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Sample records for fiv zoonosis responsible

  1. Could FIV zoonosis responsible of the breakdown of the pathocenosis which has reduced the European CCR5-Delta32 allele frequencies?

    PubMed Central

    Faure, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Background In Europe, the north-south downhill cline frequency of the chemokine receptor CCR5 allele with a 32-bp deletion (CCR5-Δ32) raises interesting questions for evolutionary biologists. We had suggested first that, in the past, the European colonizers, principally Romans, might have been instrumental of a progressively decrease of the frequencies southwards. Indeed, statistical analyses suggested strong negative correlations between the allele frequency and historical parameters including the colonization dates by Mediterranean civilisations. The gene flows from colonizers to native populations were extremely low but colonizers are responsible of the spread of several diseases suggesting that the dissemination of parasites in naive populations could have induced a breakdown rupture of the fragile pathocenosis changing the balance among diseases. The new equilibrium state has been reached through a negative selection of the null allele. Results Most of the human diseases are zoonoses and cat might have been instrumental in the decrease of the allele frequency, because its diffusion through Europe was a gradual process, due principally to Romans; and that several cat zoonoses could be transmitted to man. The possible implication of a feline lentivirus (FIV) which does not use CCR5 as co-receptor is discussed. This virus can infect primate cells in vitro and induces clinical signs in macaque. Moreover, most of the historical regions with null or low frequency of CCR5-Δ32 allele coincide with historical range of the wild felid species which harbor species-specific FIVs. Conclusion We proposed the hypothesis that the actual European CCR5 allelic frequencies are the result of a negative selection due to a disease spreading. A cat zoonosis, could be the most plausible hypothesis. Future studies could provide if CCR5 can play an antimicrobial role in FIV pathogenesis. Moreover, studies of ancient DNA could provide more evidences regarding the implications of

  2. Neutralising antibody response in domestic cats immunised with a commercial feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Bęczkowski, Paweł M.; Harris, Matthew; Techakriengkrai, Navapon; Beatty, Julia A.; Willett, Brian J.; Hosie, Margaret J.

    2015-01-01

    Across human and veterinary medicine, vaccines against only two retroviral infections have been brought to market successfully, the vaccines against feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). FeLV vaccines have been a global success story, reducing virus prevalence in countries where uptake is high. In contrast, the more recent FIV vaccine was introduced in 2002 and the degree of protection afforded in the field remains to be established. However, given the similarities between FIV and HIV, field studies of FIV vaccine efficacy are likely to advise and inform the development of future approaches to HIV vaccination. Here we assessed the neutralising antibody response induced by FIV vaccination against a panel of FIV isolates, by testing blood samples collected from client-owned vaccinated Australian cats. We examined the molecular and phenotypic properties of 24 envs isolated from one vaccinated cat that we speculated might have become infected following natural exposure to FIV. Cats vaccinated against FIV did not display broadly neutralising antibodies, suggesting that protection may not extend to some virulent recombinant strains of FIV circulating in Australia. PMID:25613718

  3. Acute phase response to Mycoplasma haemofelis and 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum' infection in FIV-infected and non-FIV-infected cats.

    PubMed

    Korman, R M; Cerón, J J; Knowles, T G; Barker, E N; Eckersall, P D; Tasker, S

    2012-08-01

    The pathogenicity of Haemoplasma spp. in cats varies with 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum' (CMhm) causing subclinical infection while Mycoplasma haemofelis (Mhf) often induces haemolytic anaemia. The aims of this study were to characterise the acute phase response (APR) of the cat to experimental infection with Mhf or CMhm, and to determine whether chronic feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection influences this response. The acute phase proteins serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp) and α-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) concentrations were measured pre-infection and every 7-14 days up to day 100 post-infection (pi) in cats infected with either Mhf or CMhm. Half of each group of cats (6/12) were chronically and subclinically infected with FIV. Marbofloxacin treatment was given on days 16-44 pi to half of the Mhf-infected cats, and on days 49-77 pi to half of the CMhm-infected cats. FIV-infected animals had significantly lower AGP concentrations, and significantly greater Hp concentrations than non-FIV-infected cats when infected with CMhm and Mhf, respectively. Both CMhm and Mhf infection were associated with significant increases in SAA concentrations, while AGP concentrations were only significantly increased by Mhf infection. Mhf-infected cats had significantly greater SAA concentrations than CMhm-infected animals. Both Mhf and CMhm infections were associated with an APR, with Mhf infection inducing a greater response. Chronic FIV infection appeared to modify the APR, which varied with the infecting Haemoplasma species.

  4. Diagnosing feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection in FIV-vaccinated and FIV-unvaccinated cats using saliva.

    PubMed

    Westman, Mark E; Malik, Richard; Hall, Evelyn; Norris, Jacqueline M

    2016-06-01

    We recently showed that two immunochromatography point-of-care FIV antibody test kits (Witness FeLV/FIV and Anigen Rapid FIV/FeLV) were able to correctly assign FIV infection status, irrespective of FIV vaccination history, using whole blood as the diagnostic specimen. A third FIV antibody test kit, SNAP FIV/FeLV Combo (an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA]), was unable to differentiate antibodies produced in response to FIV vaccination from those incited by FIV infection. The aim of this study was to determine if saliva is a suitable diagnostic specimen using the same well characterized feline cohort. FIV infection status of these cats had been determined previously using a combination of serology, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing and virus isolation. This final assignment was then compared to results obtained using saliva as the diagnostic specimen utilizing the same three point-of-care FIV antibody test kits and commercially available PCR assay (FIV RealPCR). In a population of cats where one third (117/356; 33%) were FIV-vaccinated, both immunochromatography test kits accurately diagnosed FIV infection using saliva via a centrifugation method, irrespective of FIV vaccination history. For FIV diagnosis using saliva, the specificity of Anigen Rapid FIV/FeLV and Witness FeLV/FIV was 100%, while the sensitivity of these kits was 96% and 92% respectively. SNAP FIV/FeLV Combo respectively. SNAP FIV/FeLV Combo had a specificity of 98% and sensitivity of 44%, while FIV RealPCR testing had a specificity of 100% and sensitivity of 72% using saliva. A revised direct method of saliva testing was trialed on a subset of FIV-infected cats (n=14), resulting in 14, 7 and 0 FIV positive results using Anigen Rapid FIV/FeLV, Witness FeLV/FIV and SNAP FIV/FeLV Combo, respectively. These results demonstrate that saliva can be used to diagnose FIV infection, irrespective of FIV vaccination history, using either a centrifugation method (Anigen Rapid FIV/FeLV and Witness

  5. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) vaccine efficacy and FIV neutralizing antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, James K.; Pu, Ruiyu; Martin, Marcus M.; Noon-Song, Ezra N.; Zwijnenberg, Raphael; Yamamoto, Janet K.

    2013-01-01

    A HIV-1 tier system has been developed to categorize the various subtype viruses based on their sensitivity to vaccine-induced neutralizing antibodies (NAbs): tier 1 with greatest sensitivity, tier 2 being moderately sensitive, and tier 3 being the least sensitive to NAbs (Mascola et al., J Virol 2005; 79:10103-7). Here, we define an FIV tier system using two related FIV dual-subtype (A+D) vaccines: the commercially available inactivated infected-cell vaccine (Fel-O-Vax® FIV) and its prototype vaccine solely composed of inactivated whole viruses. Both vaccines afforded combined protection rates of 100% against subtype-A tier-1 FIVPet, 89% against subtype-B tier-3 FIVFC1, 61% against recombinant subtype-A/B tier-2 FIVBang, 62% against recombinant subtype-F′/C tier-3 FIVNZ1, and 40% against subtype-A tier-2 FIVUK8 in short-duration (37–41 weeks) studies. In long-duration (76–80 weeks) studies, the commercial vaccine afforded a combined protection rate of at least 46% against the tier-2 and tier-3 viruses. Notably, protection rates observed here are far better than recently reported HIV-1 vaccine trials (Sanou et al., The Open AIDS 2012; 6:246-60). Prototype vaccine protection against two tier-3 and one tier-2 viruses was more effective than commercial vaccine. Such protection did not correlate with the presence of vaccine-induced NAbs to challenge viruses. This is the first large-scale (228 laboratory cats) study characterizing short- and long-duration efficacies of dual-subtype FIV vaccines against heterologous subtype and recombinant viruses, as well as FIV tiers based on in vitro NAb analysis and in vivo passive-transfer studies. These studies demonstrate that not all vaccine protection is mediated by vaccine-induced NAbs. PMID:23800540

  6. [Investigation on cognition of zoonosis among veterinary clinical staff].

    PubMed

    Takinami, Kenji

    2005-10-01

    We conducted a survey to determine how much veterinary clinic staff, including veterinary surgeon and veterinary technicians, know about zoonosis. Response was 52.5%. All staff members knew of zoonosis. Staff members who knew what zoonosis meant accounted for 98%. Staff members trained in zoonosis accounted for 75% among veterinary surgeons and 66% among veterinary technicians. Staff members who thought that zoonosis would increase in future accounted for 92% among veterinary surgeons and 79% among veterinary technicians. Staff members who were asked by pet owners about zoonosis accounted for 87% among veterinary surgeons and 51% among veterinary technicians. Staff members who thought veterinary surgeons must report zoonosis to public health centers accounted for 96% among veterinary surgeons and 88% among veterinary technicians. Veterinary clinic staffs thus had correct knowledge and were aware of zoonosis. The network of medical staff and veterinary staff could therefore build on this result.

  7. [Perception of the zoonosis and responsible pet care by the parents from public schools kindergarten located at metropolitan region of Recife, northeast of Brazil].

    PubMed

    Lima, Ana Maria Alves; Alves, Leucio Câmara; Faustino, Maria Aparecida da Glória; Lira, Nadja Maria Silva de

    2010-06-01

    The goal of this research was to examine parents' perception of the zoonosis and responsible pet care, observing their level of knowledge and awareness about the theme. A convenience sample of 64 parents from two kindergarten schools located at Metropolitan Region of Recife, Pernambuco State, was surveyed using a perception questionnaire. Findings indicate that 71.8 % didn't know the meaning of the term zoonosis, but 16% recognize at least one type of the disease. Diseases transmitted from animals to humans were associated to the way of transmission, as physical contact between animal and man, bite wound disease, fecal contamination of water, food with cysts or eggs of nematodes, skin penetration of nematodes, and also the arthropod borne disease. The major pet health care reported was rabies vaccine (92.2%), anthelmintic therapy (76.6%), and pet care provide by a veterinarian (82.8%). However, 23.4% of the parents had some knowledge about the zoonotic infections transmitted by dogs and cats feces. The parent's awareness not only about the risks about the diseases transmitted from animals to humans but also the responsible pet care, constitute a important tool to reduce risk of zoonosis transmission.

  8. Determining the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) status of FIV-vaccinated cats using point-of-care antibody kits.

    PubMed

    Westman, Mark E; Malik, Richard; Hall, Evelyn; Sheehy, Paul A; Norris, Jacqueline M

    2015-10-01

    This study challenges the commonly held view that the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection status of FIV-vaccinated cats cannot be determined using point-of-care antibody test kits due to indistinguishable antibody production in FIV-vaccinated and naturally FIV-infected cats. The performance of three commercially available point-of-care antibody test kits was compared in a mixed population of FIV-vaccinated (n=119) and FIV-unvaccinated (n=239) cats in Australia. FIV infection status was assigned by considering the results of all antibody kits in concert with results from a commercially available PCR assay (FIV RealPCR™). Two lateral flow immunochromatography test kits (Witness FeLV/FIV; Anigen Rapid FIV/FeLV) had excellent overall sensitivity (100%; 100%) and specificity (98%; 100%) and could discern the true FIV infection status of cats, irrespective of FIV vaccination history. The lateral flow ELISA test kit (SNAP FIV/FeLV Combo) could not determine if antibodies detected were due to previous FIV vaccination, natural FIV infection, or both. The sensitivity and specificity of FIV RealPCR™ for detection of viral and proviral nucleic acid was 92% and 99%, respectively. These results will potentially change the way veterinary practitioners screen for FIV in jurisdictions where FIV vaccination is practiced, especially in shelter scenarios where the feasibility of mass screening is impacted by the cost of testing.

  9. T-lymphocyte profiles in FIV-infected wild lions and pumas reveal CD4 depletion.

    PubMed

    Roelke, M E; Pecon-Slattery, J; Taylor, S; Citino, S; Brown, E; Packer, C; Vandewoude, S; O'Brien, S J

    2006-04-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that causes feline AIDS in the domestic cat (Felis catus). Serological surveys indicate that at least 25 other species of cat possess antibodies that cross-react with domestic cat FIV. Most infected nondomestic cat species are without major symptoms of disease. Long-term studies of FIV genome variation and pathogenesis reveal patterns consistent with coadaptation of virus and host in free-ranging FIV-Ple-infected African lions (Panthera leo) and FIV-Pco-infected pumas (Puma concolor) populations. This report examined correlates of immunodeficiency in wild and captive lions and pumas by quantifying CD5(+), CD4(+), and CD8(+) T-cell subsets. Free-ranging FIV-Ple-infected lions had immunofluorescence flow cytometry (IFC) profiles marked by a dramatic decline in CD4(+) subsets, a reduction of the CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio, reduction of CD8(+)beta(high) cells, and expansion of the CD8(+)beta(low) subset relative to uninfected lions. An overall significant depletion in CD5(+) T-cells in seropositive lions was linked with a compensatory increase in total CD5(-) lymphocytes. The IFC profiles were altered significantly in 50% of the seropositive individuals examined. The FIV-Pco-infected pumas had a more generalized response of lymphopenia expressed as a significant decline in total lymphocytes, CD5(+) T-cells, and CD5(-) lymphocytes as well as a significant reduction in CD4(+) T-cells. Like lions, seropositive pumas had a significant decline in CD8(+)beta(high) cells but differed by not having compensatory expansion of CD8(+)beta(low) cells relative to controls. Results from FIV-infected lions and pumas parallel human and Asian monkey CD4(+) diminution in HIV and SIV infection, respectively, and suggest there may be unrecognized immunological consequences of FIV infection in these two species of large cats.

  10. FIV diversity: FIV Ple subtype composition may influence disease outcome in African lions.

    PubMed

    Troyer, Jennifer L; Roelke, Melody E; Jespersen, Jillian M; Baggett, Natalie; Buckley-Beason, Valerie; MacNulty, Dan; Craft, Meggan; Packer, Craig; Pecon-Slattery, Jill; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2011-10-15

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infects domestic cats and at least 20 additional species of non-domestic felids throughout the world. Strains specific to domestic cat (FIV(Fca)) produce AIDS-like disease progression, sequelae and pathology providing an informative model for HIV infection in humans. Less is known about the immunological and pathological influence of FIV in other felid species although multiple distinct strains of FIV circulate in natural populations. As in HIV-1 and HIV-2, multiple diverse cross-species infections may have occurred. In the Serengeti National Park, Tanzania, three divergent subtypes of lion FIV (FIV(Ple)) are endemic, whereby 100% of adult lions are infected with one or more of these strains. Herein, the relative distribution of these subtypes in the population are surveyed and, combined with observed differences in lion mortality due to secondary infections based on FIV(Ple) subtypes, the data suggest that FIV(Ple) subtypes may have different patterns of pathogenicity and transmissibility among wild lion populations.

  11. Pharmacological Inhibition of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV)

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Hakimeh; Bienzle, Dorothee

    2012-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a member of the retroviridae family of viruses and causes an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in domestic and non-domestic cats worldwide. Genome organization of FIV and clinical characteristics of the disease caused by the virus are similar to those of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Both viruses infect T lymphocytes, monocytes and macrophages, and their replication cycle in infected cells is analogous. Due to marked similarity in genomic organization, virus structure, virus replication and disease pathogenesis of FIV and HIV, infection of cats with FIV is a useful tool to study and develop novel drugs and vaccines for HIV. Anti-retroviral drugs studied extensively in HIV infection have targeted different steps of the virus replication cycle: (1) inhibition of virus entry into susceptible cells at the level of attachment to host cell surface receptors and co-receptors; (2) inhibition of fusion of the virus membrane with the cell membrane; (3) blockade of reverse transcription of viral genomic RNA; (4) interruption of nuclear translocation and viral DNA integration into host genomes; (5) prevention of viral transcript processing and nuclear export; and (6) inhibition of virion assembly and maturation. Despite much success of anti-retroviral therapy slowing disease progression in people, similar therapy has not been thoroughly investigated in cats. In this article we review current pharmacological approaches and novel targets for anti-lentiviral therapy, and critically assess potentially suitable applications against FIV infection in cats. PMID:22754645

  12. [Hepatitis E as zoonosis].

    PubMed

    Baumann-Popczyk, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The hepatitis E virus (HEV) the causative agent of hepatitis E, is a non-enveloped RNA virus. HEV is transmitted through oral consumption of contaminated food and water According to the currently knowledge now be considered as zoonosis. The main reservoir of HEV are pigs, boars and deer. For the first time HEV was isolated from animals (pigs) in 1997 in the U.S. Genetic analysis of strains isolated from pigs showed high similarity to strains HEV isolated from humans. This was the first evidence showing that HEV is a zoonosis. Further studies have shown that occupational groups e.g. veterinarians, swine breeders with close contact to pigs have an increased risk for HEV infections. The additional evidence supported the zoonotic potential of HEV were reports of acute hepatitis E after the consumption of undercooked meat from deer and wild boar. Infection of HEV in the domestic pig and wild boar population in Europe is widespread.

  13. Eight-year observation and comparative study of specific pathogen-free cats experimentally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) subtypes A and B: terminal acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in a cat infected with FIV petaluma strain.

    PubMed

    Kohmoto, M; Uetsuka, K; Ikeda, Y; Inoshima, Y; Shimojima, M; Sato, E; Inada, G; Toyosaki, T; Miyazawa, T; Doi, K; Mikami, T

    1998-03-01

    Three specific pathogen-free cats experimentally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) strains Petaluma, TM1 and TM2, respectively were observed for over 8 years. Without showing any significant clinical signs of immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) for 8 years and 4 months of asymptomatic phase, the Petaluma-infected cat exhibited severe stomatitis/gingivitis, anorexia, emaciation, hematological and immunological disorders such as severe anemia, lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, and decrease of CD4/CD8 ratio to 0.075, and finally died with hemoperitoneum at 8 years and 8 months post-infection. Histopathological studies revealed that the cat had systemic lymphoid atrophy and bone marrow disorders indicating acute myelocytic leukemia (aleukemic type). Plasma viral titer of the cat at AIDS phase was considerably high and anti-FIV antibody titer was slightly low as compared with the other FIV-infected cats. In addition, immunoblotting analysis using serially collected serum/plasma samples of these cats revealed that antibodies against FIV proteins were induced in all the infected cats, however in the Petaluma-infected cat anti-Gag antibodies disappeared during the asymptomatic period. These results suggested that plasma viral load and anti-FIV Gag antibody response correlated with disease progression, and supported FIV-infected cats as a suitable animal model of human AIDS.

  14. Pandemic influenza: a zoonosis?

    PubMed

    Shortridge, K F

    1992-03-01

    In the last two decades, influenza A viruses have been found to occur throughout the animal kingdom, mainly in birds, notably aquatic ones, in which infection is largely intestinal, waterborne, and asymptomatic. The domestic duck of southern China, raised in countless numbers all year round mainly as an adjunct to rice farming, is the principal host of influenza A viruses. Studies based on Hong Kong H3N2 viruses from southern China suggest that pandemic strains originate from the domestic duck there and are transmitted to humans via the domestic pig, which acts as a "mixing vessel" for two-way transmission of viruses. This provides further support for the hypothesis that the region is a hypothetical influenza epicenter. Rural dwellers in the epicenter show serological evidence of contact with non-human influenza A viruses. Two hypotheses are advanced for the range of hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes of viruses that can cause pandemics (1) circle or cycle limited to H1, H2, and H3 subtypes, thereby implying that a virus of the H2 subtype will cause the next pandemic; and (2) spiral, by which any one of the 14 HA subtypes recorded to date may be involved. Consideration is given to the temporal and geographical factors and range of hosts, namely the duck, pig, and human, that need to be submitted to virus surveillance in China and beyond to attempt to anticipate a future pandemic. Evidence is presented that points strongly to pandemic influenza being a zoonosis.

  15. [Endemic zoonosis in Mediterranean area].

    PubMed

    Fenga, Concettina; Pugliese, Michela

    2013-01-01

    The Mediterranean is historically considered an area of high concentration of zoonoses. Mediterranean countries socio-economic features have favoured, over time, the onset of different types of zoonosis. Many of these may affect many occupational categories, first of all farmers, people working in abattoirs and processing products of animal origin. New farming activities and technologies have generated new occupational and zoonotic risks. These changes have influenced zoonosis epidemiology and have led to a gradual decrease in the number of diseases and to a reduction of some biological risks. However, brucellosis, Q fever, bovine tuberculosis cystic echinococcosis remain a strong example of zoonosis and a real risk, in the Mediterranean area especially. Therefore, an interdisciplinary collaboration between Veterinary Service, Public Health and Occupational medicine is necessary in order to plan territorial prevention.

  16. Characterization of regionally associated feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) in bobcats (Lynx rufus).

    PubMed

    Lagana, Danielle M; Lee, Justin S; Lewis, Jesse S; Bevins, Sarah N; Carver, Scott; Sweanor, Linda L; McBride, Roy; McBride, Caleb; Crooks, Kevin R; VandeWoude, Sue

    2013-07-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) classically infects felid species with highly divergent species-specific FIVs. However, recent studies have detected an FIV strain infecting both bobcats (Lynx rufus) and pumas (Puma concolor) in California and Florida. To further investigate this observation, we evaluated FIV from bobcats in Florida (n=25) and Colorado (n=80) between 2008 and 2011. Partial viral sequences from five Florida bobcats cluster with previously published sequences from Florida panthers. We did not detect FIV in Colorado bobcats.

  17. Design, fabrication, and characterization of polymeric bioMEMS for the detection of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Brian; Gadre, Anand; Kaloyeros, Alain E.

    2007-02-01

    This project comprises the development of a novel polymeric BioMEMS device capable of rapidly detecting FIV in a minimally invasive manner. FIV severely inhibits the infected feline from mounting an immune response, and causes susceptibility to other types of diseases. Vaccines against FIV do exist, but have some strong limitations to their effectiveness; so early detection is the best method to combat the spread of the disease. Current testing methods look for antibodies to the FIV protein p24 in feline blood using established Enzyme Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA) protocols. The focus of this research is to design and construct a device that can detect antibodies to p24 in a salivary sample by non-intrusive electrochemical means. The device is constructed upon a silicon substrate with gold microelectrodes coated with polypyrrole (PPy), an electrically conducting and biocompatible polymer. In the current phase of the research, the PPy deposition process has been optimized with regards to film thickness, uniformity and conductivity. Microfluidic channels have been fabricated using SU-8, an epoxy based polymer that enables the test sample and other solutions to pass freely through the device. The PPy will be coated with anti-FIV p24 antibodies that can capture FIV p24 antigens present in a salivary sample. Future research will involve the analysis of PPy/antibody interaction and its effect on functionality. The capture of such antigens will interfere with a reduction-oxidation (redox) reaction in a subsequently added ionic solution. This interference will change the characteristic resistance of the solution yielding a qualitative test for the presence of the viral antigens in the sample and hence determining the occurrence of infection.

  18. Transmission of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) among cohabiting cats in two cat rescue shelters.

    PubMed

    Litster, Annette L

    2014-08-01

    Conflicting accounts have been published in the veterinary literature regarding transmission of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) between cohabiting cats in mixed households, and the mechanics of possible casual transmission, if it occurs, are poorly understood. Similarly, there are conflicting reports of vertical transmission of FIV. The aim of the present study was to document the FIV serological status of cats taken into two rescue shelters. At rescue shelter 1 (Rescue 1), cats cohabited in a multi-cat household of FIV-negative and naturally-infected, FIV-positive cats. A study was performed that combined a retrospective review of records of FIV serological status at intake (Test 1) and prospective FIV serological testing (Tests 2 and 3). Retrospective records were analyzed at rescue shelter 2 (Rescue 2), where FIV-positive queens with litters of nursing kittens were taken into the shelter, before being rehomed. FIV serology was performed on all kittens after weaning. Initial test results (Test 1) for 138 cohabiting cats from Rescue 1 showed that there were 130 FIV-negative cats and eight FIV-positive cats (six male neutered and two female spayed). A second test (Test 2), performed in 45 of the FIV-negative and five of the FIV-positive cats at median 28 months after Test 1 (range, 1 month to 8.8 years) showed that results were unchanged. Similarly, a third test (Test 3), performed in four of the original FeLV-negative cats and one remaining FIV-positive cat at median 38 months after Test 1 (range, 4 months to 4 years), also showed that results were unchanged. These results show a lack of evidence of FIV transmission, despite years of exposure to naturally-infected, FIV-positive cats in a mixed household. At Rescue 2, records were available from five FIV-positive queens with 19 kittens. All 19 kittens tested FIV-negative, suggesting that vertical transmission had not occurred.

  19. Construction and testing of orfA +/- FIV reporter viruses.

    PubMed

    Fadel, Hind J; Saenz, Dyana T; Poeschla, Eric M

    2012-01-01

    Single cycle reporter viruses that preserve the majority of the HIV-1 genome, long terminal repeat-promoted transcription and Rev-dependent structural protein expression are useful for investigating the viral life cycle. Reporter viruses that encode the viral proteins in cis in this way have been lacking for feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), where the field has used genetically minimized transfer vectors with viral proteins supplied in trans. Here we report construction and use of a panel of single cycle FIV reporter viruses that express fluorescent protein markers. The viruses can be produced to high titer using human cell transfection and can transduce diverse target cells. To illustrate utility, we tested versions that are (+) and (-) for OrfA, an FIV accessory protein required for replication in primary lymphocytes and previously implicated in down-regulation of the primary FIV entry receptor CD134. We observed CD134 down-regulation after infection with or without OrfA, and equivalent virion production as well. These results suggest a role for FIV proteins besides Env or OrfA in CD134 down-regulation.

  20. Immunomodulator expression in trophoblasts from the feline immunodeficiency virus FIV infected cat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    FIV infection frequently compromises pregnancy under experimental conditions and is accompanied by aberrant expression of some placental cytokines. Trophoblasts produce numerous immunomodulators that play a role in placental development and pregnancy maintenance. We hypothesized that FIV infection m...

  1. An initial examination of the potential role of T-cell immunity in protection against feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection

    PubMed Central

    Aranyos, Alek M.; Roff, Shannon R.; Pu, Riuyu; Owen, Jennifer L.; Coleman, James K.; Yamamoto, Janet K.

    2016-01-01

    The importance of vaccine-induced T-cell immunity in conferring protection with prototype and commercial FIV vaccines is still unclear. Current studies performed adoptive transfer of T cells from prototype FIV-vaccinated cats to partial-to-complete feline leukocyte antigen (FLA)-matched cats a day before either homologous FIVPet or heterologous-subtype pathogenic FIVFC1 challenge. Adoptive-transfer (A–T) conferred a protection rate of 87% (13 of 15, p<0.001) against FIVPet using FLA-matched T cells, whereas all 12 control cats were unprotected. Furthermore, A-T conferred protection rate of 50% (6 of 12, p<0.023) against FIVFC1 using FLA-matched T cells, whereas all 8 control cats were unprotected. Transfer of FLA-matched T and B cells demonstrated that T cells are needed to confer A-T protection. In addition, complete FLA-matching and addition of T-cell numbers >13×106 cells were required for A-T protection against FIVFC1 strain, reported to be a highly pathogenic virus resistant to vaccine-induced neutralizing-antibodies. The addition of FLA-matched B cells alone was not protective. The poor quality of the anti-FIV T-cell immunity induced by the vaccine likely contributed to the lack of protection in an FLA-matched recipient against FIVFC1. The quality of the immune response was determined by the presence of high mRNA levels of cytolysin (perforin) and cytotoxins (granzymes A, B, and H) and T helper-1 cytokines (interferon-γ [IFNγ] and IL2). Increased cytokine, cytolysin and cytotoxin production was detected in the donors which conferred protection in A-T studies. In addition, the CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell proliferation and/or IFNγ responses to FIV p24 and reverse transcriptase increased with each year in cats receiving 1X-3X vaccine boosts over 4 years. These studies demonstrate that anti-FIV T-cell immunity induced by vaccination with a dual-subtype FIV vaccine is essential for prophylactic protection against AIDS lentiviruses such as FIV and potentially HIV-1

  2. An initial examination of the potential role of T-cell immunity in protection against feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection.

    PubMed

    Aranyos, Alek M; Roff, Shannon R; Pu, Ruiyu; Owen, Jennifer L; Coleman, James K; Yamamoto, Janet K

    2016-03-14

    The importance of vaccine-induced T-cell immunity in conferring protection with prototype and commercial FIV vaccines is still unclear. Current studies performed adoptive transfer of T cells from prototype FIV-vaccinated cats to partial-to-complete feline leukocyte antigen (FLA)-matched cats a day before either homologous FIVPet or heterologous-subtype pathogenic FIVFC1 challenge. Adoptive-transfer (A-T) conferred a protection rate of 87% (13 of 15, p < 0.001) against FIVPet using the FLA-matched T cells, whereas all 12 control cats were unprotected. Furthermore, A-T conferred protection rate of 50% (6 of 12, p<0.023) against FIVFC1 using FLA-matched T cells, whereas all 8 control cats were unprotected. Transfer of FLA-matched T and B cells demonstrated that T cells are needed to confer A-T protection. In addition, complete FLA-matching and addition of T-cell numbers > 13 × 10(6) cells were required for A-T protection against FIVFC1 strain, reported to be a highly pathogenic virus resistant to vaccine-induced neutralizing-antibodies. The addition of FLA-matched B cells alone was not protective. The poor quality of the anti-FIV T-cell immunity induced by the vaccine likely contributed to the lack of protection in an FLA-matched recipient against FIVFC1. The quality of the immune response was determined by the presence of high mRNA levels of cytolysin (perforin) and cytotoxins (granzymes A, B, and H) and T helper-1 cytokines (interferon-γ [IFNγ] and IL2). Increased cytokine, cytolysin and cytotoxin production was detected in the donors which conferred protection in A-T studies. In addition, the CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell proliferation and/or IFNγ responses to FIV p24 and reverse transcriptase increased with each year in cats receiving 1X-3X vaccine boosts over 4 years. These studies demonstrate that anti-FIV T-cell immunity induced by vaccination with a dual-subtype FIV vaccine is essential for prophylactic protection against AIDS lentiviruses such as FIV and

  3. An updated nation-wide epidemiological survey of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yuki; Nakamura, Yuichi; Ura, Asami; Hirata, Momoko; Sakuma, Masato; Sakata, Yoshimi; Nishigaki, Kazuo; Tsujimoto, Hajime; Setoguchi, Asuka; Endo, Yasuyuki

    2010-08-01

    An updated nation-wide epidemiological survey of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection was conducted in Japan. Blood samples were collected from 1,770 outdoor accessing cats from March to October 2008. Serologically, 410 cats (23.2%) were positive for anti-FIV antibody. Proviral DNA of the FIV env V3-V5 region isolated from 348 cases could be phylogenetically analyzed. The present study disclosed a geographic distribution of four subtypes (A, B, C and D) of FIV in Japan. Even though an FIV vaccine was introduced in Japan, we do not currently know whether this vaccine is effective against all strains of FIV in Japan or not. Therefore, close attention still has to be paid to epidemic and genotypic trends of FIV.

  4. Cortical neuronal cytoskeletal changes associated with FIV infection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, S.; Henriksen, S. J.; Prospero-Garcia, O.; Phillips, T. R.; Elder, J. H.; Young, W. G.; Bloom, F. E.; Fox, H. S.

    1997-01-01

    HIV-1 infection is often complicated by central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction. Degenerative neuronal changes as well as neuronal loss have been documented in individuals with AIDS. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection of cats provides a model for both the immune and the central nervous system manifestations of HIV infection of humans. In this study we have examined neurons in the frontal cortex of feline immunodeficiency virus-infected cats and controls for immunoreactivity with SMI 32, an antibody recognizing a non-phosphorylated epitope on neurofilaments. We noted a significant increase in the number of immunoreactive pyramidal cells in infected animals compared to controls. The changes seen in the neuronal cytoskeleton as a consequence of the inoculation with FIV were similar to those seen in humans undergoing the normal aging process as well as those suffering from neurological diseases, including Alzheimer's and dementia pugilistica. The changes we noted in the feline brain were also similar to that reported in animals with traumatic injuries or with spontaneously occurring or induced motor neuron diseases, suggesting that the increase in reactivity represents a deleterious effect of FIV on the central nervous system.

  5. Identification of three feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) env gene subtypes and comparison of the FIV and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 evolutionary patterns.

    PubMed Central

    Sodora, D L; Shpaer, E G; Kitchell, B E; Dow, S W; Hoover, E A; Mullins, J I

    1994-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus associated with AIDS-like illnesses in cats. As such, FIV appears to be a feline analog of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). A hallmark of HIV infection is the large degree of viral genetic diversity that can develop within an infected individual and the even greater and continually increasing level of diversity among virus isolates from different individuals. Our goal in this study was to determine patterns of FIV genetic diversity by focusing on a 684-nucleotide region encompassing variable regions V3, V4, and V5 of the FIV env gene in order to establish parallels and distinctions between FIV and HIV type 1 (HIV-1). Our data demonstrate that, like HIV-1, FIV can be separated into distinct envelope sequence subtypes (three are described here). Similar to that found for HIV-1, the pairwise sequence divergence within an FIV subtype ranged from 2.5 to 15.0%, whereas that between subtypes ranged from 17.8 to 26.2%. However, the high number of synonymous nucleotide changes among FIV V3 to V5 env sequences may also include a significant number of back mutations and suggests that the evolutionary distances among FIV subtypes are underestimated. Although only a few subtype B viruses were available for examination, the pattern of diversity between the FIV A and B subtypes was found to be significantly distinct; subtype B sequences had proportionally fewer mutations that changed amino acids, compared with silent changes, suggesting a more advanced state of adaptation to the host. No similar distinction was evident for HIV-1 subtypes. The diversity of FIV genomes within individual infected cats was found to be as high as 3.7% yet twofold lower than that within HIV-1-infected people over a comparable region of the env gene. Despite these differences, significant parallels between patterns of FIV evolution and HIV-1 evolution exist, indicating that a wide array of potentially divergent virus challenges need to be considered

  6. Structural basis for drug and substrate specificity exhibited by FIV encoding a chimeric FIV/HIV protease

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Ying-Chuan; Perryman, Alexander L.; Olson, Arthur J.; Torbett, Bruce E.; Elder, John H.; Stout, C. David

    2011-06-01

    Crystal structures of the 6s-98S FIV protease chimera with darunavir and lopinavir bound have been determined at 1.7 and 1.8 Å resolution, respectively. A chimeric feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) protease (PR) has been engineered that supports infectivity but confers sensitivity to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) PR inhibitors darunavir (DRV) and lopinavir (LPV). The 6s-98S PR has five replacements mimicking homologous residues in HIV PR and a sixth which mutated from Pro to Ser during selection. Crystal structures of the 6s-98S FIV PR chimera with DRV and LPV bound have been determined at 1.7 and 1.8 Å resolution, respectively. The structures reveal the role of a flexible 90s loop and residue 98 in supporting Gag processing and infectivity and the roles of residue 37 in the active site and residues 55, 57 and 59 in the flap in conferring the ability to specifically recognize HIV PR drugs. Specifically, Ile37Val preserves tertiary structure but prevents steric clashes with DRV and LPV. Asn55Met and Val59Ile induce a distinct kink in the flap and a new hydrogen bond to DRV. Ile98Pro→Ser and Pro100Asn increase 90s loop flexibility, Gln99Val contributes hydrophobic contacts to DRV and LPV, and Pro100Asn forms compensatory hydrogen bonds. The chimeric PR exhibits a comparable number of hydrogen bonds, electrostatic interactions and hydrophobic contacts with DRV and LPV as in the corresponding HIV PR complexes, consistent with IC{sub 50} values in the nanomolar range.

  7. European bat lyssaviruses: an emerging zoonosis.

    PubMed Central

    Fooks, A. R.; Brookes, S. M.; Johnson, N.; McElhinney, L. M.; Hutson, A. M.

    2003-01-01

    In Europe, two bat lyssaviruses referred to as European bat lyssaviruses (EBLVs) types 1 and 2 (genotypes 5 and 6 respectively) which are closely related to classical rabies virus are responsible for an emerging zoonosis. EBLVs are host restricted to bats, and have been known to infect not only their primary hosts but also in rare circumstances, induce spillover infections to terrestrial mammals including domestic livestock, wildlife and man. Although spillover infections have occurred, there has been no evidence that the virus adapted to a new host. Since 1977, four human deaths from EBLVs have been reported. None of them had a record of prophylactic rabies immunization. Only fragmentary data exist about the effectiveness of current vaccines in cross-protection against EBLVs. It is clear that EBLV in bats cannot be eliminated using conventional strategies similar to the control programmes based on vaccine baits used for fox rabies in Europe during the 1980s. Due to the protected status of bats in Europe, our knowledge of EBLV prevalence and epidemiology is limited. It is possible that EBLV is under-reported and that the recorded cases of EBLV represent only a small proportion of the actual number of infected bats. For this reason, any interaction between man and bats in Europe must be considered as a possible exposure. Human exposure through biting incidents, especially unprovoked attacks, should be treated immediately with rabies post-exposure treatment and the bat, where possible, retained for laboratory analysis. Preventative measures include educating all bat handlers of the risks posed by rabies-infected animals and advising them to be immunized. This review provides a brief history of EBLVs, their distribution in host species and the public health risks. PMID:14959767

  8. Disseminated Mycobacterium genavense infection in a FIV-positive cat.

    PubMed

    Hughes, M S; Ball, N W; Love, D N; Canfield, P J; Wigney, D I; Dawson, D; Davis, P E; Malik, R

    1999-03-01

    An 8-year-old FIV-positive Australian cat was presented with coughing, periocular alopecia, pyrexia and inappetence. Skin scrapings demonstrated Demodex cati mites. Antibiotics were administered and it was treated successfully for periocular demodectic mange, but the cat continued to exhibit respiratory signs and lose weight. Further investigation revealed an ascarid infection and active chronic inflammation of undetected cause affecting the lower airways. Repetitive treatment with pyrantel failed to eradicate the ascarid infection. The cat became cachectic and developed moist ulcerative dermatitis of the neck, severe non-regenerative anaemia, leucopenia and thrombocytopenia. Necropsy and histopathology revealed mycobacteriosis affecting skin, lungs, spleen, lymph nodes, liver and kidney. Attempted culture of frozen tissues at a mycobacteria reference laboratory was unsuccessful. Paraffin-embedded, formalin-fixed tissue was retrieved and examined using PCR to amplify part of the 16S rRNA gene. A diagnosis of disseminated Mycobacterium genavense infection was made based on the presence of acid fast bacteria in many tissues and partial sequence of the 16S rRNA gene. Although M genavense has been identified previously as a cause of disseminated disease in AIDS patients, this is the first report of infection in a cat. It was suspected that the demodecosis, recurrent ascarid infections and disseminated M genavense infection resulted from an immune deficiency syndrome consequent to longstanding FIV infection.

  9. Single aromatic residue location alters nucleic acid binding and chaperone function of FIV nucleocapsid protein

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hao; Wang, Wei; Naiyer, Nada; Fichtenbaum, Eric; Qualley, Dominic F.; McCauley, Micah J.; Gorelick, Robert J.; Rouzina, Ioulia; Musier-Forsyth, Karin; Williams, Mark C.

    2014-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a retrovirus that infects domestic cats, and is an excellent animal model for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) pathogenesis. The nucleocapsid (NC) protein is critical for replication in both retroviruses. FIV NC has several structural features that differ from HIV-1 NC. While both NC proteins have a single conserved aromatic residue in each of the two zinc fingers, the aromatic residue on the second finger of FIV NC is located on the opposite C-terminal side relative to its location in HIV-1 NC. In addition, whereas HIV-1 NC has a highly charged cationic N-terminal tail and a relatively short C-terminal extension, the opposite is true for FIV NC. To probe the impact of these differences on the nucleic acid (NA) binding and chaperone properties of FIV NC, we carried out ensemble and single-molecule assays with wild-type (WT) and mutant proteins. The ensemble studies show that FIV NC binding to DNA is strongly electrostatic, with a higher effective charge than that observed for HIV-1 NC. The C-terminal basic domain contributes significantly to the NA binding capability of FIV NC. In addition, the non-electrostatic component of DNA binding is much weaker for FIV NC than for HIV-1 NC. Mutation of both aromatic residues in the zinc fingers to Ala (F12A/W44A) further increases the effective charge of FIV NC and reduces its non-electrostatic binding affinity. Interestingly, switching the location of the C-terminal aromatic residue to mimic the HIV-1 NC sequence (N31W/W44A) reduces the effective charge of FIV NC and increases its non-electrostatic binding affinity to values similar to HIV-1 NC. Consistent with the results of these ensemble studies, single-molecule DNA stretching studies show that while WT FIV NC has reduced stacking capability relative to HIV-1 NC, the aromatic switch mutant recovers the ability to intercalate between the DNA bases. Our results demonstrate that altering the position of a single aromatic

  10. CD4(+)CD25(+) T regulatory cells inhibit CD8(+) IFN-gamma production during acute and chronic FIV infection utilizing a membrane TGF-beta-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Fogle, Jonathan E; Mexas, Angela M; Tompkins, Wayne A; Tompkins, Mary B

    2010-02-01

    CD8(+) lymphocytes are critical to the control and elimination of viral pathogens. Impaired CD8(+) responses are well recognized in lentiviral infections; however, the mechanisms underlying CD8(+) impairment remain elusive. Using the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) model for human AIDS, we reported previously that CD4(+)CD25(+) Treg cells in both the acute and long-term, asymptomatic phase of infection are constitutively activated and suppress CD4(+)CD25(-) T cell responses. In the current study, we have demonstrated that CD4(+)CD25(+) Treg cells suppress CD8(+) responses to immune stimulation during both the acute and chronic, asymptomatic phase of FIV infection and that the mechanism of suppression may be mediated by membrane-associated TGF-beta (mTGF-beta) on CD4(+)CD25(+) lymphocytes. Depletion of CD4(+)CD25(+) lymphocytes from lymph node suspensions significantly enhanced production of IFN-gamma during the acute phase of infection and coculture of CD8(+) lymphocytes with CD4(+)CD25(+) lymphocytes resulted in suppression of CD8(+) IFN-gamma during both the acute and chronic stages of infection. FACS analysis indicated that there was TGF-betaRII upregulation on CD8(+) cells from FIV(+) cats during the acute and chronic stage of infection. In addition, there was upregulation of mTGF-beta on the CD4(+)CD25(+) subset in chronically infected cats. In support of activation of the TGF-beta signaling pathway, Western blotting showed Smad 2 phosphorylation in CD8(+) targets following CD4(+)CD25(+)/CD8(+) coculture. These results demonstrate the suppressive effect CD4(+)CD25(+) Treg cells have on the CD8(+) immune response during the acute and chronic stages of FIV infection and suggest that the mechanism of suppression may be mediated by mTGF-beta.

  11. CD4+CD25+ T Regulatory Cells Inhibit CD8+ IFN-γ Production During Acute and Chronic FIV Infection Utilizing a Membrane TGF-β-Dependent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Fogle, Jonathan E.; Mexas, Angela M.; Tompkins, Wayne A.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract CD8+ lymphocytes are critical to the control and elimination of viral pathogens. Impaired CD8+ responses are well recognized in lentiviral infections; however, the mechanisms underlying CD8+ impairment remain elusive. Using the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) model for human AIDS, we reported previously that CD4+CD25+ Treg cells in both the acute and long-term, asymptomatic phase of infection are constitutively activated and suppress CD4+CD25– T cell responses. In the current study, we have demonstrated that CD4+CD25+ Treg cells suppress CD8+ responses to immune stimulation during both the acute and chronic, asymptomatic phase of FIV infection and that the mechanism of suppression may be mediated by membrane-associated TGF-β (mTGF-β) on CD4+CD25+ lymphocytes. Depletion of CD4+CD25+ lymphocytes from lymph node suspensions significantly enhanced production of IFN-γ during the acute phase of infection and coculture of CD8+ lymphocytes with CD4+CD25+ lymphocytes resulted in suppression of CD8+ IFN-γ during both the acute and chronic stages of infection. FACS analysis indicated that there was TGF-βRII upregulation on CD8+ cells from FIV+ cats during the acute and chronic stage of infection. In addition, there was upregulation of mTGF-β on the CD4+CD25+ subset in chronically infected cats. In support of activation of the TGF-β signaling pathway, Western blotting showed Smad 2 phosphorylation in CD8+ targets following CD4+CD25+/CD8+ coculture. These results demonstrate the suppressive effect CD4+CD25+ Treg cells have on the CD8+ immune response during the acute and chronic stages of FIV infection and suggest that the mechanism of suppression may be mediated by mTGF-β. PMID:20156102

  12. Immunomodulator expression in trophoblasts from the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-infected cat

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background FIV infection frequently compromises pregnancy under experimental conditions and is accompanied by aberrant expression of some placental cytokines. Trophoblasts produce numerous immunomodulators that play a role in placental development and pregnancy maintenance. We hypothesized that FIV infection may cause dysregulation of trophoblast immunomodulator expression, and aberrant expression of these molecules may potentiate inflammation and compromise pregnancy. The purpose of this project was to evaluate the expression of representative pro-(TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-12p35, IL-12p40, IL-18, and GM-CSF) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10); CD134, a secondary co-stimulatory molecule expressed on activated T cells (FIV primary receptor); the chemokine receptor CXCR4 (FIV co-receptor); SDF-1α, the chemokine ligand to CXCR4; and FIV gag in trophoblasts from early-and late-term pregnancy. Methods We used an anti-cytokeratin antibody in immunohistochemistry to identify trophoblasts selectively, collected these cells using laser capture microdissection, and extracted total RNA from the captured cell populations. Real time, reverse transcription-PCR was used to quantify gene expression. Results We detected IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-1β, IL-12p35, IL-12p40, and CXCR4 in trophoblasts from early-and late-term pregnancy. Expression of cytokines increased from early to late pregnancy in normal tissues. A clear, pro-inflammatory microenvironment was not evident in trophoblasts from FIV-infected queens at either stage of pregnancy. Reproductive failure was accompanied by down-regulation of both pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines. CD134 was not detected in trophoblasts, and FIV gag was detected in only one of ten trophoblast specimens collected from FIV-infected queens. Conclusion Feline trophoblasts express an array of pro-and anti-inflammatory immunomodulators whose expression increases from early to late pregnancy in normal tissues. Non

  13. Placental immunopathology and pregnancy failure in the FIV-infected cat.

    PubMed

    Weaver, C C; Burgess, S C; Nelson, P D; Wilkinson, M; Ryan, P L; Nail, C A; Kelly-Quagliana, K A; May, M L; Reeves, R K; Boyle, C R; Coats, K S

    2005-01-01

    Placental HIV infections frequently result in infected babies or miscarriage. Aberrant placental cytokine expression during HIV infections may facilitate transplacental viral transmission or pregnancy perturbation. The feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-infected cat is a model for HIV infections due to similarities in biology and clinical disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate placental immunomodulator expression and reproductive outcome using the FIV-infected cat model. Kittens were cesarean delivered from FIV-B-2542-infected and control queens near term; placental and fetal tissues were collected. Real-time RT-PCR was used to measure expression of representative placental Th1 cytokines, interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), a Th2 cytokine, IL-10, and chemokine receptor CXCR4. On average, control queens delivered 3.8 kittens/litter; 1 of 31 kittens (3.2%) was non-viable. FIV-infected queens produced 2.7 kittens/litter; 15 of 25 concepti (60%) were non-viable. FIV was detected in 14 of 15 placentas (93%) and 21 of 22 fetuses (95%) using PCR. Placental immunomodulator expression did not differ significantly when placentas from infected cats were compared to those of control cats. However, elevated expression of Th1 cytokines and increased Th1/Th2 ratios (IL-1beta/IL-10) occurred in placentas from resorptions. Therefore, increased placental Th1 cytokine expression was associated with pregnancy failure in the FIV-infected cat.

  14. Does coinfection of Bartonella henselae and FIV induce clinical disorders in cats?

    PubMed

    Ueno, H; Hohdatsu, T; Muramatsu, Y; Koyama, H; Morita, C

    1996-01-01

    It was found that Bartonella henselae (B. henselae) may induce clinical disorders in cats in natural conditions from a comparison of the serological status for B. henselae with the serostatus for feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and several clinical characteristics in 170 domestic cats. Seropositivity for B. henselae was not significantly different between FIV antibody-positive and -negative cats (18.4% vs 16.0%). The incidence of clinical characteristics were compared among four cat groups distinguished by the reactivity of sera against B. henselae and FIV. The incidence of lymph node swelling was lower in only FIV antibody-positive cats (3.0%), but higher in B. henselae antibody-positive cats (13.6%) and significantly higher in both B. henselae and FIV antibody-positive cats (42.9%) compared with the incidence of lymph node swelling in cats which were negative for both antibodies (5.5%). The same relation was also observed for the incidence of gingivitis among the 4 cat groups, suggesting that coinfection of B. henselae and FIV may be associated with gingivitis and lymphadenopathy in cats.

