.013] of the total kinetic energy and the level density parameter a =A /(10 ±0.5 ) compare very well to measured data at all incident neutron incident energies.

  4. Induced Fission of Pu240 within a Real-Time Microscopic Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Bulgac, Aurel; Magierski, Piotr; Roche, Kenneth J.; Stetcu, Ionel

    2016-03-01

    We describe the fissioning dynamics of 240Pu from a configuration in the proximity of the outer fission barrier to full scission and the formation of the fragments within an implementation of the Density Functional theory extended to superfluid systems and real-time dynamics. While the fission products emerge with properties very similar to those determined experimentally, the fission dynamics appears to be quite complex, with various shape and pairing modes being excited during the evolution. Consequently the time scale of the evolution turned out to be much slower than previously expected.

  5. Single particle fluorescence burst analysis of epsin induced membrane fission.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Arielle; Shoup, Daniel; Kustigian, Lauren; Puchalla, Jason; Carr, Chavela M; Rye, Hays S

    2015-01-01

    Vital cellular processes, from cell growth to synaptic transmission, rely on membrane-bounded carriers and vesicles to transport molecular cargo to and from specific intracellular compartments throughout the cell. Compartment-specific proteins are required for the final step, membrane fission, which releases the transport carrier from the intracellular compartment. The role of fission proteins, especially at intracellular locations and in non-neuronal cells, while informed by the dynamin-1 paradigm, remains to be resolved. In this study, we introduce a highly sensitive approach for the identification and analysis of membrane fission machinery, called burst analysis spectroscopy (BAS). BAS is a single particle, free-solution approach, well suited for quantitative measurements of membrane dynamics. Here, we use BAS to analyze membrane fission induced by the potent, fission-active ENTH domain of epsin. Using this method, we obtained temperature-dependent, time-resolved measurements of liposome size and concentration changes, even at sub-micromolar concentration of the epsin ENTH domain. We also uncovered, at 37°C, fission activity for the full-length epsin protein, supporting the argument that the membrane-fission activity observed with the ENTH domain represents a native function of the full-length epsin protein.

  6. Neutron induced capture and fission discrimination using calorimetric shape decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrapiço, C.; Berthoumieux, E.; Dridi, W.; Gonçalves, I. F.; Gunsing, F.; Lampoudis, C.; Vaz, P.; n TOF Collaboration

    2013-03-01

    The neutron capture and fission cross-sections of 233U have been measured at the neutron time-of-flight facility n_TOF at CERN in the energy range from 1 eV to 1 keV using a high performance 4π BaF2 Total Absorption Calorimeter (TAC) as a detection device. In order to separate the contributions of neutron capture and neutron induced fission in the TAC, a methodology called Calorimetric Shape Decomposition (CSD) was developed. The CSD methodology is based on the study of the TAC's energy response for all competing reactions, allowing to discriminate between γ s originating from neutron induced fission and those from neutron capture reactions without the need for fission tagging or any additional detection system. In this article, the concept behind the CSD is explained in detail together with the necessary analysis to obtain the TAC's response to neutron capture and neutron induced fission. The discrimination between capture and fission contributions is shown for several neutron energies. A comparison between the 233U neutron capture and fission yield extraction with ENDF/B-VII v1. library data is also provided.

  7. Fission description: First steps towards a full resolution of the time-dependent Hill-Wheeler equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verrière, Marc; Dubray, Noël; Schunck, Nicolas; Regnier, David; Dossantos-Uzarralde, Pierre

    2017-09-01

    Dynamical description of low energy fission is, in our full microscopic approach, decomposed in two steps. In the first step we generate the Potential Energy Surface (PES) of the compound system we want to describe with the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) method with a Gogny interaction. The second step uses the Time Dependent Generator Coordinate Method (TDGCM) with the Gaussian Overlap Approximation (GOA). The GOA holds in two assumptions: the overlap matrix between HFB states has a gaussian shape (with respect to the difference between coordinates of states in deformation space); and the expectation value of the collective hamiltonian between these states can be expanded up to order two, leading in this case to a Schrödinger-like equation. In this work we replace TDGCM+GOA in the second step of our approach by an exact treatment of the TDGCM. The main equation of this method is the time-dependent Hill-Wheeler equation and involves two objects: the overlap matrix and the collective hamiltonian. We first calculate these matrices on a PES. Then, we build an "exact TDGCM" solver using a finite element method and a Crank-Nicolson scheme. In this talk, we will present the time-dependent Hill-Wheeler equation and discretization schemes (in time and deformation space). The analytic calculation of overlap matrix and collective hamiltonian will be detailed. Finally, first results with an exact treatment of the TDGCM will be discussed.

  8. Benchmarking nuclear fission theory

    DOE PAGES

    Bertsch, G. F.; Loveland, W.; Nazarewicz, W.; ...

    2015-05-14

    We suggest a small set of fission observables to be used as test cases for validation of theoretical calculations. Thus, the purpose is to provide common data to facilitate the comparison of different fission theories and models. The proposed observables are chosen from fission barriers, spontaneous fission lifetimes, fission yield characteristics, and fission isomer excitation energies.

  9. Benchmarking nuclear fission theory

    SciTech Connect

    Bertsch, G. F.; Loveland, W.; Nazarewicz, W.; Talou, P.

    2015-05-14

    We suggest a small set of fission observables to be used as test cases for validation of theoretical calculations. Thus, the purpose is to provide common data to facilitate the comparison of different fission theories and models. The proposed observables are chosen from fission barriers, spontaneous fission lifetimes, fission yield characteristics, and fission isomer excitation energies.

  10. The SPIDER fission fragment spectrometer for fission product yield measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Meierbachtol, K.; Tovesson, F.; Shields, D.; Arnold, C.; Blakeley, R.; Bredeweg, T.; Devlin, M.; Hecht, A. A.; Heffern, L. E.; Jorgenson, J.; Laptev, A.; Mader, D.; O׳Donnell, J. M.; Sierk, A.; White, M.

    2015-04-01

    We developed the SPectrometer for Ion DEtermination in fission Research (SPIDER) for measuring mass yield distributions of fission products from spontaneous and neutron-induced fission. The 2E–2v method of measuring the kinetic energy (E) and velocity (v) of both outgoing fission products has been utilized, with the goal of measuring the mass of the fission products with an average resolution of 1 atomic mass unit (amu). Moreover, the SPIDER instrument, consisting of detector components for time-of-flight, trajectory, and energy measurements, has been assembled and tested using 229Th and 252Cf radioactive decay sources. For commissioning, the fully assembled system measured fission products from spontaneous fission of 252Cf. Individual measurement resolutions were met for time-of-flight (250 ps FWHM), spacial resolution (2 mm FHWM), and energy (92 keV FWHM for 8.376 MeV). Finally, these mass yield results measured from 252Cf spontaneous fission products are reported from an E–v measurement.

  11. The SPIDER fission fragment spectrometer for fission product yield measurements

    DOE PAGES

    Meierbachtol, K.; Tovesson, F.; Shields, D.; ...

    2015-04-01

    We developed the SPectrometer for Ion DEtermination in fission Research (SPIDER) for measuring mass yield distributions of fission products from spontaneous and neutron-induced fission. The 2E–2v method of measuring the kinetic energy (E) and velocity (v) of both outgoing fission products has been utilized, with the goal of measuring the mass of the fission products with an average resolution of 1 atomic mass unit (amu). Moreover, the SPIDER instrument, consisting of detector components for time-of-flight, trajectory, and energy measurements, has been assembled and tested using 229Th and 252Cf radioactive decay sources. For commissioning, the fully assembled system measured fission productsmore » from spontaneous fission of 252Cf. Individual measurement resolutions were met for time-of-flight (250 ps FWHM), spacial resolution (2 mm FHWM), and energy (92 keV FWHM for 8.376 MeV). Finally, these mass yield results measured from 252Cf spontaneous fission products are reported from an E–v measurement.« less

  12. Real-time observation of multiexcitonic states in ultrafast singlet fission using coherent 2D electronic spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Bakulin, Artem A; Morgan, Sarah E; Kehoe, Tom B; Wilson, Mark W B; Chin, Alex W; Zigmantas, Donatas; Egorova, Dassia; Rao, Akshay

    2016-01-01

    Singlet fission is the spin-allowed conversion of a spin-singlet exciton into a pair of spin-triplet excitons residing on neighbouring molecules. To rationalize this phenomenon, a multiexcitonic spin-zero triplet-pair state has been hypothesized as an intermediate in singlet fission. However, the nature of the intermediate states and the underlying mechanism of ultrafast fission have not been elucidated experimentally. Here, we study a series of pentacene derivatives using ultrafast two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy and unravel the origin of the states involved in fission. Our data reveal the crucial role of vibrational degrees of freedom coupled to electronic excitations that facilitate the mixing of multiexcitonic states with singlet excitons. The resulting manifold of vibronic states drives sub-100 fs fission with unity efficiency. Our results provide a framework for understanding singlet fission and show how the formation of vibronic manifolds with a high density of states facilitates fast and efficient electronic processes in molecular systems.

  13. Bimodal fission

    SciTech Connect

    Hulet, E.K.

    1989-04-19

    In recent years, we have measured the mass and kinetic-energy distributions from the spontaneous fission of /sup 258/Fm, /sup 259/Md, /sup 260/Md, /sup 258/No, /sup 262/No, and /sup 260/(104). All are observed to fission with a symmetrical division of mass, whereas the total-kinetic-energy (TKE) distributions strongly deviated from the Gaussian shape characteristically found in the fission of all other actinides. When the TKE distributions are resolved into two Gaussians the constituent peaks lie near 200 and near 233 MeV. We conclude two modes or bimodal fission is occurring in five of the six nuclides studied. Both modes are possible in the same nuclides, but one generally predominates. We also conclude the low-energy but mass-symmetrical mode is likely to extend to far heavier nuclei; while the high-energy mode will be restricted to a smaller region, a region of nuclei defined by the proximity of the fragments to the strong neutron and proton shells in /sup 132/Sn. 16 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Relaxation times and modes of disturbed aggregate distribution in micellar solutions with fusion and fission of micelles

    SciTech Connect

    Zakharov, Anatoly I.; Adzhemyan, Loran Ts.; Shchekin, Alexander K.

    2015-09-28

    We have performed direct numerical calculations of the kinetics of relaxation in the system of surfactant spherical micelles under joint action of the molecular mechanism with capture and emission of individual surfactant molecules by molecular aggregates and the mechanism of fusion and fission of the aggregates. As a basis, we have taken the difference equations of aggregation and fragmentation in the form of the generalized kinetic Smoluchowski equations for aggregate concentrations. The calculations have been made with using the droplet model of molecular surfactant aggregates and two modified Smoluchowski models for the coefficients of aggregate-monomer and aggregate-aggregate fusions which take into account the effects of the aggregate size and presence of hydrophobic spots on the aggregate surface. A full set of relaxation times and corresponding relaxation modes for nonequilibrium aggregate distribution in the aggregation number has been found. The dependencies of these relaxation times and modes on the total concentration of surfactant in the solution and the special parameter controlling the probability of fusion in collisions of micelles with other micelles have been studied.

  15. Nucleon-content effect on the fission lifetime of excited nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Gontchar, I. I.; Ponomarenko, N. A.

    2007-12-15

    It was shown previously that the fission lifetime of a nucleus excited to about 100 MeV depends strongly and nonmonotonically on the initial value of its angular momentum L{sub 0}. This result was obtained on the basis of a refined version of the combined dynamical and statistical model. The present study is devoted to a theoretical analysis of the dependence of the fission time on the nucleonic composition of the nucleus involved. The respective calculations were performed within the same model. The dependence of the average fission time on the initial fissility parameter (Z{sup 2}/A){sub 0} appears to be of a resonance type and is similar to its dependence on L{sub 0}. This dependence of the average fission time on (Z{sup 2}/A){sub 0} stems both from statistical calculations and from a dynamical simulation of the fission mode with allowance for friction. The conditions under which the average fission time reaches a maximum are specified. The dependence of the average fission time on (Z{sup 2}/A){sub 0} remains nonmonotonic in the fusion-fission reaction as well, in which case the distribution of compound nuclei with respect to the initial angular momentum is broad.

  16. Theoretical Investigation of the Angular-Momentum Dependence of the Mean Fission Lifetime of Excited Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Gontchar, I.I.; Ponomarenko, N.A.; Turkin, V.V.; Litnevsky, L.A.

    2004-11-01

    Mean fission lifetimes of nuclei excited to energies of 80 to 400 MeV were recently measured at the GANIL accelerator by the crystal-blocking technique. Those experiments served as a motivation for us to perform systematic calculations of the time distributions of fission events and the mean fission lifetimes versus the angular momentum, the initial excitation energy, and the fissility of a primary excited nucleus. The mean fission lifetimes are given as a function of the angular momentum L. The calculations were performed within the refined version of the combined dynamical-statistical model. It turned out that, if the height of the fission barrier at L = 0 is sizably greater than the neutron binding energy, the L dependence of the mean fission lifetimes has a resonance character. Such behavior of the mean fission lifetimes is obtained both from statistical calculations and from a dynamical simulation of the fission process with allowance for friction. It is shown that the maximum in the L dependence of is due to the fission of nuclei that lost a considerable part of the initial excitation energy through the emission of neutrons. The majority of the calculations were performed for {sup 190}Pt at an initial excitation energy of 150 eV. It is shown that the resonance behavior disappears with increasing fissility, but that it survives over a broad range of initial excitation energies. Systematic experimental studies are required for confirming or disproving our theoretical predictions.

  17. Observation of mass-asymmetric fission of mercury nuclei in heavy ion fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, E.; Hinde, D. J.; Ramachandran, K.; Williams, E.; Dasgupta, M.; Carter, I. P.; Cook, K. J.; Jeung, D. Y.; Luong, D. H.; McNeil, S.; Palshetkar, C. S.; Rafferty, D. C.; Simenel, C.; Wakhle, A.; Khuyagbaatar, J.; Düllmann, Ch. E.; Lommel, B.; Kindler, B.

    2015-06-01

    Background: Mass-asymmetric fission has been observed in low energy fission of 180Hg . Calculations predicted the persistence of asymmetric fission in this region even at excitation energies of 30-40 MeV. Purpose: To investigate fission mass distributions by populating different isotopes of Hg using heavy ion fusion reactions. Methods: Fission fragment mass-angle distributions have been measured for two reactions, 40Ca+142Nd and 13C+182W , populating 182Hg and 195Hg , respectively, using the Heavy Ion Accelerator Facility and CUBE spectrometer at the Australian National University. Measurements were made at beam energies around the capture barrier for the two reactions and mass ratio distributions were obtained using the kinematic reconstruction method. Results: Asymmetric fission has been observed following the population of 182Hg at an excitation energy of 22.8 MeV above the saddle point. A symmetric peaked mass ratio distribution was observed for 195Hg nuclei at a similar excitation energy above the saddle point. Conclusions: Mass-asymmetric fission has been observed in neutron deficient Hg nuclei populated via heavy ion fusion for the first time. The results are consistent with observations from beta-delayed fission measurements and provide a proof-of-principle for expanding experimental studies of the influence of shell effects on the fission processes.

  18. Fission modelling with FIFRELIN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litaize, Olivier; Serot, Olivier; Berge, Léonie

    2015-12-01

    The nuclear fission process gives rise to the formation of fission fragments and emission of particles (n,γ , e-) . The particle emission from fragments can be prompt and delayed. We present here the methods used in the FIFRELIN code, which simulates the prompt component of the de-excitation process. The methods are based on phenomenological models associated with macroscopic and/or microscopic ingredients. Input data can be provided by experiment as well as by theory. The fission fragment de-excitation can be performed within Weisskopf (uncoupled neutron and gamma emission) or a Hauser-Feshbach (coupled neutron/gamma emission) statistical theory. We usually consider five free parameters that cannot be provided by theory or experiments in order to describe the initial distributions required by the code. In a first step this set of parameters is chosen to reproduce a very limited set of target observables. In a second step we can increase the statistics to predict all other fission observables such as prompt neutron, gamma and conversion electron spectra but also their distributions as a function of any kind of parameters such as, for instance, the neutron, gamma and electron number distributions, the average prompt neutron multiplicity as a function of fission fragment mass, charge or kinetic energy, and so on. Several results related to different fissioning systems are presented in this work. The goal in the next decade will be i) to replace some macroscopic ingredients or phenomenological models by microscopic calculations when available and reliable, ii) to be a support for experimentalists in the design of detection systems or in the prediction of necessary beam time or count rates with associated statistics when measuring fragments and emitted particle in coincidence iii) extend the model to be able to run a calculation when no experimental input data are available, iv) account for multiple chance fission and gamma emission before fission, v) account for the

  19. Microscopic Theory of Nuclear Fission: A Review

    DOE PAGES

    Schunck, N.; Robledo, L. M.

    2016-10-11

    used to extract spontaneous fission half-lives from multi-dimensional quantum tunnelling probabilities (For the sake of completeness, other approaches to tunnelling based on functional integrals are also briefly discussed, although there are very few applications.) It is also an important component of some of the time-dependent methods that have been used in fission studies. Concerning the latter, both the semi-classical approaches to time-dependent nuclear dynamics and more microscopic theories involving explicit quantum-many-body methods are presented. One of the hallmarks of the microscopic theory of fission is the tremendous amount of computing needed for practical applications. In particular, the successful implementation of the theories presented in this article requires a very precise numerical resolution of the HFB equations for large values of the collective variables. This aspect is often overlooked, and several sections are devoted to discussing the resolution of the HFB equations, especially in the context of very deformed nuclear shapes. In particular, the numerical precision and iterative methods employed to obtain the HFB solution are documented in detail. Finally, a selection of the most recent and representative results obtained for both spontaneous and induced fission is presented, with the goal of emphasizing the coherence of the microscopic approaches employed. In conclusion, although impressive progress has been achieved over the last two decades to understand fission microscopically, much work remains to be done. Several possible lines of research are outlined in the conclusion.« less

  20. Microscopic theory of nuclear fission: a review.

    PubMed

    Schunck, N; Robledo, L M

    2016-11-01

    spontaneous fission half-lives from multi-dimensional quantum tunnelling probabilities (For the sake of completeness, other approaches to tunnelling based on functional integrals are also briefly discussed, although there are very few applications.) It is also an important component of some of the time-dependent methods that have been used in fission studies. Concerning the latter, both the semi-classical approaches to time-dependent nuclear dynamics and more microscopic theories involving explicit quantum-many-body methods are presented. One of the hallmarks of the microscopic theory of fission is the tremendous amount of computing needed for practical applications. In particular, the successful implementation of the theories presented in this article requires a very precise numerical resolution of the HFB equations for large values of the collective variables. This aspect is often overlooked, and several sections are devoted to discussing the resolution of the HFB equations, especially in the context of very deformed nuclear shapes. In particular, the numerical precision and iterative methods employed to obtain the HFB solution are documented in detail. Finally, a selection of the most recent and representative results obtained for both spontaneous and induced fission is presented, with the goal of emphasizing the coherence of the microscopic approaches employed. Although impressive progress has been achieved over the last two decades to understand fission microscopically, much work remains to be done. Several possible lines of research are outlined in the conclusion.

  1. Microscopic theory of nuclear fission: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schunck, N.; Robledo, L. M.

    2016-11-01

    spontaneous fission half-lives from multi-dimensional quantum tunnelling probabilities (For the sake of completeness, other approaches to tunnelling based on functional integrals are also briefly discussed, although there are very few applications.) It is also an important component of some of the time-dependent methods that have been used in fission studies. Concerning the latter, both the semi-classical approaches to time-dependent nuclear dynamics and more microscopic theories involving explicit quantum-many-body methods are presented. One of the hallmarks of the microscopic theory of fission is the tremendous amount of computing needed for practical applications. In particular, the successful implementation of the theories presented in this article requires a very precise numerical resolution of the HFB equations for large values of the collective variables. This aspect is often overlooked, and several sections are devoted to discussing the resolution of the HFB equations, especially in the context of very deformed nuclear shapes. In particular, the numerical precision and iterative methods employed to obtain the HFB solution are documented in detail. Finally, a selection of the most recent and representative results obtained for both spontaneous and induced fission is presented, with the goal of emphasizing the coherence of the microscopic approaches employed. Although impressive progress has been achieved over the last two decades to understand fission microscopically, much work remains to be done. Several possible lines of research are outlined in the conclusion.

  2. Microscopic Theory of Nuclear Fission: A Review

    SciTech Connect

    Schunck, N.; Robledo, L. M.

    2016-10-11

    extract spontaneous fission half-lives from multi-dimensional quantum tunnelling probabilities (For the sake of completeness, other approaches to tunnelling based on functional integrals are also briefly discussed, although there are very few applications.) It is also an important component of some of the time-dependent methods that have been used in fission studies. Concerning the latter, both the semi-classical approaches to time-dependent nuclear dynamics and more microscopic theories involving explicit quantum-many-body methods are presented. One of the hallmarks of the microscopic theory of fission is the tremendous amount of computing needed for practical applications. In particular, the successful implementation of the theories presented in this article requires a very precise numerical resolution of the HFB equations for large values of the collective variables. This aspect is often overlooked, and several sections are devoted to discussing the resolution of the HFB equations, especially in the context of very deformed nuclear shapes. In particular, the numerical precision and iterative methods employed to obtain the HFB solution are documented in detail. Finally, a selection of the most recent and representative results obtained for both spontaneous and induced fission is presented, with the goal of emphasizing the coherence of the microscopic approaches employed. In conclusion, although impressive progress has been achieved over the last two decades to understand fission microscopically, much work remains to be done. Several possible lines of research are outlined in the conclusion.

  3. Determination of {sup 140}La fission product interference factor for INAA

    SciTech Connect

    Ribeiro Jr, Iberê S.; Genezini, Frederico A.; Saiki, Mitiko; Zahn, Guilherme S.

    2014-11-11

    Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) is a technique widely used to determine the concentration of several elements in several kinds of matrices. However if the sample of interest has higher relative uranium concentration the obtained results can be interfered by the uranium fission products. One of these cases that is affected by interference due to U fission is the {sup 140}La, because this radioisotope used in INAA for the determination of concentration the La is also produced by the {sup −}β of {sup 140}Ba, an uranium fission product. The {sup 140}La interference factor was studied in this work and a factor to describe its time dependence was obtained.

  4. Postorogenic denudation along the late Paleozoic Ouachita trend, south central United States of America: Magnitude and timing constraints from apatite fission track data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrigan, Jeff; Cervany, Philip F.; Donelick, Raymond; Bergman, Steven C.

    1998-08-01

    The magnitude and timing of synorogenic and postorogenic denudation along fold and thrust belts and their associated foreland basins, of interest because of both tectonic and economic implications, is generally poorly constrained. Along the late Paleozoic Ouachita trend, a thin veneer of Cretaceous strata is preserved above a low-relief erosional surface that beveled the Ouachita orogen and adjacent foreland areas. This regional erosion surface provides a valuable constraint for interpreting new and previously published apatite fission track (AFT) data obtained from exposed structural highs along the Ouachita trend (Marathon, Llano, Arbuckle, and Benton uplifts). AFT data from sampled localities within the deformation belt (Marathon and Benton uplifts) exhibit younger ages and, generally, longer mean lengths than data from localities on the foreland side of the deformation front (Llano and Arbuckle uplifts). This observation suggests that erosion of the orogen, rather than its extensional collapse, was the primary mechanism responsible for flexural isostatic unloading of the foreland crust. In addition, all samples show evidence for mild reheating following their pre-Cretaceous cooling history. Specifically, the lack of a significant population of >14.5-μm tracks in all samples appears to require residence at temperatures of ≥55°±5°C after development of the sub-Cretaceous erosional surface. This implies that ˜1000 m of Cretaceous-Paleogene (?) strata were deposited across the entire Ouachita frontal trend and subsequently removed during later Tertiary time. This Tertiary denudation is interpreted to reflect the interplay between regional denudation and isostatic compensation in response to slow (˜10 m/m.y.) epeirogenic uplift of the southern midcontinent and a long-term drop (˜200 m) in eustatic sealevel during this time.

  5. Light charged particles emitted in fission reactions induced by protons on 208Pb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Sánchez, J. L.; Benlliure, J.; Paradela, C.; Ayyad, Y.; Casarejos, E.; Alvarez-Pol, H.; Audouin, L.; Bélier, G.; Boutoux, G.; Chatillon, A.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Gorbinet, T.; Heinz, A.; Kelić-Heil, A.; Laurent, B.; Martin, J.-F.; Pellereau, E.; Pietras, B.; Ramos, D.; Rodríguez-Tajes, C.; Rossi, D. M.; Simon, H.; Taïeb, J.; Vargas, J.; Voss, B.

    2016-09-01

    Light charged particles emitted in proton-induced fission reactions on 208Pb have been measured at different kinetic energies: 370 A ,500 A , and 650 A MeV. The experiment was performed by the SOFIA Collaboration at the GSI facilities in Darmstadt (Germany). The inverse kinematics technique was combined with a setup especially designed to measure light charged particles in coincidence with fission fragments. This measurement allowed us, for the first time, to obtain correlations between the light charged particles emitted during the fission process and the charge distributions of the fission fragments. These correlations were compared with different model calculations to assess the ground-to-saddle dynamics. The results confirm that transient and dissipative effects are required for an accurate description of the fission observables.

  6. Fission yield studies at the IGISOL facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penttilä, H.; Elomaa, V.-V.; Eronen, T.; Hakala, J.; Jokinen, A.; Kankainen, A.; Moore, I. D.; Rahaman, S.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Rissanen, J.; Rubchenya, V.; Saastamoinen, A.; Weber, C.; Äystö, J.

    2012-04-01

    Low-energy-particle-induced fission is a cost-effective way to produce neutron-rich nuclei for spectroscopic studies. Fission has been utilized at the IGISOL to produce isotopes for decay and nuclear structure studies, collinear laser spectroscopy and precision mass measurements. The ion guide technique is also very suitable for the fission yield measurements, which can be performed very efficiently by using the Penning trap for fission fragment identification and counting. The proton- and neutron-induced fission yield measurements at the IGISOL are reviewed, and the independent isotopic yields of Zn, Ga, Rb, Sr, Cd and In in 25MeV deuterium-induced fission are presented for the first time. Moving to a new location next to the high intensity MCC30/15 light-ion cyclotron will allow also the use of the neutron-induced fission to produce the neutron rich nuclei at the IGISOL in the future.

  7. Fission of rotating fermium isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baran, A.; Staszczak, A.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper we discuss the process of fission of even fermium isotopes, on the basis of their rotational states. The nuclear intrinsic vorticity and its coupling to the global rotation of the nucleus are used to simulate the interaction between the rotational motion and the pairing field, and lead to pairing quenching in the case of higher angular momentum states. The rotation leads to a decreasing of the fission barrier heights. The ingredients of the model—ground state fission barriers, pairing correlation energies and the cranking moments of inertia—are obtained within the self-consistent Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov framework using the Skyrme \\text{Sk}{{\\text{M}}^{*}} energy density functional. Fission barriers and half-lives are estimated for spins I up to I = 16ℏ.

  8. Dynamical Aspects of Nuclear Fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kliman, J.; Itkis, M. G.; Gmuca, Š.

    2008-11-01

    Fission dynamics. Dependence of scission-neutron yield on light-fragment mass for [symbol]=1/2 [et al.]. Dynamics of capture quasifission and fusion-fission competition / L. Stuttgé ... [et al.] -- Fission-fission. The processes of fusion-fission and quasi-fission of superheavy nuclei / M. G. Itkis ... [et al.]. Fission and quasifission in the reactions [symbol]Ca+[symbol]Pb and [symbol]Ni+[symbol]W / G. N. Knyazheva ... [et al.]. Mass-energy characteristics of reactions [symbol]Fe+[symbol][symbol][symbol]266Hs and [symbol]Mg+[symbol]Cm[symbol][symbol]Hs at Coulomb barrier / L. Krupa ... [et al.]. Fusion of heavy ions at extreme sub-barrier energies / Ş. Mişicu and H. Esbensen. Fusion and fission dynamics of heavy nuclear system / V. Zagrebaev and W. Greiner. Time-dependent potential energy for fusion and fission processes / A. V. Karpov ... [et al.] -- Superheavy elements. Advances in the understanding of structure and production mechanisms for superheavy elements / W. Greiner and V. Zagrebaev. Fission barriers of heaviest nuclei / A. Sobiczewski ... [et al.]. Possibility of synthesizing doubly magic superheavy nuclei / Y Aritomo ... [et al.]. Synthesis of superheavy nuclei in [symbol]Ca-induced reactions / V. K. Utyonkov ... [et al.] -- Fragmentation. Production of neutron-rich nuclei in the nucleus-nucleus collisions around the Fermi energy / M. Veselský. Signals of enlarged core in [symbol]Al / Y. G. Ma ... [et al.] -- Exotic modes. New insight into the fission process from experiments with relativistic heavy-ion beams / K.-H. Schmidt ... [et al.]. New results for the intensity of bimodal fission in binary and ternary spontaneous fission of [symbol]Cf / C. Goodin ... [et al.]. Rare fission modes: study of multi-cluster decays of actinide nuclei / D. V. Kamanin ... [et al.]. Energy distribution of ternary [symbol]-particles in [symbol]Cf(sf) / M. Mutterer ... [et al.]. Preliminary results of experiment aimed at searching for collinear cluster tripartition of

  9. Prompt fission γ-ray data from spontaneous fission and the mechanism of fission-fragment de-excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberstedt, Stephan; Dragic, Aleksandar; Gatera, Angelique; Göök, Alf; Hambsch, Franz-Josef; Oberstedt, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    The investigation of prompt γ-ray emission in nuclear fission has a great relevance for the assessment of prompt heat generation in a reactor core and for the better understanding of the de-excitation mechanism of fission fragments. Some years ago experimental data was scarce and available only from a few fission reactions, 233,235U(nth, f), 239Pu(nth, f), and 252Cf(sf). Initiated by a high priority data request published by the OECD/NEA a dedicated prompt fission γ-ray measurement program is being conducted at the Joint Research Centre Geel. In recent years we obtained new and accurate prompt fission γ-ray spectrum (PFGS) characteristics (average number of photons per fission, average total energy per fission and mean photon energy) from 252Cf(sf), 235U(nth, f) and 239,241Pu(nth, f) within 2% of uncertainty. In order to understand the dependence of prompt fission γ-ray emission on the compound nuclear mass and excitation energy, we started a first measurement campaign on spontaneously fissioning plutonium and curium isotopes. Results on PFGS characteristics from 240,242Pu(sf) show a dependence on the fragment mass distribution rather than on the average prompt neutron multiplicity, pointing to a more complex competition between prompt fission γ-ray and neutron emission.

  10. Method for correcting for isotope burn-in effects in fission neutron dosimeters

    DOEpatents

    Gold, Raymond; McElroy, William N.

    1988-01-01

    A method is described for correcting for effect of isotope burn-in in fission neutron dosimeters. Two quantities are measured in order to quantify the "burn-in" contribution, namely P.sub.Z',A', the amount of (Z', A') isotope that is burned-in, and F.sub.Z', A', the fissions per unit volume produced in the (Z', A') isotope. To measure P.sub.Z', A', two solid state track recorder fission deposits are prepared from the very same material that comprises the fission neutron dosimeter, and the mass and mass density are measured. One of these deposits is exposed along with the fission neutron dosimeter, whereas the second deposit is subsequently used for observation of background. P.sub.Z', A' is then determined by conducting a second irradiation, wherein both the irradiated and unirradiated fission deposits are used in solid state track recorder dosimeters for observation of the absolute number of fissions per unit volume. The difference between the latter determines P.sub.Z', A' since the thermal neutron cross section is known. F.sub.Z', A' is obtained by using a fission neutron dosimeter for this specific isotope, which is exposed along with the original threshold fission neutron dosimeter to experience the same neutron flux-time history at the same location. In order to determine the fissions per unit volume produced in the isotope (Z', A') as it ingrows during the irradiation, B.sub.Z', A', from these observations, the neutron field must generally be either time independent or a separable function of time t and neutron energy E.

  11. The partial fission of fast spinning asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tardivel, Simon; Sanchez, Paul; Scheeres, Daniel J.

    2016-10-01

    The spin rates of asteroids systematically change over time due the Yarkovsky-O'Keefe-Radzievskii-Paddack (YORP) effect. Above a certain spin rate that depends on the body's density, regions of an asteroid can enter in tension, with components held to the body by cohesive forces. When the body fails, deformation or fission can occur. Catastrophic fission leading to complete disruption has been directly observed in active asteroid P/2013 R3. Partial fission, the loss of only part of the body, has been proposed as a mechanism for the formation of binaries and is explored here.The equatorial cavities of (341843) 2008 EV5 and of (185851) 2000 DP107 (a binary system) are consistent with a localized partial fission of the body (LPSC 2016 #1036). The examination of the gravity field of these bodies reveals that a mass placed within these cavities could be shed. In this mechanism, the outward pull of inertial forces creates an average stress at the cavity interface of ≈1 Pa for 2008 EV5 and ≈3 Pa for 2000 DP107 at spin periods of ≈3.15 h for the assumed densities of 1.3 g/cm3.This work continues the study of this partial, localized fission. Specifically, it addresses the issue of the low cohesion necessary to the mechanism. These cohesion values are typically lower than global strength values inferred on other asteroids (10 - 200 Pa), meaning that partial fission may occur prior to larger-scale deformations. Yet, several processes can explain the discrepancy, as they can naturally segregate particles by size. For instance, landslides or granular convection (Brazil nut effect) could bring larger boulders to the equator of the body, while finer particles are left at higher latitudes or sink to the center. Conversely, failure of the interior could bring boulders to the surface. The peculiar profile shape of these asteroids, shared by many binaries (e.g. 1999 KW4, 1996 FG3) may also be a clue of this heterogeneity, as this "spin top" shape is obtained in simulations with

  12. Ballistic piston fissioning plasma experiment.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, B. E.; Schneider, R. T.; Thom, K.; Lalos, G. T.

    1971-01-01

    The production of fissioning uranium plasma samples such that the fission fragment stopping distance is less than the dimensions of the plasma is approached by using a ballistic piston device for the compression of uranium hexafluoride. The experimental apparatus is described. At room temperature the gun can be loaded up to 100 torr UF6 partial pressure, but at compression a thousand fold increase of pressure can be obtained at a particle density on the order of 10 to the 19th power per cu cm. Limited spectral studies of UF6 were performed while obtaining the pressure-volume data. The results obtained and their implications are discussed.

  13. Fission Models of Population Variability

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, E. A.

    1979-01-01

    Most models in population genetics are models of allele frequency, making implicit or explicit assumptions of equilibrium or constant population size. In recent papers, we have attempted to develop more appropriate models for the analysis of rare variant data in South American Indian tribes; these are branching process models for the total number of replicates of a variant allele. The spatial distribution of a variant may convey information about its history and characteristics, and this paper extends previous models to take this factor into consideration. A model of fission into subdivisions is superimposed on the previous branching process, and variation between subdivisions is considered. The case where fission is nonrandom and the locations of like alleles are initially positively associated, as would happen were a tribal cluster or village to split on familial lines, is also analyzed. The statistics developed are applied to Yanomama Indian data on rare genetic variants. Due to insufficient time depth, no definitive new inferences can be drawn, but the analysis shows that this model provides results consistent with previous conclusions, and demonstrates the general type of question that may be answered by the approach taken here. In particular, striking confirmation of a higher-than-average growth rate, and hence smaller-than-previously-estimated age, is obtained for the Yan2 serum albumen variant. PMID:535728

  14. Fission Product Release from SLOWPOKE-2 Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harnden, Anne M. C.

    Increasing radiation fields at several SLOWPOKE -2 reactors fuelled with highly enriched uranium aluminum alloy fuel have begun to interfere with the daily operation of these reactors. To investigate this phenomenon, samples of reactor container water and gas from the headspace above the reactor were obtained at four SLOWPOKE-2 reactor facilities and examined by gamma ray spectroscopy methods. These radiation fields are due to the circulation of fission products within the reactor container vessel. The most likely source of the fission product release is an area of uranium-bearing material exposed to the coolant at the end weld line which originated at the time of fuel fabrication. The results of this study are compared with observations from an underwater visual examination of one core and the metallographic examination of archived fuel elements.

  15. Simplest chronoscope. III. Further comparisons between reaction times obtained by meterstick versus machine.

    PubMed

    Montare, Alberto

    2013-06-01

    The three classical Donders' reaction time (RT) tasks (simple, choice, and discriminative RTs) were employed to compare reaction time scores from college students obtained by use of Montare's simplest chronoscope (meterstick) methodology to scores obtained by use of a digital-readout multi-choice reaction timer (machine). Five hypotheses were tested. Simple RT, choice RT, and discriminative RT were faster when obtained by meterstick than by machine. The meterstick method showed higher reliability than the machine method and was less variable. The meterstick method of the simplest chronoscope may help to alleviate the longstanding problems of low reliability and high variability of reaction time performances; while at the same time producing faster performance on Donders' simple, choice and discriminative RT tasks than the machine method.

  16. Coherent singlet fission activated by symmetry breaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyata, Kiyoshi; Kurashige, Yuki; Watanabe, Kazuya; Sugimoto, Toshiki; Takahashi, Shota; Tanaka, Shunsuke; Takeya, Jun; Yanai, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Yoshiyasu

    2017-10-01

    Singlet fission, in which a singlet exciton is converted to two triplet excitons, is a process that could be beneficial in photovoltaic applications. A full understanding of the dynamics of singlet fission in molecular systems requires detailed knowledge of the relevant potential energy surfaces and their (conical) intersections. However, obtaining such information is a nontrivial task, particularly for molecular aggregates. Here we investigate singlet fission in rubrene crystals using transient absorption spectroscopy and state-of-the-art quantum chemical calculations. We observe a coherent and ultrafast singlet-fission channel as well as the well-known and conventional thermally assisted incoherent channel. This coherent channel is accessible because the conical intersection for singlet fission on the excited-state potential energy surface is located very close to the equilibrium position of the ground-state potential energy surface and also because of the excitation of an intermolecular symmetry-breaking mode, which activates the electronic coupling necessary for singlet fission.

  17. Fission-induced plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harries, W. L.; Shiu, Y. J.

    1979-01-01

    The possibility of creating a plasma from fission fragments, and to utilize the energy of the particles to create population inversion that would lead to laser action is investigated. An investigation was made of various laser materials which could be used for nuclear-pumped lasing. The most likely candidate for a fissioning material in the gaseous form is uranium hexafluoride - UF6, and experiments were performed to investigate materials that would be compatible with it. One of the central problems in understanding a fission-induced plasma is to obtain a model of the electron behavior, and some preliminary calculations are presented. In particular, the rates of various processes are discussed. A simple intuitive model of the electron energy distribution function is also shown. The results were useful for considering a mathematical model of a nuclear-pumped laser. Next a theoretical model of a (3)He-Ar nuclear-pumped laser is presented. The theory showed good qualitative agreement with the experimental results.

  18. Induced fission of Pu240 within a real-time microscopic framework

    SciTech Connect

    Bulgac, Aurel; Magierski, Piotr; Roche, Kenneth J.; Stetcu, Ionel

    2016-03-25

    Here, we describe the fissioning dynamics of 240Pu from a configuration in the proximity of the outer fission barrier to full scission and the formation of the fragments within an implementation of density functional theory extended to superfluid systems and real-time dynamics. The fission fragments emerge with properties similar to those determined experimentally, while the fission dynamics appears to be quite complex, with many excited shape and pairing modes. The evolution is found to be much slower than previously expected, and the ultimate role of the collective inertia is found to be negligible in this fully nonadiabatic treatment of nuclear dynamics, where all collective degrees of freedom (CDOF) are included (unlike adiabatic treatments with a small number of CDOF).

  19. Fission time scales from anisotropic in-plane distributions in 100Mo+100Mo and 120Sn+120Sn collisions around 20A MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casini, G.; Bizzeti, P. G.; Maurenzig, P. R.; Olmi, A.; Stefanini, A. A.; Wessels, J. P.; Charity, R. J.; Freifelder, R.; Gobbi, A.; Herrmann, N.; Hildenbrand, K. D.; Stelzer, H.

    1993-10-01

    The characteristics of the fission step following a binary deep-inelastic interaction have been reconstructed for three-body events detected in the reaction 100Mo+100Mo at 18.7A MeV and 12-Sn+120Sn at 18.4A MeV. The observed anisotropy of the in-plane angular distributions points to the fast decay of a rotating (and strongly deformed) nuclear object formed at the end of the deep-inelastic interaction. The derived time scale of the process indicates that asymmetric divisions are faster than symmetric ones.

  20. Neutron threshold activation detectors (TAD) for the detection of fissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gozani, Tsahi; Stevenson, John; King, Michael J.

    2011-10-01

    Prompt fission neutrons are one of the strongest signatures of the fission process. Depending on the fission inducing radiation, their average number ranges from 2.5 to 4 neutrons per fission. They are more energetic and abundant, by about 2 orders of magnitude, than the delayed neutrons (≈3 vs. ≈0.01) that are commonly used as indicators for the presence of fissionable materials. The detection of fission prompt neutrons, however, has to be done in the presence of extremely intense probing radiation that stimulated them. During irradiation, the fission stimulation radiation, X-rays or neutrons, overwhelms the neutron detectors and temporarily incapacitate them. Consequently, by the time the detectors recover from the source radiation, fission prompt neutrons are no longer emitted. In order to measure the prompt fission signatures under these circumstances, special measures are usually taken with the detectors such as heavy shielding with collimation, use of inefficient geometries, high pulse height bias and gamma-neutron separation via pulse-shape discrimination with an appropriate organic scintillator. These attempts to shield the detector from the flash of radiation result in a major loss of sensitivity. It can lead to a complete inability to detect the fission prompt neutrons. In order to overcome the blinding induced background from the source radiation, the detection of prompt fission neutrons needs to occur long after the fission event and after the detector has fully recovered from the source overload. A new approach to achieve this is to detect the delayed activation induced by the fission neutrons. The approach demonstrates a good sensitivity in adverse overload situations (gamma and neutron "flash") where fission prompt neutrons could normally not be detected. The new approach achieves the required temporal separation between the detection of prompt neutrons and the detector overload by the neutron activation of the detector material. The technique

  1. Neutron Emission in Fission And Quasi-Fission of Hs

    SciTech Connect

    Itkis, I. M.; Itkis, M. G.; Knyazheva, G. N.; Kozulin, E. M.; Krupa, L.; Hanappe, F.; Dorvaux, O.; Stuttge, L.

    2010-04-30

    Mass and energy distributions of fission-like fragments obtained in the reactions {sup 26}Mg+{sup 248}Cm, {sup 36}S+{sup 238}U and {sup 58}Fe+{sup 208}Pb leading to the formation of {sup 266,274}Hs are reported. From the analysis of TKE distributions for symmetric fragment it was found that at energies below the Coulomb barrier the bimodal fission of {sup 274}Hs, formed in the reaction {sup 26}Mg+{sup 248}Cm, is observed, while in the reaction {sup 36}S+{sup 238}U at these energies the main part of the symmetric fragments arises from the quasi-fission process. At energies above the Coulomb barrier the fusion-fission is a main process leading to the formation of symmetric fragment for the both reactions. In the case of {sup 58}Fe+{sup 208}Pb reaction the quasi-fission process is the main reaction mechanism at all measured energies. The pre- and post-scission neutron multiplicities as a function of the fragment mass have been obtained for all studied reactions.

  2. Event-by-Event Fission Modeling of Prompt Neutrons and Photons from Neutron-Induced and Spontaneous Fission with FREYA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, Ramona; Randrup, Jorgen

    2013-04-01

    The event-by-event fission Monte Carlo code FREYA (Fission Reaction Event Yield Algorithm) generates large samples of complete fission events. Using FREYA, it is possible to obtain the fission products as well as the prompt neutrons and photons emitted during the fission process, all with complete kinematic information. We can therefore extract any desired correlation observables. Concentrating on ^239Pu(n,f), ^240Pu(sf) and ^252Cf(sf), we compare our FREYA results with available data on prompt neutron and photon emission and present predictions for novel fission observables that could be measured with modern detectors.

  3. Fission product behavior during the PBF (Power Burst Facility) Severe Fuel Damage Test 1-1

    SciTech Connect

    Hartwell, J K; Petti, D A; Hagrman, D L; Jensen, S M; Cronenberg, A W

    1987-05-01

    In response to the accident at Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2), the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) initiated a series of Severe Fuel Damage tests that were performed in the Power Burst Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to obtain data necessary to understand (a) fission product release, transport, and deposition; (b) hydrogen generation; and (c) fuel/cladding material behavior during degraded core accidents. Data are presented about fission product behavior noted during the second experiment of this series, the Severe Fuel Damage Test 1-1, with an in-depth analysis of the fission product release, transport, and deposition phenomena that were observed. Real-time release and transport data of certain fission products were obtained from on-line gamma spectroscopy measurements. Liquid and gas effluent grab samples were collected at selected periods during the test transient. Additional information was obtained from steamline deposition analysis. From these and other data, fission product release rates and total release fractions are estimated and compared with predicted release behavior using current models. Fission product distributions and a mass balance are also summarized, and certain probable chemical forms are predicted for iodine, cesium, and tellurium. An in-depth evaluation of phenomena affecting the behavior of the high-volatility fission products - xenon, krypton, iodine, cesium, and tellurium - is presented. Analysis indicates that volatile release from fuel is strongly influenced by parameters other than fuel temperature. Fission product behavior during transport through the Power Burst Facility effluent line to the fission product monitoring system is assessed. Tellurium release behavior is also examined relatve to the extent of Zircaloy cladding oxidation. 81 fig., 53 tabs.

  4. Thermo-tectonics of the Calabrian Arc, southern Italy: Constraints from fission track analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, Stuart Nigel

    This study uses fission track analysis to provide temperature and time constraints on the cooling and exhumation history of the basement rocks of the Calabrian Arc of southern Italy. Fission track analysis also provides information on the provenance and burial history of the terrigenous Oligo-Miocene Stilo-Capo d'Orlando Formation. 65 samples from the basement rocks have yielded 57 apatite fission track ages, 54 zircon fission track ages and 25 apatite track length distributions. 9 samples from the Stilo- Capo d'Orlando Formation have yielded 8 apatite fission track ages, 8 zircon fission track ages and 6 apatite track length distributions. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the fission track data reveals that the majority of the basement rocks underwent a phase of increased cooling related to exhumation between about 35 Ma (Early Oligocene) and 15 Ma (Middle Miocene). Evidence from the local sedimentary record indicates that erosion played an important role in the exhumation process. Extensional tectonism also contributes to some of the increased exhumation. Analysis of the fission track results obtained from the Stilo-Capo d'Orlando Formation confirm a Calabrian basement provenance for the sediments. The previously debated origin of volcanic conglomerate clasts from the formation is also resolved. Finally apatite fission track analysis indicates post-depositional burial at the base of the formation to temperatures greater than 80° C. The final part of this thesis uses the fission track age and temperature constraints to produce an improved tectonic model for the Oligo-Miocene tectonic evolution of the Calabrian Arc. This model proposes that increased exhumation is a consequence of the dynamics of an overthickened orogenic wedge. The model is related to the overall plate dynamics of the western Mediterranean orogeny.

  5. Method of the Assessment of the Influence of Longwall Effective Working Time Onto Obtained Mining Output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snopkowski, Ryszard; Napieraj, Aneta; Sukiennik, Marta

    2016-12-01

    Method of the influence of assessment of longwall effective working time onto obtained mining output, has been discussed in the present study. Mean flow rate of the winning stream being also considered as directional factor of linear function describing relation between daily output and effective mining in the longwall face, has been determined. Such relation - presented also graphically in form of the diagram - determines significance and influence of the effective working time onto obtained mining output. This relation should be considered as motivation in particular for supervisory personnel, as it shows advantages resulting from elongation of this time, as well as it shows possible loses of the daily output in a case, when the effective working time in given longwall face was shortened.

  6. Nuclear Fission and Fission{minus}Product Spectroscopy: Second International Workshop. Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Fioni, G.; Faust, H.; Oberstedt, S.; Hambsch, F.

    1998-10-01

    These proceedings represent papers presented at the Second International Workshop on Nuclear Fission and Fission{minus}Product Spectroscopy held in Seyssins, France in April, 1998. The objective was to bring together the specialists in the field to overview the situation and to assess our present understanding of the fission process. The topics presented at the conference included nuclear waste management, incineration, neutron driven transmutation, leakage etc., radioactive beams, neutron{minus}rich nuclei, neutron{minus}induced and spontaneous fission, ternary fission phenomena, angular momentum, parity and time{minus}reversal phenomena, and nuclear fission at higher excitation energy. Modern spectroscopic tools for gamma spectroscopy as applied to fission were also discussed. There were 53 papers presented at the conference,out of which 3 have been abstracted for the Energy,Science and Technology database.(AIP)

  7. Studies of fission fragment properties at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tovesson, Fredrik; Mayorov, Dmitriy; Duke, Dana; Manning, Brett; Geppert-Kleinrath, Verena

    2017-09-01

    Nuclear data related to the fission process are needed for a wide variety of research areas, including fundamental science, nuclear energy and non-proliferation. While some of the relevant data have been measured to the required accuracies there are still many aspects of fission that need further investigation. One such aspect is how Total Kinetic Energy (TKE), fragment yields, angular distributions and other fission observables depend on excitation energy of the fissioning system. Another question is the correlation between mass, charge and energy of fission fragments. At the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) we are studying neutron-induced fission at incident energies from thermal up to hundreds of MeV using the Lujan Center and Weapons Neutron Research (WNR) facilities. Advanced instruments such as SPIDER (time-of-flight and kinetic energy spectrometer), the NIFFTE Time Projection Chamber (TPC), and Frisch grid Ionization Chambers (FGIC) are used to investigate the properties of fission fragments, and some important results for the major actinides have been obtained.

  8. Fission measurements with PPAC detectors using a coincidence technique

    SciTech Connect

    Paradela, C.; Duran, I.; Tarrio, D.; Audouin, L.; Tassan-Got, L.; Stephan, C.

    2011-07-01

    A fission detection setup based on Parallel Plate Avalanche Counters (PPAC) has been constructed and used at the CERN n-TOF facility. The setup takes advantage of the coincidence detection of both fission fragments to discriminate the background reactions produced by high energy neutrons and it allows obtaining neutron-induced fission cross section up to 1 GeV. (authors)

  9. Exploratory study on a statistical method to analyse time resolved data obtained during nanomaterial exposure measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clerc, F.; Njiki-Menga, G.-H.; Witschger, O.

    2013-04-01

    Most of the measurement strategies that are suggested at the international level to assess workplace exposure to nanomaterials rely on devices measuring, in real time, airborne particles concentrations (according different metrics). Since none of the instruments to measure aerosols can distinguish a particle of interest to the background aerosol, the statistical analysis of time resolved data requires special attention. So far, very few approaches have been used for statistical analysis in the literature. This ranges from simple qualitative analysis of graphs to the implementation of more complex statistical models. To date, there is still no consensus on a particular approach and the current period is always looking for an appropriate and robust method. In this context, this exploratory study investigates a statistical method to analyse time resolved data based on a Bayesian probabilistic approach. To investigate and illustrate the use of the this statistical method, particle number concentration data from a workplace study that investigated the potential for exposure via inhalation from cleanout operations by sandpapering of a reactor producing nanocomposite thin films have been used. In this workplace study, the background issue has been addressed through the near-field and far-field approaches and several size integrated and time resolved devices have been used. The analysis of the results presented here focuses only on data obtained with two handheld condensation particle counters. While one was measuring at the source of the released particles, the other one was measuring in parallel far-field. The Bayesian probabilistic approach allows a probabilistic modelling of data series, and the observed task is modelled in the form of probability distributions. The probability distributions issuing from time resolved data obtained at the source can be compared with the probability distributions issuing from the time resolved data obtained far-field, leading in a

  10. Probabilistic properties of neuron spiking time-series obtained in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bershadskii, A.; Dremencov, E.; Fukayama, D.; Yadid, G.

    2001-12-01

    Probabilistic properties of spiking time-series obtained in vivo from singular neurons belonging to Red Nucleus of brain are analyzed for two groups of rats: genetically defined rat model of depression (Flinders Sensitive Rat Line - FSL) and a control (healthy) group. The FSL group shows a distribution of interspike intervals with a much longer tail than that found for normal rats. The former distribution (for the FSL group) indicates a power-law with exponent α = - 1+/-0.1. A simple thermodynamic (noise) model is elaborated to explain obtained results.

  11. NMR permeability estimators in 'chalk' carbonate rocks obtained under different relaxation times and MICP size scalings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rios, Edmilson Helton; Figueiredo, Irineu; Moss, Adam Keith; Pritchard, Timothy Neil; Glassborow, Brent Anthony; Guedes Domingues, Ana Beatriz; Bagueira de Vasconcellos Azeredo, Rodrigo

    2016-07-01

    The effect of the selection of different nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation times for permeability estimation is investigated for a set of fully brine-saturated rocks acquired from Cretaceous carbonate reservoirs in the North Sea and Middle East. Estimators that are obtained from the relaxation times based on the Pythagorean means are compared with estimators that are obtained from the relaxation times based on the concept of a cumulative saturation cut-off. Select portions of the longitudinal (T1) and transverse (T2) relaxation-time distributions are systematically evaluated by applying various cut-offs, analogous to the Winland-Pittman approach for mercury injection capillary pressure (MICP) curves. Finally, different approaches to matching the NMR and MICP distributions using different mean-based scaling factors are validated based on the performance of the related size-scaled estimators. The good results that were obtained demonstrate possible alternatives to the commonly adopted logarithmic mean estimator and reinforce the importance of NMR-MICP integration to improving carbonate permeability estimates.

  12. Arrival time and magnitude of airborne fission products from the Fukushima, Japan, reactor incident as measured in Seattle, WA, USA.

    PubMed

    Leon, J Diaz; Jaffe, D A; Kaspar, J; Knecht, A; Miller, M L; Robertson, R G H; Schubert, A G

    2011-11-01

    We report results of air monitoring started due to the recent natural catastrophe on 11 March 2011 in Japan and the severe ensuing damage to the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear reactor complex. On 17-18 March 2011, we registered the first arrival of the airborne fission products (131)I, (132)I, (132)Te, (134)Cs, and (137)Cs in Seattle, WA, USA, by identifying their characteristic gamma rays using a germanium detector. We measured the evolution of the activities over a period of 23 days at the end of which the activities had mostly fallen below our detection limit. The highest detected activity from radionuclides attached to particulate matter amounted to 4.4 ± 1.3 mBq m(-3) of (131)I on 19-20 March.

  13. Full-time kinetics of self-assembly and disassembly in micellar solution via the generalized Smoluchowski equation with fusion and fission of surfactant aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shchekin, Alexander K.; Babintsev, Ilya A.; Adzhemyan, Loran Ts.

    2016-11-01

    Full-time kinetics of self-assembly and disassembly of spherical micelles with their fusion and fission in non-ionic micellar solutions has been considered in detail on the basis of direct numerical solutions of the generalized Smoluchowski equations describing the evolution of the time-dependent concentrations of molecular aggregates for every aggregation number. The cases of instant increase of the monomer concentration up or dilution of a surfactant solution below the critical micelle concentration at large initial deviations from the final equilibrium state have been studied. Different stages in assembly or disassembly of micelles have been described and compared with the results of the stepwise mechanism of monomer attachment-detachment described by the Becker-Döring kinetic equations. A relation of the full-time kinetics to micellar relaxation at small deviations from the equilibrium state has been checked.

  14. Prompt fission neutron spectra of n+235U above the (n,nf) fission threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Neng-Chuan; Jia, Min; Chen, Yong-Jing; Liu, Ting-Jin

    2015-05-01

    Calculations of prompt fission neutron spectra (PFNS) from the 235U(n, f) reaction were performed with a semi-empirical method for En = 7.0 and 14.7 MeV neutron energies. The total PFNS were obtained as a superposition of (n,xnf) pre-fission neutron spectra and post-fission spectra of neutrons which were evaporated from fission fragments, and these two kinds of spectra were taken as an expression of the evaporation spectrum. The contributions of (n,xnf) fission neutron spectra on the calculated PFNS were discussed. The results show that emission of one or two neutrons in the (n,nf) or (n,2nf) reactions influences the PFNS shape, and the neutron spectra of the (n,xnf) fission-channel are soft compared with the neutron spectra of the (n,f) fission channel. In addition, analysis of the multiple-chance fission component showed that second-chance fission dominates the PFNS with an incident neutron energy of 14.7 MeV whereas first-chance fission dominates the 7 MeV case. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11205246, 91126010, U1230127, 91226102), IAEA CRP (15905), and Defense Industrial Technology Development Program (B0120110034)

  15. [A method of obtaining vibrational dephasing time of molecular multi-vibrational modes simultaneously].

    PubMed

    Wan, Hui; Yin, Jun; Yu, Ling-Yao; Liu, Xing; Qu, Jun-Le; Lin, Zi-Yang; Niu, Han-Ben

    2011-02-01

    In the present paper, the authors used the time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectroscopy based on supercontinuum developed by ourselves to acquire simultaneously the molecular vibration spectrum and vibrational dephasing time of the molecular various vibrational modes. Using benzonitrile as the sample, the authors measured its vibrational relaxation processes at its five typical vibrational modes and obtained their vibrational dephasing time respectively. In the experiment, the authors also found the phenomenon that oscillations appear in the vibrational dephasing of plane bending vibration mode of benzene ring in benzonitrile, which was caused by superposition of the two adjacent normal vibrational modes excited simultaneously. After mixing benzonitrile with anhydrous ethanol, the authors also measured their vibrational dephasing time. This method is capable of monitoring the changes of the molecular characteristics and its micro-environment, therefore it will find widespread applications in biology, chemistry and materials science.

