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Sample records for flat klein bottle

  1. Conformal flatness, non-Abelian Kaluza-Klein reduction and quaternions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maraner, Paolo; Pachos, Jiannis K.

    2012-02-01

    The non-Abelian Kaluza-Klein reduction of conformally flat spaces is considered for arbitrary dimensions and signatures. The corresponding equations are particularly elegant when the internal space supports a global Killing parallelization. Assuming this imposes the generalized 'spacetime' to be maximally symmetric with holonomy in the unitary quaternionic group Sp(d/4). Recalling an analogous result for the complex case, we conclude that all special manifolds with constant properly 'holonomy-related' sectional curvature, are in natural correspondence with conformally flat, possibly non-Abelian, Kaluza-Klein spaces.

  2. Klein bottle logophysics: a unified principle for non-linear systems, cosmology, geophysics, biology, biomechanics and perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucio Rapoport, Diego

    2013-04-01

    We present a unified principle for science that surmounts dualism, in terms of torsion fields and the non-orientable surfaces, notably the Klein Bottle and its logic, the Möbius strip and the projective plane. We apply it to the complex numbers and cosmology, to non-linear systems integrating the issue of hyperbolic divergences with the change of orientability, to the biomechanics of vision and the mammal heart, to the morphogenesis of crustal shapes on Earth in connection to the wavefronts of gravitation, elasticity and electromagnetism, to pattern recognition of artificial images and visual recognition, to neurology and the topographic maps of the sensorium, to perception, in particular of music. We develop it in terms of the fundamental 2:1 resonance inherent to the Möbius strip and the Klein Bottle, the minimal surfaces representation of the wavefronts, and the non-dual Klein Bottle logic inherent to pattern recognition, to the harmonic functions and vector fields that lay at the basis of geophysics and physics at large. We discuss the relation between the topographic maps of the sensorium, and the issue of turning inside-out of the visual world as a general principle for cognition, topological chemistry, cell biology and biological morphogenesis in particular in embryology

  3. Surmounting the Cartesian Cut Through Philosophy, Physics, Logic, Cybernetics, and Geometry: Self-reference, Torsion, the Klein Bottle, the Time Operator, Multivalued Logics and Quantum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapoport, Diego L.

    2011-01-01

    In this transdisciplinary article which stems from philosophical considerations (that depart from phenomenology—after Merleau-Ponty, Heidegger and Rosen—and Hegelian dialectics), we develop a conception based on topological (the Moebius surface and the Klein bottle) and geometrical considerations (based on torsion and non-orientability of manifolds), and multivalued logics which we develop into a unified world conception that surmounts the Cartesian cut and Aristotelian logic. The role of torsion appears in a self-referential construction of space and time, which will be further related to the commutator of the True and False operators of matrix logic, still with a quantum superposed state related to a Moebius surface, and as the physical field at the basis of Spencer-Brown's primitive distinction in the protologic of the calculus of distinction. In this setting, paradox, self-reference, depth, time and space, higher-order non-dual logic, perception, spin and a time operator, the Klein bottle, hypernumbers due to Musès which include non-trivial square roots of ±1 and in particular non-trivial nilpotents, quantum field operators, the transformation of cognition to spin for two-state quantum systems, are found to be keenly interwoven in a world conception compatible with the philosophical approach taken for basis of this article. The Klein bottle is found not only to be the topological in-formation for self-reference and paradox whose logical counterpart in the calculus of indications are the paradoxical imaginary time waves, but also a classical-quantum transformer (Hadamard's gate in quantum computation) which is indispensable to be able to obtain a complete multivalued logical system, and still to generate the matrix extension of classical connective Boolean logic. We further find that the multivalued logic that stems from considering the paradoxical equation in the calculus of distinctions, and in particular, the imaginary solutions to this equation

  4. Oskar Klein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer-Hjalmars, Inga; Laurent, Bertel

    2014-03-01

    Oskar Klein died on the fifth of February 1977 at the age of eighty-two. One of the most prominent Swedish physicists ever and an outstanding personality in the field of culture had passed away. He was a man whose interests knew no limits and as a scientist he greatly enriched our understanding of Nature. All those who knew him were astounded by his profound thinking, wealth of ideas, extensive insight and humanism, qualities that obviously had been stimulated by the spirit in his parents' home. His father, rabbi and professor in Stockholm, was deeply engaged in theological and humanitarian issues...

  5. Development of Syringe/Bottle Hybrids for Sampling Slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, C.J.

    1998-01-08

    A convenient and effective sample bottle system based on simple modifications of disposable plastic syringes and bottles has been devised and tested for slurry samples. Syringe/ bottle hybrids (hereafter referred to as syringe bottles) have the convenience of regular flat-bottom bottles with screw cap closures. In addition, the syringe imparts a sliding and adjustable bottom to the bottle that forces the entire contents from the bottle. The system was designed especially to collect samples for high temperature work-ups of DWPF slurry samples. The syringe bottles together with fixed-bottom sample vial inserts would provide the DWPF with convenient and reliable methods for dealing with slurry samples.

  6. On the stability of toroidally compact Kaluza-Klein theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blau, S. K.; Guendelman, E. I.; Taormina, A.; Wijewardhana, L. C. R.

    1984-08-01

    We study the stability ar the one loop level, of finite temperature Kaluza-Klein theories coupled to matter fields. We restrict our attention to space-times containing compact manifolds which are toruses and Klein bottles. If the cosmological constant is chosen so that the effective potential vanishes at its minimum, and if twisted bosons or untwisted fermions are introduced into the theory, then these space-times are stable below a critical temperature of the order of the particle masses. We also discuss some subtleties that arises when Fermi fields are defined on non-simply connected manifolds.

  7. Erna and Melanie Klein.

    PubMed

    Tabak de Bianchedi, Elizabeth; Etchegoyen, R Horacio; Ungar de Moreno, Virginia; Nemas de Urman, Clara; Zysman, Samuel

    2003-12-01

    Erna was one of the child patients treated by Melanie Klein in Berlin, employing her recently discovered play technique. Since Erna died in Chile, the authors considered the IPA Congress in Santiago an opportunity to present a paper as a homage both to Erna and, especially, to Klein. She learned much from that very disturbed child, which she later used to sustain the ongoing development of her theories. The paper explores biographic data relevant to understanding both the case and the theories. It analyses the case material to follow Klein in the discovery and the handling of the child's transference and the harsh expressions of hate, jealousy and envy, which are brought in, with sad consequences, by strong persecutory feelings. Klein's comparison of this case with that of Freud's Wolf-man is also considered, mostly to show that the similarities were less than originally claimed, and that Klein, perhaps, was introducing a theoretic shift which led her technique to gradually change from 'Nachträglichkeit' to the 'signification-resignification' pair, akin to Strachey's concept of the mutative interpretation. Lastly, the comprehension of Erna's strong psychotic traits and the links with later developments of the theory on psychosis are studied.

  8. Erna and Melanie Klein.

    PubMed

    Tabak de Bianchedi, Elizabeth; Etchegoyen, R Horacio; Ungar de Moreno, Virginia; Nemas de Urman, Clara; Zysman, Samuel

    2003-12-01

    Erna was one of the child patients treated by Melanie Klein in Berlin, employing her recently discovered play technique. Since Erna died in Chile, the authors considered the IPA Congress in Santiago an opportunity to present a paper as a homage both to Erna and, especially, to Klein. She learned much from that very disturbed child, which she later used to sustain the ongoing development of her theories. The paper explores biographic data relevant to understanding both the case and the theories. It analyses the case material to follow Klein in the discovery and the handling of the child's transference and the harsh expressions of hate, jealousy and envy, which are brought in, with sad consequences, by strong persecutory feelings. Klein's comparison of this case with that of Freud's Wolf-man is also considered, mostly to show that the similarities were less than originally claimed, and that Klein, perhaps, was introducing a theoretic shift which led her technique to gradually change from 'Nachträglichkeit' to the 'signification-resignification' pair, akin to Strachey's concept of the mutative interpretation. Lastly, the comprehension of Erna's strong psychotic traits and the links with later developments of the theory on psychosis are studied. PMID:14754484

  9. Bottle Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CSTA Journal, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Provides hands-on biology activities using plastic bottles that allow students to become engaged in asking questions, creating experiments, testing hypotheses, and generating answers. Activities explore terrestrial and aquatic systems. (MKR)

  10. Winnicott's response to Klein.

    PubMed

    Ehrlich, Robert

    2004-04-01

    The author suggests that, although Donald Winnicott presented some important criticisms of Melanie Klein's work, at times he tried to advance his perspectives too definitively without adequately considering her own. Because of this, he failed to acknowledge sufficiently that he was offering a model of human nature and development that could be revised. The fact that his differences with Klein arose in the context of a complex relationship in which each played numerous roles for the other, especially in the context of their affiliation with the British Psychoanalytical Society, periodically made it difficult for him to present his ideas more carefully and in his more characteristically open manner.

  11. Winnicott's response to Klein.

    PubMed

    Ehrlich, Robert

    2004-04-01

    The author suggests that, although Donald Winnicott presented some important criticisms of Melanie Klein's work, at times he tried to advance his perspectives too definitively without adequately considering her own. Because of this, he failed to acknowledge sufficiently that he was offering a model of human nature and development that could be revised. The fact that his differences with Klein arose in the context of a complex relationship in which each played numerous roles for the other, especially in the context of their affiliation with the British Psychoanalytical Society, periodically made it difficult for him to present his ideas more carefully and in his more characteristically open manner. PMID:15108407

  12. Bottled Water and Fluoride

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fluoridation Journal Articles for Community Water Fluoridation Bottled Water Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Consumers drink ... questions about bottled water and fluoride. Does bottled water contain fluoride? Bottled water products may contain fluoride, ...

  13. Kaluza's and Klein's Contributions to the Kaluza-Klein-Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wünsch, Daniela; Goenner, Hubert

    2006-02-01

    Kaluza's and Klein's contributions to Kaluza-Klein-theory. The Kaluza-Klein-theory is one of the "classics" of modern theoretical physics. All theories that construct a space with extra dimensions, such as superstring and membrane theory, are based on the structure of this unified theory. The original five-dimensional theories by Theodor Kaluza (from 1921) and Oskar Klein (from 1926) have not yet been closely analysed, historically. What has survived as an established part of physics is a "folklore version" that mixes together elements from both theories. Our paper analyses the individual mathematical and physical contributions by Kaluza and Klein. It points out the importance of the achievements of these two founders of five-dimensional unified theories, and compares them with the folklore version of the Kaluza-Klein theory.

  14. Klein-Gordon oscillator in Kaluza-Klein theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Josevi; Carvalho, Alexandre M. de M.; Cavalcante, Everton; Furtado, Claudio

    2016-07-01

    In this contribution we study the Klein-Gordon oscillator on the curved background within the Kaluza-Klein theory. The problem of the interaction between particles coupled harmonically with topological defects in Kaluza-Klein theory is studied. We consider a series of topological defects, then we treat the Klein-Gordon oscillator coupled to this background, and we find the energy levels and corresponding eigenfunctions in these cases. We show that the energy levels depend on the global parameters characterizing these spacetimes. We also investigate a quantum particle described by the Klein-Gordon oscillator interacting with a cosmic dislocation in Som-Raychaudhuri spacetime in the presence of homogeneous magnetic field in a Kaluza-Klein theory. In this case, the energy spectrum is determined, and we observe that these energy levels represent themselves as the sum of the terms related with Aharonov-Bohm flux and of the parameter associated to the rotation of the spacetime.

  15. Bottle Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jager, Peter

    1993-01-01

    Describes activities which utilize plastic drink bottles and are designed to foster the development of a wide range of biological and ecological concepts. Includes instructions for making a model compost column and presents a model that illustrates open versus closed ecosystems. (DDR)

  16. Bottle Fantasy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dostal, Guel

    1977-01-01

    It is great fun trying new ideas and experiments with materials and media in the classroom. Her students work on a project, making faces and figures fit bottles, that challenges their imagination. As well, they also learn a new use for scrap materials. (Author/RK)

  17. Generalized Klein-Kramers equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fa, Kwok Sau

    2012-12-01

    A generalized Klein-Kramers equation for a particle interacting with an external field is proposed. The equation generalizes the fractional Klein-Kramers equation introduced by Barkai and Silbey [J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 3866 (2000), 10.1021/jp993491m]. Besides, the generalized Klein-Kramers equation can also recover the integro-differential Klein-Kramers equation for continuous-time random walk; this means that it can describe the subdiffusive and superdiffusive regimes in the long-time limit. Moreover, analytic solutions for first two moments both in velocity and displacement (for force-free case) are obtained, and their dynamic behaviors are investigated.

  18. Nonmaximality of known extremal metrics on torus and Klein bottle

    SciTech Connect

    Karpukhin, M A

    2013-12-31

    The El Soufi-Ilias theorem establishes a connection between minimal submanifolds of spheres and extremal metrics for eigenvalues of the Laplace-Beltrami operator. Recently, this connection was used to provide several explicit examples of extremal metrics. We investigate the properties of these metrics and prove that none of them is maximal. Bibliography: 24 titles.

  19. ASK Talks with Gary Klein

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, Gary

    2004-01-01

    Gary Klein, PH.D., is chief scientist of Klein Associates, Inc., a company he founded in 1978 to better understand how to improve decision making in individuals and teams. The company has 30 employees working on projects for both government and commercial clients. Dr. Klein is one of the founders of the field of naturalistic decision making. His work on recognitional decision making has been influential for the design of new systems and interfaces, and for the development of decision training programs. He has extended his work on decision making to describe problem detection, opinion generation, sense making, and planning.

  20. Banning the Bottle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palliser, Janna

    2010-01-01

    Bottled water is ubiquitous, taken for granted, and seemingly benign. Americans are consuming bottled water in massive amounts and spending a lot of money: In 2007, Americans spent $11.7 billion on 8.8 billions gallons of bottled water (Gashler 2008). That same year, two million plastic water bottles were used in the United States every five…

  1. Greening the Blue Bottle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellman, Whitney E.; Noble, Mark E.

    2003-01-01

    Compares the revised Blue Bottle formulation to the classical Blue Bottle. Indicates that the revised formulation gives a somewhat bluer solution, but initially slower reduction when compared to the classical formulation. (Author/KHR)

  2. The Blue Bottle Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandaveer, Walter R., IV; Mosher, Mel

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modification of the classic Blue Bottle demonstration that involves the alkaline glucose reduction of methylene blue. Uses other indicators in the classic Blue Bottle to produce a rainbow of colors. (JRH)

  3. Dark Matter in a twisted bottle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbey, Alexandre; Cacciapaglia, Giacomo; Deandrea, Aldo; Kubik, Bogna

    2013-01-01

    The real projective plane is a compact, non-orientable orbifold of Euler characteristic 1 without boundaries, which can be described as a twisted Klein bottle. We shortly review the motivations for choosing such a geometry among all possible two-dimensional orbifolds, while the main part of the study will be devoted to dark matter study and limits in Universal Extra Dimensional (UED) models based on this peculiar geometry. In the following we consider such a UED construction based on the direct product of the real projective plane with the standard four-dimensional Minkowski space-time and discuss its relevance as a model of a weakly interacting Dark Matter candidate. One important difference with other typical UED models is the origin of the symmetry leading to the stability of the dark matter particle. This symmetry in our case is a remnant of the six-dimensional Minkowski space-time symmetry partially broken by the compactification. Another important difference is the very small mass splitting between the particles of a given Kaluza-Klein tier, which gives a very important role to co-annihilation effects. Finally the role of higher Kaluza-Klein tiers is also important and is discussed together with a detailed numerical description of the influence of the resonances.