  15. Lyme borreliosis: A neglected zoonosis in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Elhelw, Rehab A; El-Enbaawy, Mona I; Samir, Ahmed

    2014-12-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the causal organism of Lyme borreliosis. In Egypt, available data about the occurrence of Lyme disease are scarce and no structured studies documented the presence of Lyme borreliosis in Egyptian animals and tick reservoirs verifying its zoonotic evidence. Besides, no successful trials to isolate B. burgdorferi from clinical samples have occurred. This study was conducted to investigate B. burgdorferi infection as an emerging zoonosis neglected in Egypt. A total number of 92 animals, tick and human companion specimens were collected and subjected for culture, PCR and/or serodetection. B. burgdorferi has been detected and isolated from Egyptian animal breeds. We also detected the presence of outer surface protein A gene of B. burgdorferi by PCR as well as anti-B. burgdorferi IgM by ELISA in human contacts who were suffering from fever of unknown origin. This report represents the first systematic study on animals associated with patients suffering from febrile illness to confirm the emerging of such neglected zoonosis in Egypt.

  16. Human sparganosis, a neglected food borne zoonosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Quan; Li, Ming-Wei; Wang, Ze-Dong; Zhao, Guang-Hui; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2015-10-01

    Human sparganosis is a food borne zoonosis caused by the plerocercoid larvae (spargana) of various diphyllobothroid tapeworms of the genus Spirometra. Human infections are acquired by ingesting the raw or undercooked meat of snakes or frogs, drinking untreated water, or using raw flesh in traditional poultices. More than 1600 cases of sparganosis have been documented worldwide, mostly in east and southeast Asia. Sporadic cases have been reported in South America, Europe, and Africa, and several cases have been described in travellers returning from endemic regions. Epidemiological data suggest that the increased effect of sparganosis on human health is because of greater consumption of raw meat of freshwater frogs and snakes. This Review provides information about the Spirometra parasites and their lifecycles, summarises clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of human sparganosis, and describes geographical distribution and infection characteristics of Spirometra parasites in host animals.

  17. The virus–receptor interaction in the replication of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)☆

    PubMed Central

    Willett, Brian J; Hosie, Margaret J

    2013-01-01

    The feline and human immunodeficiency viruses (FIV and HIV) target helper T cells selectively, and in doing so they induce a profound immune dysfunction. The primary determinant of HIV cell tropism is the expression pattern of the primary viral receptor CD4 and co-receptor(s), such as CXCR4 and CCR5. FIV employs a distinct strategy to target helper T cells; a high affinity interaction with CD134 (OX40) is followed by binding of the virus to its sole co-receptor, CXCR4. Recent studies have demonstrated that the way in which FIV interacts with its primary receptor, CD134, alters as infection progresses, changing the cell tropism of the virus. This review examines the contribution of the virus–receptor interaction to replication in vivo as well as the significance of these findings to the development of vaccines and therapeutics. PMID:23992667

  18. Contrasting clinical outcomes in two cohorts of cats naturally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)

    PubMed Central

    Bęczkowski, Paweł M.; Litster, Annette; Lin, Tsang Long; Mellor, Dominic J.; Willett, Brian J.; Hosie, Margaret J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite over 25 years of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) research, relatively little is known about the longitudinal course of FIV infection following natural infection. In contrast to published reports of experimental infections using lethal strains of the virus, clinical signs of naturally acquired FIV infection can be mild or inapparent, rather than life-threatening. In this prospective, longitudinal controlled study, based in Chicago, IL (n = 17) and Memphis, TN (n = 27), we investigated two cohorts of privately owned, naturally infected cats kept under different housing conditions. Cats in the Chicago cohort (Group 1) were kept in households of ≤2 cats, while the Memphis cohort (Group 2) comprised part of a large multi-cat household of over 60 cats kept indoors only, with unrestricted access to one another. The majority of cats from Group 1 did not display clinical signs consistent with immunodeficiency during the 22-month observation period. In contrast, the outcome of infection in Group 2 was dramatically different; 17/27 (63%) of cats lost a median of 51.3% of their bodyweight (P < 0.0005) and died during the study period, with lymphoma being the most common cause of mortality. Although the decrease in CD4+ T cell count between enrolment and terminal disease was significant (P = 0.0017), the CD4:CD8 ratio at the time of enrolment did not reliably distinguish FIV-positive cats classified as ‘healthy’ and ‘not healthy’ at either cohort. FIV load at enrolment was significantly lower in Group 1 than in Group 2 (P < 0.0001), but there were no significant differences at enrolment between healthy and not healthy cats at either group. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that management and housing conditions impact on disease progression and survival times of FIV-positive cats. PMID:25595267

  19. Prevalence of feline calicivirus, feline leukaemia virus and antibodies to FIV in cats with chronic stomatitis.

    PubMed

    Knowles, J O; Gaskell, R M; Gaskell, C J; Harvey, C E; Lutz, H

    1989-04-01

    The prevalence of feline calicivirus (FCV), feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) antibodies were assessed in 78 British and 18 North American household cats with chronic stomatitis and in appropriate controls. In British cats, FCV was significantly (P less than 0.005) more prevalent in both hospital (92 per cent) and general practice (79 per cent) cases compared to their controls (19 per cent in both cases). A similar difference in prevalence of FCV was noted in North American cats where 50 per cent of cases were positive compared to 0 per cent of controls (P less than 0.01). FeLV prevalence was low in all chronic stomatitis populations. A significantly higher prevalence of antibody to FIV was found in British hospital cases (81 per cent) compared with time-matched controls (16 per cent) (P less than 0.001): a similar rate was found in the general practice cases (75 per cent) for which no controls were available. In the North American sample, FIV antibody status was similar in cases (54 per cent positive) and their age, sex and breed matched controls (50 per cent). The possible role of FCV and FIV in the pathogenesis of feline chronic stomatitis is discussed.

  20. PATHOLOGICAL MANIFESTATIONS OF FELINE IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS (FIV) INFECTION IN WILD AFRICAN LIONS

    PubMed Central

    Roelke, Melody E.; Brown, Meredith A.; Troyer, Jennifer L.; Winterbach, Hanlie; Winterbach, Christiaan; Hemson, Graham; Smith, Dahlem; Johnson, Randall C.; Pecon-Slattery, Jill; Roca, Alfred L.; Alexander, Katherine; Klein, Lin; Martinelli, Paulo; Krishnasamu, Karthiuani; O'Brien, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) causes AIDS in the domestic cat (Felis catus) but has not been explicitly associated with AIDS pathology in any of the eight free-ranging species of Felidae that are endemic with circulating FIV strains. African lion (Panthera leo) populations are infected with lion-specific FIV strains (FIVple), yet there remains uncertainty about the degree to which FIV infection impacts their health. Reported CD4+ T-lymphocyte depletion in FIVple infected lions and anecdotal reports of lion morbidity associated with FIV sero-prevalence emphasize the concern as to whether FIVple is innocuous or pathogenic. Here we monitored clinical, biochemical, histological and serological parameters among FIVple-positive (N=47) as compared to FIVple negative (N=17) lions anesthetized and sampled on multiple occasions between 1999 and 2006 in Botswana. Relative to uninfected lions, FIVple infected lions displayed a significant elevation in the prevalence of AIDS defining conditions: lymphandenopathy, gingivitis, tongue papillomas, dehydration, and poor coat condition, as well as displaying abnormal red blood cell parameters and elevated liver enzymes and serum proteins. Spleen and lymph node laparoscopic biopsies from free-ranging FIVple infected lions (N=8) revealed evidence of lymphoid depletion, the hallmark pathology documented in immunodefieciency virus infections of humans (HIV-1), macaques, and domestic cats. We conclude that over time FIVple infections in free-ranging lions can lead to adverse clinical, immunological, and pathological outcomes in some individuals that parallel sequelae caused by lentivirus infection in humans (HIV), Asian macaques (SIV) and domestic cats (FIVfca). PMID:19464039

  1. Pathological manifestations of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection in wild African lions.

    PubMed

    Roelke, Melody E; Brown, Meredith A; Troyer, Jennifer L; Winterbach, Hanlie; Winterbach, Christiaan; Hemson, Graham; Smith, Dahlem; Johnson, Randall C; Pecon-Slattery, Jill; Roca, Alfred L; Alexander, Kathleen A; Klein, Lin; Martelli, Paolo; Krishnasamy, Karthiyani; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2009-07-20

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) causes AIDS in the domestic cat (Felis catus) but has not been explicitly associated with AIDS pathology in any of the eight free-ranging species of Felidae that are endemic with circulating FIV strains. African lion (Panthera leo) populations are infected with lion-specific FIV strains (FIVple), yet there remains uncertainty about the degree to which FIV infection impacts their health. Reported CD4+ T-lymphocyte depletion in FIVple-infected lions and anecdotal reports of lion morbidity associated with FIV seroprevalence emphasize the concern as to whether FIVple is innocuous or pathogenic. Here we monitored clinical, biochemical, histological and serological parameters among FIVple-positive (N=47) as compared to FIVple-negative (N=17) lions anesthetized and sampled on multiple occasions between 1999 and 2006 in Botswana. Relative to uninfected lions, FIVple-infected lions displayed a significant elevation in the prevalence of AIDS-defining conditions: lymphadenopathy, gingivitis, tongue papillomas, dehydration, and poor coat condition, as well as displaying abnormal red blood cell parameters, depressed serum albumin, and elevated liver enzymes and gamma globulin. Spleen and lymph node biopsies from free-ranging FIVple-infected lions (N=9) revealed evidence of lymphoid depletion, the hallmark pathology documented in immunodeficiency virus infections of humans (HIV-1), macaques, and domestic cats. We conclude that over time FIVple infections in free-ranging lions can lead to adverse clinical, immunological, and pathological outcomes in some individuals that parallel sequelae caused by lentivirus infection in humans (HIV), Asian macaques (SIV) and domestic cats (FIVfca).

  2. Oral Recombinant Feline Interferon-Omega as an alternative immune modulation therapy in FIV positive cats: clinical and laboratory evaluation.

    PubMed

    Gil, S; Leal, R O; McGahie, D; Sepúlveda, N; Duarte, A; Niza, M M R E; Tavares, L

    2014-02-01

    Recombinant-Feline Interferon-Omega (rFeIFN-ω) is an immune-modulator licensed for use subcutaneously in Feline Immunodeficiency virus (FIV) therapy. Despite oral protocols have been suggested, little is known about such use in FIV-infected cats. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical improvement, laboratory findings, concurrent viral excretion and acute phase proteins (APPs) in naturally FIV-infected cats under oral rFeIFN-ω therapy (0.1 MU/cat rFeIFN-ω PO, SID, 90 days). 11 FIV-positive cats were treated with oral rFeIFN-ω (PO Group). Results were compared to previous data from 7 FIV-positive cats treated with the subcutaneous licensed protocol (SC Group). Initial clinical scores were similar in both groups. Independently of the protocol, rFeIFN-ω induced a significant clinical improvement of treated cats. Concurrent viral excretion and APP's variation were not significant in the PO Group. Oral rFeIFN-ω can be an effective alternative therapy for FIV-infected cats, being also an option for treatment follow-up in cats submitted to the licensed protocol.

  3. Burkholderia pseudomallei: A potential zoonosis in the southeastern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, is an underreported zoonosis in many countries where environmental conditions may be favorable for B. pseudomallei. This soil saprophyte is most often detected in tropical areas such as Southeast Asia and Northern Australia where the cas...

  4. Ancylostoma ceylanicum, a re-emerging but neglected parasitic zoonosis.

    PubMed

    Traub, Rebecca J

    2013-11-01

    Although Ancylostoma ceylanicum is known to be an endemic and widely distributed hookworm of dogs and cats in Asia, its contribution to human morbidity as a potentially zoonotic hookworm remains largely unexplored. Since its discovery by Lane (1913) as a 'new parasite' of humans a century ago, the hookworm has been regarded as a 'rare' and 'abnormal' parasite and largely overlooked in surveys of human parasites. Recent molecular-based surveys in Asia, however, have demonstrated that A. ceylanicum is the second most common hookworm species infecting humans, comprising between 6% and 23% of total patent hookworm infections. In experimentally induced infections, A. ceylanicum mimics the clinical picture produced by the anthroponotic hookworms of 'ground itch' and moderate to severe abdominal pain in the acute phase. Natural infections with A. ceylanicum in humans have been reported in almost all geographical areas in which the hookworm is known to be endemic in dogs and cats, however for the majority of reports, no clinical data are available. Much like the anthroponotic hookworm species, patent A. ceylanicum adults can isolate within the jejunum to produce chronic infections that on occasion, may occur in high enough burdens to produce anaemia. In addition, the hookworm can act much like Ancylostoma caninum and be found lower in the gastrointestinal tract leading to abdominal distension and pain, diarrhoea and occult blood in the faeces accompanied by peripheral eosinophilia. Whether A. ceylanicum is capable of producing both classical hookworm disease and evoking morbidity through an uncontrolled allergic response in some individuals remains unascertained. Future investigations combining the use of molecular diagnostic tools with clinical and pathological data will shed further light on its role as a human pathogen. The control of this zoonosis necessitates an integrated and inter-sectorial "One Health" approach be adopted in communities where large numbers of dogs

  5. Renal Alterations in Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV)-Infected Cats: A Natural Model of Lentivirus-Induced Renal Disease Changes

    PubMed Central

    Poli, Alessandro; Tozon, Natasa; Guidi, Grazia; Pistello, Mauro

    2012-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is associated with several renal syndromes including acute and chronic renal failures, but the underlying pathogenic mechanisms are unclear. HIV and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) share numerous biological and pathological features, including renal alterations. We investigated and compared the morphological changes of renal tissue of 51 experimentally and 21 naturally infected cats. Compared to the latter, the experimentally infected cats exhibited some mesangial widening and glomerulonephritis, milder proteinuria, and lower tubular and interstitial alterations. The numbers of giant protein tubular casts and tubular microcysts were also lower. In contrast, diffuse interstitial infiltrates and glomerular and interstitial amyloidosis were detected only in naturally infected cats. Similar alterations are found in HIV infected patients, thus supporting the idea of a causative role of FIV infection in renal disease, and underlining the relevance of the FIV and its natural host as an animal model for investigating lentivirus-associated nephropathy. PMID:23170163

  6. Assessing the risk of an emerging zoonosis of worldwide concern: anisakiasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Miguel; Pierce, Graham J.; Pascual, Santiago; González-Muñoz, Miguel; Mattiucci, Simonetta; Mladineo, Ivona; Cipriani, Paolo; Bušelić, Ivana; Strachan, Norval J. C.

    2017-03-01

    Anisakiasis is an emerging zoonosis caused by the fish parasitic nematode Anisakis. Spain appears to have the highest reported incidence in Europe and marinated anchovies are recognised as the main food vehicle. Using data on fishery landings, fish infection rates and consumption habits of the Spanish population from questionnaires, we developed a quantitative risk assessment (QRA) model for the anchovy value chain. Spaniards were estimated to consume on average 0.66 Anisakis per untreated (non-frozen) raw or marinated anchovy meal. A dose-response relationship was generated and the probability of anisakiasis was calculated to be 9.56 × 10‑5 per meal, and the number of annual anisakiasis cases requiring medical attention was predicted between 7,700 and 8,320. Monte Carlo simulations estimated post-mortem migration of Anisakis from viscera to flesh increases the disease burden by >1000% whilst an education campaign to freeze anchovy before consumption may reduce cases by 80%. However, most of the questionnaire respondents who ate untreated meals knew how to prevent Anisakis infection. The QRA suggests that previously reported figures of 500 anisakiasis per year in Europe is a considerable underestimate. The QRA tool can be used by policy makers and informs industry, health professionals and consumers about this underdiagnosed zoonosis.

  7. Assessing the risk of an emerging zoonosis of worldwide concern: anisakiasis

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Miguel; Pierce, Graham J.; Pascual, Santiago; González-Muñoz, Miguel; Mattiucci, Simonetta; Mladineo, Ivona; Cipriani, Paolo; Bušelić, Ivana; Strachan, Norval J. C.

    2017-01-01

    Anisakiasis is an emerging zoonosis caused by the fish parasitic nematode Anisakis. Spain appears to have the highest reported incidence in Europe and marinated anchovies are recognised as the main food vehicle. Using data on fishery landings, fish infection rates and consumption habits of the Spanish population from questionnaires, we developed a quantitative risk assessment (QRA) model for the anchovy value chain. Spaniards were estimated to consume on average 0.66 Anisakis per untreated (non-frozen) raw or marinated anchovy meal. A dose-response relationship was generated and the probability of anisakiasis was calculated to be 9.56 × 10−5 per meal, and the number of annual anisakiasis cases requiring medical attention was predicted between 7,700 and 8,320. Monte Carlo simulations estimated post-mortem migration of Anisakis from viscera to flesh increases the disease burden by >1000% whilst an education campaign to freeze anchovy before consumption may reduce cases by 80%. However, most of the questionnaire respondents who ate untreated meals knew how to prevent Anisakis infection. The QRA suggests that previously reported figures of 500 anisakiasis per year in Europe is a considerable underestimate. The QRA tool can be used by policy makers and informs industry, health professionals and consumers about this underdiagnosed zoonosis. PMID:28287609

  8. Pulmonary cryptococcosis and Capillaria aerophila infection in an FIV-positive cat.

    PubMed

    Barrs, V R; Martin, P; Nicoll, R G; Beatty, J A; Malik, R

    2000-03-01

    A 12-year-old, FIV-positive, domestic longhair cat was presented with a history of sneezing and coughing during the previous seven months. On thoracic radiographs, a prominent bronchial pattern and three focal, opacified nodules were seen. Cytology of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid demonstrated spherical, capsulate, narrow-necked, budding yeasts within macrophages. Culture of the fluid yielded a heavy growth of Cryptococcus neoformans var neoformans. The serum latex cryptococcal antigen agglutination test titre was 158. The cat was treated with itraconazole and the cough resolved over a 5-month period but then recurred. Repeat thoracic radiographs showed resolution of the pulmonary nodules but a persistent bronchial pattern. Adult nematodes and ova with morphology characteristic of Capillaria aerophila were seen in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and no yeasts were cultured from the fluid. The cryptococcal titre was zero. The lungworm infection was treated successfully with abamectin and the cough resolved. Immunosuppression related to FIV infection may have predisposed this cat to sequential respiratory tract infections.

  9. Modulation of the virus-receptor interaction by mutations in the V5 loop of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) following in vivo escape from neutralising antibody

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In the acute phase of infection with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), the virus targets activated CD4+ T cells by utilising CD134 (OX40) as a primary attachment receptor and CXCR4 as a co-receptor. The nature of the virus-receptor interaction varies between isolates; strains such as GL8 and CPGammer recognise a "complex" determinant on CD134 formed by cysteine-rich domains (CRDs) 1 and 2 of the molecule while strains such as PPR and B2542 require a more "simple" determinant comprising CRD1 only for infection. These differences in receptor recognition manifest as variations in sensitivity to receptor antagonists. In this study, we ask whether the nature of the virus-receptor interaction evolves in vivo. Results Following infection with a homogeneous viral population derived from a pathogenic molecular clone, a quasispecies emerged comprising variants with distinct sensitivities to neutralising antibody and displaying evidence of conversion from a "complex" to a "simple" interaction with CD134. Escape from neutralising antibody was mediated primarily by length and sequence polymorphisms in the V5 region of Env, and these alterations in V5 modulated the virus-receptor interaction as indicated by altered sensitivities to antagonism by both anti-CD134 antibody and soluble CD134. Conclusions The FIV-receptor interaction evolves under the selective pressure of the host humoral immune response, and the V5 loop contributes to the virus-receptor interaction. Our data are consistent with a model whereby viruses with distinct biological properties are present in early versus late infection and with a shift from a "complex" to a "simple" interaction with CD134 with time post-infection. PMID:20420700

  10. Evaluation of a novel nested PCR for the routine diagnosis of feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV).

    PubMed

    Arjona, Alvaro; Barquero, Nuria; Doménech, Ana; Tejerizo, German; Collado, Victorio M; Toural, Cristina; Martín, Daniel; Gomez-Lucia, Esperanza

    2007-02-01

    Laboratory diagnosis of feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) usually involves both viruses, as the clinical signs are similar and coinfection may occur. Serological methods may not represent an accurate diagnosis: maternal antibodies or cross-reactions may give false positive results to FIV, and false negative results may occur in latent FeLV status, or in certain FIV infection stages. A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique was designed to detect FeLV, FIV and feline endogenous retrovirus simultaneously. The detection of endogenous sequences was considered indicative of successful DNA extraction. The technique was used to diagnose FIV and FeLV in the blood cells of 179 cats. The kappa value with the serological data was 0.69 for FeLV and 0.87 for FIV. The joint detection of FeLV and FIV by this novel nested PCR is sensitive, specific, fast and convenient, and its applicability for clinical diagnosis is promising, as the direct evidence of the presence of the virus is more realistic than the indirect data provided by the serological detection.

  11. Restrictions to cross species transmission of lentiviral infection gleaned from studies of FIV

    PubMed Central

    Troyer, Jennifer; Poss, Mary

    2009-01-01

    More than 40 species of primates and over 20 species of cats harbor antibodies that sero-react to lentiviral antigens. In nearly all cases where viral genetic analysis has been conducted, each host species is infected with a unique lentivirus. Though lentivirus clades within a species can be substantially divergent, they are typically monophyletic within that species. A notable significant departure from this observation is apparent cross-species transmission of FIV between bobcats (Lynx rufus) and pumas (Puma concolor) in southern California that has occurred at least three times; evidence from one bobcat sequence suggests this cross-over may have also occurred in Florida between bobcats and the endangered Florida panther. Several other isolated reports demonstrate cross-species transmission of FIV isolates among captive animals housed in close proximity, and it is well established that HIV-1 and HIV-2 arose from human contact with SIV-infected nonhuman primates. Using an experimental model, we have determined that domestic cats (Felis catus) are susceptible to FIVs originating from pumas or lions. While infections are initially replicative, and animals seroconvert, within a relatively short period of time circulating virus is reduced to nearly undetectable levels in a majority of animals. This diminution of viral load is proportional to initial viral peak. Although viral reservoirs can be identified in gastrointestinal tissues, most viral genomes recovered peripherally are highly mutated, suggesting that the non-adapted host successfully inhibits normal viral replication, leading to replication incompetent viral progeny. Mechanisms possible for such restriction of cross-species infections in natural settings include: 1. Lack of contact conducive to lentiviral transmission between infected and shedding animals of different species; 2. Lack of suitable receptor repertoire to allow viral entry to susceptible cells of a new species; 3. Cellular machinery in the new

  12. Restrictions to cross-species transmission of lentiviral infection gleaned from studies of FIV.

    PubMed

    VandeWoude, Sue; Troyer, Jennifer; Poss, Mary

    2010-03-15

    More than 40 species of primates and over 20 species of cats harbor antibodies that sero-react to lentiviral antigens. In nearly all cases where viral genetic analysis has been conducted, each host species is infected with a unique lentivirus. Though lentivirus clades within a species can be substantially divergent, they are typically monophyletic within that species. A notable significant departure from this observation is apparent cross-species transmission of FIV between bobcats (Lynx rufus) and pumas (Puma concolor) in Southern California that has occurred at least three times; evidence from one bobcat sequence suggests this cross-over may have also occurred in Florida between bobcats and the endangered Florida panther. Several other isolated reports demonstrate cross-species transmission of FIV isolates among captive animals housed in close proximity, and it is well established that HIV-1 and HIV-2 arose from human contact with SIV-infected non-human primates. Using an experimental model, we have determined that domestic cats (Felis catus) are susceptible to FIVs originating from pumas or lions. While infections are initially replicative, and animals seroconvert, within a relatively short period of time circulating virus is reduced to nearly undetectable levels in a majority of animals. This diminution of viral load is proportional to initial viral peak. Although viral reservoirs can be identified in gastrointestinal tissues, most viral genomes recovered peripherally are highly mutated, suggesting that the non-adapted host successfully inhibits normal viral replication, leading to replication incompetent viral progeny. Mechanisms possible for such restriction of cross-species infections in natural settings include: (1) Lack of contact conducive to lentiviral transmission between infected and shedding animals of different species; (2) Lack of suitable receptor repertoire to allow viral entry to susceptible cells of a new species; (3) Cellular machinery in the

  13. Plasmodium knowlesi: from severe zoonosis to animal model.

    PubMed

    Cox-Singh, Janet; Culleton, Richard

    2015-06-01

    Plasmodium knowlesi malaria is a newly described zoonosis in Southeast Asia. Similarly to Plasmodium falciparum, P. knowlesi can reach high parasitaemia in the human host and both species cause severe and fatal illness. Interpretation of host-parasite interactions in studies of P. knowlesi malaria adds a counterpoint to studies on P. falciparum. However, there is no model system for testing the resulting hypotheses on malaria pathophysiology or for developing new interventions. Plasmodium knowlesi is amenable to genetic manipulation in vitro and several nonhuman primate species are susceptible to experimental infection. Here, we make a case for drawing on P. knowlesi as both a human pathogen and an experimental model to lift the roadblock between malaria research and its translation into human health benefits.

  14. A diffusive SI model with Allee effect and application to FIV.

    PubMed

    Hilker, Frank M; Langlais, Michel; Petrovskii, Sergei V; Malchow, Horst

    2007-03-01

    A minimal reaction-diffusion model for the spatiotemporal spread of an infectious disease is considered. The model is motivated by the Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) which causes AIDS in cat populations. Because the infected period is long compared with the lifespan, the model incorporates the host population growth. Two different types are considered: logistic growth and growth with a strong Allee effect. In the model with logistic growth, the introduced disease propagates in form of a travelling infection wave with a constant asymptotic rate of spread. In the model with Allee effect the spatiotemporal dynamics are more complicated and the disease has considerable impact on the host population spread. Most importantly, there are waves of extinction, which arise when the disease is introduced in the wake of the invading host population. These waves of extinction destabilize locally stable endemic coexistence states. Moreover, spatially restricted epidemics are possible as well as travelling infection pulses that correspond either to fatal epidemics with succeeding host population extinction or to epidemics with recovery of the host population. Generally, the Allee effect induces minimum viable population sizes and critical spatial lengths of the initial distribution. The local stability analysis yields bistability and the phenomenon of transient epidemics within the regime of disease-induced extinction. Sustained oscillations do not exist.

  15. [Anisakidosis a marine parasitic zoonosis: unknown or emerging in Peru?].

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Rufino; Del Pilar, María; Altamirano, Trillo

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to show the experimental studies carried out on the biological cycle, culture, pathogenicity of the anisakidae nematode larvae and to disseminate the information regarding current epidemy and the probable emergence of anisakidosis in Peru, and in addition, to propose measures of prevention and control, as well as the perspective and need for investigation. The studies of experimental pathogenicity in cats, dos, and hamsters are incomplete. Eight cases of acute human anisakidosis have been reported (5 confirmed and 3 unconfirmed). It is probable that it emerges during the "El Niño" Weather Phenomenon; however, during normal conditions it is probably due to the increase of raw fish consumption and other factors. In the coast of Peru, five and four fishes of direct human consumption are parasited by the Anisakis simplex and Anisakis physeteris larva, respectively, and two fishes are parasited by the Pseudoterranova decipiens. The main host for the Anisakis simplex is the dolphin (Delphinus delphia), but the Contracaecum osculatum is hosted by the sea lion: Otaria byronia and Arctocephalus australis, P. decipiens parasita a O. byronia. Eviscerating the fish would be most adequate prevention method to lessen the risk of human infection. There is evidence that anisakidosis is an underestimated zoonosis in Peru, and that it is probably and emerging disease. Therefore, its presence is to be suspected in patients with the prototype clinical syndrome.

  16. Using Dynamic Stochastic Modelling to Estimate Population Risk Factors in Infectious Disease: The Example of FIV in 15 Cat Populations

    PubMed Central

    Fouchet, David; Leblanc, Guillaume; Sauvage, Frank; Guiserix, Micheline; Poulet, Hervé; Pontier, Dominique

    2009-01-01

    Background In natural cat populations, Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) is transmitted through bites between individuals. Factors such as the density of cats within the population or the sex-ratio can have potentially strong effects on the frequency of fight between individuals and hence appear as important population risk factors for FIV. Methodology/Principal Findings To study such population risk factors, we present data on FIV prevalence in 15 cat populations in northeastern France. We investigate five key social factors of cat populations; the density of cats, the sex-ratio, the number of males and the mean age of males and females within the population. We overcome the problem of dependence in the infective status data using sexually-structured dynamic stochastic models. Only the age of males and females had an effect (p = 0.043 and p = 0.02, respectively) on the male-to-female transmission rate. Due to multiple tests, it is even likely that these effects are, in reality, not significant. Finally we show that, in our study area, the data can be explained by a very simple model that does not invoke any risk factor. Conclusion Our conclusion is that, in host-parasite systems in general, fluctuations due to stochasticity in the transmission process are naturally very large and may alone explain a larger part of the variability in observed disease prevalence between populations than previously expected. Finally, we determined confidence intervals for the simple model parameters that can be used to further aid in management of the disease. PMID:19888418

  17. Serological survey of Toxoplasma gondii, Dirofilaria immitis, Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) and Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) infections in pet cats in Bangkok and vicinities, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sukhumavasi, Woraporn; Bellosa, Mary L; Lucio-Forster, Araceli; Liotta, Janice L; Lee, Alice C Y; Pornmingmas, Pitcha; Chungpivat, Sudchit; Mohammed, Hussni O; Lorentzen, Leif; Dubey, J P; Bowman, Dwight D

    2012-08-13

    The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, Dirofilaria immitis (heartworm), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infections was examined using serum or plasma samples from 746 pet cats collected between May and July 2009 from clinics and hospitals located in and around Bangkok, Thailand. The samples were tested for heartworm, FIV, and FeLV using a commercial ELISA. Of the 746 samples, 4.6% (34/746) were positive for heartworm antigen, 24.5% (183/746) had circulating FeLV antigen, and 20.1% (150/746) had antibodies against FIV. In addition, the first 348 submitted samples were tested for T. gondii antibodies using a modified agglutination test (MAT, cut off 1:25); 10.1% (35/348) were seropositive. Of the 348 cats sampled for all four pathogens, 11, 10, and 1 were positive for T. gondii antibodies and FIV antibodies, FeLV antigen, or D. immitis antigen, respectively. Of the 35 T. gondii-seropositive cats, 42.9% (15/35) were co-infected with at least one of the other three pathogens. The presence of antibodies to FIV was significantly associated with both age and gender, while FeLV antigen presence was only associated with age. In the case of FIV, males were twice as likely to be infected as females, and cats over 10 years of age were 13.5 times more likely to be infected than cats less than 1 year of age. FeLV antigen was more common in younger cats, with cats over 10 years of age being 10 times less likely to be FeLV positive than cats under 1 year of age. This is the first survey for these four pathogens affecting feline health in Thailand.

  18. Coinfection of Leishmania chagasi with Toxoplasma gondii, Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) and Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) in cats from an endemic area of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Sobrinho, Ludmila Silva Vicente; Rossi, Cláudio Nazaretian; Vides, Juliana Peloi; Braga, Eveline Tozzi; Gomes, Ana Amélia Domingues; de Lima, Valéria Marçal Félix; Perri, Sílvia Helena Venturoli; Generoso, Diego; Langoni, Hélio; Leutenegger, Christian; Biondo, Alexander Welker; Laurenti, Márcia Dalastra; Marcondes, Mary

    2012-06-08

    The aim of the present study was to determine the coinfection of Leishmania sp. with Toxoplasma gondii, Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) and Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) in a population of cats from an endemic area for zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis. An overall 66/302 (21.85%) cats were found positive for Leishmania sp., with infection determined by direct parasitological examination in 30/302 (9.93%), by serology in 46/302 (15.23%) and by both in 10/302 (3.31%) cats. Real time PCR followed by amplicon sequencing successfully confirmed Leishmania infantum (syn Leishmania chagasi) infection. Out of the Leishmania infected cats, coinfection with FIV was observed in 12/66 (18.18%), with T. gondii in 17/66 (25.75%) and with both agents in 5/66 (7.58%) cats. FeLV was found only in a single adult cat with no Leishmania infection. A positive association was observed in coinfection of Leishmania and FIV (p<0.0001), but not with T. gondii (p>0.05). In conclusion, cats living in endemic areas of visceral leishmaniasis are significantly more likely to be coinfected with FIV, which may present confounding clinical signs and therefore cats in such areas should be always carefully screened for coinfections.

  19. Serological survey of Toxoplasma gondii, Dirofilaria immitis, Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) and Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) infections in pet cats in Bangkok and vicinities, Thailand

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, Dirofilaria immitis (heartworm), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infections was examined using serum or plasma samples from 746 pet cats collected between May and July 2009 from clinics and hospitals located in and around ...

  20. Viral Reservoirs in Lymph Nodes of FIV-Infected Progressor and Long-Term Non-Progressor Cats during the Asymptomatic Phase

    PubMed Central

    Eckstrand, C. D.; Hillman, C.; Smith, A. L.; Sparger, E. E.; Murphy, B. G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Examination of a cohort of cats experimentally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) for 5.75 years revealed detectable proviral DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) harvested during the asymptomatic phase, undetectable plasma viral RNA (FIV gag), and rarely detectable cell-associated viral RNA. Despite apparent viral latency in peripheral CD4+ T cells, circulating CD4+ T cell numbers progressively declined in progressor animals. The aim of this study was to explore this dichotomy of peripheral blood viral latency in the face of progressive immunopathology. The viral replication status, cellular immunophenotypes, and histopathologic features were compared between popliteal lymph nodes (PLNs) and peripheral blood. Also, we identified and further characterized one of the FIV-infected cats identified as a long-term non-progressor (LTNP). Results PLN-derived leukocytes from FIV-infected cats during the chronic asymptomatic phase demonstrated active viral gag transcription and FIV protein translation as determined by real-time RT-PCR, Western blot and in situ immunohistochemistry, whereas viral RNA in blood leukocytes was either undetectable or intermittently detectable and viral protein was not detected. Active transcription of viral RNA was detectable in PLN-derived CD4+ and CD21+ leukocytes. Replication competent provirus was reactivated ex vivo from PLN-derived leukocytes from three of four FIV-infected cats. Progressor cats showed a persistent and dramatically decreased proportion and absolute count of CD4+ T cells in blood, and a decreased proportion of CD4+ T cells in PLNs. A single long-term non-progressor (LTNP) cat persistently demonstrated an absolute peripheral blood CD4+ T cell count indistinguishable from uninfected animals, a lower proviral load in unfractionated blood and PLN leukocytes, and very low amounts of viral RNA in the PLN. Conclusion Collectively our data indicates that PLNs harbor important reservoirs of

  1. Transcriptional profiling of the host cell response to feline immunodeficiency virus infection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a widespread pathogen of the domestic cat and an important animal model for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) research. In contrast to HIV, only limited information is available on the transcriptional host cell response to FIV infections. This study aims to identify FIV-induced gene expression changes in feline T-cells during the early phase of the infection. Illumina RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) was used identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) at 24 h after FIV infection. Results After removal of low-quality reads, the remaining sequencing data were mapped against the cat genome and the numbers of mapping reads were counted for each gene. Regulated genes were identified through the comparison of FIV and mock-infected data sets. After statistical analysis and the removal of genes with insufficient coverage, we detected a total of 69 significantly DEGs (44 up- and 25 down-regulated genes) upon FIV infection. The results obtained by RNA-seq were validated by reverse transcription qPCR analysis for 10 genes. Discussion and conclusion Out of the most distinct DEGs identified in this study, several genes are already known to interact with HIV in humans, indicating comparable effects of both viruses on the host cell gene expression and furthermore, highlighting the importance of FIV as a model system for HIV. In addition, a set of new genes not previously linked to virus infections could be identified. The provided list of virus-induced genes may represent useful information for future studies focusing on the molecular mechanisms of virus-host interactions in FIV pathogenesis. PMID:24642186

  2. Current knowledge and pending challenges in zoonosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis: a review.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Lago, Laura; Navarro, Yurena; García-de-Viedma, Darío

    2014-10-01

    Mycobacterium bovis is both the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (TB) and a zoonotic pathogen. In humans, considerably fewer cases of TB are caused by M. bovis than M. tuberculosis; nevertheless, diagnostic limitations mean that currently available data on prevalence grossly underestimate the true dimension of the problem. The routes of transmission from animals to humans are well known and include direct exposure to infected animals or consumption of contaminated animal products. Application of fingerprinting tools facilitates analysis of the molecular epidemiology of M. bovis in animal-to-human and human-to-human transmission. Apart from cattle and M. bovis, other animal species and members within the M. tuberculosis complex can contribute to the zoonosis. Improvements in diagnostic techniques, application of more advanced discriminatory genotyping tools, and collaboration between veterinary and human health care researchers are key to our understanding of this zoonosis.

  3. Reverse zoonosis of influenza to swine: new perspectives on the human-animal interface.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Martha I; Vincent, Amy L

    2015-03-01

    The origins of the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic in swine are unknown, highlighting gaps in our understanding of influenza A virus (IAV) ecology and evolution. We review how recently strengthened influenza virus surveillance in pigs has revealed that influenza virus transmission from humans to swine is far more frequent than swine-to-human zoonosis, and is central in seeding swine globally with new viral diversity. The scale of global human-to-swine transmission represents the largest 'reverse zoonosis' of a pathogen documented to date. Overcoming the bias towards perceiving swine as sources of human viruses, rather than recipients, is key to understanding how the bidirectional nature of the human-animal interface produces influenza threats to both hosts.

  4. Seroprevalence of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) in shelter cats on the island of Newfoundland, Canada.

    PubMed

    Munro, Hannah J; Berghuis, Lesley; Lang, Andrew S; Rogers, Laura; Whitney, Hugh

    2014-04-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) are retroviruses found within domestic and wild cat populations. These viruses cause severe illnesses that eventually lead to death. Housing cats communally for long periods of time makes shelters at high risk for virus transmission among cats. We tested 548 cats from 5 different sites across the island of Newfoundland for FIV and FeLV. The overall seroprevalence was 2.2% and 6.2% for FIV and FeLV, respectively. Two sites had significantly higher seroprevalence of FeLV infection than the other 3 sites. Analysis of sequences from the FeLV env gene (envelope gene) from 6 positive cats showed that 4 fell within the FeLV subtype-A, while 2 sequences were most closely related to FeLV subtype-B and endogenous feline leukemia virus (en FeLV). Varying seroprevalence and the variation in sequences at different sites demonstrate that some shelters are at greater risk of FeLV infections and recombination can occur at sites of high seroprevalence.

  5. An investigation into the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, Bartonella spp., feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) in cats in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tiao, N; Darrington, C; Molla, B; Saville, W J A; Tilahun, G; Kwok, O C H; Gebreyes, W A; Lappin, M R; Jones, J L; Dubey, J P

    2013-05-01

    Toxoplasma gondii and Bartonella spp. are zoonotic pathogens of cats. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) are immunosuppressive viruses of cats that can affect T. gondii oocyst shedding. In this study, the prevalence of antibodies to T. gondii, Bartonella spp., FIV, as well as FeLV antigens were determined in sera from feral cats (Felis catus) from Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Using the modified agglutination test, IgG antibodies to T. gondii were found in 41 (85.4%) of the 48 cats with titres of 1:25 in one, 1:50 in one, 1:200 in six, 1:400 in six, 1:800 in six, 1:1600 in eight, and 1:3200 in 13 cats. Toxoplasma gondii IgM antibodies were found in 11/46 cats tested by ELISA, suggesting recent infection. Antibodies to Bartonella spp. were found in five (11%) of 46 cats tested. Antibodies to FIV or FeLV antigen were not detected in any of the 41 cats tested. The results indicate a high prevalence of T. gondii and a low prevalence of Bartonella spp. infection in cats in Ethiopia.

  6. Structure of FIV capsid C-terminal domain demonstrates lentiviral evasion of genetic fragility by coevolved substitutions

    PubMed Central

    Khwaja, Aya; Galilee, Meytal; Marx, Ailie; Alian, Akram

    2016-01-01

    Viruses use a strategy of high mutational rates to adapt to environmental and therapeutic pressures, circumventing the deleterious effects of random single-point mutations by coevolved compensatory mutations, which restore protein fold, function or interactions damaged by initial ones. This mechanism has been identified as contributing to drug resistance in the HIV-1 Gag polyprotein and especially its capsid proteolytic product, which forms the viral capsid core and plays multifaceted roles in the viral life cycle. Here, we determined the X-ray crystal structure of C-terminal domain of the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) capsid and through interspecies analysis elucidate the structural basis of co-evolutionarily and spatially correlated substitutions in capsid sequences, which when otherwise uncoupled and individually substituted into HIV-1 capsid impair virion assembly and infectivity. The ability to circumvent the deleterious effects of single amino acid substitutions by cooperative secondary substitutions allows mutational flexibility that may afford viruses an important survival advantage. The potential of such interspecies structural analysis for preempting viral resistance by identifying such alternative but functionally equivalent patterns is discussed. PMID:27102180

  7. Listeriosis in animals, its public health significance (food-borne zoonosis) and advances in diagnosis and control: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Dhama, Kuldeep; Karthik, Kumaragurubaran; Tiwari, Ruchi; Shabbir, Muhammad Zubair; Barbuddhe, Sukhadeo; Malik, Satya Veer Singh; Singh, Raj Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Listeriosis is an infectious and fatal disease of animals, birds, fish, crustaceans and humans. It is an important food-borne zoonosis caused by Listeria monocytogenes, an intracellular pathogen with unique potential to spread from cell to cell, thereby crossing blood-brain, intestinal and placental barriers. The organism possesses a pile of virulence factors that help to infect the host and evade from host immune machinery. Though disease occurrence is sporadic throughout the world, it can result in severe damage during an outbreak. Listeriosis is characterized by septicaemia, encephalitis, meningitis, meningoencephalitis, abortion, stillbirth, perinatal infections and gastroenteritis with the incubation period varying with the form of infection. L. monocytogenes has been isolated worldwide from humans, animals, poultry, environmental sources like soil, river, decaying plants, and food sources like milk, meat and their products, seafood and vegetables. Since appropriate vaccines are not available and infection is mainly transmitted through foods in humans and animals, hygienic practices can prevent its spread. The present review describes etiology, epidemiology, transmission, clinical signs, post-mortem lesions, pathogenesis, public health significance, and advances in diagnosis, vaccines and treatment of this disease. Special attention has been given to novel as well as prospective emerging therapies that include bacteriophage and cytokine therapy, avian egg yolk antibodies and herbal therapy. Various vaccines, including advances in recombinant and DNA vaccines and their modes of eliciting immune response, are also discussed. Due focus has also been given regarding appropriate prevention and control strategies to be adapted for better management of this zoonotic disease.

  8. Prediction and prevention of the next pandemic zoonosis

    PubMed Central

    Morse, Stephen S; Mazet, Jonna A K; Woolhouse, Mark; Parrish, Colin R; Carroll, Dennis; Karesh, William B; Zambrana-Torrelio, Carlos; Lipkin, W Ian; Daszak, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Most pandemics—eg, HIV/AIDS, severe acute respiratory syndrome, pandemic influenza—originate in animals, are caused by viruses, and are driven to emerge by ecological, behavioural, or socioeconomic changes. Despite their substantial effects on global public health and growing understanding of the process by which they emerge, no pandemic has been predicted before infecting human beings. We review what is known about the pathogens that emerge, the hosts that they originate in, and the factors that drive their emergence. We discuss challenges to their control and new efforts to predict pandemics, target surveillance to the most crucial interfaces, and identify prevention strategies. New mathematical modelling, diagnostic, communications, and informatics technologies can identify and report hitherto unknown microbes in other species, and thus new risk assessment approaches are needed to identify microbes most likely to cause human disease. We lay out a series of research and surveillance opportunities and goals that could help to overcome these challenges and move the global pandemic strategy from response to pre-emption. PMID:23200504

  9. [Current situation of the most frequent zoonosis in the world].

    PubMed

    Flores Castro, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Zoonoses are at the present time more important than ever due to their magnitude and impact. The international trade in animals, products and sub products, as well as the intense travel of people around the world, represent risks of dissemination of infectious diseases, and are the reason for a new age of emerging and reemerging zoonotic diseases. Under these conditions, public health and animal health authorities are obliged to work together in order to get more efficient control programs. In this paper the actual situation of some important emerging and reemerging zoonoses is analyzed, including: anthrax, rabies, tuberculosis, brucellosis, cysticercosis, echinococcosis, hanta virus, Hendra and Nipah virus. Particular attention is given to leptospirosis, due to the fact that it is considered by WHO and OIE as the widest spread zoonotic disease in the world. Zoonoses caused by ingestion of animal food products are discussed. They are responsible for the death of almost 2.2 million people. Bacteria of genus salmonella and campylobacter are considered. Some recommendations are given for the control and prevention of zoonoses, emphasizing the "One Health" concept.

  10. Toxoplasma gondii, Dirofilaria immitis, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infections in stray and pet cats (Felis catus) in northwest China: co-infections and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Cong, Wei; Meng, Qing-Feng; Blaga, Radu; Villena, Isabelle; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Qian, Ai-Dong

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, Dirofilaria immitis, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infections among stray and pet cats in Lanzhou, northwest China, and to identify the influence of age, gender, and regions on seropositivity. T. gondii antibodies were examined in cat sera by the modified agglutination test (MAT). The circulating antigens of D. immitis and FeLV and specific antibodies to FIV were examined using kits commercially available. The overall prevalence of T. gondii, FIV, FeLV, and D. immitis was 19.34, 9.12, 11.33, and 3.04 %, respectively. For the genetic characterization of T. gondii genotypes in cats, genomic DNA was extracted from the seropositive cats and the T. gondii B1 gene was amplified using a semi-nested PCR. DNA samples giving positive B1 amplification were then genotyped using multilocus PCR-RFLP. Two T. gondii genotypes (ToxoDB#9 and ToxoDB#1) were identified. Results of the multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that older cats are more likely to be seropositive than juveniles for T. gondii, FIV, FeLV, and D. immitis. This is the first report of T. gondii genotypes in cats in northwest China. Moreover, the present study is the first study of retrovirus and D. immitis seroprevalence in cats in China. The results revealed that T. gondii, FIV, and FeLV infections are common in stray and pet cats in northwest China.

  11. AIDS as a zoonosis? Confusion over the origin of the virus and the origin of the epidemics.

    PubMed

    Marx, Preston A; Apetrei, Cristian; Drucker, Ernest

    2004-10-01

    Based on findings demonstrating the simian ancestry of HIV, AIDS has been reported to be a zoonosis. However, this theory has never been proved and must seriously be questioned. Several arguments show that HIV-AIDS is not a zoonosis. (i) If AIDS were a zoonosis, there must be evidence of AIDS being directly acquired from an animal species, as is rabies, a disease that is directly acquired from animals. (ii) Despite long-term and frequent human exposure to SIV-infected monkeys in Africa, only 11 cross-species transmission events are known, and only four of these have resulted in significant human-to-human transmission, generating HIV-1 groups M and O and HIV-2 groups A and B. The closest relatives of SIVcpz (HIV-1 group N) and of SIVsm (HIV-2 groups C-H) are extremely rare, with only six HIV-1 group N-infected patients and only single individuals known to be infected by HIV-2 groups C-H. SIV, while capable of cross-species transmission, is thus poorly adapted for disease and epidemic spread. If AIDS were a zoonosis that is capable of significant human-to-human spread, there would be a plethora of founder subtypes and groups. (iii) Human exposure to SIV is thousands of years old, but AIDS emerged only in the 20th century. If AIDS were a zoonosis that spread into the human population, it would have spread to the West during slave trade. (iv) Experimental transmission of SIVs to different species of monkeys is often well controlled by the new host, showing that the virus and not the disease is transmitted. Therefore, we conclude that cross-species transmission of SIV does not in itself constitute the basis for a zoonosis. Transmission per se is not the major requirement for the generation of the AIDS epidemic. All HIVs do derive from simian species, but AIDS does not qualify as a zoonosis and this explanation cannot in itself account for the origin of AIDS epidemic. It is important to distinguish AIDS from true zoonoses (e.g. rabies) because research is needed to

  12. [Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) as reservoir of parasites and source of zoonosis].

    PubMed

    Okulewicz, Anna; Hildebrand, Joanna; Okulewicz, Jerzy; Perec, Agnieszka

    2005-01-01

    Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) as reservoir of parasites and source of zoonosis. This review presents data from Europe and Poland on the prevalence of helminth and protozoan parasites in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes). The most common nematodes were geohelminths: Uncinaria stenocephala, Toxocara canis and Toxocara leonina. As concerning Trichinella genus T. britovi was found more often than T. spiralis. Among tapeworms the following species were recorded: Mesocestoides lineatus, Taenia sp., and Echinococcus multilocularis. Detected cases of E. multilocularis together with an increase of fox population during last few years create a potential human risk of infection. The results of many studies indicate rare presence of trematodes (Alaria alata) and protozoan parasites (Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Leishmania spp., Eimeria spp.) in red foxes.

  13. Therapeutic effects of recombinant feline interferon-omega on feline leukemia virus (FeLV)-infected and FeLV/feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-coinfected symptomatic cats.