  16. Computational alternatives to obtain time optimal jet engine control. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basso, R. J.; Leake, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    Two computational methods to determine an open loop time optimal control sequence for a simple single spool turbojet engine are described by a set of nonlinear differential equations. Both methods are modifications of widely accepted algorithms which can solve fixed time unconstrained optimal control problems with a free right end. Constrained problems to be considered have fixed right ends and free time. Dynamic programming is defined on a standard problem and it yields a successive approximation solution to the time optimal problem of interest. A feedback control law is obtained and it is then used to determine the corresponding open loop control sequence. The Fletcher-Reeves conjugate gradient method has been selected for adaptation to solve a nonlinear optimal control problem with state variable and control constraints.

  17. Fission at intermediate neutron energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Meo, S.; Mancusi, D.; Massimi, C.; Vannini, G.; Ventura, A.

    2014-09-01

    In the present work, as a theoretical support to the campaign of neutron cross section measurements at the n_TOF facility at CERN[1], Monte Carlo calculations of fission induced by neutrons in the energy range from 100 MeV to 1 GeV are carried out by means of a recent version of the Liege Intranuclear Cascade Model, INCL++[6], coupled with different evaporation-fission codes, such as Gemini++[7] and ABLA07[8]. Theoretical cross sections are compared with experimental data obtained by the n_TOF collaboration and perspectives for future theoretical work are outlined.

  18. Status of fission yield data

    SciTech Connect

    England, T.R.; Blachot, J.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper we summarize the current status of the recent US evaluation for 34 fissioning nuclides at one or more neutron incident energies and for spontaneous fission. Currently there are 50 yields sets, and for each we have independent and cumulative yields and uncertainties for approximately 1100 fission products. When finalized the recommended data will become part of Version VI of the US ENDF/B. Other major evaluations in progress that are included in a recently formed IAEA Coordinated Research Program are also summarized. In a second part we review two empirical models in use to estimate independent yields. Comparison of model estimates with measured data is presented, including a comparison with some recent data obtained from Lohengrin (Cf-249 T). 18 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Using the Time-Lagged Function of Dual-Aperture Scintillometer Measurements to Obtain the Crosswind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dinther, D.; Hartogensis, O.

    2013-12-01

    In this study the so-called crosswind (U⊥), the wind component perpendicular on a path, is determined from scintillometer measurements. A scintillometer is a device consisting of a transmitter and receiver, typically spaced a few hundred meters to a few kilometers apart. The dual-aperture scintillometer used in this study consists of two transmitters and two receivers installed next to each other. The transmitters emit light with a certain intensity which is refracted by the eddies in the atmosphere. The eddy field in between the transmitters and receivers constantly changes leading to intensity fluctuations of the light at the receivers side, which gives the scintillometer signal. The driving phenomenon of the changing eddy field is wind. The scintillometer path is ~ 100 m and the spacing in between the apertures is ~ 10 cm therefore the eddy field is mainly changed due to U⊥. A scintillometer obtains a path averaged U⊥, which for some applications (e.g. at airports) is an advantage compared to other wind measurement devices. Applying Taylor's frozen turbulence assumption the signals of the two scintillometers should be the same except for a small time shift between the two signals, from which U⊥ can be determined. This time shift can be obtained from the time-lagged-correlation function of the two signals (r12 (τ)). Four methods were used to obtain U⊥; the peak method, the Briggs method, the zero-slope method, and the correlation method. The last one is a new method introduced in this study, which obtains U⊥ by comparing r12 (τ) of a measurement to r12 (τ) of Lawrence et al. (1972) theoretical model. U⊥ values obtained from the scintillometer were validated against sonic anemometer measurements. The best results were obtained by the zero-slope method and the correlation method. The zero-slope method gave the best results for low U⊥ values (< 2 m s-1), while the correlation method gave the best results for high U⊥ values (> 2 m s-1). The

  20. Nuclear fission with diffusive dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, D.; Bertsch, G. F.

    1992-07-01

    We investigate the dynamics of nuclear fission, assuming purely diffusive motion up to the saddle point. The resulting Smoluchowski equation is solved for conditions appropriate to the 16O+142Nd-->158Er reaction at 207 MeV. The solution is characterized by an equilibration time τ0 for the system to reach steady state, and the fission decay rate in steady state, Λ. We find that the equilibration time τ0 plays a very small role in determining the number of prescission neutrons. The diffusion coefficient extracted from the experimental data is larger than the theoretical in the work of Bush, Bertsch, and Brown by a factor of 5-11.

  1. Etching fission tracks in zircons.

    PubMed

    Naeser, C W

    1969-07-25

    A new technique has been developed whereby fission tracks can be etched in zircon with a solution of sodiuim hydroxide at 220 degrees C. Etching time varied between 15 minutes and 5 houtrs. Colored zircon required less etching time than the colorless varieties.

  2. Strategies for obtaining long constant-pressure test times in shock tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Matthew Frederick; Parise, T.; Tulgestke, A. M.; Spearrin, R. M.; Davidson, D. F.; Hanson, R. K.

    2015-09-22

    Several techniques have been developed for obtaining long, constant-pressure test times in reflected shock wave experiments in a shock tube, including the use of driver inserts, driver gas tailoring, helium gas diaphragm interfaces, driver extensions, and staged driver gas filling. Here, we detail these techniques, including discussion on the most recent strategy, staged driver gas filling. Experiments indicate that this staged filling strategy increases available test time by roughly 20 % relative to single-stage filling of tailored driver gas mixtures, while simultaneously reducing the helium required per shock by up to 85 %. This filling scheme involves firstly mixing a tailored helium–nitrogen mixture in the driver section as in conventional driver filling and, secondly, backfilling a low-speed-of-sound gas such as nitrogen or carbon dioxide from a port close to the end cap of the driver section. Using this staged driver gas filling, in addition to the other techniques listed above, post-reflected shock test times of up to 0.102 s (102 ms) at 524 K and 1.6 atm have been obtained. Spectroscopically based temperature measurements in non-reactive mixtures have confirmed that temperature and pressure conditions remain constant throughout the length of these long test duration trials. Finally, these strategies have been used to measure low-temperature n-heptane ignition delay times.

  3. Strategies for obtaining long constant-pressure test times in shock tubes

    DOE PAGES

    Campbell, Matthew Frederick; Parise, T.; Tulgestke, A. M.; ...

    2015-09-22

    Several techniques have been developed for obtaining long, constant-pressure test times in reflected shock wave experiments in a shock tube, including the use of driver inserts, driver gas tailoring, helium gas diaphragm interfaces, driver extensions, and staged driver gas filling. Here, we detail these techniques, including discussion on the most recent strategy, staged driver gas filling. Experiments indicate that this staged filling strategy increases available test time by roughly 20 % relative to single-stage filling of tailored driver gas mixtures, while simultaneously reducing the helium required per shock by up to 85 %. This filling scheme involves firstly mixing amore » tailored helium–nitrogen mixture in the driver section as in conventional driver filling and, secondly, backfilling a low-speed-of-sound gas such as nitrogen or carbon dioxide from a port close to the end cap of the driver section. Using this staged driver gas filling, in addition to the other techniques listed above, post-reflected shock test times of up to 0.102 s (102 ms) at 524 K and 1.6 atm have been obtained. Spectroscopically based temperature measurements in non-reactive mixtures have confirmed that temperature and pressure conditions remain constant throughout the length of these long test duration trials. Finally, these strategies have been used to measure low-temperature n-heptane ignition delay times.« less

  4. Strategies for obtaining long constant-pressure test times in shock tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, M. F.; Parise, T.; Tulgestke, A. M.; Spearrin, R. M.; Davidson, D. F.; Hanson, R. K.

    2015-11-01

    Several techniques have been developed for obtaining long, constant-pressure test times in reflected shock wave experiments in a shock tube, including the use of driver inserts, driver gas tailoring, helium gas diaphragm interfaces, driver extensions, and staged driver gas filling. These techniques are detailed here, including discussion on the most recent strategy, staged driver gas filling. Experiments indicate that this staged filling strategy increases available test time by roughly 20 % relative to single-stage filling of tailored driver gas mixtures, while simultaneously reducing the helium required per shock by up to 85 %. This filling scheme involves firstly mixing a tailored helium-nitrogen mixture in the driver section as in conventional driver filling and, secondly, backfilling a low-speed-of-sound gas such as nitrogen or carbon dioxide from a port close to the end cap of the driver section. Using this staged driver gas filling, in addition to the other techniques listed above, post-reflected shock test times of up to 0.102 s (102 ms) at 524 K and 1.6 atm have been obtained. Spectroscopically based temperature measurements in non-reactive mixtures have confirmed that temperature and pressure conditions remain constant throughout the length of these long test duration trials. Finally, these strategies have been used to measure low-temperature n-heptane ignition delay times.

  5. Fast neutron-induced fission of Pu-240, Am-243 and W-nat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laptev, A.; Haight, R.; Shcherbakov, O.; Vorobyev, A.; Carlson, A.

    2009-10-01

    The fast neutron-induced fission cross sections of Pu-240, Am-243, W-nat and Bi-209 have been obtained relative to the fission cross section of U-235 for incident neutrons from 1 MeV to 200 MeV in ``shape'' experiments. The measurements were done at the GNEIS facility simultaneously for each investigated isotopic target using two multiplate ionization chambers and the time-of-flight (TOF) technique on a 48-m flight path. The pulsed ``white spectrum'' neutron source GNEIS had an average intensity of 3 x 10^14 n/s, burst duration 10 ns and repetition rate 50 Hz. The statistical uncertainty of the measured cross section ratios for the actinide nuclei Pu-240 and Am-243 is about 2% at neutron energies above fission threshold and is less than 10% for the natW at energies above 150 MeV. The systematic error budget is discussed. In addition, the fission cross section of Bi-209 has been obtained to compare with results of previous experiments. The new fission cross section of U-235(n,f) from the international standards evaluation was used to convert the ratio data to fission cross-sections. Finally the shape fission cross section measurements were normalized using the new evaluations from the ENDF/B-VII.0 library for the actinides, while for the sub-actinides the normalization was done using the target thicknesses of investigated and reference (U-235) nuclei. The fission cross section of Am-243 above ˜40 MeV was measured for the first time and that of W-nat was measured for the first time with a ``white spectrum'' neutron source.

  6. SPIDER Progress Towards High Resolution Correlated Fission Product Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields, Dan; Meierbachtol, Krista; Tovesson, Fredrik; Arnold, Charles; Blackeley, Rick; Bredeweg, Todd; Devlin, Matt; Hecht, Adam; Jandel, Marian; Jorgenson, Justin; Nelson, Ron; White, Morgan; Spider Team

    2014-09-01

    The SPIDER detector (SPectrometer for Ion DEtermination in fission Research) is under development with the goal of obtaining high-resolution, high-efficiency, correlated fission product data needed for many applications including the modeling of next generation nuclear reactors, stockpile stewardship, and the fundamental understanding of the fission process. SPIDER simultaneously measures velocity and energy of both fission products to calculate fission product yields (FPYs), neutron multiplicity (ν), and total kinetic energy (TKE). A detailed description of the prototype SPIDER detector components will be presented. Characterization measurements with alpha and spontaneous fission sources will also be discussed. LA-UR-14-24875. The SPIDER detector (SPectrometer for Ion DEtermination in fission Research) is under development with the goal of obtaining high-resolution, high-efficiency, correlated fission product data needed for many applications including the modeling of next generation nuclear reactors, stockpile stewardship, and the fundamental understanding of the fission process. SPIDER simultaneously measures velocity and energy of both fission products to calculate fission product yields (FPYs), neutron multiplicity (ν), and total kinetic energy (TKE). A detailed description of the prototype SPIDER detector components will be presented. Characterization measurements with alpha and spontaneous fission sources will also be discussed. LA-UR-14-24875. This work is in part supported by LANL Laboratory Directed Research and Development Projects 20110037DR and 20120077DR.

  7. Refinements in the Los Alamos model of the prompt fission neutron spectrum

    DOE PAGES

    Madland, D. G.; Kahler, A. C.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a number of refinements to the original Los Alamos model of the prompt fission neutron spectrum and average prompt neutron multiplicity as derived in 1982. The four refinements are due to new measurements of the spectrum and related fission observables many of which were not available in 1982. Here, they are also due to a number of detailed studies and comparisons of the model with previous and present experimental results including not only the differential spectrum, but also integal cross sections measured in the field of the differential spectrum. The four refinements are (a) separate neutron contributionsmore » in binary fission, (b) departure from statistical equilibrium at scission, (c) fission-fragment nuclear level-density models, and (d) center-of-mass anisotropy. With these refinements, for the first time, good agreement has been obtained for both differential and integral measurements using the same Los Alamos model spectrum.« less

  8. Refinements in the Los Alamos model of the prompt fission neutron spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madland, D. G.; Kahler, A. C.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a number of refinements to the original Los Alamos model of the prompt fission neutron spectrum and average prompt neutron multiplicity as derived in 1982. The four refinements are due to new measurements of the spectrum and related fission observables many of which were not available in 1982. They are also due to a number of detailed studies and comparisons of the model with previous and present experimental results including not only the differential spectrum, but also integral cross sections measured in the field of the differential spectrum. The four refinements are (a) separate neutron contributions in binary fission, (b) departure from statistical equilibrium at scission, (c) fission-fragment nuclear level-density models, and (d) center-of-mass anisotropy. With these refinements, for the first time, good agreement has been obtained for both differential and integral measurements using the same Los Alamos model spectrum.

  9. Cold fission as heavy ion emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poenaru, D. N.; Maruhn, J. A.; Greiner, W.; Ivaşcu, M.; Mazilu, D.; Gherghescu, R.

    1987-09-01

    The last version of the analytical superasymmetric fission model is applied to study cold fission processes. Strong shell effects are present either in one or both fission fragments. A smooth behaviour is observed when the proton or the neutron numbers are changed by four units. Increasing Z and N, in the transuranium region, a sharp transition from asymmetry with a large peak-to-valley ratio to symmetry at Z=100 and/or N=164 is obtained. The transition toward asymmetry at higher Z and N is much smoother. The most probable cold fission light fragments from234U,236U,239Np and240Pu are100Zr,104Mo,106Mo and106Mo, respectively, in good agreement with experimental data. The unified treatment of alpha decay, heavy ion radioactivities and cold fission is illustrated for234U — the first nucleus in which all three groups have been already observed.

  10. Fusion-fission study at IUAC: Recent results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pullanhiotan, Sugathan

    2016-10-01

    Several properties observed in heavy ion induced fission led to the conclusion that fission is not always originated from fully equilibrated compound nucleus. Soon after the collision of two nuclei, it forms a di-nuclear system than can fission before a compound nucleus is formed. This process termed quasi-fission is a major hurdle to the formation of heavier elements by fusion. Fission originated before complete equilibration showed anomalously large angular anisotropy and mass distribution wider than what is expected from compound nucleus fission. The standard statistical model fails to predict the outcome of quasi-fission and currently no dynamical model is fully developed to predict all the features of quasi-fission. Though much progress has been made in recent times, a full understanding of the fission dynamics is still missing. Experiments identifying the influence of entrance channel parameters on dynamics of fusion-fission showed contrasting results. At IUAC accelerator facility many experiments have been performed to make a systematic study of fission dynamics using mass distribution, angular distribution and neutron multiplicity measurements in mass region around A ∼ 200. Recent measurement on mass distribution of fission fragment from reaction 19 F +206,208 Pb around fusion barrier energy showed the influence of multi-mode fission in enhancing the mass variance at low excitation energy. In this talk I will present some of these results.

  11. Error analysis of the residence time of bistable Poisson states obtained by periodic measurements.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jinwoo; Lyo, In-Whan

    2010-06-01

    We performed error analysis on the periodic measurement schemes to obtain the residence time of bistable Poisson states. Experimental data were obtained by periodical level-sensitive samplings of oxygen-induced states on Si(111)-7 x 7 that stochastically switches between two metastable states. Simulated data sequences were created by the Monte Carlo numerical method. The residence times were extracted from the experimental and simulation data sequences by averaging and exponential-fitting methods. The averaging method yields the residence time via the summation of the detected temporal width of each state weighed by the normalized frequency of the state and the exponential fitting via fitting a single exponential function to the frequency histogram of the data. It is found that the averaging method produces consistently more accurate results with no arbitrariness, when compared to the exponential fitting method. For further understanding, data modeling using the first-order approximation was performed; the enhanced accuracy in the averaging method is due to the mutual cancellation of errors associated with detection of zero-width states and long-tail states. We investigated a multi-interval detection scheme as well. Similar analysis shows that the dual-interval scheme produces larger error compared to the single interval one, and has narrower optimum region.

  12. On the dynamics of fission of hot nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fröbrich, P.

    2007-05-01

    ) probabilities prescission neutron multiplicities and spectra prescission charged particle multiplicities and spectra prescission γ-multiplicities and spectra evaporation residue cross sections fission time distributions temperatures at scission fission fragment angular distributions The results above are obtained with the Ito-discretization of the Langevin equation and might lead to some modifications when using the Klimontovich [Yu.L. Klimontovich, Usp. Fiz. Nauk. 37, 737 (1994)] discretization, which is claimed to be more physical [A.E. Gettinger, I.I. Gontchar, J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phys. 26, 347 (2000)]. A satisfactory description of the measured correlation between the kinetic energy distribution and prescission neutron multiplicities could only be obtained when the mass asymmetry degree of freedom is included in the Langevin theory [P.N. Nadtochy, G.D. Adeev, A.V. Karpov, Phys. Rev. C 65, 064615 (2002)], thus generalizing the two-dimensional not overdamped Langevin models of Refs. [G.R. Tillack, R. Reif, A. Schülcke, P. Fröbrich, H.J. Krappe, H.G. Reusch, Phys. Lett. B 296, 296 (1992)] and [T. Wada, Y. Abe, N. Carjan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3528 (1993)]. A recent article analysing the mass distribution of fission fragments is [E.G. Ryabov, A.V. Karpov, G.D. Adeev, Nucl. Phys. A 765, 39 (2006)]. The first important point I want to stress is that the driving force of a hot system is not simply the negative gradient of the conservative potential but should contain a thermodynamical correction which is not taken into account in a number of publications.

  13. Technical note: A device for obtaining time-integrated samples of ruminal fluid

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corley, R. N.; Murphy, M.R.; Lucena, J.; Panno, S.V.

    1999-01-01

    A device was adapted to allow for time-integrated sampling of fluid from the rumen via a cannula. The sampler consisted of a cup-shaped ceramic filter positioned in the ventral rumen of a cannulated cow and attached to a tube through which fluid entering the filter was removed continuously using a peristaltic pump. Rate of ruminal fluid removal using the device was monitored over two 36-h periods (at 6-h intervals) and was not affected (P > .05) by time, indicating that the system was not susceptible to clogging during this period. Two cows having ad libitum access to a totally mixed ration were used in a split-block design to evaluate the utility of the system for obtaining time-integrated samples of ruminal fluid. Ruminal fluid VFA concentration and pattern in samples collected in two replicated 8-h periods by the time-integrated sampler (at 1-h intervals) were compared with composite samples collected using a conventional suction-strainer device (at 30-min intervals). Each 8-h collection period started 2 h before or 6 h after feeding. Results indicated that total VFA concentration was not affected (P > .05) by the sampling method. Volatile fatty acid patterns were likewise unaffected (P > .05) except that acetate was 2.5% higher (P < .05) in samples collected 2 h before feeding and valerate was 5% higher (P < .05) in samples collected 6 h after feeding by the suction-strainer device. Although significant, these differences were not considered physiologically important. We concluded that use of the ceramic filter improved the sampling of ruminal fluid by simplifying the technique and allowing time-integrated samples to be obtained.

  14. Spectral induced polarization of disseminated electronic conductors: laboratory data obtained through time domain measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurin, G.; Ilyin, Yu.; Tarasov, A.; Titov, K.

    2012-04-01

    With a time domain (TD) technique, we measured Spectral Induced Polarization responses of 19 models of ore. The models were mixtures of calibrated sand (0.2 - 0.3 mm) with calibrated electron-conductive grains (average radii: 0.045, 0.055, 0.13, 0.20, 0.38 and 0.50 mm). The grains represent a mixture of pyrrhotite (30 %), pyrite (30 %), magnetite (30 %) and chalcopyrite (10 %). In the models the grain concentration varied from 0.6 to 30 % by volume. We measured IP decay with a conventional TD measuring setup and a lab low-current transmitter in the time range from 0.3 ms to 64 s. The IP decays obtained with various current wavelength forms were inverted on the basis of the Debye decomposition, which allowed obtaining the relaxation time distribution. The following results were obtained: The total chargeability, m, was found to be independent of the grain size; it is related to the grain fraction, χ, according to the power law, m=6.28.10-2.χ0.78(m is dimensionless, and χ is in per cents; R2=0.98); The grain size, r, was found to be closely related to the mean IP relaxation time, τ, according to the square law, r2=10-5.τ (r is in meters, and τ is in seconds; R2=0.74); the square law corresponds to the diffusion kinetics, but contains the unrealistically large value of the diffusion coefficient; The maximum values of the relaxation time distributions, Zmax, was found to be closely related to the specific surface of the grains, Sv, according to the power law, Zmax=1.82 10-2 Sv0.65 (Zmax is dimensionless, and Sv is in cm-1; R2=0.94); The relaxation time distribution for disseminated ores can be safely recovered on the basis of TD measurements with relatively short pulse lengths (or using frequency domain measurements with relatively high frequency values).

  15. Compact fission counter for DANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, C Y; Chyzh, A; Kwan, E; Henderson, R; Gostic, J; Carter, D; Bredeweg, T; Couture, A; Jandel, M; Ullmann, J

    2010-11-06

    The Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) consists of 160 BF{sub 2} crystals with equal solid-angle coverage. DANCE is a 4{pi} {gamma}-ray calorimeter and designed to study the neutron-capture reactions on small quantities of radioactive and rare stable nuclei. These reactions are important for the radiochemistry applications and modeling the element production in stars. The recognition of capture event is made by the summed {gamma}-ray energy which is equivalent of the reaction Q-value and unique for a given capture reaction. For a selective group of actinides, where the neutron-induced fission reaction competes favorably with the neutron capture reaction, additional signature is needed to distinguish between fission and capture {gamma} rays for the DANCE measurement. This can be accomplished by introducing a detector system to tag fission fragments and thus establish a unique signature for the fission event. Once this system is implemented, one has the opportunity to study not only the capture but also fission reactions. A parallel-plate avalanche counter (PPAC) has many advantages for the detection of heavy charged particles such as fission fragments. These include fast timing, resistance to radiation damage, and tolerance of high counting rate. A PPAC also can be tuned to be insensitive to {alpha} particles, which is important for experiments with {alpha}-emitting actinides. Therefore, a PPAC is an ideal detector for experiments requiring a fast and clean trigger for fission. A PPAC with an ingenious design was fabricated in 2006 by integrating amplifiers into the target assembly. However, this counter was proved to be unsuitable for this application because of issues related to the stability of amplifiers and the ability to separate fission fragments from {alpha}'s. Therefore, a new design is needed. A LLNL proposal to develop a new PPAC for DANCE was funded by NA22 in FY09. The design goal is to minimize the mass for the proposed counter

  16. Gravity effects obtained from global hydrology models in comparison with high precision gravimetric time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wziontek, Hartmut; Wilmes, Herbert; Güntner, Andreas; Creutzfeldt, Benjamin

    2010-05-01

    Water mass changes are a major source of variations in residual gravimetric time series obtained from the combination of observations with superconducting and absolute gravimeters. Changes in the local water storage are the main influence, but global variations contribute to the signal significantly. For three European gravity stations, Bad Homburg, Wettzell and Medicina, different global hydrology models are compared. The influence of topographic effects is discussed and due to the long-term stability of the combined gravity time series, inter-annual signals in model data and gravimetric observations are compared. Two sources of influence are discriminated, i.e., the effect of a local zone with an extent of a few kilometers around the gravimetric station and the global contribution beyond 50km. Considering their coarse resolution and uncertainties, local effects calculated from global hydrological models are compared with the in-situ gravity observations and, for the station Wettzell, with local hydrological monitoring data.

  17. Effect of high-frequency modes on singlet fission dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujihashi, Yuta; Chen, Lipeng; Ishizaki, Akihito; Wang, Junling; Zhao, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Singlet fission is a spin-allowed energy conversion process whereby a singlet excitation splits into two spin-correlated triplet excitations residing on adjacent molecules and has a potential to dramatically increase the efficiency of organic photovoltaics. Recent time-resolved nonlinear spectra of pentacene derivatives have shown the importance of high frequency vibrational modes in efficient fission. In this work, we explore impacts of vibration-induced fluctuations on fission dynamics through quantum dynamics calculations with parameters from fitting measured linear and nonlinear spectra. We demonstrate that fission dynamics strongly depends on the frequency of the intramolecular vibrational mode. Furthermore, we examine the effect of two vibrational modes on fission dynamics. Inclusion of a second vibrational mode creates an additional fission channel even when its Huang-Rhys factor is relatively small. Addition of more vibrational modes may not enhance the fission per se, but can dramatically affect the interplay between fission dynamics and the dominant vibrational mode.

  18. Effect of high-frequency modes on singlet fission dynamics.

    PubMed

    Fujihashi, Yuta; Chen, Lipeng; Ishizaki, Akihito; Wang, Junling; Zhao, Yang

    2017-01-28

    Singlet fission is a spin-allowed energy conversion process whereby a singlet excitation splits into two spin-correlated triplet excitations residing on adjacent molecules and has a potential to dramatically increase the efficiency of organic photovoltaics. Recent time-resolved nonlinear spectra of pentacene derivatives have shown the importance of high frequency vibrational modes in efficient fission. In this work, we explore impacts of vibration-induced fluctuations on fission dynamics through quantum dynamics calculations with parameters from fitting measured linear and nonlinear spectra. We demonstrate that fission dynamics strongly depends on the frequency of the intramolecular vibrational mode. Furthermore, we examine the effect of two vibrational modes on fission dynamics. Inclusion of a second vibrational mode creates an additional fission channel even when its Huang-Rhys factor is relatively small. Addition of more vibrational modes may not enhance the fission per se, but can dramatically affect the interplay between fission dynamics and the dominant vibrational mode.

  19. Fission of nuclei with Z=102-112 produced in reactions with {sup 22}Ne and {sup 48}Ca ions

    SciTech Connect

    Itkis, M. G.; Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Kozulin, E. M.; Kondratiev, N. A.; Krupa, L.; Pokrovsky, I. V.; Polyakov, A. N.; Ponomarenko, V. A.; Prokhorova, E. V.; Pustylnik, B. I.; Vakatov, V. I.; Rusanov, A. Ya.

    1998-12-21

    The talk presents new results obtained in the study of fission of superheavy nuclei {sup 256}No, {sup 270}Sg and {sup 286}112 formed in reactions with {sup 22}Ne and {sup 48}Ca ions at energies near or considerably lower than the Coulomb barrier. The experiments have been performed at the U-400 accelerator of the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (FLNR) with the use of the time-of-flight spectrometer of fission fragments CORSET.

  20. Obtaining confirmation through social relationships: Norwegian first-time mothers' experiences while on maternity leave.

    PubMed

    Alstveit, Marit; Severinsson, Elisabeth; Karlsen, Bjørg

    2010-03-01

    The social relationships of employed women on maternity leave undergo significant changes. The aim of the study was to illuminate first-time mothers' experiences of social relationships while on maternity leave. Nine mothers were interviewed at both 3-5 months and 11-14 months post-partum and the data were analyzed by means of interpretative analysis. The main theme of obtaining confirmation through social relationships was based on two themes (being confirmed by other mothers and balancing between being a mother and an employee) and on four subthemes (seeking company, sharing experiences, feeling ineffective and in a state of stagnation, and trying to handle contact with the workplace). In order to strengthen the social relationships of mothers, the mother-child health service should offer all mothers the opportunity to join a peer support group, while employers could keep in regular contact with staff members on maternity leave.

  1. Comparison of time to obtain intraosseous versus jugular venous catheterization on canine cadavers.

    PubMed

    Allukian, Alison R; Abelson, Amanda L; Babyak, Jonathan; Rozanski, Elizabeth A

    2017-09-01

    To compare the time required and the success rate of personnel with 4 different levels of experience to place a humeral intraosseous (IO) catheter versus a jugular venous catheter (IV) in cadaver dogs. Prospective study. Veterinary university teaching hospital. Canine cadavers from recently euthanized dogs were obtained from the cadaver donation program between May and December 2014. Catheter placers (CPs) with varying clinical experience, including a first year emergency and critical care resident, a senior emergency veterinary technician (VTS certified), a final year veterinary student, and an ACVECC diplomate, participated in the study. Each CP catheterized a total of 6 dogs so that there was a total of 6 IO and 6 IV catheters placed, by automatic rotary insertion device (with an EZ-IO gun) and vascular cut-down technique, respectively, for each CP. Time for IO catheterization and IV catheterization was recorded and compared. The success of IO catheterization and IV catheterization was verified by visualization of an injection of iodinated contrast material under fluoroscopy within the medullary cavity or vessel. Twenty-four canine cadavers. Outcomes were analyzed using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test and the Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance. The median time for all IO catheterization operators was faster at 55.4 seconds (range 15.0-153.0 s) compared to the median time for all IV catherization operators at 217.3 seconds (range 55.6-614 s). The success rate for IO and IV was equal at 87.5%. IO catheterization using an automatic rotary insertion device was performed more rapidly and successfully than jugular venous catheterization using a cut-down technique in canine cadaver. These findings suggest IO catheterization may be more efficient for gaining vascular access in the appropriate emergency clinical situations when preexisting IV access does not exist. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2017.

  2. A facile method to compare EFTEM maps obtained from materials changing composition over time.

    PubMed

    Casu, Alberto; Genovese, Alessandro; Di Benedetto, Cristiano; Lentijo Mozo, Sergio; Sogne, Elisa; Zuddas, Efisio; Falqui, Andrea

    2015-12-01

    Energy Filtered Transmission Electron Microscopy (EFTEM) is an analytical tool that has been successfully and widely employed in the last two decades for obtaining fast elemental maps in TEM mode. Several studies and efforts have been addressed to investigate limitations and advantages of such technique, as well as to improve the spatial resolution of compositional maps. Usually, EFTEM maps undergo post-acquisition treatments by changing brightness and contrast levels, either via dedicated software or via human elaboration, in order to maximize their signal-to-noise ratio and render them as visible as possible. However, elemental maps forming a single set of EFTEM images are usually subjected to independent map-by-map image treatment. This post-acquisition step becomes crucial when analyzing materials that change composition over time as a consequence of an external stimulus, because the map-by-map approach doesn't take into account how the chemical features of the imaged materials actually progress, in particular when the investigated elements exhibit very low signals. In this article, we present a facile procedure applicable to whole sets of EFTEM maps acquired on a sample that is evolving over time. The main aim is to find a common method to treat the images features, in order to make them as comparable as possible without affecting the information there contained. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Fission Reaction Event Yield Algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Hagmann, Christian; Verbeke, Jerome; Vogt, Ramona; Roundrup, Jorgen

    2016-05-31

    FREYA (Fission Reaction Event Yield Algorithm) is a code that simulated the decay of a fissionable nucleus at specified excitation energy. In its present form, FREYA models spontaneous fission and neutron-induced fission up to 20 MeV. It includes the possibility of neutron emission from the nuclear prior to its fussion (nth chance fission).

  4. a Microscopic Theory of Low Energy Fission:. Fragment Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Younes, W.; Gogny, D.; Schunck, N.

    2014-09-01

    We present fully microscopic time-dependent calculations of fission-fragment properties (mass distributions, pre-scission energies, total kinetic and excitation energies) for the 235U(n, f) and 239Pu (n, f) reactions. The mass distributions for both reactions have been obtained as a function of incident neutron energy from thermal to 5 MeV. The various energies have been calculated for the thermal 239Pu (n, f) reaction. We compare our calculations to experimental results, wherever possible.

  5. Decay of sperm obtained from epididymes of wild ruminants depending on postmortem time.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Pastor, F; Guerra, C; Kaabi, M; Diaz, A R; Anel, E; Herraez, P; de Paz, P; Anel, L

    2005-01-01

    We have carried out a study on the effect of postmortem time (PT) in some characteristics of epididymal sperm salvaged from hunted Iberian red deer and roe deer. Testis were collected, identified, refrigerated down to 5 degrees C, and sent to our laboratory by the wardens of the hunting reserves. This way, samples were delivered at different times postmortem. Sperm were extracted from the cauda epididymis by means of cuts. Analyzed parameters were: osmolality, pH, motility-both subjectively and with CASA, HOS test reactivity, acrosomal status and viability (assessed with propidium iodide). Osmolality and pH rose with prolonged postmortem time, possibly due to tissue decomposition. Most sperm quality parameters negatively correlated with PT. Besides, when comparing PT classes (groups of 24 h for red deer and 30 h for roe deer), we could appreciate that motility was more affected by PT than other quality variables. Progressive motility was especially impaired. We also classified the samples in high, medium and low quality for each PT group (considering progressive motility, intact acrosomes and reactivity to the HOS test), and it was clear that after 2 days the number of high quality samples was testimonial, and after several days, we almost found only low quality samples. In conclusion, epididymal sperm from Iberian red deer and roe deer undergo a decrease of quality with PT, but it could stay acceptable within many hours postmortem. There are implications for wildlife conservation programs, as epididymal sperm is a good source of germplasm. If valuable animals die and it is not possible to process their sperm immediately, it may still be possible to obtain viable spermatozoa many hours later.

  6. Near-infrared spectroscopy monitoring during immediate transition after birth: time to obtain cerebral tissue oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Ziehenberger, Evelyn; Urlesberger, Berndt; Binder-Heschl, Corinna; Schwaberger, Bernhard; Baik-Schneditz, Nariae; Pichler, Gerhard

    2017-08-19

    Feasibility of cerebral tissue oxygenation measurements immediately after birth has been published starting with first values 2 min after birth. Aim of this study was to evaluate, the time periods from birth and from arrival at the resuscitation table to obtain the first cerebral tissue oxygenation values with two different near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) devices. The present study is an analysis of exploratory parameters of two prospective observational studies. Cerebral tissue oxygen saturation was measured by the NIRO 200NX measuring "cerebral-tissue-oxygenation-index" (cTOI) or the INVOS5100C measuring "cerebral-regional-oxygen-saturation" (crSO2). Four time periods (T) were defined: T1 birth to arrival at resuscitation table, T2 arrival to application of NIRS sensor, T3 application to first displayed cTOI or crSO2 value, and T4 from arrival at resuscitation table to first displayed values. Additionally, we compared first displayed values of cTOI and crSO2. Thirty neonates were included. Twenty-four were term and six late-preterm neonates. Fifteen neonates measured with NIRO were compared to 15 measured with INVOS. T1 was 49 (6-163) s with NIRO versus 59 (15-87) s with INVOS, T2 14 (4-20) s versus 12 (15-18) s, T3 33 (13-138) s versus 17 (6-290) s and T4 46 (20-153) s and 34 (14-300) s. The first displayed value tended to be higher for cTOI [54% (18-80)] compared to crSO2 [35% (15-87)]. There were no significant differences between devices in time periods and first values displayed. Cerebral tissue oxygenation can be measured within 1 min after arriving at the resuscitation table in term and preterm neonates after birth without difference between devices.

  7. Obtaining a male circumcision prevalence rate of 80% among adults in a short time

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Esaie; Rain-Taljaard, Reathe; Tsepe, Motlalepule; Monkwe, Cornelius; Taljaard, Dirk; Hlatswayo, Florence; Xaba, Dumazile; Molomo, Tebogo; Lissouba, Pascale; Puren, Adrian; Auvert, Bertran

    2017-01-01

    : 35.4%–53.7%). The reported reasons for accepting circumcision were motivational interviews with the male circumcision adviser (83.1%), and time compensation (39.4%). Increased uptake of VMMC uptake can be obtained in a short time among adult males but requires an intense intervention centered on uncircumcised men at an individual level and time compensation. PMID:28121914

  8. ABR obtained from time-efficient train stimuli for cisplatin ototoxicity monitoring.

    PubMed

    Dille, Marilyn F; Ellingson, Roger M; McMillan, Garnett P; Konrad-Martin, Dawn

    2013-10-01

    Nonbehavioral methods for identifying cisplatin ototoxicity are important for testing patients with cancer who become too tired or sick to provide a reliable response. The auditory brainstem response (ABR) is a nonbehavioral test that is sensitive to ototoxicity but can be time consuming to implement over a range of frequencies and/or levels. To address this issue, trains of stimuli were developed that offer reliable ABR testing over a range of tone-burst frequencies and levels at a time savings of 77% relative to tone-burst stimuli presented individually. The clinical accuracy of this new method has yet to be determined on a clinical population. This project was designed to determine the test performance of a time-effective ABR methodology aimed at identifying hearing shifts from cisplatin among veterans. A secondary goal was to determine whether improved test performance could be achieved by including our previously developed ototoxicity risk assessment model in the ABR prediction algorithm. A set of discriminant functions were derived using logistic regression to model the risk for cisplatin-induced hearing change. Independent variables were one of several ABR metrics alone and combined with an ototoxicity risk assessment model that includes pre-exposure hearing and cisplatin dose. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to evaluate the test performance of these discriminant functions. Twenty-two male veterans treated with cisplatin for various cancers provided data from a total of 71 monitoring appointments. Data were collected prospectively from one ear of each participant as designated below. Hearing shift was determined for frequencies within an octave of each patient's high-frequency hearing limit, tested in 1/6th-octave steps. ABRs were monitored using a set of two intensity trains from the highest two multiple frequency tone-burst center frequencies (up to 11.3 kHz) that yielded a robust response at baseline. Each intensity train was

  9. ABR Obtained from Time-Efficient Train Stimuli for Cisplatin Ototoxicity Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Dille, Marilyn F.; Ellingson, Roger M.; McMillan, Garnett P.; Konrad-Martin, Dawn

    2017-01-01

    Background Nonbehavioral methods for identifying cisplatin ototoxicity are important for testing patients with cancer who become too tired or sick to provide a reliable response. The auditory brainstem response (ABR) is a nonbehavioral test that is sensitive to ototoxicity but can be time consuming to implement over a range of frequencies and/or levels. To address this issue, trains of stimuli were developed that offer reliable ABR testing over a range of tone-burst frequencies and levels at a time savings of 77% relative to tone-burst stimuli presented individually. The clinical accuracy of this new method has yet to be determined on a clinical population. Purpose This project was designed to determine the test performance of a time-effective ABR methodology aimed at identifying hearing shifts from cisplatin among veterans. A secondary goal was to determine whether improved test performance could be achieved by including our previously developed ototoxicity risk assessment model in the ABR prediction algorithm. Research Design A set of discriminant functions were derived using logistic regression to model the risk for cisplatin-induced hearing change. Independent variables were one of several ABR metrics alone and combined with an ototoxicity risk assessment model that includes pre-exposure hearing and cisplatin dose. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to evaluate the test performance of these discriminant functions. Study Sample Twenty-two male veterans treated with cisplatin for various cancers provided data from a total of 71 monitoring appointments. Data Collection and Analysis Data were collected prospectively from one ear of each participant as designated below. Hearing shift was determined for frequencies within an octave of each patient’s high-frequency hearing limit, tested in 1/6th-octave steps. ABRs were monitored using a set of two intensity trains from the highest two multiple frequency tone-burst center frequencies (up to 11

  10. Fission Technology for Exploring and Utilizing the Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Mike; VanDyke, Melissa; Godfroy, Tom; Pedersen, Kevin; Martin, James; Dickens, Ricky; Salvail, Pat; Hrbub, Ivana; Schmidt, George R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Fission technology can enable rapid, affordable access to any point in the solar system. Potential fission-based transportation options include bimodal nuclear thermal rockets, high specific energy propulsion systems, and pulsed fission propulsion systems. In-space propellant re-supply enhances the effective performance of all systems, but requires significant infrastructure development. Safe, timely, affordable utilization of first-generation space fission propulsion systems will enable the development of more advanced systems. First generation space systems will build on over 45 years of US and international space fission system technology development to minimize cost,

  11. Measurements of isomeric yield ratios of fission products from proton-induced fission on natU and 232Th via direct ion counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakopoulos, Vasileios; Lantz, Mattias; Al-Adili, Ali; Gorelov, Dmitry; Jokinen, Ari; Kolhinen, Veli; Mattera, Andrea; Moore, Iain D.; Penttilä, Heikki; Prokofiev, Alexander V.; Solders, Andreas; Pomp, Stephan

    2017-09-01

    Independent isomeric yield ratios (IYR) of 81Ge, 96Y, 97Y, 97Nb, 128Sn and 130Sn have been determined in the 25 MeV proton-induced fission of natU and 232Th. The measurements were performed at the Ion Guide Isotope Separator On-Line (IGISOL) facility at the University of Jyväskylä. A direct ion counting measurement of the isomeric fission yield ratios was accomplished for the first time, registering the fission products in less than a second after their production. In addition, the IYRs of natU were measured by means of γ-spectroscopy in order to verify the consistency of the recently upgraded experimental setup. From the obtained results, indications of a dependence of the production rate on the fissioning system can be noticed. These data were compared with data available in the literature, whenever possible. Using the TALYS code and the experimentally obtained IYRs, we also deduced the average angular momentum of the fission fragments after scission.

  12. Licensing topical report: the measurement and modelling of time-dependent fission product release from failed HTGR fuel particles under accident conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, B.F.; Morrissey, R.E.

    1980-04-01

    The release of fission products from failed fuel particles was measured under simulated accident (core heatup) conditions. A generic model and specific model parameters that describe delayed fission product release from the kernels of failed HTGR fuel particles were developed from the experimental results. The release of fission products was measured from laser-failed BISO ThO/sub 2/ and highly enriched (HEU) TRISO UC/sub 2/ particles that had been irradiated to a range of kernel burnups. The burnups were 0.25, 1.4, and 15.7% FIMA for ThO/sub 2/ particles and 23.5 and 74% FIMA for UC/sub 2/ particles. The fission products measured were nuclides of xenon, iodine, krypton, tellurium, and cesium.

  13. Fission of actinide nuclei using multi-nucleon transfer reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Léguillon, Romain; Nishio, Katsuhisa; Hirose, Kentaro; Orlandi, Riccardo; Makii, Hiroyuki; Nishinaka, Ichiro; Ishii, Tetsuro; Tsukada, Kazuaki; Asai, Masato; Chiba, Satoshi; Ohtsuki, Tsutomu; Araki, Shohei; Watanabe, Yukinobu; Tatsuzawa, Ryotaro; Takaki, Naoyuki

    2014-09-01

    We are promoting a campaign to measure fission-fragment mass distributions for neutron-rich actinide nuclei populated by transfer reactions from their ground state up to an excitation energy of several tens MeV. We thus obtain the excitation energy dependence of the mass distribution. The experiment was carried out at the 20 MV JAEA tandem facility at Tokai. We report on the data obtained in the direct reaction 18 O + 232 Th . Transfer-channels and excitation energies of the fissioning nuclei were identified using silicon dE-E detectors located at forward angle. Two fission fragments were detected in coincidence using multi-wire proportional counters. Fission fragment masses were determined by kinematic consideration. We obtained the fission fragment mass distributions for 13 nuclei from actinium to uranium and some fission barrier heights. We are promoting a campaign to measure fission-fragment mass distributions for neutron-rich actinide nuclei populated by transfer reactions from their ground state up to an excitation energy of several tens MeV. We thus obtain the excitation energy dependence of the mass distribution. The experiment was carried out at the 20 MV JAEA tandem facility at Tokai. We report on the data obtained in the direct reaction 18 O + 232 Th . Transfer-channels and excitation energies of the fissioning nuclei were identified using silicon dE-E detectors located at forward angle. Two fission fragments were detected in coincidence using multi-wire proportional counters. Fission fragment masses were determined by kinematic consideration. We obtained the fission fragment mass distributions for 13 nuclei from actinium to uranium and some fission barrier heights. Present study is supported by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan.

  14. Thermodynamic analysis of volatile organometallic fission products.

    PubMed

    Auxier, John D; Jordan, Jacob A; Stratz, S Adam; Shahbazi, Shayan; Hanson, Daniel E; Cressy, Derek; Hall, Howard L

    The ability to perform rapid separations in a post nuclear weapon detonation scenario is an important aspect of national security. In the past, separations of fission products have been performed using solvent extraction, precipitation, etc. The focus of this work is to explore the feasibility of using thermochromatography, a technique largely employed in superheavy element chemistry, to expedite the separation of fission products from fuel components. A series of fission product complexes were synthesized and the thermodynamic parameters were measured using TGA/DSC methods. Once measured, these parameters were used to predict their retention times using thermochromatography.

  15. Spatial gravity wave characteristics obtained from multiple OH(3-1) airglow temperature time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wachter, Paul; Schmidt, Carsten; Wüst, Sabine; Bittner, Michael

    2015-12-01

    We present a new approach for the detection of gravity waves in OH-airglow observations at the measurement site Oberpfaffenhofen (11.27°E, 48.08°N), Germany. The measurements were performed at the German Remote Sensing Data Center (DFD) of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) during the period from February 4th, 2011 to July 6th, 2011. In this case study the observations were carried out by three identical Ground-based Infrared P-branch Spectrometers (GRIPS). These instruments provide OH(3-1) rotational temperature time series, which enable spatio-temporal investigations of gravity wave characteristics in the mesopause region. The instruments were aligned in such a way that their fields of view (FOV) formed an equilateral triangle in the OH-emission layer at a height of 87 km. The Harmonic Analysis is applied in order to identify joint temperature oscillations in the three individual datasets. Dependent on the specific gravity wave activity in a single night, it is possible to detect up to four different wave patterns with this method. The values obtained for the waves' periods and phases are then used to derive further parameters, such as horizontal wavelength, phase velocity and the direction of propagation. We identify systematic relationships between periods and amplitudes as well as between periods and horizontal wavelengths. A predominant propagation direction towards the East and North-North-East characterizes the waves during the observation period. There are also indications of seasonal effects in the temporal development of the horizontal wavelength and the phase velocity. During late winter and early spring the derived horizontal wavelengths and the phase velocities are smaller than in the subsequent period from early April to July 2011.

  16. Fission gas detection system

    DOEpatents

    Colburn, Richard P.

    1985-01-01

    A device for collecting fission gas released by a failed fuel rod which device uses a filter to pass coolant but which filter blocks fission gas bubbles which cannot pass through the filter due to the surface tension of the bubble.

  17. Fission Xenon on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathew, K. J.; Marti, K.; Marty, B.

    2002-01-01

    Fission Xe components due to Pu-244 decay in the early history of Mars have been identified in nakhlites; as in the case of ALH84001 and Chassigny the fission gas was assimilated into indigenous solar-type Xe. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  18. Geometry of membrane fission.

    PubMed

    Frolov, Vadim A; Escalada, Artur; Akimov, Sergey A; Shnyrova, Anna V

    2015-01-01

    Cellular membranes define the functional geometry of intracellular space. Formation of new membrane compartments and maintenance of complex organelles require division and disconnection of cellular membranes, a process termed membrane fission. Peripheral membrane proteins generally control membrane remodeling during fission. Local membrane stresses, reflecting molecular geometry of membrane-interacting parts of these proteins, sum up to produce the key membrane geometries of fission: the saddle-shaped neck and hour-glass hemifission intermediate. Here, we review the fundamental principles behind the translation of molecular geometry into membrane shape and topology during fission. We emphasize the central role the membrane insertion of specialized protein domains plays in orchestrating fission in vitro and in cells. We further compare individual to synergistic action of the membrane insertion during fission mediated by individual protein species, proteins complexes or membrane domains. Finally, we describe how local geometry of fission intermediates defines the functional design of the protein complexes catalyzing fission of cellular membranes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Fission Barrier Landscape

    SciTech Connect

    Phair, L.; Moretto, L. G.

    2008-04-17

    Fission excitation functions have been measured for a chain of neighboring compound nuclei from {sup 207}Po to {sup 212}Po. We present a new analysis which provides a determination of the fission barriers and ground state shell effects with nearly spectroscopic accuracy. The accuracy achieved in this analysis may lead to a future detailed exploration of the saddle mass surface and its spectroscopy.

  20. Microscopic Phase-Space Exploration Modeling of ^{258}Fm Spontaneous Fission.

    PubMed

    Tanimura, Yusuke; Lacroix, Denis; Ayik, Sakir

    2017-04-14

    We show that the total kinetic energy (TKE) of nuclei after the spontaneous fission of ^{258}Fm can be well reproduced using simple assumptions on the quantum collective phase space explored by the nucleus after passing the fission barrier. Assuming energy conservation and phase-space exploration according to the stochastic mean-field approach, a set of initial densities is generated. Each density is then evolved in time using the nuclear time-dependent density-functional theory with pairing. This approach goes beyond the mean-field theory by allowing spontaneous symmetry breaking as well as a wider dynamical phase-space exploration leading to larger fluctuations in collective space. The total kinetic energy and mass distributions are calculated. New information on the fission process: fluctuations in scission time, strong correlation between TKE and collective deformation, as well as prescission particle emission, are obtained. We conclude that fluctuations of the TKE and mass are triggered by quantum fluctuations.

  1. Electron spectra from decay of fission products

    SciTech Connect

    Dickens, J K

    1982-09-01

    Electron spectra following decay of individual fission products (72 less than or equal to A less than or equal to 162) are obtained from the nuclear data given in the compilation using a listed and documented computer subroutine. Data are given for more than 500 radionuclides created during or after fission. The data include transition energies, absolute intensities, and shape parameters when known. An average beta-ray energy is given for fission products lacking experimental information on transition energies and intensities. For fission products having partial or incomplete decay information, the available data are utilized to provide best estimates of otherwise unknown decay schemes. This compilation is completely referenced and includes data available in the reviewed literature up to January 1982.

  2. Biomodal spontaneous fission

    SciTech Connect

    Hulet, E.K. )

    1989-09-26

    Investigations of mass and kinetic-energy distributions from spontaneous fission have been extended in recent years to an isotope of element 104 and, for half-lives, to an isotope of element 108. The results have been surprising in that spontaneous fission half-lives have turned out to be much longer than expected and mass and kinetic- energy distributions were found to abruptly shift away from those of the lighter actinides, showing two modes of fission. These new developments have caused a re-evaluation of our understanding of the fission process, bringing an even deeper appreciation of the role played by nuclear shell effects upon spontaneous fission properties. 16 refs., 10 figs.

  3. Fission Measurements with Dance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jandel, M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Fowler, M. M.; Bond, E. M.; Chadwick, M. B.; Clement, R. R.; Couture, A.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Haight, R. C.; Keksis, A. L.; Reifarth, R.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wouters, J. M.; Agvaanluvsan, U.; Dashdorj, D.; Macri, R. A.; Parker, W. E.; Wilk, P. A.; Wu, C. Y.; Becker, J. A.; Angell, C. T.; Tonchev, A. P.; Baker, J. D.

    2008-08-01

    Neutron capture cross section measurements on actinides are complicated by the presence of neutron-induced fission. An efficient fission tagging detector used in coincidence with the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) provides a powerful tool in undertaking simultaneous measurements of (n,γ) and (n,f) cross sections. Preliminary results on 235U(n,γ) and (n,f) and 242mAm(n,f) cross sections measured with DANCE and a custom fission-tagging parallel plate avalanche counter (PPAC) are presented. Additional measurements of γ-ray cluster multiplicity distributions for neutron-induced fission of 235U and 242mAm and spontaneous fission of 252Cf are shown, as well as γ-ray energy and average γ-ray energy distributions.

  4. The Coincident Fission Fragment Detector (CFFD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakhle, A.; Hammerton, K.; Kohley, Z.; Yurkon, J.; Stiefel, K.

    2017-08-01

    A Parallel Plate Avalanche Counter (PPAC) based fission detector system, called the Coincident Fission Fragment Detector (CFFD), has been developed for the ReA3 re-accelerator facility of the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL). Binary reaction kinematics are reconstructed based on position and time-of-flight measurements of fission fragments. Large area PPACs provide 1 ns level time resolution and mm level position resolution. The detectors allow measurements of fission product angular and mass distributions of heavy-ion induced fusion reactions. The 30 cm by 40 cm active area of each PPAC provides large solid angle coverage well suited for measurements of low intensity rare-isotope beams (RIBs).

  5. Comparing bulk electrical conductivities spatial series obtained by Time Domain Reflectometry and Electromagnetic Induction sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeed, Ali; Ajeel, Ali; dragonetti, giovanna; Comegna, Alessandro; Lamaddalena, Nicola; Coppola, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    The ability to determine and monitor the effects of salts on soils and plants, are of great importance to agriculture. To control its harmful effects, soil salinity needs to be monitored in space and time. This requires knowledge of its magnitude, temporal dynamics, and spatial variability. Conventional ground survey procedures by direct soil sampling are time consuming, costly and destructive. Alternatively, soil salinity can be evaluated by measuring the bulk electrical conductivity (σb) directly in the field. Time domain reflectometry (TDR) sensors allow simultaneous measurements of water content, θ, and σb. They may be calibrated for estimating the electrical conductivity of the soil solution (σw). However, they have a relatively small observation window and thus they are thought to only provide local-scale measurements. The spatial range of the sensors is limited to tens of centimeters and extension of the information to a large area can be problematic. Also, information on the vertical distribution of the σb soil profile may only be obtained by installing sensors at different depths. In this sense, the TDR may be considered as an invasive technique. Compared to the TDR, other geophysical methods based for example on Electromagnetic Induction (EMI) techniques are non-invasive methods and represent a viable alternative to traditional techniques for soil characterization. The problem is that all these techniques give depth-weighted apparent electrical conductivity (σa) measurements, depending on the specific depth distribution of the σb, as well as on the depth response function of the sensor used. In order to deduce the actual distribution of the bulk electrical conductivity, σb, in the soil profile, one needs to invert the signal coming from EMI. Because of their relatively lower observation window, TDR sensors provide quasi-point values and do not adequately integrate the spatial variability of the chemical concentration distribution in the soil

  6. Multidimensional Skyrme-density-functional study of the spontaneous fission of 238U

    SciTech Connect

    Sadhukhan, J.; Mazurek, K.; Dobaczewski, J.; Nazarewicz, W.; Sheikh, J. A.; Baran, A.

    2015-01-01

    We determined the spontaneous fission lifetime of 238U by a minimization of the action integral in a three-dimensional space of collective variables. Apart from the mass-distribution multipole moments Q20 (elongation) and Q30 (left–right asymmetry), we also considered the pairing-fluctuation parameter λ2 as a collective coordinate. The collective potential was obtained self-consistently using the Skyrme energy density functional SkM*. The inertia tensor was obtained within the nonperturbative cranking approximation to the adiabatic time-dependent Hartree–Fock–Bogoliubov approach. As a result, the pairing-fluctuation parameter λ2 allowed us to control the pairing gap along the fission path, which significantly changed the spontaneous fission lifetime.

  7. Multidimensional Skyrme-density-functional study of the spontaneous fission of 238U

    DOE PAGES

    Sadhukhan, J.; Mazurek, K.; Dobaczewski, J.; ...

    2015-01-01

    We determined the spontaneous fission lifetime of 238U by a minimization of the action integral in a three-dimensional space of collective variables. Apart from the mass-distribution multipole moments Q20 (elongation) and Q30 (left–right asymmetry), we also considered the pairing-fluctuation parameter λ2 as a collective coordinate. The collective potential was obtained self-consistently using the Skyrme energy density functional SkM*. The inertia tensor was obtained within the nonperturbative cranking approximation to the adiabatic time-dependent Hartree–Fock–Bogoliubov approach. As a result, the pairing-fluctuation parameter λ2 allowed us to control the pairing gap along the fission path, which significantly changed the spontaneous fission lifetime.

  8. Distributional behavior of diffusion coefficients obtained by single trajectories in annealed transit time model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akimoto, Takuma; Yamamoto, Eiji

    2016-12-01

    Local diffusion coefficients in disordered systems such as spin glass systems and living cells are highly heterogeneous and may change over time. Such a time-dependent and spatially heterogeneous environment results in irreproducibility of single-particle-tracking measurements. Irreproducibility of time-averaged observables has been theoretically studied in the context of weak ergodicity breaking in stochastic processes. Here, we provide rigorous descriptions of equilibrium and non-equilibrium diffusion processes for the annealed transit time model, which is a heterogeneous diffusion model in living cells. We give analytical solutions for the mean square displacement (MSD) and the relative standard deviation of the time-averaged MSD for equilibrium and non-equilibrium situations. We find that the time-averaged MSD grows linearly with time and that the time-averaged diffusion coefficients are intrinsically random (irreproducible) even in the long-time measurements in non-equilibrium situations. Furthermore, the distribution of the time-averaged diffusion coefficients converges to a universal distribution in the sense that it does not depend on initial conditions. Our findings pave the way for a theoretical understanding of distributional behavior of the time-averaged diffusion coefficients in disordered systems.

  9. Delayed-fission properties of neutron-deficient americium nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, H.L. . Dept. of Chemistry)

    1989-10-23

    Characteristics of the delayed-fission decay mode in light americium nuclei have been investigated. Measurements on the unknown isotopes {sup 230}Am and {sup 236}Am were attempted, and upper limits on the delayed-fission branches of these nuclei were determined. Evidence of the existence of {sup 236}Am was observed in radiochemical separations. Total kinetic energy and mass-yield distributions of the electron-capture delayed-fission mode were measured for {sup 232}Am (t{sub 1/2} = 1.31 {plus minus} 0.04 min) and for {sup 234}Am (t{sub 1/2} = 2.32 {plus minus} 0.08 min), and delayed-fission probabilities of 6.9 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} and 6.6 {times} 10{sup {minus}5}, respectively, were determined. The total kinetic energy and the asymmetric mass-yield distributions are typical of fission of mid-range actinides. No discernible influence of the anomalous triple-peaked mass division characteristic of the thorium-radium region was detected. Measurements of the time correlation between the electron-capture x-rays and the subsequent fission conform that the observed fissions arise from the electron-capture delayed-fission mechanism. Delayed fission has provided a unique opportunity to extend the range of low-energy fission studies to previously inaccessible regions. 71 refs., 44 figs., 13 tabs.

