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Sample records for fissured formations

  1. The formation and extent of earth fissure in Shuangbutou, Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Youquan; Wu, Xun; Ren, Fangwei; Fu, Dequan; Wang, Rong; Wang, Haigang

    2017-04-01

    A 8.6-km-long earth fissure began to form in 2013 and currently affect the area in eastern Beijing plain. This earth fissure represent a potential threat to the groundwater that sustains growth in new downtown area of Beijing. An integrated survey program, including InSAR, hydrogeophysic survey and trenching, has been condected to investigate the formation and extent of the fissure. This work has allowed us to understand the processes and characterize earth fissure. InSAR result indicate the fissure in subsidence profiles occur near the part of the profile where its curvature is greatest and it is convex upward. The trenches demonstrated that the physical characteristics of this earth fissure isn't typical of similar fissures that formed in Northwest sites as a result of neotectonic activity. The ERT results across the fault suggest that the fault doesn't cut througth the whole quaternary strata and subsurface fault-associated depth was restricted to 27-43m. The occurrence and the development of the earth fissure closely parallel the pre-existing Medio-Pleistocene fault (Nanyuan-Tongxian fault) and initiated in the fault zone close to the footwall. The fissure originates within the unsaturated clayed strata at a relatively shallow depth and show a tensile failure with negligible vertical offset. The results of hydrogeophysical method and trench indicate that it migrates downward and terminate near the saturated-unsaturated interface. The survey results suggest the tensile-induced fissure was mainly caused by groundwater-level decline rather than natural tectonism.

  2. Effect of Local Crystallographic Texture on the Fissure Formation During Charpy Impact Testing of Low-Carbon Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Abhijit; Patra, Sudipta; Chatterjee, Arya; Chakrabarti, Debalay

    2016-06-01

    The severity of the formation of fissures (also known as splitting or delamination) on the fracture surface of Charpy impact-tested samples of a low-carbon steel has been found to increase with the decrease in finish rolling temperature [1093 K to 923 K (820 °C to 650 °C)]. Combined scanning electron microscopy and electron back-scattered diffraction study revealed that crystallographic texture was the prime factor responsible for the fissure formation. Through-thickness texture band composed of cube [Normal Direction (ND)║<001>] and gamma [ND║<111>] orientations developed during the inter-critical rolling treatment. Strain incompatibility between these two texture bands causes fissure cracking on the main fracture plane. A new approach based on the angle between {001} planes of neighboring crystals has been employed in order to estimate the `effective grain size,' which is used to determine the cleavage fracture stress on different planes of a sample. The severity of fissure formation was found to be directly related to the difference in cleavage fracture stress between the `main fracture plane' and `fissure plane.' Clustering of ferrite grains having cube texture promoted the fissure crack propagation along the transverse `fissure plane,' by increasing the `effective grain size' and decreasing the cleavage fracture stress on that plane.

  3. Coseismic Pit Crater, Normal Fault, and Extensional Fissure Formation in Unconsolidated Sediment and Basalt in Northern Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrill, D. A.; Wyrick, D. Y.; Smart, K. J.

    2008-12-01

    Two rifting-related seismic events in 1975 and 1978 along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge near the northern coast of Iceland produced an array of surface deformation features in Holocene basalt flows and overlying unconsolidated sediments. New field mapping and aerial photograph interpretation is coupled with analysis of maps of seismic activity and level-line survey results to constrain the timing, style, and magnitude of this deformation. Fault scarps and fissures in basalts can be traced laterally down a gentle northward dip projecting into unconsolidated braided stream deposits, providing an impressive view of the deformation style in the two contrasting mechanical layers. We report on detailed field mapping of two of these laterally traceable structures conducted in the summer of 2008 and analysis of a suite of aerial photographs from 1958 to 1998. Map-scale structures in the basalts with little or no sedimentary cover include (i) fault scarps, (ii) fissures, and (iii) locally-developed gentle dip away from the related normal fault. Dilation of faults and extension fractures in the basalt has led to rock toppling and rock fall causing widening of fissures. Wedging of toppled rock blocks at the tops of fissures has locally produced keystone arches and bridges across the tops of open fissures. Different stages in the progression of fissure formation and collapse, including (i) fissure, (ii) widened fissure with cavern, (iii) localized collapse pit, and (iv) elongate collapsed fissure, can be observed over along-strike distances of 10's of meters. Where unconsolidated sand and gravel deposits >3 m thick cover the basalts (200 m to the north along strike) structural geomorphologic features are dominated by (i) grabens, (ii) pit craters, and (iii) elongate troughs. Graben-bounding normal faults cutting the sedimentary cover in many cases have displacements >1 m. Pit craters have cone to bowl shapes, commonly occur within grabens, and have depths up to 2.8 m. The mapped

  4. Anal Fissure

    PubMed Central

    Zaghiyan, Karen N.; Fleshner, Phillip

    2011-01-01

    Anal fissure is one of the most common anorectal problems. Anal fissure is largely associated with high anal sphincter pressures and most treatment options are based on reducing anal pressures. Conservative management, using increased fiber and warm baths, results in healing of approximately half of all anal fissures. In fissures that fail conservative care, various pharmacologic and surgical options offer satisfactory cure rates. Lateral internal sphincterotomy remains the gold standard for definitive management of anal fissure. This review outlines the key points in the presentation, pathophysiology, and management of anal fissure. PMID:22379402

  5. Anal Fissure

    PubMed Central

    Beaty, Jennifer Sam; Shashidharan, M.

    2016-01-01

    Anal fissure (fissure-in-ano) is a very common anorectal condition. The exact etiology of this condition is debated; however, there is a clear association with elevated internal anal sphincter pressures. Though hard bowel movements are implicated in fissure etiology, they are not universally present in patients with anal fissures. Half of all patients with fissures heal with nonoperative management such as high fiber diet, sitz baths, and pharmacological agents. When nonoperative management fails, surgical treatment with lateral internal sphincterotomy has a high success rate. In this chapter, we will review the symptoms, pathophysiology, and management of anal fissures. PMID:26929749

  6. Anal Fissure.

    PubMed

    Beaty, Jennifer Sam; Shashidharan, M

    2016-03-01

    Anal fissure (fissure-in-ano) is a very common anorectal condition. The exact etiology of this condition is debated; however, there is a clear association with elevated internal anal sphincter pressures. Though hard bowel movements are implicated in fissure etiology, they are not universally present in patients with anal fissures. Half of all patients with fissures heal with nonoperative management such as high fiber diet, sitz baths, and pharmacological agents. When nonoperative management fails, surgical treatment with lateral internal sphincterotomy has a high success rate. In this chapter, we will review the symptoms, pathophysiology, and management of anal fissures.

  7. Anal fissure.

    PubMed

    Schlichtemeier, Steven; Engel, Alexander

    2016-02-01

    An anal fissure is a common, mostly benign, condition that can be acute or chronic. The diagnosis is usually made on history and physical examination, but further investigations are sometimes necessary. Primary fissures are usually benign and located in the posterior or anterior position. Secondary fissures are lateral or multiple and often indicate a more serious underlying pathology. The management of primary anal fissures is generally non-operative and includes increased dietary fibre, sitz baths, topical ointments and botulinum toxin injections. If these treatments are ineffective the patient will need a surgical referral. Secondary anal fissures require further investigation. Multidisciplinary management is preferable and is essential in the case of malignancy.

  8. Anal fissure

    PubMed Central

    Schlichtemeier, Steven; Engel, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY An anal fissure is a common, mostly benign, condition that can be acute or chronic. The diagnosis is usually made on history and physical examination, but further investigations are sometimes necessary. Primary fissures are usually benign and located in the posterior or anterior position. Secondary fissures are lateral or multiple and often indicate a more serious underlying pathology. The management of primary anal fissures is generally non-operative and includes increased dietary fibre, sitz baths, topical ointments and botulinum toxin injections. If these treatments are ineffective the patient will need a surgical referral. Secondary anal fissures require further investigation. Multidisciplinary management is preferable and is essential in the case of malignancy. PMID:27041801

  9. Anal fissure

    MedlinePlus

    ... bath 2 to 3 times a day. The water should cover only the hips and buttocks. If the anal fissures do not go away with home care methods, treatment may involve: Botox injections into the muscle in the anus (anal sphincter) ...

  10. [Perianal fistula and anal fissure].

    PubMed

    Heitland, W

    2012-12-01

    CRYPTOGLANDULAR ANAL FISTULA: Perianal abscesses are caused by cryptoglandular infections. Not every abscess will end in a fistula. The formation of a fistula is determined by the anatomy of the anal sphincter and perianal fistulas will not heal on their own. The therapy of a fistula is oriented between a more aggressive approach (operation) and a conservative treatment with fibrin glue or a plug. Definitive healing and the development of incontinence are the most important key points. ANAL FISSURES: Acute anal fissures should be treated conservatively by topical ointments, consisting of nitrates, calcium channel blockers and if all else fails by botulinum toxin. Treatment of chronic fissures will start conservatively but operative options are necessary in many cases. Operation of first choice is fissurectomy, including excision of fibrotic margins, curettage of the base and excision of the sentinel pile and anal polyps. Lateral internal sphincterotomy is associated with a certain degree of incontinence and needs critical long-term observation.

  11. Recent ground fissures in the Hetao basin, Inner Mongolia, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zhongtai; Ma, Baoqi; Long, Jianyu; Zhang, Hao; Liang, Kuan; Jiang, Dawei

    2017-10-01

    Ground fissures are a geological hazard with complex formation mechanisms. Increasing amounts of human activity have created more ground fissures, which can destroy buildings and threaten human security. Some ground fissures indicate potentially devastating earthquakes, so we must pay attention to these hazards. This paper documents recently discovered ground fissures in the Hetao basin. These ground fissures are located along the frontal margins of the terraces of the Sertengshan piedmont fault. These fissures are 600-1600 m long, 5-50 cm wide, and at most 1 m deep. These ground fissures emerged after 2010 and ruptured newly constructed roads and field ridges. The deep geodynamic mechanisms within this extensional environment, which is dominated by NE-SW principal compressive shear, involve N-S tensile stress, which has produced continuous subsidence in the Hetao basin and continuous activity along the Sertengshan piedmont fault since the late Quaternary. Trenches across the ground fissures reveal that the fissures are the latest manifestation of the activity of preexisting faults and are the result of creep-slip movement along the faults. The groundwater level in the Hetao basin has been dropping since the 1960s because of overexploitation, resulting in subsidence. When the tensile stress exceeds the ultimate tensile strength of the strata, the strata rupture along preexisting faults, producing ground fissures. Thus, the Sertengshan piedmont fault planes are the structural foundation of the ground fissures, and groundwater extraction induces the development of ground fissures.

  12. Anal fissure - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100154.htm Anal fissure - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... rectum through which passes stool during defecation. The anal sphincter is a critical mechanism for control of ...

  13. Current concepts in anal fissures.

    PubMed

    Ayantunde, Abraham A; Debrah, Samuel A

    2006-12-01

    Anal fissure is a common and distressing problem the true incidence of which is probably higher than recorded. There is a progressive understanding of the etiopathogenesis of this entity and the changing trend in its management approach. This is a systematic review of available published literature looking at current management options in anal fissures. A MEDLINE-based search of the relevant literature from 1970 to 2004 was performed on the current concepts in etiopathogenesis and management of anal fissure. The current opinion is a drift toward conservative measures as the first- and second-line approaches rather than surgery for treatment of anal fissure. Simple and readily available measures with less complication, good patient compliance, and satisfaction requiring no hospitalization should first be considered. Most anal fissures heal with medical therapy, but their limitations include side effects, poor compliance, and recurrence of the fissure. A cautious surgical approach is required to treat those who do not respond to medical therapy.

  14. Gonyautoxin: new treatment for healing acute and chronic anal fissures.

    PubMed

    Garrido, Rogelio; Lagos, Nestor; Lattes, Karinna; Abedrapo, Mario; Bocic, Gunther; Cuneo, Aldo; Chiong, Hector; Jensen, Christian; Azolas, Rodrigo; Henriquez, Ana; Garcia, Carlos

    2005-02-01

    The mayor symptoms of chronic anal fissure are permanent pain, intense pain during defecation that lasts for hours, blood in the stools, and sphincter cramps. It is subsequent to formation of fibrosis infiltrate that leads to an increased anal tone with poor healing tendency. This vicious circle leads to fissure recurrence and chronicity. This study was designed to show the efficacy of gonyautoxin infiltration in healing patients with anal fissures. Gonyautoxin is a paralyzing phytotoxin produced by dinoflagellates. Fifty recruited patients received clinical examination, including proctoscopy and questionnaire to evaluate the symptoms. Anorectal manometries were performed before and after toxin injection. Doses of 100 units of gonyautoxin in a volume of 1 ml were infiltrated into both sides of the anal fissure in the internal anal sphincter. Total remission of acute and chronic anal fissures were achieved within 15 and 28 days respectively. Ninety-eight percent of the patients healed before 28 days with a mean time healing of 17.6 +/- 9 days. Only one relapsed during 14 months of follow-up. Neither fecal incontinence nor other side effects were observed. All patients showed immediate sphincter relaxation. The maximum anal resting pressures recorded after two minutes decreased to 56.2 +/- 12.5 percent of baseline. Gonyautoxin breaks the vicious circle of pain and spasm that leads to anal fissure. This study proposes gonyautoxin anal sphincter infiltration as safe and effective alternative therapeutic approach to conservative, surgical, and botulinum toxin therapies for anal fissures.

  15. Growing Hemorrhagic Choroidal Fissure Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Gelal, Fazıl; Gurkan, Gokhan; Feran, Hamit

    2016-01-01

    Choroidal fissure cysts are often incidentally discovered. They are usually asymptomatic. The authors report a case of growing and hemorrhagic choroidal fissure cyst which was treated surgically. A 22-year-old female presented with headache. Cranial MRI showed a left-sided choroidal fissure cyst. Follow-up MRI showed that the size of the cyst had increased gradually. Twenty months later, the patient was admitted to our emergency department with severe headache. MRI and CT showed an intracystic hematoma. Although such cysts usually have a benign course without symptoms and progression, they may rarely present with intracystic hemorrhage, enlargement of the cyst and increasing symptomatology. PMID:26962426

  16. Hyrtl fissure: a historical thriller.

    PubMed

    Mudry, Albert

    2009-06-01

    Hyrtl fissure is an anatomic landmark allowing a transient embryonic communication between the subarachnoid space and the middle ear. It is an eponym characterized by the absence of a known original description. The aim of this study was to try to find and explain the origin of the use of this eponym. Numerous references and original publications were studied to finally demonstrate that Joseph Hyrtl was not able to describe this fissure in the mid-19th century.

  17. Abnormal vasculature interferes with optic fissure closure in lmo2 mutant zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Omri; Kaufman, Rivka; Michaeli, Natali; Inbal, Adi

    2012-09-15

    Ocular coloboma is a potentially blinding congenital eye malformation caused by failure of optic fissure closure during early embryogenesis. The optic fissure is a ventral groove that forms during optic cup morphogenesis, and through which hyaloid artery and vein enter and leave the developing eye, respectively. After hyaloid artery and vein formation, the optic fissure closes around them. The mechanisms underlying optic fissure closure are poorly understood, and whether and how this process is influenced by hyaloid vessel development is unknown. Here we show that a loss-of-function mutation in lmo2, a gene specifically required for hematopoiesis and vascular development, results in failure of optic fissure closure in zebrafish. Analysis of ocular blood vessels in lmo2 mutants reveals that some vessels are severely dilated, including the hyaloid vein. Remarkably, reducing vessel size leads to rescue of optic fissure phenotype. Our results reveal a new mechanism leading to coloboma, whereby malformed blood vessels interfere with eye morphogenesis.

  18. 'Frozen finger' in anal fissures.

    PubMed

    Chintamani; Tandon, Megha; Khandelwal, Rohan

    2009-10-01

    Acute anal fissures are usually managed by various invasive and non-invasive modalities ranging from simple lifestyle changes to chemical and surgical sphincterotomies. Frozen finger, prepared using a water-filled ordinary rubber glove, was successfully used in one hundred patients, thus providing a cost-effective and simple solution to the problem.

  19. Shallow Subsurface Structures of Volcanic Fissures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parcheta, C. E.; Nash, J.; Mitchell, K. L.; Parness, A.

    2015-12-01

    Volcanic fissure vents are a difficult geologic feature to quantify. They are often too thin to document in detail with seismology or remote geophysical methods. Additionally, lava flows, lava drain back, or collapsed rampart blocks typically conceal a fissure's surface expression. For exposed fissures, quantifying the surface (let along sub0surface) geometric expression can become an overwhelming and time-consuming task given the non-uniform distribution of wall irregularities, drain back textures, and the larger scale sinuosity of the whole fissure system. We developed (and previously presented) VolcanoBot to acquire robust characteristic data of fissure geometries by going inside accessible fissures after an eruption ends and the fissure cools off to <50 C. Data from VolcanoBot documents the fissure conduit geometry with a near-IR structured light sensor, and reproduces the 3d structures to cm-scale accuracy. Here we present a comparison of shallow subsurface structures (<30 m depth) within the Mauna Ulu fissure system and their counterpart features at the vent-to-ground-surface interface. While we have not mapped enough length of the fissure to document sinuosity at depth, we see a self-similar pattern of irregularities on the fissure walls throughout the entire shallow subsurface, implying a fracture mechanical origin similar to faults. These irregularities are, on average, 1 m across and protrude 30 cm into the drained fissure. This is significantly larger than the 10% wall roughness addressed in the engineering literature on fluid dynamics, and implies that magma fluid dynamics during fissure eruptions are probably not as passive nor as simple as previously thought. In some locations, it is possible to match piercing points across the fissure walls, where the dike broke the wall rock in order to propagate upwards, yet in other locations there are erosional cavities, again, implying complex fluid dynamics in the shallow sub-surface during fissure eruptions.

  20. Flow characteristics and sealing ability of fissure sealants.

    PubMed

    Barnes, D M; Kihn, P; von Fraunhofer, J A; Elsabach, A

    2000-01-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between fissure sealant viscosity, leakage prevention and the incidence of void formation of five commercially available pit-and-fissure sealants. Seventy-two intact, caries free human pre-molars and molars were divided into six test groups of 12 teeth each. All teeth were cleaned with a flour of pumice prophylaxis followed by etching for 60 seconds with 37% H3PO4, rinsing for 30 seconds and drying with oil-free air. Five commercial, light-cured fissure sealants and an unfilled version of one sealant were applied following manufacturers' instructions. Teeth were thermal cycled for 5000 cycles from 5-50 degrees C with a one-minute dwell time at each temperature. Silver nitrate staining followed by mesiodistal sectioning was performed. Leakage and void formation were evaluated at X50 optical magnification. Viscosity was assessed by syringing the fissure sealants into short pipettes, allowing free flow for 30 seconds and then light curing for one minute. The length of unfilled capillary was measured with a Vernier gauge. All experimental data was subjected to a one-way ANOVA, and where differences were detected, they were identified by a post hoc Tukey hsd test at a priori alpha = 0.05. Based on the conditions of the study, viscosity and flow characteristics had no effect on sealing ability or void formation.

  1. Fissure seal or fluoride varnish?

    PubMed

    Deery, Christopher

    2016-09-01

    Data sourcesCochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Medline, Embase, the US National Institutes of Health Trials Register and the World Health Organization (WHO) Clinical Trials Registry PlatformStudy selectionRandomised controlled trials (RCTs) with at least 12 months follow-up, in which fissure sealants, or fissure sealants together with fluoride varnishes, were compared with fluoride varnishes alone for preventing caries in occlusal surfaces of permanent teeth of children and adolescents.Data extraction and synthesisTwo reviewers independently screened search results, extracted data and assessed risk of bias of included studies. Studies were grouped and analysed on the basis of sealant material type (resin-based sealant and glass ionomer-based sealant, glass ionomer and resin-modified glass ionomer) and different follow-up periods. Odds ratio were calculated for caries or no caries on occlusal surfaces of permanent molar teeth. Mean differences were calculated for continuous outcomes and data. Evidence quality was assessed using GRADE (Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) methods.ResultsEight RCTs involving a total of 1747 children aged five to ten years of age were included. Three trials compared resin-based fissure sealant versus fluoride varnish. Results from two studies (358 children) after two years were combined. Sealants prevented more caries, pooled odds ratio (OR) = 0.69 (95%CI; 0.50 to 0.94). One trial with follow-up at four and nine years found that the caries-preventive benefit for sealants was maintained, with 26% of sealed teeth and 55.8% of varnished teeth having developed caries at nine years. Evidence for glass-ionomer sealants was of low quality. One split-mouth trial analysing 92 children at two-year follow-up found a significant difference in favour of resin-based fissure sealant together with fluoride varnish compared with fluoride varnish only (OR

  2. Sylvian Fissure Dermoid Cyst - A Rare case

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Deepak; Soin, Divya; Garg, Ravinder

    2014-01-01

    Intracranial dermoid cysts are rare tumours which usually occur in the midline. Sylvian fissure is a very unusual site for this lesion. This case presents a patient with unruptured dermoid cyst in the left sylvian fissure who was operated successfully without any residual deficit. PMID:25386502

  3. Modeling of earth fissures caused by land subsidence due to groundwater withdrawal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, B. B.; Rucker, M. L.; Fergason, K. C.

    2015-11-01

    Land subsidence and earth fissures are phenomena related to groundwater withdrawal in a sedimentary basin. If the rock basement or basin lithology is irregular, both vertical and horizontal displacements can be induced due to differential settlement and tensile stresses appearing in the soil mass. If the differential settlement is of sufficient magnitude, earth fissuring can occur within tensile zones. The magnitudes of compaction and fissure geometry are closely related to the thickness and skeletal compressibility of fine-grained sediments within the aquifer system. Land subsidence and earth fissuring were modeled by employing a two-dimensional (2-D) coupled seepage and stress-strain finite element analysis. The basin bedrock geometry, lithological variation, measurements of surface displacements, and changes in hydraulic head were the critical input parameter for the subsidence modeling. Simulation results indicate that strain had exceeded the approximate threshold for fissure formation of 0.02 to 0.06 % in the area of the identified fissures. The numerical model was used to predict future subsidence and potential earth fissures for flood control structures within the metro Phoenix area.

  4. Tooth bleaching and pit and fissure stain.

    PubMed

    Falconer, David Scott; Hamilton, James C; Stoffers, Kenneth W; Gregory, William A

    2008-04-01

    To investigate if tooth whitening had any effect on the shade of occlusal pit and fissure stains and whether reservoirs in bleaching trays affected bleaching of occlusal pit and fissure stains. 96 extracted molars were randomly divided into three paired groups for whitening using a 10% carbamide peroxide solution (Opalescence) or a 22% carbamide peroxide solution (Nite White Excel 3), or tap water for a control. One of each pair utilized reservoirs in their custom bleaching trays. Three dentists evaluated the shade of a specified occlusal area of pit and fissure stain twice before bleaching and twice after bleaching. Pit and fissure stain showed significant lightening of shade for either of the bleaching systems (P < 0.0005) but not the control (P = 0.816). There was no significant difference in pit and fissure stain shade lightening following treatment between those groups utilizing reservoirs in the custom trays and those without reservoirs (P = 0.658).

  5. Anorectal conditions: anal fissure and anorectal fistula.

    PubMed

    Fox, Audralan; Tietze, Pamela H; Ramakrishnan, Kalyanakrishnan

    2014-04-01

    Anal fissures are linear splits in the anal mucosa. Acute fissures typically resolve within a few weeks; chronic fissures persist longer than 8 to 12 weeks. Most fissures are posterior and midline and are related to constipation or anal trauma. Painful defecation and rectal bleeding are common symptoms. The diagnosis typically is clinical. High-fiber diet, stool softeners, and medicated ointments relieve symptoms and speed healing of acute fissures but offer limited benefit in chronic fissures. Lateral internal sphincterotomy is the surgical management of choice for chronic and refractory acute fissures. Anorectal fistula is an abnormal tract connecting the anorectal mucosa to the exterior skin. Fistulas typically develop after rupture or drainage of a perianal abscess. Fistulas are classified as simple or complex; low or high; and intersphincteric, transsphincteric, suprasphincteric, or extrasphincteric. Inspection of the perianal area identifies the skin opening, and anoscopy visualizes internal openings. The goal of management is to obliterate the tract and openings with negligible sphincter disruption to minimize incontinence. Fistulotomy is effective for simple fistulas; patients with complex fistulas may require fistulectomy. Other procedures that are used include injection of fibrin glue or insertion of a bioprosthetic plug into the fistula opening.

  6. [Botulinum toxin and chronic anal fissure].

    PubMed

    Daniel, Fady; de Parades, Vincent; Siproudhis, Laurent; Atienza, Patrick

    2006-05-01

    Lateral internal sphincterotomy is widely used in the treatment of chronic anal fissure. However, it is associated with a high rate of irreversible incontinence. For this reason the botulinum toxin has become a medical means of reversible sphincterotomy. Indeed, this neurotoxin induces relaxation of the smooth internal anal sphincter lasting one to three months after one injection. We reviewed the published studies about the use of this technique in the management of chronic anal fissure. Healing occurred in more than 70% of fissures without irreversible incontinence. Although further studies are needed to determine the best modalities of administration, especially due to the remaining significant recurrence rate, this toxin may be a valuable treatment for chronic anal fissure in the future.

  7. Surface fissures in articular cartilage: new concepts, hypotheses and modeling.

    PubMed

    Kafka, Vratislav

    2002-01-01

    Clarification and mesomechanical modeling of the inception of fissures at the surface of articular cartilage. Articular cartilage is described as a macroscopically heterogeneous medium consisting of zones - layers - with different orientation of collagen fibers. Degradation of mechanical properties of cartilage is a serious, still not fully clarified problem that deserves attention. Theoretical analysis based on a survey of known experimental findings related to the subject. The general author's mesomechanical concept of modeling heterogeneous media is applied to the elucidation and description of the formation of fissures at the surface of articular cartilage. Our model clarifies how the high tensile stresses in the collagen fibers of the superficial tangential zone depend on the rate of loading. The superficial cracks are caused predominantly by a very quick loading. This explains among others the high incidence of post-traumatic osteoarthritis of the lower extremity after accidents and injuries in sports. Superficial fissures in articular cartilage are observed in joints with primary osteoarthritis. The current study specifies the kinds of loading that lead to their inception.

  8. Cadherin-mediated cell adhesion is critical for the closing of the mouse optic fissure.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuyi; Lewis, Brandy; Moran, Andrea; Xie, Ting

    2012-01-01

    Coloboma is a congenital disease that contributes significantly to childhood blindness. It results from the failure in closing the optic fissure, a transient opening on the ventral side of the developing eye. Although human and mouse genetic studies have identified a number of genes associated with coloboma, the detailed cellular mechanisms underlying the optic fissure closure and coloboma formation remain largely undefined. N-cadherin-mediated cell adhesion has been shown to be important for the optic fissure closure in zebrafish, but it remains to be determined experimentally how cell-cell adhesions are involved in the mammalian optic fissure closing process. α-Catenin is required for cell adhesion mediated by all of the classic cadherin molecules, including N-cadherin. In this study, we used the Cre-mediated conditional knockout technique to specifically delete α-catenin from the developing mouse eye to show that it is required for the successful closing of the optic fissure. In α-catenin conditional mutant optic cups, the major cell fates, including the optic fissure margin, neural retina and retinal pigmented epithelium, are specified normally, and the retinal progenitor cells proliferate normally. However, adherens junctions components, including N-cadherin, β-catenin and filamentous actin, fail to accumulate on the apical side of α-catenin mutant retinal progenitor cells, where adherens junctions are normally abundant, and the organization of the neural retina and the optic fissure margin is disrupted. Finally, the α-catenin mutant retina gradually degenerates in the adult mouse eye. Therefore, our results show that α-catenin-mediated cell adhesion and cell organization are important for the fissure closure in mice, and further suggest that genes that regulate cell adhesion may underlie certain coloboma cases in humans.

  9. Thoracoscopic anterior ‘fissure first’ technique for left lung cancer with an incomplete fissure

    PubMed Central

    Samejima, Joji; Matsuura, Yosuke; Nakao, Masayuki; Uehara, Hirofumi; Nakagawa, Ken; Masuda, Munetaka; Okumura, Sakae

    2016-01-01

    Background Dealing with incomplete lung fissures during thoracoscopic surgery is difficult. Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a thoracoscopic anterior ‘fissure first’ technique for dealing with incomplete left lung fissures. Methods One hundred and seventy patients underwent left upper lobectomy or left lower lobectomy between April 2008 and July 2014. Of these, 34 patients underwent surgery using a thoracoscopic anterior ‘fissure first’ technique for incomplete fissures (group A) and 136 underwent surgery using a conventional thoracoscopic method for unfused fissures (group B). A four-port complete thoracoscopic approach was used in all patients. After completion of the fissure, hilar lymphadenectomy was performed in the conventional manner. Results There were no significant differences between the two groups in operating time, blood loss, or duration of chest tube drainage. Patients in group A required more staple cartridges than those in group B (mean number of cartridges, 2.4 vs. 1.1; P<0.01). The two groups did not significantly differ with regard to the prevalence of air leaks (12% vs. 4%; P=0.11), either prolonged or delayed. Conclusions We found that a thoracoscopic anterior ‘fissure first’ technique for left lung cancer with an incomplete fissure enabled hilar lymphadenectomy to be performed in the conventional manner without any increase in the prevalence of air leaks, operating time, or duration of chest tube drainage. This technique should be considered for use in left upper lobectomy or left lower lobectomy in patients with an incomplete fissure. PMID:28066589

  10. Enceladus Near-Fissure Surface Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, Robert R.; Goguen, J. D.; Spencer, J. R.

    2013-10-01

    Recently reported Cassini VIMS observations of thermal emission from the Enceladus south-pole fissures (Goguen et al. 2013) when combined with previous longer wavelength Cassini CIRS observations (Spencer et al. 2006) allow us to better constrain the highest temperatures present, but also require more detailed modeling of the processes which control those highest temperatures. The simplest interpretation of the VIMS observations is that the 3-5 µm thermal radiation comes from the walls within a fissure, rather than the adjacent surface. But as part of investigating that latter alternative it became clear that very high sublimation rates are implied by some predicted surface temperatures. Abramov and Spencer (2009) produced models of the expected surface temperature distribution, assuming conduction of heat through the ice, balanced by thermal radiation at the surface. However as temperature is raised, at 186K sublimation cooling equals radiation, and because it depends exponentially on temperature, it quickly dominates. We have found that including the surface sublimation cooling suppresses the higher temperatures. Regardless of the fissure temperature, surface temperatures above 200K can only be maintained by conduction within a few tens of centimeters of the assumed fissure wall. The high sublimation erosion rates (0.25 m/yr at 180K, rising to over 100 m/yr at 220K) imply that the fixed boundaries we have previously assumed are unrealistic. If these surface temperatures are maintained then either a sublimation lag of non-ice components will accumulate, inhibiting sublimation, or the geometry of the fissure vent will rapidly change. However the rate of change will be limited by the available heat provided by conduction. We are now developing numerical models with moving boundary conditions to explore the time evolution. The simplest result may be that the lip of the fissure erodes back till it no longer remains in thermal contact with the rising vapor which

  11. Robust pulmonary lobe segmentation against incomplete fissures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Suicheng; Zheng, Qingfeng; Siegfried, Jill; Pu, Jiantao

    2012-03-01

    As important anatomical landmarks of the human lung, accurate lobe segmentation may be useful for characterizing specific lung diseases (e.g., inflammatory, granulomatous, and neoplastic diseases). A number of investigations showed that pulmonary fissures were often incomplete in image depiction, thereby leading to the computerized identification of individual lobes a challenging task. Our purpose is to develop a fully automated algorithm for accurate identification of individual lobes regardless of the integrity of pulmonary fissures. The underlying idea of the developed lobe segmentation scheme is to use piecewise planes to approximate the detected fissures. After a rotation and a global smoothing, a number of small planes were fitted using local fissures points. The local surfaces are finally combined for lobe segmentation using a quadratic B-spline weighting strategy to assure that the segmentation is smooth. The performance of the developed scheme was assessed by comparing with a manually created reference standard on a dataset of 30 lung CT examinations. These examinations covered a number of lung diseases and were selected from a large chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) dataset. The results indicate that our scheme of lobe segmentation is efficient and accurate against incomplete fissures.

  12. Earth fissures and localized differential subsidence.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holzer, Thomas L.; Pampeyan, Earl H.

    1981-01-01

    Long linear tension cracks associated with declining groundwater levels at four sites in subsiding areas in south-central Arizona, Fremont Valley, California, and Las Vegas Valley, Nevada, occur near points of maximum convex-upward curvature in subsidence profiles oriented perpendicular to the cracks. Profiles are based on repeated precise vertical control surveys of lines of closely spaced bench marks. Association of these fissures with zones of localized differential subsidence indicates that linear earth fissures are caused by horizontal tensile strains probably resulting from localized differential compaction. Horizontal tensile strains across the fissures at the point of maximum convex-upward curvature, ranging from approximately 100 to 700 microstrains (0.01 to 0.07% per year), were indicated based on measurements with a tape or electronic distance meter.

  13. Identification of the pleural fissures with computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, B.W.; Kuhns, L.R.

    1982-04-01

    The pleural fissures can be identified as avascular planes within the pulmonary parenchyma on CT scans. A retrospective analysis of 23 consecutive scans was conducted to consider identification of fissures. On 21% of the axial images, a ''ground glass'' band was identified within the avascular plane, probably due to partial volume averaging of the pleural fissure with the adjacent lung. The pleural fissures could be identified in 84% of cases.

  14. Endoanal ultrasonographic evaluation of an unhealed anal fissure after the lateral internal sphincterotomy.

    PubMed

    Yucel, E; Akin, M L; Sucullu, I; Filiz, A I; Ozdemir, Y; Yildiz, M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of the lateral internal sphincterotomy in patients who had unhealed anal fissures using the endoanal ultrasonography. Lateral internal sphincterotomy is an effective method in treatment of chronic anal fissures, but it is associated with 1 to 5 % unhealing and recurrence rates. Endoanal ultrasonography can be used to evaluate the sphincterotomy and the efficiency of the treatment. Totally, 40 patients with unhealed anal fissures after the lateral internal sphincterotomy were enrolled consecutively. The fissures were diagnosed by proctologic examination in every patient. The results of sphincterotomy were evaluated by the endoanal ultrasonography. There were 23 men and 17 women with the median age 29.7 years (range, 20-44 years). Using the endoanal ultrasonography, an incomplete internal sphincterotomy was detected in 26 of patients. In 12 patients, while the internal sphincter was completely intact, a superficial (subcutaneous) external anal sphincterotomy was found. In two patients, although the internal sphincterotomy was observed to be sufficient, a localized abscess formation of less than 1 cm was detected at the anal crypts level. The use of endoanal ultrasonography in patients with unhealed or recurrent anal fissure is a beneficial diagnostic method in assessing the situations of sphincters after the lateral internal sphincterotomy. Although the lateral internal sphincterotomy is a successful surgical treatment and can be performed easily as an outpatient procedure, it should be performed with the correct and rigorously surgical technique (Tab. 2, Fig. 3, Ref. 31).

  15. Fissuring near the TAG active hydrothermal mound, 26°N on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohnenstiehl, D. R.; Kleinrock, M. C.

    2000-05-01

    Analysis of 12,000 electronic still camera images collected with the ARGO II vehicle near the Trans-Atlantic Geotraverse (TAG) active hydrothermal mound, 26°N on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, has made possible the first quantitative in situ assessment of both fissure orientation and width within the median valley of a slow-spreading ridge. Fissures near the TAG mound are partially rubble-filled extensional fractures that cut lightly sedimented seafloor and in ∼1% of our observations host pillow lavas. Fissure widths range from 0.15 to 3.5 m, with a mean of 0.7 m, and do not vary systematically within the survey area. First-order estimates of crack depth, based on these width measurements and reasonable elastic moduli, indicate that fissures are restricted to depths <500 m, with a mean depth of ∼70 m. Fissure-associated eruptives were therefore probably fed by shallow propagating dikes. TAG fissures exhibit a wide range of orientations, with ∼40% deviating by >45° from the strike of the ridge axis. The formation of obliquely oriented fissures requires that the local least compressive stress direction varies (at least temporarily) from that predicted by the regional tectonic stress field associated with plate separation. This stress field reorientation may be facilitated by variations in the style of magma emplacement within the rift. The close spatial association of long-term hydrothermal activity, fissure-hosted lava flows, and faults and fissures trending oblique to the spreading axis suggests a causal relationship between the impact of dike intrusion and the maintenance of localized hydrothermal flow.

  16. Tensions and Fissures: The Politics of Standardised Testing and Accountability in Ontario, 1995-2015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Laura Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    While Ontario has received international accolades for its enactment of province-wide standardised testing upon the formation of the Education Quality and Accountability Office (EQAO), a closer look at provincial assessments over a 20-year span reveals successes as well as systemic tensions and fissures. The purpose of this paper is twofold.…

  17. Tensions and Fissures: The Politics of Standardised Testing and Accountability in Ontario, 1995-2015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Laura Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    While Ontario has received international accolades for its enactment of province-wide standardised testing upon the formation of the Education Quality and Accountability Office (EQAO), a closer look at provincial assessments over a 20-year span reveals successes as well as systemic tensions and fissures. The purpose of this paper is twofold.…

  18. Influence of matrix diffusion and exchange reactions on radiocarbon ages in fissured carbonate aquifers

    SciTech Connect

    Maloszewski, P. ); Zuber, A. )

    1991-08-01

    The parallel fissure model coupled with the equation of diffusion into the matrix and with exchange reaction equations has been used to derive a simple formula for estimating the influence of matrix porosity and reaction parameters on the determination of radiocarbon ages in fissured carbonate rocks. Examples of evidently too great radiocarbon ages in carbonate formations, which are not explainable by models for the initial {sup 14}C corrections, can easily be explained by this formula. Parameters obtained for a chalk formation from a known multitracer experiment combined with a pumping test suggest a possibility of {sup 14}C ages more than three orders of magnitude greater than the ages which would be observed if the radiocarbon transport took place only in the mobile water in the fissures. It is shown that contrary to the solute movement on a small scale and with a variable input, the large-scale movement, characteristic for the {sup 14}C dating, does not necessarily require the knowledge of kinetic parameters, because they may be replaced by the distribution coefficient. Discordant tritium and {sup 14}C concentrations are commonly interpreted as a proof of mixing either in the aquifer or at the discharge site. For fissured carbonate formations, however, an alternative explanation is given by the derived model showing a considerable delay of {sup 14}C with respect to nonsorbable tracers.

  19. Hydraulic fracturing in tight, fissured media

    SciTech Connect

    Warpinski, N.R. )

    1991-02-01

    Large volumes of natural gas are found in tight, fissured reservoirs. Hydraulic fracturing can enhance recovery, but many complications, such as pressure-sensitive or accelerated leakoff, damage, and complex fracturing, arise during treatment of such reservoirs. This paper reports that special procedures generally should be considered during breakdown and fracturing of these reservoirs. In addition, the use of alternative stimulation strategies may be beneficial.

  20. Anatomy and approaches along the cerebellar-brainstem fissures.

    PubMed

    Matsushima, Ken; Yagmurlu, Kaan; Kohno, Michihiro; Rhoton, Albert L

    2016-01-01

    OBJECT Fissure dissection is routinely used in the supratentorial region to access deeply situated pathology while minimizing division of neural tissue. Use of fissure dissection is also practical in the posterior fossa. In this study, the microsurgical anatomy of the 3 cerebellar-brainstem fissures (cerebellomesencephalic, cerebellopontine, and cerebellomedullary) and the various procedures exposing these fissures in brainstem surgery were examined. METHODS Seven cadaveric heads were examined with a microsurgical technique and 3 with fiber dissection to clarify the anatomy of the cerebellar-brainstem and adjacent cerebellar fissures, in which the major vessels and neural structures are located. Several approaches directed along the cerebellar surfaces and fissures, including the supracerebellar infratentorial, occipital transtentorial, retrosigmoid, and midline suboccipital approaches, were examined. The 3 heads examined using fiber dissection defined the anatomy of the cerebellar peduncles coursing in the depths of these fissures. RESULTS Dissections directed along the cerebellar-brainstem and cerebellar fissures provided access to the posterior and posterolateral midbrain and upper pons, lateral pons, floor and lateral wall of the fourth ventricle, and dorsal and lateral medulla. CONCLUSIONS Opening the cerebellar-brainstem and adjacent cerebellar fissures provided access to the brainstem surface hidden by the cerebellum, while minimizing division of neural tissue. Most of the major cerebellar arteries, veins, and vital neural structures are located in or near these fissures and can be accessed through them.

  1. Earth Fissures in Su-Xi-Chang Region, Jiangsu, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guang-ya; You, Greg; Zhu, Jin-qi; Yu, Jun; Li, Wei

    2016-11-01

    The earth fissures in the Su-Xi-Chang area are caused by differential land subsidence due to long-term excessive groundwater withdrawal and controlled by the bedrock ridge or cliff underlying. There have been more than 15 earth fissures in the area since 1989. The field investigations have lasted for more than 20 years. The earth fissures generally have a main fissure and a number of secondary ones parallel to the main one. The main fissure (crack) has a scarp, is steeply dipping, and can be more than 2000 m long. Geophysical surveys (2D or 3D seismic investigation, controlled source audio frequency magnetotelluric sounding, and electric sounding) combined with geological drilling are effective for the investigation of earth fissures. Geodetic leveling is effective to monitor the ground deformation across the earth fissure, so is the extensometer for the opening of the fissure. The activities of earth fissures are directly related to different stages of land subsidence and controlled by geological abnormalities. Most earth fissures in the area are still active.

  2. Lung fissure detection in CT images using global minimal paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appia, Vikram; Patil, Uday; Das, Bipul

    2010-03-01

    Pulmonary fissures separate human lungs into five distinct regions called lobes. Detection of fissure is essential for localization of the lobar distribution of lung diseases, surgical planning and follow-up. Treatment planning also requires calculation of the lobe volume. This volume estimation mandates accurate segmentation of the fissures. Presence of other structures (like vessels) near the fissure, along with its high variational probability in terms of position, shape etc. makes the lobe segmentation a challenging task. Also, false incomplete fissures and occurrence of diseases add to the complications of fissure detection. In this paper, we propose a semi-automated fissure segmentation algorithm using a minimal path approach on CT images. An energy function is defined such that the path integral over the fissure is the global minimum. Based on a few user defined points on a single slice of the CT image, the proposed algorithm minimizes a 2D energy function on the sagital slice computed using (a) intensity (b) distance of the vasculature, (c) curvature in 2D, (d) continuity in 3D. The fissure is the infimum energy path between a representative point on the fissure and nearest lung boundary point in this energy domain. The algorithm has been tested on 10 CT volume datasets acquired from GE scanners at multiple clinical sites. The datasets span through different pathological conditions and varying imaging artifacts.

  3. Fissure Integrity and Volume Reduction in Emphysema: A Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Hugo Goulart; de Oliveira, Silvia Martins; Rambo, Rafael Ramos; de Macedo Neto, Amarilio Vieira

    2016-01-01

    One-way endobronchial valves (EBVs) relieve symptoms of emphysema, particularly in patients without collateral ventilation between the target and adjacent lobes. Pretreatment knowledge of fissure integrity could serve as an aid in indicating EBV interventions. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between software-measured lung fissure integrity and clinically relevant lung volume reduction (≥350 ml) in emphysema patients treated with one-way EBVs using a lobar exclusion strategy. Of 108 patients treated between March 2008 and July 2014, 38 had both baseline and follow-up computed tomography (CT) scans acquired following a specific protocol for quantitative CT analysis and were included in the study (total of 39 treatments, two lungs treated in 1 patient). Outcome measures were fissure integrity measured on baseline CT scans, difference between pre- and postoperative lung volume (considering the lowest measured postoperative volume), and correlation between fissure integrity and volume change. Fissure integrity ≥75% correlated with volume reduction ≥350 ml (Spearman coefficient: -0.65; p < 0.01). The mean and median volume reductions were 1,223.96 ± 907.5 ml and 663 ml, respectively, for lungs with fissure integrity ≥75% (n = 31). The accuracy of fissure integrity ≥75% in predicting a volume reduction was 87.2%. The positive predictive value of fissure integrity ≥75% to predict a volume reduction ≥350 ml was 83.9%, and it was 70% for fissure integrity 75-90% and 90.5% for fissure integrity >90%. A target lobe volume reduction using EBVs is possible with lung fissure integrity ≥75%. For patients with fissure integrity between 75 and 90%, a further evaluation of interlobar ventilation should be performed. A clinically relevant volume reduction following treatment with EBVs is likely with any level of fissure integrity >90%. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. [Fissure sealants--5 years of use].

    PubMed

    Azul, A M

    1990-01-01

    This study assesses the caries prevalence, retention and cost-effectiveness of a pit and fissure sealant in a children population with 622 cases, 5 years after a single application of an auto-polymerized sealant to permanent molars. The status of the sealant and the presence of caries or restaurations on the sealed teeth was assessed. In a self-controlled group of children, the prevalence of disease (caries and restaurations) was also assessed in non-sealed teeth, for comparison. The sealant application was compared with Class I-restauration with amalgam for cost-effectiveness analysis.

  5. A Geophysical Study of Fissures in Pahrump, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, A. C.; McEwan, M. J.; Howley, R. A.; Mehling, J. B.; Snelson, C. M.; Drohan, P.

    2004-12-01

    Earth fissures are surface expressions of deep fracturing subsidence systems caused by groundwater withdrawl greater than aquifer recharge. This type of subsidence is most common in arid environments of the south western U.S. such as, Las Vegas, NV, Phoenix, AZ, and areas in New Mexico. In addition, fissures have recently been identified in the Pahrump Valley in southwestern Nevada just west of Las Vegas. The city of Pahrump has experienced an increase in population and economic growth. This growth has lead to a higher demand in the use of the areas natural resources. One major concern is groundwater pumping and over-watering of the land surface. Pahrump has experienced significant differential subsidence within the valley causing significant structural damage to infrastructure. This differential subsidence is most readily identified by its surface expression as fissures. Earth fissures are not only shallow surface features but can be 10's of meters deep and 100's of meters long. These ground failures can be exacerbated by faults at depth, shallow bedrock, and/or differential compaction. However, the most significant cause is from groundwater withdrawl. Several geophysical methods were performed on the fissures to better understand their subsurface expression, trend, and ultimately their affect on the city of Pahrump. Seismic refraction, reflection, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and gravity measurements were performed on the fissures and surrounding area including local faults. Our initial studies show the fissures propagating for long distances, in a variety of shapes, and trending in a north-south direction. Initial GPR studies show high fissure reflections at approximately 1 and 1.5 meters along with general slumping features below these reflections. Fissures are an unmitigatable problem. Our results will help identify fissures in the area that do not have a surface expression as well as mapping the current fissures and their extent. These results can be used

  6. Impact de la preparation des anodes crues et des conditions de cuisson sur la fissuration dans des anodes denses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amrani, Salah

    La fabrication de l'aluminium est realisee dans une cellule d'electrolyse, et cette operation utilise des anodes en carbone. L'evaluation de la qualite de ces anodes reste indispensable avant leur utilisation. La presence des fissures dans les anodes provoque une perturbation du procede l'electrolyse et une diminution de sa performance. Ce projet a ete entrepris pour determiner l'impact des differents parametres de procedes de fabrication des anodes sur la fissuration des anodes denses. Ces parametres incluent ceux de la fabrication des anodes crues, des proprietes des matieres premieres et de la cuisson. Une recherche bibliographique a ete effectuee sur tous les aspects de la fissuration des anodes en carbone pour compiler les travaux anterieurs. Une methodologie detaillee a ete mise au point pour faciliter le deroulement des travaux et atteindre les objectifs vises. La majorite de ce document est reservee pour la discussion des resultats obtenus au laboratoire de l'UQAC et au niveau industriel. Concernant les etudes realisees a l'UQAC, une partie des travaux experimentaux est reservee a la recherche des differents mecanismes de fissuration dans les anodes denses utilisees dans l'industrie d'aluminium. L'approche etait d'abord basee sur la caracterisation qualitative du mecanisme de la fissuration en surface et en profondeur. Puis, une caracterisation quantitative a ete realisee pour la determination de la distribution de la largeur de la fissure sur toute sa longueur, ainsi que le pourcentage de sa surface par rapport a la surface totale de l'echantillon. Cette etude a ete realisee par le biais de la technique d'analyse d'image utilisee pour caracteriser la fissuration d'un echantillon d'anode cuite. L'analyse surfacique et en profondeur de cet echantillon a permis de voir clairement la formation des fissures sur une grande partie de la surface analysee. L'autre partie des travaux est basee sur la caracterisation des defauts dans des echantillons d'anodes crues

  7. Effect of an Antibacterial Monomer on the Antibacterial Activity of a Pit-and-Fissure Sealant

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yan; Zhang, Ling; Sun, Xiang; Liu, Zhengya; Guo, Huihui; Huang, Li; Chen, Jihua

    2016-01-01

    Resin-based pit-and-fissure sealants are often used to form a barrier on the occlusal surface of molars to treat caries lesions; however, bacteria can remain in the pit and fissures without detection, increasing the risk of secondary caries. Sealants with antimicrobial properties or microbial repellent actions might be advantageous. The aim of this study was to assess the inhibitory effect of a 2-methacryloxylethyl dodecyl methyl ammonium bromide (MAE-DB)-incorporated sealant against Streptococcus mutans. MAE-DB (4% wt) was incorporated into a commercially available sealant, Eco-S resin-based pit-and-fissure sealant (Vericom Co., Ltd., Korea); a sealant without MAE-DB served as a negative control, and Clinpro™ Sealant (3M™ ESPE™), a fluoride-releasing resin, was used as a commercial control. The effects of the cured sealants and their eluents on the growth of S. mutans were determined according to colony-forming unit counts and metabolic tests. The effects of the cured sealants on the adherence and membrane integrity of S. mutans were investigated using confocal laser-scanning microscopy (CLSM) in conjunction with fluorescent indicators. Compared with the negative control and commercial control, the cured MAE-DB-incorporated pit-and-fissure sealant exhibited a significant inhibitory effect on the growth of S. mutans (P < 0.05), whereas the eluents did not show any detectable antibacterial activity. The commercial control also showed no detectable bactericidal activity. Moreover, the aged experimental material retained its property of contact inhibition of biofilm formation. The fluorescence analysis of CLSM images demonstrated that the cured MAE-DB-incorporated sealant could hamper the adherence of S. mutans and exert a detrimental effect on bacterial membrane integrity. The incorporation of MAE-DB can render a pit-and-fissure sealant with contact antibacterial activity after polymerization via influencing the growth, adherence, and membrane integrity of S

  8. Fine Mapping and Introgressing a Fissure Resistance Locus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) kernel fissuring is a major concern of both rice producers and millers. Fissures are small cracks in rice kernels that increase breakage among kernels when transported or milled, which decrease the value of processed rice. This study employed molecular gene tagging methods to ...

  9. Anal fissures associated with targeted therapies in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Squires, Jennifer

    2009-12-01

    Although ovarian cancer remains a leading cause of gynecologic cancer death, targeted therapies are improving patient outcomes. Anal fissures are a side effect of targeted therapies that can disrupt or stop treatment regimens. Diagnosis and management of anal fissures by advanced practice nurses are crucial for maintaining the quality of life of patients with ovarian cancer.

  10. Tongue fissure extraction and classification using hyperspectral imaging technology.

    PubMed

    Li, Qingli; Wang, Yiting; Liu, Hongying; Sun, Zhen; Liu, Zhi

    2010-04-10

    Tongue fissures, an important feature on the tongue surface, may be pathologically related to some diseases. Most existing tongue fissure extraction methods use tongue images captured by traditional charge coupled device cameras. However, these conventional methods cannot be used for an accurate analysis of the tongue surface due to limited information from the images. To solve this, a hyperspectral tongue imager is used to capture tongue images instead of a digital camera. New algorithms for automatic tongue fissure extraction and classification, based on hyperspectral images, are presented. Both spectral and spatial information of the tongue surface is used to segment the tongue body and extract tongue fissures. Then a classification algorithm based on a hidden Markov model is used to classify tongue fissures into 12 typical categories. Results of the experiment show that the new method has good performance in terms of the classification rates of correctness.

  11. [Treatment of anal fissures with botulinum toxin].

    PubMed

    Wollina, U

    2008-04-01

    Chronic anal fissure is a common proctological disease. Botulinum toxin (BTX) can be used for temporary chemical denervation. The administration is by intramuscular injections into either the external or the internal anal sphincter muscles. The mode of action, administration techniques and possible complications or adverse effects of BTX therapy are discussed. The healing rate is dependent on the BTX dosage. The short-term healing rate (< or = 6 months) is between 60 and 90 %. In long-term follow-up studies (> 1 year), about 50 % of patients show a complete response. Adverse effects are generally mild but relapses occur more often compared to surgery. Conservative therapies including BTX are currently considered mostly as the first-line treatment. Among the surgical procedures, lateral sphincterotomy is the most effective treatment but shows higher incontinence and general morbidity rates than BTX.

  12. Hawaiian fissure fountains 1: decoding deposits-episode 1 of the 1969-1974 Mauna Ulu eruption

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parcheta, C.E.; Houghton, B.F.; Swanson, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    Deposits from episode 1 of the 1969–1974 Mauna Ulu eruption of Kīlauea provide an exceptional opportunity to study processes of low intensity Hawaiian fissure fountains. Episode 1 lava flows passed through dense forest that had little impact on flow dynamics; in contrast, the pattern of spatter preservation was strongly influenced by the forest (through the formation of tree molds) and the preexisting topography. A low, near-continuous spatter rampart is present upwind and upslope, on the north side of the fissure. Most of the pyroclastic products, however, fell downwind to the south of the fissure, but little was preserved due to two processes: (1) incorporation of proximal spatter in rheomorphic lava flows 10–20 m from the vents, and (2) the downslope transport of cooler spatter falling on top of these flows beyond 20 m from vent. The lava flow field itself shows a complex history. Initially, discharge from the fissure exceeded the transport capacity of the southern drainage pathways, and lava ponded dynamically to a maximum height of 4 m for 40–120 min, until fountains began to decline. During declining discharge, lava flowed both southward away from the fissure and increasingly back into the vents. There is a clear “lava-shed” or delineation between where lava drained northwards back into the fissure, and where it continued flowing to the south. The 1969 deposits suggest that care is needed when products of less well-documented eruptions are analyzed, as postdepositional transport of spatter may preclude the formation of classic paired (symmetrical) ramparts.

  13. A study of suppurative pathologies associated with chronic anal fissures.

    PubMed

    Gupta, P J

    2005-07-01

    Suppurative pathologies associated with chronic anal fissures are common but not well documented. Fissure abscess, post-fissure fistula, and post-fissure antibioma are but a few of them. These pathologies increase the complications and morbidity of the primary lesion and need a comprehensive approach. From the hospital case record of 532 patients treated for chronic anal fissures, 88 patients (16.5%) were found to have one of these pathologies. This retrospective study describes such pathologies in terms of demographics, clinical presentation, pathological features, operative technique and outcome. Of the 88 patients who presented with pain and discharge per anus, 90% could resume their duties within a week of the surgical procedure. Wound healing took between 2 weeks and 2 months. At the last follow- up at 18 months, three patients had a recurrence (3.4%). Suppuration in chronic anal fissure seems to be more frequent than described. While dealing with the anal fissure, it is desirable to look for and attend to these associated pathologies, especially to avoid complications and morbidity of the primary disease.

  14. Modern perspectives in the treatment of chronic anal fissures.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, R; Parker, M C

    2007-07-01

    Anal fissures are commonly encountered in routine colorectal practice. Developments in the pharmacological understanding of the internal anal sphincter have resulted in more conservative approaches towards treatment. Simple measures are often effective for early fissures. Glyceryl trinitrate is well established as a first-line pharmacological therapy. The roles of diltiazem and botulinum, particularly as rescue therapy, are not well understood. Surgery has a defined role and should not be discounted completely. Data were obtained from Medline publications citing 'anal fissure'. Manual cross-referencing of salient articles was conducted. We have sought to highlight various controversies in the management of anal fissures. Acute fissures may heal spontaneously, although simple conservative measures are sufficient. Idiopathic chronic anal fissures need careful evaluation to decide what therapy is suitable. Pharmacological agents such as glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), diltiazem and botulinum toxin have been subjected to most scrutiny. Though practices in the UK vary, GTN or diltiazem would be suitable as first-line therapy with botulinum toxin used as rescue treatment. Sphincterotomy is indicated for unhealed fissures; fissurectomy has been revisited and advancement flaps have a role in patients in whom sphincter division is not suitable.

  15. Effect of air abrasion and polishing on primary molar fissures.

    PubMed

    Lenzi, T L; Menezes, L B R; Soares, F Z M; Rocha, R O

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of air abrasion and polishing on primary molar fissures under light microscopy. 15 exfoliated primary second molars were longitudinally sectioned and photographed under a stereomicroscope (40×; baseline evaluation). Sections were then randomly allocated into one of the two groups (n = 15) and treated by either air abrasion (aluminium oxide jet) or air polishing (sodium bicarbonate jet) for 30 s. After treatment, sections were washed with an air/water spray, dried with absorbent paper, and photographed as previously described (final evaluation). Baseline and final morphology were compared by two blinded examiners who evaluated changes in the width and depth of fissures. The percentage of changed fissures was analysed, and the two treatments were compared using the Mann-Whitney test (α = 0.01). Both air systems resulted in fissure changes in most (93.3 %) of the sections. No significant differences in fissure width changes were found between treatments, but when changes in fissure depth were evaluated, air polishing was found to be less damaging than air abrasion (p < 0.01). Air abrasion and polishing cause changes to the anatomical configuration of occlusal fissures of primary molars.

  16. King's Bowl Pit Crater, Lava Field and Eruptive Fissure, Idaho - A Multipurpose Volcanic Planetary Analog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, S. S.; Garry, B.; Kobs-Nawotniak, S. E.; Sears, D. W. G.; Borg, C.; Elphic, R. C.; Haberle, C. W.; Kobayashi, L.; Lim, D. S. S.; Sears, H.; Skok, J. R.; Heldmann, J. L.

    2014-12-01

    King's Bowl (KB) and its associated eruptive fissure and lava field on the eastern Snake River Plain, is being investigated by the NASA SSERVI FINESSE (Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration) team as a planetary analog to similar pits on the Moon, Mars and Vesta. The 2,220 ± 100 BP basaltic eruption in Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve represents early stages of low shield growth, which was aborted when magma supply was cut off. Compared to mature shields, KB is miniscule, with ~0.02 km3 of lava over ~3 km2, yet the ~6 km long series of fissures, cracks and pits are well-preserved for analog studies of volcanic processes. The termination of eruption was likely related to proximity of the 2,270 ± 50 BP eruption of the much larger Wapi lava field (~5.5 km3 over 325 km2 area) on the same rift. Our investigation extends early work by R. Greeley and colleagues, focusing on imagery, compositional variations, ejecta distribution, dGPS profiles and LiDAR scans of features related to: (1) fissure eruptions - spatter ramparts, cones, feeder dikes, extension cracks; (2) lava lake formation - surface morphology, squeeze-ups, slab pahoehoe lava mounds, lava drain-back, flow lobe overlaps; and (3) phreatic steam blasts - explosion pits, ejecta blankets of ash and blocks. Preliminary results indicate multiple fissure eruptions and growth of a basin-filled lava lake up to ~ 10 m thick with outflow sheet lava flows. Remnant mounds of original lake crust reveal an early high lava lake level, which subsided as much as 5 m as the molten interior drained back into the fissure system. Rapid loss of magma supply led to the collapse of fissure walls allowing groundwater influx that triggered multiple steam blasts along at least 500 m. Early blasts occurred while lake magma pressure was still high enough to produce squeeze-ups when penetrated by ejecta blocks. The King's Bowl pit crater exemplifies processes of a small, but highly energetic

  17. Pit and fissure sealants or fluoride varnishes?

    PubMed

    Paglia, L

    2016-09-01

    Despite the general advances in dental care, dental caries is still a global health problem affecting many children. Occlusal surfaces of first permanent molars are the most susceptible sites in the developing permanent dentition. Dentists should use sealants or fluoride varnish - as well as other means - to limit the onset of tooth decay. Application of sealants is a recommended procedure to prevent or control caries. Sealing occlusal surfaces of newly erupted permanent molars in children and teenagers delays caries onset up to 48 months compared with unsealed teeth. However longer follow-ups shows a reduction of the preventive effect [Tikhonova et al., 2015]. A review of 2013 pointed out how sealants are effective in high risk children, however information about the benefits of sealing in other conditions is still scant [Ahovuo-Saloranta et al., 2013]. Fluoride varnishes are frequently used to prevent early childhood caries and reduce caries increment in very young children [Weintraub et al., 2006] and in the most vulnerable populations, where the prevalence of caries is higher and specialist visits are occasional [Chu et al., 2010]. Many studies have reported the effectiveness of different types and forms of fluoride agents in preventing dental caries among children and adolescents [Divaris et al., 2013]. A review clarifies that professional application of a 5% sodium fluoride varnish leads to remineralisation of early enamel caries in children. Solutions of 38% silver diamine fluoride are effective in arresting active dentine caries [Gao et al., 2016]. The last systematic review [Ahovuo-Saloranta et al., 2016], comparing pit and fissure sealants with fluoride varnishes explains that the pooled estimate slightly favours resin sealants over fluoride varnishes at two years. At four and nine years, the only comparative study (with high drop-out rates) found more caries on fluoride-varnished occlusal surfaces than on resin-sealed surfaces. There is evidence

  18. Prevalence of incomplete interlobar fissures of the lung.

    PubMed

    Sedlackova, Zuzana; Ctvrtlik, Filip; Miroslav, Herman

    2016-12-01

    Some patients benefit from accurate integrity assessment of pulmonary fissures. There are a number of methods for the assessment of incomplete interlobar fissures: imaging techniques, endobronchial methods measuring collateral air flow, a perioperative view, and autopsies used in research into pulmonary anatomy. We performed a computerized advanced search for primary evidence in the PubMed (Public/Publisher MEDLINE) and Google Scholar electronic databases using the following terms: incomplete and fissure. The search was not restricted to the English literature, nor limited by publication time. The bibliographic search was then extended to the "Related Articles" links and to the list of literature references of each article. Publications have consistently shown that interlobar fissures exhibit high variability and that preoperative or at least detailed perioperative assessment can influence the effect of treatment.

  19. Implications of ground-deformation measurements across earth fissures in subsidence areas in the southwestern USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holzer, Thomas L.

    2010-01-01

    Ground deformation was monitored at earth fissures in areas of land subsidence induced by groundwater extraction in the southwestern United States. The ground deformation is consistent with the mechanism that fissures are caused by horizontal strains generated by bending of overburden in response to localized differential compaction. Subsidence profiles indicated that localized differential subsidence occurred across the fissures and that maximum convex-upward curvature was at the fissure. The overall shape of the profile stayed similar with time, and maximum curvature remained stationary at the fissure. Horizontal displacements were largest near the fissure, and generally were small to negligible away from the fissure. Maximum tensile horizontal strains were at the fissure and coincided with maximum curvature in the subsidence profiles. Horizontal tensile strain continued to accumulate at fissures after they formed with rates of opening ranging from 30 to 120 microstrain/year at fissures in Arizona.

  20. Hardness testing of some fissure-sealing materials.

    PubMed

    Ulvestad, H

    1977-11-01

    The mechanical properties of fissure-sealing materials are of significant importance for their durability, i.e. their wear resistance. One of the methods of evaluating a material's resistance to attrition is to apply a hardness test. In the present investigation, the surface hardness of some fissure-sealing materials was tested. Sealants made from diluted composite materials and with inclusion of inorganic filler particles appeared to have a considerable higher surface hardness than the other sealing materials tested.

  1. Differential compaction mechanism for earth fissures near Casa Grande, Arizona.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jachens, R.C.; Holzer, T.L.

    1982-01-01

    Precise gravity measurements indicate that earth fissures or tension cracks caused by ground-water withdrawal within a 10km2 area SE of Casa Grande are associated with relief on the buried interface between the alluvial aquifer and underlying bedrock. These relations suggest that the fissures are forming in response to localized differential compaction caused by localized variations of aquifer-system thickness. -from Authors

  2. Potential for aquifer compaction, land subsidence, and earth fissures in the Tucson basin, Pima County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, S.R.

    1987-01-01

    In 1979 the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Tucson, began an investigation of aquifer compaction and its effects in the Tucson basin, including the potential hazards of aquifer compaction and subsequent damage to engineered structures, roads, water supply systems, gaslines, and sewage systems. Groundwater is the main source of water for irrigation, public supply, and industry. Pumping has exceeded recharge for several decades, and declines in groundwater levels have occurred in parts of the basin. In places, water level declines have resulted in small amounts of aquifer compaction and land subsidence. Further water level declines in parts of the Tucson basin may result in large amounts of aquifer compaction and land subsidence. Differential land subsidence may, in places, be accompanied by the formation of earth fissures. Aquifer compaction, land subsidence, and earth fissures can damage or affect the functional capability of manmade features. Specifically, aquifer compaction may damage wells, fissures may damage engineered structures, and differential land subsidence may affect structures such as sewers and water-supply systems that are dependent on gravity for their operation. (USGS)

  3. Transperineal sonographic anal sphincter complex evaluation in chronic anal fissures.

    PubMed

    Bedair, Elsaid M; El Hennawy, Hany M; Moustafa, Ahmed Abdu; Meki, Gad Youssef; Bosat, Bosat Elwany

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the role of transperineal sonography in assessment of pathologic changes to the anal sphincter complex in patients with chronic anal fissures. We conducted a prospective case-control study of 100 consecutive patients of any age and both sexes with chronic anal fissures who presented to a colorectal clinic between January 2012 and August 2013 (group A) and 50 healthy volunteers (group B). The most common patterns of radiologic changes to anal sphincters associated with chronic anal fissures were circumferential thickening of the anal sphincter complex in 5 patients (5%), circumferential thickening of the internal anal sphincter in 3 patients (3%), preferential thickening of the internal anal sphincter at the 6-o'clock position in 80 patients (80%) and the 12-o'clock position in 7 patients (7%), preferential thickening of the internal and external anal sphincters in 3 patients (3%), and thinning of the internal anal sphincter in 2 patients (2%). Chronic anal fissures cause differential thickening of both internal and external anal sphincters, with a trend toward increased thickness in relation to the site of the fissure. Routine preoperative transperineal sonography for patients with chronic anal fissures is recommended, and it is mandatory in high-risk patients. © 2014 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  4. Modern Perspectives in the Treatment of Chronic Anal Fissures

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, R; Parker, MC

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Anal fissures are commonly encountered in routine colorectal practice. Developments in the pharmacological understanding of the internal anal sphincter have resulted in more conservative approaches towards treatment. Simple measures are often effective for early fissures. Glyceryl trinitrate is well established as a first-line pharmacological therapy. The roles of diltiazem and botulinum, particularly as rescue therapy, are not well understood. Surgery has a defined role and should not be discounted completely. METHODS Data were obtained from Medline publications citing ‘anal fissure’. Manual cross-referencing of salient articles was conducted. We have sought to highlight various controversies in the management of anal fissures. FINDINGS Acute fissures may heal spontaneously, although simple conservative measures are sufficient. Idiopathic chronic anal fissures need careful evaluation to decide what therapy is suitable. Pharmacological agents such as glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), diltiazem and botulinum toxin have been subjected to most scrutiny. Though practices in the UK vary, GTN or diltiazem would be suitable as first-line therapy with botulinum toxin used as rescue treatment. Sphincterotomy is indicated for unhealed fissures; fissurectomy has been revisited and advancement flaps have a role in patients in whom sphincter division is not suitable. PMID:17688717

  5. Randomized trial on fluorides and sealants for fissure caries prevention.

    PubMed

    Liu, B Y; Lo, E C M; Chu, C H; Lin, H C

    2012-08-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of topical fluorides in preventing fissure caries, we conducted a randomized controlled trial with parallel groups. In total, 501 children (1,539 molars, 3,078 sites), mean age 9.1 years, who had at least one sound permanent first molar with deep fissures or fissures with signs of early caries were recruited. They were randomly allocated among four groups: (1) resin sealant, single placement; (2) 5% NaF varnish, semi-annual application; (3) 38% silver diamine fluoride (SDF) solution, annual application; and (4) placebo control. Follow-up examinations were conducted every 6 months by a masked examiner. After 24 months, 485 children (97%) were examined. Proportions of pit/fissure sites with dentin caries in the sealant, NaF, SDF, and control groups were 1.6%, 2.4%, 2.2%, and 4.6%, respectively. A multi-level logistic regression analysis accounting for the effects of data clustering and confounding factors showed that fissures in any of the three treatment groups had significantly lower risks of carious cavity development into dentin than did controls (p < 0.05). We concluded that placement of resin sealant, semi-annual application of NaF varnish, and annual application of SDF solution are all effective in preventing pit and fissure caries in permanent molars (ClinicalTrials.gov number CT01446107).

  6. Pulmonary Fissure Integrity and Collateral Ventilation in COPD Patients

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Jiantao; Wang, Zhimin; Gu, Suicheng; Fuhrman, Carl; Leader, Joseph K.; Meng, Xin; Tedrow, John; Sciurba, Frank C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate whether the integrity (completeness) of pulmonary fissures affects pulmonary function in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Materials and Methods A dataset consisting of 573 CT exams acquired on different subjects was collected from a COPD study. According to the global initiative for chronic obstructive lung disease (GOLD) criteria, these subjects (examinations) were classified into five different subgroups, namely non-COPD (222 subjects), GOLD-I (83 subjects), GOLD-II (141 subjects), GOLD-III (63 subjects), and GOLD-IV (64 subjects), in terms of disease severity. An available computer tool was used to aid in an objective and efficient quantification of fissure integrity. The correlations between fissure integrity, and pulmonary functions (e.g., FEV1, and FEV1/FVC) and COPD severity were assessed using Pearson and Spearman's correlation coefficients, respectively. Results For the five sub-groups ranging from non-COPD to GOLD-IV, the average integrities of the right oblique fissure (ROF) were 81.8%, 82.4%, 81.8%, 82.8%, and 80.2%, respectively; the average integrities of the right horizontal fissure (RHF) were 62.6%, 61.8%, 62.1%, 62.2%, and 62.3%, respectively; the average integrities of the left oblique fissure (LOF) were 82.0%, 83.2%, 81.7%, 82.0%, and 78.4%, respectively; and the average integrities of all fissures in the entire lung were 78.0%, 78.6%, 78.1%, 78.5%, and 76.4%, respectively. Their Pearson correlation coefficients with FEV1 and FE1/FVC range from 0.027 to 0.248 with p values larger than 0.05. Their Spearman correlation coefficients with COPD severity except GOLD-IV range from −0.013 to −0.073 with p values larger than 0.08. Conclusion There is no significant difference in fissure integrity for patients with different levels of disease severity, suggesting that the development of COPD does not change the completeness of pulmonary fissures and incomplete fissures alone may not contribute to the

  7. Laser fluorescence detection of demineralization in artificial occlusal fissures.

    PubMed

    Ferreira Zandoná, A G; Analoui, M; Schemehorn, B R; Eckert, G J; Stookey, G K

    1998-01-01

    Laser fluorescence (LF) has been used previously to detect early smooth-surface lesions. Although its use for detection of occlusal demineralization has been implicated, it has not been demonstrated. The aim of this study was to determine whether LF could detect demineralization in the base of artificial fissures. To employ LF for detection of occlusal demineralization an apparatus was devised to direct laser light into fissures and simultaneously detect fluorescence from the base of the fissures. Three groups (n = 40/group) of differing fissure types were prepared (straight wall, converging and diverging wall) with either a sound or lesioned base. One half of each group was examined with LF and dye-enhanced LF (DELF); the other half was examined with LF, exposed to plaque, examined with LF and DELF, air-polished and examined with DELF. All images were scored twice as either (1) carious; (2) sound, or (3) undetermined, by a group of 3 examiners. For fissures without plaque, the average sensitivity was higher for DELF (0.76) than for LF (0.54) (p < 0.05). Likewise, the average specificity was higher for DELF (0.64) than for LF (0.29) (p < 0.05). In the presence of plaque, sensitivity was higher for DELF (0.91) compared to LF (0.43); however, specificity was lower for DELF (0.05) compared to LF (0.55). When the fissures were air-polished and then examined with DELF, sensitivity averaged 0.82 (p < 0.05), and specificity increased consistently (average 0.51, p < 0.05). It was concluded that, in the absence of plaque, DELF was a better diagnostic tool than LF for detection of demineralization in artificial fissures.

  8. Lateral internal sphincterotomy for surgically recurrent chronic anal fissure.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jennifer; Church, James M

    2015-10-01

    Lateral internal sphincterotomy cures chronic anal fissure by preventing internal sphincter hypertonia. However, cutting sphincter predisposes to sphincter dysfunction, manifests as incontinence of gas, liquid, or stool. Surgeons, therefore, can be too cautious in its use, making ineffective superficial incisions or avoiding the operation altogether. This study is designed to confirm the role of redo lateral internal sphincterotomy in the treatment of surgically recurrent chronic anal fissure. Patients undergoing repeat lateral internal sphincterotomy for surgically recurrent chronic anal fissure were accessed from a prospectively maintained database. Chronicity was defined by symptoms persisting more than 3 weeks. Contralateral sphincterotomy was performed with electrocautery through a stab incision over the intersphincteric plane. The length of sphincter division was the same as the length of the fissure. Phone questionnaire was administered and fecal continence was assessed by modified Cleveland Clinic Incontinence Score. Patients were asked to rank their overall satisfaction with the operation, and pre- and postoperative quality of life. There were 57 patients, 24 women and 33 men; mean age was 47.9 ± 14.8 years. Mean follow-up was 12.5 ± 4.2 years (range 6.2 to 25.2 years). Presenting symptoms included pain (100%), bleeding (80%), pruritus ani (39%), constipation (26%), and diarrhea. Fifty patients (90%) presented with 1 fissure, and 40 were posterior. Most procedures were performed on an outpatient basis. Fissure healing rate was 98%, and 2 patients (4%) developed minor incontinence postoperatively (one of gas, the other, gas and seepage). Overall satisfaction was 9.7 ± .9 out of 10 with a significant improvement in the quality of life from 5.7 ± 2.4 out of 10 to 9.3 ± 1.4 out of 10 (P < .001). Judicious repeat lateral sphincterotomy cures recurrent chronic fissures with minimal risk of incontinence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Acceptability of fissure sealants from the child's perspective.

    PubMed

    Morgan, A G; Madahar, A K; Deery, C

    2014-07-11

    To seek children's opinions about the acceptability of resin fissure sealant placement. Service evaluation using a child-centred questionnaire issued to a prospective sample of consecutive hospital patients.Method Questionnaires were issued to children, aged 3 to 16 years, immediately after resin fissure sealant placement in the Paediatric Dentistry Department in Sheffield. Participants used a three-point faces scale for positive, neutral and negative responses, arranged as a Likert scale with minimal text, to rate their treatment experiences and satisfaction with the dental visit. Two hundred questionnaires were returned. Overall, 96% (n = 191) recorded a positive or neutral response for the ease at which they coped with the procedure, with most children positive about having fissure sealants placed again (66%; n = 132). Further analysis demonstrated that children who had fissure sealants on a previous occasion found them easier than those having them for the first time (p <0.05, chi-squared test). Almost half of all participants where ambivalent about the taste and feeling (46%; n = 92 and 55%; n = 110 respectively). The vast majority of children were satisfied with the explanations provided by their operator. Most participants found having resin fissure sealants placed an overall acceptable procedure, with patient acceptance improving with increased treatment experience.