  4. Charged rotating Kaluza-Klein black holes in dilaton gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Allahverdizadeh, Masoud; Matsuno, Ken; Sheykhi, Ahmad

    2010-02-15

    We obtain a class of slowly rotating charged Kaluza-Klein black hole solutions of the five-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory with arbitrary dilaton coupling constant. At infinity, the spacetime is effectively four dimensional. In the absence of the squashing function, our solution reduces to the five-dimensional asymptotically flat slowly rotating charged dilaton black hole solution with two equal angular momenta. We calculate the mass, the angular momentum, and the gyromagnetic ratio of these rotating Kaluza-Klein dilaton black holes. It is shown that the dilaton field and the nontrivial asymptotic structure of the solutions modify the gyromagnetic ratio of the black holes. We also find that the gyromagnetic ratio crucially depends on the dilaton coupling constant, {alpha}, and decreases with increasing {alpha} for any size of the compact extra dimension.

  5. Quantum Perfect-Fluid Kaluza-Klein Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wung-Hong; Wang, I.-Chin

    The perfect-fluid cosmology in the (1+d+D)-dimensional Kaluza-Klein space-times for an arbitrary barotropic equation of state p = (γ-1)ρ is quantized by using the Schutz's variational formalism. We make efforts in the mathematics to solve the problems in two cases. In the first case of the stiff fluid γ = 2 we exactly solve the Wheeler-DeWitt equation when the d space is flat. After the superposition of the solutions the wave-packet function is obtained exactly. We analyze the Bohmian trajectories of the final-stage wave-packet functions and show that the scale functions of the flat d spaces and the compact D spaces will eventually evolve into the nonzero finite values. In the second case of γ≈2, we use the approximated wave function in the Wheeler-DeWitt equation to find the analytic forms of the final-stage wave-packet functions. After analyzing the Bohmian trajectories we show that the flat d spaces will be expanding forever while the scale function of the contracting D spaces would not become zero within finite time. Our investigations indicate that the quantum effect in the quantum perfect-fluid cosmology could prevent the extra compact D spaces in the Kaluza-Klein theory from collapsing into a singularity or that the "crack-of-doom" singularity of the extra compact dimensions is made to occur at t = ∞.

  6. The Klein-Nishina Formula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekspong, Gösta

    2014-03-01

    During the 1920's the Compton effect was very much at the centre of interest among physicists due to its demonstration of the inadequacy of the classical theory for light when trying to account for the scattering of X-rays. The angular intensity distribution of scattered X-rays had not been successfully described by theory until Oskar Klein and Yoshio Nishina in 1928 solved the problem using the then new Dirac theory for the electron. The present paper gives an account of the collaboration in the summer of 1928 between the two physicists -- one a theorist, the other an experimentalist -- when both were visitors at the Niels Bohr Institute in Copenhagen.

  7. Stopping the Bottle

    MedlinePlus

    ... cavities or cause your child to drink more milk than he or she needs. Switching from bottle ... when doctors recommend switching from formula to cow's milk. It can be a natural transition to offer ...

  8. Extended Klein edges in graphene.

    PubMed

    He, Kuang; Robertson, Alex W; Lee, Sungwoo; Yoon, Euijoon; Lee, Gun-Do; Warner, Jamie H

    2014-12-23

    Graphene has three experimentally confirmed periodic edge terminations, zigzag, reconstructed 5-7, and arm-chair. Theory predicts a fourth periodic edge of graphene called the extended Klein (EK) edge, which consists of a series of single C atoms protruding from a zigzag edge. Here, we confirm the existence of EK edges in both graphene nanoribbons and on the edge of bulk graphene using atomic resolution imaging by aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy. The formation of the EK edge stems from sputtering and reconstruction of the zigzag edge. Density functional theory reveals minimal energy for EK edge reconstruction and bond distortion both in and out of plane, supporting our TEM observations. The EK edge can now be included as the fourth member of observed periodic edge structures in graphene.

  9. 27 CFR 19.352 - Bottling tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., Packaging, and Removal of Products § 19.352 Bottling tanks. Generally, a proprietor must bottle all spirits... is not practical to use a bottling tank. In addition, a proprietor may bottle liqueurs directly...

  10. Klein factors and Fermi-Bose equivalence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Taejin

    2016-06-01

    Generalizing the kink operator of the Heisenberg spin 1/2 model, we construct a set of Klein factors explicitly such that (1+1)-dimensional fermion theories with an arbitrary number of species are mapped onto the corresponding boson theories with the same number of species and vice versa. The actions for the resultant theories do not possess a nontrivial Klein factor. With this set of Klein factors, we are also able to map the simple boundary states, such as the Neumann and the Dirichlet boundary states, of the fermion (boson) theory onto those of the boson (fermion) theory. Applications of the Fermi-Bose equivalence with the constructed Klein factors to well-known (1+1)-dimensional theories have been discussed.

  11. The classical tests in Kaluza-Klein gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalligas, D.; Wesson, P. S.; Everitt, C. W. F.

    1995-01-01

    The possible existence of extra dimensions to spacetime can be tested astrophysically using Kaluza-Klein theory, which is a natural extension of Einsteins's general relativity. In the simplest version of the theory, there is a standard class of five-dimensional solutions that are analogous to the four-dimensional Schwarzschild solution. However, even a small departure of the extra dimension from flatness affects the first or dominant part of the potential, making it possible to test for the existence of an extra dimension. Data from the solar system indicate that in our region of space the terms due to the fifth dimension are small (less than or equal to 0.1%) compared to those due to the usual for dimensions of spacetime. However, the parameters of Kaluza-Klein theory are not universal constants and can vary from place to place depending on local physics. Hence other astrophysical systems may serve as better laboratories for investigating the possible existence of extra dimensions.

  12. BOTTLE MATERIAL AND CLEANSING PROCEDURES OF INFANT FEEDING BOTTLES.

    PubMed

    Kuan, Wen-Hui; Chen, Yi-Lang

    2016-01-01

    The cleanliness of feeding bottles is vital for child health. Although machine cleansing of bottles in the food industry has been established, mechanical and manual cleansing methods are highly variable. This study was undertaken to determine the differences in the cleanliness of bottles that were cleaned using various combinations of bottle materials [glass and polypropylene (PP)], rinsing water volumes (1/3, 1/2, and 2/3 capacity of a bottle), and sustained shaking times (5 seconds and 20 seconds). Total organic carbon (TOC) and conductivity measurements were respectively used to evaluate the rinsed quantities of organic and inorganic formula residue from feeding bottles. The results indicated that glass bottles filled with rinsing water to 2/3 of their capacity showed the most efficient cleansing performance. However, the PP bottles exhibited a relatively poor cleansing result, particularly for organic cleanliness. The organic residue tends to accumulate on the PP bottle interior because of the aggregation of compounds with similar properties. The shaking time hardly influenced the cleanliness. The glass bottle was superior to the PP bottle in both organic and inorganic cleanliness, and organic constituents were more difficult to rinse from the bottle than the inorganic constituents were. PMID:27086435

  13. BOTTLE MATERIAL AND CLEANSING PROCEDURES OF INFANT FEEDING BOTTLES.

    PubMed

    Kuan, Wen-Hui; Chen, Yi-Lang

    2016-01-01

    The cleanliness of feeding bottles is vital for child health. Although machine cleansing of bottles in the food industry has been established, mechanical and manual cleansing methods are highly variable. This study was undertaken to determine the differences in the cleanliness of bottles that were cleaned using various combinations of bottle materials [glass and polypropylene (PP)], rinsing water volumes (1/3, 1/2, and 2/3 capacity of a bottle), and sustained shaking times (5 seconds and 20 seconds). Total organic carbon (TOC) and conductivity measurements were respectively used to evaluate the rinsed quantities of organic and inorganic formula residue from feeding bottles. The results indicated that glass bottles filled with rinsing water to 2/3 of their capacity showed the most efficient cleansing performance. However, the PP bottles exhibited a relatively poor cleansing result, particularly for organic cleanliness. The organic residue tends to accumulate on the PP bottle interior because of the aggregation of compounds with similar properties. The shaking time hardly influenced the cleanliness. The glass bottle was superior to the PP bottle in both organic and inorganic cleanliness, and organic constituents were more difficult to rinse from the bottle than the inorganic constituents were.

  14. Dirac equation in a de Sitter expansion for massive neutrinos from modern Kaluza-Klein theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, Pablo Alejandro; Anabitarte, Mariano; Bellini, Mauricio

    2012-03-01

    Using the modern Kaluza-Klein theory of gravity (or the Induced Matter theory), we study the Dirac equation for massive neutrinos on a de Sitter background metric from a 5D Riemann-flat (and hence Ricci-flat) extended de Sitter metric, on which is defined the vacuum for test massless 1/2-spin neutral fields minimally coupled to gravity and free of any other interactions. We obtain that the effective 4D masses of the neutrinos can only take three possible values, which are related to the (static) foliation of the fifth and noncompact extra dimension.

  15. Plutonium solution storage in plastic bottles: Operational experience and safety issues

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, W.V.

    1995-03-15

    Computer spread sheet models were developed to gain a better understanding of the factors that lead to pressurization and failure of plastic bottles containing plutonium solutions. These models were developed using data obtained from the literature on gas generation rates for plutonium solutions. Leak rates from sealed plastic bottles were obtained from bottle leak tests conducted at Rocky Flats. Results from these bottle leak tests showed that narrow mouth four liter bottles will seal much better than wide mouth four liter bottles. The gas generation rate and leak rate data were used to develop models for predicting the rate of pressurization and maximum pressures expected in sealed bottles of plutonium solution containing various plutonium and acid concentrations. The computer models were used to develop proposed time limits for storing or transporting plutonium solutions in sealed plastic bottles. For plutonium solutions containing < 1.5 g/l, maximum safe storage times from 4 weeks to 12 months are proposed. The maximum safe storage times vary depending upon the plutonium concentration in the solution. Low concentration plutonium solutions can be stored safely for longer periods of time than high concentration plutonium solutions. For solutions containing > 1.5 g/l plutonium, storage in sealed bottles should not be allowed. However, transportation of higher concentration plutonium solution in sealed bottles is required, and safe transportation times of 1 shift to 6 days are proposed.

  16. Energy implications of bottled water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleick, P. H.; Cooley, H. S.

    2009-01-01

    As bottled water use continues to expand around the world, there is growing interest in the environmental, economical, and social implications of that use, including concerns about waste generation, proper use of groundwater, hydrologic effects on local surface and groundwater, economic costs, and more. A key concern is how much energy is required to produce and use bottled water. This paper estimates the energy footprint required for various phases of bottled water production, transportation, and use. We do not develop a single comprehensive life-cycle energy estimate because of differences among water sources, bottling processes, transportation costs, and other factors, but we quantify key energy inputs necessary for site-specific assessments. We also apply these inputs to three site-specific examples of the energy required from production to the point of use: local bottled water produced and used in Los Angeles, water bottled in the South Pacific and shipped by cargo ship to Los Angeles, and water bottled in France and shipped in various ways to Los Angeles. For water transported short distances, the energy requirements of bottled water are dominated by the energy used to produce the plastic bottles. Long-distance transport, however, can lead to energy costs comparable to, or even larger than, those of producing the bottle. All other energy costs—for processing, bottling, sealing, labeling, and refrigeration—are far smaller than those for the production of the bottle and transportation. These data can be used to generate specific estimates for different sources, treatments, and delivery options.

  17. Warped Ricci-flat reductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colgáin, E. Ó.; Sheikh-Jabbari, M. M.; Vázquez-Poritz, J. F.; Yavartanoo, H.; Zhang, Z.

    2014-08-01

    We present a simple class of warped-product vacuum (Ricci-flat) solutions to ten- and eleven-dimensional supergravity, where the internal space is flat and noncompact and the warp factor supports de Sitter (dS) and anti-de Sitter (AdS) vacua, in addition to trivial Minkowski vacua with compact internal spaces. We outline the construction of consistent Kaluza-Klein reductions and show that, although our vacuum solutions are nonsupersymmetric, these are closely related to the bosonic part of well-known maximally supersymmetric reductions on spheres. We comment on the stability of our solutions, noting that (A)dS3 vacua pass routine stability tests.

  18. Message in a Bottle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Joy

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author shares a lesson that uses the Message in a Bottle concept. This lesson combines social studies, language arts, technology, and art, particularly studying and drawing portraits and utilizing values within a drawing. As part of their grade-four art curriculum, students are required to correctly proportion the face and the…

  19. Fluid Dynamics of Bottle Filling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGough, Patrick; Gao, Haijing; Appathurai, Santosh; Basaran, Osman

    2011-11-01

    Filling of bottles is a widely practiced operation in a large number of industries. Well known examples include filling of ``large'' bottles with shampoos and cleaners in the household products and beauty care industries and filling of ``small'' bottles in the pharmaceutical industry. Some bottle filling operations have recently drawn much attention from the fluid mechanics community because of the occurrence of a multitude of complex flow regimes, transitions, and instabilities such as mounding and coiling that occur as a bottle is filled with a fluid. In this talk, we present a primarily computational study of the fluid dynamical challenges that can arise during the rapid filling of bottles. Given the diversity of fluids used in filling applications, we consider four representative classes of fluids that exhibit Newtonian, shear-thinning, viscoelastic, and yield-stress rheologies. The equations governing the dynamics of bottle filling are solved either in their full 3D but axisymmetric form or using the slender-jet approximation.

  20. Lateral boundary conditions for the Klein-Gordon-Fock equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulenov, Kanat S.; Dauitbek, Dostilek

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we consider an initial-boundary value problem for the Klein-Gordon-Fock equation. We prove the uniqueness of the solution and find lateral boundary conditions for the Klein-Gordon-Fock equation.

  1. Stability of squashed Kaluza-Klein black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, Masashi; Ishihara, Hideki; Murata, Keiju; Soda, Jiro

    2008-03-15

    The stability of squashed Kaluza-Klein black holes is studied. The squashed Kaluza-Klein black hole looks like a five-dimensional black hole in the vicinity of horizon and looks like a four-dimensional Minkowski spacetime with a circle at infinity. In this sense, squashed Kaluza-Klein black holes can be regarded as black holes in the Kaluza-Klein spacetimes. Using the symmetry of squashed Kaluza-Klein black holes, SU(2)xU(1){approx_equal}U(2), we obtain master equations for a part of the metric perturbations relevant to the stability. The analysis based on the master equations gives strong evidence for the stability of squashed Kaluza-Klein black holes. Hence, the squashed Kaluza-Klein black holes deserve to be taken seriously as realistic black holes in the Kaluza-Klein spacetime.

  2. Migration of bisphenol A from plastic baby bottles, baby bottle liners and reusable polycarbonate drinking bottles.

    PubMed

    Kubwabo, C; Kosarac, I; Stewart, B; Gauthier, B R; Lalonde, K; Lalonde, P J

    2009-06-01

    Human exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) has recently received special attention. It has been shown that exposure to BPA may occur through the consumption of beverages or foods that have been in contact with polycarbonate (PC) plastic containers or epoxy resins in food packaging. A BPA migration study was conducted using a variety of plastic containers, including polycarbonate baby bottles, non-PC baby bottles, baby bottle liners, and reusable PC drinking bottles. Water was used to simulate migration into aqueous and acidic foods; 10% ethanol solution to simulate migration to low- and high-alcoholic foods; and 50% ethanol solution to simulate migration to fatty foods. By combining solid-phase extraction, BPA derivatization and analysis by GC-EI/MS/MS, a very low detection limit at the ng l(-1) level was obtained. Migration of BPA at 40 degrees C ranged from 0.11 microg l(-1) in water incubated for 8 h to 2.39 microg l(-1) in 50% ethanol incubated for 240 h. Residual BPA leaching from PC bottles increased with temperature and incubation time. In comparison with the migration observed from PC bottles, non-PC baby bottles and baby bottle liners showed only trace levels of BPA. Tests for leachable lead and cadmium were also conducted on glass baby bottles since these represent a potential alternative to plastic bottles. No detectable lead or cadmium was found to leach from the glass. This study indicated that non-PC plastic baby bottles, baby bottle liners and glass baby bottles might be good alternatives for polycarbonate bottles.