  10. For discussion: obtaining consent for ionising radiation: has the time come?

    PubMed

    Mendelson, Richard M

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to promote debate on the issues surrounding the provision of information to, and the obtaining of valid consent from patients exposed to ionising radiation (IR) from diagnostic and interventional imaging procedures. This is especially pertinent in view of recent interest in the risks of IR expressed in the medical and lay press.

  11. Neutron-induced fission of even- and odd-mass plutonium isotopes within a four-dimensional Langevin framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahlavani, M. R.; Mirfathi, S. M.

    2017-07-01

    Neutron multiplicity prior to scission and evaluation of mass distribution of fission fragments with the fission time scale for neutron induced fission of plutonium isotopes are investigated using a dynamical Langevin approach. Also, mass yield of fragments and prompt neutron multiplicity in different time scales of the fission process are compared with experimental data. Reasonable agreement is achieved between calculated and available experimental data.

  12. Neutron Radiography and Fission Mapping Measurements of Nuclear Materials with Varying Composition and Shielding

    SciTech Connect

    Mullens, James Allen; McConchie, Seth M; Hausladen, Paul; Mihalczo, John T; Grogan, Brandon R; Sword, Eric D

    2011-01-01

    Neutron radiography and fission mapping measurements were performed on four measurement objects with varying composition and shielding arrangements at the Idaho National Laboratory's Zero Power Physics Reactor (ZPPR) facility. The measurement objects were assembled with ZPPR reactor plate materials comprising plutonium, natural uranium, or highly enriched uranium and were presented as unknowns for characterization. As a part of the characterization, neutron radiography was performed using a deuterium-tritium (D-T) neutron generator as a source of time and directionally tagged 14 MeV neutrons. The neutrons were detected by plastic scintillators placed on the opposite side of the object, using the time-correlation-based data acquisition of the Nuclear Materials Identification System developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Each object was measured at several rotations with respect to the neutron source to obtain a tomographic reconstruction of the object and a limited identification of materials via measurement of the neutron attenuation. Large area liquid scintillators with pulse shape discrimination were used to detect the induced fission neutrons. A fission site map reconstruction was produced by time correlating the induced fission neutrons with each tagged neutron from the D-T neutron generator. This paper describes the experimental configuration, the ZPPR measurement objects used, and the neutron imaging and fission mapping results.

  13. Subband Quantum Scattering Times for Algaas/GaAs Obtained Using Digital Filtering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mena, R. A.; Schacham, S. E.; Haughland, E. J.; Alterovitz, S. A.; Bibyk, S. B.; Ringel, S. A.

    1995-01-01

    In this study we investigate both the transport and quantum scattering times as a function of the carrier concentration for a modulation doped Al(0.3)Ga(0.7)As/GaAs structure. Carriers in the well are generated as a result of the persistent photoconductivity effect. When more than one subband becomes populated, digital filtering is used to separate the components for each of the excited subbands. We find that the quantum scattering time for the ground subband increases initially as the carrier concentration is increased. However, once the second subband becomes populated, the ground subband scattering time begins to decrease. The quantum scattering time for the excited subband is also observed to decrease as the concentration is increased. From the ratio of the transport and quantum scattering times, it is seen that the transport in the well becomes more isotropic also as the concentration is increased.

  14. Nuclear fission of Fm isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Asano, T.; Wada, T.; Ohta, M.; Chiba, S.

    2010-06-01

    Multi-modal fission has been systematically investigated for the series of isotopes of Fm and Cf. The multi-dimensional Langevin-type stochastic differential equation is used for the dynamical calculation. The primary fission mode changes from mass-asymmetric fission to mass-symmetric fission with the increase of neutron numbers for both Fm and Cf cases.

  15. Bremsstrahlung emission of high energy accompanying spontaneous fission of {sup 252}Cf

    SciTech Connect

    Maydanyuk, S. P.; Olkhovsky, V. S.; Mandaglio, G.; Manganaro, M.; Fazio, G.; Giardina, G.

    2010-07-15

    The study of the bremsstrahlung photon emission accompanying fragments produced in the spontaneous fission of heavy nuclei by a fully quantum approach is presented for the first time. This kind of problem requires the knowledge of wave functions of the fissioning system leading to a wide distribution of couples of fragments that are the products of fission. With the aim of obtaining these wave functions, the interaction potential between the emitted fragment and residual nucleus is calculated by a standard approach. A new procedure was performed that allows an increase in the accuracy of calculations of radial integrals in the far asymptotic region and the achievement of the convenient convergence in calculations of the spectra. The total probability of the emitted photons in the spontaneous fission of {sup 252}Cf was calculated in such a way. We obtained good agreement between theory and experimental data up to 38 MeV for the bremsstrahlung spectrum of photons while the calculation of the total probability of photon emission accompanying fragments was performed up to an energy of 60 MeV. The analysis of contributions in the bremsstrahlung spectrum accompanying the emission of light, medium, and heavy fragments in the fission of {sup 252}Cf is presented.

  16. Prompt fission gamma-ray studies at DANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Jandel, M.; Rusev, G.; Bond, E. M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Chadwick, M. B.; Couture, A.; Fowler, M.. M; Haight, R. C.; Kawano, T.; Keksis, A. L.; Mosby, S. M.; O’Donnell, J. M.; Rundberg, R. S.; Stetcu, I.; Talou, P.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Stoyer, M. A.; Haslett, R. J.; Henderson, R. A.; Becker, J. A.; Wu, C. Y.

    2014-11-26

    Measurements of correlated data on prompt-fission γ-rays (PFG) have been carried out for various actinide isotopes in recent years using the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). We have developed a model that conveniently parametrizes the correlated data of γ-ray multiplicity and energy. New results on two- dimensional prompt-fission γ-ray multiplicity versus energy distributions from spontaneous fission on ²⁵²Cf and neutron-induced fission on 242mAm are presented together with previously obtained results on 233,235U and ²³⁹Pu. Correlated PFG data from ²⁵²Cf are also compared to results of the detailed theoretical model developed at LANL, for different thresholds of PFG energies. Future plans to measure correlated data on fission fragments, prompt fission neutrons and γ-rays at DANCE are presented.

  17. Obtaining Reliable Predictions of Terrestrial Energy Coupling From Real-Time Solar Wind Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weimer, Daniel R.

    2002-01-01

    Measurements of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) from the ACE (Advanced Composition Explorer), Wind, IMP-8 (Interplanetary Monitoring Platform), and Geotail spacecraft have revealed that the IMF variations are contained in phase planes that are tilted with respect to the propagation direction, resulting in continuously variable changes in propagation times between spacecraft, and therefore, to the Earth. Techniques for using 'minimum variance analysis' have been developed in order to be able to measure the phase front tilt angles, and better predict the actual propagation times from the L1 orbit to the Earth, using only the real-time IMF measurements from one spacecraft. The use of empirical models with the IMF measurements at L1 from ACE (or future satellites) for predicting 'space weather' effects has also been demonstrated.

  18. Estimation of signal-to-noise ratio for variables obtained from time-slice experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Mares, C.; Mares, I.; Waszkewitz, J.; Cubasch, U.

    1997-12-31

    In the time-slice method a T42 atmospheric model was forced by the changed greenhouse gas concentration (at present time CO{sub 2} level, at the time of CO{sub 2} doubling and tripling), while the sea surface temperature (SST) and sea ice distribution have been taken from a transient climate change experiment with a T21 global coupled ocean-atmosphere model. The monthly mean temperature, precipitation and geopotential (500 hPa) at the global level, as well as the daily values of minimum and maximum temperature and of precipitation amounts for the atlantic-european region have been analyzed for the 30 year long simulations. In order to estimate signal-to-noise ratio, statistical moments of first and second order, cumulative explained spatial variance. projections onto EOFs, centered and uncentered spatial correlation, as well as a first Markovian order model have been applied.

  19. Obtaining Reliable Predictions of Terrestrial Energy Coupling From Real-Time Solar Wind Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weimer, Daniel R.

    2001-01-01

    The first draft of a manuscript titled "Variable time delays in the propagation of the interplanetary magnetic field" has been completed, for submission to the Journal of Geophysical Research. In the preparation of this manuscript all data and analysis programs had been updated to the highest temporal resolution possible, at 16 seconds or better. The program which computes the "measured" IMF propagation time delays from these data has also undergone another improvement. In another significant development, a technique has been developed in order to predict IMF phase plane orientations, and the resulting time delays, using only measurements from a single satellite at L1. The "minimum variance" method is used for this computation. Further work will be done on optimizing the choice of several parameters for the minimum variance calculation.

  20. Application of the Constant Exposure Time Technique to Transformation Experiments with Fission Neutrons; Failure to Demonstrate Dose-Rate Dependence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    morphologic character- linear energy YF= 21 k’Vipm. dose mean lineal energy YD istics to one with the characteristics ofa tumour cell, a = 42 keV’pm in...in icells is horizontal position at all times to ficilitate attach- described in the reports cited above. New batches or mentreattachment of mitotic ...calculationis Nerhinski et al. I )ui1iliv 198 1 at. b,. Briefly, the( mecan values of’ lineal energy init. 11 1 R. + I-3 141.2 +012 l lid based on

  1. Enhanced trigger for the NIFFTE fissionTPC in presence of high-rate alpha backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bundgaard, Jeremy; Niffte Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    Nuclear physics and nuclear energy communities call for new, high precision measurements to improve existing fission models and design next generation reactors. The Neutron Induced Fission Fragment Tracking experiment (NIFFTE) has developed the fission Time Projection Chamber (fissionTPC) to measure neutron induced fission with unrivaled precision. The fissionTPC is annually deployed to the Weapons Neutron Research facility at Los Alamos Neutron Science Center where it operates with a neutron beam passing axially through the drift volume, irradiating heavy actinide targets to induce fission. The fissionTPC was developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's TPC lab, where it measures spontaneous fission from radioactive sources to characterize detector response, improve performance, and evolve the design. To measure 244Cm, we've developed a fission trigger to reduce the data rate from alpha tracks while maintaining a high fission detection efficiency. In beam, alphas from 239Pu are a large background when detecting fission fragments; implementing the fission trigger will greatly reduce this background. The implementation of the cathode fission trigger in the fissionTPC will be presented along with a detailed study of its efficiency.

  2. The Effects of Survey Timing on Student Evaluation of Teaching Measures Obtained Using Online Surveys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estelami, Hooman

    2015-01-01

    Teaching evaluations are an important measurement tool used by business schools in gauging the level of student satisfaction with the educational services delivered by faculty. The growing use of online teaching evaluations has enabled educational administrators to expand the time period during which student evaluation of teaching (SET) surveys…

  3. The Effects of Survey Timing on Student Evaluation of Teaching Measures Obtained Using Online Surveys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estelami, Hooman

    2015-01-01

    Teaching evaluations are an important measurement tool used by business schools in gauging the level of student satisfaction with the educational services delivered by faculty. The growing use of online teaching evaluations has enabled educational administrators to expand the time period during which student evaluation of teaching (SET) surveys…

  4. True ternary fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayaraghavan, K. R.; Balasubramaniam, M.; von Oertzen, W.

    2015-04-01

    The study of the ternary fission of nuclei has received new interest recently. It is of general interest for nuclear dynamics, although the process is very rare. In the present work, we discuss the possibilities of true ternary fission (fragment masses A >30 ) in 252Cf for different mass splits. These mass splits are strongly favored in a collinear geometry. Based on the three cluster model (TCM), it is shown that the true ternary fission into fragments with almost equal masses is one of the possible fission modes in 252Cf . For general decays it is shown that the formation of the lightest fragment at the center has the highest probability. Further the formation of tin isotopes and/or other closed shell fragments are favored. For the decay products the presence of closed shell nuclei among the three fragments enhances the decay probabilities.

  5. Increased Exploration Capacity Promotes Group Fission in Gregarious Foraging Herbivores.

    PubMed

    Lardy, Sophie; Fortin, Daniel; Pays, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Many gregarious species display rapid fission-fusion dynamics with individuals frequently leaving their groups to reunite or to form new ones soon after. The adaptive value of such ephemeral associations might reflect a frequent tilt in the balance between the costs and benefits of maintaining group cohesion. The lack of information on the short-term advantages of group fission, however, hampers our understanding of group dynamics. We investigated the effect of group fission on area-restricted search, a search tactic that is commonly used when food distribution is spatially autocorrelated. Specifically, we determine if roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) improve key aspects of their extensive search mode immediately after fission. We found that groups indeed moved faster and farther over time immediately after than before fission. This gain was highest for the smallest group that resulted from fission, which was more likely to include the fission's initiator. Sex of group members further mediated the immediate gain in search capacity, as post-fission groups moved away at farthest rate when they were only comprised of males. Our study suggests that social conflicts during the extensive search mode can promote group fission and, as such, can be a key determinant of group fission-fusion dynamics that are commonly observed in gregarious herbivores.

  6. A new role for myosin II in vesicle fission.

    PubMed

    Flores, Juan A; Balseiro-Gomez, Santiago; Cabeza, Jose M; Acosta, Jorge; Ramirez-Ponce, Pilar; Ales, Eva

    2014-01-01

    An endocytic vesicle is formed from a flat plasma membrane patch by a sequential process of invagination, bud formation and fission. The scission step requires the formation of a tubular membrane neck (the fission pore) that connects the endocytic vesicle with the plasma membrane. Progress in vesicle fission can be measured by the formation and closure of the fission pore. Live-cell imaging and sensitive biophysical measurements have provided various glimpses into the structure and behaviour of the fission pore. In the present study, the role of non-muscle myosin II (NM-2) in vesicle fission was tested by analyzing the kinetics of the fission pore with perforated-patch clamp capacitance measurements to detect single vesicle endocytosis with millisecond time resolution in peritoneal mast cells. Blebbistatin, a specific inhibitor of NM-2, dramatically increased the duration of the fission pore and also prevented closure during large endocytic events. Using the fluorescent markers FM1-43 and pHrodo Green dextran, we found that NM-2 inhibition greatly arrested vesicle fission in a late phase of the scission event when the pore reached a final diameter of ∼ 5 nm. Our results indicate that loss of the ATPase activity of myosin II drastically reduces the efficiency of membrane scission by making vesicle closure incomplete and suggest that NM-2 might be especially relevant in vesicle fission during compound endocytosis.

  7. A New Role for Myosin II in Vesicle Fission

    PubMed Central

    Cabeza, Jose M.; Acosta, Jorge; Ramirez-Ponce, Pilar; Ales, Eva

    2014-01-01

    An endocytic vesicle is formed from a flat plasma membrane patch by a sequential process of invagination, bud formation and fission. The scission step requires the formation of a tubular membrane neck (the fission pore) that connects the endocytic vesicle with the plasma membrane. Progress in vesicle fission can be measured by the formation and closure of the fission pore. Live-cell imaging and sensitive biophysical measurements have provided various glimpses into the structure and behaviour of the fission pore. In the present study, the role of non-muscle myosin II (NM-2) in vesicle fission was tested by analyzing the kinetics of the fission pore with perforated-patch clamp capacitance measurements to detect single vesicle endocytosis with millisecond time resolution in peritoneal mast cells. Blebbistatin, a specific inhibitor of NM-2, dramatically increased the duration of the fission pore and also prevented closure during large endocytic events. Using the fluorescent markers FM1-43 and pHrodo Green dextran, we found that NM-2 inhibition greatly arrested vesicle fission in a late phase of the scission event when the pore reached a final diameter of ∼ 5 nm. Our results indicate that loss of the ATPase activity of myosin II drastically reduces the efficiency of membrane scission by making vesicle closure incomplete and suggest that NM-2 might be especially relevant in vesicle fission during compound endocytosis. PMID:24959909

  8. Ytterbium Gauge Measurements to Obtain Stress-Time Profiles in Shocked Cast Composition B-3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-04-01

    NICOLET DIGITIZERS ................. B-1 C WONDY HYDROCODE CALCULATIONS ................. C-1 D EULERIAN RELEASE VELOCITY AS MEASURED FROM MULTIPLE INSITU...51 15 MEASURED WAVE VELOCITIES FOR EXPERIMENT 87-009 ....... 52 C-1 WONDY CODE INPUT PARAMETERS ....................... C-3 xi NSWC TR 87...which used parameters m and ,7 from a study of Gupta and Gupta. 28 Stress-time profiles from WONDY hydrocode runs are shown for comparison in Figures

  9. Time-resolved radiation beam profiles in water obtained by ultrasonic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malyarenko, Eugene V.; Heyman, Joseph S.; Chen-Mayer, H. Heather; Tosh, Ronald E.

    2010-06-01

    This paper presents a practical ultrasonic system for near real-time imaging of spatial temperature distributions in water caused by absorption of radiation. Initial testing with radiation from a highly attenuated infrared lamp demonstrates that the system is able to map sub-millikelvin temperature changes, thus making it suitable for characterizing dose profiles of therapy-level ionizing radiation beams. The system uses a fan-beam tomographic reconstruction algorithm to invert time-of-flight data derived from ultrasonic pulses produced and detected by a circular array of transducers immersed in water. Temperature dependence of the speed of sound in water permits the conversion of these measured two-dimensional velocity distributions into temperature distributions that indicate the absorbed radiation dose. The laboratory prototype, based on a 128-element transducer array, is used to acquire temperature maps of a 230 mm × 230 mm area every 4 s with sub-millikelvin resolution in temperature and about 5 mm resolution in space. Earlier measurements with a single-channel version of this prototype suggest refinements in signal-conditioning electronics and signal-processing algorithms that would allow the present instrument to resolve temperature changes as low as a few microkelvin. Possible applications include real-time intensity profiling of radiation beams and three-dimensional characterization of the absorbed dose.

  10. DSP Algorithms for Fission Fragment and Prompt Fission Neutron Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Zeynalova, O.; Zeynalov, Sh.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Oberstedt, S.; Fabry, I.

    2009-10-29

    Digital signal processing (DSP) algorithms are in high demand for modern nuclear fission investigation due to importance of increase the accuracy of fissile nuclear data for new generation of nuclear power stations. DSP algorithms for fission fragment (FF) and prompt fission neutron (PFN) spectroscopy are described in the present work. The twin Frisch-grid ionization chamber (GTIC) is used to measure the kinetic energy-, mass- and angular distributions of the FF in the {sup 252}Cf(SF) reaction. Along with the neutron time-of-flight (TOF) measurement the correlation between neutron emission and FF mass and energy is investigated. The TOF is measured between common cathode of the GTIC and the neutron detector (ND) pulses. Waveform digitizers (WFD) having 12 bit amplitude resolution and 100 MHz sampling frequency are used for the detector pulse sampling. DSP algorithms are developed as recursive procedures to perform the signal processing, similar to those available in various nuclear electronics modules, such as constant fraction discriminator (CFD), pulse shape discriminator (PSD), peak-sensitive analogue-to-digital converter (pADC) and pulse shaping amplifier (PSA). To measure the angle between FF and the cathode plane normal to the GTIC a new algorithm is developed having advantage over the traditional analogue pulse processing schemes. Algorithms are tested by comparing the numerical simulation of the data analysis of the {sup 252}Cf(SF) reaction with data available from literature.

  11. Determining Stroke Onset Time Using Quantitative MRI: High Accuracy, Sensitivity and Specificity Obtained from Magnetic Resonance Relaxation Times

    PubMed Central

    McGarry, Bryony L.; Rogers, Harriet J.; Knight, Michael J.; Jokivarsi, Kimmo T.; Gröhn, Olli H.J.; Kauppinen, Risto A.

    2016-01-01

    Many ischaemic stroke patients are ineligible for thrombolytic therapy due to unknown onset time. Quantitative MRI (qMRI) is a potential surrogate for stroke timing. Rats were subjected to permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion and qMRI parameters including hemispheric differences in apparent diffusion coefficient, T2-weighted signal intensities, T1 and T2 relaxation times (qT1, qT2) and f1, f2 and Voverlap were measured at hourly intervals at 4.7 or 9.4 T. Accuracy and sensitivity for identifying strokes scanned within and beyond 3 h of onset was determined. Accuracy for Voverlap, f2 and qT2 (>90%) was significantly higher than other parameters. At a specificity of 1, sensitivity was highest for Voverlap (0.90) and f2 (0.80), indicating promise of these qMRI indices in the clinical assessment of stroke onset time.

  12. Microscopic Theory of Fission

    SciTech Connect

    Younes, W.; Gogny, D.

    2008-04-17

    In recent years, the microscopic method has been applied to the notoriously difficult problem of nuclear fission with unprecedented success. In this paper, we discuss some of the achievements and promise of the microscopic method, as embodied in the Hartree-Fock method using the Gogny finite-range effective interaction, and beyond-mean-field extensions to the theory. The nascent program to describe induced fission observables using this approach at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is presented.

  13. Neutron flux profile monitor for use in a fission reactor

    DOEpatents

    Kopp, Manfred K.; Valentine, Kenneth H.

    1983-01-01

    A neutron flux monitor is provided which consists of a plurality of fission counters arranged as spaced-apart point detectors along a delay line. As a fission event occurs in any one of the counters, two delayed current pulses are generated at the output of the delay line. The time separation of the pulses identifies the counter in which the particular fission event occured. Neutron flux profiles of reactor cores can be more accurately measured as a result.

  14. Estimation of Young's modulus of pharmaceutical tablet obtained by terahertz time-delay measurement.

    PubMed

    Peiponen, Kai-Erik; Bawuah, Prince; Chakraborty, Mousumi; Juuti, Mikko; Zeitler, J Axel; Ketolainen, Jarkko

    2015-07-15

    In this paper, it is suggested that Young's modulus of pharmaceutical tablets with different porosity can be estimated from terahertz (THz) pulse time delay. We demonstrate such a possibility using a training set of tablets compressed from starch acetate. Once the mechanical properties are taught to the THz measurement system, using an ideal tablet as a reference, it is possible to get information about the Young's modulus of the tablet. Here, we show that there are optical counterparts of classical mechanical laws that couple the Young's modulus and porosity of the tablet. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Obtaining a Foundation for Nursing Care at the Time of Patient Admission: A Grounded Theory Study

    PubMed Central

    Jansson, Inger; Pilhammar, Ewa; Forsberg, Anna

    2009-01-01

    The nursing process can be viewed as a problem-solving model, but we do not know whether use of the whole process including care plans with interventions based on nursing diagnoses improves nurses’ ability to carry out assessments. Therefore, the aim of this study was to illuminate and describe the assessment and decision-making process performed by nurses who formulated individual care plans including nursing diagnosis, goals and interventions or who used standardized care plans when a patient was admitted to their ward for care, and those who did not. Data collection and analysis were carried out by means of Grounded theory. Nurses were observed while assessing patients, after which they were interviewed. The main concern of all nurses was to obtain a foundation for nursing care based on four strategies; building pre-understanding, creating a caring environment, collecting information on symptoms and signs and performing an analysis from different perspectives. It appeared that the most important aspect for nurses who did not employ care plans was the medical reason for the patient’s admission. The nurses who employed care plans discussed their decisions in terms of nursing problems, needs and risks. The results indicate that nurses who formulated care plans were more aware of their professional role. PMID:19746207

  16. Experimental studies of quasi-fission reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Back, B.B.

    1988-01-01

    A large number of recent experimental studies have shown that a substantial fraction of the total reaction cross section in heavy-ion reactions is found in fission-like processes, which do not result from the fission decay of a completely fused system. Following the suggestion of Swiatecki such processes, which represents a complete relaxation of the relative kinetic energy and a substantial amount of net mass transfer between the two fragments, are denoted quasi-fission reactions. They are distinct from compound fission reactions by bypassing the stage of a completely fused-system. This typically means that they are associated with short reaction times, which results in several measurable characteristics such as broken forward-backward symmetries, large anisotropies of the angular distributions and increased widths of the fragment mass distributions. The distinction between quasi-fission and deep inelastic reactions is less stringent and has the character of a gradual evolution from one reaction type to the other, as found also as quasi-elastic reaction evolves into deeply inelastic processes as a function of the total kinetic energy loss. In the present paper some of the experimental data characterizing quasi-fission reactions are reviewed and discussed. 22 refs., 6 figs.

  17. 42 CFR 489.68 - Effect of failure to obtain, maintain, and timely file a surety bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effect of failure to obtain, maintain, and timely file a surety bond. 489.68 Section 489.68 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... SUPPLIER APPROVAL Surety Bond Requirements for HHAs § 489.68 Effect of failure to obtain, maintain,...

  18. Matching methods for obtaining survival functions to estimate the effect of a time-dependent treatment

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yun; Schaubel, Douglas E.; He, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    In observational studies of survival time featuring a binary time-dependent treatment, the hazard ratio (an instantaneous measure) is often used to represent the treatment effect. However, investigators are often more interested in the difference in survival functions. We propose semiparametric methods to estimate the causal effect of treatment among the treated with respect to survival probability. The objective is to compare post-treatment survival with the survival function that would have been observed in the absence of treatment. For each patient, we compute a prognostic score (based on the pre-treatment death hazard) and a propensity score (based on the treatment hazard). Each treated patient is then matched with an alive, uncensored and not-yet-treated patient with similar prognostic and/or propensity scores. The experience of each treated and matched patient is weighted using a variant of Inverse Probability of Censoring Weighting to account for the impact of censoring. We propose estimators of the treatment-specific survival functions (and their difference), computed through weighted Nelson-Aalen estimators. Closed-form variance estimators are proposed which take into consideration the potential replication of subjects across matched sets. The proposed methods are evaluated through simulation, then applied to estimate the effect of kidney transplantation on survival among end-stage renal disease patients using data from a national organ failure registry. PMID:25309633

  19. Feasibility of anomaly occurrence in aerosols time series obtained from MODIS satellite images during hazardous earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhoondzadeh, Mehdi; Jahani Chehrebargh, Fatemeh

    2016-09-01

    Earthquake is one of the most devastating natural disasters that its prediction has not materialized comprehensive. Remote sensing data can be used to access information which is closely related to an earthquake. The unusual variations of lithosphere, atmosphere and ionosphere parameters before the main earthquakes are considered as earthquake precursors. To date the different precursors have been proposed. This paper examines one of the parameters which can be derived from satellite imagery. The mentioned parameter is Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) that this article reviews its relationship with earthquake. Aerosol parameter can be achieved through various methods such as AERONET ground stations or using satellite images via algorithms such as the DDV (Dark Dense Vegetation), Deep Blue Algorithm and SYNTAM (SYNergy of Terra and Aqua Modis). In this paper, by analyzing AOD's time series (derived from MODIS sensor on the TERRA platform) for 16 major earthquakes, seismic anomalies were observed before and after earthquakes. Before large earthquakes, rate of AOD increases due to the pre-seismic changes before the strong earthquake, which produces gaseous molecules and therefore AOD increases. Also because of aftershocks after the earthquake there is a significant change in AOD due to gaseous molecules and dust. These behaviors suggest that there is a close relationship between earthquakes and the unusual AOD variations. Therefore the unusual AOD variations around the time of earthquakes can be introduced as an earthquake precursor.

  20. Singlet exciton fission photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jiye; Jadhav, Priya; Reusswig, Philip D; Yost, Shane R; Thompson, Nicholas J; Congreve, Daniel N; Hontz, Eric; Van Voorhis, Troy; Baldo, Marc A

    2013-06-18

    Singlet exciton fission, a process that generates two excitons from a single photon, is perhaps the most efficient of the various multiexciton-generation processes studied to date, offering the potential to increase the efficiency of solar devices. But its unique characteristic, splitting a photogenerated singlet exciton into two dark triplet states, means that the empty absorption region between the singlet and triplet excitons must be filled by adding another material that captures low-energy photons. This has required the development of specialized device architectures. In this Account, we review work to develop devices that harness the theoretical benefits of singlet exciton fission. First, we discuss singlet fission in the archetypal material, pentacene. Pentacene-based photovoltaic devices typically show high external and internal quantum efficiencies. They have enabled researchers to characterize fission, including yield and the impact of competing loss processes, within functional devices. We review in situ probes of singlet fission that modulate the photocurrent using a magnetic field. We also summarize studies of the dissociation of triplet excitons into charge at the pentacene-buckyball (C60) donor-acceptor interface. Multiple independent measurements confirm that pentacene triplet excitons can dissociate at the C60 interface despite their relatively low energy. Because triplet excitons produced by singlet fission each have no more than half the energy of the original photoexcitation, they limit the potential open circuit voltage within a solar cell. Thus, if singlet fission is to increase the overall efficiency of a solar cell and not just double the photocurrent at the cost of halving the voltage, it is necessary to also harvest photons in the absorption gap between the singlet and triplet energies of the singlet fission material. We review two device architectures that attempt this using long-wavelength materials: a three-layer structure that uses

  1. Teaching Contemporary Physics Topics Using Real-Time Data Obtained via the World Wide Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post-Zwicker, A. P.; Davis, W.; Grip, R.; McKay, M.; Pfaff, R.; Stotler, D. P.

    1999-12-01

    As a teaching tool, the World Wide Web (WWW) is unprecedented in its ability to transmit information and enhance communication between scientist and student. Just beginning to be developed are sites that actively engage the user in the learning process and provide hands-on methods of teaching contemporary topics. These topics are often not found in the classroom due to the complexity and expense of the laboratory equipment and the WWW is an ideal tool for overcoming this difficulty. This paper presents a model for using the Internet to teach high school students about plasma physics and fusion energy. Students are given access to real-time data, virtual experiments, and communication with professional scientists via email. Preliminary data indicate that student collaboration and student-led learning is encouraged when using the site in the classroom. Scientist/student mentoring is enhanced with this form of communication.

  2. Teaching Contemporary Physics Topics using Real-Time Data Obtained via the World Wide Web

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, W.; Grip, R.; McKay, M.; Pfaff, R. and Stotler, D.P.; Post-Zwicker, A.P.

    1998-12-01

    As a teaching tool, the World Wide Web (WWW) is unprecedented in its ability to transmit information and enhance communication between scientist and student. Just beginning to be developed are sites that actively engage the user in the learning process and provide hands-on methods of teaching contemporary topics. These topics are often not found in the classroom due to the complexity and expense of the laboratory equipment and the WWW is an ideal tool for overcoming this difficulty. This paper presents a model for using the Internet to teach high school students about plasma physics and fusion energy. Students are given access to real-time data, virtual experiments, and communication with professional scientists via email. Preliminary data indicate that student collaboration and student-led learning is encouraged when using the site in the classroom.

  3. Determination of use of a real time tone tracker to obtain same beam interferometry data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nandi, S.; Border, J. S.; Folkner, W. M.

    1993-01-01

    The radio metric tracking technique known as Same-Beam Interferometry (SBI) has been shown to improve orbit determination accuracy for the Magellan and Pioneer 12 orbiter. Previous efforts to explore the technique were carried out by making open loop recordings of the carrier signals from the two spacecraft and extracting their phases through post processing. This paper reports on the use of a closed loop receiver to simultaneously measure the carrier signals from two spacecraft in order to produce SBI data in near real time. The Experiment Tone Tracker is a digital closed loop receiver installed in two of NASA's Deep Space Network stations which can simultaneously extract the phase of up to eight tones. The receivers were used in late September and October of 1992 to collect Doppler and SBI data from Pioneer 12 and Magellan. The demise of the Pionner 12 on October 8th during the start-up phase of our tests precluded the collection of an extensive set of SBI data, however two passes of SBI and several arcs of single spacecraft Doppler data were recorded. The SBI data were analyzed and determined to have statistical errors consistent with error models and similar to open loop data.

  4. Determination of use of a real time tone tracker to obtain same beam interferometry data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nandi, S.; Border, J. S.; Folkner, W. M.

    1993-01-01

    The radio metric tracking technique known as Same-Beam Interferometry (SBI) has been shown to improve orbit determination accuracy for the Magellan and Pioneer 12 orbiter. Previous efforts to explore the technique were carried out by making open loop recordings of the carrier signals from the two spacecraft and extracting their phases through post processing. This paper reports on the use of a closed loop receiver to simultaneously measure the carrier signals from two spacecraft in order to produce SBI data in near real time. The Experiment Tone Tracker is a digital closed loop receiver installed in two of NASA's Deep Space Network stations which can simultaneously extract the phase of up to eight tones. The receivers were used in late September and October of 1992 to collect Doppler and SBI data from Pioneer 12 and Magellan. The demise of the Pionner 12 on October 8th during the start-up phase of our tests precluded the collection of an extensive set of SBI data, however two passes of SBI and several arcs of single spacecraft Doppler data were recorded. The SBI data were analyzed and determined to have statistical errors consistent with error models and similar to open loop data.

  5. Scaling behaviour of heartbeat intervals obtained by wavelet-based time-series analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Plamen Ch.; Rosenblum, Michael G.; Peng, C.-K.; Mietus, Joseph; Havlin, Shlomo; Stanley, H. Eugene; Goldberger, Ary L.

    1996-09-01

    BIOLOGICAL time-series analysis is used to identify hidden dynamical patterns which could yield important insights into underlying physiological mechanisms. Such analysis is complicated by the fact that biological signals are typically both highly irregular and non-stationary, that is, their statistical character changes slowly or intermittently as a result of variations in background influences1-3. Previous statistical analyses of heartbeat dynamics4-6 have identified long-range correlations and power-law scaling in the normal heartbeat, but not the phase interactions between the different frequency components of the signal. Here we introduce a new approach, based on the wavelet transform and an analytic signal approach, which can characterize non-stationary behaviour and elucidate such phase interactions. We find that, when suitably rescaled, the distributions of the variations in the beat-to-beat intervals for all healthy subjects are described by a single function stable over a wide range of timescales. However, a similar scaling function does not exist for a group with cardiopulmonary instability caused by sleep apnoea. We attribute the functional form of the scaling observed in the healthy subjects to underlying nonlinear dynamics, which seem to be essential to normal heart function. The approach introduced here should be useful in the analysis of other nonstationary biological signals.

  6. Fission xenon from extinct Pu-244 in 14,301.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drozd, R.; Hohenberg, C. M.; Ragan, D.

    1972-01-01

    Xenon extracted in step-wise heating of lunar breccia 14,301 contains a fission-like component in excess of that attributable to uranium decay during the age of the solar system. There seems to be no adequate source for this component other than Pu-244. Verification that this component is in fact due to the spontaneous fission of extinct Pu-244 comes from the derived spectrum which is similar to that observed from artificially produced Pu-244. It thus appears that Pu-244 was extant at the time lunar crustal material cooled sufficiently to arrest the thermal diffusion of xenon. Subsequent history has apparently maintained the isotopic integrity of plutonium fission xenon. Of major importance are details of the storage itself. Either the fission component is the result of in situ fission of Pu-244 and subsequent storage in 14,301 material, or the fission xenon was stored in an intermediate reservoir before incorporation into 14,301.

  7. Pregnancy rate obtained with short-term protocol for timed artificial insemination in goats.

    PubMed

    Menchaca, A; Rubianes, E

    2007-12-01

    Recent studies demonstrated that the Short-term Protocol of 5 days of progestogen treatment plus one dose of prostaglandin F(2alpha) and equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG) resulted in a close synchronized ovulation (60 h after the end of treatment approximately). In addition, oestradiol benzoate (ODB) is effective in synchronizing ovulation in goats and could be an alternative to eCG. This study was performed to determine the pregnancy rate using the Short-term Protocol comparing: (i) two different moments of timed artificial insemination (TAI) after eCG treatment (trial 1) and (ii) ODB as an alternative to eCG treatment (trial 2). In trial 1, 250 IU of eCG was given at the end of progestogen exposure, and cervical TAI with fresh semen was performed 48 h (n = 156) or 54 h (n = 168) later. In trial 2, 250 IU of eCG was given at sponge withdrawal (eCG group, n = 154) or 200 mug of ODB was given 24 h later (ODB group, n = 119). TAI was performed 54 h after the end of progestogen treatment. Pregnancy rate was determined by transrectal ultrasonography. In trial 1, the pregnancy rate for goats with TAI performed at 54 h (107/168, 63.7%) was higher than for those with TAI performed 48 h (77/156, 49.4%; p < 0.05) after sponge withdrawal. In trial 2, pregnancy rate was higher in eCG (94/154, 61.0%) than in ODB (49/119, 40.3%; p < 0.05) treated goats. In conclusion, the highest pregnancy rate was achieved using Short-term Protocol associated with eCG and TAI performed 54 h after treatment.

  8. Critical comparison of Kramers' fission width with the stationary width from the Langevin equation

    SciTech Connect

    Sadhukhan, Jhilam; Pal, Santanu

    2009-06-15

    It is shown that Kramers' fission width, originally derived for a system with constant inertia, can be extended to systems with a deformation-dependent collective inertia, which is the case for nuclear fission. The predictions of Kramers' width for systems with variable inertia are found to be in very good agreement with the stationary fission widths obtained by solving the corresponding Langevin equations.

  9. Results of observations obtained with the CERGA photoelectric astrolabe: Time and latitude - March 1, 1983-December 31, 1984

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billaud, G.; Boche, R.; Furia, M.; Meyer, C.; Mignard, F.

    1987-02-01

    This paper reports the first results of observations obtained with the French photoelectric astrolabe fitted with a periodic grid. It mainly concerns the time UTo-TA component. Latitude, too, is given. But since the prototype has no tracking device, the weights of latitude measurements are lower than those of time measurements, because of the geometric conditions of grid crossing.

  10. Potential Operating Orbits for Fission Electric Propulsion Systems Driven by the SAFE-400

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Mike; Kos, Larry; Poston, David; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Safety must be ensured during all phases of space fission system design, development, fabrication, launch, operation, and shutdown. One potential space fission system application is fission electric propulsion (FEP), in which fission energy is converted into electricity and used to power high efficiency (Isp greater than 3000s) electric thrusters. For these types of systems it is important to determine which operational scenarios ensure safety while allowing maximum mission performance and flexibility. Space fission systems are essentially nonradioactive at launch, prior to extended operation at high power. Once high power operation begins, system radiological inventory steadily increases as fission products build up. For a given fission product isotope, the maximum radiological inventory is typically achieved once the system has operated for a length of time equivalent to several half-lives. After that time, the isotope decays at the same rate it is produced, and no further inventory builds in. For an FEP mission beginning in Earth orbit, altitude and orbital lifetime increase as the propulsion system operates. Two simultaneous effects of fission propulsion system operation are thus (1) increasing fission product inventory and (2) increasing orbital lifetime. Phrased differently, as fission products build up, more time is required for the fission products to naturally convert back into non-radioactive isotopes. Simultaneously, as fission products build up, orbital lifetime increases, providing more time for the fission products to naturally convert back into non-radioactive isotopes. Operational constraints required to ensure safety can thus be quantified.

  11. A multiple parallel-plate avalanche counter for fission-fragment detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, C. Y.; Henderson, R. A.; Haight, R. C.; Lee, H. Y.; Taddeucci, T. N.; Bucher, B.; Chyzh, A.; Devlin, M.; Fotiades, N.; Kwan, E.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Perdue, B. A.; Ullmann, J. L.

    2015-09-01

    A new low-mass multiple gas-filled parallel-plate avalanche counter for the fission-fragment detection has been developed to mark the fission occurrence in measurements of the prompt fission neutron energy spectrum as a function of incident neutron energy. It was used successfully for the neutron-induced fission of 235U and 239Pu with a total mass near 100 mg each and the spontaneous fission of 252Cf. Both the incident neutron energy and the prompt fission neutron energy are measured by using the time-of-flight method. The design and performance of this avalanche counter are described.

  12. Projectile-breakup-induced fission-fragment angular distributions in the 6Li+232Th reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, A.; Santra, S.; Chattopadhyay, D.; Kundu, A.; Ramachandran, K.; Tripathi, R.; Roy, B. J.; Nag, T. N.; Sawant, Y.; Sarkar, D.; Nayak, B. K.; Saxena, A.; Kailas, S.

    2017-08-01

    Background: Experimental anisotropy in fission-fragment (FF) angular distribution in reactions involving weakly bound stable projectiles with actinide targets are enhanced compared to statistical saddle-point model (SSPM) predictions. Contributions from breakup- or transfer-induced fission to total fission are cited as possible reasons for such enhancement. Purpose: To identify the breakup- or transfer-induced fission channels in 6Li+232Th reaction and to investigate their effects on FF angular anisotropy. Methods: The FF angular distributions have been measured exclusively at three beam energies (28, 32, and 36 MeV) around the Coulomb barrier in coincidence with projectile breakup fragments like α , d , and p using Si strip detectors. The angular anisotropy obtained for different exclusive breakup- or transfer-induced fission channels are compared with that for total fission. SSPM and pre-equilibrium fission models have been employed to obtain theoretical FF angular anisotropy. Results: Angular anisotropy of the fission fragments produced by different transfer- or breakup-induced fission reactions have been obtained separately in the rest frame of respective recoiling nuclei. Some of these anisotropies were found to be stronger than those of the inclusive fission. Overall angular distributions of transfer or breakup fission, integrated over all possible recoil angles with weight factor proportional to differential cross section of the complementary breakup fragment emitted in coincidence in all possible directions, were obtained. It was observed that the overall FF angular anisotropy for each of these fission channels is less than or equal to the anisotropy of total fission at all the measured energies. Assuming isotropic out-of-plane correlations between the fission fragments and light-charged particles, the overall breakup- or transfer-induced fission fragment angular distributions do not explain the observed enhancement in FF anisotropy of total fission. Pre

  13. Monte Carlo Models for the Production of beta-delayed Gamma Rays Following Fission of Special Nuclear Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Pruet, J; Prussin, S; Descalle, M; Hall, J

    2004-02-03

    A Monte Carlo method for the estimation of {beta}-delayed {gamma}-ray spectra following fission is described that can accommodate an arbitrary time-dependent fission rate and photon collection history. The method invokes direct sampling of the independent fission yield distributions of the fissioning system, the branching ratios for decay of individual fission products and the spectral distributions for photon emission for each decay mode. Though computationally intensive, the method can provide a detailed estimate of the spectrum that would be recorded by an arbitrary spectrometer, and can prove useful in assessing the quality of evaluated data libraries, for identifying gaps in these libraries, etc. The method is illustrated by a first comparison of calculated and experimental spectra from decay of short-lived fission products following the reactions {sup 235}U(n{sub th}, f) and {sup 239}Pu(n{sub th}, f). For general purpose transport calculations, where detailed consideration of the large number of individual {gamma}-ray transitions in a spectrum may be unnecessary, it is shown that an accurate and simple parameterization of a {gamma}-ray source function can be obtained. These parametrizations should provide high-quality average spectral distributions that should prove useful in calculations describing photons escaping from thick attenuating media.

  14. Fission fragment excited laser system

    DOEpatents

    McArthur, David A.; Tollefsrud, Philip B.

    1976-01-01

    A laser system and method for exciting lasing action in a molecular gas lasing medium which includes cooling the lasing medium to a temperature below about 150 K and injecting fission fragments through the lasing medium so as to preferentially excite low lying vibrational levels of the medium and to cause population inversions therein. The cooled gas lasing medium should have a mass areal density of about 5 .times. 10.sup.-.sup.3 grams/square centimeter, relaxation times of greater than 50 microseconds, and a broad range of excitable vibrational levels which are excitable by molecular collisions.

  15. Rupturing the hemi-fission intermediate in membrane fission under tension: Reaction coordinates, kinetic pathways, and free-energy barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guojie; Müller, Marcus

    2017-08-01

    Membrane fission is a fundamental process in cells, involved inter alia in endocytosis, intracellular trafficking, and virus infection. Its underlying molecular mechanism, however, is only incompletely understood. Recently, experiments and computer simulation studies have revealed that dynamin-mediated membrane fission is a two-step process that proceeds via a metastable hemi-fission intermediate (or wormlike micelle) formed by dynamin's constriction. Importantly, this hemi-fission intermediate is remarkably metastable, i.e., its subsequent rupture that completes the fission process does not occur spontaneously but requires additional, external effects, e.g., dynamin's (unknown) conformational changes or membrane tension. Using simulations of a coarse-grained, implicit-solvent model of lipid membranes, we investigate the molecular mechanism of rupturing the hemi-fission intermediate, such as its pathway, the concomitant transition states, and barriers, as well as the role of membrane tension. The membrane tension is controlled by the chemical potential of the lipids, and the free-energy landscape as a function of two reaction coordinates is obtained by grand canonical Wang-Landau sampling. Our results show that, in the course of rupturing, the hemi-fission intermediate undergoes a "thinning → local pinching → rupture/fission" pathway, with a bottle-neck-shaped cylindrical micelle as a transition state. Although an increase of membrane tension facilitates the fission process by reducing the corresponding free-energy barrier, for biologically relevant tensions, the free-energy barriers still significantly exceed the thermal energy scale kBT.

  16. Rupturing the hemi-fission intermediate in membrane fission under tension: Reaction coordinates, kinetic pathways, and free-energy barriers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guojie; Müller, Marcus

    2017-08-14

    Membrane fission is a fundamental process in cells, involved inter alia in endocytosis, intracellular trafficking, and virus infection. Its underlying molecular mechanism, however, is only incompletely understood. Recently, experiments and computer simulation studies have revealed that dynamin-mediated membrane fission is a two-step process that proceeds via a metastable hemi-fission intermediate (or wormlike micelle) formed by dynamin's constriction. Importantly, this hemi-fission intermediate is remarkably metastable, i.e., its subsequent rupture that completes the fission process does not occur spontaneously but requires additional, external effects, e.g., dynamin's (unknown) conformational changes or membrane tension. Using simulations of a coarse-grained, implicit-solvent model of lipid membranes, we investigate the molecular mechanism of rupturing the hemi-fission intermediate, such as its pathway, the concomitant transition states, and barriers, as well as the role of membrane tension. The membrane tension is controlled by the chemical potential of the lipids, and the free-energy landscape as a function of two reaction coordinates is obtained by grand canonical Wang-Landau sampling. Our results show that, in the course of rupturing, the hemi-fission intermediate undergoes a "thinning → local pinching → rupture/fission" pathway, with a bottle-neck-shaped cylindrical micelle as a transition state. Although an increase of membrane tension facilitates the fission process by reducing the corresponding free-energy barrier, for biologically relevant tensions, the free-energy barriers still significantly exceed the thermal energy scale kBT.

  17. Thermal history of the Sabero Coalfield (Southern Cantabrian Zone, NW Spain) as revealed by apatite fission track analyses from tonstein horizons: implications for timing of coalification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botor, Dariusz; Anczkiewicz, Aneta A.

    2015-10-01

    Apatite fission track (AFT) central ages from Carboniferous (Stephanian) tonsteins of the Sabero Coalfield, NW Spain, range from 140.8 ± 7.5 to 65.8 ± 8.1 Ma (Cretaceous), with mean c-axis projected track length values ranging from 12.5 to 13.4 μm. Mean random vitrinite reflectance ( R r) of these samples ranges from 0.91 to 1.20 %, which can be translated into maximum palaeotemperatures of ca. 130 to 180 °C. All analysed samples experienced substantial post-depositional annealing. The considerably younger AFT ages compared to the depositional ages of the samples and R r data indicate the certainty of the occurrence of at least one heating event after the deposition of strata. The unimodal track length distributions, the relatively short mean track length, and the rather low standard deviation (SD) (1.0-1.6 μm) indicate a relatively simple thermal history that could be related to the post-Late Variscan heating event followed by prolonged residence in the apatite partial annealing zone (APAZ). Geological data combined with thermal models of AFT data indicate that Stephanian strata reached the maximum palaeotemperatures in the Permian period, which was therefore the major time of the coalification processes. The Permian magmatic activity was responsible for a high heat flow, which, with the added effect of sedimentary burial, could account for the resetting of the AFT system. It appears that the fault-related hydrothermal activity could have redistributed heat in areas of significant subsidence. Cooling occurred in the Triassic-Cretaceous times after a high heat flow Permian regime. A post-Permian maturation of the Stephanian organic matter is not very likely, since there is no evidence of a high Mesozoic burial that was sufficient to cause a significant increase in the palaeotemperatures. Finally, exhumation and associated erosion rates may possibly have been faster in the Tertiary, causing the present exposure of the studied rocks.

  18. Modernizing the Fission Basis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonchev, Anton; Henderson, Roger; Schunck, Nicolas; Sroyer, Mark; Vogt, Ramona

    2016-09-01

    In 1939, Niels Bohr and John Wheeler formulated a theory of neutron-induced nuclear fission based on the hypothesis of the compound nucleus. Their theory, the so-called ``Bohr hypothesis,'' is still at the heart of every theoretical fission model today and states that the decay of a compound nucleus for a given excitation energy, spin, and parity is independent of its formation. We propose the first experiment to validate to 1-2% absolute uncertainties the practical consequences of the Bohr hypothesis during induced nuclear fission. We will compare the fission product yields (FPYs) of the same 240Pu compound nucleus produced via two different reactions (i) n+239Pu and (ii) γ+240 Pu. These high-precision FPYs measurements will be extremely beneficial for our fundamental understanding of the nuclear fission process and nuclear reactions from first principles. This work was performed under the auspices of US DOE by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. Funding was provided via the LDRD-ERD-069 project.

  19. FY04&05 LDRD Final Report Fission Fragment Sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Ebbinghaus, B; Trelenberg, T; Meier, T; Felter, T; Sturgeon, J; Kuboda, A; Wolfer, B

    2006-02-22

    Fission fragments born within the first 7 {micro}m of the surface of U metal can eject a thousand or more atoms per fission event. Existing data in the literature show that the sputtering yield ranges from 10 to 10,000 atoms per fission event near the surface, but nothing definitive is known about the energy of the sputtered clusters. Experimental packages were constructed allowing the neutron irradiation of natural uranium foils to investigate the amount of material removed per fission event and the kinetic energy distribution of the sputtered atoms. Samples were irradiated but were never analyzed after irradiation. Similar experiments were attempted in a non-radioactive environment using accelerator driven ions in place of fission induced fragments. These experiments showed that tracks produced parallel to the surface (and not perpendicular to the surface) are the primary source of the resulting particulate ejecta. Modeling studies were conducted in parallel with the experimental work. Because the reactor irradiation experiments were not analyzed, data on the energy of the resulting particulate ejecta was not obtained. However, some data was found in the literature on self sputtering of {sup 252}Cf that was used to estimate the velocity and hence the energy of the ejected particulates. Modeling of the data in the literature showed that the energy of the ejecta was much lower than had been anticipated. A mechanism to understand the nature of the ejecta was pursued. Initially it was proposed that the fission fragment imparts its momenta on the electrons which then impart their momenta on the nuclei. Once the nuclei are in motion, the particulate ejecta would result. This initial model was wrong. The error was in the assumption that the secondary electrons impart their momenta directly on the nuclei. Modeling and theoretical considerations showed that the secondary electrons scatter many times before imparting all their momenta. As a result, their energy transfer is

  20. Timing Results for the Binary Millisecond Pulsar J1640+2224 Obtained on the RT-64 Radio Telescope in Kalyazin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potapov, V. A.; Ilyasov, Yu. P.; Oreshko, V. V.; Rodin, A. E.

    2003-04-01

    We present the timing results for the binary millisecond pulsar J1640+2224 obtained with the RT-64 radio telescope (TNA-1500, Special Design Bureau, Moscow Power Engineering Institute) at the Kalyazin Observatory (Astrospace Center of the Lebedev Institute of Physics) in 1997-2002. We obtained Keplerian and post-Keplerian parameters of the binary system, which allowed us to estimate an upper limit for the energy density of the stochastic gravitational-wave background radiation at very low frequencies.

  1. Assessing zircon fission track analysis as a paleotemperature tool for sedimentary basins

    SciTech Connect

    Green, P.F.; Hegarty, K.A.; Duddy, I.R. ); Foland, S.A. )

    1996-01-01

    Apatite Fission Track Analysis (AFTA) is well established for investigating thermal histories in sedimentary basins, in the time-temperature realm relevant to generation of oil and gas. An advantage of AFTA is the ability to provide direct determination of the timing, as well as the magnitude of maximum paleotemperatures. This timing information often cannot be obtained from other methods. Zircon is also suitable for fission track analysis, being a common uranium-bearing detrital mineral, and fission track ages can readily be determined. However for many years, the precise thermal stability of fission tracks in zircon has been uncertain. Estimates of the temperature required to remove or [open quote]anneal[close quote] tracks over timescales of the order of 1 Ma vary from 175[degrees]C or less, to 250[degrees]C or above. We have investigated the thermal stability of fission tracks in zircon in geological conditions by comparing ZFTA data with Vitrinite Reflectance (VR) data from sedimentary sequences which have been subjected to profound geological heating. Onset of significant fission track age reduction occurs at VR values of [approximately]6%, while total annealing is equivalent to [approximately]8% R[sub o]max. These results are consistent with extrapolation of recently published laboratory-based kinetic models which suggest that tracks in zircon should be stable to temperatures in excess of 300[degrees]C for 1 to 10 Me. Such paleotemperatures are outside the range normally encountered in hydrocarbon exploration provinces, although ZFTA has found practical application in a number of areas where improved knowledge of the thermal stability has provided new insights.

  2. Dissipative effects in fission investigated in complete kinematics measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Sánchez, J. L.; Benlliure, J.; Taïeb, J.; Ramos, D.; Álvarez-Pol, H.; Audouin, L.; Ayyad, Y.; Bélier, G.; Boutoux, G.; Casarejos, E.; Chatillon, A.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Gorbinet, T.; Heinz, A.; Kelić-Heil, A.; Laurent, B.; Martin, J.-F.; Paradela, C.; Pellereau, E.; Pietras, B.; Rodríguez-Tajes, C.; Rossi, D. M.; Simon, H.; Vargas, J.; Voss, B.

    2017-09-01

    The study of dissipative effects in fission has been carried out with fusion-fission reactions by using a limited number of observables, such as the fission probabilities, the mass distribution of the fission fragments, or the neutron multiplicities. However, the large angular momenta gained by the compound nucleus in this kind of reaction could affect the conclusions drawn from such experiments. In this work, we propose to investigate the fission dynamics by the use of spallation reactions on 208Pb because the fissioning systems are produced with low angular momentum, small deformations, and high excitation energies, enhancing the dissipative effects. The complete kinematics measurements of the fission fragments and light-charged particles were performed by the use of the SOFIA setup combined with the inverse kinematics technique, allowing us for the first time a full indentification in atomic and mass number of the two fission fragments. These measurements permit us to define new fission observables for the investigation of the temperature and deformation dependencies of the dissipation parameter.

  3. The Nature of Singlet Exciton Fission in Carotenoid Aggregates

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Singlet exciton fission allows the fast and efficient generation of two spin triplet states from one photoexcited singlet. It has the potential to improve organic photovoltaics, enabling efficient coupling to the blue to ultraviolet region of the solar spectrum to capture the energy generally lost as waste heat. However, many questions remain about the underlying fission mechanism. The relation between intermolecular geometry and singlet fission rate and yield is poorly understood and remains one of the most significant barriers to the design of new singlet fission sensitizers. Here we explore the structure–property relationship and examine the mechanism of singlet fission in aggregates of astaxanthin, a small polyene. We isolate five distinct supramolecular structures of astaxanthin generated through self-assembly in solution. Each is capable of undergoing intermolecular singlet fission, with rates of triplet generation and annihilation that can be correlated with intermolecular coupling strength. In contrast with the conventional model of singlet fission in linear molecules, we demonstrate that no intermediate states are involved in the triplet formation: instead, singlet fission occurs directly from the initial 1Bu photoexcited state on ultrafast time scales. This result demands a re-evaluation of current theories of polyene photophysics and highlights the robustness of carotenoid singlet fission. PMID:25825939

  4. The nature of singlet exciton fission in carotenoid aggregates.

    PubMed

    Musser, Andrew J; Maiuri, Margherita; Brida, Daniele; Cerullo, Giulio; Friend, Richard H; Clark, Jenny

    2015-04-22

    Singlet exciton fission allows the fast and efficient generation of two spin triplet states from one photoexcited singlet. It has the potential to improve organic photovoltaics, enabling efficient coupling to the blue to ultraviolet region of the solar spectrum to capture the energy generally lost as waste heat. However, many questions remain about the underlying fission mechanism. The relation between intermolecular geometry and singlet fission rate and yield is poorly understood and remains one of the most significant barriers to the design of new singlet fission sensitizers. Here we explore the structure-property relationship and examine the mechanism of singlet fission in aggregates of astaxanthin, a small polyene. We isolate five distinct supramolecular structures of astaxanthin generated through self-assembly in solution. Each is capable of undergoing intermolecular singlet fission, with rates of triplet generation and annihilation that can be correlated with intermolecular coupling strength. In contrast with the conventional model of singlet fission in linear molecules, we demonstrate that no intermediate states are involved in the triplet formation: instead, singlet fission occurs directly from the initial 1B(u) photoexcited state on ultrafast time scales. This result demands a re-evaluation of current theories of polyene photophysics and highlights the robustness of carotenoid singlet fission.

  5. Increased Exploration Capacity Promotes Group Fission in Gregarious Foraging Herbivores

    PubMed Central

    Lardy, Sophie; Fortin, Daniel; Pays, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Many gregarious species display rapid fission-fusion dynamics with individuals frequently leaving their groups to reunite or to form new ones soon after. The adaptive value of such ephemeral associations might reflect a frequent tilt in the balance between the costs and benefits of maintaining group cohesion. The lack of information on the short-term advantages of group fission, however, hampers our understanding of group dynamics. We investigated the effect of group fission on area-restricted search, a search tactic that is commonly used when food distribution is spatially autocorrelated. Specifically, we determine if roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) improve key aspects of their extensive search mode immediately after fission. We found that groups indeed moved faster and farther over time immediately after than before fission. This gain was highest for the smallest group that resulted from fission, which was more likely to include the fission’s initiator. Sex of group members further mediated the immediate gain in search capacity, as post-fission groups moved away at farthest rate when they were only comprised of males. Our study suggests that social conflicts during the extensive search mode can promote group fission and, as such, can be a key determinant of group fission-fusion dynamics that are commonly observed in gregarious herbivores. PMID:27907143

  6. Cross section for 246Cm subbarrier fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, A. A.; Bergman, A. A.; Berlev, A. I.; Koptelov, E. A.; Samylin, B. F.; Trufanov, A. M.; Fursov, B. I.; Shorin, V. S.