  10. Open Fissure Folds record coseismic loading and postseismic stress relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nüchter, Jens-Alexander

    2015-03-01

    Open Fissure Folds hosted by high pressure/low temperature metamorphic rocks of south Evia (Greece) are introduced, their structural and microstructural record is analysed, and a mechanical model is proposed. Open Fissure Folds are preserved as at least two parallel folded quartz-feldspar veins separated by narrow buckled rock columns. The veins originated as tensile cracks that propagated in the middle crust driven by high differential stress. Features diagnostic for Open Fissure Folds indicate that the rock columns represented the layers of high viscosity, and not the veins as consistently reported in many previous studies on folded veins. This record is taken to indicate that buckling of the rock columns initiated after arrest of the fractures and terminated prior to complete vein sealing. Accordingly, mechanical decoupling by open fissures allowed for buckling of the rock columns in response to episodic creep of the host rocks according to stress relaxation, as expected for postseismic deformation in the earthquake cycle. I propose that the parental fractures propagated in response to quasi-instantaneous coseismic loading of the middle crust. Buckling was attributed to transient postseismic creep and stress relaxation. Complete sealing of the veins occurred when stresses were largely relaxed. Each Open Fissure Fold records the stress and strain history of a single earthquake.

  11. Shape analysis of human brain interhemispheric fissure bending in MRI.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lu; Hietala, Jarmo; Tohka, Jussi

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel approach to analyze Yakovlevian torque by quantifying the bending of human brain interhemispheric fissure in three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging. It extracts the longitudinal medial surface between the cerebral hemispheres, which are segmented with an accurate and completely automatic technique, as the shape representation of the interhemispheric fissure. The extracted medial surface is modeled with a polynomial surface through least-square fitting. Finally, curvature features, e.g., principal, Gaussian and mean curvatures, are computed at each point of the fitted medial surface to describe the local bending of the interhemispheric fissure. This method was applied to clinical images of healthy controls (12 males, 7 females) and never-medicated schizophrenic subjects (11 males, 7 females). The hypothesis of the normal interhemispheric fissure bending (rightward in the occipital region) was quantitatively demonstrated. Moreover, we found significant differences (p < 0.05) between the male schizophrenics and healthy controls with respect to the interhemispheric fissure bending in the frontal and occipital regions. These results show that our method is applicable for studying abnormal Yakovlevian torque related to mental diseases.

  12. Cost considerations in the treatment of anal fissures.

    PubMed

    Brisinda, Giuseppe; Bianco, Giuseppe; Silvestrini, Nicola; Maria, Giorgio

    2014-08-01

    Anal fissure is a split in the lining of the distal anal canal. Lateral internal sphincterotomy remains the gold standard for treatment of anal fissure. Although technique is simple and effective, a drawback of this surgical procedure is its potential to cause minor but some times permanent alteration in rectal continence. Conservative approaches (such as topical application of ointment or botulinum toxin injections) have been proposed in order to treat this condition without any risk of permanent injury of the internal anal sphincter. These treatments are effective in a large number of patients. Furthermore, with the ready availability of medical therapies to induce healing of anal fissure, the risk of a first-line surgical approach is difficult to justify. The conservative treatments have a lower cost than surgery. Moreover, evaluation of the actual costs of each therapeutic option is important especially in times of economic crisis and downsizing of health spending.

  13. Marginal Microleakage of Conventional Fissure Sealants and Self-Adhering Flowable Composite as Fissure Sealant in Permanent Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Rahimian-Imam, Sara; Fayazi, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Application of sealants is a safe and effective way to prevent occlusal caries in the posterior teeth. A successful sealant therapy depends on good isolation. Decreased steps of adhesive application may enable proper isolation and use of self-adhering flowable composites for sealant therapy. This study sought to compare the marginal microleakage of fissure sealants and self-adhering flowable composites in permanent teeth. Materials and Methods: This in vitro, experimental study was conducted on 60 extracted human premolar teeth. The teeth were divided randomly into two groups of 30. In the first group, fissure sealant (Clinpro, 3M ESPE, USA) was placed on the teeth. In the second group, self-adhering flowable composite (Vertise Flow, Kerr, USA) was applied as the sealant. Then, both groups were immersed in 0.5% fuchsin dye solution for 24 hours. Sectioned samples were observed with a stereomicroscope for the extent of dye penetration. Data were analyzed using SPSS 21 and the Mann-Whitney test (P<0.05). Results: Microleakage in the fissure sealant group was significantly higher than that in the self-adhering flowable composite group (P<0.001). Conclusion: Microleakage was less using self-adhering flowable composite compared to conventional fissure sealant; therefore, self-adhering flowable composite can be used as a suitable fissure sealant in permanent teeth. PMID:26884777

  14. Engineering a robotic approach to mapping exposed volcanic fissures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parcheta, C. E.; Parness, A.; Mitchell, K. L.

    2014-12-01

    Field geology provides a framework for advanced computer models and theoretical calculations of volcanic systems. Some field terrains, though, are poorly preserved or accessible, making documentation, quantification, and investigation impossible. Over 200 volcanologists at the 2012 Kona Chapman Conference on volcanology agreed that and important step forward in the field over the next 100 years should address the realistic size and shape of volcanic conduits. The 1969 Mauna Ulu eruption of Kīlauea provides a unique opportunity to document volcanic fissure conduits, thus, we have an ideal location to begin addressing this topic and provide data on these geometries. Exposed fissures can be mapped with robotics using machine vision. In order to test the hypothesis that fissures have irregularities with depth that will influence their fluid dynamical behavior, we must first map the fissure vents and shallow conduit to deci- or centimeter scale. We have designed, constructed, and field-tested the first version of a robotic device that will image an exposed volcanic fissure in three dimensions. The design phase included three steps: 1) create the payload harness and protective shell to prevent damage to the electronics and robot, 2) construct a circuit board to have the electronics communicate with a surface-based computer, and 3) prototype wheel shapes that can handle a variety of volcanic rock textures. The robot's mechanical parts were built using 3d printing, milling, casting and laser cutting techniques, and the electronics were assembled from off the shelf components. The testing phase took place at Mauna Ulu, Kīlauea, Hawai'i, from May 5 - 9, 2014. Many valuable design lessons were learned during the week, and the first ever 3D map from inside a volcanic fissure were successfully collected. Three vents had between 25% and 95% of their internal surfaces imaged. A fourth location, a non-eruptive crack (possibly a fault line) had two transects imaging the textures

  15. Selection for fissure resistance now made possible in early breeding generations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rice kernel fissuring is one of the leading causes of milling yield losses. Any reduction in fissuring can result in direct increases in yield and profit for both producers and millers. While most U.S. rice varieties yield around 55% head rice, the fissure-resistant varieties ‘Cypress’, ‘Saber’ an...

  16. New method opens opportunity to proactively select for fissure resistance in early breeding generations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    WANTED: New rice varieties improved for resistance to kernel fissuring. Rice kernel fissuring is one of the leading causes of reduced milling yield. Any reduction in fissuring can result in direct increases in yield and profit for both producers and millers. While most U.S. rice varieties yield a...

  17. Investigation of the subsurface geometry of fissure-ridge travertine with GPR, Pamukkale, western Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çaǧlar Yalçiner, Cahit

    2013-06-01

    Cracks in the upper crust are the result of either local or regional tectonic stress. Such structural elements are conduits for fluids in the crust. In Pamukkale, hot water which is rich in calcium carbonate emerges from fissures. The hot water issuing from the fissures precipitates travertine both in the fissures and on the surface. As a result, a ridge, which is called fissure-ridge travertine, forms along the central fissure. Fissure-ridge travertines are lens-shaped at the surface. Since fissure-ridge travertines are of great tectonic significance, their surface characteristics have been studied in detail. However, the subsurface geometry of travertine ridges is not well known. GPR was used to examine the subsurface geometry of fissure-ridge travertine and the central fissure. GPR profiles were combined across the ridge to produce a three-dimensional (3D) subsurface image of the travertine mass. The 3D image showed that the thickness and width of the travertine mass are at a maximum near the centre of the ridge and they both decrease asymmetrically towards the ends. Perpendicular GPR slices across the central fissure showed that the thickness of the vertically banded fissure-travertine increases with depth. 3D modelling suggests that the lateral propagation of the central fissure is asymmetric.

  18. Dental Pit and Fissure Sealants: Implications for School Health Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack-Brown, K. R.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    To promote good personal hygiene practices in students, school health personnel must be informed about dental pit and fissure sealants and related programs. Adoption and maintenance of such programs may depend on the success of school health personnel in educating administrators and policymakers. (SM)

  19. Dental Pit and Fissure Sealants: Implications for School Health Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack-Brown, K. R.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    To promote good personal hygiene practices in students, school health personnel must be informed about dental pit and fissure sealants and related programs. Adoption and maintenance of such programs may depend on the success of school health personnel in educating administrators and policymakers. (SM)

  20. Hemorrhoids and anal fissures in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    D'Ugo, S; Stasi, E; Gaspari, A L; Sileri, P

    2015-12-01

    Perianal disease is a common complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). It includes different conditions from more severe and potentially disabling ones, such as abscesses and fistulas, to more benign conditions such as hemorrhoids, skin tags and fissures. Most literature has been focused on anal sepsis and fistulae, as they carry the majority of disease burden and often alter the natural course of the disease. Hemorrhoids and anal fissures in patients with IBD have been overlooked, although they can represent a challenging problem. The management of hemorrhoids and fissures in IBD patients may be difficult and may significantly differ compared to the non-affected population. Historically surgery was firmly obstructed, and hemorrhoidectomy or sphincterotomy in patients with associated diagnosis of IBD was considered harmful, although literature data is scant and based on small series. Various authors reported an incidence of postoperative complications higher in IBD than in the general populations, with potential severe events. Considering that a spontaneous healing is possible, the first line management should be a medical therapy. In patients non-responding to conservative measures it is possible a judicious choice of surgical options on a highly selective basis; this can lead to acceptable results, but the risk of possible complications needs to be considered. In this review it is analyzed the current literature on the incidence, symptoms and treatment options of hemorrhoids and anal fissures in patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.

  1. Botulinum toxin A in anal fissures: a modified technique.

    PubMed

    Wollina, U; Konrad, H

    2002-09-01

    Anal fissures are common and painful. Botulinum toxin A (BTXA) is considered to be the most potent non-surgical treatment; however, no attention has been paid to associated hyperhidrosis. To compare traditional BTXA treatment of muscular spasticity in anal fissures with combined treatment of spasticity and focal hyperhidrosis of the anal fold and perianal skin. Outpatient department of a dermatological hospital. Ten patients with chronic anal fissures (of more than 6 months duration who failed to respond to conservative treatment and who had refused surgery) associated with focal hyperhidrosis as assessed by Minor's sweat test were investigated in an open, two-armed trial. Intramuscular injections of 20-25 U BTXA (Botox) were performed in group A (n = 5). In group B (n = 5) those injections were combined with intracutaneous injection of 30-50 U BTXA to treat focal hyperhidrosis. Mean follow-up was 5 months. Five of five patients in group B but only two of five patients in group A experienced a complete remission despite the fact that relief of pain was evident in eight of 10 patients within 2 weeks. Patient satisfaction with treatment was high but slightly better in group B. This open trial suggests that combined therapy of both muscular spasticity and focal hyperhidrosis may provide better results than intramuscular injections alone in anal fissure therapy with BTXA.

  2. Internal sphincterotomy versus topical nitroglycerin ointment for chronic anal fissure.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Muhammad I; Pervaiz, Arif; Figueiredo, Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    Anal fissure is a common benign condition. An anorectal problem is defined as a split in the anal canal mucosa that extends from the dentate line to the anal verge. Chronic anal fissure is defined by a history of symptoms present for more than 2 months' duration and with a triad of external skin tags, namely, a hypertrophied anal papilla, an ulcer with rolled edges, and a base exposing the internal sphincter. Because complications such as incontinence are associated with surgical treatment, chemical sphincterotomy is currently favored. The objective of this study is to compare the difference in outcome between open partial lateral anal sphincterotomy and application of topical 0.2% nitroglycerin ointment for the treatment of chronic anal fissure. This was a quasi-experimental study carried out between January 16, 2007 and January 15, 2008 in the Surgical Department of Jinnah Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan. Sixty consecutive cases with a clinical diagnosis of chronic anal fissure were recruited in the study. All recruited patients met the study inclusion criteria and were randomly assigned to one of the two groups. Group A was managed conservatively using topical 0.2% nitroglycerin ointment, whereas Group B underwent open partial lateral anal sphincterotomy. Both groups were followed up at 1 week, 2 weeks, 4 weeks, and 6 weeks after the treatment. All the patients complained of pain. A total of 43 (71.7%) patients had pain with constipation, whereas 31 (51.7%) patients had bleeding per rectum. Upon clinically examining the anal area, tenderness was elicited in all 60 (100%) patients. Group A included 30 (11 females and 19 males) cases treated with topical 0.2% nitroglycerin ointment and Group B included 30 (11 females and 19 males) cases who underwent open partial lateral anal sphincterotomy. In Group A, only 15 patients with fissures were successfully treated (50%). By contrast, 28 (93%) patients with fissures in Group B were successfully treated, and only two (7

  3. Anal fissures in infants may be a pathognomonic sign of infants with cow's milk allergy.

    PubMed

    Jirapinyo, Pipop; Densupsoontorn, Narumon; Kangwanpornsiri, Channagarn

    2013-07-01

    To study the association between analfissures and cow's milk allergy (CMA) in infants. METHODS AND METHOD: In a prospective study, 72 confirmed cases of CMA in infants were examined for anal fissure by pediatricians with five years' experience. A positive finding was defined as when an anal fissure was detected by at least two out of three examiners. Of infants with CMA with and without gastrointestinal GI symptoms, 79% and 83% had anal fissures, respectively The prevalence of anal fissure in these infants is significantly higher than in normal infants. Anal fissure may be a pathognomonic sign of cow's milk allergy in infants.

  4. Interaction between central volcanoes and fissure swarms along divergent plate boundaries: an example from Askja Volcano, Northern Iceland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trippanera, Daniele; Ruch, Joel; Acocella, Valerio; Urbani, Stefano; Thordarson, Thor

    2016-04-01

    Central volcanoes located along divergent plate boundaries are typically part of a larger volcanic system that consists of a central edifice and a fissure swarm through which magma propagates and spreads plates apart. Regional normal faults and graben structures develop within the volcanic system, also dissecting portions of the central volcano with ring-faults faults and eruptive fissures related to the caldera structure. Both the fissure swarm and the caldera structure influence the pathway of the ascending magma, however, the influences of the structures on magma propagation and vice versa are not well defined and understood. Here we aim to understand the relationship between the activity of the central volcano structures (e.g. caldera ring faults, radial dykes and cone sheets) and those of the fissure swarm (e.g. regional normal faults, regional dikes). We focus on Askja volcano, located in the Northern Volcanic Zone of Iceland. It is comprised of three nested calderas, largely filled in with subaerial basaltic lava flows and surrounded by a massive hyaloclastite mountain on the Eastern side. Formation of the youngest, the Öskjuvatn caldera, was initiated during the 1874-1876 rifting episode on the Askja system. This major event was followed by several localized radial and circumferential magmatic intrusions taking place along the new-formed caldera ring fault, as well as intruding in the fissure swarm related to the regional tectonics. In order to characterize the influence of the caldera structure on the regional tectonics, we analysed the structural framework of the caldera and direct surroundings using remote sensing (optical imagery and high resolution DEM from TanDEM-X data). Then we made detailed field measurements (500 data) by analysing azimuth, dip, and opening of eruptive fissures, dikes, faults and extension fractures. Both remote sensing and field measurements have been then integrated producing a detailed structural map of Askja. Our results show

  5. Fracturing of high-temperature, naturally fissured, gas-condensate reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Cikes, M. )

    1992-05-01

    Eleven hydraulic fracture treatments were performed in deep (3300 to 3800 m (10,830 to 12,470 ft)), extremely high-temperature (180 to 195{degrees}C (356 to 383{degrees}F)), naturally fissured, gas-condensate reservoirs. Formation permeabilities at the fractured-well locations range from 0.003 to 0.2 md, while the initial formation pressure gradient is about 0.13 bar/m (0.57 psi/ft). The producing fluid is high-gravity gas (0.83 to 1.15 to air) and contains up to 22% CO{sub 2} and up to 4% H{sub 2}S. Job sizes have ranged from 300 to 2000 m{sup 3} (80,000 to 528,400 gal) of fluid and 50 to 600 Mg (110,130 to 1,321,590 lbm) of high-strength proppant. This paper emphasizes the general approach to well completion and stimulation treatment design, treatment execution, and evaluation. Interesting items include the engineering of the fracturing fluids to sustain their viscosity at the extreme temperatures and to reduce leakoff in these highly fissured formations. An outline of the reservoir description is also given. Post-treatment well production has been excellent in most cases. Well PI's increased from 0.01 to 0.6 m{sup 3}/d {center dot} bar{sup 2} (0.0017 to 0.1 scf/D-psi{sup 2}) to 0.235 to 7.83 m{sup 3}/d {center dot} bar{sup 2} (0.04 to 1.3 scf/D-psi{sup 2}). Treatment results suggest that leakoff can be controlled with particulate agents, that delayed crosslinking is the only way to execute these treatments, and that hydraulic fracturing can greatly improve the production from naturally fissured formations. Fracture design and the predicted well production are compared with post-treatment performances in selected wells.

  6. The effect of vegetation on infiltration in shallow soils underlain by fissured bedrock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stothoff, S. A.; Or, D.; Groeneveld, D. P.; Jones, S. B.

    1999-05-01

    Mean annual infiltration above the high-level waste repository proposed to be sited at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, has a large impact on assessments of repository performance. Ongoing investigations of infiltration processes have identified the relatively horizontal caprock environment above portions of the repository as a potentially large source of infiltrating waters, due to shallow, permeable soils above a moderately welded tuff with large soil-filled fissures. The combination of shallow soils and fissured bedrock allows rapid penetration of wetting pulses to below the rooting zone. Plant uptake can strongly reduce net infiltration in arid environments with high water storage capacity, and, despite the low water storage capacity, there is a relatively high vegetation density in this environment. The apparent discrepancy between high vegetation density and low water storage motivates the study of plant-hydrologic interactions in this semiarid environment. Field observations were coupled with plant- and landscape-scale models to provide insight into plant-hydrologic interactions. Several lines of evidence, including: (i) linear plant growth features observed on aerial photographs; (ii) comparisons of plant cover within the fissured environment and comparable environments lacking fissures; and (iii) direct excavations, all suggest that the widely spaced soil-filled fissures are conducive to plant growth even when fissures are buried at soil depths exceeding 30 cm. Results from a mechanistic simulation model for root growth into fissures suggest that the additional (sheltered) plant-available soil water within fissures provides a competitive advantage for plant establishment. Therefore, plants that germinate above a fissure are more likely to survive, in turn developing linear features above fissures. Having established that plants preferentially root within soil-filled fissures in the caprock environment, a set of simulations were performed to examine the hydrologic

  7. Fissure sealants: Knowledge and practice of Yemeni dental practitioners.

    PubMed

    Al-Maweri, Sadeq Ali; Al-Jamaei, Aisha Ahmed; Halboub, Esam Saleh; Al-Soneidar, Walid Ahmed; Tarakji, Bassel; Alsalhani, Anas

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate Yemeni dental practitioners' knowledge and practices concerning fissure sealants. A modified questionnaire consisted of 25-items was distributed to 500 dentists working in Sana'a City. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square/Fisher's exact tests were used for statistical analyses. The response rate was 74%. Most of the respondents were male (61.3%), general practitioners (84.2%), and had <5 years of clinical experience (48.3%). The respondents showed a reasonable level of knowledge about sealants, with the majority (88%) believed that there is strong scientific evidence about fissure sealants effectiveness and around 90% showed a good understanding of sealant placement instructions. On the other hand, respondents showed insufficient knowledge about sealants clinical practice. Although a high proportion of dental practitioners showed adequate knowledge about dental sealant, following guidelines and standardized procedures in clinical practice is lacking. These emphasize the need for regular continuing education courses for dental professional.

  8. Basaltic fissure eruptions, plume heights, and atmospheric aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stothers, R. B.; Wolff, J. A.; Self, S.; Rampino, M. R.

    1986-01-01

    Convective plumes that rise above Hawaiian-style fire fountains consist of volcanic gases, aerosols, fine ash, and entrained heated air. Plume theory has been applied to observational estimates of the rate of thermal energy release from large fire fountains. The theoretically predicted heights of maintained plumes agree very well with the heights found from actual observations. Predicted plume heights for both central-vent (point-source) and fissure (line-source) eruptions indicate a stratospheric penetration by plumes that form over vents with very high magma-production rates. Flood basalt fissure eruptions that produce individual lava flows with volumes greater than 100 cu km at very high mass eruption rates are capable of injecting large quantities of sulfate aerosols into the lower stratosphere, with potentially drastic short-term atmospheric consequences, like acid precipitation, darkening of the sky, and climatic cooling.

  9. Innovations in chronic anal fissure treatment: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Poh, Aaron; Tan, Kok-Yang; Seow-Choen, Francis

    2010-01-01

    A chronic anal fissure is a common perianal condition. This review aims to evaluate both existing and new therapies in the treatment of chronic fissures. Pharmacological therapies such as glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), Diltiazem ointment and Botulinum toxin provide a relatively non-invasive option, but with higher recurrence rates. Lateral sphincterotomy remains the gold standard for treatment. Anal dilatation has no role in treatment. New therapies include perineal support devices, Gonyautoxin injection, fissurectomy, fissurotomy, sphincterolysis, and flap procedures. Further research is required comparing these new therapies with existing established therapies. This paper recommends initial pharmacological therapy with GTN or Diltiazem ointment with Botulinum toxin as a possible second line pharmacological therapy. Perineal support may offer a new dimension in improving healing rates. Lateral sphincterotomy should be offered if pharmacological therapy fails. New therapies are not suitable as first line treatments, though they can be considered if conventional treatment fails. PMID:21160880

  10. Morbidity associated with treatment of chronic anal fissure

    PubMed Central

    Latif, Ansar; Ansar, Anila; Butt, Muhammad Qasim

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effectiveness of different modes of treatment of chronic anal fissure as regards improvement of symptoms and complications. Methods: This prospective study included 129 consecutive patients with chronic anal fissures presented to the Surgical Outpatients’ Department of Islam Teaching Hospital Sialkot, Pakistan; from September 2010 to November 2012. Patients were distributed in three groups. In “OBG group”, patients had attended Gynae/Obs OPD and got treated and were then referred to surgical OPD for failure of treatment or recurrence. Patients who presented with history of treatment by GPs were included in “GP Group” “SGR Group” included those who directly reported to surgical OPD for treatment. Patients were managed both pharmacologically as OPD patients and surgically as admitted patients. Patients were instructed to apply small amounts of 0.2% GTN paste in soft white paraffin, to the anoderm with finger tips three times a day. Patients were evaluated at two-week intervals and at each visit the symptoms control, adverse effects and fissure status were recorded. If there was symptomatic relief or the fissure healing was in progress, the treatment was continued for a total duration of eight weeks. Operated patients were nursed in wards after surgery i.e Internal Anal Sphicterotomy. They were advised to report to OPD weekly for one month or earlier if they experienced any symptoms suggestive of complications. Patients were declared cured in case of complete symptomatic relief with fissure healing. Success, failure and associated problems were recorded and analysed to get results. Results:This study included 129 patients who could be followed up for a minimum of three months. These patients were referred by gynaecologist i.e. 22 (17%) for treatment failure while 5 patients with wrong diagnosis were not included in statistical analysis; similarly 41 (32%) patients were referred by general practitioners and 9 patients with wrong

  11. Fluoride release and uptake abilities of different fissure sealants.

    PubMed

    Poggio, Claudio; Andenna, Gianluigi; Ceci, Matteo; Beltrami, Riccardo; Colombo, Marco; Cucca, Lucia

    2016-07-01

    The long-term capability of resin sealants and glass ionomer cements to release fluoride is associated to a reduction in pit and fissure caries. The regular use of fluoride varnishes/toothpastes can result in the absorption of fluoride into the sealant. The objective of the present study was to assess the fluoride release/uptake capacities of different fissure sealants. Three different fissure sealants (Fuji Triage/GC, Fissurit FX/Voco and Grandio Seal/Voco) were examined. Ten discs of each material were prepared. Each disc was incubated with distilled water and then the solution analyzed for diluted for fluoride concentration, using a combination of fluoride electrode (OrionGP 1 S/N 13824, Orion Research Inc, Boston, MA, USA) connected to an expandable ion analyzer (Orion 720A, Orion Research Inc, Boston, MA, USA). Standard curves between 1 and 100 ppm F- were used to calibrate the electrode. Cumulative fluoride release was measured on days 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 21, 35 and 49, then two different fluoride varnishes/pastes (Profluorid Varnish/Voco, MI Paste Plus/GC), were applied to the sealants tested, and fluoride release (after reuptake) was measured on days 56, 70 and 84. Kruskal Wallis test confirmed significant differences in fluoride release between Fuji Triage/GC and Fissurit FX/Voco and Grandio Seal/Voco from day 1 (P < 0.001). The application of fluoride varnish Profluorid Varnish enhanced the fluoride release for all sealants (P < 0.05). MI Paste Plus enhanced the fluoride release for all sealants except for Fuji Triage/GC (P > 0.05). The GIC-based sealant (Fuji Triage/GC) released significantly more fluoride than the resin sealants tested. The exposure to the fluoridated varnish (Profluorid Varnish) significantly recharged the sealants tested more than the CPP-ACPF toothpaste (MI Paste Plus). Fissure sealants, fluoride release, fluoride uptake, glass ionomer cements.

  12. Modeling plaque fissuring and dissection during balloon angioplasty intervention.

    PubMed

    Gasser, T Christian; Holzapfel, Gerhard A

    2007-05-01

    Balloon angioplasty intervention is traumatic to arterial tissue. Fracture mechanisms such as plaque fissuring and/or dissection occur and constitute major contributions to the lumen enlargement. However, these types of mechanically-based traumatization of arterial tissue are also contributing factors to both acute procedural complications and chronic restenosis of the treatment site. We propose physical and finite element models, which are generally useable to trace fissuring and/or dissection in atherosclerotic plaques during balloon angioplasty interventions. The arterial wall is described as an anisotropic, heterogeneous, highly deformable, nearly incompressible body, whereas tissue failure is captured by a strong discontinuity kinematics and a novel cohesive zone model. The numerical implementation is based on the partition of unity finite element method and the interface element method. The later is used to link together meshes of the different tissue components. The balloon angioplasty-based failure mechanisms are numerically studied in 3D by means of an atherosclerotic-prone human external iliac artery, with a type V lesion. Image-based 3D geometry is generated and tissue-specific material properties are considered. Numerical results show that in a primary phase the plaque fissures at both shoulders of the fibrous cap and stops at the lamina elastica interna. In a secondary phase, local dissections between the intima and the media develop at the fibrous cap location with the smallest thickness. The predicted results indicate that plaque fissuring and dissection cause localized mechanical trauma, but prevent the main portion of the stenosis from high stress, and hence from continuous tissue damage.

  13. Identifying the best therapy for chronic anal fissure

    PubMed Central

    Madalinski, Mariusz H

    2011-01-01

    Chronic anal fissure (CAF) is a painful tear or crack which occurs in the anoderm. The optimal algorithm of therapy for CAF is still debated. Lateral internal sphincterotomy (LIS) is a surgical treatment, considered as the ‘gold standard’ therapy for CAF. It relieves CAF symptoms with a high rate of healing. Chemical sphincterotomy (CS) with nitrates, calcium blockers or botulinum toxin (BTX) is safe, with the rapid relief of pain, mild side-effects and no risk of surgery or anesthesia, but is a statistically less effective therapy for CAF than LIS. This article considers if aggressive treatment should only be offered to patients who fail pharmacological sphincterotomy. Aspects of anal fissure etiology, epidemiology and pathophysiology are considered with their meaning for further management of CAF. A molecular model of chemical interdependence significant for the chemistry of CAF healing is examined. Its application may influence the development of optimal therapy for CAF. BTX is currently considered the most effective type of CS and discussion in this article scrutinizes this method specifically. Although the effectiveness of BTX vs. LIS has been discussed, the essential focus of the article concerns identifying the best therapy application for anal fissure. Elements are presented which may help us to predict CAF healing. They provide rationale for the expansion of the CAF therapy algorithm. Ethical and economic factors are also considered in brief. As long as the patient is willing to accept the potential risk of fecal incontinence, we have grounds for the ‘gold standard’ (LIS) as the first-line treatment for CAF. The author concludes that, when the diagnosis of the anal fissure is established, CS should be considered for both ethical and economic reasons. He is convinced that a greater understanding and recognition of benign anal disorders by the GP and a proactive involvement at the point of initial diagnosis would facilitate the consideration of CS at

  14. Injectabilite des coulis de ciment dans des milieux fissures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mnif, Thameur

    Le travail presente ici est un bilan du travaux de recherche effectues sur l'injectabilite des coulis de ciment dans lu milieux fissures. Un certain nombre de coulis a base de ciment Portland et microfin ont ete selectionnes afin de caracteriser leur capacite a penetrer des milieux fissures. Une partie des essais a ete menee en laboratoire. L'etude rheologique des differents melanges a permis de tester l'influence de l'ajout de superplastifiant et/ou de fumee de silice sur la distribution granulometrique des coulis et par consequent sur leur capacite a injecter des colonnes de sable simulant un milieu fissure donne. La classe granulometrique d'un coulis, sa stabilite et sa fluidite sont apparus comme les trois facteurs principaux pour la reussite d'une injection. Un facteur de finesse a ete defini au cours de cette etude: base sur la classe granulometrique du ciment et sa stabilite, il peut entrer dans la formulation theorique du debit d'injection avant application sur chantier. La deuxieme et derniere partie de l'etude presente les resultats de deux projets de recherche sur l'injection realises sur chantier. L'injection de dalles de beton fissurees a permis le suivi de l'evolution des pressions avec la distance au point d'injection. L'injection de murs de maconnerie a caractere historique a montre l'importance de la definition de criteres de performance des coulis a utiliser pour traiter un milieu donne et pour un objectif donne. Plusieurs melanges peuvent ainsi etre predefinis et mis a disposition sur le chantier. La complementarite des ciments traditionnels et des ciments microfins devient alors un atout important. Le choix d'utilisation de ces melanges est fonction du terrain rencontre. En conclusion, cette recherche etablit une methodologie pour la selection des coulis a base de ciment et des pressions d'injection en fonction de l'ouverture des fissures ou joints de construction.

  15. Fissurectomy as a treatment for anal fissures in children.

    PubMed Central

    Lambe, G. F.; Driver, C. P.; Morton, S.; Turnock, R. R.

    2000-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Anal fissures, characterised by painful defecation and rectal bleeding, are common in both children and infants. A significant proportion are resistant to simple laxative therapy, and no simple surgical treatment has been described which does not risk compromising sphincteric function. This study reports the initial experience of fissurectomy as a treatment of this condition. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Over a 36 month period, 37 children with an anal fissure were treated by fissurectomy. There were 14 boys and 23 girls, with an age range of 17 weeks to 12 years. Fissurectomy was performed under general anaesthetic, with additional caudal anaesthesia. Stay sutures were used to avoid the need for an anal retractor, thereby preventing stretching of the internal anal sphincter. Of the 37 operations, 36 (97%) were performed as day cases and all children were discharged on laxative therapy. RESULTS: At review, 6 weeks postoperatively, 30 (81%) were asymptomatic. Six (16%) patients were symptomatic; however, 4 of these had failed to comply with the postoperative laxative regimen. One patient failed follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Fissurectomy is a successful treatment for anal fissures, when combined with postoperative laxative therapy. As dilatation of the internal anal sphincter is not involved, the risk of iatrogenic faecal incontinence is obviated. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:10932659

  16. The architecture and shallow conduits of Laki-type pyroclastic cones: insights into a basaltic fissure eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, P.; Brown, R. J.; Thordarson, T.; Llewellin, E. W.

    2016-05-01

    Pyroclastic cones built along basaltic fissures provide important volcanological information, but it is often difficult to examine the early-erupted products due to burial by later products. Furthermore, it is rare to see the link between the feeder dyke and overlying cone fully exposed. In this study, we detail the architecture of a hybrid spatter cone, scoria half-cone and feeder dyke that has been dissected to below the pre-eruption surface by glacial floods. The cones were constructed during the 6-8 ka Rauðuborgir-Kvensöðul fissure eruption in North Iceland during Hawaiian- and Strombolian-style activities. Widening of their feeder dyke in the shallow sub-surface to produce an upward flaring morphology was accommodated by country rock removal and elastic host rock deformation. Ballistic calculations and stratigraphic relationships indicate that the scoria half-cone was constructed early in the eruption from the deposits of a lava fountain ~100 m high. A decline in fountain height and the generation of abundant welded deposits resulted in the formation of a nested spatter cone within the scoria half-cone. The cones are similar in structure and size to the hybrid scoria and spatter cones produced during the 15-km3 1783 Laki eruption and serve as a valuable window into the construction of pyroclastic edifices during basaltic fissure eruptions.

  17. The fissure: interlobar collateral ventilation and implications for endoscopic therapy in emphysema

    PubMed Central

    Koster, Theodoor David; Slebos, Dirk-Jan

    2016-01-01

    In patients with severe emphysema, bronchoscopic lung volume reduction using one-way valves is a promising therapeutic option to improve lung function and quality of life. The goal of this treatment is to achieve a complete lobar atelectasis. In a significant proportion of patients, this atelectasis cannot be achieved due to interlobar collateral ventilation. This collateral ventilation is generated through incomplete lobar fissures. Therefore, only patients with complete fissures and no collateral ventilation can be selected for endobronchial therapy with one-way valves. Incomplete fissures are very common and exhibit a great variation in anatomy. The reported prevalence is 17%–85% for the right major fissure, 19%–74% for the left major fissure, and 20%–90% for the minor fissure. There are several methods of measuring or predicting the presence of collateral ventilation, with computed tomography (CT)-fissure analysis and the Chartis measurement being the most important. CT-fissure analysis is an indirect method to measure the completeness of fissures as a surrogate for collateral ventilation. The Chartis system is an endobronchial method to directly measure the presence of collateral ventilation. Both methods have unique value, and the combination of both can accurately predict the treatment response to the bronchoscopic placement of endobronchial valves. This review provides an in-depth view of lung fissure and collateral ventilation to help understand its importance in selecting the appropriate patients for new emphysema treatments and thus avoid useless treatment in unsuitable patients. PMID:27110109

  18. The fissure: interlobar collateral ventilation and implications for endoscopic therapy in emphysema.

    PubMed

    Koster, Theodoor David; Slebos, Dirk-Jan

    2016-01-01

    In patients with severe emphysema, bronchoscopic lung volume reduction using one-way valves is a promising therapeutic option to improve lung function and quality of life. The goal of this treatment is to achieve a complete lobar atelectasis. In a significant proportion of patients, this atelectasis cannot be achieved due to interlobar collateral ventilation. This collateral ventilation is generated through incomplete lobar fissures. Therefore, only patients with complete fissures and no collateral ventilation can be selected for endobronchial therapy with one-way valves. Incomplete fissures are very common and exhibit a great variation in anatomy. The reported prevalence is 17%-85% for the right major fissure, 19%-74% for the left major fissure, and 20%-90% for the minor fissure. There are several methods of measuring or predicting the presence of collateral ventilation, with computed tomography (CT)-fissure analysis and the Chartis measurement being the most important. CT-fissure analysis is an indirect method to measure the completeness of fissures as a surrogate for collateral ventilation. The Chartis system is an endobronchial method to directly measure the presence of collateral ventilation. Both methods have unique value, and the combination of both can accurately predict the treatment response to the bronchoscopic placement of endobronchial valves. This review provides an in-depth view of lung fissure and collateral ventilation to help understand its importance in selecting the appropriate patients for new emphysema treatments and thus avoid useless treatment in unsuitable patients.

  19. Anterior anal fissures are associated with occult sphincter injury and abnormal sphincter function.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, J T; Urie, A; Molloy, R G

    2008-03-01

    The pathogenesis of chronic anal fissure (CAF) remains incompletely understood but most are associated with a high resting anal pressure and reduced perfusion at the fissure site. To date, no major distinction has been made between anterior and posterior anal fissures and their aetiology and treatment. We compared anterior and posterior fissures in patients who have failed to respond to medical treatment with respect to their underlying aetiology, anal canal pressures and sphincter muscle integrity. Seventy consecutive patients (54 female:16 male) with a symptomatic CAF and 39 normal controls (19 female:20 male) without evidence of significant ano-rectal pathology were prospectively assessed by manometry and anal endosonography. Anterior anal fissures were identified in a younger age group [33 years (IQR 26-37) vs 41 years (IQR 36-52)] and predominantly in women. Anterior fissure patients were significantly more likely to have underlying external anal sphincter defects compared with posterior fissures [OR 10.9 (95% CI 3.4-35.4)]. Maximum resting pressure was not significantly elevated for anterior fissures compared with controls (P = 0.316) but was significantly elevated in posterior fissures (P = 0.005). The maximum squeeze pressure was significantly lower in the anterior fissure group [167 cmH2O (IQR 126-196) vs 205 cmH2O (IQR 174-262), P = 0.004]. A history of obstetric trauma was significantly associated with anterior fissure location [OR 13.9 (95% CI 3.4-55.7)]. Anterior anal fissures are associated with occult external anal sphincter injury and impaired external anal sphincter function compared with posterior fissures. These findings have implications for treatment, especially if a definitive procedure, such as lateral internal sphincterotomy, is considered.

  20. The Transcription Factor Foxg1 Promotes Optic Fissure Closure in the Mouse by Suppressing Wnt8b in the Nasal Optic Stalk

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Rowena; Huang, Yu-Ting; Tian, Tian; Vojtasova, Dominika; Mesalles-Naranjo, Oscar; Price, David J.

    2017-01-01

    During vertebrate eye morphogenesis, a transient fissure forms at its inferior part, known as the optic fissure. This will gradually close, giving rise to a healthy, spherical optic cup. Failure of the optic fissure to close gives rise to an ocular disorder known as coloboma. During this developmental process, Foxg1 is expressed in the optic neuroepithelium, with highest levels of expression in the nasal optic stalk. Foxg1−/− mutant mice have microphthalmic eyes with a large ventral coloboma. We found Wnt8b expression upregulated in the Foxg1−/− optic stalk and hypothesized that, similar to what is observed in telencephalic development, Foxg1 directs development of the optic neuroepithelium through transcriptional suppression of Wnt8b. To test this, we generated Foxg1−/−;Wnt8b−/− double mutants of either sex and found that the morphology of the optic cup and stalk and the closure of the optic fissure were substantially rescued in these embryos. This rescue correlates with restored Pax2 expression in the anterior tip of the optic fissure. In addition, although we do not find evidence implicating altered proliferation in the rescue, we observe a significant increase in apoptotic cell density in Foxg1−/−;Wnt8b−/− double mutants compared with the Foxg1−/− single mutant. Upregulation of Wnt/β-catenin target molecules in the optic cup and stalk may underlie the molecular and morphological defects in the Foxg1−/− mutant. Our results show that proper optic fissure closure relies on Wnt8b suppression by Foxg1 in the nasal optic stalk to maintain balanced apoptosis and Pax2 expression in the nasal and temporal edges of the fissure. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Coloboma is an ocular disorder that may result in a loss of visual acuity and accounts for ∼10% of childhood blindness. It results from errors in the sealing of the optic fissure (OF), a transient structure at the bottom of the eye. Here, we investigate the colobomatous phenotype of the

  1. Enamel fusion using a carbon dioxide laser: A technique for sealing pits and fissures

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, L.J.; Perham, S.J. )

    1991-05-01

    The well-established enhanced resistance of lased enamel to demineralization is the basis for clinical application of the carbon dioxide laser to caries prevention. This in vitro study examined the effect of focused infrared laser radiation on sound enamel and early pit and fissure caries. Low power levels (2-5 W) induced localized melting and resolidification of enamel with little surface destruction. For sound fissures, fusion of enamel from the lateral walls of the fissure eliminated the fissure space, providing a sealant effect; while in carious fissures, carious enamel was vaporized and adjacent sound enamel fused to partially eliminate the defect. The technique for enamel fusion using CO2 lasers has potential application for sealing pits and fissures and producing physicochemical alterations in enamel which may have preventive benefits.

  2. Phimosis with Preputial Fissures as a Predictor of Undiagnosed Type 2 Diabetes in Adults.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yun-Ching; Huang, Yao-Kuang; Chen, Chih-Shou; Shindel, Alan W; Wu, Ching-Fang; Lin, Jian-Hui; Chiu, Kuo-Hsiung; Yang, Tzu-Hsin; Shi, Chung-Sheng

    2016-03-01

    Diabetes is usually asymptomatic in its early stage. Early diagnosis may improve outcomes by enabling initiation of treatment before end organ damage has progressed. The aim of this study was to determine whether the clinical sign of phimosis with preputial fissures is predictive of type 2 diabetes in patients not previously diagnosed with diabetes. Twenty-eight patients with acquired phimosis and preputial fissures were collected prospectively. Twenty-eight controls with acquired phimosis without preputial fissures were selected. Statistically significant differences were found in body mass index, random plasma glucose, glucosuria and glycosylated haemoglobin levels, but not in age, family history of diabetes, hypertension and classical hyperglycaemic symptoms. Diabetes was confirmed in all 28 patients in the preputial fissures group, but only 2 (7.1%) patients in the non-preputial fissures group (p < 0.0001). In conclusion, phimosis with preputial fissures may be a specific sign of undiagnosed diabetes mellitus.

  3. A 48-month clinical evaluation of fissure sealants placed with different adhesive systems.

    PubMed

    Karaman, E; Yazici, A R; Tuncer, D; Firat, E; Unluer, S; Baseren, M

    2013-01-01

    To compare the retention rates of a nanofilled occlusal fissure sealant placed with the use of an etch-and-rinse or a self-etch adhesive over 48 months. The authors enrolled 244 teeth, each with no restoration or sealant and no detectable caries, from 16 patients. The sealants were placed with Solobond M two-step etch-and-rinse adhesive or Futurabond NR one-step self-etch adhesive by four previously calibrated dentists using a table of random numbers. After completion of the adhesive application, a nanofilled sealant, Grandio Seal, was applied and light-cured. Two other calibrated examiners, who were unaware of which adhesive had been used, independently evaluated the sealants at baseline and at 12-, 24-, 36-, and 48-month recalls. Each sealant was evaluated in terms of caries formation being present or absent and retention using the following criteria: 1 = completely retained, 2 = partial loss, and 3 = total loss. The Pearson χ (2) test was used to evaluate differences in retention rates among the sealants used with different adhesives for each evaluation period. The retention rates for sealants in the Solobond M group were significantly higher than those in the Futurabond NR group in all periods of evaluation (p<0.05). No statistically significant difference between the retention rates for premolars and molars was found at each evaluation period (p>0.05). There was no new caries formation throughout the 48-month recall period. Fissure sealants placed with etch-and-rinse adhesive showed better retention rates than those placed with self-etch adhesive.

  4. Surface anatomy of the pulmonary fissures determined by high-resolution computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Heřmanová, Zuzana; Ctvrtlík, Filip; Heřman, Miroslav

    2012-10-01

    The aim of our study was to describe the surface anatomy of the interlobar fissures using volumetric thin-section high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Retrospective assessment of HRCT examinations of 250 patients was performed. The localization of the oblique fissures was marked at three sites: posteriorly at its most superior medial limit, laterally in the midaxillary line, and inferiorly at the junction of the middle and lateral thirds of the hemithorax; posteriorly and laterally, this was to the nearest rib whilst inferiorly the position was described in relation to the diaphragm or chest wall. The localization of the horizontal fissure was marked anteriorly in relation to the nearest rib (or costal cartilage) and posteriorly where it intersected with the oblique fissure (superior, middle, or inferior third). Shapes of the fissures and differences between inspiration and expiration were also documented. Descriptive statistics were used to report the most frequent positions. The most frequent localization of the oblique fissure on the left side was posteriorly at the fourth rib (45%), laterally at the sixth rib (52%), and inferiorly in the anterior third of the hemidiaphragm (60%). The right oblique fissure was located posteriorly at the fifth rib (50%), laterally at the sixth rib (50%), and inferiorly in the anterior third of the hemidiaphragm (71%). The horizontal fissure most commonly originated in the middle third of the oblique fissure (61%) and met the anterior thoracic wall at the level of the fourth rib (51%). The most frequent shape of the left oblique fissure was linear (78%), whereas S-shaped and linear configurations (28% each) were most frequent on the right. No difference was found in the surface markings of the fissures between inspiration and expiration in 90% of cases. The considerable individual variation in the position and shape of the interlobar fissures helps to explain the variable descriptions of their surface anatomy in the

  5. Joints, fissures, and voids in rhyolite welded ash-flow tuff at Teton damsite, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prostka, Harold J.

    1977-01-01

    Several kinds of joints, fissures, and voids are present in densely welded rhyolite ash-flow tuff at Teton damsite. Older fissures and voids probably were formed in the ash-flow sheet during secondary flowage, which probably was caused by differential compaction or settling over irregular topography. The younger, more abundant fissures are mostly steep cooling joints that probably have been opened farther by horizontal tectonic extension and gravitational creep, perhaps aided by lateral stress relief.

  6. Research of features related to land subsidence and ground fissure disasters in the Beijing Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.; Luo, Y.; Liu, M.; Wang, R.; Wang, H.

    2015-11-01

    This study overviews the development history, current situation, impact, and hazards of land subsidence and ground fissure disasters in the Beijing Plain (BP) and focuses on the disaster distribution and features of disaster-causing mechanisms. Currently, the BP is still in a rapid developmental stage of land subsidence. The development and distribution of land subsidence are affected by various factors including the thickness of Quaternary compressible clay, groundwater overexploitation, and the rapid development of urban construction. The causes of ground fissures in the BP are complex and diverse, with evidence of structure fissures, non-structure fissures, and mixed genesis fissures. Investigations of the Gaoliying ground fissure have shown that this fissure has evidence of fracture activity, with vertical deformation that is more significant than horizontal deformation. Furthermore, this ground fissure has characteristics of inter-annual periodicity and annual jumping. The land subsidence and ground fissures are all under structural control and impact each other, and more severe hazards may be induced under the superimposition of these two types of disasters. Effective measures and suggestions for disaster prevention and control are recommended on the basis of this study.

  7. On homogenization of a variational inequality for an elastic body with periodically distributed fissures

    SciTech Connect

    Pastukhova, S E

    2000-02-28

    We study the problem of small deformations of an elastic body with periodically distributed fissures, where one-sided constraints are imposed on the sides of the fissures; this problem is equivalent to a variational inequality. We prove that if the linear size of the period of the distribution of the fissures tends to zero, then the solutions of this problem converge in the L{sup 2}-norm to the solution of the homogenized problem, which is a non-linear boundary-value problem of elasticity theory for a domain without fissures.

  8. Fluoride release and uptake abilities of different fissure sealants

    PubMed Central

    Andenna, Gianluigi; Ceci, Matteo; Beltrami, Riccardo; Colombo, Marco; Cucca, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Background The long-term capability of resin sealants and glass ionomer cements to release fluoride is associated to a reduction in pit and fissure caries. The regular use of fluoride varnishes/toothpastes can result in the absorption of fluoride into the sealant. The objective of the present study was to assess the fluoride release/uptake capacities of different fissure sealants. Material and Methods Three different fissure sealants (Fuji Triage/GC, Fissurit FX/Voco and Grandio Seal/Voco) were examined. Ten discs of each material were prepared. Each disc was incubated with distilled water and then the solution analyzed for diluted for fluoride concentration, using a combination of fluoride electrode (OrionGP 1 S/N 13824, Orion Research Inc, Boston, MA, USA) connected to an expandable ion analyzer (Orion 720A, Orion Research Inc, Boston, MA, USA). Standard curves between 1 and 100 ppm F- were used to calibrate the electrode. Cumulative fluoride release was measured on days 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 21, 35 and 49, then two different fluoride varnishes/pastes (Profluorid Varnish/Voco, MI Paste Plus/GC), were applied to the sealants tested, and fluoride release (after reuptake) was measured on days 56, 70 and 84. Results Kruskal Wallis test confirmed significant differences in fluoride release between Fuji Triage/GC and Fissurit FX/Voco and Grandio Seal/Voco from day 1 (P < 0.001). The application of fluoride varnish Profluorid Varnish enhanced the fluoride release for all sealants (P < 0.05). MI Paste Plus enhanced the fluoride release for all sealants except for Fuji Triage/GC (P > 0.05). Conclusions The GIC-based sealant (Fuji Triage/GC) released significantly more fluoride than the resin sealants tested. The exposure to the fluoridated varnish (Profluorid Varnish) significantly recharged the sealants tested more than the CPP-ACPF toothpaste (MI Paste Plus). Key words:Fissure sealants, fluoride release, fluoride uptake, glass ionomer cements. PMID:27398179

  9. Bonding Agents in Pit and Fissure Sealants: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Das, Usha Mohan; G, Suma

    2009-01-01

    Dental adhesive systems used for bonding dental resins to enamel and dentin have evolved through several "generations," with changes in chemistry, mechanism, number of bottles, application technique, and clinical effectiveness. The trend in the latest generation of dental bonding systems is to reduce the number of components and clinical placement steps. The introduction of i bond, a single-bottle dental adhesive system, is the latest of the new generation materials, and combines etchant, adhesive, and desensitizer in one component. This paper describes different dentin bonding agents, its evolution, mechanism of action and different commercially available dentin bonding agents and their role in the retention of pit and fissure sealant. PMID:25206115

  10. A rare case of myeloid sarcoma presenting as anal fissure

    PubMed Central

    VECCHIO, R.; INTAGLIATA, E.; FIUMARA, P.F.; VILLARI, L.; MARCHESE, S.; CACCIOLA, E.

    2015-01-01

    Myeloid sarcoma is a tumor composed of myeloblasts occurring at an extramedullary site. It may develop in patients with acute myeloid leukemia, myeloproliferative or myelodysplastic syndrome, sometimes preceding onset of the systemic disease. Frequent sites of myeloid sarcoma are bones or various soft tissues. Gastrointestinal involvement is very rare. We report a unique case of myeloid sarcoma presenting as a painful anal fissure, in a patient with a history of acute myeloid leukemia. The diagnosis was achieved by a surgical excisional biopsy and immunoistochemical staining. PMID:26712260

  11. Eruption Conditions During Fissure Eruptions in Tharsis, Mars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, L.; Mouginis-Mark, P. J.; Tyson, S.; Mackown, J.; Garbeil, H.

    2008-12-01

    We focus on six separate, but physically close, vent systems in eastern Tharsis, Mars, just to the east of the volcano Jovis Tholus. The vents are typically linear fissures a few to 20 km in length that have built small shields rising to 50-85 m above the level of the surrounding topography. Typical lengths of individual lava flows from these fissures are 15-20 km, with a maximum of 30 km. Mapping of the vent complexes reveals smooth material, interpreted to be spatter from fire fountaining, located on the rims of some of the fissures. In some places this spatter fed individual short (less than 5 km) lava flows; elsewhere spatter from segments of the fissure coalesced to form longer flows. Temporal evolution of the flow fields is indicated: the oldest parts of the basement at each center are built from a series of compound flows that cannot be subdivided into individual flows. In places activity was locally focussed and formed lava ponds and channelized flows from central vents. MOLA topographic data and photoclinometry topographic profiles made from THEMIS VIS images show that the flows are typically less than 5 m thick, 8-15 times thinner than flows elsewhere on Mars. We used standard models of magma rise through dikes, lava flow emplacement, and fire-fountain behavior to find lava viscosities and yield strengths (100 Pa s and 100 Pa, respectively), eruption rates (5,000 m3/s), flow speeds (1-2 m/s), durations of emplacement of individual flow units (5 hours), and an equivalent magma water content (0.1-0.2 mass percent). These eruption conditions are consistent with a wide range of possible depths of the magma reservoirs feeding the eruptions. Small vents like those studied here have been identified elsewhere in Tharsis (particularly just to the east of Olympus Mons), and the eruption conditions described above may characterize a previously poorly recognized style of volcanism on Mars only identifiable in images with spatial resolutions better than 10 m/pixel.

  12. Sylvian fissure epidermoid cyst presenting with intention tremor

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Abhidha; Makkiyah, Feda; Goel, Atul

    2016-01-01

    Epidermoid tumors are benign tumors which contain keratin, cellular debris, and cholesterol, and are lined with stratified squamous epithelium. They grow in discreet silence sustained over a multitude of years. The tumors most commonly present with headache and seizures. We report the case of a 24-year-old male with a large sylvian fissure epidermoid tumor who presented with intention tremor. The patient was operated, and a near-total excision of the tumor was performed with a resolution of the tremor. PMID:27057232

  13. Effect of topical glyceryl trinitrate on anodermal blood flow in patients with chronic anal fissures.

    PubMed

    Kua, K B; Kocher, H M; Kelkar, A; Patel, A G

    2001-09-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the role of increased internal anal sphincter pressure and decreased anodermal blood flow in the pathogenesis of chronic anal fissures. The duration of the effect of topical 0.2% glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) ointment on anodermal blood flow in fissure and normal areas was investigated in patients with chronic anal fissures. Six patients with chronic anal fissures in the posterior midline participated in the study. Blood flow measurements were performed on the anoderm using laser Doppler flowmetry before and immediately after the topical application of 0.2% GTN ointment and subsequent readings were taken at 5, 15, 30, 45 and 60 min in all four quadrants. The mean anodermal blood flow in the fissure region is significantly lower than the mean blood flow of the rest of the anoderm before 0.2% GTN ointment is applied (228.7 +/- 61.8 flux units vs 439.3 +/- 25.5 flux units, respectively; P < 0.05). Immediately after the application of local 0.2% GTN ointment there is a significant increase in anodermal blood flow over the anal fissure region (457.8 +/- 56.5 flux units; P < 0.05) compared to the rest of the anoderm (457.4 +/- 30.8 flux units). This increase is most marked at 5 min post-GTN ointment application in the fissure area (474.6 +/- 41.1 flux units) and the blood flow in the fissure region is consistently above the rest of the anoderm for most of the 60 min. There is clearly reduced blood flow to the chronic anal fissure region compared to the rest of the anoderm. Topical application of glyceryl trinitrate ointment seems to significantly improve the blood flow to the fissured area in the first hour. This may therefore help in the healing of chronic anal fissures.

  14. Fissure sealants: Knowledge and practice of Yemeni dental practitioners

    PubMed Central

    Al-Maweri, Sadeq Ali; Al-Jamaei, Aisha Ahmed; Halboub, Esam Saleh; Al-Soneidar, Walid Ahmed; Tarakji, Bassel; Alsalhani, Anas

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to evaluate Yemeni dental practitioners' knowledge and practices concerning fissure sealants. Materials and Methods: A modified questionnaire consisted of 25-items was distributed to 500 dentists working in Sana'a City. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square/Fisher's exact tests were used for statistical analyses. Results: The response rate was 74%. Most of the respondents were male (61.3%), general practitioners (84.2%), and had <5 years of clinical experience (48.3%). The respondents showed a reasonable level of knowledge about sealants, with the majority (88%) believed that there is strong scientific evidence about fissure sealants effectiveness and around 90% showed a good understanding of sealant placement instructions. On the other hand, respondents showed insufficient knowledge about sealants clinical practice. Conclusion: Although a high proportion of dental practitioners showed adequate knowledge about dental sealant, following guidelines and standardized procedures in clinical practice is lacking. These emphasize the need for regular continuing education courses for dental professional. PMID:27095903

  15. Combined approach in the treatment of chronic anal fissures.

    PubMed

    Vershenya, S; Klotz, J; Joos, A; Bussen, D; Herold, A

    2015-03-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the healing and complications rates in surgically and conservatively treated patients with chronic anal fissure. Conservative treatment consisted of nitrate or diltiazem ointment. In case of surgery, fissurectomy was performed. In total, 340 patients were included in the study. Among them, 162 patients had surgery and 178 patients had conservative treatment. The healing rate at surgically treated group of patients varied between 95 and 98% depending on previous treatment. Group treated with nitrate ointment and group treated with diltiazem ointment showed, respectively 62% and 52% healing rates. Difference between ointments was not statistically significant. Average healing time was between 105 and 123 days and complication rates were between 1.7 and 5.4%. The surgical treatment showed much higher healing rates and thus should recommended as primary treatment option for the chronic anal fissure, especially if there are chronic secondary lesions already present. In case of conservative treatment, either nitrate or diltiazem ointment could be used with similar efficacy.

  16. Nonsurgical approaches for the treatment of anal fissures.

    PubMed

    Dhawan, Sanju; Chopra, Sunny

    2007-06-01

    Chronic anal fissure (CAF) is usually associated with internal anal sphincter spasm, the relief of which is central to provide fissure healing. The treatment for CAF has undergone a transformation in recent years from surgical to medical. Both the approaches share the common goal of reducing the spasm. Though surgical treatment has a high success rate, it can permanently impair fecal continence in a large number of patients. Smooth muscle relaxation seems to be a novel way by which more than 60% of the patients can be cured with the topical use of the agents. This treatment is in addition to the normalization of stools mostly. Smooth muscle relaxation is well tolerated, can be administered on an outpatient basis, does not cause any lesion of the continence organ, and subsequently, does not lead to any permanent latent or apparent fecal incontinence. This review encompasses various agents that are used for smooth muscle relaxation. In addition, it describes various clinical studies reported in the literature with their success rates and side effects.

  17. Preserving rice quality: fine mapping and introgressing a fissure resistance locus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) kernel fissuring is a major concern of both rice producers and millers. Fissures are small cracks in the rice kernels that increase the percentage of breakage among the kernels when they are transported and milled, which decreases the value of processed rice. This study employ...

  18. Response to early generation selection for resistance to rice kernel fissuring

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The value of milled rice (Oryza sativa L.) depends on the percent whole versus broken kernels after milling. Kernel fissures caused by pre- or post-harvest stresses are the leading cause of breakage upon milling. ‘Cypress’ is known to be more fissure resistant (FR) than most cultivars, but breeding ...

  19. Early screening of recombinant inbred lines for fissure resistance in non-semidwarf rice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) kernel fissuring poses a major problem for both rice farmers and millers. It results in the decreased value of milled rice because of the increase in the percentage of broken kernels associated with fissuring. This study employs the use of fine mapping to increase the genetic ...

  20. Pulmonary fissure development is a prognostic factor for patients with resected stage I lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seokkee; Lee, Jin Gu; Lee, Chang Young; Kim, Dae Joon; Chung, Kyung Young

    2016-12-01

    Pulmonary fissure differs among patients, but the relationship between pulmonary fissure development and survival in patients with resected lung adenocarcinoma has not been evaluated. In this study, we analyzed the effect of fissure development on prognosis in patients with stage I lung adenocarcinoma. From January 2009 to December 2012, data, including pulmonary fissure development, were collected prospectively for all lung cancer, and this was a retrospective study of prospectively collected data. In total, 297 patients who had undergone a lobectomy and had pathologic stage I adenocarcinoma were analyzed. Patients were categorized into two groups based on fissure sum average (FSA) fissure development scores. Group A patients ranged from complete to 30% incomplete (0 ≤ FSA ≤ 1) while in Group B patients development was more than 30% incomplete (1 < FSA ≤ 3). In univariate analysis, Group B had poorer overall 5 year survival than did Group A (83.1% vs. 96.5%, P = 0.015). Multivariate analysis revealed that the level of fissure development was a significant prognostic factor for overall survival (HR = 3.905, CI = 1.168-13.057, P = 0.027). The overall survival of patients with resected stage I adenocarcinoma was adversely affected by incomplete fissure development. J. Surg. Oncol. 2016;114:848-852. © 2016 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Fissure eruptions at Mount Vesuvius (Italy): Insights on the shallow propagation of dikes at volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acocella, Valerio; Porreca, Massimiliano; Neri, Marco; Mattei, Massimo; Funiciello, Renato

    2006-08-01

    Fissure eruptions may provide important information on the shallow propagation of dikes at volcanoes. Somma-Vesuvius (Italy) consists of the active Vesuvius cone, bordered to the north by the remnants of the older Somma edifice. Historical chronicles are considered to define the development of the 37 fissure eruptions between A.D. 1631 and 1944. The 1631 fissure, which reopened the magmatic conduit, migrated upward and was the only one triggered by the subvertical propagation of a dike. The other 25 fissure eruptions migrated downward, when the conduit was open, through the lateral propagation of radial dikes. We suggest two scenarios for the development of the fissures. When the summit conduit is closed, the fissures are fed by vertically propagating dikes. When the summit conduit is open, the fissures are fed by laterally propagating dikes along the volcano slopes. Consistent behaviors are found at other composite volcanoes, suggesting a general application to our model, independent of the tectonic setting and composition of magma. At Vesuvius, the historical data set and our scenarios are used to predict the consequences of the emplacement of fissures after the opening of the conduit. The results suggest that, even though the probability of opening of vents within the inhabited south and west slopes is negligible, the possibility that these are reached by a lava flow remains significant.

  2. Evaluation of Different Fissure Sealant Materials and Flowable Composites Used as Pit-and-fissure Sealants: A 24-Month Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Kucukyilmaz, Ebru; Savas, Selcuk

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of resin-based pit-and-fissure sealants mainly depends on their retention and integrity over time. The purpose of this study was to evaluate retention rates of two different pit-and-fissure sealants compared with a flowable composite and a self-adhesive flowable composite over a 24 month period. A split-mouth study design was used for all four permanent first molars of each patient. They were subjected to different kinds of sealants--either flowable composites or with fissure sealants. The flowable composites used were: flowable composite with an adhesive system (Tetric EvoFlow); and a self-adhesive flowable composite (Vertise Flow). The fissure sealants used were: a highly filled pit-and-fissure sealant (Fissurit FX); and a highly filled nano-hybrid pit-and-fissure sealant (Grandio Seal). Evaluation of the sealants was carried out at three-, six-, 12-, 18-, and 24-month follow-up visits. The complete retention rates were 95.7 percent for Tetric EvoFlow, 80.6 percent for Fissurit FX, 73.1 percent for Grandio Seal, and 62.9 percent for Vertise Flow. The retention rate of Tetric EvoFlow was significantly higher among all materials tested (P<0.05). The flowable composite used with an adhesive system was found to be superior to other sealing materials.

  3. Comparison of different methods of cleaning and preparing occlusal fissure surface before placement of pit and fissure sealants: An in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Hegde, Rahul J; Coutinho, Rochelle C

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate an individual method of cleaning and preparing occlusal fissure surface before placement of pit and fissure sealant and to determine a method for better retention of the sealant. The present study consisted of 100 young permanent molar teeth divided into four equal groups: Group 1-Brushing only, Group 2-Application of pumice slurry, Group 3-Surface conditioning, and Group 4-Control (without any preparation). Subsequent to fissure preparation, the fissures were etched using 37% phosphoric acid except for Group 3, which was etched using 10% maleic acid for 30 s. The samples were then rinsed for 10 s using air water spray of the three-way syringe and dried using oil-free compressed air with a hand pump air pressure syringe. After ensuring a frosted appearance of the enamel at the fissure entrance, pit and fissure sealants were applied on the surface according to manufacturer's instructions. All the cases were clinically evaluated for retention after 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months of application and the retention rate was assessed based on the criteria proposed by Simonsen. The pumice slurry group and surface conditioning group showed results with 100%, 96%, and 92% complete retention seen at 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months, respectively. The pumice slurry group and surface conditioning group showed a significantly higher retention when compared to the brushing group, whereas the control group (without any preparation) showed the least retention when compared to all the other groups.

  4. Risk factors special to eastern culture for the development of anal fissure.

    PubMed

    Erel, Serap; Adahan, Didem; Kismet, Kemal; Caylan, Ayse; Tanrikulu, Yusuf; Akkus, Mehmet Ali

    2009-01-01

    To reveal the effect of diet, bowel functions and toilet habits on the development of anal fissure. One hundred patients complaining of anal fissure were included to the case group; and one hundred age- and gender-matched patients referred for other reasons except for anorectal complaints were included to the control group. The information was obtained by face to face interviews using questionnaires. Statistically significant differences were found in coffee, fruit, and meat consumption between the groups. The patients suffering from anal fissure avoided paprika consumption. The rate of anal fissure incidence was higher in squat toilet users. This study is the first study which evaluates the risk factors such as paprika consumption and squat toilet usage that are specific to Eastern culture. Further studies including large numbers of population are needed to evaluate different risk factors for anal fissure development (Tab. 2, Ref. 11). Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk.

  5. Surface fissures in articular cartilage: effect of pathological changes in synovial fluid.

    PubMed

    Kafka, Vratislav

    2002-01-01

    A unified mathematical model of two different modes of inception of fissures at the surface of articular cartilage in healthy and pathological joints. The superficial tangential zone of articular cartilage is modeled as a three-phase medium consisting of collagen fibers, matrix, and of infiltrated thin constituent of synovial fluid. The author's general mesomechanical concept is applied to the analysis of deterioration of articular cartilage. Theoretical analysis based on the results of the author's preceding paper. The presented analysis shows that superficial fissures in articular cartilage can also be caused by pathological thinning of synovial fluid. Whereas in healthy joints the probable cause of creation of fissures at the surface of cartilage was shown to be fast impact loading, in joints with inflammatory synovial fluid the fissures can be caused by plain walking. Appearance of surface fissures in articular cartilage is a serious, still not fully clarified problem that deserves attention.

  6. Injections of botulinum A toxin for the treatment of anal fissures.

    PubMed

    Trzciński, Radzisław; Dziki, Adam; Tchórzewski, Marcin

    2002-01-01

    To find out how injections of botulinum A toxin influence the healing of anal fissures. Retrospective study. Medical University of Lodz, Poland. 13 patients (6 women, 7 men), mean age 49 (range 31-78), treated with injections of botulinum A toxin 50 units on either side of the anal fissure into the internal anal sphincter from May to December 1999. Complications and relapse. Seven fissures had healed by one month and four by two months. Two remained unhealed but asymptomatic. There was no incontinence of flatus or faeces after three months of treatment. Resting anal pressure was significantly lower in 10 of 13 patients compared with before treatment (p < 0.05). One fissure relapsed after 4 months and this patient had a successful anal stretch. Injection of botulinum A toxin gives good results in the treatment of anal fissures.

  7. Groundwater-Mining-Induced Subsidence and Earth Fissures in Cedar Valley, Southwestern Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knudsen, T. R.; Inkenbrandt, P.; Lund, W. R.; Lowe, M.; Bowman, S. D.

    2014-12-01

    Groundwater pumping in excess of recharge (groundwater mining) has lowered the potentiometric surface in Cedar Valley, southwestern Utah, by as much as 114 feet since 1939. Lowering the potentiometric surface (head decline) has caused permanent compaction of fine-grained sediments of the Cedar Valley aquifer. Recently acquired interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) imagery shows that land subsidence is occurring over an ~100 square-mile area, including two pronounced subsidence bowls in the northeastern (Enoch graben) and southwestern (Quichapa Lake area) parts of the valley. A lack of accurate historical benchmark elevation data over much of the valley prevents detailed long-term quantification of subsidence. In response to the land subsidence, earth fissures have formed along the margins of the Enoch graben and north and west of Quichapa Lake. Our initial inventory of Cedar Valley fissures, which relied on aerial-photography analysis, identified 3.9 miles of fissures in 2009. With newly acquired light detection and ranging (LiDAR) coverage in 2011, we more than doubled the total length of mapped fissures to 8.3 miles. Fissures on the west side of the Enoch graben exhibit ongoing vertical surface displacement with rates as high as 1.7 inches/year. The largest Enoch-graben-west fissure has displaced street surfaces, curb and gutter, and sidewalks, and has reversed the flow direction of a sewer line in a partially developed subdivision. Several Cedar Valley fissures are closely associated with, and in some places coincident with, mapped Quaternary faults. While the majority of Cedar Valley fissures are mapped in agricultural areas, continued groundwater mining and resultant subsidence will likely cause existing fissures to lengthen and new fissures to form that may eventually impact other developed areas of the valley.

  8. Annulus fissures are mechanically and chemically conducive to the ingrowth of nerves and blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Stefanakis, Manos; Al-Abbasi, Maan; Harding, Ian; Pollintine, Phillip; Dolan, Patricia; Tarlton, John; Adams, Michael A

    2012-10-15

    Mechanical and biochemical analyses of cadaveric and surgically removed discs. To test the hypothesis that fissures in the annulus of degenerated human discs are mechanically and chemically conducive to the ingrowth of nerves and blood vessels. Discogenic back pain is closely associated with fissures in the annulus fibrosus, and with the ingrowth of nerves and blood vessels. Three complementary studies were performed. First, 15 cadaveric discs that contained a major annulus fissure were subjected to 1 kN compression, while a miniature pressure transducer was pulled through the disc to obtain distributions of matrix compressive stress perpendicular to the fissure axis. Second, Safranin O staining was used to evaluate focal loss of proteoglycans from within annulus fissures in 25 surgically removed disc samples. Third, in 21 cadaveric discs, proteoglycans (sulfated glycosaminoglycans [sGAGs]) and water concentration were measured biochemically in disrupted regions of annulus containing 1 or more fissures, and in adjacent intact regions. Reductions in compressive stress within annulus fissures averaged 36% to 46%, and could have been greater at the fissure axis. Stress reductions were greater in degenerated discs, and were inversely related to nucleus pressure (R(2) = 47%; P = 0.005). Safranin O stain intensity indicated that proteoglycan concentration was typically reduced by 40% at a distance of 600 μm from the fissure axis, and the width of the proteoglycan-depleted zone increased with age (P < 0.006; R(2) = 0.29) and with general proteoglycan loss (P < 0.001; R(2) = 0.32). Disrupted regions of annulus contained 36% to 54% less proteoglycans than adjacent intact regions from the same discs, although water content was reduced only slightly. Annulus fissures provide a low-pressure microenvironment that allows focal proteoglycan loss, leaving a matrix that is conducive to nerve and blood vessel ingrowth.

  9. Video monitoring analysis of the dynamics at fissure eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witt, Tanja; Walter, Thomas R.

    2016-04-01

    At basaltic eruption often lava fountains occur. The fountains mainly develop at erupting fissures, underlain by a magma-filled dike transporting the magma horizontally and vertically. Understanding of the dynamics of the deep dike and fracture mechanisms are mainly based on geophysical data as well as observations from seismic or geodetic networks. At the surface, however, new methods are needed to allow detailed interpretation on the eruption velocities, interactions between vents and complexities in the magma paths. With video cameras we collected imaging data from different erupting fissures. We find that lava fountaining is often correlated at distinct vents. From the frames of the videos we calculated the height and velocities of fountains as a function of time. Lava fountains often show a pulsating regime, that may change over time. Comparing the fountain height as a function of time of different vents by an time-dependent cross-correlation, we find a time lag between the pulses at adjacent vents. From this we derive an apparent velocity of temporal separation between vents, associated with the fountaining activity based on the calculated time lag and the vent distances. Although the correlation system can change episodically and sporadically, both the frequency of the fountains and eruption and the rest time between single fountains remain remarkably similar for adjacent lava fountains imply a controlling process in the magma feeder system itself. We present and compare our method for the Kamoamoa eruption 2011 (Hawaii) and the Holuhraun eruption 2014/2015 (Iceland). Both sites show a significant time shift between the single pulses of adjacent vents. We compare our velocities determined by this time shift to the assumed magma flow velocity in the dike as determined by independent models. Therefore we conjecture that the time shift of venting activity may allow to estimate the dynamics of magma and fluid migration at depth, as well as to identify the

  10. Discrete element modeling on the crack evolution behavior of brittle sandstone containing three fissures under uniaxial compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Sheng-Qi; Huang, Yan-Hua; Ranjith, P. G.; Jiao, Yu-Yong; Ji, Jian

    2015-12-01

    Based on experimental results of brittle, intact sandstone under uniaxial compression, the micro-parameters were firstly confirmed by adopting particle flow code (PFC^{2D}). Then, the validation of the simulated models were cross checked with the experimental results of brittle sandstone containing three parallel fissures under uniaxial compression. The simulated results agreed very well with the experimental results, including the peak strength, peak axial strain, and ultimate failure mode. Using the same micro-parameters, the numerical models containing a new geometry of three fissures are constructed to investigate the fissure angle on the fracture mechanical behavior of brittle sandstone under uniaxial compression. The strength and deformation parameters of brittle sandstone containing new three fissures are dependent to the fissure angle. With the increase of the fissure angle, the elastic modulus, the crack damage threshold, and the peak strength of brittle sandstone containing three fissures firstly increase and secondly decrease. But the peak axial strain is nonlinearly related to the fissure angle. In the entire process of deformation, the crack initiation and propagation behavior of brittle sandstone containing three fissures under uniaxial compression are investigated with respect to the fissure angle. Six different crack coalescence modes are identified for brittle sandstone containing three fissures under uniaxial compression. The influence of the fissure angle on the length of crack propagation and crack coalescence stress is evaluated. These investigated conclusions are very important for ensuring the stability and safety of rock engineering with intermittent structures.

  11. Evidence not practised: the underutilisation of preventive fissure sealants.

    PubMed

    Bonetti, D L

    2014-04-01

    International and UK professional organisations, Cochrane systematic reviews, and international and UK guidance documents all support the application of preventive fissure sealants (PFSs) as an effective treatment for reducing caries. However, PFSs are well known to be underutilised in primary care. This paper collates data from PFS-relevant studies in Scotland, which has a large population of children at caries risk, to identify the beliefs and factors dentists perceive as influencing their decision not to provide this treatment. This information provides a platform to suggest how to increase the application of PFSs in this region (a standardised audit incorporating evidence-based behaviour change techniques, supplemental guidance on how to implement gold-standard recommendations in practice, training). This may also be relevant outside of Scotland, as well as to the implementation of other evidence-based behaviours in practice.

  12. Superior orbital fissure syndrome in herpes zoster ophthalmicus.

    PubMed

    Kirwan, R P; Abdalla, M; Hogan, A; Tubridy, N; Barry, P; Power, W

    2009-09-01

    To report a case of superior orbital fissure syndrome (SOFS) in a patient with herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO). A case report. A 71-year-old male with HZO presented acutely to accident and emergency complaining of right vision loss, double vision and drowsiness. The right visual acuity was counting fingers. There was no relative afferent pupillary defect. He had interstitial keratitis, ptosis, proptosis and total ophthalmoplaegia. The signs indicated HZO complicated by SOFS. Brain imaging and lumbar puncture confirmed the diagnosis of varicella zoster encephalitis. Systemic acyclovir and prednisolone led to recovery of visual acuity and ocular motility in addition to resolution of his proptosis and ptosis. SOFS is a rare complication of herpes zoster infection. With the appropriate treatment and follow-up, patients may be reassured that recovery of their visual acuity and ocular motility will occur.