  3. Beverages: bottled water. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2009-05-29

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending its bottled water regulations to require that bottled water manufacturers test source water for total coliform, as is required for finished bottled water products, and to require, if any coliform organisms are detected in source water, that bottled water manufacturers determine whether any of the coliform organisms are Escherichia coli (E. coli), an indicator of fecal contamination. FDA also is amending its bottled water regulations to require, if any coliform organisms are detected in finished bottled water products, that bottled water manufacturers determine whether any of the coliform organisms are E. coli. FDA also is amending the adulteration provision of the bottled water standard to reflect the possibility of adulteration caused by the presence of filth. Bottled water containing E. coli will be considered adulterated, and source water containing E. coli will not be considered to be of a safe, sanitary quality and will be prohibited from use in the production of bottled water. FDA is also amending its bottled water regulations to require that, before a bottler can use source water from a source that has tested positive for E. coli, the bottler must take appropriate measures to rectify or eliminate the cause of E. coli contamination of that source, and that the bottler must keep records of such actions. Existing regulatory provisions require bottled water manufacturers to keep records of new testing required by this rule. This final rule will ensure that FDA's standards for the minimum quality of bottled water, as affected by fecal contamination, will be no less protective of the public health than those set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for public drinking water.

  4. 27 CFR 19.511 - Bottles authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bottles authorized. 19.511... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Liquor Bottle, Label, and Closure Requirements Authorized Liquor Bottles § 19.511 Bottles authorized. Each liquor bottle for nonindustrial distilled...

  5. Melanie Klein on mourning: Its relation to pastoral care.

    PubMed

    Hart, C W

    1991-09-01

    This paper connects the work of Melanie Klein on mourning to the pastor's work with the grief sufferer. Klein holds that mourning is an illness of manic depressive character rooted in infantile development. Klein's description of manic defenses in the face of loss has adult behavioral analogues with which the pastor must deal to bring mourning to resolution.

  6. Melanie Klein on mourning: Its relation to pastoral care.

    PubMed

    Hart, C W

    1991-09-01

    This paper connects the work of Melanie Klein on mourning to the pastor's work with the grief sufferer. Klein holds that mourning is an illness of manic depressive character rooted in infantile development. Klein's description of manic defenses in the face of loss has adult behavioral analogues with which the pastor must deal to bring mourning to resolution. PMID:24272673

  7. Beverages: bottled water. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2005-06-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending its bottled water quality standard regulations by revising the existing allowable level for the contaminant arsenic. As a consequence, bottled water manufacturers are required to monitor their finished bottled water products for arsenic at least once each year under the current good manufacturing practice (CGMP) regulations for bottled water. Bottled water manufacturers are also required to monitor their source water for arsenic as often as necessary, but at least once every year unless they meet the criteria for the source water monitoring exemptions under the CGMP regulations. This final rule will ensure that the minimum quality of bottled water, as affected by arsenic, remains comparable with the quality of public drinking water that meets the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) standards.

  8. Tension amplification in tethered layers of bottle-brush polymers

    DOE PAGES

    Leuty, Gary M.; Tsige, Mesfin; Grest, Gary S.; Rubinstein, Michael

    2016-02-26

    In this paper, molecular dynamics simulations of a coarse-grained bead–spring model have been used to study the effects of molecular crowding on the accumulation of tension in the backbone of bottle-brush polymers tethered to a flat substrate. The number of bottle-brushes per unit surface area, Σ, as well as the lengths of the bottle-brush backbones Nbb (50 ≤ Nbb ≤ 200) and side chains Nsc (50 ≤ Nsc ≤ 200) were varied to determine how the dimensions and degree of crowding of bottle-brushes give rise to bond tension amplification along the backbone, especially near the substrate. From these simulations, wemore » have identified three separate regimes of tension. For low Σ, the tension is due solely to intramolecular interactions and is dominated by the side chain repulsion that governs the lateral brush dimensions. With increasing Σ, the interactions between bottle-brush polymers induce compression of the side chains, transmitting increasing tension to the backbone. For large Σ, intermolecular side chain repulsion increases, forcing side chain extension and reorientation in the direction normal to the surface and transmitting considerable tension to the backbone.« less

  9. Bottled Water Everywhere: Keeping it Safe

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Bottled Water Everywhere: Keeping it Safe Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... sanitary conditions back to top Types of Bottled Water FDA describes bottled water as water that’s intended ...

  10. Flat minima.

    PubMed

    Hochreiter, S; Schmidhuber, J

    1997-01-01

    We present a new algorithm for finding low-complexity neural networks with high generalization capability. The algorithm searches for a "flat" minimum of the error function. A flat minimum is a large connected region in weight space where the error remains approximately constant. An MDL-based, Bayesian argument suggests that flat minima correspond to "simple" networks and low expected overfitting. The argument is based on a Gibbs algorithm variant and a novel way of splitting generalization error into underfitting and overfitting error. Unlike many previous approaches, ours does not require gaussian assumptions and does not depend on a "good" weight prior. Instead we have a prior over input-output functions, thus taking into account net architecture and training set. Although our algorithm requires the computation of second-order derivatives, it has backpropagation's order of complexity. Automatically, it effectively prunes units, weights, and input lines. Various experiments with feedforward and recurrent nets are described. In an application to stock market prediction, flat minimum search outperforms conventional backprop, weight decay, and "optimal brain surgeon/optimal brain damage".

  11. Microgrooved plasmonic bottle microresonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohd Nasir, M. N.; Ding, M.; Murugan, G. S.; Zervas, M. N.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate an enhancement to SPW cavity through the incorporation of high-Q WGM bottle microresonator (BMR) with surface microgrooves. A standard BMR fabricated through the “soften-and-compress” technique with initial length of 280 μm, bottle diameter of 187 μm and stem diameter of 125 μm was utilized in the experiment for supporting WGMs. Thin gold film was deposited on top of the BMR for generating SPWs. 21 microgrooves was then inscribed on the metal surface of the BMR along the azimuthal direction with 10 μm length, 485 nm width, 6 μm depth and pitch of 1.5 μm. Due to surface curvature, the gold film only covered half of the BMR with a characteristic meniscus shape and maximum thickness of 30 nm. The meniscus provides appropriately tapered metal edges that facilitate the adiabatic transformation of BMR WGMs to SPWs and vice-versa. Lorentzian shape-line fit performed on the TM excited resonances show that plasmonic Q values in excess of 4000 could be achieved from such structure with ∼ 25% coupling efficiency.

  12. Kaluza-Klein towers on general manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinterbichler, Kurt; Levin, Janna; Zukowski, Claire

    2014-04-01

    A higher dimensional universe with compactified extra dimensions admits a four-dimensional description consisting of an infinite Kaluza-Klein tower of fields. We revisit the problem of describing the free part of the complete Kaluza-Klein tower of gauge fields, p forms, gravity, and flux compactifications. In contrast to previous studies, we work with a generic internal manifold of any dimension, completely at the level of the action, in a gauge-invariant formulation and without resorting to the equations of motion or analysis of propagators. We demonstrate that the physical fields and Stückelberg fields are naturally described by ingredients of the Hodge decomposition and its analog for symmetric tensors. The spectrum of states and stability conditions, in terms of the eigenvalues of various Laplacians on the internal manifold, is easily read from the action.

  13. Klein, Ferenczi and the clinical diary.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Halton, Isabel

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this article is to revisit Ferenczi's Clinical Diary (1932) to investigate the influence he had on Melanie Klein's work. It starts from the position that insufficient recognition has been given to Ferenczi's contribution to Klein's body of work and her professional development. Her analysis with Ferenczi lasted 5 years, a relatively long analysis for the period. It explores his influence in three specific areas: the importance of raw and early emotion in the maternal bond, the importance of freedom and authenticity in the analytic relationship, and finally the use of transference and countertransference feelings. Ferenczi's ill-fated experiment with mutual analysis will be discussed as it opened up a route to explore the analytic relationship, with important consequences for the future development of psychoanalysis.

  14. Klein, Ferenczi and the clinical diary.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Halton, Isabel

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this article is to revisit Ferenczi's Clinical Diary (1932) to investigate the influence he had on Melanie Klein's work. It starts from the position that insufficient recognition has been given to Ferenczi's contribution to Klein's body of work and her professional development. Her analysis with Ferenczi lasted 5 years, a relatively long analysis for the period. It explores his influence in three specific areas: the importance of raw and early emotion in the maternal bond, the importance of freedom and authenticity in the analytic relationship, and finally the use of transference and countertransference feelings. Ferenczi's ill-fated experiment with mutual analysis will be discussed as it opened up a route to explore the analytic relationship, with important consequences for the future development of psychoanalysis. PMID:25720785

  15. Martin J. Klein: From Physicist to Historian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Danian

    2012-12-01

    To his friends, colleagues, and students, Martin Klein was a gentle and modest man of extraordinary integrity whose stellar accomplishments garnered him many honors. I sketch his life and career, in which he transformed himself from a theoretical physicist at Columbia University, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and the Case Institute of Technology into a historian of physics while on leave at the Dublin Institute for Advanced Study and the University of Leiden and then pursued this field full time at Yale University.

  16. Barrier paradox in the Klein zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Leo, Stefano; Rotelli, Pietro P.

    2006-04-01

    We study the solutions for a one-dimensional electrostatic potential in the Dirac equation when the incoming wave packet exhibits the Klein paradox (pair production). With a barrier potential we demonstrate the existence of multiple reflections (and transmissions). The antiparticle solutions which are necessarily localized within the barrier region create new pairs with each reflection at the potential walls. Consequently we encounter a new “paradox” for the barrier because successive outgoing wave amplitudes grow geometrically.

  17. Barrier paradox in the Klein zone

    SciTech Connect

    De Leo, Stefano; Rotelli, Pietro P.

    2006-04-15

    We study the solutions for a one-dimensional electrostatic potential in the Dirac equation when the incoming wave packet exhibits the Klein paradox (pair production). With a barrier potential we demonstrate the existence of multiple reflections (and transmissions). The antiparticle solutions which are necessarily localized within the barrier region create new pairs with each reflection at the potential walls. Consequently we encounter a new 'paradox' for the barrier because successive outgoing wave amplitudes grow geometrically.

  18. 27 CFR 19.382 - Bottling tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottling tanks. 19.382... Manufacture of Articles Bottling, Packaging, and Removal of Products § 19.382 Bottling tanks. All spirits shall be bottled from tanks listed and certified as accurately calibrated in the notice of...

  19. Charlie Flats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image from the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's panoramic camera shows a region of the rock outcrop at Meridiani Planum, Mars, dubbed 'Charlie Flats.' This region is a rich science target for Opportunity because it contains a diverse assortment of small grains, pebbles and spherules, as well as both dark and light soil deposits. The area seen here measures approximately 0.6 meters (2 feet) across. The smallest grains visible in this image are only a few millimeters in size. The approximate true color image was acquired on Sol 20 of Opportunity's mission with panoramic camera filters red, green and blue. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for larger view Charlie Flats Spectra The chart above shows examples of spectra, or light wave patterns, extracted from the region of the Meridiani Planum rock outcrop dubbed 'Charlie Flats,' a rich science target for the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity. The spectra were extracted from the similarly colored regions in the image on the left, taken by the rover's panoramic camera. The green circle identifies a bright, dust-like soil deposit. The red circle identifies a dark soil region. The yellow identifies a small, angular rock chip with a strong near-infrared band. The pink identifies a sphere-shaped pebble with a different strong near-infrared band. The cyan circle shows a dark, grayish pebble.

  20. Adrian Stokes and the portrait of Melanie Klein.

    PubMed

    Sayers, Janet

    2015-08-01

    This paper focuses on the offer by the art writer Adrian Stokes to commission and pay for a portrait of the psychoanalyst Melanie Klein by the artist William Coldstream. It details some of the precursors of this offer in Stokes's preceding involvement first with Klein and then with Coldstream; her response to this offer; and its outcome and aftermath in Stokes's subsequent writing about Klein and Coldstream.

  1. Adrian Stokes and the portrait of Melanie Klein.

    PubMed

    Sayers, Janet

    2015-08-01

    This paper focuses on the offer by the art writer Adrian Stokes to commission and pay for a portrait of the psychoanalyst Melanie Klein by the artist William Coldstream. It details some of the precursors of this offer in Stokes's preceding involvement first with Klein and then with Coldstream; her response to this offer; and its outcome and aftermath in Stokes's subsequent writing about Klein and Coldstream. PMID:25989030

  2. Klein tunneling and supercollimation of pseudospin-1 electromagnetic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, A.; Zhang, Z. Q.; Louie, Steven G.; Chan, C. T.

    2016-01-01

    Pseudospin plays a central role in many novel physical properties of graphene and other artificial systems which have pseudospins of 1 /2 . Here we show that in certain photonic crystals (PCs) exhibiting conical dispersions at k =0 , the eigenmodes near the "Dirac-like point" can be described by an effective spin-orbit Hamiltonian with a higher dimension value S =1 , treating the wave propagation in positive index (upper cone), negative index (lower cone), and zero index (flat band) media within a unified framework. The three-component spinor gives rise to boundary conditions distinct from those of pseudospin 1 /2 , leading to wave transport behaviors as manifested in super Klein tunneling and supercollimation. For example, collimation can be realized more easily with pseudospin 1 than pseudospin 1 /2 . The effective medium description of the PCs allows us to further understand the physics of pseudospin-1 electromagnetic (EM) waves from the perspective of complementary materials. The special wave scattering properties of pseudospin-1 EM waves, in conjunction with the discovery that the effective photonic potential can be varied by a simple change of length scale, offer ways to control photon transport. As a useful platform to study pseudospin-1 physics, dielectric PCs are much easier to fabricate and characterize than ultracold atom systems proposed previously. The system also provides a platform to realize the concept of "complementary medium" using dielectric materials and has the unique advantage of low loss.

  3. Cosmic super-strings and Kaluza-Klein modes

    SciTech Connect

    Dufaux, Jean-François

    2012-09-01

    Cosmic super-strings interact generically with a tower of relatively light and/or strongly coupled Kaluza-Klein (KK) modes associated with the geometry of the internal space. In this paper, we study the production of spin-2 KK particles by cusps on loops of cosmic F- and D-strings. We consider cosmic super-strings localized either at the bottom of a warped throat or in a flat internal space with large volume. The total energy emitted by cusps in KK modes is comparable in both cases, although the number of produced KK modes may differ significantly. We then show that KK emission is constrained by the photo-dissociation of light elements and by observations of the diffuse gamma ray background. We show that this rules out regions of the parameter space of cosmic super-strings that are complementary to the regions that can be probed by current and upcoming gravitational wave experiments. KK modes are also expected to play an important role in the friction-dominated epoch of cosmic super-string evolution.

  4. 2012 Problem 10: Rocking Bottle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yaohua; Gao, Wenli; Wang, Sihui; Zhou, Huijun

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, the motion of a bottle partly filled with water is investigated. Two stages of motion showing different kinetic properties, named as "moving stage" and "rocking stage", can be clearly identified in the experiment. In the moving stage, the bottle moves forward with a short period vibration, while in the rocking stage, the bottle oscillates with a significantly longer period around a certain spot. Theoretical and numerical methods are employed to explain these phenomena. By simplifying the system into a rigid body model, it is found that in the moving stage, classical mechanical method gives results that fit our experiment well. And the rocking stage is thought to be the result of the asymmetric torque generated by the gravity of a liquid layer adhered to the inside wall of the bottle.