    2010-10-01

    The cross section for 246Cm fission induced by neutrons of energy in the range 0.1 eV-20 keV was measured by the neutron lead slowing-down spectrometer (LSDS-100) of the Institute for Nuclear Research (INR, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow). The parameters of the resonance area and of the fission width were evaluated for several low-lying s-wave neutron resonances. The parameters of the intermediate structure in the cross section for the subbarrier fusion of 246Cm nuclei were found. The results obtained in this way were compared with available experimental data and with recommended evaluated data.

  7. In-beam Fission Study at JAEA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishio, Katsuhisa

    2013-12-01

    Fission fragment mass distributions were measured in heavy-ion induced fissions using 238U target nucleus. The measured mass distributions changed drastically with incident energy. The results are explained by a change of the ratio between fusion and quasifission with nuclear orientation. A calculation based on a fluctuation dissipation model reproduced the mass distributions and their incident energy dependence. Fusion probability was determined in the analysis. Evaporation residue cross sections were calculated with a statistical model in the reactions of 30Si + 238U and 34S + 238U using the obtained fusion probability in the entrance channel. The results agree with the measured cross sections for seaborgium and hassium isotopes.

  8. Fission Product Library and Resource

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, J. T.; Padgett, S.

    2016-09-29

    Fission product yields can be extracted from an irradiated sample by performing gamma ray spectroscopy on the whole sample post irradiation. There are several pitfalls to avoid when trying to determine a specific isotope's fission product yield.

  9. Landau-Zener effect in fission

    SciTech Connect

    Mirea, M.; Tassan-Got, L.; Stephan, C.; Bacri, C. O.; Bobulescu, R. C.

    2007-12-15

    A model that takes into account the Landau-Zener promotion mechanism during fission was developed recently. The structures observed in the subthreshold neutron-induced fission of {sup 232}Th are investigated employing this model. Theoretical single-particle excitations of a phenomenological two-humped barrier are determined by solving a system of coupled differential equations for the motion along the optimal fission path. A rather good agreement with experimental data is obtained using a small number of independent parameters. It is predicted that the structure at 1.4 and 1.6 MeV is mainly dominated by a spin 3/2 partial cross section with a small admixture of spin 1/2, while the structure at 1.7 MeV is given by a large partial cross section of spin 5/2.

  10. Process for treating fission waste

    DOEpatents

    Rohrmann, Charles A.; Wick, Oswald J.

    1983-01-01

    A method is described for the treatment of fission waste. A glass forming agent, a metal oxide, and a reducing agent are mixed with the fission waste and the mixture is heated. After melting, the mixture separates into a glass phase and a metal phase. The glass phase may be used to safely store the fission waste, while the metal phase contains noble metals recovered from the fission waste.

  11. Accurate measurement of a fission chamber efficiency using the prompt fission neutron method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathieu, Ludovic; Aïche, Mourad; Kessedjian, Grégoire; Czajkowski, Serge; Jurado, Beatriz; Marini, Paola; Tsekhanovich, Igor

    2017-09-01

    Fission Chambers (FC) are often used to determine fission cross sections and to measure the neutron beam flux via standard neutron-induced fission reactions. Thus, the fission detection efficiency is a key parameter. Several methods exist to determine this efficiency, with a final accuracy not better than 1%. The detection of prompt fission neutrons allows events related to the fission process to be tagged, and enables the efficiency to be inferred with accuracy of the order of few 0.1%. This method is very robust since it is independent in first order to several factors like geometry, used materials or neutron contour selection. To obtain high accuracy, few corrections have still to be taken into account. In particular, the neutron detectors have to cover several detection angles. In addition, the background contribution of neutrons from cosmic rays or from an accelerator has to be removed. Several experiments based on the use of a 252Cf source are presented to describe all these points.

  12. Uncertainties in nuclear fission data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talou, Patrick; Kawano, Toshihiko; Chadwick, Mark B.; Neudecker, Denise; Rising, Michael E.

    2015-03-01

    We review the current status of our knowledge of nuclear fission data, and quantify uncertainties related to each fission observable whenever possible. We also discuss the roles that theory and experiment play in reducing those uncertainties, contributing to the improvement of our fundamental understanding of the nuclear fission process as well as of evaluated nuclear data libraries used in nuclear applications.

  13. Student Experiments in Spontaneous Fission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becchetti, F. D.; Ying, J. S.

    1981-01-01

    Advanced undergraduate experiments utilizing a commercially available, thin spontaneous fission source are described, including studies of the energy and mass distribution of the fission fragments and their energy and angular correlation. The experiments provide a useful introduction to fission, nuclear mass equations, heavy-ion physics, and…

  14. Student Experiments in Spontaneous Fission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becchetti, F. D.; Ying, J. S.

    1981-01-01

    Advanced undergraduate experiments utilizing a commercially available, thin spontaneous fission source are described, including studies of the energy and mass distribution of the fission fragments and their energy and angular correlation. The experiments provide a useful introduction to fission, nuclear mass equations, heavy-ion physics, and…

  15. Deployment of a three-dimensional array of Micro-Pocket Fission Detector triads (MPFD3) for real-time, in-core neutron flux measurements in the Kansas State University TRIGA Mark-II Nuclear Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohmes, Martin Francis

    A Micro-Pocket Fission Detector (MPFD) is a miniaturized type of fission chamber developed for use inside a nuclear reactor. Their unique design allows them to be located between or even inside fuel pins while being built from materials which give them an operational lifetime comparable to or exceeding the life of the fuel. While other types of neutron detectors have been made for use inside a nuclear reactor, the MPFD is the first neutron detector which can survive sustained use inside a nuclear reactor while providing a real-time measurement of the neutron flux. This dissertation covers the deployment of MPFDs as a large three-dimensional array inside the Kansas State University TRIGA Mark-II Nuclear Reactor for real-time neutron flux measurements. This entails advancements in the design, construction, and packaging of the Micro-Pocket Fission Detector Triads with incorporated Thermocouple, or MPFD3-T. Specialized electronics and software also had to be designed and built in order to make a functional system capable of collecting real-time data from up to 60 MPFD3-Ts, or 180 individual MPFDs and 60 thermocouples. Design of the electronics required the development of detailed simulations and analysis for determining the theoretical response of the detectors and determination of their size. The results of this research shows that MPFDs can operate for extended times inside a nuclear reactor and can be utilized toward the use as distributed neutron detector arrays for advanced reactor control systems and power mapping. These functions are critical for continued gains in efficiency of nuclear power reactors while also improving safety through relatively inexpensive redundancy.

  16. Pairing-induced speedup of nuclear spontaneous fission

    SciTech Connect

    Sadhukhan, Jhilam; Dobaczewski, J.; Nazarewicz, W.; Sheikh, J. A.; Baran, A.

    2014-12-22

    Collective inertia is strongly influenced at the level crossing at which the quantum system changes its microscopic configuration diabatically. Pairing correlations tend to make the large-amplitude nuclear collective motion more adiabatic by reducing the effect of these configuration changes. Competition between pairing and level crossing is thus expected to have a profound impact on spontaneous fission lifetimes. To elucidate the role of nucleonic pairing on spontaneous fission, we study the dynamic fission trajectories of 264Fm and 240Pu using the state-of-the-art self-consistent framework. We employ the superfluid nuclear density functional theory with the Skyrme energy density functional SkM* and a density-dependent pairing interaction. Along with shape variables, proton and neutron pairing correlations are taken as collective coordinates. The collective inertia tensor is calculated within the nonperturbative cranking approximation. The fission paths are obtained by using the least action principle in a four-dimensional collective space of shape and pairing coordinates. Pairing correlations are enhanced along the minimum-action fission path. For the symmetric fission of 264Fm, where the effect of triaxiality on the fission barrier is large, the geometry of the fission pathway in the space of the shape degrees of freedom is weakly impacted by pairing. This is not the case for 240Pu, where pairing fluctuations restore the axial symmetry of the dynamic fission trajectory. The minimum-action fission path is strongly impacted by nucleonic pairing. In some cases, the dynamical coupling between shape and pairing degrees of freedom can lead to a dramatic departure from the static picture. As a result, in the dynamical description of nuclear fission, particle-particle correlations should be considered on the same footing as those associated with shape degrees of freedom.

  17. Pairing-induced speedup of nuclear spontaneous fission

    DOE PAGES

    Sadhukhan, Jhilam; Dobaczewski, J.; Nazarewicz, W.; ...

    2014-12-22

    Collective inertia is strongly influenced at the level crossing at which the quantum system changes its microscopic configuration diabatically. Pairing correlations tend to make the large-amplitude nuclear collective motion more adiabatic by reducing the effect of these configuration changes. Competition between pairing and level crossing is thus expected to have a profound impact on spontaneous fission lifetimes. To elucidate the role of nucleonic pairing on spontaneous fission, we study the dynamic fission trajectories of 264Fm and 240Pu using the state-of-the-art self-consistent framework. We employ the superfluid nuclear density functional theory with the Skyrme energy density functional SkM* and a density-dependentmore » pairing interaction. Along with shape variables, proton and neutron pairing correlations are taken as collective coordinates. The collective inertia tensor is calculated within the nonperturbative cranking approximation. The fission paths are obtained by using the least action principle in a four-dimensional collective space of shape and pairing coordinates. Pairing correlations are enhanced along the minimum-action fission path. For the symmetric fission of 264Fm, where the effect of triaxiality on the fission barrier is large, the geometry of the fission pathway in the space of the shape degrees of freedom is weakly impacted by pairing. This is not the case for 240Pu, where pairing fluctuations restore the axial symmetry of the dynamic fission trajectory. The minimum-action fission path is strongly impacted by nucleonic pairing. In some cases, the dynamical coupling between shape and pairing degrees of freedom can lead to a dramatic departure from the static picture. As a result, in the dynamical description of nuclear fission, particle-particle correlations should be considered on the same footing as those associated with shape degrees of freedom.« less

  18. Fission-Track Dating of Bed I, Olduvai Gorge.

    PubMed

    Fleischer, R L; Price, P B; Walker, R M; Leakey, L S

    1965-04-02

    The discoveries of a series of hominid remains in the Olduvai Gorge, Tanganyika, has focused attention upon the age of the deposits of Bed 1, in which both Zinjanthropus and Homo habilis were found. Because the age of 1.75 million years, as determined by the radioactive decay of potassium and argon, has been questioned several times, a fission-track age was measured for the pumice from Bed 1. The result is 2.03 +/- 0.28 million years, in good agreement with the result obtained by the potassium-argon decay method.

  19. Fission neutron spectra measurements at LANSCE - status and plans

    SciTech Connect

    Haight, Robert C; Noda, Shusaku; Nelson, Ronald O; O' Donnell, John M; Devlin, Matt; Chatillon, Audrey; Granier, Thierry; Taieb, Julien; Laurent, Benoit; Belier, Gilbert; Becker, John A; Wu, Ching - Yen

    2009-01-01

    A program to measure fission neutron spectra from neutron-induced fission of actinides is underway at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) in a collaboration among the CEA laboratory at Bruyeres-le-Chatel, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory. The spallation source of fast neutrons at LANSCE is used to provide incident neutron energies from less than 1 MeV to 100 MeV or higher. The fission events take place in a gas-ionization fission chamber, and the time of flight from the neutron source to that chamber gives the energy of the incident neutron. Outgoing neutrons are detected by an array of organic liquid scintillator neutron detectors, and their energies are deduced from the time of flight from the fission chamber to the neutron detector. Measurements have been made of the fission neutrons from fission of {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 237}Np and {sup 239}Pu. The range of outgoing energies measured so far is from 1 MeV to approximately 8 MeV. These partial spectra and average fission neutron energies are compared with evaluated data and with models of fission neutron emission. Results to date will be presented and a discussion of uncertainties will be given in this presentation. Future plans are to make significant improvements in the fission chambers, neutron detectors, signal processing, data acquisition and the experimental environment to provide high fidelity data including mea urements of fission neutrons below 1 MeV and improvements in the data above 8 MeV.

  20. Angular momentum effects in multimodal fission of {sup 226}Th

    SciTech Connect

    Chubarian, G.G.; Hurst, B.J.; OKelly, D.; Schmitt, R.P.; Itkis, M.G.; Kondratiev, N.A.; Kozulin, E.M.; Oganessian, Y.T.; Pashkevich, V.V.; Pokrovsky, I.V.; Salamatin, V.S.; Rusanov, A.Y.; Calabretta, L.; Maiolino, C.; Lukashin, K.; Agodi, C.; Bellia, G.; Hanappe, F.; Liatard, E.; Huck, A.; Stuttge, L.

    1998-12-01

    The {gamma}-rays from the multimodal fission of the {sup 226}Th formed in {sup 18}O+{sup 208}Pb was investigated at the near- and sub-barrier energies. The corresponding excitation energies at the saddle point, E{sub sp}{sup {asterisk}}, ranged from 23 to 26 MeV. The average {gamma}-ray multiplicities and relative {gamma}-ray energies as a function of the mass of the fission fragments exhibits a complex structure and strong variations. Such strong variations have never been previously observed in heavy ion-induced fusion-fission reactions. Obtained results may be explained with the influence of shell effects on the properties of the fission fragments. Present work is the one in series of investigation of the multimodal fission phenomena in At-Th region. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  1. Angular momentum effects in multimodal fission of 226Th

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubarian, G. G.; Hurst, B. J.; O'Kelly, D.; Schmitt, R. P.; Itkis, M. G.; Kondratiev, N. A.; Kozulin, E. M.; Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Pashkevich, V. V.; Pokrovsky, I. V.; Salamatin, V. S.; Rusanov, A. Ya.; Calabretta, L.; Maiolino, C.; Lukashin, K.; Agodi, C.; Bellia, G.; Hanappe, F.; Liatard, E.; Huck, A.; Stuttgé, L.

    1998-12-01

    The γ-rays from the multimodal fission of the 226Th formed in 18O+208Pb was investigated at the near- and sub-barrier energies. The corresponding excitation energies at the saddle point, Esp*, ranged from 23 to 26 MeV. The average γ-ray multiplicities and relative γ-ray energies as a function of the mass of the fission fragments exhibits a complex structure and strong variations. Such strong variations have never been previously observed in heavy ion-induced fusion-fission reactions. Obtained results may be explained with the influence of shell effects on the properties of the fission fragments. Present work is the one in series of investigation of the multimodal fission phenomena in At-Th region.

  2. Methods to Collect, Compile, and Analyze Observed Short-lived Fission Product Gamma Data

    SciTech Connect

    Finn, Erin C.; Metz, Lori A.; Payne, Rosara F.; Friese, Judah I.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; Pierson, Bruce D.; Ellis, Tere A.

    2011-09-29

    A unique set of fission product gamma spectra was collected at short times (4 minutes to 1 week) on various fissionable materials. Gamma spectra were collected from the neutron-induced fission of uranium, neptunium, and plutonium isotopes at thermal, epithermal, fission spectrum, and 14-MeV neutron energies. This report describes the experimental methods used to produce and collect the gamma data, defines the experimental parameters for each method, and demonstrates the consistency of the measurements.

  3. A fission gas release correlation for uranium nitride fuel pins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, M. B.; Davison, H. W.

    1973-01-01

    A model was developed to predict fission gas releases from UN fuel pins clad with various materials. The model was correlated with total release data obtained by different experimentors, over a range of fuel temperatures primarily between 1250 and 1660 K, and fuel burnups up to 4.6 percent. In the model, fission gas is transported by diffusion mechanisms to the grain boundaries where the volume grows and eventually interconnects with the outside surface of the fuel. The within grain diffusion coefficients are found from fission gas release rate data obtained using a sweep gas facility.

  4. Quantum Brachistochrone Curves as Geodesics: Obtaining Accurate Minimum-Time Protocols for the Control of Quantum Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoting; Allegra, Michele; Jacobs, Kurt; Lloyd, Seth; Lupo, Cosmo; Mohseni, Masoud

    2015-05-01

    Most methods of optimal control cannot obtain accurate time-optimal protocols. The quantum brachistochrone equation is an exception, and has the potential to provide accurate time-optimal protocols for a wide range of quantum control problems. So far, this potential has not been realized, however, due to the inadequacy of conventional numerical methods to solve it. Here we show that the quantum brachistochrone problem can be recast as that of finding geodesic paths in the space of unitary operators. We expect this brachistochrone-geodesic connection to have broad applications, as it opens up minimal-time control to the tools of geometry. As one such application, we use it to obtain a fast numerical method to solve the brachistochrone problem, and apply this method to two examples demonstrating its power.

  5. A new analytical method for the classification of time-location data obtained from the global positioning system (GPS).

    PubMed

    Kim, Taehyun; Lee, Kiyoung; Yang, Wonho; Yu, Seung Do

    2012-08-01

    Although the global positioning system (GPS) has been suggested as an alternative way to determine time-location patterns, its use has been limited. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a new analytical method of classifying time-location data obtained by GPS. A field technician carried a GPS device while simulating various scripted activities and recorded all movements by the second in an activity diary. The GPS device recorded geological data once every 15 s. The daily monitoring was repeated 18 times. The time-location data obtained by the GPS were compared with the activity diary to determine selection criteria for the classification of the GPS data. The GPS data were classified into four microenvironments (residential indoors, other indoors, transit, and walking outdoors); the selection criteria used were used number of satellites (used-NSAT), speed, and distance from residence. The GPS data were classified as indoors when the used-NSAT was below 9. Data classified as indoors were further classified as residential indoors when the distance from the residence was less than 40 m; otherwise, they were classified as other indoors. Data classified as outdoors were further classified as being in transit when the speed exceeded 2.5 m s(-1); otherwise, they were classified as walking outdoors. The average simple percentage agreement between the time-location classifications and the activity diary was 84.3 ± 12.4%, and the kappa coefficient was 0.71. The average differences between the time diary and the GPS results were 1.6 ± 2.3 h for the time spent in residential indoors, 0.9 ± 1.7 h for the time spent in other indoors, 0.4 ± 0.4 h for the time spent in transit, and 0.8 ± 0.5 h for the time spent walking outdoors. This method can be used to determine time-activity patterns in exposure-science studies.

  6. Cross correlation method application to prompt fission neutron investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeynalova, O. V.; Zeynalov, Sh.; Nazarenko, M. A.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Oberstedt, S.

    2012-10-01

    Do The prompt neutron emission in spontaneous fission of 252Cf has been investigated applying cross correlation method and digital signal processing algorithms. A new mathematical approach for neutron/gamma pulse shape separation was developed and implemented for prompt fission neutron (PFN) time-of-flight measurement. The main goal was development of automated data analysis algorithms and procedures for data analysis with minimum human intervention. Experimental data was taken with a twin Frisch-grid ionization chamber and a NE213-equivalent neutron detector in an experimental setup similar to well work of C. Budtz-Jorgensen and H.-H. Knitter [1]. About 2*107 fission events were registered with 2*105 neutron/gamma detection in coincidence with fission fragments. Fission fragment kinetic energy, mass and angular distribution, neutron time-of-flight and pulse shape have been investigated using a 12 bit waveform digitizer.

  7. Fission product yield measurements using monoenergetic photon beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishichayan; Bhike, M.; Tonchev, A. P.; Tornow, W.

    2017-09-01

    Measurements of fission products yields (FPYs) are an important source of information on the fission process. During the past couple of years, a TUNL-LANL-LLNL collaboration has provided data on the FPYs from quasi monoenergetic neutron-induced fission on 235U, 238U, and 239Pu and has revealed an unexpected energy dependence of both asymmetric fission fragments at energies below 4 MeV. This peculiar FPY energy dependence was more pronounced in neutron-induced fission of 239Pu. In an effort to understand and compare the effect of the incoming probe on the FPY distribution, we have carried out monoenergetic photon-induced fission experiments on the same 235U, 238U, and 239Pu targets. Monoenergetic photon beams of Eγ = 13.0 MeV were provided by the HIγS facility, the world's most intense γ-ray source. In order to determine the total number of fission events, a dual-fission chamber was used during the irradiation. These irradiated samples were counted at the TUNL's low-background γ-ray counting facility using high efficient HPGe detectors over a period of 10 weeks. Here we report on our first ever photofission product yield measurements obtained with monoenegetic photon beams. These results are compared with neutron-induced FPY data.

  8. Elastocapillary Instability in Mitochondrial Fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Rodriguez, David; Sart, Sébastien; Babataheri, Avin; Tareste, David; Barakat, Abdul I.; Clanet, Christophe; Husson, Julien

    2015-08-01

    Mitochondria are dynamic cell organelles that constantly undergo fission and fusion events. These dynamical processes, which tightly regulate mitochondrial morphology, are essential for cell physiology. Here we propose an elastocapillary mechanical instability as a mechanism for mitochondrial fission. We experimentally induce mitochondrial fission by rupturing the cell's plasma membrane. We present a stability analysis that successfully explains the observed fission wavelength and the role of mitochondrial morphology in the occurrence of fission events. Our results show that the laws of fluid mechanics can describe mitochondrial morphology and dynamics.

  9. Insights into nuclear structure and the fission process from spontaneous fission

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, J.H.; Butler-Moore, K.; Ramayya, A.V.

    1993-12-31

    The {gamma}-rays emitted following spontaneous and induced fission are rich sources of information about the structure of neutron-rich nuclei and about the fission process itself. The study of spontaneous fissioning isotopes with large Ge detector arrays are providing a wealth of such information as seen, for example, in recent reports. In this paper we present some of our most recent results on nuclear structure studies and conclusions on the fission process itself. In our work, we have employed in spontaneous fission, a triple gamma coincidence study for the first time and a high resolution, X-ray detector-{gamma}-coincidence study. These data provide powerful ways of separating the gamma rays which belong to a particular nucleus. The triple coincidence technique was used to uniquely identify the levels in {sup 136}Te and higher spin states in its N=84 isotones, {sup 138}Xe and {sup 140}Ba{sup 171}. Some other examples of the level structures observed in the low and high mass partners are presented, including a detailed analysis of the backbending of the moment of inertia in {sup 112,114,116}Pd. Finally, we present the first examples of how our analysis allows one to extract a detailed picture of the dependence of the angular momentum on the mass and atomic numbers of the fission fragments and of the long-sought neutron multiplicity distribution from zero-n to ten-n as a function of the charge and mass asymmetry.

  10. Measurements of Short-Lived Fission Isomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finch, Sean; Bhike, Megha; Howell, Calvin; Krishichayan, Fnu; Tornow, Werner

    2016-09-01

    Fission yields of the short lived isomers 134mTe (T1 / 2 = 162 ns) and 136mXe (T1 / 2 = 2 . 95 μs) were measured for 235U and 238U. The isomers were detected by the γ rays associated with the decay of the isomeric states using high-purity germanium detectors. Fission was induced using both monoenergetic γ rays and neutrons. At TUNL's High-Intensity Gamma-ray Source (HI γS), γ rays of 9 and 11 MeV were produced . Monoenergetic 8 MeV neutrons were produced at TUNL's tandem accelerator laboratory. Both beams were pulsed to allow for precise time-gated spectroscopy of both prompt and delayed γ rays following fission. This technique offers a non-destructive probe of special nuclear materials that is sensitive to the isotopic identity of the fissile material.

  11. Examining the limits of time reweighting and Kramers' rate theory to obtain correct kinetics from accelerated molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Xin, Yao; Doshi, Urmi; Hamelberg, Donald

    2010-06-14

    Accelerated molecular dynamics simulations are routinely being used to recover the correct canonical probability distributions corresponding to the original potential energy landscape of biomolecular systems. However, the limits of time reweighting, based on transition state theory, in obtaining true kinetic rates from accelerated molecular dynamics for biomolecular systems are less obvious. Here, we investigate this issue by studying the kinetics of cis-trans isomerization of peptidic omega bond by accelerated molecular dynamics. We find that time reweighting is valid for obtaining true kinetics when the original potential is not altered at the transition state regions, as expected. When the original potential landscape is modified such that the applied boost potential alters the transition state regions, time reweighting fails to reproduce correct kinetics and the reweighted rate is much slower than the true rate. By adopting the overdamped limit of Kramers' rate theory, we are successful in recovering correct kinetics irrespective of whether or not the transition state regions are modified. Furthermore, we tested the validity of the acceleration weight factor from the path integral formalism for obtaining the correct kinetics of cis-trans isomerization. It was found that this formulation of the weight factor is not suitable for long time scale processes such as cis-trans isomerization with high energy barriers.

  12. Membrane fission by protein crowding.

    PubMed

    Snead, Wilton T; Hayden, Carl C; Gadok, Avinash K; Zhao, Chi; Lafer, Eileen M; Rangamani, Padmini; Stachowiak, Jeanne C

    2017-04-18

    Membrane fission, which facilitates compartmentalization of biological processes into discrete, membrane-bound volumes, is essential for cellular life. Proteins with specific structural features including constricting rings, helical scaffolds, and hydrophobic membrane insertions are thought to be the primary drivers of fission. In contrast, here we report a mechanism of fission that is independent of protein structure-steric pressure among membrane-bound proteins. In particular, random collisions among crowded proteins generate substantial pressure, which if unbalanced on the opposite membrane surface can dramatically increase membrane curvature, leading to fission. Using the endocytic protein epsin1 N-terminal homology domain (ENTH), previously thought to drive fission by hydrophobic insertion, our results show that membrane coverage correlates equally with fission regardless of the hydrophobicity of insertions. Specifically, combining FRET-based measurements of membrane coverage with multiple, independent measurements of membrane vesiculation revealed that fission became spontaneous as steric pressure increased. Further, fission efficiency remained equally potent when helices were replaced by synthetic membrane-binding motifs. These data challenge the view that hydrophobic insertions drive membrane fission, suggesting instead that the role of insertions is to anchor proteins strongly to membrane surfaces, amplifying steric pressure. In line with these conclusions, even green fluorescent protein (GFP) was able to drive fission efficiently when bound to the membrane at high coverage. Our conclusions are further strengthened by the finding that intrinsically disordered proteins, which have large hydrodynamic radii yet lack a defined structure, drove fission with substantially greater potency than smaller, structured proteins.

  13. Modulation structures in the dynamic spectra of Jovian radio emission obtained with high time-frequency resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvinenko, G. V.; Lecacheux, A.; Rucker, H. O.; Konovalenko, A. A.; Ryabov, B. P.; Taubenschuss, U.; Vinogradov, V. V.; Shaposhnikov, V. E.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: The wide-band dynamic spectra of Jovian decameter emission obtained over the last decade with high-frequency and high time resolution equipment on the largest decameter band antenna array, the Ukrainian T-shape Radio telescope (UTR-2), are presented. Methods: We analyzed the data obtained with the Digital SpectroPolarimiter (DSP) and WaveForm Reciever (WFR) installed at UTR-2. The combination of the large antenna and high performance equipment gives the best sensitivity and widest band of analysis, dynamic range, time and frequency resolutions. The wavelet transform method and the Fourier technique was used for further data processing. Results: The main characteristics of already known and newly detected modulation events were investigated and specified. The new receiving-recording facilities, methodology and program of observations are described in detail.

  14. Transfer-induced fission of superheavy nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.; Zubov, A. S.; Sargsyan, V. V.; Scheid, W.

    2010-07-15

    Possibilities of transfer-induced fission of new isotopes of superheavy nuclei with charge numbers 103-108 are studied for the first time in the reactions {sup 48}Ca+{sup 244,246,248}Cm at energies near the corresponding Coulomb barriers. The predicted cross sections are found to be measurable with the detection of three-body final states.

  15. Mutual control of membrane fission and fusion proteins.

    PubMed

    Peters, Christopher; Baars, Tonie L; Bühler, Susanne; Mayer, Andreas

    2004-11-24

    Membrane fusion and fission are antagonistic reactions controlled by different proteins. Dynamins promote membrane fission by GTP-driven changes of conformation and polymerization state, while SNAREs fuse membranes by forming complexes between t- and v-SNAREs from apposed vesicles. Here, we describe a role of the dynamin-like GTPase Vps1p in fusion of yeast vacuoles. Vps1p forms polymers that couple several t-SNAREs together. At the onset of fusion, the SNARE-activating ATPase Sec18p/NSF and the t-SNARE depolymerize Vps1p and release it from the membrane. This activity is independent of the SNARE coactivator Sec17p/alpha-SNAP and of the v-SNARE. Vps1p release liberates the t-SNAREs for initiating fusion and at the same time disrupts fission activity. We propose that reciprocal control between fusion and fission components exists, which may prevent futile cycles of fission and fusion.

  16. Neutron-induced fission cross section of 245Cm: New results from data taken at the time-of-flight facility n_TOF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calviani, M.; Meaze, M. H.; Colonna, N.; Praena, J.; Abbondanno, U.; Aerts, G.; Alvarez, H.; Alvarez-Velarde, F.; Andriamonje, S.; Andrzejewski, J.; Assimakopoulos, P.; Audouin, L.; Badurek, G.; Barbagallo, M.; Baumann, P.; Bečvář, F.; Belloni, F.; Berthier, B.; Berthoumieux, E.; Calviño, F.; Cano-Ott, D.; Capote, R.; Carrapiço, C.; Cennini, P.; Chepel, V.; Chiaveri, E.; Cortes, G.; Couture, A.; Cox, J.; Dahlfors, M.; David, S.; Dillmann, I.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Dridi, W.; Duran, I.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Embid-Segura, M.; Ferrant, L.; Ferrari, A.; Ferreira-Marques, R.; Fujii, K.; Furman, W.; Galanopoulos, S.; Giubrone, G.; Gonçalves, I.; Gonzalez-Romero, E.; Goverdovski, A.; Gramegna, F.; Guerrero, C.; Gunsing, F.; Haas, B.; Haight, R.; Heil, M.; Herrera-Martinez, A.; Igashira, M.; Jericha, E.; Käppeler, F.; Kadi, Y.; Karadimos, D.; Karamanis, D.; Ketlerov, V.; Kerveno, M.; Koehler, P.; Konovalov, V.; Kossionides, E.; Krtička, M.; Lampoudis, C.; Lederer, C.; Leeb, H.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, I.; Lozano, M.; Lukic, S.; Marganiec, J.; Marrone, S.; Martínez, T.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P.; Mendoza, E.; Mengoni, A.; Milazzo, P. M.; Moreau, C.; Mosconi, M.; Neves, F.; Oberhummer, H.; O'Brien, S.; Pancin, J.; Papachristodoulou, C.; Papadopoulos, C.; Paradela, C.; Patronis, N.; Pavlik, A.; Pavlopoulos, P.; Perrot, L.; Pigni, M. T.; Plag, R.; Plompen, A.; Plukis, A.; Poch, A.; Pretel, C.; Quesada, J.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Rosetti, M.; Rubbia, C.; Rudolf, G.; Rullhusen, P.; Salgado, J.; Santos, C.; Sarchiapone, L.; Sarmento, R.; Savvidis, I.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Stephan, C.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J. L.; Tassan-Got, L.; Tavora, L.; Terlizzi, R.; Vannini, G.; Variale, V.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Villamarin, D.; Vincente, M. C.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Voss, F.; Walter, S.; Wiescher, M.; Wisshak, K.

    2012-03-01

    The neutron-induced fission cross section of 245Cm was measured at n_TOF in a wide energy range and with high resolution. The energy dependence, measured in a single measurement from 30 meV to 1 MeV neutron energy, has been determined with 5% accuracy relative to the 235U(n,f) cross section. In order to reduce the uncertainty on the absolute value, the data have been normalized at thermal energy to recent measurements performed at ILL and BR1. In the energy range of overlap, the results are in fair agreement with some previous measurements and confirm, on average, the evaluated cross section in the ENDF/B-VII.0 database, although sizable differences are observed for some important resonances below 20 eV. A similar behavior is observed relative to JENDL/AC-2008, a reactor-oriented database for actinides. The new results contribute to the overall improvement of the databases needed for the design of advanced reactor systems and may lead to refinements of fission models for the actinides.

  17. Mitochondrial Morphological Features Are Associated with Fission and Fusion Events

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Katie R.; Hlavacek, William S.; MacKeigan, Jeffrey P.

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that undergo constant remodeling through the regulation of two opposing processes, mitochondrial fission and fusion. Although several key regulators and physiological stimuli have been identified to control mitochondrial fission and fusion, the role of mitochondrial morphology in the two processes remains to be determined. To address this knowledge gap, we investigated whether morphological features extracted from time-lapse live-cell images of mitochondria could be used to predict mitochondrial fate. That is, we asked if we could predict whether a mitochondrion is likely to participate in a fission or fusion event based on its current shape and local environment. Using live-cell microscopy, image analysis software, and supervised machine learning, we characterized mitochondrial dynamics with single-organelle resolution to identify features of mitochondria that are predictive of fission and fusion events. A random forest (RF) model was trained to correctly classify mitochondria poised for either fission or fusion based on a series of morphological and positional features for each organelle. Of the features we evaluated, mitochondrial perimeter positively correlated with mitochondria about to undergo a fission event. Similarly mitochondrial solidity (compact shape) positively correlated with mitochondria about to undergo a fusion event. Our results indicate that fission and fusion are positively correlated with mitochondrial morphological features; and therefore, mitochondrial fission and fusion may be influenced by the mechanical properties of mitochondrial membranes. PMID:24733410

  18. Mitochondrial morphological features are associated with fission and fusion events.

    PubMed

    Westrate, Laura M; Drocco, Jeffrey A; Martin, Katie R; Hlavacek, William S; MacKeigan, Jeffrey P

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that undergo constant remodeling through the regulation of two opposing processes, mitochondrial fission and fusion. Although several key regulators and physiological stimuli have been identified to control mitochondrial fission and fusion, the role of mitochondrial morphology in the two processes remains to be determined. To address this knowledge gap, we investigated whether morphological features extracted from time-lapse live-cell images of mitochondria could be used to predict mitochondrial fate. That is, we asked if we could predict whether a mitochondrion is likely to participate in a fission or fusion event based on its current shape and local environment. Using live-cell microscopy, image analysis software, and supervised machine learning, we characterized mitochondrial dynamics with single-organelle resolution to identify features of mitochondria that are predictive of fission and fusion events. A random forest (RF) model was trained to correctly classify mitochondria poised for either fission or fusion based on a series of morphological and positional features for each organelle. Of the features we evaluated, mitochondrial perimeter positively correlated with mitochondria about to undergo a fission event. Similarly mitochondrial solidity (compact shape) positively correlated with mitochondria about to undergo a fusion event. Our results indicate that fission and fusion are positively correlated with mitochondrial morphological features; and therefore, mitochondrial fission and fusion may be influenced by the mechanical properties of mitochondrial membranes.

  19. Use of time-resolved spectroscopy as a method to monitor carotenoids present in tomato extract obtained using ultrasound treatment.

    PubMed

    Bot, Francesca; Anese, Monica; Lemos, M Adília; Hungerford, Graham

    2016-01-01

    Compounds exhibiting antioxidant activity have received much interest in the food industry because of their potential health benefits. Carotenoids such as lycopene, which in the human diet mainly derives from tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum), have attracted much attention in this aspect and the study of their extraction, processing and storage procedures is of importance. Optical techniques potentially offer advantageous non-invasive and specific methods to monitor them. To obtain both fluorescence and Raman information to ascertain if ultrasound assisted extraction from tomato pulp has a detrimental effect on lycopene. Use of time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy to monitor carotenoids in a hexane extract obtained from tomato pulp with application of ultrasound treatment (583 kHz). The resultant spectra were a combination of scattering and fluorescence. Because of their different timescales, decay associated spectra could be used to separate fluorescence and Raman information. This simultaneous acquisition of two complementary techniques was coupled with a very high time-resolution fluorescence lifetime measurement of the lycopene. Spectroscopic data showed the presence of phytofluene and chlorophyll in addition to lycopene in the tomato extract. The time-resolved spectral measurement containing both fluorescence and Raman data, coupled with high resolution time-resolved measurements, where a lifetime of ~5 ps was attributed to lycopene, indicated lycopene appeared unaltered by ultrasound treatment. Detrimental changes were, however, observed in both chlorophyll and phytofluene contributions. Extracted lycopene appeared unaffected by ultrasound treatment, while other constituents (chlorophyll and phytofluene) were degraded. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Extended optical model for fission

    DOE PAGES

    Sin, M.; Capote, R.; Herman, M. W.; ...

    2016-03-07

    A comprehensive formalism to calculate fission cross sections based on the extension of the optical model for fission is presented. It can be used for description of nuclear reactions on actinides featuring multi-humped fission barriers with partial absorption in the wells and direct transmission through discrete and continuum fission channels. The formalism describes the gross fluctuations observed in the fission probability due to vibrational resonances, and can be easily implemented in existing statistical reaction model codes. The extended optical model for fission is applied for neutron induced fission cross-section calculations on 234,235,238U and 239Pu targets. A triple-humped fission barrier ismore » used for 234,235U(n,f), while a double-humped fission barrier is used for 238U(n,f) and 239Pu(n,f) reactions as predicted by theoretical barrier calculations. The impact of partial damping of class-II/III states, and of direct transmission through discrete and continuum fission channels, is shown to be critical for a proper description of the measured fission cross sections for 234,235,238U(n,f) reactions. The 239Pu(n,f) reaction can be calculated in the complete damping approximation. Calculated cross sections for 235,238U(n,f) and 239Pu(n,f) reactions agree within 3% with the corresponding cross sections derived within the Neutron Standards least-squares fit of available experimental data. Lastly, the extended optical model for fission can be used for both theoretical fission studies and nuclear data evaluation.« less

  1. Extended optical model for fission

    SciTech Connect

    Sin, M.; Capote, R.; Herman, M. W.; Trkov, A.

    2016-03-07

    A comprehensive formalism to calculate fission cross sections based on the extension of the optical model for fission is presented. It can be used for description of nuclear reactions on actinides featuring multi-humped fission barriers with partial absorption in the wells and direct transmission through discrete and continuum fission channels. The formalism describes the gross fluctuations observed in the fission probability due to vibrational resonances, and can be easily implemented in existing statistical reaction model codes. The extended optical model for fission is applied for neutron induced fission cross-section calculations on 234,235,238U and 239Pu targets. A triple-humped fission barrier is used for 234,235U(n,f), while a double-humped fission barrier is used for 238U(n,f) and 239Pu(n,f) reactions as predicted by theoretical barrier calculations. The impact of partial damping of class-II/III states, and of direct transmission through discrete and continuum fission channels, is shown to be critical for a proper description of the measured fission cross sections for 234,235,238U(n,f) reactions. The 239Pu(n,f) reaction can be calculated in the complete damping approximation. Calculated cross sections for 235,238U(n,f) and 239Pu(n,f) reactions agree within 3% with the corresponding cross sections derived within the Neutron Standards least-squares fit of available experimental data. Lastly, the extended optical model for fission can be used for both theoretical fission studies and nuclear data evaluation.

  2. Extended optical model for fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sin, M.; Capote, R.; Herman, M. W.; Trkov, A.

    2016-03-01

    A comprehensive formalism to calculate fission cross sections based on the extension of the optical model for fission is presented. It can be used for description of nuclear reactions on actinides featuring multi-humped fission barriers with partial absorption in the wells and direct transmission through discrete and continuum fission channels. The formalism describes the gross fluctuations observed in the fission probability due to vibrational resonances, and can be easily implemented in existing statistical reaction model codes. The extended optical model for fission is applied for neutron induced fission cross-section calculations on 234,235,238U and 239Pu targets. A triple-humped fission barrier is used for U,235234(n ,f ) , while a double-humped fission barrier is used for 238U(n ,f ) and 239Pu(n ,f ) reactions as predicted by theoretical barrier calculations. The impact of partial damping of class-II/III states, and of direct transmission through discrete and continuum fission channels, is shown to be critical for a proper description of the measured fission cross sections for 234,235,238U(n ,f ) reactions. The 239Pu(n ,f ) reaction can be calculated in the complete damping approximation. Calculated cross sections for U,238235(n ,f ) and 239Pu(n ,f ) reactions agree within 3% with the corresponding cross sections derived within the Neutron Standards least-squares fit of available experimental data. The extended optical model for fission can be used for both theoretical fission studies and nuclear data evaluation.

  3. DEATH-STAR: Silicon and photovoltaic fission fragment detector arrays for light-ion induced fission correlation studies

    DOE PAGES

    Koglin, J. D.; Burke, J. T.; Fisher, S. E.; ...

    2017-02-20

    Here, the Direct Excitation Angular Tracking pHotovoltaic-Silicon Telescope ARray (DEATH-STAR) combines a series of 12 silicon detectors in a ΔE–E configuration for charged particle identification with a large-area array of 56 photovoltaic (solar) cells for detection of fission fragments. The combination of many scattering angles and fission fragment detectors allows for an angular-resolved tool to study reaction cross sections using the surrogate method, anisotropic fission distributions, and angular momentum transfers through stripping, transfer, inelastic scattering, and other direct nuclear reactions. The unique photovoltaic detectors efficiently detect fission fragments while being insensitive to light ions and have a timing resolution ofmore » 15.63±0.37 ns. Alpha particles are detected with a resolution of 35.5 keV 1σ at 7.9 MeV. Measured fission fragment angular distributions are also presented.« less

  4. DEATH-STAR: Silicon and Photovoltaic Fission Fragment Detector Arrays for Light-Ion Induced Fission Correlation Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koglin, J. D.; Burke, J. T.; Fisher, S. E.; Jovanovic, I.

    2017-05-01

    The Direct Excitation Angular Tracking pHotovoltaic-Silicon Telescope ARray (DEATH-STAR) combines a series of 12 silicon detectors in a ΔE - E configuration for charged particle identification with a large-area array of 56 photovoltaic (solar) cells for detection of fission fragments. The combination of many scattering angles and fission fragment detectors allows for an angular-resolved tool to study reaction cross sections using the surrogate method, anisotropic fission distributions, and angular momentum transfers through stripping, transfer, inelastic scattering, and other direct nuclear reactions. The unique photovoltaic detectors efficiently detect fission fragments while being insensitive to light ions and have a timing resolution of 15.63±0.37 ns. Alpha particles are detected with a resolution of 35.5 keV 1σ at 7.9 MeV. Measured fission fragment angular distributions are also presented.

  5. Towards a prediction of fission cross sections on the basis of microscopic nuclear inputs

    SciTech Connect

    Goriely, S.; Hilaire, S.; Koning, A. J.; Sin, M.; Capote, R.

    2009-02-15

    Recently, a sound description of some of the basic nuclear ingredients required in the calculation of fission cross sections has been obtained. These concern in particular fission barriers within the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) method and nuclear level densities at the fission saddle points within the combinatorial model. Both ingredients are determined coherently, the nuclear level densities being estimated on the basis of the single-particle scheme and pairing strength of the same mean field model that was used to determine the fission saddle points. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the quality of such inputs in the calculation of fission cross sections. Although the barrier height can still not be predicted with an accuracy better than about 700 keV, the use of the full HFB fission path and the corresponding WKB calculation of the probability to penetrate the fission barrier clearly provides a better way to estimate fission cross section in comparison with highly parametrized phenomenological models, when no experimental data is available. It is shown that a satisfactory estimate of the fission cross section for nonenergy applications can be achieved with a global renormalization of the barrier height and the microscopic nuclear level densities at the fission saddle points. Good agreement with experimental data can be obtained if both the fission barrier heights and level densities are independently renormalized. The resulting barrier heights required to reproduce experimental cross sections are found to be smaller by a few hundred keV with respect to previous analyses.

  6. Fission yield covariances for JEFF: A Bayesian Monte Carlo method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leray, Olivier; Rochman, Dimitri; Fleming, Michael; Sublet, Jean-Christophe; Koning, Arjan; Vasiliev, Alexander; Ferroukhi, Hakim

    2017-09-01

    The JEFF library does not contain fission yield covariances, but simply best estimates and uncertainties. This situation is not unique as all libraries are facing this deficiency, firstly due to the lack of a defined format. An alternative approach is to provide a set of random fission yields, themselves reflecting covariance information. In this work, these random files are obtained combining the information from the JEFF library (fission yields and uncertainties) and the theoretical knowledge from the GEF code. Examples of this method are presented for the main actinides together with their impacts on simple burn-up and decay heat calculations.

  7. Hemi-fused structure mediates and controls fusion and fission in live cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wei-Dong; Hamid, Edaeni; Shin, Wonchul; Wen, Peter J.; Krystofiak, Evan S.; Villarreal, Seth A.; Chiang, Hsueh-Cheng; Kachar, Bechara; Wu, Ling-Gang

    2016-01-01

    Membrane fusion and fission are vital to eukaryotes’ life1–5. For three decades, it has been proposed that fusion is mediated by fusion between proximal leaflets of two bilayers (hemi-fusion) that produces a hemi-fused structure, followed by fusion between distal leaflets, whereas fission is via hemi-fission, which also produces a hemi-fused structure, followed by full fission1, 4, 6–10. This hypothesis remained unsupported owing to the lack of observation of hemi-fusion/hemi-fission in live cells. A competing fusion hypothesis involving protein-lined pore formation has also been proposed2, 11–15. Using confocal and super-resolution STED microscopy, we observed the hemi-fused Ω-shaped structure for the first time in live cells, neuroendocrine chromaffin cells and pancreatic β-cells. This structure was generated from fusion pore opening or closure (fission) at the plasma membrane. Unexpectedly, its transition to full fusion or fission was determined by competition between fusion and calcium/dynamin-dependent fission mechanisms, and was surprisingly slow (seconds to tens of seconds) in a significant fraction of the events. These results provide key missing evidence over the past three decades proving the hemi-fusion and hemi-fission hypothesis in live cells, and reveal the hemi-fused intermediate as a key structure controlling fusion/fission, as fusion and fission mechanisms compete to determine its transition to fusion or fission. PMID:27309816

  8. Actin polymerization does not provide direct mechanical forces for vesicle fission during clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Yao, Li-Hua; Rao, Yan; Bang, Chi; Kurilova, Svetlana; Varga, Kelly; Wang, Chun-Yang; Weller, Brandon D; Cho, Wonhwa; Cheng, Jun; Gong, Liang-Wei

    2013-10-02

    Actin polymerization is important for vesicle fission during clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME), and it has been proposed that actin polymerization may promote vesicle fission during CME by providing direct mechanical forces. However, there is no direct evidence in support of this hypothesis. In the present study, the role of actin polymerization in vesicle fission was tested by analyzing the kinetics of the endocytic tubular membrane neck (the fission-pore) with cell-attached capacitance measurements to detect CME of single vesicles in a millisecond time resolution in mouse chromaffin cells. Inhibition in dynamin GTPase activity increased the fission-pore conductance (Gp), supporting the mechanical role of dynamin GTPase in vesicle fission. However, disruptions in actin polymerization did not alter the fission-pore conductance Gp, thus arguing against the force-generating role of actin polymerization in vesicle fission during CME. Similar to disruptions of actin polymerization, cholesterol depletion results in an increase in the fission-pore duration, indicating a role for cholesterol-dependent membrane reorganization in vesicle fission. Further experiments suggested that actin polymerization and cholesterol might function in vesicle fission during CME in the same pathway. Our results thus support a model in which actin polymerization promotes vesicle fission during CME by inducing cholesterol-dependent membrane reorganization.

  9. Fission Product Sorptivity in Graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Tompson, Jr., Robert V.; Loyalka, Sudarshan; Ghosh, Tushar; Viswanath, Dabir; Walton, Kyle; Haffner, Robert

    2015-04-01

    Both adsorption and absorption (sorption) of fission product (FP) gases on/into graphite are issues of interest in very high temperature reactors (VHTRs). In the original proposal, we proposed to use packed beds of graphite particles to measure sorption at a variety of temperatures and to use an electrodynamic balance (EDB) to measure sorption onto single graphite particles (a few μm in diameter) at room temperature. The use of packed beds at elevated temperature is not an issue. However, the TPOC requested revision of this initial proposal to included single particle measurements at elevated temperatures up to 1100 °C. To accommodate the desire of NEUP to extend the single particle EDB measurements to elevated temperatures it was necessary to significantly revise the plan and the budget. These revisions were approved. In the EDB method, we levitate a single graphite particle (the size, surface characteristics, morphology, purity, and composition of the particle can be varied) or agglomerate in the balance and measure the sorption of species by observing the changes in mass. This process involves the use of an electron stepping technique to measure the total charge on a particle which, in conjunction with the measured suspension voltages for the particle, allows for determinations of mass and, hence, of mass changes which then correspond to measurements of sorption. Accommodating elevated temperatures with this type of system required a significant system redesign and required additional time that ultimately was not available. These constraints also meant that the grant had to focus on fewer species as a result. Overall, the extension of the original proposed single particle work to elevated temperatures added greatly to the complexity of the proposed project and added greatly to the time that would eventually be required as well. This means that the bulk of the experimental progress was made using the packed bed sorption systems. Only being able to recruit one

  10. Obtaining spectrally selective images of objects in attenuated total reflection regime in real time in visible and terahertz ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerasimov, V. V.; Knyazev, B. A.; Cherkassky, V. S.

    2010-06-01

    An imaging attenuated total reflection (ATR) spectrometer for the terahertz range is created for the first time. The spectrometer uses a powerful free-electron laser. Images are recorded with a microbolom-eter detector array as a source of frequency tunable monochromatic radiation. Recording spectrally selective images of dynamic objects at a rate of 20 frames per second in the visible and terahertz ranges is demonstrated. In the terahertz range, images of the interdiffusion of liquids with strongly differing optical constants are obtained. Optimal configurations for the operation of the ATR spectrometer are found. Merits and demerits of the method are considered, as well as ways of improving the quality of image.

  11. Energy Correlation of Prompt Fission Neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elter, Zs.; Pázsit, I.

    2016-03-01

    In all cases where neutron fluctuations in a branching process (such as in multiplicity measurements) are treated in an energy dependent description, the energy correlations of the branching itself (energy correlations of the fission neutrons) need to be known. To date, these are not known from experiments. Such correlations can be theoretically and numerically derived by modelling the details of the fission process. It was suggested earlier that the fact that the prompt neutrons are emitted from the moving fission targets, will influence their energy and angular distributions in the lab system, which possibly induces correlations. In this paper the influence of the neutron emission process from the moving targets on the energy correlations is investigated analytically and via numerical simulations. It is shown that the correlations are generated by the random energy and direction distributions of the fission fragments. Analytical formulas are derived for the two-point energy distributions, and quantitative results are obtained by Monte-Carlo simulations. The results lend insight into the character of the two-point distributions, and give quantitative estimates of the energy correlations, which are generally small.

  12. A New Method of Prompt Fission Neutron Energy Spectrum Unfolding

    SciTech Connect

    Zeynalova, O. V.; Zeynalov, Sh.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Oberstedt, S.

    2010-11-25

    The prompt neutron emission in spontaneous fission of {sup 252}Cf has been investigated applying digital signal electronics along with associated digital signal processing algorithms. The goal was to find out the reasons of a long time existing discrepancy between theoretical calculations and the measurements of prompt fission neutron (PFN) emission dependence on the total kinetic energy (TKE) of fission fragments (FF). On the one hand the {sup 252}Cf(sf) reaction is one of the main references for nuclear data, on the other hand the understanding of PFN emission mechanism is very important for nuclear fission theory. Using a twin Frisch-grid ionization chamber for fission fragment (FF) detection and a NE213-equivalent neutron detector in total about 10{sup 7} fission fragment-neutron coincidences have been registered. Fission fragment kinetic energy, mass and angular distribution, neutron time-of-flight and pulse shape have been investigated using a 12 bit waveform digitizer. The signal waveforms have been analyzed using digital signal processing algorithms. For the first time the dependence of the number of emitted neutrons as a function of total kinetic energy (TKE) of the fragments is in very good agreement with theoretical calculations in the range of TKE from 140-220 MeV.

  13. A New Method of Prompt Fission Neutron Energy Spectrum Unfolding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeynalova, O. V.; Zeynalov, Sh.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Oberstedt, S.

    2010-11-01

    The prompt neutron emission in spontaneous fission of 252Cf has been investigated applying digital signal electronics along with associated digital signal processing algorithms. The goal was to find out the reasons of a long time existing discrepancy between theoretical calculations and the measurements of prompt fission neutron (PFN) emission dependence on the total kinetic energy (TKE) of fission fragments (FF). On the one hand the 252Cf (sf) reaction is one of the main references for nuclear data, on the other hand the understanding of PFN emission mechanism is very important for nuclear fission theory. Using a twin Frisch-grid ionization chamber for fission fragment (FF) detection and a NE213-equivalent neutron detector in total about 107 fission fragment-neutron coincidences have been registered. Fission fragment kinetic energy, mass and angular distribution, neutron time-of-flight and pulse shape have been investigated using a 12 bit waveform digitizer. The signal waveforms have been analyzed using digital signal processing algorithms. For the first time the dependence of the number of emitted neutrons as a function of total kinetic energy (TKE) of the fragments is in very good agreement with theoretical calculations in the range of TKE from 140-220 MeV.

  14. Energy and Angular Correlations of Fission Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, William; Smith, M. S.; Pain, S. D.; Febbraro, M.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Jones, K. L.; Smith, K.; Grzywacz, R.; Temanson, E.; Cizewski, J. A.

    2016-09-01

    Despite the discovery of fission nearly 80 years ago and its importance to nuclear energy, national security, and astrophysics; there are very few measurements that correlate multiple fission products. A proof-of-principle experiment is underway at Oak Ridge National Lab to measure the energy and angle correlation between prompt fission neutrons, gamma rays, and fragments in time-coincidence. The angular and energy spectrum of the prompt neutrons and /or gamma rays with respect to fragment mass, could reveal new details concerning the energy balance between these products and will be essential for benchmarking advanced fission models. An array of neutron and gamma-ray detectors is positioned opposite dual time-of-flight detectors and a total-energy detector to determine one fragment mass. Preliminary results from a spontaneous 252Cf source will be presented, along with plans for future improvements. Research sponsored in part by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  15. Utilizing Fission Technology to Enable Rapid and Affordable Access to any Point in the Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Mike; Bonometti, Joe; Morton, Jeff; Hrbud, Ivana; Bitteker, Leo; VanDyke, Melissa; Godfroy, T.; Pedersen, K.; Dobson, C.; Patton, B.; hide

    2000-01-01

    Fission technology can enable rapid, affordable access to any point in the solar system. Potential fission-based transportation options include bimodal nuclear thermal rockets, high specific energy propulsion systems, and pulsed fission propulsion systems. In-space propellant re-supply enhances the effective performance of all systems, but requires significant infrastructure development. Safe, timely, affordable utilization of first-generation space fission propulsion systems will enable the development of more advanced systems. First generation systems can build on over 45 years of US and international space fission system technology development to minimize cost.

  16. Travel-time sensitivity kernels versus diffraction patterns obtained through double beam-forming in shallow water.

    PubMed

    Iturbe, Ion; Roux, Philippe; Virieux, Jean; Nicolas, Barbara

    2009-08-01

    In recent years, the use of sensitivity kernels for tomographic purposes has been frequently discussed in the literature. Sensitivity kernels of different observables (e.g., amplitude, travel-time, and polarization for seismic waves) have been proposed, and relationships between adjoint formulation, time-reversal theory, and sensitivity kernels have been developed. In the present study, travel-time sensitivity kernels (TSKs) are derived for two source-receiver arrays in an acoustic waveguide. More precisely, the TSKs are combined with a double time-delay beam-forming algorithm performed on two source-receiver arrays to isolate and identify each eigenray of the multipath propagation between a source-receiver pair in the acoustic waveguide. A relationship is then obtained between TSKs and diffraction theory. It appears that the spatial shapes of TSKs are equivalent to the gradients of the combined direction patterns of the source and receiver arrays. In the finite-frequency regimes, the combination of TSKs and double beam-forming both simplifies the calculation of TSK and increases the domain of validity for ray theory in shallow-water ocean acoustic tomography.

  17. Fission yield measurements at IGISOL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lantz, M.; Al-Adili, A.; Gorelov, D.; Jokinen, A.; Kolhinen, V. S.; Mattera, A.; Moore, I.; Penttilä, H.; Pomp, S.; Prokofiev, A. V.; Rakopoulos, V.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Simutkin, V.; Solders, A.

    2016-06-01

    The fission product yields are an important characteristic of the fission process. In fundamental physics, knowledge of the yield distributions is needed to better understand the fission process. For nuclear energy applications good knowledge of neutroninduced fission-product yields is important for the safe and efficient operation of nuclear power plants. With the Ion Guide Isotope Separator On-Line (IGISOL) technique, products of nuclear reactions are stopped in a buffer gas and then extracted and separated by mass. Thanks to the high resolving power of the JYFLTRAP Penning trap, at University of Jyväskylä, fission products can be isobarically separated, making it possible to measure relative independent fission yields. In some cases it is even possible to resolve isomeric states from the ground state, permitting measurements of isomeric yield ratios. So far the reactions U(p,f) and Th(p,f) have been studied using the IGISOL-JYFLTRAP facility. Recently, a neutron converter target has been developed utilizing the Be(p,xn) reaction. We here present the IGISOL-technique for fission yield measurements and some of the results from the measurements on proton induced fission. We also present the development of the neutron converter target, the characterization of the neutron field and the first tests with neutron-induced fission.