  13. Fissure sealant materials: Wear resistance of flowable composite resins

    PubMed Central

    Asefi, Sohrab; Eskandarion, Solmaz; Hamidiaval, Shadi

    2016-01-01

    Background. Wear resistance of pit and fissure sealant materials can influence their retention. Wear characteristics of sealant materials may determine scheduling of check-up visits. The aim of this study was to compare wear resistance of two flowable composite resins with that of posterior composite resin materials. Methods. Thirty-five disk-shaped specimens were prepared in 5 groups, including two flowable composite resins (Estelite Flow Quick and Estelite Flow Quick High Flow), Filtek P90 and Filtek P60 and Tetric N-Ceram. The disk-shaped samples were prepared in 25-mm diameter by packing them into a two-piece aluminum mold and then light-cured. All the specimens were polished for 1minute using 600-grit sand paper. The samples were stored in distilled water at room temperature for 1 week and then worn by two-body abrasion test using "pin-on-disk" method (with distilled water under a 15-Nload at 0.05 m/s, for a distance of 100 meter with Steatite ceramic balls antagonists). A Profilometer was used for evaluating the surface wear. Data were analyzed with the one-way ANOVA. Results. Estelite Flow Quick exhibited 2708.9 ± 578.1 μm2 and Estelite Flow Quick High Flow exhibited 3206 ± 2445.1 μm2of wear but there were no significant differences between the groups. They demonstrated similar wear properties. Conclusion. Estelite flowable composite resins have wear resistance similar to nano- and micro-filled and micro-hybrid composite resins. Therefore, they can be recommended as pit and fissure sealant materials in the posterior region with appropriate mechanical characteristics. PMID:27651887

  14. Fissure sealant materials: Wear resistance of flowable composite resins.

    PubMed

    Asefi, Sohrab; Eskandarion, Solmaz; Hamidiaval, Shadi

    2016-01-01

    Background. Wear resistance of pit and fissure sealant materials can influence their retention. Wear characteristics of sealant materials may determine scheduling of check-up visits. The aim of this study was to compare wear resistance of two flowable composite resins with that of posterior composite resin materials. Methods. Thirty-five disk-shaped specimens were prepared in 5 groups, including two flowable composite resins (Estelite Flow Quick and Estelite Flow Quick High Flow), Filtek P90 and Filtek P60 and Tetric N-Ceram. The disk-shaped samples were prepared in 25-mm diameter by packing them into a two-piece aluminum mold and then light-cured. All the specimens were polished for 1minute using 600-grit sand paper. The samples were stored in distilled water at room temperature for 1 week and then worn by two-body abrasion test using "pin-on-disk" method (with distilled water under a 15-Nload at 0.05 m/s, for a distance of 100 meter with Steatite ceramic balls antagonists). A Profilometer was used for evaluating the surface wear. Data were analyzed with the one-way ANOVA. Results. Estelite Flow Quick exhibited 2708.9 ± 578.1 μm(2) and Estelite Flow Quick High Flow exhibited 3206 ± 2445.1 μm(2)of wear but there were no significant differences between the groups. They demonstrated similar wear properties. Conclusion. Estelite flowable composite resins have wear resistance similar to nano- and micro-filled and micro-hybrid composite resins. Therefore, they can be recommended as pit and fissure sealant materials in the posterior region with appropriate mechanical characteristics.

  15. Pleistocene microvertebrates from fissure-fillings in Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaimanee, Yaowalak; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques; Suteethorn, Varavudh

    Microvertebrates (and among them specially, rodents) have contributed to the elaboration of precise biochronological time scales and to the reconstitution of Pleistocene paleoenvironments in several parts of the world (North America, Africa, Europe and Japan). They have been demonstrated to be highly sensitive to climatic changes since they are very sensitive to vegetation changes. Up to now, no data is available for Southeast Asia and very few information is available concerning the nature of climatic changes which affected that part of the tropical world during the Pleistocene. In the past few years, we have discovered several fissure fillings in Thailand yielding numerous remains of microvertebrates which have been extracted by dissolution in acetic acid solution. These deposits are the result of the feeding activity of predators, like owls or diurnal raptors, whose pellets are accumulated in caves or fissures. Eleven localities, located in Central (2), Eastern (1), Western (2) and Peninsular Thailand (6) have been investigated so far. Several rodent species, belonging to 9 genera of Murinae (rats and mice) and 9 genera of Sciuridae (squirrels) have been identified in these localities. The most important differences with the extant representatives often concern the size of the teeth of these fossil species. The meaning of these size differences is not yet clearly understood since they can be attributed either to significant time differences between localities (microevolution) or as the result of size variations related to climatic changes (clinical variations). More data will have to be collected to calibrate the temporal frame. Already, important modification of the geographic distribution of some species have been discovered which testify that during the Pleistocene, significative climatic changes have affected Southeast Asia. For example, Exilisciurus, a squirrel which is presently restricted to Borneo has been recognized in Peninsular Thailand. Also, Iomys

  16. Infrasound from the 2007 fissure eruptions of Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai'i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fee, D.; Garces, M.; Orr, T.; Poland, M.

    2011-01-01

    Varied acoustic signals were recorded at Kīlauea Volcano in mid-2007, coincident with dramatic changes in the volcano's activity. Prior to this time period, Pu'u 'Ō'ō crater produced near-continuous infrasonic tremor and was the primary source of degassing and lava effusion at Kīlauea. Collapse and draining of Pu'u 'Ō'ō crater in mid-June produced impulsive infrasonic signals and fluctuations in infrasonic tremor. Fissure eruptions on 19 June and 21 July were clearly located spatially and temporally using infrasound arrays. The 19 June eruption from a fissure approximately mid-way between Kīlauea's summit and Pu'u 'O'o produced infrasound for ~30 minutes-the only observed geophysical signal associated with the fissure opening. The infrasound signal from the 21 July eruption just east of Pu'u 'Ō'ō shows a clear azimuthal progression over time, indicative of fissure propagation over 12.9 hours. The total fissure propagation rate is relatively slow at 164 m/hr, although the fissure system ruptured discontinuously. Individual fissure rupture times are estimated using the acoustic data combined with visual observations.

  17. Preferential flow in fissured sediments in desert soils related to radioactive waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Scanlon, B.R.; Raney, J.A. . Bureau of Economic Geology)

    1992-01-01

    Unsaturated flow in fissured sediments in the Chihuahuan Desert of Texas was examined to determine if these features act as preferred pathways for water and solute transport. Fissures are surface features, or gulleys, that are underlain by fractures filled with sediment derived from surrounding areas. Hydraulic and chemical approaches were used to investigate unsaturated flow processes beneath and adjacent to fissures, and the results were compared with data from surrounding geomorphic systems such as arroyos, ephemeral streams, and interstreams. Typically, high water potentials in surficial sediments result from infiltration of recent precipitation. Below this surficial zone of high water potentials lies a zone of low water potentials that is much thinner beneath the fissure than in adjacent sediments or in sediments beneath ephemeral streams and interstreams. Maximum chloride concentrations in profiles in the near-surface fissured sediments were much lower than those measured in all other geomorphic systems. The corresponding moisture velocities in the fissured sediments ranged from 10 to 70 mm/yr. A tracer experiment demonstrated higher downward water and solute transport in the fracture fill beneath the fissure relative to adjacent sediments. Numerical simulations of the tracer experiment with the computer code TRACR3D reproduced the overall shape of the tracer plume. Sensitivity analyses demonstrated that the tracer plume is most sensitive to spatial variability in soil texture and the corresponding hydraulic parameters. The results from this study suggest that sediments in the fissured area act as preferred pathways in the shallow subsurface because surface runoff is concentrated in the fissures and because underlying fractures and cavities provide avenues for moisture and solute transport.

  18. Quantitative characterization and micro-CT mineral mapping of natural fissural enamel lesions.

    PubMed

    Shahmoradi, Mahdi; Swain, Michael V

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the mineral distribution pattern of natural fissural enamel lesions and to quantify structural parameters and mineral density of these lesions in comparison to proximal white spot enamel lesions. Imaging was undertaken using a high-resolution desktop micro-computed tomography system. A calibration equation was used to transform the grey level values of images into true mineral density values. The value of lesion parameters including the mineral density and the thickness of the surface layer of the enamel lesion were extracted from mineral density profiles. The thickness of the surface layer showed variation among different lesions and it ranged from 0-90 μm in proximal lesions and 0-137 μm in fissural lesions. The average thickness of surface layer in fissural lesions was significantly higher than smooth surface proximal lesions. Sound fissural enamel showed lower mineral density compared to proximal enamel. Micro-CT and the suggested de-noising and visualization method provide an efficient high-resolution approach for non-destructive evaluation of fissural lesions. Using these methods, the current study revealed the exclusive pattern and structure of fissural enamel lesions which may provide a basis for future studies on prevention and remineralization of these lesions. The common demineralization pattern of fissural lesions, which indicates the extension of the lesion in two directions towards the pulp horns, may explain the early inflammation and symptoms of the pulp in fissural lesions even when the lesion base appears far from the pulp roof in normal radiographs. In addition, the presence of the surface layer, indicates that vigorous probing of the occlusal fissures may lead to breakage and cavitation of the enamel lesions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A One-Year Evaluation of a Free Fissure Sealant Program.

    PubMed

    M, Bakhtiar; N, Azadi; A, Golkari

    2016-12-01

    Pit and fissure sealant therapy has been approved as an effective measure in the prevention of occlusal dental caries. Resin based materials are the most common materials used worldwide. A variety of resin based fissure sealants are produced and used. Most of them have been presented with ideal results in research environment. However, their effectiveness in the real life, especially in a mass application program such as Iran's oral health reform plan is not clear. To evaluate the longevity of different fissure sealant applied in Iran's oral health reform plan in Fars Province (south of Iran) after one year. Seven counties were selected. One hundred 6- to 8-year-old school children who had undergone fissure sealant therapy in spring 2015 were randomly selected from each county. Their first molars were examined to evaluate the status of the fissure sealants which were applied one year ago. Data on the type/brand of fissure sealant materials, type and experience of clinicians who applied them, existence of a chair-side assistant, and whether the children were caries-free at the time of fissure sealant application were collected from the existing reports. Data of 1974 teeth from 598 children were used for the final analysis. The effects of type/brand of the material was significant on the final results and remained significant (p < 0.001) after adjustments for the level of fluoride, urban/rural area, upper/lower jaw, type of clinician who applied the sealant, existence of a chair-side assistant, and child's gender, age, and being caries-free. Many factors affect the success rate of a fissure sealant therapy program. The type/brand of the material remained significantly related to the success rate of the fissure sealant even after adjustments for other influencing factors. In this study, ClinproTM Sealant (3M/ESPE, USA) showed better longevity after one year of application.

  20. Automatic segmentation of pulmonary fissures in x-ray CT images using anatomic guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ukil, Soumik; Sonka, Milan; Reinhardt, Joseph M.

    2006-03-01

    The pulmonary lobes are the five distinct anatomic divisions of the human lungs. The physical boundaries between the lobes are called the lobar fissures. Detection of lobar fissure positions in pulmonary X-ray CT images is of increasing interest for the early detection of pathologies, and also for the regional functional analysis of the lungs. We have developed a two-step automatic method for the accurate segmentation of the three pulmonary fissures. In the first step, an approximation of the actual fissure locations is made using a 3-D watershed transform on the distance map of the segmented vasculature. Information from the anatomically labeled human airway tree is used to guide the watershed segmentation. These approximate fissure boundaries are then used to define the region of interest (ROI) for a more exact 3-D graph search to locate the fissures. Within the ROI the fissures are enhanced by computing a ridgeness measure, and this is used as the cost function for the graph search. The fissures are detected as the optimal surface within the graph defined by the cost function, which is computed by transforming the problem to the problem of finding a minimum s-t cut on a derived graph. The accuracy of the lobar borders is assessed by comparing the automatic results to manually traced lobe segments. The mean distance error between manually traced and computer detected left oblique, right oblique and right horizontal fissures is 2.3 +/- 0.8 mm, 2.3 +/- 0.7 mm and 1.0 +/- 0.1 mm, respectively.

  1. The Problem of Occlusal Surface Pit and Fissure Dental Caries in Naval Recruits.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    been little attention devoted to oclusal surface pit and fissure dental caries. There is so= evidence that tooth morphology is related to susceptibility...AD-A0CM 755 NAVAL DENTAL RESEARCH INST GREAT LAKES IL F/S 6/5 THE PROBLEM OF OCCLUSAL SURFACE PIT AND FISSURE DENTAL CARIES I--ETC(U) JUN 80 M R...THE PROBLEM OF OCCLUSAL SURFACE PIT AND FISSURE DENTAL CARIES IN NAVAL RECRUITS M. R. WIRTHLIN 1. L. SHKLAIR R. G. WALTER J. C. CECIL 0 M. E. COHEN

  2. Cassini VIMS Spectra of the Thermal Emission from Hot Spots Along Enceladus South Pole Fissures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goguen, Jay D.; Buratti, Bonnie J.; Cassini VIMS Team

    2016-10-01

    Most of the south pole fissure region has not been directly illuminated by sunlight since the sub-solar point moved into the northern hemisphere in 2009, thereby eliminating the background of reflected sunlight at VIMS wavelengths and making the fissure thermal emission readily measureable. Since then, VIMS has measured spectra of at least 11 hot spots along the fissures. Most of these measurements were acquired in ride-along mode with CIRS as the prime instrument. During at least 2 encounters, VIMS and CIRS acquired simultaneous or near-simultaneous spectra of the same fissure location. VIMS spectra include multiple hot spots along Damascus, Baghdad, Cairo, and a likely hot spot on Alexandria.All of the VIMS spectra examined to date are consistent with this scenario of a self-regulating fissure maximum T~200 K with brighter VIMS emissions corresponding to fissures up to ~20 m wide. Emission from the warm fissure interior walls dominate the VIMS spectra with <15% contributed by conductive heating of the adjacent terrain at VIMS wavelengths.CIRS spectra report slightly cooler T's due to CIRS increased sensitivity to lower T emission at longer wavelengths and averaging over contributions from both the hottest and cooler areas. Combined analysis of the CIRS and VIMS spectra spanning 3 to 500 micron wavelengths promises to reveal the distribution of [T, area] near the fissures that cannot be spatially resolved. This [T, area] distribution holds the key to understanding how heat is transferred to the surface within a few 100 m of the fissures.The VIMS-detected emission is concentrated in localized hot spots along the fissures and does not seem to be distributed continuously along them. CIRS spectra suggest a more continuous distribution of the emission along the fissure length. Jets locations also are distributed along the fissure length and it appears that the VIMS-detected hot spots in general correlate with jet locations, but not all of the jet locations have been

  3. [Fissure sealants as primary preventive measures. Four-year evaluation in Stara Pazova].

    PubMed

    Andjelic, P; Pazova, S; Vojinovic, J; Tatic, E; Pintaric, J

    1991-04-01

    Worldwide studies have shown that fissure caries prophylaxis is very difficult using conventional preventive methods. The scientific council of the prophylaxis programme for the protection of mouth and teeth in Vojvodina has begun sealing fissures in Stara Pazova and Novi Sad. The molars of all 6-year-old children were sealed completely. A 77.8% reduction in fissure caries was found at the end of the four-year study. Losses of sealing material came to 16% after four years. Cost-effectiveness analysis: The sealings are three times cheaper than an amalgam filling. Application time: 8-9 minutes.

  4. Moisture and solute flux along preferred pathways characterized by fissured sediments in desert soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scanlon, Bridget R.

    1992-06-01

    Evaluation of preferred flow pathways is critical for waste disposal. These pathways reduce the effectiveness of thick desert soils in attenuating contaminants by short-circuiting flow through the unsaturated zone. Unsaturated flow in fissured sediments in the Chihuahuan Desert of Texas, U.S.A., was examined to determine if these sediments act as preferred pathways for water and solute transport. Fissures are surface features, or gulleys, that are underlain by fractures filled with loose sediment washed in from surrounding areas. Hydraulic and chemical approaches were used to investigate unsaturated flow processes beneath and adjacent to fissures, and the results were compared with data from surrounding geomorphic systems such as arroyos, ephemeral streams and interstreams. Typically, high water potentials in surficial sediments result from infiltration of recent precipitation. Below this surficial zone of high water potentials lies a zone of low water potentials that is much thinner beneath the fissure than in adjacent sediments or in sediments beneath ephemeral streams and interstreams. Maximum chloride concentrations in profiles in the fissured sediments (80-105 gm -3) were much lower than those measured in all other geomorphic systems (2000-6000 gm -3) because chloride is leached in the vicinity of the fissures. Minimum estimates of the moisture flux from chloride data ranged from 1 to 8 mm yr -1 in the fissured sediments and were up to 350 times greater than those calculated for ephemeral stream and interstream settings. The corresponding moisture velocities in the fissured sediments ranged from 10 to 70 mm yr -1. A tracer experiment demonstrated higher downward water and solute transport in the fracture fill beneath the fissure relative to adjacent sediments. Numerical simulations of the tracer experiment with the computer code TRACR3D reproduced the overall shape of the tracer plume. Sensitivity analyses demonstrated that the tracer plume is most sensitive

  5. Evaluation of the remineralization potential of amorphous calcium phosphate and fluoride containing pit and fissure sealants using scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Prashant; Tandon, Shobha; Ganesh, M; Mehra, Anshul

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the remineralization potential of Amorphous Calcium Phosphate (ACP) and Fluoride containing pit and Fissure Sealants using Scanning Electron Microscopy. Thirty maxillary first premolars were divided into three groups of ten each and were randomly selected for ACP containing (Aegis- Opaque White, Bosworth Co. Ltd.), Fluoride containing (Teethmate F1 Natural Clear, Kuraray Co. Ltd.), resin based (Concise- Opaque White, 3M ESPE Co. Ltd.) pit and fissure sealant applications. The Concise group served as a control. The teeth weresubjected to the pH-cycling regimen for a period of two weeks. After two weeks, the teeth were sectioned bucco-lingually into 4mm sections and were observed under Scanning Electron Microscope at 50X, 250X, 500X, 1000X and 1500X magnifications. The qualitative changes at the tooth surface and sealant interface were examined and presence of white zone at the interface was considered positive for remineralization. Both ACP containing (Aegis) and Fluoride containing (Teethmate F1) group showed white zone at the tooth surface-sealant interface. The resin based group (Concise) showed regular interface between the sealant and the tooth structure, but no clear cut white zone was observed. Both, Aegis and Teethmate F1 have the potential to remineralize. Release of Amorphous Calcium Phosphate molecules in Aegis group and formation of Fluoroapetite in Teethmate F1 group, were probably responsible for the remineralization.

  6. Painless Ulcers and Fissures of Toes: Hereditary Sensory Neuropathy, Not Leprosy

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Angoori Gnaneshwar

    2016-01-01

    Hereditary sensory neuropathies (HSN) are rare genetically determined neuropathies. They often manifest as painless injuries in children. We present HSN in a 5-year-old boy who presented with recurrent fissuring and ulceration involving both great toes. PMID:26955138

  7. Painless Ulcers and Fissures of Toes: Hereditary Sensory Neuropathy, Not Leprosy.

    PubMed

    Rao, Angoori Gnaneshwar

    2016-01-01

    Hereditary sensory neuropathies (HSN) are rare genetically determined neuropathies. They often manifest as painless injuries in children. We present HSN in a 5-year-old boy who presented with recurrent fissuring and ulceration involving both great toes.

  8. Putative fissure-resistance QTLs mapped to chromosomes 1 and 8 based on allelic frequency differences observed between fissure-resistant and fissure-susceptible progeny from two segregating populations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Whole rice kernels have two to three times more market value than broken, which means that any reduction in milling yield results in financial losses for both rice producers and millers. One of the primary causes of rice breakage during milling is fissuring of the rice before it even enters the mil...

  9. Fluoride: Is It Worth to be added in Pit and Fissure Sealants?

    PubMed Central

    Dahake, Prasanna T; Raju, OS; Basappa, N

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background and objectives: Fluoride is being used for the prevention of dental caries since a long time. Incorporation of fluoride in pit and fissure sealants has been found to reduce initiation and progression of pit and fissure caries. Authors conducted this study to evaluate and compare the effect of fluoride releasing pit and fissure sealants on the inhibition of demineralization of adjacent enamel and to reduce wall lesion frequency. Materials and methods: A total of 60 caries-free human third molars were randomly assigned into three groups receiving conventional resin sealant without fluoride (Group A), fluoride releasing resin sealant (Group B), glass ionomer pit and fissure sealant (Group C). Fissure cavities of 5 × 2 × 1.5 mm were prepared on buccal surfaces of teeth using fissurotomy bur and sealants were applied onto the cavities. The teeth were then thermocycled and exposed to acidified gelatin gel for 6 weeks to induce caries like lesions. A 150 μ m section was taken from each tooth and observed under polarized light microscope to measure the depth of advancing front of outer enamel lesion. The outer lesion depths of all three groups were compared. Results: Enamel demineralization was least in glass ionomer pit and fissure sealant while the demineralization exhibited by nonfluoridated resin and fluoridated resin were comparable. Wall lesion frequency was found to be 0% in all groups. Conclusion and interpretation: The glass ionomer pit and fissure sealant exhibited highest anticariogenic efficacy and hence can be advocated as a means of preventing dental caries. How to cite this article: Prabhakar AR, Dahake PT, Raju OS, Basappa N. Fluoride: Is It Worth to be added in Pit and Fissure Sealants?. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(1):1-5. PMID:25206126

  10. Orientation of the eruption fissures controlled by a shallow magma chamber in Miyakejima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geshi, Nobuo; Oikawa, Teruki

    2016-11-01

    Orientation of the eruption fissures and composition of the lavas of the Miyakejima volcano indicate tectonic influence of a shallow magma chamber on the distribution of eruption fissures. We examined the distributions and magmatic compositions of 23 fissures that formed within the last 2800 years, based on a field survey and a new dataset of 14C ages. The dominant orientation of the eruption fissures in the central portion of the volcano was found to be NE-SW, which is perpendicular to the direction of regional maximum horizontal compressive stress (σHmax). Magmas that show evidences of magma mixing between basaltic and andesitic magmas erupted mainly from the eruption fissures with a higher offset angle from the regional σHmax direction. The presence of a shallow dike-shaped magma chamber controls the distribution of the eruption fissures. The injection of basaltic magma into the shallow andesitic magma chamber caused the temporal rise of internal magmatic pressure in the shallow magma chamber. Dikes extending from the andesitic magma chamber intrude along the local compressive stress field which is generated by the internal excess pressure of the andesitic magma chamber. As the result, the eruption fissures trend parallel to the elongation direction of the shallow magma chamber. Injection of basaltic magma into the shallow andesitic magma chamber caused the magma mixing. Some basaltic dikes from the deep-seated magma chamber reach the ground surface without intersection with the andesitic magma chamber. The patterns of the eruption fissures can be modified in the future as was observed in the case of the destruction of the shallow magma chamber during the 2000 AD eruption.

  11. Fluorine mapping in sound and carious fissures of human teeth using PIGE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, H.; Nomachi, M.; Yasuda, K.; Iwami, Y.; Ebisu, S.; Sakai, T.; Fukuda, M.

    2005-04-01

    By using the PIGE technique at JAERI Takasaki, we measured fluorine (F) distribution in a micro area of occlusal fissures in the enamel of human teeth. The fissures were classified into three groups: Group I, no caries; Group II, incipient caries; Group III, advanced caries. The extracted teeth were embedded in epoxy resin and cut along the longitudinal axis through the fissures. The F concentration in the fissure at the cut surface was measured. A 1.7 MeV proton beam accelerated by the TIARA single-ended accelerator was delivered to a micro-beam apparatus. The beam spot size was about 1 μm with a beam current of about 100 pA. A nuclear reaction, 19F (p,αγ)16O, was used to measure the F concentration and gamma-rays from this reaction were detected with a 4″ NaI(Tl) detector. X-rays induced by proton were detected with a Ge detector to measure calcium concentration and the beam intensity was monitored with the X-ray yield from a copper foil for quantitative analysis. The obtained results were shown as two-dimensional mapping. In all specimens, an F concentration was observed around the fissure. The F concentration varied depending on the location of the fissure and decreased towards the inner part of the tooth. The maximum F concentration values in the measured area ranged from 3500-11700 ppm (mean = 6000 ppm) in Group I, 2400-10700 ppm (mean = 6300 ppm) in Group II, and 5200-16900 ppm (mean = 9300 ppm) in Group III. Although high F concentrations tended to be measured in the carious fissures, high values were also recognized in the sound fissures. More studies are necessary to clarify the relationship between F and carious lesions.

  12. [Sexual dysfunction is frequent in patients with anal fistulas and anal fissures].

    PubMed

    Broholm, Malene; Møller, Henrik; Gögenur, Ismail

    2015-02-23

    Anal fistulas and fissures are frequent disorders. Affected patients may have significant psychosocial and sexual dysfunction. A few studies have investigated patients with anal fissures and fistulas with regard to sexual dysfunction. These studies showed a significant degree of sexual dysfunction among the affected patients. Data are surprisingly limited in this field. More studies are needed to describe this issue and to define a successful treatment for these patients.

  13. Mechanical benefits of conservative restoration for dental fissure caries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhongpu; Zheng, Keke; Li, Eric; Li, Wei; Li, Qing; Swain, Michael V

    2016-01-01

    The principle of minimal intervention dentistry (MID) is to limit removal of carious tooth tissue while maximizing its repair and survival potential. The objective of this study is to explore the fracture resistance of a permanent molar tooth with a fissure carious lesion along with three clinical restoration procedures, namely one traditional and two conservative approaches, based upon MID. The traditional restoration employs extensive surgical removal of enamel and dentine about the cavity to eliminate potential risk of further caries development, while conservative method #1 removes significantly less enamel and infected dentine, and conservative method #2 only restores the overhanging enamel above the cavity and leaves the infected and affected dentine as it was. An extended finite element method (XFEM) is adopted here to analyze the fracture behaviors of both two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) modeling of these four different scenarios. It was found that the two conservative methods exhibited better fracture resistance than the traditional restorative method. Although conservative method #2 has less fracture resistance than method #1, it had significantly superior fracture resistance compared to other restorations. More important, after cavity sealing it may potentially enhance the opportunity for remineralization and improved loading bearing capacity and fracture resistance.

  14. Pharmacological Sphincterotomy for Chronic Anal Fissures by Botulinum Toxin A

    PubMed Central

    Wollina, Uwe

    2008-01-01

    Chronic anal fissure is a common proctologic disease. Botulinum toxin (BTX) can be used for temporary chemical denervation to treat this painful disorder. Its application is by intramuscular injections into either the external or internal anal sphincter muscle. The mode of action, application techniques, and possible complications or adverse effects of BTX therapy are discussed in this report. The healing rate is dependent on the BTX dosage. The short-term healing rate (≤ 6 months) is 60–90%, whereas about 50% of the patients show a complete response in long-term follow-up studies (> 1 year). Adverse effects are generally mild, but relapses occur more often than with surgery. Conservative therapy is currently considered as a first-line treatment. With increasing evidence for its efficacy, BTX can now be considered among the first-line nonsurgical treatements. Although, surgical management by lateral sphincterotomy is the most effective treatment, it shows a higher incidence of incontinence and greater general morbidity rate than BTX. BTX is a useful alternative to surgery and in many cases, surgery can be avoided with the use of BTX. PMID:20300345

  15. Pharmacological sphincterotomy for chronic anal fissures by botulinum toxin a.

    PubMed

    Wollina, Uwe

    2008-07-01

    Chronic anal fissure is a common proctologic disease. Botulinum toxin (BTX) can be used for temporary chemical denervation to treat this painful disorder. Its application is by intramuscular injections into either the external or internal anal sphincter muscle. The mode of action, application techniques, and possible complications or adverse effects of BTX therapy are discussed in this report. The healing rate is dependent on the BTX dosage. The short-term healing rate ( 1 year). Adverse effects are generally mild, but relapses occur more often than with surgery. Conservative therapy is currently considered as a first-line treatment. With increasing evidence for its efficacy, BTX can now be considered among the first-line nonsurgical treatements. Although, surgical management by lateral sphincterotomy is the most effective treatment, it shows a higher incidence of incontinence and greater general morbidity rate than BTX. BTX is a useful alternative to surgery and in many cases, surgery can be avoided with the use of BTX.

  16. A study on using texture analysis methods for identifying lobar fissure regions in isotropic CT images.

    PubMed

    Wei, Q; Hu, Y

    2009-01-01

    The major hurdle for segmenting lung lobes in computed tomographic (CT) images is to identify fissure regions, which encase lobar fissures. Accurate identification of these regions is difficult due to the variable shape and appearance of the fissures, along with the low contrast and high noise associated with CT images. This paper studies the effectiveness of two texture analysis methods - the gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) and the gray level run length matrix (GLRLM) - in identifying fissure regions from isotropic CT image stacks. To classify GLCM and GLRLM texture features, we applied a feed-forward back-propagation neural network and achieved the best classification accuracy utilizing 16 quantized levels for computing the GLCM and GLRLM texture features and 64 neurons in the input/hidden layers of the neural network. Tested on isotropic CT image stacks of 24 patients with the pathologic lungs, we obtained accuracies of 86% and 87% for identifying fissure regions using the GLCM and GLRLM methods, respectively. These accuracies compare favorably with surgeons/radiologists' accuracy of 80% for identifying fissure regions in clinical settings. This shows promising potential for segmenting lung lobes using the GLCM and GLRLM methods.

  17. Differential outcome of fissure-positioned tube in closed thoracostomy for primary spontaneous pneumothorax.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong Won; Byun, Chun Sung; Cha, Yong Sung; Kim, Oh Hyun; Lee, Kang Hyun; Park, Il Hwan

    2015-05-01

    Closed tube thoracostomy is often used to evacuate a primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP). Occasionally, this procedure is complicated by placement of the chest tube location in the fissural area instead of pleural space. There is a paucity of studies on outcomes according to chest tube placement. As such, we investigated outcomes of chest tube placement in fissural versus pleural area in closed thoracostomy for PSP. Patients between 14 and 65 years of age who had been treated with chest tube insertion to evacuate PSP were selected based on retrospective review of medical records. Patients selected for this study received chest tube placement at either the fissural or pleural spaces. Those with pre-existing lung disease or those transferred into our hospital after closed thoracostomy were excluded. Of the 255 patients with PSP treated with chest tube insertion, 172 patients were enrolled in this study. Twenty-nine (16.9%) had fissural tube placement and 143 (83.1%) had pleural tube placement. A higher proportion of patients in the fissural versus pleural group required additional chest tube insertion (20.7% vs 4.9%, P = 0.010, respectively). There was no significant difference in body mass index, smoker status, symptom duration, number of episodes, post-thoracostomy complications, need for subsequent management, and duration of hospitalization in either group. In closed thoracostomy for PSP, there is a higher chance of tube dysfunction when the chest tube is positioned at fissural area as compared with the pleural space.

  18. Early results of a rotation flap to treat chronic anal fissures.

    PubMed

    Singh, Meheshinder; Sharma, Abhiram; Duthie, Graeme; Balasingh, Davaraj; Kandasamy, P

    2005-07-01

    Treatment of anal fissures has changed dramatically in the past decade. This is primarily due to a better understanding of its pathophysiology and the implications of the various available options. Only a few anal fissures fail to respond to medical therapy. Sphincterotomy and anal dilatation have fallen out of favour due to the risk of incontinence. Island flaps have been proposed to address this, but 60-70% of the flap donor sites break down with complications. We propose using a rotation flap to overcome this problem. A local rotation flap from perianal skin was used to fill the fissure defect in 14 patients who were followed up for a period of 6 months to determine fissure healing and incidence of donor site breakdown. Twelve patients had complete resolution of their symptoms. Of two patients who developed fissure recurrence, one also had dehiscence of the donor site. There were no donor site complications in the remaining patients. No patient suffered continence defects as a result of the surgery. Rotation flap is a simple, safe and appropriate modality for treating chronic anal fissures. Donor site problems are avoided using this approach. It should be the treatment of choice, particularly in patients who are at risk of incontinence.

  19. Neuromyogenic properties of the internal anal sphincter: therapeutic rationale for anal fissures.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, R; Vaizey, C J; Boulos, P B; Hoyle, C H

    2000-06-01

    Lateral sphincterotomy diminishes internal anal sphincter hypertonia and thereby reduces anal canal pressure. This improves anal mucosal blood flow and promotes the healing of anal fissures. However, sphincterotomy can be associated with long term disturbances of sphincter function. The optimal treatment for an anal fissure is to induce a temporary reduction of anal canal resting pressure to allow healing of the fissure without permanently disrupting normal sphincter function. Broader understanding of the intrinsic mechanisms controlling smooth muscle contraction has allowed pharmacological manipulation of anal sphincter tone. We performed an initial Medline literature search to identify all articles concerning "internal anal sphincter" and "anal fissures". This review is based on these articles and on additional publications obtained by manual cross referencing. Internal anal smooth muscle relaxation can be inhibited by stimulation of non-adrenergic non-cholinergic enteric neurones, parasympathetic muscarinic receptors, or sympathetic beta adrenoceptors, and by inhibition of calcium entry into the cell. Sphincter contraction depends on an increase in cytoplasmic calcium and is enhanced by sympathetic adrenergic stimulation. Currently, the most commonly used pharmacological agent in the treatment of anal fissures is topical glyceryl trinitrate, a nitric oxide donor. Alternative agents that exhibit a similar effect via membrane Ca2+ channels, muscarinic receptors, and alpha or beta adrenoceptors are also likely to have a therapeutic potential in treating anal fissures.

  20. Monitoring on Xi'an ground fissures deformation with TerraSAR-X data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhao, C.; Zhang, Q.; Zhu, W.; Lu, Zhiming

    2012-01-01

    Owing to the fine resolution of TerraSAR-X data provided since 2007, this paper applied 6 TerraSAR data (strip mode) during 3rd Dec. 2009 to 23rd Mar. 2010 to detect and monitor the active fissures over Xi'an region. Three themes have been designed for high precision detection and monitoring of Xi'an-Chang'an fissures, as small baseline subsets (SBAS) to test the atmospheric effects of differential interferograms pair stepwise, 2-pass differential interferogram with very short baseline perpendicular to generate the whole deformation map with 44 days interval, and finally, corner reflector (CR) technique was used to closely monitor the relative deformation time series between two CRs settled crossing two ground fissures. Results showed that TerraSAR data are a good choice for small-scale ground fissures detection and monitoring, while special considerations should be taken for their great temporal and baseline decorrelation. Secondly, ground fissures in Xi'an were mostly detected at the joint section of stable and deformable regions. Lastly, CR-InSAR had potential ability to monitor relative deformation crossing fissures with millimeter precision.

  1. Multiscale Strain as a Predictor of Impact-Induced Fissuring in Articular Cartilage.

    PubMed

    Henak, Corinne R; Bartell, Lena R; Cohen, Itai; Bonassar, Lawrence J

    2017-03-01

    Mechanical damage is central to both initiation and progression of osteoarthritis (OA). However, specific causal links between mechanics and cartilage damage are incompletely understood, which results in an inability to predict failure. The lack of understanding is primarily due to the difficulty in simultaneously resolving the high rates and small length scales relevant to the problem and in correlating such measurements to the resulting fissures. This study leveraged microscopy and high-speed imaging to resolve mechanics on the previously unexamined time and length scales of interest in cartilage damage, and used those mechanics to develop predictive models. The specific objectives of this study were to: first, quantify bulk and local mechanics during impact-induced fissuring; second, develop predictive models of fissuring based on bulk mechanics and local strain; and third, evaluate the accuracy of these models in predicting fissures. To achieve these three objectives, bovine tibial cartilage was impacted using a custom spring-loaded device mounted on an inverted microscope. The occurrence of fissures was modulated by varying impact energy. For the first objective, during impact, deformation was captured at 10,000 frames per second and bulk and local mechanics were analyzed. For the second objective, data from samples impacted with a 1.2 mm diameter rod were fit to logistic regression functions, creating models of fissure probability based on bulk and local mechanics. Finally, for the third objective, data from samples impacted with a 0.8 mm diameter rod were used to test the accuracy of model predictions. This study provides a direct comparison between bulk and local mechanical thresholds for the prediction of fissures in cartilage samples, and demonstrates that local mechanics provide more accurate predictions of local failure than bulk mechanics provide. Bulk mechanics were accurate predictors of fissure for the entire sample cohort, but poor predictors

  2. [Clinical evaluation of fluor protector and glass-ionomer cement used as pit and fissure sealant for preventing pit and fissure caries in children].

    PubMed

    Ji, Pei-hong; Xu, Quan-lin; Ba, Yong

    2007-08-01

    To study the clinical effect of the fluor protector and glass-ionomer cement used as pit and fissure sealant for preventing pit and fissure caries in children. 622 health permanent teeth in 6-8 years old children were divided into three groups. Children in the experimental group A (n=207,335 teeth) underwent fluor protector every six months, experimental group B(n=205, 327 teeth) with glass-ionomer cement used as pit and fissure sealant and children in the control group(n=210, 354 teeth) underwent no treatment. The incidence of caries were compared among the three groups using SPSS10.0 software package after 3 years. After 3 years, the incidence of caries in A and B experimental groups were lower than in the control group, the difference was significant (P<0.01), but there were no significant difference between group A and group B (P>0.05). Fluor protector and glass-ionomer cement used as pit and fissure sealant also have good clinical effect in preventing caries.

  3. Retention and effectiveness of fissure sealants in Kuwaiti school children.

    PubMed

    Francis, R; Mascarenhas, A K; Soparkar, P; Al-Mutawaa, S

    2008-12-01

    To evaluate the retention and effectiveness of fissure sealants in permanent first molars in a public programme. Sealant retention in permanent first molars was evaluated in 452 children aged 6-8 years in 20 primary schools under the care of the School Oral Health Programme, Kuwait-Forsyth. The sealants were placed using rubber dam or cotton roll isolation, after cleaning with pumice and rubber cup, and 15 seconds etching. Sealant retention was evaluated at one and two years and scored as complete, partial or complete loss of sealant. Caries was scored when sealant was partially or completely lost. A total of 2,744 sealants were applied, with 2,324 and 2,288 sealants examined at the end of the first and second year respectively. In two years, 75% of the sealants were completely retained, 2.9% partially lost, 7.3% completely lost, and 14.8% resealed or restored. A small proportion of teeth (0.9%) were carious. Multivariate analyses showed that occlusal surfaces were 2.8 times more likely to retain a sealant than the buccal and palatal pits (95% CI 2.7-3.9, p<0.0001), and maxillary teeth were 1.3 times more likely to retain their sealant than the mandibular teeth (95% CI 1.01-1.5, p=0.04). Maxillary teeth were less likely to be carious (OR=0.6, 95% CI 0.4-0.97), p=0.03) and occlusal surfaces were 2.8 times more likely to be carious (95% CI 1.9-4.3), p<0.0001). No differences in sealant retention (p=0.24) and caries (p=0.19) were seen between teeth isolated using rubberdam or cotton roll. Sealant retention was high, and sealants were effective in preventing caries.

  4. Retention of resin-based filled and unfilled pit and fissure sealants: A comparative clinical study.

    PubMed

    Reddy, V Rajashekar; Chowdhary, Nagalakshmi; Mukunda, K S; Kiran, N K; Kavyarani, B S; Pradeep, M C

    2015-03-01

    The most caries-susceptible period of a permanent first molar tooth is the eruption phase, during which the enamel is not fully matured and it is usually difficult for the child to clean the erupting tooth surfaces. Sealing occlusal pits and fissures with resin-based pit and fissure sealants is a proven method to prevent occlusal caries. The difference in the viscosity of the sealants differs in the penetration into pit and fissures and abrasive wear resistance property due to the addition of filler particles. The present study was conducted to evaluate and compare the retention of the resin-based filled (Helioseal F, Ivoclar Vivadent) and unfilled (Clinpro, 3M ESPE) pit and fissure sealants, which is important for their effectiveness. Fifty-six children between the age group of 6 and 9 years, with all four newly erupted permanent first molars were selected. Sealants were applied randomly using split mouth design technique on permanent first molars. Evaluation of sealant retention was performed at regular intervals over 12 months, using Simonsen's criteria at 2(nd), 4(th), 6(th), 8(th), 10(th) and 12(th) month. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. At the end of our study period (12(th) month), 53.57% showed complete retention, 37.50% showed partial retention, and 8.83% showed complete missing of resin-based filled (Helioseal F) pit and fissure sealant. And, 64.29% showed complete retention, 32.14% showed partial retention, and 3.57% showed complete missing of resin-based unfilled (Clinpro) pit and fissure sealant. This difference in retention rates between filled and unfilled pit and fissure sealants was not statistically significant. The difference in retention rates between Helioseal F and Clinpro was not statistically significant, but Clinpro (unfilled) sealant showed slightly higher retention rates and clinically better performance than Helioseal F (filled).

  5. Comparison of various concentrations of tricalcium phosphate nanoparticles on mechanical properties and remineralization of fissure sealants.

    PubMed

    Tavassoli-Hojjati, Sara; Atai, Mohammad; Haghgoo, Roza; Rahimian-Imam, Sara; Kameli, Somayeh; Ahmaian-Babaki, Fatemeh; Hamzeh, Faezeh; Ahmadyar, Maryam

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanical properties (flexural strength, micro-shear bond strength) and remineralizing potential of fissure sealants by adding various concentrations of β-tricalcium phosphate nanoparticles. This in-vitro study consisted of five experimental groups containing prepared nano-fisssure sealants (1-5 wt.% β-TCP nanoparticles) and two control groups containing a prepared and a commercial fissure sealant. Flexural/micro-shear bond strength values were measured using Zwick test machine. Cavities on sixty healthy premolar teeth were filled with the fissure sealants containing 0-5 wt.% of nano β-TCP. The samples were assessed for remineralization under scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and EDAX. Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, One-way ANOVA and Tukey's Post Hoc analysis/HSD were used to analyze the data. There was no significant difference between the flexural strengths/elastic modulus of the 0-5 wt.% nano β-TCP groups (p>0.05). The average flexural strength/elastic modulus of the prepared fissure sealant group (0%) was significantly higher than the commercial fissure sealant group (Clinpro) (p<0.05). There was no significant difference between micro-shear bond strengths of the experimental groups (1-5 wt.%), and between the commercial and the prepared (0%) fissure sealant groups (p>0.05). Examining the samples under SEM showed a significant increase in thickness of the intermediate layer with increasing concentrations of β-TCP nanoparticles (p<0.05). Addition of 1-5 wt.% β-TCP nanoparticles to the fissure sealants significantly increased the remineralization potential without affecting the mechanical properties.

  6. Retention of resin-based filled and unfilled pit and fissure sealants: A comparative clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, V. Rajashekar; Chowdhary, Nagalakshmi; Mukunda, K. S.; Kiran, N. K.; Kavyarani, B. S.; Pradeep, M. C.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The most caries-susceptible period of a permanent first molar tooth is the eruption phase, during which the enamel is not fully matured and it is usually difficult for the child to clean the erupting tooth surfaces. Sealing occlusal pits and fissures with resin-based pit and fissure sealants is a proven method to prevent occlusal caries. The difference in the viscosity of the sealants differs in the penetration into pit and fissures and abrasive wear resistance property due to the addition of filler particles. The present study was conducted to evaluate and compare the retention of the resin-based filled (Helioseal F, Ivoclar Vivadent) and unfilled (Clinpro, 3M ESPE) pit and fissure sealants, which is important for their effectiveness. Materials and Methods: Fifty-six children between the age group of 6 and 9 years, with all four newly erupted permanent first molars were selected. Sealants were applied randomly using split mouth design technique on permanent first molars. Evaluation of sealant retention was performed at regular intervals over 12 months, using Simonsen's criteria at 2nd, 4th, 6th, 8th, 10th and 12th month. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: At the end of our study period (12th month), 53.57% showed complete retention, 37.50% showed partial retention, and 8.83% showed complete missing of resin-based filled (Helioseal F) pit and fissure sealant. And, 64.29% showed complete retention, 32.14% showed partial retention, and 3.57% showed complete missing of resin-based unfilled (Clinpro) pit and fissure sealant. This difference in retention rates between filled and unfilled pit and fissure sealants was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The difference in retention rates between Helioseal F and Clinpro was not statistically significant, but Clinpro (unfilled) sealant showed slightly higher retention rates and clinically better performance than Helioseal F (filled). PMID:25821368

  7. Adhesive systems under fissure sealants: yes or no?: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Bagherian, Ali; Sarraf Shirazi, Alireza; Sadeghi, Ramin

    2016-06-01

    The authors of this systematic review and meta-analysis had 2 aims: to evaluate fissure sealant retention with and without the use of an adhesive system and to compare fissure sealant retention using etch-and-rinse adhesive systems versus self-etching adhesive systems. The authors conducted a literature search (all articles published through November 1, 2015) to identify studies for inclusion in this systematic review. They assessed the quality of the evidence provided using the modified Jadad scale and performed meta-analyses using a random-effects model. The authors considered 12 studies that met the inclusion criteria for the systematic review. In addition, they used 5 of 9 studies related to the first part of the study and 3 of 4 studies related to the second part of the study that met the inclusion criteria for meta-analysis. In the analysis of the first part of the systematic review, the authors found that adhesive systems had a significant positive effect on fissure sealant (odds ratio, 3.294; 95% confidence interval, 1.292-8.401; P = .013). In the analysis of the second part of the systematic review, the authors found that etch-and-rinse adhesives were superior to self-etching adhesives in the fissure sealant procedure (odds ratio, 14.569; 95% confidence interval, 2.616-81.131; P = .002). The use of adhesive systems beneath fissure sealants can increase the retention of fissure sealants. Also, when adhesive systems are used with fissure sealants, etch-and-rinse systems are preferable. Copyright © 2016 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of Various Concentrations of Tricalcium Phosphate Nanoparticles on Mechanical Properties and Remineralization of Fissure Sealants

    PubMed Central

    Tavassoli-Hojjati, Sara; Atai, Mohammad; Haghgoo, Roza; Rahimian-Imam, Sara; Kameli, Somayeh; Ahmaian-Babaki, Fatemeh; Hamzeh, Faezeh; Ahmadyar, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanical properties (flexural strength, micro-shear bond strength) and remineralizing potential of fissure sealants by adding various concentrations of β-tricalcium phosphate nanoparticles. Materials and Methods: This in-vitro study consisted of five experimental groups containing prepared nano-fisssure sealants (1–5 wt.% β-TCP nanoparticles) and two control groups containing a prepared and a commercial fissure sealant. Flexural/micro-shear bond strength values were measured using Zwick test machine. Cavities on sixty healthy premolar teeth were filled with the fissure sealants containing 0–5 wt.% of nano β-TCP. The samples were assessed for remineralization under scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and EDAX. Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, One-way ANOVA and Tukey’s Post Hoc analysis/HSD were used to analyze the data. Results: There was no significant difference between the flexural strengths/elastic modulus of the 0–5 wt.% nano β-TCP groups (p>0.05). The average flexural strength/elastic modulus of the prepared fissure sealant group (0%) was significantly higher than the commercial fissure sealant group (Clinpro) (p<0.05). There was no significant difference between micro-shear bond strengths of the experimental groups (1–5 wt.%), and between the commercial and the prepared (0%) fissure sealant groups (p>0.05). Examining the samples under SEM showed a significant increase in thickness of the intermediate layer with increasing concentrations of β-TCP nanoparticles (p<0.05). Conclusion: Addition of 1–5 wt.% β-TCP nanoparticles to the fissure sealants significantly increased the remineralization potential without affecting the mechanical properties. PMID:25584048

  9. Health-related quality of life in patients with anal fissure: effect of type D personality

    PubMed Central

    Yilmaz, Edip Erdal; Canan, Fatih; Yildirim, Osman; Cetin, Mehmet Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Health-related quality of life (HRQL) is a significant factor in describing the burden of illness and the impact of treatment in patients with gastrointestinal disease. Type D (distressed) personality is defined as the co-occurrence of negative affect and social inhibition. Aim To assess the prevalence of type D personality in patients with anal fissure and to investigate whether the presence of a type D personality would affect HRQL in patients with anal fissure. Material and methods One hundred outpatients with anal fissure with no psychiatric comorbidity were consecutively enrolled, along with 100 healthy controls. Type D Scale (DS14) and General Health Survey Short Form-36 (SF-36) were used in the collection of data. Results Patients with anal fissure scored lower on physical roles and bodily pain dimensions of SF-36 than healthy subjects (p < 0.05). Thirty-three patients with anal fissure (33%) and 16 controls (16%) had scored above the cut-off score of the DS14 (p < 0.05). Patients with a type D personality were found to score lower on bodily pain and social roles domains of HRQL than patients without a type D personality. Conclusions Type D personality was associated with increased perceived bodily pain and social roles in patients with anal fissure. Type D personality construct may be an important consideration when assessing HRQL outcomes. A multidimensional approach may be valuable in the assessment of patients presenting with anal fissure, because a subgroup with type-D personality might benefit from psychological therapies. PMID:25061489

  10. Haemorrhoids and anal fissures during pregnancy and after childbirth: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Poskus, T; Buzinskienė, D; Drasutiene, G; Samalavicius, N E; Barkus, A; Barisauskiene, A; Tutkuviene, J; Sakalauskaite, I; Drasutis, J; Jasulaitis, A; Jakaitiene, A

    2014-12-01

    To identify the incidence and risk factors of haemorrhoids and fissures during pregnancy and after childbirth. Prospective observational cohort study. University hospital and outpatient clinics in Lithuania. A total of 280 pregnant women followed up until 1 month after delivery. Women were examined four times through pregnancy and after delivery; those that developed peri-anal diseases were compared with those that did not. Incidence, time and risk factors of haemorrhoids and fissures. In all, 123 (43.9%) women developed peri-anal disease: 1.6% in the first trimester, 61% during the third trimester, 34.1% after delivery and 3.3% 1 month after delivery; 114 (40.7%) women were diagnosed with haemorrhoids, seven (2.5%) with haemorrhoids and anal fissure and two (0.71%) with anal fissure. Ninety-nine (80.5%) women had vaginal delivery and 24 (19.5%) women had undergone caesarean section. Multivariate analysis identified personal history of peri-anal diseases (odds ratio [OR] 11.93; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 2.18-65.30), constipation (OR 18.98; 95% CI 7.13-50.54), straining during delivery for more than 20 minutes (OR 29.75; 95% CI 4.00-221.23) and birthweight of newborn>3800 g (OR 17.99; 95% CI 3.29-98.49) as significant predictors of haemorrhoids and anal fissures during pregnancy and perinatal period. Haemorrhoids and fissures are common during the last trimester of pregnancy and 1 month after delivery, with constipation, personal history of haemorrhoids or fissures, birthweight of newborn>3800 g, straining during delivery for more than 20 minutes being independently associated risk factors. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  11. Diltiazem heals glyceryl trinitrate-resistant chronic anal fissures: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Jonas, Marion; Speake, William; Scholefield, John H

    2002-08-01

    Both topical diltiazem, a calcium channel blocker, and glyceryl trinitrate, a nitric oxide donor, lower anal pressure and heal two-thirds of chronic anal fissures. This study evaluated the efficacy of diltiazem for fissures that failed to heal with glyceryl trinitrate. Consecutive patients with persistent chronic fissures despite treatment with 0.2 percent glyceryl trinitrate ointment underwent anal manometry before and for 1 hour after application of 700 mg of 2 percent diltiazem gel to the distal anal canal. Patients applied diltiazem twice daily for eight weeks or until the fissure had healed. At fortnightly review, fissure healing was assessed, and side effects were noted. Patients scored symptoms of pain, bleeding, and irritation using linear visual analog scales at the initial and follow-up visits. In 39 patients (13 males; median age, 42 (range, 20- 80) years), topical 2 percent diltiazem gel lowered anal resting pressure by 20 percent from a median of 93 to 74 cm H2O (P < 0.0001, Wilcoxon), and fissures healed in 19 (49 percent) within 8 weeks. Before diltiazem, 27 patients (69 percent) had used a complete course of glyceryl trinitrate (0.5 g twice daily for 8 weeks), and 12 (44 percent) of these healed with diltiazem. The remaining 12 patients had discontinued glyceryl trinitrate prematurely or used less because of headaches; 7 (58 percent) of these healed with diltiazem, and 5 (42 percent) did not. Side effects occurred in four patients (10 percent): three reported perianal itching but continued with treatment, and one developed headaches, drowsiness, and mood swings six weeks into treatment and stopped diltiazem at that time. Topical 2 percent diltiazem is effective treatment for glyceryl trinitrate-resistant chronic anal fissures. Side effects, mainly perianal itching, may occur in 10 percent of patients but are generally tolerated.

  12. Effectiveness of higher doses of botulinum toxin to induce healing in patients with chronic anal fissures.

    PubMed

    Brisinda, Giuseppe; Maria, Giorgio; Sganga, Gabriele; Bentivoglio, Anna Rita; Albanese, Alberto; Castagneto, Marco

    2002-02-01

    Botulinum toxin induces healing in patients with idiopathic anal fissures. One hundred-fifty patients with posterior anal fissures were treated with botulinum toxin injected in the internal anal sphincter on each side of the anterior midline. Subjects were randomized into 2 treatment groups based on the number of units of botulinum toxin injected. Patients in group I were treated with 20 units of botulinum toxin and, if the fissure persisted, were retreated with 30 units. Patients in group II were treated with 30 units and retreated with 50 units, if the fissure persisted. The 2 groups were comparable in age, gender distribution, duration of symptoms, resting pressure, and maximum voluntary pressure at anorectal manometry. One month after the injection, examinations revealed complete healing in 55 patients (73%) from group I and 65 patients (87%) from group II (P =.04). Five patients from group II reported a mild incontinence of flatus that lasted 2 weeks after the treatment and disappeared spontaneously. The values of the resting anal pressure (P=.3) and the maximum voluntary pressure (P =.2) did not differ between the 2 groups. At 2 months' evaluation, a healing scar was found in 67 patients (89%) from group I and 72 patients (96%) from group II. A relapse of the fissure was observed in 6 patients (8%) from group I who had a healing scar at 1 month, and 2 other patients never healed. A persistent fissure was present in 3 patients from group II who had no other symptoms. Botulinum toxin injected into the internal anal sphincter is effective in managing anal fissures and avoiding permanent complications. All patients were treated with the active drug and healed after 1 or 2 successive treatments. The results also confirm that higher doses account for a higher success rate, with little increase in complications or side effects, which is probably related to the diffusion of the toxin to the external sphincter.

  13. A randomized trial of oral vs. topical diltiazem for chronic anal fissures.

    PubMed

    Jonas, M; Neal, K R; Abercrombie, J F; Scholefield, J H

    2001-08-01

    Chemical sphincterotomy has proved effective in treating chronic anal fissure. Glyceryl trinitrate is the most widely used agent, and topical 0.2 percent glyceryl trinitrate ointment heals up to two thirds of chronic anal fissures. Unfortunately, however, many patients experience troublesome headaches as a side effect of this treatment. This study assessed the effectiveness of oral and topical diltiazem in healing chronic fissures. Fifty consecutive patients with chronic anal fissures were randomly assigned to receive oral (60 mg) or topical (2 percent gel) diltiazem twice daily for up to eight weeks. Anal manometry was performed before and after the first dose, and blood pressure was recorded at 15-minute intervals. Patients were reviewed fortnightly, pain was expressed with a visual linear analog scale, blood pressure was recorded, fissure healing was assessed, and side effects were noted. Twenty-four patients received oral diltiazem, and 26 received topical diltiazem. Mean (+/- standard error of the mean) maximum resting anal pressures fell by 15 and 23 percent from 95 +/- 4 to 81 +/- 4 and from 102 +/- 5 to 79 +/- 5 cm H2O in the two groups, respectively. There was no significant reduction in blood pressure during the study or at follow-up in either group. Fissure healing was complete in 9 patients (38 percent) receiving oral diltiazem and 15 (65 percent) on topical treatment by eight weeks. Oral diltiazem caused side effects in eight patients (rash, two; headaches, two; nausea or vomiting, three; reduced smell and taste, one), whereas no side effects were seen in those receiving topical therapy (P = 0.001). Oral and topical diltiazem heal chronic anal fissures. Topical diltiazem is more effective, achieving healing rates comparable to those reported with topical nitrates, with significantly fewer side effects.

  14. Remineralization Capacity of Three Fissure Sealants with and without Gaseous Ozone on Non-Cavitated Incipient Pit and Fissure Caries.

    PubMed

    Unal, M; Oztas, N

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the remineralization activation of the application of three fissure sealants (FSs), alone or with gaseous ozone (GO), on non-cavitated initial caries and evaluate the clinical success of FS. Sixty children who had DIAGNOdent scores between 10-30 on bilateral symmetric mandibular first permanent molars were included in study. In a split-mouth design, teeth were assigned to experimental (with GO) and control (without GO) groups. GO was applied to teeth on one side and then the same brand of randomly selected FSs was applied to the teeth on both sides. Children were divided into 3 groups based on type of FS (Group 1: Aegis {Bosworth Co, North Hamlin Avenue Skokie, Illinois, USA}, Group 2: Fuji Triage {GC, Tokyo, Japan}, Group 3: Helioseal {Ivoclar Vivadent, Liechtenstein, Germany}). All FSs were then examined for retention rates at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months; at the end of 12 months, all FSs were removed with an air-abrasion device and DIAGNOdent scores noted to compare with the initial values. The application of GO with either Fuji Triage or Aegis FS was effective on remineralization (p<0.05); however, the application of Helioseal FSs was not effective (p>0.05). The 1(st) and 12(th) months' full retention rates of Fuji Triage FSs was a significant difference (p<0.05) from other FSs (Aegis and Helioseal) (p>0.05). GO+Aegis FS showed the highest remineralization; and, at the end of 12 months, its clinical success was higher than other FSs.

  15. Geometry of the September 1971 eruptive fissure at Kilauea volcano, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dvorak, J.J.

    1990-01-01

    A three-dimensional model has been used to estimate the location and dimensions of the eruptive fissure for the 24-29 September 1971 eruption along the southwest rift zone of Kilauea volcano, Hawaii. The model is an inclined rectangular sheet embedded in an elastic half-space with constant displacement on the plane of the sheet. The set of "best" model parameters suggests that the sheet is vertical, extends from a depth of about 2 km to the surface, and has a length of about 14 km. Because this sheet intersects the surface where eruptive vents and extensive ground cracking formed during the eruption, this sheet probably represents the conduit for erupted lava. The amount of displacement perpendicular to the sheet is about 1.9 m, in the middle range of values measured for the amount of opening across the September 1971 eruptive fissure. The thickness of the eruptive fissure associated with the January 1983 east rift zone eruption was determined in an earlier paper to be 3.6 m, about twice the thickness determined here for the September 1971 eruption. Because the lengths (12 km for 1983 and 14 km for 1971) and heights (about 2 km) of the sheet models derived for the January 1983 and September 1971 rift zone eruptions are nearly identical, the greater thickness for the January 1983 eruptive fissure implies that the magma pressure was about a factor of two greater to form the January 1983 eruptive fissure. Because the September 1971 and January 1983 eruptive fissures extent to depths of only a few kilometers, the region of greatest compressive stress produced along the volcano's flank by either of these eruptive fissures would also be within a few kilometers of the surface. Previous work has shown that rift eruptions and intrusions contribute to the buildup of compressive stress along Kilauea's south flank and that this buildup is released by increased seismicity along the south flank. Because south flank earthquakes occur at significantly greater depths, i.e., from 5

  16. Geometry of the September 1971 eruptive fissure at Kilauea volcano, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvorak, John J.

    1990-09-01

    A three-dimensional model has been used to estimate the location and dimensions of the eruptive fissure for the 24 29 September 1971 eruption along the southwest rift zone of Kilauea volcano, Hawaii. The model is an inclined rectangular sheet embedded in an elastic half-space with constant displacement on the plane of the sheet. The set of “best” model parameters suggests that the sheet is vertical, extends from a depth of about 2 km to the surface, and has a length of about 14 km. Because this sheet intersects the surface where eruptive vents and extensive ground cracking formed during the eruption, this sheet probably represents the conduit for erupted lava. The amount of displacement perpendicular to the sheet is about 1.9 m, in the middle range of values measured for the amount of opening across the September 1971 eruptive fissure. The thickness of the eruptive fissure associated with the January 1983 east rift zone eruption was determined in an earlier paper to be 3.6 m, about twice the thickness determined here for the September 1971 eruption. Because the lengths (12 km for 1983 and 14 km for 1971) and heights (about 2 km) of the sheet models derived for the January 1983 and September 1971 rift zone eruptions are nearly identical, the greater thickness for the January 1983 eruptive fissure implies that the magma pressure was about a factor of two greater to form the January 1983 eruptive fissure. Because the September 1971 and January 1983 eruptive fissures extent to depths of only a few kilometers, the region of greatest compressive stress produced along the volcano's flank by either of these eruptive fissures would also be within a few kilometers of the surface. Previous work has shown that rift eruptions and intrusions contribute to the buildup of compressive stress along Kilauea's south flank and that this buildup is released by increased seismicity along the south flank. Because south flank earthquakes occur at significantly greater depths, i

  17. A One-Year Evaluation of a Free Fissure Sealant Program

    PubMed Central

    M, Bakhtiar; N, Azadi; A, Golkari

    2016-01-01

    Statement of Problem: Pit and fissure sealant therapy has been approved as an effective measure in the prevention of occlusal dental caries. Resin based materials are the most common materials used worldwide. A variety of resin based fissure sealants are produced and used. Most of them have been presented with ideal results in research environment. However, their effectiveness in the real life, especially in a mass application program such as Iran’s oral health reform plan is not clear. Objectives: To evaluate the longevity of different fissure sealant applied in Iran’s oral health reform plan in Fars Province (south of Iran) after one year. Materials and Methods: Seven counties were selected. One hundred 6- to 8-year-old school children who had undergone fissure sealant therapy in spring 2015 were randomly selected from each county. Their first molars were examined to evaluate the status of the fissure sealants which were applied one year ago. Data on the type/brand of fissure sealant materials, type and experience of clinicians who applied them, existence of a chair-side assistant, and whether the children were caries-free at the time of fissure sealant application were collected from the existing reports. Results: Data of 1974 teeth from 598 children were used for the final analysis. The effects of type/brand of the material was significant on the final results and remained significant (p < 0.001) after adjustments for the level of fluoride, urban/rural area, upper/lower jaw, type of clinician who applied the sealant, existence of a chair-side assistant, and child’s gender, age, and being caries-free. Conclusions: Many factors affect the success rate of a fissure sealant therapy program. The type/brand of the material remained significantly related to the success rate of the fissure sealant even after adjustments for other influencing factors. In this study, ClinproTM Sealant (3M/ESPE, USA) showed better longevity after one year of application. PMID

  18. In vitro evaluation of shear bond strength and microleakage of different pit and fissure sealants

    PubMed Central

    Babaji, Prashant; Vaid, Shivali; Deep, S.; Mishra, Samvit; Srivastava, Madhulika; Manjooran, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Aim and Objectives: Fissure caries is most common in children due to deep pit and fissures. Pit and fissure areas on the occlusal surface of the teeth make them susceptible to dental caries, which need to be prevented or restored. Fissures sealant reduces the risk of occlusal caries. The present study was done to evaluate microleakage and shear bond strength of various fissure sealants. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six extracted molars were randomly allocated equally (n = 12) into three groups with three different sealants to evaluate shear bond strength and microleakage at sealant space. The shear bond strengths was evaluated with one-way analysis of variance and microleakage by Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 18.0 (Chicago: SPSS Inc, 2009). Results: Tetric flow (16.8 MPa) recorded the highest shear bond strength and the difference was statistically significant with enamel loc (12.8 MPa). There was no statistically significant difference in relation to microleakage (P > 0.05) in the tested groups. Conclusions: Tetric flow recorded the highest shear bond strength and the difference was statistically significant with enamel loc. However, there was no statistically significant difference among the groups regarding microleakage. PMID:27652241

  19. Effect of ozone pretreatment on the microleakage of pit and fissure sealants.

    PubMed

    Cehreli, S Burcak; Yalcinkaya, Zeynep; Guven-Polat, Gunseli; Cehreli, Zafer Cavit

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of ozone pretreatment on the microleakage and marginal integrity of pit and fissure sealants placed with or without a self-etch 6th generation adhesive. Freshly-extracted, human third molars were randomly assigned into two main groups (n = 48): Group A: Fissures were pretreated with ozone; Group B: Fissures were left untreated. The teeth were further randomly divided into two subgroups (n = 24/each) so that half of teeth were sealed with a conventional fissure sealant (Fissurit F, Voco, Germany), while the remaining half received the same sealant bonded with a self-etch adhesive (Clearfil Protect Bond, Kuraray, Japan). Following thermal cycling (1000X), the specimens were subjected to dye penetration within 0.5% basic fuchsin for 24h. The extent of dye penetration was measured by image analysis. Kruskal Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests were used for statistical analysis of the data (p = 0.05). Two randomly-selected sections from each group were observed under SEM RESULTS: In all groups, ozone pretreatment significantly reduced the extent of microleakage (p < 0.001). SEM investigation demonstrated better adaptation of the sealants in ozone-pretreated groups. Clearfil Protect Bond did not improve the marginal seal of Fissurit F (p > 0.05). Ozone pretreatment favorably affected the marginal sealing ability of the tested fissure sealants.

  20. Anal fissures and anal scars in anal abuse--are they significant?

    PubMed

    Pierce, Agnes M

    2004-05-01

    The notes of 214 children who, over a period of 7 years, had been referred after an allegation or a suspicion of any form of child abuse, were examined retrospectively to establish the pattern of injury found, especially with regard to anal fissures or scars. These were all children who had had their genitalia examined at the time of their referral. In 81 children (Group A) who had no history or evidence of sexual abuse, two fissures were found, both with medical explanations for their presence. In 83 (Group B) who alleged sexual abuse but denied anal abuse, nine (11%) had fissures or scars, and in four of the nine there was a history of significant constipation at some time. In 50 children (Group C) who had a strong history of anal abuse, 41 (84%) had fissures or scars. The diagnosis in 13 of these cases was considered definite because there was a confession or guilty plea from the abuser; in the remainder, the diagnosis was "not proven" despite a strong history or gross anal signs and regardless of the verdict in court proceedings. The significance of the findings was discussed with a view to clarifying the relative importance of anal fissures in children with a strong history of anal abuse.

  1. V-Y advancement flap as first-line treatment for all chronic anal fissures.

    PubMed

    Chambers, William; Sajal, Rai; Dixon, Anthony

    2010-05-01

    It was suggested that anal advancement flap be used to treat patients with chronic anal fissures that have failed medical management and have a low-pressure sphincter complex. We wished to assess anal advancement flap as a treatment for all chronic anal fissures. All patients with chronic anal fissures regardless of their previous management underwent V-Y advancement flap. Patient demographics, symptom duration, previous treatments, short-term postoperative outcome and long-term follow-up were recorded. Fifty-four consecutive patients, median age 39 years (22-66), underwent a V-Y advancement flap over a 7-year period; 34 were men. Duration of symptoms ranged from 2 to 36 months with a median of 8 months. Forty-two patients (78%) had failed a previous therapy: glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) (25), GTN and diltiazem (16) and lateral sphincterotomy (one). Wound dehiscence occurred in three patients of which only one required a surgical intervention. On follow-up at 6 months, all but one patient had a healed wound and was asymptomatic. We have shown excellent rates of healing of chronic anal fissures treated with a V-Y advancement flap regardless of sphincter pressures, previous treatment and symptom chronicity. These results show the technique can be applied to all chronic fissures with success and used as a primary therapy.

  2. 0.4% glyceryl trinitrate ointment: new drug. Not useful for anal fissures.

    PubMed

    2008-04-01

    (1) Anal fissures are very painful but often heal spontaneously. After eliminating other diagnoses, various treatments can be tried while waiting for fissures to heal: warm seat baths, local anaesthetics, and adequate fibre and fluid intake. (2) Clinical evaluation of glyceryl trinitrate 0.4% ointment, a nitrate derivative, is mainly based on a double-blind trial versus excipient in 193 adults with "chronic" fissures. This trial failed to show a clinically relevant analgesic effect of glyceryl trinitrate 0.4%, with only a 3-mm difference versus the excipient on a 100-mm pain rating scale. In another trial including 229 patients, neither 0.2% nor 0.4% glyceryl trinitrate was more effective on pain than placebo. (3) Another placebo-controlled trial including 304 adults treated for 8 weeks showed no efficacy of various doses of glyceryl trinitrate, versus the excipient, on the healing of anal fissures. (4) The most frequent adverse effect, as expected with a nitrate derivative, is headache, which affects about two-thirds of patients and is severe in 20% of cases. Abrupt-onset hypotension is a risk during concomitant use of other vasodilatory drugs. (5) There are no data on pregnant women exposed to glyceryl trinitrate. (6) In summary, glyceryl trinitrate 0.4% ointment does not reduce the pain linked to chronic anal fissures, but it does carry a risk of sometimes severe headache. It is best to continue using simple, non-aggressive treatments.

  3. Quality of life in patients with chronic anal fissure after topical treatment with diltiazem

    PubMed Central

    Tsunoda, Akira; Kashiwagura, Yasuharu; Hirose, Ken-ichi; Sasaki, Tadanori; Kano, Nobuyasu

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To assess the physical and mental health of fissure patients before and after topical treatment with diltiazem. METHODS: Consecutive patients were enrolled prospectively into the study. Quality of life was measured with the short-forum 36 health survey (SF-36) before and after 6-wk treatment with diltiazem. Patients scored symptoms of pain, bleeding, and irritation using numeral rating scales at the initial and follow-up visits. Fissure healing was assessed and side effects were noted. RESULTS: Fissures healed in 21 of 30 (70%) patients. There were significant reductions in the scores of pain, bleeding, and irritation after 1 wk of treatment, respectively. Four patients experienced perianal itching and one patient reported headache. When measured at baseline, pain and irritation showed a negative impact on two of the eight subscales on the SF-36, respectively (bodily pain and social functioning for pain; vitality and mental health for irritation). Repeating the SF-36 showed an improvement in bodily pain (P = 0.001). Patients whose fissures healed reported an improvement in bodily pain, health-perception, vitality, and mental health (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Successful treatment of chronic anal fissure with topical diltiazem leads to improvement in health-related quality of life. PMID:23494072

  4. Comparison of Topical Nifedipine With Oral Nifedipine for Treatment of Anal Fissure: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Golfam, Farzaneh; Golfam, Parisa; Golfam, Babak; Pahlevani, Puyan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Medical sphincterotomy has gained popularity as a treatment for anal fissure. Calcium channel blockers in topical forms could also be appropriate with low adverse effects. Objectives: This was a prospective randomized controlled trial to compare topical and oral nifedipine in the treatment of chronic anal fissure. Patients and Methods: A prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted at two centers of Shahed University. One hundred and thirty patients with chronic anal fissure aged 18 to 60 years managed in our clinics were included in this study. The patients were randomly divided into two groups. Sixty-five patients received topical nifedipine (TN) and the same number received oral nifedipine (ON). Results: Ulcer healing occurred in 43 (73.33%) of topical nifedipine group compared to 29 (49.5%) patients in oral nifedipine, which was significantly different (P < 0.05). Side effects such as headache and flushing in oral nifedipine group were more prevalent than topical nifedipine, which was statistically different. Recurrence rates were the same after six months of follow-up. Conclusions: Although oral nifedipine can reduce symptom and signs of anal fissure, topical nifedipine has a superior role for anal fissure treatment with higher healing rate and lower side effects. PMID:25389477

  5. Maps showing water-level declines, land subsidence, and earth fissures in south-central Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laney, R.L.; Raymond, R.H.; Winikka, C.C.

    1978-01-01

    From 1915 to 1975, more than 109 million acre-feet of ground water was withdrawn from about 4,500 square miles in Pinal and Maricopa Counties in south-central Arizona. The volume of water withdrawn greatly exceeds the volume of natural recharge, and water levels have been declining since 1923. As a result of the water-level declines, the land surface has subsided, the alluvial deposits have been subjected to stress, and earth fissures have developed. Land subsidence and earth fissures have damaged public and private properties. Subsidence and fissures will continue to occur as long as ground water is being mined and water levels continue to decline. As urban development expands, land subsidence and earth fissures will have an increasing socioeconomic impact. Information on maps includes change in water levels, measurements of land subsidence, and location of earth fissures. A section showing land subsidence between Casa Grande and the Picacho Peak Interchange also is included. Scale 1:250,000. (Woodard-USGS)

  6. Low energy manual anal stretch: an approach in the treatment of chronic anal fissure.

    PubMed

    Gaj, Fabio; Biviano, Ivano; Candeloro, Laura

    2017-04-01

    Anal fissure is a tear in the epitelial lining of the anal canal. This is a very common anorectal disorder, but the choice of treatment is unclear. Sphincterotomy is effective but it is affected by a high risk of fecal incontinence. Manual anal stretch is aN efficacious, economic and safe maneuver. The aim of this prospective study was to assess the safety and effectiveness of anal stretch in resolving chronic anal fissures. Twenty-five patients with a clinical diagnosis of chronic anal fissure were submitted to anal stretch. All patients were submitted to anal stretch, after clinical evaluation. All patients were studied at basal time, and at 7 days, 3, 6 and 12 months after the treatment. At 3 months and 6 months after the anal stretch, 88% and 94% of patients showed a resolution of anal fissures and only 12% have relapsed at 12 months, without complications, such as faecal incontinence. The anal stretch appears to induce better resolution of chronic anal fissure with a very low risk of fecal incontinence.

  7. An experimental study on fracture mechanical behavior of rock-like materials containing two unparallel fissures under uniaxial compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yan-Hua; Yang, Sheng-Qi; Tian, Wen-Ling; Zeng, Wei; Yu, Li-Yuan

    2016-06-01

    Strength and deformability characteristics of rock with pre-existing fissures are governed by cracking behavior. To further research the effects of pre-existing fissures on the mechanical properties and crack coalescence process, a series of uniaxial compression tests were carried out for rock-like material with two unparallel fissures. In the present study, cement, quartz sand, and water were used to fabricate a kind of brittle rock-like material cylindrical model specimen. The mechanical properties of rock-like material specimen used in this research were all in good agreement with the brittle rock materials. Two unparallel fissures (a horizontal fissure and an inclined fissure) were created by inserting steel during molding the model specimen. Then all the pre-fissured rock-like specimens were tested under uniaxial compression by a rock mechanics servo-controlled testing system. The peak strength and Young's modulus of pre-fissured specimen all first decreased and then increased when the fissure angle increased from 0° to 75°. In order to investigate the crack initiation, propagation and coalescence process, photographic monitoring was adopted to capture images during the entire deformation process. Moreover, acoustic emission (AE) monitoring technique was also used to obtain the AE evolution characteristic of pre-fissured specimen. The relationship between axial stress, AE events, and the crack coalescence process was set up: when a new crack was initiated or a crack coalescence occurred, the corresponding axial stress dropped in the axial stress-time curve and a big AE event could be observed simultaneously. Finally, the mechanism of crack propagation under microscopic observation was discussed. These experimental results are expected to increase the understanding of the strength failure behavior and the cracking mechanism of rock containing unparallel fissures.

  8. Clinical Evaluation of the Retention of Different Pit and Fissure Sealants: A 1-Year Study

    PubMed Central

    Kumaran, Parvathy

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the retention of different pit and fissure sealants on the first permanent molars over a period of one year. Materials and methods: In this study, a total of 40 children with all first permanent molars erupted received four different pit and fissure sealants. The children were evaluated at 6 and 12 months. Results: The data was subjected to Chi-square test and Kaplan Meier survival analysis. The p-value was calculated using Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test. Conclusion: The retention rates of resin-based sealants were superior to that of glass ionomer sealant. How to cite this article: Kumaran P. Clinical Evaluation of the Retention of Different Pit and Fissure Sealants: A 1-Year Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2013;6(3):183-187. PMID:25206219

  9. The economics of pit and fissure sealants in preventive dentistry: a review.

    PubMed

    Kitchens, Dinah H

    2005-08-15

    Oral diseases are progressive, cumulative, and become more intricate to treat with advancement. While dental caries is an infectious transmissible disease with children being at the highest risk, primary prevention can reduce this risk. Primary prevention in dentistry is usually considered to be community fluoridated water supplies, professional fluoride treatments, and pit and fissure sealants. While community fluoridated water supplies have been proven to be cost-effective, the cost-effectiveness of pit and fissure sealants has primarily been studied in school-based programs of children from low socio-economic backgrounds. Dental sealant programs are just one way to help increase primary prevention in the oral health disparities of children. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature regarding the cost-effectiveness of pit and fissure sealants as a preventive strategy in preventive dentistry.

  10. Bond strength and microleakage of self-adhesive and conventional fissure sealants.

    PubMed

    Simsek Derelioglu, Sera; Yilmaz, Yucel; Celik, Pelin; Carikcioglu, Burak; Keles, Sultan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the shear bond strengths (SBS), failure modes (adhesive, cohesive, or mixed), and marginal microleakage occurrence of conventional resin (CR)-based, glass ionomer (GI)-based, and self-adhesive resin (SAR)-based fissure sealants with or without prior phosphoric acid (PA) etching. Fifty extracted premolars were randomly and equally assigned into five groups -G1:PA+CR, G2:PA+GI, G3:GI, G4:PA+SAR, and G5:SAR. Prior PA etching significantly (p<0.05) increased the SBSs of sealants. Adhesive failure mainly occurred in teeth treated with SAR- or GI-based fissure sealants, and cohesive failure mainly occurred in PA-etched teeth. Microleakage occurrence differed significantly (p<0.05) among the five groups of treated teeth. We concluded that conditioning of a tooth's enamel surface is crucial to creating strong bonds and leak-free sealing between tooth and fissure sealant.