    PubMed

    de Mari, Karine; Maynard, Laurence; Sanquer, Annaelle; Lebreux, Bernard; Eun, Hyone-Myong

    2004-01-01

    The clinical efficacy of a recombinant feline interferon, rFeIFN-omega, was evaluated for the treatment of cats presented with clinical signs associated with feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infection and FeLV/feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) coinfection in the field. In this multicentric, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 81 cats meeting the inclusion criteria were randomly placed into 2 groups and treated subcutaneously with rFelFN-omega (1 million [M]U/kg per day) or placebo once daily for 5 consecutive days in 3 series (day 0, 14, 60). The cats were monitored for up to 1 year for clinical signs and mortality. During the initial 4-month period, interferon (IFN)-treated cats (n = 39) had significantly reduced clinical scores compared with placebo (n = 42), with all cats having received concomitant supportive therapies. Compared with the control, the IFN-treated group showed significantly lower rates of mortality: 39% versus 59% (1.7-fold higher risk of death for controls) at the 9-month time point and 47% versus 59% (1.4-fold higher risk of death for controls) at the 12-month time point. The IFN treatment was associated with minor but consistent improvement in abnormal hematologic parameters (red blood cell count, packed cell volume, and white blood cell count), apparently underlying the positive effects of IFN on clinical parameters. These data demonstrate that rFeIFN-omega initially has statistically significant therapeutic effects on clinical signs and later on survival of cats with clinical signs associated with FeLV infection and FeLV/FIV coinfection.

  14. Novel highly divergent reassortant bat rotaviruses in Cameroon, without evidence of zoonosis

    PubMed Central

    Yinda, Claude Kwe; Zeller, Mark; Conceição-Neto, Nádia; Maes, Piet; Deboutte, Ward; Beller, Leen; Heylen, Elisabeth; Ghogomu, Stephen Mbigha; Van Ranst, Marc; Matthijnssens, Jelle

    2016-01-01

    Bats are an important reservoir for zoonotic viruses. To date, only three RVA strains have been reported in bats in Kenya and China. In the current study we investigated the genetic diversity of RVAs in fecal samples from 87 straw-colored fruit bats living in close contact with humans in Cameroon using viral metagenomics. Five (near) complete RVA genomes were obtained. A single RVA strain showed a partial relationship with the Kenyan bat RVA strain, whereas the other strains were completely novel. Only the VP7 and VP4 genes showed significant variability, indicating the occurrence of frequent reassortment events. Comparing these bat RVA strains with currently used human RVA screening primers indicated that most of the novel VP7 and VP4 segments would not be detected in routine epidemiological screening studies. Therefore, novel consensus screening primers were developed and used to screen samples from infants with gastroenteritis living in close proximity with the studied bat population. Although RVA infections were identified in 36% of the infants, there was no evidence of zoonosis. This study identified multiple novel bat RVA strains, but further epidemiological studies in humans will have to assess if these viruses have the potential to cause gastroenteritis in humans. PMID:27666390

  15. Plasmodium knowlesi transmission: integrating quantitative approaches from epidemiology and ecology to understand malaria as a zoonosis.

    PubMed

    Brock, P M; Fornace, K M; Parmiter, M; Cox, J; Drakeley, C J; Ferguson, H M; Kao, R R

    2016-04-01

    The public health threat posed by zoonotic Plasmodium knowlesi appears to be growing: it is increasingly reported across South East Asia, and is the leading cause of malaria in Malaysian Borneo. Plasmodium knowlesi threatens progress towards malaria elimination as aspects of its transmission, such as spillover from wildlife reservoirs and reliance on outdoor-biting vectors, may limit the effectiveness of conventional methods of malaria control. The development of new quantitative approaches that address the ecological complexity of P. knowlesi, particularly through a focus on its primary reservoir hosts, will be required to control it. Here, we review what is known about P. knowlesi transmission, identify key knowledge gaps in the context of current approaches to transmission modelling, and discuss the integration of these approaches with clinical parasitology and geostatistical analysis. We highlight the need to incorporate the influences of fine-scale spatial variation, rapid changes to the landscape, and reservoir population and transmission dynamics. The proposed integrated approach would address the unique challenges posed by malaria as a zoonosis, aid the identification of transmission hotspots, provide insight into the mechanistic links between incidence and land use change and support the design of appropriate interventions.

  16. Q Fever: Current State of Knowledge and Perspectives of Research of a Neglected Zoonosis

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Sarah Rebecca; Czaplicki, Guy; Mainil, Jacques; Guattéo, Raphaël; Saegerman, Claude

    2011-01-01

    Q fever is an ubiquitous zoonosis caused by an resistant intracellular bacterium, Coxiella burnetii. In certain areas, Q fever can be a severe public health problem, and awareness of the disease must be promoted worldwide. Nevertheless, knowledge of Coxiella burnetii remains limited to this day. Its resistant (intracellular and environmental) and infectious properties have been poorly investigated. Further understanding of the interactions between the infected host and the bacteria is necessary. Domestic ruminants are considered as the main reservoir of bacteria. Infected animals shed highly infectious organisms in milk, feces, urine, vaginal mucus, and, very importantly, birth products. Inhalation is the main route of infection. Frequently asymptomatic in humans and animals, Q fever can cause acute or chronic infections. Financial consequences of infection can be dramatic at herd level. Vaccination with inactive whole-cell bacteria has been performed and proved effective in humans and animals. However, inactive whole-cell vaccines present several defects. Recombinant vaccines have been developed in experimental conditions and have great potential for the future. Q fever is a challenging disease for scientists as significant further investigations are necessary. Great research opportunities are available to reach a better understanding and thus a better prevention and control of the infection. PMID:22194752

  17. Novel highly divergent reassortant bat rotaviruses in Cameroon, without evidence of zoonosis.

    PubMed

    Yinda, Claude Kwe; Zeller, Mark; Conceição-Neto, Nádia; Maes, Piet; Deboutte, Ward; Beller, Leen; Heylen, Elisabeth; Ghogomu, Stephen Mbigha; Van Ranst, Marc; Matthijnssens, Jelle

    2016-09-26

    Bats are an important reservoir for zoonotic viruses. To date, only three RVA strains have been reported in bats in Kenya and China. In the current study we investigated the genetic diversity of RVAs in fecal samples from 87 straw-colored fruit bats living in close contact with humans in Cameroon using viral metagenomics. Five (near) complete RVA genomes were obtained. A single RVA strain showed a partial relationship with the Kenyan bat RVA strain, whereas the other strains were completely novel. Only the VP7 and VP4 genes showed significant variability, indicating the occurrence of frequent reassortment events. Comparing these bat RVA strains with currently used human RVA screening primers indicated that most of the novel VP7 and VP4 segments would not be detected in routine epidemiological screening studies. Therefore, novel consensus screening primers were developed and used to screen samples from infants with gastroenteritis living in close proximity with the studied bat population. Although RVA infections were identified in 36% of the infants, there was no evidence of zoonosis. This study identified multiple novel bat RVA strains, but further epidemiological studies in humans will have to assess if these viruses have the potential to cause gastroenteritis in humans.

  18. Chagas’ Disease: An Emergent Urban Zoonosis. The Caracas Valley (Venezuela) as an Epidemiological Model

    PubMed Central

    Urdaneta-Morales, Servio

    2014-01-01

    The unprecedented emergence of important public health and veterinary zoonoses is usually a result of exponential population growth and globalization of human activities. I characterized Chagas’ disease as an emergent zoonosis in the Caracas Valley (Venezuela) due to the following findings: the presence of reservoirs (Didelphis marsupialis, Rattus rattus) and vectors (Panstrongylus geniculatus, Panstrongylus rufotuberculatus) infected with Trypanosoma cruzi in urbanized or marginalized areas; the elevated contact between P. geniculatus and human beings detected by parasitological and molecular examinations of triatomine feces demonstrated the possibility of transmission risks; a study of outbreaks of urban Chagas’ disease reported the first proven case of oral transmission of T. cruzi to human beings; the risk of transmission of glandular metacyclic stages from marsupials by experimental ocular and oral instillation; mice genitalia infected with T. cruzi contaminated blood resulted in the formation of amastigotes very close to the lumen suggesting that there may be a possibility of infection via their release into the urine and thence to the exterior; the ubiquitous histotropism and histopathology of T. cruzi was demonstrated using a mouse model; the presence of experimental T. cruzi pseudocysts in adipose, bone-cartilage, and eye tissue indicated a potential risk for transplants. Socio-sanitary programs that include improvements in housing, vector control, and access to medical treatment, as well as strategies aimed at combating social inequalities, poverty, and underdevelopment should be undertaken in those areas where zoonoses are most prevalent. Disciplines, such as Ecology, Epidemiology, Medical Entomology, Human and Veterinary Medicine, Environmental Studies, Public Health, Social and Political Studies, Immunology, Microbiology, and Pharmacology could all provide important contributions that aim to reduce the occurrence of factors governing the spread of

  19. The epidemiology and public health importance of toxocariasis: a zoonosis of global importance.

    PubMed

    Macpherson, Calum N L

    2013-11-01

    . canis include the regular and frequent anthelmintic treatment of dogs and cats, starting at an early age, education and enforcement of laws for the disposal of canine faeces, dog legislation and personal hygiene. The existence of wild definitive and paratenic hosts complicates the control of T. canis. Increasing human and dog populations, population movements and climate change will all serve to increase the importance of this zoonosis. This review examines the transmission, diagnosis and clinical syndromes of toxocariasis, its public health importance, epidemiology, control and current research needs.

  20. Assessment of the human medical significance of the rabies zoonosis in Germany--analysis of available data and desiderata.

    PubMed

    Ross, R Stefan; Freuling, Conrad M; Deleré, Yvonne; Müller, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In order to assess the human medical significance of the rabies zoonosis in Germany, the data of the relevant surveillance and of the registration systems as well as prescriptions submitted to the statutory health insurance (SHI) were assessed. In all, 2441 of the 81 280 total examinations for rabies conducted on animals were performed subsequent to contact with humans. In this context 54% of exposures were attributed to wild animals and 46%, to domestic animals. In 2006 and 2007 there were still 0.42 and 0.34 veterinary medical analyses per 100 000 inhabitants, respectively, subsequent to human contact. After the proclamation that Germany was free of terrestrial rabies, these indices dropped to 0.2 in 2009 and 2010. During the survey period, 21 700 doses of rabies vaccine were issued annually for SHI prescriptions on average; they would have been adequate for approximately 7230 complete courses of rabies pre-exposure prophylaxis or 4340 complete post-exposure treatments. For which of these two principal indications the vaccines were actually used cannot be determined from the SHI prescriptions. Taken together, the officially available data from rabies surveillance or registration systems even in combination with a nearly complete record of SHI prescription numbers did not allow an even nearly adequate reconstruction of the human medical significance of the rabies zoonosis in Germany. If one desired to achieve this, one would have to use, for example, an approach that is known from other European countries such as France, Finland, or The Netherlands.

  1. Modeling Leptospirosis in Trinidad, West Indies: A Waterborne Zoonosis of Increasing Public Health Importance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vega, M. C.; Opadeyi, J.

    2012-12-01

    Leptospirosis is a waterborne disease which is considered one of the most common and widely spread bacterial zoonosis and a growing global public health problem. Transmission in humans is caused by direct or indirect contact with contaminated water, soil or infected urine, blood or tissue of carrier animals. Because of the similarity with influenza, dengue and viral hepatitis symptoms it is often misdiagnosed with these diseases, but as the leptospirosis progresses, internal organs can be compromised, causing severe syndromes (e.g. Weil's disease), and potentially can cause death. In less developed countries, leptospirosis is often poorly recognized. In humid tropics and subtropics, where this disease has a high impact, climatic and environmental factors, such as rainfall, floods, land cover and their modifications have been frequently related to the occurrence of leptospirosis. In these regions one of the main problems for the study of the role of environmental factors on disease dynamics is the lack of accurate data since, in many cases, data are either unavailable or do not exist at all. Between 1980 and 2005 a total of 12,475 cases of leptospirosis were reported from all Caribbean countries, with 2,370 (19%) of these corresponding to Trinidad and Tobago, where the current average annual incidence rate is 1.84 per 100,000 population based on confirmed cases. In order to explore the underlying spatial variability of leptospirosis occurrence as related to environmental and socio-economic factors, a series of Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) models were developed. GWR was used to examine the determinants of leptospirosis in the communities of Trinidad using a total of 1,549 reported cases and 250 confirmed cases from 1998 to 2008. MODIS satellite imagery and GIS analysis were used to develop a series of covariables for each community including land cover, vegetation indices, wetness index (ln (α/tanβ)), river length per Ha, topography, percentage of free

  2. Nematode infection among ruminants in monsoon climate (Ban-Lahanam, Lao PDR) and its role as food-borne zoonosis.

    PubMed

    Sato, Marcello Otake; Sato, Megumi; Chaisiri, Kittipong; Maipanich, Wanna; Yoonuan, Tippayarat; Sanguankiat, Surapol; Pongvongsa, Tiengkham; Boupha, Boungnong; Moji, Kazuhiko; Waikagul, Jitra

    2014-03-01

    Trichostrongylids infection has gained significant public health importance since Trichostrongylus spp. infections have been reported in humans in Lao PDR. In this study, gastrointestinal nematodes were identified and the intensity of infections was determined in goats and cattle, which are animals greatly used for meat production in Lahanam Village, Lao PDR. The total number of goats and bovines was 23 and 29, respectively, pertaining to 32 households surveyed in the area. Feacal samples were randomly collected from 14 goats and 11 bovines. Ninety three percent (13/14) of goats and 36% (3/11) of cattle were infected, with an average of 1,728 and 86 eggs per gram of faeces (EPG), respectively. Coproculture showed Trichostrongylus spp. (goats 16%; bovines 48%), Haemonchus spp. (goats 69%; bovines 37%), Cooperia spp. (bovines 8%) and Oesophagostomum spp. (goats 15%; bovines 6%). After performing the necropsy on an adult goat, Trichuris spp. was also found. We confirmed the presence of Oesophagostomum spp., H. contortus and T. colubriformis by morphology and DNA sequencing analysis of the ITS region of rDNA. Due to interactions between humans and goats in Lahanam Village and high EPG results, the diagnosis of species and the intensity of gastrointestinal nematode infection in these animals are important public-health issues. Other ruminant parasites, such as Oesophagostomum and Haemonchus, found in caprines and bovines, are reported to be causes of zoonosis and their presence in humans should be investigated in future field surveys in this area.

  3. Is Escherichia coli urinary tract infection a zoonosis? Proof of direct link with production animals and meat.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, L; Garneau, P; Bruant, G; Harel, J; Olsen, S S; Porsbo, L J; Hammerum, A M; Frimodt-Møller, N

    2012-06-01

    Recently, it has been suggested that the Escherichia coli causing urinary tract infection (UTI) may come from meat and animals. The purpose was to investigate if a clonal link existed between E. coli from animals, meat and UTI patients. Twenty-two geographically and temporally matched B2 E. coli from UTI patients, community-dwelling humans, broiler chicken meat, pork, and broiler chicken, previously identified to exhibit eight virulence genotypes by microarray-detection of approximately 300 genes, were investigated for clonal relatedness by PFGE. Nine isolates were selected and tested for in vivo virulence in the mouse model of ascending UTI. UTI and community-dwelling human strains were closely clonally related to meat strains. Several human derived strains were also clonally interrelated. All nine isolates regardless of origin were virulent in the UTI model with positive urine, bladder and kidney cultures. Further, isolates with the same gene profile also yielded similar bacterial counts in urine, bladder and kidneys. This study showed a clonal link between E. coli from meat and humans, providing solid evidence that UTI is zoonosis. The close relationship between community-dwelling human and UTI isolates may indicate a point source spread, e.g. through contaminated meat.

  4. Ruminant Brucellosis in the Kafr El Sheikh Governorate of the Nile Delta, Egypt: Prevalence of a Neglected Zoonosis

    PubMed Central

    Hegazy, Yamen M.; Moawad, Amgad; Osman, Salama; Ridler, Anne; Guitian, Javier

    2011-01-01

    Background Brucellosis is a neglected tropical zoonosis allegedly reemerging in Middle Eastern countries. Infected ruminants are the primary source of human infection; consequently, estimates of the frequency of ruminant brucellosis are useful elements for building effective control strategies. Unfortunately, these estimates are lacking in most Middle East countries including Egypt. Our objectives are to estimate the frequency of ruminant brucellosis and to describe its spatial distribution in Kafr El Sheikh Governorate, Nile Delta, Egypt. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a cross-sectional study in which 791 sheep, 383 goats, 188 cattle milk tanks and 173 buffalo milk tanks were randomly selected in 40 villages and tested for the presence of antibodies against Brucella spp. The seroprevalence among different species was estimated and visualized using choropleth maps. A spatial scanning method was used to identify areas with significantly higher proportions of seropositive flocks and milk tanks. We estimated that 12.2% of sheep and 11.3% of goats in the study area were seropositive against Brucella spp. and that 12.2% and 12% of cattle and buffalo milk tanks had antibodies against Brucella spp. The southern part of the governorate had the highest seroprevalence with significant spatial clustering of seropositive flocks in the proximity of its capital and around the main animal markets. Conclusions/ Significance Our study revealed that brucellosis is endemic at high levels in all ruminant species in the study area and questions the efficacy of the control measures in place. The high intensity of infection transmission among ruminants combined with high livestock and human density and widespread marketing of unpasteurized milk and dairy products may explain why Egypt has one of the highest rates of human brucellosis worldwide. An effective integrated human-animal brucellosis control strategy is urgently needed. If resources are not sufficient for nationwide

  5. Barriers to Infection of Human Cells by Feline Leukemia Virus: Insights into Resistance to Zoonosis.

    PubMed

    Terry, Anne; Kilbey, Anna; Naseer, Asif; Levy, Laura S; Ahmad, Shamim; Watts, Ciorsdaidh; Mackay, Nancy; Cameron, Ewan; Wilson, Sam; Neil, James C

    2017-03-01

    The human genome displays a rich fossil record of past gammaretrovirus infections, yet no current epidemic is evident, despite environmental exposure to viruses that infect human cells in vitro Feline leukemia viruses (FeLVs) rank high on this list, but neither domestic nor workplace exposure has been associated with detectable serological responses. Nonspecific inactivation of gammaretroviruses by serum factors appears insufficient to explain these observations. To investigate further, we explored the susceptibilities of primary and established human cell lines to FeLV-B, the most likely zoonotic variant. Fully permissive infection was common in cancer-derived cell lines but was also a feature of nontransformed keratinocytes and lung fibroblasts. Cells of hematopoietic origin were generally less permissive and formed discrete groups on the basis of high or low intracellular protein expression and virion release. Potent repression was observed in primary human blood mononuclear cells and a subset of leukemia cell lines. However, the early steps of reverse transcription and integration appear to be unimpaired in nonpermissive cells. FeLV-B was subject to G→A hypermutation with a predominant APOBEC3G signature in partially permissive cells but was not mutated in permissive cells or in nonpermissive cells that block secondary viral spread. Distinct cellular barriers that protect primary human blood cells are likely to be important in protection against zoonotic infection with FeLV.IMPORTANCE Domestic exposure to gammaretroviruses such as feline leukemia viruses (FeLVs) occurs worldwide, but the basis of human resistance to infection remains incompletely understood. The potential threat is evident from the human genome sequence, which reveals many past epidemics of gammaretrovirus infection, and from recent cross-species jumps of gammaretroviruses from rodents to primates and marsupials. This study examined resistance to infection at the cellular level with the most

  6. Barriers to Infection of Human Cells by Feline Leukemia Virus: Insights into Resistance to Zoonosis

    PubMed Central

    Terry, Anne; Kilbey, Anna; Naseer, Asif; Levy, Laura S.; Ahmad, Shamim; Watts, Ciorsdaidh; Mackay, Nancy; Cameron, Ewan; Wilson, Sam

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The human genome displays a rich fossil record of past gammaretrovirus infections, yet no current epidemic is evident, despite environmental exposure to viruses that infect human cells in vitro. Feline leukemia viruses (FeLVs) rank high on this list, but neither domestic nor workplace exposure has been associated with detectable serological responses. Nonspecific inactivation of gammaretroviruses by serum factors appears insufficient to explain these observations. To investigate further, we explored the susceptibilities of primary and established human cell lines to FeLV-B, the most likely zoonotic variant. Fully permissive infection was common in cancer-derived cell lines but was also a feature of nontransformed keratinocytes and lung fibroblasts. Cells of hematopoietic origin were generally less permissive and formed discrete groups on the basis of high or low intracellular protein expression and virion release. Potent repression was observed in primary human blood mononuclear cells and a subset of leukemia cell lines. However, the early steps of reverse transcription and integration appear to be unimpaired in nonpermissive cells. FeLV-B was subject to G→A hypermutation with a predominant APOBEC3G signature in partially permissive cells but was not mutated in permissive cells or in nonpermissive cells that block secondary viral spread. Distinct cellular barriers that protect primary human blood cells are likely to be important in protection against zoonotic infection with FeLV. IMPORTANCE Domestic exposure to gammaretroviruses such as feline leukemia viruses (FeLVs) occurs worldwide, but the basis of human resistance to infection remains incompletely understood. The potential threat is evident from the human genome sequence, which reveals many past epidemics of gammaretrovirus infection, and from recent cross-species jumps of gammaretroviruses from rodents to primates and marsupials. This study examined resistance to infection at the cellular level

  7. Tularaemia: a challenging zoonosis.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, C L; Lopes de Carvalho, I; Zé-Zé, L; Núncio, M S; Duarte, E L

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, several emerging zoonotic vector-borne infections with potential impact on human health have been identified in Europe, including tularaemia, caused by Francisella tularensis. This remarkable pathogen, one of the most virulent microorganisms currently known, has been detected in increasingly new settings and in a wide range of wild species, including lagomorphs, rodents, carnivores, fish and invertebrate arthropods. Also, a renewed concern has arisen with regard to F. tularensis: its potential use by bioterrorists. Based on the information published concerning the latest outbreaks, the aim of this paper is to review the main features of the agent, its biology, immunology and epidemiology. Moreover, special focus will be given to zoonotic aspects of the disease, as tularaemia outbreaks in human populations have been frequently associated with disease in animals.

  8. Effect of high-dose ciclosporin on the immune response to primary and booster vaccination in immunocompetent cats.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Elizabeth S; VanLare, Karen A; Roycroft, Linda M; King, Stephen

    2015-02-01

    Ciclosporin (Atopica oral solution for cats 100 mg/ml; Novartis Animal Health) was recently approved for use in cats with feline hypersensitivity dermatitis. The immunosuppressant effect of ciclosporin on the ability of cats to mount an immune response following vaccination was determined. Thirty-two healthy, immunocompetent adult cats (16 cats/group) were treated with either ciclosporin for 56 days at a dose of 24 mg/kg once daily or sham dosed. Prior to treatment, cats had an adequate antibody response to primary vaccination against feline calicivirus (FCV), feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1), feline panleukopenia virus (FPV), feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and rabies. Booster vaccination or novel vaccination with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) was administered 28 days after initiation of treatment with ciclosporin. There were no differences between the ciclosporin-treated and control cats for FCV and FPV antibody titers following booster vaccination. There were delays/reductions in antibody response to FHV-1, FeLV and rabies in treated cats; however, adequate protection was achieved in response to all booster vaccinations. Following primary vaccination with FIV, control cats showed a response, but treated cats showed no antibody production. Adverse events commonly associated with ciclosporin treatment, including diarrhea/loose stool, vomiting, salivation and regurgitation, were reported. In adult cats treated with 24 mg/kg/day of ciclosporin (more than three times the therapeutic dose), vaccine titer levels were adequate for protection following booster vaccination. In contrast, treated cats failed to mount a humoral response to a novel (FIV) vaccination, suggesting that memory B-cell immune responses remain intact during repeated high-dose ciclosporin administration in cats, but that primary immune responses are impaired.

  9. Safety and Immunogenicity of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis {Delta}lysA {Delta}panCD Vaccine in Domestic Cats Infected with Feline Immunodeficiency Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)+ and FIV- cats (n = 4/group) received 2 x 10**6 cfu Mycobacterium tuberculosis Delta-lysA Delta-panCD intramuscularly. Vaccination elicited antibody responses; albeit, at lower levels in FIV+ cats as compared to FIV- cats. Delayed-type hypersensitivity responses ...

  10. Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Chris

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to the reviews of his book, "The Good Life of Teaching: An Ethics of Professional Practice." He begins by highlighting some of the main concerns of his book. He then offers a brief response, doing his best to address the main criticisms of his argument and noting where the four reviewers (Charlene…

  11. Epidemiology of Leptospirosis in Africa: A Systematic Review of a Neglected Zoonosis and a Paradigm for ‘One Health’ in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Allan, Kathryn J.; Biggs, Holly M.; Halliday, Jo E. B.; Kazwala, Rudovick R.; Maro, Venance P.; Cleaveland, Sarah; Crump, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis is an important but neglected bacterial zoonosis that has been largely overlooked in Africa. In this systematic review, we aimed to summarise and compare current knowledge of: (1) the geographic distribution, prevalence, incidence and diversity of acute human leptospirosis in Africa; and (2) the geographic distribution, host range, prevalence and diversity of Leptospira spp. infection in animal hosts in Africa. Methods Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, we searched for studies that described (1) acute human leptospirosis and (2) pathogenic Leptospira spp. infection in animals. We performed a literature search using eight international and regional databases for English and non-English articles published between January 1930 to October 2014 that met out pre-defined inclusion criteria and strict case definitions. Results and Discussion We identified 97 studies that described acute human leptospirosis (n = 46) or animal Leptospira infection (n = 51) in 26 African countries. The prevalence of acute human leptospirosis ranged from 2 3% to 19 8% (n = 11) in hospital patients with febrile illness. Incidence estimates were largely restricted to the Indian Ocean islands (3 to 101 cases per 100,000 per year (n = 6)). Data from Tanzania indicate that human disease incidence is also high in mainland Africa (75 to 102 cases per 100,000 per year). Three major species (Leptospira borgpetersenii, L. interrogans and L. kirschneri) are predominant in reports from Africa and isolates from a diverse range of serogroups have been reported in human and animal infections. Cattle appear to be important hosts of a large number of Leptospira serogroups in Africa, but few data are available to allow comparison of Leptospira infection in linked human and animal populations. We advocate a ‘One Health’ approach to promote multidisciplinary research efforts to improve understanding of the animal to human

  12. Hepatitis E as a Zoonosis.

    PubMed

    Widén, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E (HE) virus infection is not limited to spread from human to human but also occurs between animals and more importantly as zoonotic spread from animals to humans. Genotyping of strains from hepatitis E virus-infected patients has revealed that these infections are not all caused by genotypes 1 or 2 but often by genotypes 3 or 4. Therefore, it is important to understand the striking difference between the spread of genotypes 1 and 2 in countries with poor sanitary standards and the spread of genotypes 3 and 4 in countries with good sanitary standards. The number of animal species known to be infected with HEV is expanding rapidly. The finding of HEV in new host species always raises the question regarding the zoonotic potential of these newfound strains. However, as new strains are found, the complexity increases.Certain genotypes are known to have the ability of zoonotic spread from certain animal species and these animals may even constitute an infection reservoir. Some animal species may contribute to zoonotic infections albeit on a smaller scale, while others are believed to be of minor or no importance at all. This chapter reviews possible sources of zoonotic hepatitis E virus infection.

  13. Antibacterial resistance: an emerging 'zoonosis'?

    PubMed

    Labro, Marie-Thérèse; Bryskier, Jean-Marie

    2014-12-01

    Antibacterial resistance is a worldwide threat, and concerns have arisen about the involvement of animal commensal and pathogenic bacteria in the maintenance and spread of resistance genes. However, beyond the facts related to the occurrence of resistant microorganisms in food, food-producing animals and companion animals and their transmission to humans, it is important to consider the vast environmental 'resistome', the selective pathways underlying the emergence of antibacterial resistance and how we can prepare answers for tomorrow.

  14. Antibody profile to Borrelia burgdorferi in veterinarians from Nuevo León, Mexico, a non-endemic area of this zoonosis

    PubMed Central

    Skinner-Taylor, Cassandra M.; Salinas, José A.; Arevalo-Niño, Katiushka; Galán-Wong, Luis J.; Maldonado, Guadalupe; Garza-Elizondo, Mario A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Lyme disease is a tick-borne disease caused by infections with Borrelia. Persons infected with Borrelia can be asymptomatic or can develop disseminated disease. Diagnosis and recognition of groups at risk of infection with Borrelia burgdorferi is of great interest to contemporary rheumatology. There are a few reports about Borrelia infection in Mexico, including lymphocytoma cases positive to B. burgdorferi sensu stricto by PCR and a patient with acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans. Veterinarians have an occupational risk due to high rates of tick contact. The aim of this work was to investigate antibodies to Borrelia in students at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Zootechnics, at Nuevo León, Mexico, and determine the antibody profile to B. burgdorferi antigens. Material and methods Sera were screened using a C6 ELISA, IgG and IgM ELISA using recombinant proteins from B. burgdorferi, B. garinii and B. afzelii. Sera with positive or grey-zone values were tested by IgG Western blot to B. burgdorferi sensu stricto. Results All volunteers reported tick exposures and 72.5% remembered tick bites. Only nine persons described mild Lyme disease related symptoms, including headaches, paresthesias, myalgias and arthralgias. None of the volunteers reported erythema migrans. Nine samples were confirmed by IgG Western blot. The profile showed 89% reactivity to OspA, 67% to p83, and 45% to BmpA. Conclusions Positive sera samples shared antibody reactivity to the markers of late immune response p83 and BmpA, even if individuals did not present symptoms of Lyme arthritis or post-Lyme disease. The best criterion to diagnose Lyme disease in our country remains to be established, because it is probable that different strains coexist in Mexico. This is the first report of antibodies to B. burgdorferi in Latin American veterinarians. Veterinarians and high-risk people should be alert to take precautionary measures to prevent tick-borne diseases. PMID:27504018

  15. Rabies in Asia: the classical zoonosis.

    PubMed

    Wilde, Henry; Hemachudha, Thiravat; Wacharapluesadee, Supaporn; Lumlertdacha, Boonlert; Tepsumethanon, Veera

    2013-01-01

    Rabies remains a constant threat to humans throughout much of Asia. The dog is the main reservoir and vector with wildlife playing a very minor role. No Asian country or region has been declared rabies free by WHO in over two decades and there is evidence of canine rabies spread to new regions during the past 10 years. We now have the knowledge and technology to control canine rabies. The main barrier in managing this costly endemic is lack of motivation by authorities to address this issue along with regional inability of public health and livestock (agriculture) officials to tackle this issue in cooperation and coordination. Rabies is one of the first recognized zoonoses and a model for a true "One Health" management goal where human; veterinary, and government officials must work together in harmony to defeat this disease.

  16. [Anisakiasis - a little-known parasitic zoonosis].

    PubMed

    Bardoň, Jan; Harna, Jiří; Pijáček, Martin

    2013-06-01

    Parasites of the family Anisakidae cause enteric parasitic zoonoses developing after consumption of inadequately cooked marine fish. Cases of such diseases are reported mainly from Japan or other countries where raw or uncooked fish are traditionally consumed. The presented short communication briefly reports detection of larvae of Pseudoterranova spp., parasites of the family Anisakidae, in a fresh chilled angler-fish (Lophius piscatorius) bought at a retail store in the Czech Republic.

  17. Pasteurella multocida: from Zoonosis to Cellular Microbiology

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Mengfei

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY In a world where most emerging and reemerging infectious diseases are zoonotic in nature and our contacts with both domestic and wild animals abound, there is growing awareness of the potential for human acquisition of animal diseases. Like other Pasteurellaceae, Pasteurella species are highly prevalent among animal populations, where they are often found as part of the normal microbiota of the oral, nasopharyngeal, and upper respiratory tracts. Many Pasteurella species are opportunistic pathogens that can cause endemic disease and are associated increasingly with epizootic outbreaks. Zoonotic transmission to humans usually occurs through animal bites or contact with nasal secretions, with P. multocida being the most prevalent isolate observed in human infections. Here we review recent comparative genomics and molecular pathogenesis studies that have advanced our understanding of the multiple virulence mechanisms employed by Pasteurella species to establish acute and chronic infections. We also summarize efforts being explored to enhance our ability to rapidly and accurately identify and distinguish among clinical isolates and to control pasteurellosis by improved development of new vaccines and treatment regimens. PMID:23824375

  18. A feline immunodeficiency virus vif-deletion mutant remains attenuated upon infection of newborn kittens.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiaoying; Leutenegger, Christian M; Stefano Cole, Kelly; Pedersen, Niels C; Sparger, Ellen E

    2007-10-01

    This report characterizes lentivirus attenuation associated with a vif mutation by inoculation of newborn kittens with a vif-deleted feline immunodeficiency virus provirus plasmid (FIV-pPPRDeltavif). Virus in peripheral blood, antiviral antibody or CD4 T-cell count alterations were not detected in kittens inoculated with FIV-pPPRDeltavif plasmid, with the exception of one kitten that demonstrated FIV Gag antibody production at 42 weeks after inoculation. In contrast, wild-type FIV-pPPR-infected kittens were viraemic, seropositive and exhibited a decrease in the CD4 T-cell subset in peripheral blood. Interestingly, FIV-specific T-cell proliferative responses detected at 32 and 36 weeks after infection were comparable for both FIV-pPPRDeltavif- and wild-type FIV-pPPR-inoculated kittens and suggested the possibility of a discreet tissue reservoir supporting sustained FIV-pPPRDeltavif expression or replication. Overall, these findings confirmed that the severe virus attenuation for both replication and pathogenicity exhibited by a vif-deleted FIV mutant is similar for both neonatal and adult hosts.

  19. Constitutive expression of types 1 and 2 cytokines by alveolar macrophages from feline immunodeficiency virus-infected cats.

    PubMed

    Ritchey, J W; Levy, J K; Bliss, S K; Tompkins, W A; Tompkins, M B

    2001-05-10

    Evidence suggests that feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), causes pulmonary immunodeficiency. The overall objective of this study was to explore FIV-induced alterations in cell counts and cytokine gene expression in the pulmonary compartment during the acute stage infection. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells were collected from FIV-infected and control cats at 0, 4, 10, and 16 weeks post-FIV infection for phenotype and cytokine analysis. The major change in BAL cellular populations following FIV-infection was the development of a neutrophilia. Total BAL cell counts and relative numbers of alveolar macrophages (AM), eosinophils, and lymphocytes remained similar in both groups. The RT-qcPCR analyses of AM purified from BAL showed constitutive expression of TNFalpha, IL6 and IL10 mRNAs that peaked during the acute stage of infection then declined. The TNFalpha and IL6 bioactive protein secretion showed a similar response. In contrast, IFNgamma expression increased progressively with time after infection and paralleled a progressive increase in FIV-gag mRNA in AM. The IL12 p40 expression also differed from the other cytokines in that there was a progressive decrease in the number of cats with AM IL12 expression following FIV infection. Infection of AM in vitro with FIV also caused an increase in TNFalpha and IL6 mRNA and bioactive protein suggesting that the increased cytokine response by AM following infection of cats with FIV is an intrinsic characteristic of FIV-infected AM. In summary, pulmonary immune changes seen in FIV-infected cats are similar to those seen in HIV-infected human patients.

  20. Detection of serum antibodies against Bartonella species in cats with sporotrichosis from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kitada, Amanda A B; Favacho, Alexsandra R M; Oliveira, Raquel V C; Pessoa, Adonai A; Gomes, Raphael; Honse, Carla O; Gremião, Isabella D F; Lemos, Elba R S; Pereira, Sandro A

    2014-04-01

    Cat scratch disease is a zoonosis caused by Bartonella species, transmitted to humans through scratches or bites from infected cats and via direct contact with infected feces. Sporotrichosis, caused by the fungal complex Sporothrix, is transmitted by traumatic inoculation of the fungus. Cats are important in zoonotic transmission. Serum samples from 112 domestic cats with sporotrichosis and 77 samples from healthy cats were analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), using the commercial kit Bartonella henselae IFA IgG (Bion). The presence of antibodies against feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) core antigens was detected using the commercial kit Snap Combo FIV-FeLV (Idexx). The group of animals with sporotrichosis contained 93 males with a median age of 22 months, eight (7.1%) of which were positive for FIV and 15 (13.4%) for FeLV. The group of animals without sporotrichosis contained 36 males with a median age 48 months, 10 (13.0%) of which were positive for FIV and eight (10.4%) for FeLV. Of the 112 cats with sporotrichosis and 77 cats without mycosis, 72 (64.3%) and 35 (45.5%), respectively, were IFA reactive. No association was found between age, sex, FIV/FeLV and the presence of antibodies to Bartonella species. The results suggest that the study population can be considered a potential source of zoonotic infection for both diseases.

  1. Responsible drinking

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol use disorder - responsible drinking; Drinking alcohol responsibly; Drinking in moderation; Alcoholism - responsible drinking ... If you drink alcohol, health care providers advise limiting how much ... drinking in moderation, or responsible drinking. Responsible ...

  2. The restricted IgG1 antibody response to maedi visna virus is seen following infection but not following immunization with recombinant gag protein.

    PubMed

    Bird, P; Reyburn, H T; Blacklaws, B A; Allen, D; Nettleton, P; Yirrell, D L; Watt, N; Sargan, D; McConnell, I

    1995-11-01

    Maedi-visna (MVV) is a retrovirus of the subfamily lentivirinae which includes HIV, simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). Infection of its natural host, the sheep, does not cause overt immunodeficiency, but rather a chronic inflammatory disease. However, subtle immunological changes following infection have been reported including a sheep IgG1 subclass-restricted MVV-neutralizing antibody. Here we demonstrate by Western blotting that there is no IgG2 serum antibody response to any MVV antigen after MVV infection, in contrast to infection with the parapox virus Orf, when serum IgG2 anti-Orf antibody is readily detected. By ELISA, the IgG1 antibody titres to Orf are higher than to MVV, but the minimum MVV serum antibody IgG1/IgG2 ratio is significantly raised compared with that for Orf virus antibody in the same sheep, indicating that the IgG2 defect in MVV infection cannot be accounted for by differences in the sensitivity of the Orf and MVV ELISA. Serum IgG2 anti-MVV gag p. 25 can be detected in both normal and MVV-infected sheep following immunization with purified recombinant MVV gag p 25 protein in Freund's complete adjuvant. The failure to make an IgG2 MVV-specific antibody indicates that immunological dysfunction can arise with macrophage tropic lentiviruses, and it may aid viral persistence.

  3. The restricted IgG1 antibody response to maedi visna virus is seen following infection but not following immunization with recombinant gag protein.

    PubMed Central

    Bird, P; Reyburn, H T; Blacklaws, B A; Allen, D; Nettleton, P; Yirrell, D L; Watt, N; Sargan, D; McConnell, I

    1995-01-01

    Maedi-visna (MVV) is a retrovirus of the subfamily lentivirinae which includes HIV, simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). Infection of its natural host, the sheep, does not cause overt immunodeficiency, but rather a chronic inflammatory disease. However, subtle immunological changes following infection have been reported including a sheep IgG1 subclass-restricted MVV-neutralizing antibody. Here we demonstrate by Western blotting that there is no IgG2 serum antibody response to any MVV antigen after MVV infection, in contrast to infection with the parapox virus Orf, when serum IgG2 anti-Orf antibody is readily detected. By ELISA, the IgG1 antibody titres to Orf are higher than to MVV, but the minimum MVV serum antibody IgG1/IgG2 ratio is significantly raised compared with that for Orf virus antibody in the same sheep, indicating that the IgG2 defect in MVV infection cannot be accounted for by differences in the sensitivity of the Orf and MVV ELISA. Serum IgG2 anti-MVV gag p. 25 can be detected in both normal and MVV-infected sheep following immunization with purified recombinant MVV gag p 25 protein in Freund's complete adjuvant. The failure to make an IgG2 MVV-specific antibody indicates that immunological dysfunction can arise with macrophage tropic lentiviruses, and it may aid viral persistence. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 4 PMID:7586678

  4. Vaccination with inactivated virus but not viral DNA reduces virus load following challenge with a heterologous and virulent isolate of feline immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Hosie, M J; Dunsford, T; Klein, D; Willett, B J; Cannon, C; Osborne, R; Macdonald, J; Spibey, N; Mackay, N; Jarrett, O; Neil, J C

    2000-10-01

    It has been shown that cats can be protected against infection with the prototypic Petaluma strain of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV(PET)) using vaccines based on either inactivated virus particles or replication-defective proviral DNA. However, the utility of such vaccines in the field is uncertain, given the absence of consistent protection against antigenically distinct strains and the concern that the Petaluma strain may be an unrepresentative, attenuated isolate. Since reduction of viral pathogenicity and dissemination may be useful outcomes of vaccination, even in the absence of complete protection, we tested whether either of these vaccine strategies ameliorates the early course of infection following challenge with heterologous and more virulent isolates. We now report that an inactivated virus vaccine, which generates high levels of virus neutralizing antibodies, confers reduced virus loads following challenge with two heterologous isolates, FIV(AM6) and FIV(GL8). This vaccine also prevented the marked early decline in CD4/CD8 ratio seen in FIV(GL8)-infected cats. In contrast, DNA vaccines based on either FIV(PET) or FIV(GL8), which induce cell-mediated responses but no detectable antiviral antibodies, protected a fraction of cats against infection with FIV(PET) but had no measurable effect on virus load when the infecting virus was FIV(GL8). These results indicate that the more virulent FIV(GL8) is intrinsically more resistant to vaccinal immunity than the FIV(PET) strain and that a broad spectrum of responses which includes virus neutralizing antibodies is a desirable goal for lentivirus vaccine development.

  5. Serial kinetics of the antibody response against the complete Brucella melitensis ORFeome in focal vertebral brucellosis.

    PubMed

    Cannella, Anthony P; Lin, Jennifer C; Liang, Li; Atluri, Vidya; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Felgner, Philip L; Tsolis, Renee M; Vinetz, Joseph M

    2012-03-01

    Human brucellosis is a common zoonosis worldwide. Here we present a case of focal vertebral brucellosis in a 71-year-old Mexican-American woman who contracted infection from unpasteurized goat milk. Standard agglutination serology was negative; the diagnosis was established by the isolation of Brucella melitensis from abscess fluid. A B. melitensis protein microarray comprised of nearly all proteins encoded by the bacterial genome was used to determine the kinetics of this patient's antibody responses to the complete collection of open reading frames existing in the genome (ORFeome). Three patterns of antibody responses against B. melitensis antigens were seen for serum samples obtained on days 0 (pretreatment), 14, 49, 100, and 180: (i) stable titers over time, (ii) a steady fall in titers, and (iii) an initial rise in titers followed by declining titers. Sera from this patient with chronic brucellosis recognized some of the same B. melitensis proteins as those recognized by sera from acute/subacute, blood culture-positive brucellosis patients but also recognized a distinct set of proteins. This study is the first to determine the kinetics of the human antibody responses to the complete repertoire of proteins encoded by a bacterial genome and demonstrates fundamentally different immunopathogenetic mechanisms between acute human brucellosis and chronic human brucellosis. While an extension of these findings to a larger patient population is necessary, these findings have important clinical and diagnostic implications and lead toward new insights into the fundamental immunopathogenesis of brucellosis.

  6. Human Benefits of Animal Interventions for Zoonosis Control

    PubMed Central

    Schelling, Esther; Roth, Felix; Bonfoh, Bassirou; de Savigny, Don; Tanner, Marcel

    2007-01-01

    Although industrialized countries have been able to contain recent outbreaks of zoonotic diseases, many resource-limited and transitioning countries have not been able to react adequately. The key for controlling zoonoses such as rabies, echinococcosis, and brucellosis is to focus on the animal reservoir. In this respect, ministries of health question whether the public health sector really benefits from interventions for livestock. Cross-sectoral assessments of interventions such as mass vaccination for brucellosis in Mongolia or vaccination of dogs for rabies in Chad consider human and animal health sectors from a societal economic perspective. Combining the total societal benefits, the intervention in the animal sector saves money and provides the economic argument, which opens new approaches for the control of zoonoses in resource-limited countries through contributions from multiple sectors. PMID:17553265

  7. [Toxoplasmosis as anthropo-zoonosis and its immunodiagnostics in Lithuania].

    PubMed

    Bajoriniene, D; Arlauskene, A; Balkjawiczjus, B

    1991-01-01

    Anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies were found in 43.2% of examined mothers, infants and children below 14 years of age, whereas IgM antibodies were found in 6.2% of the examined persons only. Diagnoses of acquired and congenital toxoplasmosis were based on the results of clinical examination and immunological confirmation. In infants, anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies are not indicative of Toxoplasma invasion, since they frequently come from mother and then disappear by the end of the first year of life, whereas finding of specific immunoglobulins M is the evidence of congenital toxoplasmosis.

  8. HUMAN DISPERSAL OF A WIDESPREAD ZOONOSIS IN A DOMESTICATED HOST

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We assessed the evolutionary consequences of swine husbandry for Trichinella spiralis, a food borne parasite that causes severe muscular disease. We find far less genetic diversity in parasites of domesticated pigs than in related parasites of wildlife hosts. In particular, pigs of European origin...

  9. Contact zoonosis related to aquaculture: a growing concern

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aquaculture develops fast worldwide, with new cultured species and increased global transport of live aquaculture products. There is a growing recognition of zoonotic disease agents causing epidemics and carrier states in cultured fish and shellfish, especially from warm water systems, transmitted t...

  10. Molecular detection of Capillaria philippinensis: An emerging zoonosis in Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Dib, Nadia A; El-Badry, Ayman A; Ta-Tang, Thuy-Huong; Rubio, Jose M

    2015-07-01

    Human infection with Capillaria philippinensis is accidental; however, it may end fatally if not diagnosed and treated in the proper time. The first case was detected in the Philippines in 1963, but later reported in other countries around the world, including Egypt. In this report, molecular diagnosis using a specific nested PCR for detection of C. philippinensis in faeces is described based on the amplification of small ribosomal subunit. The test showed sensitivity and specificity, as it detected all the positive cases and gave no cross-reaction with human DNA and DNA of other tested parasites. This method can be very useful not only for improvement of diagnosis, but also to understand the different environmental routes of transmission by detection of C. philippinensis DNA-stages in the possible fish intermediate hosts and reservoir animal host, helping to improve strategies for surveillance and prevention of human disease.

  11. [Human babesiosis - a rare but potentially dangerous zoonosis].

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, A; Hunfeld, K-P

    2014-05-01

    Human babesiosis is caused by the intraerythrocytic parasite of the genus Babesia (phylum Apicomplexa). Humans are commonly infected by the bite of Ixodid ticks. Rarely, transmission does occur perinatal or via contaminated blood transfusion. There is only insufficient data available on the clinical relevance in Europe, whereas there are known endemic states in the United States with an increasing importance of the disease in transfusion medicine. The following article gives an overview of the situation in Germany. Human babesiosis is a zoonotic disease with a worldwide increasing importance according to the increasing number of immunocompromised patients. Clinical symptoms have a wide range from asymptomatic to severe and letal cases. So far, the detection of the parasites in ticks and seroepidemiological data in Europe identified 3 humanpathogenic species: B. microti, B. divergens und B. venatorum (EU1-3). The relative small number of approximately 50 documented human cases is probably due to the lack of knowledge of the disease and the availability of diagnostic tools. Comprehensive systematic investigations of the prevalence in ticks, seroepidemiological data and improved diagnostic tests are urgently needed to evaluate the importance of the parasite.

  12. Zoonosis emergence linked to agricultural intensification and environmental change.

    PubMed

    Jones, Bryony A; Grace, Delia; Kock, Richard; Alonso, Silvia; Rushton, Jonathan; Said, Mohammed Y; McKeever, Declan; Mutua, Florence; Young, Jarrah; McDermott, John; Pfeiffer, Dirk Udo

    2013-05-21

    A systematic review was conducted by a multidisciplinary team to analyze qualitatively best available scientific evidence on the effect of agricultural intensification and environmental changes on the risk of zoonoses for which there are epidemiological interactions between wildlife and livestock. The study found several examples in which agricultural intensification and/or environmental change were associated with an increased risk of zoonotic disease emergence, driven by the impact of an expanding human population and changing human behavior on the environment. We conclude that the rate of future zoonotic disease emergence or reemergence will be closely linked to the evolution of the agriculture-environment nexus. However, available research inadequately addresses the complexity and interrelatedness of environmental, biological, economic, and social dimensions of zoonotic pathogen emergence, which significantly limits our ability to predict, prevent, and respond to zoonotic disease emergence.

  13. [Current situation of the most frequent zoonosis in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Garza Ramos, Juan

    2010-01-01

    Control and eradication of zoonoses is a priority because there can only be human health if there is animal health, and both will not exist if the environment is not healthy. This concept is called "One Health" Mexico has demonstrated its capacity to eradicate various zoonoses such as Venezuelan equine encephalitis, yellow fever cattle screwworm, and highly pathogenic avian influenza. Zoonoses and emerging and reemerging diseases and food-borne diseases are called neglected diseases. They provoke disease and diminish food security. Their presence is seen in marginalized populations with lags in their development that reflect the lack of equity in our society; these diseases are the product of the lack of attention to the social determinants of health and risk factors. Tackling these diseases should be comprehensive, with intersectoral, interdisciplinary, and transdisciplinary approaches. Government agencies located in the human/animal health environment interface do not have established limits of liability and there are overlapping and empty spots; legislation is insufficient to guarantee collaboration. It is urgent to have reforms and new forms of organizations, regionalized according to the epidemiological situation; at the municipal level, a priority is to formalize an effective service of veterinary public health. New impetuses to address the persistent social and health lags are proposed.

  14. Endocarditis caused by Streptococcus canis: an emerging zoonosis?

    PubMed

    Lacave, Guillaume; Coutard, Aymeric; Troché, Gilles; Augusto, Sandrine; Pons, Stéphanie; Zuber, Benjamin; Laurent, Virginie; Amara, Marlène; Couzon, Brigitte; Bédos, Jean-Pierre; Pangon, Béatrice; Grimaldi, David

    2016-02-01

    We report a human case of infective endocarditis caused by Streptococcus canis. Identification was carried out from positive blood culture using mass spectrometry and SodA gene sequencing. S. canis related zoonotic invasive infections may have been previously underdiagnosed due to inadequate identification of group G Streptococcus species.