  18. The LANL/LLNL Program to Measure Prompt Fission Neutron Spectra at LANSCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haight, Robert; Wu, Ching Yen; Lee, Hye Young; Taddeucci, Terry; Mosby, Shea; O'Donnell, John; Fotiades, Nikolaos; Devlin, Mattew; Ullmann, John; Nelson, Ronald; Wender, Stephen; White, Morgan; Solomon, Clell; Neudecker, Denise; Talou, Patrick; Rising, Michael; Bucher, Brian; Buckner, Matthew; Henderson, Roger

    2015-10-01

    Accurate data on the spectrum of neutrons emitted in neutron-induced fission are needed for applications and for a better understanding of the fission process. At LANSCE we have made important progress in understanding systematic uncertainties and in obtaining data for 235U on the low-energy part of the prompt fission neutron spectra (PFNS), a particularly difficult region because down-scattered neutrons go in this direction. We use a double time-of-flight technique to determine energies of incoming and outgoing neutrons. With data acquisition via waveform digitizers, accidental coincidences between fission chamber and neutron detector are measured to high statistical accuracy and then subtracted from measured events. Monte Carlo simulations with high performance computers have proven to be essential in the design to minimize neutron scattering and in calculating detector response. Results from one of three approaches to analyzing the data will be presented. This work is funded by the US Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration and Office of Nuclear Physics.

  19. Modelling animal group fission using social network dynamics.

    PubMed

    Sueur, Cédric; Maire, Anaïs

    2014-01-01

    Group life involves both advantages and disadvantages, meaning that individuals have to compromise between their nutritional needs and their social links. When a compromise is impossible, the group splits in order to reduce conflict of interests and favour positive social interactions between its members. In this study we built a dynamic model of social networks to represent a succession of temporary fissions involving a change in social relations that could potentially lead to irreversible group fission (i.e. no more group fusion). This is the first study that assesses how a social network changes according to group fission-fusion dynamics. We built a model that was based on different parameters: the group size, the influence of nutritional needs compared to social needs, and the changes in the social network after a temporary fission. The results obtained from this theoretical data indicate how the percentage of social relation transfer, the number of individuals and the relative importance of nutritional requirements and social links influence the average number of days before irreversible fission occurs. The greater the nutritional needs and the higher the transfer of social relations during temporary fission, the fewer days will be observed before an irreversible fission. It is crucial to bridge the gap between the individual and the population level if we hope to understand how simple, local interactions may drive ecological systems.

  20. Modelling Animal Group Fission Using Social Network Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Sueur, Cédric; Maire, Anaïs

    2014-01-01

    Group life involves both advantages and disadvantages, meaning that individuals have to compromise between their nutritional needs and their social links. When a compromise is impossible, the group splits in order to reduce conflict of interests and favour positive social interactions between its members. In this study we built a dynamic model of social networks to represent a succession of temporary fissions involving a change in social relations that could potentially lead to irreversible group fission (i.e. no more group fusion). This is the first study that assesses how a social network changes according to group fission-fusion dynamics. We built a model that was based on different parameters: the group size, the influence of nutritional needs compared to social needs, and the changes in the social network after a temporary fission. The results obtained from this theoretical data indicate how the percentage of social relation transfer, the number of individuals and the relative importance of nutritional requirements and social links influence the average number of days before irreversible fission occurs. The greater the nutritional needs and the higher the transfer of social relations during temporary fission, the fewer days will be observed before an irreversible fission. It is crucial to bridge the gap between the individual and the population level if we hope to understand how simple, local interactions may drive ecological systems. PMID:24831471

  1. Constraining the level density using fission of lead projectiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Sánchez, J. L.; Benlliure, J.; Álvarez-Pol, H.; Audouin, L.; Ayyad, Y.; Bélier, G.; Boutoux, G.; Casarejos, E.; Chatillon, A.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Gorbinet, T.; Heinz, A.; Kelić-Heil, A.; Laurent, B.; Martin, J.-F.; Paradela, C.; Pellereau, E.; Pietras, B.; Ramos, D.; Rodríguez-Tajes, C.; Rossi, D. M.; Simon, H.; Taïeb, J.; Vargas, J.; Voss, B.

    2015-10-01

    The nuclear level density is one of the main ingredients for the statistical description of the fission process. In this work, we propose to constrain the description of this parameter by using fission reactions induced by protons and light ions on 208Pb at high kinetic energies. The experiment was performed at GSI (Darmstadt), where the combined use of the inverse kinematics technique with an efficient detection setup allowed us to measure the atomic number of the two fission fragments in coincidence. This measurement permitted us to obtain with high precision the partial fission cross sections and the width of the charge distribution as a function of the atomic number of the fissioning system. These data and others previously measured, covering a large range in fissility, are compared to state-of-the-art calculations. The results reveal that total and partial fission cross sections cannot unambiguously constrain the level density at ground-state and saddle-point deformations and additional observables, such as the width of the charge distribution of the final fission fragments, are required.

  2. Cluster fusion-fission dynamics in the Singapore stock exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teh, Boon Kin; Cheong, Siew Ann

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we investigate how the cross-correlations between stocks in the Singapore stock exchange (SGX) evolve over 2008 and 2009 within overlapping one-month time windows. In particular, we examine how these cross-correlations change before, during, and after the Sep-Oct 2008 Lehman Brothers Crisis. To do this, we extend the complete-linkage hierarchical clustering algorithm, to obtain robust clusters of stocks with stronger intracluster correlations, and weaker intercluster correlations. After we identify the robust clusters in all time windows, we visualize how these change in the form of a fusion-fission diagram. Such a diagram depicts graphically how the cluster sizes evolve, the exchange of stocks between clusters, as well as how strongly the clusters mix. From the fusion-fission diagram, we see a giant cluster growing and disintegrating in the SGX, up till the Lehman Brothers Crisis in September 2008 and the market crashes of October 2008. After the Lehman Brothers Crisis, clusters in the SGX remain small for few months before giant clusters emerge once again. In the aftermath of the crisis, we also find strong mixing of component stocks between clusters. As a result, the correlation between initially strongly-correlated pairs of stocks decay exponentially with average life time of about a month. These observations impact strongly how portfolios and trading strategies should be formulated.

  3. The effects of time compositing on obtaining clear-sky coverage for infrared temperature and moisture profiling from geosynchronous orbit

    SciTech Connect

    Shenk, W.E. ); Hope, W.A.

    1994-09-01

    The impact of time compositing on infrared profiling from geosynchronous orbit was evaluated for two convective outbreak cases. Time compositing is the accumulation of the data from several successive images taken at short intervals to provide a single field of measurements with the temporal resolution equal to the time to take all of the images. This is especially effective when the variability of the measurement is slow compared to the image interval. Time compositing should be able to reduce the interference of clouds for infrared measurements since clouds move and change. The convective outbreak cases were on 4 and 21 May 1990 over the eastern Midwest and southeastern United States, respectively. Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite imagery was used to outline clear areas at hour intervals by two independent analysts. Time compositing was done every 3 h (1330-1530 UTC; 1630-1830 UTC) and over the full 5-h period. For both cases, a significant increase in coverage was measured with each 3-h compositing (about a factor of 2) and a further increase over the full period (approximately a factor of 3). The increase was especially useful in areas of broken cloud cover where large gaps between potential profiling areas on each image were reduced. To provide information on measurement variability over local areas, the regions where the clear-area analyses were done subdivided into 0.5[degrees] latitude-longitude boxes, and if some portion of each box was clear, it was assumed that at least one profile could be obtained within the box. In the largest clear areas, at least some portion was clear every hour. Even in the cloudier regions, multiple clear looks possible during the entire period. 3 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Measurement of Fission Product Yields from Fast-Neutron Fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, C. W.; Bond, E. M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Fowler, M. M.; Moody, W. A.; Rusev, G.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Becker, J. A.; Henderson, R.; Kenneally, J.; Macri, R.; McNabb, D.; Ryan, C.; Sheets, S.; Stoyer, M. A.; Tonchev, A. P.; Bhatia, C.; Bhike, M.; Fallin, B.; Gooden, M. E.; Howell, C. R.; Kelley, J. H.; Tornow, W.

    2014-09-01

    One of the aims of the Stockpile Stewardship Program is a reduction of the uncertainties on fission data used for analyzing nuclear test data [1,2]. Fission products such as 147Nd are convenient for determining fission yields because of their relatively high yield per fission (about 2%) and long half-life (10.98 days). A scientific program for measuring fission product yields from 235U,238U and 239Pu targets as a function of bombarding neutron energy (0.1 to 15 MeV) is currently underway using monoenergetic neutron beams produced at the 10 MV Tandem Accelerator at TUNL. Dual-fission chambers are used to determine the rate of fission in targets during activation. Activated targets are counted in highly shielded HPGe detectors over a period of several weeks to identify decaying fission products. To date, data have been collected at neutron bombarding energies 4.6, 9.0, 14.5 and 14.8 MeV. Experimental methods and data reduction techniques are discussed, and some preliminary results are presented.

  5. Shell effects in fission and quasi-fission of heavy and superheavy nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itkis, M. G.; A¨ysto¨, J.; Beghini, S.; Bogachev, A. A.; Corradi, L.; Dorvaux, O.; Gadea, A.; Giardina, G.; Hanappe, F.; Itkis, I. M.; Jandel, M.; Kliman, J.; Khlebnikov, S. V.; Kniajeva, G. N.; Kondratiev, N. A.; Kozulin, E. M.; Krupa, L.; Latina, A.; Materna, T.; Montagnoli, G.; Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Pokrovsky, I. V.; Prokhorova, E. V.; Rowley, N.; Rubchenya, V. A.; Rusanov, A. Ya.; Sagaidak, R. N.; Scarlassara, F.; Stefanini, A. M.; Stuttge, L.; Szilner, S.; Trotta, M.; Trzaska, W. H.; Vakhtin, D. N.; Vinodkumar, A. M.; Voskressenski, V. M.; Zagrebaev, V. I.

    2004-04-01

    Results of the experiments aimed at the study of fission and quasi-fission processes in the reactions 12C+ 204Pb, 48Ca+ 144,154Sm, 168Er, 208Pb, 244Pu, 248Cm; 58Fe+ 208Pb, 244Pu, 248Cm, and 64Ni+ 186W, 242Pu are presented in the work. The choice of the above-mentioned reactions was inspired by recent experiments on the production of the isotopes 283112, 289114 and 283116 at Dubna [1],[2] using the same reactions. The 58Fe and 64Ni projectiles were chosen since the corresponding projectile-target combinations lead to the synthesis of even heavier elements. The experiments were carried out at the U-400 accelerator of the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (JINR, Russia), the XTU Tandem accelerator of the National Laboratory of Legnaro (LNL, Italy) and the Accelerator of the Laboratory of University of Jyvaskyla (JYFL, Finland) using the time-of-flight spectrometer of fission fragments CORSET[3] and the neutron multi-detector DEMON[4],[5]. The role of shell effects and the influence of the entrance channel on the mechanism of the compound nucleus fusion-fission and the competitive process of quasi-fission are discussed.

  6. Fission: A Mechanism for Forming Binary Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tohline, J. E.; Cazes, J. E.

    2000-05-01

    We demonstrate that it is possible for short period binary star systems to form from a single, rapidly rotating, equilibrium protostellar gas cloud via a natural fission process. This is analogous to the process by which rapidly spinning drops of fluid have been observed to break in two during drop dynamics experiments onboard the space shuttle. In order to demonstrate that fission works in the context of binary star formation, we have used a three-dimensional, computational fluid dynamics technique to, first, construct a rapidly rotating, self-gravitating, equilibrium barlike structure that, by all accounts, appears to be a compressible analog of an incompressible Riemann ellipsoid. Then by slowly cooling this configuration and following its cooling evolution in a fully self-consistent fashion, we have demonstrated that the system contracts along an ellipsoid-dumbbell-binary sequence. Although the hypothesis that binary stars may form via a process of fission has been around for more than 100 years, it has been a difficult hypothesis to test because of the nonlinear dynamical processes involved. This is the first demonstration that fission works in the context of realistic protostellar gas clouds. This work has been supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation through grant AST-9528424, by NASA through grant NAG5-8497, and by a grant of high-performance-computing time through NPACI on machines at the San Diego Supercomputing Center.

  7. Quintet multiexciton dynamics in singlet fission

    SciTech Connect

    Tayebjee, Murad J. Y.; Sanders, Samuel N.; Kumarasamy, Elango; Campos, Luis M.; Sfeir, Matthew Y.; McCamey, Dane R.

    2016-10-17

    Singlet fission, in which two triplet excitons are generated from a single absorbed photon, is a key third-generation solar cell concept. Conservation of angular momentum requires that singlet fission populates correlated multiexciton states, which can subsequently dissociate to generate free triplets. However, little is known about electronic and spin correlations in these systems since, due to its typically short lifetime, the multiexciton state is challenging to isolate and study. Here, we use bridged pentacene dimers, which undergo intramolecular singlet fission while isolated in solution and in solid matrices, as a unimolecular model system that can trap long-lived multiexciton states. We also combine transient absorption and time-resolved electron spin resonance spectroscopies to show that spin correlations in the multiexciton state persist for hundreds of nanoseconds. Furthermore, we confirm long-standing predictions that singlet fission produces triplet pair states of quintet character. Finally, we compare two different pentacene–bridge–pentacene chromophores, systematically tuning the coupling between the pentacenes to understand how differences in molecular structure affect the population and dissociation of multiexciton quintet states.

  8. Quintet multiexciton dynamics in singlet fission

    DOE PAGES

    Tayebjee, Murad J. Y.; Sanders, Samuel N.; Kumarasamy, Elango; ...

    2016-10-17

    Singlet fission, in which two triplet excitons are generated from a single absorbed photon, is a key third-generation solar cell concept. Conservation of angular momentum requires that singlet fission populates correlated multiexciton states, which can subsequently dissociate to generate free triplets. However, little is known about electronic and spin correlations in these systems since, due to its typically short lifetime, the multiexciton state is challenging to isolate and study. Here, we use bridged pentacene dimers, which undergo intramolecular singlet fission while isolated in solution and in solid matrices, as a unimolecular model system that can trap long-lived multiexciton states. Wemore » also combine transient absorption and time-resolved electron spin resonance spectroscopies to show that spin correlations in the multiexciton state persist for hundreds of nanoseconds. Furthermore, we confirm long-standing predictions that singlet fission produces triplet pair states of quintet character. Finally, we compare two different pentacene–bridge–pentacene chromophores, systematically tuning the coupling between the pentacenes to understand how differences in molecular structure affect the population and dissociation of multiexciton quintet states.« less

  9. Fission Detection Using the Associated Particle Technique

    SciTech Connect

    R.P. Keegan, J.P. Hurley, J.R. Tinsley, R. Trainham, S.C. Wilde

    2008-09-18

    A beam of tagged 14 MeV neutrons from the deuterium-tritium (DT) reaction is used to induce fission in a target composed of depleted uranium. The generator yield is 107 neutrons/second radiated into a 4π solid angle. Two 4 in.×4 in. NaI detectors are used for gamma-ray detection. The fission process is known to produce multiple gamma-rays and neutrons. Triple coincidences (α-γ-γ) are measured as a function of neutron flight time up to 90 ns after fission, where the α-particle arises from the DT reaction. A sudden increase in the triple coincidence rate at the location of the material is used to localize and detect fission in the interrogated target. Comparisons are made with experiment runs where lead, tungsten, and iron were used as target materials. The triple coincidence response profile from depleted uranium is noted to be different to those observed from the other target materials. The response from interrogation targets composed of fissile material is anticipated to be even more unique than that observed from depleted uranium.

  10. Abrasion fission reactions at intermediate energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowry, Michael

    2016-09-01

    In-flight fission of 0.3-1.0 GeV A uranium beams at GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research and RIKEN Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory have demonstrated that the yield of fission fragments is naturally attuned to the N, Z and excitation energy of the projectile prefragments formed in peripheral nuclear collisions. Similar measurements at intermediate energies (less than 0.1 GeV A) are scarce despite the potential proximity to the threshold of limiting fragmentation proposed by Benecke et al. and may provide a sensitive probe of prefragment formation. Cross section measurements spanning 20 different isotopic chains from nickel to silver are presented following in-flight fission reactions of an 80 MeV A uranium-238 beam on a diamond active target at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) at Michigan State University (East Lansing, USA). Fission products were identified on an event-by-event basis by correlating time-of-flight and energy-loss measurements in the S800 spectrograph with in-flight gamma-decays reconstructed by the Gamma-Ray Energy Tracking Array (GRETINA) in the rest frame of the projectile. Transmission through the S800 has been determined using state-of-the-art simulations developed in the LISE + + code. et al. A full author list is available on request.

  11. Quintet multiexciton dynamics in singlet fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayebjee, Murad J. Y.; Sanders, Samuel N.; Kumarasamy, Elango; Campos, Luis M.; Sfeir, Matthew Y.; McCamey, Dane R.

    2016-10-01

    Singlet fission, in which two triplet excitons are generated from a single absorbed photon, is a key third-generation solar cell concept. Conservation of angular momentum requires that singlet fission populates correlated multiexciton states, which can subsequently dissociate to generate free triplets. However, little is known about electronic and spin correlations in these systems since, due to its typically short lifetime, the multiexciton state is challenging to isolate and study. Here, we use bridged pentacene dimers, which undergo intramolecular singlet fission while isolated in solution and in solid matrices, as a unimolecular model system that can trap long-lived multiexciton states. We combine transient absorption and time-resolved electron spin resonance spectroscopies to show that spin correlations in the multiexciton state persist for hundreds of nanoseconds. Furthermore, we confirm long-standing predictions that singlet fission produces triplet pair states of quintet character. We compare two different pentacene-bridge-pentacene chromophores, systematically tuning the coupling between the pentacenes to understand how differences in molecular structure affect the population and dissociation of multiexciton quintet states.

  12. Duty periods with early start times restrict the amount of sleep obtained by short-haul airline pilots.

    PubMed

    Roach, Gregory D; Sargent, Charli; Darwent, David; Dawson, Drew

    2012-03-01

    Most of the research related to human fatigue in the aviation industry has focussed on long-haul pilots, but short-haul pilots also experience elevated levels of fatigue. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of early start times on the amount of sleep obtained prior to duty and on fatigue levels at the start of duty. Seventy short-haul pilots collected data regarding their duty schedule and sleep/wake behaviour for at least two weeks. Data were collected using self-report duty/sleep diaries and wrist activity monitors. Mixed-effects regression analyses were used to examine the effects of duty start time (04:00-10:00 h) on (i) the total amount of sleep obtained in the 12h prior to the start of duty and (ii) self-rated fatigue level at the start of duty. Both analyses indicated significant main effects of duty start time. In particular, the amount of sleep obtained in the 12h prior to duty was lowest for duty periods that commenced between 04:00 and 05:00 h (i.e. 5.4h), and greatest for duty periods that commenced between 09:00 and 10:00 h (i.e. 6.6h). These data indicate that approximately 15 min of sleep is lost for every hour that the start of duty is advanced prior to 09:00 h. In addition, self-rated fatigue at the start of duty was highest for duty periods that commenced between 04:00 and 05:00 h, and lowest for duty periods that commenced between 09:00 and 10:00 h. Airlines should implement a fatigue risk management system (FRMS) for short-haul pilots required to work early-morning shifts. One component of the FRMS should be focussed on the production of 'fatigue-friendly' rosters. A second component of the FRMS should be focussed on training pilots to optimise sleep opportunities, to identify circumstances where the likelihood of fatigue is elevated, and to manage the risks associated with fatigue-related impairment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Fission: The first 50 years

    SciTech Connect

    Vandenbosch, R.

    1989-01-01

    The possibility of fission had been largely unanticipated prior to its discovery in 1938. This process, with its dramatically large energy release and its formation of previously unknown nuclides, immediately captured the imagination of the scientific community. Both theoretical and experimental developments occurred at a rapid pace. I will begin my discussion of fission with the far-reaching paper of Bohr and Wheeler, who in little more than half a year laid out a framework for understanding many features of the fission process. I will then turn to our current understanding of a number of aspects of fission. One of these is the pronounced tendency of many nuclear species to fission asymmetrically. In fact, the discovery of fission was based on the identification of barium isotopes produced in asymmetric fission. The dramatic changes in the preferred mass division and kinetic energy release with the addition of only a few neutrons to the spontaneously fissioning Fermium isotopes will be emphasized. The problem of the dynamics of saddle to scission will be discussed---this is one aspect of fission for which we do not have all the answers. Another dynamical effect to be discussed is the apparent failure of transition state theory at high excitation energies. The role of single particle (shell) effects in enriching the structure if the potential energy surface will be explored. Spontaneously fissioning isomers and intermediate structure resonances will be discussed. The recognition that short-lived fission isomers are superdeformed shape isomers has been followed by the recent observation of superdeformed shape isomers in the rare earth region. 18 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Uranium and plutonium total half-lives and for the spontaneous fission branch

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, N.E.

    1985-01-01

    The long-lived nuclides of the uranium and plutonium elements are of interest for their use in nuclear reactors, as well as in certain safeguard applications, e.g., alpha counting is often used to determine the amount of material present. The total half-life and the half-life for spontaneous fission are evaluated for these various long-lived nuclides of interest. The various experiments have been reanalyzed and recommended values are presented for /sup 232,233,234/U, /sup 235,236,238/U, and for /sup 236,238,239,240,241,242,244/Pu. These values improve upon preliminary estimates previously presented, in particular with respect to the uncertainties reported. The /sup 234/U half-life of 2.456 +- 0.005 x 10/sup 5/ years impacts directly on the 2200 meters/second fission cross section of /sup 235/U, since earlier measurements used values of 2.47 to 2.5 x 10/sup 5/ years and obtained correspondingly lower cross sections. In a similar manner, the /sup 239/Pu half-life is 1.25% lower than earlier estimates, which results in a 1.25% increase in the 2200 m/s fission cross section for /sup 239/Pu in some earlier cross section measurements. The total half-lives for the uranium nuclides were reviewed some time ago. At that time, the only spontaneous fission value which was evaluated was /sup 238/U. Recently, the uranium and plutonium nuclides were reviewed for both total and fission half-lives. The general procedure followed in this paper has been to review each of the experiments and revise the published values for the latest estimates of the various parameters used by the original authors. For the case of the total half-lives of uranium, only differences from the original work have been discussed. 120 refs., 23 tabs.

  15. Ternary fission of nuclei into comparable fragments

    SciTech Connect

    Karpeshin, F. F.

    2015-07-15

    The problem of nuclear fission into three comparable fragments is considered. A mechanism of true ternary fission is proposed. In contrast to sequential fission, where the three fragments arise upon two sequential events of binary fission, the mechanism in question relies on a scenario that originally involves fission into three fragments. This mechanism is driven by a hexadecapole deformation of the fissioning nucleus, in contrast to binary fission associated with quadrupole vibrations of the nuclear surface. The fragment-mass ratios are estimated. The dynamics of formation of collinear fragments and their subsequent motion in opposite directions is traced. The calculated probability of true ternary fission complies with observed values.

  16. Presaddle and postsaddle dissipative effects in fission using complete kinematics measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Sánchez, J. L.; Benlliure, J.; Taïeb, J.; Alvarez-Pol, H.; Audouin, L.; Ayyad, Y.; Bélier, G.; Boutoux, G.; Casarejos, E.; Chatillon, A.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Gorbinet, T.; Heinz, A.; Kelić-Heil, A.; Laurent, B.; Martin, J.-F.; Paradela, C.; Pellereau, E.; Pietras, B.; Ramos, D.; Rodríguez-Tajes, C.; Rossi, D. M.; Simon, H.; Vargas, J.; Voss, B.

    2016-12-01

    A complete kinematics measurement of the two fission fragments was used for the first time to investigate fission dynamics at small and large deformations. Fissioning systems with high excitation energies, compact shapes, and low angular momenta were produced in inverse kinematics by using spallation reactions of lead projectiles. A new generation experimental setup allowed for the first full and unambiguous identification in mass and atomic number of both fission fragments. This measurement permitted us to accurately determine fission cross sections, the charge distribution, and the neutron excess of the fission fragments as a function of the atomic number of the fissioning system. These data are compared with different model calculations to extract information on the value of the dissipation parameter at small and large deformations. The present results do not show any sizable dependence of the nuclear dissipation parameter on temperature or deformation.

  17. Comprehensive modeling of prompt fission neutrons and γ rays in the spontaneous fission of 252Cf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talou, Patrick; Stetcu, Ionel; Kawano, Toshihiko

    2017-09-01

    We present a comprehensive set of calculations performed with the Monte Carlo Hauser-Feshbach code CGMF of the prompt fission neutrons and γ rays emitted in the spontaneous fission of Cf-252. This reaction has been studied in depth over the years and provides an almost perfect test for the assumptions, parameters and output of the CGMF code. Here we present results for prompt neutron observables beyond the ubiquitous average prompt fission neutron spectrum and multiplicity. In particular, we compare CGMF calculations to experimental data on neutron data per fragment mass split, neutron-light fragment and neutron-neutron angular distributions, and on the time dependence of the average prompt γ-ray multiplicity. Finally, we briefly discuss the recent integration of CGMF into the MCNP6.2 transport code.

  18. Fission Cross Sections and Fission-Fragment Mass Yields via the Surrogate Reaction Method

    SciTech Connect

    Jurado, B.; Kessedjian, G.; Aiche, M.; Barreau, G.; Bidaud, A.; Czajkowski, S.; Dassie, D.; Haas, B.; Mathieu, L.; Osmanov, B.; Ahmad, I.

    2008-04-17

    The surrogate reaction method is a powerful tool to infer neutron-induced data of short-lived nuclei. After a short overview of the experimental techniques employed in the present surrogate experiments, we will concentrate on a recent measurement to determine neutron-induced fission cross sections for the actinides {sup 242,243}Cm and {sup 241}Am. The latest direct neutron-induced measurement for the {sup 243}Cm fission cross section is questioned by our results, since there are differences of more than 60% in the 0.7 to 7 MeV neutron energy range. Our experimental set-up has also enabled us to measure for the first time the fission fragment ''pseudo-mass'' distributions of {sup 243,244,245}Cm and {sup 242}Am compound nuclei in the excitation energy range from a few MeV to about 25 MeV.

  19. Fission-Fusion Neutron Source Progress Report July 31, 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Chapline, G; Daffin, F; Clarke, R

    2010-02-19

    In this report the authors describe progress in evaluating the feasibility of a novel concept for producing intense pulses of 14 MeV neutrons using the DT fusion reaction. In this new scheme the heating of the DT is accomplished using fission fragments rather than ion beams as in conventional magnet fusion schemes or lasers in ICF schemes. This has the great advantage that there is no need for any large auxiliary power source. The scheme does require large magnetic fields, but generating these fields, e.g. with superconducting magnets, requires only a modest power source. As a source of fission fragments they propose using a dusty reactor concept introduced some time ago by one of us (RC). The version of the dusty reactor that they propose using for our neutron source would operate as a thermal neutron reactor and use highly enriched uranium in the form of micron sized pellets of UC. Our scheme for using the fission fragments to produce intense pulses of 14 MeV neutrons is based on the fission fragment rocket idea. In the fission fragment rocket scheme it was contemplated that the fission fragments produced in a low density reactor core would then be guided out of the reactor by large magnetic fields. A simple version of this idea would be to use the fission fragments escaping from one side of a tandem magnet mirror to heat DT gas confined in the adjacent magnetic trap.

  20. Nuclear fission of neutron-deficient protactinium nuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Nishinaka, I.; Nagame, Y.; Tsukada, K.; Ikezoe, H.; Sueki, K.; Nakahara, H.; Tanikawa, M.; Ohtsuki, T.

    1997-08-01

    Fragment velocity, kinetic energy, mass yield, and element yield distributions in the fission of neutron-deficient Pa isotopes produced in the reactions of {sup 16}O and {sup 18}O on {sup 209}Bi have been measured at incident beam energies near and above the Coulomb barriers by the time-of-flight and radiochemical methods. An asymmetric mass-division component has been observed. Measured fission cross sections were compared with the results of statistical model calculations which take into account two fission barrier heights for symmetric and asymmetric yields. The fission barrier height deduced for the asymmetric fission is found slightly lower than that for the symmetric one. The difference between the two barrier heights in the fission of the present protactinium nuclides (N{approximately}135) is considerably smaller than that in the neutron-rich nuclide of {sup 233}Pa (N{approximately}142), indicating that the difference sensitively depends on the neutron number of the fissioning nuclide. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  1. TREATMENT OF FISSION PRODUCT WASTE

    DOEpatents

    Huff, J.B.

    1959-07-28

    A pyrogenic method of separating nuclear reactor waste solutions containing aluminum and fission products as buring petroleum coke in an underground retort, collecting the easily volatile gases resulting as the first fraction, he uminum chloride as the second fraction, permitting the coke bed to cool and ll contain all the longest lived radioactive fission products in greatly reduced volume.

  2. Membrane biology: fission behind BARs.

    PubMed

    Haucke, Volker

    2012-06-05

    Membrane bending is accomplished in part by amphipathic helix insertion into the bilayer and the assembly of BAR domain scaffolds preparing the membrane for fission. Two recent studies highlight the roles of amphipathic helices and BAR scaffolds in membrane fission and establish the structural basis of membrane bending by the N-BAR protein endophilin.

  3. Fission fragment driven neutron source

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Lowell G.; Young, Robert C.; Brugger, Robert M.

    1976-01-01

    Fissionable uranium formed into a foil is bombarded with thermal neutrons in the presence of deuterium-tritium gas. The resulting fission fragments impart energy to accelerate deuterium and tritium particles which in turn provide approximately 14 MeV neutrons by the reactions t(d,n).sup.4 He and d(t,n).sup.4 He.

  4. Measurement of the temporal characteristics of delayed neutrons from neutron induced fission of 237Np in the energy range from 14.2 to 18 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gremyachkin, Dmitrii E.; Piksaikin, Vladimir M.; Egorov, Andrey S.; Mitrofanov, Konstantin V.

    2017-09-01

    Analysis of existing database on the relative abundances of delayed neutrons and half-lives of their precursors measured for neutron induced fission of heavy nuclei in the energy range above 14 MeV shows that such data are not available for many nuclides, which are important for nuclear fuel cycle. In the present work for the first time the time dependence of delayed neutron activity for the neutron-induced fission of 237Np in the energy range above 14 MeV was obtained using T(d,n)4He.

  5. Results of a first generation least expensive approach to fission module tests: Non-nuclear testing of a fission system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dyke, Melissa; Godfroy, Tom; Houts, Mike; Dickens, Ricky; Dobson, Chris; Pederson, Kevin; Reid, Bob; Sena, J. Tom

    2000-01-01

    The use of resistance heaters to simulate heat from fission allows extensive development of fission systems to be performed in non-nuclear test facilities, saving time and money. Resistance heated tests on the Module Unfueled Thermal-hydraulic Test (MUTT) article has been performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center. This paper discusses the results of these experiments to date, and describes the additional testing that will be performed. Recommendations related to the design of testable space fission power and propulsion systems are made. .

  6. Special features of the K = 0 channel in nuclear fission

    SciTech Connect

    Barabanov, A. L.; Furman, W. I.

    2009-08-15

    The opinion that the K = 0 fission channel is completely closed if the spin J and the parity {pi} of the nucleus undergoing fission do not satisfy the condition (-1){sup J} = {pi} is widespread. On the basis of a detailed analysis of quantum numbers characterizing the rotational states of deformed nuclei, it is shown that this opinion is erroneous. In fact, the K = 0 channel may be partly open. Its suppression is caused by special features of fission barriers in the state being considered. It is also shown that factors that suppress the K = 0channel may exist even in states characterized by J and {pi} values such that they satisfy the condition (-1){sup J} = {pi}. More precise information about the contribution of the K = 0 channel may be obtained by measuring the hexadecapole component of the angular distribution of fragments originating from the slow-neutron-induced fission of aligned nuclei.

  7. Fission and fusion scenarios for magnetic microswimmer clusters.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Lastra, Francisca; Kaiser, Andreas; Löwen, Hartmut

    2016-11-22

    Fission and fusion processes of particle clusters occur in many areas of physics and chemistry from subnuclear to astronomic length scales. Here we study fission and fusion of magnetic microswimmer clusters as governed by their hydrodynamic and dipolar interactions. Rich scenarios are found that depend crucially on whether the swimmer is a pusher or a puller. In particular a linear magnetic chain of pullers is stable while a pusher chain shows a cascade of fission (or disassembly) processes as the self-propulsion velocity is increased. Contrarily, magnetic ring clusters show fission for any type of swimmer. Moreover, we find a plethora of possible fusion (or assembly) scenarios if a single swimmer collides with a ringlike cluster and two rings spontaneously collide. Our predictions are obtained by computer simulations and verifiable in experiments on active colloidal Janus particles and magnetotactic bacteria.

  8. Fission and fusion scenarios for magnetic microswimmer clusters

    PubMed Central

    Guzmán-Lastra, Francisca; Kaiser, Andreas; Löwen, Hartmut

    2016-01-01

    Fission and fusion processes of particle clusters occur in many areas of physics and chemistry from subnuclear to astronomic length scales. Here we study fission and fusion of magnetic microswimmer clusters as governed by their hydrodynamic and dipolar interactions. Rich scenarios are found that depend crucially on whether the swimmer is a pusher or a puller. In particular a linear magnetic chain of pullers is stable while a pusher chain shows a cascade of fission (or disassembly) processes as the self-propulsion velocity is increased. Contrarily, magnetic ring clusters show fission for any type of swimmer. Moreover, we find a plethora of possible fusion (or assembly) scenarios if a single swimmer collides with a ringlike cluster and two rings spontaneously collide. Our predictions are obtained by computer simulations and verifiable in experiments on active colloidal Janus particles and magnetotactic bacteria. PMID:27874006

  9. Fission and fusion scenarios for magnetic microswimmer clusters

    DOE PAGES

    Guzmán-Lastra, Francisca; Kaiser, Andreas; Löwen, Hartmut

    2016-11-22

    Fission and fusion processes of particle clusters occur in many areas of physics and chemistry from subnuclear to astronomic length scales. Here we study fission and fusion of magnetic microswimmer clusters as governed by their hydrodynamic and dipolar interactions. Rich scenarios are found that depend crucially on whether the swimmer is a pusher or a puller. In particular a linear magnetic chain of pullers is stable while a pusher chain shows a cascade of fission (or disassembly) processes as the self-propulsion velocity is increased. Contrarily, magnetic ring clusters show fission for any type of swimmer. Moreover, we find a plethoramore » of possible fusion (or assembly) scenarios if a single swimmer collides with a ringlike cluster and two rings spontaneously collide. Lastly, our predictions are obtained by computer simulations and verifiable in experiments on active colloidal Janus particles and magnetotactic bacteria.« less

  10. Fission and fusion scenarios for magnetic microswimmer clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzmán-Lastra, Francisca; Kaiser, Andreas; Löwen, Hartmut

    2016-11-01

    Fission and fusion processes of particle clusters occur in many areas of physics and chemistry from subnuclear to astronomic length scales. Here we study fission and fusion of magnetic microswimmer clusters as governed by their hydrodynamic and dipolar interactions. Rich scenarios are found that depend crucially on whether the swimmer is a pusher or a puller. In particular a linear magnetic chain of pullers is stable while a pusher chain shows a cascade of fission (or disassembly) processes as the self-propulsion velocity is increased. Contrarily, magnetic ring clusters show fission for any type of swimmer. Moreover, we find a plethora of possible fusion (or assembly) scenarios if a single swimmer collides with a ringlike cluster and two rings spontaneously collide. Our predictions are obtained by computer simulations and verifiable in experiments on active colloidal Janus particles and magnetotactic bacteria.

  11. Fission and fusion scenarios for magnetic microswimmer clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Guzmán-Lastra, Francisca; Kaiser, Andreas; Löwen, Hartmut

    2016-11-22

    Fission and fusion processes of particle clusters occur in many areas of physics and chemistry from subnuclear to astronomic length scales. Here we study fission and fusion of magnetic microswimmer clusters as governed by their hydrodynamic and dipolar interactions. Rich scenarios are found that depend crucially on whether the swimmer is a pusher or a puller. In particular a linear magnetic chain of pullers is stable while a pusher chain shows a cascade of fission (or disassembly) processes as the self-propulsion velocity is increased. Contrarily, magnetic ring clusters show fission for any type of swimmer. Moreover, we find a plethora of possible fusion (or assembly) scenarios if a single swimmer collides with a ringlike cluster and two rings spontaneously collide. Lastly, our predictions are obtained by computer simulations and verifiable in experiments on active colloidal Janus particles and magnetotactic bacteria.

  12. The neutronics studies of fusion fission hybrid power reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng Youqi; Wu Hongchun; Zu Tiejun; Yang Chao; Cao Liangzhi

    2012-06-19

    In this paper, a series of neutronics analysis of hybrid power reactor is proposed. The ideas of loading different fuels in a modular-type fission blanket is analyzed, fitting different level of fusion developments, i.e., the current experimental power output, the level can be obtained in the coming future and the high-power fusion reactor like ITER. The energy multiplication of fission blankets and tritium breeding ratio are evaluated as the criterion of design. The analysis is implemented based on the D-type simplified model, aiming to find a feasible 1000MWe hybrid power reactor for 5 years' lifetime. Three patterns are analyzed: 1) for the low fusion power, the reprocessed fuel is chosen. The fuel with high plutonium content is loaded to achieve large energy multiplication. 2) For the middle fusion power, the spent fuel from PWRs can be used to realize about 30 times energy multiplication. 3) For the high fusion power, the natural uranium can be directly used and about 10 times energy multiplication can be achieved.

  13. Fission track dating of kimberlitic zircons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haggerty, S.E.; Raber, E.; Naeser, C.W.

    1983-01-01

    The only reliable method for dating kimberlites at present is the lengthy and specialized hydrothermal procedure that extracts 206Pb and 238U from low-uranium zircons. This paper describes a second successful method by fission track dating of large single-crystal zircons, 1.0-1.5 cm in dimension. The use of large crystals overcomes the limitations imposed in conventional fission track analysis which utilizes crushed fragments. Low track densities, optical track dispersion, and the random orientation of polished surfaces in the etch and irradiation cycle are effectively overcome. Fission track ages of zircons from five African kimberlites are reported, from the Kimberley Pool (90.3 ?? 6.5 m.y.), Orapa (87.4 ?? 5.7 and 92.4 ?? 6.1 m.y.), Nzega (51.1 ?? 3.8 m.y.), Koffiefontein (90.0 ?? 8.2 m.y.), and Val do Queve (133.4 ?? 11.5 m.y.). In addition we report the first radiometric ages (707.9 ?? 59.6 and 705.5 ?? 61.0 m.y.) of crustal zircons from kimberlites in northwest Liberia. The fission track ages agree well with earlier age estimates. Most of the zircons examined in this study are zoned with respect to uranium but linear correlations are established (by regression analysis) between zones of variable uranium content, and within zones of constant uranium content (by analysis of variance). Concordance between the fission track method and the U/Pb technique is established and we concluded that track fading from thermal annealing has not taken place. Kimberlitic zircons dated in this study, therefore, record the time of eruption. ?? 1983.

  14. Rapid separation of fresh fission products (draft)

    SciTech Connect

    Dry, D. E.; Bauer, E.; Petersen, L. A.

    2003-01-01

    The fission of highly eruiched uranium by thermal neutrons creates dozens of isotopic products. The Isotope and Nuclear Chemistry Group participates in programs that involve analysis of 'fiesh' fission products by beta counting following radiochemical separations. This is a laborious and time-consuming process that can take several days to generate results. Gamma spectroscopy can provide a more immediate path to isolopic activities, however short-lived, high-yield isotopes can swamp a gamma spectrum, making difficult the identification and quantification of isotopes on the wings and valley of the fission yield curve. The gamma spectrum of a sample of newly produced fission products is dominated by the many emissions of a very few high-yield isotopes. Specilkally, {sup 132}Te (3.2 d), its daughter, {sup 132}I(2 .28 h), {sup 140}Ba (12.75 d), and its daughter {sup 140}La (1.68 d) emit at least 18 gamma rays above 100 keV that are greater than 5% abundance. Additionally, the 1596 keV emission fiom I4'La imposes a Compton background that hinders the detection of isotopes that are neither subject to matrix dependent fractionation nor gaseous or volatile recursors. Some of these isotopes of interest are {sup 111}Ag, {sup 115}Cd, and the rare earths, {sup 153}Sm, {sup 154}Eu, {sup 156}Eu, and {sup 160}Tb. C-INC has performed an HEU irradiation and also 'cold' carrier analyses by ICP-AES to determine methods for rapid and reliable separations that may be used to detect and quantify low-yield fission products by gamma spectroscopy. Results and progress will be presented.

  15. Nuclear Fission Research at IRMM

    SciTech Connect

    Hambsch, Franz-Josef

    2005-05-24

    The Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) will celebrate its 45th anniversary in 2005. With its 150-MeV Geel Electron Linear Accelerator (GELINA) and 7-MV Van de Graaff accelerator as multi-purpose neutron sources, it served the nuclear physics community for this period.The research in the field of nuclear fission was focused in recent years on both the measurement and calculation of fission cross sections, and the measurement of fission fragment properties.Fission cross sections were determined for 233Pa and 234U; the fission process was studied in the resolved resonance region of 239Pu(n,f) and for 251Cf(nth,f). These measurements derive their interest from accelerator driven systems, the thorium fuel cycle, high temperature reactors, safety issues of current reactors, and basic physics. The measurements are supported by several modeling efforts that aim at improving model codes and nuclear data evaluation.

  16. Energy-Dependent Fission Q Values Generalized for All Actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, R

    2008-09-25

    We generalize Madland's parameterization of the energy release in fission to obtain the dependence of the fission Q values on incident neutron energy, E{sub n}, for all major and minor actinides. These Q(E{sub n}) parameterizations are included in the ENDL2008 release. This paper describes calculations of energy-dependent fission Q values based on parameterizations of the prompt energy release in fission [1], developed by Madland [1] to describe the prompt energy release in neutron-induced fission of {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, and {sup 239}Pu. The energy release is then related to the energy deposited during fission so that experimentally measurable quantities can be used to obtain the Q values. A discussion of these specific parameterizations and their implementation in the processing code for Monte Carlo neutron transport, MCFGEN, [2] is described in Ref. [3]. We extend this model to describe Q(E) for all actinides, major and minor, in the Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (ENDL) 2008 release, ENDL2008.

  17. Effect of projectile breakup on fission-fragment mass distributions in the Li,76 + 238U reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santra, S.; Pal, A.; Rath, P. K.; Nayak, B. K.; Singh, N. L.; Chattopadhyay, D.; Behera, B. R.; Singh, Varinderjit; Jhingan, A.; Sugathan, P.; Golda, K. S.; Sodaye, S.; Appannababu, S.; Prasad, E.; Kailas, S.

    2014-12-01

    Background: Detailed studies on the effect of the breakup of weakly bound projectile on fission are scarce. Distinguishing the events of compound nuclear (CN) fission from the breakup or transfer induced fission to understand the properties of measured fission fragments is difficult but desirable. Purpose: To investigate the effect of projectile breakup and its breakup threshold energy on fission-fragment (FF) mass distributions and folding angle distributions for Li,76 + 238U reactions and find out the differences in the properties of the fission events produced by complete fusion (CF) from the total fusion (TF). Methods: The FF mass and folding angle distributions have been measured at energies around the Coulomb barrier using gas detectors by time-of-flight technique. The results are compared with the ones involving tightly bound projectiles as well as predictions from systematics to bring out the effect of the breakup. Results: A sharp increase in the peak to valley (P:V) ratio of FF mass distribution with the decrease in bombarding energy for Li,76 + 238U reactions is observed when all events are assumed to be CN fission. As the beam energy falls through the fusion barrier, the full width half maximum (FWHM) of the FF folding angle distribution is found to increase at sub-barrier energies, unlike the reactions involving tightly bound projectiles where a linear decrease in FWHM is expected. By selecting pure CN events from the scatter plot of the velocity components of the composite nuclei, the energy dependence of the deduced FWHM is found to be consistent with the ones involving tightly bound projectiles. Similarly, the P:V ratio obtained for the selected CN events is consistent with the theoretical calculations as well as the experimental data for the proton induced reaction forming similar CN. Conclusions: The presence of projectile breakup induced fission and a relatively low breakup threshold for 6Li compared to 7Li explains the observed differences in

  18. Spontaneous fission properties of superheavy elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heßberger, F. P.

    2017-04-01

    Spontaneous fission properties of transuranium isotopes are reviewed. Specific emphasis was laid on brief historical overviews of theoretical descriptions and experimental determination of basic properties as spontaneous fission half-lives, fission barriers, or total kinetic energy release in fission. Experimental spontaneous fission half-lives are compared with the results of recent theoretical predictions. Hindrance factors for spontaneous fission of odd-mass nuclei are discussed in context with the configuration (spin, parity) of the fissioning states and the change in energy of single particle levels at deformation. Kinetic energy release and mass distributions are discussed in the context of different fission modes, as symmetric and asymmetric or fission from elongated or compact shapes of the nascent fission fragments. An overview of recent fission barrier calculations of superheavy elements on the basis of macroscopic-microscopic models or self-consistent calculations is given, and the results are compared for selected examples.

  19. Fifty years with nuclear fission

    SciTech Connect

    Behrens, J.W.; Carlson, A.D. )

    1989-01-01

    The news of the discovery of nuclear fission, by Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann in Germany, was brought to the United States by Niels Bohr in January 1939. Since its discovery, the United States, and the world for that matter, has never been the same. It therefore seemed appropriate to acknowledge the fifieth anniversary of its discovery by holding a topical meeting entitled, Fifty Years with Nuclear Fission,'' in the United States during the year 1989. The objective of the meeting was to bring together pioneers of the nuclear industry and other scientists and engineers to report on reminiscences of the past and on the more recent development in fission science and technology. The conference highlighted the early pioneers of the nuclear industry by dedicated a full day (April 26), consisting of two plenary sessions, at the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) in Washington, DC. More recent developments in fission science and technology in addition to historical reflections were topics for two fully days of sessions (April 27 and 28) at the main site of the NIST in Gaithersburg, Maryland. The wide range of topics covered in this Volume 1 by this topical meeting included plenary invited, and contributed sessions entitled: Preclude to the First Chain Reaction -- 1932 to 1942; Early Fission Research -- Nuclear Structure and Spontaneous Fission; 50 Years of Fission, Science, and Technology; Nuclear Reactors, Secure Energy for the Future; Reactors 1; Fission Science 1; Safeguards and Space Applications; Fission Data; Nuclear Fission -- Its Various Aspects; Theory and Experiments in Support of Theory; Reactors and Safeguards; and General Research, Instrumentation, and By-Product. The individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  20. Singlet exciton fission in polycrystalline pentacene: from photophysics toward devices.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Mark W B; Rao, Akshay; Ehrler, Bruno; Friend, Richard H

    2013-06-18

    Singlet exciton fission is the process in conjugated organic molecules bywhich a photogenerated singlet exciton couples to a nearby chromophore in the ground state, creating a pair of triplet excitons. Researchers first reported this phenomenon in the 1960s, an event that sparked further studies in the following decade. These investigations used fluorescence spectroscopy to establish that exciton fission occurred in single crystals of several acenes. However, research interest has been recently rekindled by the possibility that singlet fission could be used as a carrier multiplication technique to enhance the efficiency of photovoltaic cells. The most successful architecture to-date involves sensitizing a red-absorbing photoactive layer with a blue-absorbing material that undergoes fission, thereby generating additional photocurrent from higher-energy photons. The quest for improved solar cells has spurred a drive to better understand the fission process, which has received timely aid from modern techniques for time-resolved spectroscopy, quantum chemistry, and small-molecule device fabrication. However, the consensus interpretation of the initial studies using ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy was that exciton fission was suppressed in polycrystalline thin films of pentacene, a material that would be otherwise expected to be an ideal model system, as well as a viable candidate for fission-sensitized photovoltaic devices. In this Account, we review the results of our recent transient absorption and device-based studies of polycrystalline pentacene. We address the controversy surrounding the assignment of spectroscopic features in transient absorption data, and illustrate how a consistent interpretation is possible. This work underpins our conclusion that singlet fission in pentacene is extraordinarily rapid (∼80 fs) and is thus the dominant decay channel for the photoexcited singlet exciton. Further, we discuss our demonstration that triplet excitons

  1. Causes, consequences, and kin bias of human group fissions.

    PubMed

    Walker, Robert S; Hill, Kim R

    2014-12-01

    Fissions of human communities are monumental occasions with consequences for cultural and genetic variation and divergence through time by means of serial founder effects. An ethnographic review shows that most human group fissions are fueled primarily by internal political conflict and secondarily by resource scarcity. As found for other social animals, human fissions lead to subgroups that have higher levels of relatedness as compared with the original community because of kin-biased assortment known as the lineal effect. Fission processes that increase the average relatedness of subgroups are important because relatedness governs how strongly kin/group selection favors social behaviors such as warfare, peacekeeping, and other forms of collection action. However, random individual assortment is not an appropriate null model for evaluating lineage assortment because nuclear families and extended households are expected to remain together, which in and of itself forces higher relatedness in smaller subgroups. We develop a lineage assortment index where low values represent subgroups with coefficients of relatedness near those expected if nuclear and extended households had chosen to associate into random groupings. Two fissions of Ache villages (Paraguay) are examples of this type of fission with a low lineage assortment index not significantly different from zero as evaluated with controlled simulations. On the other extreme, a lineage assortment index near unity represents a lineal fission that maximizes the relatedness of subgroups such as the perfect split of a lineage into sublineages. A fission of Piaroa (Venezuela) fits this scenario. While previous discussions of fission have emphasized similarities among human studies and even other social mammals, we highlight the full range of potential kin bias in the formation of new communities.

  2. Space-time and Spectral Structures of Sprite Halos Obtained from High-speed Photometric and Imaging Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyasato, R.; Fukunishi, H.; Taylor, M. J.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.

    2001-12-01

    We carried out optical observations of lightning-induced luminous events at Yucca Ridge Field Station, Colorado, USA, from 1996 to 2000, using two multi-anode array photometers (MAP), an image intensified CCD cameras and other optical instruments. The MAP has 16 channels aligned vertically and each channel has a field-of-view of 0.67x10.75 degrees. Consequently, the total size of field-of-view is 10.75x10.75 degrees. The time resolution of MAP is 50 microseconds so that we can detect temporal and spatial structures of sprite halo emissions. The two MAPs are equipped with different color filters, red (380-500 nm) for mesurement of N2 1st positive band and N2+ Meinel band, and blue (560-800 nm) for mesurement of N2 2nd positive band and N2+ 1st negative band, respectively. Using data obtained from these instruments, we estimated the altitude range and the horizontal extent of sprite halos. Sprite halos move downward as focusing into the center of diffuse glows. It is found that the starting and ending altitudes are about 83 and 67 km, respectively, on average, and that the mean speed of downward motion is about 1/6 of the light speed. On the other hand, the estimated horizontal extent of sprite halos are about 40 - 110 km with a mean value of 78 km. A mean duration of sprite halos is found to be about 1 ms. Using the ratios of blue to red siganls obtained from two MAPs during the SPRITES'99 campaign, we estimated the energies of electrons inducing sprite halo emissions by assuming a more realistic non-Mawellian energy distribution as well as a standard Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution. Futhermore, we calculated the charge moments of causative CGs using NLDN data and investigated the relationship between the charge moments of causative CGs and the time delays from VLF sferics to the onset of sprite halos. By comparing the observational results with the model calculation presented by Barrington-Leigh et al. [2000], we will discuss the generation mechanism of sprite halos.

  3. Early results utilizing high-energy fission product (gamma) rays to detect fissionable material in cargo

    SciTech Connect

    Slaughter, D R; Accatino, M R; Bernstein, A; Church, J A; Descalle, M A; Gosnell, T B; Hall, J M; Loshak, A; Manatt, D R; Mauger, G J; McDowell, M; Moore, T M; Norman, E B; Pohl, B A; Pruet, J A; Petersen, D C; Walling, R S; Weirup, D L; Prussin, S G

    2004-09-30

    A concept for detecting the presence of special nuclear material ({sup 235}U or {sup 239}Pu) concealed in intermodal cargo containers is described. It is based on interrogation with a pulsed beam of 7 MeV neutrons that produce fission events and their {beta}-delayed neutron emission or {beta}-delayed high-energy {gamma}-radiation between beam pulses provide the detection signature. Fission product {beta}-delayed {gamma}-rays above 3 MeV are nearly ten times more abundant than {beta}-delayed neutrons and are distinct from natural radioactivity and from nearly all of the induced activity in a normal cargo. Detector backgrounds and potential interferences with the fission signature radiation have been identified and quantified. An important goal in the US is the detection of nuclear weapons or special nuclear material (SNM) concealed in intermodal cargo containers. This must be done with high detection probability, low false alarm rates, and without impeding commerce, i.e. about one minute for an inspection. The concept for inspection has been described before and its components are now being evaluated. While normal radiations emitted from plutonium may allow its detection, the majority of {sup 235}U {gamma} ray emission is at 186 keV, is readily attenuated by cargo, and thus not a reliable detection signature for passive detection. Delayed neutron detection following a neutron or photon beam pulse has been used successfully to detect lightly or unshielded SNM targets. While delayed neutrons can be easily distinguished from beam neutrons they have relatively low yield in fission, approximately 0.008 per fission in {sup 239}Pu and 0.017 per fission in {sup 235}U, and are rapidly attenuated in hydrogenous materials making that technique unreliable when challenged by thick hydrogenous cargo overburden. They propose detection of {beta}-delayed high-energy {gamma} radiation as a more robust signature characteristic of SNM.

  4. Fifty years with nuclear fission

    SciTech Connect

    Behrens, J.W.; Carlson, A.D. )

    1989-01-01

    The news of the discovery of nucler fission, by Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann in Germany, was brought to the United States by Niels Bohr in January 1939. Since its discovery, the United States, and the world for that matter, has never been the same. It therefore seemed appropriate to acknowledge the fiftieth anniversary of its discovery by holding a topical meeting entitled, Fifty years with nuclear fission,'' in the United States during the year 1989. The objective of the meeting was to bring together pioneers of the nuclear industry and other scientists and engineers to report on reminiscences of the past and on the more recent developments in fission science and technology. The conference highlighted the early pioneers of the nuclear industry by dedicating a full day (April 26), consisting of two plenary sessions, at the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) in Washington, DC. More recent developments in fission science and technology in addition to historical reflections were topics for two full days of sessions (April 27 and 28) at the main sites of the NIST in Gaithersburg, Maryland. The wide range of topics covered by Volume 2 of this topical meeting included plenary invited, and contributed sessions entitled, Nuclear fission -- a prospective; reactors II; fission science II; medical and industrial applications by by-products; reactors and safeguards; general research, instrumentation, and by-products; and fission data, astrophysics, and space applications. The individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  5. Axisymmetric Magnetic Mirror Fusion-Fission Hybrid

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R. W.; Martovetsky, N. N.; Molvik, A. W.; Ryutov, D. D.; Simonen, T. C.

    2011-05-13

    The achieved performance of the gas dynamic trap version of magnetic mirrors and today’s technology we believe are sufficient with modest further efforts for a neutron source for material testing (Q=Pfusion/Pinput~0.1). The performance needed for commercial power production requires considerable further advances to achieve the necessary high Q>>10. An early application of the mirror, requiring intermediate performance and intermediate values of Q~1 are the hybrid applications. The Axisymmetric Mirror has a number of attractive features as a driver for a fusion-fission hybrid system: geometrical simplicity, inherently steady-state operation, and the presence of the natural divertors in the form of end tanks. This level of physics performance has the virtue of low risk and only modest R&D needed and its simplicity promises economy advantages. Operation at Q~1 allows for relatively low electron temperatures, in the range of 4 keV, for the DT injection energy ~ 80 keV. A simple mirror with the plasma diameter of 1 m and mirror-to-mirror length of 35 m is discussed. Simple circular superconducting coils are based on today’s technology. The positive ion neutral beams are similar to existing units but designed for steady state. A brief qualitative discussion of three groups of physics issues is presented: axial heat loss, MHD stability in the axisymmetric geometry, microstability of sloshing ions. Burning fission reactor wastes by fissioning actinides (transuranics: Pu, Np, Am, Cm, .. or just minor actinides: Np, Am, Cm, …) in the hybrid will multiply fusion’s energy by a factor of ~10 or more and diminish the Q needed to less than 1 to overcome the cost of recirculating power for good economics. The economic value of destroying actinides by fissioning is rather low based on either the cost of long-term storage or even deep geologic disposal so most of the revenues of hybrids will come from electrical power. Hybrids that obtain revenues from

  6. Fission Cross Section Measurements of Actinides at LANSCE

    SciTech Connect

    F. Tovesson; A. B. Laptev; T. S. Hill

    2011-08-01

    Fission cross sections of a range of actinides have been measured at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) in support of nuclear energy applications. By combining measurement at two LANSCE facilities, Lujan Center and the Weapons Neutron Research center (WNR), differential cross sections can be measured from sub-thermal energies up to 200 MeV. Incident neutron energies are determined using the time-of-flight method, and parallel-plate ionization chambers are used to measure fission cross sections relative to the 235U standard. Recent measurements include the 233, 238U, 239-242Pu, and 243Am neutron-induced fission cross sections. In this paper preliminary results for fission cross sections of 243Am and 233U will be presented.

  7. Microscopic theory of singlet exciton fission. III. Crystalline pentacene

    SciTech Connect

    Berkelbach, Timothy C. Reichman, David R.; Hybertsen, Mark S.

    2014-08-21

    We extend our previous work on singlet exciton fission in isolated dimers to the case of crystalline materials, focusing on pentacene as a canonical and concrete example. We discuss the proper interpretation of the character of low-lying excited states of relevance to singlet fission. In particular, we consider a variety of metrics for measuring charge-transfer character, conclusively demonstrating significant charge-transfer character in the low-lying excited states. The impact of this electronic structure on the subsequent singlet fission dynamics is assessed by performing real-time master-equation calculations involving hundreds of quantum states. We make direct comparisons with experimental absorption spectra and singlet fission rates, finding good quantitative agreement in both cases, and we discuss the mechanistic distinctions that exist between small isolated aggregates and bulk systems.