  5. Klein tunneling in deformed honeycomb lattices.

    PubMed

    Bahat-Treidel, Omri; Peleg, Or; Grobman, Mark; Shapira, Nadav; Segev, Mordechai; Pereg-Barnea, T

    2010-02-12

    We study the scattering of waves off a potential step in deformed honeycomb lattices. For deformations below a critical value, perfect Klein tunneling is obtained; i.e., a potential step transmits waves at normal incidence with nonresonant unit-transmission probability. Beyond the critical deformation a gap forms in the spectrum, and a potential step perpendicular to the deformation direction reflects all normally incident waves, exhibiting a dramatic transition form unit transmission to total reflection. These phenomena are generic to honeycomb lattices and apply to electromagnetic waves in photonic lattices, quasiparticles in graphene, and cold atoms in optical lattices. PMID:20366822

  6. Klein-Gordon Equation in Hydrodynamical Form

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Cheuk-Yin

    2010-01-01

    We follow and modify the Feshbach-Villars formalism by separating the Klein-Gordon equation into two coupled time-dependent Schroedinger equations for the particle and antiparticle wave functions with positive probability densities. We find that the equation of motion for the probability densities is in the form of relativistic hydrodynamics where various forces have their physical and classical counterparts. An additional element is the presence of the quantum stress tensor that depends on the derivatives of the amplitude of the wave function.

  7. Health risks and benefits of bottled water.

    PubMed

    Napier, Gena L; Kodner, Charles M

    2008-12-01

    Health and safety concerns have dramatically increased the consumption of bottled water in developed countries, including the United States. The economic and environmental impact of the many different bottled water products on the market is considerable, and the role and impact of bottled water for routine use is unclear, outside the setting of emergencies or natural disasters, when routine water sources may be unsafe. Evidence for routine health risks or benefits from using bottled water is limited. Patients who have specific health needs may wish to use bottled or filtered water. Physicians can use background information regarding the regulation, production, and possible health impact of bottled water to counsel patients.

  8. Consistent Kaluza-Klein sphere reductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvetič, M.; Lü, H.; Pope, C. N.

    2000-09-01

    We study the circumstances under which a Kaluza-Klein reduction on an n-sphere, with a massless truncation that includes all the Yang-Mills fields of SO(n+1), can be consistent at the full non-linear level. We take as the starting point a theory comprising a p-form field strength and (possibly) a dilaton, coupled to gravity in the higher dimension D. We show that aside from the previously studied cases with (D,p)=(11,4) and (10,5) (associated with the S4 and S7 reductions of D=11 supergravity, and the S5 reduction of type IIB supergravity), the only other possibilities that allow consistent reductions are for p=2, reduced on S2, and for p=3, reduced on S3 or SD-3. We construct the fully non-linear Kaluza-Klein Ansätze in all these cases. In particular, we obtain D=3, N=8, SO(8) and D=7, N=2, SO(4) gauged supergravities from S7 and S3 reductions of N=1 supergravity in D=10.

  9. Obituary: Michael John Klein, 1940-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulkis, Samuel

    2006-12-01

    Michael John Klein died on 14 May 2005 at home in South Pasadena, California. The cause of death was tongue cancer that metastasized to the lungs. He was a non-smoker. Mike was a passionate radio astronomer, a trusted astronomical observer, an educator and a family man. Mike was born on 19 January 1940 in Ames, Iowa, the son of Florence Marie (Graf) and Fred Michael Klein. His mother was a homemaker, and his father was a banker. Mike had two older sisters, Lois Jean (Klein) Flauher and Marilyn June (Klein) Griffin. In 1962, Mike married his high school sweetheart Barbara Dahlberg, who survives him along with their three children, Kristin Marie (Klein) Shields, Michael John Klein Jr., Timothy Joel Klein, and six grandchildren. Mike developed a love for astronomy early in his life, and credited an early morning, newspaper-delivery route that he had at age twelve, which took him outside well before sunrise. He told family members that as he walked along his route, he stared into the sky and wondered what everything was. He studied sky charts, located stars, and began to understand how the planets shifted their positions relative to the stars each day. Another big influence in Mike's life was his brother in-law, Jim Griffin. Jim helped Mike understand that his passion for science did not have to remain a hobby, but could and should become a career. Jim's encouragement led Mike to attend Iowa State University in Ames, where he earned a BS in electrical engineering in 1962. Mike then started graduate school in electrical engineering at Michigan State, but after one semester transferred to the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, where he earned an MS (1966) and PhD (1968) in astronomy. His doctoral dissertation, under the direction of Professor Fred Haddock, was based on extensive observations of the planets and examined the physical and thermal properties of planetary atmospheres and surfaces. Mike was awarded a Resident Research Associate position at JPL by the National

  10. 27 CFR 25.142 - Bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Marks, Brands, and Labels § 25.142 Bottles. (a) Label requirements. Each bottle of... brewer's name, trade name or brand name includes the name of a city which is not the place where the...

  11. 27 CFR 5.46 - Standard liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Standard liquor bottles. 5... Bottled Distilled Spirits § 5.46 Standard liquor bottles. (a) General. A standard liquor bottle shall be... container of a bottle shall not be so designed as to mislead purchasers as to the size of the bottles....

  12. 27 CFR 5.46 - Standard liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Standard liquor bottles. 5... Bottled Distilled Spirits § 5.46 Standard liquor bottles. (a) General. A standard liquor bottle shall be... container of a bottle shall not be so designed as to mislead purchasers as to the size of the bottles....

  13. 27 CFR 19.599 - Bottling and packaging records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bottling and packaging... Records § 19.599 Bottling and packaging records. A proprietor who bottles or packages spirits must prepare a “bottling and packaging” record for each lot of spirits bottled or packaged. The bottling...

  14. THE PSYCHOANALYTIC CONTRIBUTIONS OF MELITTA SCHMIDEBERG KLEIN. MORE THAN MELANIE KLEIN'S REBEL DAUGHTER.

    PubMed

    Cassullo, Gabriele

    2016-03-01

    Compared to the impact of the work of Melanie Klein on the history of psychoanalysis, the contributions of her daughter, Melitta Schmideberg, passed almost unnoticed. At present, Schmideberg is solely remembered for having harshly attacked her mother at the start of the Controversial Discussions of the British Psycho-Analytical Society and for having coined the fitting expression "stable instability" in order to describe borderline and asocial personality disorders. However, the author discusses how the early groundbreaking discoveries of Klein with regards to primitive anxieties were the result of the joint work and thinking of Melanie and Melitta. Moreover, he argues that the conflict between the two, along with the subsequent polarization of their views, did not facilitate the development of psychoanalysis, neither did it help the analytic community to recognize the value of Melitta's contributions to psychoanalysis.

  15. THE PSYCHOANALYTIC CONTRIBUTIONS OF MELITTA SCHMIDEBERG KLEIN. MORE THAN MELANIE KLEIN'S REBEL DAUGHTER.

    PubMed

    Cassullo, Gabriele

    2016-03-01

    Compared to the impact of the work of Melanie Klein on the history of psychoanalysis, the contributions of her daughter, Melitta Schmideberg, passed almost unnoticed. At present, Schmideberg is solely remembered for having harshly attacked her mother at the start of the Controversial Discussions of the British Psycho-Analytical Society and for having coined the fitting expression "stable instability" in order to describe borderline and asocial personality disorders. However, the author discusses how the early groundbreaking discoveries of Klein with regards to primitive anxieties were the result of the joint work and thinking of Melanie and Melitta. Moreover, he argues that the conflict between the two, along with the subsequent polarization of their views, did not facilitate the development of psychoanalysis, neither did it help the analytic community to recognize the value of Melitta's contributions to psychoanalysis. PMID:26912243

  16. 27 CFR 19.632 - Bottles authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... standards of fill provided in subpart E of 27 CFR part 5, including those for liquor bottles of less than 200 ml capacity. The use of any bottle size other than as authorized in subpart E of 27 CFR part 5 is... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottles authorized....

  17. 21 CFR 868.5220 - Blow bottle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blow bottle. 868.5220 Section 868.5220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5220 Blow bottle. (a) Identification. A blow bottle is a...

  18. 21 CFR 868.5220 - Blow bottle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blow bottle. 868.5220 Section 868.5220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5220 Blow bottle. (a) Identification. A blow bottle is a...

  19. 21 CFR 868.5220 - Blow bottle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blow bottle. 868.5220 Section 868.5220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5220 Blow bottle. (a) Identification. A blow bottle is a...

  20. 21 CFR 868.5220 - Blow bottle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Blow bottle. 868.5220 Section 868.5220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5220 Blow bottle. (a) Identification. A blow bottle is a...

  1. 21 CFR 868.5220 - Blow bottle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blow bottle. 868.5220 Section 868.5220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5220 Blow bottle. (a) Identification. A blow bottle is a...

  2. The ego according to Klein: return to Freud and beyond.

    PubMed

    Blass, Rachel B

    2012-02-01

    This paper explores fundamental dimensions of Melanie Klein's concept of the ego through a detailed study of the writings of Klein and her early colleagues (Paula Heimann, Susan Isaacs and Joan Riviere). The study examines three central issues: (a) the basic theoretical framework for Klein's conceptualization of the ego, and specifically how her conceptualization builds on Freud's structural and dual instinct models; (b) the processes involved in the development of the ego and its capacities (including the development from id to ego and from ego to superego); and (c) the view of the ego as an object of phantasy. Through this examination, the study demonstrates that Klein's conceptualization of the ego is firmly grounded both in Freud's formulations about the ego and in his theoretical and metapsychological approach to thinking about the ego. This counters the prevalent view that Klein was only focused on clinical understandings, unconcerned with theory and fuzzy in her abstract thinking. More specifically, it counters the view that Klein did not really have a concept of the ego in any well-structured sense of the term (Britton, 2003; Hinshelwood, 1994; Segal, 2001). The study considers the sources of these misconceived views. Finally, it argues that discarding such views allows us to appreciate better the richness of Klein's thinking, her theoretical affinities to Freud, and the role of theory in the development and justification of psychoanalysis.

  3. The ego according to Klein: return to Freud and beyond.

    PubMed

    Blass, Rachel B

    2012-02-01

    This paper explores fundamental dimensions of Melanie Klein's concept of the ego through a detailed study of the writings of Klein and her early colleagues (Paula Heimann, Susan Isaacs and Joan Riviere). The study examines three central issues: (a) the basic theoretical framework for Klein's conceptualization of the ego, and specifically how her conceptualization builds on Freud's structural and dual instinct models; (b) the processes involved in the development of the ego and its capacities (including the development from id to ego and from ego to superego); and (c) the view of the ego as an object of phantasy. Through this examination, the study demonstrates that Klein's conceptualization of the ego is firmly grounded both in Freud's formulations about the ego and in his theoretical and metapsychological approach to thinking about the ego. This counters the prevalent view that Klein was only focused on clinical understandings, unconcerned with theory and fuzzy in her abstract thinking. More specifically, it counters the view that Klein did not really have a concept of the ego in any well-structured sense of the term (Britton, 2003; Hinshelwood, 1994; Segal, 2001). The study considers the sources of these misconceived views. Finally, it argues that discarding such views allows us to appreciate better the richness of Klein's thinking, her theoretical affinities to Freud, and the role of theory in the development and justification of psychoanalysis. PMID:22320140

  4. Perturbative Solutions of the Einstein Klein-Gordon Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puliti, Gianluca; Jennings, Mara; Mamo, Vincent; Vuille, Chris

    2005-11-01

    As the Klein-Gordon equation is important in quantum theory and describes spin-0 particles, it is of interest to discover the nature of the gravity field such particles would be expected to create. In this paper, we solve the static, massive Einstein-Klein-Gordon (EKG) equations in perturbation, and compare the results with a similar calculation developed for the Einstein-Proca system. Subsequently, we study the massless static Klein-Gordon equation, and compare the result to the Reissner-Nordstrom metric.

  5. Melanie Klein and countertransference: a note on some archival material.

    PubMed

    Hinshelwood, R D

    2008-01-01

    Five pages of notes were found in the Melanie Klein Archives at the Wellcome Library that concern her views on countertransference in 1953. Because of the paucity of references to countertransference in Klein's published writings these Notes fill in out knowledge. Her views were provoked by the work her students were doing in their experimental analyses of schizophrenic patients. Apocryphal stories suggest that Klein remained aligned with Freud's view of countertransference as simply interference. The Notes confirm that, whilst there is some truth to that, she did have a more sophisticated and nuanced view of the unconscious relations between analyst and analysand.

  6. [An unpublished contribution of Melanie Klein "On Reassurance"].

    PubMed

    Frank, Claudia; Klein, Melanie

    2005-01-01

    Melanie Klein's unpublished paper on reassurance is presented in German translation. The author shows that it was a contribution to Glover's investigation on psychoanalytic technique in the 1930s. The paper is discussed against the background of the technical discussions conducted in London at that time (e. g. M. Schmideberg, J. Strachey) and of Klein's relevant publications. Although Klein consistently considered "correct" interpretation to be the most effective means of reassurance, she occasionally also accepted a non-interpreting approach. In this respect the paper presented here goes further than any other of her writings.

  7. Fate of Kaluza-Klein black holes: Evaporation or excision?

    SciTech Connect

    Murata, Keiju; Soda, Jiro; Kanno, Sugumi

    2007-05-15

    We study the evaporation process of black strings which are typical examples of Kaluza-Klein black holes. Taking into account the backreaction of the Hawking radiation, we deduce the evolution equation for the radion field. By solving the evolution equation, we find that the shape of the internal space is necked by the Hawking radiation and the amount of the deformation becomes large as the evaporation proceeds. Based on this analysis, we speculate that the Kaluza-Klein black holes would be excised from the Kaluza-Klein spacetime before the onset of the Gregory-Laflamme instability and therefore before the evaporation.

  8. [An unpublished contribution of Melanie Klein "On Reassurance"].

    PubMed

    Frank, Claudia; Klein, Melanie

    2005-01-01

    Melanie Klein's unpublished paper on reassurance is presented in German translation. The author shows that it was a contribution to Glover's investigation on psychoanalytic technique in the 1930s. The paper is discussed against the background of the technical discussions conducted in London at that time (e. g. M. Schmideberg, J. Strachey) and of Klein's relevant publications. Although Klein consistently considered "correct" interpretation to be the most effective means of reassurance, she occasionally also accepted a non-interpreting approach. In this respect the paper presented here goes further than any other of her writings. PMID:17152764

  9. Melanie Klein and countertransference: a note on some archival material.

    PubMed

    Hinshelwood, R D

    2008-01-01

    Five pages of notes were found in the Melanie Klein Archives at the Wellcome Library that concern her views on countertransference in 1953. Because of the paucity of references to countertransference in Klein's published writings these Notes fill in out knowledge. Her views were provoked by the work her students were doing in their experimental analyses of schizophrenic patients. Apocryphal stories suggest that Klein remained aligned with Freud's view of countertransference as simply interference. The Notes confirm that, whilst there is some truth to that, she did have a more sophisticated and nuanced view of the unconscious relations between analyst and analysand. PMID:19618519

  10. Students Lobby for Bottle Bill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Nathan H.

    1980-01-01

    Summarizes the 10-year accomplishments of Students for Environmental Quality from Bellport High School, New York, including successful halting of local waste oil pollution, instigating state laws to prohibit seal killing and protect the Carmans River wetlands, and details current efforts to assist in passage of a state "bottle bill." (NEC)

  11. Soda-Bottle Water Rockets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagan, David; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Provides instructions for the construction and launch of a two-liter plastic soda-bottle rocket and presents the author's theory of their motion during launch. Modeled predictions are compared with actual experimental data. Explains theory behind the motion of a water rocket during launch. (LZ)

  12. From Blogs to Bottle Caps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edinger, Ted

    2012-01-01

    There is a wonderful community of art educators connecting a once-isolated profession through blogging. Art educators around the world are sharing ideas and communicating with their peers through this amazing resource. In this article, the author describes the bottle cap mural at Tulip Grove Elementary School which was inspired by this exchange of…

  13. Optical Excitation and Probing of Bottle Microresonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murugan, G. Senthil; Wilkinson, J. S.; Zervas, M. N.

    2010-11-01

    Fiber bottle microresonators supporting helical whispering gallery modes and exhibiting field maxima symmetrically located on either side of the neck of the bottle have been demonstrated. Channel dropping characteristics have been studied experimentally for the first time in this type of microresonator, using tapered excitation and probe fibers symmetrically placed on both sides of the bottle microresonator. Selective excitation on one side of the bottle microresonator leads to symmetrically located turning points and power localization on both sides of the bottle, leading to the potential to construct add-drop filters.