  15. [Anthrax in Chad: a zoonosis that still exists today].

    PubMed

    Lamarque, D; Haessler, C; Champion, R; Granga, D; Bendina; Steinmetz, P; Guelina, A; Maurice, Y

    1989-01-01

    An epidemic of human and animal anthrax raged in Chad mainly in the Department of Chari Baguirmi from September to December 1988, infesting more than 50% of donkeys and horses. 716 human cases have been reported, with 88 deaths. Thanks to a geographical distribution of animal and human prevalence, one sees immediately the interdependency between sanitary state of live-stock and public health. An unusual means of transmission from donkey to donkey by insects as the vector is suggested to explain the intensity of animal epidemics. Two strains of B. anthracis were isolated and described. Systematic annual prophylactic inoculation of the live-stock is recommended, and also resumption of research to create a polyvalent vaccine for cattle plague/peripneumonia and anthrax.

  16. Trichinellosis: the zoonosis that won't go quietly.

    PubMed

    Murrell, K D; Pozio, E

    2000-11-01

    Trichinellosis, is normally not included among those regarded as emerging zoonoses because it has been a public health threat for more than 150 years. However, its dramatic re-emergence in many areas around the world over the past 10-20 years, inspite of a century of veterinary public health efforts to control and eradicate it, justifies it being included in this group. The reasons for this re-emergence are diverse, and include human pertubation and manipulation of ecosystems, war and political turmoil, rapidly changing food distribution and marketing systems, and even, surprisingly, rising affluence in developing countries. These influences, and their impact on the epidemiology of both domestic and sylvatic trichinellosis, are discussed, along with recommendations for confronting this altered status as a public health threat.

  17. Rights & Responsibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This theme issue guides teachers and students to annotated listings of Web sites, CD-ROMs and computer software, videos, books, and additional resources that deal with topics related to rights and responsibilities. Sidebar features discuss animal rights, handling money responsibly, and taking responsibility for the environment. (Contains Three…

  18. [Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS): bats or dromedary, which of them is responsible?].

    PubMed

    Chastel, C

    2014-05-01

    In 2012 a new viral emergent human disease appeared in the Middle East. This entity was named MERS for' Middle East respiratory syndrome'. By January 9, 2014, the disease had already struck 178 persons of whom 75 died from respiratory failure and diarrhoea. As the new disease was very similar to the deadly SARS (2002-2003) and since it was provoked by a Betacoronavirus, chiroptera were first suspected to be at the origin of this infection. Morever, recent studies performed in Saudi Arabia showed that one individual of the bat Taphozous perforatus harbored a short nucleotide segment identical to the homologous segment present in the viral strain isolated from the index-case of the epidemic. In addition, many strains of Betacoronavirus more or less related to those responsible for the MERS disease in man have been isolated from bats in Africa, Asia and Europe. However, another hypothesis was simultaneously proposed incriminating dromedary (Camelus dromedarius L.) as a likely actor in the transmission to human beings of the disease.We then reviewed data relative to other viral zoonosis in which dromedary was possibly implicated. This led to the provisional conclusion that this large mammal might play a role in the dissemination of the MERS-COV, the etiologic agent of the disease. This is based on epidemiological data and results of several serological surveys in animals.

  19. Cerebrospinal fluid is an efficient route for establishing brain infection with feline immunodeficiency virus and transfering infectious virus to the periphery

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Pinghuang; Hudson, Lola C; Tompkins, Mary B; Vahlenkamp, Thomas W; Colby, Brenda; Rundle, Cyndi; Meeker, Rick B

    2011-01-01

    Like human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) invades and infects the central nervous system (CNS) soon after peripheral infection. The appearance of viral RNA is particularly prominent in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), suggesting an efficient route of virus transfer across the blood-CSF barrier. This raises the concern whether this route can establish a stable viral reservoir and also be a source of virus capable of reseeding peripheral systems. To examine this possibility, 200 μl of cell-free NCSU1 FIV or FIV-infected choroid plexus macrophages (ChP-Mac) was directly injected into the right lateral ventricle of the brain. Negative controls were sham inoculated with uninfected ChP-Mac or virus-free culture supernatant and positive controls were infected systemically by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) inoculation with cell-free FIV resulted in high levels of plasma FIV RNA detected as early as 1 to 2 weeks post inoculation in all cats. In each case, the plasma viremia preceded the detection of CSF viral RNA. Compared to i.p. cats, i.c.v. cats had 32-fold higher CSF viral loads, 8-fold higher ratios of CSF to plasma viral load, and a 23-fold greater content of FIV proviral DNA in the brain. No FIV RNA was detected in plasma or CSF from the cats inoculated with FIV-infected ChP-Mac but an acute inflammatory response and a slight suppression of the CD4+:CD8+ ratio were observed. These results indicate that free FIV circulating in the CSF promotes infection of the CNS and provides a highly efficient pathway for the transfer of infectious virus to the periphery. PMID:16966220

  20. Feline immunodeficiency virus: an interesting model for AIDS studies and an important cat pathogen.

    PubMed Central

    Bendinelli, M; Pistello, M; Lombardi, S; Poli, A; Garzelli, C; Matteucci, D; Ceccherini-Nelli, L; Malvaldi, G; Tozzini, F

    1995-01-01

    The lentivirus feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a widespread pathogen of the domestic cat that is mainly transmitted through bites, although other means of transmission are also possible. Its prevalence ranges from 1 to 10% in different cat populations throughout the world, thus representing a large reservoir of naturally infected animals. FIV resembles the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in many respects. Similarities include the structural features of the virion, the general organization and great variability of the genome, the life cycle in the infected host, and most importantly, the pathogenic potential. Infection is associated with laboratory signs of immunosuppression as well as with a large variety of superinfections, tumors, and neurological manifestations. Our understanding of FIV is steadily improving and is providing important clues to the pathogenesis of immunodeficiency-inducing lentiviruses. The cellular receptor for FIV is different from the feline equivalent of the human CD4 molecule used by HIV; nevertheless, the major hallmark of infection is a progressive loss of CD4+ T lymphocytes as in HIV infection. The mechanisms by which FIV escapes the host's immune responses are being actively investigated. FIV causes lysis of infected T cells and also appears to predispose these cells to apoptosis. Infection of macrophages and other cell types has also been documented. For reasons yet to be understood, antibody-mediated neutralization of fresh FIV isolates is very inefficient both in vitro and in vivo. Vaccination studies have provided some encouraging results, but the difficulties encountered appear to match those met in HIV vaccine development. FIV susceptibility to antiviral agents is similar to that of HIV, thus providing a valuable system for in vivo preclinical evaluation of therapies. It is concluded that in many respects FIV is an ideal model for AIDS studies. PMID:7704896

  1. Unexpected Response.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    different course of action--its "Unexpected Response." The conclusion is that conventional forces are the essential deterrent given strategic parity . Then...different course of action--its "Unexpected Response. The conclusion is that conventional forces are the essential deterrent given strategic parity . Then...limited response, superiority, parity , etc. The tentative steps along the lines of a strategic defense are one more variation on the theme of deterrence

  2. Parameters of disease progression in long-term experimental feline retrovirus (feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukemia virus) infections: hematology, clinical chemistry, and lymphocyte subsets.

    PubMed

    Hofmann-Lehmann, R; Holznagel, E; Ossent, P; Lutz, H

    1997-01-01

    After several years of latency, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) cause fatal disease in the cat. The aim of this study was to determine laboratory parameters characteristic of disease progression which would allow a better description of the asymptomatic phase and a better understanding of the pathogenesis of the two infections. Therefore, experimentally infected cats (FIV and/or FeLV positive) and control animals were observed over a period of 6.5 years under identical conditions. Blood samples were analyzed for the following: complete hematology, clinical chemistry, serum protein electrophoresis, and determination of CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocyte subsets. The following hematological and clinical chemistry parameters were markedly changed in the FIV-infected animals from month 9 onwards: glucose, serum protein, gamma globulins, sodium, urea, phosphorus, lipase, cholesterol, and triglyceride. In FeLV infection, the markedly changed parameters were mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, aspartate aminotransferase, and urea. In contrast to reports of field studies, neither FIV-positive nor FeLV-positive animals developed persistent leukopenia, lymphopenia, or neutropenia. A significant decrease was found in the CD4+/CD8+ ratio in FIV-positive and FIV-FeLV-positive animals mainly due to loss of CD4+ lymphocytes. In FeLV-positive cats, both CD4+ and, to a lesser degree, CD8+ lymphocytes were decreased in long-term infection. The changes in FIV infection may reflect subclinical kidney dysfunction, changes in energy and lipid metabolism, and transient activation of the humoral immune response as described for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. The changes in FeLV infection may also reflect subclinical kidney dysfunction and, in addition, changes in erythrocyte and immune function of the animals. No severe clinical signs were observed in the FIV-positive cats, while FeLV had a severe influence on the life

  3. Parameters of disease progression in long-term experimental feline retrovirus (feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukemia virus) infections: hematology, clinical chemistry, and lymphocyte subsets.

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann-Lehmann, R; Holznagel, E; Ossent, P; Lutz, H

    1997-01-01

    After several years of latency, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) cause fatal disease in the cat. The aim of this study was to determine laboratory parameters characteristic of disease progression which would allow a better description of the asymptomatic phase and a better understanding of the pathogenesis of the two infections. Therefore, experimentally infected cats (FIV and/or FeLV positive) and control animals were observed over a period of 6.5 years under identical conditions. Blood samples were analyzed for the following: complete hematology, clinical chemistry, serum protein electrophoresis, and determination of CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocyte subsets. The following hematological and clinical chemistry parameters were markedly changed in the FIV-infected animals from month 9 onwards: glucose, serum protein, gamma globulins, sodium, urea, phosphorus, lipase, cholesterol, and triglyceride. In FeLV infection, the markedly changed parameters were mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, aspartate aminotransferase, and urea. In contrast to reports of field studies, neither FIV-positive nor FeLV-positive animals developed persistent leukopenia, lymphopenia, or neutropenia. A significant decrease was found in the CD4+/CD8+ ratio in FIV-positive and FIV-FeLV-positive animals mainly due to loss of CD4+ lymphocytes. In FeLV-positive cats, both CD4+ and, to a lesser degree, CD8+ lymphocytes were decreased in long-term infection. The changes in FIV infection may reflect subclinical kidney dysfunction, changes in energy and lipid metabolism, and transient activation of the humoral immune response as described for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. The changes in FeLV infection may also reflect subclinical kidney dysfunction and, in addition, changes in erythrocyte and immune function of the animals. No severe clinical signs were observed in the FIV-positive cats, while FeLV had a severe influence on the life

  4. [Double responses].

    PubMed

    Motté, G; Dinanian, S; Sebag, C; Drieu, L; Slama, M

    1995-12-01

    Double response is a rare electrocardiographic phenomenon requiring two atrioventricular conduction pathways with very different electrophysiological properties. Double ventricular responses are the usual manifestation: an atrial depolarisation (spontaneous or provoked, anticipated or not) is followed by a first ventricular response dependent on an accessory pathway or a rapid nodal pathway and then a second response resulting from sufficiently delayed transmission through a nodal pathway for the ventricles to have recovered their excitability when the second wave of activation reaches them. A simple curiosity when isolated and occurring under unusual conditions, particularly during electrophysiological investigation of the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, the double response may initiate symptomatic non-reentrant junctional tachycardia when associated with nodal duality and repeating from atria in sinus rhythm. The functional incapacity and resistance to antiarrhythmic therapy may require referral for ablation of the slow pathway.

  5. Brucella Induces an Unfolded Protein Response via TcpB That Supports Intracellular Replication in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Judith A.; Khan, Mike; Magnani, Diogo D.; Harms, Jerome S.; Durward, Marina; Radhakrishnan, Girish K.; Liu, Yi-Ping; Splitter, Gary A.

    2013-01-01

    Brucella melitensis is a facultative intracellular bacterium that causes brucellosis, the most prevalent zoonosis worldwide. The Brucella intracellular replicative niche in macrophages and dendritic cells thwarts immune surveillance and complicates both therapy and vaccine development. Currently, host-pathogen interactions supporting Brucella replication are poorly understood. Brucella fuses with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to replicate, resulting in dramatic restructuring of the ER. This ER disruption raises the possibility that Brucella provokes an ER stress response called the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR). In this study, B. melitensis infection up regulated expression of the UPR target genes BiP, CHOP, and ERdj4, and induced XBP1 mRNA splicing in murine macrophages. These data implicate activation of all 3 major signaling pathways of the UPR. Consistent with previous reports, XBP1 mRNA splicing was largely MyD88-dependent. However, up regulation of CHOP, and ERdj4 was completely MyD88 independent. Heat killed Brucella stimulated significantly less BiP, CHOP, and ERdj4 expression, but induced XBP1 splicing. Although a Brucella VirB mutant showed relatively intact UPR induction, a TcpB mutant had significantly compromised BiP, CHOP and ERdj4 expression. Purified TcpB, a protein recently identified to modulate microtubules in a manner similar to paclitaxel, also induced UPR target gene expression and resulted in dramatic restructuring of the ER. In contrast, infection with the TcpB mutant resulted in much less ER structural disruption. Finally, tauroursodeoxycholic acid, a pharmacologic chaperone that ameliorates the UPR, significantly impaired Brucella replication in macrophages. Together, these results suggest Brucella induces a UPR, via TcpB and potentially other factors, that enables its intracellular replication. Thus, the UPR may provide a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of brucellosis. These results also have implications for other

  6. Emergency Response

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information for first responders, industry, federal, state and local governments on EPA's role and available resources for response to oil spills, chemical, biological, radiological releases, and large-scale national emergencies.

  7. Clinical aspects of feline immunodeficiency and feline leukemia virus infection.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Katrin

    2011-10-15

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) are retroviruses with a global impact on the health of domestic cats. The two viruses differ in their potential to cause disease. FIV can cause an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome that increases the risk of developing opportunistic infections, neurological diseases, and tumors. In most naturally infected cats, however, FIV itself does not cause severe clinical signs, and FIV-infected cats may live many years without any health problems. FeLV is more pathogenic, and was long considered to be responsible for more clinical syndromes than any other agent in cats. FeLV can cause tumors (mainly lymphoma), bone marrow suppression syndromes (mainly anemia) and lead to secondary infectious diseases caused by suppressive effects of the virus on bone marrow and the immune system. Today, FeLV is less important as a deadly infectious agent as in the last 20 years prevalence has been decreasing in most countries.

  8. Development of clinical disease in cats experimentally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    English, R V; Nelson, P; Johnson, C M; Nasisse, M; Tompkins, W A; Tompkins, M B

    1994-09-01

    Cats naturally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) develop an AIDS-like syndrome whereas experimentally infected cats do not. To investigate the role of cofactors in the development of this disease in cats, 7 specific pathogen-free (SPF) and 12 random-source (RS) cats were infected with FIV. Over 4 years, infected cats developed similar phenotypic and functional immune abnormalities characterized by early and chronic inversion of CD4+:CD8+ cell ratios and significantly decreased mitogen responses compared with controls. Beginning 18-24 months after infection, 10 RS cats developed chronic clinical disease typical of feline AIDS, including stomatitis and recurrent upper respiratory disease; 4 SPF cats also developed chronic clinical disease, 2 with neurologic disease and 2 with B cell lymphomas. Thus, immunologic background is important in the type of disease that develops in cats infected with FIV, and FIV represents a promising animal model for studying the immunopathogenesis of AIDS in humans.

  9. Ebola Virus Disease: Rapid Diagnosis and Timely Case Reporting are Critical to the Early Response for Outbreak Control

    PubMed Central

    Stamm, Lola V.

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a life-threatening zoonosis caused by infection with the Ebola virus. Since the first reported EVD outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, several small outbreaks have been reported in central Africa with about 2,400 cases occurring between 1976 and 2013. The 2013–2015 EVD outbreak in west Africa is the first documented outbreak in this region and the largest ever with over 27,000 cases and more than 11,000 deaths. Although EVD transmission rates have recently decreased in west Africa, this crisis continues to threaten global health and security, particularly since infected travelers could spread EVD to other resource-limited areas of the world. Because vaccines and drugs are not yet licensed for EVD, outbreak control is dependent on the use of non-pharmaceutical interventions (e.g., infection control practices, isolation of EVD cases, contact tracing with follow-up and quarantine, sanitary burial, health education). However, delays in diagnosing and reporting EVD cases in less accessible rural areas continue to hamper control efforts. New advances in rapid diagnostics for identifying presumptive EVD cases and in mobile-based technologies for communicating critical health-related information should facilitate deployment of an early response to prevent the amplification of sporadic EVD cases into large-scale outbreaks. PMID:26175026

  10. In Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egeland, Janice A.; Shaw, Jon A.; Endicott, Jean; Allen, Cleona R.; Hostetter, Abram M.

    2005-01-01

    This article features the response to the important commentary by Dr. Carlson. The Amish Study represents, as she notes, a special research population for investigation of "classic" bipolar disorder viewed against a homogeneous cultural landscape where emerging biological and behavioral prodromal features can be identified. Dr. Carlson questions…

  11. Freedom in responsibility: a response.

    PubMed

    Waters, Brent

    2005-08-01

    This paper is a critical response to Elisabeth Gräb-Schmidt's article "Freedom in responsibility: On the relevance of 'sin' as hermeneutic guiding principle in bioethical decision making." Gräb-Schmidt's chief contention is that ethics begins with anthropology, and that moral responsibility is thereby grounded within a set of given limits. Freedom is distorted into sin when these limits are transgressed. My principal complaint is that her account of the relationship between freedom and sin is grounded in a tragic ontology. Alternatively, I contend that anthropology is grounded in Christology in which freedom is a gift of the Spirit. Consequently, sin is not so much tragic as it marks a refusal of humans to accept their divine election. The issues of human cloning and embryonic stem-cell research are used to exemplify what difference these respective differences might make in a process of moral deliberation.

  12. Transcriptional response of Leptospira interrogans to iron limitation and characterization of a PerR homolog

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leptospira interrogans is the causative agent of leptospirosis, a zoonosis of global significance. Iron is essential for growth of most bacterial species. Since availability of iron is low in the host, pathogens have evolved complex iron acquisition mechanisms to survive and establish infection. In ...

  13. Naturalizing Responsibility.

    PubMed

    Zullo, Silvia

    2016-10-01

    In the contemporary debate on the use of the neurosciences in ethics and law, numerous arguments have been bandied about among scientists and philosophers looking to uphold or reject the reliability and validity of scientific findings obtained by brain imaging technologies. Among the most vexing questions is, Can we trust that technology? One point of disagreement is whether brain scans offer a window through which to observe the functioning of the mind, in such a way as to enable lawyers, judges, physicians, and lawmakers to detect anomalies in brain function that may account for criminal unconscious behavior. Those who stand behind brain imaging believe that this can indeed be achieved, whereas those in opposition stress that brain scans are highly open to interpretation and that the data they provide is insufficient to establish causal connections. The question essentially comes down to whether technology can reliably be used to determine the intentions of the individual, thus establishing mens rea, for example, and hence responsibility. This article focuses on the latter notion and explores whether we can rely on the neurosciences to shed light on a complex form of moral and legal reasoning, as well as the role of the neurosciences in reawakening a philosophical and legal interest in trying to set responsibility on an empirical basis.

  14. Clonorchis sinensis Co-infection Could Affect the Disease State and Treatment Response of HBV Patients

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yan; Chen, Tingjin; Kong, Xiangzhan; Sun, Hengchang; Yu, Xinbing; Xu, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Background Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis) is considered to be an important parasitic zoonosis because it infects approximately 35 million people, while approximately 15 million were distributed in China. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major public health issue. Two types of pathogens have the potential to cause human liver disease and eventually hepatocellular carcinoma. Concurrent infection with HBV and C. sinensis is often observed in some areas where C. sinensis is endemic. However, whether C. sinensis could impact HBV infection or vice versa remains unknown. Principal Findings Co-infection with C. sinensis and HBV develops predominantly in males. Co-infected C. sinensis and HBV patients presented weaker liver function and higher HBV DNA titers. Combination treatment with antiviral and anti-C. sinensis drugs in co-infected patients could contribute to a reduction in viral load and help with liver function recovery. Excretory-secretory products (ESPs) may, in some ways, increase HBV viral replication in vitro. A mixture of ESP and HBV positive sera could induce peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to produce higher level of Th2 cytokines including IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 compared to HBV alone, it seems that due to presence of ESP, the cytokine production shift towards Th2. C. sinensis/HBV co-infected patients showed higher serum IL-6 and IL-10 levels and lower serum IFN-γ levels. Conclusions/Significance Patients with concomitant C. sinensis and HBV infection presented weaker liver function and higher HBV DNA copies. In co-infected patients, the efficacy of anti-viral treatment was better in patients who were prescribed with entecavir and praziquantel than entecavir alone. One possible reason for the weaker response to antiviral therapies in co-infected patients was the shift in cytokine production from Th1 to Th2 that may inhibit viral clearance. C. sinensis/HBV co-infection could exacerbate the imbalance of Th1/Th2 cytokine. PMID:27348302

  15. Author's response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Sheldon

    The long-standing practice of classical physics is to take the instantaneous state of a system to consist of both the position and the velocity. In his response to my paper, Frank Arntzenius reasserts an intuition that suggests that the velocity (as ordinarily defined) cannot be intrinsic to an instant and, therefore, that physical practice has been in error on this point. I am still suspicious of such intuitions about what is "intrinsic" to an instant, and in my paper, I suggested that they are likely to be issuing from confusions. Even David Lewis once claimed, "Intuitions of what is intrinsic are to be mistrusted, I think" (Lewis, 1986, p. 205). Though Lewis also claimed that there is some "slight presumption" in favor of such intuitions when doing metaphysics, the overall tenor of his various attempts to define "intrinsic" does not suggest to me that he thought that we should use such intuitions to reject standard physical attributions of "natural properties," properties that appear in physical laws relating the simultaneous values of physical quantities.

  16. Domestic cat microsphere immunoassays: detection of antibodies during feline immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Wood, Britta A; Carver, Scott; Troyer, Ryan M; Elder, John H; VandeWoude, Sue

    2013-10-31

    Microsphere immunoassays (MIAs) allow rapid and accurate evaluation of multiple analytes simultaneously within a biological sample. Here we describe the development and validation of domestic cat-specific MIAs for a) the quantification of total IgG and IgA levels in plasma, and b) the detection of IgG and IgA antibodies to feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) capsid (CA) and surface (SU) proteins, and feline CD134 in plasma. These assays were used to examine the temporal antibody response of domestic cats infected with apathogenic and pathogenic FIVs, and domestic cats infected with parental and chimeric FIVs of varying pathogenicity. The results from these studies demonstrated that a) total IgG antibodies increase over time after infection; b) α-CA and α-SU IgG antibodies are detectable between 9 and 28 days post-infection and increase over time, and these antibodies combined represent a fraction (1.8 to 21.8%) of the total IgG increase due to infection; c) measurable α-CD134 IgG antibody levels vary among individuals and over time, and are not strongly correlated with viral load; d) circulating IgA antibodies, in general, do not increase during the early stage of infection; and e) total IgG, and α-CA and α-SU IgG antibody kinetics and levels vary with FIV viral strain/pathogenicity. The MIAs described here could be used to screen domestic cats for FIV infection, and to evaluate the FIV-specific or total antibody response elicited by various FIV strains/other diseases.

  17. Cultural Studies, Pedagogy, and Response-Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossiter, Penelope

    2012-01-01

    A few years ago, in a tutorial in an advanced level undergraduate subject that she teaches--"Emotions, Culture and Community"--the author was a witness and participant in a pedagogical event that moved and provoked the class: It incited response-ability. This article is about that event, the meaning of response-ability, and the window…

  18. Tracheal granuloma because of infection with a novel mycobacterial species in an old FIV-positive cat.

    PubMed

    De Lorenzi, D; Solano-Gallego, L

    2009-03-01

    A 15-year-old domestic shorthair feline immunodeficiency virus-positive cat was presented with a five day history of productive cough and acute respiratory distress. Physical examination revealed inspiratory dyspnoea and diffuse gingivostomatitis. Radiographs showed an intratracheal mass located at the level of the sixth and the seventh cervical vertebrae. Bronchoscopy revealed a unique intratracheal mass occluding about 85 per cent of the tracheal lumen. The tracheal mass was removed bronchoscopically. A diagnosis of pyogranulomatous inflammation referable to a mycobacterial infection was made based on cytological and histopathological findings. 16S rRNA polymerase chain reaction testing and sequence analysis identified a novel mycobacterial species, likely a slow grower, with 95 per cent identity with Mycobacterium xenopi. To our knowledge, this is the first description of a tracheal mycobacterial granuloma in a cat, and the first time, a mycobacterium with this sequence has been identified.

  19. Immune response of turkey poults exposed at 1 day of age to either attenuated or wild Salmonella strains.

    PubMed

    Hesse, Martina; Stamm, Andreas; Weber, Rita; Glünder, Gerhard; Berndt, Angela

    2016-06-01

    Salmonellosis is a foodborne zoonosis that is most often acquired by consuming poultry products such as eggs and poultry meat. Amongst other measures the vaccination of food-producing poultry is thought to contribute to a reduction in human salmonellosis. In the European Union (EU) in 2014 the licence of a commercially available Salmonella vaccine for chickens and ducks was extended to turkeys. In the present study, we examined the course of infection with a virulent Salmonella enterica ssp. enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) strain, a virulent S. enterica ssp. enterica serovar Typhimurium (ST) strain, and the respective live vaccine containing attenuated strains of both serovars in turkey poults. Besides collecting microbiological data and detecting invading Salmonella in the caecal mucosa via immunohistochemistry, we also assessed immune reactions in terms of antibody production, influx of CD4-, CD8α- and CD28-positive cells into the caecal mucosa and the expression of four different immune-related proteins. We found that the attenuated strains were able to invade the caecum, but to a lower degree and for a shorter duration of time compared to virulent strains. Infections with virulent Salmonellae also caused an increase in CD4-, CD8α- and CD28-positive cells in the caecal mucosa and an increased transcription of iNOS, IL-8-like chemokines, and IFN-γ. In poults treated with attenuated bacteria we could not detect any evidence of immune responses. In conclusion, the vaccine showed a lower degree of caecal invasion and induced weaker immune reactions compared to the virulent Salmonella strains in turkeys. The efficiency of the vaccine has to be verified in future studies.

  20. Modeling Response Signal and Response Time Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratcliff, Roger

    2006-01-01

    The diffusion model (Ratcliff, 1978) and the leaky competing accumulator model (LCA, Usher & McClelland, 2001) were tested against two-choice data collected from the same subjects with the standard response time procedure and the response signal procedure. In the response signal procedure, a stimulus is presented and then, at one of a number of…

  1. In Vivo-Expressed Proteins of Virulent Leptospira interrogans Serovar Autumnalis N2 Elicit Strong IgM Responses of Value in Conclusive Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Raja, Veerapandian; Shanmughapriya, Santhanam; Kanagavel, Murugesan; Artiushin, Sergey C.; Velineni, Sridhar; Timoney, John F.

    2015-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a serious zoonosis that is underdiagnosed because of limited access to laboratory facilities in Southeast Asia, Central and South America, and Oceania. Timely diagnosis of locally distributed serovars of high virulence is crucial for successful care and outbreak management. Using pooled patient sera, an expression gene library of a virulent Leptospira interrogans serovar Autumnalis strain N2 isolated in South India was screened. The identified genes were characterized, and the purified recombinant proteins were used as antigens in IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) either singly or in combination. Sera (n = 118) from cases of acute leptospirosis along with sera (n = 58) from healthy subjects were tested for reactivity with the identified proteins in an ELISA designed to detect specific IgM responses. We have identified nine immunoreactive proteins, ArgC, RecA, GlpF, FliD, TrmD, RplS, RnhB, Lp28.6, and Lrr44.9, which were found to be highly conserved among pathogenic leptospires. Apparently, the proteins ArgC, RecA, GlpF, FliD, TrmD, and Lrr44.9 are expressed during natural infection of the host and undetectable in in vitro cultures. Among all the recombinant proteins used as antigens in IgM ELISA, ArgC had the highest sensitivity and specificity, 89.8% and 95.5%, respectively, for the conclusive diagnosis of leptospirosis. The use of ArgC and RecA in combination for IgM ELISA increased the sensitivity and specificity to 95.7% and 94.9%, respectively. ArgC and RecA thus elicited specific IgM responses and were therefore effective in laboratory confirmation of Leptospira infection. PMID:26607308

  2. Clinical Aspects of Feline Retroviruses: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Katrin

    2012-01-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) are retroviruses with global impact on the health of domestic cats. The two viruses differ in their potential to cause disease. FeLV is more pathogenic, and was long considered to be responsible for more clinical syndromes than any other agent in cats. FeLV can cause tumors (mainly lymphoma), bone marrow suppression syndromes (mainly anemia), and lead to secondary infectious diseases caused by suppressive effects of the virus on bone marrow and the immune system. Today, FeLV is less commonly diagnosed than in the previous 20 years; prevalence has been decreasing in most countries. However, FeLV importance may be underestimated as it has been shown that regressively infected cats (that are negative in routinely used FeLV tests) also can develop clinical signs. FIV can cause an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome that increases the risk of opportunistic infections, neurological diseases, and tumors. In most naturally infected cats, however, FIV itself does not cause severe clinical signs, and FIV-infected cats may live many years without any health problems. This article provides a review of clinical syndromes in progressively and regressively FeLV-infected cats as well as in FIV-infected cats. PMID:23202500

  3. Gene transfer to the nonhuman primate retina with recombinant feline immunodeficiency virus vectors.

    PubMed

    Lotery, Andrew J; Derksen, Todd A; Russell, Stephen R; Mullins, Robert F; Sauter, Sybille; Affatigato, Louisa M; Stone, Edwin M; Davidson, Beverly L

    2002-04-10

    We hypothesize that recombinant feline immunodeficiency viral (rFIV) vectors may be useful for gene transfer to the nonhuman primate retina. We performed vitrectomies and subretinal injections in the right eyes of 11 cynomolgus monkeys. Vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein-pseudotyped rFIV that expressed the Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase gene was injected into eight eyes. Sham vehicle or lactose buffer injections were also performed in two of these eight study eyes. rFIV pseudotyped with an amphotropic envelope was used in two eyes, and in one animal injections of lactose buffer only were given. After surgery the animals were clinically evaluated by retinal photography and electroretinography. beta-Galactosidase expression was evaluated, at a final end point, in histological sections. We found photoreceptor and Müller cells to have the greatest transgene expression. Focal inflammatory responses localized to the injection site were seen histologically in all eyes. No difference in transduction efficiency was seen between injections near the macula and more peripheral injections. Visual function as assessed by electroretinography was not significantly affected by vector or vehicle injections. We conclude that rFIV vectors administered beneath the retina can transduce a variety of retinal cells in the nonhuman primate retina. rFIV vectors have therapeutic potential and could be exploited to develop gene therapy for the human eye.

  4. Reader Response in Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Glenna

    2002-01-01

    Presents an overview of critical theory to show how the method of Reader Response evolved. Discusses theories of reading and the reader; variations within reader response; and implementing reader response in literacy programs. Includes a brief response by Robert E. Probst. (RS)

  5. The Response Continuum

    SciTech Connect

    Caltagirone, Sergio; Frincke, Deborah A.

    2005-06-17

    Active response is a sequence of actions per- formed speci¯cally to mitigate a detected threat. Response decisions always follow detection: a decision to take `no ac- tion' remains a response decision. However, active response is a complex subject that has received insu±cient formal attention. To facilitate discussion, this paper provides a framework that proposes a common de¯nition, describes the role of response and the major issues surrounding response choices, and ¯nally, provides a model for the process of re- sponse. This provides a common starting point for discus- sion of the full response continuum as an integral part of contemporary computer security.

  6. State Emergency Response Commissions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Governor of each state has designated a State Emergency Response Commission (SERC) that is responsible for implementing the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) provisions within its state.

  7. Stimulus responsive nanoparticles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairns, Darren Robert (Inventor); Huebsch, Wade W. (Inventor); Sierros, Konstantinos A. (Inventor); Shafran, Matthew S. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Disclosed are various embodiments of methods and systems related to stimulus responsive nanoparticles. In one embodiment includes a stimulus responsive nanoparticle system, the system includes a first electrode, a second electrode, and a plurality of elongated electro-responsive nanoparticles dispersed between the first and second electrodes, the plurality of electro-responsive nanorods configured to respond to an electric field established between the first and second electrodes.

  8. Stimulus Responsive Nanoparticles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairns, Darran Robert (Inventor); Huebsch, Wade W. (Inventor); Sierros, Konstantinos A. (Inventor); Shafran, Matthew S. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Disclosed are various embodiments of methods and systems related to stimulus responsive nanoparticles. In one embodiment includes a stimulus responsive nanoparticle system, the system includes a first electrode, a second electrode, and a plurality of elongated electro-responsive nanoparticles dispersed between the first and second electrodes, the plurality of electro-responsive nanorods configured to respond to an electric field established between the first and second electrodes.

  9. Response Surface Methodology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-10-01

    methods . All three of these topics are usually combined into Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Also the experimenter may encounter situations where...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Response Surface Methodology 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...18 Keywords: Response Surface Methodology (RSM), regression analysis, linear

  10. Causal Responsibility and Counterfactuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagnado, David A.; Gerstenberg, Tobias; Zultan, Ro'i

    2013-01-01

    How do people attribute responsibility in situations where the contributions of multiple agents combine to produce a joint outcome? The prevalence of over-determination in such cases makes this a difficult problem for counterfactual theories of causal responsibility. In this article, we explore a general framework for assigning responsibility in…

  11. Constructed-Response Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swinford, Ashleigh

    2016-01-01

    With rigor outlined in state and Common Core standards and the addition of constructed-response test items to most state tests, math constructed-response questions have become increasingly popular in today's classroom. Although constructed-response problems can present a challenge for students, they do offer a glimpse of students' learning through…

  12. National Response Team

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Response planning and coordination (not direct response itself) is accomplished at the federal level through the U.S. National Response Team (NRT), an interagency group co-chaired by EPA and U.S. Coast Guard. NRT distributes information, plans, and trains.

  13. The responsibilities of engineers.

    PubMed

    Smith, Justin; Gardoni, Paolo; Murphy, Colleen

    2014-06-01

    Knowledge of the responsibilities of engineers is the foundation for answering ethical questions about the work of engineers. This paper defines the responsibilities of engineers by considering what constitutes the nature of engineering as a particular form of activity. Specifically, this paper focuses on the ethical responsibilities of engineers qua engineers. Such responsibilities refer to the duties acquired in virtue of being a member of a group. We examine the practice of engineering, drawing on the idea of practices developed by philosopher Alasdair MacIntyre, and show how the idea of a practice is important for identifying and justifying the responsibilities of engineers. To demonstrate the contribution that knowledge of the responsibilities of engineers makes to engineering ethics, a case study from structural engineering is discussed. The discussion of the failure of the Sleipner A Platform off the coast of Norway in 1991 demonstrates how the responsibilities of engineers can be derived from knowledge of the nature of engineering and its context.

  14. CO2 -Responsive polymers.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shaojian; Theato, Patrick

    2013-07-25

    This Review focuses on the recent progress in the area of CO2 -responsive polymers and provides detailed descriptions of these existing examples. CO2 -responsive polymers can be categorized into three types based on their CO2 -responsive groups: amidine, amine, and carboxyl groups. Compared with traditional temperature, pH, or light stimuli-responsive polymers, CO2 -responsive polymers provide the advantage to use CO2 as a "green" trigger as well as to capture CO2 directly from air. In addition, the current challenges of CO2 -responsive polymers are discussed and the different solution methods are compared. Noteworthy, CO2 -responsive polymers are considered to have a prosperous future in various scientific areas.

  15. Mayaro virus disease: an emerging mosquito-borne zoonosis in tropical South America.

    PubMed

    Tesh, R B; Watts, D M; Russell, K L; Damodaran, C; Calampa, C; Cabezas, C; Ramirez, G; Vasquez, B; Hayes, C G; Rossi, C A; Powers, A M; Hice, C L; Chandler, L J; Cropp, B C; Karabatsos, N; Roehrig, J T; Gubler, D J

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the clinical, laboratory, and epidemiological findings on 27 cases of Mayaro virus (MV) disease, an emerging mosquito-borne viral illness that is endemic in rural areas of tropical South America. MV disease is a nonfatal, dengue-like illness characterized by fever, chills, headache, eye pain, generalized myalgia, arthralgia, diarrhea, vomiting, and rash of 3-5 days' duration. Severe joint pain is a prominent feature of this illness; the arthralgia sometimes persists for months and can be quite incapacitating. Cases of two visitors from the United States, who developed MV disease during visits to eastern Peru, are reported. MV disease and dengue are difficult to differentiate clinically.

  16. A review on camel brucellosis: a zoonosis sustained by ignorance and indifference

    PubMed Central

    Sprague, Lisa D; Al-Dahouk, Sascha; Neubauer, Heinrich

    2012-01-01

    In many developing countries of Asia and Africa, camels are one of the most important sources of income for the nomadic population. With increasing urbanization, camel milk and meat have gained a wider market and commercialization and consumption of camel products are on the rise. Camel brucellosis can be encountered in all camel rearing countries with exception of Australia. High animal and herd prevalences have been reported from numerous countries, which not only pose a continuous risk for human infection, but also increase the spread of infection through uncontrolled trade of clinically inconspicuous animals. This short review aims at providing an overview on diagnostic investigations, as well as the public health and economic impact of brucellosis in old world camels. PMID:23265371

  17. Reverse zoonosis of influenza to swine: new perspectives on the human–animal interface

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The origins of the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic in swine are unknown, highlighting gaps in our understanding of influenza A virus (IAV) ecology and evolution. We review how recently strengthened influenza virus surveillance in pigs has revealed that influenza virus transmission from humans to sw...

  18. The economic impact of pig-associated parasitic zoonosis in Northern Lao PDR.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Adnan Ali Khan; Conlan, James V; Racloz, Vanessa Nadine; Reid, Simon Andrew; Blacksell, Stuart D; Fenwick, Stanley G; Thompson, Andrew R C; Khamlome, Boualam; Vongxay, Khamphouth; Whittaker, Maxine

    2013-03-01

    The parasitic zoonoses human cysticercosis (Taenia solium), taeniasis (other Taenia species) and trichinellosis (Trichinella species) are endemic in the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR). This study was designed to quantify the economic burden pig-associated zoonotic disease pose in Lao PDR. In particular, the analysis included estimation of the losses in the pork industry as well as losses due to human illness and lost productivity. A Markov-probability based decision-tree model was chosen to form the basis of the calculations to estimate the economic and public health impacts of taeniasis, trichinellosis and cysticercosis. Two different decision trees were run simultaneously on the model's human cohort. A third decision tree simulated the potential impacts on pig production. The human capital method was used to estimate productivity loss. The results found varied significantly depending on the rate of hospitalisation due to neurocysticerosis. This study is the first systematic estimate of the economic impact of pig-associated zoonotic diseases in Lao PDR that demonstrates the significance of the diseases in that country.

  19. Rabies: the clinical features, management and prevention of the classic zoonosis.

    PubMed

    Warrell, Mary J; Warrell, David A

    2015-02-01

    The diagnosis of rabies encephalitis relies on awareness of the varied clinical features and eliciting a history of unusual contact with a mammal throughout the endemic area. The diagnosis is easily missed. Laboratory tests are not routine and only confirm clinical suspicion. Rabies infection carries a case fatality exceeding 99.9%. Palliation is appropriate, except for previously-vaccinated patients or those infected by American bats, for whom intensive care is probably indicated. However, as rabies vaccines are outstandingly effective, no one should die of dog-transmitted infection. Vaccines and rabies immunoglobulin are expensive and usually scarce in Asia and Africa. All travellers to dog rabies enzootic areas should be strongly encouraged to have pre-exposure immunisation before departure. There is no contraindication to vaccination but the cost can be prohibitive. Intradermal immunisation, using 0.1 ml and sharing vials of vaccine, is cheaper and is now permitted by UK regulations. Returning travellers may need post-exposure prophylaxis. Economical intradermal post-exposure vaccination is practicable and should be introduced into rural areas of Africa and Asia immediately. Eliminating rabies in dogs is now feasible and would dramatically reduce human mortality, if funds were made available. The high current economic burden of human prophylaxis would then be largely relieved.

  20. Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome, an emerging tick-borne zoonosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Quan; He, Biao; Huang, Si-Yang; Wei, Feng; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2014-08-01

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging haemorrhagic fever that was first described in rural areas of China. The causative agent, SFTS virus (SFTSV), is a novel phlebovirus in the Bunyaviridae family. Since the first report in 2010, SFTS has been found in 11 provinces of China, with about 2500 reported cases, and an average case-fatality rate of 7·3%. The disease was also reported in Japan and Korea in 2012; Heartland virus, another phlebovirus genetically closely related to SFTSV, was isolated from two patients in the USA. The disease has become a substantial risk to public health, not only in China, but also in other parts of the world. The virus could undergo rapid evolution by gene mutation, reassortment, and homologous recombination in tick vectors and vertebrate reservoir hosts. No specific treatment of SFTS is available, and avoiding tick bites is an important measure to prevent the infection and transmission of SFTSV. This Review provides information on the molecular characteristics and ecology of this emerging tick-borne virus and describes the epidemiology, clinical signs, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of human infection with SFTSV.

  1. African trypanosomiasis with special reference to Egyptian Trypanosoma evansi: is it a neglected zoonosis?

    PubMed

    El-Bahnasawy, Mamdouh M M; Khater, Mai Kh A; Morsy, Tosson A

    2014-12-01

    Trypanosomes (including humans) are blood and sometimes tissue parasites of the order Kinetoplastida, family Trypanosomatidae, genus Trypanosoma, principally transmitted by biting insects where most of them undergo a biological cycle. They are divided into Stercoraria with the posterior station inoculation, including T. cruzi, both an extra- and intracellular parasite that causes Chagas disease, a major human disease affecting 15 million people and threatening 100 million people in Latin America, and the Salivaria with the anterior station inoculation, mainly African livestock pathogenic trypanosomes, including the agents of sleeping sickness, a major human disease affecting around half a million people and threatening 60 million people in Africa. Now, T. evansi was reported in man is it required to investigate its zoonotic potential?

  2. Regulatory and scientific frameworks for zoonosis control in Japan--contributing to International Health Regulations (2005).

    PubMed

    Takahashi-Omoe, H; Omoe, K

    2009-12-01

    Zoonoses have earned recognition as the source of serious problems for both public and animal health throughout the world. Emerging infectious diseases have been occurring at an unprecedented rate since the 1970s and a large proportion of these diseases are considered zoonotic. To aid in controlling zoonoses, countermeasures have been strengthened against these diseases and are maintained at both national and international levels. Atypical example of this international effort can be found in the revised International Health Regulations (2005), known as the IHR (2005), which were instituted by the World Health Organization and have been implemented since 2007. In Japan, the appropriate Ministries have established frameworks for controlling zoonoses that employ both administrative and scientific approaches to fulfill the demands of the IHR (2005). In this paper, the authors present the Japanese framework for controlling zoonoses, as a useful example for global public and animal health management in coming years.

  3. Social and gender determinants of risk of cryptosporidiosis, an emerging zoonosis, in Dagoretti, Nairobi, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kimani, Violet N; Mitoko, Grace; McDermott, Brigid; Grace, Delia; Ambia, Julie; Kiragu, Monica W; Njehu, Alice N; Sinja, Judith; Monda, Joseph G; Kang'ethe, Erastus K

    2012-09-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the social and gender determinants of the risk of exposure to Cryptosporidium from urban dairying in Dagoretti, Nairobi. Focus group discussions were held in six locations to obtain qualitative information on risk of exposure. A repeated cross-sectional descriptive study included participatory assessment and household questionnaires (300 randomly selected urban dairy farming households and 100 non-dairying neighbours). One-hundred dairy households randomly selected from the 300 dairy households participated in an additional economic survey along with 40 neighbouring non-dairy households. We found that exposure to Cryptosporidium was influenced by gender, age and role in the household. Farm workers and people aged 50 to 65 years had most contact with cattle, and women had greater contact with raw milk. However, children had relatively higher consumption of raw milk than other age groups. Adult women had more daily contact with cattle faeces than adult men, and older women had more contact than older men. Employees had greater contact with cattle than other groups and cattle faeces, and most (77 %) were male. Women took more care of sick people and were more at risk from exposure by this route. Poverty did not affect the level of exposure to cattle but did decrease consumption of milk. There was no significant difference between men and women as regards levels of knowledge on symptoms of cryptosporidiosis infections or other zoonotic diseases associated with dairy farming. Awareness of cryptosporidiosis and its transmission increased significantly with rising levels of education. Members of non-dairy households and children under the age of 12 years had significantly higher odds of reporting diarrhoea: gender, season and contact with cattle or cattle dung were not significantly linked with diarrhoea. In conclusion, social and gender factors are important determinants of exposure to zoonotic disease in Nairobi.

  4. Neoehrlichiosis: an emerging tick-borne zoonosis caused by Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis.

    PubMed

    Silaghi, Cornelia; Beck, Relja; Oteo, José A; Pfeffer, Martin; Sprong, Hein

    2016-03-01

    Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis is an emerging tick-borne pathogen causing a systemic inflammatory syndrome mostly in persons with underlying hematologic or autoimmune diseases. As it is neither well-known nor well-recognized, it might be misdiagnosed as recurrence of the underlying disease or as an unrelated arteriosclerotic vascular event. The pathogen is transmitted by hard ticks of the genus Ixodes and is closely associated with rodents in which transplacental transmission occurs. Transovarial transmission in ticks has not yet been shown. Infection rates vary greatly in ticks and rodents, but the causes for its spatiotemporal variations are largely unknown. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge on the geographical distribution and clinical importance of Ca. N. mikurensis. By elucidating the life history traits of this pathogen and determining more accurately its incidence in the human population, a better assessment of its public health relevance can be made. Most urgent research needs are the in vitro-cultivation of the pathogen, the development of specific serological tests, the determination of the full genomic sequence, the routine implementation of molecular diagnosis in diseased patients with a particular panel of underlying diseases, and promoting the knowledge about neoehrlichiosis among general practitioners, hospital physicians and the risk groups such as forest workers or immune-compromised people to raise awareness about this disease that can easily be treated when correctly diagnosed.

  5. Hepatitis E virus in the Western world--a pork-related zoonosis.

    PubMed

    Christou, L; Kosmidou, M

    2013-07-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a common cause of waterborne epidemics of acute hepatitis worldwide, but its natural history, ecology, clinical significance and presentation are entirely different in the developed world, where, apart from the typical travel-associated imported cases, the majority of the observed cases involve older adults with comorbidities or forms of immune compromise who acquire HEV genotype 3, mostly through direct or indirect (consumption of meat products) contact with pigs. Thus, HEV is zoonotic in the developed world, a fact that has been recently recognized, and is of major importance in medical, veterinary and public health terms. The present article evaluates the current knowledge about the zoonotic nature of HEV in the industrialized world, outlines the numerous questions that still exist regarding the role of pigs in viral ecology, summarizes knowledge about clinical disease in its zoonotic form, and discusses where future scientific efforts should focus.

  6. Rodent-borne emerging viral zoonosis. Hemorrhagic fevers and hantavirus infections in South America.

    PubMed

    Enria, D A; Pinheiro, F

    2000-03-01

    Hantaviruses and arenaviruses are naturally occurring viruses of rodents. Four South American hemorrhagic fevers caused by arenaviruses have emerged in the last 5 decades. All have similar clinical manifestations, with a case-fatality rate as high as 15% to 30%. Hantavirus infections have been increasingly recognized in South America since the description in 1993 of Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. Given the diversity of rodent species in the region, it can be foreseen that many other viruses will be discovered, and some of them will be causing human illnesses of high public health impact.

  7. [A new zoonosis--investigation of Gardnerella vaginalis disease of fox. II. Identification of pathogenic bacteria].

    PubMed

    Cai, M; Wei, J; Yan, Z; Yan, X; Luan, F; Yan, X

    1995-02-01

    16 strains isolated from aborted foetus and vaginal exeretions of foxes were used for examination of cell morphology including fine structure of the cell wall and septa, test for homolysis, biochemical reactions and analysis of G+C content of the bacterial DNA. The cells are pleomorphic bacilli and coccobacilli, Gram stain reaction appear positive to variable, catalse and oxidase-negative, with a fermentative type of glucose metabolism, giving acetic and lactic acid as the major end products of fermentation. It's differentiated from the human strains of G. vaginalis by its less fastidious in growth requirements and being facultatively anaerobic to aerobic. We propose the name: a new subspecies--Gardnerella vaginalis subsp. fox, the type strain is U80.

  8. Detection of the rodent tapeworm Rodentolepis (=Hymenolepis) microstoma in humans. A new zoonosis?

    PubMed

    Macnish, M G; Ryan, U M; Behnke, J M; Thompson, R C A

    2003-09-15

    A longitudinal survey of gastro-intestinal parasites was conducted over a 3-year period in remote communities in the north-west of Western Australia where, based on diagnosis by microscopy of faecal samples, Rodentolepis (=Hymenolepis) nana was found to be the most common enteric parasite. In the present study, using molecular tools, we describe the unexpected discovery, of a mixed infection with a second hymenolepidid species, Rodentolepis (=Hymenolepis) microstoma in four of the surveyed individuals. In the absence of any reliable earlier reports we believe this is to be the first instance of the detection of R. microstoma from human hosts. The development of a diagnostic restriction fragment polymorphism has enabled the study of R. microstoma in human populations and will greatly facilitate a more thorough understanding of the epidemiology of this parasite in the future.