  8. Spontaneous fission half-life of /sup 249/Cf

    SciTech Connect

    Tarantin, N.I.; Buklanov, G.V.; Kim Su Men; Korotkin, Yu.S.

    1987-11-01

    The authors describe a method for determining the spontaneous fission half-life of Cf 249 which is comprised in the preparatory stages of berkelium 249 separation by extraction chromatography and in the analytic stages of the detection of fission fragments using dielectric track detectors consisting of polyethylene terephthalate and muscovite. The half-life was calculated in the basis of the mass and composition of the sample material, the exposure time, the recording efficiency, and the number of recorded fission tracks, and was determined to be (8.5 plus or minus 0.5) multiplied by ten to the tenth power years after averaging measurement results. The ratio of the probabilities of Cf 249 decay by alpha particle emission and spontaneous fission was calculated from the ratio of their respective intensities.

  9. Measurement/Evaluation Techniques and Nuclear Data Associated with Fission of 239Pu by Fission Spectrum Neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Baisden, P; Bauge, E; Ferguson, J; Gilliam, D; Granier, T; Jeanloz, R; McMillan, C; Robertson, D; Thompson, P; Verdon, C; Wilkerson, C; Young, P

    2010-03-16

    both systematic and statistical uncertainties, including correlations, are critical to the assessment of both the experimental measurements (due to variations between experimental techniques, irradiation conditions, calibration procedures, etc.), and the evaluation of those experiments to extract fundamental nuclear data. A clear example of the importance of uncertainty analysis is in the justification for energy-dependent {sup 147}Nd fission product yield, where the magnitude of the effect is comparable to the uncertainties of the individual fission product yield measurements. Both LANL and LLNL are committed to the inclusion of full uncertainty analysis in their evaluations. (6) The Panel reviewed in detail two methods for determining/evaluating fission product yields from which fission assessments can be made: the K factor method and high-resolution gamma spectroscopy (both described more fully in Sections 3 and 4). The panel concluded that fission product yields, and thus fission assessments, derived using either approach are equally valid, provided that the data were obtained from well understood, direct fission measurements and that the key underlying calibrations and/or data are valid for each technique. (7) The Panel found the process of peer review of the two complementary but independent methods to be an extremely useful exercise. Although work is still ongoing and the numbers presented to the Panel may change slightly, both groups are now in much better agreement on not just one, but four key fission product yields. The groups also have a better appreciation of the strengths and weaknesses of each other's methods.

  10. Spallation-induced fission reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benlliure, J.; Rodríguez-Sánchez, J. L.

    2017-03-01

    During the last decade spallation-induced fission reactions have received particular attention because of their impact in the design of spallation-neutron sources or radioactive beam facilities, but also in the understanding of the fission process at high excitation energy. In this paper, we review the main progress brought by modern experimental techniques, in particular those based in the inverse kinematic, as well as the achievements in modelling these reactions. We will also address future possibilities for improving the investigation of fission dynamics.

  11. Fission at intermediate nucleon energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Meo, S.; Mancusi, D.; Massimi, C.; Vannini, G.; Ventura, A.

    2014-07-01

    In the present work Monte Carlo calculations of fission of actinides and pre- actinides induced by protons and neutrons in the energy range from 100 MeV to 1 GeV are carried out by means of a recent version of the Liège Intranuclear Cascade Model, INCL++, coupled with different evaporation-fission codes, in particular GEMINI++ and ABLA07. Fission model parameters are adjusted on experimental (p, f) cross sections and used to predict (n, f) cross sections, in order to provide a theoretical support to the campaign of neutron cross section measurements at the n_TOF facility at CERN.

  12. Prompt fission gamma-ray studies at DANCE

    DOE PAGES

    Jandel, M.; Rusev, G.; Bond, E. M.; ...

    2014-11-26

    Measurements of correlated data on prompt-fission γ-rays (PFG) have been carried out for various actinide isotopes in recent years using the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). We have developed a model that conveniently parametrizes the correlated data of γ-ray multiplicity and energy. New results on two- dimensional prompt-fission γ-ray multiplicity versus energy distributions from spontaneous fission on ²⁵²Cf and neutron-induced fission on 242mAm are presented together with previously obtained results on 233,235U and ²³⁹Pu. Correlated PFG data from ²⁵²Cf are also compared to results of the detailed theoretical model developed at LANL,more » for different thresholds of PFG energies. Future plans to measure correlated data on fission fragments, prompt fission neutrons and γ-rays at DANCE are presented.« less

  13. Neutron-induced fission: properties of prompt neutron and γ rays as a function of incident energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stetcu, I.; Talou, P.; Kawano, T.

    2016-06-01

    We have applied the Hauser-Feshbach statistical theory, in a Monte-Carlo implementation, to the de-excitation of fission fragments, obtaining a reasonable description of the characteristics of neutrons and gamma rays emitted before beta decays toward stability. Originally implemented for the spontaneous fission of 252Cf and the neutroninduced fission of 235U and 239Pu at thermal neutron energy, in this contribution we discuss the extension of the formalism to incident neutron energies up to 20 MeV. For the emission of pre-fission neutrons, at incident energies beyond second-chance fission, we take into account both the pre-equilibrium and statistical pre-fission components. Phenomenological parameterizations of mass, charge and TKE yields are used to obtain the initial conditions for the fission fragments that subsequently decay via neutron and emissions. We illustrate this approach for 239Pu(n,f).

  14. New Data on the Ternary Fission of {sup 252}Cf from the Gammasphere Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Ter-Akopian, G.M.; Daniel, A.V.; Fomichev, A.S.; Popeko, G.S.; Rodin, A.M.; Oganessian, Yu.Ts.; Hamilton, J.H.; Ramayya, A.V.; Kormicki, J.; Hwang, J.K.; Fong, D.; Gore, P.; Cole, J.D.; Jandel, M.; Kliman, J.; Krupa, L.; Rasmussen, J.O.; Lee, I.Y.; Macchiavelli, A.O.; Fallon, P.

    2004-10-01

    Ternary fission of {sup 252}Cf was studied at Gammasphere using eight {delta}E x E particle telescopes. Helium, beryllium, boron, and carbon light charged particles (LCPs) emitted with kinetic energy more than 9, 21, 26, and 32 MeV, respectively, were identified. The 3368-keV {gamma} transition from the first 2{sup +} excited state in {sup 10}Be was found and the population probability ratio N(2{sup +})/N(0{sup +}) = 0.160 {+-} 0.025 was estimated. No evidence was found for 3368-keV {gamma} rays emitted from a triple molecular state. For the first time, charge distributions are obtained for ternary fission fragments emitted with helium, beryllium, and carbon LCPs.

  15. Space Fission Propulsion Testing and Development Progress. Phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanDyke, Melissa; Houts, Mike; Pedersen, Kevin; Godfroy, Tom; Dickens, Ricky; Poston, David; Reid, Bob; Salvail, Pat; Ring, Peter; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Successful development of space fission systems will require an extensive program of affordable and realistic testing. In addition to tests related to design/development of the fission system, realistic testing of the actual flight unit must also be performed. Testing can be divided into two categories, non-nuclear tests and nuclear tests. Full power nuclear tests of space fission systems we expensive, time consuming, and of limited use, even in the best of programmatic environments. If the system is designed to operate within established radiation damage and fuel burn up limits while simultaneously being designed to allow close simulation of heat from fission using resistance heaters, high confidence in fission system performance and lifetime can be attained through a series of non-nuclear tests. Non-nuclear tests are affordable and timely, and the cause of component and system failures can be quickly and accurately identified. MSFC is leading a Safe Affordable Fission Engine (SAFE) test series whose ultimate goal is the demonstration of a 300 kW flight configuration system using non-nuclear testing. This test series is carried out in collaboration with other NASA centers, other government agencies, industry, and universities. If SAFE-related nuclear tests are desired they will have a high probability of success and can be performed at existing nuclear facilities. The paper describes the SAFE non-nuclear test series, which includes test article descriptions, test results and conclusions, and future test plans.

  16. Phase 1 space fission propulsion system testing and development progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dyke, Melissa; Houts, Mike; Pedersen, Kevin; Godfroy, Tom; Dickens, Ricky; Poston, David; Reid, Bob; Salvail, Pat; Ring, Peter

    2001-02-01

    Successful development of space fission systems will require an extensive program of affordable and realistic testing. In addition to tests related to design/development of the fission system, realistic testing of the actual flight unit must also be performed. Testing can be divided into two categories, non-nuclear tests and nuclear tests. Full power nuclear tests of space fission systems are expensive, time consuming, and of limited use, even in the best of programmatic environments. If the system is designed to operate within established radiation damage and fuel burn up limits while simultaneously being designed to allow close simulation of heat from fission using resistance heaters, high confidence in fission system performance and lifetime can be attained through a series of non-nuclear tests. Non-nuclear tests are affordable and timely, and the cause of component and system failures can be quickly and accurately identified, MSFC is leading a Safe Affordable Fission Engine (SAFE) test series whose ultimate goal is the demonstration of a 300 kW flight configuration system using non-nuclear testing. This test series is carried out in collaboration with other NASA centers, other government agencies, industry, and universities. If SAFE-related nuclear tests are desired, they will have a high probability of success and can be performed at existing nuclear facilities. The paper describes the SAFE non-nuclear test series, which includes test article descriptions, test results and conclusions, and future test plans. .

  17. Dynamics of the tri-nuclear system at spontaneous fission of 252Cf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tashkhodjaev, R. B.; Nasirov, A. K.; Alpomeshev, E. Kh.

    2016-11-01

    To describe the dynamics of ternary fission of 252Cf an equation of motion of the tri-nuclear system was obtained and it was solved numerically. The fission of the 70Ni+50Ca+132Sn channel was chosen as one of the more probable channels of true ternary fission of 252Cf. The collinearity of ternary fission was checked by analyzing the results of the equation of motion. The results show that if initially all nuclei are placed collinearly (potential energy of this position is the smallest) and the component of the middle fragment's initial velocity which is perpendicular to this line is zero, then ternary fission is collinear, otherwise noncollinear ternary fission takes place.

  18. Methodology and application of the WIMS-D4M fission product data

    SciTech Connect

    Mo, S.C.

    1995-02-01

    The WIMS-D4 code has been modified (WIMS-D4m) to generate burn-up dependent microscopic cross sections for use in full core depletion calculations. The calculation of neutron absorption by fission products can be obtained from a reduced fission-product-chain model that includes the {sup 135}Xe and {sup 149}Sm chains, and a lumped fission product to account for the absorption by fission products not explicitly treated. Burn-up calculations were performed for the ANS MEU core using WIMS and EPRI-CELL cross sections. The calculated eigenvalues and material loadings are in good agreements.

  19. The binary fission origin of the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binder, Alan B.

    1986-01-01

    The major arguments for and against the binary fission model of lunar origin are reviewed. Unresolved problems include: (1) how the protoearth acquired sufficient angular velocity to fission, and (2) how the earth-moon system lost its excess angular momentum after fission. Despite these uncertainties, the compositional similarities between the earth's mantle and the bulk moon suggest that the fission model is worth considering. The proposed sequence of events in the formation of the moon by binary fission is given.

  20. A correlated electron view of singlet fission.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Paul M; Musgrave, Charles B; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2013-06-18

    experimentally observed characteristics of these materials, such as the ultrafast time scale of photobleaching and triplet generation during singlet fission in pentacene. We believe this newly discovered mechanism provides fundamental insight to guide the creation of new solar materials that exhibit high efficiencies through multiple charge generation.

  1. Fission as diffusion of a Brownian particle with variable inertia

    SciTech Connect

    Sadhukhan, Jhilam; Pal, Santanu

    2010-08-15

    An expression for stationary fission width is obtained for systems with steep shape-dependent nuclear collective inertia by extending the work of Kramers, which was originally derived for a fixed value of the inertia. The domain of validity of the present expression is examined by comparing its predictions with widths obtained from the corresponding Langevin equations.

  2. Simulating an Exploding Fission-Bomb Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Cameron

    2016-03-01

    A time-dependent desktop-computer simulation of the core of an exploding fission bomb (nuclear weapon) has been developed. The simulation models a core comprising a mixture of two isotopes: a fissile one (such as U-235) and an inert one (such as U-238) that captures neutrons and removes them from circulation. The user sets the enrichment percentage and scattering and fission cross-sections of the fissile isotope, the capture cross-section of the inert isotope, the number of neutrons liberated per fission, the number of ``initiator'' neutrons, the radius of the core, and the neutron-reflection efficiency of a surrounding tamper. The simulation, which is predicated on ordinary kinematics, follows the three-dimensional motions and fates of neutrons as they travel through the core. Limitations of time and computer memory render it impossible to model a real-life core, but results of numerous runs clearly demonstrate the existence of a critical mass for a given set of parameters and the dramatic effects of enrichment and tamper efficiency on the growth (or decay) of the neutron population. The logic of the simulation will be described and results of typical runs will be presented and discussed.

  3. Fission product release mechanisms and pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Malinauskas, A.P.

    1981-01-01

    It is axiomatic that the severity of a nuclear reactor accident is determined by the extent of radioactivity escape which results. The main focus of site safety analyses is thus on fission product release and transport. Of all the processes involved, fission product escape from the fuel-cladding region into the primary coolant circuit is perhaps the most simple to describe; even so, it is an extremely complex function of the time/temperature history of the fuel-cladding system during an accident, since many mechanisms for release are involved. Depending upon the particular fission product species, these release mechanisms range from simple gaseous expansion processes at low temperatures to evaporation-condensation processes (aerosol formation) over molten fuel. Because of these complexities, it is convenient to subdivide the time/temperature sequence of an accident into more or less discrete phases over which specific release mechanisms dominate. Four such phases are the periods of (1) gap release, (2) meltdown release, (3) vaporization, and (4) oxidation release. This approach simplifies the problem considerably, although some loss of uniformity results. The methodology applies to BWR and PWR reactors with appropriate adaptations.

  4. Measurement and analysis of fission rates in a spherical mockup of uranium and polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Tong-Hua; Yang, Chao-Wen; Lu, Xin-Xin; Liu, Rong; Han, Zi-Jie; Jiang, Li; Wang, Mei

    2013-12-01

    Measurements of the reaction rate distribution were carried out using two kinds of Plate Micro Fission Chamber (PMFC). The first is a depleted uranium chamber and the second an enriched uranium chamber. The material in the depleted uranium chamber is strictly the same as the material in the uranium assembly. With the equation solution to conduct the isotope contribution correction, the fission rate of 238U and 235U were obtained from the fission rate of depleted uranium and enriched uranium. Then, the fission count of 238U and 235U in an individual uranium shell was obtained. In this work, MCNP5 and continuous energy cross sections ENDF/BV.0 were used for the analysis of fission rate distribution and fission count. The calculated results were compared with the experimental ones. The calculation of fission rate of DU and EU were found to agree with the measured ones within 10% except at the positions in polyethylene region and the two positions near the outer surface. Because the fission chamber was not considered in the calculation of the fission counts of 238U and 235U, the calculated results did not agree well with the experimental ones.

  5. Ternary Fission of CF Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermote, S.; Wagemans, C.; Serot, O.; Soldner, T.; Geltenbort, P.; Almahamid, I.; Lukens, W.; Floyd, J.

    2008-04-01

    During the last years, different Cm and Cf isotopes have been studied by our research group in the frame of a systematic investigation of gas emission characteristics in ternary fission. In this paper we report on the energy distribution and the emission probability of 3H, 4He and 6He particles emitted in neutron induced ternary fission of 249Cf and 251Cf. Both measurements were performed at the high flux reactor of the Institute Laue-Langevin (Grenoble, France), using suited ΔE-E telescope detectors, consisting of well-calibrated silicon surface barrier detectors. In this way, the available database can be expanded with new results for Z=98 isotopes, for which the information on neutron induced ternary fission is almost nonexistent. These measurements are important for the systematic investigation of gas emission characteristics in ternary fission.

  6. Sequential character of low-energy ternary and quaternary nuclear fission

    SciTech Connect

    Kadmensky, S. G. Bulychev, A. O.

    2016-09-15

    An analysis of low-energy true ternary (quaternary) nuclear fission leads to the conclusion that these fission modes have a sequential two-step (three-step) character such that the emission of a third particle (third and fourth particles) and the separation of fission fragments occur at distinctly different instants, in contrast to the simultaneous emergence of all fission products in the case of onestep ternary (quaternary) fission. This conclusion relies on the following arguments. First, the emission of a third particle (third and fourth particles) from a fissile nucleus is due to a nonevaporative mechanism associated with a nonadiabatic character of the collective deformation motion of this nucleus at the stages preceding its scission. Second, the axial symmetry of the deformed fissile compound nucleus and the direction of its symmetry axis both remain unchanged at all stages of ternary (quaternary) fission. This circumstancemakes it possible to explain themechanism of the appearance of observed anisotropies and T — odd asymmeries in the angular distributions of products of ternary (quaternary) nuclear fission. Third, the T —odd asymmetry discovered experimentally in ternary nuclear fission induced by cold polarized neutrons obeys the T —invariance condition only in the case of a sequential two-step (three-step) character of true ternary (quaternary) nuclear fission. At the same time, this asymmetry is not a T —invariant quantity in the case of the simultaneous emission of products of true ternary (quaternary) nuclear fission from the fissile compound nucleus.

  7. Long time series of soil moisture obtained using neural networks: application to AMSR-E and SMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Fernandez, Nemesio J.; Kerr, Yann H.; de Jeu, Rcihard A. M.; van der Schalie, Robin; Wigneron, Jean Pierre; Ayaari, Amen al; Dolman, Han; Drusch, Matthias; Mecklenburg, Sussane

    2015-04-01

    The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite is the first mission specifically designed to measure soil moisture (hereafter SM) from space. The instrument on-board SMOS is a L-band aperture synthesis radiometer, with full-polarization and multi-angular capabilities (Mecklenburg et al. 2012). The operational SM retrieval algorithm is based on a physical model (Kerr et al. 2012). In addition, Rodriguez-Fernandez et al. (2014) have recently implemented an inverse model based in neural networks using the approach of Aires & Prigent (2006), which consists in training the neural networks with numerical weather prediction models (ECMWF, Balsamo et al. 2009). In the context of an ESA funded project (de Jeu et al, this conference, session CL 5.7), we have studied this neural network approach to create a consistent soil moisture dataset from 2003 to 2014 using NASA/JAXA Advanced Scanning Microwave Radiometer (AMSR-E) and ESA SMOS radiometers as input data. Two neural networks algorithms have been defined and optimized using AMSR-E or SMOS as input data in the periods 2003-Oct 2011 and 2010-2014, respectively. The two missions overlapping period has been used to demonstrate the consistency of the SM dataset produced with both algorithms by comparing monthly averages of SM and by comparing with time series of in situ measurements at selected locations and other SM products such as the SMOS operational SM, ECMWF model SM, and AMSR-E LPRM SM (Owe et al. 2008). Finally, the long time series of SM obtained with neural networks will be compared to in-situ measurements and ECMWF ERA-Interim SM at selected locations. This long-term soil moisture dataset can be used for hydrological and climate applications and it is the first step towards a longer dataset which will include additional sensors. References Aires, F. & Prigent, C. Toward a new generation of satellite surface products? Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres (1984--2012), Wiley Online Library, 2006, 11

  8. Time of ovulation and pregnancy outcomes obtained with the prostaglandin-based protocol Synchrovine for FTAI in sheep.

    PubMed

    Vilariño, M; Cuadro, F; Dos Santos-Neto, P C; García-Pintos, C; Menchaca, A

    2017-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the ovarian response induced with the prostaglandin-based protocol Synchrovine (two doses of PGF2α given 7 d apart), as well as the fertility after FTAI. In Experiment 1, 15 females received the Synchrovine protocol using two different PGF2α analogues (Delprostenate vs. D-Cloprostenol). No differences in estrus response, time of ovulation and follicular dynamics were found between both groups (P < 0.05). The ovulation after Synchrovine was synchronized in a similar mean interval (68.8 ± 7.1 h) than when the females received a single dose of PGF2α (70.2 ± 20.7 h; P=NS), but the dispersion between the first and the last ovulation was reduced with this protocol (range 60-84 h vs. 24-96 h, respectively; P < 0.05). In experiment 2, 318 ewes were treated with the Synchrovine protocol and cervical FTAI was performed using different sperm cell concentrations. Pregnancy rate was higher using 200 × 10(6) and 100 × 10(6) sperm cells (38.2%, 39/102; and 34.9%, 38/109, respectively) than using 50 × 10(6) (23.4%, 25/107, P < 0.05). In Experiment 3, 444 ewes received the Synchrovine protocol and were assigned to receive 300 IU of eCG or not at the moment of the second dose of PGF2α, and cervical FTAI was performed 42 h or 48 h after the second dose of PGF2α. No effect was found related to the eCG administration nor the time of insemination. In Experiment 4, 342 received cervical or intrauterine insemination after treatment with the Synchrovine protocol, resulting in greater pregnancy rate for intrauterine insemination than cervical insemination (52.5%, 90/171 vs. 31%, 53/171, P < 0.05). These experiments demonstrate that the Synchrovine protocol effectively induces luteolysis, estrus and ovulation in most of the treated females, and ovulation is synchronized into a narrow window of 24 h. Pregnancy rate obtained with cervical FTAI is around 30-45%, with similar results using 100 × 10(6) or

  9. Advanced Space Fission Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Borowski, Stanley K.

    2010-01-01

    Fission has been considered for in-space propulsion since the 1940s. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) systems underwent extensive development from 1955-1973, completing 20 full power ground tests and achieving specific impulses nearly twice that of the best chemical propulsion systems. Space fission power systems (which may eventually enable Nuclear Electric Propulsion) have been flown in space by both the United States and the Former Soviet Union. Fission is the most developed and understood of the nuclear propulsion options (e.g. fission, fusion, antimatter, etc.), and fission has enjoyed tremendous terrestrial success for nearly 7 decades. Current space nuclear research and technology efforts are focused on devising and developing first generation systems that are safe, reliable and affordable. For propulsion, the focus is on nuclear thermal rockets that build on technologies and systems developed and tested under the Rover/NERVA and related programs from the Apollo era. NTP Affordability is achieved through use of previously developed fuels and materials, modern analytical techniques and test strategies, and development of a small engine for ground and flight technology demonstration. Initial NTP systems will be capable of achieving an Isp of 900 s at a relatively high thrust-to-weight ratio. The development and use of first generation space fission power and propulsion systems will provide new, game changing capabilities for NASA. In addition, development and use of these systems will provide the foundation for developing extremely advanced power and propulsion systems capable of routinely and affordably accessing any point in the solar system. The energy density of fissile fuel (8 x 10(exp 13) Joules/kg) is more than adequate for enabling extensive exploration and utilization of the solar system. For space fission propulsion systems, the key is converting the virtually unlimited energy of fission into thrust at the desired specific impulse and thrust

  10. Comparing spatial series of soil bulk electrical conductivity as obtained by Time Domain Reflectometry and Electrical Resistivity Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeed, Ali; Dragonetti, Giovanna; Comegna, Allessandro; Garre, Sarah; Lamaddalena, Nicola; Coppola, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Conventional ground survey of soil root zone salinity by direct soil sampling are time consuming, costly and destructive. Alternatively, soil salinity can be evaluated by measuring the bulk electrical conductivity, σb, in the field. This approach is faster and cheaper, and allows a more intensive surveying. Measurements of σb can be made either in situ or with remote devices. Time domain reflectometry (TDR) sensors allow simultaneous measurements of water content, θ, and σb. They may be calibrated for estimating the electrical conductivity of the soil solution (σw). However, they have a relatively small observation window and thus they are thought to only provide local-scale measurements. The spatial range of the sensors is limited to tens of centimeters and extension of the information to a large area can be problematic. Also, information on the vertical distribution of the σb soil profile may only be obtained by installing sensors at different depths. In this sense, the TDR may be considered as an invasive technique. Compared to the TDR, other geophysical methods based for example on the Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) techniques represent an alternative in respect to those traditional for soil salinity characterization. In order to deduce the actual distribution of the bulk electrical conductivity, σb, in the soil profile, one needs to invert the signal coming from ERT sensors. The latter, in turn, depends on the specific depth distribution of the σb, as well as on the electrical configuration of the sensor used. With these premises, the main aim of this study is to estimate the vertical σb distribution starting from resistivity data series measured using the ERT method under different salinity conditions and using TDR data as ground-truth data for calibration and validation of the ERT sensor. This way, limited measured TDR data may be used for translating extensive ERT apparent electrical conductivity, σa, measurements to estimate depth

  11. The Microscopic Theory of Fission

    SciTech Connect

    Younes, W; Gogny, D

    2009-06-09

    Fission-fragment properties have been calculated for thermal neutron-induced fission on a {sup 239}Pu target, using constrained Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov calculations with a finite-range effective interaction. A quantitative criterion based on the interaction energy between the nascent fragments is introduced to define the scission configurations. The validity of this criterion is benchmarked against experimental measurements of the kinetic energies and of multiplicities of neutrons emitted by the fragments.

  12. Data summary report for fission product release test VI-4

    SciTech Connect

    Obsorne, M.F.; Lorenz, R.A.; Collins, J.L.; Travis, J.R.; Webster, C.S.; Nakamura, T. )

    1991-01-01

    This was the fourth in a series of high-temperature fission product release tests in a vertical test apparatus. The test specimen, a 15.2-cm-long section of a fuel rod from the BR3 reactor in Belgium, had been irradiated to a burnup of 47 MWd/kg. In simulation of a severe accident in a light-water reactor, it was heated in hydrogen in a hot cell-mounted test apparatus to a maximum test temperature of 2400 K for a period of 20 min. The released fission products were collected on components designed to facilitate sampling and analysis. On-line radioactivity measurements and posttest inspection revealed that the fuel had partially collapsed at about the time the cladding melted. Based on fission product inventories measured in the fuel or calculated by ORIGEN2, analyses of test components showed total releases from the fuel of 85% for {sup 85}Kr, <1% for {sup 106}Ru, 3.9% for {sup 125}Sb, 96% for both {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs, and 13% for {sup 154}Eu. Large fractions of the released fission products (up to 96% of the {sup 154}Eu) were retained in the furnace. Small release fractions for several other fission products -- Rb, Br, Sr, Te, I, and Ba -- were detected also. In addition, very small amounts of fuel material -- uranium and plutonium -- were released. Total mass release from the furnace to the collection system, which included fission products, fuel material, and structural materials, was 0.40g, with 40% of this material being deposited as vapor and 60% of it being collected as aerosols. The results from this test were compared with previous tests in this series and with an in-pile test at similar conditions at Sandia National Laboratories. There was no indication that the mode of heating (fission heat vs radiant heat) significantly affected fission product release. 24 refs., 25 figs., 14 tabs.

  13. Neutron-flux profile monitor for use in a fission reactor

    DOEpatents

    Kopp, M.K.; Valentine, K.H.

    1981-09-15

    A neutron flux monitor is provided which consists of a plurality of fission counters arranged as spaced-apart point detectors along a delay line. As a fission event occurs in any one of the counters, two delayed current pulses are generated at the output of the delay line. The time separation of the pulses identifies the counter in which the particular fission event occurred. Neutron flux profiles of reactor cores can be more accurately measured as a result.

  14. Neutron angular distribution in plutonium-240 spontaneous fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcath, Matthew J.; Shin, Tony H.; Clarke, Shaun D.; Peerani, Paolo; Pozzi, Sara A.

    2016-09-01

    Nuclear safeguards applications require accurate fission models that exhibit prompt neutron anisotropy. In the laboratory reference frame, an anisotropic neutron angular distribution is observed because prompt fission neutrons carry momentum from fully accelerated fission fragments. A liquid organic scintillation detector array was used with pulse shape discrimination techniques to produce neutron-neutron cross-correlation time distributions and angular distributions from spontaneous fission in a 252Cf, a 0.84 g 240Pueff metal, and a 1.63 g 240Pueff metal sample. The effect of cross-talk, estimated with MCNPX-PoliMi simulations, is removed from neutron-neutron coincidences as a function of the angle between detector pairs. Fewer coincidences were observed at detector angles near 90°, relative to higher and lower detector angles. As light output threshold increases, the observed anisotropy increases due to spectral effects arising from fission fragment momentum transfer to emitted neutrons. Stronger anisotropy was observed in Cf-252 spontaneous fission prompt neutrons than in Pu-240 neutrons.

  15. Spontaneous fission properties of sub 103 sup 259 Lr

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, T.M.; Gregorich, K.E.; Lee, D.M.; Czerwinski, K.R.; Hannink, N.J.; Kacher, C.D.; Kadkhodayan, B.; Kreek, S.A.; Nurmia, M.J.; Lane, M.R.; Neu, M.P.; Tuerler, A.; Hoffman, D.C. Chemistry Department, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 )

    1992-11-01

    We have measured the mass and kinetic-energy distributions of fragments from the spontaneous fission of {sup 259}Lr. The {sup 259}Lr was produced via the {sup 248}Cm ({sup 15}N,4{ital n}) reaction with a production cross section of 100 nb using 81-MeV projectiles. The kinetic energies and times of the alpha particles and coincident fission fragments were measured using our rotating wheel system. From these data the half-life, mass, and kinetic-energy distributions were derived. The total kinetic-energy (TKE) distribution appears to consist of a single component with a most probable pre-neutron-emission TKE of 215{plus minus}3 MeV. The mass distribution is predominantly symmetric with a full width at half maximum of about 20 mass numbers. These results are consistent with trends observed for other trans-berkelium spontaneously fissioning isotopes. We determined the half-life to be 6.14{plus minus}0.36 s by measuring its alpha decay and the observed spontaneous fission half-life was consistent with that value. An energy of 8.439{plus minus}0.010 MeV was measured for the main alpha transition of {sup 259}Lr. We measured a spontaneous fission to alpha-decay ratio of 0.25{plus minus}0.03 which results in a partial half-life for spontaneous fission of 31{plus minus}4 s, if there are no other appreciable modes of decay.

  16. Mass distribution of fission fragments within the Born-Oppenheimer approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pomorski, K.; Ivanyuk, F. A.; Nerlo-Pomorska, B.

    2017-03-01

    The fission fragments mass-yield of 236 U is obtained by an approximate solution of the eigenvalue problem of the collective Hamiltonian that describes the dynamics of the fission process whose degrees of freedom are: the fission (elongation), the neck and mass-asymmetry modes. The macroscopic-microscopic method is used to evaluate the potential energy surface. The macroscopic energy part is calculated using the liquid drop model and the microscopic corrections are obtained using a Woods-Saxon single-particle levels. The four-dimensional modified Cassini ovals shape parametrization is used to describe the shape of the fissioning nucleus. The mass tensor is taken within a cranking-type approximation. The final fragment mass distribution is obtained by weighting the adiabatic density distribution in the collective space with the neck-dependent fission probability. The neck degree of freedom is found to play a significant role in determining the final fragment mass distribution.

  17. SEPARATION OF URANIUM, PLUTONIUM AND FISSION PRODUCTS FROM NEUTRON- BOMBARDED URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Martin, A.E.; Johnson, I.; Burris, L. Jr.; Winsch, I.O.; Feder, H.M.

    1962-11-13

    A process is given for removing plutonium and/or fission products from uranium fuel. The fuel is dissolved in molten zinc--magnesium (10 to 18% Mg) alloy, more magnesium is added to obtain eutectic composition whereby uranium precipitates, and the uranium are separated from the Plutoniumand fission-product- containing eutectic. (AEC)

  18. Dispersion of the resonant nonlinear optical susceptibility obtained with femtosecond time-domain coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shan; Ganikhanov, Feruz

    2013-11-15

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a method that is capable of resolving both real and imaginary parts of third-order nonlinearity (χ(3)) in the vicinity of Raman resonances. Dispersion of χ(3) can be obtained from a medium probed within microscopic volumes with a spectral resolution of better than 0.10 cm(-1).

  19. A new measurement of the 6Li(n,α)t cross section at MeV energies using a 252Cf fission chamber and 6Li scintillators

    DOE PAGES

    Kirsch, Leo Edward; Devlin, Matthew James; Mosby, Shea Morgan; ...

    2017-09-01

    We present a new measurement of the 6Li(n,α)t cross section from 245 keV to 10 MeV using a 252Cf fission chamber with 6LiI(Eu) and Cs2LiYCl6:Ce (CLYC) scintillators which act as both target and detector. Neutron energies are determined from the time of flight (TOF) method using the signals from spontaneous fission and reaction product recoil. Simulations of neutron downscatter in the crystals and fission chamber bring 6Li(n,α)t cross section values measured with the 6LiI(Eu) into agreement with previous experiments and evaluations, except for two resonances at 4.2 and 6.5 MeV introduced by ENDF/B-VII.1. Suspected neutron transport modeling issues cause themore » cross section values obtained with CLYC to be discrepant above 2 MeV.« less

  20. Undergraduate Measurements For Fission Reactor Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, S. F.; Kersting, L. J.; Lueck, C. J.; McDonough, P.; Crider, B. P.; McEllistrem, M. T.; Peters, E. E.; Vanhoy, J. R.

    2011-06-01

    Undergraduate students at the University of Dallas (UD) have investigated elastic and inelastic neutron scattering cross sections on structural materials important for criticality considerations in nuclear fission processes. Neutrons scattered off of 23Na and NatFe were detected using neutron time-of-flight techniques at the University of Kentucky Low-Energy Nuclear Accelerator Facility. These measurements are part of an effort to increase the efficiency of power generation from existing fission reactors in the US and in the design of new fission systems. Students have learned the basics of how to operate the Model CN Van de Graaff generator at the laboratory, setup detectors and electronics, use data acquisition systems, and they are currently analyzing the angular dependence of the scattered neutrons for incident neutron energies of 3.57 and 3.80 MeV. Most students participating in the project will use the research experience as the material for their undergraduate research thesis required for all Bachelor of Science students at the University of Dallas. The first student projects on this topic were completed during the summer of 2010; an overview of student participation in this investigation and their preliminary results will be presented.

  1. Undergraduate Measurements For Fission Reactor Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, S. F.; Kersting, L. J.; Lueck, C. J.; McDonough, P.; Crider, B. P.; McEllistrem, M. T.; Peters, E. E.; Vanhoy, J. R.

    2011-06-01

    Undergraduate students at the University of Dallas (UD) have investigated elastic and inelastic neutron scattering cross sections on structural materials important for criticality considerations in nuclear fission processes. Neutrons scattered off of {sup 23}Na and {sup Nat}Fe were detected using neutron time-of-flight techniques at the University of Kentucky Low-Energy Nuclear Accelerator Facility. These measurements are part of an effort to increase the efficiency of power generation from existing fission reactors in the US and in the design of new fission systems. Students have learned the basics of how to operate the Model CN Van de Graaff generator at the laboratory, setup detectors and electronics, use data acquisition systems, and they are currently analyzing the angular dependence of the scattered neutrons for incident neutron energies of 3.57 and 3.80 MeV. Most students participating in the project will use the research experience as the material for their undergraduate research thesis required for all Bachelor of Science students at the University of Dallas. The first student projects on this topic were completed during the summer of 2010; an overview of student participation in this investigation and their preliminary results will be presented.

  2. Fission fragment mass distributions in 35Cl+Sm,154144 reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, R.; Sodaye, S.; Sudarshan, K.; Nayak, B. K.; Jhingan, A.; Pujari, P. K.; Mahata, K.; Santra, S.; Saxena, A.; Mirgule, E. T.; Thomas, R. G.

    2015-08-01

    Background: A new type of asymmetric fission was observed in β -delayed fission of 180Tl [Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 252502 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.105.252502] as symmetric mass distribution would be expected based on conventional shell effects leading to the formation of N =50 fragments. Following this observation, theoretical calculations were carried out which predict asymmetric mass distribution for several mercury isotopes around mass region of ˜180 at low and moderate excitation energies [Moller, Randrup, and Sierk, Phys. Rev. C 85, 024306 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevC.85.024306; Andreev, Adamian, and Antonenko, Phys. Rev. C 86, 044315 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevC.86.044315]. Studies on fission fragment mass distribution are required in this mass region to investigate this newly observed phenomenon. Purpose: The fission fragment mass distributions have been measured in 35Cl+Sm,154144 reactions at Elab=152.5 ,156.1 ,and 163.7 MeV populating compound nuclei in the mass region of ˜180 with variable excitation energy and neutron number to investigate the nature of mass distribution. Method: The fission fragment mass distribution has been obtained by measuring the "time of flight (TOF)" of fragments with respect to the beam pulse using two multiwire proportional counters placed at θlab=±65 .5∘ with respect to the beam direction. From the TOF of fragments, their velocities were determined, which were used to obtain mass distribution taking the compound nucleus as the fissioning system. Results: For both systems, mass distributions, although, appear to be symmetric, could not be fitted well by a single Gaussian. The deviation from a single Gaussian fit is more pronounced for the 35Cl+144Sm reaction. A clear flat top mass distribution has been observed for the 35Cl+144Sm reaction at the lowest beam energy. The mass distribution is very similar to that observed in the 40Ca+142Nd reaction, which populated a similar compound nucleus, but for the pronounced dip in the

  3. Experimental Measurements of Short-Lived Fission Products from Uranium, Neptunium, Plutonium and Americium

    SciTech Connect

    Metz, Lori A.; Payne, Rosara F.; Friese, Judah I.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; Pierson, Bruce D.

    2009-11-01

    Fission yields are especially well characterized for long-lived fission products. Modeling techniques incorporate numerous assumptions and can be used to deduce information about the distribution of short-lived fission products. This work is an attempt to gather experimental (model-independent) data on the short-lived fission products. Fissile isotopes of uranium, neptunium, plutonium and americium were irradiated under pulse conditions at the Washington State University 1 MW TRIGA reactor to achieve ~108 fissions. The samples were placed on a HPGe (high purity germanium) detector to begin counting in less than 3 minutes post irradiation. The samples were counted for various time intervals ranging from 5 minutes to 1 hour. The data was then analyzed to determine which radionuclides could be quantified and compared to the published fission yield data.

  4. Calendar life-span versus fission life-span of Paramecium aurelia.

    PubMed

    Smith-Sonneborn, J; Reed, J C

    1976-01-01

    The hypothesis that paramecia use fissions, not days, to measure length of cell life-span was investigated. Parallel cell lines were grown at 27 C and at 24 C. The daily fission rate of the cells at 24 C was lower than at 27 C. If the cells count fissions, not days, the life-span in fissions should remain unchanged, whereas the cell life-span in days should increase in the lines with reduced daily fission rate. The results showed a significant increase in cell life-span in days when the cells were cultivated for 70-100% of their life cycle at 24 C. The life-span as measured by fissions, however, remained unchanged regardless of the time of the life cycle when cells were shifted to 24 C. The data indicate that, as a model system for cellular aging, paramecia are comparable to cells which use cell doublings to measure life-span.

  5. Isotopic resolution of fission fragments from 238U+12C transfer and fusion reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caamaño, M.; Rejmund, F.; Derkx, X.; Schmidt, K.-H.; Andouin, L.; Bacri, C.-O.; Barreau, G.; Benlliure, J.; Casarejos, E.; Fernández-Domínguez, B.; Gaudefroy, L.; Golabek, C.; Jurado, B.; Lemasson, A.; Navin, A.; Rejmund, M.; Roger, T.; Shrivastava, A.; Schmitt, C.; Taieb, J.

    2009-10-01

    Recent results from an experiment at GANIL, performed to investigate the main properties of fission-fragment yields and energy distributions in different fissioning nuclei as a function of the excitation energy, in a neutron-rich region of actinides, are presented. Transfer reactions in inverse kinematics between a 238U beam and a 12C target produced different actinides, within a range of excitation energy below 30 MeV. These fissioning nuclei are identified by detecting the target-like recoil, and their kinetic and excitation energy are determined from the reconstruction of the transfer reaction. The large-acceptance spectrometer VAMOS was used to identify the mass, atomic number and charge state of the fission fragments in flight. As a result, the characteristics of the fission-fragment isotopic distributions of a variety of neutron-rich actinides are observed for the first time over the complete range of fission fragments.

  6. Alignment of leading-edge and peak-picking time of arrival methods to obtain accurate source locations

    SciTech Connect

    Roussel-Dupre, R.; Symbalisty, E.; Fox, C.; and Vanderlinde, O.

    2009-08-01

    The location of a radiating source can be determined by time-tagging the arrival of the radiated signal at a network of spatially distributed sensors. The accuracy of this approach depends strongly on the particular time-tagging algorithm employed at each of the sensors. If different techniques are used across the network, then the time tags must be referenced to a common fiducial for maximum location accuracy. In this report we derive the time corrections needed to temporally align leading-edge, time-tagging techniques with peak-picking algorithms. We focus on broadband radio frequency (RF) sources, an ionospheric propagation channel, and narrowband receivers, but the final results can be generalized to apply to any source, propagation environment, and sensor. Our analytic results are checked against numerical simulations for a number of representative cases and agree with the specific leading-edge algorithm studied independently by Kim and Eng (1995) and Pongratz (2005 and 2007).

  7. Results of 30 kWt Safe Affordable Fission Engine (SAFE-30) primary heat transport testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, Kevin; van Dyke, Melissa; Houts, Mike; Godfroy, Tom; Martin, James; Dickens, Ricky; Williams, Eric; Harper, Roger; Salvil, Pat; Reid, Bob

    2001-02-01

    The use of resistance heaters to simulate heat from fission allows extensive development of fission systems to be performed in non-nuclear test facilities, saving time and money. Resistance heated tests on the Safe Affordable Fission Engine-30 kilowatt (SAFE30) test article are being performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center. This paper discusses the results of these experiments to date, and describes the additional testing that will be performed. Recommendations related to the design of testable space fission power and propulsion systems are made. .

  8. Angular momentum effects in fusion-fission and fusion-evaporation reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Plasil, F.

    1980-01-01

    The study of heavy-ion fusion reactions is complicated by the possible contributions of several mechanisms. The various types of heavy-ion-induced fission are discussed. Then compound-nucleus fission is considered with reference to fission barriers deduced from heavy-ion-induced fission. Next, the problems associated with measured values of evaporation-residue cross sections and the angular momentum dependence of incomplete fusion are examined. Finally, the de-excitation of compound nuclei is again taken up, this time with reference to the greatly enhanced ..cap alpha.. emission predicted on the basis of the rotating liquid drop model. 24 figures. (RWR)

  9. Event-by-event study of neutron observables in spontaneous and thermal fission

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, R; Randrup, J

    2011-09-14

    The event-by-event fission model FREYA is extended to spontaneous fission of actinides and a variety of neutron observables are studied for spontaneous fission and fission induced by thermal neutrons with a view towards possible applications for SNM detection. We have shown that event-by-event models of fission, such as FREYA, provide a powerful tool for studying fission neutron correlations. Our results demonstrate that these correlations are significant and exhibit a dependence on the fissioning nucleus. Since our method is phenomenological in nature, good input data are especially important. Some of the measurements employed in FREYA are rather old and statistics limited. It would be useful to repeat some of these studies with modern detector techniques. In addition, most experiments made to date have not made simultaneous measurements of the fission products and the prompt observables, such as neutron and photons. Such data, while obviously more challenging to obtain, would be valuable for achieving a more complete understanding of the fission process.

  10. A methodology for the intercomparison of nuclear fission codes using TALYS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattera, Andrea; Al-Adili, Ali; Lantz, Mattias; Pomp, Stephan; Rakopoulos, Vasileios; Solders, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    Codes for the calculation of fission observables are frequently used to describe experimentally observed phenomena as well as provide predictions in cases where measurements are missing. Assumptions in the models, and tuning of parameters within the codes, often result in a good reproduction of experimental data. In this work we propose a methodology, coded in the newly developed program DELFIN (De-Excitation of FIssion fragmeNts), that can be used to compare some of the assumptions of the various models. Our code makes use of the fission fragments information after scission and processes them in an independent and consistent fashion to obtain measurable fission observables (such as ν(A) distributions and Isomeric Fission Yield ratios). All the available information from the models, such as fragments' excitation energies, spin distributions and yields are provided as input to DELFIN that uses the nuclear reaction code TALYS to handle the de-excitation of the fission fragments. In this way we decouple the fragments relaxation from the actual fission models. We report here the first results of a comparison carried out on the GEF, Point-by-Point and FREYA models for thermal fission of 235U and 239Pu and spontaneous fission of 252Cf.

  11. Absence of singlet fission and carrier multiplication in a model conjugated polymer: tracking the triplet population through phosphorescence.

    PubMed

    Bange, Sebastian; Scherf, Ullrich; Lupton, John M

    2012-02-01

    Singlet fission, or multiple exciton generation, has been purported to occur in a variety of material systems. Given the current interest in exploiting this process in photovoltaics, we search for the direct signature of singlet fission, phosphorescence from the triplet state, in a model polymeric organic semiconductor for which photoinduced absorption experiments have implied a tripling of the intersystem crossing yield at the onset of fission. Fluorescence and phosphorescence are clearly discriminated using a picosecond gated photoluminescence excitation technique, at variable temperature. At low excitation densities, in a quasi-steady-state experiment, we detect no change of the relative triplet yield to within 4% for photon energies of almost three times the triplet energy of 2.1 eV. Identical results are obtained under nonlinear two-photon excitation. We conclude that assignments of singlet fission based on induced absorptions alone should be treated with caution and may substantially overestimate excited-state intersystem crossing yields, raising questions with regards to the applicability of the process in devices.

  12. Neutron-induced fission cross section measurements for uranium isotopes {sup 236}U and {sup 234}U at LANSCE

    SciTech Connect

    Laptev, A. B.; Tovesson, F.; Hill, T. S.

    2013-04-19

    A well established program of neutron-induced fission cross section measurement at Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is supporting the Fuel Cycle Research program (FC R and D). The incident neutron energy range spans from sub-thermal up to 200 MeV by combining two LANSCE facilities, the Lujan Center and the Weapons Neutron Research facility (WNR). The time-of-flight method is implemented to measure the incident neutron energy. A parallel-plate fission ionization chamber was used as a fission fragment detector. The event rate ratio between the investigated foil and a standard {sup 235}U foil is converted into a fission cross section ratio. In addition to previously measured data new measurements include {sup 236}U data which is being analyzed, and {sup 234}U data acquired in the 2011-2012 LANSCE run cycle. The new data complete the full suite of Uranium isotopes which were investigated with this experimental approach. Obtained data are presented in comparison with existing evaluations and previous data.

  13. Energy production using fission fragment rockets

    SciTech Connect

    Chapline, G.; Matsuda, Y.

    1991-08-01

    Fission fragment rockets are nuclear reactors with a core consisting of thin fibers in a vacuum, and which use magnetic fields to extract the fission fragments from the reactor core. As an alternative to ordinary nuclear reactors, fission fragment rockets would have the following advantages: Approximately twice as efficient if one can directly convert the fission fragment energy into electricity; by reducing the buildup of a fission fragment inventory in the reactor one could avoid a Chernobyl type disaster; and collecting the fission fragments outside the reactor could simplify the waste disposal problem. 6 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Microscopic modeling of mass and charge distributions in the spontaneous fission of 240Pu

    DOE PAGES

    Sandhukhan, Jhilam; Nazarewicz, Witold; Schunck, Nicolas

    2016-01-20

    We propose a methodology to calculate microscopically the mass and charge distributions of spontaneous fission yields. We combine the multidimensional minimization of collective action for fission with stochastic Langevin dynamics to track the relevant fission paths from the ground-state configuration up to scission. The nuclear potential energy and collective inertia governing the tunneling motion are obtained with nuclear density functional theory in the collective space of shape deformations and pairing. As a result, we obtain a quantitative agreement with experimental data and find that both the charge and mass distributions in the spontaneous fission of 240Pu are sensitive both tomore » the dissipation in collective motion and to adiabatic fission characteristics.« less

  15. The Transition from Higher Education to Employment in Europe: The Analysis of the Time to Obtain the First Job

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salas-Velasco, Manuel

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the determinants of the transition from higher education to work across Europe using various specifications of duration models and a one-time multi-country survey of university graduates from nine European countries. Results point to differences between the North and South of Europe in the difficulty of getting a first job.…

  16. Plasma density evolution in plasma opening switch obtained by a time-resolved sensitive He-Ne interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lin; Ren, Jing; Guo, Fan; Zhou, LiangJi; Li, Ye; He, An; Jiang, Wei

    2014-03-01

    To understand the formation process of vacuum gap in coaxial microsecond conduction time plasma opening switch (POS), we have made measurements of the line-integrated plasma density during switch operation using a time-resolved sensitive He-Ne interferometer. The conduction current and conduction time in experiments are about 120 kA and 1 μs, respectively. As a result, more than 85% of conduction current has been transferred to an inductive load with rise time of 130 ns. The radial dependence of the density is measured by changing the radial location of the line-of-sight for shots with the same nominal POS parameters. During the conduction phase, the line-integrated plasma density in POS increases at all radial locations over the gun-only case by further ionization of material injected from the guns. The current conduction is observed to cause a radial redistribution of the switch plasma. A vacuum gap forms rapidly in the plasma at 5.5 mm from the center conductor, which is consistent with the location where magnetic pressure is the largest, allowing current to be transferred from the POS to the load.

  17. Fission gas in thoria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuganathan, Navaratnarajah; Ghosh, Partha S.; Galvin, Conor O. T.; Arya, Ashok K.; Dutta, Bijon K.; Dey, Gautam K.; Grimes, Robin W.

    2017-03-01

    The fission gases Xe and Kr, formed during normal reactor operation, are known to degrade fuel performance, particularly at high burn-up. Using first-principles density functional theory together with a dispersion correction (DFT + D), in ThO2 we calculate the energetics of neutral and charged point defects, the di-vacancy (DV), different neutral tri-vacancies (NTV), the charged tetravacancy (CTV) defect cluster geometries and their interaction with Xe and Kr. The most favourable incorporation point defect site for Xe or Kr in defective ThO2 is the fully charged thorium vacancy. The lowest energy NTV in larger supercells of ThO2 is NTV3, however, a single Xe atom is most stable when accommodated within a NTV1. The di-vacancy (DV) is a significantly less favoured incorporation site than the NTV1 but the CTV offers about the same incorporation energy. Incorporation of a second gas atom in a NTV is a high energy process and more unfavourable than accommodation within an existing Th vacancy. The bi-NTV (BNTV) cluster geometry studied will accommodate one or two gas atoms with low incorporation energies but the addition of a third gas atom incurs a high energy penalty. The tri-NTV cluster (TNTV) forms a larger space which accommodates three gas atoms but again there is a penalty to accommodate a fourth gas atom. By considering the energy to form the defect sites, solution energies were generated showing that in ThO2-x the most favourable solution equilibrium site is the NTV1 while in ThO2 it is the DV.

  18. Thorium-uranium fission radiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, E. L.; Weiss, J. R.; Burnett, D. S.; Woolum, D. S.

    1976-01-01

    Results are described for studies designed to develop routine methods for in-situ measurement of the abundance of Th and U on a microscale in heterogeneous samples, especially rocks, using the secondary high-energy neutron flux developed when the 650 MeV proton beam of an accelerator is stopped in a 42 x 42 cm diam Cu cylinder. Irradiations were performed at three different locations in a rabbit tube in the beam stop area, and thick metal foils of Bi, Th, and natural U as well as polished silicate glasses of known U and Th contents were used as targets and were placed in contact with mica which served as a fission track detector. In many cases both bare and Cd-covered detectors were exposed. The exposed mica samples were etched in 48% HF and the fission tracks counted by conventional transmitted light microscopy. Relative fission cross sections are examined, along with absolute Th track production rates, interaction tracks, and a comparison of measured and calculated fission rates. The practicality of fast neutron radiography revealed by experiments to data is discussed primarily for Th/U measurements, and mixtures of other fissionable nuclei are briefly considered.

  19. Thorium-uranium fission radiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, E. L.; Weiss, J. R.; Burnett, D. S.; Woolum, D. S.

    1976-01-01

    Results are described for studies designed to develop routine methods for in-situ measurement of the abundance of Th and U on a microscale in heterogeneous samples, especially rocks, using the secondary high-energy neutron flux developed when the 650 MeV proton beam of an accelerator is stopped in a 42 x 42 cm diam Cu cylinder. Irradiations were performed at three different locations in a rabbit tube in the beam stop area, and thick metal foils of Bi, Th, and natural U as well as polished silicate glasses of known U and Th contents were used as targets and were placed in contact with mica which served as a fission track detector. In many cases both bare and Cd-covered detectors were exposed. The exposed mica samples were etched in 48% HF and the fission tracks counted by conventional transmitted light microscopy. Relative fission cross sections are examined, along with absolute Th track production rates, interaction tracks, and a comparison of measured and calculated fission rates. The practicality of fast neutron radiography revealed by experiments to data is discussed primarily for Th/U measurements, and mixtures of other fissionable nuclei are briefly considered.

  20. A scintillating fission detector for neutron flux measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Stange, Sy; Esch, Ernst I; Burgett, Eric A; May, Iain; Muenchausen, Ross E; Taw, Felicia; Tovesson, Fredrik K

    2010-01-01

    Neutron flux monitors are commonly used for a variety of nuclear physics applications. A scintillating neutron detector, consisting of a liquid scintillator loaded with fissionable material, has been developed, characterized, and tested in the beam line at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, and shows a significant improvement in neutron sensitivity compared with a conventional fission chamber. Recent research on nanocomposite-based scintillators for gamma-ray detection indicates that this approach can be extended to load nanoparticles of fissionable material into a scintillating matrix, with up to three orders of magnitude higher loading than typical fission chambers. This will result in a rugged, cost-efficient detector with high efficiency, a short signal rise time, and the ability to be used in low neutron-flux environments. Initial efforts to utilize the luminescence of uranyl oxide to eliminate the need for wavelength-shifting dyes were unsuccessful. Excitation of uranyl compounds has been reported at wavelengths ranging from 266 nm to 532 nm. However, neither the 300 nm emission of toluene, nor the 350 nm emission of PPO, nor the 410 nm emission of POPOP resulted in significant excitation of and emission by uranyl oxide. As indicated by UV/visible spectroscopy, light emitted at these wavelengths was absorbed by the colored solution. {sup 235}U remains the most attractive candidate for a fissionable scintillator, due to its high fission cross-section and lack of a threshold fission energy, but all solutions containing molecular uranium compounds will be colored, most more highly than the U{sup 6+} compounds used here. Research is therefore continuing toward the fabrication of uranium nanoparticles, in which, due to Rayleigh scattering, the coloration should be less pronounced. The characterization of the thorium-loaded liquid scintillator and the fabrication of the 100 mL detectors for use at LANSCE demonstrated the feasibility of loading fissionable

  1. Effects of glycerol, equilibration time and antioxidants on post-thaw functional integrity of bovine spermatozoa directly obtained from epididymis.

    PubMed

    Almeida, F C; Silva, S V; Souza, H M; Gomes, W A; Lima Filho, J A C; Wicke, A A; Batista, A M; Guerra, M M P

    2017-04-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the effect of stabilisation times, glycerol concentration, and the catalase and superoxide dismutase supplementation of diluent on parameters of frozen-thawed spermatozoa from epididymis of Nelore bulls: Experiment 1: spermatozoa diluted in Tris-egg yolk with glycerol (3%, 5% or 7%) and stabilisation times (0, 2 or 4 hr at 5°C); Experiment 2: Tris-egg yolk only, Tris-egg yolk with catalase (CAT, 50 or 100 U ml(-1) ) or superoxide dismutase (SOD, 50 or 100 U ml(-1) ). Frozen-thawed spermatozoa were evaluated for kinetic parameters, plasma membrane and acrosome integrity, mitochondrial activity and IVF capacity. ALH and BCF were affected (p < .05) by glycerol at 3% after 4-hr equilibration time and 7% after 2-hr equilibration time. Glycerol 3% had lower (p < .05) iPM and iAc after 4 hr. Glycerol 5% had greater (p < .05) hPMM after 4 hr and iAc after 2 hr than at 0 hr. SOD 100 U ml(-1) had lower (p < .05) linearity and wobble compared to control group. No was observed differences to fertilisation rate (p < .05) among groups. In conclusion, glycerol 5% in Tris-egg yolk extender for 4 hr is suitable for the preservation of sperm kinetics and membrane integrity. CAT (50 and 100 U ml(-1) ) or SOD (50-100 U ml(-1) ) had no beneficial effects on sperm kinetics, plasma and acrosomal membrane integrity, mitochondrial activity or the capacity for IVF of frozen-thawed spermatozoa from epididymis of Nelore bulls. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Optimization of preservation and storage time of sponge tissues to obtain quality mRNA for next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Riesgo, Ana; Pérez-Porro, Alicia R; Carmona, Susana; Leys, Sally P; Giribet, Gonzalo

    2012-03-01

    Transcriptome sequencing with next-generation sequencing technologies has the potential for addressing many long-standing questions about the biology of sponges. Transcriptome sequence quality depends on good cDNA libraries, which requires high-quality mRNA. Standard protocols for preserving and isolating mRNA often require optimization for unusual tissue types. Our aim was assessing the efficiency of two preservation modes, (i) flash freezing with liquid nitrogen (LN₂) and (ii) immersion in RNAlater, for the recovery of high-quality mRNA from sponge tissues. We also tested whether the long-term storage of samples at -80 °C affects the quantity and quality of mRNA. We extracted mRNA from nine sponge species and analysed the quantity and quality (A260/230 and A260/280 ratios) of mRNA according to preservation method, storage time, and taxonomy. The quantity and quality of mRNA depended significantly on the preservation method used (LN₂) outperforming RNAlater), the sponge species, and the interaction between them. When the preservation was analysed in combination with either storage time or species, the quantity and A260/230 ratio were both significantly higher for LN₂-preserved samples. Interestingly, individual comparisons for each preservation method over time indicated that both methods performed equally efficiently during the first month, but RNAlater lost efficiency in storage times longer than 2 months compared with flash-frozen samples. In summary, we find that for long-term preservation of samples, flash freezing is the preferred method. If LN₂ is not available, RNAlater can be used, but mRNA extraction during the first month of storage is advised. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Using time separation of signals to obtain independent proton and antiproton beam position measurements around the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Webber, R.; /Fermilab

    2005-05-01

    Independent position measurement of the counter-circulating proton and antiproton beams in the Tevatron, never supported by the original Tevatron Beam Position Monitor (BPM) system, presents a challenge to upgrading that system. This paper discusses the possibilities and complications of using time separation of proton and antiproton signals at the numerous BPM locations and for the dynamic Tevatron operating conditions. Results of measurements using one such method are presented.