  11. [Treatment of chronic anal fissures: diltiazem or isosorbide dinitrate as first choice?].

    PubMed

    Boeker, Eveline B; Kruijer, M J P Marjan; Verbeek, Paul C M

    2011-01-01

    Chronic anal fissures are a painful condition frequently seen in general practice, with an incidence of 2,5/1000 per year. According to the practice guidelines of the Dutch College of General Practitioners, isosorbide dinitrate 1% ointment (ISDN) is the treatment of first choice for chronic anal fissures. Systemic side-effects such as headache are reported in 27% of all cases. This side effect in combination with the frequent application of ISDN (4-6 times daily) leads to a low compliance for this therapy. A meta-analysis of the Cochrane Collaboration showed similar efficacy of diltiazem compared to ISDN. Diltiazem has several advantages: the application frequency is only twice daily, no systemic side-effects have been reported, the total costs of treatment are lower than the costs of ISDN and a standard preparation of diltiazem ointment is available. Therefore, diltiazem 2% ointment should be the first line treatment for chronic anal fissures.

  12. Femtosecond Laser in situ Keratomileusis Flap Creation in Narrow Palpebral Fissure Eyes without Suction.

    PubMed

    Chang, John S M; Law, Antony K P; Ng, Jack C M; Cheng, May S Y

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate a surgical technique used in eyes with narrow palpebral fissure undergoing femtosecond laser flap creation without suction during laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). All data of 2 patient groups were collected through chart review. Group 1 consisted of 6 eyes with narrow palpebral fissure in which the suction ring was manually fixated and femtosecond laser was applied accordingly. Thirty comparison cases were randomly drawn from among eyes that underwent a standard LASIK procedure matched for age and preoperative refraction (group 2). Only 1 eye of each patient was selected to compare the refractive and visual outcomes between groups. In all group 1 eyes, the flaps were created successfully with manual fixation of the suction ring without suction. No eyes lost 2 or more lines of vision. No significant difference was found in the safety and refractive outcomes between groups. Manual fixation of the suction ring in eyes with narrow palpebral fissure without suction was feasible for flap creation during LASIK.

  13. Sox4 regulates choroid fissure closure by limiting Hedgehog signaling during ocular morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Wen; Pillai-Kastoori, Lakshmi; Wilson, Stephen G.; Morris, Ann C.

    2015-01-01

    SoxC transcription factors play critical roles in many developmental processes, including neurogenesis, cardiac formation, and skeletal differentiation. In vitro and in vivo loss-of-function studies have suggested that SoxC genes are required for oculogenesis, however the mechanism was poorly understood. Here, we have explored the function of the SoxC factor Sox4 during zebrafish eye development. We show that sox4a and sox4b are expressed in the forebrain and periocular mesenchyme adjacent to the optic stalk during early eye development. Knockdown of sox4 in zebrafish resulted in coloboma, a structural malformation of the eye that is a significant cause of pediatric visual impairment in humans, in which the choroid fissure fails to close. Sox4 morphants displayed altered proximo-distal patterning of the optic vesicle, including expanded pax2 expression in the optic stalk, as well as ectopic cell proliferation in the retina. We show that the abnormal ocular morphogenesis observed in Sox4-deficient zebrafish is caused by elevated Hedgehog (Hh) signaling, and this is due to increased expression of the Hh pathway ligand Indian hedgehog b (ihhb). Consistent with these results, coloboma in sox4 morphants could be rescued by pharmacological treatment with the Hh inhibitor cyclopamine, or by co-knockdown of ihhb. Conversely, overexpression of sox4 reduced Hh signaling and ihhb expression, resulting in cyclopia. Finally, we demonstrate that sox4 and sox11 have overlapping, but not completely redundant, functions in regulating ocular morphogenesis. Taken together, our data demonstrate that Sox4 is required to limit the extent of Hh signaling during eye development, and suggest that mutations in SoxC factors could contribute to the development of coloboma. PMID:25557621

  14. Efficacy of nitroglycerine ointment in the treatment of pediatric anal fissure.

    PubMed

    Joda, Ali E; Al-Mayoof, Ali F

    2017-04-08

    Anal fissure is the most common anal disease in children. In the past few decades, the understanding of its pathophysiology has led to a progressive reduction in invasive procedures in favor of conservative treatment based on stool softeners and the relaxation of the anal sphincter. This randomized controlled study assessed the safety and efficacy of nitroglycerine (NTG) ointment in the treatment of pediatric anal fissure, which had not yet been proved. An unequal randomized controlled study included 105 pediatric patients with anal fissure who had presented to the private and outpatient clinics of the Central Teaching Hospital of Pediatrics during the period from February 2015 to May 2016. The control group consisted of 70 patients. Both groups were treated with classical conservative therapy of sitz bath, stool softener, and local anesthetic. In the second group, chemical sphincterotomy with 0.2% NTG ointment was used in 35 patients, and was applied at the anal canal twice daily for 8weeks. The primary outcomes of symptomatic improvement and healed fissure, as well as side effects, were analyzed. The average age of patients was 2years (range, 4months to 5years). Patients in the NTG group had 77% symptomatic relief and 60% healed fissure compared to the control group, which had 54% and 32.8% respectively. All were statistically significant. No serious adverse effects were noticed during the treatment period. The use of 0.2% NTG ointment is an effective therapy for anal fissure in children in terms of good healing rate and rapid symptom relief, but it has the drawback of a long treatment period, making patient compliance more difficult, in addition to the problems of tolerance and recurrence. Prospective randomized controlled study (treatment study). Type 2. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A robotic approach to mapping post-eruptive volcanic fissure conduits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parcheta, Carolyn E.; Pavlov, Catherine A.; Wiltsie, Nicholas; Carpenter, Kalind C.; Nash, Jeremy; Parness, Aaron; Mitchell, Karl L.

    2016-06-01

    VolcanoBot was developed to map volcanic vents and their underlying conduit systems, which are rarely preserved and generally inaccessible to human exploration. It uses a PrimeSense Carmine 1.09 sensor for mapping and carries an IR temperature sensor, analog distance sensor, and an inertial measurement unit (IMU) inside a protective shell. The first field test succeeded in collecting valuable scientific data but revealed several needed improvements, including more rugged cable connections and mechanical couplers, increased ground clearance, and higher-torque motors for uphill mobility. The second field test significantly improved on all of these aspects but it traded electrical ruggedness for reduced data collection speed. Data collected by the VolcanoBots, while intermittent, yield the first insights into the cm-scale geometry of volcanic fissures at depths of up to 25 m. VolcanoBot was deployed at the 1969 Mauna Ulu fissure system on Kīlauea volcano in Hawai'i. It collected first-of-its-kind data from inside the fissure system. We hypothesized that 1) fissure sinuosity should decrease with depth, 2) irregularity should be persistent with depth, 3) any blockages in the conduit should occur at the narrowest points, and 4) the fissure should narrow with depth until it is too narrow for VolcanoBot to pass or is plugged with solidified lava. Our field campaigns did not span enough lateral or vertical area to test sinuosity. The preliminary data indicate that 1) there were many irregularities along fissures at depth, 2) blockages occurred, but not at obviously narrow locations, and 3) the conduit width remained a consistent 0.4-0.5 m for most of the upper 10 m that we analyzed.

  16. The effect of CT technical factors on quantification of lung fissure integrity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, D.; Brown, M. S.; Ochs, R.; Abtin, F.; Brown, M.; Ordookhani, A.; Shaw, G.; Kim, H. J.; Gjertson, D.; Goldin, J. G.

    2009-02-01

    A new emphysema treatment uses endobronchial valves to perform lobar volume reduction. The degree of fissure completeness may predict treatment efficacy. This study investigated the behavior of a semiautomated algorithm for quantifying lung fissure integrity in CT with respect to reconstruction kernel and dose. Raw CT data was obtained for six asymptomatic patients from a high-risk population for lung cancer. The patients were scanned on either a Siemens Sensation 16 or 64, using a low-dose protocol of 120 kVp, 25 mAs. Images were reconstructed using kernels ranging from smooth to sharp (B10f, B30f, B50f, B70f). Research software was used to simulate an even lower-dose acquisition of 15 mAs, and images were generated at the same kernels resulting in 8 series per patient. The left major fissure was manually contoured axially at regular intervals, yielding 37 contours across all patients. These contours were read into an image analysis and pattern classification system which computed a Fissure Integrity Score (FIS) for each kernel and dose. FIS values were analyzed using a mixed-effects model with kernel and dose as fixed effects and patient as random effect to test for difference due to kernel and dose. Analysis revealed no difference in FIS between the smooth kernels (B10f, B30f) nor between sharp kernels (B50f, B70f), but there was a significant difference between the sharp and smooth groups (p = 0.020). There was no significant difference in FIS between the two low-dose reconstructions (p = 0.882). Using a cutoff of 90%, the number of incomplete fissures increased from 5 to 10 when the imaging protocol changed from B50f to B30f. Reconstruction kernel has a significant effect on quantification of fissure integrity in CT. This has potential implications when selecting patients for endobronchial valve therapy.

  17. Groundwater circulation between volcanic fissure systems evidenced by water stable isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sveinbjornsdottir, Arny

    2016-04-01

    The divergent boundary between the European and American plates in Iceland, generally called the Neovolcanic zone, is characterized by well defined volcanic systems, each consisting of a central volcano, fissure swarm and a high temperature hydrothermal activity. Isotopic studies within the Northern part of the Neovolcanic zone, where five NNE striking left-stepping en echelon volcanic systems have been identified indicate both a very complex groundwater inflow and geological structure of the thermal areas. The isotopic values of the thermal waters vary considerably both within and between systems. The fluids are a mixture of precipitation, either local or from far away, and older groundwater with a pre-Holocene component. Observed oxygen shift is highly variable from less than 1‰ to about 7‰. On surface the volcanic systems and fissure swarms are very distinct and well separated. Groundwater flow is mainly fissure/fracture controlled and thus assumed to be only along the fissure swarms with little or no flow connection between the volcanic systems. However recent isotopic studies have shown some evidence that at depth the thermal water can flow from one volcanic fissure system to the next. This is in accordance with recent observations of a segmented dyke intrusion in one of the volcanic system (Bárdarbunga) that grew laterally for more than 45 km at a relatively shallow depth (5-8 km) and ended in an effusive fissure eruption within the nearby Askja volcanic system (Sigmundsson et al., 2015). Isotopic data on the thermal waters within the Northern part of the Neovolcanic zone will be presented and fluid circulation within the volcanic systems constructed.

  18. Conversion degree, microhardness, microleakage and fluoride release of different fissure sealants.

    PubMed

    Kuşgöz, Adem; Tüzüner, Tamer; Ulker, Mustafa; Kemer, Bariş; Saray, Onur

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of conversion (DC), microhardness, microleakage and fluoride release of a nano-filled resin based fissure sealant (Grandio Seal, GS) and compare it with an un-filled resin based fissure sealant (Clinpro, CL) and a glass-ionomer based fissure sealant (Fuji Triage, FT). Disk shaped specimens were prepared from tested fissure sealants to determine the DC, Vicker hardness (VHN) and fluoride release (FR). The DC and VHN of each material was evaluated after 24 h. The cumulative fluoride concentrations were evaluated at 1 h, 6 h, 12 h, 1, 7, 15 and 30 days. For microleakage evaluation, fissure sealants were applied to the etched and dried enamel surfaces of sound third molar teeth according to the manufacturer's instructions (n=10). After the thermocycling and mechanical loading procedures, microleakage assessments were carried out. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by a post hoc Tukey test, the Kruskal Wallis and Mann-Whitney U test (p<0.05). Results revealed differences regarding DC between all groups: FT (89%) > GS (55.02%) > CL (%51.10) (p<0.05). The VHN values were significantly different among all groups in the following order: GS > FT > CL (p<0.05). FT exhibited significantly higher microleakage scores compared to the CL and GS sealants (p<0.05). The FR of FT was significantly greater than CL and GS (p<0.05). Nano-filled resin based sealant can be used as an alternative to other fissure sealant materials because of its superior hardness results and feasible sealing ability.

  19. Clinical and gross pathologic findings of complicated vertical fissures with digital dermatitis in a dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Nouri, Mohsen; Ashrafi Helan, Javad

    2012-01-01

    Careful antemortem examination and interpretation of findings, assisted by good clinical records, do much to throw light on the nature of vertical fissure in cattle. During an eight month period of investigation, 13 (3.2%) lame cows with vertical fissure out of 52 Holstein cows with different claw fissures were selected for clinical and gross pathological purposes in a commercial dairy farm with 400 milking cows in Nazarabad, Iran. The cows were 2.5 to10.5 years old. The prevalence rate of vertical fissure was 3.2 per cent. The prevalence rate of claw lesion in the hind limb (69.2%) was higher than that of fore limb (30.7%). The type of vertical fissures were 4 (38.4%), 5 (23.0%), 2 (23.0%) and 3 (15.3%), respectively. Locomotion scoring assessment of 13 culled lame cows showed score ranged from grade 3 (30.7%) to 4 (61.5%). The herd had endemic digital dermatitis infection with prevalence in the adult herd of over 34.2%. The affected claws were more boxy than normal and the abaxial wall was convex in all directions. The lame cows had typical stance such as hobbyhorse or cross legged stance. This study shows that more research is needed both on the economic impact of vertical fissures in dairy cows and on the microbiological study of spirochaetes of the genus Treponema. This study recommends that owners of dairy farm should try to control digital dermatitis with preventative herd strategies.

  20. Medical and surgical treatment of haemorrhoids and anal fissure in Crohn's disease: a critical appraisal.

    PubMed

    D'Ugo, Stefano; Franceschilli, Luana; Cadeddu, Federica; Leccesi, Laura; Blanco, Giovanna Del Vecchio; Calabrese, Emma; Milito, Giovanni; Di Lorenzo, Nicola; Gaspari, Achille L; Sileri, Pierpaolo

    2013-03-11

    The principle to avoid surgery for haemorrhoids and/or anal fissure in Crohn's disease (CD) patients is still currently valid despite advances in medical and surgical treatments. In this study we report our prospectively recorded data on medical and surgical treatment of haemorrhoids and anal fissures in CD patients over a period of 8 years. Clinical data of patients affected by perianal disease were routinely and prospectively inserted in a database between October 2003 and October 2011 at the Department of Surgery, Tor Vergata University Hospital, Rome. We reviewed and divided in two groups records on CD patients treated either medically or surgically according to the diagnosis of haemorrhoids or anal fissures. Moreover, we compared in each group the outcome in patients with prior diagnosis of CD and in patients diagnosed with CD only after perianal main treatment. Eighty-six CD patients were included in the study; 45 were treated for haemorrhoids and 41 presented with anal fissure. Conservative approach was initially adopted for all patients; in case of medical treatment failure, the presence of stable intestinal disease made them eligible for surgery. Fifteen patients underwent haemorrhoidectomy (open 11; closed 3; stapled 1), and two rubber band ligation. Fourteen patients required surgery for anal fissure (Botox ± fissurectomy 8; LIS 6). In both groups we observed high complication rate, 41.2% for haemorrhoids and 57.1% for anal fissure. Patients who underwent haemorrhoidectomy without certain diagnosis of CD had significantly higher risk of complications. Conservative treatment of proctologic diseases in CD patients has been advocated given the high risk of complications and the evidence that spontaneous healing may also occur. From these preliminary results a role of surgery is conceivable in high selected patients, but definitve conclusions can't be made. Further randomized trials are needed to establish the efficacy of the surgical approach, giving

  1. Early results of a rotational flap to treat chronic anal fissures.

    PubMed

    Singh, Meheshinder; Sharma, Abhiram; Gardiner, Angela; Duthie, Graeme S

    2005-07-01

    Treatment of anal fissures has changed dramatically in the past decade. Only a few fail to respond to medical therapy. Sphincterotomy and anal dilatation have fallen out of favour due to the risk of incontinence. Island flaps have been proposed to address this, but 60--70% of flap donor sites break down with complications. We proposed that using a rotational flap would overcome this problem. Twenty-one patients (14 women,7 men) with chronic anal fissures were treated with rotation flap from perianal skin. The median age was 43 (range 21--76) years. All patients had failed chemical sphincterotomy and showed no signs of improvement following at least a 3-month course of topical GTN 0.2% ointment. The median hospital stay was 2 days. Seventeen patients had complete resolution of symptoms. Only one patient continued to have severe pain. Two developed a recurrent fissure. One patient had a combined fistula-fissure complex at diagnosis and suffered from a breakdown of the flap and donor site. Another patient had had haemorrhoidectomy and an advancement flap in the past. He developed problems with the donor site, which was successfully managed conservatively. One patient had persistent mild pain after surgery, but the cause could not be found. None of the patients suffered continence defects after surgery. Use of a rotational flap is a simple, safe and successful treatment for anal fissures. Donor site problems are minimised using this approach. It should be a treatment of choice when surgery is required for chronic anal fissures, particularly in patients in whom there is a risk of incontinence.

  2. The use of 0.2% glyceryl trinirate oinment for anal fissures.

    PubMed

    El Tinay, Omer El Farouq; Guraya, Salman Yousuf

    2005-01-01

    To assess the clinical efficacy of 0.2% glyceryl trinitrate ointment in the management of acute and chronic anal fissures. A prospective clinical study conducted on consecutive patients presented to the surgical clinic of King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh with acute and chronic anal fissures, from January to December 2003. These patients were treated with topical 0.2% glyceryl trinitrate paste in soft white paraffin three times a day. Patients were examined at regular intervals to evaluate the fissure status, adverse reactions, symptomatic control and recurrence. This study comprised 121 patients, six of them were lost to follow-up and 109 (94.7%) of the remaining 115 patients were cured. Of those cured, 13 patients (11.3%) presented with acute and 102 (88.7%) with chronic fissures. There were 98 male and 17 female patients with median age of 41 years (range, 14-70 years). Complete symptomatic relief was achieved in all patients within one month of therapy. Two patients, with chronic anal fissures presented with recurrent symptoms within one month of the completion of therapy both of them were successfully treated with repeat glyceryl trinitrate course. Treatment had to be terminated in six (5.2%) patients: five (4.3%) experienced intolerable adverse effects and one (0.8%) patient failed to respond. All these patients were successfully treated with lateral internal sphincterotomy. No patient complained of change in continence. Glyceryl trinitrate ointment produces adequate symptomatic control and healing of the anal fissures and can be considered as one of the recommended treatment options.

  3. Cyp1b1 Regulates Ocular Fissure Closure Through a Retinoic Acid–Independent Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Antionette L.; Eason, Jessica; Chawla, Bahaar; Bohnsack, Brenda L.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Mutations in the CYP1B1 gene are the most commonly identified genetic causes of primary infantile-onset glaucoma. Despite this disease association, the role of CYP1B1 in eye development and its in vivo substrate remain unknown. In the present study, we used zebrafish to elucidate the mechanism by which cyp1b1 regulates eye development. Methods Zebrafish eye and neural crest development were analyzed using live imaging of transgenic zebrafish embryos, in situ hybridization, immunostaining, TUNEL assay, and methylacrylate sections. Cyp1b1 and retinoic acid (RA) levels were genetically (morpholino oligonucleotide antisense and mRNA) and pharmacologically manipulated to examine gene function. Results Using zebrafish, we observed that cyp1b1 was expressed in a specific spatiotemporal pattern in the ocular fissures of the developing zebrafish retina and regulated fissure patency. Decreased Cyp1b1 resulted in the premature breakdown of laminin in the ventral fissure and altered subsequent neural crest migration into the anterior segment. In contrast, cyp1b1 overexpression inhibited cell survival in the ventral ocular fissure and prevented fissure closure via an RA-independent pathway. Cyp1b1 overexpression also inhibited the ocular expression of vsx2, pax6a, and pax6b and increased the extraocular expression of shha. Importantly, embryos injected with human wild-type but not mutant CYP1B1 mRNA also showed colobomas, demonstrating the evolutionary and functional conservation of gene function between species. Conclusions Cyp1b1 regulation of ocular fissure closure indirectly affects neural crest migration and development through an RA-independent pathway. These studies provide insight into the role of Cyp1b1 in eye development and further elucidate the pathogenesis of primary infantile-onset glaucoma. PMID:28192799

  4. Three-armed rifts or masked radial pattern of eruptive fissures? The intriguing case of El Hierro volcano (Canary Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerril, L.; Galindo, I.; Martí, J.; Gudmundsson, A.

    2015-04-01

    Using new surface structural data as well as subsurface structural data obtained from seventeen water galleries, we provide a comprehensive model of the volcano-tectonic evolution of El Hierro (Canary Islands). We have identified, measured and analysed more than 1700 volcano-structural elements including vents, eruptive fissures, dykes and faults. The new data provide important information on the main structural patterns of the island and on its stress and strain fields, all of which are crucial for reliable hazard assessments. We conducted temporal and spatial analyses of the main structural elements, focusing on their relative age and association with the three main cycles in the construction of the island: the Tiñor Edifice, the El Golfo-Las Playas Edifice, and the Rift Volcanism. A radial strike distribution, which can be related to constructive episodes, is observed in the on-land structures. A similar strike distribution is seen in the submarine eruptive fissures, which are radial with respect to the centre of the island. However, the volcano-structural elements identified onshore and reflecting the entire volcano-tectonic evolution of the island also show a predominant NE-SW strike, which coincides with the main regional trend of the Canary archipelago as a whole. Two other dominant directions of structural elements, N-S and WNW-ESE, are evident from the establishment of the El Golfo-Las Playas edifice, during the second constructive cycle. We suggest that the radial-striking structures reflect comparatively uniform stress fields during the constructive episodes, mainly conditioned by the combination of overburden pressure, gravitational spreading, and magma-induced stresses in each of the volcanic edifices. By contrast, in the shallower parts of the edifice the NE-SW, N-S and WNW-ESE-striking structures reflect local stress fields related to the formation of mega-landslides and masking the general and regional radial patterns.

  5. Caries detection and diagnosis, sealants and management of the possibly carious fissure.

    PubMed

    Deery, C

    2013-06-01

    The diagnosis and management of 'stained' or possibly carious pits and fissures is a difficult clinical problem. Historically, clinicians have restoratively intervened at an early stage because of concern that caries will progress unless completely removed and a restoration placed. However, this approach is destructive of tooth tissue and in the longer term may compromise the tooth as it enters the restoration re-restoration cycle. This paper aims to update the reader on developments in sealant technology and the use of sealants in caries prevention and management with an emphasis on the options available to manage the questionable fissure.

  6. Marked congenital fissure masquerading as splenic laceration: report of a case

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, R.M.; Spiegelhoff, D.R.

    1981-02-01

    A 26-year-old white woman fell from a ladder striking her back. Clinical evaluation indicated a left renal contusion with microscopic hematuria, and a liver-spleen scan suggested a splenic laceration. The patient was initially stable but evidence of ongoing blood loss forced exploratory laparotomy on the third hospital day. A large, retroperitoneal perirenal hematoma was found but the spleen was intact, with multiple marked congenital fissures. The problem of congenital fissures as a cause of abnormal spleen scan is discussed.

  7. Breeding for rice fissure resistance made possible through development of a new selection technique and identification of molecular gene tags

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Value: One of the primary causes of rice grain breakage during milling is fissuring, or cracking, of the rice before it enters the mill. Any reduction in kernel fissuring can result in direct increases in profit for both producers and millers. For a producer yielding 7,000 lb/A paddy, even a small (...

  8. Management of complicated chronic anal fissures with high-dose circumferential chemodenervation (HDCC) of the internal anal sphincter.

    PubMed

    Whatley, James Z; Tang, Shou-Jiang; Glover, Porter H; Davis, Eric D; Jex, Kellen T; Wu, Ruonan; Lahr, Christopher J

    2015-12-01

    Botulinum toxin injection into the internal anal sphincter (IAS) is gaining popularity as a second line therapy for chronic anal fissures after patients fail medical therapy. The dosage of Botulinum toxin reported in the literature ranged from 20 to 50 IU. Complicated chronic anal fissure is defined as persistent fissure concurrent with other perianal pathology. We report a new approach involving high-dose circumferential chemodenervation (HDCC) of 100 IU in treating these complicated chronic anal fissures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fissure healing, complication, and recurrence rates with HDCC. Complicated anal fissure was defined as fissure with other perianal pathologies including skin tag, hypertrophied papilla, fistula, symptomatic hemorrhoids, anal condylomata, and abscess. Between 2008 and 2012, 62 consecutive patients (28 Blacks, 33 Whites, 1 Hispanic) with complete follow-up data were included in this single arm study. These patients underwent HDCC-IAS with addition interventions by a single colorectal surgeon. Follow up data were obtained by chart review and office follow up. Of the 62 patients, the overall success rate was greater than 70% at 3 months follow-up. A few patients developed transient flatus or fecal incontinence, but shortly resolved. There was no major complication following HDCC-IAS. Combination therapy involving HDCC-IAS and local anorectal surgery for associated condition is both safe and effective for fissure healing. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Giant desiccation fissures on the Black Rock and Smoke Creek Deserts, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Willden, R.; Mabey, D.R.

    1961-01-01

    Open fissures, from 100 to several hundred feet apart, that have produced polygonal patterns on the Black Rock Desert, Nevada, are believed to be giant desiccation cracks resulting from a secular trend toward aridity in the last few decades. Similar features on the Smoke Creek Desert probably have the same origin.

  10. Identification of genetic loci underlying the kernel fissure-resistance exhibited by 'cypress' and 'saber'

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The economic value of broken rice is about half that of whole milled rice, so one goal of producers, millers, and rice breeders is to reduce broken grains that result from the dehusking and milling processes One of the primary causes of rice breakage is fissuring, or cracking, of the rice before it ...

  11. Rice fissure resistance QTLs from ‘Saber’ complement those from ‘Cypress’

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The economic value of broken rice is about half that of whole milled rice, so one goal of producers, millers, and rice breeders is to reduce grain breakage during the dehusking and milling processes. One of the primary causes of rice breakage is fissuring, or cracking, of the rice before it enters ...

  12. Evaluation of pumice, fissure enameloplasty and air abrasion on sealant microleakage.

    PubMed

    Blackwood, Julie A; Dilley, Diane C; Roberts, Michael W; Swift, Edward J

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate microleakage of pit and fissure sealants after using three different pit and fissure preparation techniques: (1) traditional pumice prophylaxis and acid etching, (2) fissure enameloplasty and acid etching and (3) air abrasion and acid etching. Sixty extracted third molars with no clinical evidence of caries were randomly divided into 3 groups of 20 each. Teeth were prepared using 1 of 3 occlusal surface treatments prior to placement of Delton opaque light-cured sealant. The teeth were thermocycled between 5 +/- 2 degrees C and 55 +/- 2 degrees C for 500 cycles with a dwell time of 30 seconds and then stored in 0.9% normal saline. All teeth were sealed apically and coated within 1.5 mm of the sealant margin with two layers of nail varnish. The teeth were immersed in a 1% solution of methylene blue for 24 hours to allow dye penetration into possible gaps between enamel and sealant. Three buccolingual cuts parallel to the long axis of the tooth were made yielding 4 sections and 6 surfaces per tooth for analysis. The surfaces were scored 0 to 3 for extent of microleakage using a binocular microscope at 25X magnification. Kruskal-Wallis and t tests revealed no significant difference in microleakage between the 3 fissure preparation methods prior to sealant placement. Neither air abrasion nor enameloplasty followed by acid etching produced significantly less microleakage than the traditional pumice prophylaxis with acid etching technique.

  13. Microleakage assessment of fissure sealant following fissurotomy bur or pumice prophylaxis use before etching.

    PubMed

    Bagherian, Ali; Akbari, Majid; Rezaeian, Mohsen; Ansari, Ghassem

    2013-09-01

    A prolonged life of fissure sealant has always been the target for preventing caries in vulnerable newly erupted teeth. The use of preparatory techniques including bur introduction to the fissures is considered among such improving steps. Ninety freshly extracted healthy maxillary premolar teeth were randomly selected for this investigation. Teeth were then divided into three fissure sealant preparatory groups of A: Fissurotomy bur + acid etch; B: Pumice prophylaxis + acid etch and C: Acid etch alone. Sealant was applied to the occlusal fissures of all specimens using a plastic instrument. This was to avoid any air trap under the sealant. Sample teeth were first thermocycled (1000 cycles, 20 s dwell time) and then coated with two layers of nail varnish leaving 2 mm around the sealant. This was then followed by immersion in basic fuchsin 3%. Processed teeth were sectioned longitudinally and examined under a stereomicroscope for microleakage assessment using a score of 0-3. Collected data was then subjected to Kruskall-Wallis Analysis of Variance and Mann-Whitney U-test. P > 0.05 was considered as significant. Teeth in fissurotomy bur and pumice prophylaxis groups had significantly reduced level of microleakage than those in acid etch alone (P = 0.005 and P = 0.003, respectively). Use of fissurotomy bur and pumice prophylaxis accompanied with acid etching appears to have a more successful reduction of microleakage than acid etch alone.

  14. Microleakage assessment of fissure sealant following fissurotomy bur or pumice prophylaxis use before etching

    PubMed Central

    Bagherian, Ali; Akbari, Majid; Rezaeian, Mohsen; Ansari, Ghassem

    2013-01-01

    Background: A prolonged life of fissure sealant has always been the target for preventing caries in vulnerable newly erupted teeth. The use of preparatory techniques including bur introduction to the fissures is considered among such improving steps. Materials and Methods: Ninety freshly extracted healthy maxillary premolar teeth were randomly selected for this investigation. Teeth were then divided into three fissure sealant preparatory groups of A: Fissurotomy bur + acid etch; B: Pumice prophylaxis + acid etch and C: Acid etch alone. Sealant was applied to the occlusal fissures of all specimens using a plastic instrument. This was to avoid any air trap under the sealant. Sample teeth were first thermocycled (1000 cycles, 20 s dwell time) and then coated with two layers of nail varnish leaving 2 mm around the sealant. This was then followed by immersion in basic fuchsin 3%. Processed teeth were sectioned longitudinally and examined under a stereomicroscope for microleakage assessment using a score of 0-3. Collected data was then subjected to Kruskall-Wallis Analysis of Variance and Mann-Whitney U-test. P > 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: Teeth in fissurotomy bur and pumice prophylaxis groups had significantly reduced level of microleakage than those in acid etch alone (P = 0.005 and P = 0.003, respectively). Conclusion: Use of fissurotomy bur and pumice prophylaxis accompanied with acid etching appears to have a more successful reduction of microleakage than acid etch alone. PMID:24348623

  15. Resistance to subsidence of an uncemented femoral stem after cerclage wiring of a fissure.

    PubMed

    McCulloch, Ryan S; Roe, Simon C; Marcellin-Little, Denis J; Mente, Peter L

    2012-01-01

    To compare: (1) the force required to initiate subsidence, and (2) the relative subsidence, of femoral stems implanted into intact femora, and then into the same femora in which an induced fissure had been stabilized by cerclage. In vitro, mechanical study. Femora (n=9) from 9 dogs. Femora were prepared for implantation of an uncemented stem. Stems were implanted with continuous and impact loading. After axial loading until a fissure occurred, the stems were extracted, and the fissure stabilized with double-loop cerclage. Stems were reimplanted, and reloaded to failure. Mean±SD load to initiate subsidence in intact femora was 1706±584 N compared with 2379±657 N for cerclaged bones (P=.002). Mean relative subsidence of intact femora was 3.99±2.09 mm compared with 1.79±2.99 mm for cerclaged bones (P=.091). The load to initiate subsidence is increased in femora that have fissured, then have been stabilized with double-loop cerclage, when compared with intact femora. The relative subsidence is not different between intact and stabilized specimens. © Copyright 2011 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  16. Mapping the fissure potential zones based on microtremor measurement in Denpasar City, Bali

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabowo, U. N.; Marjiyono; Sismanto

    2016-01-01

    Denpasar City and its vicinity considered as the areas with excessive ground water exploitation and high earthquake intensity. These conditions will cause these area potential with land subsidence which is triggering ground fissures. This research aims are to mapping the fissures potential areas based on microtremor measurement in Denpasar City and its vicinity. Ground fissures will happen if the land subsidence occurs in the areas which have different bedrock height beneath its sedimentary layer. The height of bedrock is determined by reducing surface elevation with the sedimentary layer thickness. This sedimentary layer thickness obtained from microtremor measurement using HVSR method, and Shear wave velocity (VS) obtained from microtremor array measurement which is analyzed by Spatial Auto Correlation (SPAC) method. The result from HVSR method as well as Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) value are then analyzed to get ground shear strain value, which is the soil surface strain and its effect when earthquake occurs. Based on the bedrock map, it can be estimated that the bedrock layer forms structure in the southern part of the research areas and the potential fissuring area due to the massive ground water exploitation is in the west Denpasar Subdistrict. In addition, based on the bedrock map and ground shear strain value which combined with Simple Additive Weight (SAW) method, there are two areas having Assuring potential, i.e west and south Denpasar Subdistricts.

  17. Anal fissure in children: a 10-year clinical experience with nifedipine gel with lidocaine.

    PubMed

    Klin, Baruch; Efrati, Yigal; Berkovitch, Matitiahu; Abu-Kishk, Ibrahim

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to evaluate efficacy and safety of the use of nifedipine gel with lidocaine in the treatment of acute anal fissures in children by reviewing the cases of 106 children with acute anal fissure treated conservatively by nifedipine gel with lidocaine between the years 2003-2012. The patients included in this study were 48 males and 58 females. Their clinical presentation consisted of constipation, rectal bleeding, anal pain, perianal itching, abdominal pain, irritability and rectal prolapse. Posterior, anterior, both anterior and posterior, multiple, both posterior and lateral locations were the main physical findings in 65, 23, 10, 7, and 1 cases. Ninety-nine patients completed the 4-week treatment course of nifedipine gel with lidocaine successfully (93.40%), with complete healing of the fissure. The recurrence rate observed was very low (6.60%). Topical 0.2% nifedipine with lidocaine appears an efficient mode of treatment for anal fissures in children, with a significant healing rate and no side effects.

  18. Study of Operated Patients of Lateral Internal Anal Sphincterotomy for Chronic Anal Fissure

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Harshad Shankarlal; Chavda, Jagdish; Parikh, Jayesh; Naik, Nehal

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Anal fissure causes significant morbidity in the population. It is proposed that elevated sphincter pressures may cause ischaemia of the anal lining and this may be responsible for the pain of anal fissures and their failure to heal. When pharmacologic therapy fails or fissures recur frequently, lateral internal sphincterotomy is the surgical treatment of choice. Material and Methods: Retrospective analysis was done of admitted and operated patients of anal fissure by lateral anal internal sphincterotomy either by open or closed technique between April 2010 and November 2011 in Gujarat Medical Education & Research Society Medical College, Sola, Ahmedabad, India. The follow-up data of all patients was evaluated for pain relief, recurrence, wound infection, incontinence to flatus or stool or both for a period of up to 6 months. Results: Wound infection rate was 10.3% in open method and 4.2% in closed method. Incontinence to flatus was 8.3% in closed method and 3.4% in open method. This was temporary and controlled within a 1 week. Incontinence to stool was 3.4% in open method which was temporary and controlled within 2 weeks while none in closed method. None of the patients in either group had come with recurrence within 6 months follow-up. Conclusion: Lateral anal internal sphincterotomy is safe regarding long term incontinence and effective regarding recurrence. PMID:24551659

  19. Impact of extended radiant exposure time on polymerization depth of fluoride-containing fissure sealer materials.

    PubMed

    Borges, Boniek C D; Souza-Junior, Eduardo J; Catelan, Anderson; Ambrosano, Gláucia M B; Paulillo, Luís A M S; Aguiar, Flávio H B

    2011-01-01

    Physical properties such as surface hardness of dental materials are directly linked to their clinical behavior. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of extended curing time on the polymerization depth offluoride-containing materials used as pit and fissure sealants. Conventional and extended exposure times (20 and 60 seconds) were used to photoactivate a gold-standard pit and fissure sealant (Fluroshield, Dentsply) and a flowable composite (PermaFlo, Ultradent). Twenty square-shaped samples (n=5) were prepared using a LED device (Bluephase 16i, Ivoclar). The Knoop Hardness Number (KHN) was calculated for the top and bottom surface of each sample 24 hours after polymerization. Bottom/top hardness ratio (B/T KHN) was than calculated. Averages were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey test (alpha=0.05). The flowable composite had higher KHN than conventional pit and fissure sealant for all experimental conditions (p<0.05). The 60-second photoactivation time increased KHN at the bottom surface and B/T KHN only of composite specimens. The flowable composite had better physical properties than the pit and fissure sealant, and they were improved by extended curing time.

  20. 21 CFR 872.3765 - Pit and fissure sealant and conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pit and fissure sealant and conditioner. 872.3765 Section 872.3765 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... depressions (faults in the enamel) in the biting surfaces of teeth to prevent cavities. (b)...

  1. 21 CFR 872.3765 - Pit and fissure sealant and conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pit and fissure sealant and conditioner. 872.3765 Section 872.3765 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... depressions (faults in the enamel) in the biting surfaces of teeth to prevent cavities. (b)...

  2. 21 CFR 872.3765 - Pit and fissure sealant and conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pit and fissure sealant and conditioner. 872.3765 Section 872.3765 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... depressions (faults in the enamel) in the biting surfaces of teeth to prevent cavities. (b)...

  3. 21 CFR 872.3765 - Pit and fissure sealant and conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pit and fissure sealant and conditioner. 872.3765 Section 872.3765 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... depressions (faults in the enamel) in the biting surfaces of teeth to prevent cavities. (b)...

  4. 21 CFR 872.3765 - Pit and fissure sealant and conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pit and fissure sealant and conditioner. 872.3765 Section 872.3765 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... depressions (faults in the enamel) in the biting surfaces of teeth to prevent cavities. (b)...

  5. Methods for monitoring land subsidence and earth fissures in the Western USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fergason, K. C.; Rucker, M. L.; Panda, B. B.

    2015-11-01

    Depletion of groundwater resources in many deep alluvial basin aquifers in the Western USA is causing land subsidence, as it does in many regions worldwide. Land subsidence can severely and adversely impact infrastructure by changing the ground elevation, ground slope (grade) and through the development of ground cracks known as earth fissures that can erode into large gullies. Earth fissures have the potential to compromise the foundations of dams, levees, and other infrastructure and cause failure. Subsequent to an evaluation of the overall subsidence experienced in the vicinity of subsidence-impacted infrastructure, a detailed investigation to search for earth fissures, and design and/or mitigation of potentially effected infrastructure, a focused monitoring system should be designed and implemented. Its purpose is to provide data, and ultimately knowledge, to reduce the potential adverse impacts of land subsidence and earth fissure development to the pertinent infrastructure. This risk reduction is realized by quantifying the rate and distribution of ground deformation, and to detect ground rupture if it occurs, in the vicinity of the infrastructure. The authors have successfully designed and implemented monitoring systems capable of quantifying rates and distributions of ground subsidence and detection of ground rupture at multiple locations throughout the Western USA for several types of infrastructure including dams, levees, channels, basins, roadways, and mining facilities. Effective subsidence and earth fissure monitoring requires understanding and quantification of historic subsidence, estimation of potential future subsidence, delineation of the risk for earth fissures that could impact infrastructure, and motivation and resources to continue monitoring through time. A successful monitoring system provides the means to measure ground deformation, grade changes, displacement, and anticipate and assess the potential for earth fissuring. Employing multiple

  6. Microleakage, adaptation ability and clinical efficacy of two fluoride releasing fissure sealants.

    PubMed

    Marković, Dejan; Petrović, Bojan; Perić, Tamara; Blagojević, Duska

    2012-04-01

    Retention of fissure sealants and good adaptation to enamel are essential for their success. Fluoride releasing resin-based materials are widely accepted for pit and fissure sealing, but newly designed glass ionomers can serve as a good alternative. The aim of this study was to evaluate microleakage and sealing ability in vitro, and to clinically assess two fluoride releasing fissure sealants. The sample for experimental study consisted of 20 freshly extracted intact human third molars, divided in two experimental groups according to the sealing material: fluoride releasing resin-based (Heliosel F) and glass ionomer (Fuji Triage) material. Digital images and scanning electron microscope were used to assess microleakage and adaptation ability. Sample for clinical study consisted of 60 children, aged 6-8 years, with high caries risk, divided in two groups according to the sealant material. Fissure sealant was applied to all erupted, caries-free first permanent molars. Sealants were evaluated after 3, 6 and 12 months using modified Ryge criteria for retention, marginal adaptation, colour match, surface smoothness and caries. Microleakage was detected in more than half of the specimen, without significant differences between the two groups (p > 0.05). Both materials exhibited acceptable sealing ability. Complete retention at the end of the observation period was 81.8% for resin-based, and 21.1% for glass-ionomer fissure sealant (p < 0.001). The presence of caries in sealed molars has been detected in one patient in both groups. During the 12-month observation period, Helioseal F demonstrated better retention, marginal adaptation and surface smoothness (p < 0.001). There were no differences between the two materials regarding caries and color match (p > 0.05). Both tested materials demonstrate satisfactory clinical and caries prophylactic characteristics that justify their use in contemporary preventive dentistry.

  7. Internal Anal Sphincter Function Following Lateral Internal Sphincterotomy for Anal Fissure

    PubMed Central

    Ram, Edward; Alper, Dan; Stein, Gideon Y.; Bramnik, Zachar; Dreznik, Zeev

    2005-01-01

    Background: Anal fissure is a common and painful disorder. Its relation to hypertonic anal sphincter is controversial. The most common surgical treatment of chronic anal fissure is lateral internal sphincterotomy. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate long-term manometric results of sphincter healing following lateral internal sphincterotomy. Patients and Methods: Between 2000 and 2003, 50 patients with anal fissure were included in this study and underwent sphincterotomy; 12 healthy patients served as controls. All patients with anal fissure underwent manometric evaluation using a 6-channel perfusion catheter. All patients were examined 1 month before surgery and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months following surgery. The control group had 3 manometric evaluations 6 months apart. Results: The mean basal resting pressure before surgery was 138 ± 28 mm Hg. One month after surgery, the pressure dropped to 86 ± 15 mm Hg (P < 0.0001) and gradually rose to a plateau at 12 months (110 ± 18 mm Hg, P < 0.0001). At 12 months, the manometric pressure was significantly lower than the baseline (P < 0.0001). However, manometric measurements in the fissure group were still significantly higher than in the control group (110 ± 18 versus 73 ± 4.8 mm Hg, P < 0.0001). All patients were free of symptoms at the 12-month follow-up. Conclusion: Lateral internal sphincterotomy caused a significant decline in the resting anal pressure. During the first year following surgery, the tone of the internal anal sphincter gradually increased, indicating recovery, but still remained significantly lower than before surgery. However, postoperative resting pressures were higher than those in the control, and no patient suffered any permanent problems with incontinence, so this decrease may not be clinically significant. PMID:16041211

  8. Anterior levatorplasty for the treatment of chronic anal fissures in females with a rectocele: a randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ellis, C Neal

    2004-07-01

    It is postulated that an anterior anal fissure can result from mucosal trauma occurring during distention of a rectocele and that repair of the rectocele by anterior levatorplasty can lead to healing of these anal fissures. This study was designed to compare anterior levatorplasty with internal sphincterotomy for the management of anterior anal fissures in females with a rectocele. From June 2000 until May 2002, 54 consecutive females with an anterior anal fissure and a rectocele were randomized to be managed by internal sphincterotomy or anterior levatorplasty. Preoperatively, manometry was performed, continence was measured using the Cleveland Clinic scoring system, pain scores were obtained using a visual analog scale, and the symptoms of bleeding and straining to defecate were assessed. Postoperatively, pain scores were obtained at Days 2, 7, and 21. Manometry, continence scores, and resolution of symptoms were measured between 8 and 12 weeks. Patient satisfaction and fissure healing also were assessed between 8 and 12 weeks. The average length of follow-up was 20 (range, 6-30) months. Postoperatively, lateral sphincterotomy caused a decrease in the resting pressures and anterior levatorplasty resulted in an increased length of the anal canal. Anterior levatorplasty also caused increased postoperative pain scores. There were no differences in fissure healing and patient satisfaction. These data suggest that anterior levatorplasty is an option for the management of patients with a rectocele, which may avoid the risk of incontinence with lateral internal sphincterotomy and better address the etiology of anterior anal fissures.

  9. Anal sphincter fibrillation: is this a new finding that identifies resistant chronic anal fissures that respond to botulinum toxin?

    PubMed

    Moon, A; Chitsabesan, P; Plusa, S

    2013-08-01

    Anal fissures can be resistant to treatment and some patients may undergo several trials of medical therapy before definitive surgery. It would be useful to identify predictors of poor response to medical therapy. This study assesses the role of anorectal physiological criteria to identify patients with anal fissure predicted to fail botulinum toxin (BT) treatment. A retrospective analysis of anorectal physiological data collected for patients with resistant chronic anal fissures, referred to one consultant surgeon between 2007 and 2011, was undertaken. These were correlated with treatment plans and healing rates. Twenty-five patients with idiopathic chronic anal fissures underwent anorectal physiology studies and were subsequently treated with BT injection. Eleven had a characteristic high-frequency low-amplitude 'saw tooth' waveform or anal sphincter fibrillation (ASF) and higher anal sphincter pressures. Nine (82%) of these patients had resolution of their anal fissure symptoms following treatment with BT. Of 14 patients with no evidence of ASF and a greater range of anal sphincter pressures, only one (7%) had resolution following BT. ASF appears to be an anorectal physiological criterion that helps predict response of anal fissures to BT injection. This could help streamline fissure management. © 2013 The Authors. Colorectal Disease © 2013 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  10. Retention of fissure sealants in young permanent molars affected by dental fluorosis: a 12-month clinical study.

    PubMed

    Hasanuddin, S; Reddy, E R; Manjula, M; Srilaxmi, N; Rani, S T; Rajesh, A

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate and compare retention and caries occurance following placement of Clinpro and FUJI VII fissure sealants, by two different techniques simultaneously in unsealed, contralateral young permanent molars of 7- to 10-year-old children affected by mild to moderate dental fluorosis at various recall intervals of 1 week, 1, 3, 6 and 12 months. 80 schoolchildren with mild to moderate dental fluorosis were assigned to Group A and Group B with 40 children in each group. In Group A Clinpro fissure sealant and in Group B Fuji VII fissure sealant was used. In both the groups fissure sealants were applied by conventional fissure sealant technique (CST) on one side and enameloplasty sealant technique (EST) on the other side of the same arch. The applied fissure sealants were evaluated clinically for retention and caries incidence. Clinpro fissure sealant showed a retention rate of 95% when compared with Fuji VII (57.5%) at the end of 12 months, which was statistically significant. Regarding techniques, EST showed better results than CST in both the groups. Comparison of groups with respect to retention and techniques at different time periods was performed using Mann-Whitney U test (p < 0.05). Comparison of different time periods with respect to retention and technique in all the groups was performed using Wilcoxon matched pairs test by ranks (p < 0.05). Clinpro fissure sealant showed better retention at all treatment intervals, when compared with Fuji VII. Further follow-up is required to study the efficacy of the fissure sealant placement techniques.

  11. The role of topical diltiazem in the treatment of chronic anal fissures that have failed glyceryl trinitrate therapy.

    PubMed

    Griffin, N; Acheson, A G; Jonas, M; Scholefield, J H

    2002-11-01

    The treatment of anal fissures has evolved over the last 5 years with the development of topical treatments aimed at reducing sphincter hypertonia. This is thought to improve anal mucosal blood flow and promote healing of the fissure. This study reports the use of topical diltiazem in patients with chronic anal fissures that have failed previous treatment with topical 0.2% glyceryl trinitrate (GTN). Forty-seven patients with chronic anal fissure who had previously failed at least one course of topical GTN were recruited prospectively from a single centre. Patients were instructed to apply 2 cm (approximately 0.7 g) of 2% diltiazem cream to the anal verge twice daily for eight weeks. Symptoms of pain, bleeding and itching were recorded on a linear analogue score prior to starting the cream and then repeated at 2 weekly intervals. Patients were asked to report side-effects throughout the study period. Healing of the fissure was assessed after 8 weeks of treatment. Forty-six patients completed treatment; of these, 22 had healed fissures (48%). Ten of the 24 patients with persistent fissures were symptomatically improved and wished no further treatment. Of the 14 patients who remained symptomatic, one was given a repeat course of 0.2% glyceryl trinitrate with subsequent healing of the fissure, 10 were recruited into an ongoing study involving injections of botulinum toxin into the internal anal sphincter and three were referred for surgery. This study shows that topical 2% diltiazem is an effective and safe treatment for chronic anal fissure in patients who have failed topical 0.2% GTN. The need for sphincterotomy can be avoided in up to 70% of cases.

  12. Soil gas composition from the 2001-2002 fissure in the Lakki Plain (Nisyros Island, Greece): evidences for shallow hydrothermal fluid circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venturi, Stefania; Tassi, Franco; Kanellopoulos, Christos; Vaselli, Orlando; Caponi, Chiara; Ricci, Andrea; Raspanti, Alessio; Gallorini, Andrea; Cabassi, Jacopo; Vougioukalakis, Georges

    2016-04-01

    Nisyros volcano (Aegean Sea, Greece) is currently classified in the "Very High Threat" category (Kinvig et al., 2010). Although the last volcanic activity, consisting of phreatic eruptions, occurred in the 19th century, Nisyros experienced an intense seismic activity during 1996-1998 accompanied by ground deformation and changes in the chemistry of fumarolic gases (Chiodini et al., 2002), pointing to a renewed unrest. Between November 2001 and December 2002, a NNE-oriented 600 m long fissure opened in the vegetated central part of the Lakki Plain. The fissure, 1-5 m wide and up to 15-20 m deep, showed neither vertical displacements nor gas release. No changes in the seismic and volcanic activity were observed during or after this event, which was interpreted as related to collapse of the upper caldera floor fine sediment cover (<50 m thick) induced by hydrothermal fluid circulation (Vougioukalakis and Fytikas, 2005). In June 2015, diffuse CO2 flux measurements, in combination with sampling and chemical analysis of the interstitial soil gases, were performed in (i) the fissure bottom, (ii) the adjacent vegetated areas in the Lakki Plain, (iii) the near hydrothermal craters (Stefanos, Kaminakia, Lofos domes), and (iv) sites located outside the caldera (blank values). The fissure showed neither temperature (<30 °C) nor CO2 fluxes (<10 gm-2d-1) anomalies with respect to the blank sites and the Lakki Plain, with values strikingly lower than those measured in the hydrothermal craters (up to 98 °C and 208 gm-2d-1, respectively). Contrarily, the CO2 concentrations in the interstitial soil gases from the fissure (up to 513 mmol/mol) were markedly higher than the background values and comparable with those measured in the craters (up to 841 mmol/mol). Relatively high H2S, H2 and CH4 contents in soil gases from the fissure confirm the hydrothermal origin of these soil gases. However, their CH4/CO2 ratio were lower than those measured in the soil gases from the craters

  13. Method for laser drilling subterranean earth formations

    DOEpatents

    Shuck, Lowell Z.

    1976-08-31

    Laser drilling of subterranean earth formations is efficiently accomplished by directing a collimated laser beam into a bore hole in registry with the earth formation and transversely directing the laser beam into the earth formation with a suitable reflector. In accordance with the present invention, the bore hole is highly pressurized with a gas so that as the laser beam penetrates the earth formation the high pressure gas forces the fluids resulting from the drilling operation into fissures and pores surrounding the laser-drilled bore so as to inhibit deleterious occlusion of the laser beam. Also, the laser beam may be dynamically programmed with some time dependent wave form, e.g., pulsed, to thermally shock the earth formation for forming or enlarging fluid-receiving fissures in the bore.

  14. Enamel Surface with Pit and Fissure Sealant Containing 45S5 Bioactive Glass.

    PubMed

    Yang, S-Y; Kwon, J-S; Kim, K-N; Kim, K-M

    2016-05-01

    Enamel demineralization adjacent to pit and fissure sealants leads to the formation of marginal caries, which can necessitate the replacement of existing sealants. Dental materials with bioactive glass, which releases ions that inhibit dental caries, have been studied. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the enamel surface adjacent to sealants containing 45S5 bioactive glass (BAG) under simulated microleakage between the material and the tooth in a cariogenic environment. Sealants containing 45S5BAG filler were prepared as follows: 0% 45S5BAG + 50.0% glass (BAG0 group), 12.5% 45S5BAG + 37.5% glass (BAG12.5 group), 25.0% 45S5BAG + 25.0% glass (BAG25.0 group), 37.5% 45S5BAG + 12.5% glass (BAG37.5 group), and 50.0% 45S5BAG + 0% glass (BAG50.0 group). A cured sealant disk was placed over a flat bovine enamel disk, separated by a 60-µm gap, and immersed in lactic acid solution (pH 4.0) at 37 °C for 15, 30, and 45 d. After the storage period, each enamel disk was separated from the cured sealant disk, and the enamel surface was examined with optical 3-dimensional surface profilometer, microhardness tester, and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed a significant increase in roughness and a decrease in microhardness of the enamel surface as the proportion of 45S5BAG decreased (P< 0.05). In the scanning electron microscopy images, enamel surfaces with BAG50.0 showed a smooth surface, similar to those in the control group with distilled water, even after prolonged acid storage. Additionally, an etched pattern was observed on the surface of the demineralized enamel with a decreasing proportion of 45S5BAG. Increasing the 45S5BAG filler contents of the sealants had a significant impact in preventing the demineralization of the enamel surface within microgaps between the material and the tooth when exposed to a cariogenic environment. Therefore, despite some marginal leakage, these novel sealants may be effective preventive dental materials for inhibiting

  15. The cycle of instability: stress release and fissure flow as controls on gully head retreat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collison, A. J. C.

    2001-01-01

    Gully head and wall retreat has commonly been attributed to fluvial scour and head collapse as a result of soil saturation, sapping or piping. The empirical evidence to substantiate these conceptual models is sparse, however, and often contradictory. This paper explores the hydrological and mechanical controls on gully head and wall stability by modelling the hydrology, stability and elastic deformation of a marl gully complex in Granada Province, south-east Spain. The hydrological and slope-stability simulations show that saturated conditions can be reached only where preferential fissure flow channels water from tension cracks into the base of the gully head, and that vertical or subvertical heads will be stable unless saturation is achieved. Owing to the high unsaturated strengths of marl measured in this research, failure in unsaturated conditions is possible only where the gully head wall is significantly undercut. Head retreat thus requires the formation of either a tension crack or an undercut hollow. Finite-element stress analysis of eroding slopes reveals a build up of shear stress at the gully head base, and a second stress anomaly just upslope of the head wall. Although tension cracks on gully heads have often been attributed to slope unloading, this research provides strong evidence that the so called sapping hollow commonly found in the gully headwall base is also a function of stress release. Although further research is needed, it seems possible that pop out failures in river channels may be caused by the same process. The hydrological analysis shows that, once a tension crack has developed, throughflow velocity in the gully headwall will increase by an order of magnitude, promoting piping and enlargement of this weakened area. It is, therefore, possible to envisage a cycle of gully expansion in which erosion, channel incision or human action unloads the slope below a gully head, leading to stress patterns that account for the tension crack and a

  16. Prevalence of dental caries and fissure sealants in a Portuguese sample of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Veiga, Nélio J; Pereira, Carlos M; Ferreira, Paula C; Correia, Ilidio J

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of dental caries and the DMFT index, as well as the distribution pattern of pit and fissure sealants on permanent teeth in a Portuguese sample of adolescents, and to assess whether the existing usage of sealants and socio-demographic factors are correlated to caries prevalence on the examined sample. A cross-sectional study was designed with a sample of 447 adolescents aged 12 to 18 years old, attending a public school in Sátão, Portugal. A self-administered questionnaire with questions about oral health behaviours and socio-economic status was answered by adolescents in the classroom. Clinical examination of oral health status and assessment of fissure sealants were accomplished by only one trained member of the research team. We obtained a DMFT index of 3.32 (2.92), which indicates a moderate level of prevalence of dental caries. When considering a DMFT = 0, we found significant statistical differences between the parents' level of education (≤ 4th grade = 26.3 vs 5th-12th grade = 18.8 vs <12th grade = 43.3, p = 0.001), gender (male = 27.3 vs female = 19.6, p = 0.04), age (≤ 15 years = 27.1 vs <15 years = 18.5, p = 0.02), presence of fissure sealants (yes = 30.6 vs no = 13.5, p = 0.001) and experience of dental pain (no = 25.4 vs yes = 16.8, p = 0.02). When analyzing the prevalence of fissure sealants, we verified that 58.8% of adolescents had at least one fissure sealant applied. Significant statistical differences were found when analyzing the presence of fissure sealants related with parents' educational level (<9th grade, OR = 1.56 CI95% = 1.05-2.54), gender (female, OR = 1.86 CI95% = 1.19-2.98), experience of dental pain (yes, OR = 0.62 CI95% = 0.39-0.97) and presence of dental caries (yes, OR = 0.35 CI95% = 0.19-0.65). The moderate level of caries prevalence reveals the need of improvement of primary prevention interventions among Portuguese adolescents. The establishment of a more targeted

  17. Prevalence of Dental Caries and Fissure Sealants in a Portuguese Sample of Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Veiga, Nélio J.; Pereira, Carlos M.; Ferreira, Paula C.; Correia, Ilidio J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of dental caries and the DMFT index, as well as the distribution pattern of pit and fissure sealants on permanent teeth in a Portuguese sample of adolescents, and to assess whether the existing usage of sealants and socio-demographic factors are correlated to caries prevalence on the examined sample. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was designed with a sample of 447 adolescents aged 12 to 18 years old, attending a public school in Sátão, Portugal. A self-administered questionnaire with questions about oral health behaviours and socio-economic status was answered by adolescents in the classroom. Clinical examination of oral health status and assessment of fissure sealants were accomplished by only one trained member of the research team. Results We obtained a DMFT index of 3.32 (2.92), which indicates a moderate level of prevalence of dental caries. When considering a DMFT = 0, we found significant statistical differences between the parents´ level of education (≤ 4th grade = 26.3 vs 5th–12th grade = 18.8 vs <12th grade = 43.3, p = 0.001), gender (male = 27.3 vs female = 19.6, p = 0.04), age (≤15 years = 27.1 vs <15 years = 18.5, p = 0.02), presence of fissure sealants (yes = 30.6 vs no = 13.5, p = 0.001) and experience of dental pain (no = 25.4 vs yes = 16.8, p = 0.02). When analyzing the prevalence of fissure sealants, we verified that 58.8% of adolescents had at least one fissure sealant applied. Significant statistical differences were found when analyzing the presence of fissure sealants related with parents´educational level (<9th grade, OR = 1.56 CI95% = 1.05–2.54), gender (female, OR = 1.86 CI95% = 1.19–2.98), experience of dental pain (yes, OR = 0.62 CI95% = 0.39–0.97) and presence of dental caries (yes, OR = 0.35 CI95% = 0.19–0.65). Conclusions The moderate level of caries prevalence reveals the need of improvement of primary prevention interventions among

  18. Can earthquake fissures predispose hillslopes to landslides? - Evidence from Central and East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidle, Roy C.; Gomi, Takashi; Rajapbaev, Muslim; Chyngozhoev, Nurstan

    2017-04-01

    Factors affecting earthquake-initiated landslides include earthquake magnitude, focal depth, and seismic wave propagation and attenuation. In contrast to rainfall-initiated landslides, earthquake-induced landslides often occur on convex slopes and near ridgelines. Here we present evidence from Fergana Basin, Kyrgyzstan and Kumamoto, Japan on how fissures developed during earthquakes may promote subsequent initiation of rainfall-triggered landslides. More than 1800 recent major landslides in hilly terrain and soft sediments of the Fergana Basin have been largely attributed to accumulation of heavy rainfall and snowmelt. While no large earthquakes have occurred in the Fergana Basin, smaller earthquakes have generated fissures near ridgelines and on convex slopes. The connection of fissures, developed years or decades before slope failure, with preferential transport of rainwater and runoff into the soil has not been previously investigated. Fissures have been observed to expand with time, particularly during subsequent minor earthquakes, further promoting preferential infiltration. Because the soil mantle does not have large contrasts in permeability that would define a slip plane for landslides, it appears that the position and depth of these fissures may control the location and depth of failures. Zones in the soil where surficial inputs of water are preferentially transported, augment natural subsurface accumulation of antecedent rainfall. Many landslides in the eastern Fergana Basin occur after several months of accumulated precipitation and groundwater has been observed emerging on critical hillside locations (near ridgelines and on convex slopes) prior to slope failure. During the 2016 Kumamoto Earthquake (M 7.3), many landslides were triggered in forest and grassland hillslopes near Mount Aso. All of these earthquakes were shallow (focal depths about 10 km), causing high shaking intensity and ground rupturing. Because soils were relatively dry during these

  19. The pattern of circumferential and radial eruptive fissures on the volcanoes of Fernandina and Isabela islands, Galapagos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chadwick, W.W.; Howard, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    Maps of the eruptive vents on the active shield volcanoes of Fernandina and Isabela islands, Galapagos, made from aerial photographs, display a distinctive pattern that consists of circumferential eruptive fissures around the summit calderas and radial fissures lower on the flanks. On some volcano flanks either circumferential or radial eruptions have been dominant in recent time. The location of circumferential vents outside the calderas is independent of caldera-related normal faults. The eruptive fissures are the surface expression of dike emplacement, and the dike orientations are interpreted to be controlled by the state of stress in the volcano. Very few subaerial volcanoes display a pattern of fissures similar to that of the Galapagos volcanoes. Some seamounts and shield volcanoes on Mars morphologically resemble the Galapagos volcanoes, but more specific evidence is needed to determine if they also share common structure and eruptive style. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag.

  20. Natural Treatments for Fissure in Ano Used by Traditional Persian Scholars, Razi (Rhazes) and Ibn Sina (Avicenna).

    PubMed

    Derakhshan, Ali Reza

    2016-06-08

    Most cases of chronic fissure do not respond to medical treatment. Razi and Ibn Sina were 2 of the best-known scientists of ancient Persia. The purpose of this study was to find out new scientific evidence in modern medicine about their recommendations, in order to find certain clues to conduct useful researches in the future. First, treatments of anal fissure mentioned by Razi and Ibn Sina were reviewed. Then, literature search was made in electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar. Management of anal fissure according to Razi's and Ibn Sina's practices is done based on 3 interventions: lifestyle modifications, drug treatments, and manual procedures. Almost all remedies suggested by Razi and Ibn Sina have shown their effects on fissure in ano via several mechanisms of action in many in vitro and in vivo studies; Still there is lack of human studies on the subject.

  1. Long-term release of fluoride from fissure sealants-In vitro study.

    PubMed

    Kosior, Piotr; Dobrzyński, Maciej; Korczyński, Mariusz; Herman, Katarzyna; Czajczyńska-Waszkiewicz, Agnieszka; Kowalczyk-Zając, Małgorzata; Piesiak-Pańczyszyn, Dagmara; Fita, Katarzyna; Janeczek, Maciej

    2017-05-01

    The intensity of the cariostatic activity of fluoride ions can be attributed to their multidirectional influence on the caries process. They are an irreplaceable factor that helps sustain mineral balance of dental tissues, simultaneously demonstrating antibacterial properties. As a consequence, many manufacturers of fissure sealants include fluoride ions in their products. The aim of this in vitro study was to determine long-term fluoride release from four fissure sealants (Conseal F, Fissurit FX, Delton Fs+, Admira Seal). During a 14-week-long observation, all the materials showed a relatively constant level of F- release; however, it is crucial to mention that within the first 48h, the most significant increase in fluoride release was found for Fissurit and Delton sealants. Based on the overall assessment, the highest total amount of the released fluoride ions was observed for Delton, and the lowest level was reported for Admira Seal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Fissure basalts and ocean-floor spreading on the East pacific rise.

    PubMed

    Bonatti, E

    1968-08-30

    A basalt pavement outcrops almost continuously in a band along the crestal region of the East Pacific Rise from about 14 degrees S to 6 degrees S, that is, for more than 800 ikilometers; the outcrop may well extend beyond the above limits along the axis of the rise. The basalt band is generally between 40 and 60 kilometers wide and is replaced laterally by sediment. The lavas are fresh, "oceanic tholeiites" which were emplaced less than I million years ago by fissure eruptions. These findings, can be explained by the hypothesis of ocean-floor spreading; the basalts are the expression of material originating from the mantle and rising through fissures along the axis of the ridge. The absence of an axial rift valley on the East Pacific Rise may be explained by the fact that large volumes of lava are being outpoured along its crest.

  3. Comparative study of glyceryl trinitrate ointment versus surgical management of chronic anal fissure.

    PubMed

    Tauro, Leo Francis; Shindhe, Vittal V; Aithala, P Sathyamoorthy; Martis, John J S; Shenoy, H Divakar

    2011-08-01

    Chronic Anal Fissure (CAF) is common perineal condition and well-known painful entity. Standard surgical treatment even though available, may require long hospital stay and sometimes have worrying complications like anal incontinence. So non-surgical treatment, Glyceryl Trinitrate has been shown to be an effective for chronic anal fissure. It decreases anal tone and ultimately heals the anal fissure. The present study is the attempt to know the efficacy of 0.2% Glyceryl Trinitrate ointment in the treatment of chronic anal fissure and to compare the effectiveness of 0.2% Glyceryl Trinitrate ointment (GTN) versus fissurectomy with lateral internal sphincterotomy (LIS) and fissurectomy with posterior internal sphincterotomy (PIS) in the management of chronic anal fissure. This is a prospective comparative study of management of chronic anal fissure done in our hospital during the period of one and half year from October 2005 to March 2007. Thirty patients treated with 0.2% Glyceryl Trinitrate ointment and 30 patients treated with fissurectomy and lateral internal sphincterotomy and 30 patients treated with posterior internal sphincterotomy, for chronic anal fissure were selected for study. A single brand of 0.2% Glyceryl Trinitrate ointment (Nitrogesic) used for trial arm. Dose of administration was 1.5 cm to 2 cm in the anal canal with device provided by manufacturers of the proprietary preparation and applied twice a daily for 12 weeks. Patients were followed up for 12 weeks and thereafter evaluated for relief of symptoms in all three groups. Observations were recorded at 2 weeks; 6 weeks and 12 weeks of follow up period, regarding symptoms like pain and bleeding during defecation, healing of CAF and also for side effects like headache in GTN group and flatus, fecal incontinence in surgical groups. Data collected in proforma and analyzed. Study revealed CAF was more in male 59 patients (66%) than the female 31 patients (34%), the ratio being 1: 0.52. The

  4. [Banana peel: a possible source of infection in the treatment of nipple fissures].

    PubMed

    Novak, Franz Reis; de Almeida, João Aprígio Guerra; de Souza e Silva, Rosana

    2003-01-01

    To study the microbiology of banana peel being sold in the city of Rio de Janeiro, in an attempt to determine the possibility that the peel may represent a source of infection for women who use it to treat nipple fissures. The following microorganisms were studied in 20 banana peel samples: mesophiles, total coliforms, fecal coliforms, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, lipolytic and proteolytic microorganisms, molds and yeasts, lactic bacteria, and coagulase-positive staphylococcus. The microbiological analyses revealed the occurrence of several typical groups of microorganisms, with the following distribution of positive results being detected in banana peel samples: mesophiles, 100%; total coliforms, 20%; coagulase-positive staphylococcus, 25%; molds and yeasts, 30%; proteolytic microorganisms, 70%; lipolytic microorganisms, 30%, and lactic bacteria, 95%. Fecal coliforms and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were not isolated. The results show the presence of potentially pathogenic microorganisms in levels which could compromise the microbiological quality of the banana peel. Its use for the treatment of nipple fissures can initiate an infectious process.

  5. A symptomatic Sylvian fissure lipoma in a post-traumatic patient

    PubMed Central

    Bokhari, Rakan Farouk; Bangash, Mohammad Hasan; Ahamed, Naushad Ali Basheer; Addas, Jameel

    2014-01-01

    Lipomatous extra-axial lesions in the Sylvian fissure are a rare entity. Their identification, however, is usually simple if a systematic radiological approach is adopted. The best line of management for these lesions is still a matter of controversy and fraught with complications. We present a case of a Sylvian fissure lipoma referred to our neurosurgery services with symptomatic seizures and in a post-traumatic patient. The radiological differentiating features of intracranial lipomas and intracranial dermoids have been discussed. The unusual location of the lesion, in combination with the history of seizures and the nature of presentation (trauma being a red-herring) make this case an interesting find. The lesion was managed conservatively with good outcomes at follow up, on anti-epileptic medications. PMID:24967029

  6. Hough transform detection of the longitudinal fissure in tomographic head images.

    PubMed

    Brummer, M E

    1991-01-01

    A technique is presented for automatic detection of the longitudinal fissure in tomographic scans of the brain. The technique utilizes the planar nature of the fissure and is a three-dimensional variant of the Hough transform principle. Algorithmic and computational aspects of the technique are discussed. Results and performance on coronal and transaxial magnetic resonance data show that the algorithm is robust with respect to variations in image contrast in the data and to slight anatomic anomalies. A crucial resolution requirement in the data for accurate parameter estimations is a sufficient number of slices covering the whole brain. The Sobel magnitude edge operator, used for preprocessing, proved adequate for magnetic resonance scans with positive and negative brain/cerebrospinal fluid contrast.

  7. [Surgical therapy of chronic anal fissure--do additional proctologic operations impair continence?].

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, J; Berger, A; Uranüs, S

    1994-07-01

    78 patients with chronic anal fissures have been mainly operated on by lateral internal sphincterotomy (LATS). Continence have been evaluated by questionnaire at least 9 months postoperatively. Patient without any additional proctological operation had minor disturbances of continence in 17%. Patient with additional operations had disturbances of continence in 30%. Especially the subgroup of patients with LATS and haemorrhoidectomy had bad results. In this group only 45% were fully continent.

  8. Anal self-massage in the treatment of acute anal fissure: a randomized prospective study.

    PubMed

    Gaj, Fabio; Biviano, Ivano; Candeloro, Laura; Andreuccetti, Jacopo

    2017-01-01

    An anal fissure (AF) is a tear in the epithelial lining of the anal canal. This is a very common condition, but the choice of treatment is unclear. The use of anal dilators is effective, economic, and safe. The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy of two conservative treatments, the use of anal dilators or a finger for anal dilatation, in reducing anal pressure and resolving anal fissures. Fifty patients with a clinical diagnosis of AF were randomly assigned to one of the treatments, self-massage of the anal sphincter (group A, 25 patients) or passive dilatation using dilators (group B, 25 patients). All patients were evaluated at baseline, at the end of treatment, and after 12 weeks and 6 months. Pain was measured using a visual analog scale. After the treatment, 60% of patients treated with dilators and 80% of patients treated with anal self-massage using a finger showed disappearance of their anal fissures. A comparison between signs and symptoms reported by the patients in the two groups showed a statistically significant reduction in anal pain (group A, P=0.0001; group B, P=0.0001) and bleeding after defecation (group A, P=0.001, group B, P=0.001). At 6 months after treatment, a significantly greater reduction in anal pain was observed in Group A compared to Group B (P=0.02). The use of anal self-massage with a finger appears to induce a better resolution of acute anal fissure than do anal dilators, and in a shorter time.

  9. Comparative Evaluation of the Marginal Sealing Ability of two Commercially Available Pit and Fissure Sealants

    PubMed Central

    Moses, Joyson; Rangeeth, Bollam Nammalwar; Sivakumar, Subramanian

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The occlusal surfaces of the teeth usually have pits and fissures which provide a good environment for demineralization with minimal salivary access and make them caries prone. The success of pit and fissure sealing materials is highly dependent on the marginal sealing ability of the fissures. Aim The present study was carried out to evaluate and compare the marginal sealing ability of two commercially available pit and fissure sealants. Materials and Methods A total of 50 human premolar teeth were used in this invitro study. Group 1 included 25 teeth for application of Clinpro sealant and Group 2 included twenty 25 for application of Helioseal F sealant. Samples were stored in artificial saliva for 72 hours before thermocycling. The samples were immersed in 2% methylene blue solution for 24 hours. The sectioned samples were examined under an Optical Stereomicroscope and compared in terms of the extent of microleakage based on the amount of dye penetration between the sealant and tooth substance interface. The dye penetration scores in both the groups was statistically analysed using Chi square test and Mann Whitney Test. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results It was seen that in Group 1, 12 samples (48%) had no dye penetration (Grade 0) while in Group 2, 6 samples (24%) demonstrated Grade 0 penetration. Group 2 had the most extensive dye penetration (Grade 3) in 8 of 25 samples (32%) (p=0.014). Conclusion On comparison of the microleakage scores of the groups, a statistically significant difference was found between the two groups; indicating a much better performance of Clinpro as compared to Helioseal F. PMID:27790568

  10. Resin infiltration of deproteinised natural occlusal subsurface lesions improves initial quality of fissure sealing

    PubMed Central

    Kielbassa, Andrej M; Ulrich, Ina; Schmidl, Rita; Schüller, Christoph; Frank, Wilhelm; Werth, Vanessa D

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this ex vivo study was to evaluate the infiltration capability and rate of microleakage of a low-viscous resin infiltrant combined with a flowable composite resin (RI/CR) when used with deproteinised and etched occlusal subsurface lesions (International Caries Detection and Assessment System code 2). This combined treatment procedure was compared with the exclusive use of flowable composite resin (CR) for fissure sealing. Twenty premolars and 20 molars revealing non-cavitated occlusal carious lesions were randomly divided into two groups and were meticulously cleaned and deproteinised using NaOCl (2%). After etching with HCl (15%), 10 premolar and 10 molar lesions were infiltrated (Icon/DMG; rhodamine B isothiocyanate (RITC)-labelled) followed by fissure sealing (G-ænial Flo/GC; experimental group, RI/CR). In the control group (CR), the carious fissures were only sealed. Specimens were cut perpendicular to the occlusal surface and through the area of the highest demineralisation (DIAGNOdent pen, KaVo). Using confocal laser-scanning microscopy, the specimens were assessed with regard to the percentage of caries infiltration, marginal adaption and internal integrity. Within the CR group, the carious lesions were not infiltrated. Both premolar (57.9%±23.1%) and molar lesions (35.3%±22.1%) of the RI/CR group were uniformly infiltrated to a substantial extent, albeit with significant differences (P=0.034). Moreover, microleakage (n=1) and the occurrence of voids (n=2) were reduced in the RI/CR group compared with the CR group (5 and 17 specimens, respectively). The RI/CR approach increases the initial quality of fissure sealing and is recommended for the clinical control of occlusal caries. PMID:28621326

  11. Novel delivery of botulinum toxin for the treatment of anal fissures.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, R; Drye, E; Vaizey, C

    2006-05-01

    Botulinum toxin A (Botox) has been used as a local treatment for anal fissure since 1994. It effects a reversible chemical sphincterotomy without the need for patient compliance. This study examines the feasibility of injecting the treatment using a needle-less system. The optimal angle for injection was determined in a preclinical study using fresh porcine specimens. Ten patients with chronic anal fissures were then injected with 20 units Botox at the site of the fissure. They underwent assessment with a visual analogue pain scale, incontinence score and anal manometry pre-injection, at 48 h postinjection and at six and 12 weeks postinjection. They were also examined at the initial and final visits. The optimal angle for injection was 60 degrees . All 10 patients (5 male; median age 40.5 years (range 26-68 years)) attended the 48 h follow up visit but only seven attended the six and 12 week visits. Six of seven patients healed their fissures. The remaining three were contacted by telephone at six months post injection and two of three remained asymptomatic without further treatment. In seven patients who underwent full follow up the median pain score pre-injection was 5.5 out of 10 (range 1-10) and this dropped to a median of 1 (range 0-6) at 12 weeks. The median drop in resting pressure was 47 cm H2O or 37% at six weeks. No needle injection of Botox is feasible with similar healing rates and reduction of resting pressure to conventional injection techniques.