  9. Biological, Epidemiological, and Clinical Aspects of Echinococcosis, a Zoonosis of Increasing Concern

    PubMed Central

    Eckert, Johannes; Deplazes, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Echinococcosis in humans is a zoonotic infection caused by larval stages (metacestodes) of cestode species of the genus Echinococcus. Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is caused by Echinococcus granulosus, alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is caused by E. multilocularis, and polycystic forms are caused by either E. vogeli or E. oligarthrus. In untreated cases, AE has a high mortality rate. Although control is essentially feasible, CE remains a considerable health problem in many regions of the northern and southern hemispheres. AE is restricted to the northern hemisphere regions of North America and Eurasia. Recent studies have shown that E. multilocularis, the causative agent of AE, is more widely distributed than previously thought. There are also some hints of an increasing significance of polycystic forms of the disease, which are restricted to Central and South America. Various aspects of human echinococcosis are discussed in this review, including data on the infectivity of genetic variants of E. granulosus to humans, the increasing invasion of cities in Europe and Japan by red foxes, the main definitive hosts of E. multilocularis, and the first demonstration of urban cycles of the parasite. Examples of emergence or reemergence of CE are presented, and the question of potential spreading of E. multilocularis is critically assessed. Furthermore, information is presented on new and improved tools for diagnosing the infection in final hosts (dogs, foxes, and cats) by coproantigen or DNA detection and the application of molecular techniques to epidemiological studies. In the clinical field, the available methods for diagnosing human CE and AE are described and the treatment options are summarized. The development of new chemotherapeutic options for all forms of human echinococcosis remains an urgent requirement. A new option for the control of E. granulosus in the intermediate host population (mainly sheep and cattle) is vaccination. Attempts are made to reduce the prevalence of E. multilocualaris in fox populations by regular baiting with an anthelmintic (praziquantel). Recent data have shown that this control option may be used in restricted areas, for example in cities, with the aim of reducing the infection risk for humans. PMID:14726458

  10. Space race functional responses.

    PubMed

    Sjödin, Henrik; Brännström, Åke; Englund, Göran

    2015-02-22

    We derive functional responses under the assumption that predators and prey are engaged in a space race in which prey avoid patches with many predators and predators avoid patches with few or no prey. The resulting functional response models have a simple structure and include functions describing how the emigration of prey and predators depend on interspecific densities. As such, they provide a link between dispersal behaviours and community dynamics. The derived functional response is general but is here modelled in accordance with empirically documented emigration responses. We find that the prey emigration response to predators has stabilizing effects similar to that of the DeAngelis-Beddington functional response, and that the predator emigration response to prey has destabilizing effects similar to that of the Holling type II response. A stability criterion describing the net effect of the two emigration responses on a Lotka-Volterra predator-prey system is presented. The winner of the space race (i.e. whether predators or prey are favoured) is determined by the relationship between the slopes of the species' emigration responses. It is predicted that predators win the space race in poor habitats, where predator and prey densities are low, and that prey are more successful in richer habitats.

  11. Differential Response: Response to Hughes and Colleagues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Bryan; Brown, Brett Vaughn

    2013-01-01

    In their critique of differential response (DR), Hughes and colleagues raise a number of important issues that are central to broader efforts at the Administration on Children, Youth, and Families (ACYF) including the need for greater reliance on evidence-based practice in child welfare, more rigorous evaluation methodologies, and a robust set of…

  12. Vibration-Response Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, L. M.

    1986-01-01

    Dynamic behaviors of structures analyzed interactively. Interactive steadystate vibration-response program, VIBRA, developed. Frequency-response analyses commonly used in evaluating dynamic behaviors of structures subjected to cyclic external forces. VIBRA calculates frequency response using modalsuperposition approach. Method applicable to single or multiple forces applied to linear, proportionally damped structure in which damping is viscous or structural. VIBRA written in FORTRAN 77 for interactive execution.

  13. Genetics and criminal responsibility.

    PubMed

    Morse, Stephen J

    2011-09-01

    Some believe that genetics threatens privacy and autonomy and will eviscerate the concept of human nature. Despite the astonishing research advances, however, none of these dire predictions and no radical transformation of the law have occurred. Advocates have tried to use genetic evidence to affect judgments of criminal responsibility. At present, however genetic research can provide little aid to assessments of criminal responsibility and it does not suggest a radical critique of responsibility.

  14. Biological response modifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1988-10-01

    Much of what used to be called immunotherapy is now included in the term biological response modifiers. Biological response modifiers (BRMs) are those agents or approaches that modify the relationship between the tumor and host by modifying the host's biological response to tumor cells with resultant therapeutic effects. Most of the early work with BRMs centered around observations of spontaneous tumor regression and the association of tumor regression with concurrent bacterial infections. The BRM can modify the host response by increasing the host's antitumor responses through augmentation and/or restoration of effector mechanisms or mediators of the host's defense or decrease the deleterious component by the host's reaction, increasing the host's defenses by the administration of natural biologics (or the synthetic derivatives thereof) as effectors or mediators of an antitumor response, augmenting the host's response to modified tumor cells or vaccines, which might stimulate a greater response by the host or increase tumor-cell sensitivity to an existing response, decreasing the transformation and/or increase differentiation (maturation) of tumor cells, or increasing the ability of the host to tolerate damage by cytotoxic modalities of cancer treatment.

  15. Biological response modifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1991-10-01

    Much of what used to be called immunotherapy is now included in the term biological response modifiers. Biological response modifiers (BRMs) are defined as those agents or approaches that modify the relationship between the tumor and host by modifying the host's biological response to tumor cells with resultant therapeutic effects.'' Most of the early work with BRMs centered around observations of spontaneous tumor regression and the association of tumor regression with concurrent bacterial infections. The BRM can modify the host response in the following ways: Increase the host's antitumor responses through augmentation and/or restoration of effector mechanisms or mediators of the host's defense or decrease the deleterious component by the host's reaction; Increase the host's defenses by the administration of natural biologics (or the synthetic derivatives thereof) as effectors or mediators of an antitumor response; Augment the host's response to modified tumor cells or vaccines, which might stimulate a greater response by the host or increase tumor-cell sensitivity to an existing response; Decrease the transformation and/or increase differentiation (maturation) of tumor cells; or Increase the ability of the host to tolerate damage by cytotoxic modalities of cancer treatment.

  16. GADRAS Detector Response Function.

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Dean J.; Harding, Lee; Thoreson, Gregory G; Horne, Steven M.

    2014-11-01

    The Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS) applies a Detector Response Function (DRF) to compute the output of gamma-ray and neutron detectors when they are exposed to radiation sources. The DRF is fundamental to the ability to perform forward calculations (i.e., computation of the response of a detector to a known source), as well as the ability to analyze spectra to deduce the types and quantities of radioactive material to which the detectors are exposed. This document describes how gamma-ray spectra are computed and the significance of response function parameters that define characteristics of particular detectors.

  17. Response to Four Commentators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Graham H.

    1994-01-01

    Turner's responses to discussion of deaf culture cover these topics: deaf perspective; approaches to description; transparency and explicitness; labeling; historical awareness; and "thinking beyond." (Contains seven references.) (LB)

  18. Responsibility and punishment: whose mind? A response.

    PubMed

    Goodenough, Oliver R

    2004-11-29

    Cognitive neuroscience is challenging the Anglo-American approach to criminal responsibility. Critiques, in this issue and elsewhere, are pointing out the deeply flawed psychological assumptions underlying the legal tests for mental incapacity. The critiques themselves, however, may be flawed in looking, as the tests do, at the psychology of the offender. Introducing the strategic structure of punishment into the analysis leads us to consider the psychology of the punisher as the critical locus of cognition informing the responsibility rules. Such an approach both helps to make sense of the counterfactual assumptions about offender psychology embodied in the law and provides a possible explanation for the human conviction of the existence of free will, at least in others.

  19. General Graded Response Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samejima, Fumiko

    This paper describes the graded response model. The graded response model represents a family of mathematical models that deal with ordered polytomous categories, such as: (1) letter grading; (2) an attitude survey with "strongly disagree, disagree, agree, and strongly agree" choices; (3) partial credit given in accord with an…

  20. [Social responsibility of surgeons].

    PubMed

    Gu, Jin

    2012-01-01

    Surgeon is sacred career. To cure patients by surgery is the surgeon's work, while the social responsibility is the surgeon's soul. To strengthen and promote the social responsibility is a demand of our age; thus, every surgeon should adhere to the supremacy of the patients' interests in clinical practice.

  1. Chores and Responsibility

    MedlinePlus

    ... not learn to accept responsibility. In unstructured home environments, or in families that are very permissive and where little is expected of children, youngsters are losing out on some valuable learning experiences, and their development of a sense of responsibility and initiative may ...

  2. Eastern Frequency Response Study

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, N.W.; Shao, M.; Pajic, S.; D'Aquila, R.

    2013-05-01

    This study was specifically designed to investigate the frequency response of the Eastern Interconnection that results from large loss-of-generation events of the type targeted by the North American Electric Reliability Corp. Standard BAL-003 Frequency Response and Frequency Bias Setting (NERC 2012a), under possible future system conditions with high levels of wind generation.

  3. Gender and Peer Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    This case study examines written peer response materials generated by small groups with varying gender compositions. Based on those observations, the author offers several pedagogical implications. She suggests that groups' gender make-up often does influence written feedback provided by group members during peer response sessions. By better…

  4. Responsible Hospitality. Prevention Updates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colthurst, Tom

    2004-01-01

    Responsible Hospitality (RH)--also called Responsible Beverage Service (RBS)--encompasses a variety of strategies for reducing risks associated with the sale and service of alcoholic beverages. RH programs have three goals: (1) to prevent illegal alcohol service to minors; (2) to reduce the likelihood of drinkers becoming intoxicated; and (3) to…

  5. Responsibility and Scholarship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber-Schafer, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Argues that scholars must be responsible for the use of their creations and ideas. Examines, through the use of such historical events as the Nazi holocaust and the United States' bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the implications of neglecting responsibility for scientific and scholarly creations. (JDH)

  6. Clinical ethics revisited: responses

    PubMed Central

    Benatar, Solomon R; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Daar, Abdallah S; Hope, Tony; MacRae, Sue; Roberts, Laura W; Sharpe, Virginia A

    2001-01-01

    This series of responses was commissioned to accompany the article by Singer et al, which can be found at . If you would like to comment on the article by Singer et al or any of the responses, please email us on editorial@biomedcentral.com. PMID:11346457

  7. Social responsibilities of bioethics.

    PubMed

    Jonsen, A R

    2001-03-01

    Urban bioethics can draw on elements of city life and view them under the moral perspective of social responsibility of creating the personal, cultural, social, and economic environment in which persons can be responsible personally as they interpret actions on themselves and creatively respond to them in an ongoing community of agents.

  8. Sensor response rate accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Vogt, Michael C.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and method for sensor signal prediction and for improving sensor signal response time, is disclosed. An adaptive filter or an artificial neural network is utilized to provide predictive sensor signal output and is further used to reduce sensor response time delay.

  9. Progressive Response Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romero, V. J.; Swiler, L. P.

    2004-01-01

    Response surface functions are often used as simple and inexpensive replacements for computationally expensive computer models that simulate the behavior of a complex system over some parameter space. Progressive response surfaces are ones that are built up progressively as global information is added from new sample points in the parameter space. As the response surfaces are globally upgraded based on new information, heuristic indications of the convergence of the response surface approximation to the exact (fitted) function can be inferred. Sampling points can be incrementally added in a structured fashion, or in an unstructured fashion. Whatever the approach, at least in early stages of sampling it is usually desirable to sample the entire parameter space uniformly. At later stages of sampling, depending on the nature of the quantity being resolved, it may be desirable to continue sampling uniformly over the entire parameter space (Progressive response surfaces), or to switch to a focusing/economizing strategy of preferentially sampling certain regions of the parameter space based on information gained in early stages of sampling (Adaptive response surfaces). Here we consider Progressive response surfaces where a balanced indication of global response over the parameter space is desired.We use a variant of Moving Least Squares to fit and interpolate structured and unstructured point sets over the parameter space. On a 2-D test problem we compare response surface accuracy for three incremental sampling methods: Progressive Lattice Sampling; Simple-Random Monte Carlo; and Halton Quasi-Monte-Carlo sequences. We are ultimately after a system for constructing efficiently upgradable response surface approximations with reliable error estimates.

  10. Geospatial Information Response Team

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Witt, Emitt C.

    2010-01-01

    Extreme emergency events of national significance that include manmade and natural disasters seem to have become more frequent during the past two decades. The Nation is becoming more resilient to these emergencies through better preparedness, reduced duplication, and establishing better communications so every response and recovery effort saves lives and mitigates the long-term social and economic impacts on the Nation. The National Response Framework (NRF) (http://www.fema.gov/NRF) was developed to provide the guiding principles that enable all response partners to prepare for and provide a unified national response to disasters and emergencies. The NRF provides five key principles for better preparation, coordination, and response: 1) engaged partnerships, 2) a tiered response, 3) scalable, flexible, and adaptable operations, 4) unity of effort, and 5) readiness to act. The NRF also describes how communities, tribes, States, Federal Government, privatesector, and non-governmental partners apply these principles for a coordinated, effective national response. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has adopted the NRF doctrine by establishing several earth-sciences, discipline-level teams to ensure that USGS science, data, and individual expertise are readily available during emergencies. The Geospatial Information Response Team (GIRT) is one of these teams. The USGS established the GIRT to facilitate the effective collection, storage, and dissemination of geospatial data information and products during an emergency. The GIRT ensures that timely geospatial data are available for use by emergency responders, land and resource managers, and for scientific analysis. In an emergency and response capacity, the GIRT is responsible for establishing procedures for geospatial data acquisition, processing, and archiving; discovery, access, and delivery of data; anticipating geospatial needs; and providing coordinated products and services utilizing the USGS' exceptional pool of

  11. Frequency Response Analysis Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Etingov, Pavel V.; Kosterev, Dmitry; Dai, T.

    2014-12-01

    Frequency response has received a lot of attention in recent years at the national level, which culminated in the development and approval of North American Electricity Reliability Corporation (NERC) BAL-003-1 Frequency Response and Frequency Bias Setting Reliability Standard. This report is prepared to describe the details of the work conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in collaboration with the Bonneville Power Administration and Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) Joint Synchronized Information Subcommittee (JSIS) to develop a frequency response analysis tool (FRAT). The document provides the details on the methodology and main features of the FRAT. The tool manages the database of under-frequency events and calculates the frequency response baseline. Frequency response calculations are consistent with frequency response measure (FRM) in NERC BAL-003-1 for an interconnection and balancing authority. The FRAT can use both phasor measurement unit (PMU) data, where available, and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) data. The tool is also capable of automatically generating NERC Frequency Response Survey (FRS) forms required by BAL-003-1 Standard.

  12. Photodynamic therapy: first responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessel, David; Price, Michael

    2009-06-01

    During the irradiation of photosensitized cells, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated leading to a variety of effects including apoptosis and autophagy. These responses can occur within minutes after irradiation. Apoptosis is an irreversible pathway to death that can be triggered by release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. Autophagy is a recycling process that can occur as a result of Bcl-2 photodamage or as a response to organelle disruption. We have reported that autophagy is associated with a 'shoulder' on the PDT dose-response curve. Although predominantly a survival pathway, autophagy can also play a role in cell death if cells attempt an excessive amount of recycling, beyond their ability to repair photodamage. Recent studies have been directed toward assessing the role of different ROS in the immediate response to PDT. While singlet oxygen is considered to be the major phototoxic ROS, it appears that catalase activity is also a determinant of the apoptotic response and that H2O2•OH can amplify the effects of singlet oxygen. An early response to PDT also involves inhibition of membrane trafficking systems related to the endocytic pathway. The extent and nature of these early responses appear to be among the determinants of subsequent tumor eradication.

  13. Frequency Response Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Etingov, Pavel; Chassin, PNNL David; Zhang, PNNL Yu; PNNL,

    2014-03-13

    According to the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) definition: “Frequency response is a measure of an Interconnection’s ability to stabilize frequency immediately following the sudden loss of generation or load, and is a critical component of the reliable operation of the Bulk-Power System, particularly during disturbances and recoveries. Failure to maintain frequency can disrupt the operation of equipment and initiate disconnection of power plant equipment to prevent it from being damaged, which could lead to wide-spread blackouts.” Frequency Response Tool automates the power system frequency response analysis process. The tool performs initial estimation of the system frequency parameters (initial frequency, minimum frequency, settling point). User can visually inspect and adjust these parameters. The tool also calculates the frequency response performance metrics of the system, archives the historic events and baselines the system performance. Frequency response performance characteristics of the system are calculated using phasor measurement unit (PMU) information. Methodology of the frequency response performance assessment implemented in the tool complies with the NERC Frequency response standard.

  14. Demand Response Analysis Tool

    SciTech Connect

    2012-03-01

    Demand Response Analysis Tool is a software developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. It is initially funded by Southern California Edison. Our goal in developing this tool is to provide an online, useable, with standardized methods, an analysis tool to evaluate demand and demand response performance of commercial and industrial facilities. The tool provides load variability and weather sensitivity analysis capabilities as well as development of various types of baselines. It can be used by researchers, real estate management firms, utilities, or any individuals who are interested in analyzing their demand and demand response capabilities.

  15. Mobilization Responses to Warning.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-01

    reluctance by those leaders to authorized some form of response (political, economic or military) to counter early warning indicators. Strategic...MOBILIZATION RESPONSES TO WARNING Jil This document has been aIpproved L.A INDUSTRIAL COLLEGE OF THE ARMED FORCES 83 12 29 034 4 N;. -nou-n_. -Aa- f",1...48 BILIZATION RESPONSES TO WARNING MSP #46 AY 82/83 A ERFORMING :)S REPR’~ ’.,MSEP - 8.ZNRZ ~R~AN% MBEQ,’ GREGORY W. MASON, LTC, USA S ~ SI% R NAN1ZA

  16. Environmental Response Laboratory Network

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The ERLN as a national network of laboratories that can be ramped up as needed to support large scale environmental responses. It integrates capabilities of existing public and private sector labs, providing consistent capacity and quality data.

  17. Responsive Teaching through Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dozier, Cheryl; Garnett, Susan; Tabatabai, Simeen

    2011-01-01

    Conversations are the heart of responsive teaching. By talking with struggling learners, teachers can find out about their interests in order to design effective, personalized instruction; build relationships; work through complexities in teaching and learning; and celebrate successes.

  18. Environmental Response Team

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This website will serve as a resource directory of the Environmental Response Team's roles and capabilities as well as list contacts for each discipline to provide information to EPA personnel and the public.

  19. Acetazolamide-responsive ataxia.

    PubMed

    Kotagal, Vikas

    2012-11-01

    Acetazolamide-responsive ataxia represents a unique collection of genetically distinct episodic ataxia (EA) disorders associated with paroxysmal cerebellar symptoms many of which are responsive to medical treatment with acetazolamide, a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. Among all of the subtypes of episodic ataxia, types 2 (EA2), 3 (EA3), and 5 (EA5) are thought be the most medication responsive. Some patients with episodic ataxia type 1 (EA1) will also describe improvement with acetazolamide. Each of these individual genetic syndromes is characterized by its own unique mechanism and clinical presentation. In this review, the author provides an overview of the pathophysiology of acetazolamide-responsive ataxia, its natural history, and its clinical management.

  20. Immune responses to metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Herberman, R.B.; Wiltrout, R.H.; Gorelik, E.

    1987-01-01

    The authors present the changes in the immune system in tumor-bearing hosts that may influence the development of progression of metastases. Included are mononuclear cell infiltration of metastases; alterations in natural resistance mediated by natural killer cells and macrophages; development of specific immunity mediated by T-lymphocytes or antibodies; modulation of tumor-associated antigen expression; and the down-regulation of the immune response to the tumor by several suppressor mechanisms; the augmentation of the immune response and its potential for therapeutic application; includes the prophylaxis of metastases formation by NK cells; the therapy of metastases by augmentation NK-, macrophage-, or T-lymphocyte-mediated responses by biological response modifiers; and the transfer of anticancer activity by cytoxic T-lymphocytes or immunoconjugates of monoclonal antibodies with specificity for tumors.

  1. Management: Area Support Responsibilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Georgia: All counties north of Bleckley, Bryan, Dodge, Effingham, Evans, Jones, Lamarr, Meriwether , Monroe, Montgomery, Pike, Tattnall, Telfair, Troup...the actual cost of materials). b. Area of responsibility. Table C–2 provides installation taskings by installation, State, and county . These taskings...responsibility Devens RFTA FORSCOM CT: All counties ME: All counties MA: All counties NH: All counties RI: All counties VT: All counties Fort Belvoir, VA

  2. Emergency Response Communications Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-06-01

    comunications Policy to present a revised charter which addressed Federal, state, and local problems to the Executive Office of the President for approval. The...developed a program management plan for the implementation of an Emergency Response Comunications System. The Emergency Response Comunications System, as...no more complicated than those of today’s telephone or hand-held radios. iv In the second mode -- that of providing emergency comunications - the

  3. Facility Response Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-10-06

    authors . The chapters written by LT McCarthy were 4, 5, 7, the pipeline response zone appendix, a cross-referencing matrix and a FRP checklist. The...Individual" and "Alternate Qualified Individual" are the individuals who have full authority to implement response actions. Details of the "Qualified...contracting authority . contractors or cooperatives may bring technical expertise or experience which is not available within the Navy organization. Care must be

  4. Demand Response Dispatch Tool

    SciTech Connect

    2012-08-31

    The Demand Response (DR) Dispatch Tool uses price profiles to dispatch demand response resources and create load modifying profiles. These annual profiles are used as inputs to production cost models and regional planning tools (e.g., PROMOD). The tool has been effectively implemented in transmission planning studies conducted by the Western Electricity Coordinating Council via its Transmission Expansion Planning and Policy Committee. The DR Dispatch Tool can properly model the dispatch of DR resources for both reliability and economic conditions.

  5. Response to Hyperosmotic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Haruo; Posas, Francesc

    2012-01-01

    An appropriate response and adaptation to hyperosmolarity, i.e., an external osmolarity that is higher than the physiological range, can be a matter of life or death for all cells. It is especially important for free-living organisms such as the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. When exposed to hyperosmotic stress, the yeast initiates a complex adaptive program that includes temporary arrest of cell-cycle progression, adjustment of transcription and translation patterns, and the synthesis and retention of the compatible osmolyte glycerol. These adaptive responses are mostly governed by the high osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathway, which is composed of membrane-associated osmosensors, an intracellular signaling pathway whose core is the Hog1 MAP kinase (MAPK) cascade, and cytoplasmic and nuclear effector functions. The entire pathway is conserved in diverse fungal species, while the Hog1 MAPK cascade is conserved even in higher eukaryotes including humans. This conservation is illustrated by the fact that the mammalian stress-responsive p38 MAPK can rescue the osmosensitivity of hog1Δ mutations in response to hyperosmotic challenge. As the HOG pathway is one of the best-understood eukaryotic signal transduction pathways, it is useful not only as a model for analysis of osmostress responses, but also as a model for mathematical analysis of signal transduction pathways. In this review, we have summarized the current understanding of both the upstream signaling mechanism and the downstream adaptive responses to hyperosmotic stress in yeast. PMID:23028184

  6. Being a responsible leader.

    PubMed

    Waldman, David A

    2010-11-01

    People who administer organizations of various types, including medical practices, are finding it increasingly necessary to demonstrate leadership. The challenge is to understand the meaning of effective leadership and to have guiding principles with regard to its implementation. It is argued here that responsibility represents a key guiding theme that doctors and practice managers can use to chart their day-to-day actions as leaders. Responsibility implies accountability to a broad array of groups and individuals who increasingly expect that leaders act in a manner that is aligned with their interests. This new era of leader accountability raises the question, to whom and what are organizational leaders responsible? In an attempt to answer this question, The author elaborates a broad perspective of responsible leadership and address both internal and external stakeholders to which a leader is responsible. Recommendations and principles are provided for how to balance the needs and interests of various stakeholders when leading one's practice. The article ends with a consideration of important caveats with regard to responsible leadership.

  7. Auxin response factors.

    PubMed

    Chandler, John William

    2016-05-01

    Auxin signalling involves the activation or repression of gene expression by a class of auxin response factor (ARF) proteins that bind to auxin response elements in auxin-responsive gene promoters. The release of ARF repression in the presence of auxin by the degradation of their cognate auxin/indole-3-acetic acid repressors forms a paradigm of transcriptional response to auxin. However, this mechanism only applies to activating ARFs, and further layers of complexity of ARF function and regulation are being revealed, which partly reflect their highly modular domain structure. This review summarizes our knowledge concerning ARF binding site specificity, homodimer and heterodimer multimeric ARF association and cooperative function and how activator ARFs activate target genes via chromatin remodelling and evolutionary information derived from phylogenetic comparisons from ARFs from diverse species. ARFs are regulated in diverse ways, and their importance in non-auxin-regulated pathways is becoming evident. They are also embedded within higher-order transcription factor complexes that integrate signalling pathways from other hormones and in response to the environment. The ways in which new information concerning ARFs on many levels is causing a revision of existing paradigms of auxin response are discussed.

  8. Intrapulmonary Versus Nasal Transduction of Murine Airways With GP64-pseudotyped Viral Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Oakland, Mayumi; Maury, Wendy; McCray, Paul B; Sinn, Patrick L

    2013-01-01

    Persistent viral vector-mediated transgene expression in the airways requires delivery to cells with progenitor capacity and avoidance of immune responses. Previously, we observed that GP64-pseudotyped feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-mediated gene transfer was more efficient in the nasal airways than the large airways of the murine lung. We hypothesized that in vivo gene transfer was limited by immunological and physiological barriers in the murine intrapulmonary airways. Here, we systematically investigate multiple potential barriers to lentiviral gene transfer in the airways of mice. We show that GP64-FIV vector transduced primary cultures of well-differentiated murine nasal epithelia with greater efficiency than primary cultures of murine tracheal epithelia. We further demonstrate that neutrophils, type I interferon (IFN) responses, as well as T and B lymphocytes are not the major factors limiting the transduction of murine conducting airways. In addition, we observed better transduction of GP64-pseudotyped vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) in the nasal epithelia compared with the intrapulmonary airways in mice. VSVG glycoprotein pseudotyped VSV transduced intrapulmonary epithelia with similar efficiency as nasal epithelia. Our results suggest that the differential transduction efficiency of nasal versus intrapulmonary airways by FIV vector is not a result of immunological barriers or surface area, but rather differential expression of cellular factors specific for FIV vector transduction. PMID:23360952

  9. Quantification of human responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinlage, R. C.; Gantner, T. E.; Lim, P. Y. W.

    1992-01-01

    Human perception is a complex phenomenon which is difficult to quantify with instruments. For this reason, large panels of people are often used to elicit and aggregate subjective judgments. Print quality, taste, smell, sound quality of a stereo system, softness, and grading Olympic divers and skaters are some examples of situations where subjective measurements or judgments are paramount. We usually express what is in our mind through language as a medium but languages are limited in available choices of vocabularies, and as a result, our verbalizations are only approximate expressions of what we really have in mind. For lack of better methods to quantify subjective judgments, it is customary to set up a numerical scale such as 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 1, 2, 3, ..., 9, 10 for characterizing human responses and subjective judgments with no valid justification except that these scales are easy to understand and convenient to use. But these numerical scales are arbitrary simplifications of the complex human mind; the human mind is not restricted to such simple numerical variations. In fact, human responses and subjective judgments are psychophysical phenomena that are fuzzy entities and therefore difficult to handle by conventional mathematics and probability theory. The fuzzy mathematical approach provides a more realistic insight into understanding and quantifying human responses. This paper presents a method for quantifying human responses and subjective judgments without assuming a pattern of linear or numerical variation for human responses. In particular, quantification and evaluation of linguistic judgments was investigated.

  10. The responsibility to protect.

    PubMed

    Deutscher, Matt

    2005-01-01

    The decision whether, if ever, to intervene in the affairs of a sovereign state with military force has become a critical issue of the post Cold War era. In 2000 the Canadian government launched the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty (ICISS), which in 2001 published its findings in The Responsibility to Protect. The Commission found broad support for the notion of sovereignty not only as a right, but also a responsibility, the responsibility of a state to provide protection for its people. The primary responsibility for protecting citizens rests with states. But when states are unable or unwilling to provide this protection, or are themselves the perpetrators of atrocities, the Commission argues that the international community has a responsibility temporarily to step in, forcefully if necessary. The Commission resisted the temptation to identify human rights violations falling short of outright killing or ethnic cleansing. This eliminates the possibility of intervening on the basis of systematic oppression of human rights or intervening to remove a military dictatorship. The intention of the report was to provoke debate; to strengthen the role of the United Nations and ensure that such interventions were multilateral and meeting the wider needs of a region and not the interests of major powers. There is an ongoing need to ensure that the Security Council is effective and that resources match the political will. These debates must continue within a UN framework.

  11. Structural building response review

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-15

    The integrity of a nuclear power plant during a postulated seismic event is required to protect the public against radiation. Therefore, a detailed set of seismic analyses of various structures and equipment is performed while designing a nuclear power plant. This report describes the structural response analysis method, including the structural model, soil-structure interaction as it relates to structural models, methods for seismic structural analysis, numerical integration methods, methods for non-seismic response analysis approaches for various response combinations, structural damping values, nonlinear response, uncertainties in structural properties, and structural response analysis using random properties. The report describes the state-of-the-art in these areas for nuclear power plants. It also details the past studies made at Sargent and Lundy to evaluate different alternatives and the conclusions reached for the specific purposes that those studies were intended. These results were incorporated here because they fall into the general scope of this report. The scope of the present task does not include performing new calculations.

  12. Autonomic Responses to Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toscano, W. B.; Cowings, P. S.; Miller, N. E.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe how changes in autonomic nervous system responses may be used as an index of individual differences in adaptational capacity to space flight. During two separate Spacelab missions, six crewmembers wore an ambulatory monitoring system which enabled continuous recording of their physiological responses for up to twelve hours a day for 3 to 5 mission days. The responses recorded were electrocardiography, respiration wave form, skin conductance level, hand temperature, blood flow to the hands and triaxial accelerations of the head and upper body. Three of these subjects had been given training, before the mission, in voluntary control of these autonomic responses as a means of facilitating adaptation to space. Three of these subjects served as Controls, i.e., did not receive this training but took anti-motion sickness medication. Nearly 300 hours of flight data are summarized. These data were examined using time-series analyses, spectral analyses of heart rate variability, and analyses of variance. Information was obtained on responses to space motion sickness, inflight medications, circadian rhythm, workload and fatigue. Preliminary assessment was made on the effectiveness of self-regulation training as a means of facilitating adaptation, with recommendations for future flights.

  13. Photovoltaic spectral responsivity measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Emery, K.; Dunlavy, D.; Field, H.; Moriarty, T.

    1998-09-01

    This paper discusses the various elemental random and nonrandom error sources in typical spectral responsivity measurement systems. The authors focus specifically on the filter and grating monochrometer-based spectral responsivity measurement systems used by the Photovoltaic (PV) performance characterization team at NREL. A variety of subtle measurement errors can occur that arise from a finite photo-current response time, bandwidth of the monochromatic light, waveform of the monochromatic light, and spatial uniformity of the monochromatic and bias lights; the errors depend on the light source, PV technology, and measurement system. The quantum efficiency can be a function of he voltage bias, light bias level, and, for some structures, the spectral content of the bias light or location on the PV device. This paper compares the advantages and problems associated with semiconductor-detector-based calibrations and pyroelectric-detector-based calibrations. Different current-to-voltage conversion and ac photo-current detection strategies employed at NREL are compared and contrasted.

  14. Response modification in carcinogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Cerutti, P A

    1989-01-01

    A major goal in multistep carcinogenesis research is the integration of recent findings obtained by sophisticated molecular-genetic and cytogenetic analysis of cancer into the more descriptive concepts of experimental pathology. It is proposed that the creation of a promotable cell in carcinogenic initiation requires a response modification to extracellular or intercellular signals. Different types of response modification can be distinguished: changes in the receptors for growth and differentiation factors and their cytoplasmic and nuclear signal transduction pathways; increased resistance of initiated cells to cytotoxic agents; alterations in junctional cell-to-cell communications. The challenge of a response-modified cell to an appropriate promoter results in its selection and clonal expansion, usually to a benign tumor. In addition, for malignancy, chromosomal changes are required that affect cellular functions that can play a role early or late in tumorigenesis. These concepts are illustrated with examples from oncogene research and oxidant promotion. PMID:2667983

  15. Adaptive response modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campa, Alessandro; Esposito, Giuseppe; Belli, Mauro

    Cellular response to radiation is often modified by a previous delivery of a small "priming" dose: a smaller amount of damage, defined by the end point being investigated, is observed, and for this reason the effect is called adaptive response. An improved understanding of this effect is essential (as much as for the case of the bystander effect) for a reliable radiation risk assessment when low dose irradiations are involved. Experiments on adaptive response have shown that there are a number of factors that strongly influence the occurrence (and the level) of the adaptation. In particular, priming doses and dose rates have to fall in defined ranges; the same is true for the time interval between the delivery of the small priming dose and the irradiation with the main, larger, dose (called in this case challenging dose). Different hypotheses can be formulated on the main mechanism(s) determining the adaptive response: an increased efficiency of DNA repair, an increased level of antioxidant enzymes, an alteration of cell cycle progression, a chromatin conformation change. An experimental clearcut evidence going definitely in the direction of one of these explanations is not yet available. Modelling can be done at different levels. Simple models, relating the amount of damage, through elementary differential equations, to the dose and dose rate experienced by the cell, are relatively easy to handle, and they can be modified to account for the priming irradiation. However, this can hardly be of decisive help in the explanation of the mechanisms, since each parameter of these models often incorporates in an effective way several cellular processes related to the response to radiation. In this presentation we show our attempts to describe adaptive response with models that explicitly contain, as a dynamical variable, the inducible adaptive agent. At a price of a more difficult treatment, this approach is probably more prone to give support to the experimental studies

  16. DOE Response to Japan

    SciTech Connect

    and RaJah Mena, Wendy Pemberton

    2011-06-23

    DOE/NNSA NA-40 was requested to provide support with consequence management activities following the incident at the Fukushima Dai’ichi Nuclear Power Plant. The response involved the deployment of several DOE/NNSA NA-40 assets to provide specialized capabilities analysts, scientists, doctors, nurses, specialized equipment and systems to characterize the deposition for the protection of the public and the environment. General response activities revolved around the concepts of: predictive modeling; monitoring and data collection from the air and on the ground; assessing the collected data and other relevant information; interpreting the data; and coordinating the communication of the interpreted data to the appropriate stakeholders.

  17. Exercise boosts immune response.

    PubMed

    Sander, Ruth

    2012-06-29

    Ageing is associated with a decline in normal functioning of the immune system described as 'immunosenescence'. This contributes to poorer vaccine response and increased incidence of infection and malignancy seen in older people. Regular exercise can enhance vaccination response, increase T-cells and boost the function of the natural killer cells in the immune system. Exercise also lowers levels of the inflammatory cytokines that cause the 'inflamm-ageing' that is thought to play a role in conditions including cardiovascular disease; type 2 diabetes; Alzheimer's disease; osteoporosis and some cancers.

  18. Vestibulo-Sympathetic Responses

    PubMed Central

    Yates, Bill J; Bolton, Philip S.; Macefield, Vaughan G.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence accumulated over 30 years, from experiments on animals and human subjects, has conclusively demonstrated that inputs from the vestibular otolith organs contribute to the control of blood pressure during movement and changes in posture. This review considers the effects of gravity on the body axis, and the consequences of postural changes on blood distribution in the body. It then separately considers findings collected in experiments on animals and human subjects demonstrating that the vestibular system regulates blood distribution in the body during movement. Vestibulosympathetic reflexes differ from responses triggered by unloading of cardiovascular receptors such as baroreceptors and cardiopulmonary receptors, as they can be elicited before a change in blood distribution occurs in the body. Dissimilarities in the expression of vestibulosympathetic reflexes in humans and animals are also described. In particular, there is evidence from experiments in animals, but not humans, that vestibulosympathetic reflexes are patterned, and differ between body regions. Results from neurophysiological and neuroanatomical studies in animals are discussed that identify the neurons that mediate vestibulosympathetic responses, which include cells in the caudal aspect of the vestibular nucleus complex, interneurons in the lateral medullary reticular formation, and bulbospinal neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM). Recent findings showing that cognition can modify the gain of vestibulosympathetic responses are also presented, and neural pathways that could mediate adaptive plasticity in the responses are proposed, including connections of the posterior cerebellar vermis with the vestibular nuclei and brainstem nuclei that regulate blood pressure. PMID:24715571

  19. Proliferation: Threat and response

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    ;Table of Contents: Section I: The Regional Proliferation Challenge; Northeast Asia; The Middle East and North Africa; The Former Soviet Union: Russia, Ukrane, Kazakstan, And Belarus; South Asia; The International Threat: Dangers from Terrorism, Insurgencies, Civil Wars, And Organized Crime; Section II: Department of Defense Response; Technical Annex: Accessible Technologies; Glossary.

  20. Response to Arend Flick

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RiCharde, R. Stephen

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to Arend Flick. The author states that Flick is correct that the issue of rubrics is broader than interrater reliability, though it is the assessment practitioner's primary armament against what the author has heard dubbed "refried bean counting" (insinuating that assessment statistics are not just bean…

  1. Responsibility and School Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Ann; Mintrom, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The concept of responsibility is highly relevant to the organization of public schooling. Through public schools, adult citizens allow for the formal nurture and training of children to become full citizens, able to participate in our shared social, economic, and political life. With growing awareness of the importance of effective schooling to…

  2. A crucial responsibility.

    PubMed

    Okunnu, M A

    1996-04-01

    The International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) in Africa recognizes that men all over the world are concerned about the health and welfare of their families. In the context of sexual and reproductive health, their family responsibilities are even more crucial, being a basic component of the general health of families. Male participation in family planning is important to encourage men to take responsibility over their own sexual behavior and to protect the health of their families. To bridge existing information gaps about family planning and reproductive health, particularly those concerning male contraceptive methods, IPPF is committed to the investigation of the negative male attitudes and bias against family planning and reproductive health, identification of barriers to male involvement in sexual and reproductive health, and implementation of strategies to remove such barriers. The IPPF Strategic Plan aims to increase men's commitment and joint responsibility in all aspects of sexual and reproductive health and sensitize men to gender issues, as an essential element in ensuring equality for women and an enriched couple relationship for both men and women. Specific program activities included advocacy, information, education and communication, and reproductive health care services. Family Planning Associations are encouraged to initiate and strengthen programs to promote male responsibility and rights in family planning.

  3. Culturally Responsive Teaching Matters!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozleski, Elizabeth B.

    2010-01-01

    In 2000, Professor Geneva Gay wrote that culturally responsive teaching connects students' cultural knowledge, prior experiences, and performance styles to academic knowledge and intellectual tools in ways that legitimize what students already know. By embracing the sociocultural realities and histories of students through what is taught and how,…

  4. Responses from the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Civille, John; Beckman, Mary; Green, Brian M.

    2005-01-01

    This article offers responses from various authors to the article "Incarnational immersion-based learning in cultural contexts: A charity model," by Dr. John Trokan (2005.) Mount St. Joseph's program on incarnational immersion-based learning, as described in the article by Dr. John Trokan, will have the participating students' eyes…

  5. A Response from Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, Tim; Hill, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    The suggested role for assessment in developing "Roadmaps for Learning" has potentially important implications for the learning of second or foreign languages in school, a major concern of applied linguistics. In this response, the authors consider how the findings of a detailed ethnographic study of classroom-based assessment in two…

  6. Surface Water Response Modeling

    EPA Science Inventory

    During response to spills, or for facility planning, the vulnerability of downstream water resources is a major concern. How long and at what concentration do spilled contaminants reach downstream receptors? Models have the potential to answer these questions, but only if they ...

  7. Teaching Responsibility through Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notar, Toni A.

    2008-01-01

    As Literacy Outreach Coordinator for Opportunity to Read (OTR), the Watsonville (CA) Public Library literacy program, this author has recognized the concept of responsibility through example. Adult learners incorporate concepts easily when these concepts are specifically demonstrated for them by someone similar to them. Sounds simple, but putting…

  8. Legal responsibility and accountability.

    PubMed

    Cox, Chris

    2010-06-01

    Shifting boundaries in healthcare roles have led to anxiety among some nurses about their legal responsibilities and accountabilities. This is partly because of a lack of education about legal principles that underpin healthcare delivery. This article explains the law in terms of standards of care, duty of care, vicarious liability and indemnity insurance.

  9. Response to Wong's Article.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosden, Merith

    2003-01-01

    In response to a paper on risk and resilience models in learning disabilities (LD) research, this article supports the author and suggests areas of research, especially identification of risk and protective factors in children with LD. Application to analysis of friendship strategies is described. Also noted is longitudinal research to identify…

  10. Free to Be Responsible.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Means, Russell

    1996-01-01

    In a lecture at Navajo Community College in fall 1995, Russell Means discussed freedom and responsibility in our present-day world. He talked about the true nature of education, the difference between knowledge and wisdom, and why Indian peoples must think critically about the educational and government structures constraining them. (Author/TD)

  11. A Response to Hartley

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author shares his response to James Hartley's "Reflections on 50 years of teaching psychology". Hartley concludes that the teaching of psychology has changed relatively little over the past several decades. The author states that his way of teaching now is very different from his way of 1975. This essay is about the…

  12. A Response to Hartley

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Entwistle, Noel

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author shares his response to James Hartley's "Reflections on 50 years of teaching psychology". The author finds it very interesting to read James Hartley's reflections on the teaching of psychology and he thought it would be worth adding a rather different perspective, while agreeing with Hartley's main conclusions about the…

  13. THE SHARING OF RESPONSIBILITY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DARLEY, JOHN

    AN OVERVIEW OF A SERIES OF STUDIES ON BYSTANDER INTERVENTION IN EMERGENCY SITUATIONS IS PRESENTED. IN THE FIRST EXPERIMENT, TWO, THREE, AND SIX MEMBER GROUPS REACTED TO HEARING, BUT NOT SEEING, ONE MEMBER OF THE GROUP HAVING AN EPILEPTIC SEIZURE. AN INCREASE IN THE NUMBER OF OBSERVERS PERCEIVED TO BE PRESENT DECREASED THE SPEED OF RESPONSE. WHEN…

  14. Rapid response deluge system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mille, J. R.

    1984-08-01

    The development of a rapid response deluge system by the Ammunition Equipment Directorate (AED) for use in suppressing propellant fires during demilitarization shows great promise. Prototype systems have been tested and data acquired on their efficiencies. Present system vs previous generations and lessons learned are discussed.

  15. Implementing Responsibility Centre Budgeting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vonasek, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Recently, institutes of higher education (universities) have shown a renewed interest in organisational structures and operating methodologies that generate productivity and innovation; responsibility centre budgeting (RCB) is one such process. This paper describes the underlying principles constituting RCB, its origin and structural elements, and…

  16. Response to Comments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Trevor

    2006-01-01

    In my response to the commentaries made about my article, I observe that the commentators find no obvious errors with my estimates of the size of the signing deaf community. However, most of them are not as pessimistic as I am partly because of the position they take on a number of issues. Namely, the supposed uniqueness of Australia in its…

  17. Toward Aesthetic Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFurio, Anthony G.

    1979-01-01

    The view of aesthetic responding presented herein has grown out of a theory of contextual aesthetics as explicated by John Dewey and Stephen Pepper and a phenomenological inquiry into art by John Anderson. The method for entry into the responsive domain has evolved from a direction elaborated by Kenneth Beittel. (Author)

  18. Children's Response to Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bard, Therese Bissen

    This paper considers many aspects of children's response to literature. Among the topics discussed are factors within the child (related to age, sex, and intelligence) that teachers and researchers agree may affect a child's enjoyment of literature; a research study on the relationship between story content and a child's psychological and…

  19. Responsive Close Air Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    rock unturned in their pursuit of better supporting their comrades in arms. No single line of effort produced this change. Multiple lines of effort...DOs)—for example, CASDO, Tanker DO, and others—at the improved responsiveness happened because Airmen left no rock unturned in their pursuit of

  20. Senescence responsive transcriptional element

    DOEpatents

    Campisi, Judith; Testori, Alessandro

    1999-01-01

    Recombinant polynucleotides have expression control sequences that have a senescence responsive element and a minimal promoter, and which are operatively linked to a heterologous nucleotide sequence. The molecules are useful for achieving high levels of expression of genes in senescent cells. Methods of inhibiting expression of genes in senescent cells also are provided.

  1. Relatives' Responsibility; Policy Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Foundation for the Blind, New York, NY.

    Presented by the American Foundation for the Blind (AFB) are background information and a policy statement on responsibility laws pertaining to relatives of applicants for public assistance. The laws are said to date to the Elizabethan Poor Laws, to vary state to state, and to mandate eligibility for public assistance on requirements of residence,…

  2. Responses from the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreau, Lori; Weaver, Roberta; Adams, Shauna M.; Landers, Mary F.; Owen, Mary Jane

    2006-01-01

    This article offers responses from Lori Moreau, a principal, Roberta Weaver, associate dean, Shauna M. Adams, associate professor, Mary F. Landers of University of Dayton, and Mary Jane Owen, a founding director, to the article "The State of Special Education in Catholic Schools," by L. DeFiore (2006). Jesus, the master teacher, reached out to the…

  3. Constituents of response rates

    PubMed Central

    Pear, Joseph J.; Rector, Brian L.

    1979-01-01

    Response rate and the proportion of time pigeons allocated to a key-pecking activity were measured on several basic types of reinforcement schedules. Reinforcement frequency was varied within each type of basic schedule, and the effects on two constituents of response rate were noted. Propensity, the proportion of time the birds spent on a platform in front of the key, showed very consistent effects as reinforcement frequency varied: in general, it decreased when reinforcement frequency markedly decreased and it increased when reinforcement frequency increased. Speed, key pecks per unit of time spent on the platform, showed inconsistent effects when reinforcement frequency varied. Consequently, response rate showed less consistent effects than did propensity. Cumulative response records demonstrated the existence of several different types of transitions or boundary states between the key-pecking activity and other activities. The types of transitions that occurred between activities depended on both the type of reinforcement schedule and the frequency of reinforcement. The propensity data support the position that general laws of behavior can be based on temporal measures of behavior. The speed data suggest that, if a complete assessment of the dynamic properties of behavior is to be achieved, measures of behavior must incorporate the structural variations in the operant unit. PMID:16812155

  4. Response to Mackenzie

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peers, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Chris Peers begins his response to Jim Mackenzie's article, "Peers on Socrates and Plato" by asking "What is the 'masculine imaginary?'" Peers defines the term "imaginary" as it is applied in his article, "Freud, Plato and Irigaray: A Morpho-Logic of Teaching and Learning" (2012) and draws…

  5. Collaborative Radiological Response Planning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    Exercise and Evaluation Guide EMS Emergency Medical Services EPA Environmental Protection Agency FBI Federal Bureau of Investigation FEMA Federal...Investigation (FBI), water regulators, food regulators, agricultural agencies, hazardous waste regulators, local environmental health agencies...FEDERAL PLANNING EFFORTS The United States Environmental Protection Agency ( EPA ) has had radiological responsibilities since 1970.18 The General

  6. USGS Emergency Response Resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bewley, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    Every day, emergency responders are confronted with worldwide natural and manmade disasters, including earthquakes, floods, hurricanes, landslides, tsunami, volcanoes, wildfires, terrorist attacks, and accidental oil spills.The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is ready to coordinate the provisioning and deployment of USGS staff, equipment, geospatial data, products, and services in support of national emergency response requirements.