  4. Testing in Support of Space Fission System Development and Qualification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Mike; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon; Garber, Anne; Godfrey, Tom; Martin, Jim; Pearson, Boise; Webster, Kenny

    2007-01-01

    Extensive data would be required for the qualification of a fission surface power (FSP) system. The strategy for qualifying a FSP system could have a significant programmatic impact. This paper explores potential options that could be used for qualifying FSP systems, including cost-effective means for obtaining required data. three methods for obtaining qualification data are analysis, non-nuclear testing, and nuclear testing. It has been over 40 years since the US qualified a space reactor for launch. During that time, advances have been made related to all three methods. Perhaps the greatest advancement has occurred in the area of computational tools for design and analysis. Tools that have been developed, coupled with modem computers, would have a significant impact on a FSP qualification. This would be especially true for systems with materials and fuels operating well within temperature, irradiation damage, and burnup limits. The ability to perform highly realistic non-nuclear testing has also advanced throughout the past four decades. Instrumented thermal simulators were developed during the 1970s and 1980s to assist in the development, operation, and assessment of terrestrial fission systems. Instrumented thermal simulators optimized for assisting in the development, operation, and assessment of modem FSP systems have been under development (and utilized) since 1998. These thermal simulators enable heat from fission to be closely mimicked (axial power profile, radial power profile, temperature, heat flux, etc.} and extensive data to be taken from the core region. Both steady-state and transient operation can be tested. For transient testing, reactivity feedback is calculated (or measured in cold/warm criticals) based on reactor temperature and/or dimensional changes. Pin power during a transient is then calculated based on the reactivity feedback that would occur given measured values of temperature and/or dimensional change. In this way nonnuclear testing

  5. Microbiology specimens obtained at the time of surgical lung biopsy for interstitial lung disease: clinical yield and cost analysis.

    PubMed

    Fibla, Juan J; Brunelli, Alessandro; Allen, Mark S; Wigle, Dennis; Shen, Robert; Nichols, Francis; Deschamps, Claude; Cassivi, Stephen D

    2012-01-01

    In efforts to obtain complete results, current practice in surgical lung biopsy (LB) for interstitial lung disease (ILD) recommends sending lung tissue samples for bacterial, mycobacterial, fungal, and viral cultures. This study assesses the value of this practice by evaluating the microbiology findings obtained from LB for ILD and their associated costs. A total of 296 consecutive patients (140 women, 156 men, median age=61 years) underwent LB for ILD from 2002 to 2009. All had lung tissue sent for microbiology examination. Microbiology results and resultant changes in patient management were analyzed retrospectively. A cost analysis was performed based upon nominal hospital charges adjusted on current inflation rates. Cost data included cultures, stains, smears, direct fluorescent antibody studies, and microbiologist consulting fees. As many as 25 patients (8.4%) underwent open LB and 271 (91.6%) underwent thoracoscopic LB. A total of 592 specimens were assessed (range 1-4 per patient). The most common pathologic diagnoses were idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in 122 (41.2%), cryptogenic organizing pneumonia in 31 (10.5%), and respiratory bronchiolitis ILD in 16 (5.4%). Microbiology testing was negative in 174 patients (58.8%). A total of 118 of 122 (96.7%) positive results were clinically considered to be contaminants and resulted in no change in clinical management. The most common contaminants were Propionibacterium acnes (38 patients; 31%) and Penicillium fungus (16 patients; 13%). In only four patients (1.4%), the organism cultured (Nocardia one, Histoplasma one, and Aspergillus fumigatus two) resulted in a change in clinical management. The cost of microbiology studies per specimen was $984 (€709), with a total cost for the study cohort being $582,000 (€420,000). The yield and impact on clinical management of microbiology specimens from LB for ILD is very low. Its routine use in LB is questionable. We suggest it should be limited to those cases of ILD with

  6. 42 CFR 137.135 - May the Secretary request and obtain an extension of time of the 45 day review period?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Final Offer § 137.135 May the Secretary request and obtain an extension of time of the...

  7. Simulations of the stopping efficiencies of fission ion guides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solders, Andreas; Al-Adili, Ali; Gorelov, Dmitry; Jansson, Kaj; Jokinen, Ari; Kolhinen, Veli; Lantz, Mattias; Mattera, Andrea; Moore, Ian; Nilsson, Niklas; Norlin, Martin; Penttilä, Heikki; Pomp, Stephan; Prokofiev, Alexander V.; Rakopoulos, Vasileios; Rinta-Antila, Sami; Simutkin, Vasily

    2017-09-01

    With the Ion Guide Isotope Separator On-Line (IGISOL) facility, located at the University of Jyväskylä, products of nuclear reactions are separated by mass. The high resolving power of the JYFLTRAP Penning trap, with full separation of individual nuclides, capacitates the study of nuclides far from the line of stability. For the production of neutron-rich medium-heavy nuclides, fissioning of actinides is a feasible reaction. This can be achieved with protons from an in-house accelerator or, alternatively, with neutrons through the addition of a newly developed Be(p,xn)-converter. The hereby-obtained fission products are used in nuclear data measurements, for example fission yields, nuclear masses, Q-values and decay spectroscopy. Prior to separation, the ionized reaction products are stopped in a helium-filled gas cell, referred to as the ion-guide. In this work we present simulations of the stopping of fission products in an ion guide developed for neutron-induced fission. The production and extraction rates are evaluated and compared against experimental values.

  8. Neutron-multiplicity experiments for enhanced fission modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Adili, Ali; Tarrío, Diego; Hambsch, Franz-Josef; Göök, Alf; Jansson, Kaj; Solders, Andreas; Rakapoulos, Vasileios; Gustavsson, Cecilia; Lantz, Mattias; Mattera, Andrea; Oberstedt, Stephan; Prokofiev, Alexander V.; Sundén, Erik A.; Vidali, Marzio; Österlund, Michael; Pomp, Stephan

    2017-09-01

    The nuclear de-excitation process of fission fragments (FF) provides fundamental information for the understanding of nuclear fission and nuclear structure in neutron-rich isotopes. The variation of the prompt-neutron multiplicity, ν(A), as a function of the incident neutron energy (En) is one of many open questions. It leads to significantly different treatments in various fission models and implies that experimental data are analyzed based on contradicting assumptions. One critical question is whether the additional excitation energy (Eexc) is manifested through an increase of ν(A) for all fragments or for the heavy ones only. A systematic investigation of ν(A) as a function of En has been initiated. Correlations between prompt-fission neutrons and fission fragments are obtained by using liquid scintillators in conjunction with a Frisch-grid ionization chamber. The proof-of-principle has been achieved on the reaction 235U(nth,f) at the Van De Graff (VdG) accelerator of the JRC-Geel using a fully digital data acquisition system. Neutrons from 252Cf(sf) were measured separately to quantify the neutron-scattering component due to surrounding shielding material and to determine the intrinsic detector efficiency. Prelimenary results on ν(A) and spectrum in correlation with FF properties are presented.

  9. Fission Fragment Mass Distributions and Total Kinetic Energy Release of 235-Uranium and 238-Uranium in Neutron-Induced Fission at Intermediate and Fast Neutron Energies

    SciTech Connect

    Duke, Dana Lynn

    2015-11-12

    This Ph.D. dissertation describes a measurement of the change in mass distributions and average total kinetic energy (TKE) release with increasing incident neutron energy for fission of 235U and 238U. Although fission was discovered over seventy-five years ago, open questions remain about the physics of the fission process. The energy of the incident neutron, En, changes the division of energy release in the resulting fission fragments, however, the details of energy partitioning remain ambiguous because the nucleus is a many-body quantum system. Creating a full theoretical model is difficult and experimental data to validate existing models are lacking. Additional fission measurements will lead to higher-quality models of the fission process, therefore improving applications such as the development of next-generation nuclear reactors and defense. This work also paves the way for precision experiments such as the Time Projection Chamber (TPC) for fission cross section measurements and the Spectrometer for Ion Determination in Fission (SPIDER) for precision mass yields.

  10. Cross section for {sup 246}Cm subbarrier fission

    SciTech Connect

    Alekseev, A. A.; Bergman, A. A.; Berlev, A. I.; Koptelov, E. A.; Samylin, B. F.; Trufanov, A. M.; Fursov, B. I.; Shorin, V. S.

    2010-10-15

    The cross section for {sup 246}Cm fission induced by neutrons of energy in the range 0.1 eV-20 keV was measured by the neutron lead slowing-down spectrometer (LSDS-100) of the Institute for Nuclear Research (INR, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow). The parameters of the resonance area and of the fission width were evaluated for several low-lying s-wave neutron resonances. The parameters of the intermediate structure in the cross section for the subbarrier fusion of {sup 246}Cm nuclei were found. The results obtained in this way were compared with available experimental data and with recommended evaluated data.

  11. In-beam fission study for Heavy Element Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishio, Katsuhisa

    2013-12-01

    Fission fragment mass distributions were measured in heavy-ion induced fissions using 238U target nucleus. The measured mass distributions changed drastically with incident energy. The results are explained by a change of the ratio between fusion and qasifission with nuclear orientation. A calculation based on a fluctuation dissipation model reproduced the mass distributions and their incident energy dependence. Fusion probability was determined in the analysis. Evaporation residue cross sections were calculated with a statistical model in the reactions of 30Si + 238U and 34S + 238U using the obtained fusion probability in the entrance channel. The results agree with the measured cross sections for seaborgium and hassium isotopes.

  12. Early-Time Flux Measurements of SN 2014J Obtained with Small Robotic Telescopes: Extending the AAVSO Light Curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poppe, B.; Plaggenborg, T.; Zheng, W.; Shivvers, I.; Itagaki, K.; Filippenko, A. V.; Kunz, J.

    2015-06-01

    In this work, early-time photometry of supernova (SN) 2014J is presented, extending the AAVSO CCD database to prediscovery dates. The applicability of NASA's small robotic MicroObservatory Network telescopes for photometric measurements is evaluated. Prediscovery and postdiscovery photometry of SN 2014J is measured from images taken by two different telescopes of the network, and is compared to measurements from the Katzman Automatic Imaging Telescope and the Itagaki Observatory. In the early light-curve phase (which exhibits stable spectral behavior with constant color indices), these data agree with reasonably high accuracy (better than 0.05 mag around maximum brightness, and 0.15 mag at earlier times). Owing to the changing spectral energy distribution of the SN and the different spectral characteristics of the systems used, differences increase after maximum light. We augment light curves of SN 2014J downloaded from the American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO) online database with these data, and consider the complete brightness evolution of this important Type Ia SN. Furthermore, the first detection presented here (Jan. 15.427, 2014) appears to be one of the earliest observations of SN 2014J yet published, taken less than a day after the SN exploded.

  13. PRODUCING ENERGY AND RADIOACTIVE FISSION PRODUCTS

    DOEpatents

    Segre, E.; Kennedy, J.W.; Seaborg, G.T.

    1959-10-13

    This patent broadly discloses the production of plutonium by the neutron bombardment of uranium to produce neptunium which decays to plutonium, and the fissionability of plutonium by neutrons, both fast and thermal, to produce energy and fission products.

  14. Fission properties of the heaviest elements

    SciTech Connect

    Moller, P. |||; Nix, R.

    1995-03-01

    The authors discuss fission properties of the heaviest elements. In particular they focus on stability with respect to spontaneous fission and on the prospects of extending the region of known nuclei beyond the peninsula of currently known nuclides.

  15. Fission Matrix Capability for MCNP Monte Carlo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Forrest; Carney, Sean; Kiedrowski, Brian; Martin, William

    2014-06-01

    We describe recent experience and results from implementing a fission matrix capability into the MCNP Monte Carlo code. The fission matrix can be used to provide estimates of the fundamental mode fission distribution, the dominance ratio, the eigenvalue spectrum, and higher mode forward and adjoint eigenfunctions of the fission neutron source distribution. It can also be used to accelerate the convergence of the power method iterations and to provide basis functions for higher-order perturbation theory. The higher-mode fission sources can be used in MCNP to determine higher-mode forward fluxes and tallies, and work is underway to provide higher-mode adjoint-weighted fluxes and tallies. Past difficulties and limitations of the fission matrix approach are overcome with a new sparse representation of the matrix, permitting much larger and more accurate fission matrix representations. The new fission matrix capabilities provide a significant advance in the state-of-the-art for Monte Carlo criticality calculations.

  16. Comparison between data obtained through real-time data capture by SMS and a retrospective telephone interview.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Bendt; Wedderkopp, Niels

    2010-05-26

    The aims of the current study were: a) to quantitatively compare data obtained by Short Message Service (SMS) with data from a telephone interview, b) to investigate whether the respondents had found it acceptable to answer the weekly two SMS questions, c) to explore whether an additional weekly third SMS question would have been acceptable, and d) to calculate the total cost of using the SMS technology. SMS technology was used each week for 53 weeks to monitor 260 patients with low back pain (LBP) in a clinical study. Each week, these patients were asked the same two questions: "How many days in the past week have you had problems due to LBP?" and "How many days in the past week have you been off work due to LBP problems?" The last 31 patients were also contacted by telephone 53 weeks after recruitment and asked to recall the number of days with LBP problems and days off work for the a) past week, b) past month, and c) past year. The two sets of answers to the same questions for these patients were compared. Patients were also asked whether a third SMS question would have been acceptable. The test-retest reliability was compared for 1-week, 1-month, and 1-year. Bland-Altman limits of agreement were calculated. The two quantitative questions were reported as percentages. Actual costs for the SMS-Track-Questionnaire (SMS-T-Q) were compared with estimated costs for paper version surveys. There was high agreement between telephone interview and SMS-T-Q responses for the 1-week and 1-month recall. In contrast, the 1-year recall showed very low agreement. A third SMS question would have been acceptable. The SMS system was considerably less costly than a paper-based survey, beyond a certain threshold number of questionnaires. SMS-T-Q appears to be a cheaper and better method to collect reliable LBP data than paper-based surveys.

  17. Obtaining contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Barnes, M; Maxwell, G

    1980-01-01

    A survey of 3 sample urban populations of adolescent males and females was conducted in New Zealand to ascertain whether difficulties in obtaining contraceptives was a major factor contributing toward the high rate of unprotected intercourse among young people. The samples included 246 high school students, 80 university students, and 70 individuals from the general population. There was a 47% refusal rate so the interviewed subjects could not be considered representative of the total populations. Subjects were asked to indicate the degree of embarrassment they would experience in obtaining contraceptives from a variety of sources including some sources which were currently not available. Males felt somewhat more embarrassed in obtaining contraceptives than females. About 1/3 of the males said that they felt embarrassed when obtaining contraceptives at a chemist's shop, especially if they were served by a female shop assistant. Males preferred obtaining contraceptives from sources which provided them with a high degree of privacy and anonymity. Males favored obtaining contraceptives from mail order houses, from vending machines, and from male chemists who made contraceptives available in a special display area. Many males said that they would use the services of a male family planning clinic if such services were made available. Most female methods were available through doctors and females reported less embarrassment in obtaining contraceptives than males. About 1/3 of the females preferred getting contraceptive advice and methods from female doctors, and 1/2 of the females felt it was important to know how the physician felt about contraception before seeking his advice. Current methods of distribution are inadequate and new sources associated with less embarrassment are needed.

  18. Initial Back-to-Back Fission Chamber Testing in ATRC

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin Chase; Troy Unruh; Joy Rempe

    2014-06-01

    Development and testing of in-pile, real-time neutron sensors for use in Materials Test Reactor experiments is an ongoing project at Idaho National Laboratory. The Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility has sponsored a series of projects to evaluate neutron detector options in the Advanced Test Reactor Critical Facility (ATRC). Special hardware was designed and fabricated to enable testing of the detectors in the ATRC. Initial testing of Self-Powered Neutron Detectors and miniature fission chambers produced promising results. Follow-on testing required more experiment hardware to be developed. The follow-on testing used a Back-to-Back fission chamber with the intent to provide calibration data, and a means of measuring spectral indices. As indicated within this document, this is the first time in decades that BTB fission chambers have been used in INL facilities. Results from these fission chamber measurements provide a baseline reference for future measurements with Back-to-Back fission chambers.

  19. Fission-Fusion Neutron Source Progress Report Sept 30, 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Chapline, G F; Daffin, F; Clark, R

    2010-02-19

    In this report the authors describe the progress made in FY09 in evaluating the feasibility of a new concept for using the DT fusion reaction to produce intense pulses of 14 MeV neutrons. In this new scheme the heating of the DT is accomplished using fission fragments rather than ion beams as in conventional magnet confinement fusion schemes or lasers in inertial confinement schemes. As a source of fission fragments they propose using a dust reactor concept introduced some time ago by one of us (RC). An attractive feature of this approach is that there is no need for a large auxiliary power source to heat the DT plasma to the point where self-sustaining fusion become possible. Their scheme does require pulsed magnetic fields, but generating these fields requires only a modest power source. The dust reactor that they propose using for their neutron source would use micron-sized UC pellets suspended in a vacuum as the reactor fuel. Surrounding the fuel with a moderator such as heavy water (D{sub 2}O) would allow the reactor to operate as a thermal reactor and require only modest amounts of HEU. The scheme for using fission fragments to generate intense pulses of 14 MeV neutrons is based on the fission fragment rocket idea. In the fission fragment rocket scheme it was contemplated that the fission fragments produced in a low density reactor core could be guided out of the reactor by large magnetic fields used to form a 'rocket exhaust'. Their adaptation of this idea for the purposes of making a neutron source involves using the fission fragments escaping from one side of a tandem magnet mirror to heat DT gas confined in the adjacent magnetic trap.

  20. Chromatin architectures at fission yeast transcriptional promoters and replication origins

    PubMed Central

    Givens, Robert M.; Lai, William K. M.; Rizzo, Jason M.; Bard, Jonathan E.; Mieczkowski, Piotr A.; Leatherwood, Janet; Huberman, Joel A.; Buck, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    We have used micrococcal nuclease (MNase) digestion followed by deep sequencing in order to obtain a higher resolution map than previously available of nucleosome positions in the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Our data confirm an unusually short average nucleosome repeat length, ∼152 bp, in fission yeast and that transcriptional start sites (TSSs) are associated with nucleosome-depleted regions (NDRs), ordered nucleosome arrays downstream and less regularly spaced upstream nucleosomes. In addition, we found enrichments for associated function in four of eight groups of genes clustered according to chromatin configurations near TSSs. At replication origins, our data revealed asymmetric localization of pre-replication complex (pre-RC) proteins within large NDRs—a feature that is conserved in fission and budding yeast and is therefore likely to be conserved in other eukaryotic organisms. PMID:22573177

  1. Fission induced swelling of U-Mo/Al dispersion fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yeon Soo; Jeong, G. Y.; Park, J. M.; Robinson, A. B.

    2015-10-01

    Fission-induced swelling of U-Mo/Al dispersion fuel meat was measured using microscopy images obtained from post-irradiation examination. The data of reduced-size plate-type test samples and rod-type test samples were employed for this work. A model to predict the meat swelling of U-Mo/Al dispersion fuel was developed. This model is composed of several submodels including a model for interaction layer (IL) growth between U-Mo and Al matrix, a model for IL thickness to IL volume conversion, a correlation for the fission-induced swelling of U-Mo alloy particles, a correlation for the fission-induced swelling of IL, and models of U-Mo and Al consumption by IL growth. The model was validated using full-size plate data that were not included in the model development.

  2. Prompt Fission γ-ray Spectra Characteristics - A First Summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberstedt, S.; Billnert, R.; Gatera, A.; Geerts, W.; Halipré, P.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Lebois, M.; Oberstedt, A.; Marini, P.; Vidali, M.; Wilson, J. N.

    In this work we give an overview of our investigations of prompt γ-ray emission in nuclear fission. This work was conducted during the last five years in response to a high priority nuclear data request formulated by the OECD/NEA. The aim was to reveal data deficiencies responsible for a severe under-prediction of the prompt γ heating in nuclear reactor cores. We obtained new prompt fission γ-ray spectral (PFGS) data for 252Cf(SF) as well as for thermal-neutron induced fission on 235U(nth,f) and 241Pu(nth,f). In addition, first PFGS measurements with a fast-neutron beam were accomplished, too. The impact of the new data and future data needs are discussed.

  3. Uncertainty analysis of fission fraction for reactor antineutrino experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, X. B.; Lu, F.; Wang, L. Z.; Chen, Y. X.; Zhong, W. L.; An, F. P.

    2016-06-01

    Reactor simulation is an important source of uncertainties for a reactor neutrino experiment. Therefore, how to evaluate the antineutrino flux uncertainty results from reactor simulation is an important question. In this study, a method of the antineutrino flux uncertainty result from reactor simulation was proposed by considering the correlation coefficient. In order to use this method in the Daya Bay antineutrino experiment, the open source code DRAGON was improved and used for obtaining the fission fraction and correlation coefficient. The average fission fraction between DRAGON and SCIENCE code was compared and the difference was less than 5% for all the four isotopes. The uncertainty of fission fraction was evaluated by comparing simulation atomic density of four main isotopes with Takahama-3 experiment measurement. After that, the uncertainty of the antineutrino flux results from reactor simulation was evaluated as 0.6% per core for Daya Bay antineutrino experiment.

  4. H-1 Relaxation Times of Metabolites in Biological Samples Obtained with Nondestructive Ex-vivo Slow-MAS NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Jian Zhi; Wind, Robert A.; Rommereim, Donald N.

    2006-03-01

    Methods suitable for measuring 1H relaxation times such as T1, T2 and T1p, in small sized biological objects including live cells, excised organs and tissues, oil seeds etc., were developed in this work. This was achieved by combining inversion-recovery, spin-echo, or spin lock segment with the phase-adjusted spinning sideband (PASS) technique that was applied at slow sample spinning rate. Here, 2D-PASS was used to produce a high-resolution 1H spectrum free from the magnetic susceptibility broadening so that the relaxation parameters of individual metabolite can be determined. Because of the slow spinning employed, tissue and cell damage due to sample spinning is minimized. The methodologies were demonstrated by measuring 1H T1, T2 and T1p of metabolites in excised rat livers and sesame seeds at spinning rates of as low as 40 Hz.

  5. A computer program to obtain time-correlated gust loads for nonlinear aircraft using the matched-filter-based method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Robert C.; Pototzky, Anthony S.; Perry, Boyd, III

    1994-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center has, for several years, conducted research in the area of time-correlated gust loads for linear and nonlinear aircraft. The results of this work led NASA to recommend that the Matched-Filter-Based One-Dimensional Search Method be used for gust load analyses of nonlinear aircraft. This manual describes this method, describes a FORTRAN code which performs this method, and presents example calculations for a sample nonlinear aircraft model. The name of the code is MFD1DS (Matched-Filter-Based One-Dimensional Search). The program source code, the example aircraft equations of motion, a sample input file, and a sample program output are all listed in the appendices.

  6. Is the Time Necessary to Obtain Preoperative Stabilization a Predictive Index of Outcome in Neonatal Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia?

    PubMed Central

    Gentili, Andrea; De Rose, Rosina; Iannella, Elisa; Bacchi Reggiani, Maria Letizia; Lima, Mario; Baroncini, Simonetta

    2012-01-01

    Background. The study aims to verify if the time of preoperative stabilization (≤24 or >24 hours) could be predictive for the severity of clinical condition among patients affected by congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Methods. 55 of the 73 patients enrolled in the study achieved presurgical stabilization and underwent surgical correction. Respiratory and hemodynamic indexes, postnatal scores, the need for advanced respiratory support, the length of HFOV, tracheal intubation, PICU, and hospital stay were compared between patients reaching stabilization in ≤24 or >24 hours. Results. Both groups had a 100% survival rate. Neonates stabilized in ≤24 hours are more regular in the postoperative period and had an easier intensive care path; those taking >24 hours showed more complications and their care path was longer and more complex. Conclusions. The length of preoperative stabilization does not affect mortality, but is a valid parameter to identify difficulties in survivors' clinical pathway. PMID:22262976

  7. Is the time necessary to obtain preoperative stabilization a predictive index of outcome in neonatal congenital diaphragmatic hernia?

    PubMed

    Gentili, Andrea; De Rose, Rosina; Iannella, Elisa; Bacchi Reggiani, Maria Letizia; Lima, Mario; Baroncini, Simonetta

    2012-01-01

    Background. The study aims to verify if the time of preoperative stabilization (≤24 or >24 hours) could be predictive for the severity of clinical condition among patients affected by congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Methods. 55 of the 73 patients enrolled in the study achieved presurgical stabilization and underwent surgical correction. Respiratory and hemodynamic indexes, postnatal scores, the need for advanced respiratory support, the length of HFOV, tracheal intubation, PICU, and hospital stay were compared between patients reaching stabilization in ≤24 or >24 hours. Results. Both groups had a 100% survival rate. Neonates stabilized in ≤24 hours are more regular in the postoperative period and had an easier intensive care path; those taking >24 hours showed more complications and their care path was longer and more complex. Conclusions. The length of preoperative stabilization does not affect mortality, but is a valid parameter to identify difficulties in survivors' clinical pathway.

  8. Polymer binding to carbon nanotubes in aqueous dispersions: residence time on the nanotube surface as obtained by NMR diffusometry.

    PubMed

    Frise, Anton E; Pagès, Guilhem; Shtein, Michael; Pri Bar, Ilan; Regev, Oren; Furó, István

    2012-03-08

    The binding of block copolymer Pluronic F-127 in aqueous dispersions of single- (SWCNT) and multiwalled (MWCNT) carbon nanotubes has been studied by pulsed-field-gradient (PFG) (1)H NMR spectroscopy. We show that a major fraction of polymers exist as a free species while a minor fraction is bound to the carbon nanotubes (CNT). The polymers exchange between these two states with residence times on the nanotube surface of 24 ± 5 ms for SWCNT and of 54 ± 11 ms for MWCNT. The CNT concentration in the solution was determined by improved thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) indicating that the concentration of SWCNT dispersed by F-127 was significantly higher than that for MWCNT. For SWCNT, the area per adsorbed Pluronic F-127 molecule is estimated to be about 40 nm(2).

  9. Process for treating fission waste. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Rohrmann, C.A.; Wick, O.J.

    1981-11-17

    A method is described for the treatment of fission waste. A glass forming agent, a metal oxide, and a reducing agent are mixed with the fission waste and the mixture is heated. After melting, the mixture separates into a glass phase and a metal phase. The glass phase may be used to safely store the fission waste, while the metal phase contains noble metals recovered from the fission waste.

  10. Search for Singlet Fission Chromophores

    SciTech Connect

    Havlas, Z.; Akdag, A.; Smith, M. B.; Dron, P.; Johnson, J. C.; Nozik, A. J.; Michl, J.

    2012-01-01

    Singlet fission, in which a singlet excited chromophore shares its energy with a ground-state neighbor and both end up in their triplet states, is of potential interest for solar cells. Only a handful of compounds, mostly alternant hydrocarbons, are known to perform efficiently. In view of the large number of conditions that a successful candidate for a practical cell has to meet, it appears desirable to extend the present list of high performers to additional classes of compounds. We have (i) identified design rules for new singlet fission chromophores and for their coupling to covalent dimers, (ii) synthesized them, and (iii) evaluated their performance as neat solids or covalent dimers.

  11. Timing of maximum glacial extent and deglaciation from HualcaHualca volcano (southern Peru), obtained with cosmogenic 36Cl.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcalá, Jesus; Palacios, David; Vazquez, Lorenzo; Juan Zamorano, Jose

    2015-04-01

    Andean glacial deposits are key records of climate fluctuations in the southern hemisphere. During the last decades, in situ cosmogenic nuclides have provided fresh and significant dates to determine past glacier behavior in this region. But still there are many important discrepancies such as the impact of Last Glacial Maximum or the influence of Late Glacial climatic events on glacial mass balances. Furthermore, glacial chronologies from many sites are still missing, such as HualcaHualca (15° 43' S; 71° 52' W; 6,025 masl), a high volcano of the Peruvian Andes located 70 km northwest of Arequipa. The goal of this study is to establish the age of the Maximum Glacier Extent (MGE) and deglaciation at HualcaHualca volcano. To achieve this objetive, we focused in four valleys (Huayuray, Pujro Huayjo, Mollebaya and Mucurca) characterized by a well-preserved sequence of moraines and roches moutonnées. The method is based on geomorphological analysis supported by cosmogenic 36Cl surface exposure dating. 36Cl ages have been estimated with the CHLOE calculator and were compared with other central Andean glacial chronologies as well as paleoclimatological proxies. In Huayuray valley, exposure ages indicates that MGE occurred ~ 18 - 16 ka. Later, the ice mass gradually retreated but this process was interrupted by at least two readvances; the last one has been dated at ~ 12 ka. In the other hand, 36Cl result reflects a MGE age of ~ 13 ka in Mollebaya valley. Also, two samples obtained in Pujro-Huayjo and Mucurca valleys associated with MGE have an exposure age of 10-9 ka, but likely are moraine boulders affected by exhumation or erosion processes. Deglaciation in HualcaHualca volcano began abruptly ~ 11.5 ka ago according to a 36Cl age from a polished and striated bedrock in Pujro Huayjo valley, presumably as a result of reduced precipitation as well as a global increase of temperatures. The glacier evolution at HualcaHualca volcano presents a high correlation with

  12. Global analysis of fission yeast mating genes reveals new autophagy factors.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ling-Ling; Li, Ming; Suo, Fang; Liu, Xiao-Man; Shen, En-Zhi; Yang, Bing; Dong, Meng-Qiu; He, Wan-Zhong; Du, Li-Lin

    2013-01-01

    Macroautophagy (autophagy) is crucial for cell survival during starvation and plays important roles in animal development and human diseases. Molecular understanding of autophagy has mainly come from the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and it remains unclear to what extent the mechanisms are the same in other organisms. Here, through screening the mating phenotype of a genome-wide deletion collection of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, we obtained a comprehensive catalog of autophagy genes in this highly tractable organism, including genes encoding three heretofore unidentified core Atg proteins, Atg10, Atg14, and Atg16, and two novel factors, Ctl1 and Fsc1. We systematically examined the subcellular localization of fission yeast autophagy factors for the first time and characterized the phenotypes of their mutants, thereby uncovering both similarities and differences between the two yeasts. Unlike budding yeast, all three Atg18/WIPI proteins in fission yeast are essential for autophagy, and we found that they play different roles, with Atg18a uniquely required for the targeting of the Atg12-Atg5·Atg16 complex. Our investigation of the two novel factors revealed unforeseen autophagy mechanisms. The choline transporter-like protein Ctl1 interacts with Atg9 and is required for autophagosome formation. The fasciclin domain protein Fsc1 localizes to the vacuole membrane and is required for autophagosome-vacuole fusion but not other vacuolar fusion events. Our study sheds new light on the evolutionary diversity of the autophagy machinery and establishes the fission yeast as a useful model for dissecting the mechanisms of autophagy.

  13. Global Analysis of Fission Yeast Mating Genes Reveals New Autophagy Factors

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ling-Ling; Shen, En-Zhi; Yang, Bing; Dong, Meng-Qiu; He, Wan-Zhong; Du, Li-Lin

    2013-01-01

    Macroautophagy (autophagy) is crucial for cell survival during starvation and plays important roles in animal development and human diseases. Molecular understanding of autophagy has mainly come from the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and it remains unclear to what extent the mechanisms are the same in other organisms. Here, through screening the mating phenotype of a genome-wide deletion collection of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, we obtained a comprehensive catalog of autophagy genes in this highly tractable organism, including genes encoding three heretofore unidentified core Atg proteins, Atg10, Atg14, and Atg16, and two novel factors, Ctl1 and Fsc1. We systematically examined the subcellular localization of fission yeast autophagy factors for the first time and characterized the phenotypes of their mutants, thereby uncovering both similarities and differences between the two yeasts. Unlike budding yeast, all three Atg18/WIPI proteins in fission yeast are essential for autophagy, and we found that they play different roles, with Atg18a uniquely required for the targeting of the Atg12–Atg5·Atg16 complex. Our investigation of the two novel factors revealed unforeseen autophagy mechanisms. The choline transporter-like protein Ctl1 interacts with Atg9 and is required for autophagosome formation. The fasciclin domain protein Fsc1 localizes to the vacuole membrane and is required for autophagosome-vacuole fusion but not other vacuolar fusion events. Our study sheds new light on the evolutionary diversity of the autophagy machinery and establishes the fission yeast as a useful model for dissecting the mechanisms of autophagy. PMID:23950735

  14. Theoretical investigation of the impact of grain boundaries and fission gases on UO2 thermal conductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Shiyu; Andersson, Anders D.; Germann, Timothy C.; Stanek, Christopher R.

    2012-05-02

    Thermal conductivity is one of the most important metrics of nuclear fuel performance. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the impact of microstructure features on thermal conductivity, especially since the microstructure evolves with burn-up or time in the reactor. For example, UO{sub 2} fuels are polycrystalline and for high-burnup fuels the outer parts of the pellet experience grain sub-division leading to a very fine grain structure. This is known to impact important physical properties such as thermal conductivity as fission gas release. In a previous study, we calculated the effect of different types of {Sigma}5 grain boundaries on UO{sub 2} thermal conductivity and predicted the corresponding Kapitza resistances, i.e. the resistance of the grain boundary in relation to the bulk thermal resistance. There have been reports of pseudoanisotropic effects for the thermal conductivity in cubic polycrystalline materials, as obtained from molecular dynamics simulations, which means that the conductivity appears to be a function of the crystallographic direction of the temperature gradient. However, materials with cubic symmetry should have isotropic thermal conductivity. For this reason it is necessary to determine the cause of this apparent anisotropy and in this report we investigate this effect in context of our earlier simulations of UO{sub 2} Kapitza resistances. Another source of thermal resistance comes from fission products and fission gases. Xe is the main fission gas and when generated in sufficient quantity it dissolves from the lattice and forms gas bubbles inside the crystalline structure. We have performed studies of how Xe atoms dissolved in the UO{sub 2} matrix or precipitated as bubbles impact thermal conductivity, both in bulk UO{sub 2} and in the presence of grain boundaries.

  15. Automated tracking of temporal displacements of a red blood cell obtained by time-lapse digital holographic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Moon, Inkyu; Yi, Faliu; Rappaz, Benjamin

    2016-01-20

    Red blood cell (RBC) phase images that are numerically reconstructed by digital holographic microscopy (DHM) can describe the cell structure and dynamics information beneficial for a quantitative analysis of RBCs. However, RBCs investigated with time-lapse DHM undergo temporal displacements when their membranes are loosely attached to the substrate during sedimentation on a glass surface or due to the microscope drift. Therefore, we need to develop a tracking algorithm to localize the same RBC among RBC image sequences and dynamically monitor its biophysical cell parameters; this information is helpful for studies on RBC-related diseases and drug tests. Here, we propose a method, which is a combination of the mean-shift algorithm and Kalman filter, to track a single RBC and demonstrate that the optical path length of the single RBC can be continually extracted from the tracked RBC. The Kalman filter is utilized to predict the target RBC position in the next frame. Then, the mean-shift algorithm starts execution from the predicted location, and a robust kernel, which is adaptive to changes in the RBC scale, shape, and direction, is designed to improve the accuracy of the tracking. Finally, the tracked RBC is segmented and parameters such as the RBC location are extracted to update the Kalman filter and the kernel function for mean-shift tracking; the characteristics of the target RBC are dynamically observed. Experimental results show the feasibility of the proposed algorithm.

  16. Simultaneous measurement of neutron-induced fission and capture cross sections for 241Am at neutron energies below fission threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirose, K.; Nishio, K.; Makii, H.; Nishinaka, I.; Ota, S.; Nagayama, T.; Tamura, N.; Goto, S.; Andreyev, A. N.; Vermeulen, M. J.; Gillespie, S.; Barton, C.; Kimura, A.; Harada, H.; Meigo, S.; Chiba, S.; Ohtsuki, T.

    2017-06-01

    Fission and capture reactions were simultaneously measured in the neutron-induced reactions of 241Am at the spallation neutron facility of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC). Data for the neutron energy range of En=0.1-20 eV were taken with the TOF method. The fission events were observed by detecting prompt neutrons accompanied by fission using liquid organic scintillators. The capture reaction was measured by detecting γ rays emitted in the deexcitation of the compound nuclei using the same detectors, where the prompt fission neutrons and capture γ rays were separated by a pulse shape analysis. The cross sections were obtained by normalizing the relative yields at the first resonance to evaluations or other experimental data. The ratio of the fission to capture cross sections at each resonance is compared with those from an evaluated nuclear data library and other experimental data. Some differences were found between the present values and the library/literature values at several resonances.

  17. Spontaneous fission properties of the heavy elements: Bimodal fission

    SciTech Connect

    Hulet, E.K.

    1988-11-11

    We have measured the mass and kinetic-energy distributions from the spontaneous fission of SVYFm, SVYNo, SVZMd, SWMd, SW(104), and SWSNo. All are observed to fission with a symmetrical division of mass, whereas the total-kinetic-energy (TKE) distributions strongly deviated from the Gaussian shape characteristically found in the fission of all other actinides. When the TKE distributions are resolved into two Gaussian's, the constituent peaks lie near 200 and near 233 MeV. We conclude two modes or bimodal fission is occurring in five of the six nuclides studied. Both modes are possible in the same nuclide, but one generally predominates. We also conclude the low-energy but mass-symmetrical mode is likely to extend to far heavier nuclei; while the high-energy mode will be restricted to a smaller region, a region of nuclei defined by the proximity of the fragments to the strong neutron and proton shells in TSSn. 21 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Neutronics for critical fission reactors and subcritical fission in hybrids

    SciTech Connect

    Salvatores, Massimo

    2012-06-19

    The requirements of future innovative nuclear fuel cycles will focus on safety, sustainability and radioactive waste minimization. Critical fast neutron reactors and sub-critical, external source driven systems (accelerator driven and fusion-fission hybrids) have a potential role to meet these requirements in view of their physics characteristics. This paper provides a short introduction to these features.

  19. Prompt particle emission in correlation with fission fragments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litaize, Olivier; Serot, Olivier; Thulliez, Loïc; Chebboubi, Abdelaziz

    2017-09-01

    The de-excitation process of primary fission fragments can be simulated with the FIFRELIN Monte Carlo code leading to an estimation of prompt fission observables such as neutron/gamma multiplicities and spectra in correlation with fission fragments. De-excitation cascades are simulated using the notion of nuclear realization following Becvar terminology generalized to neutron/gamma coupled emission. A nuclear realization is a random set of nuclear levels (energy, spin, parity) in association with partial widths for neutron, gamma or electron emission. Experimental data related to electromagnetic transitions in the discrete level region are taken from RIPL-3 database. When nuclear level structure is completely unknown (in the continuum region), level density and strength function models are used. In between these regions, our partial knowledge of nuclear structure is completed by models up to a fixed maximum level density. In this way the whole available experimental information is accounted for. FIFRELIN is ruled by five free input parameters driving the excitation energy sharing, the rotational energy and the spin distribution of primary fission fragments. These five free parameters are determined to match a target observable such as the average total prompt neutron multiplicity (ν). Once this procedure is completed, the whole set of fission observables can be compared with experimental results. Obviously the number of observables obtained within this code is higher than what is available from measurements. This code can therefore provide useful insights into the compatibility between models and a whole set of fission observables. In the present work the influence of shell corrections is reported on level densities and prompt fission neutron spectra (PFNS). The impact of the input data such as primary fission fragment total kinetic energy (TKE) is also addressed. Average prompt neutron multiplicity as a function of TKE is also estimated for each mass split and

  20. Report on simulation of fission gas and fission product diffusion in UO2

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson, Anders David; Perriot, Romain Thibault; Pastore, Giovanni; Tonks, Michael R.; Cooper, Michael William; Liu, Xiang-Yang; Goyal, Anuj; Uberuaga, Blas P.; Stanek, Christopher Richard

    2016-07-22

    In UO2 nuclear fuel, the retention and release of fission gas atoms such as xenon (Xe) are important for nuclear fuel performance by, for example, reducing the fuel thermal conductivity, causing fuel swelling that leads to mechanical interaction with the clad, increasing the plenum pressure and reducing the fuel–clad gap thermal conductivity. We use multi-­scale simulations to determine fission gas diffusion mechanisms as well as the corresponding rates in UO2 under both intrinsic and irradiation conditions. In addition to Xe and Kr, the fission products Zr, Ru, Ce, Y, La, Sr and Ba have been investigated. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations are used to study formation, binding and migration energies of small clusters of Xe atoms and vacancies. Empirical potential calculations enable us to determine the corresponding entropies and attempt frequencies for migration as well as investigate the properties of large clusters or small fission gas bubbles. A continuum reaction-­diffusion model is developed for Xe and point defects based on the mechanisms and rates obtained from atomistic simulations. Effective fission gas diffusivities are then obtained by solving this set of equations for different chemical and irradiation conditions using the MARMOT phase field code. The predictions are compared to available experimental data. The importance of the large XeU3O cluster (a Xe atom in a uranium + oxygen vacancy trap site with two bound uranium vacancies) is emphasized, which is a consequence of its high mobility and high binding energy. We find that the XeU3O cluster gives Xe diffusion coefficients that are higher for intrinsic conditions than under irradiation over a wide range of temperatures. Under irradiation the fast-­moving XeU3O cluster recombines quickly with irradiation-induced interstitial U ions, while this mechanism is less important for intrinsic conditions. The net result is higher

  1. Using Long-term Millisecond Pulsar Timing to Obtain Physical Characteristics of the Bulge Globular Cluster Terzan 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prager, Brian J.; Ransom, Scott M.; Freire, Paulo C. C.; Hessels, Jason W. T.; Stairs, Ingrid H.; Arras, Phil; Cadelano, Mario

    2017-08-01

    Over the past decade, the discovery of three unique stellar populations and a large number of confirmed pulsars within the globular cluster Terzan 5 has raised questions over its classification. Using the long-term radio pulsar timing of 36 ms pulsars in the cluster core, we provide new measurements of key physical properties of the system. As Terzan 5 is located within the galactic bulge, stellar crowding and reddening make optical and near-infrared observations difficult. Pulsar accelerations, however, allow us to study the intrinsic characteristics of the cluster independent of reddening and stellar crowding and probe the mass density profile without needing to quantify the mass-to-light ratio. Relating the spin and orbital periods of each pulsar to the acceleration predicted by a King model, we find a core density of {1.58}-0.13+0.13 × 106 {M}⊙ pc-3, a core radius of {0.16}-0.01+0.01 pc, a pulsar density profile of n\\propto {r}-{3.14-0.53+0.52}, and a total mass of {M}{{T}}({R}\\perp < 1.0 pc) ≃ 3.0 × 105 {M}⊙ , assuming a cluster distance of 5.9 kpc. Using this information, we argue against Terzan 5 being a disrupted dwarf galaxy and discuss the possibility of it being a fragment of the Milky Way’s proto-bulge. We also discuss whether low-mass pulsars were formed via electron-capture supernovae or exist in a core full of heavy white dwarfs and hard binaries. Finally, we provide an upper limit for the mass of a possible black hole at the core of the cluster of {M}{BH}≃ 3× {10}4 {M}⊙ .

  2. How much time do drivers need to obtain situation awareness? A laboratory-based study of automated driving.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhenji; Coster, Xander; de Winter, Joost

    2017-04-01

    Drivers of automated cars may occasionally need to take back manual control after a period of inattentiveness. At present, it is unknown how long it takes to build up situation awareness of a traffic situation. In this study, 34 participants were presented with animated video clips of traffic situations on a three-lane road, from an egocentric viewpoint on a monitor equipped with eye tracker. Each participant viewed 24 videos of different durations (1, 3, 7, 9, 12, or 20 s). After each video, participants reproduced the end of the video by placing cars in a top-down view, and indicated the relative speeds of the placed cars with respect to the ego-vehicle. Results showed that the longer the video length, the lower the absolute error of the number of placed cars, the lower the total distance error between the placed cars and actual cars, and the lower the geometric difference between the placed cars and the actual cars. These effects appeared to be saturated at video lengths of 7-12 s. The total speed error between placed and actual cars also reduced with video length, but showed no saturation up to 20 s. Glance frequencies to the mirrors decreased with observation time, which is consistent with the notion that participants first estimated the spatial pattern of cars after which they directed their attention to individual cars. In conclusion, observers are able to reproduce the layout of a situation quickly, but the assessment of relative speeds takes 20 s or more. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Fission cross-sections, prompt fission neutron and γ-ray emission in request for nuclear applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hambsch, F.-J.; Salvador-Castiñeira, P.; Oberstedt, S.; Göök, A.; Billnert, R.

    2016-06-01

    In recent years JRC-IRMM has been investigating fission cross-sections of 240,242Pu in the fast-neutron energy range relevant for innovative reactor systems and requested in the High Priority Request List (HPRL) of the OECD/Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). In addition to that, prompt neutron multiplicities are being investigated for the major isotopes 235U, 239Pu in the neutron-resonance region using a newly developed scintillation detector array (SCINTIA) and an innovative modification of the Frisch-grid ionisation chamber for fission-fragment detection. These data are highly relevant for improved neutron data evaluation and requested by the OECD/Working Party on Evaluation Cooperation (WPEC). Thirdly, also prompt fission γ-ray emission is investigated using highly efficient lanthanide-halide detectors with superior timing resolution. Again, those data are requested in the HPRL for major actinides to solve open questions on an under-prediction of decay heat in nuclear reactors. The information on prompt fission neutron and γ-ray emission is crucial for benchmarking nuclear models to study the de-excitation process of neutron-rich fission fragments. Information on γ-ray emission probabilities is also useful in decommissioning exercises on damaged nuclear power plants like Fukushima Daiichi to which JRC-IRMM is contributing. The results on the 240,242Pu fission cross section, 235U prompt neutron multiplicity in the resonance region and correlations with fission fragments and prompt γ-ray emission for several isotopes will be presented and put into perspective.

  4. Prompt γ-ray production in neutron-induced fission of 239Pu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullmann, J. L.; Bond, E. M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Haight, R. C.; Jandel, M.; Kawano, T.; Lee, H. Y.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Hayes, A. C.; Stetcu, I.; Taddeucci, T. N.; Talou, P.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Becker, J. A.; Chyzh, A.; Gostic, J.; Henderson, R.; Kwan, E.; Wu, C. Y.

    2013-04-01

    Background: The prompt gamma-ray spectrum from fission is important for understanding the physics of nuclear fission, and also in applications involving fission. Relatively few measurements of the prompt gamma spectrum from 239Pu(n,f) have been published.Purpose: This experiment measured the multiplicity, individual gamma energy spectrum, and total gamma energy spectrum of prompt fission gamma rays from 239Pu(n,f) in the neutron energy range from thermal to 30 keV, to test models of fission and to provide information for applications.Method: Gamma rays from neutron-induced fission of 239Pu were measured using the DANCE gamma-ray calorimeter. Fission events were tagged by detecting fission products in a parallel-plate avalanche counter in the center of DANCE. The measurements were corrected for detector response using a geant4 model of DANCE. A detailed analysis for the gamma rays from the 1+ resonance complex at 10.93 eV is presented.Results: A six-parameter analytical parametrization of the fission gamma-ray spectrum was obtained. A Monte Carlo Hauser-Feshbach calculation provided good general agreement with the data, but some differences remain to be resolved.Conclusions: An analytic parametrization can be made of the gamma-ray multiplicity, energy distribution, and total-energy distribution for the prompt gamma rays following neutron-induced fission of 239Pu. This parametrization may be useful for applications. Modern Monte Carlo Hauser-Feshbach calculations can do a good job of calculating the fission gamma-ray emission spectrum, although some details remain to be understood.

  5. Results of interlaboratory comparison of fission track ages for 1992 fission track workshop

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, D.S.; Crowley, K.D.; Dokka, R.K.; Galbraith, R.F.; Kowallis, B.J.; Naeser, C.W.

    1993-01-01

    Two apatites and one sphene were made available to the fission track research community for analysis prior to the 1992 Fission Track Workshop held in Philadelphia, U.S.A., 13-17 July. Eighteen laboratories throughout the world received aliquots of apatite and sphene. To date, analyses by 33 different scientists have been representing 15 different laboratories. With respect to the previous two interlaboratory comparisons, there is a noticeable improvement in the accuracy of the age results (Naeser and Cebula, 1978; Naeser et al., 1981; Miller et al., 1985;Miller et al.1990). Ninety-four percent of the analysis used the external detector method (EDM) combined with the zeta technique while the remaining individuals used the population method (POP). Track length measurements (requested for the first time in the interlaboratory comparison studies) were in relatively good agreement. ?? 1993.

  6. 24 CFR 1000.412 - Can an issuer obtain a guarantee for more than one note or other obligation at a time?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... for more than one note or other obligation at a time? 1000.412 Section 1000.412 Housing and Urban... guarantee for more than one note or other obligation at a time? Yes. To obtain multiple guarantees, the issuer shall demonstrate that: (a) The issuer will not exceed a total for all notes or other obligations...

  7. 24 CFR 1000.412 - Can an issuer obtain a guarantee for more than one note or other obligation at a time?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... for more than one note or other obligation at a time? 1000.412 Section 1000.412 Housing and Urban... guarantee for more than one note or other obligation at a time? Yes. To obtain multiple guarantees, the issuer shall demonstrate that: (a) The issuer will not exceed a total for all notes or other obligations...

  8. I. Fission probabilities, fission barriers, and shell effects. II. Particle structure functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Kexing

    1999-11-01

    In Part I, fission excitation functions of osmium isotopes 185,186,187,189 Os produced in 3He + 182,183,184,186W reactions, and of polonium isotopes 209,210,211,212Po produced in 3He/4He + 206,207,208Pb reactions, were measured with high precision. These excitation functions have been analyzed in detail based upon the transition state formalism. The fission barriers, and shell effects for the corresponding nuclei are extracted from the detailed analyses. A novel approach has been developed to determine upper limits of the transient time of the fission process. The upper limits are constrained by the fission probabilities of neighboring isotopes. The upper limits for the transient time set with this new method are 15 × 10-21 sec and 25 × 10-21 sec for Os and Po compound nuclei, respectively. In Part II, we report on a search for evidence of the optical modulations in the energy spectra of alpha particles emitted from hot compound nuclei. The optical modulations are expected to arise from the α- particle interaction with the rest of the nucleus as the particle prepares to exit. Some evidence for the modulations has been observed in the alpha spectra measured in the 3He-induced reactions, 3He + natAg in particular. The identification of the modulations involves a technique that substracts the bulk statistical background from the measured alpha spectra, in order for the modulations to become visible in the residuals. Due to insufficient knowledge of the background spectra, however, the presented evidence should only be regarded as preliminary and tentative.

  9. I. Fission Probabilities, Fission Barriers, and Shell Effects. II. Particle Structure Functions

    SciTech Connect

    Jing, Kexing

    1999-05-01

    In Part I, fission excitation functions of osmium isotopes 185,186, 187, 189 Os produced in 3He +182,183, 184, 186W reactions, and of polonium isotopes 209,210, 211, 212Po produced in 3He/4He + 206, 207, 208Pb reactions, were measured with high precision. These excitation functions have been analyzed in detail based upon the transition state formalism. The fission barriers, and shell effects for the corresponding nuclei are extracted from the detailed analyses. A novel approach has been developed to determine upper limits of the transient time of the fission process. The upper limits are constrained by the fission probabilities of neighboring isotopes. The upper limits for the transient time set with this new method are 15x 10–21 sec and 25x 10–21 sec for 0s and Po compound nuclei, respectively. In Part II, we report on a search for evidence of the optical modulations in the energy spectra of alpha particles emitted from hot compound nuclei. The optical modulations are expected to arise from the ~-particle interaction with the rest of the nucleus as the particle prepares to exit. Some evidence for the modulations has been observed in the alpha spectra measured in the 3He-induced reactions, 3He + natAg in particular. The identification of the modulations involves a technique that subtracts the bulk statistical background from the measured alpha spectra, in order for the modulations to become visible in the residuals. Due to insufficient knowledge of the background spectra, however, the presented evidence should only be regarded as preliminary and tentative.

  10. High-Resolution Correlated Fission Product Measurements of 235U (nth , f) with SPIDER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields, Dan; Spider Team

    2015-10-01

    The SPIDER detector (SPectrometer for Ion DEtermination in fission Research) has obtained high-resolution, moderate-efficiency, correlated fission product data needed for many applications including the modeling of next generation nuclear reactors, stockpile stewardship, and the fundamental understanding of the fission process. SPIDER simultaneously measures velocity and energy of both fission products to calculate fission product yields (FPYs), neutron multiplicity (ν), and total kinetic energy (TKE). These data will be some of the first of their kind available to nuclear data evaluations. An overview of the SPIDER detector, analytical method, and preliminary results for 235U (nth , f) will be presented. LA-UR-15-20130 This work benefited from the use of the LANSCE accelerator facility and was performed under the auspices of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos Security, LLC under Contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  11. Study of delayed fission of the isotopes of Bk, Es, and Md

    SciTech Connect

    Gangrskii, Y.P.; Miller, M.B.; Mikhailov, L.V.; Kharisov, I.F.

    1980-02-01

    We have measured the probabilities of delayed fission in electron capture for the nuclei /sup 240,242/Bk, /sup 244,246,248/Es, and /sup 248,250/Md. The data are analyzed by means of analytical expressions obtained in the work which explicitly relate the probability of delayed fission (in electron capture or ..beta../sup -/ decay) to the parameters of a two-humped fission barrier. As a result of the analysis the fission barriers are evaluated for the corresponding daughter nuclei: the isotopes of Cm, Cf, and Fm. According to the estimates the height of the fission barrier for the group of nuclei investigated is close to the value 6 MeV and does not decrease appreciably with increase of the Z of the nucleus or with removal from the ..beta..-stability band.

  12. Early User Test: BISON for Fission Gas Release Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Johns, Russell C.

    2014-01-28

    As a test to develop an understanding of the capabilities and input of the nuclear fuel performance code BISON, we modeled the fission gas release of the Oconee rod 15309 as there is benchmark data available for comparison. BISON has two fission gas models available, the Forsber-Massih model and the Simple Integrated Fission Gas Release and Swelling [sifgrs] model. Due to time constraints and availability of model parameters [we did not have all of the parameters for the sifgrs model already in hand] we only tested the Forsberg-Massih model. The Oconee rod test has been used in a number of benchmark studies including the integral assessment of FRAPCON 3.4. The Oconee Rod test is a 5-cycle test bundle with an average burnup of 50GWd/MTU. The FRAPCON assessment predicted that Oconee Rod15309 Test case would release 1.25% of all fission gas produced, while experimentally only 0.8% was released at EOL. Other studies using BISON with the sifgrs model have under predicted EOL fission gas release [FGR].

  13. Modeling of Fission Gas Release in UO2

    SciTech Connect

    MH Krohn

    2006-01-23

    A two-stage gas release model was examined to determine if it could provide a physically realistic and accurate model for fission gas release under Prometheus conditions. The single-stage Booth model [1], which is often used to calculate fission gas release, is considered to be oversimplified and not representative of the mechanisms that occur during fission gas release. Two-stage gas release models require saturation at the grain boundaries before gas is release, leading to a time delay in release of gases generated in the fuel. Two versions of a two-stage model developed by Forsberg and Massih [2] were implemented using Mathcad [3]. The original Forsbers and Massih model [2] and a modified version of the Forsberg and Massih model that is used in a commercially available fuel performance code (FRAPCON-3) [4] were examined. After an examination of these models, it is apparent that without further development and validation neither of these models should be used to calculate fission gas release under Prometheus-type conditions. There is too much uncertainty in the input parameters used in the models. In addition. the data used to tune the modified Forsberg and Massih model (FRAPCON-3) was collected under commercial reactor conditions, which will have higher fission rates relative to Prometheus conditions [4].

  14. Radiochemistry and the Study of Fission

    SciTech Connect

    Rundberg, Robert S.

    2016-11-14

    These are slides from a lecture given at UC Berkeley. Radiochemistry has been used to study fission since it’ discovery. Radiochemical methods are used to determine cumulative mass yields. These measurements have led to the two-mode fission hypothesis to model the neutron energy dependence of fission product yields. Fission product yields can be used for the nuclear forensics of nuclear explosions. The mass yield curve depends on both the fuel and the neutron spectrum of a device. Recent studies have shown that the nuclear structure of the compound nucleus can affect the mass yield distribution. The following topics are covered: In the beginning: the discovery of fission; forensics using fission products: what can be learned from fission products, definitions of R-values and Q-values, fission bases, K-factors and fission chambers, limitations; the neutron energy dependence of the mass yield distribution (the two mode fission hypothesis); the influence of nuclear structure on the mass yield distribution. In summary: Radiochemistry has been used to study fission since it’s discovery. Radiochemical measurement of fission product yields have provided the highest precision data for developing fission models and for nuclear forensics. The two-mode fission hypothesis provides a description of the neutron energy dependence of the mass yield curve. However, data is still rather sparse and more work is needed near second and third chance fission. Radiochemical measurements have provided evidence for the importance of nuclear states in the compound nucleus in predicting the mass yield curve in the resonance region.