  14. [Families with recurrent cases of Waardenburg-Klein syndrome].

    PubMed

    Bliumina, M G; Moskovkina, A G

    1985-06-01

    Deaf children with the type I Waardenburg--Klein syndrome were studied. Secondary cases were found in 14 unrelated and 1 incest families. In 10 families probands and all their affected relatives had the type I Waardenburg--Klein syndrome. In 4 families patients were discovered with both type I and type II syndromes. In an incest family the proband seemed to have the type III, while his mother and father (sibs) had type II and their grandmother the type I syndrome. These results contradict the hypothesis claiming the origin of different types of Waardenburg--Klein syndrome to be due to the action of different genes. It is proposed that types I and II, or all types of the syndrome are caused by a single dominant gene. Potential mechanisms for clinical polymorphism of Waardenburg--Klein syndrome are related to incomplete penetrance and varying expression of this gene. PMID:4029612

  15. The conflict and process theory of Melanie Klein.

    PubMed

    Kavaler-Adler, S

    1993-09-01

    This article depicts the theory of Melanie Klein in both its conflict and process dimensions. In addition, it outlines Klein's strategic place in psychoanalytic history and in psychoanalytic theory formation. Her major contributions are seen in light of their clinical imperatives, and aspects of her metapsychology that seem negligible are differentiated from these clinical imperatives. Klein's role as a dialectical fulcrum between drive and object relations theories is explicated. Within the conflict theory, drive derivatives of sex and aggression are reformulated as object-related passions of love and hate. The process dimensions of Klein's theory are outlined in terms of dialectical increments of depressive position process as it alternates with regressive paranoid-schizoid-position mental phenomenology. The mourning process as a developmental process is particularly high-lighted in terms of self-integrative progression within the working through of the depressive position.

  16. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey, William C. Kleine, Photographer February ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey, William C. Kleine, Photographer February 10, 1934 SOUTH ELEVATION OF RESIDENCE. - Francis Louis des Mazieres Store Building & House, Martinez & South Alamo Streets, San Antonio, Bexar County, TX

  17. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey, William C. Kleine, Photographer February ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey, William C. Kleine, Photographer February 10, 1934 SOUTH ELEVATION OF STORE. - Francis Louis des Mazieres Store Building & House, Martinez & South Alamo Streets, San Antonio, Bexar County, TX

  18. The conflict and process theory of Melanie Klein.

    PubMed

    Kavaler-Adler, S

    1993-09-01

    This article depicts the theory of Melanie Klein in both its conflict and process dimensions. In addition, it outlines Klein's strategic place in psychoanalytic history and in psychoanalytic theory formation. Her major contributions are seen in light of their clinical imperatives, and aspects of her metapsychology that seem negligible are differentiated from these clinical imperatives. Klein's role as a dialectical fulcrum between drive and object relations theories is explicated. Within the conflict theory, drive derivatives of sex and aggression are reformulated as object-related passions of love and hate. The process dimensions of Klein's theory are outlined in terms of dialectical increments of depressive position process as it alternates with regressive paranoid-schizoid-position mental phenomenology. The mourning process as a developmental process is particularly high-lighted in terms of self-integrative progression within the working through of the depressive position. PMID:8214205

  19. New method of verificating optical flat flatness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hao; Li, Xueyuan; Han, Sen; Zhu, Jianrong; Guo, Zhenglai; Fu, Yuegang

    2014-11-01

    Optical flat is commonly used in optical testing instruments, flatness is the most important parameter of forming errors. As measurement criteria, optical flat flatness (OFF) index needs to have good precision. Current measurement in China is heavily dependent on the artificial visual interpretation, through discrete points to characterize the flatness. The efficiency and accuracy of this method can not meet the demand of industrial development. In order to improve the testing efficiency and accuracy of measurement, it is necessary to develop an optical flat verification system, which can obtain all surface information rapidly and efficiently, at the same time, in accordance with current national metrological verification procedures. This paper reviews current optical flat verification method and solves the problems existing in previous test, by using new method and its supporting software. Final results show that the new system can improve verification efficiency and accuracy, by comparing with JJG 28-2000 metrological verification procedures method.

  20. Galactic entropy in extended Kaluza-Klein cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanar, Hilmi; Salti, Mustafa; Aydogdu, Oktay; Acikgoz, Irfan; Yasar, Erol

    2016-02-01

    We use a Kaluza-Klein model with variable cosmological and gravitational terms to discuss the nature of galactic entropy function. For this purpose, we assume a universe filled with dark fluid and consider five-dimensional (5D) field equations using the Gamma law equation. We mainly discuss the validity of the first and generalized second laws of galactic thermodynamics for viable Kaluza-Klein models.

  1. Vacuum stability in Kaluza-Klein theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1986-07-01

    When it was discovered that string theories are inconsistent except when they are formulated in spacetimes of either 26 or 10 dimensions, a new reason for investigating dynamical geometry was born. Up to this point the general theory of relativity had stood in isolation. The gravitational force, based as it was in the geometry of spacetime, seemed different from the other fundamental forces. It is true that, among the proposals for unification, there was an early suggestion by Kaluza that spacetime should be viewed as a 5-dimensional cylinder in order to put electromagnetism on the same geometrical footing as gravitation. Interesting as it was, this idea was somewhat premature in that many fundamental forces had yet to be discovered. This may yet be the case. If electromagnetism is to be explained by such a mechanism then the distance scales (e.g. the cylinder's radius) must be smaller by many orders than what is experimentally resolvable. This means that the most novel and distinctive qualities of the 5-dimensional geometry, the most characteristic predictions of the theory, cannot be tested. For this reason, the Kaluza-Klein theories have remained for many years a curiosity, and Einstein's theory of gravitation maintains its isolation.

  2. Kaluza-Klein relics from warped reheating

    SciTech Connect

    Berndsen, Aaron; Cline, James M.; Stoica, Horace

    2008-06-15

    It has been suggested that after brane-antibrane inflation in a Klebanov-Strassler (KS) warped throat, metastable Kaluza-Klein excitations can be formed due to nearly-conserved angular momenta along isometric directions in the throat. If sufficiently long lived, these relics could conflict with big bang nucleosynthesis or baryogenesis by dominating the energy density of the Universe. We make a detailed estimate of the decay rate of such relics using the low-energy effective action of type IIB string theory compactified on the throat geometry, with attention to powers of the warp factor. We find that it is necessary to turn on supersymmetry (SUSY)-breaking deformations of the KS background in order to ensure that the most dangerous relics will decay fast enough. The decay rate is found to be much larger than the naive guess based on the dimension of the operators which break the angular isometries of the throat. For an inflationary warp factor of order w{approx}10{sup -4}, we obtain the bound M{sub 3/2} > or approx. 10{sup 9} GeV on the scale of SUSY breaking to avoid cosmological problems from the relics, which is satisfied in the Kachru, Kallosh, Linde, and Trivedi construction assumed to stabilize the compactification. Given the requirement that the relics decay before nucleosynthesis or baryogenesis, we place bounds on the mass of the relic as a function of the warp factor in the throat for more general warped backgrounds.

  3. Radioactivity in bottled mineral waters.

    PubMed

    Martín Sánchez, A; Rubio Montero, M P; Gómez Escobar, V; Jurado Vargas, M

    1999-06-01

    Consumption of bottled mineral water is a growing practice and is sometimes a necessity rather than a choice. In this work, a study of the radioactive content of a wide selection of commercial bottled mineral waters for human intake was carried out. The origins of the analyzed waters were very different, coming from various locations in France, Portugal and Spain. Their total alpha and beta activity concentrations were determined and also gamma spectrometry was used to detect some radionuclides. In some cases, the waters presented high values of the total alpha and beta activity concentrations surpassing the reference levels established by the CSN, the Spanish. Regulatory Organization. In these cases, a determination of uranium and 226Ra was also performed by using low-level liquid scintillation counting. The results revealed a strong correlation between radioactive content and dry residue, and lead one to conclude that high radioactive content is mainly related to the mineralization in waters of underground origin.

  4. Bottle rocket analysis and testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worcester, R. K.; Frederick, R. A.

    1993-06-01

    A flight contest was held at the end of the course given at the undergraduate aeropropulsion laboratory at the University of Alabama, which combined numerical simulation, static testing, and flight testing of a simple propulsion system represented by a plastic 2-l soft drink bottle. The project helped the students to see the interrelations among theory, testing, and reality. This paper describes the methodology behind the contest and discusses its merits and drawbacks.

  5. 27 CFR 27.208 - Liquor bottles denied entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liquor bottles denied... for Liquor Bottles § 27.208 Liquor bottles denied entry. Filled liquor bottles, not conforming to the... customs custody of distilled spirits in bottles, except those coming under the provisions of §...

  6. 27 CFR 27.204 - Distinctive liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... such bottles are found by the appropriate TTB officer to— (1) Meet the requirements of 27 CFR part 5... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distinctive liquor bottles... Bottles § 27.204 Distinctive liquor bottles. (a) Application. Liquor bottles of distinctive shape...

  7. 27 CFR 31.203 - Possession of used liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... bottles. 31.203 Section 31.203 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Bottles § 31.203 Possession of used liquor bottles. The possession of used liquor bottles by any person... circumstances: (a) The owner or occupant of any premises on which the used bottles have been lawfully...

  8. 27 CFR 27.204 - Distinctive liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... such bottles are found by the appropriate TTB officer to— (1) Meet the requirements of 27 CFR part 5... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Distinctive liquor bottles... Bottles § 27.204 Distinctive liquor bottles. (a) Application. Liquor bottles of distinctive shape...

  9. 27 CFR 26.316 - Bottles not constituting approved containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bottles not constituting... VIRGIN ISLANDS Requirements for Liquor Bottles § 26.316 Bottles not constituting approved containers. The appropriate TTB officer is authorized to disapprove any bottle, including a bottle of less than 200...

  10. 27 CFR 27.206 - Bottles not constituting approved containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottles not constituting... Requirements for Liquor Bottles § 27.206 Bottles not constituting approved containers. The appropriate TTB officer is authorized to disapprove any bottle, including a bottle of less than 200 ml. capacity, for...

  11. 27 CFR 26.318 - Liquor bottles denied entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liquor bottles denied... Requirements for Liquor Bottles § 26.318 Liquor bottles denied entry. Filled liquor bottles not conforming to... release from customs custody of distilled spirits in bottles, except those coming under the provisions...

  12. 27 CFR 26.316 - Bottles not constituting approved containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottles not constituting... VIRGIN ISLANDS Requirements for Liquor Bottles § 26.316 Bottles not constituting approved containers. The appropriate TTB officer is authorized to disapprove any bottle, including a bottle of less than 200...

  13. 27 CFR 19.636 - Bottles for testing purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottles for testing... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Liquor Bottle and Label Requirements Liquor Bottle Requirements § 19.636 Bottles for testing purposes. Proprietors may ship liquor bottles...

  14. 27 CFR 27.206 - Bottles not constituting approved containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bottles not constituting... Requirements for Liquor Bottles § 27.206 Bottles not constituting approved containers. The appropriate TTB officer is authorized to disapprove any bottle, including a bottle of less than 200 ml. capacity, for...

  15. 27 CFR 27.208 - Liquor bottles denied entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Liquor bottles denied... for Liquor Bottles § 27.208 Liquor bottles denied entry. Filled liquor bottles, not conforming to the... customs custody of distilled spirits in bottles, except those coming under the provisions of §...

  16. 27 CFR 24.308 - Bottled or packed wine record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... record. A proprietor who bottles, packs, or receives bottled or packed beverage wine in bond shall maintain a record, by tax class, as follows: (a) The date, kind of wine, the number and size of bottle or... or destroyed, breakage, used for tasting. The volume recorded as bottled for bottle...

  17. 27 CFR 26.318 - Liquor bottles denied entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Liquor bottles denied... Requirements for Liquor Bottles § 26.318 Liquor bottles denied entry. Filled liquor bottles not conforming to... release from customs custody of distilled spirits in bottles, except those coming under the provisions...

  18. Klein, anti-Klein tunneling and pseudo-spintronics in graphene heterojunctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajjad, Redwan; Ghosh, Avik

    2012-02-01

    Electrons in monolayer graphene act like massless spin-1/2 Dirac fermions. Backscattering is suppressed due to the pseudospin orthogonality of the forward and reverse scattering modes. The resulting Klein tunneling provides unit transmission for normally incident electrons at a pn junction, regardless of barrier height. By combining voltage gating with a tunnel barrier, we can realize a gate tunable metal insulator transition that promotes subthermal switching [1] and also makes the conduction unipolar. In contrast, bilayer graphene electrons act like parabolic spin-1 systems with perfect reflection for normal incidence (anti-Klein tunneling). For n^+n or p^+p junction, the transmission maximizes for normal incidence like single layer, but unlike monolayer graphene, it's barrier-dependent. We also perform atomistic numerical calculation of graphene sheets with experimentally relevant size (hundreds of nanometer) using non-equilibrium Green's function formalism and we show that the conductance can be varied substantially with gate voltage for multiple sequenced pn junctions with smoothly varying potential. [4pt] [1] Sajjad and Ghosh, APL 99, 123101 (2011).

  19. CHARGE BOTTLE FOR A MASS SEPARATOR

    DOEpatents

    Davidson, P.H.

    1959-07-01

    Improved mass separator charge bottles are described for containing a dense charge of a chemical compound of copper, nickel, lead or other useful substance which is to be vaporized, and to the method of utilizing such improvcd charge bottles so that the chemical compound is vaporized from the under surface of the charge and thus permits the non-volatile portion thereof to fall to the bottom of the charge bottle where it does not form an obstacle to further evaporation. The charge bottle comprises a vertically disposed cylindrical portion, an inner re-entrant cylindrical portion extending axially and downwardly into the same from the upper end thereof, and evaporative source material in the form of a chemical compound compacted within the upper annular pontion of the charge bottle formed by the re-entrant cylindrical portion, whereby vapor from the chemical compound will pass outwardly from the charge bottle through an apertured closure.

  20. Evaluation of the effectiveness of an intravenous line and fluid bottle fixation design.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Piao-Yi; Chien, Chih-Yin; Shiu, Ting-Ru; Lin, Pei-Jiun; Lin, Wan-Yu; Jiang, Yi-Rung

    2015-01-01

    It's important to improve the stability of intravenous (IV) lines and bottles during patient activity and nursing care. We developed an intravenous line and fluid bottle fixation design (ILFBFD) which includes a bottle retaining clip and line fixation kit. We randomly assigned 60 participants each to the experimental and control groups. Participants were asked to push an IV stand without and with ILFBFD 11 meters on uneven pavement and a sloping floor. The distance the IV bottle moved was recorded. Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect the opinions of the participants. Use of ILFBFD, resulted in less movement in the anteroposterior and left/right directions (differences of 46.98 cm2, t= 12.80, p < 0.000 and 39.24 cm2, t= 8.01, p< 0.000, respectively) compared with not using ILFBFD. The average scores for bottle movement when participants walked on a flat floor, uneven pavement and sloping floor, IV line tangling and dropping, and organization of Liv lines were significantly better in those using than not using ILFBFD. The results can be used in clinical practice to reduce knotting of IV lines, and to enhance the safety and quality of patient care. PMID:26409547

  1. Melanie Klein's letters addressed to Marcelle Spira (1955-1960).

    PubMed

    Quinodoz, Jean-Michel

    2009-12-01

    Between 1955 and 1960, Melanie Klein wrote some 45 hitherto unpublished letters to Marcelle Spira, the Swiss psychoanalyst living at that time in Geneva. In 2006, after Spira's death, these letters were deposited with the Raymond de Saussure Psychoanalysis Centre in Geneva. They are the only known letters that Klein addressed to her psychoanalyst colleagues. Several topics are mentioned in them: (1) the meetings between the two women in Geneva and London; (2) Spira's contribution to Boulanger's translation into French of The Psychoanalysis of Children, which Klein herself carefully revised; (3) the papers that Klein was at that time working on, including Envy and Gratitude; (4) Spira's own work; (5) the difficulties that Spira, a Kleinian psychoanalyst who trained in Buenos Aires, was encountering in her attempt to be admitted to the Swiss Psychoanalytical Society; and (6) a few items of personal and family news. In addition to the invaluable historical information that these letters provide, they offer us a very moving epistolary self-portrait of Melanie Klein, enabling us to discover her personality in the final years of her life - she died in September 1960, just two months after writing her last letter to Spira.