  7. Comment and Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College English, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Critics comment on three earlier "College English" articles: Mike Rose's "The Language of Exclusion: Writing Instruction at the University," Elizabeth A. Nist's "Tattle's Well's Faire: English Women Authors of the Sixteenth Century," and Patrick Hartwell's "Grammar, Grammars, and the Teaching of Grammar." Contains responses from Mike Rose and…

  8. Dopa responsive dystonia.

    PubMed Central

    Patel, K; Roskrow, T; Davis, J S; Heckmatt, J Z

    1995-01-01

    There may be insufficient awareness of dopa responsive dystonia (DRD), which has a characteristic diurnal variation of symptoms. Two children are reported in whom the diagnosis of DRD was missed. The first was thought to have hysteria and the second hereditary spastic paraparesis. A full history is vital for the diagnosis of this important treatable syndrome. PMID:7492170

  9. Response to Professor Mulcahy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellow, Geoffrey C.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to D.G. Mulcahy's "Energizing Liberal Education" which compellingly contends that the long-term viability of liberal education depends upon both methodological and curricular diversification aimed at the "many sided development" of the student. Professor Mulcahy thoughtfully espouses both the cultivation…

  10. Overcoming the "Run" Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Patricia E.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research suggests that it is not simply experiencing anxiety that affects mathematics performance but also how one responds to and regulates that anxiety (Lyons and Beilock 2011). Most people have faced mathematics problems that have triggered their "run response." The issue is not whether one wants to run, but rather…

  11. Responsive Evaluation: An Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewy, Arieh

    1977-01-01

    Stake's concept of responsive evaluation is designed to provide various decision makers with the kind of information desired and in the form most helpful for making decisions. Compared with formal research procedures, this approach has both advantages and disadvantages. It may also provide a valuable supplement to formal evaluation. (CTM)

  12. Rules and Responsibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Meredith

    1988-01-01

    Presents two lessons for grades 1-4 which help students understand responsibility by considering situations from children's literature; in this case, THE PIED PIPER OF HAMELIN by Browning and FANTASTIC MR. FOX by Dahl. Provides discussion questions, suggestions for role playing, and a mock trial activity which involves students with visiting…

  13. Building Culturally Responsive Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polleck, Jody; Shabdin, Shirin

    2013-01-01

    This article offers a variety of culturally responsive approaches and activities so as to better know and understand our students' diverse cultural and linguistic backgrounds. These methods will not only help to make more equitable classrooms where we make meaningful connections with our students--but also yield useful data so as to inform our…

  14. Comments in Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michaelson, Martin

    2001-01-01

    Responds to the articles in the issue's Academic Freedom and Responsibility Symposium by Robert M. O'Neil, J. Peter Byrne, and Richard T. De George, including critiques of the author's proposed "Academic Freedom Policy and Procedures." Concludes that academic freedom can only thrive when it is subject to rigorous analysis by many scholars. (EV)

  15. Enabling responsible public genomics.

    PubMed

    Conley, John M; Doerr, Adam K; Vorhaus, Daniel B

    2010-01-01

    As scientific understandings of genetics advance, researchers require increasingly rich datasets that combine genomic data from large numbers of individuals with medical and other personal information. Linking individuals' genetic data and personal information precludes anonymity and produces medically significant information--a result not contemplated by the established legal and ethical conventions governing human genomic research. To pursue the next generation of human genomic research and commerce in a responsible fashion, scientists, lawyers, and regulators must address substantial new issues, including researchers' duties with respect to clinically significant data, the challenges to privacy presented by genomic data, the boundary between genomic research and commerce, and the practice of medicine. This Article presents a new model for understanding and addressing these new challenges--a "public genomics" premised on the idea that ethically, legally, and socially responsible genomics research requires openness, not privacy, as its organizing principle. Responsible public genomics combines the data contributed by informed and fully consenting information altruists and the research potential of rich datasets in a genomic commons that is freely and globally available. This Article examines the risks and benefits of this public genomics model in the context of an ambitious genetic research project currently under way--the Personal Genome Project. This Article also (i) demonstrates that large-scale genomic projects are desirable, (ii) evaluates the risks and challenges presented by public genomics research, and (iii) determines that the current legal and regulatory regimes restrict beneficial and responsible scientific inquiry while failing to adequately protect participants. The Article concludes by proposing a modified normative and legal framework that embraces and enables a future of responsible public genomics.

  16. Responsibility and Responsiveness. The HEW Potential for the Seventies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Elliot L.

    The Secretary of HEW presents an overview of departmental undertakings for the purpose of developing more responsible and responsive personnel. The major portion of the statement focuses on internal processes of responsibility and external processes of responsiveness. Departmental strategies, a planning cycle, an operational planning system,…

  17. Immune Responses in Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Basha, Saleem; Surendran, Naveen; Pichichero, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Neonates have little immunological memory and a developing immune system, which increases their vulnerability to infectious agents. Recent advances in understanding of neonatal immunity indicate that both innate and adaptive responses are dependent on precursor frequency of lymphocytes, antigenic dose and mode of exposure. Studies in neonatal mouse models and human umbilical cord blood cells demonstrate the capability of neonatal immune cells to produce immune responses similar to adults in some aspects but not others. This review focuses mainly on the developmental and functional mechanisms of the human neonatal immune system. In particular, the mechanism of innate and adaptive immunity and the role of neutrophils, antigen presenting cells, differences in subclasses of T lymphocytes (Th1, Th2, Tregs) and B cells are discussed. In addition, we have included the recent developments in neonatal mouse immune system. Understanding neonatal immunity is essential to development of therapeutic vaccines to combat newly emerging infectious agents. PMID:25088080

  18. GENDERED CHALLENGE, GENDERED RESPONSE

    PubMed Central

    KELLY, ERIN L.; AMMONS, SAMANTHA K.; CHERMACK, KELLY; MOEN, PHYLLIS

    2010-01-01

    This article integrates research on gendered organizations and the work-family interface to investigate an innovative workplace initiative, the Results-Only Work Environment (ROWE), implemented in the corporate headquarters of Best Buy, Inc. While flexible work policies common in other organizations “accommodate” individuals, this initiative attempts a broader and deeper critique of the organizational culture. We address two research questions: How does this initiative attempt to change the masculinized ideal worker norm? And what do women's and men's responses reveal about the persistent ways that gender structures work and family life? Data demonstrate the ideal worker norm is pervasive and powerful, even as employees begin critically examining expectations regarding work time that have historically privileged men. Employees' responses to ROWE are also gendered. Women (especially mothers) are more enthusiastic, while men are more cautious. Ambivalence about and resistance to change is expressed in different ways depending on gender and occupational status. PMID:20625518

  19. Dynamic alarm response procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, J.; Gordon, P.; Fitch, K.

    2006-07-01

    The Dynamic Alarm Response Procedure (DARP) system provides a robust, Web-based alternative to existing hard-copy alarm response procedures. This paperless system improves performance by eliminating time wasted looking up paper procedures by number, looking up plant process values and equipment and component status at graphical display or panels, and maintenance of the procedures. Because it is a Web-based system, it is platform independent. DARP's can be served from any Web server that supports CGI scripting, such as Apache{sup R}, IIS{sup R}, TclHTTPD, and others. DARP pages can be viewed in any Web browser that supports Javascript and Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG), such as Netscape{sup R}, Microsoft Internet Explorer{sup R}, Mozilla Firefox{sup R}, Opera{sup R}, and others. (authors)

  20. Pharmacogenetics of antidepressant response

    PubMed Central

    Porcelli, Stefano; Drago, Antonio; Fabbri, Chiara; Gibiino, Sara; Calati, Raffaella; Serretti, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    Personalized medicine — the adaptation of therapies based on an individual’s genetic and molecular profile — is one of the most promising aspects of modern medicine. The identification of the relation between genotype and drug response, including both the therapeutic effect and side effect profile, is expected to deeply affect medical practice. In this paper, we review the current knowledge about the genes related to antidepressant treatment response and provide methodologic proposals for future studies. We have mainly focused on genes associated with pharmacodynamics, for which a list of promising genes has been identified despite some inconsistency across studies. We have also synthesized the main results for pharmacokinetic genes, although so far they seem less relevant than those for pharmacodynamic genes. We discuss possible reasons for these inconsistent findings and propose new study designs. PMID:21172166

  1. Stress Responses of Shewanella

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Jianhua; Gao, Haichun

    2011-01-01

    The shewanellae are ubiquitous in aquatic and sedimentary systems that are chemically stratified on a permanent or seasonal basis. In addition to their ability to utilize a diverse array of terminal electron acceptors, the microorganisms have evolved both common and unique responding mechanisms to cope with various stresses. This paper focuses on the response and adaptive mechanism of the shewanellae, largely based on transcriptional data. PMID:21912550

  2. Structural response synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Ozisik, H.; Keltie, R.F.

    1988-12-01

    The open loop control technique of predicting a conditioned input signal based on a specified output response for a second order system has been analyzed both analytically and numerically to gain a firm understanding of the method. Differences between this method of control and digital closed loop control using pole cancellation were investigated as a follow up to previous experimental work. Application of the technique to diamond turning using a fast tool is also discussed.

  3. Individual Responsibility in War.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-28

    65-79. 39 Robert Nozick , " Coercion ," in Philosophys Science and Method: Essays in Honor of Ernest NL&Le, eds. Patrick Suppes, Sidney Morgebesser, and...Belmont, California .jadsworth Publishing Co., 1970. Nozick , Robert. Anarchy. State. and Utopia. New Yorks Basic Books, Inc., 1974. - . " Coercion ." In...is refined and clarified. The factors that affect such responsibility are then reviewed. These include insanity, coercion , ignorance, mis- take

  4. ACCELERATION RESPONSIVE SWITCH

    DOEpatents

    Chabrek, A.F.; Maxwell, R.L.

    1963-07-01

    An acceleration-responsive device with dual channel capabilities whereby a first circuit is actuated upon attainment of a predetermined maximum acceleration level and when the acceleration drops to a predetermined minimum acceleriltion level another circuit is actuated is described. A fluid-damped sensing mass slidably mounted in a relatively frictionless manner on a shaft through the intermediation of a ball bushing and biased by an adjustable compression spring provides inertially operated means for actuating the circuits. (AEC)

  5. National Response Framework

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    being overwhelmed in times of crisis . Layered, mutually supporting capabilities of individuals, communities, the private sector, NGOs, and governments at...all levels allow for coordinated planning in times of calm and effective response in times of crisis . Engaged partnership 9 As with all activities...by an incident  Providing emergency commodities and services, such as water , food, shelter, assistance with family reunification, clothing, and

  6. Engineers and Active Responsibility.

    PubMed

    Pesch, Udo

    2015-08-01

    Knowing that technologies are inherently value-laden and systemically interwoven with society, the question is how individual engineers can take up the challenge of accepting the responsibility for their work? This paper will argue that engineers have no institutional structure at the level of society that allows them to recognize, reflect upon, and actively integrate the value-laden character of their designs. Instead, engineers have to tap on the different institutional realms of market, science, and state, making their work a 'hybrid' activity combining elements from the different institutional realms. To deal with this institutional hybridity, engineers develop routines and heuristics in their professional network, which do not allow societal values to be expressed in a satisfactory manner. To allow forms of 'active' responsibility, there have to be so-called 'accountability forums' that guide moral reflections of individual actors. The paper will subsequently look at the methodologies of value-sensitive design (VSD) and constructive technology assessment (CTA) and explore whether and how these methodologies allow engineers to integrate societal values into the design technological artifacts and systems. As VSD and CTA are methodologies that look at the process of technological design, whereas the focus of this paper is on the designer, they can only be used indirectly, namely as frameworks which help to identify the contours of a framework for active responsibility of engineers.

  7. Selenium and immune responses

    SciTech Connect

    Kiremidjian-Schumacher, L.; Stotzky, G.

    1987-04-01

    Selenium (Se) affects all components of the immune system, i.e., the development and expression of nonspecific, humoral, and cell-mediated responses. In general, a deficiency in Se appears to result in immunosuppression, whereas supplementation with low doses of Se appears to result in augmentation and/or restoration of immunologic functions. A deficiency of Se has been shown to inhibit (1) resistance to microbial and viral infections, (2) neutrophil function, (3) antibody production, (4) proliferation of T and B lymphocytes in response to mitogens, and (5) cytodestruction by T lymphocytes and NK cells. Supplementation with Se has been shown to stimulate (1) the function of neutrophils, (2) production of antibodies, (3) proliferation of T and B lymphocytes in response to mitogens, (4) production of lymphokines, (5) NK cell-mediated cytodestruction, (6) delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions and allograft rejection, and (7) the ability of a host to reject transplanted malignant tumors. The mechanism(s) whereby Se affects the immune system is speculative. The effects of Se on the function of glutathione peroxidase and on the cellular levels of reduced glutathione and H/sub 2/Se, as well as the ability of Se to interact with cell membranes, probably represent only a few of many regulatory mechanisms. The manipulation of cellular levels of Se may be significant for the maintenance of general health and for the control of immunodeficiency disorders and the chemoprevention of cancer.

  8. The sterile inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Rock, Kenneth L; Latz, Eicke; Ontiveros, Fernando; Kono, Hajime

    2010-01-01

    The acute inflammatory response is a double-edged sword. On the one hand, it plays a key role in initial host defense, particularly against many infections. On the other hand, its aim is imprecise, and as a consequence, when it is drawn into battle, it can cause collateral damage in tissues. In situations where the inciting stimulus is sterile, the cost-benefit ratio may be high; because of this, sterile inflammation underlies the pathogenesis of a number of diseases. Although there have been major advances in our understanding of how microbes trigger inflammation, much less has been learned about this process in sterile situations. This review focuses on a subset of the many sterile stimuli that can induce inflammation-specifically dead cells and a variety of irritant particles, including crystals, minerals, and protein aggregates. Although this subset of stimuli is structurally very diverse and might appear to be unrelated, there is accumulating evidence that the innate immune system may recognize them in similar ways and stimulate the sterile inflammatory response via common pathways. Here we review established and emerging data about these responses.

  9. [About <responsibility> of vaccination].

    PubMed

    Di Pietro, Maria Luisa; Refolo, Pietro; González-Melado, Fermín J

    2012-01-01

    The debate over compulsory or merely recommended vaccination remains open, albeit latent, in those countries that have mandatory vaccine schedules. Despite the advantages of preventive immunization from the point of medical, economic and social features, it's clear, in the current status of medical ethics, that the exercise of patient autonomy calls for personal responsibility in the election of treatments and, in fact, the vaccines. Therefore, it is necessary to change the simple idea of prevention as , characteristic of a in order to pass to a preventative medicine concept that will be able to support the achievement of moral attitudes towards achieving the good for the individual and for the community. This is only possible from a wherever is possible to present an alternative between mandatory vs. recommendation from the concept of <responsibility> that, with the help of a series of measures, could combine the effective protection for the whole community with the responsible exercise of the personal autonomy.

  10. Load responsive hydrodynamic bearing

    DOEpatents

    Kalsi, Manmohan S.; Somogyi, Dezso; Dietle, Lannie L.

    2002-01-01

    A load responsive hydrodynamic bearing is provided in the form of a thrust bearing or journal bearing for supporting, guiding and lubricating a relatively rotatable member to minimize wear thereof responsive to relative rotation under severe load. In the space between spaced relatively rotatable members and in the presence of a liquid or grease lubricant, one or more continuous ring shaped integral generally circular bearing bodies each define at least one dynamic surface and a plurality of support regions. Each of the support regions defines a static surface which is oriented in generally opposed relation with the dynamic surface for contact with one of the relatively rotatable members. A plurality of flexing regions are defined by the generally circular body of the bearing and are integral with and located between adjacent support regions. Each of the flexing regions has a first beam-like element being connected by an integral flexible hinge with one of the support regions and a second beam-like element having an integral flexible hinge connection with an adjacent support region. A least one local weakening geometry of the flexing region is located intermediate the first and second beam-like elements. In response to application of load from one of the relatively rotatable elements to the bearing, the beam-like elements and the local weakening geometry become flexed, causing the dynamic surface to deform and establish a hydrodynamic geometry for wedging lubricant into the dynamic interface.

  11. Semantic processing and response inhibition.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Hsueh-Sheng; Motes, Michael A; Mudar, Raksha A; Rao, Neena K; Mansinghani, Sethesh; Brier, Matthew R; Maguire, Mandy J; Kraut, Michael A; Hart, John

    2013-11-13

    The present study examined functional MRI (fMRI) BOLD signal changes in response to object categorization during response selection and inhibition. Young adults (N=16) completed a Go/NoGo task with varying object categorization requirements while fMRI data were recorded. Response inhibition elicited increased signal change in various brain regions, including medial frontal areas, compared with response selection. BOLD signal in an area within the right angular gyrus was increased when higher-order categorization was mandated. In addition, signal change during response inhibition varied with categorization requirements in the left inferior temporal gyrus (lIT). lIT-mediated response inhibition when inhibiting the response only required lower-order categorization, but lIT mediated both response selection and inhibition when selecting and inhibiting the response required higher-order categorization. The findings characterized mechanisms mediating response inhibition associated with semantic object categorization in the 'what' visual object memory system.

  12. Gravity receptors and responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Allan H.

    1989-01-01

    The overall process of gravity sensing and response processes in plants may be divided conveniently into at least four components or stages: Stimulus susception (a physical event, characteristically the input to the G receptor system of environmental information about the G force magnitude, its vector direction, or both); information perception (an influence of susception on some biological structure or process that can be described as the transformation of environmental information into a biologicallly meaningful change); information transport (the export, if required, of an influence (often chemical) to cells and organs other than those at the sensor location); and biological response (almost always (in plants) a growth change of some kind). Some analysts of the process identify, between information perception and information transport, an additional stage, transduction, which would emphasize the importance of a transformation from one form of information to another, for example from mechanical statolith displacement to an electric, chemical, or other alteration that was its indirect result. These four (or five) stages are temporally sequential. Even if all that occurs at each stage can not be confidently identified, it seems evident that during transduction and transport, matters dealt with are found relatively late in the information flow rather than at the perception stage. As more and more is learned about the roles played by plant hormones which condition the G responses, the mechanism(s) of perception which should be are not necessarily better understood. However, if by asking the right questions and being lucky with experiments perhaps the discovery of how some process (such as sedimentation of protoplasmic organelles) dictates what happens down stream in the information flow sequence may be made.

  13. Personal Responsibility and Lifestyle Diseases.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Martin Marchman; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul

    2016-10-01

    What does it take for an individual to be personally responsible for behaviors that lead to increased risk of disease? We examine three approaches to responsibility that cover the most important aspects of the discussion of responsibility and spell out what it takes, according to each of them, to be responsible for behaviors leading to increased risk of disease. We show that only what we call the causal approach can adequately accommodate widely shared intuitions to the effect that certain causal influences-such as genetic make-up or certain social circumstances-diminish, or undermine personal responsibility. However, accepting the causal approach most likely makes personal responsibility impossible. We therefore need either to reject these widely shared intuitions about what counts as responsibility-softening or undermining or to accept that personal responsibility for behaviors leading to increased risk of disease rests on premises so shaky that personal responsibility is probably impossible.

  14. Responsive Image Inline Filter

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, Ian

    2016-10-20

    RIIF is a contributed module for the Drupal php web application framework (drupal.org). It is written as a helper or sub-module of other code which is part of version 8 "core Drupal" and is intended to extend its functionality. It allows Drupal to resize images uploaded through the user-facing text editor within the Drupal GUI (a.k.a. "inline images") for various browser widths. This resizing is already done foe other images through the parent "Responsive Image" core module. This code extends that functionality to inline images.

  15. Dividends with Demand Response

    SciTech Connect

    Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Goldman, Charles; Sezgen, O.; Pratt, D.

    2003-10-31

    To assist facility managers in assessing whether and to what extent they should participate in demand response programs offered by ISOs, we introduce a systematic process by which a curtailment supply curve can be developed that integrates costs and other program provisions and features. This curtailment supply curve functions as bid curve, which allows the facility manager to incrementally offer load to the market under terms and conditions acceptable to the customer. We applied this load curtailment assessment process to a stylized example of an office building, using programs offered by NYISO to provide detail and realism.

  16. Thermomechanical response of thermoelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Music, Denis; Geyer, Richard W.; Keuter, Philipp

    2016-11-01

    We have theoretically investigated the product of elastic modulus and linear coefficient of thermal expansion for 20 thermoelectrics. The product is inversely proportional to equilibrium volume, which is consistent with the Debye-Grüneisen model. Oxides exhibit larger products, while the products of Te-containing thermoelectrics are considerably smaller. This is likely due to strong bonding in these oxides, which makes them prone to thermal stress, thermal shock, and thermal fatigue. As this product is rarely available in literature and the equilibrium volume is easily measurable, this work provides a quick estimation for the thermomechanical response of thermoelectric phases.

  17. Oral immunization with recombinant listeria monocytogenes controls virus load after vaginal challenge with feline immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Rosemary; Howard, Kristina E; Nordone, Sushila; Burkhard, MaryJo; Dean, Gregg A

    2004-08-01

    Recombinant Listeria monocytogenes has many attractive characteristics as a vaccine vector against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Wild-type and attenuated Listeria strains expressing HIV Gag have been shown to induce long-lived mucosal and systemic T-cell responses in mice. Using the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) model of HIV we evaluated recombinant L. monocytogenes in a challenge system. Five cats were immunized with recombinant L. monocytogenes that expresses the FIV Gag and delivers an FIV Env-expressing DNA vaccine (LMgag/pND14-Lc-env). Control cats were either sham immunized or immunized with wild-type L. monocytogenes (LM-wt). At 1 year after vaginal challenge, provirus could not be detected in any of the nine tissues evaluated from cats immunized with the recombinant bacteria but was detected in at least one tissue in 8 of 10 control animals. Virus was isolated from bone marrow of four of five LMgag/pND14-Lc-env-immunized cats by use of a stringent coculture system but required CD8(+) T-cell depletion, indicating CD8(+) T-cell suppression of virus replication. Control animals had an inverted CD4:CD8 ratio in mesenteric lymph node and were depleted of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) intestinal epithelial T cells, while LMgag/pND14-Lc-env-immunized animals showed no such abnormalities. Vaginal FIV-specific immunoglobulin A was present at high titer in three LMgag/pND14-Lc-env-immunized cats before challenge and in all five at 1 year postchallenge. This study demonstrates that recombinant L. monocytogenes conferred some control of viral load after vaginal challenge with FIV.

  18. State responses to biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Harris, Rebecca C

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews biotechnology legislation in the 50 states for 11 policy areas spanning 1990-2010, an era of immense growth in biotechnology, genetic knowledge, and significant policy development. Policies regarding health insurance, life insurance, long-term care insurance, DNA data bank collection, biotech research protection, biotech promotion and support, employment discrimination, genetic counselor licensing, human cloning, and genetic privacy each represent major policy responses arising from biotechnology and coinciding with key areas of state regulation (insurance, criminal justice, economic development, labor law, health and safety, privacy, and property rights). This analysis seeks to answer three questions regarding biotechnology legislation at the state level: who is acting (policy adoption), when is policy adopted (policy timing), and what is policy doing (policy content). Theoretical concerns examine state ideology (conservative or liberal), policy type (economic or moral), and the role of external events (federal law, news events, etc.) on state policy adoption. Findings suggest ideological patterns in adoption, timing, and content of biotech policy. Findings also suggest economic policies tend to be more uniform in content than moral policies, and findings also document a clear link between federal policy development, external events, and state policy response.

  19. Freedom, responsibility, and health.

    PubMed Central

    Bunker, J. P.; Stansfeld, S.; Potter, J.

    1996-01-01

    Freedom and responsibility, how much of each and how they are balanced, have profound implications for our personal lives and for our work. The health of a population and its achievement in the workplace are enhanced when individuals have some freedom and some responsibility, but not too much of either, and when civil associations of individuals rather than individuals acting alone are the essential social units. The consistent association of social contacts with health and productivity provides strong support for the premise that intimate relationships are the focus around which people's lives revolve. Membership of a "social network" may be merely conforming to a reigning social norm, and this could mean having to pay an important price in the loss of creativity associated with individualism. But social conformity should not prevent individuals from going their own way, and it should be possible to combine the luxury of individuality with an active life in civic affairs. Less than complete freedom may fall short of existential utopia, but it may be best for our health and wellbeing. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 PMID:8990992

  20. Skeletal responses to spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morey-Holton, Emily; Arnaud, Sara B.

    1991-01-01

    The role of gravity in the determination of bone structure is elucidated by observations in adult humans and juvenile animals during spaceflight. The primary response of bone tissue to microgravity is at the interface of the mineral and matrix in the process of biomineralization. This response is manifested by demineralization or retarded growth in some regions of the skeleton and hypermineralization in others. The most pronounced effects are seen in the heelbone and skull, the most distally located bones relative to the heart. Ground based flight simulation models that focus on changes in bone structure at the molecular, organ, and whole body levels are described and compared to flight results. On Earth, the morphologic and compositional changes in the unloaded bones are very similar to changes during flight; however, the ground based changes appear to be more transient. In addition, a redistribution of bone mineral in gravity-dependent bones occurs both in space and during head down positioning on Earth. Longitudinal data provided considerable information on the influence of endocrine and muscular changes on bone structure after unloading.

  1. Exercise Responses after Inactivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.

    1986-01-01

    The exercise response after bed rest inactivity is a reduction in the physical work capacity and is manifested by significant decreases in oxygen uptake. The magnitude of decrease in maximal oxygen intake V(dot)O2max is related to the duration of confinement and the pre-bed-rest level of aerobic fitness; these relationships are relatively independent of age and gender. The reduced exercise performance and V(dot)O2max following bed rest are associated with various physiological adaptations including reductions in blood volume, submaximal and maximal stroke volume, maximal cardiac output, sceletal muscle tone and strength, and aerobic enzyme capacities, as well as increases in venous compliance and submaximal and maximal heart rate. This reduction in physiological capacity can be partially restored by specific countermeasures that provide regular muscular activity or orhtostatic stress or both during the bed rest exposure. The understanding of these physiological and physical responses to exercise following bed rest inactivity has important implications for the solution to safety and health problems that arise in clinical medicine, aerospace medicine, sedentary living, and aging.

  2. Automated security response robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciccimaro, Dominic A.; Everett, Hobart R.; Gilbreath, Gary A.; Tran, Tien T.

    1999-01-01

    ROBART III is intended as an advance demonstration platform for non-lethal response measures, extending the concepts of reflexive teleoperation into the realm of coordinated weapons control in law enforcement and urban warfare scenarios. A rich mix of ultrasonic and optical proximity and range sensors facilitates remote operation in unstructured and unexplored buildings with minimal operator supervision. Autonomous navigation and mapping of interior spaces is significantly enhanced by an innovative algorithm which exploits the fact that the majority of man-made structures are characterized by parallel and orthogonal walls. Extremely robust intruder detection and assessment capabilities are achieved through intelligent fusion of a multitude of inputs form various onboard motion sensors. Intruder detection is addressed by a 360-degree staring array of passive-IR motion detectors, augmented by a number of positionable head-mounted sensors. Automatic camera tracking of a moving target is accomplished using a video line digitizer. Non-lethal response systems include a six- barrelled pneumatically-powered Gatling gun, high-powered strobe lights, and three ear-piercing 103-decibel sirens.

  3. Multilevel corporate environmental responsibility.

    PubMed

    Karassin, Orr; Bar-Haim, Aviad

    2016-12-01

    The multilevel empirical study of the antecedents of corporate social responsibility (CSR) has been identified as "the first knowledge gap" in CSR research. Based on an extensive literature review, the present study outlines a conceptual multilevel model of CSR, then designs and empirically validates an operational multilevel model of the principal driving factors affecting corporate environmental responsibility (CER), as a measure of CSR. Both conceptual and operational models incorporate three levels of analysis: institutional, organizational, and individual. The multilevel nature of the design allows for the assessment of the relative importance of the levels and of their components in the achievement of CER. Unweighted least squares (ULS) regression analysis reveals that the institutional-level variables have medium relationships with CER, some variables having a negative effect. The organizational level is revealed as having strong and positive significant relationships with CER, with organizational culture and managers' attitudes and behaviors as significant driving forces. The study demonstrates the importance of multilevel analysis in improving the understanding of CSR drivers, relative to single level models, even if the significance of specific drivers and levels may vary by context.

  4. Playful Hyper Responsibility: Toward a Dislocation of Parents' Responsibility?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knudsen, Hanne; Andersen, Niels Åkerstrøm

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 10-15?years, state-funded schools have begun to require parents to assume an undefined and infinite personal responsibility. In this article, we investigate how schools organize responsibility games to respond to this challenge and how these games affect the concept of responsibility. We point to a dislocation in the way parents are…

  5. Assessing Personality Traits through Response Latencies Using Item Response Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranger, Jochen; Ortner, Tuulia M.

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed a relation between the given response and the response latency for personality questionnaire items in the form of an inverted-U effect, which has been interpreted in light of schema-driven behavior. In general, more probable responses are given faster. In the present study, the relationship between the probability of…

  6. A Measurement Model for Likert Responses that Incorporates Response Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrando, Pere J.; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a model for response times that is proposed as a supplement to the usual factor-analytic model for responses to graded or more continuous typical-response items. The use of the proposed model together with the factor model provides additional information about the respondent and can potentially increase the accuracy of the…

  7. Human immune responses in cryptosporidiosis

    PubMed Central

    Borad, Anoli; Ward, Honorine

    2010-01-01

    Immune responses play a critical role in protection from, and resolution of, cryptosporidiosis. However, the nature of these responses, particularly in humans, is not completely understood. Both innate and adaptive immune responses are important. Innate immune responses may be mediated by Toll-like receptor pathways, antimicrobial peptides, prostaglandins, mannose-binding lectin, cytokines and chemokines. Cell-mediated responses, particularly those involving CD4+ T cells and IFN-γ play a dominant role. Mucosal antibody responses may also be involved. Proteins mediating attachment and invasion may serve as putative protective antigens. Further knowledge of human immune responses in cryptosporidiosis is essential in order to develop targeted prophylactic and therapeutic interventions. This review focuses on recent advances and future prospects in the understanding of human immune responses to Cryptosporidium infection. PMID:20210556

  8. Airburst warning and response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boslough, Mark

    2014-10-01

    It is virtually certain (probability>99%) that the next destructive NEO event will be an airburst. Planetary defense is usually assumed to have the primary goal of maximizing the number of lives saved, but it can be argued that more emphasis should be placed on maximizing the probability of saving lives. For the latter goal, it is far more effective to create an early warning and civil defense plan than a mitigation plan that involves deflecting a large NEO. Because early warning and civil defense will almost certainly be needed long before the first deflection is ever required, the credibility of the planetary defense community and its recommendations will be put to its first serious test by an airburst. Successful response to an airburst event will make it much more likely that recommendations for mitigation by deflection will be accepted by decision makers and the public. Focusing more attention on the second goal will, as a side effect, benefit the primary goal.

  9. Magnetically responsive enzyme powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pospiskova, Kristyna; Safarik, Ivo

    2015-04-01

    Powdered enzymes were transformed into their insoluble magnetic derivatives retaining their catalytic activity. Enzyme powders (e.g., trypsin and lipase) were suspended in various liquid media not allowing their solubilization (e.g., saturated ammonium sulfate and highly concentrated polyethylene glycol solutions, ethanol, methanol, 2-propanol) and subsequently cross-linked with glutaraldehyde. Magnetic modification was successfully performed at low temperature in a freezer (-20 °C) using magnetic iron oxides nano- and microparticles prepared by microwave-assisted synthesis from ferrous sulfate. Magnetized cross-linked enzyme powders were stable at least for two months in water suspension without leakage of fixed magnetic particles. Operational stability of magnetically responsive enzymes during eight repeated reaction cycles was generally without loss of enzyme activity. Separation of magnetically modified cross-linked powdered enzymes from reaction mixtures was significantly simplified due to their magnetic properties.

  10. TEPC Response Functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shinn, J. L.; Wilson, J. W.

    2003-01-01

    The tissue equivalent proportional counter had the purpose of providing the energy absorbed from a radiation field and an estimate of the corresponding linear energy transfer (LET) for evaluation of radiation quality to convert to dose equivalent. It was the recognition of the limitations in estimating LET which lead to a new approach to dosimetry, microdosimetry, and the corresponding emphasis on energy deposit in a small tissue volume as the driver of biological response with the defined quantity of lineal energy. In many circumstances, the average of the lineal energy and LET are closely related and has provided a basis for estimating dose equivalent. Still in many cases the lineal is poorly related to LET and brings into question the usefulness as a general purpose device. These relationships are examined in this paper.

  11. "Bad genes" & criminal responsibility.

    PubMed

    González-Tapia, María Isabel; Obsuth, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    The genetics of the accused is trying to break into the courts. To date several candidate genes have been put forward and their links to antisocial behavior have been examined and documented with some consistency. In this paper, we focus on the so called "warrior gene", or the low-activity allele of the MAOA gene, which has been most consistently related to human behavior and specifically to violence and antisocial behavior. In preparing this paper we had two objectives. First, to summarize and analyze the current scientific evidence, in order to gain an in depth understanding of the state of the issue and determine whether a dominant line of generally accepted scientific knowledge in this field can be asserted. Second, to derive conclusions and put forward recommendations related to the use of genetic information, specifically the presence of the low-activity genotype of the MAOA gene, in modulation of criminal responsibility in European and US courts.

  12. Hanford Emergency Response Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Wagoner, J.D.

    1994-04-01

    The Hanford Emergency Response Plan for the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL), incorporates into one document an overview of the emergency management program for the Hanford Site. The program has been developed in accordance with DOE orders, and state and federal regulations to protect worker and public health and safety and the environment in the event of an emergency at or affecting the Hanford Site. This plan provides a description of how the Hanford Site will implement the provisions of DOE 5500 series and other applicable Orders in terms of overall policies and concept of operations. It should be used as the basis, along with DOE Orders, for the development of specific contractor and RL implementing procedures.

  13. Response reactions: equilibrium coupling.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Eufrozina A; Nagypal, Istvan

    2006-06-01

    It is pointed out and illustrated in the present paper that if a homogeneous multiple equilibrium system containing k components and q species is composed of the reactants actually taken and their reactions contain only k + 1 species, then we have a unique representation with (q - k) stoichiometrically independent reactions (SIRs). We define these as coupling reactions. All the other possible combinations with k + 1 species are the coupled reactions that are in equilibrium when the (q - k) SIRs are in equilibrium. The response of the equilibrium state for perturbation is determined by the coupling and coupled equilibria. Depending on the circumstances and the actual thermodynamic data, the effect of coupled equilibria may overtake the effect of the coupling ones, leading to phenomena that are in apparent contradiction with Le Chatelier's principle.

  14. Complex Deployed Responsive Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parry, Glenn; McLening, Marc; Caldwell, Nigel; Thompson, Rob

    A pizza restaurant must provide product, in the form of the food and drink, and service in the way this is delivered to the customer. Providing this has distinct operational challenges, but what if the restaurant also provides a home delivery service? The service becomes deployed as the customer is no-longer co-located with the production area. The business challenge is complicated as service needs to be delivered within a geographic region, to time or the pizza will be cold, and within a cost that is not ­prohibitive. It must also be responsive to short term demand; needing to balance the number of staff it has available to undertake deliveries against a forecast of demand.

  15. Signals and Responses

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Angie

    2006-01-01

    The nitrogen-fixing symbiosis between bacteria in the family Rhizobiaceae and members of the legume family (Fabaceae) has been well studied, particularly from the perspective of the early signaling and recognition events. Recent studies of non-nodulating legume mutants have resulted in the identification of a number of genes that are responsive to signal molecules from the bacteria. However, a second group of nodule-forming bacteria, completely unrelated to the Rhizobiaceae, which are α-Proteobacteria, has been discovered. These bacteria belong to the β-Proteobacteria and have been designated β-rhizobia to distinguish them from the better-known α-rhizobia. Here, we review what is known in this economically important symbiosis about the interaction between legumes and α-rhizobia, and we incorporate information, where known, about the β-rhizobia. PMID:19521481

  16. Temperature responsive transmitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinberg, Leonard L. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A temperature responsive transmitter is provided in which frequency varies linearly with temperature. The transmitter includes two identically biased transistors connected in parallel. A capacitor, which reflects into the common bases to generate negative resistance effectively in parallel with the capacitor, is connected to the common emitters. A crystal is effectively in parallel with the capacitor and the negative resistance. Oscillations occur if the magnitude of the absolute value of the negative resistance is less than the positive resistive impedance of the capacitor and the inductance of the crystal. The crystal has a large linear temperature coefficient and a resonant frequency which is substantially less than the gain-bandwidth product of the transistors to ensure that the crystal primarily determines the frequency of oscillation. A high-Q tank circuit having an inductor and a capacitor is connected to the common collectors to increase the collector current flow which in turn enhances the radiation of the oscillator frequency by the inductor.

  17. Affective responses to dance.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Julia F; Pollick, Frank E; Lambrechts, Anna; Gomila, Antoni

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the present work was the characterization of mechanisms by which affective experiences are elicited in observers when watching dance movements. A total of 203 dance stimuli from a normed stimuli library were used in a series of independent experiments. The following measures were obtained: (i) subjective measures of 97 dance-naïve participants' affective responses (Likert scale ratings, interviews); and (ii) objective measures of the physical parameters of the stimuli (motion energy, luminance), and of the movements represented in the stimuli (roundedness, impressiveness). Results showed that (i) participants' ratings of felt and perceived affect differed, (ii) felt and perceived valence but not arousal ratings correlated with physical parameters of the stimuli (motion energy and luminance), (iii) roundedness in posture shape was related to the experience of more positive emotion than edgy shapes (1 of 3 assessed rounded shapes showed a clear effect on positiveness ratings while a second reached trend level significance), (iv) more impressive movements resulted in more positive affective responses, (v) dance triggered affective experiences through the imagery and autobiographical memories it elicited in some people, and (vi) the physical parameters of the video stimuli correlated only weakly and negatively with the aesthetics ratings of beauty, liking and interest. The novelty of the present approach was twofold; (i) the assessment of multiple affect-inducing mechanisms, and (ii) the use of one single normed stimulus set. The results from this approach lend support to both previous and present findings. Results are discussed with regards to current literature in the field of empirical aesthetics and affective neuroscience.

  18. Social Facilitation of Aiding Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartell, Patricia; And Others

    Research on individual's response to emergency situations in the presence of others has produced conflicting results. The bystander effect is the label applied to inaction or the unlikelihood of assistance with others present. The social facilitation effect occurs when the presence of others energizes response; strong habit responses are…

  19. Teaching about Heterogeneous Response Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals vary in their responses to incentives and opportunities. For example, additional education will affect one person differently than another. In recent years, econometricians have given increased attention to such heterogeneous responses and to the consequences of such responses for interpreting regression estimates, especially…

  20. Can Arousal Modulate Response Inhibition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinbach, Noam; Kalanthroff, Eyal; Avnit, Amir; Henik, Avishai

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine if and how arousal can modulate response inhibition. Two competing hypotheses can be drawn from previous literature. One holds that alerting cues that elevate arousal should result in an impulsive response and therefore impair response inhibition. The other suggests that alerting enhances processing of…

  1. DYNAMICS OF THE ESCAPE RESPONSE.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    requirements. It has been shown that force is a lawful response measure under positive reinforcement (Notterman and Mintz, 1965). Subjects will adjust...concluded that response force in an escape situation is a lawful response measure, and that it operates in a manner similar to force under positive reinforcement .

  2. The effects of response cost and response restriction on a multiple-response repertoire with humans

    PubMed Central

    Crosbie, John

    1993-01-01

    In two experiments a multiple-response repertoire of four free-operant responses was developed with university students as subjects using monetary gain as reinforcement. Following baseline, one of the responses was reduced either by making monetary loss contingent upon it (response cost) or by removing it from the repertoire (response restriction). In Experiment 1 a multielement baseline design was employed in which baseline and restriction or response-cost contingencies alternated semirandomly every 3 minutes. In Experiment 2 a reversal design was employed (i.e., baseline, restriction or response cost, then baseline), and each response required a different amount of effort. Both experiments had the following results: (a) The target response decreased substantially; (b) most nontarget responses increased, and the rest remained near their baseline levels; and (c) no support was found for Dunham's hierarchical, most frequent follower, or greatest temporal similarity rules. For several subjects, the least probable responses during baseline increased most, and the most probable responses increased least. Furthermore, in Experiment 2, responses with the lowest frequency of reinforcement increased most (for all 7 subjects), and those with the greatest frequency of reinforcement increased least (for 5 subjects). PMID:16812683

  3. Verbal response-effect compatibility.

    PubMed

    Koch, Iring; Kunde, Wilfried

    2002-12-01

    Ideomotor theory states that motor responses are activated by an anticipation of their sensory effects. We assumed that anticipated effects would produce response-effect (R-E) compatibility when there is dimensional overlap of effects and responses. In a four-choice task, visual digit stimuli called for verbal responses (color names). Each response produced a written response-effect on the screen. In different groups, the response-effect was a colored color word (e.g., blue in blue), a white color word, or a colored nonword (Xs in blue). In different blocks, the predictable effects were either incompatible (e.g., response "blue" --> effect: green) or compatible with the response. We found faster responses with compatible than with incompatible R-E mappings. The compatibility effect was strongest with colored words, intermediate with white words, and smallest with colored nonwords. We conclude that effect anticipation influences response selection on both a perceptual level (related to the word's color) and a conceptual level (related to the word's meaning).

  4. Remune. Immune Response.

    PubMed

    Lai, Derhsing; Jones, Taff

    2002-03-01

    The Immune Response Corp (IRC) is developing Remune, a potential HIV therapeutic vaccine. Remune is based on the Salk Immunogen, which is derived from an HIV isolate which has been inactivated by chemical depletion of glycoprotein 120 (gp120). Preliminary data suggested that Remune, in combination with antiviral drug therapy, results in undetectable levels of HIV. Phase III trials commenced in May 1997 and it was initially expected that registration filings would be made in 1999. However, following interim analysis of the 2500-patient, multicenter, double-blind, pivotal phase III study (study 806) in May 1999, an independent panel recommended concluding the clinical endpoint trial and IRC and licensee, Agouron, decided to pursue alternative regulatory strategies, including initiating two additional phase III surrogate marker trials. Despite this, Agouron gave IRC notice of termination of its continued development in July 2001. In August 2001, IRC informed Agouron that, due to the total number of endpoints to date falling short of that previously assumed by Agouron, it did not intend to continue Agouron's Study 202 of Remune. In July 2001, licensee Trinity Medical Group filed an NDA with the governing health authorities in Thailand for Remune. The Thai FDA certified Immune Response's Remune manufacturing facility as being in compliance with GMP standards, following an on site inspection by Thai officials in November 2001 that was performed as a requirement of Trinity's Thai NDA. As a result of this certification, Trinity expected that a "timely determination" could be made by the Thai FDA. Rhĵne-Poulenc Rorer discontinued its part in the development of Remune, with all manufacturing, marketing and distribution rights reverting to IRC. After Agouron returned rights to Remune in July 2001, IRC heldfull rights in the US, Europe and Japan, while collaborating with its partners Trinity Medical Group and Roemmers Laboratory in the Southeast Asian and Latin American

  5. Vaccines, our shared responsibility.

    PubMed

    Pagliusi, Sonia; Jain, Rishabh; Suri, Rajinder Kumar

    2015-05-05

    The Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers' Network (DCVMN) held its fifteenth annual meeting from October 27-29, 2014, New Delhi, India. The DCVMN, together with the co-organizing institution Panacea Biotec, welcomed over 240 delegates representing high-profile governmental and nongovernmental global health organizations from 36 countries. Over the three-day meeting, attendees exchanged information about their efforts to achieve their shared goal of preventing death and disability from known and emerging infectious diseases. Special praise was extended to all stakeholders involved in the success of polio eradication in South East Asia and highlighted challenges in vaccine supply for measles-rubella immunization over the coming decades. Innovative vaccines and vaccine delivery technologies indicated creative solutions for achieving global immunization goals. Discussions were focused on three major themes including regulatory challenges for developing countries that may be overcome with better communication; global collaborations and partnerships for leveraging investments and enable uninterrupted supply of affordable and suitable vaccines; and leading innovation in vaccines difficult to develop, such as dengue, Chikungunya, typhoid-conjugated and EV71, and needle-free technologies that may speed up vaccine delivery. Moving further into the Decade of Vaccines, participants renewed their commitment to shared responsibility toward a world free of vaccine-preventable diseases.

  6. Examining maintenance responsibilities.

    PubMed

    Lam, K C

    2001-06-01

    This paper has examined the important responsibilities of the two organisations involved in the provision of maintenance service for the vital building services in many of our highly serviced buildings. The issues raised could be put to beneficial use in both clients and maintenance providers. All in all, the clients should work closely with their maintenance providers. Engineering services in buildings will not perform satisfactorily and efficiently if both parties do not work together and understand the maintenance tasks based on a business partnering mode. Put forward is the view that the management of the activities involved in the operation and maintenance process is a "shared commitment/involvement" between the client and the maintenance provider. It is obvious that many factors can influence the continued effectiveness of a quality maintenance scheme set up by client and provider. Some of these factors are: Change in key personnel Updates in technology Amendments to engineering practice Implementation of legislative requirements Changes in operation by client or provider Change of use of building Passage of time These factors must be fully reviewed by both parties from time to time, and necessary actions taken. A cooperative team working relationship and improved communication should be fostered by the client and his provider for the best management of services maintenance. This arrangement will contribute to better building services systems with continuous improvement; improved value for clients and higher return for the maintenance provider.

  7. Emergency Response Health Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Mena, RaJah; Pemberton, Wendy; Beal, William

    2012-05-01

    Health physics is an important discipline with regard to understanding the effects of radiation on human health; however, there are major differences between health physics for research or occupational safety and health physics during a large-scale radiological emergency. The deployment of a U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) monitoring and assessment team to Japan in the wake of the March 2011 accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant yielded a wealth of lessons on these difference. Critical teams (CMOC (Consequence Management Outside the Continental U.S.) and CMHT (Consequence Management Home Team) ) worked together to collect, compile, review, and analyze radiological data from Japan to support the response needs of and answer questions from the Government of Japan, the U.S. military in Japan, the U.S. Embassy and U.S. citizens in Japan, and U.S. citizens in America. This paper addresses the unique challenges presented to the health physicist or analyst of radiological data in a large-scale emergency. A key lesson learned was that public perception and the availability of technology with social media requires a diligent effort to keep the public informed of the science behind the decisions in a manner that is meaningful to them.

  8. Tolerogenic response: allorecognition pathways.

    PubMed

    Caballero, A; Fernandez, N; Lavado, R; Bravo, M J; Miranda, J M; Alonso, A

    2006-12-01

    The induction of immune tolerance in transplant recipients has been sought for many years but only a fundamental understanding of the immunological mechanisms underlying graft rejection will allow manipulation of the anti-graft immune response. In general, acute rejection is better understood and treated than chronic rejection, as they occur through partially different mechanisms. It is now generally accepted that recognition of same-species, non-self antigens (allorecognition) occurs through at least two different mechanisms, the direct and indirect pathways. In the direct pathway, donor MHC molecules on the surface of donor antigen-presenting cells (APCs) are recognised directly by the recipient's T cells. This mechanism is so immediate that it seems to be primarily involved in acute graft rejection. Since APCs of donor origin are depleted with time a second mechanism, the indirect pathway, takes over to cause chronic rejection, in which foreign MHC molecules are internalised, partially digested and presented as peptides to recipient T cells. Nonetheless, a number of studies are only fully understood when a third proposed allorecognition mechanism is taken into account. This is the semi-indirect pathway, as discussed in this short report.

  9. Rapid response manufacturing (RRM)

    SciTech Connect

    Cain, W.D.; Waddell, W.L.

    1997-02-18

    US industry is fighting to maintain its competitive edge in the global market place. Today markets fluctuate rapidly. Companies, to survive, have to be able to respond with quick-to-market, improved, high quality, cost efficient products. The way products are developed and brought to market can be improved and made more efficient through the proper incorporation of emerging technologies. The RRM project was established to leverage the expertise and resources of US private industries and federal agencies to develop, integrate, and deploy new technologies that meet critical needs for effective product realization. The RRM program addressed a needed change in the US Manufacturing infrastructure that will ensure US competitiveness in world market typified by mass customization. This project provided the effort needed to define, develop and establish a customizable infrastructure for rapid response product development design and manufacturing. A major project achievement was the development of a broad-based framework for automating and integrating the product and process design and manufacturing activities involved with machined parts. This was accomplished by coordinating and extending the application of feature-based product modeling, knowledge-based systems, integrated data management, and direct manufacturing technologies in a cooperative integrated computing environment. Key technological advancements include a product model that integrates product and process data in a consistent, minimally redundant manner, an advanced computer-aided engineering environment, knowledge-based software aids for design and process planning, and new production technologies to make products directly from design application software.

  10. A Response to Commentaries

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, I. Glenn; Lynch, Holly Fernandez; Deubert, Christopher R.

    2016-01-01

    Our article “NFL Player Health Care: Addressing Club Doctors’ Conflicts of Interests and Promoting Player Trust” focused on an inherent structural conflict that faces club doctors in the National Football League. The conflict stems from club doctors’ dual role of providing medical care to players and providing strategic advice to clubs. We recommended assigning these roles to different individuals, with the medical staff members who are responsible for providing player care being chosen and subject to review and termination by a committee of medical experts selected equally by the NFL and the NFL Players Association. Recognizing that the problem of structural conflict of interest is deeply entrenched and that our recommendation is a significant departure from the status quo, we invited comment from a diverse and highly qualified group of experts. There is considerable common ground among the commentators. All but one agreed with us that, despite the best intentions of upstanding professionals, there is a structural conflict of interest in the club doctors’ relationship with players, and the commentaries were generally supportive of our recommendation for change. There are also meaningful disagreements, however. Some commentators think that the proposal is on the right track but does not go far enough to reduce the structural conflict of interest, and one commentary wholly disagrees with our analysis and recommendations. PMID:27870084

  11. Emergency Response Guideline Development

    SciTech Connect

    Gary D. Storrick

    2007-09-30

    Task 5 of the collaborative effort between ORNL, Brazil, and Westinghouse for the International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative entitled “Development of Advanced Instrumentation and Control for an Integrated Primary System Reactor” focuses on operator control and protection system interaction, with particular emphasis on developing emergency response guidelines (ERGs). As in the earlier tasks, we will use the IRIS plant as a specific example of an integrated primary system reactor (IPSR) design. The present state of the IRIS plant design – specifically, the lack of a detailed secondary system design – precludes establishing detailed emergency procedures at this time. However, we can create a structure for their eventual development. This report summarizes our progress to date. Section 1.2 describes the scope of this effort. Section 2 compares IPSR ERG development to the recent AP1000 effort, and identifies three key plant differences that affect the ERGs and control room designs. The next three sections investigate these differences in more detail. Section 3 reviews the IRIS Safety-by-Design™ philosophy and its impact on the ERGs. Section 4 looks at differences between the IRIS and traditional loop PWR I&C Systems, and considers their implications for both control room design and ERG development. Section 5 examines the implications of having one operating staff control multiple reactor units. Section 6 provides sample IRIS emergency operating procedures (EOPs). Section 7 summarizes our conclusions.