  15. Centromeric chromatin in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Partridge, Janet F

    2008-05-01

    A fundamental requirement for life is the ability of cells to divide properly and to pass on to their daughters a full complement of genetic material. The centromere of the chromosome is essential for this process, as it provides the DNA sequences on which the kinetochore (the proteinaceous structure that links centromeric DNA to the spindle microtubules) assembles to allow segregation of the chromosomes during mitosis. It has long been recognized that kinetochore assembly is subject to epigenetic control, and deciphering how centromeres promote faithful chromosome segregation provides a fascinating intellectual challenge. This challenge is made more difficult by the scale and complexity of DNA sequences in metazoan centromeres, thus much research has focused on dissecting centromere function in the single celled eukaryotic yeasts. Interestingly, in spite of similarities in the genome size of budding and fission yeasts, they seem to have adopted some striking differences in their strategy for passing on their chromosomes. Budding yeast have "point" centromeres, where a 125 base sequence is sufficient for mitotic propagation, whereas fission yeast centromeres are more reminiscent of the large repetitive centromeres of metazoans. In addition, the centromeric heterochromatin which coats centromeric domains of fission yeast and metazoan centromeres and is critical for their function, is largely absent from budding yeast centromeres. This review focuses on the assembly and maintenance of centromeric chromatin in the fission yeast.

  16. Space Fission System Test Effectiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Houts, Mike; Schmidt, Glen L.; Van Dyke, Melissa; Godfroy, Tom; Martin, James; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon; Dickens, Ricky; Salvail, Pat; Harper, Roger

    2004-02-04

    Space fission technology has the potential to enable rapid access to any point in the solar system. If fission propulsion systems are to be developed to their full potential, however, near-term customers need to be identified and initial fission systems successfully developed, launched, and utilized. One key to successful utilization is to develop reactor designs that are highly testable. Testable reactor designs have a much higher probability of being successfully converted from paper concepts to working space hardware than do designs which are difficult or impossible to realistically test. ''Test Effectiveness'' is one measure of the ability to realistically test a space reactor system. The objective of this paper is to discuss test effectiveness as applied to the design, development, flight qualification, and acceptance testing of space fission systems. The ability to perform highly effective testing would be particularly important to the success of any near-term mission, such as NASA's Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter, the first mission under study within NASA's Project Prometheus, the Nuclear Systems Program.

  17. Energetics of the fission process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gönnenwein, Friedrich

    1994-09-01

    The mass asymmetry of fragments from nuclear fission of heavy nuclei is reviewed. While mass asymmetry is a common and well-known phenomenon for low-energy fission of the lighter actinides, more recent experiments have demonstrated that, for the heaviest actinides, the mass distribution switches to a symmetric one. On the other hand, it has been discovered that, though for fissioning nuclei with mass numbers A225 the mass distribution is basically symmetric, an asymmetric component is clearly to be identified for nuclei down to the Pb-region. In the absence of a generally accepted dynamical theory of fission, the above experimental findings are discussed in terms of static energy considerations. Triggered from the outset by the structure of the potential energy surface at the saddlepoint, the energy balance at the scission point between the available energy ( Q-value) of the reaction and the Coulomb and deformation energy of the nascent fragments is shown to steer the characteristics of the fragment mass distributions.

  18. Multimodal fission and neutron evaporation

    SciTech Connect

    Brosa, U.

    1988-10-01

    The average multiplicities nu-bar(A) of prompt neutrons emitted in the spontaneous fission of /sup 252/Cf and /sup 258/Fm are derived. Two new features are predicted: A simple sawtooth for /sup 258/Fm and a triple one for /sup 252/Cf. Experiments to check these predictions should be feasible now.

  19. Space Fission System Test Effectiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houts, Mike; Schmidt, Glen L.; van Dyke, Melissa; Godfroy, Tom; Martin, James; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon; Dickens, Ricky; Salvail, Pat; Harper, Roger

    2004-02-01

    Space fission technology has the potential to enable rapid access to any point in the solar system. If fission propulsion systems are to be developed to their full potential, however, near-term customers need to be identified and initial fission systems successfully developed, launched, and utilized. One key to successful utilization is to develop reactor designs that are highly testable. Testable reactor designs have a much higher probability of being successfully converted from paper concepts to working space hardware than do designs which are difficult or impossible to realistically test. ``Test Effectiveness'' is one measure of the ability to realistically test a space reactor system. The objective of this paper is to discuss test effectiveness as applied to the design, development, flight qualification, and acceptance testing of space fission systems. The ability to perform highly effective testing would be particularly important to the success of any near-term mission, such as NASA's Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter, the first mission under study within NASA's Project Prometheus, the Nuclear Systems Program.

  20. Direct fission fragment energy conversion utilizing magnetic collimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsvetkov, Pavel Valeryevich

    The objective of this dissertation was to determine the technological feasibility of direct fission fragment energy conversion utilizing magnetic collimation (DFFEC-MC). This objective was accomplished by producing a conceptual design for a DFFEC-MC system and by analysis of the potential DFFEC-MC system performance. Consistent analysis and evaluation of the technological feasibility of the DFFEC-MC concept were achieved using state-of-the-art computer codes that allowed realistic and consistent modeling of the important physical processes governing DFFEC-MC system performance. Unique computational schemes, including three-dimensional modeling, were constructed and applied to obtain the performance characteristics of DFFEC-MC systems. Special effort was made to include all important physical processes. Important simplifications introduced due to modeling limitations were also assessed. The analysis takes into consideration a wide range of operational aspects including fission fragment (FF) escape from the fuel, FF collimation, FF collection, criticality, long-term performance, energy conversion efficiency, heat removal, and safety characteristics. Required engineering conditions are formulated that must be satisfied in order for the DFFEC-MC concept to have a reasonable chance to demonstrate technological feasibility. Specific characteristics of individual system components and the entire DFFEC-MC system are evaluated. To identify which technological improvements are needed, several possible design solutions are provided for some of the components along with analyses of the corresponding DFFEC-MC system performance. As a result of the computational analysis, the conditions for achieving an attractive (high) system efficiency are demonstrated. A technologically feasible DFFEC-MC system layout with promising operational characteristics is presented. The resulting DFFEC-MC system is envisioned as an advanced DFFEC system that combines advantageous design solutions

  1. Neutron-neutron angular correlations in spontaneous and neutron-induced fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, Ramona; Randrup, Jorgen

    2015-04-01

    For many years, the state of the art for treating fission in radiation transport codes has involved sampling from average distributions. However, such average fission models have limited interaction-by-interaction capabilities. Energy is not explicitly conserved and no correlations are available because all particles are emitted isotropically and independently. However, in a true fission event, the energies, momenta and multiplicities of emitted particles are correlated. Such correlations are interesting for many modern applications, including detecting small amounts of material and detector development. Event-by-event generation of complete fission events are particularly useful because it is possible to obtain the fission products as well as the prompt neutrons and photons emitted during the fission process, all with complete kinematic information. It is therefore possible to extract any desired correlation observables. Such codes, when included in broader Monte Carlo transport codes, like MCNP, can be made broadly available. We compare results from our fast event-by-event fission code FREYA (Fission Reaction Event Yield Algorithm) with available neutron-neutron angular correlation data and study the sensitivities of these observables to the model inputs. This work was done under the auspices of the US DOE by (RV) LLNL, Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344, and by (JR) LBNL, Contract DE-AC02-05CH11231. We acknowledge support of the Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation Research and Development in DOE/NNSA.

  2. Photon-induced Fission Product Yield Measurements on 235U, 238U, and 239Pu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishichayan, Fnu; Bhike, M.; Tonchev, A. P.; Tornow, W.

    2015-10-01

    During the past three years, a TUNL-LANL-LLNL collaboration has provided data on the fission product yields (FPYs) from quasi-monoenergetic neutron-induced fission of 235U, 238U, and 239Pu at TUNL in the 0.5 to 15 MeV energy range. Recently, we have extended these experiments to photo-fission. We measured the yields of fission fragments ranging from 85Kr to 147Nd from the photo-fission of 235U, 238U, and 239Pu using 13-MeV mono-energetic photon beams at the HIGS facility at TUNL. First of its kind, this measurement will provide a unique platform to explore the effect of the incoming probe on the FPYs, i.e., photons vs. neutrons. A dual-fission ionization chamber was used to determine the number of fissions in the targets and these samples (along with Au monitor foils) were gamma-ray counted in the low-background counting facility at TUNL. Details of the experimental set-up and results will be presented and compared to the FPYs obtained from neutron-induced fission at the same excitation energy of the compound nucleus. Work supported in part by the NNSA-SSAA Grant No. DE-NA0001838.

  3. Fission Product Yields from Fission Spectrum n+ 239Pu for ENDF/B-VII.1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadwick, M. B.; Kawano, T.; Barr, D. W.; Mac Innes, M. R.; Kahler, A. C.; Graves, T.; Selby, H.; Burns, C. J.; Inkret, W. C.; Keksis, A. L.; Lestone, J. P.; Sierk, A. J.; Talou, P.

    2010-12-01

    We describe a new cumulated fission product yield (FPY) evaluation for fission spectrum neutrons on plutonium that updates the ENDF/B-VI evaluation by England and Rider, for the forthcoming ENDF/B-VII.1 database release. We focus on FPs that are needed for high accuracy burnup assessments; that is, for inferring the number of fissions in a neutron environment. Los Alamos conducted an experiment in the 1970s in the Bigten fast critical assembly to determine fission product yields as part of the Interlaboratory Reaction Rate (ILRR) collaboration, and this has defined the Laboratory's fission standard to this day. Our evaluation includes use of the LANL-ILRR measurements (not previously available to evaluators) as well as other Laboratory FPY measurements published in the literature, especially the high-accuracy mass spectrometry data from Maeck and others. Because the measurement database for some of the FPs is small — especially for 99Mo — we use a meta-analysis that incorporates insights from other accurately-measured benchmark FP data, using R-value ratio measurements. The meta-analysis supports the FP measurements from the LANL-ILRR experiment. Differences between our new evaluations and ENDF/B-VI are small for some FPs (less than 1-2%-relative for 95Zr, 140Ba, 144Ce), but are larger for 99Mo (4%-relative) and 147Nd (5%-relative, at 1.5 MeV) respectively. We present evidence for an incident neutron energy dependence to the 147Nd fission product yield that accounts for observed differences in the FPY at a few-hundred keV average energy in fast reactors versus measurements made at higher average neutron energies in Los Alamos' fast critical assemblies. Accounting for such FPY neutron energy dependencies is important if one wants to reach a goal of determining the number of fissions to accuracies of 1-2%. An evaluation of the energy-dependence of fission product yields is given for all A values based on systematical trends in the measured data, with a focus on

  4. Photoluminescence dynamics in singlet fission chromophore liquid melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piland, Geoffrey B.; Bardeen, Christopher J.

    2017-02-01

    The effect of high temperature melting on the photophysics of three prototypical singlet fission molecules is investigated. Time-resolved photoluminescence is used to look at the melt phase of the molecules tetracene, diphenylhexatriene and rubrene. Chemical decomposition of tetracene precluded any detailed measurements on this molecule. In the diphenylhexatriene melt, a rapid singlet state nonradiative relaxation process outcompetes singlet fission. In the rubrene melt, singlet fission occurs at a rate similar to that of the crystal, but the decay of the delayed fluorescence is much more rapid. The rapid decay of the delayed fluorescence suggests that either the triplet lifetime is shortened, or the fusion probability decreases, or that both factors are operative at higher temperatures.

  5. Fission cross section measurements of actinides at LANSCE

    SciTech Connect

    Tovesson, Fredrik; Laptev, Alexander B; Hill, Tony S

    2010-01-01

    Fission cross sections of a range of actinides have been measured at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) in support of nuclear energy applications. By combining measurement at two LANSCE facilities, Lujan Center and the Weapons Neutron Research center (WNR), differential cross sections can be measured from sub-thermal energies up to 200 MeV. Incident neutron energies are determined using the time-of-flight method, and parallel-plate ionization chambers are used to measure fission cross sections relative to the {sup 235}U standard. Recent measurements include the {sup 233,238}U, {sup 239,242}Pu and {sup 243}Am neutron-induced fission cross sections. In this paper preliminary results for cross section data of {sup 243}Am and {sup 233}U will be presented.

  6. A compact multi-plate fission chamber for the simultaneous measurement of 233U capture and fission cross-sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacak, M.; Berthoumieux, E.; Aiche, M.; Bélier, G.; Cardella, R.; Chatillon, A.; Diakaki, M.; Dupont, E.; Gunsing, F.; Heyse, J.; Kopecky, S.; Laurent, B.; Leeb, H.; Mathieu, L.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Taieb, J.; Vlachoudis, V.

    2017-09-01

    233U plays the essential role of fissile nucleus in the Th-U fuel cycle. A particularity of 233U is its small neutron capture cross-section which is about one order of magnitude lower than the fission cross-section on average. Therefore, the accuracy in the measurement of the 233U capture cross-section essentially relies on efficient capture-fission discrimination thus a combined setup of fission and γ-detectors is needed. At CERN n_TOF the Total Absorption Calorimeter (TAC) coupled with compact fission detectors is used. Previously used MicroMegas (MGAS) detectors showed significant γ-background issues above 100 eV coming from the copper mesh. A new measurement campaign of the 233U capture cross-section and alpha ratio is planned at the CERN n_TOF facility. For this measurement, a novel cylindrical multi ionization cell chamber was developed in order to provide a compact solution for 14 active targets read out by 8 anodes. Due to the high specific activity of 233U fast timing properties are required and achieved with the use of customized electronics and the very fast ionizing gas CF4 together with a high electric field strength. This paper describes the new fission chamber and the results of the first tests with neutrons at GELINA proving that it is suitable for the 233U measurement.

  7. The role of chromophore coupling in singlet fission.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Justin C; Nozik, Arthur J; Michl, Josef

    2013-06-18

    Certain organic materials can generate more than one electron-hole pair per absorbed photon, a property that could revolutionize the prospects for solar energy. This process, called singlet fission, is one possible "exciton multiplication" scheme that could be useful in a variety of photovoltaic device designs from dye-sensitized solar cells to solar cell bilayers to bulk heterojunctions. For such applications to be possible, however, singlet fission must occur with near perfect efficiency in compounds that also have other requisite properties such as strong visible light absorption and photostability. Many recent investigations of singlet fission have focused on crystalline polyacenes, which have been known for some time to undergo singlet fission. While these materials have promise, limitations in stability, cost, and performance may hinder practical application of polyacene solar cells, while their complex photophysics may limit our fundamental understanding of singlet fission in crystalline polyacenes. In this Account, we describe rationally designed singlet fission chromophores whose excited state dynamics should be fairly simple and whose coupling can be well controlled through the formation of covalent dimers, aggregates, or polycrystalline films. In principle, investigations of these chromophores should provide the clearest connection to theoretical concepts explaining how an excited state evolves from a singlet (S1) into two triplets (TT). Realizing the promise of efficient singlet fission rests with two tasks: (i) producing an ideal molecular energy level structure and (ii) inducing the correct type and strength of chromophore coupling. In this Account, we offer theoretical guidance for achieving (i) and consider more extensively recent results aimed at (ii). For (i), theoretical guidance suggests that, in addition to alternant hydrocarbons like tetracene and pentacene, biradicals (i.e., molecules with two independent radical centers) may also be used as

  8. Sequential Detection of Fission Processes for Harbor Defense

    SciTech Connect

    Candy, J V; Walston, S E; Chambers, D H

    2015-02-12

    With the large increase in terrorist activities throughout the world, the timely and accurate detection of special nuclear material (SNM) has become an extremely high priority for many countries concerned with national security. The detection of radionuclide contraband based on their γ-ray emissions has been attacked vigorously with some interesting and feasible results; however, the fission process of SNM has not received as much attention due to its inherent complexity and required predictive nature. In this paper, on-line, sequential Bayesian detection and estimation (parameter) techniques to rapidly and reliably detect unknown fissioning sources with high statistical confidence are developed.

  9. Space Fission Propulsion System Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Mike; VanDyke, Melissa; Godfroy, Tom; Pedersen, Kevin; Martin, James; Dickens, Ricky; Williams, Eric; Harper, Roger; Salvail, Pat; Hrbud, Ivana; hide

    2001-01-01

    The world's first man-made self-sustaining fission reaction was achieved in 1942. Since then fission has been used to propel submarines, generate tremendous amounts of electricity, produce medical isotopes, and provide numerous other benefits to society. Fission systems operate independently of solar proximity or orientation, and are thus well suited for deep spare or planetary surface missions. In addition, the fuel for fission systems (enriched uranium) is virtually non-radioactive. The primary safety issue with fission systems is avoiding inadvertent system start - addressing this issue through proper system design is straightforward. Despite the relative simplicity and tremendous potential of space fission systems, the development and utilization of these systems has proven elusive. The first use of fission technology in space occurred 3 April 1965 with the US launch of the SNAP-10A reactor. There have been no additional US uses of space fission system. While space fission system were used extensively by the former Soviet Union, their application was limited to earth-orbital missions. Early space fission systems must be safely and affordably utilized if Ae are to reap the benefits of advanced space fission systems.

  10. Two neutron correlations in photo-fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dale, D. S.; Kosinov, O.; Forest, T.; Burggraf, J.; Stave, S.; Warren, G.; Starovoitova, V.

    2016-09-01

    A large body of experimental work has established the strong kinematical correlation between fission fragments and fission neutrons. Here, we report on the progress of investigations of the potential for strong two neutron correlations arising from the nearly back-to-back nature of the two fission fragments that emit these neutrons in the photo-fission process. In initial measurements, a pulsed electron linear accelerator was used to generate bremsstrahlung photons that impinged upon an actinide target, and the energy and opening angle distributions of coincident neutrons were measured using a large acceptance neutron detector array. A planned comprehensive set of measurements of two neutron correlations in the photo-fission of actinides is expected to shed light on several fundamental aspects of the fission process including the multiplicity distributions associated with the light and heavy fission fragments, the nuclear temperatures of the fission fragments, and the mass distribution of the fission fragments as a function of energy released. In addition to these measurements providing important nuclear data, the unique kinematics of fission and the resulting two neutron correlations have the potential to be the basis for a new tool to detect fissionable materials. A key technical challenge of this program arises from the need to perform coincidence measurements with a low duty factor, pulsed electron accelerator. This has motivated the construction of a large acceptance neutron detector array, and the development of data analysis techniques to directly measure uncorrelated two neutron backgrounds.

  11. Space Fission Propulsion System Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Mike; VanDyke, Melissa; Godfroy, Tom; Pedersen, Kevin; Martin, James; Dickens, Ricky; Williams, Eric; Harper, Roger; Salvail, Pat; Hrbud, Ivana; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The world's first man-made self-sustaining fission reaction was achieved in 1942. Since then fission has been used to propel submarines, generate tremendous amounts of electricity, produce medical isotopes, and provide numerous other benefits to society. Fission systems operate independently of solar proximity or orientation, and are thus well suited for deep spare or planetary surface missions. In addition, the fuel for fission systems (enriched uranium) is virtually non-radioactive. The primary safety issue with fission systems is avoiding inadvertent system start - addressing this issue through proper system design is straightforward. Despite the relative simplicity and tremendous potential of space fission systems, the development and utilization of these systems has proven elusive. The first use of fission technology in space occurred 3 April 1965 with the US launch of the SNAP-10A reactor. There have been no additional US uses of space fission system. While space fission system were used extensively by the former Soviet Union, their application was limited to earth-orbital missions. Early space fission systems must be safely and affordably utilized if Ae are to reap the benefits of advanced space fission systems.

  12. Two neutron correlations in photo-fission

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, D. S.; Kosinov, O.; Forest, T.; Burggraf, J.; Stave, S.; Warren, G.; Starovoitova, V.

    2016-01-01

    A large body of experimental work has established the strong kinematical correlation between fission fragments and fission neutrons. Here, we report on the progress of investigations of the potential for strong two neutron correlations arising from the nearly back-to-back nature of the two fission fragments that emit these neutrons in the photo-fission process. In initial measurements, a pulsed electron linear accelerator was used to generate bremsstrahlung photons that impinged upon an actinide target, and the energy and opening angle distributions of coincident neutrons were measured using a large acceptance neutron detector array. A planned comprehensive set of measurements of two neutron correlations in the photo-fission of actinides is expected to shed light on several fundamental aspects of the fission process including the multiplicity distributions associated with the light and heavy fission fragments, the nuclear temperatures of the fission fragments, and the mass distribution of the fission fragments as a function of energy released. In addition to these measurements providing important nuclear data, the unique kinematics of fission and the resulting two neutron correlations have the potential to be the basis for a new tool to detect fissionable materials. A key technical challenge of this program arises from the need to perform coincidence measurements with a low duty factor, pulsed electron accelerator. This has motivated the construction of a large acceptance neutron detector array, and the development of data analysis techniques to directly measure uncorrelated two neutron backgrounds.

  13. Dynamics of rotationally fissioned asteroids: non-planar case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boldrin, L. A. G.; Scheeres, D. J.; Winter, O. C.

    2016-10-01

    The rotational fission of asteroids has been studied previously with simplified models restricted to planar motion. However, the observed physical configuration of contact binaries leads one to conclude that most of them are not in a planar configuration and hence would not be restricted to planar motion once they undergo rotational fission. This motivated a study of the evolution of initially non-planar binaries created by fission. Using a two-ellipsoid model, we performed simulations taking only gravitational interactions between components into account. We simulate 91 different initial inclinations of the equator of the secondary body for 19 different mass ratios. After disruption, the binary system dynamics are chaotic, as predicted from theory. Starting the system in a non-planar configuration leads to a larger energy and enhanced coupling between the rotation state of the smaller fissioned body and the evolving orbital system, and enables re-impact to occur. This leads to differences with previous planar studies, with collisions and secondary spin fission occurring for all mass ratios with inclinations θ0 ≥ 40o, and mimics a Lidov-Kozai mechanism. Out of 1729 studied cases, we found that ˜14 per cent result in secondary fission, ˜25 per cent result in collisions and ˜6 per cent have lifetimes longer than 200 yr. In Jacobson & Scheeres stable binaries only formed in cases with mass ratios q < 0.20. Our results indicate that it should be possible to obtain a stable binary with the same mechanisms for cases with mass ratios larger than this limit, but that the system should start in a non-planar configuration.

  14. ORNL fission product release tests VI-6

    SciTech Connect

    Osborne, M.F.; Lorenz, R.A.; Collins, J.L.; Lee, C.S.

    1991-01-01

    The ORNL fission product release tests investigate release and transport of the major fission products from high-burnup fuel under LWR accident conditions. The two most recent tests (VI-4 and VI-5) were conducted in hydrogen. In three previous tests in this series (VI-1, VI-2, and VI-3), which had been conducted in steam, the oxidized Zircaloy cladding remained largely intact and acted as a barrier to steam reaction with the UO{sub 2}. Test VI-6 was designed to insure significant oxidation of the UO{sub 2} fuel, which has been shown to enhance release of certain fission products, especially molybdenum and ruthenium. The BR3 fuel specimen used in test VI-6 will be heated in hydrogen to 2300 K; the Zircaloy cladding is expected to melt and runoff at {approximately}2150 K. Upon reaching the 2300 K test temperature, the test atmosphere will be changed to steam, and that temperature will be maintained for 60 min, with the three collection trains being operated for 2-, 18-, and 40-min periods. The releases of {sup 85}Kr and {sup 137}Cs will be monitored continuously throughout the test. Posttest analyses of the material collected on the three trains will provide results on the release and transport of Mo, Ru, Sb, Te, Ba, Ce, and Eu as a function of time at 2300 K. Continuous monitoring of the hydrogen produced during the steam atmosphere period at high temperature will provide a measure of the oxidation rate of the cladding and fuel. Following delays in approval of the safety documentation and in decontamination of the hot cell and test apparatus, test VI-6 will be conducted in late May.

  15. Parallel theoretical study of the two components of the prompt fission neutrons: Dynamically released at scission and evaporated from fully accelerated fragments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carjan, Nicolae; Rizea, Margarit; Talou, Patrick

    2017-09-01

    Prompt fission neutrons (PFN) angular and energy distributions for the reaction 235U(nth,f) are calculated as a function of the mass asymmetry of the fission fragments using two extreme assumptions: 1) PFN are released during the neck rupture due to the diabatic coupling between the neutron degree of freedom and the rapidly changing neutron-nucleus potential. These unbound neutrons are faster than the separation of the nascent fragments and most of them leave the fissioning system in few 10-21 sec. i.e., at the begining of the acceleration phase. Surrounding the fissioning nucleus by a sphere one can calculate the radial component of the neutron current density. Its time integral gives the angular distribution with respect to the fission axis. The average energy of each emitted neutron is also calculated using the unbound part of each neutron wave packet. The distribution of these average energies gives the general trends of the PFN spectrum: the slope, the range and the average value. 2) PFN are evaporated from fully accelerated, fully equilibrated fission fragments. To follow the de-excitation of these fragments via neutron and γ-ray sequential emissions, a Monte Carlo sampling of the initial conditions and a Hauser-Feshbach statistical approach is used. Recording at each step the emission probability, the energy and the angle of each evaporated neutron one can construct the PFN energy and the PFN angular distribution in the laboratory system. The predictions of these two methods are finally compared with recent experimental results obtained for a given fragment mass ratio.

  16. Space Fission Propulsion System Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, M.; Van Dyke, M. K.; Godfroy, T. J.; Pedersen, K. W.; Martin, J. J.; Dickens, R.; Williams, E.; Harper, R.; Salvail, P.; Hrbud, I.

    2001-01-01

    The world's first man-made self-sustaining fission reaction was achieved in 1942. Since then fission has been used to propel submarines, generate tremendous amounts of electricity, produce medical isotopes, and provide numerous other benefits to society. Fission systems operate independently of solar proximity or orientation, and are thus well suited for deep space or planetary surface missions. In addition, the fuel for fission systems (enriched uranium) is virtually non-radioactive. The primary safety issue with fission systems is avoiding inadvertent system start. Addressing this issue through proper system design is straight-forward. Despite the relative simplicity and tremendous potential of space fission systems, the development and utilization of these systems has proven elusive. The first use of fission technology in space occurred 3 April 1965 with the US launch of the SNAP-10A reactor. There have been no additional US uses of space fission systems. While space fission systems were used extensively by the former Soviet Union, their application was limited to earth-orbital missions. Early space fission systems must be safely and affordably utilized if we are to reap the benefits of advanced space fission systems. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, working with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Sandia National Laboratories, and others, has conducted preliminary research related to a Safe Affordable Fission Engine (SAFE). An unfueled core has been fabricated by LANL, and resistance heaters used to verify predicted core thermal performance by closely mimicking heat from fission. The core is designed to use only established nuclear technology and be highly testable. In FY01 an energy conversion system and thruster will be coupled to the core, resulting in an 'end-to-end' nuclear electric propulsion demonstrator being tested using resistance heaters to closely mimic heat from fission. Results of the SAFE test program will be presented. The applicability

  17. Space Fission Propulsion System Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, M.; Van Dyke, M. K.; Godfroy, T. J.; Pedersen, K. W.; Martin, J. J.; Dickens, R.; Williams, E.; Harper, R.; Salvail, P.; Hrbud, I.

    2001-01-01

    The world's first man-made self-sustaining fission reaction was achieved in 1942. Since then fission has been used to propel submarines, generate tremendous amounts of electricity, produce medical isotopes, and provide numerous other benefits to society. Fission systems operate independently of solar proximity or orientation, and are thus well suited for deep space or planetary surface missions. In addition, the fuel for fission systems (enriched uranium) is virtually non-radioactive. The primary safety issue with fission systems is avoiding inadvertent system start. Addressing this issue through proper system design is straight-forward. Despite the relative simplicity and tremendous potential of space fission systems, the development and utilization of these systems has proven elusive. The first use of fission technology in space occurred 3 April 1965 with the US launch of the SNAP-10A reactor. There have been no additional US uses of space fission systems. While space fission systems were used extensively by the former Soviet Union, their application was limited to earth-orbital missions. Early space fission systems must be safely and affordably utilized if we are to reap the benefits of advanced space fission systems. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, working with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Sandia National Laboratories, and others, has conducted preliminary research related to a Safe Affordable Fission Engine (SAFE). An unfueled core has been fabricated by LANL, and resistance heaters used to verify predicted core thermal performance by closely mimicking heat from fission. The core is designed to use only established nuclear technology and be highly testable. In FY01 an energy conversion system and thruster will be coupled to the core, resulting in an 'end-to-end' nuclear electric propulsion demonstrator being tested using resistance heaters to closely mimic heat from fission. Results of the SAFE test program will be presented. The applicability

  18. Dissecting the fission yeast regulatory network reveals phase-specific control elements of its cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Bushel, Pierre R; Heard, Nicholas A; Gutman, Roee; Liu, Liwen; Peddada, Shyamal D; Pyne, Saumyadipta

    2009-09-16

    Fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe and budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are among the original model organisms in the study of the cell-division cycle. Unlike budding yeast, no large-scale regulatory network has been constructed for fission yeast. It has only been partially characterized. As a result, important regulatory cascades in budding yeast have no known or complete counterpart in fission yeast. By integrating genome-wide data from multiple time course cell cycle microarray experiments we reconstructed a gene regulatory network. Based on the network, we discovered in addition to previously known regulatory hubs in M phase, a new putative regulatory hub in the form of the HMG box transcription factor SPBC19G7.04. Further, we inferred periodic activities of several less known transcription factors over the course of the cell cycle, identified over 500 putative regulatory targets and detected many new phase-specific and conserved cis-regulatory motifs. In particular, we show that SPBC19G7.04 has highly significant periodic activity that peaks in early M phase, which is coordinated with the late G2 activity of the forkhead transcription factor fkh2. Finally, using an enhanced Bayesian algorithm to co-cluster the expression data, we obtained 31 clusters of co-regulated genes 1) which constitute regulatory modules from different phases of the cell cycle, 2) whose phase order is coherent across the 10 time course experiments, and 3) which lead to identification of phase-specific control elements at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels in S. pombe. In particular, the ribosome biogenesis clusters expressed in G2 phase reveal new, highly conserved RNA motifs. Using a systems-level analysis of the phase-specific nature of the S. pombe cell cycle gene regulation, we have provided new testable evidence for post-transcriptional regulation in the G2 phase of the fission yeast cell cycle. Based on this comprehensive gene regulatory network, we

  19. Fission-like events in the 12C+169Tm system at low excitation energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sood, Arshiya; Singh, Pushpendra P.; Sahoo, Rudra N.; Kumar, Pawan; Yadav, Abhishek; Sharma, Vijay R.; Shuaib, Mohd.; Sharma, Manoj K.; Singh, Devendra P.; Gupta, Unnati; Kumar, R.; Aydin, S.; Singh, B. P.; Wollersheim, H. J.; Prasad, R.

    2017-07-01

    Background: Fission has been found to be a dominating mode of deexcitation in heavy-ion induced reactions at high excitation energies. The phenomenon of heavy-ion induced fission has been extensively investigated with highly fissile actinide nuclei, yet there is a dearth of comprehensive understanding of underlying dynamics, particularly in the below actinide region and at low excitation energies. Purpose: Prime objective of this work is to study different aspects of heavy-ion induced fission ensuing from the evolution of composite system formed via complete and/or incomplete fusion in the 12C+169Tm system at low incident energies, i.e., Elab≈6.4 , 6.9, and 7.4 A MeV, as well as to understand charge and mass distributions of fission fragments. Method: The recoil-catcher activation technique followed by offline γ spectroscopy was used to measure production cross sections of fission-like events. The evaporation residues were identified by their characteristic γ rays and vetted by the decay-curve analysis. Charge and mass distributions of fission-like events were studied to obtain dispersion parameters of fission fragments. Results: In the present work, 26 fission-like events (32 ≤Z ≤49 ) were identified at different excitation energies. The mass distribution of fission fragments is found to be broad and symmetric, manifesting their production via compound nuclear processes. The dispersion parameters of fission fragments obtained from the analysis of mass and isotopic yield distributions are found to be in good accord with the reported values obtained for different fissioning systems. A self-consistent approach was employed to determine the isobaric yield distribution. Conclusions: The present work suggests that fission is one of the competing modes of deexcitation of complete and/or incomplete fusion composites at low excitation energies, i.e., E*≈57 , 63, and 69 MeV, where evaporation of light nuclear particle(s) and/or γ rays are assumed to be the sole

  20. A fission fragment detector for correlated fission output studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosby, S.; Tovesson, F.; Couture, A.; Duke, D. L.; Kleinrath, V.; Meharchand, R.; Meierbachtol, K.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Perdue, B.; Richman, D.; Shields, D.

    2014-09-01

    A digital data acquisition system has been combined with a double Frisch gridded ionization chamber for use at both moderated and unmoderated neutron sources at the Los Alamos Neutron Science (LANSCE) facility. The high efficiency of the instrument combined with intense LANSCE beams and new acquisition system permits fission output measurements across 11 orders of magnitude incident neutron energy. The acquisition and analysis system is presented along with the first in-beam performance tests of the setup.

  1. Triplet Separation Drives Singlet Fission after Femtosecond Correlated Triplet Pair Production in Rubrene.

    PubMed

    Breen, Ilana; Tempelaar, Roel; Bizimana, Laurie A; Kloss, Benedikt; Reichman, David R; Turner, Daniel B

    2017-08-30

    Singlet fission, a multistep molecular process in which one photon generates two triplet excitons, holds great technological promise. Here, by applying a combination of transient transmittance and two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy with 5 fs laser pulses, we resolve the full set of fission steps before the onset of spin dephasing. In addition to its role as a viable singlet fission material, single-crystalline rubrene is selected because its energetics and transition dipole alignment uniquely allow for the unambiguous identification of the various fission steps through their contributions to distinct spectroscopic features. The measurements reveal that the neighboring correlated triplet pair achieves its maximum population within 20 fs. Subsequent growth of the triplet signal on picosecond time scales is attributable to spatial separation of the triplets, proceeding nonadiabatically through weakly coupled but near-resonant states. As such, we provide evidence in crystalline rubrene for a singlet fission step that, until now, has not been convincingly observed.

  2. Effect of Off-Diagonal Exciton-Phonon Coupling on Intramolecular Singlet Fission.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhongkai; Fujihashi, Yuta; Zhao, Yang

    2017-07-20

    Intramolecular singlet fission (iSF) materials provide remarkable advantages in terms of tunable electronic structures, and quantum chemistry studies have indicated strong electronic coupling modulation by high frequency phonon modes. In this work, we formulate a microscopic model of iSF with simultaneous diagonal and off-diagonal coupling to high-frequency modes. A nonperturbative treatment, the Dirac-Frenkel time-dependent variational approach is adopted using the multiple Davydov trial states. It is shown that both diagonal and off-diagonal coupling can aid efficient singlet fission if excitonic coupling is weak, and fission is only facilitated by diagonal coupling if excitonic coupling is strong. In the presence of off-diagonal coupling, it is found that high frequency modes create additional fission channels for rapid iSF. Results presented here may help provide guiding principles for design of efficient singlet fission materials by directly tuning singlet-triplet interstate coupling.

  3. Shell Effects in Fusion-Fission of Heavy and Superheavy Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itkis, M. G.; Bogatchev, A. A.; Itkis, I. M.; Jandel, M.; Kliman, J.; Kniajeva, G. N.; Kondratiev, N. A.; Korzyukov, I. V.; Kozulin, E. M.; Krupa, L.; Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Pokrovsky, I. V.; Prokhorova, E. V.; Voskresenski, V. M.; Zagrebaev, V. I.; Rusanov, A. Ya.; Corradi, L.; Gadea, A.; Latina, L.; Stefanini, A. M.; Szilner, S.; Trotta, M.; Vinodkumar, A. M.; Beghini, S.; Montagnoli, G.; Scarlassara, F.; Äystö, J.; Khlebnikov, S. V.; Rubchenya, V. A.; Trzaska, W. H.; Vakhtin, D. N.; Goverdovski, A. A.; Hanappe, F.; Materna, T.; Dorvaux, O.; Rowley, N.; Stuttge, L.; Giardina, G.

    2003-07-01

    The process of fusion-fission of heavy and superheavy nuclei with Z=82-122 formed in the reactions with 48Ca, 58Fe and 64Ni ions at energies near and below the Coulomb barrier has been studied. The experiments were carried out at the U-400 accelerator of the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (JINR, Russia), the XTU Tandem accelerator of the National Laboratory of Legnaro (LNL, Italy ) and the Accelerator of the Laboratory of University of Jyväskylä (JYFL, Finland) using the time-of-flight spectrometer of fission fragments CORSET[1] and the neutron multi-detector DEMON[2,3]. As a result of the experiments, mass and energy distributions (MED) of fission fragments, cross-sections of fission, quasi-fission and evaporation residues, multiplicities of neutrons and γ-quanta and their dependence on the mechanism of formation and decay of compound systems have been studied.

  4. Measurements of high-energy neutron-induced fission ofnatPb and 209Bi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarrío, D.; Tassan-Got, L.; Audouin, L.; Berthier, B.; Duran, I.; Ferrant, L.; Isaev, S.; Le Naour, C.; Paradela, C.; Stephan, C.; Trubert, D.; Abbondanno, U.; Aerts, G.; Álvarez, H.; Álvarez-Velarde, F.; Andriamonje, S.; Andrzejewski, J.; Assimakopoulos, P.; Badurek, G.; Baumann, P.; Becvár, F.; Berthoumieux, E.; Calviño, F.; Calviani, M.; Cano-Ott, D.; Capote, R.; Carrapiço, C.; Cennini, P.; Chepel, V.; Chiaveri, E.; Colonna, N.; Cortes, G.; Couture, A.; Cox, J.; Dahlfors, M.; David, S.; Dillmann, I.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Dridi, W.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Embid-Segura, M.; Ferrari, A.; Ferreira-Marques, R.; Fujii, K.; Furman, W.; Gonçalves, I.; González-Romero, E.; Gramegna, F.; Guerrero, C.; Gunsig, F.; Haas, B.; Haight, R.; Heil, M.; Herrera-Martinez, A.; Igashira, M.; Jericha, E.; Kadi, Y.; Käppeler, F.; Karadimos, D.; Karamanis, D.; Kerveno, M.; Koehler, P.; Kossionides, E.; Krticka, M.; Lampoudis, C.; Leeb, H.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, I.; Lozano, M.; Lukic, S.; Marganiec, J.; Marrone, S.; Martínez, T.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P.; Mengoni, A.; Milazzo, P. M.; Moreau, C.; Mosconi, M.; Neves, F.; Oberhummer, H.; O'Brien, S.; Oshima, M.; Pancin, J.; Papachristodoulou, C.; Papadopoulos, C.; Patronis, N.; Pavlik, A.; Pavlopoulos, P.; Perrot, L.; Pigni, M. T.; Plag, R.; Plompen, A.; Plukis, A.; Poch, A.; Praena, J.; Pretel, C.; Quesada, J.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Rubbia, C.; Rudolf, G.; Rullhusen, P.; Salgado, J.; Santos, C.; Sarchiapone, L.; Savvidis, I.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J. L.; Tavora, L.; Terlizzi, R.; Vannini, G.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Villamarin, D.; Vicente, M. C.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Voss, F.; Walter, S.; Wiescher, M.; Wisshak, K.

    2010-10-01

    The CERN Neutron Time-Of-Flight (n_TOF) facility is well suited to measure low cross sections as those of neutron-induced fission in subactinides. The cross section ratios of natPb and 209Bi relative to 235U and 238U were measured using PPAC detectors and a fragment coincidence method that allows us to identify the fission events. The present experiment provides first results for neutron-induced fission up to 1 GeV. Good agreement is found with previous experimental data below 200 MeV. The comparison with proton-induced fission indicates that the limiting regime where neutron-induced and proton-induced fission reach equal cross sections is close to 1 GeV.

  5. Microscopic Phase-Space Exploration Modeling of Fm 258 Spontaneous Fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanimura, Yusuke; Lacroix, Denis; Ayik, Sakir

    2017-04-01

    We show that the total kinetic energy (TKE) of nuclei after the spontaneous fission of Fm 258 can be well reproduced using simple assumptions on the quantum collective phase space explored by the nucleus after passing the fission barrier. Assuming energy conservation and phase-space exploration according to the stochastic mean-field approach, a set of initial densities is generated. Each density is then evolved in time using the nuclear time-dependent density-functional theory with pairing. This approach goes beyond the mean-field theory by allowing spontaneous symmetry breaking as well as a wider dynamical phase-space exploration leading to larger fluctuations in collective space. The total kinetic energy and mass distributions are calculated. New information on the fission process: fluctuations in scission time, strong correlation between TKE and collective deformation, as well as prescission particle emission, are obtained. We conclude that fluctuations of the TKE and mass are triggered by quantum fluctuations.

  6. Properties of true quaternary fission of nuclei with allowance for its multistep and sequential character

    SciTech Connect

    Kadmensky, S. G. Titova, L. V.; Bulychev, A. O.

    2015-07-15

    An analysis of basicmechanisms of binary and ternary fission of nuclei led to the conclusion that true ternary and quaternary fission of nuclei has a sequential two-step (three-step) character, where, at the first step, a fissile nucleus emits a third light particle (third and fourth light particles) under shakeup effects associated with a nonadiabatic character of its collective deformation motion, whereupon the residual nucleus undergoes fission to two fission fragments. Owing to this, the formulas derived earlier for the widths with respect to sequential two- and three-step decays of nuclei in constructing the theory of two-step twoproton decays and multistep decays in chains of genetically related nuclei could be used to describe the relative yields and angular and energy distributions of third and fourth light particles emitted in (α, α), (t, t), and (α, t) pairs upon the true quaternary spontaneous fission of {sup 252}Cf and thermal-neutron-induced fission of {sup 235}U and {sup 233}U target nuclei. Mechanisms that explain a sharp decrease in the yield of particles appearing second in time and entering into the composition of light-particle pairs that originate from true quaternary fission of nuclei in relation to the yields of analogous particles in true ternary fission of nuclei are proposed.

  7. Mini-fission fusion explosive devices (mini-nukes) for nuclear pulse propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winterberg, F.

    2005-11-01

    Nuclear pulse propulsion demands low-yield nuclear explosive devices. Because the critical mass of a fission explosive is rather large, this leads to extravagant fission devices with a very low fuel burn-up. For non-fission ignited pure fusion microexplosions the problem is the large ignition apparatus (laser, particle beam, etc.). Fission ignited large fusion explosive devices are for obvious reasons even less desirable. A third category (mini-nukes) are devices where the critical mass of the fission explosive is substantially reduced by its coupling to a DT fusion reaction, with the DT fusion neutrons increasing the fission rate. Whereas in pure fission devices a reduction of the critical mass is achieved by the implosive compression of the fissile core with a chemical high explosive, in the third category the implosion must at the same time heat the DT surrounding the fissile core to a temperature of ⩾107K, at which enough fusion neutrons are generated to increase the fission rate which in turn further increases the temperature and fusion neutron production rate. As has been shown by the author many years ago, such mini-nukes lead to astonishingly small critical masses. In their application to nuclear pulse propulsion the combustion products from the chemical high explosive are further heated by the neutrons and are becoming part of the propellant.

  8. Total Kinetic Energy Release in the Fast Neutron Induced Fission of 235U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loveland, Walter; Yanez, Ricardo

    2016-09-01

    We have measured the total kinetic energy (TKE) release, its variance and associated fission product mass distributions for the neutron induced fission of 235U for En = 2-90 MeV using the 2E method. The neutron energies were determined,event by event, by time of flight measurements with the white spectrum neutron beam from LANSCE. The TKE decreases with increasing neutron energy. This TKE decrease is due to increasing symmetric fission (and decreasing asymmetric fission)with increasing neutron energy, in accord with Brosa model predictions. Our measurement of the TKE release for 235U(nth,f) is in excellent agreement with the known value, indicating our measurements are absolute measurements. The TKE variances are sensitive indicators of nth chance fission. Due to the occurrence of nth chance fission and pre-fission neutron emission, the average fissioning system and its excitation energy is a complex function of the incident neutron energy. Detailed comparisons of our data with previous measurements will be made. This work was supported, in part, by the Director, Office of Energy Research, Division of Nuclear Physics of the Office of High Energy and Nuclear Physics of the U.S. Department of Energy under Grant DE-SC0014380.

  9. FisB mediates membrane fission during sporulation in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Doan, Thierry; Coleman, Jeff; Marquis, Kathleen A.; Meeske, Alex J.; Burton, Briana M.; Karatekin, Erdem; Rudner, David Z.

    2013-01-01

    How bacteria catalyze membrane fission during growth and differentiation is an outstanding question in prokaryotic cell biology. Here, we describe a protein (FisB, for fission protein B) that mediates membrane fission during the morphological process of spore formation in Bacillus subtilis. Sporulating cells divide asymmetrically, generating a large mother cell and smaller forespore. After division, the mother cell membranes migrate around the forespore in a phagocytic-like process called engulfment. Membrane fission releases the forespore into the mother cell cytoplasm. Cells lacking FisB are severely and specifically impaired in the fission reaction. Moreover, GFP-FisB forms dynamic foci that become immobilized at the site of fission. Purified FisB catalyzes lipid mixing in vitro and is only required in one of the fusing membranes, suggesting that FisB–lipid interactions drive membrane remodeling. Consistent with this idea, the extracytoplasmic domain of FisB binds with remarkable specificity to cardiolipin, a lipid enriched in the engulfing membranes and regions of negative curvature. We propose that membrane topology at the final stage of engulfment and FisB–cardiolipin interactions ensure that the mother cell membranes are severed at the right time and place. The unique properties of FisB set it apart from the known fission machineries in eukaryotes, suggesting that it represents a new class of fission proteins. PMID:23388828

  10. Social implications of fission in wild Formosan macaques at Mount Longevity, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Minna J; Lin, Jin-Fu; Agoramoorthy, Govindasamy

    2017-04-01

    Group fission in non-human primates has long been proposed to result from interactions between ecological and social factors. Several studies have documented possible causes for group fission, but its proximate causes and ultimate adaptive values are not yet fully understood. We have examined the existing hypotheses on fission from long-term demographic data of Formosan macaques inhabiting the lowland rainforest at Mt Longevity, Taiwan. Five cases of fission occurred in four social groups. We have recorded two types of fission: one involving the separation of a high-ranking adult male and multiple adult females, the other initiated by adult females from main groups. Five adult females immigrated and emigrated a few times between the main and branch groups (oscillation) in three fission events. Data presented in this study are consistent with the prediction that low-ranking females split from main groups when their fitness costs increase due to ecological pressure or population growth. However, their reproductive success may decrease after fission due to a high rate of intra-group competition. Nevertheless, it is beneficial for males to be involved in fission since this increases reproductive benefits by decreasing the sex ratio in small newly formed groups.

  11. FisB mediates membrane fission during sporulation in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Doan, Thierry; Coleman, Jeff; Marquis, Kathleen A; Meeske, Alex J; Burton, Briana M; Karatekin, Erdem; Rudner, David Z

    2013-02-01

    How bacteria catalyze membrane fission during growth and differentiation is an outstanding question in prokaryotic cell biology. Here, we describe a protein (FisB, for fission protein B) that mediates membrane fission during the morphological process of spore formation in Bacillus subtilis. Sporulating cells divide asymmetrically, generating a large mother cell and smaller forespore. After division, the mother cell membranes migrate around the forespore in a phagocytic-like process called engulfment. Membrane fission releases the forespore into the mother cell cytoplasm. Cells lacking FisB are severely and specifically impaired in the fission reaction. Moreover, GFP-FisB forms dynamic foci that become immobilized at the site of fission. Purified FisB catalyzes lipid mixing in vitro and is only required in one of the fusing membranes, suggesting that FisB-lipid interactions drive membrane remodeling. Consistent with this idea, the extracytoplasmic domain of FisB binds with remarkable specificity to cardiolipin, a lipid enriched in the engulfing membranes and regions of negative curvature. We propose that membrane topology at the final stage of engulfment and FisB-cardiolipin interactions ensure that the mother cell membranes are severed at the right time and place. The unique properties of FisB set it apart from the known fission machineries in eukaryotes, suggesting that it represents a new class of fission proteins.

  12. Bright fission: singlet fission into a pair of emitting states.

    PubMed

    Casanova, David

    2015-06-09

    This paper reintroduces and explores the generation of two bright states from a single photon via a singlet fission mechanism in organic materials. This particular photophysical process is labeled here as bright fission (BF). The central part of the study is devoted to set the theoretical foundations of BF by discussing possible electronic mechanisms, the role of different excited states with various physical nature, the presence of competing deactivation channels, and the possible requirements for the BF viability. In a second part, some of the properties related to BF are computationally explored in anthracene. The analysis of computed high-lying excited states identifies several optical transitions as good candidates to trigger BF in anthracene. The approximation of excitonic couplings of these high energy levels to other electronic states within the same energy range suggests possible paths to populate electronic configurations potentially able to split in two independent spin singlets, i.e. singlet-singlet states. The study also explores the electronic structure of the energetically lowest singlet-singlet states in anthracene dimers and discusses the presence of charge transfer configurations and their relation to the singlet-singlet manifold. The computational results suggest fast relaxation to the lowest singlet-singlet state, from which the excitonic fission may occur. All in all, the present work aims at motivating to pursue further efforts in the study of the BF process in organic materials.

  13. Simulated fissioning of uranium and testing of the fission-track dating method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGee, V.E.; Johnson, N.M.; Naeser, C.W.

    1985-01-01

    A computer program (FTD-SIM) faithfully simulates the fissioning of 238U with time and 235U with neutron dose. The simulation is based on first principles of physics where the fissioning of 238U with the flux of time is described by Ns = ??f 238Ut and the fissioning of 235U with the fluence of neutrons is described by Ni = ??235U??. The Poisson law is used to set the stochastic variation of fissioning within the uranium population. The life history of a given crystal can thus be traced under an infinite variety of age and irradiation conditions. A single dating attempt or up to 500 dating attempts on a given crystal population can be simulated by specifying the age of the crystal population, the size and variation in the areas to be counted, the amount and distribution of uranium, the neutron dose to be used and its variation, and the desired ratio of 238U to 235U. A variety of probability distributions can be applied to uranium and counting-area. The Price and Walker age equation is used to estimate age. The output of FTD-SIM includes the tabulated results of each individual dating attempt (sample) on demand and/or the summary statistics and histograms for multiple dating attempts (samples) including the sampling age. An analysis of the results from FTD-SIM shows that: (1) The external detector method is intrinsically more precise than the population method. (2) For the external detector method a correlation between spontaneous track count, Ns, and induced track count, Ni, results when the population of grains has a stochastic uranium content and/or when the counting areas between grains are stochastic. For the population method no correlation can exist. (3) In the external detector method the sampling distribution of age is independent of the number of grains counted. In the population method the sampling distribution of age is highly dependent on the number of grains counted. (4) Grains with zero-track counts, either in Ns or Ni, are in integral part of

  14. Measurement of fission products yields in the quasi-mono-energetic neutron-induced fission of 232Th

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naik, H.; Mukherji, Sadhana; Suryanarayana, S. V.; Jagadeesan, K. C.; Thakare, S. V.; Sharma, S. C.

    2016-08-01

    The cumulative yields of various fission products in the 232Th(n, f) reaction at average neutron energies of 5.42, 7.75, 9.35 and 12.53 MeV have been determined by using an off-line γ-ray spectrometric technique. The neutron beam was produced from the 7Li(p, n) reaction by using the proton energies of 7.8, 12, 16 and 20 MeV. The mass chain yields were obtained from the cumulative fission yields by using the charge distribution correction of medium energy fission. The fine structure in the mass yield distribution was interpreted from the point of nuclear structure effect. On the other hand, the higher yield around mass number 133-134 and 143-144 as well as their complementary products were explained based on the standard I and standard II asymmetric mode of fission. From the mass yield data, the average value of light mass (), heavy mass (), the average number of neutrons (< ν >) and the peak-to-valley (P / V) ratios at different neutron energies of present work and literature data were obtained in the 232Th(n, f) reaction. The different parameters of the mass yield distribution in the 232Th(n, f) reaction were compared with the similar data in the 232Th(γ, f) reaction at comparable excitation energy and a surprising difference was observed.

  15. Relationships among Ocular Blood Flow Shown by Laser Speckle Flowgraphy, Retinal Arteriosclerotic Change, and Chorioretinal Circulation Time Obtained by Fluorescein Angiography

    PubMed Central

    Itokawa, Takashi; Hori, Yuichi

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the correlations among the mean blur rate (MBR) in the optic nerve head (ONH) shown by laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG), retinal arteriosclerosis, and the circulation time obtained by fluorescein angiography (FA). Method. We evaluated 118 patients and assessed their time of choroidal flush, arm-to-retina time, and early and late phases of retinal circulation time (RT: sec) obtained by FA. The severity of retinal arteriosclerosis was classified according to the Scheie classification. The MBR values throughout the ONH (MBR-A), in the tissue (MBR-T), and in the vessels (MBR-V) were analyzed. Results. Patients with retinal vein occlusion (RVO) showed prolonged early and late phases of RT compared to other ocular diseases. Single and multiple regression analyses showed that the MBR-V and Scheie classification were significantly associated with both the choroidal flush and arm-to-retina times. The incidences of RVO and MVR-V were significantly associated with the early phase of RT, and the incidences of RVO, MBR-V, Scheie classification, and gender were revealed to be factors independently contributing to the late phase of RT. Conclusion. MBR-V in the ONH and retinal arteriosclerosis are important contributing factors for the circulation time of each stage obtained by FA. PMID:28331635

  16. Studies on fission with ALADIN. Precise and simultaneous measurement of fission yields, total kinetic energy and total prompt neutron multiplicity at GSI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Julie-Fiona; Taieb, Julien; Chatillon, Audrey; Bélier, Gilbert; Boutoux, Guillaume; Ebran, Adeline; Gorbinet, Thomas; Grente, Lucie; Laurent, Benoit; Pellereau, Eric; Alvarez-Pol, Héctor; Audouin, Laurent; Aumann, Thomas; Ayyad, Yassid; Benlliure, Jose; Casarejos, Enrique; Cortina Gil, Dolores; Caamaño, Manuel; Farget, Fanny; Fernández Domínguez, Beatriz; Heinz, Andreas; Jurado, Beatriz; Kelić-Heil, Aleksandra; Kurz, Nikolaus; Nociforo, Chiara; Paradela, Carlos; Pietri, Stéphane; Ramos, Diego; Rodríguez-Sànchez, Jose-Luis; Rodríguez-Tajes, Carme; Rossi, Dominic; Schmidt, Karl-Heinz; Simon, Haik; Tassan-Got, Laurent; Vargas, Jossitt; Voss, Bernd; Weick, Helmut

    2015-12-01

    A novel technique for fission studies, based on the inverse kinematics approach, is presented. Following pioneering work in the nineties, the SOFIA Collaboration has designed and built an experimental set-up dedicated to the simultaneous measurement of isotopic yields, total kinetic energies and total prompt neutron multiplicities, by fully identifying both fission fragments in coincidence, for the very first time. This experiment, performed at GSI, permits to study the fission of a wide variety of fissioning systems, ranging from mercury to neptunium, possibly far from the valley of stability. A first experiment, performed in 2012, has provided a large array of unprecedented data regarding the nuclear fission process. An excerpt of the results is presented. With this solid starter, further improvements of the experimental set-up are considered, which are consistent with the expected developments at the GSI facility, in order to measure more fission observables in coincidence. The completeness reached in the SOFIA data, permits to scrutinize the correlations between the interesting features of fission, offering a very detailed insight in this still unraveled mechanism.

  17. Time-resolved visible and infrared absorption spectroscopy data obtained using photosystem I particles with non-native quinones incorporated into the A1 binding site.

    PubMed

    Makita, Hiroki; Hastings, Gary

    2016-06-01

    Time-resolved visible and infrared absorption difference spectroscopy data at both 298 and 77 K were obtained using cyanobacterial menB (-) mutant photosystem I particles with several non-native quinones incorporated into the A1 binding site. Data was obtained for photosystem I particles with phylloquinone (2-methyl-3-phytyl-1,4-naphthoquinone), 2-bromo-1,4-naphthoquinone, 2-chloro-1,4-naphthoquinone, 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone, 2,3-dibromo-1,4-naphthoquinone, 2,3-dichloro-1,4-naphthoquinone, and 9,10-anthraquinone incorporated. Transient absorption data were obtained at 487 and 703 nm in the visible spectral range, and 1950-1100 cm(-1) in the infrared region. Time constants obtained from fitting the time-resolved infrared and visible data are in good agreement. The measured time constants are crucial for the development of appropriate kinetic models that can describe electron transfer processes in photosystem I, "Modeling Electron Transfer in Photosystem I" Makita and Hastings (2016) [1].

  18. Fission Product Yields from Fission Spectrum n+{sup 239}Pu for ENDF/B-VII.1

    SciTech Connect

    Chadwick, M.B.; Kawano, T.; Barr, D.W.; Mac Innes, M.R.; Kahler, A.C.; Graves, T.; Selby, H.; Burns, C.J.; Inkret, W.C.; Keksis, A.L.; Lestone, J.P.; Sierk, A.J.; Talou, P.

    2010-12-15

    We describe a new cumulated fission product yield (FPY) evaluation for fission spectrum neutrons on plutonium that updates the ENDF/B-VI evaluation by England and Rider, for the forthcoming ENDF/B-VII.1 database release. We focus on FPs that are needed for high accuracy burnup assessments; that is, for inferring the number of fissions in a neutron environment. Los Alamos conducted an experiment in the 1970s in the Bigten fast critical assembly to determine fission product yields as part of the Interlaboratory Reaction Rate (ILRR) collaboration, and this has defined the Laboratory's fission standard to this day. Our evaluation includes use of the LANL-ILRR measurements (not previously available to evaluators) as well as other Laboratory FPY measurements published in the literature, especially the high-accuracy mass spectrometry data from Maeck and others. Because the measurement database for some of the FPs is small - especially for {sup 99}Mo - we use a meta-analysis that incorporates insights from other accurately-measured benchmark FP data, using R-value ratio measurements. The meta-analysis supports the FP measurements from the LANL-ILRR experiment. Differences between our new evaluations and ENDF/B-VI are small for some FPs (less than 1-2%-relative for {sup 95}Zr, {sup 140}Ba, {s