  2. Study of Conformal Invariance in Kaluza-Klein Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslhashemy, B. Ali

    2007-08-01

    One of the most important cases that always has been in attention by the physicists is to find a comprehensive theory that singly formulates the natural four interactions. In this direction, the Kaluza-Klein theory was the first theory that could unify gravity and electromagnetism. This theory is obtained by extension of four dimensional Albert Einstein's general relativity to a five dimensional manifold. Theodor Kaluza pointed out that if general relativity theory is extended to a five-dimensional space-time, the equations can be separated out into ordinary four-dimensional gravitation and an extra set of equations which is equivalent to Maxwell's equations for the electromagnetic field, plus an extra field known as the dilation. But, the purely geometrical Kaluza-Klein theory is inconsistent. It leads to an action unbounded from below and thus is unstable. This can be solved by adding an extra real scalar field using the conformal transformation. In this review, besides studying Kaluza-Klein theory, we investigate the conformal transformation and conformal invariance about cosmological consequents of Kaluza-Klein theory and conclude when the five dimensions Kaluza-Klein theory reduces to a four dimensional manifold, a conformal transformation is necessary until the Einstein's equations are obtained.

  3. Melanie Klein's letters addressed to Marcelle Spira (1955-1960).

    PubMed

    Quinodoz, Jean-Michel

    2009-12-01

    Between 1955 and 1960, Melanie Klein wrote some 45 hitherto unpublished letters to Marcelle Spira, the Swiss psychoanalyst living at that time in Geneva. In 2006, after Spira's death, these letters were deposited with the Raymond de Saussure Psychoanalysis Centre in Geneva. They are the only known letters that Klein addressed to her psychoanalyst colleagues. Several topics are mentioned in them: (1) the meetings between the two women in Geneva and London; (2) Spira's contribution to Boulanger's translation into French of The Psychoanalysis of Children, which Klein herself carefully revised; (3) the papers that Klein was at that time working on, including Envy and Gratitude; (4) Spira's own work; (5) the difficulties that Spira, a Kleinian psychoanalyst who trained in Buenos Aires, was encountering in her attempt to be admitted to the Swiss Psychoanalytical Society; and (6) a few items of personal and family news. In addition to the invaluable historical information that these letters provide, they offer us a very moving epistolary self-portrait of Melanie Klein, enabling us to discover her personality in the final years of her life - she died in September 1960, just two months after writing her last letter to Spira. PMID:20002822

  4. A pilot study comparing opaque, weighted bottles with conventional, clear bottles for infant feeding

    PubMed Central

    Ventura, Alison K.; Golen, Rebecca Pollack

    2015-01-01

    Compared to breast-fed infants, bottle-fed infants consume greater volumes and gain more weight during infancy. It is hypothesized that the visual and weight cues afforded by bottle-feeding may lead mothers to overfeed in response to the amount of liquid in the bottle. The aim of the present pilot study was to test this hypothesis by comparing mothers’ sensitivity and responsiveness to infant cues and infants’ intakes when mothers use opaque, weighted bottles (that remove visual and weight cues) compared to conventional, clear bottles to feed their infants. We also tested the hypothesis that mothers’ pressuring feeding style would moderate the effect of bottle type on mothers’ sensitivity and responsiveness to infant cues and infant intake. Formula-feeding dyads (N=25) visited our laboratory on two separate days. Mothers fed their infants from a clear bottle one day and an opaque, weighted bottle on the other; bottle-order was counterbalanced across the two days. Both bottles were glass with latex, low-flow nipples; the opaque bottle was fitted with a silicone sleeve containing a 60-g metal plate in its base. Infant intake was assessed by weighing each bottle before and after the feeding. Maternal sensitivity and responsiveness to infant cues was objectively assessed using the Nursing Child Assessment Feeding Scale (NCAFS). Mothers were significantly more responsive to infant cues when they used opaque compared to clear bottles (p=.04). There was also a trend for infants to consume significantly less formula when fed from opaque compared to clear bottles (p = .08). Mothers’ pressuring feeding style moderated the effect of bottle type on maternal responsiveness to infant cues (p = .02) and infant intake (p = .03). Specifically, mothers who reported higher levels of pressuring feeding were significantly more responsive to their infants’ cues (p = .02) and fed their infants significantly less formula when using opaque versus clear bottles (p = .01

  5. A new look at the theory of Melanie Klein.

    PubMed

    Stein, R

    1990-01-01

    This paper tried to show that Melanie Klein's theory can very profitably be viewed as a descriptive theory of strong emotions rather than an instinct or developmental theory. Furthermore, since in Klein's thinking feelings 'create' objects, the primacy of feelings in this theory is central. The paper contains a short chronological study of Klein's formulations of psychic phenomena in terms of affects. It is also maintained that the paranoid-schizoid and the depressive positions are constellations of affects and of reactions to them; that psychic development is essentially in terms of the capacity to tolerate feelings, and that the basic conflict in mental life is between feelings of love and hate and associated feelings. Such a view solves many of the conceptual difficulties of Kleinian theory and in addition promises rewarding insights into the world of feelings.

  6. Charged rotating dilaton black holes with Kaluza-Klein asymptotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knoll, Christian; Nedkova, Petya

    2016-03-01

    We construct a class of stationary and axisymmetric solutions to the five-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton gravity, which describe configurations of charged rotating black objects with Kaluza-Klein asymptotics. The solutions are constructed by uplifting a vacuum seed solution to six dimensions, performing a boost and a subsequent circle reduction. We investigate the physical properties of the charged solutions and obtain their general relations to the properties of the vacuum seed. We also derive the gyromagnetic ratio and the Smarr-like relations. As particular cases, we study three solutions, which describe a charged rotating black string, a charged rotating black ring on Kaluza-Klein bubbles, and a superposition of two black holes and a Kaluza-Klein bubble.

  7. A new look at the theory of Melanie Klein.

    PubMed

    Stein, R

    1990-01-01

    This paper tried to show that Melanie Klein's theory can very profitably be viewed as a descriptive theory of strong emotions rather than an instinct or developmental theory. Furthermore, since in Klein's thinking feelings 'create' objects, the primacy of feelings in this theory is central. The paper contains a short chronological study of Klein's formulations of psychic phenomena in terms of affects. It is also maintained that the paranoid-schizoid and the depressive positions are constellations of affects and of reactions to them; that psychic development is essentially in terms of the capacity to tolerate feelings, and that the basic conflict in mental life is between feelings of love and hate and associated feelings. Such a view solves many of the conceptual difficulties of Kleinian theory and in addition promises rewarding insights into the world of feelings. PMID:2228448

  8. 27 CFR 31.232 - Wine bottling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... The decanting of wine by caterers or other retail dealers for table or room service, banquets, and... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wine bottling. 31.232... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Miscellaneous § 31.232 Wine bottling. Each...

  9. Bottled liquid explosive scanner by near infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itozaki, Hideo

    2016-05-01

    A bottled liquid explosive scanner has been developed using near infrared technology for glass or PET bottles and ultrasound technology for metal cans. It has database of near infrared absorbance spectra and sound velocities of various liquids. Scanned liquids can be identified by using this database. This device has been certified by ECAC and installed at Japanese international airport.

  10. Gas Property Demonstrations Using Plastic Water Bottles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Dean J.; Bannon, Stephen J.; Gunter, Molly M.

    2011-01-01

    Plastic water bottles are convenient containers for demonstrations of gas properties illustrating Boyle's law, Charles's law, and Avogadro's law. The contents of iron-based disposable hand warmer packets can be used to remove oxygen gas from the air within an unfilled plastic water bottle.

  11. EXAMINATION OF BOTTLED WATER FOR NONTUBERCULOUS MYCOBACTERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to examine bottled water for the presence of nontuberculous mycobacteria as a potential source of infection in AIDS patients. Twenty brands of bottled water commonly used in the Los Angeles area were tested for the presence of nontuberculous mycoba...

  12. 27 CFR 25.142 - Bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Marks, Brands, and Labels § 25.142 Bottles. (a) Label requirements. Each bottle of... brewer's name, trade name or brand name includes the name of a city which is not the place where the beer... Office of Management and Budget under control number 1512-0474) (Sec. 201, Pub. L. 85-859, 72 Stat....

  13. [New documentation on the Robert baby bottle].

    PubMed

    Julien, P

    1996-01-01

    The author makes known about a dozen unpublished documents (puzzle-cards, invoice, advertisements, post card, stamped tin signs printed in colors, catalogue, prospectuses) which shed light on the history of the manufacture Robert baby bottles (located successively in Dijon, Paris and in Martres-de-Veyre) and on the practice of bottle feeding. PMID:11624777

  14. Formation of Klein Edge Doublets from Graphene Monolayers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Judy S; Warner, Jamie H; Robertson, Alex W; Kirkland, Angus I

    2015-09-22

    With increasing possibilities for applications of graphene, it is essential to fully characterize the rich topological variations in graphene edge structures. Using aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy, dangling carbon doublets at the edge of monolayer graphene crystals have been observed. Unlike the single-atom Klein edge often found at zigzag edges, these carbon dimers were observed in various edge structure environments, but most frequently on the more stable armchair edges. Observation of this Klein edge doublet over time reveals that its existence enhances the stability of armchair edges and is a route to atom abstraction on zigzag edges.

  15. Some technical implications of Klein's concept of 'premature ego development'.

    PubMed

    Mitrani, Judith L

    2007-08-01

    In this paper, the author revisits the problem of 'premature ego development' first introduced by Melanie Klein in 1930. She also highlights several developments in post-Kleinian thinking since the publication of that paper, which can be seen as offshoots of or complements to Klein's work. The author proposes a link between this category of precocious development and the absence of the experience of what Bion termed the 'containing object.' She puts forward several technical considerations relevant to analytic work with patients who suffer as a result of early developmental failures and presents various clinical vignettes in order to demonstrate the ways in which these considerations take shape in the analytic setting.

  16. Klein-Gordon and Dirac Equations with Thermodynamic Quantities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arda, Altuğ; Tezcan, Cevdet; Sever, Ramazan

    2016-03-01

    We study the thermodynamic quantities such as the Helmholtz free energy, the mean energy and the specific heat for both the Klein-Gordon, and Dirac equations. Our analyze includes two main subsections: (1) statistical functions for the Klein-Gordon equation with a linear potential having Lorentz vector, and Lorentz scalar parts (2) thermodynamic functions for the Dirac equation with a Lorentz scalar, inverse-linear potential by assuming that the scalar potential field is strong ( A ≫ 1). We restrict ourselves to the case where only the positive part of the spectrum gives a contribution to the sum in partition function. We give the analytical results for high temperatures.

  17. From Taub-NUT to Kaluza-Klein magnetic monopole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riazi, Nematollah; Hashemi, S. Sedigheh

    2016-03-01

    We present a Kaluza-Klein vacuum solution which closely resembles the Taub-NUT magnetic monopole and we investigate its physical properties as viewed from four space-time dimensions. We show that the Taub-NUT Kaluza-Klein vacuum solution in five dimensions is a static magnetic monopole. We find that the four dimensional matter properties do not obey the equation of state of radiation and there is no event horizon. A comparison with the available magnetic monopole solutions and the issue of vanishing and negative mass are discussed.

  18. A pilot study comparing opaque, weighted bottles with conventional, clear bottles for infant feeding.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Alison K; Pollack Golen, Rebecca

    2015-02-01

    It is hypothesized that the visual and weight cues afforded by bottle-feeding may lead mothers to overfeed in response to the amount of liquid in the bottle. The aim of the present pilot study was to test this hypothesis by comparing mothers' sensitivity and responsiveness to infant cues and infants' intakes when mothers use opaque, weighted bottles (that remove visual and weight cues) compared to conventional, clear bottles to feed their infants. We also tested the hypothesis that mothers' pressuring feeding style would moderate the effect of bottle type. Formula-feeding dyads (N = 25) visited our laboratory on two separate days. Mothers fed their infants from a clear bottle one day and an opaque, weighted bottle on the other; bottle-order was counterbalanced across the two days. Infant intake was assessed by weighing each bottle before and after the feeding. Maternal sensitivity and responsiveness to infant cues was objectively assessed using the Nursing Child Assessment Feeding Scale. Mothers were significantly more responsive to infant cues when they used opaque compared to clear bottles (p = .04). There was also a trend for infants to consume significantly less formula when fed from opaque compared to clear bottles (p = .08). Mothers' pressuring feeding style moderated the effect of bottle type on maternal responsiveness to infant cues (p = .02) and infant intake (p = .03). Specifically, mothers who reported higher levels of pressuring feeding were significantly more responsive to their infants' cues (p = .02) and fed their infants significantly less formula when using opaque versus clear bottles (p = .01); no differences were seen for mothers who reported lower levels of pressuring feeding. This study highlights a simple, yet effective intervention for improving the bottle-feeding practices of mothers who have pressuring feeding styles.

  19. Revisiting the fog bottle experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamcharean, C.; Khanchong, C.; Wattanakasiwich, P.

    2016-11-01

    In this article we propose an irreversible adiabatic expansion model, modified from previous work, to explain the fog bottle experiment. Our model divides the phenomenon into five thermodynamic states, and we include in our calculation irreversible work pushing a stopper out of the bottle and heat gain from the condensation of saturated vapour. In the experiment, thermodynamic variables including pressure and temperature as functions of time were measured. The work done in pushing the stopper out was measured and the condensation heat was determined using the Clausius–Clapeyron equation to determine saturated vapour pressure. As a result, fog formation was explained through a phase diagram of water showing the saturated vapour pressure during irreversible adiabatic expansion. Also, state variables (P, V and T) and the entropy change of the real process were compared with the reversible and irreversible adiabatic expansion and our modified process. Using a P–T diagram, we show that the amount of reversible work is always higher than the amount of irreversible work, due to dissipative work. According to our modified model, the dissipative work and the heat transferred from condensation cause irreversibility or {{Δ }}{S}{{t}{{o}}{{t}}{{a}}{{l}}}\\gt 0.

  20. MAMA NUV Flats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sana, Hugues

    2013-10-01

    This program is aimed at obtaining NUV-MAMA flat-field observations for the construction of pixel-to-pixel flats {p-flats} with a SNR of 100 per binned pixel. The flats are obtained with the DEUTERIUM-lamp and the MR grisms G230M. The actual choice of central wavelength and slit combination depends on the observed count level within each exposure.Note that STIS NUV-MAMA flats are taken every other cycles{i.e. during odd number cycles} in order to not drain the DEUTERIUMlamp lifetime.

  1. MAMA NUV Flats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Elena

    2011-10-01

    This program is aimed at obtaining NUV-MAMA flat-field observations for the construction of pixel-to-pixel flats {p-flats} with a SNR of 100 per binned pixel. The flats are obtained with the DEUTERIUM-lamp and the MR grisms G230M. The actual choice of central wavelength and slit combination depends on the observed count level within each exposure.Note that STIS NUV-MAMA flats are taken every other cycles{i.e. during odd number cycles} in order to not drain the DEUTERIUMlamp lifetime.