  12. Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software - Detector Response Function

    SciTech Connect

    2014-05-13

    GADRAS-DRF uses a Detector Response Function (DRF) to compute the response of gamma-ray detectors incident radiation. The application includes provision for plotting measured and computed spectra and for characterizing detector response parameters based on measurements of a series of calibration sources (e.g., Ba-133, Cs-137, Co-60, and Th-228). An application program interface enables other programs to access the dynamic-link library that is used to compute spectra.

  13. Training for emergency response with RimSim:Response!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Bruce D.; Schroder, Konrad A.

    2009-05-01

    Since developing and promoting a Pacific Rim community emergency response simulation software platform called RimSim, the PARVAC team at the University of Washington has developed a variety of first responder agents who can participate within a response simulation. Agents implement response heuristics and communications strategies in conjunction with live players trying to develop their own heuristics and communications strategies to participate in a successful community response crisis. The effort is facilitated by shared visualization of the affected geographical extent. We present initial findings from interacting with a wide variety of mixed agent simulation sessions and make the software available for others to perform their own experiments.e

  14. Emergency Response Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, Traci M.

    2004-01-01

    Safety and security is very important at NASA. The Security Management and Safeguards Office goal is ensure safety and security for all NASA Lewis and Plum Brook Station visitors and workers. The office protects against theft, sabotage, malicious damage, espionage, and other threats or acts of violence. There are three types of security at NASA: physical, IT, and personnel. IT is concerned with sensitive and classified information and computers. Physical security includes the officers who check visitors and workers in and patrol the facility. Personnel security is concerned with background checks during hiring. During my internship, I met people from and gained knowledge about all three types of security. I primarily worked with Dr. Richard Soppet in physical security. During my experience with physical security, I observed and worked with many aspects of it. I attended various security meetings at both NASA Lewis and Plum Brook. The meetings were about homeland security and other improvements that will be made to both facilities. I also spent time with a locksmith. The locksmith makes copies of keys and unlocks doors for people who need them. I rode around in a security vehicle with an officer as he patrolled. I also observed the officer make a search of a visitor s vehicle. All visitors vehicles are searched upon entering NASA. I spent time and observed in the dispatch office. The officer answers calls and sends out officers when needed. The officer also monitors the security cameras. My primary task was completing an emergency response manual. This manual would assist local law enforcement and fire agencies in case of an emergency. The manual has pictures and descriptions of the buildings. It also contains the information about hazards inside of the buildings. This information will be very helpul to law enforcement so that when called upon during an emergency, they will not create an even bigger problem with collateral damage.

  15. Enhanced responsivity resonant RF photodetectors.

    PubMed

    Liu, R; Dev, S; Zhong, Y; Lu, R; Streyer, W; Allen, J W; Allen, M S; Wenner, B R; Gong, S; Wasserman, D

    2016-11-14

    The responsivity of room-temperature, semiconductor-based photodetectors consisting of resonant RF circuits coupled to microstrip buslines is investigated. The dependence of the photodetector response on the semiconductor material and RF circuit geometry is presented, as is the detector response as a function of the spatial position of the incident light. We demonstrate significant improvement in detector response by choice of photoconductive material, and for a given material, by positioning our optical signal to overlap with positions of RF field enhancement. Design of RF circuits with strong field enhancement are demonstrated to further improve detector response. The improved detector response demonstrated offers opportunities for applications in RF photonics, materials metrology, or single read-out multiplexed detector arrays.

  16. Building a rapid response team.

    PubMed

    Halvorsen, Lisa; Garolis, Salomeja; Wallace-Scroggs, Allyson; Stenstrom, Judy; Maunder, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The use of rapid response teams is a relatively new approach for decreasing or eliminating codes in acute care hospitals. Based on the principles of a code team for cardiac and/or respiratory arrest in non-critical care units, the rapid response teams have specially trained nursing, respiratory, and medical personnel to respond to calls from general care units to assess and manage decompensating or rapidly changing patients before their conditions escalate to a full code situation. This article describes the processes used to develop a rapid response team, clinical indicators for triggering a rapid response team call, topics addressed in an educational program for the rapid response team members, and methods for evaluating effectiveness of the rapid response team.

  17. Demand Response for Ancillary Services

    SciTech Connect

    Alkadi, Nasr E; Starke, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    Many demand response resources are technically capable of providing ancillary services. In some cases, they can provide superior response to generators, as the curtailment of load is typically much faster than ramping thermal and hydropower plants. Analysis and quantification of demand response resources providing ancillary services is necessary to understand the resources economic value and impact on the power system. Methodologies used to study grid integration of variable generation can be adapted to the study of demand response. In the present work, we describe and illustrate a methodology to construct detailed temporal and spatial representations of the demand response resource and to examine how to incorporate those resources into power system models. In addition, the paper outlines ways to evaluate barriers to implementation. We demonstrate how the combination of these three analyses can be used to translate the technical potential for demand response providing ancillary services into a realizable potential.

  18. A Mixed Effects Randomized Item Response Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, J.-P.; Wyrick, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    The randomized response technique ensures that individual item responses, denoted as true item responses, are randomized before observing them and so-called randomized item responses are observed. A relationship is specified between randomized item response data and true item response data. True item response data are modeled with a (non)linear…

  19. Immune Responses in Parasitic Diseases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    RESPONSES IN PARASITIC DISEASES Final Scientific Report Daniel J. Stechschulte, M.D. Herbert B. Lindsley, M.D. September 1982 (July 1974 - December 1979...REPORT & PERIOD COVERED IMMUNE RESPONSES IN PARASITIC DISEASES Final Report July 1977 - Dec. 1979 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER S 4 7. AUTNIOR(a) 6...DAMD 17-74-C-4136 AD_______________ IMMUNE RESPONSES IN PARASITIC DISEASES Final Scientific Report Daniel J. Stechschulte, M.D. Herbert B. Lindsley

  20. Macrophage Responses to B. Anthracis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-14

    LPS were reflective of a profound rophage responses to close relatives like Bacillus cereus as well change in cellular signaling, and in general these...published (attached) in 2005 [Bergman, et al. Murine Macrophage Transcriptional Responses to Bacillus I Final Report anthracis Infection and Intoxication...Macrophage Transcriptional Responses to Bacillus anthracis Infection and Intoxication. Infection & Immunity. 73:1069-1079. Parallel to the mRNA data

  1. Avoidance response, house response, and wind responses of the sporangiophore of Phycomyces

    PubMed Central

    1975-01-01

    Avoidance response: An object placed 1 mm from the growing zone of a Phycomyces sporangiophore elicits a tropic response away from the object. The dependence of this response on the size of the object and its distance from the specimen is described, as well as measurements which exclude electric fields, electromagnetic radiation, temperature, and humidity as avoidance-mediating signals. This response is independent of the composition and surface properties of the object and of ambient light. House Response: A house of 0.5- to 10-cm diameter put over a sporangiophore elicits a transient growth response. Avoidance responses inside closed houses are slightly smaller than those in the open. Wind responses: A transverse wind elicits a tropic response into the wind, increasing with wind speed. A longitudinal wind, up or down, elicits a transient negative growth response to a step-up in wind speed, and vice versa. It is proposed that all of the effects listed involve wind sensing. This proposal is supported by measurements of aerodynamic effects of barriers and houses on random winds. The wind sensing is discussed in terms of the hypothesis that a gas is emitted by the growing zone (not water or any normal constituent of air), the concentration of which is modified by the winds and monitored by a chemical sensor. This model puts severe constraints on the physical properties of the gas. PMID:1159403

  2. Avoidance response, house response, and wind responses of the sporangiophore of Phycomyces.

    PubMed

    Cohen, R J; Jan, Y N; Matricon, J; Delbrück, M

    1975-07-01

    Avoidance response: An object placed 1 mm from the growing zone of a Phycomyces sporangiophore elicits a tropic response away from the object. The dependence of this response on the size of the object and its distance from the specimen is described, as well as measurements which exclude electric fields, electromagnetic radiation, temperature, and humidity as avoidance-mediating signals. This response is independent of the composition and surface properties of the object and of ambient light. House Response: A house of 0.5- to 10-cm diameter put over a sporangiophore elicits a transient growth response. Avoidance responses inside closed houses are slightly smaller than those in the open. Wind responses: A transverse wind elicits a tropic response into the wind, increasing with wind speed. A longitudinal wind, up or down, elicits a transient negative growth response to a step-up in wind speed, and vice versa. It is proposed that all of the effects listed involve wind sensing. This proposal is supported by measurements of aerodynamic effects of barriers and houses on random winds. The wind sensing is discussed in terms of the hypothesis that a gas is emitted by the growing zone (not water or any normal constituent of air), the concentration of which is modified by the winds and monitored by a chemical sensor. This model puts severe constraints on the physical properties of the gas.

  3. Human response to aircraft noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Clemans A.; Fields, James M.

    1991-01-01

    The human auditory system and the perception of sound are discussed. The major concentration is on the annnoyance response and methods for relating the physical characteristics of sound to those psychosociological attributes associated with human response. Results selected from the extensive laboratory and field research conducted on human response to aircraft noise over the past several decades are presented along with discussions of the methodology commonly used in conducting that research. Finally, some of the more common criteria, regulations, and recommended practices for the control or limitation of aircraft noise are examined in light of the research findings on human response.

  4. Unphysical divergences in response theory.

    PubMed

    Parker, Shane M; Roy, Saswata; Furche, Filipp

    2016-10-07

    Transition densities between excited states are key for nonlinear theoretical spectroscopy and multi-state non-adiabatic molecular dynamics (NAMD) simulations. In the framework of response theory, these transition densities are accessible from poles of the quadratic response function. It was shown recently that the thus obtained transition densities within time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) and adiabatic time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) exhibit unphysical divergences when the difference in excitation energy of the two states of interest matches another excitation energy. This unphysical behavior is a consequence of spurious poles in the quadratic response function. We show that the incorrect pole structure of the quadratic response is not limited to TDHF and adiabatic TDDFT, but is also present in many other approximate many-electron response functions, including those from coupled cluster and multiconfigurational self-consistent field response theory. The divergences appear in regions of the potential energy surface where the ground state is perfectly well behaved, and they are frequently encountered in NAMD simulations of photochemical reactions. The origin of the divergences is traced to an incorrect instantaneous time-dependence of the effective Hamiltonian. The implications for computations of frequency-dependent response properties are considerable and call into question the validity of conventional approximate many-electron response theories beyond linear response.

  5. Psychophysiological responses to Salsa dance.

    PubMed

    Guidetti, Laura; Buzzachera, Cosme Franklim; Emerenziani, Gian Pietro; Meucci, Marco; Saavedra, Francisco; Gallotta, Maria Chiara; Baldari, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Speculation exists whether dance provides physiological stimuli adequate to promote health and fitness benefits. Unfortunately, research to date has not addressed the affective and exertional responses to dance. These responses are of interest as positive affective and exertional responses experienced during physical activity may play an important role in predicting adherence. The present study aims to examine the psychophysiological responses of different Salsa dance styles. Ten pairs of dancers performed two different structured lessons of Salsa dance, including Typical Salsa and Rueda de Casino lessons, and a non-structured Salsa dance at a night club. Physiological responses (i.e., percent of heart rate reserve; %HRR) were continuously assessed and perceived exertion and affective valence were rated every 15 min throughout the trials. %HRR responses differed between the Salsa dance styles (%HRR from 41.3 to 51.9%), and participants were dancing at intensities near their ventilatory threshold. Specifically, Typical Salsa lesson elicited lower %HRR responses than Rueda de Casino lesson (p < 0.05), but similar %HRR responses to Salsa dance at a night club condition (p > 0.05). Surprisingly, exertional (from 8 to 11) and affective (from +3 to +5) responses were unaffected by Salsa dance styles (p > 0.05). These data support that different Salsa dance styles provide physiological stimuli adequate to promote health and fitness benefits, and perhaps more importantly, produce pleasurable experiences, which in turn might lead to an increase in adherence to Salsa dancing which likely provides exercise-like health benefits.

  6. The Value of Response Times in Item Response Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molenaar, Dylan

    2015-01-01

    A new and very interesting approach to the analysis of responses and response times is proposed by Goldhammer (this issue). In his approach, differences in the speed-ability compromise within respondents are considered to confound the differences in ability between respondents. These confounding effects of speed on the inferences about ability can…

  7. Consistency of Response Style Across Types of Response Formats.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardo, J.W.; Yeager, S.J.

    1982-01-01

    In examining response style effects on various commonly used fixed-response formats, Likert-type formats were relatively consistently affected regardless of the number of format categories. Nonanchored numbers were less affected. Across types, strong correlations for the linear formats and human faces made their use problematic. (Author/CM)

  8. Responsible nanotechnology development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forloni, Gianluigi

    2012-08-01

    the nanotoxicology. The establishment of an effective strategy cannot ignore the distinction between different nanoparticles on their use and the type of exposure to which we are subjected. Categorization is essential to orchestrate toxicological rules realistic and effective. The responsible development of nanotechnology means a common effort, by scientists, producers, stakeholders, and public institutions to develop appropriate programs to systematically approach the complex issue of the nanotoxicology.

  9. Environmental Protection Agency Award Recipient Responsibilities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Itemized Award Phase information. Information about the Recipient's Responsibilities Upon Notification of the Award, The EPA Project Officer Responsibilities, and EPA Grant Specialists Responsibilities.

  10. Agricultural intensification, priming for persistence and the emergence of Nipah virus: a lethal bat-borne zoonosis

    PubMed Central

    Pulliam, Juliet R. C.; Epstein, Jonathan H.; Dushoff, Jonathan; Rahman, Sohayati A.; Bunning, Michel; Jamaluddin, Aziz A.; Hyatt, Alex D.; Field, Hume E.; Dobson, Andrew P.; Daszak, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Emerging zoonoses threaten global health, yet the processes by which they emerge are complex and poorly understood. Nipah virus (NiV) is an important threat owing to its broad host and geographical range, high case fatality, potential for human-to-human transmission and lack of effective prevention or therapies. Here, we investigate the origin of the first identified outbreak of NiV encephalitis in Malaysia and Singapore. We analyse data on livestock production from the index site (a commercial pig farm in Malaysia) prior to and during the outbreak, on Malaysian agricultural production, and from surveys of NiV's wildlife reservoir (flying foxes). Our analyses suggest that repeated introduction of NiV from wildlife changed infection dynamics in pigs. Initial viral introduction produced an explosive epizootic that drove itself to extinction but primed the population for enzootic persistence upon reintroduction of the virus. The resultant within-farm persistence permitted regional spread and increased the number of human infections. This study refutes an earlier hypothesis that anomalous El Niño Southern Oscillation-related climatic conditions drove emergence and suggests that priming for persistence drove the emergence of a novel zoonotic pathogen. Thus, we provide empirical evidence for a causative mechanism previously proposed as a precursor to widespread infection with H5N1 avian influenza and other emerging pathogens. PMID:21632614

  11. Healthy Animals, Healthy People: Zoonosis Risk from Animal Contact in Pet Shops, a Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Halsby, Kate D.; Walsh, Amanda L.; Campbell, Colin; Hewitt, Kirsty; Morgan, Dilys

    2014-01-01

    Background Around 67 million pets are owned by households in the United Kingdom, and an increasing number of these are exotic animals. Approximately a third of pets are purchased through retail outlets or direct from breeders. A wide range of infections can be associated with companion animals. Objectives This study uses a systematic literature review to describe the transmission of zoonotic disease in humans associated with a pet shop or other location selling pets (incidents of rabies tracebacks and zoonoses from pet food were excluded). Data sources PubMed and EMBASE. Results Fifty seven separate case reports or incidents were described in the 82 papers that were identified by the systematic review. Summary information on each incident is included in this manuscript. The infections include bacterial, viral and fungal diseases and range in severity from mild to life threatening. Infections associated with birds and rodents were the most commonly reported. Over half of the reports describe incidents in the Americas, and three of these were outbreaks involving more than 50 cases. Many of the incidents identified relate to infections in pet shop employees. Limitations This review may have been subject to publication bias, where unusual and unexpected zoonotic infections may be over-represented in peer-reviewed publications. It was also restricted to English-language articles so that pathogens that are more common in non-Western countries, or in more exotic animals not common in Europe and the Americas, may have been under-represented. Conclusions/implications A wide spectrum of zoonotic infections are acquired from pet shops. Salmonellosis and psittacosis were the most commonly documented diseases, however more unusual infections such as tularemia also appeared in the review. Given their potential to spread zoonotic infection, it is important that pet shops act to minimise the risk as far as possible. PMID:24586679

  12. The Price of a Neglected Zoonosis: Case-Control Study to Estimate Healthcare Utilization Costs of Human Brucellosis.

    PubMed

    Vered, Oded; Simon-Tuval, Tzahit; Yagupsky, Pablo; Malul, Miki; Cicurel, Assi; Davidovitch, Nadav

    2015-01-01

    Human brucellosis has reemerged as a serious public health threat to the Bedouin population of southern Israel in recent years. Little is known about its economic implications derived from elevated healthcare utilization (HCU). Our objective was to estimate the HCU costs associated with human brucellosis from the insurer perspective. A case-control retrospective study was conducted among Clalit Health Services (CHS) enrollees. Brucellosis cases were defined as individuals that were diagnosed with brucellosis at the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory of Soroka University Medical Center in the 2010-2012 period (n = 470). Control subjects were randomly selected and matched 1:3 by age, sex, clinic, and primary physician (n = 1,410). HCU data, demographic characteristics and comorbidities were obtained from CHS computerized database. Mean±SD age of the brucellosis cases was 26.6±17.6 years. 63% were male and 85% were Bedouins. No significant difference in Charlson comorbidity index was found between brucellosis cases and controls (0.41 vs. 0.45, respectively, P = 0.391). Before diagnosis (baseline), the average total annual HCU cost of brucellosis cases was slightly yet significantly higher than that of the control group ($439 vs. $382, P<0.05), however, no significant differences were found at baseline in the predominant components of HCU, i.e. hospitalizations, diagnostic procedures, and medications. At the year following diagnosis, the average total annual HCU costs of brucellosis cases was significantly higher than that of controls ($1,327 vs. $380, respectively, P<0.001). Most of the difference stems from 7.9 times higher hospitalization costs (p<0.001). Additional elevated costs were 3.6 times higher laboratory tests (P<0.001), 2.8 times higher emergency room visits (P<0.001), 1.8 times higher medication (P<0.001) and 1.3 times higher diagnostic procedures (P<0.001). We conclude that human brucellosis is associated with elevated HCU costs. Considering these results in cost-effective analyses may be crucial for both reducing health inequities and optimal allocation of health systems' scarce resources.

  13. Active infective endocarditis due to Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae: zoonosis caused by vancomycin-resistant gram-positive rod.

    PubMed

    Miura, Takashi; Hashizume, Koji; Ariyoshi, Tsuneo; Miwa, Takashi; Furumoto, Akitsugu; Izumida, Mai; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Eishi, Kiyoyuki

    2013-02-01

    A 42-year-old female who was a voluntary worker in a school for handicapped children was referred to us for surgery for active infective endocarditis. Trans-esophageal echocardiography showed 2 large mobile vegetations on the aortic valve and severe aortic regurgitation. Aortic valve replacement was performed to prevent septic embolism and deterioration of congestive heart failure. The empiric therapy with vancomycin, ampicillin, and gentamycin was initiated because a pathogen was not identified. But Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae (gram-positive rod) was isolated on the 4th day after surgery. The target therapy with penicillin G and clindamycin was started and continued for 4 weeks after surgery. The inflammatory parameters improved steadily and the patient was discharged on the 36th day after surgery. Infective endocarditis due to gram-positive rods can be easily mistaken for streptococci or dismissed as a skin contamination. But, E. rhusiopathiae endocarditis should be considered in the differential diagnosis.

  14. Spatial and temporal dynamics of rabies virus variants in big brown bat populations across Canada: footprints of an emerging zoonosis.

    PubMed

    Nadin-Davis, Susan A; Feng, Yuqin; Mousse, Delphine; Wandeler, Alexander I; Aris-Brosou, Stéphane

    2010-05-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of a collection of rabies viruses that currently circulate in Canadian big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) identified five distinct lineages which have emerged from a common ancestor that existed over 400 years ago. Four of these lineages are regionally restricted in their range while the fifth lineage, comprising two-thirds of all specimens, has emerged in recent times and exhibits a recent demographic expansion with rapid spread across the Canadian range of its host. Four of these viral lineages are shown to circulate in the US. To explore the role of the big brown bat host in dissemination of these viral variants, the population structure of this species was explored using both mitochondrial DNA and nuclear microsatellite markers. These data suggest the existence of three subpopulations distributed in British Columbia, mid-western Canada (Alberta and Saskatchewan) and eastern Canada (Quebec and Ontario), respectively. We suggest that these three bat subpopulations may differ by their level of female phylopatry, which in turn affects the spread of rabies viruses. We discuss how this bat population structure has affected the historical spread of rabies virus variants across the country and the potential impact of these events on public health concerns regarding rabies.

  15. Emergence of Sylvatic Echinococcus granulosus as a Parasitic Zoonosis of Public Health Concern in an Indigenous Community in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Himsworth, Chelsea G.; Jenkins, Emily; Hill, Janet E.; Nsungu, Mandiangu; Ndao, Momar; Andrew Thompson, R. C.; Covacin, Catherine; Ash, Amanda; Wagner, Brent A.; McConnell, Athena; Leighton, Frederick A.; Skinner, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    Within a remote Canadian Indigenous community, at least 11* of people had antibodies against Echinococcus granulosus and E. granulosus eggs were detected in 6* of environmentally collected canine fecal samples. Dog ownership, hunting, and trapping were not risk factors for seropositivity, suggesting that people are most likely exposed to E. granulosus through indirect contact with dog feces in the environment. In this situation, human exposure could be most effectively curtailed by preventing consumption of cervid viscera by free-roaming dogs. PMID:20348513

  16. Evidence of presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in bovine tissue samples by multiplex PCR: possible relevance to reverse zoonosis.

    PubMed

    Mittal, M; Chakravarti, S; Sharma, V; Sanjeeth, B S; Churamani, C P; Kanwar, N S

    2014-04-01

    Bovine tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, remains one of the most important zoonotic health concerns worldwide. The transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from humans to animals also occurs especially in countries where there is close interaction of humans with the animals. In the present study, thirty bovine lung tissue autopsy samples from an organized dairy farm located in North India were screened for the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex by smear microscopy, histopathological findings and PCR. Differential diagnosis of M. tuberculosis and M. bovis was made based on the deletion of mce-3 operon in M. bovis. The present study found eight of these samples positive for M. tuberculosis by multiplex PCR. Sequencing was performed on two PCR-positive representative samples and on annotation, and BLAST analysis confirmed the presence of gene fragment specific to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The presence of M. tuberculosis in all the positive samples raises the possibility of human-to-cattle transmission and possible adaptation of this organism in bovine tissues. This study accentuates the importance of screening and differential diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in humans and livestock for adopting effective TB control and eradication programmes.

  17. Agricultural intensification, priming for persistence and the emergence of Nipah virus: a lethal bat-borne zoonosis.

    PubMed

    Pulliam, Juliet R C; Epstein, Jonathan H; Dushoff, Jonathan; Rahman, Sohayati A; Bunning, Michel; Jamaluddin, Aziz A; Hyatt, Alex D; Field, Hume E; Dobson, Andrew P; Daszak, Peter

    2012-01-07

    Emerging zoonoses threaten global health, yet the processes by which they emerge are complex and poorly understood. Nipah virus (NiV) is an important threat owing to its broad host and geographical range, high case fatality, potential for human-to-human transmission and lack of effective prevention or therapies. Here, we investigate the origin of the first identified outbreak of NiV encephalitis in Malaysia and Singapore. We analyse data on livestock production from the index site (a commercial pig farm in Malaysia) prior to and during the outbreak, on Malaysian agricultural production, and from surveys of NiV's wildlife reservoir (flying foxes). Our analyses suggest that repeated introduction of NiV from wildlife changed infection dynamics in pigs. Initial viral introduction produced an explosive epizootic that drove itself to extinction but primed the population for enzootic persistence upon reintroduction of the virus. The resultant within-farm persistence permitted regional spread and increased the number of human infections. This study refutes an earlier hypothesis that anomalous El Niño Southern Oscillation-related climatic conditions drove emergence and suggests that priming for persistence drove the emergence of a novel zoonotic pathogen. Thus, we provide empirical evidence for a causative mechanism previously proposed as a precursor to widespread infection with H5N1 avian influenza and other emerging pathogens.

  18. The Price of a Neglected Zoonosis: Case-Control Study to Estimate Healthcare Utilization Costs of Human Brucellosis

    PubMed Central

    Vered, Oded; Simon-Tuval, Tzahit; Yagupsky, Pablo; Malul, Miki; Cicurel, Assi; Davidovitch, Nadav

    2015-01-01

    Human brucellosis has reemerged as a serious public health threat to the Bedouin population of southern Israel in recent years. Little is known about its economic implications derived from elevated healthcare utilization (HCU). Our objective was to estimate the HCU costs associated with human brucellosis from the insurer perspective. A case-control retrospective study was conducted among Clalit Health Services (CHS) enrollees. Brucellosis cases were defined as individuals that were diagnosed with brucellosis at the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory of Soroka University Medical Center in the 2010–2012 period (n = 470). Control subjects were randomly selected and matched 1:3 by age, sex, clinic, and primary physician (n = 1,410). HCU data, demographic characteristics and comorbidities were obtained from CHS computerized database. Mean±SD age of the brucellosis cases was 26.6±17.6 years. 63% were male and 85% were Bedouins. No significant difference in Charlson comorbidity index was found between brucellosis cases and controls (0.41 vs. 0.45, respectively, P = 0.391). Before diagnosis (baseline), the average total annual HCU cost of brucellosis cases was slightly yet significantly higher than that of the control group ($439 vs. $382, P<0.05), however, no significant differences were found at baseline in the predominant components of HCU, i.e. hospitalizations, diagnostic procedures, and medications. At the year following diagnosis, the average total annual HCU costs of brucellosis cases was significantly higher than that of controls ($1,327 vs. $380, respectively, P<0.001). Most of the difference stems from 7.9 times higher hospitalization costs (p<0.001). Additional elevated costs were 3.6 times higher laboratory tests (P<0.001), 2.8 times higher emergency room visits (P<0.001), 1.8 times higher medication (P<0.001) and 1.3 times higher diagnostic procedures (P<0.001). We conclude that human brucellosis is associated with elevated HCU costs. Considering these results in cost-effective analyses may be crucial for both reducing health inequities and optimal allocation of health systems’ scarce resources. PMID:26669738

  19. INHALATION EXPOSURE-RESPONSE METHODOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Inhalation Exposure-Response Analysis Methodology Document is expected to provide guidance on the development of the basic toxicological foundations for deriving reference values for human health effects, focusing on the hazard identification and dose-response aspects of the ...

  20. Timesheet fraud: A nurse's responsibility.

    PubMed

    McCausland, Dermid

    2006-04-01

    A nurse is more important than ever in today's NHS. They not only have more responsibility when it comes to the treatment of patients but a greater say in the administration of wards and departments. With this responsibility comes a duty to protect the NHS from those who try to abuse it.

  1. Bringing Professional Responsibility Back in

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solbrekke, Tone Dyrdal; Englund, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    Research on how higher education institutions work with professional formation indicates that insufficient attention is currently paid to issues of professional responsibility and ethics. In the light of such findings, there is increasing concern about issues related to learning professional responsibility. This article concentrates on different…

  2. The Writing Response to Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blatt, Gloria; Rosen, Lois Matz

    When students write in response to literature, they make reading a creative act. Recording their personal reaction to a poem or an excerpt from a larger work, students become aware of the complex web of past experiences, associations and ideas triggering their responses; they learn to interact more fully, more consciously, with the text. Besides…

  3. Responsibility Education: Today and Tomorrow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aikman, Arthur, Ed.; Miller, Harry G., Ed.

    The monograph summarizes seven presentations made at a 1976 workshop on responsibility education, defined as a movement to establish and nourish an educational system that will develop and enhance the growth of responsible citizens. The first article describes social trends, such as the breakdown of the traditional family, which have increasingly…

  4. Response Reversals in Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Zandt, Trisha; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.

    2004-01-01

    Using a dynamic sequential sampling model and a recently proposed model for confidence judgments in recognition memory (T. Van Zandt, 2000b), the authors examine the tendency for rememberers to reverse their responses after a primary decision. In 4 experiments, speeded "old"-"new" decisions were made under bias followed by a 2nd response', either…

  5. Responsive Therapy: An Integrational Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerber, Sterling K.

    Responsive therapy is an integrative model that uses a variety of intervention models, each in its own theory-pure context. This article addresses some major misdirections in the counseling profession and discusses ways that responsive therapy can help correct these misdirections. For at least two generations, counseling has professed that the…

  6. Generalizability in Item Response Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Derek C.; Wilson, Mark

    2007-01-01

    An approach called generalizability in item response modeling (GIRM) is introduced in this article. The GIRM approach essentially incorporates the sampling model of generalizability theory (GT) into the scaling model of item response theory (IRT) by making distributional assumptions about the relevant measurement facets. By specifying a random…

  7. Grassland responses to precipitation extremes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grassland ecosystems are naturally subjected to periods of prolonged drought and sequences of wet years. Climate change is expected to enhance the magnitude and frequency of extreme events at the intraannual and multiyear scales. Are grassland responses to extreme precipitation simply a response to ...

  8. Administrative Responses to Campus Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roark, Mary L.; Roark, Eldridge W., Jr.

    Campus violence, whether it is physical, sexual, or psychological, is counterproductive to a positive college environment and to the healthy development of individuals. Student affairs administrators and directors of various student services hold a responsibility for directing the response of campus personnel to specific volatile and exploitive…

  9. Reforming Disaster and Emergency Response

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-24

    storm, high water, wind-driven water, tidal wave, tsunami, earthquake, volcanic eruption, landslide , mudslide, snowstorm, or drought) or...range of subtypes to include severe winter storms, severe storms and flooding, landslides and mudslides, tornadoes, inland and coastal flooding...national responsibility. Majority of States Subsidize the Minority of States Two problems with the trend towards nationalization of disaster response

  10. Automated Demand Response and Commissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David S.; Motegi, Naoya; Bourassa, Norman

    2005-04-01

    This paper describes the results from the second season of research to develop and evaluate the performance of new Automated Demand Response (Auto-DR) hardware and software technology in large facilities. Demand Response (DR) is a set of activities to reduce or shift electricity use to improve the electric grid reliability and manage electricity costs. Fully-Automated Demand Response does not involve human intervention, but is initiated at a home, building, or facility through receipt of an external communications signal. We refer to this as Auto-DR. The evaluation of the control and communications must be properly configured and pass through a set of test stages: Readiness, Approval, Price Client/Price Server Communication, Internet Gateway/Internet Relay Communication, Control of Equipment, and DR Shed Effectiveness. New commissioning tests are needed for such systems to improve connecting demand responsive building systems to the electric grid demand response systems.

  11. Electric response in superfluid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chagovets, Tymofiy V.

    2016-05-01

    We report an experimental investigation of the electric response of superfluid helium that arises in the presence of a second sound standing wave. It was found that the signal of the electric response is observed in a narrow range of second sound excitation power. The linear dependence of the signal amplitude has been derived at low excitation power, however, above some critical power, the amplitude of the signal is considerably decreased. It was established that the rapid change of the electric response is not associated with a turbulent regime generated by the second sound wave. A model of the appearance of the electric response as a result of the oscillation of electron bubbles in the normal fluid velocity field in the second sound wave is presented. Possible explanation for the decrease of the electric response are presented.

  12. Accessory genes confer a high replication rate to virulent feline immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Troyer, Ryan M; Thompson, Jesse; Elder, John H; VandeWoude, Sue

    2013-07-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus that causes AIDS in domestic cats, similar to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS in humans. The FIV accessory protein Vif abrogates the inhibition of infection by cat APOBEC3 restriction factors. FIV also encodes a multifunctional OrfA accessory protein that has characteristics similar to HIV Tat, Vpu, Vpr, and Nef. To examine the role of vif and orfA accessory genes in FIV replication and pathogenicity, we generated chimeras between two FIV molecular clones with divergent disease potentials: a highly pathogenic isolate that replicates rapidly in vitro and is associated with significant immunopathology in vivo, FIV-C36 (referred to here as high-virulence FIV [HV-FIV]), and a less-pathogenic strain, FIV-PPR (referred to here as low-virulence FIV [LV-FIV]). Using PCR-driven overlap extension, we produced viruses in which vif, orfA, or both genes from virulent HV-FIV replaced equivalent genes in LV-FIV. The generation of these chimeras is more straightforward in FIV than in primate lentiviruses, since FIV accessory gene open reading frames have very little overlap with other genes. All three chimeric viruses exhibited increased replication kinetics in vitro compared to the replication kinetics of LV-FIV. Chimeras containing HV-Vif or Vif/OrfA had replication rates equivalent to those of the virulent HV-FIV parental virus. Furthermore, small interfering RNA knockdown of feline APOBEC3 genes resulted in equalization of replication rates between LV-FIV and LV-FIV encoding HV-FIV Vif. These findings demonstrate that Vif-APOBEC interactions play a key role in controlling the replication and pathogenicity of this immunodeficiency-inducing virus in its native host species and that accessory genes act as mediators of lentiviral strain-specific virulence.

  13. Is fluency free-operant response-response chaining?

    PubMed Central

    Lindsley, Ogden R.

    1996-01-01

    This article briefly reviews behavioral fluency and its 10 products. Fluency development requires three of the four free-operant freedoms: the freedom to present stimuli at the learner's rhythm, the freedom to form the response, and the freedom to speed at the learner's maximum frequency. The article closes with several suggestions that fluent performing is really operant response-response (R-R) chaining, and recommends further controlled laboratory research on free-operant R-R chaining. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:22478259

  14. Dose-response model for teratological experiments involving quantal responses

    SciTech Connect

    Rai, K.; Van Ryzin, J.

    1985-03-01

    This paper introduces a dose-response model for teratological quantal response data where the probability of response for an offspring from a female at a given dose varies with the litter size. The maximum likelihood estimators for the parameters of the model are given as the solution of a nonlinear iterative algorithm. Two methods of low-dose extrapolation are presented, one based on the litter size distribution and the other a conservative method. The resulting procedures are then applied to a teratological data set from the literature.

  15. A Unidimensional Item Response Model for Unfolding Responses from a Graded Disagree-Agree Response Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, James S.; Laughlin, James E.

    1996-01-01

    A parametric item response theory model for unfolding binary or graded responses is developed. The graded unfolding model (GUM) is a generalization of the hyperbolic cosine model for binary data of D. Andrich and G. Luo (1993). Applicability of the GUM to attitude testing is illustrated with real data. (SLD)

  16. Fast-response cup anemometer features cosine response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frenzen, P.

    1968-01-01

    Six-cup, low-inertia anemometer combines high resolution and fast response with a unique ability to sense only the horizontal component of the winds fluctuating rapidly in three dimensions. Cup assemblies are fabricated of expanded polystyrene plastic.

  17. Detailed Modeling and Response of Demand Response Enabled Appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Vyakaranam, Bharat; Fuller, Jason C.

    2014-04-14

    Proper modeling of end use loads is very important in order to predict their behavior, and how they interact with the power system, including voltage and temperature dependencies, power system and load control functions, and the complex interactions that occur between devices in such an interconnected system. This paper develops multi-state time variant residential appliance models with demand response enabled capabilities in the GridLAB-DTM simulation environment. These models represent not only the baseline instantaneous power demand and energy consumption, but the control systems developed by GE Appliances to enable response to demand response signals and the change in behavior of the appliance in response to the signal. These DR enabled appliances are simulated to estimate their capability to reduce peak demand and energy consumption.

  18. National Response Team (NRT) Member Roles and Responsibilities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA personnel chair the NRT and cochair all Regional Response Teams (RRTs). They provide On-Scene Coordinators (OSCs), scientific support coordinators for inland spills, and Remedial Project Managers for hazardous waste remedial actions under Superfund.

  19. Eliminating mirror responses by instructions.

    PubMed

    Bardi, Lara; Bundt, Carsten; Notebaert, Wim; Brass, Marcel

    2015-09-01

    The observation of an action leads to the activation of the corresponding motor plan in the observer. This phenomenon of motor resonance has an important role in social interaction, promoting imitation, learning and action understanding. However, mirror responses not always have a positive impact on our behavior. An automatic tendency to imitate others can introduce interference in action execution and non-imitative or opposite responses have an advantage in some contexts. Previous studies suggest that mirror tendencies can be suppressed after extensive practice or in complementary joint action situations revealing that mirror responses are more flexible than previously thought. The aim of the present study was to gain insight into the mechanisms that allow response flexibility of motor mirroring. Here we show that the mere instruction of a counter-imitative mapping changes mirror responses as indexed by motor evoked potentials (MEPs) enhancement induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Importantly, mirror activation was measured while participants were passively watching finger movements, without having the opportunity to execute the task. This result suggests that the implementation of task instructions activates stimulus-response association that can overwrite the mirror representations. Our outcome reveals one of the crucial mechanisms that might allow flexible adjustments of mirror responses in different contexts. The implications of this outcome are discussed.

  20. Neural activation during response competition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hazeltine, E.; Poldrack, R.; Gabrieli, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    The flanker task, introduced by Eriksen and Eriksen [Eriksen, B. A., & Eriksen, C. W. (1974). Effects of noise letters upon the identification of a target letter in a nonsearch task. Perception & Psychophysics, 16, 143--149], provides a means to selectively manipulate the presence or absence of response competition while keeping other task demands constant. We measured brain activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during performance of the flanker task. In accordance with previous behavioral studies, trials in which the flanking stimuli indicated a different response than the central stimulus were performed significantly more slowly than trials in which all the stimuli indicated the same response. This reaction time effect was accompanied by increases in activity in four regions: the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, the supplementary motor area, the left superior parietal lobe, and the left anterior parietal cortex. The increases were not due to changes in stimulus complexity or the need to overcome previously learned associations between stimuli and responses. Correspondences between this study and other experiments manipulating response interference suggest that the frontal foci may be related to response inhibition processes whereas the posterior foci may be related to the activation of representations of the inappropriate responses.

  1. Multiple response optimization for higher dimensions in factors and responses

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Lu; Chapman, Jessica L.; Anderson-Cook, Christine M.

    2016-07-19

    When optimizing a product or process with multiple responses, a two-stage Pareto front approach is a useful strategy to evaluate and balance trade-offs between different estimated responses to seek optimum input locations for achieving the best outcomes. After objectively eliminating non-contenders in the first stage by looking for a Pareto front of superior solutions, graphical tools can be used to identify a final solution in the second subjective stage to compare options and match with user priorities. Until now, there have been limitations on the number of response variables and input factors that could effectively be visualized with existing graphical summaries. We present novel graphical tools that can be more easily scaled to higher dimensions, in both the input and response spaces, to facilitate informed decision making when simultaneously optimizing multiple responses. A key aspect of these graphics is that the potential solutions can be flexibly sorted to investigate specific queries, and that multiple aspects of the solutions can be simultaneously considered. As a result, recommendations are made about how to evaluate the impact of the uncertainty associated with the estimated response surfaces on decision making with higher dimensions.

  2. Multiple response optimization for higher dimensions in factors and responses

    DOE PAGES

    Lu, Lu; Chapman, Jessica L.; Anderson-Cook, Christine M.

    2016-07-19

    When optimizing a product or process with multiple responses, a two-stage Pareto front approach is a useful strategy to evaluate and balance trade-offs between different estimated responses to seek optimum input locations for achieving the best outcomes. After objectively eliminating non-contenders in the first stage by looking for a Pareto front of superior solutions, graphical tools can be used to identify a final solution in the second subjective stage to compare options and match with user priorities. Until now, there have been limitations on the number of response variables and input factors that could effectively be visualized with existing graphicalmore » summaries. We present novel graphical tools that can be more easily scaled to higher dimensions, in both the input and response spaces, to facilitate informed decision making when simultaneously optimizing multiple responses. A key aspect of these graphics is that the potential solutions can be flexibly sorted to investigate specific queries, and that multiple aspects of the solutions can be simultaneously considered. As a result, recommendations are made about how to evaluate the impact of the uncertainty associated with the estimated response surfaces on decision making with higher dimensions.« less

  3. Plant Responses to Nanoparticle Stress.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Zahed; Mustafa, Ghazala; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2015-11-06

    With the rapid advancement in nanotechnology, release of nanoscale materials into the environment is inevitable. Such contamination may negatively influence the functioning of the ecosystems. Many manufactured nanoparticles (NPs) contain heavy metals, which can cause soil and water contamination. Proteomic techniques have contributed substantially in understanding the molecular mechanisms of plant responses against various stresses by providing a link between gene expression and cell metabolism. As the coding regions of genome are responsible for plant adaptation to adverse conditions, protein signatures provide insights into the phytotoxicity of NPs at proteome level. This review summarizes the recent contributions of plant proteomic research to elaborate the complex molecular pathways of plant response to NPs stress.

  4. The 2010 Haiti earthquake response.

    PubMed

    Raviola, Giuseppe; Severe, Jennifer; Therosme, Tatiana; Oswald, Cate; Belkin, Gary; Eustache, Eddy

    2013-09-01

    This article presents an overview of the mental health response to the 2010 Haiti earthquake. Discussion includes consideration of complexities that relate to emergency response, mental health and psychosocial response in disasters, long-term planning of systems of care, and the development of safe, effective, and culturally sound mental health services in the Haitian context. This information will be of value to mental health professionals and policy specialists interested in mental health in Haiti, and in the delivery of mental health services in particularly resource-limited contexts in the setting of disasters.

  5. Ubiquitin signaling in immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Hongbo; Sun, Shao-Cong

    2016-01-01

    Ubiquitination has emerged as a crucial mechanism that regulates signal transduction in diverse biological processes, including different aspects of immune functions. Ubiquitination regulates pattern-recognition receptor signaling that mediates both innate immune responses and dendritic cell maturation required for initiation of adaptive immune responses. Ubiquitination also regulates the development, activation, and differentiation of T cells, thereby maintaining efficient adaptive immune responses to pathogens and immunological tolerance to self-tissues. Like phosphorylation, ubiquitination is a reversible reaction tightly controlled by the opposing actions of ubiquitin ligases and deubiquitinases. Deregulated ubiquitination events are associated with immunological disorders, including autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. PMID:27012466

  6. Vaccination pattern affects immunological response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etchegoin, P. G.

    2005-08-01

    The response of the immune system to different vaccination patterns is studied with a simple model. It is argued that the history and characteristics of the pattern defines very different secondary immune responses in the case of infection. The memory function of the immune response can be set to work in very different modes depending on the pattern followed during immunizations. It is argued that the history and pattern of immunizations can be a decisive (and experimentally accessible) factor to tailor the effectiveness of a specific vaccine.

  7. Emergency Response and Management Activities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This quarterly report, highlighting accomplishments over the past several months, showcases EPA’s unique emergency response capabilities through the use of cutting-edge technologies and innovative cleanup strategies.

  8. Emergency Response Teams in Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, James A.

    2001-01-01

    Illustrates the value of proper crisis response training to help schools protect lives by avoiding adverse situations. Details the execution of a crisis management plan, which was developed following a cafeteria/kitchen explosion. (GR)

  9. Responsive parenting: interventions and outcomes.

    PubMed Central

    Eshel, Neir; Daelmans, Bernadette; de Mello, Meena Cabral; Martines, Jose

    2006-01-01

    In addition to food, sanitation and access to health facilities children require adequate care at home for survival and optimal development. Responsiveness, a mother's/caregiver's prompt, contingent and appropriate interaction with the child, is a vital parenting tool with wide-ranging benefits for the child, from better cognitive and psychosocial development to protection from disease and mortality. We examined two facets of responsive parenting -- its role in child health and development and the effectiveness of interventions to enhance it -- by conducting a systematic review of literature from both developed and developing countries. Our results revealed that interventions are effective in enhancing maternal responsiveness, resulting in better child health and development, especially for the neediest populations. Since these interventions were feasible even in poor settings, they have great potential in helping us achieve the Millennium Development Goals. We suggest that responsiveness interventions be integrated into child survival strategies. PMID:17242836

  10. EPA Response to RFC 11001

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Response to Ms Randlshofer that IRIS assessment of halogenated platinum salts is not needed due to platinum fuel additived being removed from the list of registered additives for use in on-road diesel vehicles

  11. Model refinement using transient response

    SciTech Connect

    Dohrmann, C.R.; Carne, T.G.

    1997-12-01

    A method is presented for estimating uncertain or unknown parameters in a mathematical model using measurements of transient response. The method is based on a least squares formulation in which the differences between the model and test-based responses are minimized. An application of the method is presented for a nonlinear structural dynamic system. The method is also applied to a model of the Department of Energy armored tractor trailer. For the subject problem, the transient response was generated by driving the vehicle over a bump of prescribed shape and size. Results from the analysis and inspection of the test data revealed that a linear model of the vehicle`s suspension is not adequate to accurately predict the response caused by the bump.

  12. Responsive foams for nanoparticle delivery.

    PubMed

    Tang, Christina; Xiao, Edward; Sinko, Patrick J; Szekely, Zoltan; Prud'homme, Robert K

    2015-09-01

    We have developed responsive foam systems for nanoparticle delivery. The foams are easy to make, stable at room temperature, and can be engineered to break in response to temperature or moisture. Temperature-responsive foams are based on the phase transition of long chain alcohols and could be produced using medical grade nitrous oxide as a propellant. These temperature-sensitive foams could be used for polyacrylic acid (PAA)-based nanoparticle delivery. We also discuss moisture-responsive foams made with soap pump dispensers. Polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based nanoparticles or PMMA latex nanoparticles were loaded into Tween 20 foams and the particle size was not affected by the foam formulation or foam break. Using biocompatible detergents, we anticipate this will be a versatile and simple approach to producing foams for nanoparticle delivery with many potential pharmaceutical and personal care applications.

  13. Enforcement Response Policies and Guidance

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Enforcement Response Policies relating to violations or noncompliance with the environmental statutes and regulations. The listing is not inclusive of all policy and guidance that may be relied upon in developing enforcement actions.

  14. The Phage Shock Protein Response.

    PubMed

    Flores-Kim, Josué; Darwin, Andrew J

    2016-09-08

    The phage shock protein (Psp) system was identified as a response to phage infection in Escherichia coli, but rather than being a specific response to a phage, it detects and mitigates various problems that could increase inner-membrane (IM) permeability. Interest in the Psp system has increased significantly in recent years due to appreciation that Psp-like proteins are found in all three domains of life and because the bacterial Psp response has been linked to virulence and other important phenotypes. In this article, we summarize our current understanding of what the Psp system detects and how it detects it, how four core Psp proteins form a signal transduction cascade between the IM and the cytoplasm, and current ideas that explain how the Psp response keeps bacterial cells alive. Although recent studies have significantly improved our understanding of this system, it is an understanding that is still far from complete.

  15. Saving Electricity and Demand Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki

    A lot of people lost their lives in the tremendous earthquake in Tohoku region on March 11. A large capacity of electric power plants in TEPCO area was also damaged and large scale power shortage in this summer is predicted. In this situation, electricity customers are making great effort to save electricity to avoid planned outage. Customers take actions not only by their selves but also by some customers' cooperative movements. All actions taken actually are based on responses to request form the government or voluntary decision. On the other hand, demand response based on a financial stimulus is not observed as an actual behavior. Saving electricity by this demand response only discussed in the newspapers. In this commentary, the events regarding electricity-saving measure after this disaster are described and the discussions on demand response, especially a raise in power rate, are put into shapes in the context of this electricity supply-demand gap.

  16. Axion response in gapless systems.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Doron L

    2011-10-21

    The strong topological insulator in 3D is expected to realize a quantized magnetoelectric response, the so-called axion response. However, many of the materials predicted to be topological insulators have turned out to be metallic, with bulk Fermi surfaces. Following the result of Bergman and Refael [Phys. Rev. B 82, 195417 (2010)] that the surface states of the topological insulator persist even when the band structure gap is closed, we explore the fate of the magnetoelectric response in such systems. We find that a nonquantized magnetoelectric coupling remains once a bulk Fermi surface opens. More generally, we find higher-dimensional analogs of the intrinsic anomalous Hall effect for all Chern forms-quantized transport coefficients in the gapped case become nonquantized when the gap is closed. In particular, the nonquantized magnetoelectric response in 3D descends from the intrinsic anomalous Hall effect analog in 4D.

  17. Identification of noisy response latency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamborrino, Massimiliano; Ditlevsen, Susanne; Lansky, Petr

    2012-08-01

    In many physical systems there is a time delay before an applied input (stimulation) has an impact on the output (response), and the quantification of this delay is of paramount interest. If the response can only be observed on top of an indistinguishable background signal, the estimation can be highly unreliable, unless the background signal is accounted for in the analysis. In fact, if the background signal is ignored, however small it is compared to the response and however large the delay is, the estimate of the time delay will go to zero for any reasonable estimator when increasing the number of observations. Here we propose a unified concept of response latency identification in event data corrupted by a background signal. It is done in the context of information transfer within a neural system, more specifically on spike trains from single neurons. The estimators are compared on simulated data and the most suitable for specific situations are recommended.

  18. Community Relations During Emergency Responses

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Good communication is essential to keep local officials and citizens informed, so an official EPA spokesperson is appointed during each response action. Public involvement can help to save lives should an evacuation or other action be required.

  19. Universality of receptor channel responses.

    PubMed

    Kardos, J; Nyikos, L

    2001-12-01

    Rate parameters estimated for neurotransmitter-gated receptor channel opening and receptor desensitization are classified according to their dependence on the temporal resolution of the techniques applied in the measurements. Because allosteric proteins constituting receptor channels impose restrictions on the types of model suitable to describe the dynamic response of channels to neurotransmitters, Markovian, non-linear or fractal dynamic models and their possible extension to receptor channel response in excitable membranes are discussed.