  12. Anal self-massage in the treatment of acute anal fissure: a randomized prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Gaj, Fabio; Biviano, Ivano; Candeloro, Laura; Andreuccetti, Jacopo

    2017-01-01

    Background An anal fissure (AF) is a tear in the epithelial lining of the anal canal. This is a very common condition, but the choice of treatment is unclear. The use of anal dilators is effective, economic, and safe. The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy of two conservative treatments, the use of anal dilators or a finger for anal dilatation, in reducing anal pressure and resolving anal fissures. Methods Fifty patients with a clinical diagnosis of AF were randomly assigned to one of the treatments, self-massage of the anal sphincter (group A, 25 patients) or passive dilatation using dilators (group B, 25 patients). All patients were evaluated at baseline, at the end of treatment, and after 12 weeks and 6 months. Pain was measured using a visual analog scale. Results After the treatment, 60% of patients treated with dilators and 80% of patients treated with anal self-massage using a finger showed disappearance of their anal fissures. A comparison between signs and symptoms reported by the patients in the two groups showed a statistically significant reduction in anal pain (group A, P=0.0001; group B, P=0.0001) and bleeding after defecation (group A, P=0.001, group B, P=0.001). At 6 months after treatment, a significantly greater reduction in anal pain was observed in Group A compared to Group B (P=0.02). Conclusion The use of anal self-massage with a finger appears to induce a better resolution of acute anal fissure than do anal dilators, and in a shorter time. PMID:28655981

  13. Quality Assessment of Information About Pit and Fissure Sealants in Persian Websites in 2012

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemi, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Despite the increasing use of Internet, there is no supervision over the accuracy and quality of the information provided in the web. To deal with this problem, health specialists should take part in planning, publishing and supervision of online health-related information. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of information related to pit and fissure sealants in Persian websites. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, Persian websites providing information about fissure sealants were found using Google search engine. The searched keywords according to the MeSH database were “patient education” and “fissure sealant”. After applying the exclusion criteria, 37 websites out of 500 initial links remained in the study. These websites were evaluated based on a researcher-made checklist. The validity and reliability of the checklist were evaluated and confirmed. Descriptive analysis was applied to report the results of our study using SPSS version 11.5. Results: The average score for the quality of information was 22.46 out of 38. The minimum scores were 16 and 30 and belonged to Pezeshkanemrooz.com and Asa85.blogfa.com , respectively. The results showed that 62.2% of the answers were scored 2–4 and 37.8% were scored 1; therefore, the overall quality of the published content was rated to be moderate for 62.2% and low for 37.8% of the websites. Conclusions: Overall, the quality of information related to fissure sealant provided in Persian websites was good; however, the information given was mostly incomplete and could be improved. The main problems were doubtful credibility and outdated information. PMID:27536329

  14. Evaluation of different types of enamel conditioning before application of a fissure sealant.

    PubMed

    Ciucchi, Philip; Neuhaus, Klaus W; Emerich, Marta; Peutzfeldt, Anne; Lussi, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare fissure sealant quality after mechanical conditioning of erbium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Er:YAG) laser or air abrasion prior to chemical conditioning of phosphoric acid etching or of a self-etch adhesive. Twenty-five permanent molars were initially divided into three groups: control group (n = 5), phosphoric acid etching; test group 1 (n = 10), air abrasion; and test group 2, (n = 10) Er:YAG laser. After mechanical conditioning, the test group teeth were sectioned buccolingually and the occlusal surface of one half tooth (equal to one sample) was acid etched, while a self-etch adhesive was applied on the other half. The fissure system of each sample was sealed, thermo-cycled and immersed in 5% methylene dye for 24 h. Each sample was sectioned buccolingually, and one slice was analysed microscopically. Using specialized software microleakage, unfilled margin, sealant failure and unfilled area proportions were calculated. A nonparametric ANOVA model was applied to compare the Er:YAG treatment with that of air abrasion and the self-etch adhesive with phosphoric acid (α = 0.05). Test groups were compared to the control group using Wilcoxon rank sum tests (α = 0.05). The control group displayed significantly lower microleakage but higher unfilled area proportions than the Er:YAG laser + self-etch adhesive group and displayed significantly higher unfilled margin and unfilled area proportions than the air-abrasion + self-etch adhesive group. There was no statistically significant difference in the quality of sealants applied in fissures treated with either Er:YAG laser or air abrasion prior to phosphoric acid etching, nor in the quality of sealants applied in fissures treated with either self-etch adhesive or phosphoric acid following Er:YAG or air-abrasion treatment.

  15. Increasing efficacy and reducing side effects in treatment of chronic anal fissures

    PubMed Central

    Hang, Minh Tuan H.; Smith, Betsy E.; Keck, Carson; Keshavarzian, Ali; Sedghi, Shahriar

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This is a single institution nonexperimental study intended to analyze the therapeutic efficacy of topical diazepam in treating symptoms of chronic anal fissures. Anal fissures are a common cause of anal pain. Conventional treatments include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, topical creams, such as nitroglycerin and nifedipine, and surgery. However, these treatments are usually suboptimally efficacious or have deterring side effects. Patients at an outpatient community center with a diagnosis of a chronic anal fissure were prescribed either topical 2% (n = 19) or 4% (n = 18) diazepam cream between January 2013 and February 2015. We retrospectively analyzed their responses to treatment. All 19 patients using 2% diazepam cream experienced a positive response in pain, whereas 47.4% experienced a complete response, with a numerical rating scale (NRS) score of 0 (0–10). Eighty-eight percent of patients using 4% dose had a positive response in pain, whereas 23.5% experienced a complete response. Ninety-four percent of patients using 2% dose had a positive response in anal bleeding, whereas 68.8% experienced a complete response with an anal bleeding score (ABS) of 2 (2–9). Ninety-four percent of patients using 4% dose had a positive response in anal bleeding, whereas 64.7% experienced a complete response. Only 1 patient reported a side effect from diazepam cream—perianal pruritus. Both 2% and 4% topical diazepam provided significant pain and bleeding relief from chronic anal fissures that were refractory to conventional therapies. There were insignificant differences when assessing independent comparisons for pain and bleeding between the doses. PMID:28514300

  16. Artificial recharge through a well in fissured carbonate rock, west St. Paul, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reeder, Harold O.; Wood, Warren W.; Ehrlich, G.G.; Sun, Ren Jen

    1976-01-01

    The injection test demonstrated that it is hydrologically feasible to recharge the Prairie du Chien Group and the Jordan Sandstone artificially through wells completed in the Prairie du Chien Group. The fissures in the Prairie du Chien Group act as conduits through which water spreads. The water passes into the Jordan Sandstone from the Prairie du Chien over a larger area than it would if it were injected directly into the Jordan.

  17. Shear Bond Strength and Microleakage of a New Self-etching/Self-adhesive Pit and Fissure Sealant.

    PubMed

    Schuldt, Christoph; Birlbauer, Sebastian; Pitchika, Vinay; Crispin, Alexander; Hickel, Reinhard; Ilie, Nicoleta; Kühnisch, Jan

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate shear bond strength and microleakage of a new self-etching/self-adhesive fissure sealant on prismless enamel compared with conventional fissure sealing. A total of 90 extracted third molars were assigned to 3 main groups: group 1: self-etching/self-adhesive sealant, without acid etching; group 2: self-etching/self-adhesive sealant, with prior acid etching; group 3: conventional fissure sealing (control group). After specimen preparation, each group was divided into 3 subgroups according to storage time (1-day water storage, 3-month water storage, and 1-day water storage followed by 5000x thermocycling). The shear bond strength was determined with a universal testing machine, according to ISO standard 29022. Afterwards, the failure mode was analyzed. An additional 24 third molars were used for microleakage assessment. The fissure pattern was sealed in strict accordance with the manufacturers' instructions. After thermocycling, the dye penetration was examined. Data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U-Test at a significance level of 0.05. The shear bond strength of the self-etching/self-adhesive fissure sealant without prior acid etching was significantly lower (4.3 MPa) than that of the self-etching/self-adhesive fissure sealant with prior acid etching (17.1 MPa) and the conventional fissure sealing (19.1 MPa). Microleakage was significantly lower in the control group (1.1%) and in the group with the self-etching/self-adhesive sealant with prior acid etching (0.8%) compared to the group that used the self-etching/self-adhesive material alone (49.4%). The self-etching/self-adhesive fissure sealant can be recommended for clinical use when enamel is etched with phosphoric acid. The self-etching/self-adhesive sealant without prior acid etching showed significantly inferior results.

  18. Topical 0.2% glyceryl trinitrate ointment for anal fissures: long-term efficacy in routine clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Jonas, M.; Lund, J. N.; Scholefield, J. H.

    2002-09-01

    OBJECTIVE: Randomized controlled trials have reported fissure healing rates of 60-70% using topical 0.2% GTN ointment, but the effectiveness of this therapy in routine clinical practice, particularly in the long term, is uncertain. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of topical GTN for anal fissures in an outpatient setting. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A case note review and postal questionnaire survey were undertaken for patients with a diagnosis of anal fissure dispensed 0.2% GTN ointment from one hospital pharmacy over a two year period (June 1996-May 1998). RESULTS: Ninety-three patients (53 male) applied 0.2% GTN ointment twice daily to the anoderm for anal fissure. They were reviewed on average 8 (2-16), weeks later, by which time 57 (61%) fissures had healed, 33 persisted and 3 patients were lost to follow up. Seventy-two patients (41male), median age 42 (22-83) years, returned completed questionnaires (77% response rate). Forty-nine (68%) had healed with GTN, but 25 had recurrent symptoms after a median of 6 (1-18) months. Sixteen of those patients reporting symptomatic recurrence were prescribed further GTN for a recurrent fissure: 14 (88%) healed, but 2 persisted, and had surgery. In the other nine patients symptoms resolved spontaneously. Thirty-five (49%) experienced headaches, 3 (4%) discontinuing treatment as a result. The median follow up was 25 (13-36) months. CONCLUSION: 0.2% GTN heals 60% of fissures in the outpatient setting but half the patients develop headaches. Up to one third of healed fissures may recur within 18 months but the majority respond to further GTN. Only 4% of patients initially healed with GTN later require sphincterotomy for recurrences.

  19. Randomized clinical trial of transcutaneous electrical posterior tibial nerve stimulation versus lateral internal sphincterotomy for treatment of chronic anal fissure.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Tamer; Youssef, Mohamed; Thabet, Waleed; Lotfy, Ahmed; Shaat, Reham; Abd-Elrazek, Eman; Farid, Mohamed

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of transcutaneous electrical posterior tibial nerve stimulation in treatment of patients with chronic anal fissure and to compare it with the conventional lateral internal sphincterotomy. Consecutive patients with chronic anal fissure were randomly allocated into two treatment groups: transcutaneous electrical posterior tibial nerve stimulation group and lateral internal sphincterotomy group. The primary outcome measures were number of patients with clinical improvement and healed fissure. Secondary outcome measures were complications, VAS pain scores, Wexner's constipation and Peascatori anal incontinence scores, anorectal manometry, and quality of life index. Seventy-three patients were randomized into two groups of 36 patients who were subjected to transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and 37 patients who underwent lateral internal sphincterotomy. All (100%) patients in lateral internal sphincterotomy group had clinical improvement at one month following the procedure in contrast to 27 (75%) patients in transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation group. Recurrence of anal fissure after one year was reported in one (2.7%) and 11 (40.7%) patients in lateral internal sphincterotomy and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation groups respectively. Resting anal pressure and functional anal canal length were significantly reduced after lateral internal sphincterotomy. Transcutaneous electrical posterior tibial nerve stimulation for treatment of chronic anal fissure is a novel, non-invasive procedure and has no complications. However, given the higher rate of clinical improvement and fissure healing and the lower rate of fissure recurrence, lateral internal sphincterotomy remains the gold standard for treating chronic anal fissure. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Long-term performance of resin based fissure sealants placed in a general dental practice.

    PubMed

    Hevinga, M A; Opdam, N J M; Bronkhorst, E M; Truin, G J; Huysmans, M C D N J M

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present retrospective study was to evaluate the long-term performance of resin based fissure sealants applied in a general dental practice. Regularly attending patients visiting the practice between July 2006 until November 2007 and who had received sealants before 1st of January 2000 were included in the study. Date of placement of a sealant in posterior non-discoloured permanent teeth and replacement by a restoration was recorded. In a clinical examination occlusal surfaces were scored for (partial) sealant loss and fissure discolouration. The restoration profile of the patient was assessed as low or high, based on the number of restorations placed per year since the first sealant. Sealants had been applied by four dentists and a dental hygienist. 1204 sealants were placed in 148 patients. After a mean follow-up time of 11.6 years, 41.3% of placed sealants were still fully retained and 11.4% were replaced by a restoration. Failure rates were significantly higher in high than in low restoration profile patients and in molars compared to premolars. In those fissures with lost or partially lost sealants, discolouration frequently occurred (40% of all surfaces) irrespective of restoration profile of the patient. In this retrospective practice based study, long-term performance of sealants depended on restoration profile of the individual patient and the tooth type (molar versus premolar).

  1. A two-year clinical evaluation of glass ionomer and ormocer based fissure sealants.

    PubMed

    Guler, C; Yilmaz, Y

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study provides further data comparing retention, marginal integrity and caries preventive effects of two fissure sealants (glass ionomer based; GC Fuji VII Capsule [Fuji VII] and ormocer based; Admira Seal [AS]) in children. This study was designed as a randomized single-blind clinical trial. The permanent first molars (PFMs) of 50 children, 7-13 years of age (mean age: 8.9 +/- 1.3 years), were sealed with a split-mouth design. Fissure sealants applied to the PFMs according to the manufacturer's recommendations by one pediatric dentist. Clinical evaluation of the sealants was carried out to record retention, marginal integrity and presence of caries at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months after placement by the other pediatric dentist. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox's regression models were used to estimate the probability of two sealants success. Alpha and Bravo retention rates at the end of follow-up were 13% and 80% for Fuji VII and 3% and 83% for AS, respectively. For retention and marginal integrity between fissure sealants was found similar survival rates (p > 0.05). After 24 months, presence of caries was 16% for Fuji VII and 32% for AS (p < 0.05). Fuji VII and AS exhibited similar retention and marginal integrity during 24 months. However Fuji VII was showed better results than AS for caries preventive effect. Consequently, Fuji VII sealants may be a better choice for preventing occlusal caries.

  2. Endoscopic endonasal anatomy of superior orbital fissure and orbital apex regions: critical considerations for clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Dallan, Iacopo; Castelnuovo, Paolo; de Notaris, Matteo; Sellari-Franceschini, Stefano; Lenzi, Riccardo; Turri-Zanoni, Mario; Battaglia, Paolo; Prats-Galino, Alberto

    2013-05-01

    The superior orbital fissure is a critical three-dimensional space connecting the middle cranial fossa and the orbit. From an endoscopic viewpoint, only the medial aspect has a clinical significance. It presents a critical relationship with the lateral sellar compartment, the pterygopalatine fossa and the middle cranial fossa. The connective tissue layers and neural and vascular structures of this region are described. The role of Muller's muscle is confirmed, and the utility of the maxillary and optic strut is outlined. Muller's muscle extends for the whole length of the inferior orbital fissure, passes over the maxillary strut and enters the superior orbital fissure, representing a critical surgical landmark. Dividing the tendon between the medial and inferior rectus muscle allows the identification of the main trunk of the oculomotor nerve, and a little laterally, it is usually possible to visualize the first part of the ophthalmic artery. Based on a better knowledge of anatomy, we trust that this area could be readily addressed in clinical situations requiring an extended approach in proximity of the orbital apex.

  3. Squamotympanic fissure in the Ngandong and Sambungmacan hominids: a reply to Delson et al.

    PubMed

    Durband, Arthur C

    2002-03-01

    In the present study the course of the squamotympanic fissure of the mandibular fossa is examined in several fossil hominid specimens. While previous work by several authors had found that the course of this fissure was potentially autapomorphic for the Ngandong and Sambungmacan fossil samples from Indonesia, a more recent study performed by Delson et al. (Anat Rec 2001; 262:380--397) reported that a number of other fossils, including OH 9, Sangiran 4 and 17, and KNM WT 15000 were similar to the Ngandong and Sambungmacan specimens in the expression of this feature. To test these findings, those specimens purported to share similarities with Ngandong and Sambungmacan were examined. The results of this study indicate clearly differing morphologies between the Ngandong and Sambungmacan fossils, on the one hand, and the four African and Indonesian fossils named by Delson et al. (2001). Hence, the course of the squamotympanic fissure remains a potentially autapomorphic feature separating the Ngandong and Sambungmacan samples from the remaining specimens allocated to Homo erectus. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. The Effect of Fluoride Varnish on Enamel Shear Bond Strength of Pit and Fissure Sealants.

    PubMed

    Frazer, Rebecca A; Platt, Jeffrey A; Sanders, Brian J; Yepes, Juan F; Jones, James E

    2017-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of fluoride varnish on the enamel shear bond strength of pit and fissure sealants. Ninety-six teeth were divided into three duplicated test groups: sealant (S)/sealant thermocycle (ST) received Clinpro Sealant only; varnish sealant (VS)/varnish sealant thermocycle (VST) received five percent sodium fluoride (NaF) varnish plus sealant (VPS); and VPS/VPS thermocycle (VPST) received NaF, polish with Clinpro Prophy Paste, plus sealant. One set of each group (ST, VST, VPST) was thermocycled to represent aging, and one set (S, VS, PVS) was not. The shear bond strengths for the thermocycled groups and nonthermocycled groups were determined, and two-way analysis of variance tested the effects of thermocycling and varnish. Thermocycling did not have a significant effect on the peak stresses of the groups (P=0.0552), so sets were combined. The peak stress for S/ST was significantly higher than for VS/VST (P<0.0001). The peak stress for VPS/VPST was significantly higher than for VS/VST (P<0.0001). The peak stress for S/ST was significantly higher than VPS/VPST (P=0.025). Fluoride varnish applied immediately before pit and fissure sealant placement negatively affected the shear bond strength of the sealant. Mechanically cleaning a fluoride varnish-coated tooth with prophy paste did not provide pit and fissure sealant enamel shear bond strengths comparable to those of untreated enamel.

  5. Chronic anal fissure: 1994 and a decade later--are we doing better?

    PubMed

    Floyd, Nadine Duhan; Kondylis, Laurie; Kondylis, Philip D; Reilly, John C

    2006-03-01

    Debate exists regarding whether the use of topical agents and Botox injections are as efficacious as sphincterotomy for the treatment of chronic anal fissure. A retrospective review was performed to assess changes in management and outcomes of chronic anal fissure care in a community based colorectal practice between the individual years 1994 and 2003. Forty-seven patients in 1994 underwent lateral partial internal sphincterotomy and had a 100% healing rate. Thirty-nine patients were treated in 2003, with 32 undergoing Botox injection and 7 undergoing sphincterotomy initially. Of the Botox patients, 35% had recurrence, and 7 subsequently required sphincterotomy. Ultimate healing rates in 2003 were 97%. Time to heal was markedly prolonged in 2003 compared with 1994. Complication rates were similar, and there was no lifestyle-altering incontinence. Our review documents a significant change in the community approach to chronic fissure management. The addition of multiple treatment modalities prolongs time to healing from initial evaluation, but they allowed 72% of patients to avoid the need for permanent sphincter division while maintaining ultimate rates of healing.

  6. Consumption of red-hot chili pepper increases symptoms in patients with acute anal fissures.

    PubMed

    Gupta, P J

    2008-01-01

    Red-hot chili pepper and other spices have been blamed for causing or exacerbating symptoms of anal pathologies like anal fissure and hemorrhoids. This study was aimed to determine if consumption of chilies increases symptoms of acute anal fissures. Individual patients were randomized to receive capsules containing chili or placebo for one week in addition to analgesics and fiber supplement. Patients were asked to note score for symptoms like pain, anal burning, and pruritus during the study period. After one week, cross over treatment was administered to the same group of patients with the same methodology and results were noted at the end of two weeks. Fifty subjects were recruited for this study 43 of them completed the trial (22 in the chili group and 21 in the placebo group). The daily mean pain score was significantly lower in the placebo group in the study period. [Score 2.05 in chili group and 0.97 in placebo group, p<0.001]. There was a significant burning sensation experienced by the patients in the chili group (score 1.85 for the chili group vs. 0.71 for the placebo group, p<0.001). Patient's mean recorded improvement score was significantly higher after taking placebo. 81.3% patients preferred placebo while 13.9% preferred chilies. Two patients had no preference. Consumption of chili does increase the symptoms of acute anal fissure and reduces patient compliance.

  7. Fissurectomy combined with botulinum toxin A injection for medically resistant chronic anal fissures.

    PubMed

    Witte, M E; Klaase, J M; Koop, R

    2010-07-01

    Chemical sphincterotomy, the use of pharmacological agents to reduce anal sphincter resting pressure, has become more and more popular in the treatment of chronic anal fissures (CAFs). It offers the possibility to avoid a lateral internal sphincterotomy and its associated risk of incontinence. In our hospital, patient with a chronic anal fissure are consecutively treated with isosorbide dinitrate 1% ointment, applied 6 times a day for 8 weeks, followed by diltiazem 2% ointment, applied 2 times a day for 8 weeks and Botulin Toxin A injections (Dysport; Ipsen, Hoofddorp, the Netherlands) in the internal anal sphincter. In a previous study (1), we describe high healing rates with this regime. Objective The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of the combination of fissurectomy and Botulin Toxin A in the treatment of CAFs. Twenty-one patients (10 male patients, median age 48 years) with persistent symptoms of chronic anal fissures after following the above mentioned treatment, were enrolled in this study. Fissurectomy was combined with Botulinum Toxin A (80 U of Dysport) under regional anaesthesia in day care. Results After 12 weeks 19/21 CAFs (90%) had healed. Median follow-up was 16 (9-30) months. No recurrences were seen. Fissurectomy in combination with Botulinum Toxin A injection in the internal anal sphincter is an effective treatment for medically resistant CAFs.

  8. Treatment of chronic anal fissures and associated stenosis by autologous adipose tissue transplant: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lolli, Paola; Malleo, Giuseppe; Rigotti, Gino

    2010-04-01

    A substantial body of recent evidence suggests that autologous adipose tissue transplant promotes healing in different lesions associated with local ischemia. We report the outcome of lipoaspirate transplant in hard-to-treat chronic anal fissures. Eight patients were included in this pilot study, 5 with single and 3 with multiple fissures. All had intense anal pain and had previously undergone proctologic surgery, with internal sphincterotomy performed in 6 patients. Severe stenosis was present in 3 patients and moderate stenosis in 2. Preoperative assessment included anoscopy, anorectal manometry, colonoscopy, and microbiological tests to exclude inflammatory, neoplastic, or infectious diseases. Surgical treatment consisted of transplant of purified autologous fat retrieved from the hypogastrium. Follow-up was scheduled after 1 week, at 2, 3, 6, and 12 months, and thereafter on a yearly basis. All of the patients were discharged several hours after surgery. No early postoperative complication was observed. Complete healing and pain remission were achieved in 6 patients (75%), 4 of whom were treated in a single session, whereas 2 patients required 2 and 3 sessions. Anal stenosis was resolved in 4 of 5 patients (80%). The therapy was unsuccessful in 2 patients (25%). Mean follow-up was 18 months (range, 3-36 months). Perianal autologous fat transplant can be safely performed for the treatment of complex anal fissures. It is well tolerated and offers encouraging results, although further research is warranted because of the small number of patients treated and the relatively short follow-up time.

  9. Long-term follow-up after combined fissurectomy and Botox injection for chronic anal fissures.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Th; Hetzer, F H; Dindo, D; Demartines, N; Clavien, P A; Hahnloser, D

    2007-09-01

    Chronic anal fissures are difficult to treat. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the outcome of combined fissurectomy and injection of botulinum toxin Type A (BT). Between January 2001 and August 2004, 40 patients (21 women), median age 37 years (range 18 to 57), underwent fissurectomy and BT injection. Fissurectomy was performed followed by injection of 10 U of BT into the internal anal sphincter on both sides of the fissure. All patients were clinically checked 6 weeks after the operation. At 1 year, patients were sent a detailed questionnaire regarding symptoms, recurrence and further treatment for evaluation of long-term results. At 6 weeks, 38 patients (95%) were free of symptoms. No adverse effects were detected. The response rate of questionnaires was 93%; the median follow-up was 1 year (range 0.9 to 1.6). In the long-term, a recurrence was found in four patients. These patients were treated successfully with repeated fissurectomy and BT injections and salvage procedures, respectively. Overall, the success rate of combined fissurectomy and BT injection was 79%. Combined fissurectomy and Botox injection for chronic anal fissure is an excellent and safe procedure with low morbidity and a high healing rate.

  10. A Nonoperative Approach for Neurosurgical Management of a Sylvian Fissure Dermoid Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Haider, Ali S; Kee, Clarence; DeBacker, Danielle L; Watson, Ian T; Arrey, Eliel N; Osumah, Tijani; Chen, Chen; Alam, Maryam; Toussaint III, L. Gerard

    2016-01-01

    The nonoperative management of sylvian fissure dermoid/epidermoid cysts presents a risk that is difficult to quantify. With rupture, potentially fatal complications such as chemical meningitis, hydrocephalus, fever, seizure, or meningeal irritation may occur. In this paper, we present an asymptomatic case of such a cyst with imaging evidence of prior rupture, and we review the literature for the likelihood of future complications. We use for illustration a case of a 68-year-old woman with imaging features of a sylvian fissure epithelial inclusion cyst who refused surgical intervention and review the literature for further investigation. Conservative management of our patient has not resulted in a complication in over five years, with the continued offer of surgical resection rejected by the patient. This article suggests the possibility of a safe, non-operative management of dermoid/epidermoid cysts of the sylvian fissure; however, the paucity of literature calls for larger studies yielding reliable data regarding the comparative risk of nonoperative management, including the rate of spontaneous rupture, versus the risk and complication incidence of surgical intervention. PMID:27909631

  11. Sphincterotomy with radio frequency surgery: a new treatment technique of fissure in ano and associated pathologies.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Pravin J

    2003-03-01

    Anal fissures are dealt with using traditional approaches aiming at relieving the anal spasm and minimizing the anal sphincter pressure. Nevertheless, pathologies like sentinel tags, anal papillae, anal polyps, or small hemorrhoids which are often associated with chronic fissures are either considered innocuous, therefore left untreated, or are removed by conventional techniques. In this retrospective, non-randomized study, we performed lateral internal sphincterotomy, which was followed by radio frequency surgical procedures to eliminate the associated pathologies mentioned above. In all, 283 patients were studied. All the patients treated by the method of lateral subcutaneous internal sphincterotomy followed by radio frequency surgical procedure for aforesaid associated pathologies were made comfortable on account of the reduction in pain and irritation during defecation, the pricking or foreign body sensation in the anus and pruritus or wetness around the anal verge. A follow up after 18 months showed that only 7 % of patients had recurrence of symptoms or local signs. This combined approach has been found to be an effective, easy and quick way of treating chronic fissure in ano with associated pathologies

  12. Arteries and Veins of the Sylvian Fissure and Insula: Microsurgical Anatomy.

    PubMed

    Delion, Matthieu; Mercier, Philippe; Brassier, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    We present a vascular anatomical study of the arteries and veins of the sylvian fissure and insula.A good knowledge of the sylvian fissure, the insula, and their vascular relationship would seem mandatory before performing surgery in this area, whatever the type of surgery (aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, insular tumors).We start with the sylvian fissure and insula morphology, followed by the MCA description and its perforators, with special attention paid to the insular perforators. We demonstrate that the long insular perforators penetrating in the superior part of the posterior short gyrus and long gyri vascularize, respectively, the corticonuclear and corticospinal fasciculi. We particularly insist too on three anatomical constants regarding the vascularization of the insula, already described in the literature: The superior periinsular sulcus is the only sulcus on the lateral surface of the brain without an artery along its axis; the superior branch of the MCA supplies the anterior insular pole and both the anterior and middle short gyri in 100 % of cases; in at least 90 % of cases, the artery that supplied the central insular sulcus continued on to become the central artery.We end with the anatomical study of the veins and cisterns.

  13. Prediction of caries development for molar fissures with semiquantitative mutans streptococci test.

    PubMed

    Splieth, C; Bernhardt, O

    1999-06-01

    Risk-specific caries prevention requires validated and simple parameters for a caries risk assessment. The aim of the study was to evaluate the validity of a site-specific chair-side mutans streptococci (MS) test for the prediction of caries incidence in fissures. In 230 6- to 7-yr-old children, occlusal plaque samples of teeth 16 and 36 were cultured with Dentocult SM tests at 37 degrees C for 24 hr. Caries (DMFS), initial caries, sealants, and a plaque index (QHI) were recorded and oral hygiene habits were assessed. Not erupted, carious, filled and sealed teeth were excluded from the analysis (n = 154). After 2 yr, the status of the fissures was re-examined, and a fluoride history was recorded with a questionnaire filled out by the children's parents. Sealed teeth were excluded again (n = 54). With a classification of MS score 0 or 1 as low and MS score 2 or 3 as high caries risk, 92% agreement was reached by two independently working examiners. The MS scores and caries incidence correlated significantly. Seventy-eight % of the caries progression in fissures was prognosed correctly. Sensitivity was 50%, specificity 82%, positive predictive value 29%, and negative predictive value 92%. Children with caries progression tended to have lower fluoride scores. Low MS scores were most likely to be associated with low caries incidence, while high mutans streptococci scores seem to be partially compensated by other parameters.

  14. Systemic review of the prevention of pit and fissure caries of permanent molars by resin sealants in children in China.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jun; Gu, Ying; Zhu, Ling; Hu, Yukung; Sun, Ming; Xue, Haowei

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between pit and fissure sealants and the prevention of dental caries in permanent molars of children in China. The Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions was followed. Articles published in English and Chinese from 2002 to 2013 were selected. All these studies were randomized clinical trials related to pit and fissure sealants on caries prevention. Data were analyzed using Software Review Manager 5.1. A search of the four largest Chinese medical literature databases and the PubMed/Medline database yielded a total of 397 clinical research studies about the effects of pit and fissure sealants on the prevention of dental caries; 20 original research studies were selected. In this meta-analysis, a total of 12 187 participants were included. Statistical analyses demonstrated a significant association between pit and fissure sealants and dental caries prevention for a 6-month follow-up period (combined odds ratio = 0.06, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.32, P < 0.0001). For other follow ups, there was a trend in pit and fissure sealants preventing the occurrence of dental caries. Current clinical evidence suggests that pit and fissure sealants are effective for dental caries prevention. Sealants should be placed as part of an overall caries prevention approach. Further research with larger sample sizes and rigorously-designed clinical trials are required to corroborate the current results. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  15. Physical, mechanical and rheological characterization of resin-based pit and fissure sealants compared to flowable resin composites.

    PubMed

    Beun, Sébastien; Bailly, Christian; Devaux, Jacques; Leloup, Gaëtane

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the mechanical and rheological properties of resin-based pit and fissure sealants to flowable resin composites in order to define clinical indications based on these properties. Eight flowable resin composites (Admira Flow, Filtek Supreme XT Flow, FlowLine, Grandio Flow, Point-4 Flowable, Premise Flowable, Revolution Formula 2, X-Flow) and four resin-based pit and fissure sealants (Clinpro, Delton FS(+), Estiseal F, Guardian Seal) were used in this study. Their filler weight content was measured by thermogravimetric analysis. Mechanical properties were measured: dynamic and static moduli of elasticity, flexural strength and Vickers microhardness. Rheological measurements were performed using a dynamic oscillation rheometer. Flowable resin composites have by far better mechanical properties than pit and fissure sealants, except for Delton FS(+). All the materials tested are non-Newtonian, shear thinning fluids. They all showed elasticity even at the lowest frequencies but elasticity differs pretty much from one material to another. Resin-based pit and fissure sealants seem appropriate for preventive pit and fissure sealing. For enlarged fissures, it can be assumed that flowable resin composites with low elasticity at low frequency are more appropriate. Copyright © 2011 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Distributed Computing for Seismic Data Retrieval using FISSURES DHI Client FMI Implimented from MatSeis 1.9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, D. M.; Li, Q.; Creager, K. C.; Ning, R.; Crotwell, H. P.; Zuzlewski, S.; Hellman, S. B.; Schoch, K. S.; Laughbon, C. J.; Stromme, S. R.

    2004-12-01

    Three software development efforts have recently combined to allow a seamless method for obtaining data from the IRIS DMC over the Internet and analyzing it in MATLAB. During the past few years IRIS has constructed the initial framework and definitions for FISSURES servers and Data Handling Interface (DHI) clients. FISSURES uses the distributed computing language Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA), which allows software systems to work across the Internet in a platform independent and computer-language neutral manner. Starting from the FISSURES object model three seismic services have been defined: event, network and seismogram. From these three object types a DHI client is used to access information through FISSURES services. Using the University of Washington developed FISSURES-Matlab-Interface (FMI) DHI client, all three FISSURES objects can be accessed via the Internet and downloaded into local MATLAB objects, allowing access to earthquake event catalogs, seismograms, network and instrument information. The DHI client FMI can be implemented from MatSeis. MatSeis, developed at Sandia National Laboratory, is a MATLAB based, Graphical User Interface (GUI) controlled software package with seismic data visualization, signal processing, and database importing and exporting capabilities, to list just a few. In this poster, we will discuss the seismic data retrieval currently prototyped for the IRIS DMC, as well as the planned connections to the Northern California Earthquake Data Center (NCEDC), Southern California Earthquake Data Center (SCEDC), and South Carolina Earth Physics Project (SCEPP) data center.

  17. Treatment of anal fissures using a combination of minoxidil and lignocaine: a randomized, double-blind trial.

    PubMed

    Muthukumarassamy, Rajakannu; Robinson, Smile S; Sarath, Sistla Chandra; Raveendran, R

    2005-01-01

    Anal fissures are associated with hypertonia of the internal anal sphincter and pain. We evaluated the efficacy of local application of a combination of minoxidil and lignocaine in healing anal fissures. In this prospective, randomized, double-blind study, 90 patients with anal fissure were recruited. Patients received local applications of ointments containing 5% lignocaine (n=28), 0.5% minoxidil (n=36), or both (n=26). Healing of anal fissure at 6 weeks was used as the primary end-point. Rates of complete healing of fissure were similar in the three groups (lignocaine alone 8/27, minoxidil alone 10/34, combination 7/22; p=ns). Mean (SD) time taken for complete healing with combination treatment [1.9 (0.6) weeks] was significantly shorter than that with minoxidil alone (3.1 [1.7] weeks; p=0.001) or with lignocaine alone (3.3 [0.8] weeks; p=0.002). Rates of pain relief were similar in the three groups. Stoppage of bleeding occurred more often with combination treatment than with lignocaine alone. No patient had systemic or local side effects. Combination treatment with minoxidil and lignocaine helps in faster healing of anal fissures and provides better symptomatic relief than either drug alone.

  18. Botulinum toxin injection versus lateral internal sphincterotomy in the treatment of chronic anal fissure: a non-randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Giral, Adnan; Memişoğlu, Kemal; Gültekin, Yücel; İmeryüz, Neşe; Kalaycı, Cem; Ulusoy, Nefise B; Tözün, Nurdan

    2004-01-01

    Background Although lateral internal sphincterotomy is the gold-standard treatment for chronic anal fissure, intrasphincteric injection of botulinum toxin seems to be a reliable new option. The aim of this non-randomized study is to compare the effect of lateral internal sphincterotomy and botulinum toxin injection treatments on the outcome and reduction of anal sphincter pressures in patients with chronic anal fissure. Methods Patients with chronic anal fissure were treated with either botulinum toxin injection or lateral internal sphincterotomy by their own choice. Maximal resting pressure and maximal squeeze pressure measurements were performed before and 2 weeks after treatments by anal manometry. Patients were followed for fissure relapse during 14 months. Results Twenty-one consecutive outpatients with posterior chronic anal fissure were enrolled. Eleven patients underwent surgery and ten patients received botulinum toxin injection treatment. Before the treatment, anal pressures were found to be similar in both groups. After the treatment, the maximal resting pressures were reduced from 104 ± 22 mmHg to 86 ± 15 mmHg in the surgery group (p < 0.05) and from 101 ± 23 mmHg to 83 ± 24 mmHg in the botulinum toxin group (p < 0.05). The mean maximal squeeze pressures were reduced from 70 ± 27 mmHg to 61 ± 32 mmHg (p > 0.05) in the surgery group, and from 117 ± 62 mmHg to 76 ± 34 (p < 0.01) in the botulinum toxin group. The fissures were healed in 70 percent of patients in the botulinum group and 82 percent in the surgery group (p > 0.05). There were no relapses during the 14 months of follow up. Conclusion Lateral internal sphincterotomy and botulinum toxin injection treatments both seem to be equally effective in the treatment of chronic anal fissure. PMID:15035674

  19. Comparative study of lateral internal sphincterotomy versus local 0.2% glyceryl trinitrate ointment for the treatment of chronic anal fissure.

    PubMed

    Siddique, Md Ibrahim; Murshed, Khandker Manzoor; Majid, M A

    2008-04-01

    The gold standard surgical treatment of chronic anal fissure is lateral internal sphincterotomy which lowers the resting anal pressure and effectively heals the majority of fissures. Local application of 0.2% glyceryl trinitrate ointment has been used as an agent for chemical sphincterotomy, causing temporary alleviation of sphincter spasm and allowing the fissure to heal without compromising the anal continence. The aim of the present study was to compare the results of surgical sphincterotomy with that of local 0.2% glyceryl trinitrate ointment in the treatment of chronic anal fissure. Seventy adult patients between the age of 18 and 50 years with chronic anal fissure were randomized in a prospective trial to receive either surgical sphincterotomy or 0.2% glyceryl trinitrate ointment locally. Patients were followed up at 2 weeks' interval for 10 weeks. Symptom relief, fissure healing and continence scores were the outcomes assessed. Six patients were excluded for protocol violations. Surgical sphincterotomy was significantly more effective in providing pain relief and was associated with significantly better fissure healing rates at 6 weeks and 10 weeks (both p < 0.001). There were substantial problems with compliance in ointment group related to slow healing and longer time needed for symptomatic relief. Minor incontinence was 6% in sphincterotomy group and none in ointment group (p > 0.05). Considering early symptomatic relief, rapid fissure healing and better patient compliance surgical sphincterotomy is the treatment of choice for chronic anal fissure.

  20. Construction of an Ice-Confined Basaltic Fissure Complex: Sveifluháls, SW Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercurio, E. C.; Skilling, I. P.

    2010-12-01

    The study of ice-confined volcanoes is important for understanding sub-ice volcanic activity and its effects on overlying ice in the past and present. While we have good understanding of the processes and products of single-vent ice-confined eruptions, very little is understood about the processes and products of multi-vent, multi-fissure, ice-confined eruption complexes (i.e., “tindar”) like Sveifluháls, even though more than 1000 of these structures exist in Iceland. At Sveifluháls (elev. 400 m ASL), the DRE volume is a minimum of 2.9 cubic km. The complex is approximately 21 km long, 1.5 km wide, 250 m thick, and comprised of about 60 discrete fissure segments oriented NE-SW and ranging from 0.2 km to 1 km in length. Average vent spacing of individual eruptive centers is approximately 0.7 km, and individual fissure segments are generally 0.1 to 0.5 km apart. The gross structure of the ridge comprises a 60 m sequence of basal lavas emplaced into subglacial water, overlain by about 100 m of mostly non-bedded and water-deposited phreatomagmatic lapilli tuff, and capped by a narrower zone of bedded phreatomagmatic lapilli tuff (about 80 m thick). There is no evidence of any significant time gap from one vent to another, and fissure segments similarly lack evidence of an eruptive lag time. XRF data show very similar major element compositions along the complex, further indicating that the eruptions were fed from the same magma reservoir over a short period. Intrusions that propagated into unconsolidated wet sediment played an important role in the generation of intrusive pillows and coarse pillow breccia (peperites), and locally fed extrusive pillow lavas on subaqueous paleo-slopes of tuff cones. Such intrusive pillows should clearly be avoided when selecting samples for volatile analysis and former ice thickness interpretation. High-level dike emplacement is also one of the causes of failure of large bedded tephra blocks that slid down the ridge flanks and

  1. Fissure distribution at Mauna Loa (Hawaii) as an example to understand shallow magma transfer at volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Marra, Daniele; Acocella, Valerio; Trusdell, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Mauna Loa (Hawaii) is the largest active shield volcano on the Island of Hawai'i, covering more than half of it and rising to 4,169 meters above sea level. The volcano hosts the Moku'aweoweo summit caldera, from which two elongated rift zones depart: the Northeast Rift Zone (NERZ) and the Southwest Rift Zone (SWRZ). Most of Mauna Loa's eruptions begin with lava fountains from a series of fissure vents in the summit region and then often migrate to vents down either rift zone. Mauna Loa volcano shows a distinctive feature, being characterized by minor radial eruptive fissures (not related to the two main rifts) on the NW flank only. This study tries to explain such a selective distribution of vents, and thus of shallow magma transfer. To this aim, we run numerical models with different amount of opening of the two rift zones of Mauna Loa, as well as different amount of slip on its SE flank. Our results suggest that the selective occurrence of the radial fissures may be explained by the competition between two processes: a) rift intrusion (especially along the NERZ), promoting the development of radial dikes along the NW flank; b) flank slip, inhibiting the development of the radial dikes on the SE flank. The opening of the two non-parallel main rift zones of Mauna Loa promotes the local extension necessary to develop the radial dikes on the NW flank. A general model for the development of a third branch of radial rift, which may be also applied to Mt. Etna and some volcanoes on the Canary Islands, is proposed.

  2. Efficacy of management algorithm for reducing need for sphincterotomy in chronic anal fissures.

    PubMed

    Sinha, R; Kaiser, A M

    2012-06-01

    Lateral internal sphincterotomy is the most effective treatment for chronic anal fissure (CAF), but carries a risk of faecal incontinence. We aimed to analyse efficacy and acceptance of a treatment algorithm in reducing the rate of necessary sphincterotomies. Patients with CAF seen from 2001 to 2010 were retrospectively analysed. All patients were offered all steps of the algorithm nitroglycerine (NTG) → Botox (BTX) → surgery, unless symptoms or patient preference demanded a more aggressive treatment. Patients were followed up in clinic, and treatment was advanced if a step either failed or caused intolerable side effects. Two hundred and nine patients were included in the analysis. Mean duration of symptoms was 25.6 months and mean follow up 16 months. One hundred and 41 patients started on NTG, 36 on BTX, and 31 went straight to surgery. One patient opted for no treatment. Symptoms persisted in 58 (41.1%) of 141 NTG patients. Forty-five (31.9% of NTG subset) were advanced to BTX and 13 (9.2% of subset) to surgery. Of the 81 (36 primary + 45 secondary) BTX patients (38.8% of the total), only 11 (13.6% of subset) required surgery. A total of 55 (31 primary + 24 secondary; 26.3%) patients needed surgery: two (3.6%) fissures did not heal, one patient developed an abscess, 14 (25.5%) had prolonged wound healing and two (3.6%) developed a recurrent fissure after the sphincterotomy had healed. Our algorithm is effective in CAF and the majority of patients respond to conservative management. Only 26.3% of all patients require surgery, which is effective but also carries some temporary morbidity. © 2011 The Authors. Colorectal Disease © 2011 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  3. [MORPHOGENESIS OF THE ANODERM STRUCTURAL CHANGES IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC ANAL FISSURES].

    PubMed

    Iftodiy, A; Kozlovska, I; Davydenko, I; Tiuleneva, E; Besedinska, E

    2015-09-01

    The objective of the study is to find peculiarities of the anoderm structural changes of morphogenesis in patients with chronic anal fissures (CAF) for further substantiation of therapeutic methods. The material of the study was the tissues of dissected anal complex (bottom and margins of ulcer, hypertrophic anal papilla, sentinel pile) from 33 patients. Histological examination found the defect of the stratified squamous epithelium. The epidermis of the marginal area of the wound, hypertrophic with signs of parakeratosis and acanthosis, hanged over the bottom. The surface of the bottom and margins of the wound in 31 cases (94%) was with thickening of rough fibrous masses. The bottom of ulcer in 29 (88%) cases is presented by sclerosed connective tissue. An increased amount of collagen fibers was found forming fuchsinophil is bundles. In 24 (73%) cases the scar on the fuchsine bottom of fissure was 3,4 mm (0,3±0,02) in deep. There are separate complexes of newly formed blood vessels with prevailing localization in the lateral walls of the wound. The blood vessels were with main by fibrosis in deep areas of the wound. Moderate interstitial edema and focal interstitial inflammatory infiltration mostly of lymphocytes and fibroblasts were detected; the amount of macrophages was not substantial. Considering cicatrical rebuilding of the anoderm of ulcer bottom caused, first of all, by hypoxia leading to activation of collagen-producing function of fibroblastes and absence of the signs of epithelization, patients with CAF should be treated surgically dissecting the bottom and margins of fissure in the complex with hypertrophic anal papilla and sentinel pile.

  4. A novel method for treatment of chronic anal fissure: adipose-derived regenerative cells - a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Andjelkov, K; Sforza, M; Barisic, G; Soldatovic, I; Hiranyakas, A; Krivokapic, Z

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the safety and feasibility of autologous adipose-derived regenerative cells (ADRC) in the treatment of chronic anal fissure. A prospective pilot study was conducted in six patients with chronic anal fissures at the First Surgical Clinic, Clinical Center of Serbia and at the BelPrime Clinic, Belgrade, Serbia. All patients were candidates for surgical treatment. The average duration of symptoms was 24 months. Pain assessment was quantified using a visual analogue scale and bowel continence was assessed using the Wexner incontinence score. Both were assessed before treatment and during each postoperative outpatient visit. Liposuction was performed under local or general anaesthesia. Extraction of ADRC was achieved with a closed automated medical device. The fat and ADRC were injected subcutaneously into the edge of the fissure. The rest of the pellet was infiltrated into the internal anal sphincter. The study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02628522). Complete healing of the anal fissure and the disappearance of symptoms was achieved in all patients. The average time to complete pain cessation was 33.7 ± 15.0 days. All fissures healed after 3 months and remained healed 12 months after the procedure. There were no complications related to the procedure. The application of ADRC may be an alternative to lateral sphincterotomy and a reliable procedure which avoids faecal incontinence. Colorectal Disease © 2016 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  5. Prospective clinical trial comparing sphincterotomy, nitroglycerin ointment and xylocaine/lactulose combination for the treatment of anal fissure.

    PubMed

    Karamanlis, E; Michalopoulos, A; Papadopoulos, V; Mekras, A; Panagiotou, D; Ioannidis, A; Basdanis, G; Fahantidis, E

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the ability of three treatments in patients with anal fissure, sphincterotomy, nitroglycerin ointment and combination of gel xylocaine and lactulose. Ninety adults divided in three groups of 30 patients each group, received one of the three treatments in a 3-year interval (2007-2009) and the follow-up was for 2 months. Group A received nitroglycerin ointment, Group B underwent sphincterotomy and Group C received gel xylocaine and lactulose. Concerning pain, after treatment 60% of patients in Group A did not complain of pain, 20% had transient pain, another 10% moderate pain and the remaining 10% had severe pain. In Group B, 95% of the patients had no pain and only 5% had mild, transient pain. In Group C 60% of the patients had moderate pain and the other 40% suffered from severe pain. Concerning fissure healing, in 60% of the patients of Group A, the fissure was healed. In Group B fissure healed in 93.3% and in Group C only in 16.6% of the patients. The "gold standard" for anal fissure treatment is the lateral internal sphincterotomy and that each one of the three methods has its advantages and disadvantages.

  6. Evidence-based Clinical Practice Guideline for the Use of Pit-and-Fissure Sealants.

    PubMed

    2016-10-15

    This article presents evidence-based clinical recommendations for the use of pit-and-fissure sealants on the occlusal surfaces of primary and permanent molars in children and adolescents. A guideline panel convened by the American Dental Association (ADA) Council on Scientific Affairs and the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry conducted a systematic review and formulated recommendations to address clinical questions in relation to the efficacy, retention, and potential side effects of sealants to prevent dental caries; their efficacy compared with fluoride varnishes; and a head-to-head comparison of the different types of sealant material used to prevent caries on pits-and-fissures of occlusal surfaces. This is an update of the ADA 2008 recommendations on the use of pit-and-fissure sealants on the occlusal surfaces of primary and permanent molars. The authors conducted a systematic search in MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and other sources to identify randomized controlled trials reporting on the effect of sealants (available on the U.S. market) when applied to the occlusal surfaces of primary and permanent molars. The authors used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach to assess the quality of the evidence and to move from the evidence to the decisions. The guideline panel formulated 3 main recommendations. They concluded that sealants are effective in preventing and arresting pit-and-fissure occlusal carious lesions of primary and permanent molars in children and adolescents compared with the nonuse of sealants or use of fluoride varnishes. They also concluded that sealants could minimize the progression of non-cavitated occlusal carious lesions (also referred to as initial lesions) that receive a sealant. Finally, based on the available limited evidence, the panel was unable to provide specific recommendations on the relative merits of 1 type of sealant material over the others

  7. Evidence-based Clinical Practice Guideline for the Use of Pit-and-Fissure Sealants.

    PubMed

    2016-10-01

    This article presents evidence-based clinical recommendations for the use of pit-and-fissure sealants on the occlusal surfaces of primary and permanent molars in children and adolescents. A guideline panel convened by the American Dental Association (ADA) Council on Scientific Affairs and the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry conducted a systematic review and formulated recommendations to address clinical questions in relation to the efficacy, retention, and potential side effects of sealants to prevent dental caries; their efficacy compared with fluoride varnishes; and a head-to-head comparison of the different types of sealant material used to prevent caries on pits-and-fissures of occlusal surfaces. This is an update of the ADA 2008 recommendations on the use of pit-and-fissure sealants on the occlusal surfaces of primary and permanent molars. The authors conducted a systematic search in MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and other sources to identify randomized controlled trials reporting on the effect of sealants (available on the U.S. market) when applied to the occlusal surfaces of primary and permanent molars. The authors used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach to assess the quality of the evidence and to move from the evidence to the decisions. The guideline panel formulated 3 main recommendations. They concluded that sealants are effective in preventing and arresting pit-and-fissure occlusal carious lesions of primary and permanent molars in children and adolescents compared with the nonuse of sealants or use of fluoride varnishes. They also concluded that sealants could minimize the progression of non-cavitated occlusal carious lesions (also referred to as initial lesions) that receive a sealant. Finally, based on the available limited evidence, the panel was unable to provide specific recommendations on the relative merits of 1 type of sealant material over the others

  8. Indications for fissure sealants and their role in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mejàre, Ingegerd

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this article is to summarize and interpret present knowledge and evidence on the effect of fissure sealing permanent first and second molars in children and adolescents with two commonly used materials: resin sealants and glass ionomer sealants. Also, to identify important gaps in our knowledge. The results show that the conclusions from systematic reviews differ in several aspects, and that important knowledge gaps still exist, such as the costs and benefits of sealing low- versus high-risk populations. The effect of sealing noncavitated caries lesions is uncertain and possible differences in effect between resin sealants and the high viscosity glass ionomers need to be investigated.

  9. [CHANGES OF HISTOSTRUCTURE OF CHRONIC ANAL FISSURE, DEPENDING ON DURATION OF THE DISEASE].

    PubMed

    Tamm, T I; Tsodikov, V V; Sedak, V V; Pliten, O N; Miroshnichenko, M S

    2016-01-01

    The results of histological investigation of the chronic anal fissure (AF) edges in 95 patients with the disease duration from 6 mo to 4.5 yrs were analyzed. Basing on estimation of severity of an acute inflammation signs and the granulation and cicatricial tissue presence there was established, that duration of an acute inflammation in the AF may constitute up to 6 - 7 mo; subacute--from 8 to 11 mo, chronic cicatricial process was observed in terms from 12 mo and more.

  10. Chronic anal fissure: morphometric analysis of the anal canal at 3.0 Tesla MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Erden, Ayşe; Peker, Elif; Gençtürk, Zeynep Bıyıklı

    2017-02-01

    OBJECTıVE: To compare the morphometric data relating to the muscular structures of the anal canal, in patients with chronic anal fissure and in control group, examined at a 3.0 Tesla MR system. Forty-seven consecutive patients with chronic anal fissure and randomly selected 40 patients who had no claims for perianal disease during their life time were included in the study. T2-weighted sagittal, high-resolution (HR) T2-weighted, and contrast-enhanced fat-suppressed T1-weighted oblique axial and oblique coronal images were retrospectively analyzed by two observers in consensus. Thickness of sphincteric muscles, anal canal length, anorectal angle, thickness of anococcygeal ligament, depth of Minor triangle, width between subcutaneous sphincters, vascularity of posterior commissure, visibility of posterosuperior projection of external sphincter, and angle between the distal anal canal and posterosuperior projection of external sphincter (H angle) in patients and in controls were compared and analyzed using t test, Mann-Whitney U test, and Spearman correlation. The patients with chronic anal fissure had longer anal canal (51.50 mm ± 0.91 vs. 44.11 mm ± 0.71; p = 0.000), thicker internal anal sphincter muscle at mid-anal level (4.18 ± 0.15 vs. 3.39 ± 0.07; p = 0.007), and wider space between subcutaneous external sphincters (11.39 ± 0.50 vs. 6.89 ± 0.22; p = 0.000). In patients, there was a positive correlation between H angle and external sphincter thickness at proximal (r = 0.347; p = 0.021), middle (r = 0427; p = 0.000), and distal (r = 0.518; p = 0.000)) levels of the anal canal. CONCLUSıON: 3.0 Tesla MR imaging provides detailed information about the morphometric changes in the anal sphincter muscles in patients with chronic anal fissure.

  11. Continuous monitoring of an earth fissure in Chino, California, USA - a management tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, M. C.

    2015-11-01

    Continuous measurements of deformation have been made in Chino, California across an earth fissure and nearby unfissured soil since 2011 in two buried, horizontal, 150 mm pipes, 51 m long, which are connected by sealed boxes enclosing vertical posts at mostly 6 m intervals. Horizontal displacements and normal strain are measured in one line using nine end-to-end quartz tubes that are attached to posts and span fissured or unfissured soil. The free ends of the tubes are supported by slings and move relative to the attachment post of the next quartz tube. Linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) sensors measure the relative movements. Five biaxial tilt sensors were also attached to selected posts in that line. Relative vertical movement was measured at nine locations along the line in the second pipe using low-level differential pressure sensors. The second pipe is half full of water giving a free water surface along its length. Data are recorded on a Campbell CR10 using multiplexers. The quartz-tube horizontal extensometers have exhibited more than 3 mm of predominantly elastic opening and closing in response to about 32 m of seasonal drawdown and recovery, respectively, in an observation well 0.8 km to the south. The nearest production well is 1.6 km to the west. The horizontal strain was 5.9 × 10-5 or 30 % of the lowest estimate of strain-at-failure for alluvium. Maximum relative vertical movement was 4.8 mm. Maximum tilt in the fissure zone was 0.09 arcdeg while tilt at a separate sensor 100 m to the east was 0.86 arcdeg, indicating a wider zone of deformation than is spanned by the instrumentation. High correlation of horizontal displacements during drawdown, and especially recovery, with change in effective stress supports differential compaction as the mechanism for earth-fissure movement. The continuous measurements of horizontal strain coupled with water-level fluctuations and vertical borehole extensometry can provide a real-time adaptive management

  12. Anal Fissure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Educational Resources ASCRS Textbook, 3rd Edition CARSEP® CREST® Case Study Listserv International Colon and Rectal Societies and Organizations ... Board of Colon and Rectal Surgery CARSEP® Members Case Study Listserv CREST® Young Surgeons Listserv Quality Assessment and ...

  13. Fissured Tongue

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Vision Leadership Executive Committee Board of Trustees Governance Past Presidents Staff/Contact History Awards Our Partners ... symptoms. No treatment is necessary except to encourage good oral hygiene including brushing the top surface of ...

  14. Anal Fissures

    MedlinePlus

    ... the world’s most common cancers. It is the deadliest cancer in the United States.…September 2017September 2017familydoctor.org editorial staff AboutAdvertise with UsCopyright & PermissionsPrivacy PolicyContact FamilyDoctor.org is powered by © 2017 American Academy of Family Physicians

  15. Understanding the link between circumferential dikes and eruptive fissures around calderas based on numerical and analog models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbi, Fabio; Rivalta, Eleonora; Pinel, Virginie; Maccaferri, Francesco; Acocella, Valerio

    2016-06-01

    Active calderas are seldom associated with circumferential eruptive fissures, but eroded magmatic complexes reveal widespread circumferential dikes. This suggests that, while the conditions to emplace circumferential dikes are easily met, mechanisms must prevent them from reaching the surface. We explain this discrepancy with experiments of air injection into gelatin shaped as a volcano with caldera. Analog dikes show variable deflection, depending on the competition between overpressure, Pe, and topographic unloading, Pl; when Pl/Pe = 4.8-5.3, the dikes propagate orthogonal to the least compressive stress. Due to the unloading, they become circumferential and stall below the caldera rim; buoyancy is fundamental for the further rise and circumferential fissure development. Numerical models quantitatively constrain the stress orientation within the gelatin, explaining the observed circumferential dikes. Our results explain how dikes propagate below the rim of felsic and mafic calderas, but only in the latter they are prone to feed circumferential fissures.

  16. Topical application of LEVORAG® as first-line treatment for chronic anal fissures: a preliminary multicentric study.

    PubMed

    Giordano, P; Mistrangelo, M; Cracco, N; D'Elia, A; Creperio, G; Digito, F; Paduano, R; Tapparo, A; Quinto, S; Villa, E; Pagano, C

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the safety and efficacy of this new topical agent as a first line treatment in patients with chronic anal fissures. Nine centres were involved in the study. Patients with chronic anal fissures were recruited and received Levorag® for 40 days. Follow-up visits were conducted at 10, 20 and 40 days from the recruitment. Primary outcome was the healing rate, secondary outcome the reduction of pain at the end of the treatment measured with a VAS scale. Fifty patients completed the treatment. No adverse events were recorded. 60% of patients healed completely at the end of the treatment. In those that did not heal the reduction of mean VAS values was 60%. The use of Levorag® on patients affected by chronic anal fissures achieved in the short term results similar to those experienced by more classic local treatments without any side effect.

  17. The effects of opaque and clear pit and fissure sealants on infrared laser fluorescence measurements.

    PubMed

    Bahrololoomi, Z; Khodabakhsh, M; Khaksar, Y

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of placing sealants is to inhibit caries by physical closure of the pits and fissures of teeth. A device named DIAGNOdent is useful in detecting occlusal caries by employing laser fluorescence (LF). However, there are contradictory results in the influence of sealants on LF measurements. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of two different types of fissure sealants on LF measurements. In this in vitro study, 86 extracted permanent third molars were divided randomly into two groups and clear or opaque sealant was applied on the occlusal surfaces. Two examiners performed pre- and post-seal fluorescence measurements twice with one week interval by employing DIAGNOdent device. Finally, measured values were evaluated through the statistical paired t-test by means of SPSS 17 software. The mean value of LF measurements increased significantly due to the application of clear sealant (p= 0.001) while the statistical changes in this measurement was negligible after applying opaque sealant (p= 0.311). Clear sealants increase the LF measured values but opaque sealants cause almost no changes. Therefore, DIAGNOdent device is not reliable for detecting caries beneath the clear sealant.

  18. The Effects of Opaque and Clear Pit and Fissure Sealants on Infrared Laser Fluorescence Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Bahrololoomi, Z.; Khodabakhsh, M.; Khaksar, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Statement of the Problem: The purpose of placing sealants is to inhibit caries by physical closure of the pits and fissures of teeth. A device named DIAGNOdent is useful in detecting occlusal caries by employing laser fluorescence (LF). However, there are contradictory results in the influence of sealants on LF measurements. Purpose: The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of two different types of fissure sealants on LF measurements. Materials and Method: In this in vitro study, 86 extracted permanent third molars were divided randomly into two groups and clear or opaque sealant was applied on the occlusal surfaces. Two examiners performed pre- and post-seal fluorescence measurements twice with one week interval by employing DIAGNOdent device. Finally, measured values were evaluated through the statistical paired t-test by means of SPSS 17 software. Results: The mean value of LF measurements increased significantly due to the application of clear sealant (p= 0.001) while the statistical changes in this measurement was negligible after applying opaque sealant (p= 0.311). Conclusion: Clear sealants increase the LF measured values but opaque sealants cause almost no changes. Therefore, DIAGNOdent device is not reliable for detecting caries beneath the clear sealant. PMID:24883342

  19. Deep Orbital Dermoid Cyst Bulging into the Superior Orbital Fissure: Clinical Presentation and Management

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ravinder; Vyas, Kapil; Jaiswal, Gagan; Bhargava, Abhishek; Kundu, Jyoti

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To present a case of deep orbital dermoid cyst with emphasis on clinical presentation, imaging spectrum, differential diagnosis and management. Case Report: A 28-year-old female was referred to our hospital with chief complaint of drooping of right eyelid and progressive headache. Ocular motility, visual acuity and fundus examination were normal. computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a well-defined, intraosseous deep orbital dermoid cyst (5.9 mm × 12.5 mm) located near the apex of right orbit, extending from greater wing of sphenoid into the superior orbital fissure. Due to occulomotor nerve (superior and inferior divisions) compression which passes through the superior orbital fissure, ipsilateral headache and ptosis occurred. Complete surgical excision of cyst was performed using noninvasive extracranial lateral orbitotomy approach. After removal of the cyst, curette and cutting drill were used to thoroughly remove any residual cystic content. Histopathological analysis confirmed the diagnosis. The healing was uneventful postoperatively. Conclusion: CT and MRI are easy, reliable, safe and effective imaging methods for establishing the diagnosis of orbital dermoid cyst. Size, location and manifestations are the most important determinants of the disease management. Complete surgical excision without rupture of the cyst is the treatment of choice. PMID:28299014

  20. Sylvian fissure asymmetries in monozygotic twins: a test of laterality in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Bartley, A J; Jones, D W; Torrey, E F; Zigun, J R; Weinberger, D R

    1993-12-15

    To address prior reports that schizophrenia is associated with loss of normal brain asymmetry and that it might be linked to a defect of a gene controlling cerebral lateralization, we measured on three-dimensional cortical renderings from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans the lengths and angles of the sylvian fissures in 10 normal monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs (n = 10 pairs) and in 10 MZ pairs discordant for schizophrenia (n = 10 pairs). We confirmed in both sets of twins the expected normal asymmetries of length and angle of the sylvian fissure. We also confirmed that the length asymmetry occurs solely in the region of the planum temporale. In the discordant twins, affected and unaffected twins did not differ in asymmetry measures, thus failing to support an association between illness per se and diminished asymmetry. Moreover, the discordant twins as a group did not differ from the normal twins as a group, thus failing to confirm the hypothesis of a genetic association with abnormal asymmetry. The implications of variations in methodology and patient samples are discussed.

  1. Deep Orbital Dermoid Cyst Bulging into the Superior Orbital Fissure: Clinical Presentation and Management.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ravinder; Vyas, Kapil; Jaiswal, Gagan; Bhargava, Abhishek; Kundu, Jyoti

    2017-01-01

    To present a case of deep orbital dermoid cyst with emphasis on clinical presentation, imaging spectrum, differential diagnosis and management. A 28-year-old female was referred to our hospital with chief complaint of drooping of right eyelid and progressive headache. Ocular motility, visual acuity and fundus examination were normal. computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a well-defined, intraosseous deep orbital dermoid cyst (5.9 mm × 12.5 mm) located near the apex of right orbit, extending from greater wing of sphenoid into the superior orbital fissure. Due to occulomotor nerve (superior and inferior divisions) compression which passes through the superior orbital fissure, ipsilateral headache and ptosis occurred. Complete surgical excision of cyst was performed using noninvasive extracranial lateral orbitotomy approach. After removal of the cyst, curette and cutting drill were used to thoroughly remove any residual cystic content. Histopathological analysis confirmed the diagnosis. The healing was uneventful postoperatively. CT and MRI are easy, reliable, safe and effective imaging methods for establishing the diagnosis of orbital dermoid cyst. Size, location and manifestations are the most important determinants of the disease management. Complete surgical excision without rupture of the cyst is the treatment of choice.

  2. Wear of two pit and fissure sealants in contact with primary teeth

    PubMed Central

    Galo, Rodrigo; Contente, Marta Maria Martins Giamatei; Borsatto, Maria Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Wear simulations may provide an indication of the clinical performance of pit-and-fissure sealants when associated with primary teeth as counterbody, restricting the involved variables. The aim of this study was to evaluate wear of dental materials used as pit-and-fissure sealants in contact with primary teeth. Materials and Methods: A resinous sealant (Fluroshield®) and a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (Vitremer®) were selected in a post-plate design, using as counterbody primary tooth pins (4 × 4 × 2 mm) at 3 and 10 N vertical load, 1 Hz frequency, 900 wear cycles in artificial saliva (n = 15). Attrition coefficient values were obtained and the material and primary tooth volumes were analyzed. Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Duncan's test (P < 0.05). Results: Fluroshield® presented the highest attrition coefficient values for the 3 N but these values decreased significantly for the 10 N load. The means for volume loss (3 mm) of the different samples after the wear test were not statistically different for the materials. The volume loss values for the primary teeth were statistically different and there was an increase in volume loss with the increase of the load applied in the wear tests. Conclusions: Differences were also observed with regard to the surface deformation characteristics. The wear rates of primary tooth enamel vary according to the type of material and the load applied during mastication. PMID:24966777

  3. Monitoring an eruption fissure in 3D: video recording, particle image velocimetry and dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witt, Tanja; Walter, Thomas R.

    2015-04-01

    The processes during an eruption are very complex. To get a better understanding several parameters are measured. One of the measured parameters is the velocity of particles and patterns, as ash and emitted magma, and of the volcano itself. The resulting velocity field provides insights into the dynamics of a vent. Here we test our algorithm for 3 dimensional velocity fields on videos of the second fissure eruption of Bárdarbunga 2014. There we acquired videos from lava fountains of the main fissure with 2 high speed cameras with small angles between the cameras. Additionally we test the algorithm on videos from the geyser Strokkur, where we had 3 cameras and larger angles between the cameras. The velocity is calculated by a correlation in the Fourier space of contiguous images. Considering that we only have the velocity field of the surface smaller angles result in a better resolution of the existing velocity field in the near field. For general movements also larger angles can be useful, e.g. to get the direction, height and velocity of eruption clouds. In summary, it can be stated that 3D velocimetry can be used for several application and with different setup due to the application.

  4. Maintenance therapy with unprocessed bran in the prevention of acute anal fissure recurrence.

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, S L

    1987-01-01

    The effect of unprocessed bran in a dose of 5 g three times daily and a dose of 2.5 g three times daily for one year on the recurrence rate of anal fissures was studied in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 90 patients with recently healed acute posterior anal fissures. Fifteen patients (16.6%) were withdrawn before the code was broken due to failure to follow the trial protocol for various reasons. Significantly fewer recurrences occurred in patients receiving bran 5 g three times daily (recurrence rate 16%, 95% confidence limits, 4.54 to 36.08) when compared with patients receiving bran 2.5 g three times daily (60%; 38.67 to 78.87) (P less than 0.01) and with patients receiving placebo three times daily (68%; 46.50 to 85.05) (P less than 0.01). No significant difference in recurrences was found between patients on bran 2.5 g and those on placebo. PMID:3039130

  5. Experimental and theoretical study of entrainment in volcanic line plumes produced by fissure eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paillat, S.; Kaminski, E. C.

    2013-12-01

    Basaltic fissure eruptions can produce turbulent line plumes injecting gas and particles in the atmosphere. The dynamic of these line plumes is controlled by the efficiency of entrainment as quantified by the so-called entrainment coefficient α. There are only scarce experimental constraints on α in planar jets and plumes. Whereas a constant value of the entrainment coefficient is used in models, data from the literature show a variation of α in pure planar jets. Only a few data are available for plumes. In order to better constrain the entrainment coefficient, we propose a theoretical expression of the entrainment coefficient α, as a function of buoyancy and turbulent structure. The model is validated first, using data from the literature and new experiments in pure jets and plumes. We show that the entrainment coefficient reaches a constant value at large distances from the source and high Reynolds number in pure jets. Positive buoyancy enhances the entrainment in pure plumes where α is about two times larger. The theoretical expression of the entrainment coefficient is then used to study the effect of variable entrainment on the dynamics of volcanic line plumes produced above an eruptive fissure at different scales, ranging from small Hawaiian fountains to basaltic Plinian eruptions (e.g. 1783 Laki eruption) and flood basalts. Both the stability of the eruptive column and the maximum height it reaches in the atmosphere are affected by variable entrainment.

  6. Botulinum toxin A injection in ISDN ointment-resistant chronic anal fissures.

    PubMed

    Witte, M E; Klaase, J M

    2007-01-01

    In the treatment of chronic anal fissures (CAFs), surgical sphincterotomy is more commonly being replaced by chemical sphincterotomy. After the good results of our pilot study including 32 patients, we now describe the effect of botulinum toxin A (BT-A) in a consecutive series of 100 patients with isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN) ointment-resistant CAFs. From October 2002 until August 2005, 100 patients (52 males, 48 females) with a median age of 45 (20-79) years were treated with an injection of 40-100 IU BT-A (Dysport, Ipsen, The Netherlands) in the internal anal sphincter. After a median follow-up of 10 (4-38) months, 77 of the 100 CAFs (77%) were cured. 20 patients were given a second injection, 1 a third and 1 a fourth injection. In 11 patients a fissure recurred (14%). In 1 patient (1%) there was temporary incontinence due to flatus. With an early response rate of 77% and an overall success rate of 66%, BT-A injections appear to be effective in patients with ISDN ointment-resistant CAFs if initial non-responders are retreated. These results are in concordance with the results of our pilot study. It is a simple technique with little or no side effects, that does not compromise future treatments. Its place in the first-line treatment of CAFs should be investigated further. Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Effects of aging on surface properties and adhesion of Streptococcus mutans on various fissure sealants.

    PubMed

    Bürgers, Ralf; Cariaga, Tashiana; Müller, Rainer; Rosentritt, Martin; Reischl, Udo; Handel, Gerhard; Hahnel, Sebastian

    2009-12-01

    The aim of the present study was the quantification of Streptococcus mutans adhesion on ten widely used pit and fissure sealant materials and the correlation of these findings to surface roughness (R(a)) and surface free energy (SFE). Additionally, changes in streptococcal adhesion and surface parameters after water immersion and artificial aging have been investigated. Circular specimens of ten fissure sealants (seven resin-based composites, two glass ionomers, and one compomer) were made and polished. Surface roughness was determined by perthometer and SFE by goniometer measurements. Sealant materials were incubated with S. mutans suspension (2.5 h, 37 degrees C), and adhering bacteria were quantified by using a biofluorescence assay in combination with an automated plate reader. Surface properties and S. mutans adhesion were measured prior to and after water immersion after 1 and 6 months and after additional thermocycling (5,000 cycles; 5 degrees C/55 degrees C). The tested sealants showed significant differences in S. mutans adhesion prior to and after the applied aging procedures. Aging resulted in slight increases (mostly <0.2 microm) in surface roughness, as well as in significant decreases in SFE and in significantly lower quantities of adhering bacteria. Ketac Bond and UltraSeal XT plus revealed the lowest adhesion potential after artificial aging. In general, the amount of adhering S. mutans was reduced after aging, which may be related to the decline in SFEs.

  8. The link between circumferential dikes and eruptive fissures around calderas: insights from numerical and analog models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbi, Fabio; Rivalta, Eleonora; Pinel, Virginie; Maccaferri, Francesco; Acocella, Valerio

    2016-04-01

    Active calderas are seldom associated with circumferential eruptive fissures along their rim, but eroded portions of extinct magmatic complexes reveal widespread evidence of circumferential dikes. This discrepancy suggests that, while the conditions to emplace circumferential dikes below volcanoes are easily met, mechanisms must exist to arrest the dikes before they reach the surface. Here we explain this discrepancy with laboratory experiments of air injection into a gelatin medium shaped to mimic a volcanic edifice with caldera. Our models show that the ascending dikes experience a variable degree of deflection, depending on the competition between dike overpressure, Pe, and the forcing induced by the topographic load, Pl. When Pl/Pe = 4.3 - 4.5 the analog dikes proceed almost insensitive to the stress rotation and erupt within the caldera. When Pl/Pe = 4.8 - 5.3 the analog dikes closely propagate orthogonal to the least compressive stress σ3 and stall below the caldera rim in a circumferential arrangement. Progressive buoyancy increase through repeated supply of fluid is fundamental for the occurrence of circumferential fissures. Complementary numerical models explain the observed circumferential arrangement and validate the experiments. These results contribute defining the shallow magma transfer and related hazard assessment within calderas.

  9. Le Fort I osteotomy to enucleation of grand proportions fissural cyst-presentation of case report.

    PubMed

    Cavalcante, Rafael Correia; Durski, Fernanda; Deliberador, Tatiana Miranda; Giovanini, Allan Fernando; Rebellato, Nelson Luís Barbosa; da Costa, Delson João; Klüppel, Leandro Eduardo; Scariot, Rafaela

    2016-01-01

    Fissural cysts (FC) are caused by entraped epithelium between nasal and maxilar processes. They are commonly treated with surgical enucleation precedded or not by marsupialization depending on the cyst size. Biopsy of lesion is recommended due to confirm radiographic evaluation. It is rare to observe Le Fort I surgical approach to this type of injury. This study reports the case of an uncommon grand proportions fissural cyst in a female patient, 53, that was referred to the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Departament of Hospital XV presenting volume increase in maxilla associated with numbness of palate. Radiograph examination showed an intimate relationship between incisors apexes and FC. Expansion of both buccal and palate cortical was then confirmed as well as its unusual size, approximately 25 millimeters. Due to the abnormal size of lesion and possible impairment of upper incisors, LeFort I osteotomy associated with downfracture to cystic enucleation was the chosen treatment. After enucleation, the remaining space was filled with BIOSs and bioguide (lyophilized bone and collagen membrane). Patients' twelve months follow-up demonstrate no relapses and maintenance of teeth involved.

  10. Hypertrophied anal papillae and fibrous anal polyps, should they be removed during anal fissure surgery?

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Pravin J.

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Hypertrophied anal papillae and fibrous anal polyps are not given due importance in the proctology practice. They are mostly ignored being considered as normal structures. The present study was aimed to demonstrate that hypertrophied anal papillae and fibrous anal polyps could cause symptoms to the patients and that they should be removed in treatment of patients with chronic fissure in anus. METHODS: Two groups of patients were studied. A hundred patients were studied in group A in which the associated fibrous polyp or papillae were removed by radio frequency surgical device after a lateral subcutaneous sphincterotomy for relieving the sphincter spasm. Another group of a hundred patients who also had papillae or fibrous polyps, were treated by lateral sphincterotomy alone. They were followed up for one year. RESULTS: Eighty-nine percent patients from group A expressed their satisfaction with the treatment in comparison to only 64% from group B who underwent sphincterotomy alone with the papillae or anal polyps left untreated. Group A patients showed a marked reduction with regard to pain and irritation during defecation (P = 0.0011), pricking or foreign body sensation in the anus (P = 0.0006) and pruritus or wetness around the anal verge (P = 0.0008). CONCLUSION: Hypertrophied anal papillae and fibrous anal polyps should be removed during treatment of chronic anal fissure. This would add to effectiveness and completeness of the procedure. PMID:15285031

  11. A study of hypertrophied anal papillae and fibrous polyps associated with chronic anal fissures.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Pravin J

    2004-06-01

    Hypertrophied anal papillae and fibrous anal polyps are not given due importance in the proctology practice. However, they do cause a few disturbing symptoms. This study describes the advantages of the removal of such pathologies associated with chronic anal fissure. Following lateral anal sphincterotomy, the polyps or papillae were removed using a radio frequency device. A comparison before and after removal of the papillae or polyps was carried out for the associated complaints such as like pruritus, pricking sensation, wetness, crawling in the anus etc. In a separated randomized and prospective study, 80 patients were divided into two groups. 40 patients underwent only sphincterotomy, while in the remaining 40 patients, the papillae or polyps were removed after sphincterotomy. Symptom comparison was made before and after the procedure at 6- month follow-up. After one month of the procedure, the associated symptoms were significantly reduced, with a near total decline in the primary complaints of pain and bleeding. There was significant reduction in conditions like pruritus (p=0.0001), discharge per anus (p=0.0001), crawling sensation in the anus (p= 0.0006) and sense of incomplete evacuation (p= 0.0001). The prospective study confirmed the above findings. The above study establishes that removal of hypertrophied anal papillae and fibrous polyps should be routinely carried out during surgical treatment of anal fissure to add to effectiveness and completeness of the procedure.