  2. Unification and explanation in early Kaluza-Klein theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muntean, Ioan Lucian

    Unifying distinct domains of phenomena is one of the most important non-empirical virtues of scientific theories. However, what counts as unification and what makes it important are philosophically controversial. I canvass two positions toward unification (the enthusiasts and the dissenters) as well as two methods to approach unification: the general approach and the specific approach based on case studies. Some philosophers take unification to be truth conducive (Friedman, Glymour, etc.) others to be central to scientific explanation (Kitcher) and still others find it to be typically neither (esp. Morrison). To make progress on these questions, attention should be paid to concrete, historical episodes. In my dissertation I tackle one of the most significant episodes in the history of physics, an episode that---oddly given how important the theory is now in the context of String Theory---has escaped historical and philosophical investigations or it has been under-investigated. That episode is the early attempt to unify gravity and electromagnetism within a five-dimensional spacetime by Kaluza (1921) and Klein (1926). This theory is philosophically interesting in its own light, but as the ancestor to current attempts to unify gravity with matter fields, it is rich with consequences for the contemporary foundations of physics. Morrison (2000) argues that many instances of unification are trivial, spurious or related neither to explanatory power, nor to scientific realism. Others have recently argued that unification in general is neither necessary, nor sufficient for explanation, although there may be some (weak) correlations between unification and explanation. Against this background I emphasize the novelty of my approach by making room for a new type of unification illustrated by Kaluza, and especially by Klein, in which unification is strongly related to explanation. Although some aspects of my case study are suggested in the philosophical literature, they are

  3. Performance of a short 'magnetic bottle' electron spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Mucke, M.; Lischke, T.; Arion, T.; Foerstel, M.; Bradshaw, A. M.; Hergenhahn, U.

    2012-06-15

    In this article, a newly constructed electron spectrometer of the magnetic bottle type is described. The instrument is part of an apparatus for measuring the electron spectra of free clusters using synchrotron radiation. Argon and helium outer valence photoelectron spectra have been recorded in order to investigate the characteristic features of the spectrometer. The energy resolution (E/{Delta}E) has been found to be {approx}30. Using electrostatic retardation of the electrons, it can be increased to at least 110. The transmission as a function of kinetic energy is flat, and is not impaired much by retardation with up to 80% of the initial kinetic energy. We have measured a detection efficiency of most probably 0.6{sub -0.1}{sup +0.05}, but at least of 0.4. Results from testing the alignment of the magnet, and from trajectory simulations, are also discussed.

  4. Neutrinos from Kaluza-Klein dark matter in the Sun

    SciTech Connect

    Blennow, Mattias; Melbéus, Henrik; Ohlsson, Tommy E-mail: melbeus@kth.se

    2010-01-01

    We investigate indirect neutrino signals from annihilations of Kaluza-Klein dark matter in the Sun. Especially, we examine a five- as well as a six-dimensional model, and allow for the possibility that boundary localized terms could affect the spectrum to give different lightest Kaluza-Klein particles, which could constitute the dark matter. The dark matter candidates that are interesting for the purpose of indirect detection of neutrinos are the first Kaluza-Klein mode of the gauge boson and the neutral component of the gauge bosons. Using the DarkSUSY and WimpSim packages, we calculate muon fluxes at an Earth-based neutrino telescope, such as IceCube. For the five-dimensional model, the results that we obtained agree reasonably well with the results that have previously been presented in the literature, whereas for the six-dimensional model, we find that, at tree-level, the results are the same as for the five-dimensional model. Finally, if the first Kaluza-Klein mode of the gauge boson constitutes the dark matter, IceCube can constrain the parameter space. However, in the case that the neutral component of the gauge bosons is the LKP, the signal is too weak to be observed.

  5. Breather compactons in nonlinear Klein-Gordon systems.

    PubMed

    Dinda, P T; Remoissenet, M

    1999-11-01

    We demonstrate the existence of a localized breathing mode with a compact support, i.e., a stationary breather compacton, in a nonlinear Klein-Gordon system. This breather compacton results from a delicate balance between the harmonicity of the substrate potential and the total nonlinearity induced by the substrate potential and the coupling forces between adjacent lattice sites.

  6. Non-oscillatory behaviour in vacuum Kaluza-Klein cosmologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demaret, J.; Henneaux, M.; Spindel, P.; Taormina, A.; Hanquin, J.-L.

    The generic behavior of vacuum inhomogeneous Kaluza-Klein cosmologies is studied in the vicinity of the cosmological singularity. It is argued that, in spacetime dimensions equal to or greater than 11, the generalized Kasner solution, with monotonic power-law behavior of the spatial distances, becomes a general solution of the Einstein vacuum field equations and, moreover, the chaotic oscillatory behavior disappears.

  7. Cosmological model of the Kaluza-Klein type

    SciTech Connect

    Kopczyn-ski, W.

    1987-12-15

    The theory of a fluid composed of multidimensional objects is joined with the Kaluza-Klein idea with the following aim: an explanation of the distinction between the internal and the external spaces. On the cosmic scale, the internal space contracts and the external space expands. A formula for the rate of decrease of the gravitational constant is discussed.

  8. Embracing "All But My Life" by Gerda Weissmann Klein.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Harold M.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses Gerda Weissmann Klein's book, "All But My Life," which chronicles the author's journey from a normal young (Jewish) woman to a slave in Nazi labor camps for six years. Argues that the book is well written, has characters of depth and complexity, affirms life through the ordeal of the Holocaust, and is a popular book with students. (SR)

  9. Bottled water: how safe is it?

    PubMed

    Raj, Sean D

    2005-01-01

    Sales of bottled water have increased dramatically in recent years, with worldwide sales of more than dollars 35 billion, largely because of the public perception of purity and safety and public concern about the quality of tap water. Presently, there are no Food and Drug Administration (Washington, D.C.) recommendations regarding temperature and duration of storage for bottled water once it is opened and used. The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of time and storage temperature on bacterial growth and characterize the types of microorganisms contaminating bottled water after drinking once from the bottle. Bottled and tap water were tested using standard microbiology culture techniques. The bacterial count in bottled water increased dramatically, from less than 1 colony per milliliter (col/mL) to 38,000 col/mL over 48 hours of storage at 37 degrees C. Bacterial growth was markedly reduced at cold temperatures (refrigeration) compared with room temperature, with 50% fewer bacterial colonies in 24 hours and 84% fewer colonies in 48 hours. Interestingly, tap water resulted in only minimal growth, especially at cold temperatures (< 100 col/mL at 48 hours). These findings may be useful to increase public awareness and development of guidelines on storage temperature and expiration time for bottled water once it is opened and used.

  10. 40 CFR 141.101 - Use of bottled water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Use of bottled water. 141.101 Section... Use of bottled water. Public water systems shall not use bottled water to achieve compliance with an MCL. Bottled water may be used on a temporary basis to avoid unreasonable risk to health....

  11. 27 CFR 31.201 - Refilling of liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... bottles. 31.201 Section 31.201 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Bottles § 31.201 Refilling of liquor bottles. No person who sells, or offers for sale, distilled spirits, or agent or employee of such person, shall: (a) Place in any liquor bottle any distilled...

  12. 27 CFR 31.202 - Possession of refilled liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... liquor bottles. 31.202 Section 31.202 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Liquor Bottles § 31.202 Possession of refilled liquor bottles. No person who sells, or offers for sale, distilled spirits, or agent or employee of such person, shall: (a) Possess any liquor bottle in which...

  13. 27 CFR 31.201 - Refilling of liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... bottles. 31.201 Section 31.201 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Bottles § 31.201 Refilling of liquor bottles. No person who sells, or offers for sale, distilled spirits, or agent or employee of such person, shall: (a) Place in any liquor bottle any distilled...

  14. 27 CFR 27.209 - Used liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Used liquor bottles. 27... Bottles § 27.209 Used liquor bottles. The appropriate TTB officer may pursuant to letterhead application filed in triplicate, authorize an importer to receive liquor bottles assembled for him as provided...

  15. 27 CFR 27.209 - Used liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Used liquor bottles. 27... Bottles § 27.209 Used liquor bottles. The appropriate TTB officer may pursuant to letterhead application filed in triplicate, authorize an importer to receive liquor bottles assembled for him as provided...

  16. 27 CFR 19.512 - Bottles not constituting approved containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bottles not constituting... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Liquor Bottle, Label, and Closure Requirements Authorized Liquor Bottles § 19.512 Bottles not constituting...

  17. 27 CFR 26.314 - Distinctive liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... officer to— (1) Meet the requirements of 27 CFR part 5; (2) Be distinctive; (3) Be suitable for their... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distinctive liquor bottles... for Liquor Bottles § 26.314 Distinctive liquor bottles. (a) Application. Liquor bottles of...

  18. 27 CFR 19.286 - Gauging of spirits in bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... bottles. 19.286 Section 19.286 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Gauging of spirits in bottles. When gauging spirits in bottles, the proprietor may determine the proof and quantity from case markings and label information if the bottles are full and there is no evidence...

  19. 27 CFR 26.319 - Used liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Used liquor bottles. 26... for Liquor Bottles § 26.319 Used liquor bottles. The appropriate TTB officer may pursuant to letterhead application filed in triplicate, authorize an importer to receive liquor bottles assembled for...

  20. 27 CFR 19.637 - Bottles not consitituting approved containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottles not consitituting... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Liquor Bottle and Label Requirements Liquor Bottle Requirements § 19.637 Bottles not consitituting approved containers. The...

  1. 27 CFR 19.513 - Distinctive liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Distinctive liquor bottles..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Liquor Bottle, Label, and Closure Requirements Authorized Liquor Bottles § 19.513 Distinctive liquor bottles. (a) Application. A proprietor must submit...

  2. 27 CFR 26.319 - Used liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Used liquor bottles. 26... for Liquor Bottles § 26.319 Used liquor bottles. The appropriate TTB officer may pursuant to letterhead application filed in triplicate, authorize an importer to receive liquor bottles assembled for...

  3. 27 CFR 26.314 - Distinctive liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... officer to— (1) Meet the requirements of 27 CFR part 5; (2) Be distinctive; (3) Be suitable for their... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Distinctive liquor bottles... for Liquor Bottles § 26.314 Distinctive liquor bottles. (a) Application. Liquor bottles of...

  4. 27 CFR 24.308 - Bottled or packed wine record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottled or packed wine... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.308 Bottled or packed wine record. A proprietor who bottles, packs, or receives bottled or packed beverage wine in bond...

  5. Residue theorem and summing over Kaluza-Klein excitations

    SciTech Connect

    Feng Taifu; Chen Jianbin; Gao Tiejun; Sun Kesheng

    2011-11-01

    Applying the equations of motion together with corresponding boundary conditions of bulk profiles at infrared and ultraviolet branes, we verify some lemmas on the eigenvalues of Kaluza-Klein modes in extension of the standard model with a warped extra dimension and the custodial symmetry SU(3){sub c}xSU(2){sub L}xSU(2){sub R}xU(1){sub X}xP{sub LR}. Using the lemmas and performing properly analytic extensions of bulk profiles, we present the sufficient condition for a convergent series of Kaluza-Klein excitations and sum over the series through the residue theorem. The method can also be applied to sum over the infinite series of Kaluza-Klein excitations in a universal extra dimension. Furthermore, we analyze the possible connection between the propagators in five-dimensional full theory and the product of bulk profiles with corresponding propagators of exciting Kaluza-Klein modes in four-dimensional effective theory, and recover some relations presented in the literature for warped and universal extra dimensions, respectively. As an example, we present the correction from new physics to the branching ratio of B{yields}X{sub s{gamma}} to the order O({mu}{sub EW}{sup 2}/{Lambda}{sub KK}{sup 2}) in extension of the standard model with a warped extra dimension and the custodial symmetry, where {Lambda}{sub KK} denotes the energy scale of low-lying Kaluza-Klein excitations and {mu}{sub EW} denotes the electroweak energy scale.

  6. Phthalates residues in plastic bottled waters.

    PubMed

    Al-Saleh, Iman; Shinwari, Neptune; Alsabbaheen, Ammar

    2011-08-01

    This study was conducted to determine the presence of phthalates in 10 different brands of bottled water available in Saudi markets and stored under different conditions. Dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethylphthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) and diethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP) were measured by headspace solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography- mass spectrometer detector. Most of these phthalates were detected in the selected bottled water sample that might be either leached from the plastic packaging materials or contamination during bottling processes. Bottled waters stored at 4°C contained higher levels of DMP, DEP, BBP and DEHP than those stored at room temperature and outdoors. On the other hand, the levels of DMP, DEP and BBP were significantly lower in bottled waters stored at room temperature than those outdoor. It seems that temperature and sunlight play a role in the degradation of phthalates within time. The levels of BBP were the highest at 4°C storage (4.592 ± 3.081 µg/l; range: 1.194-21.128 µg/l) and approximately 76% of the bottled waters had BBP above the limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.994 µg/l. Apart from DEHP (< 6 µg/l), there are not current legislations for other phthalates. Regardless of storage conditions, all our samples did not exceed the maximum established limit of DEHP. Although, the levels of phthalates in tested bottled waters were low, one should not dismiss that these chemicals may cause endocrine disruption through several mechanisms, especially to potentially vulnerable populations such as infants and pregnant women. Saudi Arabia ranks 12 in bottled water consumption (88 L per capita in 2004) among the 71 reported countries. With this high consumption, a quality assurance scheme for residue monitoring in water is quite important. Although, one cannot avoid phthalates contamination in bottled waters due to manufacturing process but at least special care should be taken

  7. The Framing of Calvin Klein: A Frame Analysis of Media Discourse about the August 1995 Calvin Klein Jeans Advertising Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Lauren R.

    1998-01-01

    Deconstructs the "kiddie porn" media frame used by the industry and mainstream media to characterize Klein's ad campaign. Extends scholarship on the construction of youth in the media, showing how the kiddie-porn frame produces and reproduces common-sense beliefs about the nature of youth. Suggests a metadiscourse encompassing the politicized…

  8. MAMA FUV Flats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Elena

    2012-10-01

    This program aims at obtaining FUV-MAMA flat-field observations to create a new p-flats with a SNR of 100 per {low resolution} pixel. The flats are obtained with the Krypton-lamp and the MR grating G140M, similarly to the cycle 17 and 18 programs. However the exact instrument setup {slit width and central wavelength} might change depending on the desired count level {which will be close to the internally allowed global rate limit}.

  9. Gas Experiments with Plastic Soda Bottles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kavanah, Patrick; Zipp, Arden P.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the use of an inexpensive device consisting of a plastic soda bottle and a modified plastic cap in a range of demonstrations and experimental activities having to do with the behavior of gases. (Author/WRM)

  10. Bottle appeal drifts across the Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebbesmeyer, Curtis; Ingraham, W. James, Jr.; McKinnon, Richard; Okubo, Akira; Wang, Dong-Ping; Strickland, Richard; Willing, Peter

    Pacific drift currents were used by a group of oceanographers to estimate the path of a drift bottle that was found on a beach of Barkley Sound in Vancouver Island by Richard Strickland on June 10, 1990. The Chinese rice wine bottle, which remained unopened until December 18, 1991, contained six leaflets, one appealing for the release of China's well-known dissident, Wei Jingsheng. The bottle was one of thousands set adrift as part of a propaganda effort from the islands of Quemoy and Matsu off mainland China shortly after Wei was sentenced in 1979 to 15 years in prison (see Figure 1 for locations). Wei was in poor health and still in prison when the bottle made its way across the Pacific Ocean.

  11. Speciation of antimony in polyethylene terephthalate bottles

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.R.; Ablett, J.; Shotyk, W.S.; Naftel, S.; Northrup, P.

    2009-12-18

    Antimony contamination has been reported in drinking water from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles. Micro-X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis has been used to identify the distribution and chemical form of residual antimony used as a catalyst in the manufacture of PET bottles. The results are consistent with clusters of Sb(III) having dimensions of the order of tens of micrometers, clearly showing the ability of synchrotron radiation analyses to both map elemental distribution and determine oxidation state.