  20. Participants' responsibilities in clinical research.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B; Ness, Elizabeth

    2012-12-01

    Discussions on the ethics and regulation of clinical research have a great deal to say about the responsibilities of investigators, sponsors, research institutions and institutional review boards, but very little about the responsibilities of research participants. In this article, we discuss the responsibilities of participants in clinical research. We argue that competent adult participants are responsible for complying with study requirements and fulfilling other obligations they undertake when they make an informed choice to enroll in a study. These responsibilities are based on duties related to promise-keeping, avoiding harm to one's self or others, beneficence and reciprocity. Investigators and research staff should inform participants about their responsibilities during the consent process, and should stress the importance of fulfilling study requirements. They should address any impediments to compliance, and they may provide participants with financial incentives for meeting study requirements. In very rare cases, coercive measures may be justified to prevent immanent harm to others resulting from non-compliance with study requirements.

  1. Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, Scott A.

    2014-06-01

    I thank these authors (Buma et al., 2014), for their interest in my paper. The topic of postglacial tree migration has always been a controversial one, so it is not surprising that my review of the evidence for the postglacial establishment of Pacific Northwest forest species in southern Alaska would generate some additional controversy. Burma et al. are perfectly correct in their statement that I did not consider localized refugia for these tree species within southeast Alaska during the LGM. However, I take exception to their statement that I did not consider the ecology of these trees in my reconstruction of regional events during the last glacial maximum (LGM). On the contrary, a consideration of the ecological requirements of these PNW tree species is precisely the reason I excluded the possibility of their survival in southeast Alaska during the height of the last glaciation, as explained below.

  2. Response surface development using RETRAN

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, R.E.; Sorensen, J.M.; May, R.S.; Doran, K.J. ); Trikouros, N.G.; Mozias, E.S. )

    1991-01-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and GPU Nuclear Corporation have completed a demonstration project that provides justification for relaxing the high-pressure setpoints for the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station. The project was undertaken because an undesirable overlap had been identified in the high-pressure setpoints when accounting for measurement uncertainties experienced during plant operation. The project employed a statistical combination of uncertainties (SCU) process to provide increased margin for measurement uncertainties. This approach was used because previous experience indicated that there was insufficient margin to justify the desired setpoints using conventional deterministic inputs to the safety analysis and plant performance analysis processes. Through the use of SCU methodology and other deterministic analyses, it is possible to provide comprehensive bases for the desired technical specification changes to the high-pressure setpoints. The SCU process is based on the EPRI setpoint analysis guidelines, and it requires the development of response surfaces to simulate RETRAN peak pressure calculations for the limiting transient event. The use of response surfaces adds an intermediate step to the SCU process, but reduces the number of RETRAN cases required to make appropriate statistical statements about the result probabilities. Basically, each response surface is an approximation of the RETRAN code for one particular event and one output variable of interest, which is valid over a limited region. The response surfaces can be sampled very inexpensively using simple Monte Carlo methods. The basic input to the development of a response surface is a set of results obtained from specific RETRAN cases.

  3. Response Tuning in Bacterial Chemotaxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasuja, Ravi; Yu-Lin; Trentham, David R.; Khan, Shahid

    1999-09-01

    Chemotaxis of enteric bacteria in spatial gradients toward a source of chemoattractant is accomplished by increases in the length of swimming runs up the gradient. Biochemical components of the intracellular signal pathway have been identified, but mechanisms for achieving the high response sensitivity remain unknown. Binding of attractant ligand to its receptor inactivates a receptor-associated histidine kinase, CheA, which phosphorylates the signal protein CheY. The reduction in phospho-CheY, CheY-P, levels prolongs swimming runs. Here, the stimulus-response relation has been determined by measurement of excitation responses mediated by the Tar receptor to defined concentration jumps of the attractant, aspartate, administered within milliseconds by photolysis of a photolabile precursor. The bacteria responded to <1% changes in Tar occupancy when adapted to aspartate over concentrations spanning three orders of magnitude. Response amplitudes increased approximately logarithmically with stimulus strength, extending responsiveness over a greater stimulus range. The extent and form of this relation indicates that, in contrast to mechanisms for adaptive recovery, excitation signal generation involves amplification based on cooperative interactions. These interactions could entail inactivation of multiple receptor-CheA signaling complexes and/or simultaneous activation of CheY-P dephosphorylation.

  4. Mouse Auditory Brainstem Response Testing

    PubMed Central

    Akil, Omar; Oursler, A. E.; Fan, Kevin; Lustig, Lawrence R.

    2016-01-01

    The auditory brainstem response (ABR) test provides information about the inner ear (cochlea) and the central pathways for hearing. The ABR reflects the electrical responses of both the cochlear ganglion neurons and the nuclei of the central auditory pathway to sound stimulation (Zhou et al., 2006; Burkard et al., 2007). The ABR contains 5 identifiable wave forms, labeled as I-V. Wave I represents the summated response from the spiral ganglion and auditory nerve while waves II-V represent responses from the ascending auditory pathway. The ABR is recorded via electrodes placed on the scalp of an anesthetized animal. ABR thresholds refer to the lowest sound pressure level (SPL) that can generate identifiable electrical response waves. This protocol describes the process of measuring the ABR of small rodents (mouse, rat, guinea pig, etc.), including anesthetizing the mouse, placing the electrodes on the scalp, recording click and tone burst stimuli and reading the obtained waveforms for ABR threshold values. As technology continues to evolve, ABR will likely provide more qualitative and quantitative information regarding the function of the auditory nerve and brainstem pathways involved in hearing.

  5. Preliminary Response Analysis of AUV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hariri, Azian; Basharie, Siti Mariam; Ghani, Mohamad Hanifah Abd.

    2010-06-01

    Development of Autonomous Unmanned Vehicle (AUV) involves a great task to fully understand the overall working principles of an UAV that needed time, experience and a wide range of intelligence to cover the entire scientific facts. This study is done by means to acquire the fundamental knowledge in understanding the stability and response of an UAV. The longitudinal response and stability of UAV owing to deflection of stern plane during trimmed equilibrium motion can be computed by solving the AUV equation of motion. In this study, the AUV equations of motion were rederived and the solution was computed with the aid of Matlab software. From the existing AUV, a new dimension, weight and speed were specified to be used in the rederivation of the linearised AUV longitudinal equations of motion. From the analysis done, the longitudinal response AUV shows the stern plane and thrust has relatively steady longitudinal control power and quick response characteristic. The results had successfully given a preliminary insight of the specified AUV response and dynamic stability.

  6. Identifying predictors of treatment response.

    PubMed

    Yoder, Paul; Compton, Don

    2004-01-01

    This article provides a rationale for considering predictors of growth in a treatment group as inadequate to identifying predictors of treatment response. When we interpret predictors of growth in a treatment group as synonymous with predictors of treatment response, we implicitly attribute all of the treated children's growth to the treatment, an untenable assumption under most conditions. We also contend that the use of standard scores in predictors of growth studies does not allow us to differentiate growth from treatment, from growth from other factors. We present two research methodologies that are appropriate methods of identifying predictors of treatment response: (a) single-subject experimental logic utilized to identify the specific participants in which treatment responses (not just growth) were found, combined with follow-up group comparison logic to identify the characteristics on which responders and nonresponders differ, and (b) statistical interactions among child/family/context characteristics and randomly assigned group membership. Principles for selecting potential predictors of treatment response are provided.

  7. 48 CFR 22.803 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Responsibilities. 22.803... Responsibilities. (a) The Secretary of Labor is responsible for the— (1) Administration and enforcement of... assigned responsibility to the Deputy Assistant Secretary for carrying out the responsibilities assigned...

  8. 48 CFR 22.803 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Responsibilities. 22.803... Responsibilities. (a) The Secretary of Labor is responsible for the— (1) Administration and enforcement of... assigned responsibility to the Deputy Assistant Secretary for carrying out the responsibilities assigned...

  9. Spike history neural response model.

    PubMed

    Kameneva, Tatiana; Abramian, Miganoosh; Zarelli, Daniele; Nĕsić, Dragan; Burkitt, Anthony N; Meffin, Hamish; Grayden, David B

    2015-06-01

    There is a potential for improved efficacy of neural stimulation if stimulation levels can be modified dynamically based on the responses of neural tissue in real time. A neural model is developed that describes the response of neurons to electrical stimulation and that is suitable for feedback control neuroprosthetic stimulation. Experimental data from NZ white rabbit retinae is used with a data-driven technique to model neural dynamics. The linear-nonlinear approach is adapted to incorporate spike history and to predict the neural response of ganglion cells to electrical stimulation. To validate the fitness of the model, the penalty term is calculated based on the time difference between each simulated spike and the closest spike in time in the experimentally recorded train. The proposed model is able to robustly predict experimentally observed spike trains.

  10. Photo-responsive polymeric micelles.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu; Dong, Ruijiao; Zhu, Xinyuan; Yan, Deyue

    2014-09-07

    Photo-responsive polymeric micelles have received increasing attention in both academic and industrial fields due to their efficient photo-sensitive nature and unique nanostructure. In view of the photo-reaction mechanism, photo-responsive polymeric micelles can be divided into five major types: (1) photoisomerization polymeric micelles, (2) photo-induced rearrangement polymeric micelles, (3) photocleavage polymeric micelles, (4) photo-induced crosslinkable polymeric micelles, and (5) photo-induced energy conversion polymeric micelles. This review highlights the recent advances of photo-responsive polymeric micelles, including the design, synthesis and applications in various biomedical fields. Especially, the influence of different photo-reaction mechanisms on the morphology, structure and properties of the polymeric micelles is emphasized. Finally, the possible future directions and perspectives in this emerging area are briefly discussed.

  11. Corporate Social Responsibility in Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Edwin D.

    2006-01-01

    The dialog within aviation management education regarding ethics is incomplete without a discussion of corporate social responsibility (CSR). CSR research requires discussion involving: (a) the current emphasis on CSR in business in general and aviation specifically; (b) business and educational theory that provide a basis for aviation companies to engage in socially responsible actions; (c) techniques used by aviation and aerospace companies to fulfill this responsibility; and (d) a glimpse of teaching approaches used in university aviation management classes. The summary of this research suggests educators explain CSR theory and practice to students in industry and collegiate aviation management programs. Doing so extends the discussion of ethical behavior and matches the current high level of interest and activity within the aviation industry toward CSR.

  12. Linking stressors and ecological responses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gentile, J.H.; Solomon, K.R.; Butcher, J.B.; Harrass, M.; Landis, W.G.; Power, M.; Rattner, B.A.; Warren-Hicks, W.J.; Wenger, R.; Foran, Jeffery A.; Ferenc, Susan A.

    1999-01-01

    To characterize risk, it is necessary to quantify the linkages and interactions between chemical, physical and biological stressors and endpoints in the conceptual framework for ecological risk assessment (ERA). This can present challenges in a multiple stressor analysis, and it will not always be possible to develop a quantitative stressor-response profile. This review commences with a conceptual representation of the problem of developing a linkage analysis for multiple stressors and responses. The remainder of the review surveys a variety of mathematical and statistical methods (e.g., ranking methods, matrix models, multivariate dose-response for mixtures, indices, visualization, simulation modeling and decision-oriented methods) for accomplishing the linkage analysis for multiple stressors. Describing the relationships between multiple stressors and ecological effects are critical components of 'effects assessment' in the ecological risk assessment framework.

  13. Plant Responses to Nanoparticle Stress

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Zahed; Mustafa, Ghazala; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid advancement in nanotechnology, release of nanoscale materials into the environment is inevitable. Such contamination may negatively influence the functioning of the ecosystems. Many manufactured nanoparticles (NPs) contain heavy metals, which can cause soil and water contamination. Proteomic techniques have contributed substantially in understanding the molecular mechanisms of plant responses against various stresses by providing a link between gene expression and cell metabolism. As the coding regions of genome are responsible for plant adaptation to adverse conditions, protein signatures provide insights into the phytotoxicity of NPs at proteome level. This review summarizes the recent contributions of plant proteomic research to elaborate the complex molecular pathways of plant response to NPs stress. PMID:26561803

  14. Metabolomics for plant stress response.

    PubMed

    Shulaev, Vladimir; Cortes, Diego; Miller, Gad; Mittler, Ron

    2008-02-01

    Stress in plants could be defined as any change in growth condition(s) that disrupts metabolic homeostasis and requires an adjustment of metabolic pathways in a process that is usually referred to as acclimation. Metabolomics could contribute significantly to the study of stress biology in plants and other organisms by identifying different compounds, such as by-products of stress metabolism, stress signal transduction molecules or molecules that are part of the acclimation response of plants. These could be further tested by direct measurements, correlated with changes in transcriptome and proteome expression and confirmed by mutant analysis. In this review, we will discuss recent application of metabolomics and system biology to the area of plant stress response. We will describe approaches such as metabolic profiling and metabolic fingerprinting as well as combination of different 'omics' platforms to achieve a holistic view of the plant response stress and conduct detailed pathway analysis.

  15. Abscisic Acid Synthesis and Response

    PubMed Central

    Finkelstein, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is one of the “classical” plant hormones, i.e. discovered at least 50 years ago, that regulates many aspects of plant growth and development. This chapter reviews our current understanding of ABA synthesis, metabolism, transport, and signal transduction, emphasizing knowledge gained from studies of Arabidopsis. A combination of genetic, molecular and biochemical studies has identified nearly all of the enzymes involved in ABA metabolism, almost 200 loci regulating ABA response, and thousands of genes regulated by ABA in various contexts. Some of these regulators are implicated in cross-talk with other developmental, environmental or hormonal signals. Specific details of the ABA signaling mechanisms vary among tissues or developmental stages; these are discussed in the context of ABA effects on seed maturation, germination, seedling growth, vegetative stress responses, stomatal regulation, pathogen response, flowering, and senescence. PMID:24273463

  16. Responsibility, Complexity Science and Education: Dilemmas and Uncertain Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenwick, Tara

    2009-01-01

    While complexity science is gaining interest among educational theorists, its constructs do not speak to educational responsibility or related core issues in education of power and ethics. Yet certain themes of complexity, as taken up in educational theory, can help unsettle the more controlling and problematic discourses of educational…

  17. Heterogeneity of neural mechanisms of response to pivotal response treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ventola, Pamela; Yang, Daniel Y. J.; Friedman, Hannah E.; Oosting, Devon; Wolf, Julie; Sukhodolsky, Denis G.; Pelphrey, Kevin A.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the mechanisms by which Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) improves social communication in a case series of 10 preschool-aged children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) identified brain responses during a biological motion perception task conducted prior to and following 16 weeks of PRT treatment. Overall, the neural systems supporting social perception in these 10 children were malleable through implementation of PRT; following treatment, neural responses were more similar to those of typically developing children (TD). However, at baseline, half of the children exhibited hypoactivation, relative to a group of TD children, in the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), and half exhibited hyperactivation in this region. Strikingly, the groups exhibited differential neural responses to treatment: The five children who exhibited hypoactivation at baseline evidenced increased activation in components of the reward system including the ventral striatum and putamen. The five children who exhibited hyperactivation at baseline evidenced decreased activation in subcortical regions critical for regulating the flow of stimulation and conveying signals of salience to the cortex—the thalamus, amygdala, and hippocampus. Our results support further investigation into the differential effects of particular treatment strategies relative to specific neural targets. Identification of treatment strategies that address the patterns of neural vulnerability unique to each patient is consistent with the priority of creating individually tailored interventions customized to the behavioral and neural characteristics of a given person. PMID:25370452

  18. [Antidementia drugs--response or non-response?].

    PubMed

    Förstl, H

    2008-03-01

    Due to the heterogeneous course of illness in individual cases, efficacy or "treatment-response" can not be measured in single patients; therefore a clinical distinction between response and non-response is not meaningful. Constructs which are valid for research projects become misnomers in clinical practice. To date there are two groups of antidementia drugs, memantine--an NMDA-receptor modulator licensed for the moderate to severe stages--and the cholinesterase inhibitors donepezil, galantamine, and rivastigmine, licensed for mild to moderate stages of Alzheimer's disease. These substances exert a moderate symptomatic effect on cognition and activities of daily living or clinical global impression, which corresponds to a parallel shift of the natural course of dementia. A low number of contraindications and few serious adverse events are the advantages of memantine. The extensive evidence for their efficacy and safety are the advantages of cholinesterase inhibitors. Symptoms of "cholinopathy" (a severe lack of acetylcholine) predict a favorable treatment response to cholinesterase inhibitors in groups of demented patients with attention deficit disorders, fluctuating course of illness, visual hallucinations, and superimposed states of confusion.

  19. Response: Critical Realism--Response to Longhofer and Floersch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briar-Lawson, Katharine

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses key challenges posed by critical realism, proposed by Longhofer and Floersch, as a philosophical underpinning for a science of social work. As a response to Longhofer and Floersch, it is argued that critical realism may be instructive in debates about structural conditions that dictate more inclusive interventions and…

  20. Counterconditioned Fear Responses Exhibit Greater Renewal than Extinguished Fear Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Nathan M.; Leung, Hiu T.; Westbrook, R. Frederick

    2016-01-01

    This series of experiments used rats to compare counterconditioning and extinction of conditioned fear responses (freezing) with respect to the effects of a context shift. In each experiment, a stimulus was paired with shock in context A, extinguished or counterconditioned through pairings with sucrose in context B, and then tested for renewal…

  1. Response to the Hughes et al. Paper on Differential Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Christopher; Park, Katherine; Lohrbach, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Ronald Hughes, Judith Rycus, and their colleagues have produced a seminal review of differential response (DR) programs implemented across the nation. Their review questions nearly every aspect of the DR movement, beginning with the concept on which all DR programs are based and ending with serious concerns about the quality of evaluations…

  2. Shallow End Response from ATEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetrov, A.

    2014-12-01

    Different geological, hydrological, environmental and engineering targets are located shallow underground. The information collected with ATEM systems might be very useful for their study; although there are many deeper targets that the ATEM systems are traditionally used for. The idea to raise magnetic moment output and get deeper penetration response was one of the goals of ATEM systems development during the last decade. The shallow geology response was a trade for such systems, which sometimes were almost blind in the first hundred meter under surface. The possibility to achieve shallow end response from ATEM systems has become significant subject in last years. Several airborne TDEM systems got second higher frequency and lower magnetic moment signal to pick up shallow response together with deep one. Having a potential advantage such implementation raises complication and cost of the system. There's no need to receive 500 meter deep response when exploring shallow geology. P-THEM system having a compact size transmitter and relatively light weight is working on one base frequency at a time, but this frequency can be preset before a flight considering survey goals. A study of shallow geology response of the P-THEM system working on different base frequency has been conducted in 2014 in Ontario. The Alliston test area located in Southern Ontario has been flown with the P-THEM system working on base frequencies 30Hz and 90Hz. Results of the observations will be discussed in the presentation. The shallow end data can be used for mineral exploration applications and also for hydrological and environmental studies.

  3. The path to corporate responsibility.

    PubMed

    Zadek, Simon

    2004-12-01

    Nike's tagline,"Just do it," is an inspirational call to action for the millions who wear the company's athletic gear. But in terms of corporate responsibility, Nike didn't always follow its own advice. In the 1990s, protesters railed against sweatshop conditions at some of its overseas suppliers and made Nike the global poster child for corporate ethical fecklessness. The intense pressure that activists exerted on the athletic apparel giant forced it to take a long, hard look at corporate responsibility--sooner than it might have otherwise. In this article, Simon Zadek, CEO of the UK-based institute AccountAbility, describes the bumpy route Nike has traveled to get to a better ethical place, one that cultivates and champions responsible business practices. Organizations learn in unique ways, Zadek contends, but they inevitably pass through five stages of corporate responsibility, from defensive ("It's not our fault") to compliance ("We'll do only what we have to") to managerial ("It's the business") to strategic ("It gives us a competitive edge") and, finally, to civil ("We need to make sure everybody does it"). He details Nike's arduous trek through these stages-from the company's initial defensive stance, when accusations about working conditions arose, all the way to its engagement today in the international debate about business's role in society and in public policy. As he outlines this evolution, Zadek offers valuable insights to executives grappling with the challenge of managing responsible business practices. Beyond just getting their own houses in order, the author argues, companies need to stay abreast of the public's evolving ideas about corporate roles and responsibilities. Organizations that do both will engage in what he calls"civil learning".

  4. Predicting response to epigenetic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Treppendahl, Marianne B.; Kristensen, Lasse S.; Grønbæk, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    Drugs targeting the epigenome are new promising cancer treatment modalities; however, not all patients receive the same benefit from these drugs. In contrast to conventional chemotherapy, responses may take several months after the initiation of treatment to occur. Accordingly, identification of good pretreatment predictors of response is of great value. Many clinical parameters and molecular targets have been tested in preclinical and clinical studies with varying results, leaving room for optimization. Here we provide an overview of markers that may predict the efficacy of FDA- and EMA-approved epigenetic drugs. PMID:24382389

  5. NATIONAL RESPONSE TEAM TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document provides technical information on a wide range of activities to aid in response to intentional release of anthrax in urban environments. It includes initial actions when a potential release is discovered, health and safety issues for responders, sampling and analysis methods, decontamination technologies, decontamination waste disposal, and communication with public. This document provides technical information on a wide range of activities to aid in response to intentional release of anthrax in urban environments. It includes initial actions when a potential release is discovered, health and safety issues for responders, sampling and analysis methods, decontamination technologies, decontamination waste disposal, and communication with public.

  6. Adverse responses to local anaesthetics.

    PubMed

    Fisher, M M; Graham, R

    1984-11-01

    Progressive challenge was used to investigate twenty-seven patients with a history of an adverse response to local anaesthesia. True allergy was detected in only one patient. The method does not exclude reactions to additives and preservatives in local anaesthetics. If preservative-free local anaesthetics are used for subsequent exposure in patients with no response to progressive challenge, subsequent exposure is safe. The possibility that some of these patients may be reacting to preservatives in the solutions cannot be excluded by such testing. Where possible preservative-free local anaesthetic preparations should be used for subsequent anaesthesia.

  7. Climate Migration and Moral Responsibility.

    PubMed

    Nawrotzki, Raphael

    Even though anthropogenic climate change is largely caused by industrialized nations, its burden is distributed unevenly with poor developing countries suffering the most. A common response to livelihood insecurities and destruction is migration. Using Peter Singer's "historical principle" this paper argues that a morally just evaluation requires taking causality between climate change and migration under consideration. The historical principle is employed to emphasize shortcomings in commonly made philosophical arguments to oppose immigration. The article concludes that none of these arguments is able to override the moral responsibility of industrialized countries to compensate for harms that their actions have caused.

  8. Climate Migration and Moral Responsibility

    PubMed Central

    Nawrotzki, Raphael

    2016-01-01

    Even though anthropogenic climate change is largely caused by industrialized nations, its burden is distributed unevenly with poor developing countries suffering the most. A common response to livelihood insecurities and destruction is migration. Using Peter Singer’s “historical principle” this paper argues that a morally just evaluation requires taking causality between climate change and migration under consideration. The historical principle is employed to emphasize shortcomings in commonly made philosophical arguments to oppose immigration. The article concludes that none of these arguments is able to override the moral responsibility of industrialized countries to compensate for harms that their actions have caused. PMID:27668124

  9. Cellular immune responses to HIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMichael, Andrew J.; Rowland-Jones, Sarah L.

    2001-04-01

    The cellular immune response to the human immunodeficiency virus, mediated by T lymphocytes, seems strong but fails to control the infection completely. In most virus infections, T cells either eliminate the virus or suppress it indefinitely as a harmless, persisting infection. But the human immunodeficiency virus undermines this control by infecting key immune cells, thereby impairing the response of both the infected CD4+ T cells and the uninfected CD8+ T cells. The failure of the latter to function efficiently facilitates the escape of virus from immune control and the collapse of the whole immune system.

  10. 21 CFR 820.20 - Management responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Quality System Requirements § 820.20 Management responsibility. (a) Quality policy. Management with executive responsibility shall establish its policy and objectives for, and commitment to, quality. Management with executive responsibility shall ensure that...

  11. 21 CFR 820.20 - Management responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Quality System Requirements § 820.20 Management responsibility. (a) Quality policy. Management with executive responsibility shall establish its policy and objectives for, and commitment to, quality. Management with executive responsibility shall ensure that...

  12. 21 CFR 820.20 - Management responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Quality System Requirements § 820.20 Management responsibility. (a) Quality policy. Management with executive responsibility shall establish its policy and objectives for, and commitment to, quality. Management with executive responsibility shall ensure that...

  13. 21 CFR 820.20 - Management responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Quality System Requirements § 820.20 Management responsibility. (a) Quality policy. Management with executive responsibility shall establish its policy and objectives for, and commitment to, quality. Management with executive responsibility shall ensure that...

  14. 21 CFR 820.20 - Management responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Quality System Requirements § 820.20 Management responsibility. (a) Quality policy. Management with executive responsibility shall establish its policy and objectives for, and commitment to, quality. Management with executive responsibility shall ensure that...

  15. 10 CFR 51.125 - Responsible official.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REGULATORY FUNCTIONS National Environmental Policy Act-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2) Responsible Official § 51.125 Responsible official. The Executive Director for Operations shall be responsible...

  16. Prevention of immunodeficiency virus induced CD4+ T-cell depletion by prior infection with a non-pathogenic virus

    SciTech Connect

    TerWee, Julie A.; Carlson, Jennifer K.; Sprague, Wendy S.; Sondgeroth, Kerry S.; Shropshire, Sarah B.; Troyer, Jennifer L.; VandeWoude, Sue

    2008-07-20

    Immune dysregulation initiated by a profound loss of CD4+ T-cells is fundamental to HIV-induced pathogenesis. Infection of domestic cats with a non-pathogenic lentivirus prevalent in the puma (puma lentivirus, PLV or FIV{sub PCO}) prevented peripheral blood CD4+ T-cell depletion caused by subsequent virulent FIV infection. Maintenance of this critical population was not associated with a significant decrease in FIV viremia, lending support to the hypothesis that direct viral cytopathic effect is not the primary cause of immunodeficiency. Although this approach was analogous to immunization with a modified live vaccine, correlates of immunity such as a serum-neutralizing antibody or virus-specific T-cell proliferative response were not found in protected animals. Differences in cytokine transcription profile, most notably in interferon gamma, were observed between the protected and unprotected groups. These data provide support for the importance of non-adaptive enhancement of the immune response in the prevention of CD4+ T-cell loss.

  17. Feline immunodeficiency virus can be experimentally transmitted via milk during acute maternal infection.

    PubMed Central

    Sellon, R K; Jordan, H L; Kennedy-Stoskopf, S; Tompkins, M B; Tompkins, W A

    1994-01-01

    Postnatal transmission of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) in neonates nursed by acutely infected mothers and infection resulting from oral inoculation of kittens with FIV were evaluated. Ten of 16 kittens nursed by four queens with FIV infection established immediately postpartum developed FIV infection. Five of 11 neonates orally administered cell-free FIV culture supernatant developed FIV infection. Kittens that developed FIV infection had greater proportions of CD4+ and Pan-T+ lymphocytes at birth than negative kittens. Infectious virus was recovered from the milk of acutely infected mothers. We conclude that FIV may be experimentally transmitted via milk from queens with acute infections and that oral administration of FIV to neonatal kittens results in infection. Images PMID:8151797

  18. Feline immunodeficiency virus replicates in salivary gland ductular epithelium during the initial phase of infection.

    PubMed

    Park, H S; Kyaw-Tanner, M; Thomas, J; Robinson, W F

    1995-09-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) antigen was detected by immunochemistry in salivary glands of cats experimentally inoculated with West Australian isolate T91. Six cats were inoculated subcutaneously with 1.0 ml of tissue culture supernatant fluid from a feline T-lymphoblastoid cell line (MYA-1) infected with T91. FIV antigens were detected in the interlobular ducts of the salivary gland of cats infected with FIV 2, 4 and 6 weeks previously. FIV antigen was not detected in the salivary glands of three FIV negative cats and one naturally infected cat. Further, FIV antigen was located only in interlobular duct epithelial cells. The distribution of FIV in the interlobular ducts confirms the important role of salivary glands as a major reservoir of FIV in the early phase of infection and strengthens suggestions that the salivary route is an important mode of transmission of FIV.

  19. Pulse Response Yields Battery Charge State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, C. P.; Barber, T. A.

    1984-01-01

    Response to input pulse characterizes state of charge of battery. Instrument electronically measures input and response of forcing-function pulse that periodically modulates charge or discharge current.

  20. 7 CFR 621.14 - Recipient responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... § 621.14 Recipient responsibility. Leadership in arrangements for other needed Federal, State, and local... NRCS policy and procedures, the requesting agency has leadership responsibility for developing...

  1. 40 CFR 25.8 - Responsiveness summaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... Responsiveness Summaries prepared by agencies receiving EPA financial assistance shall also include evaluations... responsiveness summary requirements, these analyses need only be prepared and submitted with the final...

  2. 7 CFR 621.14 - Recipient responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... § 621.14 Recipient responsibility. Leadership in arrangements for other needed Federal, State, and local... NRCS policy and procedures, the requesting agency has leadership responsibility for developing...

  3. [Responses, Rejoinder, and Editorial Comment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Vocational Behavior, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Responses discuss the following: unanswered questions (Gerald Greenberg); thinking critically about justice judgments (E. Allan Lind); just and virtuous leaders (Naomi M. Meara); voices of injustice victims (Debra L. Shapiro); justice research and practice (M. Susan Taylor); and the need for experimental research (Kees van der Bos); with rejoinder…

  4. Parenting: Responsibilities, Risks and Respect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Professor Carol Vincent gets the 2012 Professorial Lecture series underway with a thought provoking talk drawing on research projects conducted over the last twelve years. The lecture will explore factors identified in current policy, media, and other social and political forums as the risks and responsibilities of contemporary parenting, with a…

  5. Realizing autonomy in responsive relationships

    PubMed Central

    Houtepen, Rob; Spreeuwenberg, Cor; Widdershoven, Guy

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this article is to augment the ethical discussion among nurses with the findings from empirical research on autonomy of older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. There are many factors influencing autonomy. These include: health conditions, treatment, knowledge, experience and skills, personal approach as well as familial patterns, type of relationship, life history and social context. Fifteen older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus were interviewed in a nurse-led diabetes clinic. These participants perceive three processes which support autonomy in responsive relationships: preserving patterns of concern and interaction, nurturing collaborative responsibilities and being closely engaged in trustful and helpful family relations. People with diabetes realize autonomy in various responsive relationships in their unique life context. Next, we performed a literature review of care ethics and caring in nursing with regard to relational autonomy. We classified the literature in five strands of care: attitude-oriented, dialogue-oriented, activity-oriented, relationship-oriented and life-oriented. According to our respondents, autonomy in responsive relationships is fostered when patient, nurses, professionals of the health team and family members carry out care activities supported by a relational attitude of care. They can best realize autonomy in relationships with others when several essential aspects of care and caring are present in their lives. Therefore, we advocate a comprehensive approach to care and caring. PMID:20339930

  6. A Shared Responsibility for Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clough, Bert

    2011-01-01

    Co-investment between the state, employer, and employee is an intrinsic feature of most vocational and education training systems. The government's strategy is to "profoundly" shift responsibility for funding learning and skills from the state to individuals and businesses. At a time of stringent cuts in publicly-funded further education…

  7. Workforce Reductions: A Responsible Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Alliance of Business, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This guide is intended to serve as a reference tool to individuals responsible for planning and implementing a work force reduction program. The information included in the guide represents a synthesis of practices that have worked for a number of companies, individuals, and communities that have had to cope with a work force reduction. The first…

  8. Rural Education: The Federal Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hearn, Norman E.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews federal efforts to develop a rural education federal agenda, five basic problems of rural areas which lend themselves to federal solutions, Department of Education proposals for fiscal year 1982, significant federal responses/already in progress, and strengths and advantages of rural schools. (AN)

  9. Response to "Back to Basics"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacques, Doug

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author provides a response to Andrew McMartin's article "Back to Basics: Meditations on Quality vs. Quantity in Outdoor Education." In considering quality vs. quantity in outdoor education it is still important from the author's perspective to be conscious of one's viewpoint. He has taught and run trips from a survival…

  10. Academic Freedom and Faculty Responsibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evergreen State Coll., Olympia, Washington.

    Presented in this paper is an outline of the policy at Evergreen State College concerning faculty evaluation, faculty reappointment or nonreappointment, and program review and institutional self-study. Within the policy is the belief that the principles governing academic freedom and faculty responsibility at Evergreen must apply to all members of…

  11. Comparative Education: Challenge and Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Gail P.; Altbach, Philip G.

    1986-01-01

    Examines research reported in major books and journals of comparative education since 1977, focusing on challenges to established research traditions and the field's responses. Highlights work directing attention to new subjects of inquiry and challenging the nation-state as the exclusive research framework, input-output models and dominant…

  12. Talking about Israel: 3 Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chronicle of Higher Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Alan Wolfe's article "Free Speech, Israel, and Jewish Illiberalism" prompted numerous responses on The Chronicle's online discussion forum. The essay commented on the debate that erupted following the Polish Consulate's decision to cancel a speech by the scholar Tony Judt--allegedly prompted by protests over his critical views of Israel…

  13. Public Assistance, Rights and Responsibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey Community Action Training Inst., Trenton.

    Based primarily on two official manuals of the Division of Public Welfare of the New Jersey Department of Institutions and Agencies, this handbook on public assistance rights and responsibilities can be used as a training manual for community action workers, and as a reference book for such workers and for those eligible for public assistance.…

  14. Extrathalamic Modulation of Cortical Responsiveness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-08-01

    H.; Gratton , G. 31. McCarthy, G.; Wood, C. C.; Williamson, P. D.; Spencer, D. D. Task- Cognitive psychophysiology and human information processing...monkey: The role of task relevance, stim- 19. Gabriel , M.; Sparenborg, S. P.; Donchin, E. Macropotentials re- ulus probability, and behavioral response

  15. Resurgence of Infant Caregiving Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruzek, Jennifer L.; Thompson, Rachel H.; Peters, Lindsay C.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to identify the conditions likely to produce resurgence among adult human participants. The preparation was a simulated caregiving context, wherein a recorded infant cry sounded and was terminated contingent upon targeted caregiving responses. Results of Experiment 1 demonstrated resurgence with human participants in…

  16. Student Rights and Responsibilities Scenarios.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Ludwig A.; And Others

    To stimulate interest in student's rights and responsibilities, this resource contains incomplete scenarios dealing with the consequences of knowing and not knowing the law, as it is applied to modern practical situations. The scenarios can be used in high school courses such as government, social problems, history, psychology, and business law.…

  17. Vibration Response of Airplane Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Theodorsen, Theodore; Gelalles, A G

    1935-01-01

    This report presents test results of experiments on the vibration-response characteristics of airplane structures on the ground and in flight. It also gives details regarding the construction and operation of vibration instruments developed by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics.

  18. Bacterial strategies for chemotaxis response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergassola, Massimo

    2011-03-01

    Bacteria respond to chemical cues by performing a biased random walk that enables them to migrate towards attractants and away from repellents. Bias is achieved by regulating the duration of the bacterial runs as a function of the environment, inferred from the history of chemoattractant detections experienced by the bacterium. This time-signal is processed using a time convolution function that can be assayed measuring the response of the bacterium to short pulses of chemoattractant. The convolution constitutes an elementary form of memory, which is encoded at the molecular level by the processes of (de-)methylation and (de-)phosphorylation of the underlying biochemical network. While the latter is being characterized in detail, the functional reasons shaping the bacterial chemotactic response are largely unknown. We show that the chemotactic response observed experimentally is the strategy that ensures the highest minimum (MaxiMin) uptake of chemoattractant, in any field thereof. The consequence is that adaptation of the chemotactic bacterial system appears to be evolutionary driven by the need to cope with space-time environmental fluctuations rather than the extension of the dynamic range of response.

  19. Education for Responsible Citizenship: Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waghid, Yusef

    2009-01-01

    There is an abundance of literature on citizenship education. This essay is an attempt to show how deliberation is used in university classroom pedagogy, to engender in students a commitment to becoming responsible citizens of a post-apartheid South Africa. Firstly, I show that controversy can be attended to through deliberation, with specific…

  20. Author's Response to Peer Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, James

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to peer commentary on his article entitled "Reflections on 50 years of teaching psychology." The author is pleased that most of them share some of his concerns about the lack of progress in the teaching of psychology over the last 50 years, and he welcomes the fact that they then go on to raise…

  1. Antimicrobial resistance: a global response.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Richard D.; Coast, Joanna

    2002-01-01

    Resistance to antimicrobial therapies reduces the effectiveness of these drugs, leading to increased morbidity, mortality, and health care expenditure. Because globalization increases the vulnerability of any country to diseases occurring in other countries, resistance presents a major threat to global public health, and no country acting on its own can adequately protect the health of its population against it. International collective action is therefore essential. Nevertheless, responsibility for health remains predominantly national. Consequently, there is a potentially significant disparity between the problems and solutions related to antimicrobial resistance and the institutions and mechanisms that are available to deal with them. This paper considers the capacity of national and international institutions and mechanisms to generate a collective response to antimicrobial resistance. Strategies for containing resistance are outlined, with particular reference to globally coordinated activities of countries. The adequacy of national and international responses to resistance is assessed, and the actions that international bodies could take to solve difficulties associated with present responses are highlighted. Approaches are suggested for securing international collective action for the containment of antimicrobial resistance. PMID:11953791

  2. Endocrine Responses to Resistance Exercise,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-30

    jo- Rfe 681 ENDOCRINE RESPONSES TO RESISTANCE EXERCISE(U) RIRMY RESERRCH INST OF ENYIRWUIENTAL MEDICINE NATICK M N J KRRENER 30 RUG 87 USARIEN-R59-B...factors have been shown to influence GH release including gonadal. thyroid and adrenal hormones (32). Whether it is via a direct or indirect mechanism

  3. MSNJ Auxiliary: responsibility on water.

    PubMed

    Propsner, N M

    1992-07-01

    The Medical Society of New Jersey Auxiliary kicked off its Responsibility on Water program. Designed and planned by MSNJA President Marion H. Geib, the program is intended to make children and adults aware of the deadly mix of alcohol and water activities.

  4. Reader Response in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chew, Charles, Ed.; And Others

    Focusing on reader response in the classroom, the works collected in this book represent the results of a five-week summer institute in which 25 middle school, high school, and college teachers studied the principles and applications of literature instruction. The following essays are included: an introduction by G. Garber; "An Overview of the…

  5. Response Bias in Hospice Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayslip, Bert, Jr.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Analyzed response bias among 34 recipients of care in hospice. Found nonrespondents to have better bereavement prognoses and tended to care for patients who were younger, male, and in program for shorter time. Nonrespondents were in contact with staff less than were respondents. Data are consistent with earlier research showing significant…

  6. Community Environmental Response Facilitation Act

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    To amend the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 to require the Federal Government, before termination of Federal activities on any real property owned by the Government, to identify real property where no hazardous substance was stored, released, or disposed of.

  7. Students' Rights and Responsibilities Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    This handbook is intended to provide students and parents with a narrative summary of their rights and responsibilities in California public schools. Implications of laws and state regulations, as well as pertinent court decisions, are presented in such areas as student behavior (including discipline, corporal punishment, and dress codes),…

  8. Responsive starch-based materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starch, a low-cost, annually renewable resource, is naturally hydrophilic and its properties change with relative humidity. Starch’s hygroscopic nature can be used to develop materials which change shape or volume in response to environmental changes (e.g. humidity). For example, starch-based graf...

  9. Mechanical Response of Thermoelectric Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wereszczak, Andrew A.; Case, Eldon D.

    2015-05-01

    A sufficient mechanical response of thermoelectric materials (TEMats) to structural loadings is a prerequisite to the exploitation of any candidate TEMat's thermoelectric efficiency. If a TEMat is mechanically damaged or cracks from service-induced stresses, then its thermal and electrical functions can be compromised or even cease. Semiconductor TEMats tend to be quite brittle and have a high coefficient of thermal expansion; therefore, they can be quite susceptible to mechanical failure when subjected to operational thermal gradients. Because of this, sufficient mechanical response (vis-a-vis, mechanical properties) of any candidate TEMat must be achieved and sustained in the context of the service-induced stress state to which it is subjected. This report provides an overview of the mechanical responses of state-of-the-art TEMats; discusses the relevant properties that are associated with those responses and their measurement; and describes important, nonequilibrium phenomena that further complicate their use in thermoelectric devices. For reference purposes, the report also includes several appendixes that list published data on elastic properties and strengths of a variety of TEMats.

  10. Ebola: is the response justified?

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Hannah; Chaudry, Aisha; Ndow, Gibril; Crossey, Mary ME; Garside, Debbie; Njie, Ramou; Taylor-Robinson, Simon D

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus disease is a viral hemorrhagic fever, first discovered in 1976 in Sudan, where the outbreak infected over 284 people with a 53% case fatality ratio. There have been 34 further epidemics, the current major incident in West Africa having recorded more cases and deaths than all previous outbreaks combined. To date there have been over 27, 000 confirmed, probable and suspected cases and 11,000 reported deaths in Liberia, Guinea and Sierra Leone. With total funding and pledges to help control the outbreak amounting to more than US$2.4billion, many question how the disease has continued to spread in Sierra Leone and Guinea Conakry, and whether the response to the outbreak has been justified. This article aims to analyze the effectiveness of the responses to the outbreak in terms of economic, social, cultural and, to an extent, political impact. We argue that the response has been justified due to the awareness raised, the infrastructure and staffing improvements, the success in receiving financial aid and the minimal spread to other countries outside the main transmission zone. Despite this, some failures in communication and a slow early response were noted. PMID:26740851

  11. Child Abuse: The Educator's Responsibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Office of the Attorney General, Sacramento. School Safety Center.

    Addressing educators and citing the California Penal Code, this booklet discusses the legal responsibilities of persons in child care situations regarding incidents of suspected child abuse. Included are: (1) a definition of child abuse and neglect; (2) reporting procedures including liability of failure to report and immunity of the reporting…

  12. The Ethical Responsibilities of Referees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Richard L.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses ethical issues of acting as review editor and as referees for scholarly journals. States that referees have ethical responsibilities to review manuscripts promptly, write constructive comments for authors, be tactful in their comments, and to avoid sectarian bias. Includes a list of ethical rules for refereeing. (NL)

  13. Immune Responses in Parasitic Diseases.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    prepared in pure form so that quantitative radial immunodiffusion studies are feasible. The IgGl response to T. rhodesiense infection in the rat has been...sera of infected animals and definitely-separate and quantitate the 19S from 8S species by combining radial immunodiffusion techniques and sucrose

  14. Responsible authorship and peer review.

    PubMed

    Wilson, James R

    2002-04-01

    In this article the basic principles of responsible authorship and peer review are surveyed, with special emphasis on (a) guidelines for refereeing archival journal articles and proposals; and (b) how these guidelines should be taken into account at all stages of writing.

  15. Response of chromoblastomycosis to voriconazole*

    PubMed Central

    de Lima, Alexandre Moretti; Sacht, Gabriely Lessa; de Paula, Lauren Zogbi Pereira; Aseka, Gabriela Kimie; Goetz, Hermann Soares; Gheller, Maicon Felippe; Torraca, Pedro de Freitas Silva

    2016-01-01

    Chromoblastomycosis is a chronic fungal infection of the epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous tissue, in which the most common etiologic agent in Brazil is Fonsecaea pedrosoi. In more advanced cases we found many difficulties in their treatment, and therefore, we report a case of extensive and severe chromoblastomycosis, with therapeutical failure of first choice treatments, but good response to voriconazole. PMID:27828652

  16. Climate change, responsibility, and justice.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, Dale

    2010-09-01

    In this paper I make the following claims. In order to see anthropogenic climate change as clearly involving moral wrongs and global injustices, we will have to revise some central concepts in these domains. Moreover, climate change threatens another value ("respect for nature") that cannot easily be taken up by concerns of global justice or moral responsibility.

  17. Writing in Response to Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farr, Roger; And Others

    1990-01-01

    When creating the instructional program Writing in Response to Reading, teachers in River Forest, Illinois, focused on three types of writing (retelling, extending, and critiquing). To evaluate students, they devised "prompts" (unfinished stories) requiring students to construct an ending to demonstrate their understanding and use of…

  18. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Mississippi Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Mississippi state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law…

  19. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Illinois Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Illinois state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law student,…

  20. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Maine Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Maine state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law student, or…

  1. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. California Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on California state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law…

  2. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Arkansas Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Arkansas state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law student,…

  3. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Connecticut Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Connecticut state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law…

  4. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Alaska Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Alaska state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law student,…

  5. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Arizona Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Arizona state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law student,…

  6. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Virginia Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Virginia state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law student,…

  7. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Oklahoma Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Oklahoma state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law student,…

  8. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Alabama Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Alabama state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law student,…

  9. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Utah Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Utah state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students. Developed to be presented by educators, law student, or…

  10. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Missouri Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Missouri state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law student,…

  11. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Tennessee Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Tennessee state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law…

  12. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Iowa Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Iowa state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law student, or…

  13. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Georgia Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Georgia state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law student,…

  14. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Maryland Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Maryland state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law student,…

  15. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Kansas Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Kansas state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law student,…

  16. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Oregon Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Oregon state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law student,…

  17. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Minnesota Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Minnesota state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law…

  18. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Louisiana Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Louisiana state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law…

  19. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Nevada Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Nevada state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law student,…

  20. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Michigan Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Michigan state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law student,…

  1. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Texas Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Texas state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law student, or…

  2. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Washington Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Washington state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law…

  3. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Nebraska Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Nebraska state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law student,…

  4. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Indiana Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Indiana state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law student,…

  5. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Colorado Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Colorado state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law student,…

  6. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Hawaii Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Hawaii state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law student,…

  7. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Montana Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Montana state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law student,…

  8. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Pennsylvania Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Pennsylvania state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students. Developed to be presented by educators, law student,…

  9. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Ohio Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Ohio state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law student, or…

  10. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Florida Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Florida state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law student,…

  11. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Massachusetts Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Massachusetts state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law…

  12. Fast-response cloud chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogal, G. L.

    1977-01-01

    Wall structure keeps chambers at constant, uniform temperature, yet allows them to be cooled rapidly if necessary. Wall structure, used in fast-response cloud chamber, has surface heater and coolant shell separated by foam insulation. It is lightweight and requires relatively little power.

  13. The Evaluator's Responsibility for Utilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Michael Quinn

    1988-01-01

    The role of the evaluator in insuring utilization and quality of evaluation results is discussed. Topics covered include a utilization-focused vision of accountability, overcoming staff fears of evaluation, eliciting the right information from users, situational responsiveness, and advocacy. (TJH)

  14. Auxin response under osmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Naser, Victoria; Shani, Eilon

    2016-08-01

    The phytohormone auxin (indole-3-acetic acid, IAA) is a small organic molecule that coordinates many of the key processes in plant development and adaptive growth. Plants regulate the auxin response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, transport and perception. One of the most striking aspects of plant plasticity is the modulation of development in response to changing growth environments. In this review, we explore recent findings correlating auxin response-dependent growth and development with osmotic stresses. Studies of water deficit, dehydration, salt, and other osmotic stresses point towards direct and indirect molecular perturbations in the auxin pathway. Osmotic stress stimuli modulate auxin responses by affecting auxin biosynthesis (YUC, TAA1), transport (PIN), perception (TIR/AFB, Aux/IAA), and inactivation/conjugation (GH3, miR167, IAR3) to coordinate growth and patterning. In turn, stress-modulated auxin gradients drive physiological and developmental mechanisms such as stomata aperture, aquaporin and lateral root positioning. We conclude by arguing that auxin-mediated growth inhibition under abiotic stress conditions is one of the developmental and physiological strategies to acclimate to the changing environment.

  15. Program Evaluation Particularly Responsive Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stake, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the author talks about some recent developments in the methodology of program evaluation and about what he calls "responsive evaluation." He discusses two models for program evaluation, namely (1) informal study or self-study; and (2) the pretest/posttest model. Then, he describes an approach that he has been working on, which will…

  16. Response to "Transfer or Specificity?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Judith

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to "Transfer or Specificity?" and reports a research that supports a strong case for a fundamental motor skill as a precursor to two sport specific skills as in Gallahue and Ozmun's (2002) theoretical model of motor development. Reported changes in performance of the overarm throw are…

  17. Elementary School Philosophy: A Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wartenberg, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    This article is a response to criticism of my book "Big Ideas for Little Kids." The main topics addressed are: Who is the audience for the book? Can people without formal philosophical training can be good facilitators of elementary school philosophy discussions? Is it important to assess attempts to teach philosophy in elementary school? Should…

  18. Preparing Engineers for Social Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zandvoort, H.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I introduce the contributions to a special section of the journal: one devoted to the question of how engineering curricula can or should contribute to the preparation of graduates for socially responsible decision making and conduct. The special section is motivated by the circumstance that, although there is broad agreement that…

  19. Perceptions of Corporate Social Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavin, James F.; Maynard, William S.

    1975-01-01

    This study investigated the possible implications of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) for employee expectations and satisfactions. Specifically, interest centered on the question of how perceptions of an organization's involvement in the resolution of current societal problems might relate to members' expectations of equitable job rewards and…

  20. Information Science and Responsive Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stake, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    Responsive evaluation builds upon the methods of informal evaluation in disciplined ways: getting personally acquainted with the evaluand, observation of activities, interviewing people who are in different ways familiar with the evaluand, searching documents that reveal what happened in the past or somewhere else. It calls for sustained effort to…