  12. Hypertrophied anal papillae and fibrous anal polyps, should they be removed during anal fissure surgery?

    PubMed

    Gupta, Pravin-J

    2004-08-15

    Hypertrophied anal papillae and fibrous anal polyps are not given due importance in the proctology practice. They are mostly ignored being considered as normal structures. The present study was aimed to demonstrate that hypertrophied anal papillae and fibrous anal polyps could cause symptoms to the patients and that they should be removed in treatment of patients with chronic fissure in anus. Two groups of patients were studied. A hundred patients were studied in group A in which the associated fibrous polyp or papillae were removed by radio frequency surgical device after a lateral subcutaneous sphincterotomy for relieving the sphincter spasm. Another group of a hundred patients who also had papillae or fibrous polyps, were treated by lateral sphincterotomy alone. They were followed up for one year. Eighty-nine percent patients from group A expressed their satisfaction with the treatment in comparison to only 64% from group B who underwent sphincterotomy alone with the papillae or anal polyps left untreated. Group A patients showed a marked reduction with regard to pain and irritation during defecation (P = 0.0011), pricking or foreign body sensation in the anus (P = 0.0006) and pruritus or wetness around the anal verge (P = 0.0008). Hypertrophied anal papillae and fibrous anal polyps should be removed during treatment of chronic anal fissure. This would add to effectiveness and completeness of the procedure.

  13. Pit and Fissure Sealant Retention Following Air Abrasion Preparation with Bioactive Glass and Aluminum Oxide Particles.

    PubMed

    Khoroushi, Maryam; Eshghi, Alireza; Naderibeni, Fatemeh

    2016-09-15

    Alumina air abrasion is an alternative for acid-etch technique for tooth preparation before placement of a fissure sealant. The aim of this study was to compare the retention of sealants placed subsequent to air abrasion with alumina and bioactive glass (BAG) particles. Sixty-two 6-12 year old children were included in this study. Using a halfmouth design, the fissures were prepared using air abrasion with alumina particles on randomly assigned permanent mandibular or/and maxillary first molars on one side of the mouth (Group 1) and air abrasion with BAG on the contralateral side of the mouth (Group 2). Sealants were applied on 180 teeth, and were scored as missing, partially retained, and completely retained after three, six, nine and 12 months. Data were analyzed using Friedman and Wilcoxon tests (α=0.05). Sealant retention rates in the alumina group were higher than those in the BAG group at all time periods (P<0.001). Sealant retention after air abrasion with alumina particles was higher than BAG over 12 months.

  14. Monitoring of land subsidence and ground fissures in Xian, China 2005-2006: Mapped by sar Interferometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhao, C.Y.; Zhang, Q.; Ding, X.-L.; Lu, Zhiming; Yang, C.S.; Qi, X.M.

    2009-01-01

    The City of Xian, China, has been experiencing significant land subsidence and ground fissure activities since 1960s, which have brought various severe geohazards including damages to buildings, bridges and other facilities. Monitoring of land subsidence and ground fissure activities can provide useful information for assessing the extent of, and mitigating such geohazards. In order to achieve robust Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR) results, six interferometric pairs of Envisat ASAR data covering 2005–2006 are collected to analyze the InSAR processing errors firstly, such as temporal and spatial decorrelation error, external DEM error, atmospheric error and unwrapping error. Then the annual subsidence rate during 2005–2006 is calculated by weighted averaging two pairs of D-InSAR results with similar time spanning. Lastly, GPS measurements are applied to calibrate the InSAR results and centimeter precision is achieved. As for the ground fissure monitoring, five InSAR cross-sections are designed to demonstrate the relative subsidence difference across ground fissures. In conclusion, the final InSAR subsidence map during 2005–2006 shows four large subsidence zones in Xian hi-tech zones in western, eastern and southern suburbs of Xian City, among which two subsidence cones are newly detected and two ground fissures are deduced to be extended westward in Yuhuazhai subsidence cone. This study shows that the land subsidence and ground fissures are highly correlated spatially and temporally and both are correlated with hi-tech zone construction in Xian during the year of 2005–2006.

  15. Medical and surgical treatment of haemorrhoids and anal fissure in Crohn’s disease: a critical appraisal

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The principle to avoid surgery for haemorrhoids and/or anal fissure in Crohn’s disease (CD) patients is still currently valid despite advances in medical and surgical treatments. In this study we report our prospectively recorded data on medical and surgical treatment of haemorrhoids and anal fissures in CD patients over a period of 8 years. Methods Clinical data of patients affected by perianal disease were routinely and prospectively inserted in a database between October 2003 and October 2011 at the Department of Surgery, Tor Vergata University Hospital, Rome. We reviewed and divided in two groups records on CD patients treated either medically or surgically according to the diagnosis of haemorrhoids or anal fissures. Moreover, we compared in each group the outcome in patients with prior diagnosis of CD and in patients diagnosed with CD only after perianal main treatment. Results Eighty-six CD patients were included in the study; 45 were treated for haemorrhoids and 41 presented with anal fissure. Conservative approach was initially adopted for all patients; in case of medical treatment failure, the presence of stable intestinal disease made them eligible for surgery. Fifteen patients underwent haemorrhoidectomy (open 11; closed 3; stapled 1), and two rubber band ligation. Fourteen patients required surgery for anal fissure (Botox ± fissurectomy 8; LIS 6). In both groups we observed high complication rate, 41.2% for haemorrhoids and 57.1% for anal fissure. Patients who underwent haemorrhoidectomy without certain diagnosis of CD had significantly higher risk of complications. Conclusions Conservative treatment of proctologic diseases in CD patients has been advocated given the high risk of complications and the evidence that spontaneous healing may also occur. From these preliminary results a role of surgery is conceivable in high selected patients, but definitve conclusions can’t be made. Further randomized trials are needed to establish the

  16. [Evaluation of the efficacy of a new graduated anal dilator in the treatment of acute anal fissures].

    PubMed

    Gaja, Fabio; Trecca, Antonello

    2007-01-01

    Dilatation of the anal sphincter with anal dilators for the treatment of acute anal fissure is efficacious, economic and safe but not always correctly executed with a negative repercussions on the technical results. Our study was aimed at comparing the efficacy of new graduated dilator with a progressively graduated diameter, using a standard treatment schedule, or a free schedule in comparison with the use of multiple classic dilators currently available for the resolution of anal fissures. A series of 60 patients, 35 female and 25 male, with a clinical diagnosis of acute anal fissure in the absence of a hypotonic anal sphincter, abscess or perianal fistula, hemorrhoidal thrombosis, chronic inflammatory bowel diseases or lower gastrointestinal neoplasms were preliminarily evaluated with the solid sphere test and randomly divided into three groups: the first was treated with the new graduated dilator with a standard treatment schedule (20 patients); the second was treated with multiple anal dilators (20, 23, 27 mm) (20 patients) using a standard treatment schedule, and the third group (20 patients) was treated with the new graduated dilator according to a free treatment schedule. After four weeks of treatment, 91% of all patients showed resolution of the anal fissure. Patients treated with new graduated dilator and those treated with multiple dilators according to the standard schedule showed similar 90% rates of fissure healing in comparison to the 92% treated with the graduated dilator according to the free schedule. The tolerability and manageability of the new single graduated dilator was judged positively by all patients in the treated groups. The use of the graduated anal dilator according to a free treatment schedule seems to induce lasting resolution of acute anal fissures with similar results to those achieved using traditional multiple dilators, while proving better tolerated by the patients.

  17. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the treatment of anal fissure.

    PubMed

    Nelson, R L; Manuel, D; Gumienny, C; Spencer, B; Patel, K; Schmitt, K; Castillo, D; Bravo, A; Yeboah-Sampong, A

    2017-08-09

    Anal fissure has a very large number of treatment options. The choice is difficult. In an effort to assist in that, choice presented here is a systematic review and meta-analysis of all published treatments for anal fissure that have been studied in randomized controlled trials. Randomized trials were sought in the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Medline, EMBASE and the trials registry sites clinicaltrials.gov and who/int/ictrp/search/en. Abstracts were screened, full-text studies chosen, and finally eligible studies selected and abstracted. The review was then divided into those studies that compared two or more surgical procedures and those that had at least one arm that was non-surgical. Studies were further categorized by the specific interventions and comparisons. The outcome assessed was treatment failure. Negative effects of treatment assessed were headache and anal incontinence. Risk of bias was assessed for each study, and the strength of the evidence of each comparison was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations (GRADE) approach. One hundred and forty-eight eligible trials were found and assessed, 31 in the surgical group and 117 in the non-surgical group. There were 14 different operations described in the surgical group and 29 different non-surgical treatments in the non-surgical group along with partial lateral internal sphincterotomy (LIS). There were 61 different comparisons. Of these, 47 were reported in 2 or fewer studies, usually with quite small patient samples. The largest single comparison was glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) versus control with 19 studies. GTN was more effective than control in sustained cure (OR 0.68; 95% CI 0.63-0.77), but the quality of evidence was very poor because of severe heterogeneity, and risk of bias due to inadequate clinical follow-up. The only comparison to have a GRADE quality of evidence of high was a subgroup analysis of LIS versus any medical therapy (OR 0.12; CI 0

  18. [Mucosa advancement flap anoplasty in treatment of chronic anal fissures: a prospective, multicenter, randomized controlled trial].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen-yi; Liu, Hua; Sun, Jian-hua; Mao, Xu-ming; Xu, Wei-xiang; Wu, Ying-ge; Zhang, Hai-yan; Zhu, Li-juan; Jin, Wei; Wu, Jiong; Li, Ying; Wu, Chuang; Jiang, Zai-long; Shi, Li; Li, Yan; Dong, Wei

    2011-04-01

    Anal fissure is one of the most common anal-rectum diseases, and approximately 10 percent patients with chronic anal fissure ultimately receive surgery. Relieving postoperative pain and protecting functions of the sphincter are central issues for coloproctologists. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of anoplasty in the treatment of chronic anal fissures. In this prospective, multicenter, randomized controlled trial, 120 adult patients with chronic anal fissure were referred from Department of Coloproctology of Yueyang Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese Medicine Affiliated to Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine and Shanghai Municipal Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine. The patients were enrolled from January 2009 to April 2010 and randomly divided into study (mucosa advancement flap anoplasty, abbreviated as anoplasty) group and control (fissurectomy) group. The two groups were assessed separately, and the main outcome measures were observed for 2 weeks, with a short-term follow-up for 6 weeks. Degree of pain, haemorrhage and anal canal pressure were observed and recorded preoperatively, and on the third day, the fourteenth day and the sixth week postoperatively. The wound healing time was also recorded. Surgical complications of the two groups were recorded and compared on the third day and the sixth week postoperatively. The curative effects associated with the surgery were analyzed on the fourteenth day and the sixth week after surgery and the therapeutic results were evaluated. Three patients were dropped out due to the early discharge from hospital and losing connection (1 in study group and 2 in control group). Overall the surgery showed that the anoplasty group had better results than the fissurectomy group in the curative effect on the sixth week after operation (P<0.05). Time of wound healing in the anoplasty group was (17.22 ± 4

  19. Mature cystic teratoma (dermoid cyst) in the sylvian fissure: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; You, Chao; Zan, Xin; Chen, Ni; Zhou, Liangxue; Xu, Jianguo

    2012-02-01

    Mature cystic teratoma (dermoid cyst) inside the Sylvian fissure is rare. A 14-year-old boy presented with 2 episodes of generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Using a fat-suppressed, T1-weighted sequence, magnetic resonance imaging revealed a hypointense nonenhancing mass in the left Sylvian fissure. He underwent left pterional craniotomy for total tumor resection. The pathological diagnosis was mature cystic teratoma (dermoid cyst). Headache and seizures are the leading symptoms. Cyst rupture causes inflammation of cholesterol crystals, and the cyst contents may cause seizure. Surgical resection is the treatment of choice, but radical resection is not advised if critical neurovascular structure can be injured.

  20. Fine mapping and introgressing qFIS1-2, a major QTL for kernel fissure resistance in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) kernel fissuring increases breakage during milling and decreases the value of processed rice. This study employed molecular gene tagging methods to fine-map a fissure resistance (FR) locus in ‘Cybonnet’, a semidwarf tropical japonica cultivar, as well as transfer this trait to...

  1. Three QTLs conferring resistance to kernel fissuring in rice (Oryza sativa L.) identified by selective genotyping in two tropical japonica populations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Kernel fissures caused by pre- or post-harvest stresses are the leading cause of breakage among milled rice, causing economic losses for producers, millers, and processors. Being an environmentally sensitive trait, it is difficult to reliably select for rice fissure resistance among breeding progen...

  2. UK National Clinical Guidelines in Paediatric Dentistry: Use of fissure sealants including management of the stained fissure in first permanent molars.

    PubMed

    Smallridge, Jacqueline

    2010-06-02

    International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry 2010 Summary.  The process of guideline production began in 1994, resulting in first publication in 1997. Each guideline has been circulated to all Consultants in Paediatric Dentistry in the UK, to the Council of the British Society of Paediatric Dentistry (BSPD), and to people of related specialties recognised to have expertise in the subject. The final version of the guideline is produced from a combination of this input and thorough review of the published literature. The intention is to encourage improvement in clinical practice and to stimulate research and clinical audit in areas where scientific evidence is inadequate. Evidence underlying recommendations is scored according to the SIGN classification and guidelines should be read in this context. For those wishing further detail, the process of guideline production in the UK is described in the International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry 1997; 7: 267-268. This guideline is an update on the previously published BSPD policy document on fissure sealants. (Nunn et al., Int J Paed Dent 2000; 10: 174-177). © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 BSPD, IAPD and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. A contraction response of the internal anal sphincter to Botulinum toxin: does low-pressure chronic anal fissure have a different pathophysiology?

    PubMed

    Lindsey, I; Jones, O M; Cunningham, C

    2011-09-01

    A subset of low-pressure fissures is not associated with typical internal anal sphincter hypertonia and may involve a different pathophysiological mechanism. We aimed to assess the manometric response of the internal anal sphincter to botulinum toxin in low-pressure fissures compared to high-pressure fissures. Twenty five units of botulinum toxin (Botox(TM)) were injected directly into the internal anal sphincter. Maximum resting pressure (MRP) and maximum squeeze increment (MSI) were documented at baseline and four weeks after injection. Nine (31%) of 29 patients had a low-pressure fissure. Those with an anterior fissure had a significantly lower median baseline MRP than those with a posterior fissure (66 vs 83 mmHg, P = 0.009). Significantly more patients with low-pressure fissures developed a contraction or no response (78%vs 30%, difference 48%, 95% CI 14-82%, P = 0.006). Those developing a contraction response had a lower mean baseline MRP than those developing a relaxation response (56 vs 86 mmHg, difference 30 mmHg, 95% CI 17-43%, P < 0.001). Botulinum toxin appears to have an atypical contraction effect on the internal anal sphincter in low-pressure (usually anterior) fissures. This may be accounted for by blockade of acetylcholine released at parasympathetic nerve terminals and the sympathetic ganglion (relaxation). Low pressure fissures may be physiologically different from high-pressure fissures. © 2011 The Authors. Colorectal Disease © 2011 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  4. Self-adhesive restoratives as pit and fissure sealants: a comparative laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Eliades, Anna; Birpou, Eleftheria; Eliades, Theodore; Eliades, George

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate the properties of self-adhesive restorative materials used as sealants in comparison with sealants with hydrophobic or hydrophilic monomers. The self-adhesive materials tested were Fusio (FS) and Vertise-Flow (VF) and the sealants Embrace Wetbond (EM/hydrophilic) and Helioseal-F (HS/hydrophobic). The properties tested were: (a) degree of cure (%DC, n: 5, ATR-FTIR), (b) extent of oxygen inhibition (n: 5, transmission optical microscopy), (c) flow (n: 5, ASTM D-4242 method), (d) hardness (VH0.2kp/10s dry/1w in water), (e) adaptation, microleakage and fissure penetration (n: 10, 1% fuschin dye, reflection optical microscopy and ESEM). Statistical analysis was performed by one-way ANOVA plus Tukey test (a-d), Fisher's exact and Kruskal-Wallis plus Tukey tests (e) at a 95% confidence level. VF showed the highest %DC(76.1) followed by HS(68.7) and EM(61.3), FS(59.2). HS demonstrated the highest extent of oxygen inhibition (23μm vs. 13-10μm of the rest). EM and HS exhibited the greatest flow, followed by FS and VM. The VHN(0.2kp/10s) ranking before and after 1week water exposure was FS≥VF>EM≥HS. Water storage increased VF and reduced HS values. The lowest adaptation and microleakage scores were found in HS. FS and VF after alumina sandblasting showed the worst adaptation and leakage scores, that were improved after acid-etching. Improved fissure penetration was found in HS, EM and FS, VF after acid-etching. Although the self-adhesive materials presented improved setting characteristics, their low flow affected fissure penetration capacity. When combined with enamel acid-etching, adaptation and microleakage scoring were substantially improved in comparison with enamel sandblasting. The sealant with the hydrophobic monomers demonstrated the best sealing characteristics. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Fissure-Block Model for Transient Pressure Analysis in Geothermal Steam Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Moench, A.F.; Denlinger, R.

    1980-12-16

    At an earlier Stanford workshop, Moench (1978) presented a nonisothermal, radial flow, fissure-block, finite-difference model for geothermal steam reservoirs which was later used to simulate pressure buildup data for a steam well in Larderello, Italy (Moench and Neri, 1979). The model assumed the blocks to be impermeable but capable of conducting heat to the fissures which had been cooled by vaporization. In the present paper the model is revised to account for steam transport and vaporization within the blocks. This is a necessary consideration in order to accouht f o r the longevity of production wells i n The Geysers. The blocks, which may be i n i t i a l l y saturated w i t h l i q u i d water, are assumed t o have low i n t r i n s i c permeability and low p o r o s i t y relative to the fissures. Results computed with this finite-difference model are compared, for isothermal conditions, with the solutions of Boulton and Streltsova (1977). Under these conditions the model is similar to that of Kazemi (1969). When vaporization occurs in the blocks from a small amount of uniformly-distributed liquid water it is also possible to apply Boulton and Streltsova's solutions. This i s done by allowing for the apparent compressibility of the two-phase fluid mixture in the block. Comparison with Boulton and Streltsova's solutions under two-phase conditions is given in order to verify the finite-difference code. Numerical results are also presented showing pressure buildup following production with the blocks initially nearly saturated with liquid water. Effects of different thermal boundary conditions, block sizes and production times on pressure buildup curves are examined. After further refinements the model will be calibrated, using available pressure buildup data from representative wells in The Geysers, and used to provide a means for estimating pore pressure and temperature gradients within reservoir blocks. This information will be used to calculate changes in

  6. Normal values of inner canthal distance, interpupillary distance and palpebral fissure length in normal Chinese children in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wu, K H; Tsai, F J; Li, T C; Tsai, C H; Peng, C T; Wang, T R

    2000-01-01

    Ocular measurements, including inner canthal distance, outer canthal distance, interpupillary distance, and palpebral fissure length are important in the evaluation of congenital deformities and posttraumatic telecanthus. In this research, 4446 normal Chinese children in Taiwan were enrolled in our study. The sample of 284 full term neonates, 2742 infants and children aged from 1 month to 3 years, and 1420 preschool children were measured for inner canthal distance, outer canthal distance, interpupillary distance and palpebral fissure length. We calculated the mean value and standard deviation of the ocular measurements in normal Chinese newborns, infants and preschool children in Taiwan under 5 years. No significant sex differences were observed. Compared with previous studies, inner canthal distance, outer canthal distance and interpupillary distance in Chinese children in Taiwan were wider than those in Caucasian children, but the palpebral fissure length was not significantly different. We also found that inner canthal distance was wider than palpebral fissure length at the same age; therefore it was not correct to diagnose hypertelorism in Chinese children in Taiwan; as if an imaginary third eye could fit between the eyes. Thus, we suggest that measurements should be adjusted with normal standards specific for race. Consideration of the position of eyes is relevant for the diagnosis of a large number of syndromes.

  7. [Public school programme for fissure sealants and its effect on the private demand for restorative dentistry for temporary teeth].

    PubMed

    Prados Atienza, María Belén; Muñoz Soto, Esther; Bravo, Manuel; González Rodríguez, María Paloma; Prados Sánchez, Estrella

    2006-11-30

    To analyse the effect of a public school odontological programme of fissure sealants on the private demand for restorative dentistry for temporary teeth. A longitudinal, comparative study was conducted. It had 2 groups, control and sealant, with 3 years monitoring. Santa Fe Health Area, concretely in the local districts (LD) of Santa Fe and Pinos Puente, Granada, Spain, starting in the school year 1996/1997. The sealant group was selected from the Santa Fe LD (which had a public programme of fissure sealants) (n=129); and the control group (n=120), from Pinos Puente LD. All the school students were examined (+ report issued) in the schools every 6 months for 3 years. The sealant group children received at the health centre fissure sealants in their first permanent molars. The restorations performed in temporary teeth for both groups were analysed (x+/-EE) during the study at 12, 24, and 36 month follow-up. RESULTS. The sealant group had a significantly greater increase in restorative treatment for temporary teeth (P< .05) than the Control group at all monitoring points. A public programme of fissure sealants raised private restorative treatment for temporary teeth.

  8. Three-Dimensional Numerical Simulation on Triaxial Failure Mechanical Behavior of Rock-Like Specimen Containing Two Unparallel Fissures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yan-Hua; Yang, Sheng-Qi; Zhao, Jian

    2016-12-01

    A three-dimensional particle flow code (PFC3D) was used for a systematic numerical simulation of the strength failure and cracking behavior of rock-like material specimens containing two unparallel fissures under conventional triaxial compression. The micro-parameters of the parallel bond model were first calibrated using the laboratory results of intact specimens and then validated from the experimental results of pre-fissured specimens under triaxial compression. Numerically simulated stress-strain curves, strength and deformation parameters and macro-failure modes of pre-fissured specimens were all in good agreement with the experimental results. The relationship between stress and the micro-crack numbers was summarized. Crack initiation, propagation and coalescence process of pre-fissured specimens were analyzed in detail. Finally, horizontal and vertical cross sections of numerical specimens were derived from PFC3D. A detailed analysis to reveal the internal damage behavior of rock under triaxial compression was carried out. The experimental and simulated results are expected to improve the understanding of the strength failure and cracking behavior of fractured rock under triaxial compression.

  9. Randomized controlled pilot trial of nifedipine as oral therapy vs. topical application in the treatment of fissure-in-ano.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Vivek; Kaushal, Gourav; Gupta, Rachna

    2013-11-01

    Fissure-in-ano is a common condition that leads to pain and affects quality of life. Sphincterotomy remains the gold standard, but it may lead to troublesome incontinence in some patients. To overcome this problem, numerous pharmacologic therapies have been tested with varying outcomes. The investigators compared the effect of the addition of oral and topical nifedipine to conservative measures in the treatment of patients with fissure-in-ano. Ninety patients with fissure-in-ano, randomized into 3 groups of 30 each, were included in the study. Group I received conventional treatment, group II received oral nifedipine and conventional treatment, and group III received topical nifedipine along with conventional treatment. Patients were followed for 8 weeks for pain relief (assessed using a visual analogue scale) and healing to evaluate the effect of treatment. Pain relief was significantly better in the group III at 3 weeks and 2 months compared with group I (P < .05). Groups II and III were comparable in terms of pain relief. Healing rates were significantly better in group II (P = .03) and group III (P = .00) compared with group I, but groups II and III were found to be comparable. Adverse effects were most commonly reported by group II patients, but these were not significantly higher than in other 2 groups. We recommend the addition of either oral or topical nifedipine to conservative measures to significantly improve pain relief and healing rates in patients with fissure-in-ano. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Enamel pretreatment with Er:YAG laser: effects on the microleakage of fissure sealant in fluorosed teeth

    PubMed Central

    Kianimanesh, Nasrin; Shayeghi, Bahareh

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the microleakage and penetration of fissure sealant in permanent molar teeth with fluorosis after pretreatment of the occlusal surface. Materials and Methods A total of 120 third molars with mild dental fluorosis were randomly divided into 6 groups (n = 20). The tooth surfaces were sealed with an unfilled resin fissure sealant (FS) material. The experimental groups included: 1) phosphoric acid etching (AE) + FS (control); 2) AE + One-Step Plus (OS, Bisco) + FS; 3) bur + AE + FS; 4) bur + AE + OS + FS; 5) Er:YAG laser + AE + FS; and 6) Er:YAG laser + AE + OS + FS. After thermocycling, the teeth were immersed in 0.5% fuchsin and sectioned. Proportions of mircoleakage (PM) and unfilled area (PUA) were measured by digital microscope. Results Overall, there were significant differences among all groups in the PM (p = 0.00). Group 3 showed the greatest PM, and was significantly different from groups 2 to 6 (p < 0.05). Group 6 showed the lowest PM. Pretreatment with Er:YAG with or without adhesive led to less PM than bur pretreatment. There were no significant differences among groups in PUA. Conclusions Conventional acid etching provided a similar degree of occlusal seal in teeth with fluorosis compared to those pretreated with a bur or Er:YAG laser. Pretreatment of pits and fissures with Er:YAG in teeth with fluorosis may be an alternative method before fissure sealant application. PMID:25110641

  11. Driving mechanisms of modern earth fissures in the northern part of Nanyuan-Tongxian fault zone, Beijing,China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, G.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, H.; Wang, R.; Guo, H.

    2016-12-01

    Modern Earth fissures, ranging from renewed displacement on 1-km-Iong fault scarps to 3.2-km-long tension cracks, occur in the northern part of Nanyuan-Tongxian fault zone, Beijing. Most of the failures formed along pre-existing Medio-Pleistocene fault. The failures began to form in 2013 and currently affect an area over 2.2km2 that is coincident with groundwater-level decline induced by pumping for irrigation and industry-domestic water. An integrated subsidence-monitoring program, including leveling survey, InSAR and multilayer monitoring of groundwater, has been conducted to analyze the driving mechanisms of the earth fissure. The results indicate that this earth fissure was caused by groundwater-level decline rather than natural tectonism. First, the modern earth fissure was restricted to the area affected by differential subsidence. Land subsidence was associated with the groundwater-level decline and appears to be caused by aquifer compaction. Second, borehole log and cross sections across the fault suggest that subsurface fault-associated deformation was restricted to 43m depth. And third, seasonal rebound of the land surface across Nanyuan-Tongxian fault was caused by elastic response of effective stresses applied in the aquifer system that was induced by seasonal groundwater-level fluctuations.

  12. Effect of Silver Nanoparticle-Added Pit and Fissure Sealant in the Prevention of Dental Caries in Children.

    PubMed

    Salas-López, Enid Karina; Pierdant-Pérez, Mauricio; Hernández-Sierra, Juan Francisco; Ruíz, Facundo; Mandeville, Peter; Pozos-Guillén, Amaury J

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of pit and fissure sealant mixed with silver nanoparticles on dental caries, by means of monthly measurement of fluorescence with DIAGNOdent over six months. This study was divided in two phases: experimental and clinical. In the experimental phase, the adhesion and microleakage of the pit and fissure sealant experiment were evaluated. Two groups of 10 teeth, without serious carious lesions, were included. Conventional (group A) and silver nanoparticles (group B) were added to the pit and fissure sealant. For the clinical phase, a split-mouth study was performed on 40 children aged 6-10 years old with healthy, erupted permanent first molars. A conventional pit and fissure sealant or a silver nanoparticle-mixed sealant was randomly placed. Repeated measures analysis was performed. Conventional sealant presented an average microleakage of 30.6%, and the silver nanoparticle-mixed sealant showed 33.6% (P=NS). A three times greater reduction in fluorescence was found in the silver nanoparticles group compared to the conventional group (P<0.05). No sex- or age-based associations were found. The silver nanoparticle-mixed sealant reduced tooth demineralization significantly and likely increased remineralization, compared to the conventional sealant.

  13. Posterior perineal support as treatment for anal fissures--preliminary results with a new toilet seat device.

    PubMed

    Tan, Kok-Yang; Seow-Choen, Francis; Hai, Chew Heng; Thye, Gan Kok

    2009-03-01

    Anal fissures can cause morbidity in an otherwise healthy young patient. The process of evacuation results in stretching and descent of the anoderm and perineum especially posteriorly. Posterior perineal support may provide counter pressure at the posterior aspect of the pelvic floor, balancing the pressure exerted by the faeces on the anal wall, thus improving evacuation and reducing the trauma associated with it, and reducing symptoms of anal fissures. Symptoms of constipation may also be reduced secondarily. We report the preliminary results with a novel, simple and noninvasive method of treatment provided by a toilet seat device. A prospective study was performed in 32 patients. The study was designed mainly to investigate the patients' subjective perceptions of their symptoms related to anal fissures and constipation. Questionnaires were provided to patients before, during and after treatment. The study revealed statistically significant improvement in pain, bleeding, symptoms of constipation and abdominal discomfort after 3 months usage of the device. The odds of patients perceiving an improvement in symptoms were also significantly increased after 3 months of treatment compared to 2 weeks of treatment. This preliminary study revealed that a posterior perineal support device can bring about significant improvement in the symptoms of patients with anal fissures. There may also be secondary benefits of a reduction in the symptoms of constipation. Although not conclusive, these results should serve as a springboard for further research into this area.

  14. Lateral internal sphincterotomy versus 0.25 % isosorbide dinitrate ointment for chronic anal fissures: a prospective randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Kemal; Erenoğlu, Bülent; Doğru, Osman; Turan, Ersin; Eryilmaz, Mehmet Ali; Atay, Arif; Kökçam, Said

    2013-05-01

    To compare the healing properties of lateral internal sphincterotomy (LIS) and isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN) ointment for chronic anal fissure. Patients with a chronic anal fissure were randomly assigned to a group treated with ISDN ointment (n = 105) or a group treated with LIS (n = 102). The same investigators examined the patients in a blinded manner, 1, 2, 3, 6, and 12 months after the treatments. The anal fissure had healed completely by 4 weeks in 64.7 versus 92.2 %, and by 6 months in 77.1 versus 97.1 % of the ISDN and LIS group patients, respectively. At 12 months, the recurrence rates were 4.8 versus 1 % for the ISDN and LIS groups, respectively, and the success rates of the treatments were 72.4 versus 96.1 %, respectively. Six patients in the LIS group experienced minor fecal incontinence, and seven (6.7 %) patients in the ISDN group experienced headaches that responded well to paracetamol. ISDN ointment was reported by all patients to be easy to use. Although its success rate was lower than that of surgery, ISDN can be offered to selected patients with a chronic anal fissure, as it has a low recurrence rate and rare side effects are rare.

  15. Lateral Anal Sphincterotomy for Chronic Anal Fissures- A Comparison of Outcomes and Complications under Local Anaesthesia Versus Spinal Anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Manoharan, Ravikumar; Jacob, Tarun; Benjamin, Santosh; Kirishnan, Sumonth

    2017-01-01

    Fissure-in-Ano is one of the common and most painful anorectal conditions encountered in surgical practice. Inspite of several conservative treatment options, surgical treatment in the form of Lateral Anal Spincterotomy (LAS) remains the gold standard of treatment for Chronic Anal Fissures (CAF). However, LAS is often done under spinal or general anaesthesia incurring huge treatment costs and hospital stay. To study if LAS can be treated with Local Anaesthesia (LA) thereby, reducing the costs and the anaesthetic risk to patients with no significant change in the surgical ease or clinical outcome. A total of 79 patients with chronic fissure underwent randomized allocation to two treatment arms - The first to undergo LAS under LA and the second under Spinal Anaesthesia (SA). The primary outcome variables studied were complications like post-operative pain, infections, healing rate of fissure and incontinence rates. Secondary outcome variables studied were cost, hospital stay and need for additional anaesthetic. A total of 79 patients underwent LAS procedure. A total of 42 patients had LA and 39 patients had SA. There was no statistically significant difference in the healing rate, pain, infection and incontinence rates between the two groups. Moreover, the LA group incurred lower cost, reduced hospital stay and reduced risk of anaesthesia. LAS can be satisfactorily performed under local anaesthesia with no increased risk of pain or complications, and is best suited for resource-poor surgical settings.

  16. Randomized, controlled study comparing sitz-bath and no-sitz-bath treatments in patients with acute anal fissures.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Pravinj

    2006-08-01

    To determine the efficacy and safety of sitz baths in the management of acute anal fissures. Individual patients were randomized to either receive sitz baths or no sitz baths for 4 weeks in addition to oral psyllium husk. Patients were asked to soak their hips and buttocks in a tub containing plain lukewarm water for 10 min, once after defecation in the morning and again at bedtime. Each week, the patients were called to assess pain scores and healing of fissures, whereas the level of satisfaction was recorded at the end of 4 weeks. Main outcome measures were validated pain scores and levels of satisfaction. Fifty-eight subjects were recruited for this study. In all, 52 of them completed the trial (27 in the sitz bath group and 25 in the control group). Although the pain score was lesser in the sitz bath group than in the control group, it failed to reach statistical significance. There were no significant differences in fissure healing between the two groups over the 4-week study period. However, patients in the sitz bath group reported better satisfaction levels than the control group (P < 0.01). Although no serious adverse effects were observed, two patients from sitz bath group developed perianal skin rash. This study suggests that sitz baths improve patient satisfaction in acute anal fissures. However, the healing and overall pain relief was not significant enough to attract attention. It was also found to be associated with adverse effects in few patients.

  17. Microleakage and penetration depth of different fissure sealant materials after cyclic thermo-mechanic and brushing simulation.

    PubMed

    Hatirli, Hüseyin; Yasa, Bilal; Yasa, Elif

    2017-08-25

    The aim of the study was to evaluate microleakage and the penetration-depths of different fissure-sealant materials applied with/without enameloplasty after cyclic aging. One-hundred-sixty mandibular molars were divided into non-invasive and enameloplasty preparation groups and eight material subgroups, including: flowable composites (microhyrid, nanohybrid, and nanofilled), three resin-based (unfilled, filled, and highly-filled), a giomer-based, and a glass-ionomer-based fissure sealant. Specimens were subjected to two-year cyclic chewing and brushing simulation. After 5% basic-fuchsin dye penetration, specimens were sectioned and scored under stereomicroscope. Kruskal-Wallis statistical data showed that preparation type significantly affected the penetration of all tested materials (p<0.05), but not significantly affected microleakage (p>0.05). Flowable composites showed the best and the glass-ionomer-based sealant showed the worst penetration and microleakage. Slight preparation of fissures is not important in microleakage. However, enameloplasty significantly enhanced the depth of penetration of the sealants. Flowable composites offer promising results at the fissure sealing.

  18. Lateral Anal Sphincterotomy for Chronic Anal Fissures- A Comparison of Outcomes and Complications under Local Anaesthesia Versus Spinal Anaesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Tarun; Benjamin, Santosh; Kirishnan, Sumonth

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Fissure-in-Ano is one of the common and most painful anorectal conditions encountered in surgical practice. Inspite of several conservative treatment options, surgical treatment in the form of Lateral Anal Spincterotomy (LAS) remains the gold standard of treatment for Chronic Anal Fissures (CAF). However, LAS is often done under spinal or general anaesthesia incurring huge treatment costs and hospital stay. Aim To study if LAS can be treated with Local Anaesthesia (LA) thereby, reducing the costs and the anaesthetic risk to patients with no significant change in the surgical ease or clinical outcome. Materials and Methods A total of 79 patients with chronic fissure underwent randomized allocation to two treatment arms – The first to undergo LAS under LA and the second under Spinal Anaesthesia (SA). The primary outcome variables studied were complications like post-operative pain, infections, healing rate of fissure and incontinence rates. Secondary outcome variables studied were cost, hospital stay and need for additional anaesthetic. Results A total of 79 patients underwent LAS procedure. A total of 42 patients had LA and 39 patients had SA. There was no statistically significant difference in the healing rate, pain, infection and incontinence rates between the two groups. Moreover, the LA group incurred lower cost, reduced hospital stay and reduced risk of anaesthesia. Conclusions LAS can be satisfactorily performed under local anaesthesia with no increased risk of pain or complications, and is best suited for resource-poor surgical settings.

  19. Incisive suture (fissure) in the human fetus: radiographic and histologic study.

    PubMed

    Vacher, C; Sakka, M; Dauge, M C

    2001-07-01

    An anatomic study, in man, of the structure commonly known as the incisive suture (sutura incisiva) or incisive fissure has been performed to determine whether this structure belongs to the morphofunctional concept of a facial suture. Eighteen palates of human fetuses of 9 weeks to 29 weeks after conception. Anatomic, radiographic examination of the palate. Histologic study of sagittal and parasagittal sections of the palates (3 mm each). The histologic aspect is that of a facial suture, with very poor vascularization. This suture is partial, limited laterally by osseous trabeculae. This particular suture, whose function in growth of the palatal process of the maxilla is discussed, could represent the phylogenetic vestige of the incisive-maxillary suture present in all nonhuman mammals.

  20. Rise and Collapse of Volcanic Plumes Produced By Explosive Basaltic Fissure Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paillat, S.; Kaminski, E. C.

    2014-12-01

    Explosive basaltic fissure eruptions, which release large amounts of sulfur gases in the atmosphere, can have a big impact on climate. The effect on climate depends on the rate of gas injection above the tropopause. The key parameter is the height reached by the eruptive plume as a function of mass flux and entrainment rate. We propose a model of entrainment in 2D volcanic plumes based on lab scale experiments on turbulent jets and plumes. In this model, entrainment varies with the Richardson number and we predict that the height of the column critically depends on the source buoyancy flux determined by the eruptive temperature and the amount of gas in the volcanic mixture at the vent. We obtain that "hot" basaltic planar plumes form stable eruptive columns, even for large eruption rates. Only if fragmentation is not efficient enough, the column collapse will prevent the injection of gas in the stratosphere.

  1. Shift from magmatic to phreatomagmatic explosion controlled by the evolution of lateral fissure eruption in Suoana Crater, Miyakejima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geshi, Nobuo; Nemeth, Karoly; Noguchi, Rina; Oikawa, Teruki

    2016-04-01

    Combined analysis of the proximal deposit and exposed feeder-diatreme structure of the Suoana Crater of Miyakejima reveals the process of magma-water interaction controlled by the evolution of lateral fissure eruption in a stratovolcanic edifice. The Suoana Crater, an oval maar with 400 x 300 m across is one of the craters of the Suoana-Kazahaya crater chain which is formed during a fissure eruption in the 7th Century. The eruption fissure extends ~3 km from the summit area (~700 m asl) to the lower-flank area (~200m asl). The eruption fissure consists of upper maar-chain (>450 m asl) and lower scora-cone chain. As the wall of the 2000 AD caldera truncated at near the center of the Suoana Crater, the vertical section of the feeder dike - diatreme - maar system of the Suoana Crater is exposed in the caldera wall (Geshi et al., 2011). The ejected materials from the Suoana crater indicate the transition of eruption style from magmatic to phreatomagmatic. The juvenile clasts in the lower half of the deposit exhibit spatter-like shape, indicating the typical deposit from a vigorous fire fountain. Contrary, the juvenile clasts in the upper half are less vesiculated and exhibit cauliflower-shape, indicating the typical phreatomagmatic activity. This transition indicates that the magma-water interaction started at the middle of the eruption. Judging from the ratio of the thickness of the lower and upper parts, the contrast of the content of juvenile clasts, and bulk density of the deposit, the total ejected volume of magma is larger in the lower part compare to the upper part. The transition from magmatic to phreatomagmatic occurred only in the upper half of the eruption fissure, including the Suoana crater, whereas the lower half of the fissure continued dry magmatic eruption throughout their activity. The limited distribution of phreatomagmatic activity can be resulted by the magma extraction from the upper feeder dike system to the lower eruption fissure as it

  2. Exploring rock fissures: does a specialized root morphology explain endemism on granite outcrops?

    PubMed Central

    Poot, Pieter; Hopper, Stephen D.; van Diggelen, Josepha M.H.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Worldwide, many plant species are confined to open, shallow-soil, rocky habitats. Although several hypotheses have been proposed to explain this habitat specificity, none has been convincing. We suggest that the high level of endemism on shallow soils is related to the edaphic specialization needed to survive in these often extremely drought-prone habitats. Previous research has shown that species endemic to ironstone communities in SW Australia have a specialized root morphology that enhances their chance to access fissures in the underlying rock. Here we test the generality of these findings for species that are confined to a shallow-soil habitat that is of much greater global significance: granite outcrops. Methods We compared temporal and spatial root growth and allocation of three endemic woody perennials of SW Australian granite outcrop communities with those of congeners occurring on nearby deeper soils. Seedlings of all species were grown in 1·2 m long custom-made containers with a transparent bottom that allowed monitoring of root growth over time. Key Results The granite outcrop endemics mostly differed in a predictable way from their congeners from deeper soils. They generally invested a larger portion of their biomass in roots, distributed their roots faster and more evenly over the container and had a lower specific root length. In different species pairs the outcrop endemics achieved their apparent advantage by a different combination of the aforementioned traits. Conclusions Our results are consistent with earlier work, indicating that species restricted to different types of drought-prone shallow-soil communities have undergone similar selection pressures. Although adaptive in their own habitat in terms of obtaining access to fissures in the underlying rock, these root system traits are likely to be maladaptive in deeper soil habitats. Therefore, our results may provide an explanation for the narrow endemism of many shallow

  3. Influence of laser irradiation on pits and fissures: an in situ study.

    PubMed

    Correa-Afonso, Alessandra M; Pécora, Jesus D; Palma-Dibb, Regina G

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this in situ study was to analyze the influence of the Er:YAG, Nd:YAG, and CO(2) lasers on the enamel acid resistance of pits and fissures. The laser tissue interaction has been studied as a method of preventing occlusal caries. Thirteen volunteers wore palatal acrylic appliances containing human occlusal enamel blocks that were divided into four groups (G1, control; G2, Er:YAG; G3, Nd:YAG; G4, CO(2)). Each palatal acrylic appliance was used in the four studied groups and was used for 14 consecutive days. A sucrose solution was applied to the specimens six times per day. The specimens were then sectioned in half, and a microhardness test was applied. The other halves were analyzed using polarized light microscopy to measure the caries-like lesion areas, and a morphological analysis was conducted using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). For the statistical analysis of the data obtained from the microhardness test (Knoop hardness number. [KHN]) (α=5%), Fisher's exact test was performed, and the group means were as follows: G1, 247±71; G2, 258±70; G3, 272±73; and G4, 298±56. The results demonstrated that the control group was significantly different from G3 and G4, which presented higher microhardness values. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to analyze the data obtained from the caries-lesion area measurements (mm(2)) (α=5%) (G1, 0.01±1.08; G2, 0.13±0.18; G3, 0.05±0.17; and G4, 0.09±0.22). The results no showed significant differences among the groups in this analysis. Based on the results from the present study, it may be concluded that the CO(2) and Nd:YAG lasers increased the enamel acid resistance in pits and fissures.

  4. Botulinum toxin therapy for chronic anal fissures: where are we at currently?

    PubMed

    Dat, Anthony; Chin, Martin; Skinner, Stewart; Farmer, Chip; Wale, Roger; Carne, Peter; Bell, Stephen; Warrier, Satish K

    2017-09-01

    Botulinum toxin (Botox) injection for chronic anal fissure (CAF) is commonly performed, yet there remains no consensus on optimal dosage or frequency of injections required to achieve complete resolution of anal fissure. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of Botox and side-effect profile in the management of CAF. A retrospective clinical study of patients between 2010 and 2014 who underwent a Botox injection for CAF at a tertiary centre was performed. The effectiveness of Botox was measured using standardized outcomes including overall healing rate, presence of anal pain, recurrence and need for repeat botulinum injection. Binary outcomes were assessed using logistic regression model. The analysis was performed using Stata version 13 (StataCorp, College Station, TX, USA). One hundred and one patients underwent 126 Botox injections within the study period. The mean first post-operative visit was at 1 month. The overall recurrence rate was 32%. The majority of patients were given 33 U. No statistically significant relationship between dose and recurrence was identified. The presence of pain at the first post-operative visit was a predictor of future recurrence (odds ratio 3.92, confidence interval 1.58-9.74, P = 0.003). Botox is an effective strategy for CAF. Low doses can be given with good efficacy as highlighted by our audit and has the potential for great cost saving. The best predictor of recurrence is the presence of pain at the first post-procedure visit. © 2015 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  5. Stratigraphy and geochronology of pitfall accumulations in caves and fissures, Bermuda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hearty, Paul J.; Olson, Storrs L.; Kaufman, Darrell S.; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Cheng, Hai

    2004-05-01

    Deep fractures ("fissures") and avens ("skylights") in limestone cave roofs create natural traps for sediments and biota. Fissures fill quickly with surface sediment and organisms soon after opening. Debris cones are formed as materials fall, wash, or drift on air through openings in cave skylights. Such deposits in Admiral's and Grand Canyon Cave, Bermuda contain distinct beds and are composed of mixtures of sediment and charcoal, together with fossils of land snails, crabs, birds, reptiles, and bats. The "pitfall" accumulations were periodically sealed over by calcite flowstone. A stratigraphic record of surface activity and fauna through both glacial and interglacial periods has been preserved. The succession also provides an ideal setting in which to compare several geochronological methods. Calibrated 14C ages on charcoal and shells provide dated horizons at 1600, 12,800, and about 35,000 14C yr BP. Thermal ionization mass spectrometric (TIMS) ages on several flowstone layers constrain the entire sequence in the Admiral's Cave sequence between 126,300±900 yr (Termination II) and historical times. A continuous relative-age record generated by amino acid epimerization (AAE) geochronology ( D-alloisoleucine/ L-isoleucine or aIle/Ile) on the pulmonate land gastropod Poecilozonites verifies the biostratigraphy, reveals a minimal degree of mixing between stratigraphic units, and establishes an independent temporal link between the subterranean and subaerial deposits of Bermuda. This convergence between stratigraphy and geochronology yields a precisely dated succession from the oceanic island of Bermuda, and thus presents a unique opportunity to assess the rates and processes of evolutionary and climate change during that interval.

  6. Exploring rock fissures: does a specialized root morphology explain endemism on granite outcrops?

    PubMed

    Poot, Pieter; Hopper, Stephen D; van Diggelen, Josepha M H

    2012-07-01

    Worldwide, many plant species are confined to open, shallow-soil, rocky habitats. Although several hypotheses have been proposed to explain this habitat specificity, none has been convincing. We suggest that the high level of endemism on shallow soils is related to the edaphic specialization needed to survive in these often extremely drought-prone habitats. Previous research has shown that species endemic to ironstone communities in SW Australia have a specialized root morphology that enhances their chance to access fissures in the underlying rock. Here we test the generality of these findings for species that are confined to a shallow-soil habitat that is of much greater global significance: granite outcrops. We compared temporal and spatial root growth and allocation of three endemic woody perennials of SW Australian granite outcrop communities with those of congeners occurring on nearby deeper soils. Seedlings of all species were grown in 1·2 m long custom-made containers with a transparent bottom that allowed monitoring of root growth over time. The granite outcrop endemics mostly differed in a predictable way from their congeners from deeper soils. They generally invested a larger portion of their biomass in roots, distributed their roots faster and more evenly over the container and had a lower specific root length. In different species pairs the outcrop endemics achieved their apparent advantage by a different combination of the aforementioned traits. Our results are consistent with earlier work, indicating that species restricted to different types of drought-prone shallow-soil communities have undergone similar selection pressures. Although adaptive in their own habitat in terms of obtaining access to fissures in the underlying rock, these root system traits are likely to be maladaptive in deeper soil habitats. Therefore, our results may provide an explanation for the narrow endemism of many shallow-soil endemics.

  7. Genome-wide association study of primary dentition pit-and-fissure and smooth surface caries

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Zhen; Feingold, Eleanor; Wang, Xiaojing; Weeks, Daniel E.; Lee, Myoungkeun; Cuenco, Karen T.; Broffitt, Barbara; Weyant, Robert J.; Crout, Richard; McNeil, Daniel W.; Levy, Steven M.; Marazita, Mary L.; Shaffer, John. R.

    2014-01-01

    Dental caries continues to be the most common chronic disease in children today. Despite the substantial involvement of genetics in the process of caries development, the specific genes contributing to dental caries remain largely unknown. We performed separate genome-wide association studies of smooth and pit-and-fissure tooth surface caries experience in the primary dentitions of self-reported white children in two samples from Iowa and rural Appalachia. In total, 1006 children (ages 3-12 years) were included for smooth surface analysis, and 979 children (ages 4-14 years) for pit-and-fissure surface analysis. Associations were tested for more than 1.2 million single nucleotide polymorphisms, either genotyped or imputed. We detected genome-wide significant signals in KPNA4 (p-value = 2.0E-9), and suggestive signals in ITGAL (p-value = 2.1E-7) and PLUNC family genes (p-value = 2.0E-6), thus nominating these novel loci as putative caries susceptibility genes. We also replicated associations observed in previous studies for MPPED2 (p-value = 6.9E-6), AJAP1 (p-value = 1.6E-6) and RPS6KA2 (p-value = 7.3E-6). Replication of these associations in additional samples, as well as experimental studies to determine the biological functions of associated genetic variants, are warranted. Ultimately, efforts such as this may lead to a better understand of caries etiology, and could eventually facilitate the development of new interventions and preventive measures. PMID:24556642

  8. Comparison of six different methods of cleaning and preparing occlusal fissure surface before placement of pit and fissure sealant: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, A; Shigli, A

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate and compare the microleakage of pit and fissure sealants after using six different preparation techniques: (a) brush, (b) pumice slurry application, (c) bur, (d) air polishing, (e) air abrasion, and (f) longer etching time. The study was conducted on 60 caries-free first premolars extracted for orthodontic purpose. These teeth were randomly assigned to six groups of 10 teeth each. Teeth were prepared using one of six occlusal surface treatments prior to placement of Clinpro" 3M ESPE light-cured sealant. The teeth were thermocycled for 500 cycles and stored in 0.9% normal saline. Teeth were sealed apically and coated with nail varnish 1 mm from the margin and stained in 1% methylene blue for 24 hours. Each tooth was divided buccolingually parallel to the long axis of the tooth, yielding two sections per tooth for analysis. The surfaces were scored from 0 to 2 for the extent of microleakage. Results obtained for microleakage were analyzed by using t-tests at sectional level and chi-square test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) at the group level. The results of round bur group were significantly superior when compared to all other groups. The application of air polishing and air abrasion showed better results than pumice slurry, bristle brush, and longer etching time. Round bur group was the most successful cleaning and preparing technique. Air polishing and air abrasion produced significantly less microleakage than traditional pumice slurry, bristle brush, and longer etching time.

  9. Oligo-antigenic diet in the treatment of chronic anal fissures. Evidence for a relationship between food hypersensitivity and anal fissures.

    PubMed

    Carroccio, Antonio; Mansueto, Pasquale; Morfino, Giuditta; D'Alcamo, Alberto; Di Paola, Valentina; Iacono, Giuseppe; Soresi, Maurizio; Scerrino, Gregorio; Maresi, Emiliano; Gulotta, Gaspare; Rini, Giovambattista; Bonventre, Sebastiano

    2013-05-01

    Patients with chronic constipation due to food hypersensitivity (FH) had an elevated anal sphincter resting pressure. No studies have investigated a possible role of FH in anal fissures (AFs). We aimed to evaluate (1) the effectiveness of diet in curing AFs and to evaluate (2) the clinical effects of a double-blind placebo-controlled (DBPC) challenge, using cow's milk protein or wheat. One hundred and sixty-one patients with AFs were randomized to receive a "true-elimination diet" or a "sham-elimination diet" for 8 weeks; both groups also received topical nifedipine and lidocaine. Sixty patients who were cured with the "true-elimination diet" underwent DBPC challenge in which cow's milk and wheat were used. At the end of the study, 69% of the "true-diet group" and 45% of the "sham-diet group" showed complete healing of AFs (P<0.0002). Thirteen of the 60 patients had AF recurrence during the 2-week cow's milk DBPC challenge and 7 patients had AF recurrence on wheat challenge. At the end of the challenge, anal sphincter resting pressure significantly increased in the patients who showed AF reappearance (P<0.0001), compared with the baseline values. The patients who reacted to the challenges had a significantly higher number of eosinophils in the lamina propria and intraepithelial lymphocytes than those who did not react to the challenges. An oligo-antigenic diet combined with medical treatment improved the rate of chronic AF healing. In more than 20% of the patients receiving medical and dietary treatment, AFs recurred on DBPC food challenge.

  10. Structural control of young basaltic fissure eruptions in the plateau basalt area of the Arabian Plate, northeastern Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guba, Ingeborg; Mustafa, Hakam

    1988-12-01

    In the El Hamadieh region, part of the large intracontinental basalt plateau extending NW-SE from Syria to Jordan and Saudi-Arabia in the northern part of the Arabian Plate, young volcanic edifices formed by fissure eruptions have been investigated; all geometrical dimensions and parameters of the ridges have been measured, the field relationships documented, the data evaluated and the structural patterns analysed. Using the attitude of the fissures as palaeostress indicators, a stress-strain-model is introduced, showing the superimposition of stress fields. Magma was extruded at the intersection of two regional structures: the NE-SW-striking Amman-Hallabat fold belt and the NW-SE-trending Azraq-Sirhan graben. A first effusion with a relatively fluid magma took place in reactivated fold-related conjugated hk0-shear fractures with a compressional σ1-stress trending NW-SE. A second phase of fissure effusions produced a more viscous lava. These fissures represent (a) hk0-planes with an acute angle about the fold axis, and (b) planes of normal faults along the southwestern shoulder of the Azraq-Sirhan graben in the position of fold-related reactivated conjugated 0 hl-shear planes. The geometrical relationships between the Amman-Hallabat folds, the Azraq-Sirham faults and the volcanic fissures indicate a rotation of the local stress field with the originally NW-SE-trending compressional σ1- and the NE-SW-trending, σ3-stress changing into a NE-SW-acting tensional σ1-stress.

  11. A study to determine the nitroglycerin ointment dose and dosing interval that best promote the healing of chronic anal fissures.

    PubMed

    Bailey, H Randolph; Beck, David E; Billingham, Richard P; Binderow, Sander R; Gottesman, Lester; Hull, Tracy L; Larach, Sergio W; Margolin, David A; Milsom, Jeffrey W; Potenti, Fabio M; Rafferty, Janice F; Riff, Dennis S; Sands, Lawrence R; Senagore, Anthony; Stamos, Michael J; Yee, Laurence F; Young-Fadok, Tonia M; Gibbons, Robert D

    2002-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the optimal dose and dosing interval of nitroglycerin ointment to heal chronic anal fissures. A randomized, double-blind study of intra-anally applied nitroglycerin ointment (Anogesic) was conducted in 17 centers in 304 patients with chronic anal fissures. The patients were randomly assigned to one of eight treatment regimens (0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4 percent nitroglycerin ointment applied twice or three times per day), for up to eight weeks. A dose-measuring device standardized the delivery of 374 mg ointment. Healing of fissures (complete reepithelialization) was assessed by physical examination using an observer unaware of treatment allocation. The subjects assessed pain intensity daily by completing a diary containing a visual analog scale for average pain intensity for the day, the worst pain intensity for the day, and pain intensity at the last defecation. There were no significant differences in fissure healing among any of the treatment groups; all groups, including placebo had a healing rate of approximately 50 percent. This rate of placebo response was inexplicably higher than previously reported in the literature. Treatment with 0.4 percent (1.5 mg) nitroglycerin ointment was associated with a significant (P < 0.0002) decrease in average pain intensity compared with vehicle as assessed by patients with a visual analog scale. The decreases were observed by Day 4 of treatment. At 8 weeks the magnitude of the difference between 0.4 percent nitroglycerin and control was a 21 percent reduction in average pain. Treatment was well tolerated, with only 3.29 percent of patients discontinuing treatment because of headache. Headaches were the primary adverse event and were dose related. Nitroglycerin ointment did not alter healing but significantly and rapidly reduced the pain associated with chronic anal fissures.

  12. Comparative study of Ksharasutra suturing and Lord's anal dilatation in the management of Parikartika (chronic fissure-in-ano)

    PubMed Central

    Dudhamal, Tukaram S.; Baghel, Madhav Singh; Bhuyan, Chaturbhuja; Gupta, Sanjay Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parikartika resembles fissure-in-ano which is very common among all ano-rectal disorders. In Ayurvedic texts, Parikartika is described as a complication of Vamana and Virechana as well as complication of Atisara. Ksharasutra was proved successful in the management of fistula-in-ano, piles, and there is a need to try its efficacy in fissure-in-ano. Aim: To evaluate the role of Ksharasutra suturing (KSS) in fissure bed in chronic fissure-in-ano. Materials and Methods: Total 100 patients of chronic fissure-in-ano were selected and randomly divided into two groups (50 in each group). In group-A, patients were undergone by KSS; while in patients of Group-B Lord's anal dilatation followed by KSS was done under spinal anesthesia. The KSS was done once and after slough out of Ksharasutra, the wound was treated for 4 weeks and assessment of the result was done on the basis of gradation adopted. Results: The pain relief on 14th day in Group-A was 86% while in Group-B 100% was observed. As on 7th day in Group-A, oozing was stopped in 68% patients, while in Group-B, oozing was stopped in 82% patients. On 21st day, Group-B showed more healing (85%) as compared to Group-A (69%). In this study 68% of patients were cured. Conclusion: In Group-B (KSS with Lord's anal dilatation) patients were cured early as compared to patients of Group-A (KSS alone). PMID:25558158

  13. Aggressive treatment of acute anal fissure with 0.5% nifedipine ointment prevents its evolution to chronicity

    PubMed Central

    Katsinelos, Panagiotis; Kountouras, Jannis; Paroutoglou, George; Beltsis, Athanasios; Chatzimavroudis, Grigoris; Zavos, Christos; Katsinelos, Taxiarchis; Papaziogas, Basilis

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the efficacy of topical application of 0.5% nifedipine ointment in healing acute anal fissue and preventing its progress to chronicity. METHODS: Thirty-one patients (10 males, 21 females) with acute anal fissure from September 1999 to January 2005 were treated topically with 0.5% nifedipine ointment (t.i.d.) for 8 wk. The patients were encouraged to follow a high-fiber diet and assessed at 2, 4 and 8 wk post-treatment. The healing of fissure and any side effects were recorded. The patients were subsequently followed up in the outpatient clinic for one year and contacted by phone every three months thereafter, while they were encouraged to come back if symptoms recurred. RESULTS: Twenty-seven of the 31 patients completed the 8-wk treatment course, of them 23 (85.2%) achieved a complete remission indicated by resolution of symptoms and healing of fissure. Of the remaining four unhealed patients (14.8%), 2 opted to undergo lateral sphincterotomy and the other 2 to continue therapy for four additional weeks, resulting in healing of fissure. All the 25 patients with complete remission had a mean follow-up of 22.9 ± 14 (range 6-52) mo. Recurrence of symptoms occurred in four of these 25 patients (16%) who were successfully treated with an additional 4-wk course of 0.5% nifedipine ointment. Two of the 27 (7.4%) patients who completed the 8-wk treatment presented with moderate headache as a side effect of nifedipine. CONCLUSION: Topical 0.5% nifedipine ointment, used as an agent in chemical sphincterotomy, appears to offer a significant healing rate for acute anal fissure and might prevent its evolution to chronicity. PMID:17036396

  14. Mechanical Behavior of Brittle Rock-Like Specimens with Pre-existing Fissures Under Uniaxial Loading: Experimental Studies and Particle Mechanics Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Ri-hong; Cao, Ping; Lin, Hang; Pu, Cheng-zhi; Ou, Ke

    2016-03-01

    Joints and fissures with similar orientation or characteristics are common in natural rocks; the inclination and density of the fissures affect the mechanical properties and failure mechanism of the rock mass. However, the strength, crack coalescence pattern, and failure mode of rock specimens containing multi-fissures have not been studied comprehensively. In this paper, combining similar material testing and discrete element numerical method (PFC2D), the peak strength and failure characteristics of rock-like materials with multi-fissures are explored. Rock-like specimens were made of cement and sand and pre-existing fissures created by inserting steel shims into cement mortar paste and removing them during curing. The peak strength of multi-fissure specimens depends on the fissure angle α (which is measured counterclockwise from horizontal) and fissure number ( N f). Under uniaxial compressional loading, the peak strength increased with increasing α. The material strength was lowest for α = 25°, and highest for α = 90°. The influence of N f on the peak strength depended on α. For α = 25° and 45°, N f had a strong effect on the peak strength, while for higher α values, especially for the 90° sample, there were no obvious changes in peak strength with different N f. Under uniaxial compression, the coalescence modes between the fissures can be classified into three categories: S-mode, T-mode, and M-mode. Moreover, the failure mode can be classified into four categories: mixed failure, shear failure, stepped path failure, and intact failure. The failure mode of the specimen depends on α and N f. The peak strength and failure modes in the numerically simulated and experimental results are in good agreement.

  15. Phreatomagmatic explosive eruptions along fissures on the top of mafic stratovolcanoes with overlapping compound calderas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemeth, Karoly; Geshi, Nobuo

    2017-04-01

    On near summit flank eruptions on stratovolcanoes it is commonly inferred that external water to have little or no influence on the course of the eruptions. Hence eruptions are typicaly "dry" that form spatter-dominated fissures and scoria cones. This assumption is based on that in elevated regions - especially on steep slopes - the hydrogeological conditions are not favourable to store large volume of ground water that can have effect on the eruptions. However there is some controversial trend of eruption progression from an early dry eruption below the summit that later turn to be phreatomagmatic as the eruption locus migrates toward the summit. The Suoana Ccrater on top of Miyakejima Island's mafic stratovolcano is a fine example to demonstrate such process. Suona Crater is the topmost crater of the 3 km long fissure aligned chain of small-volume volcanoes that formed in the 7th century flank of the summit region of the Miyakejima mafic stratovolcano. The oval shape crater of Suona (400 x 300 m) is surrounded by a tuff ring that developed over lava flows and epiclastic deposits accumulated in an older caldera forming about a tuff ring that is about 25 m in its thickest section with a basal consistent lava spatter dominated unit gradually transforming into a more scoria-dominated middle unit. A caldera-forming eruption in AD 2000 half-sectioned the Suona Crater exposing of its internal diatreme - crater in-fill - tephra rim succession providing a unique opportunity to understand the 3D architecture of the volcano. Toward the top of the preserved and exposed tuff ring section a clear gradual transition can be seen toward more abundance of chilled dark juvenile particles providing a matrix of a coarse ash that commonly hold cauliflower lapilli and bomb. This transition indicates that the eruption progressed from an early dry explosive phase such as lava fountaining to be a more Strombolian style explosive eruption that later on turned to be heavily influenced by

  16. Effectiveness of pit and fissure sealants bonded with different adhesive systems: a prospective randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Erbas Unverdi, Gizem; Atac, Stephan Atilla; Cehreli, Zafer Cavit

    2016-11-30

    To evaluate and compare the clinical retention of a resin-based fissure sealant placed with an intermediate layer of etch-and-rinse (ER) or self-etch (SE) adhesives. Two hundred twenty-eight sealants were placed in 57 children with previously unsealed, caries-free permanent first molars, employing a split-mouth design. The teeth were randomized into four groups (n = 57 teeth/groups) according to the adhesive system placed under the tested sealant (Delton FS+; Dentsply). Group 1 (control): no bonding agent (conventional acid-etch sealant); group 2: prior enamel etch + ER adhesive (XP Bond; Dentsply); group 3: SE adhesive (Clearfil SE Bond; Kuraray) without prior etching; and group 4: prior enamel etch + SE adhesive (Clearfil SE Bond). Clinical assessments were performed according to modified USPHS criteria at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. The data were analyzed statistically using Fisher's Exact test, the Kaplan-Meier analysis, and the Log-rank test. At 24 months, sealants bonded with XP Bond and Clearfil SE Bond with prior enamel etching showed similar retention rates (p > 0.05), and these rates were significantly better than the rates of the conventional sealant and Clearfil-SE groups (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference between the retention rates of the latter two groups (p > 0.05). The cumulative survival rates on palatal/buccal surfaces showed similar outcomes as with occlusal surfaces: XP Bond (94%), Clearfil SE Bond + acid-etch (94%), conventional sealant (52%), and Clearfil SE Bond only (37%). Application of the tested ER adhesive and the SE adhesive with enamel etching significantly improved the clinical retention of Delton-FS over the 24-month period. The use of a resin-based fissure sealant placed with ER or SE adhesive with prior acid-etching yielded better retention than the conventional sealant over the 24-month period.

  17. Influence of Laser Irradiation on Pits and Fissures: An In Situ Study

    PubMed Central

    Correa–Afonso, Alessandra M; Pécora, Jesus D

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The aim of this in situ study was to analyze the influence of the Er:YAG, Nd:YAG, and CO2 lasers on the enamel acid resistance of pits and fissures. Background data: The laser tissue interaction has been studied as a method of preventing occlusal caries. Methods: Thirteen volunteers wore palatal acrylic appliances containing human occlusal enamel blocks that were divided into four groups (G1, control; G2, Er:YAG; G3, Nd:YAG; G4, CO2). Each palatal acrylic appliance was used in the four studied groups and was used for 14 consecutive days. A sucrose solution was applied to the specimens six times per day. The specimens were then sectioned in half, and a microhardness test was applied. The other halves were analyzed using polarized light microscopy to measure the caries-like lesion areas, and a morphological analysis was conducted using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Results: For the statistical analysis of the data obtained from the microhardness test (Knoop hardness number. [KHN]) (α=5%), Fisher's exact test was performed, and the group means were as follows: G1, 247±71; G2, 258±70; G3, 272±73; and G4, 298±56. The results demonstrated that the control group was significantly different from G3 and G4, which presented higher microhardness values. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to analyze the data obtained from the caries-lesion area measurements (mm2) (α=5%) (G1, 0.01±1.08; G2, 0.13±0.18; G3, 0.05±0.17; and G4, 0.09±0.22). The results no showed significant differences among the groups in this analysis. Conclusions: Based on the results from the present study, it may be concluded that the CO2 and Nd:YAG lasers increased the enamel acid resistance in pits and fissures. PMID:23336742

  18. Subsurface Gas Flow and Ice Grain Acceleration within Enceladus and Europa Fissures: 2D DSMC Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, O. J.; Combi, M. R.; Tenishev, V.

    2014-12-01

    The ejection of material from geysers is a ubiquitous occurrence on outer solar system bodies. Water vapor plumes have been observed emanating from the southern hemispheres of Enceladus and Europa (Hansen et al. 2011, Roth et al. 2014), and N2plumes carrying ice and ark particles on Triton (Soderblom et al. 2009). The gas and ice grain distributions in the Enceladus plume depend on the subsurface gas properties and the geometry of the fissures e.g., (Schmidt et al. 2008, Ingersoll et al. 2010). Of course the fissures can have complex geometries due to tidal stresses, melting, freezing etc., but directly sampled and inferred gas and grain properties for the plume (source rate, bulk velocity, terminal grain velocity) can be used to provide a basis to constrain characteristic dimensions of vent width and depth. We used a 2-dimensional Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) technique to model venting from both axi-symmetric canyons with widths ~2 km and narrow jets with widths ~15-40 m. For all of our vent geometries, considered the water vapor source rates (1027­ - 1028 s-1) and bulk gas velocities (~330 - 670 m/s) obtained at the surface were consistent with inferred values obtained by fits of the data for the plume densities (1026 - 1028 s-1, 250 - 1000 m/s) respectively. However, when using the resulting DSMC gas distribution for the canyon geometries to integrate the trajectories of ice grains we found it insufficient to accelerate submicron ice grains to Enceladus' escape speed. On the other hand, the gas distributions in the jet like vents accelerated grains > 10 μm significantly above Enceladus' escape speed. It has been suggested that micron-sized grains are ejected from the vents with speeds comparable to the Enceladus escape speed. Here we report on these results including comparisons to results obtained from 1D models as well as discuss the implications of our plume model results. We also show preliminary results for similar considerations applied to Europa

  19. Are we following an algorithm for managing chronic anal fissure? A completed audit cycle☆

    PubMed Central

    Farkas, Nicholas; Solanki, Kohmal; Frampton, Adam E.; Black, John; Gupta, Ashish; West, Nicholas J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Anal fissure is one of the commonest proctological diseases with considerable national variation in sequential treatment. We aimed to audit our compliance of chronic anal fissure (CAF) management with national guidance provided by the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland (ACPGBI). Methods We retrospectively audited patients presenting to outpatient clinics with CAF over a 6-month period. Using electronic patient records, notes and clinic letters, we compared their management with ACPGBI algorithm. A prospective re-audit was then performed. Results Forty-one patients were included in the analysis (59% male). Sixty-eight percent (n = 28/41) of patients were appropriately started on conservative dietary therapy, of whom only 7.1% (n = 2/28) had treatment success. Eighty-nine percent (n = 25/28) were then appropriately treated with either topical diltiazem 2% or GTN 0.4%. Overall, 43.9% (n = 18/41) of all patients' entire management strategy adhered to the ACPGBI guidelines. In total, 48.8% (n = 20/41) patients had surgical treatment (excluding Botox), of which only 15% (n = 3/20) had undergone ACPGBI-compliant management. After local dissemination of results and education, the re-audit of 20 patients showed significant improvement in adherence to the guidelines (43.9% vs. 95%; P = 0.0001). Conclusions Topical creams were the most successful treatments (50%; n = 9/18) in ACPGBI-compliant strategies. Importantly, these data suggests that compliance with the ACPGBI algorithm leads to healing without surgery in 83.3% (n = 15/18) of patients, compared to 26.1% (n = 6/23) with non-compliant methods (P = 0.0004). This highlights the benefit of early conservative and medical management of CAF, before attempting surgery. PMID:26858833

  20. Location of seismic events and eruptive fissures on the Piton de la Fournaise volcano using seismic amplitudes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Battaglia, J.; Aki, K.

    2003-01-01

    We present a method for locating the source of seismic events on Piton de la Fournaise. The method is based on seismic amplitudes corrected for station site effects using coda site amplification factors. Once corrected, the spatial distribution of amplitudes shows smooth and simple contours for many types of events, including rockfalls, long-period events and eruption tremor. On the basis of the simplicity of these distributions we develop inversion methods for locating their origins. To achieve this, the decrease of the amplitude as a function of the distance to the source is approximated by the decay either of surface or body waves in a homogeneous medium. The method is effective for locating rockfalls, long-period events, and eruption tremor sources. The sources of eruption tremor are usually found to be located at shallow depth and close to the eruptive fissures. Because of this, our method is a useful tool for locating fissures at the beginning of eruptions.

  1. A dose finding study with 0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.4% glyceryl trinitrate ointment in patients with chronic anal fissures.

    PubMed

    Scholefield, J H; Bock, J U; Marla, B; Richter, H J; Athanasiadis, S; Pröls, M; Herold, A

    2003-02-01

    Anal fissure is a common painful condition affecting the anal canal. The majority of acute fissures heal spontaneously. However, some of these acute fissures do not resolve but become chronic. Chronic anal fissures were traditionally treated by anal dilation or by lateral sphincterotomy. However, both of these surgical treatments may cause a degree of incontinence in up to 30% of patients. Several recent trials have shown that nitric oxide donors such as glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) can reduce sphincter pressure and heal up to 70% of chronic fissures. This study addressed the dose-response to three different concentrations of GTN ointment compared with placebo in a double blind randomised controlled trial. A double blind, multicentre, randomised controlled trial was set up to compare placebo ointment against three active treatment arms (0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.4% GTN ointment applied at a dose of 220 mg twice daily) in chronic anal fissures. The primary end point was complete healing of the fissure. Two hundred patients were recruited over an eight month period from 18 centres. After eight weeks of treatment the healing rate in the placebo group was 37.5% compared with 46.9% for 0.1%, 40.4% for 0.2%, and 54.1% for 0.4% GTN. None was significantly better than the placebo response. A secondary analysis excluded fissures without secondary criteria for chronicity. Healing rates were then found to be 24% in the placebo group compared with 50% in the 0.1% GTN group, 36% in the 0.2% group, and 57% in the 0.4% GTN group. These values were statistically significantly different for the placebo group compared with 0.1% GTN, 0.4% GTN, and for the GTN treated group as a whole. The results of this study have demonstrated the significant benefit of topical GTN when applied to patients suffering from chronic anal fissures but acute fissures showed a tendency to resolve spontaneously. The high proportion of fissures which healed in the placebo group suggests that the definition of

  2. A dose finding study with 0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.4% glyceryl trinitrate ointment in patients with chronic anal fissures

    PubMed Central

    Scholefield, J H; Bock, J U; Marla, B; Richter, H J; Athanasiadis, S; Pröls, M; Herold, A

    2003-01-01

    Background: Anal fissure is a common painful condition affecting the anal canal. The majority of acute fissures heal spontaneously. However, some of these acute fissures do not resolve but become chronic. Chronic anal fissures were traditionally treated by anal dilation or by lateral sphincterotomy. However, both of these surgical treatments may cause a degree of incontinence in up to 30% of patients. Several recent trials have shown that nitric oxide donors such as glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) can reduce sphincter pressure and heal up to 70% of chronic fissures. Aim: This study addressed the dose-response to three different concentrations of GTN ointment compared with placebo in a double blind randomised controlled trial. Method: A double blind, multicentre, randomised controlled trial was set up to compare placebo ointment against three active treatment arms (0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.4% GTN ointment applied at a dose of 220 mg twice daily) in chronic anal fissures. The primary end point was complete healing of the fissure. Results: Two hundred patients were recruited over an eight month period from 18 centres. After eight weeks of treatment the healing rate in the placebo group was 37.5% compared with 46.9% for 0.1%, 40.4% for 0.2%, and 54.1% for 0.4% GTN. None was significantly better than the placebo response. A secondary analysis excluded fissures without secondary criteria for chronicity. Healing rates were then found to be 24% in the placebo group compared with 50% in the 0.1% GTN group, 36% in the 0.2% group, and 57% in the 0.4% GTN group. These values were statistically significantly different for the placebo group compared with 0.1% GTN, 0.4% GTN, and for the GTN treated group as a whole. Conclusions: The results of this study have demonstrated the significant benefit of topical GTN when applied to patients suffering from chronic anal fissures but acute fissures showed a tendency to resolve spontaneously. The high proportion of fissures which healed in the placebo

  3. Feasibility Study on a Process for Electroless Metal Deposition in Pits and Fissures of Teeth for Use in Preventive Dentistry.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    Deposition In Pits and Fissures of Teeth for Use in Preventive Dentistry 2I Thomas J. O’Keefe August 1981 Supported by U. S. Army Medical Research and...July 1980 - August 1981 for Use in Preventive Dentistry 6. PERFORMING ONG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTMORj() S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(*) Thomas J. O’Keefe...Another area of interest is the use of organic sealants in combination with electroless plating of Ag, as well as organic fillings instead of amalgam

  4. Optimal Dosing of Botulinum Toxin for Treatment of Chronic Anal Fissure: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jin Xin; Krishna, Sanjeev; Su'a, Bruce; Hill, Andrew G

    2016-09-01

    Chronic anal fissures are associated with significant morbidity and reduced quality of life. Studies have investigated the efficacy of botulinum toxin with variable results; thus, there is currently no consensus on botulinum toxin dose or injection sites. This study aimed to systematically analyze trials studying the efficacy of botulinum toxin for treatment of chronic anal fissure to identify an optimum dosage and injection regimen. A comprehensive review of the literature was conducted according to PRISMA guidelines. PubMed/Medline, Embase, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library were searched from inception to June 2015. All clinical trials that investigated the efficacy of botulinum toxin for chronic anal fissure were selected according to specific criteria. The interventions used were various doses of botulinum toxin. Clinical outcomes, dosage, and injection site data were evaluated with weighted pooled results for each dosage and 95% confidence intervals. There were 1158 patients, with 661 in botulinum toxin treatment arms, from 18 clinical trials included in this review. The outcomes of interest were 3-month healing, incontinence, and recurrence rates. Meta-regression analysis demonstrated a small decrease in healing rate (0.34%; 95% CI, 0-0.68; p = 0.048) with each increase in dosage, a small increase in incontinence rate (1.02 times; 95% CI, 1.0002-1.049; p = 0.048) with each increase in dosage and a small increase in recurrence rate (1.037 times; 95% CI, 1.018-1.057; p = 0.0002) with each increase in dosage. The optimum injection site could not be determined. This study was limited by weaknesses in the underlying evidence, such as variable quality, short follow-up, and a limited range of doses represented. Fissure healing with lower doses of botulinum toxin is as effective as with high doses. Lower doses also reduce the risk of incontinence and recurrence in the long term.

  5. Increasing efficacy and reducing side effects in treatment of chronic anal fissures: A study of topical diazepam therapy.

    PubMed

    Hang, Minh Tuan H; Smith, Betsy E; Keck, Carson; Keshavarzian, Ali; Sedghi, Shahriar

    2017-05-01

    This is a single institution nonexperimental study intended to analyze the therapeutic efficacy of topical diazepam in treating symptoms of chronic anal fissures.Anal fissures are a common cause of anal pain. Conventional treatments include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, topical creams, such as nitroglycerin and nifedipine, and surgery. However, these treatments are usually suboptimally efficacious or have deterring side effects.Patients at an outpatient community center with a diagnosis of a chronic anal fissure were prescribed either topical 2% (n = 19) or 4% (n = 18) diazepam cream between January 2013 and February 2015. We retrospectively analyzed their responses to treatment.All 19 patients using 2% diazepam cream experienced a positive response in pain, whereas 47.4% experienced a complete response, with a numerical rating scale (NRS) score of 0 (0-10). Eighty-eight percent of patients using 4% dose had a positive response in pain, whereas 23.5% experienced a complete response. Ninety-four percent of patients using 2% dose had a positive response in anal bleeding, whereas 68.8% experienced a complete response with an anal bleeding score (ABS) of 2 (2-9). Ninety-four percent of patients using 4% dose had a positive response in anal bleeding, whereas 64.7% experienced a complete response. Only 1 patient reported a side effect from diazepam cream-perianal pruritus.Both 2% and 4% topical diazepam provided significant pain and bleeding relief from chronic anal fissures that were refractory to conventional therapies. There were insignificant differences when assessing independent comparisons for pain and bleeding between the doses.

  6. From surface fault traces to a fault growth model: The Vogar Fissure Swarm of the Reykjanes Peninsula, Southwest Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villemin, Thierry; Bergerat, Françoise

    2013-06-01

    The Vogar Fissure Swarm is one of four en-echelon fracture swarms that connect the Reykjanes Ridge to the South Iceland Seismic Zone and the Western Volcanic Zone. Occurring in an area of flat topography, this fissure swarm is clearly visible at the surface, where it can be seen to affect recent postglacial lavas. Using remote sensing methods to identify and measure all the faults and fractures in the swarm, combined with additional field observations and measurements, we measured 478 individual fractures, 33% of them being faults and 67% being fissures. The fracture lengths show roughly log-normal distributions. Most of the individual fractures belong to 68 main composite fractures, seven of which are longer than 2500 m and correspond to the main fault scarps of the fissure swarm. We showed that these main faults are distributed along five, equally spaced zones, ˜500 m apart and a few kilometers long. We drawn 71 across-strike profiles to characterize the shape of the fault scarps, and 5 along-strike profiles to characterize the evolution of vertical throw along the main faults. Each fault consists of a coalescence of individual segments of approximately equal length. Fault throws are never larger than 10 m and are smallest at the junctions between individual segments. Analyses of along-strike throw profiles allowed us to determine the early stages of growth after coalescence. The earliest stage is characterized by an increase in the throw of the central parts of segments. This is followed by a second stage during which the throw increases at the junctions between segments, progressively erasing these small-throw zones.

  7. Thulium laser versus staplers for anatomic pulmonary resections with incomplete fissures: negative results of a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Scanagatta, Paolo; Furia, Simone; Billè, Andrea; Duranti, Leonardo; Girelli, Lara; Tavecchio, Luca Domenico; Leo, Francesco; Giovannetti, Riccardo; Pelosi, Giuseppe; Porcu, Luca; Pastorino, Ugo

    2014-01-01

    This randomized trial evaluated the feasibility and safety of thulium 2010-nm laser to perform anatomic lung resections in patients with incomplete fissures, as compared to mechanical staplers with or without sealants. Seventy-two patients scheduled for segmentectomy or lobectomy were enrolled. After intraoperative confirmation of the extent of resection and incomplete fissures (Craig type 2, 3 or 4), they were randomized and allocated to one of the following arms: laser resection by thulium (group A) or standard resection with mechanical staplers with or without sealants (group B). The primary endpoints of the study included analysis of intraoperative and postoperative course, and costs. Thirty-eight patients were assigned to group A (32 lobectomies, 6 segmentectomies) and 34 to group B (31 lobectomies, 3 segmentectomies). No 30-day mortality was observed. Median operative times were 145.0 minutes (group A) and 142.5 minutes (group B, P = 0.83). The median time to drainage removal was 5 days (group A) and 4 days (group B), while the median length of hospital stay was the same (7 days). Prolonged air leaks >7 days were observed in 12 patients of group A (32%) and 10 patients of group B (29%, P = 0.46). Unpredictable late pneumothorax occurred in 3 patients of group A (2 readmissions, need for 1 repeat thoracotomy). Cost analysis demonstrated an intraoperative advantage for group A (mean 807 ± 212 euro) versus group B (mean 1,047+/-276 euro, P <0.0001), but the differences in total costs could be due to chance (P = 0.83). The use of laser to complete fissures can lead to late pneumothorax, even in the absence of postoperative air leaks. Moreover, the use of laser to complete fissures did not prove to reduce overall costs. Trial Registration Identification Number: 41/10 (IRB00001457 - FWA00001798 - IORG0001063).

  8. Outcome Of 0.2% Glyceryltrinitrate Cream Versus 2% Diltiazem Cream In The Treatment Of Chronic Anal Fissure.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Siddique; Akbar, Ismail; Zeb, Junaid; Ahmad, Salman; Khan, Ajmal

    2017-01-01

    Anal fissure is a linear tear in the distal anal canal resulting from persistent hypertonia and spasm of the internal sphincter which results in mucosal ischemia. We have conducted a study in order to compare the outcome of 0.2% glyceryl trinitrate cream versus 2% diltiazem cream in the treatment of chronic anal fissure. This randomized controlled trial (RCT) was carried out in the Department of Surgical "B" unit, at Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad, Pakistan from 15th June 2012 to 15th May 2015. One hundred and eighty-four patients who visited the outpatient department for the treatment of chronic anal fissure were included in the study. They were divided into two groups with 92 patients in each group. Patients in group "A" included those patients receiving topical glyceryl trinitrate and group "B" patients were those receiving topical diltiazem cream. Out of 184 patients 66.3% were males, 33.7% were females. Mean age of the patients was 43.84±7.976 and mean duration of symptoms was 10.55±2.524. Overall outcome in terms of healing was 71.2%, among which 80.4% were from diltiazem group while 62% in glyceryl trinitrate group. Complete relief of pain was observed in 67.9%, 26.1% complained of mild pain and 5.4% complained of moderate pain. Only one patient in glyceryl trinitrate group complained with severe pain with no healing after one month of follow up. No statistical association was found between healing outcome and gender as well as age of the patients (p>0.05) although an association was found between healing outcome and duration of symptoms (p<0.05). This study shows that diltiazem has better outcome in terms of healing of chronic anal fissure and reductions in symptoms, i.e., pain compared with glyceryl trinitrate.

  9. Evaluation of fissure sealants retention following four different isolation and surface preparation techniques: four years clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Lygidakis, N A; Oulis, K I; Christodoulidis, A

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the retention of fissure sealants, applied with 4 different combinations of isolation and preparation of occlusal surface. In 95 children aged 7-8 years, having all four first permanent molars fully erupted and caries free, a chemically initiated tinted fissure sealant was placed with the following 4 different methods in every child. 1) Tooth 16: Cotton rolls isolation and cleaning of occlusal surface using a bristle brush and non-fluoridated paste. 2) Tooth 26: Rubber dam isolation and mechanical preparation of pits and fissures using a round bur No. 0 in a slow hand-piece. 3) Tooth 36: Rubber dam isolation and cleaning of occlusal surface using a bristle brush and non-fluoridated paste. 4) Tooth 46: Isolation with cotton rolls and mechanical preparation of pits and fissures using a round bur No. 0 in a slow hand-piece. Eighty children were available for re-examination 4 years later (320 teeth). The 4 methods of application showed the following success rates of full retention: 1) 81% 2) 88% 3) 91% 4) 93%. Although statistical analysis of the results revealed only marginal statistically significant difference among the four different methods of application (p = 0.091), there was statistical significant difference (p = 0.031) between methods 1 and 4. No differences were detected among the remaining methods. The present trial revealed best sealant retention using a combination of cotton rolls isolation and mechanical preparation of the occlusal surface.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Comparison of medical-grade and calibrated consumer-grade displays for diagnosis of subtle bone fissures.

    PubMed

    Pinto Dos Santos, Daniel; Welter, Jonas; Emrich, Tilman; Jungmann, Florian; Dappa, Evelyn; Mildenberger, Peter; Kloeckner, Roman

    2017-06-28

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of medical-grade and calibrated consumer-grade digital displays for the detection of subtle bone fissures. Three experienced radiologists assessed 96 digital radiographs, 40 without and 56 with subtle bone fissures, for the presence or absence of fissures in various bones using one consumer-grade and two medical-grade displays calibrated according to the DICOM-Grayscale Standard Display Function. The reference standard was consensus reading. Subjective image quality was also assessed by the three readers. Statistical analysis was performed using receiver operating characteristic analysis and by calculating the sensitivity, specificity, and Youden's J for each combination of reader and display. Cohen's unweighted kappa was calculated to assess inter-rater agreement. Subjective image quality was compared using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. No significant differences were found for the assessment of subjective image quality. Diagnostic performance was similar across all readers and displays, with Youden's J ranging from 0.443 to 0.661. The differences were influenced more by the reader than by the display used for the assessment. No significant differences were found between medical-grade and calibrated consumer-grade displays with regard to their diagnostic performance in assessing subtle bone fissures. Calibrated consumer-grade displays may be sufficient for most radiological examinations. • Diagnostic performance of calibrated consumer-grade displays is comparable to medical-grade displays. • There is no significant difference with regard to subjective image quality. • Use of calibrated consumer-grade displays could cut display costs by 60-80%.

  11. Glyceryl trinitrate ointment (0.25%) and anal cryothermal dilators in the treatment of chronic anal fissures.

    PubMed

    Schiano di Visconte, Michele; Munegato, Gabriele

    2009-07-01

    Chronic anal fissure is a common benign disorder; for this condition, lateral internal sphincterotomy is the "gold standard" of treatment. Alternative medical treatments have not proven to be as effective as left lateral internal sphincterotomy. This randomized trial was designed to compare the use of 0.25% glyceryl trinitrate ointment and anal cryothermal dilators with the use of 0.4% glyceryl trinitrate ointment alone in the treatment of chronic anal fissures. Between 1 June 2006 and 31 December 2007, 60 consecutive patients who were suffering from chronic anal fissures were randomized into two groups. The patients in group A (n = 30) were treated with 0.25% glyceryl trinitrate ointment and anal cryothermal dilators twice daily, and those in group B (n = 30) were treated with 0.4% glyceryl trinitrate ointment alone twice daily. The treatment was administered to the patients in each group for 6 weeks, and all patients were examined 7 weeks after the start of the trial. Prior to treatment, the symptoms and the measurements of anal pressure were similar in both groups. At 7 weeks, the maximum resting pressure was significantly lower in group A (P < 0.05), in which 86.6% of the patients were asymptomatic in comparison with 73.3% of the patients in group B. After 1 year of follow-up, 25 patients (83.3%) in group A and 18 patients (60%) in group B presented no recurrence of symptoms (P < 0.05) Treatment of chronic anal fissures with 0.25% glyceryl trinitrate ointment and anal cryothermal dilators was more effective than the administration of 0.4% glyceryl trinitrate ointment alone.

  12. Evaluation of the effectiveness of a silver-impregnated medical cap for topical treatment of nipple fissure of breastfeeding mothers.

    PubMed

    Marrazzu, Adriano; Sanna, Maria Grazia; Dessole, Francesco; Capobianco, Giampiero; Piga, Maria Domenica; Dessole, Salvatore

    2015-06-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a medical topical treatment device named Silver Cap(®) (Depofarma S.P.A., Mogliano Veneto, Treviso, Italy) for the treatment of nipple fissure in lactating women and its local tolerability, compared with the standard of care for nipple fissure treatment during breastfeeding. From December 2013 to September 2014, we recruited 40 women for symptomatic nipple fissures during lactation. Participants were randomized into two groups: the Silver Cap group (20 women; group A) or the control group (20 women; Group B, standard of breastfeeding care). All participants received breastfeeding education provided by a board-certified lactation consultant. Group A was instructed to use the Silver Cap. Group B had a handbook with the standard of care for nipple treatment after each breastfeeding. Both groups received a questionnaire for a daily assessment. The duration of both treatments was 15 days. We performed a clinical evaluation on Days 0 and 2 and a follow-up by telephone on Day 7, and all participants underwent final evaluation face to face on Day 15. We performed photographic recording of the nipple on Day 0 and Day 15. There were no statistical differences in follow-up between the two treatments at Day 2. There was a significant and a more rapid resolution of painful symptoms in the Silver Cap group compared with the control group (p<0.05) at Days 7 and 15. Treatment with Silver Cap was more appreciated by the participants than standard care (p<0.05). Four participants in the Silver Cap group and six in the control group dropped out of the study. No local or systemic reactions were reported following Silver Cap application. Results of treatment with Silver Cap were more effective than standard care of nipple fissure treatment in term of resolution of painful symptoms. It promoted the healing process of lesions, and it was well tolerated and accepted by participants.

  13. Randomised controlled trial shows that glyceryl trinitrate heals anal fissures, higher doses are not more effective, and there is a high recurrence rate

    PubMed Central

    Carapeti, E; Kamm, M; McDonald, P; Chadwick, S; Melville, D; Phillips, R

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Topical application of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) ointment heals chronic anal fissures, providing an alternative to the traditional first line treatment of surgical sphincterotomy. 
AIMS—To determine the most effective dose of topical GTN for treatment of chronic anal fissures and to assess long term results. 
METHODS—Seventy consecutive patients with chronic anal fissure, were randomly allocated to eight weeks treatment with placebo, 0.2% GTN three times daily, or GTN starting at 0.2% with weekly 0.1% increments to a maximum of 0.6%, in a double blind study. 
RESULTS—After eight weeks fissure had healed in 67% of patients treated with GTN compared with 32% with placebo (p=0.008). No significant difference was seen between the two active treatments. Headaches were reported by 72% of patients on GTN compared with 27% on placebo (p<0.001). Maximum anal sphincter pressure reduced significantly from baseline by GTN treatment (p=0.02), but not placebo (p=0.8). Mean pain scores were lower after treatment with GTN compared with placebo (NS). Of fissures healed with placebo 43% recurred, compared with 33% of those healed with 0.2% GTN and 25% healed with escalating dose GTN (p=0.7). 
CONCLUSIONS—GTN is a good first line treatment for two thirds of patients with anal fissure. An escalating dose of GTN does not result in earlier healing. Significant recurrence of symptomatic fissures and a high incidence of headaches are limitations of the treatment. 

 Keywords: glyceryl trinitrate; anal fissures PMID:10205213

  14. Botulinum toxin A injection for chronic anal fissures and anal sphincter spasm improves quality of life in recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa.

    PubMed

    Chaptini, Cassandra; Casey, Genevieve; Harris, Adam G; Wattchow, David; Gordon, Lynne; Murrell, Dedee F

    2015-12-01

    We report a 20-year-old female with generalized, severe, recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa who developed secondary chronic anal fissures. This resulted in anal sphincter spasm and severe, disabling pain. She was treated with five botulinum toxin A injections into the internal anal sphincter over a period of 2 years and gained marked improvement in her symptoms. This case demonstrates the successful use of botulinum toxin A injections to relieve anal sphincter spasm and fissuring, with long-term improvement.

  15. Evaluation of shear bond strength, penetration ability, microleakage and remineralisation capacity of glass ionomer-based fissure sealants.

    PubMed

    Kucukyilmaz, E; Savas, S

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the bond strength, penetration ability, microleakage, and remineralisation capacity of glass ionomer-based fissure sealant materials. In this study, three glass ionomer-based fissure sealants were evaluated (Fuji Triage, Fuji VII EP, and GCP Glass Seal). A dye-penetration test was performed to evaluate microleakage under a stereomicroscope. The materials were applied to occlusal tooth surfaces, and bucco-lingual sections (1 mm width) were assessed to evaluate the penetration ability. Shear bond strength of tested materials was assessed using a universal testing machine. Finally, the remineralisation capacities of the materials were evaluated with EDS. The Fuji Triage exhibited the lowest microleakage and unfilled area proportion (p<0.05). The highest shear bond strength was calculated with Fuji VII EP (p<0.05). The fluoride content for all treatment groups was significantly different when remineralisation values were compared to demineralisation (p<0.05). Both the Fuji Triage and Fuji VII EP yielded compatible and satisfactory results and all fissure sealants used in this study are sufficient as anti-caries agents.

  16. Voxelized Model of Brain Infusion That Accounts for Small Feature Fissures: Comparison With Magnetic Resonance Tracer Studies

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Wei; Astary, Garrett W.; Kasinadhuni, Aditya K.; Carney, Paul R.; Mareci, Thomas H.; Sarntinoranont, Malisa

    2016-01-01

    Convection enhanced delivery (CED) is a promising novel technology to treat neural diseases, as it can transport macromolecular therapeutic agents greater distances through tissue by direct infusion. To minimize off-target delivery, our group has developed 3D computational transport models to predict infusion flow fields and tracer distributions based on magnetic resonance (MR) diffusion tensor imaging data sets. To improve the accuracy of our voxelized models, generalized anisotropy (GA), a scalar measure of a higher order diffusion tensor obtained from high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) was used to improve tissue segmentation within complex tissue regions of the hippocampus by capturing small feature fissures. Simulations were conducted to reveal the effect of these fissures and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) boundaries on CED tracer diversion and mistargeting. Sensitivity analysis was also conducted to determine the effect of dorsal and ventral hippocampal infusion sites and tissue transport properties on drug delivery. Predicted CED tissue concentrations from this model are then compared with experimentally measured MR concentration profiles. This allowed for more quantitative comparison between model predictions and MR measurement. Simulations were able to capture infusate diversion into fissures and other CSF spaces which is a major source of CED mistargeting. Such knowledge is important for proper surgical planning. PMID:26833078

  17. Imaging findings of pulmonary granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's granulomatosis): lesions invading the pulmonary fissure, pleura or diaphragm mimicking malignancy.

    PubMed

    Guneyli, Serkan; Ceylan, Naim; Bayraktaroglu, Selen; Gucenmez, Sercan; Aksu, Kenan; Kocacelebi, Kenan; Acar, Turker; Savas, Recep; Alper, Hudaver

    2016-11-01

    Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA, formerly Wegener's granulomatosis), in which pulmonary involvement often predominates, is a multisystem granulomatous, necrotizing vasculitis that affects small and medium-sized vessels. In this study we evaluated various radiological findings of pulmonary GPA and focused on spiculated pulmonary lesions invading the pulmonary fissure, pleura or diaphragm mimicking malignancy. This retrospective study included 48 patients, aged 28-73 (mean, 47.3) years, who showed either histopathological diagnosis of GPA (n = 39) or elevated levels of the cytoplasmic anti-neutrophilic cytoplasmic antibody serum marker (n = 9) between January 2003 and December 2013. All patients received a chest computed tomography (CT), and the types of pulmonary lesions were defined and evaluated. Among the 48 patients, 33 had abnormal pulmonary findings on CT. The most commonly detected pulmonary lesion types were nodules and masses (n = 126) observed in 24 patients. Cavitation, necrosis, spiculation and invasion of the fissure, pleura or diaphragm were observed in 14, 9, 10 and 6 patients, respectively. Consolidation was found in 14 patients and thickening of bronchial wall in 8 patients. Pulmonary lesion types of GPA have a wide spectrum, potentially mimicking a high number of diseases including malignancy, infection and noninfectious inflammatory diseases. A spiculated lung lesion invading the fissure, pleura or diaphragm is mostly present in malignancy, but it can be also seen in GPA.

  18. Effect of topical applications of a chlorhexidine/thymol-containing varnish on fissure caries assessed by laser fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Sköld-Larsson, Kerstin; Fornell, Ann-Charlott; Lussi, Adrian; Twetman, Svante

    2004-12-01

    The aim of this study was to monitor the effect of an antibacterial varnish using the readings of a caries-detecting device (DIAGNOdent) in fissures of young permanent molars. The material consisted of 32 healthy patients with a mean age of 14.1 years undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. The inclusion criteria were presence of one homologous pair of 2nd upper or lower molars with clinically intact occlusal surfaces. A split-mouth study design was used in which the fissures were treated with either an antibacterial chlorhexidine/thymol-containing varnish or a placebo varnish every 6th week. The follow-up period was 42 weeks and laser fluorescence (LF) readings were carried out every 12th week. The mean LF values increased significantly (P < 0.05) after 24, 36, and 48 weeks compared to baseline following the placebo treatments but not after treatment with the active antibacterial varnish. During the study period, micro-cavities were diagnosed in two test-treated and five placebo-treated teeth. In conclusion, the results reinforce previous findings that frequent applications of a chlorhexidine/thymol-containing dental varnish might have a protective role in fissures of young permanent molars and that this could be monitored with a chair-side caries detecting LF device.

  19. Cellular resolution optical access to brain regions in fissures: imaging medial prefrontal cortex and grid cells in entorhinal cortex.

    PubMed

    Low, Ryan J; Gu, Yi; Tank, David W

    2014-12-30

    In vivo two-photon microscopy provides the foundation for an array of powerful techniques for optically measuring and perturbing neural circuits. However, challenging tissue properties and geometry have prevented high-resolution optical access to regions situated within deep fissures. These regions include the medial prefrontal and medial entorhinal cortex (mPFC and MEC), which are of broad scientific and clinical interest. Here, we present a method for in vivo, subcellular resolution optical access to the mPFC and MEC using microprisms inserted into the fissures. We chronically imaged the mPFC and MEC in mice running on a spherical treadmill, using two-photon laser-scanning microscopy and genetically encoded calcium indicators to measure network activity. In the MEC, we imaged grid cells, a widely studied cell type essential to memory and spatial information processing. These cells exhibited spatially modulated activity during navigation in a virtual reality environment. This method should be extendable to other brain regions situated within deep fissures, and opens up these regions for study at cellular resolution in behaving animals using a rapidly expanding palette of optical tools for perturbing and measuring network structure and function.

  20. Open versus closed lateral internal anal sphincterotomy in the management of chronic anal fissures: a prospective randomized study.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vivek; Rodrigues, Gabriel; Prabhu, Raghunath; Ravi, Chandni

    2014-10-01

    Chronic anal fissure is a benign disorder that is associated with considerable discomfort. Surgical treatment in the form of lateral sphincterotomy has long been regarded as the gold standard of treatment. This study compared the open and closed techniques of lateral sphincterotomy in terms of their postoperative outcomes. A prospective, randomized comparative study was conducted between October 2010 and August 2012. A total of 136 patients were randomly assigned to each of two groups. Patients were followed up postoperatively for more than 1 year to assess any complications. The outcomes were compared among the two groups using the Chi-square test and Student t test. The mean age at presentation was 40.13 years. The male to female ratio was 1.47:1. The typical presentation was painful defecation. Fissures were most often located in the posterior midline and associated with a sentinel pile. Delayed postoperative healing was found in 4.4% of the group of patients undergoing open lateral sphincterotomy. The mean pain score and duration of hospital stay were lower with the closed technique. Closed lateral internal sphincterotomy is the treatment of choice for chronic fissures as it is effective, safe, less expensive, and associated with a lower rate of complications than the open sphincterotomy technique. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Shear bond strength and microleakage of a self-etching adhesive for fissure sealing after different types of aging.

    PubMed

    Schuldt, Christoph; Birlbauer, Sebastian; Pitchika, Vinay; Crispin, Alexander; Hickel, Reinhard; Kühnisch, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate shear bond strength (SBS) and microleakage of a self-etching adhesive (Adper Prompt L-Pop) in comparison to acid etching prior fissure sealing. Each procedure was tested with 3 aging procedures (1-day water storage, 3-month water storage and 1-day water storage/5,000× thermocycling). SBS was determined according to ISO standard 29022. Additional 30 third molars were utilized for the microleakage analyses. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney-U-Test and multiple linear regression models. The SBS of the self-etching adhesive were significantly lower (14.9, 11.9, and 13.0 MPa) than those of conventional fissure sealing (19.1, 18.2, and 15.6 MPa). Multiple linear regression models predicted that material and alteration significantly influenced SBS. The microleakage revealed no difference between both groups (1.3% vs. 1.2%). It can be concluded that the selfetching adhesive might be a pre-treatment alternative for fissure sealing in terms of the easier and shorter clinical workflow.

  2. Feasibility and safety of prophylactic tentorium cerebelli hiatus incision in surgery of glioma located in lateral fissure area

    PubMed Central

    Jin’an, Zhao; Yamei, Gao; Huanli, Yang

    2015-01-01

    To discuss the feasibility and safety of prophylactic tentorium cerebelli hiatus incision in surgery of glioma located in lateral fissure area. There were 80 patients with glioma located in lateral fissure area who received treatment from May 2012 to May 2015, divided into two groups, the research group (n=40) and control group (n=40), and then statistical analysis was carried out. Difference in total resection rate and subtotal resection rate of glioma between patients of the research group and those of the control group was not significant (P>0.05); intracranial pressure of patients in the research group was significantly lower than that of control group (P<0.05), their hospital stay was significantly shorter than that of the control group (P<0.05), times of using mannitol were significantly fewer than control group (P<0.05), but the differences of acute renal function damage and second surgery occurrence rate between patients of the two groups were not significant (P>0.05). Prophylactic tentorium cerebelli hiatus incision in surgery of glioma located in lateral fissure area can effectively reduce patients’ intracranial pressure, shorten patients’ hospital stay and reduce patients’ times of using mannitol without increasing the rate of patients’ acute renal function damage and second surgery.

  3. Retention Loss of Resin Based Fissure Sealants - a Valid Predictor for Clinical Outcome?

    PubMed Central

    Mickenautsch, Steffen; Yengopal, Veerasamy

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The null-hypothesis that retention loss of resin fissure sealants predicts caries manifestation no more accurately than random values was tested. Methods: Systematic reviews were checked and electronic databases searched for clinical trials. Trials reporting on the retention of resin sealants and caries occurrence in permanent molar teeth, with minimum 24-month follow-up period, were included. Extracted data: number of sealed teeth, number of teeth without completely retained sealants, number of sealed teeth with caries. The number of teeth with complete sealant retention and absence of carious lesions/cavities was calculated; the predictive outcomes: true/false positive; false/true negative were established. Random values were generated as control-data. Diagnostic Odds ratios (DOR) were computed and tested for statistical difference. Summary Receiver Operating Characteristic curves were plotted. Results: 95 trials were found. Median DOR values were 1.21 and 0.28 for test- and control data, respectively. Wilcoxon test (z = 0.56; p = 0.58) and Sign test (z = 1.38; p = 0.17) results were statistically non-significant. The null-hypothesis was not rejected. Conclusions: Predictions based on the retention loss of resin sealants, regarding caries manifestation, was no more accurate than random guesses. Sealant retention loss appears not to be a valid predictor for clinical outcome. PMID:24078856

  4. Microleakage assessment of pit and fissure sealant with and without the use of pumice prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Ansari, G; Oloomi, K; Eslami, B

    2004-07-01

    This study evaluated the effect of pumice prophylaxis on the level of microleakage around and between the sealant and enamel. A total of 32 freshly extracted sound upper first premolars, assigned as suitable for sealant application, were chosen and divided randomly into two groups: (1) a test group, without prophylaxis; and (2) a control group, with prophylaxis. Sealant was applied to all teeth using the same conventional technique, with prophylaxis being omitted in the test group. The sealed teeth were thermocycled (120 x 30 s, 5 and 55 degrees C cycles) and then immersed in 2% Basic Fuchsin solution for 72 h. Each tooth was sectioned and examined for dye penetration under a stereomicroscope (x 60 magnification). No dye penetration was seen in 19 (29.6%) of the teeth in the test group and 36 (56.2%) of the teeth in the control group. Dye had penetrated to the base of the fissure in 31 (48.4%) of the teeth in the test group and 23 (35.9%) of the teeth in the control group. Using a chi-square test for trend, the frequency of microleakage was significantly higher in the test group compared to the controls (P < 0.016). Prophylaxis has a role in improving sealant retention. Removing this step may cause an increase in microleakage.

  5. Evidence for Bacterial Sulfate Reduction in a Fissured-porous Karst System in Southern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Einsiedl, F.; Mayer, B.

    2005-12-01

    Twenty five percent of the world's population uses karst water as drinking water resources. Since karst groundwater systems are highly vulnerable to contamination, groundwater protection and self purification is a major challenge. Up to now research in karst groundwater systems has predominantly concentrated on hydrodynamic processes. Little is known about anoxic processes in oxygen dominated, fracture-matrix diffusion controlled karst aquifers. Isotope measurements comprise a promising tool to identify biogeochemical processes such as bacterial (dissimilatory) sulfate reduction in karstic aquifers. The goal of this study was to determine the sources and the processes affecting sulfate in an oxygen-rich karst aquifer in southern Germany and their dependence on hydrogeological parameters. This was achieved by interpreting tritium data with a simple lumped parameter approach and assessing variations in concentrations and isotopic compositions of sulfate and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) with respect to groundwater age. Young groundwater (<30 years) was characterized by comparatively high sulfate concentrations (0.36 mM) and δ34S values similar to those of recent atmospheric deposition (1.5‰). In contrast groundwater with mean residence times >60 years had significantly lower sulfate concentrations (0.08 mM) and markedly higher δ34S values (7.5‰). These results indicate that in karst systems with matrix porosity, bacterial (dissimilatory) sulfate reduction may occur. This process has the potential to contribute to long-term biodegradation of contaminants in the porous rock matrix representing the dominant water reservoir in fissured-porous karst aquifers.

  6. Plaque and saliva fluoride levels after placement of fluoride releasing pit and fissure sealants.

    PubMed

    Rajtboriraks, Daranee; Nakornchai, Siriruk; Bunditsing, Panit; Surarit, Rudee; Iemjarern, Piyarat

    2004-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the fluoride levels in plaque and saliva before and after applying fluoride-containing pit and fissure sealants, and compare the fluoride release of 2 types of sealants at the different time intervals. Eighteen children ages 6 to 9 years were randomly divided into 2 groups: Group 1--sealant containing fluorosilicate glass (Helioseal-F); and group 2--sealant containing methacryloyl fluoride-methyl methacrylate copolymer (Teethmate-F). Saliva and plaque samples were collected before and after the sealants were placed on their 4 first permanent molars. Fluoride levels were determined using the microdiffusion method. Fluoride concentrations before and after placing the sealants were analyzed by paired t test, and the fluoride concentrations between the 2 sealants were compared by t test, with the level of significance at 0.05. There was no significant difference between salivary fluoride levels before and after sealant placement application in both groups. The plaque fluoride level of Helioseal-F group at 24 hours was significantly higher than the baseline level (P = .03), and was not different afterwards. The plaque fluoride levels after sealant with Teethmate-F were not significantly different when compared to the baseline. However, there were no significant differences between salivary and plaque fluoride levels of the 2 groups at different time intervals. The groups sealed with sealant containing fluorosilicate glass showed significant increase of plaque fluoride level only at 24 hours after sealant placement.

  7. Sylvian Fissure and Parietal Anatomy in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Knaus, Tracey A.; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Foundas, Anne L.

    2012-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by deficits in social functioning and language and communication, with restricted interests or stereotyped behaviors. Anatomical differences have been found in the parietal cortex in children with ASD, but parietal subregions and associations between Sylvian fissure (SF) and parietal anatomy have not been explored. In this study, SF length and anterior and posterior parietal volumes were measured on MRI in 30 right-handed boys with ASD and 30 right-handed typically developing boys (7–14 years), matched on age and non-verbal IQ. There was leftward SF and anterior parietal asymmetry, and rightward posterior parietal asymmetry, across groups. There were associations between SF and parietal asymmetries, with slight group differences. Typical SF asymmetry was associated with typical anterior and posterior parietal asymmetry, in both groups. In the atypical SF asymmetry group, controls had atypical parietal asymmetry, whereas in ASD there were more equal numbers of individuals with typical as atypical anterior parietal asymmetry. We did not find significant anatomical-behavioral associations. Our findings of more individuals in the ASD group having a dissociation between cortical asymmetries warrants further investigation of these subgroups and emphasizes the importance of investigating anatomical relationships in addition to group differences in individual regions. PMID:22713374

  8. Geographic Tongue and Fissured Tongue in 348 Patients with Psoriasis: Correlation with Disease Severity

    PubMed Central

    Picciani, Bruna L. S.; Souza, Thays T.; Santos, Vanessa de Carla B.; Domingos, Tábata A.; Carneiro, Sueli; Avelleira, João Carlos; Azulay, David R.; Pinto, Jane M. N.; Dias, Eliane P.

    2015-01-01

    Geographic tongue (GT) and fissured tongue (FT) are the more frequent oral lesions in patients with psoriasis. The aims of this study were to compare the prevalence of GT/FT between psoriasis group (PG) and healthy controls (HC) and investigate the correlation between GT/FT and psoriasis severity using the PASI and age of psoriasis onset. Three hundred and forty-eight PG and 348 HC were selected. According to the age of psoriasis onset, the individuals were classified as having early psoriasis and late psoriasis. The severity of vulgaris psoriasis was determined according to PASI. A follow-up was conducted in patients with psoriasis vulgaris (PV) with GT to evaluate the progression of oral and cutaneous lesions. The FT and GT were more frequent in PG than in HC. The incidence of GT was higher in patients with early psoriasis and that of FT in late-psoriasis. There is association between psoriasis intensity and GT; and a higher monthly decrease of PASI score in patients without GT. The presence of GT and FT is higher in PG than in the HC. GT is associated with disease severity and may be a marker of the psoriasis severity. PMID:25685842

  9. In vitro study of microleakage of different techniques of surface preparation used in pits and fissures.

    PubMed

    Javadinejad, Shahrzad; Nejad, Shahrzad Javadi; Razavi, Mohamad; Birang, Reza; Atefat, Mohamad

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of different techniques of surface preparation on the microleakage of a sealant applied with traditional acid etching and self-etched bonding agent. A total of 60 extracted third molars were randomly assigned into six groups (n = 10/each). The occlusal surfaces were sealed with a sealant (Clinpro) after one of the following pretreatments: (1) phosphoric acid etching; (2) Prompt L-Pop; (3) laser + etching; (4) laser + Prompt L-Pop; (5) air abrasion + etching; (6) air abrasion + Prompt L-Pop. The specimens were immersed in a 0.5% basic fuchsin solution. Buccolingual cuts parallel to the long axis of the tooth were made. The surfaces were scored 0--2 for extent of microleakage using a microscope and the data were analyzed statistically. The poorest results were obtained with laser + Prompt L-Pop which showed a greater number of specimens with microleakage (80%). Air abrasion surface preparation + phosphoric acid etching showed less microleakage than the other groups (40%). Kruskal--Wallis and t-tests revealed no significant difference in microleakage between six groups. conclusion: The self-etching adhesive studied seems an attractive alternative to the acid-etch technique for sealant application in young children where simplifications in the clinical procedure are warranted. No significant difference was noted between the different types of enamel preparation before fissure sealant.

  10. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems. Analytic modeling of flow in a permeable fissured medium

    SciTech Connect

    Strack, O.D.L.

    1982-02-01

    An analytic model has been developed for two dimensional steady flow through infinite fissured porous media, and is implemented in a computer program. The model is the first, and major, step toward the development of a model with finite boundaries, intended for use as a tool for numerical experiments. These experiments may serve to verify some of the simplifying assumptions made in continuum models and to gain insight in the mechanics of the flow. The model is formulated in terms of complex variables and the analytic functions presented are closed-form expressions obtained from singular Cauchy integrals. An exact solution is given for the case of a single crack in an infinite porous medium. The exact solution is compared with the result obtained by the use of an independent method, which assumes Darcian flow in the crack and models the crack as an inhomogeneity in the permeability, in order to verify the simplifying assumptions. The approximate model is compared with solutions obtained from the above independent method for some cases of intersecting cracks. The agreement is good, provided that a sufficient number of elements are used to model the cracks.

  11. Chronic anal fissures: Open lateral internal sphincterotomy result; a case series study.

    PubMed

    Salih, Abdulwahid M

    2017-03-01

    Anal fissure are defined as a tear in the skin of the anal canal distal to dentate line. Although still there are controversies about the exact management, lateral sphincterotomy is promising. The aim of this series is to present the outcome of lateral sphincterotomy for internal anal sphincter in term of patient satisfaction and complication. A prospective single cohort study, 190 patients, who were undergone lateral sphincterotomy for internal anal sphincter from 2010 to 2014, were analyzed. The operation was performed as a day case procedure. The median duration of follow up was 5 years (ranging from 3 to 6). The data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social sciences (SPSS) version 22. Descriptive statistic was used to describe findings. Forty three males (22.6%) and 147 females (77.4%) with a mean ± SD of age of 31.19 ± 7.78 years. Constipation was reported in 152 (80%) patients, bleeding in 131 (68.6%) cases, and pain in 142 (74.7%) patients. The median duration of the disease was 20 months (ranging from 1 to 30 months). Post-operatively, patient satisfaction was high (98.4%) with only 3 cases (1.6%) of recurrence. Conclusion: lateral sphincterotomy for internal anal sphincter, along, is the procedure of choice for management of CAF because it is effective and it can cure the disease in nearly all patients with good patient satisfaction.

  12. Hemorrhoids, anal fissure, and carcinoma of the colon, rectum, and anus during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Medich, D S; Fazio, V W

    1995-02-01

    The pregnant patient afflicted with a variety of colorectal conditions merits special consideration for reasons related to the safety and timeliness of operation while preserving fetal viability and fertility. The literature is scanty with respect to hemorrhoids, fissures, and colorectal and anal carcinoma. Therefore, the patient has to have a forthright discussion with her physician(s) about the pros and cons of operative and nonoperative approaches, which can result in either therapeutic abortion and timely surgery versus preserving the fetus and taking on the unknown factor of whether delay in treatment will cause an adverse outcome. This underscores the need for a frank discussion with the patient with regard to anticipated outcomes. In benign conditions, there is more latitude to adopt a conservative approach, as the patient's ability to tolerate the symptoms of her condition would dictate the need for definitive operative therapy. In the patient with malignancy, delaying surgical or radiation therapy carries an unknown risk to the patient. Here, the patient's personal views regarding abortion and future fertility dictate the timing of definitive treatment.

  13. Analysis of anticaries potential of pit and fissures sealants containing amorphous calcium phosphate using synchrotron microtomography.

    PubMed

    Delben, A C B; Cannon, M; Vieira, A E M; Basso, M D; Danelon, M; Santo, M R E; Stock, S R; Xiao, X; De Carlo, F

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the anticaries potential of pit and fissure sealants containing amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) by synchrotron microtomography. Bovine enamel blocks (4×4 mm; n=50) were selected through surface hardness (Knoop) analysis. Slabs were obtained through cross-sections taken 1 mm from the border of the enamel. Five indentations, spaced 100 μm apart, were made 300 μm from the border. Ten specimens were prepared for each tested material (Ultraseal XT plus TM, Aegis, Embrace, Vitremer and Experimental Sealant). The materials were randomly attached to the sectioned surfaces of the enamel blocks and fixed with sticky wax. The specimens were submitted to pH cycling. After that, the surface hardness (SH1) was determined, and the blocks were submitted to synchrotron microcomputed tomography analysis to calculate the mineral concentration (ΔgHAp cm(-3)) at different areas of the enamel. The comparison between the SH1 and ΔgHAp cm(-3) showed a correlation for all groups (r=0.840; p<0.001). The fluoride groups presented positive values of ΔgHAp cm(-3), indicating a mineral gain that was observed mainly in the outer part of the enamel. The ACP showed mineral loss in the outer enamel compared with fluoride groups, although it inhibited the demineralization in the deeper areas of enamel. The combination of two remineralizing agents (fluoride and ACP) was highly effective in preventing demineralization.

  14. Modified-release ointment with nitroglycerin β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex for treatment of anal fissures.

    PubMed

    Centkowska, Katarzyna; Sznitowska, Malgorzata

    2013-10-01

    The aim was to evaluate ointments for local treatment of anal fissures. Nitroglycerin (NTG) was complexed with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) to provide prolonged NTG release, with the intention of decreasing systemic drug absorption and thus reducing side effects. Gels, creams and anhydrous water-emulsifying (AWE) ointment with NTG-CD were compared with preparations containing uncomplexed NTG (diluted with crospovidone, NTG-cP). The in-vitro NTG release and ex-vivo skin absorption were studied. The prolonged-release ointment with the NTG-CD complex was formulated using AWE base or w/o cream (20% water); release of NTG from a hydrogel was very fast with both the complexed and uncomplexed forms. From the AWE ointment base, 16.4% or 4.5% of the total NTG dose was released after 6 h when NTG-cP or NTG-CD was incorporated, respectively. With the complexed form, NTG absorption to the skin after a 5-h application was 18.1 or 11.1 μg/g from AWE ointment or cream, respectively; absorption of the uncomplexed NTG was higher: 52.3 or 21.9 μg/g from AWE ointment and cream, respectively. Complexation with β-CD results in prolonged release of NTG from AWE ointment and w/o cream, which was confirmed by the ex-vivo skin absorption results. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  15. Evaluation of a fissure sealant program as part of community-based teaching and training.

    PubMed

    van Wyk, Philippus J; Kroon, Jeroen; White, John G

    2004-01-01

    Since 1995 the Department of Community Dentistry of the University of Pretoria has been involved in the rendering of mobile primary oral health care services to children in the Hammanskraal area of Gauteng, South Africa, as part of their students' community-based training. Mokonyama Primary School was identified as the first school where a primary oral health care service could be rendered. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact (outcomes) of a fissure sealant program on the dentition status of the school children. Seven years after the implementation of the program, the dentition status of children at Mokonyama was compared with that of a comparable group of children from the same area who were not exposed to the program. The results showed that the decayed, missing, and filled teeth in the primary dentition (dmft) in the six-year-old group in Mokonyama (1.74) did not differ significantly from the dmft (1.43) of the control group (p = 0.49). The decayed, missing, and filled teeth in the permanent dentition (DMFT) of 0.59 for the fifteen-year-old group in Mokonyama, however, differed significantly (p = 0.0001) from the DMFT of the control group (2.38). Fifteen-year-old children in Mokonyama had 75.2 percent fewer caries than their counterparts in the control group.

  16. Morphologic Study of Superior Temporal Sulcus-Amygdaloid Body and Lateral Fissure-Amygdaloid Body Surgical Approach by Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging Volume Rendering.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yuan; Ren, Bichen; Chang, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Jinnan; Li, Youqiong; Duan, Haobo; Cheng, Kailiang; Wang, Jincheng

    2016-01-01

    In this research, 83 patients were measured by magnetic resonance imaging volume rendering technique. The authors acquired the curve length of the superior temporal sulcus and the lateral fissure on the cerebral hemisphere, the shortest distance from the superior temporal sulcus and the lateral fissure to the center of amygdaloid body separately, the vertical diameter, the transversal diameter, and the anteroposterior diameter of the amygdaloid body and the 2 approach angles between the median sagittal plane and the shortest segment from the superior temporal sulcus to the center of amygdaloid body and the shortest segment from lateral fissure to the center of the amygdaloid body. At the same time, we preliminarily oriented the 2 points of the superior temporal sulcus and the lateral fissure, which are closest to the center of amygdaloid body, aimed at finding out the best entrance points of surgical approach through the superior temporal sulcus and the lateral fissure to the amygdaloid body and reducing the damage to the nerve fibers or blood vessels during the operation. The results indicate that the point at the front side 1/4 of the superior temporal sulcus may be the ideal surgical approach entrance point and the point at the front side 1/3 of the lateral fissure. There is no difference between 2 cerebral hemispheres (P < 0.05).

  17. Drivers of explosivity and elevated hazard in basaltic fissure eruptions: The 1913 eruption of Ambrym Volcano, Vanuatu (SW-Pacific)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Németh, Károly; Cronin, Shane J.

    2011-04-01

    Fissure-eruptions along linear structures can extend for several tens of kilometres with distinct separate manifestations of volcanism along their length. They typically involve low-viscosity mafic magmas forming long lava flows and cinder cones. Eruptions in 1894 and 1913 on Ambrym volcano, Vanuatu, showed how these mildly explosive eruptions can rapidly transform into violent explosive events, producing significant hazard and widespread volcanic ash clouds. During the 1913 episode, a fissure began in the central caldera and basaltic magmas broke out in a series of locations down the island's western flank. In all sites over 100 m in elevation, fissure outbreaks produced vigorous lava fountains and highly fluid lava flows that travelled rapidly to the shoreline. When the outbreaks propagated along the island's axis into coastal plain areas, a climactic series of explosive eruptions occurred, producing a 1.2 km long by 600 m wide maar and tephra ring. A further small tuff ring was formed later, creating a temporary island 400 m offshore. The onshore tephra ring destroyed a hospital and associated buildings. Its last evacuating occupants were close witnesses to the eruption processes. Deposits exposed in the lower portion of the tephra ring show that this part of the eruption began with a mild phreatomagmatic explosive eruption from a narrow vent, followed by a magmatic scoria-producing phase. Subsequently a complex sequence of highly explosive phreatomagmatic eruptions occurred, producing pyroclastic surges, along with repeated distinctive breccia-horizons, rich in coral and lava country rock. These features tally with eye-witness accounts to indicate that the main eruption phase was produced by a periodically shifting locus of phreatomagmatic fragmentation and eruption along a single E-W fissure. The glassy and vesicle-poor pyroclasts produced during this eruption phase were dominantly fragmented in a brittle manner by magma water interaction. Low volatile content

  18. Lava field evolution and emplacement dynamics of the 2014-2015 basaltic fissure eruption at Holuhraun, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, G. B. M.; Höskuldsson, A.; Dürig, T.; Thordarson, T.; Jónsdóttir, I.; Riishuus, M. S.; Óskarsson, B. V.; Dumont, S.; Magnusson, E.; Gudmundsson, M. T.; Sigmundsson, F.; Drouin, V. J. P. B.; Gallagher, C.; Askew, R.; Gudnason, J.; Moreland, W. M.; Nikkola, P.; Reynolds, H. I.; Schmith, J.

    2017-06-01

    The 6-month long eruption at Holuhraun (August 2014-February 2015) in the Bárðarbunga-Veiðivötn volcanic system was the largest effusive eruption in Iceland since the 1783-1784 CE Laki eruption. The lava flow field covered 84 km2 and has an estimated bulk (i.e., including vesicles) volume of 1.44 km3. The eruption had an average discharge rate of 90 m3/s making it the longest effusive eruption in modern times to sustain such high average flux. The first phase of the eruption (August 31, 2014 to mid-October 2014) had a discharge rate of 350 to 100 m3/s and was typified by lava transport via open channels and the formation of four lava flows, no. 1-4, which were emplaced side by side. The eruption began on a 1.8 km long fissure, feeding partly incandescent sheets of slabby pāhoehoe up to 500 m wide. By the following day the lava transport got confined to open channels and the dominant lava morphology changed to rubbly pāhoehoe and 'a'ā. The latter became the dominating morphology of lava flows no. 1-8. The second phase of the eruption (Mid-October to end November) had a discharge of 100-50 m3/s. During this time the lava transport system changed, via the formation of a < 1 km2 lava pond 1 km east of the vent. The pond most likely formed in a topographical low created by a the pre-existing Holuhraun and the new Holuhraun lava flow fields. This pond became the main point of lava distribution, controlling the emplacement of subsequent flows (i.e. no. 5-8). Towards the end of this phase inflation plateaus developed in lava flow no. 1. These inflation plateaus were the surface manifestation of a growing lava tube system, which formed as lava ponded in the open lava channels creating sufficient lavastatic pressure in the fluid lava to lift the roof of the lava channels. This allowed new lava into the previously active lava channel lifting the channel roof via inflation. The final (third) phase, lasting from December to end-February 2015 had a mean discharge rate of

  19. Identification of possible recent water/lava source fissures in the Cerberus Plains: stratigraphic and crater count age constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Rebecca J.

    2013-04-01

    The Cerberus plains are one of the youngest surfaces on Mars. They are thought to have been formed by lava and/or water flows, but there is considerable debate regarding the source of this material. Much of the material forming the western plains, including the Athabasca Valles outflow channels, appears to have flowed from the region of the Cerberus Fossae graben system [1,2,3] and limited areas forming the eastern plains may have been erupted by low shield volcanoes [4,5]. However, flow of material from west to east is obstructed by a ridge centred on 157°E, 7°N and, prior to this study, vents which might be the source of fluid of a low enough viscosity to form the majority of the flat eastern plains had not been identified. We studied new HiRISE (25cm/px, High Resolution Science Imaging Experiment) images of the ridge between the east and west plains and observed possible source vents for this material: the ridge is cut by a series of pits and fissures which lie at the heads of flows and channels extending towards the surrounding plains. In order to establish the stratigraphic relationships between the vents and plains, this study produced large scale geomorphological maps based on the HiRISE images. The mapping showed that both incised channels and leveed flows extend onto the plain to the south of the ridge and that these were the final phase of plains-forming activity in that region. Conversely, to the north, ridge-sourced deposits only form the plains surface close to the ridge - beyond that, they are overlain by large-scale regional flows that appear to have originated from the direction of Athabasca Valles. In the southeast, a large-scale flow which does not emanate from this ridge forms the plains surface, but there is evidence that the youngest outflow activity from the ridge was contemporaneous with emplacement of this unit. We also performed crater counts to age-date the surfaces and these indicate that plains-forming and ridge-sourced units are of a

  20. Recrystallized Granite Surface Fissures Of The Wasatch Range, Produced Not Later Than 1/4 Billion Years Ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Keith L.

    2000-05-01

    Our studies of numerous recrystallized fissures in 4 granite plutons of Wasatch Range, namely, Mount Tuscarora-Wolverine-Millicent,^1,6,7 Bonanza Peak-Midway,^2 Little Cottonwood Canyon and Ferguson Canyon plutons, all of which formed magma chambers reaching Earth-atmosphere interface, establish that they resulted from high thermal gradients rather than passages of earthquake waves. Magma chambers formed, solidified during Permo-Caroniferous Ice Age(roughly, 1/3...1/4 billion yr ago, a time interval preceding period of extrusion of Rocky Mountains, 10^8 yr ago), and while fluid, belched lava flows^5 extending over its reservoir walls to run hundred of meters. We have shown how the magma melts, dilutes and replaces overlying metamorphic rock^7 to reach Earth's surface so that a pluton containing large amounts of dross(Fe-ores, etc.) had a short fluid lifetime. We also described how offshoots from a long-running main fissure form acute angles with that fissure.^3 Such recrystallized fissures, reaching depths of perhaps 100 m, have initial fractures near time of solidification of their uppermost portion of magma chamber while still hot(<= 1600^oF), a time when max. stresses occur near granite surface due to high thermal gradients, owing to snow coverage, cold water contacts due to rain, stream flow over granite surface, partial coverage by ocean, etc., wherever heat sinks might occur, during P-C ice age--when region of Wasatch Range existed at sea level, Salt Lake Valley being covered entirely by ocean water and region east of Wasatch Bouleuard rising gently above Pacific Ocean to elevations of possibly 500-1000 ft, say, at a distance of 10-15 mi to east. This fact is implied by Chinese Wall of white limestone on Grandeur Peak, unequivocally, and similarly another in Neff's Canyon running e. from n. ridge of 9200 ft. saddle-summit, as well as a dozen other ancient calcified stream beds emptying into ocean to w., in Salt Lake Valley. This existed prior to regional

  1. (Micro)morphological, inorganic-organic isotope geochemisty and microbial populations in endostromatolites (cf. fissure calcretes), Haughton impact structure, Devon Island, Canada: The influence of geochemical pathways on the preservation of isotope biomarkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacelle, Denis; Pellerin, André; Clark, Ian D.; Lauriol, Bernard; Fortin, Danielle

    2009-05-01

    Endostromatolites (cf. fissure calcretes), which possess microbial evidence for a biogenic origin, are also thought to preserve isotopic biosignatures. In this study, a multi-proxy approach combining (micro)morphological, geochemical and isotopic analyses of middle Holocene age endostromatolites within sub-horizontal fissures in dolomitic limestone outcrops in the Haughton impact crater region (Devon Island, NU) was used to determine their origin (abiotic versus biogenic) and to identify potential isotope biosignatures. The micro-morphologies of the endostromatolites revealed some structures typical of a physico-chemical origin, whereas the presence of rod-shape particles and filamentous structures was more reminiscent of biologically-induced forms. The endostromatolites have δ13C and δ18O compositions reaching maximum values of 7.2‰ and - 11.2‰, respectively. Positive relations between the elemental (Mg, Sr) and isotopic ( δ18O and δ13C) composition of the endostromatolites are indicative of an evaporative enrichment process of the meteoric water infiltrating the fissures prior to calcite precipitation. However, the positive δ13C TOC- δ13C CaCO3 relation in the endostromatolites is strongly indicative that they were microbially-mediated. In support of a microbial origin, mostly aerobic heterotrophic bacteria that have been linked to both carbonate dissolution and mineralization were observed in the microbial diversity of the endostromatolites. However, the results are inconclusive to attribute the formation of the endostromatolites solely to a biologically-induced mineralization, but instead, favor a more complex origin that involved abiotic (evaporation), and to some extent, biological processes prior to and during calcite precipitation. Considering that the endostromatolites result from microbially-influenced mineralization, the effects of physico-chemical processes on the geochemical and isotopic composition of the endostromatolites were much greater

  2. Earth-Fissure Movements Associated with Fluctuations in Ground-Water Levels near the Picacho Mountains, South-Central Arizona, 1980-84

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carpenter, M.C.

    1993-01-01

    The Picacho earth fissure transects subsiding alluvial sediments near the east periphery of the Picacho basin in south-central Arizona. The basin has undergone land subsidence of as much as 3.8 meters since the 1930's owing to compaction of the aquifer system in response to ground-water-Ievel declines that have exceeded 100 meters. The fissure, which extends generally north-south for 15 kilometers, exhibits horizontal tensile failure and as much as 0.6 meter of normal dip-slip movement at the land surface. The west side of the fissure is down thrown. The fissure was observed as early as 1927 and is the longest earth fissure in Arizona. Vertical and horizontal displacements were monitored along a line normal to the fissure. The survey line extends from a bedrock outcrop in the Picacho Mountains on the east, past an observation well near the fissure, to a point 1,422 meters to the west. From May 1980 to May 1984, the downthrown west side of the fissure subsided 167+-1.8 millimeters and moved 18+-1.5 millimeters westward into the basin. Concurrently, the relatively upthrown east side subsided 148+-1.8 millimeters and moved 14+-1.5 millimeters westward. Dislocation modeling of deformation along the survey line near the fissure indicates that dip-slip movement has occurred along a vertical fault surface that extends from the land surface to a depth of about 300 meters. Slip was 9 millimeters from May to December 1980 and also 9 millimeters from March to November 1981. Continuous measurements were made of horizontal movement across the fissure using a buried invar-wire horizontal extensometer, while water-level fluctuations were continuously monitored in four piezometers nested in two observation wells. The range of horizontal movement was 4.620 millimeters, and the range of water-level fluctuation in the nearest piezometer in the deep alluvium was 9.05 meters. The maximum annual opening of the fissure during the study period was 3.740 millimeters from March to October

  3. Effects of sealant, viscosity, and bonding agents on microleakage of fissure sealants: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Mehrabkhani, Maryam; Mazhari, Fatemeh; Sadeghi, Samaneh; Ebrahimi, Masoumeh

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of enamel or dentin bonding agent (DBA) and sealant viscosity on sealant microleakage. Materials and Methods: Sixty extracted human premolars were randomly divided into two equal groups (based on sealant viscosity) and each group was divided into three subgroups of 10 teeth. Group 1 (low viscosity sealant, Seal-Rite, Pulpdent, USA with 7.7% filler): Prophylaxis, enameloplasty, etching of occlusal surfaces with 38% of phosphoric acid gel, rinsing and drying, followed by (1) enamel bonding agent (EBA) (Margin Bond, Coltène/Whaledent AG) or (2) DBA (Excite, Ivoclar Vivadent AG, Liechtenstein) or (3) no bonding (NB) prior to sealant application. In Group 2, similar procedures were performed except for applying a high viscosity sealant (Seal-Rite, Pulpdent, The USA with 34.4% filler). Specimens were thermocycled and then immersed in a 0.5% basic fuchsine solution for 24 h next, buccolingual slices of samples were scored under a stereomicroscope. The Kruskal–Wallis and Mann–Whitney U-tests were used for data analysis. Results: There was no significant difference between DBA, EBA, and NB subgroups in the microleakage scores in both groups. Low viscosity sealant had a lower microleakage than the high viscosity sealant in both DBA (P = 0.002) and NB (P = 0.041) subgroups. Conclusion: The results indicated that the use of low viscosity sealant reduced the microleakage of pit and fissure sealants. However, the use of a bonding agent before sealant placement didn’t affect the microleakage. PMID:26929696

  4. Effect of artificial aging on the bond durability of fissure sealants.

    PubMed

    Yun, Xiaofei; Li, Wei; Ling, Chen; Fok, Alex

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of artificial aging on the bond durability of fissure sealants in vitro. Twenty bovine incisors received 4 different sealant treatments and were divided into four groups: 1. Ultraseal XT plus (UX); 2. Enamel Loc (EL); 3. 35% phosphoric acid plus Enamel Loc (PEL); 4. Adper Prompt L-Pop plus Clinpro (PPC). Beam-shaped specimens were prepared and randomly divided into three subgroups. One subgroup underwent the microtensile bond strength (µTBS) test after 24-h storage in 37°C water. The other two subgroups were also subjected to the microtensile bond strength test after 5000 and 10,000 thermal cycles, respectively. Another twelve intact human third molars were sealed using 1 of 3 methods and were divided into 3 groups of 4 each: 1. Ultraseal XT plus; 2. Adper Prompt L-Pop plus Clinpro; and 3. Enamel Loc. Two specimens from each group were immersed in a 50% silver nitrate solution for 24 h, followed by exposure to fluorescent light for 8 h, before being scanned in a micro-CT (microcomputer tomography) machine. The other two were handled in the same way after undergoing 10,000 thermal cycles. The CT images obtained were evaluated. All samples from the EL group were broken during preparation, so no µTBS results were available. After 5000 thermal cycles, the bond strengths of the three other groups (UX, PEL, PPC) decreased significantly (p < 0.05). Longer thermocycling (10,000 cycles) resulted in more decreases in µTBS for group PEL and PPC, while the strength of the UX group remained relatively unchanged. After thermocycling, considerable silver penetration could be seen at the sealant/enamel interface of the EL group in micro-CT images. The etch-and-rinse procedure for sealant application promotes higher bond strength under artificial aging. Micro-CT, a nondestructive analytical tool, may be used to evaluate the sealant/enamel interface effectively.

  5. Insular and Sylvian Fissure Dermoid Cyst with Giant Cell Reactivity: Case Report and Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Garces, Juanita; Mathkour, Mansour; Beard, Bryce; Sulaiman, Olawale A R; Ware, Marcus L

    2016-09-01

    Dermoid cysts are rare intracranial tumors that are most commonly found infratentorially and along the midline. Characterized by slow growth and often found incidentally, these lesions can nonetheless have severe complications, notably rupture leading to chemical meningitis. They infrequently present as a supratentorial and lateralized mass. As such, sylvian fissure dermoid cysts are exquisitely rare. We present a rare case of a dermoid cyst with giant cell reactivity suggestive of focal rupture and chronic inflammation. A 61-year-old female presented with new-onset seizures. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a right insular mass measuring 4.3 × 4.5 cm with compression of the ipsilateral frontal and temporal lobes. The mass was nonenhancing; however, it was bright on diffusion-weighted imaging, suggesting a dermoid cyst. She underwent craniotomy for tumor resection. Histologic analysis revealed keratinizing squamous epithelium, sebaceous glands, and hair follicles associated with giant cell reaction involving the capsule of the cyst consisted with dermoid cyst. At 2.5 years post operation, she is seizure free and without evidence of recurrence. The dermoid cyst in our patient was not grossly ruptured, but histopathologic analysis revealed giant cell reactivity, which may indicate focal rupture or chronic inflammation. The relationship between rupture of dermoid cysts and inflammation is not well elucidated. It is not known whether symptoms occur immediately after rupture or as an acute manifestation of a chronic process following rupture. As these lesions are quite rare and rupture is even rarer, more diligence on our part regarding details of histopathology for dermoid cysts is necessary. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Measurements of the gas emission from Holuhraun volcanic fissure eruption on Iceland, using Scanning DOAS instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galle, Bo; Pfeffer, Melissa; Arellano, Santiago; Bergsson, Baldur; Conde, Vladimir; Barsotti, Sara; Stefansdottir, Gerdur; Ingvarsson, Thorgils; Bergsson, Bergur; Weber, Konradin

    2016-04-01

    On 31 August 2014 a volcanic fissure eruption started at Holuhraun on Iceland. The eruption lasted for 6 months and was by far the strongest source of sulfur dioxide in Europe over the last 230 years, with sustained emission rates exceeding 100 000 ton/day. This gas emission severely affected people within Iceland. Under the scope of the EU-project FUTUREVOLC, a project with 3.5 years duration, aiming at making Iceland a supersite for volcanological research as a European contribution to GEO, a version of the Scanning DOAS instrument that is adapted to high latitudes with low UV radiation and severe meteorological conditions was developed. Since the first day of the eruption several of these novel instruments were monitoring the SO2 emission from the eruption. A lot of work was needed to sustain this operation during the winter at a very remote site and under severe field conditions. At the same time the very high concentrations in the gas plume, in combination with bad meteorological conditions has required the development of novel methods to derive reliable flux estimates. A simple approach to make a first order correction for atmospheric scattering has been applied, as well as filtering of the dataset to remove the data most affected by scattering. Substantial work has also been made to obtain realistic information on plume height and wind speed. The data from these instruments are the only sustained ground-based measurements of this important gas emission event. In this presentation we will discuss the instrumental issues and evaluation procedures and present the latest version of the emission estimates made from our measurements.

  7. Genetic Susceptibility to Dental Caries on Pit and Fissure and Smooth Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, J.R.; Wang, X.; DeSensi, R.S.; Wendell, S.; Weyant, R.J.; Cuenco, K.T.; Crout, R.; McNeil, D.W.; Marazita, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    Carious lesions are distributed nonuniformly across tooth surfaces of the complete dentition, suggesting that the effects of risk factors may be surface-specific. Whether genes differentially affect caries risk across tooth surfaces is unknown. We investigated the role of genetics on two classes of tooth surfaces, pit and fissure surfaces (PFS) and smooth surfaces (SMS), in more than 2,600 subjects from 740 families. Participants were examined for surface-level evidence of dental caries, and caries scores for permanent and/or primary teeth were generated separately for PFS and SMS. Heritability estimates (h2, i.e. the proportion of trait variation due to genes) of PFS and SMS caries scores were obtained using likelihood methods. The genetic correlations between PFS and SMS caries scores were calculated to assess the degree to which traits covary due to common genetic effects. Overall, the heritability of caries scores was similar for PFS (h2 = 19–53%; p < 0.001) and SMS (h2 = 17–42%; p < 0.001). Heritability of caries scores for both PFS and SMS in the primary dentition was greater than in the permanent dentition and total dentition. With one exception, the genetic correlation between PFS and SMS caries scores was not significantly different from 100%, indicating that (mostly) common genes are involved in the risk of caries for both surface types. Genetic correlation for the primary dentition dfs (decay + filled surfaces) was significantly less than 100% (p < 0.001), indicating that genetic factors may exert differential effects on caries risk in PFS versus SMS in the primary dentition. PMID:22286298

  8. The epidemiology and treatment of anal fissures in a population-based cohort.

    PubMed

    Mapel, Douglas W; Schum, Michael; Von Worley, Ann

    2014-07-16

    Anal fissure (AF) is regarded as a common problem, but there are no published epidemiologic data, nor information on current treatment. The purpose of this study was to examine the incidence, associated comorbidities, and treatment of AF in a population-based cohort. We conducted a retrospective analysis of all persons who were enrolled in one large regional managed care system and treated for AF during calendar years 2005-2011. All persons aged 6 years or older who had a clinic, hospitalization, or surgical procedure associated with AF were identified from utilization data. To identify comorbidities associated with AF, each case was matched by age and gender to 3 controls. There were 1,243 AF cases, including 721 (58%) females and 522 (42%) males; 150 (12%) of the cases occurred in children aged 6-17 years. The overall annual incidence was 0.11% (1.1 cases per 1000 person-years), but ranged widely by age [0.05% in patients 6-17 years to 0.18% in patients 25-34 years]. The incidence also varied by sex, and was significantly higher among females 12-24 years, and among males 55-64 years (P < 0.001). Comorbidities associated with AF included chronic constipation (prevalence 14.2% vs 3.6%), hypothyroidism (14.7% vs 10.4%), obesity (13.0% vs 7.7%), and solid tumors without metastasis (5.2% vs 3.7%) (P < 0.001 for all comparisons). A total of 448 were dispensed a topical prescription medication, 31 had botulinum toxin injection, and only 13 had lateral internal sphincterotomy. AF is a common clinical problem, and the incidence varies substantially by age and sex. Constipation, obesity, and hypothyroidism are associated comorbidities. Most patients are prescribed topical treatments, although it appears that many prescriptions are never filled. Surgical interventions for AF including botulinum toxin and lateral internal sphincterotomy are uncommon.

  9. A comparative clinical study of three fissure sealants on primary teeth: 24-month results.

    PubMed

    Ünal, M; Oznurhan, F; Kapdan, A; Dürer, S

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical success of three fissure sealants(FSs) with different contents on primary teeth. Three FSs were used to seal 150 primary molars in 75 children aged 4-7 years. All FSs were placed on occlusal surfaces in a split-mouth and randomized clinical trial. For patients in Group1,amorphous calcium phosphate(ACP) containing resin-based sealant(RBS)(Aegis) was applied to a primary molar tooth on one side ,and non-fluoride RBS(Helioseal) FS was applied to symmetrical molar tooth. For patients in Group2, fluoride-containing RBS(Helioseal F) was applied to a primary molar tooth on one side, and Helioseal FS was applied to symmetrical molar tooth. For patients in Group3,Helioseal FS was applied to a primary molar tooth on one side, and Aegis FS was applied to symmetrical molar tooth. Clinical evaluation of FSs was carried out to assess retention, marginal discoloration, marginal adaptation,and the presence of caries in months 1,3,6,12,18 and 24 after FS application. There were no significant differences for all criteria in groups 2 and 3(p≯0.05). In group 1,cumulative success rates according to 24 months' follow-up were statistically insignificant during the comparisons performed in terms of retention, marginal adaptation, and presence of caries(p≯0.05). Marginal discoloration was found to be statistically significant(p<0.05). RBS containing ACP or fluoride may be more effective than conventional RBS for caries prevention.

  10. [Epidemiology of anal lesions (fissure and thrombosed external hemorroid) during pregnancy and post-partum].

    PubMed

    Abramowitz, L; Batallan, A

    2003-06-01

    Thrombosed external hemorrhoids (TEH) and anal fissure (AF) are 2 frequent sources of anal pains during childbirth. We are going to define their incidences as available in publications and in our experience in Bichat hospital. Then we will define their risk factors. According to Martin's and Corby's studies, AF was observed in 10% of the delivered women. In Bichat hospital we performed a proctological assessment to 165 pregnant women during the last third of pregnancy and within the 2 months following delivery. We observed 2 AF (1,2%) during the first period and 25 (15,2%) during the second. Rouillon et al. reported an incidence of TEH in 12,2% (20/164), while Pradel and al. reported 34% (18/52) of it. In Bichat hospital, 13 women (7,9%) were presenting with TEH during the last third of pregnancy and 33 (20%) in post-partum period. Two studies looked for a statistical correlation between AF and obstetrical, foetal or maternal factors. Corby et al. only pointed the role of constipation. In our study, terminal constipation was the most important risk factor for AF with 5.7 (2.7-12), odds ratio (95% confidence intervals). Rouillon et al. observed more TEH among women with a prolonged first stage labor and a big baby. In our study, a big baby and mother little lips tears were observed more often among women with TEH (P <0,05). Also, we observed only one TEH among the 25 women with caesarean section (4%). Finally, observation that TEH arise immediately after delivery is another argument to support the role of traumatic delivery. We also demonstrated the role of terminal constipation as risk factor for TEH after delivery. To conclude, 1/3 of pregnant women develop AF or TEH after delivery. These 2 pathologies are strongly correlated to terminal constipation. TEH seems equally furthered by traumatic delivery.

  11. Characterisation and microleakage of a new hydrophilic fissure sealant - UltraSeal XT® hydro™

    PubMed Central

    GÜÇLÜ, Zeynep A.; DÖNMEZ, Nazmiye; HURT, Andrew P.; COLEMAN, Nichola J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives The aim of this study was to characterise the new hydrophilic fissure sealant, UltraSeal XT® hydro™ (Ultradent Products, USA), and to investigate its in vitro resistance to microleakage after placement on conventionally acid etched and sequentially lased and acid etched molars. Material and Methods The sealant was characterised by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), and Vickers indentation test. Occlusal surfaces of extracted human molars were either conventionally acid etched (n=10), or sequentially acid etched and laser irradiated (n=10). UltraSeal XT® hydro™ was applied to both groups of teeth which were then subjected to 2,500 thermocycles between 5 and 55°C prior to microleakage assessment by fuchsin dye penetration. Results UltraSeal XT® hydro™ is an acrylate-based sealant that achieved a degree of conversion of 50.6±2.2% and a Vickers microhardness of 24.2±1.5 under standard light curing (1,000 mWcm-2 for 20 s). Fluoride ion release is negligible within a 14-day period. SEM and EDX analyses indicated that the sealant comprises irregular submicron and nano-sized silicon-, barium-, and aluminium-bearing filler phases embedded in a ductile matrix. Laser preconditioning was found to significantly reduce microleakage (Mann-Whitney U test, p<0.001). The lased teeth presented enhanced surface roughness on a 50 to 100 μm scale that caused the segregation and concentration of the filler particles at the enamel-sealant interface. Conclusion Laser preconditioning significantly decreased microleakage and increased enamel surface roughness, which caused zoning of the filler particles at the enamel-sealant interface. PMID:27556205

  12. Clinical evaluation of glass ionomer for pit and fissure sealing of fully erupted molars.

    PubMed

    Sly, Edith G; Kaplan, Andrea E; Missana, Liliana

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical behavior of two conventional glass ionomers used for pit and fissure sealing in terms of retention, marginal adaptation, caries recurrence and cracking. Eighty-three fully erupted first permanent molars were sealed, in a group of children aged 5 to 8 years. A double-blind, single operator, paired design was used. Materials applied were Fuji IX and VII. Retention (R), presence of caries (PC), marginal discoloration (MD), marginal adaptation (MA) and cracking (C) were evaluated at 6 and 12 months using Ryge's criteria. Data registered 6 months after treatment were: Fuji IX: R: Alpha 37, Bravo 2, Charlie: 4; PC: Alpha 43, Bravo: 0; MA: Alpha 38, Bravo: 1; MD: Alpha 39, Bravo: 0, Charlie: 0; C: Alpha 39, Bravo: 0. Fuji VII: R: Alpha 29, Bravo 4, Charlie: 7; PC: Alpha 40, Bravo: 0; MA: Alpha: 34, Bravo: 0; MD: Alpha: 34, Bravo: 0, Charlie: 0; C: Alpha 33, Bravo: 0. Results after one year were: Fuji IX: R: Alpha 33, Bravo: 3, Charlie: 9; PC: Alpha 44, Bravo: 1; MA: Alpha 33, Bravo: 1; MD: Alpha: 34, Bravo: 0, Charlie: 0; C: Alpha: 34, Bravo: 0. Fuji VII: R: Alpha 22, Bravo 4, Charlie: 13, PC: Alpha 40, Bravo: 0; MA: Alpha 23, Bravo: 1; MD: Alpha 23, Bravo: 1, Charlie: 0; C: Alpha 23, Bravo: 1. Statistical analysis using Fisher test showed no significant difference (p > 0.05) for R, and MA. For PC, MD and C, values are not reported because both materials showed the same results. The second control showed no significant difference (p > 0.05) for R, MA, PC, MD and C. Results suggest no difference between Fuji IX and Fuji VII as sealants in fully erupted permanent molars.

  13. [Prevalence of caries, fissure sealants and filling materials among German children and children of migrants].

    PubMed

    van Steenkiste, M; Becher, A; Banschbach, R; Gaa, S; Kreckel, S; Pocanschi, C

    2004-11-01

    The aim of this study was to collect information on dental health and dental care of German children and children of migrants for planning oral health promotion in the Rems-Murr-district. To meet this aim all first and fourth degree children in primary and special schools were examined. The dmft- and DMFT-Index, the number of fissure sealants, the filling material used and the children's nationality were recorded. The dmft of 6- and 7-year-olds was 1.50 among Germans, 4.61 among German migrants from Russia, 4.02 among Turks, 4.05 among children from former Yugoslavia, 2.35 among Italians, 1.95 among Greeks and 3.76 among children of other nationalities. At the age of 9 to 10 years Germans had an average of 0.31, German migrants from Russia 0.77, Turks 1.19, children from former Yugoslavia 1.32, Italians 0.64, Greeks 0.69 and children of other nationalities 0.57 DMF-teeth. In both age groups the proportion of caries-free children was highest among Germans and lowest among Turks. Also, more migrants than Germans were referred to a dentist for caries treatment. Compared to the Germans fewer migrants had at least one tooth sealed. The proportion of amalgam fillings to the total number of fillings was higher among 9- and 10-year-olds of Turkish, Italian or Yugoslavian origin than among other nationalities. The results of this study show that further development of oral health promotion programmes for children and parents with Turkish and Russian cultural background has the top-most priority.

  14. Pit and fissure sealants for preventing dental decay in permanent teeth.

    PubMed

    Ahovuo-Saloranta, Anneli; Forss, Helena; Walsh, Tanya; Nordblad, Anne; Mäkelä, Marjukka; Worthington, Helen V

    2017-07-31

    Dental sealants were introduced in the 1960s to help prevent dental caries, mainly in the pits and fissures of occlusal tooth surfaces. Sealants act to prevent bacteria growth that can lead to dental decay. Evidence suggests that fissure sealants are effective in preventing caries in children and adolescents compared to no sealants. Effectiveness may, however, be related to caries incidence level of the population. This is an update of a review published in 2004, 2008 and 2013. To compare the effects of different types of fissure sealants in preventing caries in occlusal surfaces of permanent teeth in children and adolescents. Cochrane Oral Health's Information Specialist searched: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (to 3 August 2016), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (the Cochrane Library, 2016, Issue 7), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 3 August 2016), and Embase Ovid (1980 to 3 August 2016). We searched ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for ongoing trials to 3 August 2016. No restrictions were placed on language or date of publication. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing sealants with no sealant or a different type of sealant material for preventing caries of occlusal surfaces of premolar or molar teeth in children and adolescents aged up to 20 years. Studies required at least 12 months follow-up. We excluded studies that compared compomers to resins/composites. Two review authors independently screened search results, extracted data and assessed risk of bias of included studies. We presented outcomes for caries or no caries on occlusal surfaces of permanent molar teeth as odds ratio (OR) or risk ratio (RR). We used mean difference (MD) for mean caries increment. All measures were presented with 95% confidence intervals (CI). We conducted meta-analyses using a random-effects model for comparisons where there were more than three trials; otherwise we used the fixed

  15. Open lateral internal anal sphincterotomy under local anesthesia as the gold standard in the treatment of chronic anal fissures. A prospective clinical and manometric study.

    PubMed

    Sánchez Romero, A; Arroyo Sebastián, A; Pérez Vicente, F; Serrano Paz, P; Candela Polo, F; Tomás Gómez, A; Costa Navarro, D; Fernández Frías, A; Calpena Rico, R

    2004-12-01

    Chronic anal fissure is one of the most frequent proctological disorders in Western populations. Open lateral internal sphincterotomy is one of the therapeutic options accepted as the treatment of choice for chronic anal fissure, since it reduces the hypertonia of the internal anal sphincter (the main etiopathogenic mechanism of fissures), decreases anal pain, and allows the fissure to heal. We carried out a prospective study of 120 patients operated on for chronic anal fissure with open sphincterotomy under local anesthesia at our Proctology Outpatient Unit from 1998 to 2001. No preoperative studies, bowel preparation, or antibiotic prophylaxis were carried out. All patients were followed up after 1 week, 2 months, 6 months, and 1 year, and underwent an anal manometry before and after surgery. Early complications: 3 hematoma-ecchymosis of the wound (2.5%), 3 self-limited hemorrhage events (2.5%). No hemorrhoidal thrombosis, fistulas, or perianal abscesses occurred. Fissures recurred in nine patients (7.5%) within one year. The initial rate of incontinence of 7.5% at two months dropped down to 5% at six months. The mean resting pressure (MRP) in incontinent patients was lower than in continent patients (55 +/- 7 mmHg versus 80.7 +/- 21 mmHg). The difference in mean squeeze pressure (MSP) between incontinent patients and continent patients was not statistically significant. Open sphincterotomy under local anesthesia has a long-term rate of healing and a morbidity rate similar to other techniques. It may therefore be considered an effective treatment for chronic anal fissure.

  16. Increased anal basal pressure in chronic anal fissures may be caused by overreaction of the anal-external sphincter continence reflex.

    PubMed

    van Meegdenburg, Maxime M; Trzpis, Monika; Heineman, Erik; Broens, Paul M A

    2016-09-01

    Chronic anal fissure is a painful disorder caused by linear ulcers in the distal anal mucosa. Even though it counts as one of the most common benign anorectal disorders, its precise etiology and pathophysiology remains unclear. Current thinking is that anal fissures are caused by anal trauma and pain, which leads to internal anal sphincter hypertonia. Increased anal basal pressure leads to diminished anodermal blood flow and local ischemia, which delays healing and leads to chronic anal fissure. The current treatment of choice for chronic anal fissure is either lateral internal sphincterotomy or botulinum toxin injections. In contrast to current thinking, we hypothesize that the external, rather than the internal, anal sphincter is responsible for increased anal basal pressure in patients suffering from chronic anal fissure. We think that damage to the anal mucosa leads to hypersensitivity of the contact receptors of the anal-external sphincter continence reflex, resulting in overreaction of the reflex. Overreaction causes spasm of the external anal sphincter. This in turn leads to increased anal basal pressure, diminished anodermal blood flow, and ischemia. Ischemia, finally, prevents the anal fissure from healing. Our hypothesis is supported by two findings. The first concerned a chronic anal fissure patient with increased anal basal pressure (170mmHg) who had undergone lateral sphincterotomy. Directly after the operation, while the submucosal anesthetic was still active, basal anal pressure decreased to 80mmHg. Seven hours after the operation, when the anesthetic had completely worn off, basal anal pressure increased again to 125mmHg, even though the internal anal sphincter could no longer be responsible for the increase. Second, in contrast to previous studies, recent studies demonstrated that botulinum toxin influences external anal sphincter activity and, because it is a striated muscle relaxant, it seems reasonable to presume that it affects the striated

  17. A comparative evaluation of retention of pit and fissure sealant bonded using sixth-, seventh-, and eighth-generation adhesives: An in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Nirwan, Mitakshra; Nigam, Anant Gopal; Marwah, Nikhil; Nayak, Ullal Anand; Bansal, Aayushi; Gahlot, Manvendra Singh

    2017-01-01

    Dental caries is one of the most common preventable childhood infections. a number of measures are available to prevent occlusal caries; pit and fissure sealants are one of the various methods currently available to cost effectively reduce dental caries. To evaluate the retention of pit and fissure sealant bonded using sixth (Adper promt), seventh (Optibond) and eighth (Futurabond Dual Cure) generations of adhesives. A total of 37 healthy children who fulfilled the inclusion were randomly selected. A total of 148 teeth (4 in each subject) were used as samples for the study. The teeth to be sealed were then isolated using rubber dam. The placement of adhesives was done using split mouth design. The first permanent molars were randomly divided into four groups on the basis of sealant placed without and with using 6th, 7th and 8th generation bonding agents as follows: GROUP A (N=37):- Pit and fissure sealant placed without bonding agent. GROUP B (N=37):- Pit and fissure sealant placed following sixth generation bonding agent (ADPER PROMT). GROUP C (N=37):- Pit and fissure sealant placed following seventh generation bonding agent. (OPTIBOND). GROUP D (N=37):- Pit and fissure sealant placed following eighth generation bonding agent. (FUTURA BOND DUAL CURE). The integrity of the sealant placed was assessed immediately after completion of the procedure, 3 months and 6 months after placement. The post-operative evaluation for retention was done using Simonsen criteria. A score of 0 was given for complete retention, 1 for partial retention and 2 for no retention. The statistical analysis was done using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) software version 21. It was found that there was no statistically significant difference between the groups after 3 and 6 months as the value obtained (0.133) was much greater than the p-value (0.05). This study concluded that the use of bonding agent prior to application of pit and fissure sealant does not necessarily aid in

  18. A randomised clinical trial on the use of intermediate bonding on the retention of fissure sealants in children.

    PubMed

    McCafferty, Jennifer; O'Connell, Anne C

    2016-03-01

    To assess whether an adhesive bonding agent increases the retention of resin fissure sealants on first permanent molars (FPMs) and to determine any difference in sealant retention on occlusal, buccal, or palatal surfaces. The effect of the child's behaviour on the retention of the sealants was also assessed. One hundred and twelve children were recruited (age range 5-15 years). One operator placed sealants (Helioseal, Ivoclar Vivadent) on 390 FPMs using a split-mouth design. The study group, (n = 195), had an ethanol-based adhesive bond (ExciTEF, Ivoclar Vivadent) placed prior to sealant application, and no bond was used in the control group (n = 195). The sealants were reviewed after 12 months and analysed using Fisher's exact test. The addition of a bonding agent significantly increased sealant retention (P = 0.0005). Retention of bonded sealants on occlusal surfaces was higher (98%) than non-bonded sealants (93%) (P = 0.08). Bonded sealants placed on buccal/palatal surfaces were retained (92%) more successfully than non-bonded sealants (82%) (P = 0.0005). The behaviour of the patient significantly affected the retention of fissure sealants (P = 0.0001). The addition of an ethanol-based bonding agent significantly increased the retention of sealants at 12 months particularly on palatal fissures of maxillary first permanent molar teeth. © 2015 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Long-term outcomes of Botulinum toxin in the treatment of chronic anal fissure: 5 years of follow-up.

    PubMed

    Barbeiro, Sandra; Atalaia-Martins, Catarina; Marcos, Pedro; Gonçalves, Cláudia; Canhoto, Manuela; Arroja, Bruno; Silva, Filipe; Cotrim, Isabel; Eliseu, Liliana; Santos, Antonieta; Vasconcelos, Helena

    2017-03-01

    Chronic anal fissure is a frequent and disabling disease, often affecting young adults. Botulinum toxin and lateral internal sphincterotomy are the main therapeutic options for refractory cases. Botulinum toxin is minimally invasive and safer compared with surgery, which carries a difficult post-operative recovery and fecal incontinence risk. The long-term efficacy of Botulinum toxin is not well known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of Botulinum toxin in the treatment of chronic anal fissure. This was a retrospective study at a single center, including patients treated with Botulinum toxin from 2005 to 2010, followed over at least a period of 5 years. All patients were treated with injection of 25U of Botulinum toxin in the intersphincteric groove. The response was registered as complete, partial, refractory and relapse. Botulinum toxin was administered to 126 patients, 69.8% (n = 88) were followed over a period of 5 years. After 3 months, 46.6% (n = 41) had complete response, 23.9% (n = 21) had partial response and 29.5% (n = 26) were refractory. Relapse was observed in 1.2% (n = 1) at 6 months, 11.4% (n = 10) at 1 year, 2.3% (n = 2) at 3 years; no relapse at 5 years. The overall success rate was 64.8% at 5 years of follow-up. Botulinum toxin was well tolerated by all patients and there were no complications. The use of Botulinum toxin to treat patients with chronic anal fissure was safe and effective in long-term follow-up.

  20. Origins of Feeding Arteries of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Located Near the Umbilical Fissure of the Left Hepatic Lobe: Angiographic Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Miyayama, Shiro Yamashiro, Masashi; Shibata, Yoshihiro; Hashimoto, Masahiro; Yoshida, Miki; Tsuji, Kazunobu; Toshima, Fumihito; Matsui, Osamu

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: To analyze the origins of the feeding arteries of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) near the umbilical fissure of the left hepatic lobe. Methods: Twenty-eight HCCs with a mean {+-} SD tumor diameter of 3.4 {+-} 1.0 cm (range 1-4.4 cm) in contact with the right or left side of the umbilical fissure were treated by superselective transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE). The origins of the tumor-feeding arteries were analyzed with arteriograms and computed tomography or cone-beam computed tomography images obtained during and 1 week after TACE.ResultsTwenty-one HCC lesions were located in segment 3 and seven were located in segment 4. Of 21 tumors in segment 3, 13 (61.9%) were supplied by the lateral inferior subsegmental artery (A3), three (14.3%) by the medial subsegmental artery (A4), three (14.3%) by both A4 and A3, one (4.8%) by a branch arising from the left lateral hepatic artery, and one (4.8%) by a branch of the right gastric artery. In particular, all tumor-feeding branches arising from A4 were the first branch of A4. Of seven tumors in segment 4, four (57.1%) were supplied by A4 and three (42.9%) by A3. In particular, all tumor-feeding branches arising from A3 were the first branch of A3. Conclusion: This study demonstrates crossover blood supply to HCC lesions located near the umbilical fissure, in addition to direct feeding from a separate branch. In particular, the first branch of the opposite subsegmental artery may feed tumors when crossover blood supply is present.

  1. Hawaiian fissure fountains: Quantifying vent and shallow conduit geometry, episode 1 of the 1969-1974 Mauna Ulu eruption: Chapter 17

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parcheta, Carolyn; Fagents, Sarah; Swanson, Donald A.; Houghton, Bruce; Ericksen, Todd; Carey, Rebecca; Cayol, Valérie; Poland, Michael P.; Weis, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Geometries of shallow magmatic pathways feeding volcanic eruptions are poorly constrained, yet many key interpretations about eruption dynamics depend on knowledge of these geometries. Direct quantification is difficult because vents typically become blocked with lava at the end of eruptions. Indirect geophysical techniques have shed light on some volcanic conduit geometries, but the scales are too coarse to resolve narrow fissures (widths typically 1 m). Kīlauea's Mauna Ulu eruption, which started with <50 m high Hawaiian fountains along a 4.5 km fissure on 24 May 1969, provides a unique opportunity to measure the detailed geometry of a shallow magmatic pathway, as the western vents remain unobstructed to depths >30 m. Direct measurements at the ground surface were augmented by tripod-mounted lidar measurements to quantify the shallow conduit geometry for three vents at a resolution <4 cm. We define the form of the fissure in terms of aspect ratio, flaring ratio, irregularity, sinuosity, and segmentation and discuss the factors influencing these parameters. In the past, simplified first-order fissure geometries have been used in computational modeling. Our data can provide more accurate conduit shapes for better understanding of shallow fissure fluid dynamics and how it controls eruptive behavior, especially if incorporated into computer models.

  2. [Favourable results with local injections of botulinum-A toxin in patients with chronic isosorbide dinitrate ointment-resistant anal fissures].

    PubMed

    Witte, M E; Klaase, J M

    2006-07-08

    To determine the effectiveness of injection of botulinum-A toxin in the internal anal sphincter as a treatment for chronic therapy-resistant anal fissures. Prospective. In the period October 2002-February 2005, 32 consecutive patients (15 men and 17 women), with a median age of 44 years (range: 23-78 years) and suffering from chronic isosorbide dinitrate ointment-resistant anal fissures, were treated with an injection of 40 IU botulinum-A toxin (Dysport, Ipsen, The Netherlands) in the ventral side of the internal anal sphincter. The injection was given as an outpatient procedure under general or spinal anaesthesia. After a median follow-up of 14 months (range: 2-28 months), the chronic anal fissures were cured in 24 ofthe 32 patients (75%). Twenty-two patients were given a second or a third injection. A fissure recurred in one of the cured patients (4%), and one patient suffered from temporary flatus incontinence. Botulinum-A toxin injections were effective in 75% of patients with isosorbide dinitrate ointment-resistant chronic anal fissures. This is a simple technique with fewer side effects than local application of NO donors and fewer complications and less morbidity than surgical sphincterotomy.

  3. High-dose circumferential chemodenervation of the internal anal sphincter: A new treatment modality for uncomplicated chronic anal fissure: A retrospective cohort study (with video).

    PubMed

    Glover, Porter H; Tang, Shou-jiang; Whatley, James Z; Davis, Eric D; Jex, Kellen T; Wu, Ruonan; Lahr, Christopher J

    2015-11-01

    Botulinum toxin injection into the internal anal sphincter is gaining popularity as a second line therapy for chronic anal fissures if medical therapy fails. The dosage of botulinum toxin reported ranged from 20 to 50 IU with no more than 3 injection sites and results in a healing rate of 41%-88% at 3 months. We propose a new injection method of high-dose circumferential chemodenervation of 100 IU in treating chronic anal fissure. This was a retrospective review at a single academic center. 75 patients (50 women and 25 men) with uncomplicated chronic anal fissures underwent high-dose circumferential chemodenervation-internal anal sphincter (100 IU). We measured fissure healing, complication, and recurrence rates at 3 and 6 months post injection. Of the 75 patients, healing rate was 90.7% at 3 months follow up with the first injection and 81.3% with the second injection. The recurrence rates were 20.6% and 12.5% at 6 months after the 1st and 2nd injections respectively. Excluding 5 patients who lost follow up, the total healing rate of the study cohort was 100%. At 2 weeks and 3 months, there were no major complications including hematoma, infection, flatus, fecal, and urinary incontinence. High-dose circumferential chemodenervation-internal anal sphincter (100 IU) is a safe and effective method for uncomplicated chronic anal fissure. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Endoscopic lesions in low-to average-risk patients with minimal bright red bleeding from midline anal fissures. How much should we go in?

    PubMed

    Sotoudehmanesh, R; Ainechi, S; Asgari, A A; Kolahdoozan, S

    2007-12-01

    Anal fissure is a common condition in young patients, and the main symptoms include anal pain and bleeding. Our aim was to determine the need to perform lower gastrointestinal endoscopy on patients with midline anal fissure who present with minimal bright red rectal bleeding and who are at low risk for colorectal neoplasia. Patients with midline anal fissure who reported small amounts of red blood on toilet paper, toilet bowl or stool after defecation were evaluated. Patients with alarm signs (recently altered bowel habit, weight loss, anemia and family or personal history of colorectal neoplasms) were excluded. A total of 134 patients (80 female and 54 male, aged 35.8+/-11.4 years) were studied. Patients younger than 40 years underwent flexible sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy was used for older ones. Fissures were posterior in 106 cases (79.1%) and anterior in 27 cases (20.1%); one patient (0.7%) had both anterior and posterior fissures. The lower gastrointestinal endoscopy was normal in 120 patients (89.6%), and 36 patients (26.9%) had associated internal hemorrhoids. Adenomatous polyps were found in 4 cases (3.0%), ulcerative colitis in 8 (6.0%) and Crohn's disease in one patient (0.7%). There was no case of adenocarcinoma. Clinical evaluation plus rectoscopy might be the appropriate evaluation in this selected group of patients, if our results are confirmed by further studies.

  5. Efficacy of lanolin and bovine type I collagen in the treatment of childhood anal fissures: a prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Büyükyavuz, Behçet Ilker; Savaş, Cagri; Duman, Levent

    2010-08-01

    We designed an open-labeled, prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial to test the efficacy of topical lanolin ointment (PureLan) and bovine type I collagen spray (Gelfix) in the treatment of childhood anal fissures. Seventy-one children with acute anal fissure were divided randomly into three groups: group I (control; n = 25), group II (PureLan; n = 28), and group III (Gelfix; n = 18). All children were assigned to have warm sitz baths, topical analgesic creams, and stool softeners. Patients in groups II and III were also treated with topical lanolin ointment and bovine type I collagen, respectively. All children were re-examined 4 weeks later. Complete healing of the anal fissure was observed in 68% of the group I patients, but in 92.9% and 100% of the group II and III patients, respectively. The difference among groups was significant in terms of complete fissure healing (P = 0.003), but the efficacy of topical lanolin ointment and bovine type I collagen spray did not differ significantly (P = 0.078). Our data suggest that topical lanolin ointment and bovine type I collagen spray are effective in the treatment of acute anal fissure in children.

  6. A comparative study of clinical effectiveness of fissure sealing with and without bonding systems: 3-year results.

    PubMed

    Sakkas, C; Khomenko, L; Trachuk, I

    2013-04-01

    This prospective clinical study evaluated the sealant retention rate and caries-preventive efficacy of two fissure sealing techniques over a 3-year period. Subjects (87) aged between 6.5 and 11.5 years were enrolled into two groups. In Group I (41 subjects), a resin-based fissure sealant (Fissurit FX, VOCO, Germany) was placed on all four sound permanent first molars (FPM-164 teeth) of each subject and in Group II (46 subjects) on 4 caries-free premolars (P1-2 182 teeth),using the following adhesives systems: Optibond FL (Kerr, USA), Optibond Solo plus (Kerr, USA), Prompt-L-Pop (3 M ESPE, USA) or the conventional acid-etch technique. Sealed teeth were evaluated at baseline, 6, 12, 18, 24 and 36-month intervals with regard to retention and new caries development. Sealant retention was scored as: (1) complete retention; (2) partial loss; (3) complete loss of sealant. Wilcoxon-signed rank test was used to analyse the data. The complete retention rate was: Optibond FL/sealant 80.01-82.92 %, Optibond Solo plus/sealant 73.78-74.27 %, Prompt-L-Pop/sealant 42.84-53.65 % versus acid-etch technique 62.86-71.44 % on FPM and P1-2 (p < 0.05). The fissure caries incidence rate was: Optibond FL/sealant 2.43-2.85 %, Optibond Solo plus/sealant 2.85-4.76 %, Prompt-L-Pop/sealant 24.40-34.28 % versus acid-etch technique 16.66-17.14 % (p < 0.05) on FPM and P1-2. A statistically significant difference in sealant retention rate was observed between FPM and P1-2, using the self-etching adhesive system Prompt-L-Pop and acid-etch technique. It may be concluded that the use of adhesive systems Optibond FL and Optibond Solo plus yielded better fissure sealing performance.

  7. Operative and medical treatment of chronic anal fissures-a review and network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Ebinger, Sabrina Maria; Hardt, Julia; Warschkow, René; Schmied, Bruno Martin; Herold, Alexander; Post, Stefan; Marti, Lukas

    2017-06-01

    Anal fissures are a common problem and have a cumulative lifetime incidence of 11%. Previous reviews on anal fissures show inconsistent results regarding post-interventional healing and incontinence rates. In this review our aim was to compare the treatments for chronic anal fissures by incorporating indirect comparisons using network meta-analysis. The PubMed database was searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published between 1975 and 2015. The primary outcome measures were healing and incontinence rates after lateral internal sphincterotomy (LIS), anal dilatation (DILA), anoplasty and/or fissurectomy (FIAP), botulinum toxin (BT) and noninvasive treatment (NIT). Random effects network meta-analyses were complemented by fixed effects and Bayesian models. The present analysis included 44 RCTs and 3268 patients. After a median follow-up of 2 months, the healing rates for LIS, DILA, FIAP, BT and NIT were 93.1, 84.4, 79.8, 62.6, and 58.6% and the incontinence rates were 9.4, 18.2, 4.9, 4.1, and 3.0%, respectively. Compared with NIT, the odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] for healing after LIS, DILA, FIAP and BT was 9.9 (5.4-18.1), 8.6 (3.1-24.0), 3.5 (1.0-12.7) and 1.9 (1.1-3.5), respectively, on network meta-analysis. The OR (95% CI) for incontinence after LIS, DILA, FIAP and BT was 6.8 (3.1-15.1), 16.9 (6.0-47.8), 3.9 (1.0-15.1) and 1.6 (0.7-3.7), respectively. Ranking of treatments, fixed effects and Bayesian models confirmed these findings. In conclusion, based on our meta-analysis LIS is the most efficacious treatment but is compromised by a high rate of postoperative incontinence. Given the trade-offs between the risks and benefits, FIAP and BT might be good alternatives for the treatment of chronic anal fissures.

  8. Sealants for Preventing and Arresting Pit-and-fissure Occlusal Caries in Primary and Permanent Molars.

    PubMed

    Wright, John T; Tampi, Malavika P; Graham, Laurel; Estrich, Cameron; Crall, James J; Fontana, Margherita; Gillette, E Jane; Nový, Brian B; Dhar, Vineet; Donly, Kevin; Hewlett, Edmond R; Quinonez, Rocio B; Chaffin, Jeffrey; Crespin, Matt; Iafolla, Timothy; Siegal, Mark D; Carrasco-Labra, Alonso

    2016-01-01

    National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2012 data indicated that, in the United States, nearly onefourth of children and over one-half of adolescents experienced dental caries in their permanent teeth. The purpose of this review was to summarize the available clinical evidence regarding the effect of dental sealants for the prevention and management of pit-and-fissure occlusal carious lesions in primary and permanent molars, compared with a control without sealants, with fluoride varnishes, or with other head-to head comparisons. The authors included parallel and split-mouth randomized controlled trials that included at least 2 years of follow-up, which they identified using MEDLINE (via PubMed), Embase, LILACS, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and registers of ongoing trials. Pairs of reviewers independently conducted the selection of studies, data extraction, risk of bias assessments, and quality of the evidence assessments by using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. Of 2,869 records screened, the authors determined that 24 articles (representing 23 studies) proved eligible. Moderate-quality evidence suggested that participants who received sealants had a reduced risk of developing carious lesions in occlusal surfaces of permanent molars compared with those who did not receive sealants (odds ratio [OR], 0.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.08-0.27) after 7 or more years of follow-up. When the authors compared studies whose investigators had compared sealants with fluoride varnishes, they found that sealants reduced the incidence of carious lesions after 7 or more years of follow-up (OR, 0.19; 95% CI, 0.07-0.51); however, this finding was supported by low-quality evidence. On the basis of the evidence, the authors could not provide a hierarchy of effectiveness among the studies whose investigators had conducted head-to-head comparisons. The investigators of 2 trials provided information

  9. Pit and fissure sealants in dental public health – application criteria and general policy in Finland

    PubMed Central

    Kervanto-Seppälä, Sari; Pietilä, Ilpo; Meurman, Jukka H; Kerosuo, Eero

    2009-01-01

    Background Pit and fissure sealants (sealants) are widely used as a non-operative preventive method in public dental health in Finland. Most children under 19 years of age attend the community-organized dental health services free of charge. The aims of this study were to find out to what extent sealants were applied, what the attitudes of dental professionals towards sealant application were, and whether any existing sealant policies could be detected among the health centres or among the respondents in general. The study evaluated changes that had taken place in the policies used during a ten year period (1991–2001). Methods A questionnaire was mailed to each chief dental officer (CDO) of the 265 public dental health centres in Finland, and to a group of general dentists (GDP) applying sealants in these health centres, giving a total of 434 questionnaires with 22 questions. The response rate was 80% (N = 342). Results A majority of the respondents reported to application of sealants on a systematic basis for children with increased caries risk. The criteria for applying sealants and the actual strategies seemed to vary locally between the dentists within the health centres and between the health centres nationwide. The majority of respondents believed sealants had short- and long-term effects. The overall use of sealants decreased towards the end of the ten year period. The health centres (N = 28) choosing criteria to seal over detected or suspected enamel caries lesion had a DMFT value of 1.0 (SD ± 0.49) at age 12 (year 2000) compared to a value of 1.2 (SD ± 0.47) for those health centres (N = 177) applying sealants by alternative criteria (t-test, p < 0.05). Conclusion There seems to be a need for defined guidelines for sealant application criteria and policy both locally and nationwide. Occlusal caries management may be improved by shifting the sealant policy from the traditional approach of prevention to interception, i.e. applying the sealants over

  10. Reaction of the pterygomaxillary fissure and the condylar cartilage to intermaxillary Class III magnetic mechanics.

    PubMed

    Vardimon, A D; Graber, T M; Stutzmann, J; Voss, L; Petrovic, A G

    1994-04-01

    The skeletal reaction to Class III intermaxillary magnetic mechanics was previously found to affect two target areas, the pterygomaxillary fissure (PMF) and the condylar cartilage. The objectives of this study were to analyze, radiographically and histologically, the response of these tissues to Class III intermaxillary functional orthopedic magnetic appliance (FOMA III), and to postulate possible models of their dichotomous biomechanism. Nine Macaca fascicularis monkeys received periodic administration of vital bone procion dye and were treated for 4 months with FOMA III (6 subjects) and sham appliance (3 subjects). The PMF (the target area of the midfacial complex) demonstrated a decreased skeletal reaction in inferosuperior and lateromedial directions. Cephalometrically, the lowermost PMF point was displaced inferiorly 1.98 +/- 1.74 mm and 0.42 +/- 0.38 mm and anteriorly 1.42 +/- 0.96 mm and 0.58 +/- 0.38 mm in the treated and control groups, respectively. The displacement of the uppermost PMF point, compared with the lowermost point, was three to five times lower. Histologically, two modes of response were found; first, a sutural response (disarticulation and osteogenesis) of the palatomaxillary and pterygopalatine sutures, which was distinctive of the lateral PMF aspect, and second, a dentosutural response, which was characteristic of the medial PMF aspect (bony microfractures between the third molar germ and the maxillary tuberosity in conjunction with mild sutural response). In the mandible, a discrepancy was found between the histologic and the cephalometric findings. Radiographically, mandibular length was unaffected after 4 months of treatment, and the distance condylion-pogonion was equally increased in the treated (0.75 +/- 0.78 mm) and the control animals (0.77 +/- 0.32 mm). Histologically, however, the condylar cartilage demonstrated increased osteoclastic activity at the zone of endochondral ossification and a decreased apposition rate at the

  11. Geophysical Exploration of Faults, Fissures, and Fractures at Four Sites in Mexicali, Baja California, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lázaro-Mancilla, O.; Gonzalez-Fernandez, A.; Contreras-Corvera, A.; Stock, J. M.; Moreno-Ayala, D.; Ramirez-Hernandez, J.; Carreon-Diazconti, C.; Lopez, D. A. L.; Lopez, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    We conducted field geophysical measurements in areas in the City of Mexicali that are associated with geological faults, fissures, and fractures. The study sites are: 1) Instituto Tecnologico de Mexicali 2) The buried trace of the Michoacan de Ocampo fault in the urban zone 3) Rio Nuevo 4) A site reported by Frez (2013) with ground rupture SW of Cerro Prieto At Site 1, seismic reflection profiling used a cable with 24 geophones at 1 m spacing. The source was a 3.6 kg sledge hammer, with 3 impacts per shot point. 347 shot points at 2 m spacing provided 6 fold coverage along a straight line with minimal elevation changes. Sample rate was 2000/s, and record length 1 s; reflections were seen down to 0.3 s TWTT. Processing included: frequency filter, fk filter, predictive deconvolution, geometry, velocity analysis, NMO and stacking. Lateral changes in the seismic section are due to surface modification and/or the presence of faults.At site 2, we measured 222Radon in 36 locations along 17 profiles across the fault, using inherent alpha spectrometry with a Durridge RAD7 detector. Each site was measured at a depth of 60 cm, with 31 five-minute readings in a 3 hour period, interspersed with 10 minute of background purge and 3 five-minute background measurements. In a profile parallel to the fault, 78% of the readings were > 100 pCi/L, confirming the presence of the fault along the swath surveyed. At Site 3 we compiled observations of post-earthquake cracks, conducted reconnaissance, and measured some profiles using 100 MHz GPR. These observations showed that the cracks are associated with ground failure due to earthquake shaking. At Site 4 our new 222Radon gas measurements complemented a pre-existing profile that had high 222Radon values lacking a structural explanation. Related to this we found that this region has two NW-SE trending features: a magnetic anomaly low of 360 nT (Evans, Summer and Castillo, 1972) and a graben reported by the Mexican Geological Survey in 2003

  12. How long does it take to assemble the magmas that feed large basaltic fissure eruptions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmonds, M.; Hartley, M. E.; Morgan, D. J.; Maclennan, J.; Mutch, E. J. F.; Neave, D.

    2016-12-01

    Petrological constraints on timescales of pre-eruptive crystal storage and transport provide a vital framework for interpretation of seismic, geodetic and gas monitoring data in regions where large fissure eruptions occur. The AD 1783 Laki eruption, southeast Iceland, is one of the best-documented small-scale analogues to a flood basalt eruption. Here we use Fe-Mg interdiffusion in olivine and Mg diffusion in plagioclase to assess the timescales required to assemble the Laki magma prior to eruption. Olivine macrocrysts in Laki magmatic tephra display two to three distinct compositional zones, indicative of crystallization and storage in different magmatic environments. Most olivines have core compositions of Fo<76, and rim compositions of Fo69-Fo74 that are close to equilibrium with the Laki melt. The most probable Fe-Mg diffusion timescale for these olivines is 7.8 days, representing a characteristic crystal residence time in the carrier melt. The timescales coincide with historical accounts of strong earthquakes in southeast Iceland, which we interpret as being associated with dissociation of crystal mushes and initiation of dyke propagation to the surface. A small population of olivines with Fo>81 cores preserve diffusion timescales of 125 days, reflecting crystallization and storage in mid-crustal magma chambers. Plagioclase macrocrysts from Laki display more complex textures, with high-anorthite (An≥85) cores, oscillatory-zoned mantles, and low-anorthite (An 60) rims. Reverse fractional crystallization models demonstrate that the high-An plagioclase cores could not have crystallized from the Laki parental melt, but grew from depleted, high-Ca/Na primary mantle melts. High-An plagioclase cores were thus entrained into the Laki magma at an early stage of its evolution. Element diffusion across plagioclase core-mantle boundaries provides an upper estimate for timescales of magma assembly in the lower to mid-crust. Modelling Mg diffusion across these zones

  13. Chemical Transport in a Fissured Rock: Verification of a Numerical Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmuson, A.; Narasimhan, T. N.; Neretnieks, I.

    1982-10-01

    Numerical models for simulating chemical transport in fissured rocks constitute powerful tools for evaluating the acceptability of geological nuclear waste repositories. Due to the very long-term, high toxicity of some nuclear waste products, the models are required to predict, in certain cases, the spatial and temporal distribution of chemical concentration less than 0.001% of the concentration released from the repository. Whether numerical models can provide such accuracies is a major question addressed in the present work. To this end we have verified a numerical model, TRUMP, which solves the advective diffusion equation in general three dimensions, with or without decay and source terms. The method is based on an integrated finite difference approach. The model was verified against known analytic solution of the one-dimensional advection-diffusion problem, as well as the problem of advection-diffusion in a system of parallel fractures separated by spherical particles. The studies show that as long as the magnitude of advectance is equal to or less than that of conductance for the closed surface bounding any volume element in the region (that is, numerical Peclet number <2), the numerical method can indeed match the analytic solution within errors of ±10-3% or less. The realistic input parameters used in the sample calculations suggest that such a range of Peclet numbers is indeed likely to characterize deep groundwater systems in granitic and ancient argillaceous systems. Thus TRUMP in its present form does provide a viable tool for use in nuclear waste evaluation studies. A sensitivity analysis based on the analytic solution suggests that the errors in prediction introduced due to uncertainties in input parameters are likely to be larger than the computational inaccuracies introduced by the numerical model. Currently, a disadvantage in the TRUMP model is that the iterative method of solving the set of simultaneous equations is rather slow when time

  14. The epidemiology and treatment of anal fissures in a population-based cohort

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Anal fissure (AF) is regarded as a common problem, but there are no published epidemiologic data, nor information on current treatment. The purpose of this study was to examine the incidence, associated comorbidities, and treatment of AF in a population-based cohort. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of all persons who were enrolled in one large regional managed care system and treated for AF during calendar years 2005–2011. All persons aged 6 years or older who had a clinic, hospitalization, or surgical procedure associated with AF were identified from utilization data. To identify comorbidities associated with AF, each case was matched by age and gender to 3 controls. Results There were 1,243 AF cases, including 721 (58%) females and 522 (42%) males; 150 (12%) of the cases occurred in children aged 6–17 years. The overall annual incidence was 0.11% (1.1 cases per 1000 person-years), but ranged widely by age [0.05% in patients 6–17 years to 0.18% in patients 25–34 years]. The incidence also varied by sex, and was significantly higher among females 12–24 years, and among males 55–64 years (P < 0.001). Comorbidities associated with AF included chronic constipation (prevalence 14.2% vs 3.6%), hypothyroidism (14.7% vs 10.4%), obesity (13.0% vs 7.7%), and solid tumors without metastasis (5.2% vs 3.7%) (P < 0.001 for all comparisons). A total of 448 were dispensed a topical prescription medication, 31 had botulinum toxin injection, and only 13 had lateral internal sphincterotomy. Conclusions AF is a common clinical problem, and the incidence varies substantially by age and sex. Constipation, obesity, and hypothyroidism are associated comorbidities. Most patients are prescribed topical treatments, although it appears that many prescriptions are never filled. Surgical interventions for AF including botulinum toxin and lateral internal sphincterotomy are uncommon. PMID:25027411

  15. Chemical transport in a fissured rock: Verification of a numerical model

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmuson, A.; Narasimhan, T. N.; Neretnieks, I.

    1982-10-01

    Numerical models for simulating chemical transport in fissured rocks constitute powerful tools for evaluating the acceptability of geological nuclear waste repositories. Due to the very long-term, high toxicity of some nuclear waste products, the models are required to predict, in certain cases, the spatial and temporal distribution of chemical concentration less than 0.001% of the concentration released from the repository. Whether numerical models can provide such accuracies is a major question addressed in the present work. To this end, we have verified a numerical model, TRUMP, which solves the advective diffusion equation in general three dimensions with or without decay and source terms. The method is based on an integrated finite-difference approach. The model was verified against known analytic solution of the one-dimensional advection-diffusion problem as well as the problem of advection-diffusion in a system of parallel fractures separated by spherical particles. The studies show that as long as the magnitude of advectance is equal to or less than that of conductance for the closed surface bounding any volume element in the region (that is, numerical Peclet number <2), the numerical method can indeed match the analytic solution within errors of ±10{sup -3} % or less. The realistic input parameters used in the sample calculations suggest that such a range of Peclet numbers is indeed likely to characterize deep groundwater systems in granitic and ancient argillaceous systems. Thus TRUMP in its present form does provide a viable tool for use in nuclear waste evaluation studies. A sensitivity analysis based on the analytic solution suggests that the errors in prediction introduced due to uncertainties in input parameters is likely to be larger than the computational inaccuracies introduced by the numerical model. Currently, a disadvantage in the TRUMP model is that the iterative method of solving the set of simultaneous equations is rather slow when time

  16. Are eruptions from linear fissures and caldera ring dykes more likely to produce pyroclastic flows?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jessop, D. E.; Gilchrist, J.; Jellinek, A. M.; Roche, O.

    2016-11-01

    Turbulent volcanic jets are produced by highly-energetic explosive eruptions and may form buoyant plumes that rise many tens of kilometres into the atmosphere to form umbrella clouds or collapse to generate ground-hugging pyroclastic flows. Ash injected into the atmosphere can be transported for many hundreds of kilometres with the potential to affect climate, disrupt global air travel and cause respiratory health problems. Pyroclastic flows, by contrast, are potentially catastrophic to populations and infrastructure close to the volcano. Key to which of these two behaviours will occur is the extent to which the mechanical entrainment and mixing of ambient air into the jet by large (entraining) eddies forming the jet edge changes the density of the air-ash mixture: low entrainment rates lead to pyroclastic flows and high entrainment rates give rise to buoyant plumes. Recent experiments on particle-laden (multi-phase) volcanic jets from flared and straight-sided circular openings suggest that the likelihood for buoyant plumes will depend strongly on the shape and internal geometry of the vent region. This newly recognised sensitivity of the fate of volcanic jets to the structure of the vent is a consequence of a complex dynamic coupling between the jet and entrained solid particles, an effect that has generally been overlooked in previous studies. Building on this work, here we use an extensive series of experiments on multi-phase turbulent jets from analogue linear fissures and annular ring fractures to explore whether the restrictive vent geometry during cataclysmic caldera-forming (CCF) eruptions will ultimately lead a relatively greater frequency of pyroclastic flows than eruptions from circular vents on stratovolcanoes. Our results, understood through scaling analyses and a one-dimensional theoretical model, show that entrainment is enhanced where particle motions contribute angular momentum to entraining eddies. However, because the size of the entraining

  17. Assessment of the inhibitory effects of fissure sealants on the demineralization of primary teeth using an automatic pH-cycling system.

    PubMed

    Ushimura, Shuya; Nakamura, Koichi; Matsuda, Yasuhiro; Minamikawa, Hajime; Abe, Shigeaki; Yawaka, Yasutaka

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effects of fissure sealants on inhibition of demineralization of primary teeth using an automatic pHcycling system. Three fissure sealants were used: Teethmate F-1 2.0 (TM), BeautiSealant (BS), and Fuji III LC (IIILC). Using an automatic pH-cycling system, the specimens (n=12) were repeatedly demineralized and remineralized. Specimens were subjected to transverse microradiography (TMR), and changes in integrated mineral loss (IML) and lesion depth (Ld), indicated as ΔIML and ΔLd, respectively, were calculated. In addition, fluoride levels in the enamel were assessed using microparticle-induced gamma-ray emission/particle-induced X-ray emission (n=3). IIILC showed the lowest values for ΔIML and ΔLd, followed by BS and then TM. The highest amount of fluorine in the enamel was observed for IIILC, followed by TM and BS. All fissure sealants inhibited demineralization in primary teeth.

  18. In vitro comparison of the bond strength to the enamel of conventional and self-etching dental fissure sealants.

    PubMed

    Stellini, E; De Francesco, M; Avventi, M; Gracco, A; Berengo, M; Simionato, F; Mazzoleni, S

    2013-12-01

    Dental caries in pits and fissures of molars is still very common in young people, despite a gradual reduction in their incidence and prevalence. Prevention with the aid of dental fissure sealants can help to reduce the onset of decay. In vitro tests were conducted to compare the bond strength to enamel of self-etching sealants versus those applied using the conventional procedure. The lingual surface of 40 extracted, caries-free, mandibular third molars was milled to make them flat. The prepared teeth were randomly divided into two groups of 20 teeth each: those in Group A were treated with Clinpro (3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN, USA); those in Group B with Quick Seal (BJM Laboratories Ltd, Or-Yehuda, Israel). Cylinders of sealant were attached to the enamel of the flat surfaces of the samples using a polymerisation process treating the surfaces involved according to the type of material. All samples underwent load testing by means of a universal test machine. The results of the load testing, measured in MPa, were analysed using the Student's t-test for independent samples and the differences proved significant, indicating that the traditionally- applied sealant (mean strength 21.06 MPa) assured a significantly stronger bond (p <.05) than the self-etching sealant (mean strength 10.43 MPa) under our experimental conditions. CONCLUSION Conventional sealants generally provide a considerably higher bond strength than self-etching sealants.

  19. Native gold from volcanic gases at Tolbachik 1975-76 and 2012-13 Fissure Eruptions, Kamchatka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaplygin, Ilya; Yudovskaya, Marina; Vergasova, Lidiya; Mokhov, Andrey

    2015-12-01

    Aggregates and euhedral crystals of native gold were found in sublimates formed during New Tolbachik Fissure Eruption in 2012-2013 (NTFE). Gold-bearing sublimate samples were taken from a red-hot (690 °C) degassing fracture in the roof of an active lava tunnel 1.5 km from active Naboko cinder cone in May 2013. The gas condensate collected at 690 °C in this site contains 16 ppb Au, 190 ppb Ag and 1180 ppm Cu compared to 3 ppb Au, 39 ppb Ag and 9.7 ppm Cu in the condensate of pristine magmatic gas sampled at 1030 °C. The 690 °C volcanic gas is most likely a mix of magmatic gas and local snow buried under the lava flows as indicated by oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions of the condensate. The lower-temperature gas enrichment in gold, copper and chlorine is resulted from evaporation of the 690 °C condensate during forced gas pumping at sampling. Native gold was also found in fumarolic encrustations collected from caverns in basalt lava flows with temperature up to 600 °C in June 2014, in a year after eruption finished. The native gold precipitation in newly formed Cu-rich sublimates together with the well known gold occurrences in cinder cones of 1975-1976 Large Tolbachik Fissure Eruption manifest a transport capability of oxidized volcanic gas.

  20. Micro-leakage of a Fissure Sealant Cured Using Quartz-tungsten-halogen and Plasma Arc Light Curing Units.

    PubMed

    Bahrololoomi, Zahra; Soleimani, Ali Asghar; Jafari, Najmeh; Varkesh, Bentolhoda

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Newer curing units such as plasma arc can polymerize the sealants in much shorter curing times. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of two different curing units on the micro-leakage of a fissure sealant material. Materials and methods. Sixty two extracted premolars without caries were randomly divided into two groups of 31 samples. Occlusal surfaces of all teeth were cleansed. Then, teeth surfaces were etched by 37% phosphoric acid. After rinsing and drying, occlusal surfaces of teeth were sealed by a fissure sealant. The sealant was then cured using either a halogen light curing unit or a plasma arc curing light. After sealing, the teeth were thermocycled for 500 cycles. The teeth were then sectioned and examined for micro-leakage. Statistical analyses were performed with Mann-Whitney test. Results. There was no significant difference between two groups regarding micro-leakage (P = 0.42). Conclusion. Results showed that there was no significant difference between two different curing units. Therefore, plasma arc unit might be a useful alternative for sealant polymerization.

  1. Micro-leakage of a Fissure Sealant Cured Using Quartz-tungsten-halogen and Plasma Arc Light Curing Units

    PubMed Central

    Bahrololoomi, Zahra; Soleimani, Ali Asghar; Jafari, Najmeh; Varkesh, Bentolhoda

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Newer curing units such as plasma arc can polymerize the sealants in much shorter curing times. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of two different curing units on the micro-leakage of a fissure sealant material. Materials and methods. Sixty two extracted premolars without caries were randomly divided into two groups of 31 samples. Occlusal surfaces of all teeth were cleansed. Then, teeth surfaces were etched by 37% phosphoric acid. After rinsing and drying, occlusal surfaces of teeth were sealed by a fissure sealant. The sealant was then cured using either a halogen light curing unit or a plasma arc curing light. After sealing, the teeth were thermocycled for 500 cycles. The teeth were then sectioned and examined for micro-leakage. Statistical analyses were performed with Mann-Whitney test. Results. There was no significant difference between two groups regarding micro-leakage (P = 0.42). Conclusion. Results showed that there was no significant difference between two different curing units. Therefore, plasma arc unit might be a useful alternative for sealant polymerization. PMID:25587389

  2. A 3-dimensional numerical simulation of the atmospheric injection of aerosols by a hypothetical basaltic fissure eruption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripoli, Gregory J.; Thompson, Starley L.

    1988-01-01

    Researchers simulated the atmospheric response to a hypothetical basaltic fissure eruption using heating rates based on the Roza flow eruption. The simulation employs the Colorado State University Regional Atmospheric Model (RAMS) with scavenging effects. The numerical model is a three-dimensional non-hydrostatic time-split compressible cloud/mesoscale model. Explicit microphysics include prediction of cloud, rain, crystal, and hail precipitation types. Nucleation and phoretic scavenging are predicted assuming that the pollutant makes an effective cloud droplet nucleus. Smoke is carried as a passive tracer. Long and short wave radiation heating tendencies, including the effects of the smoke, are parameterized. The longwave emission by the lava surface is neglected in the parameterization and included as an explicit heating term instead. A regional scale domain of 100 x 100 km in the horizontal and 22 km high is used. The horizontal grid spacing is taken to be 2 km and the vertical spacing is taken to be 0.75 km. The initial atmospheric state is taken to be horizontally homogenous and based on the standard atmospheric sounding. The fissure is assumed to be 90 km long and oriented in a zig/zag pattern.

  3. Fissural volcanism, polygenetic volcanic fields, and crustal thickness in the Payen Volcanic Complex on the central Andes foreland (Mendoza, Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzarini, F.; Fornaciai, A.; Bistacchi, A.; Pasquarè, F. A.

    2008-09-01

    Shield volcanoes, caldera-bearing stratovolcanoes, and monogenetic cones compose the large fissural Payen Volcanic Complex, located in the Andes foreland between latitude 35°S and 38°S. The late Pliocene-Pleistocene and recent volcanic activity along E-W trending eruptive fissures produced basaltic lavas showing a within-plate geochemical signature. The spatial distribution of fractures and monogenetic vents is characterized by self-similar clustering with well defined power law distributions. Vents have average spacing of 1.27 km and fractal exponent D = 1.33 defined in the range 0.7-49.3 km. The fractal exponent of fractures is 1.62 in the range 1.5-48.1 km. The upper cutoffs of fractures and vent fractal distributions (about 48-49 km) scale to the crustal thickness in the area, as derived from geophysical data. This analysis determines fractured media (crust) thickness associated with basaltic retroarc eruptions. We propose that the Payen Volcanic Complex was and is still active under an E-W crustal shortening regime.

  4. Red hot chilli consumption is harmful in patients operated for anal fissure - a randomized, double-blind, controlled study.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Pravin J

    2007-01-01

    This study was aimed to determine whether there was any relationship between consumption of chillies and postoperative symptoms after closed anal sphincterotomy in patients with chronic anal fissure. Patients were randomly assigned to receive analgesics and fiber supplement alone (control patients) or consumption of 1.5 g chilli powder twice daily along with identical fiber and analgesics (chilli group). The evaluation of symptoms (pain, anal burning, and pruritus) during the postoperative period was assessed by means of patients' self-questionnaires. The amount of analgesic tablets consumed and the frequency of stool during the study period were also noted. 28 patients were recruited in each arm. Postoperative symptoms were higher in the group consuming chillies during the first postoperative week. The global scores for postoperative pain (7.60 in chilli group and 2.95 in control group, p < 0.001) and for anal burning (8.85 for the chilli group vs. 4.21 for the control group, p < 0.0001) were significant. This study shows that consumption of red chillies after anal fissure surgery should be forbidden to avoid postoperative symptoms.

  5. Fissurectomy Combined with High-Dose Botulinum Toxin Is a Safe and Effective Treatment for Chronic Anal Fissure and a Promising Alternative to Surgical Sphincterotomy.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Thomas G; Zafrani, Zakhi; Abdelrazeq, Ayman S

    2015-10-01

    There is paucity of data on the long-term outcome of the combination of fissurectomy and botulinum toxin A injection for the management of chronic anal fissure. The aim of this study is to assess the safety, efficacy, and long-term outcome of the combination of fissurectomy and botulinum toxin A injection. This is a nonrandomized prospective cohort study. This study was conducted at a district general hospital in the United Kingdom. The cohort included all patients treated with fissurectomy and botulinum toxin A for chronic anal fissure between September 2008 and March 2012. The patients were treated with a combination of fissurectomy and botulinum toxin A injection. Symptomatic relief, fissure healing, complications, recurrence, and the need for further surgical intervention. One hundred and two patients received fissurectomy and botulinum toxin A injection for chronic anal fissure. At 12-week follow-up, 68 patients had resolution of symptoms and complete healing of chronic anal fissure, 29 patients had improvement of symptoms but incomplete healing and had further topical or botulinum toxin A treatment with subsequent complete healing. Ninety-five patients (93%) reported no postoperative complications. Seven patients reported a degree of incontinence in the immediate postoperative period. All reported normal continence at12-week follow-up. No local complications were observed or reported. At the mean follow-up of 33 months, there was no evidence of recurrence. Twelve-month follow-up was conducted via telephone interview only. This study is nonrandomized and did not examine the dose response of Botulinum Toxin A. Fissurectomy combined with high-dose botulinum toxin A is a safe, effective, and durable option for the management of chronic anal fissure and a promising alternative to surgical sphincterotomy.

  6. Comparison of Clinical Success of Applying a Kind of Fissure Sealant on the Lower Permanent Molar Teeth in Dry and Wet Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Eskandarian, Tahereh; Baghi, Saeid; Alipoor, Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Fissure sealant therapy is among the most effective methods of preventing dental caries. However, it is lengthy and isolation of the teeth is difficult in this procedure especially in young children. Using new hydrophilic fissure sealant may reduce such problems. Purpose This study aimed to evaluate the clinical success of a hydrophilic fissure sealant on the lower permanent molar teeth in dry and wet conditions. Materials and Method This clinical trial assessed 31 patients (mean age 8.13±1.77 years) who needed fissure sealant therapy on their first or second mandibular permanent molar. Having performed dental prophylaxis, the teeth were etched and rinsed. Then one of the two was randomly selected and sealed with smartseal & loc in isolated and dry conditions; while, the other was wetted on the etched enamel by using a saliva-contaminated micro brush, and was then sealed with the same fissure as the first tooth. Six and 12 months later, two independent observers examined the clinical success of sealant through checking the marginal integrity, marginal discoloration, and anatomical form. Data were analyzed by using SPSS software, version 16. The bivariate Chi-square and Exact Fisher tests were used to compare the clinical success of the two treatment methods. Results There was a high interpersonal reliability between the two examiners (K= 0.713). After 12 months, 90.3% clinical success was observed in dry conditions and 83.9% in wet conditions for smartseal & loc; however, the difference was not statistically significant (p= 0.0707). Conclusion According to the results of this study, it seems that using new hydrophilic fissure sealant can reduce technical sensitivities and consequently decreases the apprehensions on saliva contamination of etched enamel during treatment procedures. PMID:26331144

  7. Mechanisms, Monitoring and Modeling Earth Fissure generation and Fault activation due to subsurface Fluid exploitation (M3EF3): A UNESCO-IGCP project in partnership with the UNESCO-IHP Working Group on Land Subsidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teatini, P.; Carreon-Freyre, D.; Galloway, D. L.; Ye, S.

    2015-12-01

    Land subsidence due to groundwater extraction was recently mentioned as one of the most urgent threats to sustainable development in the latest UNESCO IHP-VIII (2014-2020) strategic plan. Although advances have been made in understanding, monitoring, and predicting subsidence, the influence of differential vertical compaction, horizontal displacements, and hydrostratigraphic and structural features in groundwater systems on localized near-surface ground ruptures is still poorly understood. The nature of ground failure may range from fissuring, i.e., formation of an open crack, to faulting, i.e., differential offset of the opposite sides of the failure plane. Ground ruptures associated with differential subsidence have been reported from many alluvial basins in semiarid and arid regions, e.g. China, India, Iran, Mexico, Saudi Arabia, Spain, and the United States. These ground ruptures strongly impact urban, industrial, and agricultural infrastructures, and affect socio-economic and cultural development. Leveraging previous collaborations, this year the UNESCO Working Group on Land Subsidence began the scientific cooperative project M3EF3 in collaboration with the UNESCO International Geosciences Programme (IGCP n.641; www.igcp641.org) to improve understanding of the processes involved in ground rupturing associated with the exploitation of subsurface fluids, and to facilitate the transfer of knowledge regarding sustainable groundwater management practices in vulnerable aquifer systems. The project is developing effective tools to help manage geologic risks associated with these types of hazards, and formulating recommendations pertaining to the sustainable use of subsurface fluid resources for urban and agricultural development in susceptible areas. The partnership between the UNESCO IHP and IGCP is ensuring that multiple scientific competencies required to optimally investigate earth fissuring and faulting caused by groundwater withdrawals are being employed.

  8. Recrystallized Granite Surface Fissures Of Wasatch Range, Produced Not Later Than 1/4 Billion Years Ago.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, K. L.

    2002-04-01

    Our studies of numerous recrystallized fissures in 4 granite plutons of Wasatch Range, i.e., Mount T-W-M^1,6,7 Bonanza Pk.-Midway,^2 Little Cottonwood and Ferguson Canyon plutons, all of which formed magma chambers reaching Earth-atm. interface, estab. that they resulted from high thermal gradients and not passages of earthquake waves.^4 Magma chambers formed, solidified during Permo-Carboniferous Ice Age (roughly 1/3...1/4 billion yr ago), a time interval preceding extrusion of Rocky Mts., 10^8 yr ago, and while fluid, some belched lava flows^5 extending over its reservoir walls to run hundreds of m. We have shown how the magma melts, dilutes and replaces overlying metamorphic rock^7 to reach Earth's surface, so that a pluton containing large amounts of dross (Fe-ores, etc.) had a short fluid lifetime. We also described how offshoots from a long-running main fissure form acute angles with that fissure^3. Recryst. fissures, reaching depths of perhaps 100 m, had initial fractures near time of solidification of top portion of magma chamber, while still hot (<= 1600^oF), a time when max. stresses occur near granite surface due to high thermal gradients, owing to snow coverage, rain water, stream flow over granite surface, partial coverage by ocean, etc., during P-C ice age - when region of Wasatch Range existed at sea level, S. L. Valley being covered entirely by ocean water and region east of Wasatch Boul. rising gently above Pac. Ocean to elev. of possibly 500-1000 ft, say, at a distance of 10-15 mi to e, as implied by Chinese wall of limestone on Grandeur Pk, another in Neff's Canyon running e from n ridge of her 9200 ft saddle-summit, as well as a dozen other ancient calcified stream beds emptying into ocean to w, in S.L. Valley. This existed prior to regional uplift (of similar topog.) of over 4000 ft. Details of how earthquake waves form an epicenter from which propagate 2 stress fields in diam. opp. directions to open up, by a few m, surface granite to form a

  9. The ‘Excess’ Emission from the Warm Surface Adjacent to Active Fissures on Enceladus from Combined VIMS and CIRS Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goguen, Jay D.; Buratti, Bonnie J.; Howell, Robert R.

    2015-11-01

    The exciting discovery of thermal emission from the tiger stripe fissures at the S. pole of Enceladus is a major highlight of the Cassini mission. Both VIMS (Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer) and CIRS (Composite InfraRed Spectrometer) detect the thermal ‘blackbody’ spectrum emitted from the warm fissure areas. The VIMS instrument is uniquely suited to measuring the hottest active locations because VIMS covers the 3 to 5 micron wavelength range where the rising edge of the Planck function for these T~200 K areas dominates the emission spectrum. At longer wavelengths, the spectrum is more complicated because contributions from small hot areas and larger cooler areas combine to form the broad emission spectrum that is detected by the CIRS instrument at wavelengths >6.7 microns. It is the combination of VIMS and CIRS spectra that paint a more complete portrait of the fissure heat transfer processes. Using spectra that span both the VIMS and CIRS wavelengths places a stronger constraint on the T distribution near the fissures than consideration of the spectra from either instrument alone.We show that when the best (= highest spatial resolution, 800 m/pixel and smaller) VIMS and CIRS spectra of the fissure thermal emission are considered together, there is a large (up to 400%) component of ‘excess’ emission spanning 7 to 17 microns that requires explanation. New analysis of ~2 km spatial resolution VIMS spectra of the Damascus hot spot on 8/13/2010 are similar to the highest resolution 4/14/2012 VIMS Baghdad spectra, confirming that differences in location or time between the best VIMS and CIRS spectra do not explain away the excess. The obvious interpretation is that there are processes that transfer heat from the fissure eruption to the surface within 400 m of the fissure center in addition to heat conduction through the fissure walls. Candidate heat transfer processes include fallback of large warm low velocity ice particles from the edges of the

  10. Partial lateral internal sphincterotomy versus combined botulinum toxin A injection and topical diltiazem in the treatment of chronic anal fissure: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Gandomkar, Hossein; Zeinoddini, Atefeh; Heidari, Reza; Amoli, Hadi Ahmadi

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and complications associated with combined topical diltiazem cream and botulinum toxin A injection versus partial lateral internal sphincterotomy in chronic anal fissure. This study is a parallel, randomized controlled trial (using the block randomization method). This study was performed at a university hospital in Iran. Ninety-nine patients who had chronic anal fissures were included. A total of 99 patients were randomly assigned to 2 groups; the first group received combined topical diltiazem ointment (for 6 weeks) and botulinum toxin A injection (once) (n = 49), and the second group received partial lateral internal sphincterotomy (n = 50). All the patients were followed up for 1 year. The primary outcomes measured were the healing of the anal fissure and the development of incontinence as the major adverse event during the 1-year follow-up period. The overall healing rate was 65% and 94% in the botulinum toxin A-diltiazem and partial lateral internal sphincterotomy groups (p < 0.001). The patients in the partial lateral internal sphincterotomy group experienced significantly higher incontinence scores (p = 0.04) according to the Cleveland Clinic Florida-Fecal Incontinence scoring system. In patients who had chronic anal fissure for ≤12 months, no statistical difference was observed in the healing rate between the botulinum toxin A-diltiazem and partial lateral internal sphincterotomy groups (100% vs 100%). However, in the patients with longer chronic fissures, the healing rate was significantly higher in the partial lateral internal sphincterotomy group (86% [18/21] vs 23% [5/21], p < 0.001). The 1-year follow-up period, subjective definitions of itching, and lack of anorectal manometry examinations and data regarding the effect of each treatment on anal sphincter pressure at rest and contraction are the key limitations of this study. Combined botulinum toxin A injection with a topical application of

  11. Pit and fissure sealants versus fluoride varnishes for preventing dental decay in the permanent teeth of children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ahovuo-Saloranta, Anneli; Forss, Helena; Hiiri, Anne; Nordblad, Anne; Mäkelä, Marjukka

    2016-01-18

    Most of the detected increment in dental caries among children and adolescents is confined to occlusal surfaces of posterior permanent molars. Dental sealants and fluoride varnishes are much used preventive options for caries. Although the effectiveness of sealants and fluoride varnishes for controlling caries as compared with no intervention has been demonstrated in clinical trials and summarised in systematic reviews, the relative effectiveness of these two interventions remains unclear. This review is an update of one first published in 2006 and last updated in 2010. Primary objective • To evaluate the relative effectiveness of fissure sealants compared with fluoride varnishes, or fissure sealants together with fluoride varnishes compared with fluoride varnishes alone, for preventing dental caries in the occlusal surfaces of permanent teeth of children and adolescents. Secondary objectives • To evaluate whether effectiveness is influenced by sealant material type and length of follow-up.• To document and report on data concerning adverse events associated with sealants and fluoride varnishes. We searched the following electronic databases: the Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register (to 18 December 2015), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2015, Issue 11), MEDLINE via Ovid (1946 to 18 December 2015) and EMBASE via Ovid (1980 to 18 December 2015). We also searched the US National Institutes of Health Trials Register (http://clinicaltrials.gov) and the World Health Organization (WHO) Clinical Trials Registry Platform for ongoing trials. We placed no restrictions on language or date of publication when searching electronic databases. We screened the reference lists of identified trials and review articles for additional relevant studies. We included randomised controlled trials with at least 12 months of follow-up comparing fissure sealants, or fissure sealants together with fluoride varnishes, versus fluoride varnishes for

  12. A multi-isotopic study (U-series, 14C, 13C, 18O) on growth of Arctic fissure calcretes (endostromatolites) from Northern Canada.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaleb, B.; Hillaire-Marcel, C.; Deschamps, P.; Lauriol, B.

    2009-05-01

    The chronology of Arctic terrestrial environments is poorly documented due to the scarcity of representative deposits allowing radiometric age determinations. Endostromatolites are secondary carbonate precipitations filling fractures in karstic carbonate terrains found in various sites in Yukon, North-West Territories. Expectations about their use to document environmental change were high. The specimens studied here originate from the Bear Cave Mountains (Yukon). They fill presently unsaturated fissures along cliffs, above karstic formations, within a few meters from the bedrock surface. They occur on southern oriented surfaces, and systematically develop on the outer side surface of the fractures. These concretions are likely of biogenic origin, and are thought to form during periods with relatively warm conditions in the Arctic (i.e., maximum insolation intervals). We report here on 238U, 234U, 230Th, 226Ra, 14C, 13C and 18O analyses of a few thick specimens (2 cm). A first sample yielded inconsistent 14C- and 230Th-ages (ranging from bottom to top of the concretion10-4 ka and 260-55 ka, respectively). Higher resolution measurements in a second sample better illustrate trends from the layer immediately attached to the host rock (here Paleozoic limestone) and the outer, columnar surface of the concretion: i) 230Th/238U activity ratio decrease from near secular equilibrium values to appr. 0.2; ii) 238U- concentrations increase from ~ 2 to ~ 6 ppm, and iii) 226Ra/230Th activity ratios increase from near secular equilibrium values to 1.2. This pattern suggest a pseudo-Rayleigh fractionation process with redistribution of U-series isotopes from the host-rock into the calcrete growth layers, more or less in function of their relative solubility. Some addition of more soluble elements relating to water fluxes cannot be ruled out. Stable carbon isotopes suggest a similar process with a progressive enrichment in 13C (up to +8.5 vs. VPDB) attributed to kinetic

  13. Applying psychological theories to evidence-based clinical practice: identifying factors predictive of placing preventive fissure sealants.

    PubMed

    Bonetti, Debbie; Johnston, Marie; Clarkson, Jan E; Grimshaw, Jeremy; Pitts, Nigel B; Eccles, Martin; Steen, Nick; Thomas, Ruth; Maclennan, Graeme; Glidewell, Liz; Walker, Anne

    2010-04-08

    Psychological models are used to understand and predict behaviour in a wide range of settings, but have not been consistently applied to health professional behaviours, and the contribution of differing theories is not clear. This study explored the usefulness of a range of models to predict an evidence-based behaviour -- the placing of fissure sealants. Measures were collected by postal questionnaire from a random sample of general dental practitioners (GDPs) in Scotland. Outcomes were behavioural simulation (scenario decision-making), and behavioural intention. Predictor variables were from the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), Social Cognitive Theory (SCT), Common Sense Self-regulation Model (CS-SRM), Operant Learning Theory (OLT), Implementation Intention (II), Stage Model, and knowledge (a non-theoretical construct). Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the predictive value of each theoretical model individually. Significant constructs from all theories were then entered into a 'cross theory' stepwise regression analysis to investigate their combined predictive value. Behavioural simulation - theory level variance explained was: TPB 31%; SCT 29%; II 7%; OLT 30%. Neither CS-SRM nor stage explained significant variance. In the cross theory analysis, habit (OLT), timeline acute (CS-SRM), and outcome expectancy (SCT) entered the equation, together explaining 38% of the variance. Behavioural intention - theory level variance explained was: TPB 30%; SCT 24%; OLT 58%, CS-SRM 27%. GDPs in the action stage had significantly higher intention to place fissure sealants. In the cross theory analysis, habit (OLT) and attitude (TPB) entered the equation, together explaining 68% of the variance in intention. The study provides evidence that psychological models can be useful in understanding and predicting clinical behaviour. Taking a theory-based approach enables the creation of a replicable methodology for identifying factors that may predict clinical behaviour

  14. [Evaluation of the effect of one-step self etching adhesives applied in pit and fissure sealing].

    PubMed

    Su, Hong-Ru; Xu, Pei-Cheng; Qian, Wen-Hao

    2016-06-01

    To observe the effect of three one-step self etching adhesive systems used in fit and fissure sealant and explore the feasibility of application in caries prevention in school. Seven hundred and twenty completely erupted mandibular first molars in 360 children aged 7 to 9 years old were chosen. The split-mouth design was used to select one side as the experimental group, divided into A1(Easy One Adper), B1(Adper Easy One), and C1(iBond SE).The contra lateral teeth served as A2,B2 and C2 groups (phosphoric acid). The retention and caries status were regularly reviewed .The clinical effect of the two groups was compared using SPSS19.0 software package for Chi - square test. At 3 and 6 months, pit and fissure sealant retention rate in A1 and A2, B1 and B2,C1 and C2 group had no significant difference. At 12 months, sealant retention in A1 and B1 group was significantly lower than A2 and B2 group (P<0.05). No significant difference was found between C1 and C2 groups (P>0.05). At 24 months, sealant retention rate in A1, B1 and C1 group was significantly lower than A2, B2 and C2 group (P<0.05). The caries rate in A1and A2, B1 and B2, C1 and C2 group had no significant difference during different follow-up time (P>0.05). The clinical anticariogenic effect of three kinds of one-step etching adhesives and phosphoric acid etching sealant was similar .One-step self etching adhesive system was recommended for pit and fissure sealant to improve the students' oral health. The long-term retention rate of one-step self etching adhesive system was lower than the phosphoric acid method to long term observation is needed.

  15. Source analysis of interictal spikes in polymicrogyria: loss of relevant cortical fissures requires simultaneous EEG to avoid MEG misinterpretation.

    PubMed

    Bast, Thomas; Ramantani, Georgia; Boppel, Tobias; Metzke, Tanja; Ozkan, Ozdin; Stippich, Christoph; Seitz, Angelika; Rupp, Andre; Rating, Dietz; Scherg, Michael

    2005-05-01

    Multiple source analysis of interictal EEG and MEG spikes was used to identify irritative zones in polymicrogyria (PMG). Spike onset times and source localization were compared between both modalities. PMG is characterized by a marked loss of deep cortical fissures. Hence, differences between EEG and MEG were expected since MEG signals are predominantly generated from tangentially orientated neurons in fissures. We studied 7 children and young adults (age 7.5 to 19 years) with localization-related epilepsy and unilateral polymicrogyria (PMG) as defined from anatomical MRI. 122-channel whole-head MEG and 32-channel EEG were recorded simultaneously for 25 to 40 min. Using the BESA program, interictal spikes were identified visually and used as templates to search for similar spatio-temporal spike patterns throughout the recording. Detected similar spikes (r > 0.85) were averaged, high-pass filtered (5 Hz) to enhance spike onset, and subjected to multiple spatio-temporal source analysis. Source localization was visualized by superposition on T1-weighted MRI and compared to the lesion. Nine spike types were identified in seven patients (2 types in 2 patients). Eight out of nine EEG sources and seven MEG sources modeling spike onset were localized within the visible lesion. EEG spike onset preceded MEG significantly in two spike types by 19 and 25 ms. This was related to radial onset activity in EEG while MEG localized propagated activity. In one case, the earliest MEG spike activity was localized to the normal hemisphere while the preceding radial EEG onset activity was localized within the lesion. Distances between EEG and MEG onset sources varied markedly between 9 and 51 mm in the eight spike types with concordant lateralization. Interictal irritative zones were localized within the lesion in PMG comparable to other malformations, e.g., FCD. Discrepancies in MEG and EEG were related to the lack of deep fissures in PMG. In two cases, MEG was blind to the onset of

  16. Overview of the precursors and dynamics of the 2012-13 basaltic fissure eruption of Tolbachik Volcano, Kamchatka, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belousov, Alexander; Belousova, Marina; Edwards, Benjamin; Volynets, Anna; Melnikov, Dmitry

    2015-12-01

    We present a broad overview of the 2012-13 flank fissure eruption of Plosky Tolbachik Volcano in the central Kamchatka Peninsula. The eruption lasted more than nine months and produced approximately 0.55 km3 DRE (volume recalculated to a density of 2.8 g/cm3) of basaltic trachyandesite magma. The 2012-13 eruption of Tolbachik is one of the most voluminous historical eruptions of mafic magma at subduction related volcanoes globally, and it is the second largest at Kamchatka. The eruption was preceded by five months of elevated seismicity and ground inflation, both of which peaked a day before the eruption commenced on 27 November 2012. The batch of high-Al magma ascended from depths of 5-10 km; its apical part contained 54-55 wt.% SiO2, and the main body 52-53 wt.% SiO2. The eruption started by the opening of a 6 km-long radial fissure on the southwestern slope of the volcano that fed multi-vent phreatomagmatic and magmatic explosive activity, as well as intensive effusion of lava with an initial discharge of > 440 m3/s. After 10 days the eruption continued only at the lower part of the fissure, where explosive and effusive activity of Hawaiian-Strombolian type occurred from a lava pond in the crater of the main growing scoria cone. The discharge rate for the nine month long, effusion-dominated eruption gradually declined from 140 to 18 m3/s and formed a compound lava field with a total area of 36 km2; the effusive activity evolved from high-discharge channel-fed 'a'a lavas to dominantly low-discharge tube-fed pahoehoe lavas. On 23 August, the effusion of lava ceased and the intra-crater lava pond drained. Weak Strombolian-type explosions continued for several more days on the crater bottom until the end of the eruption around 5 September 2013. Based on a broad array of new data collected during this eruption, we develop a model for the magma storage and transport system of Plosky Tolbachik that links the storage zones of the two main genetically related magma types

  17. Efficacy of egg yolk and nitroglycerin ointment as treatments for acute anal fissures: A randomized clinical trial study

    PubMed Central

    Salari, Masoumeh; Salari, Roshanak; Dadgarmoghadam, Maliheh; Khadem-Rezaiyan, Majid; Hosseini, Mousalreza

    2016-01-01

    Background Acute anal fissure as a common disease in society has several etiologies and manifestations such as severe anal pain and bleeding. Nitroglycerin ointment 0.2% is the most common topical treatment used. The most common side effect of nitroglycerin is headache, which is annoying for patients and often leads to discontinuation of the drug. Objective Comparison of egg yolk as a natural substance with analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties and minimal side effects with nitroglycerin ointment in the treatment of acute anal fissure. Methods This randomized clinical trial was carried out during a 10-day period in the Gastroenterology clinic of Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad, Iran (year 2015). 126 patients who filled the inclusion criteria were enrolled. The patients were randomly divided into two groups. Nitroglycerin ointment (0.2%) was applied by patients in the first group, twice daily for 10 days. For the second group, one egg yolk once a day was administered rectally up to 10 days. The pain and bleeding severity were recorded every two days up to 10 days after finishing the treatment course, based on visual scale Results The results showed that egg yolk caused a significant reduction in pain and bleeding compared with nitroglycerin (p<0.05). At the beginning of the study, the difference in pain intensity between the two groups was not statistically significant (p-value = 0.25). However, it became significant in the following days. Changes in the frequency of rectorrhagia were also significant in both groups, showing a major decrease in the number of rectorrhagia cases (p<0.001). Conclusion Egg yolk is more efficient than nitroglycerin in the treatment of acute anal fissure. In addition, lack of any side effects results in the completion of the treatment course by the patients. Trial Registration The trial was registered at the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (http://www.irct.ir) with the Irct ID: IRCT2015050718915N3. Funding This work was supported by a

  18. Efficacy of egg yolk and nitroglycerin ointment as treatments for acute anal fissures: A randomized clinical trial study.

    PubMed

    Salari, Masoumeh; Salari, Roshanak; Dadgarmoghadam, Maliheh; Khadem-Rezaiyan, Majid; Hosseini, Mousalreza

    2016-10-01

    Acute anal fissure as a common disease in society has several etiologies and manifestations such as severe anal pain and bleeding. Nitroglycerin ointment 0.2% is the most common topical treatment used. The most common side effect of nitroglycerin is headache, which is annoying for patients and often leads to discontinuation of the drug. Comparison of egg yolk as a natural substance with analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties and minimal side effects with nitroglycerin ointment in the treatment of acute anal fissure. This randomized clinical trial was carried out during a 10-day period in the Gastroenterology clinic of Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad, Iran (year 2015). 126 patients who filled the inclusion criteria were enrolled. The patients were randomly divided into two groups. Nitroglycerin ointment (0.2%) was applied by patients in the first group, twice daily for 10 days. For the second group, one egg yolk once a day was administered rectally up to 10 days. The pain and bleeding severity were recorded every two days up to 10 days after finishing the treatment course, based on visual scale. The results showed that egg yolk caused a significant reduction in pain and bleeding compared with nitroglycerin (p<0.05). At the beginning of the study, the difference in pain intensity between the two groups was not statistically significant (p-value = 0.25). However, it became significant in the following days. Changes in the frequency of rectorrhagia were also significant in both groups, showing a major decrease in the number of rectorrhagia cases (p<0.001). Egg yolk is more efficient than nitroglycerin in the treatment of acute anal fissure. In addition, lack of any side effects results in the completion of the treatment course by the patients. The trial was registered at the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (http://www.irct.ir) with the Irct ID: IRCT2015050718915N3. This work was supported by a grant from the Vice Chancellor of Research of Mashhad University of Medical

  19. Assessing the atmospheric and climatic effects of basaltic fissure eruptions. A case study Nornahraun, North Iceland, 2014-2015.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, Catherine; Burton, Kevin; Thordarson, Thorvaldur; Vye-Brown, Charlotte; Brown, Richard

    2015-04-01

    A volcanic eruption's ability to release sulphur gases into the atmosphere is one of the critical factors in assessing their climatic and environmental effects, because it is directly linked to the potential H2SO4 aerosol burden produced [1]. Basaltic fissure eruptions loft large amounts of sulphur into the atmosphere because of the efficient degassing of volatiles and halogens from the magma at the vent [2-4] coupled with the high sulphur yield of basaltic magma. The common nature of this style of eruption and its products, regardless of magnitude, means that our understanding of the exact processes which influence atmospheric chemistry and environmental impact is very important. The Nornahraun fissure eruption in North Iceland that began on the 31st August 2014, has quickly become one of the best documented eruptions of its kind, through systematic monitoring and sampling by the Institute of Earth Sciences eruption team and The Icelandic Meteorological Office. As a result it is an excellent modern analogue for historic or ancient basaltic fissure eruptions, for which the amount of degassing can only be estimated through petrological and geochemical methods. It also serves as a timely testing platform for novel geochemical proxies. This study uses the exceptional sensitivity of the 187Os-187Re radiogenic system to the presence of crustal material [5], and highly siderophile stable isotopes Cu, Zn and S to indicate the chemistry and degassing of the melt carrying S to the surface. The geochemical isotopic proxies will be tested using established petrological methods and gas emission data. This study concentrates on determining the following key parameters: (1) The source of volatiles in the magma indicated though the pressure dependence of S solubility. (2) The mechanism o