  12. Beverages: bottled water. Direct final rule.

    PubMed

    2003-03-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending its bottled water quality standard regulations by establishing an allowable level for the contaminant uranium. As a consequence, bottled water manufacturers are required to monitor their finished bottled water products for uranium at least once each year under the current good manufacturing practice (CGMP) regulations for bottled water. Bottled water manufacturers are also required to monitor their source water for uranium as often as necessary, but at least once every 4 years unless they meet the criteria for the source water monitoring exemptions under the CGMP regulations. FDA will retain the existing allowable levels for combined radium-226/-228, gross alpha particle radioactivity, and beta particle and photon radioactivity. This direct final rule will ensure that the minimum quality of bottled water, as affected by uranium, combined radium-226/-228, gross alpha particle radioactivity, and beta particle and photon radioactivity, remains comparable with the quality of public drinking water that meets the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) standards. FDA is issuing a direct final rule for this action because the agency expects that there will be no significant adverse comment on this rule. Elsewhere in this issue of the Federal Register, FDA is publishing a companion proposed, rule under the agency's usual procedure for notice-and-comment rulemaking, to provide a procedural framework to finalize the rule in the event the agency receives any significant adverse comments and withdraws this direct final rule. The companion proposed rule and direct final rule are substantively identical.

  13. Flat Pack Toy Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutcheson, Brian

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author introduces the concept of flat pack toys. Flat pack toys are designed using a template on a single sheet of letter-sized card stock paper. Before being cut out and built into a three-dimensional toy, they are scanned into the computer and uploaded to a website. With the template accessible from the website, anyone with…

  14. Reassessing the clinical affinity between Melanie Klein and D.W. Winnicott (1935-51): Klein's unpublished "Notes on baby" in historical context.

    PubMed

    Aguayo, Joseph

    2002-10-01

    The author investigates the clinical affinity between Klein and Winnicott (1935-46) asa way to historically situate Winnicott 's later criticism of Klein's 'temperamental' inability to understand the impact of the environment on the infant's development. By setting out Klein s theories at the time when Winnicott began supervision with her in 1935, a context is established for the analysis of an unpublished 1937 manuscript by Klein ('Notes on baby'). The author argues that this direct and extensive infant observation demonstrates Klein's sensitivity to the familial environment. While Winnicott as a paediatrician showed enthusiasm for Klein s ideas, he also demonstrated a difference of opinion in emphasising the maternal environment of provision after his wartime evacuation experiences with London children. The factors leading to their mutual distancing are outlined as follows: (1) the post-Controversial Discussion atmosphere of the British Psycho-Analytical Society in 1944. The new non-aligned psychoanalytic 'middle group' allowed Winnicott to take a pick and choose attitude towards available analytic theories; (2) Winnicott us new clinical practices and theory differed from Klein 's, leading to a widening gap between 1946 and 1951. Winnicott's new theory and practice simultaneously represented his technical marginalisation of Klein s emphasis on the direct analysis of the patient s destructiveness by the time he delivered the 'Transitional objects' paper in 1951.

  15. Reassessing the clinical affinity between Melanie Klein and D.W. Winnicott (1935-51): Klein's unpublished "Notes on baby" in historical context.

    PubMed

    Aguayo, Joseph

    2002-10-01

    The author investigates the clinical affinity between Klein and Winnicott (1935-46) asa way to historically situate Winnicott 's later criticism of Klein's 'temperamental' inability to understand the impact of the environment on the infant's development. By setting out Klein s theories at the time when Winnicott began supervision with her in 1935, a context is established for the analysis of an unpublished 1937 manuscript by Klein ('Notes on baby'). The author argues that this direct and extensive infant observation demonstrates Klein's sensitivity to the familial environment. While Winnicott as a paediatrician showed enthusiasm for Klein s ideas, he also demonstrated a difference of opinion in emphasising the maternal environment of provision after his wartime evacuation experiences with London children. The factors leading to their mutual distancing are outlined as follows: (1) the post-Controversial Discussion atmosphere of the British Psycho-Analytical Society in 1944. The new non-aligned psychoanalytic 'middle group' allowed Winnicott to take a pick and choose attitude towards available analytic theories; (2) Winnicott us new clinical practices and theory differed from Klein 's, leading to a widening gap between 1946 and 1951. Winnicott's new theory and practice simultaneously represented his technical marginalisation of Klein s emphasis on the direct analysis of the patient s destructiveness by the time he delivered the 'Transitional objects' paper in 1951. PMID:12430543

  16. Some technical implications of Klein's concept of 'premature ego development'.

    PubMed

    Mitrani, Judith L

    2007-08-01

    In this paper, the author revisits the problem of 'premature ego development' first introduced by Melanie Klein in 1930. She also highlights several developments in post-Kleinian thinking since the publication of that paper, which can be seen as offshoots of or complements to Klein's work. The author proposes a link between this category of precocious development and the absence of the experience of what Bion termed the 'containing object.' She puts forward several technical considerations relevant to analytic work with patients who suffer as a result of early developmental failures and presents various clinical vignettes in order to demonstrate the ways in which these considerations take shape in the analytic setting. PMID:17681895

  17. Constraints on cosmic superstrings from Kaluza-Klein emission.

    PubMed

    Dufaux, Jean-François

    2012-07-01

    Cosmic superstrings interact generically with a tower of light and/or strongly coupled Kaluza-Klein (KK) modes associated with the geometry of the internal space. We study the production of KK particles by cosmic superstring loops, and show that it is constrained by big bang nucleosynthesis. We study the resulting constraints in the parameter space of the underlying string theory model and highlight their complementarity with the regions that can be probed by current and upcoming gravitational wave experiments.

  18. Constraints on cosmic superstrings from Kaluza-Klein emission.

    PubMed

    Dufaux, Jean-François

    2012-07-01

    Cosmic superstrings interact generically with a tower of light and/or strongly coupled Kaluza-Klein (KK) modes associated with the geometry of the internal space. We study the production of KK particles by cosmic superstring loops, and show that it is constrained by big bang nucleosynthesis. We study the resulting constraints in the parameter space of the underlying string theory model and highlight their complementarity with the regions that can be probed by current and upcoming gravitational wave experiments. PMID:23031097

  19. Newton-Cartan, Galileo-Maxwell and Kaluza-Klein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van den Bleeken, Dieter; Yunus, Çağin

    2016-07-01

    We study Kaluza-Klein reduction in Newton-Cartan gravity. In particular we show that dimensional reduction and the nonrelativistic limit commute. The resulting theory contains Galilean electromagnetism and a nonrelativistic scalar. It provides the first example of back-reacted couplings of scalar and vector matter to Newton-Cartan gravity. This back-reaction is interesting as it sources the spatial Ricci curvature, providing an example where nonrelativistic gravity is more than just a Newtonian potential.

  20. Resolution of the Klein Paradox within Relativistic Quantum Mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Alhaidari, A. D.

    2011-10-27

    We present a resolution of the Klein paradox within the framework of one-particle relativistic quantum mechanics (no pair production). Not only reflection becomes total but the vacuum remains neutral as well. This is accomplished by replacing the pair production process with virtual negative energy ''incidence'' within the barrier in a process analogous to the introduction of image charges in electrostatic and virtual sources in optics.

  1. Klein's theorem and the proof of E0 = mc2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohanian, Hans C.

    2012-12-01

    Despite repeated attempts, Einstein failed to give us a general and rigorous proof of his E0=mc2 relation. A completely general proof emerged in 1918 from a theorem on the four-vector character of energy-momentum of extended systems by the mathematician Felix Klein, but this proof is not well known, rarely seen in textbooks, and sometimes misunderstood. A simple version of this proof is presented here, with discussion of the crucial role of the energy-momentum tensor.

  2. A Dark Energy Model in Kaluza-Klein Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Utpal; Chakraborty, Ipsita; Ray, Saibal; Usmani, A. A.

    2016-01-01

    We study a dynamic Λ model with varying gravitational constant G under the Kaluza-Klein cosmology. Physical features and the limitations of the present model have been explored and discussed. Solutions are found mostly in accordance with the observed features of the accelerating universe. Interestingly, signature flipping of the deceleration parameter is noticed and the present age of the Universe is also attainable under certain stringent conditions. We find that the time variation of gravitational constant is not permitted without vintage Λ.

  3. Towards Kaluza-Klein Dark Matter on nilmanifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriot, David; Cacciapaglia, Giacomo; Deandrea, Aldo; Deutschmann, Nicolas; Tsimpis, Dimitrios

    2016-06-01

    We present a first study of the field spectrum on a class of negatively-curved compact spaces: nilmanifolds or twisted tori. This is a case where analytical results can be obtained, allowing to check numerical methods. We focus on the Kaluza-Klein expansion of a scalar field. The results are then applied to a toy model where a natural Dark Matter candidate arises as a stable massive state of the bulk scalar.

  4. Effect of bottling and storage on the migration of plastic constituents in Spanish bottled waters.

    PubMed

    Guart, Albert; Bono-Blay, Francisco; Borrell, Antonio; Lacorte, Silvia

    2014-08-01

    Bottled water is packaged in either glass or, to a large extent, in plastic bottles with metallic or plastic caps of different material, shape and colour. Plastic materials are made of one or more monomers and several additives that can eventually migrate into water, either during bottle manufacturing, water filling or storage. The main objective of the present study was to carry out a comprehensive assessment of the quality of the Spanish bottled water market in terms of (i) migration of plastic components or additives during bottling and during storage and (ii) evaluation of the effect of the packaging material and bottle format on the migration potential. The compounds investigated were 5 phthalates, diethylhexyl adipate, alkylphenols and bisphenol A. A set of 362 bottled water samples corresponding to 131 natural mineral waters and spring waters sources and 3 treated waters of several commercial brands were analysed immediately after bottling and after one-year storage (a total of 724 samples). Target compounds were detected in 5.6% of the data values, with diethyl hexyl phthalate and bisphenol A being the most ubiquitous compounds detected. The total daily intake was estimated and a comparison with reference values was indicated.

  5. ARRAYS OF BOTTLES OF PLUTONIUM NITRATE SOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Margaret A. Marshall

    2012-09-01

    In October and November of 1981 thirteen approaches-to-critical were performed on a remote split table machine (RSTM) in the Critical Mass Laboratory of Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in Richland, Washington using planar arrays of polyethylene bottles filled with plutonium (Pu) nitrate solution. Arrays of up to sixteen bottles were used to measure the critical number of bottles and critical array spacing with a tight fitting Plexiglas® reflector on all sides of the arrays except the top. Some experiments used Plexiglas shells fitted around each bottles to determine the effect of moderation on criticality. Each bottle contained approximately 2.4 L of Pu(NO3)4 solution with a Pu content of 105 g Pu/L and a free acid molarity H+ of 5.1. The plutonium was of low 240Pu (2.9 wt.%) content. These experiments were sponsored by Rockwell Hanford Operations because of the lack of experimental data on the criticality of arrays of bottles of Pu solution such as might be found in storage and handling at the Purex Facility at Hanford. The results of these experiments were used “to provide benchmark data to validate calculational codes used in criticality safety assessments of [the] plant configurations” (Ref. 1). Data for this evaluation were collected from the published report (Ref. 1), the approach to critical logbook, the experimenter’s logbook, and communication with the primary experimenter, B. Michael Durst. Of the 13 experiments preformed 10 were evaluated. One of the experiments was not evaluated because it had been thrown out by the experimenter, one was not evaluated because it was a repeat of another experiment and the third was not evaluated because it reported the critical number of bottles as being greater than 25. Seven of the thirteen evaluated experiments were determined to be acceptable benchmark experiments. A similar experiment using uranyl nitrate was benchmarked as U233-SOL-THERM-014.

  6. FLATs: Warming Up - continuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calzetti, Daniela

    1997-07-01

    The purpose of this proposal is to monitor the flat fields during the interval between the end of science observations and the exhaustion of cryogen and subsequent warming of the dewar to > 100K. These flats will provide a monitor for particulate comtamination {GROT} and detector lateral position {from the coronagraphic spot and FDA vignetting}. They will provide some measure of relative {flat field} and absolute QE variation as a function of temperature. When stars are visible they might provide a limited degree of focus determination.

  7. FLATs: Warming Up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calzetti, Daniela

    1997-07-01

    The purpose of this proposal is to monitor the flat fields during the interval between the end of science observations and the exhaustion of cryogen and subsequent warming of the dewar to > 100K. These flats will provide a monitor for particulate comtamination {GROT} and detector lateral position {from the coronagraphic spot and FDA vignetting}. They will provide some measure of relative {flat field} and absolute QE variation as a function of temperature. When stars are visible they might provide a limited degree of focus determination.

  8. An upright eyedrop bottle: accuracy, usage of excess drops, and contamination compared to a conventional bottle

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Isaiah J; Brown, Ninita H; Wen, Joanne C; Stinnett, Sandra S; Kubelick, Kelsey; Patel, Roma P; Benokraitis, Kristin L; Greene, Latoya; Cheek, Curry; Muir, Kelly W

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study tested the feasibility of using an upright eyedrop bottle (UEB), a device designed to assist patients with eyedrop placement without reclining their head. Patients and methods Experienced eyedrop users were enrolled who answered “yes” to the question, “Do you ever have trouble getting your eyedrops in?” After being shown a multimedia presentation and answering a questionnaire regarding eyedrop usage, participants were observed instilling eyedrops. Participants were instructed to instill a single eyedrop in each eye with both a standard bottle and the UEB. They repeated this process three times. With each trial, the amount of time taken to instill drops was recorded, as well as whether a drop landed in the eye (accuracy), if excess drops were used, and if the bottle tip was contaminated. Results Forty participants were enrolled, with an average age of 72.4±8.9 years; the majority were females (24 females). Thirty-four participants had been using eyedrops for at least 1 year. The time required to instill eyedrops was significantly less with the UEB in the second and third trials. There was no difference in accuracy between the conventional bottle and the UEB in the left or right eye in any trials. Significantly more participants used excess number of drops while using the conventional bottle in both the left and right eyes in all three trials. The bottle tip was never contaminated with the UEB. Depending on the trial and the eye, the conventional bottle was contaminated by between 42% and 53% of participants. Conclusion The UEB has the potential to assist patients with eyedrop placement. Although there was no difference in accuracy between the UEB and the conventional bottle, the UEB was associated with less use of excess drops and less contamination of the bottle tip, compared to the conventional bottle. PMID:27555747

  9. Flat plate solar oven

    SciTech Connect

    Parikh, M.

    1981-01-01

    The construction of an Indian Rs. 186 (US $20.33) flat-plate solar oven is described. Detailed drawings are provided and relevant information on cooking times and temperature for different foods is given.

  10. On the Klein-Gordon oscillator subject to a Coulomb-type potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakke, K.; Furtado, C.

    2015-04-01

    By introducing the scalar potential as modification in the mass term of the Klein-Gordon equation, the influence of a Coulomb-type potential on the Klein-Gordon oscillator is investigated. Relativistic bound states solutions are achieved to both attractive and repulsive Coulomb-type potentials and the arising of a quantum effect characterized by the dependence of angular frequency of the Klein-Gordon oscillator on the quantum numbers of the system is shown.

  11. Ergonomics Designs of Aluminum Beverage Cans & Bottles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jing; Itoh, Ryouiti; Yamazaki, Koetsu; Nishiyama, Sadao; Shinguryo, Takuro

    2005-08-01

    This paper introduced the finite element analyses into the ergonomics designs to evaluate the human feelings numerically and objectively. Two design examples in developing aluminum beverage cans & bottles are presented. The first example describes a design of the tab of the can with better finger access. A simulation of finger pulling up the tab of the can has been performed and a pain in the finger has been evaluated by using the maximum value of the contact stress of a finger model. The finger access comparison of three kinds of tab ring shape designs showed that the finger access of the tab that may have a larger contact area with finger is better. The second example describes a design of rib-shape embossed bottles for hot vending. Analyses of tactile sensation of heat have been performed and the amount of heat transmitted from hot bottles to finger was used to present the hot touch feeling. Comparison results showed that the hot touch feeling of rib-shape embossed bottles is better than that of cylindrical bottles, and that the shape of the rib also influenced the hot touch feeling.

  12. ''Neither fish nor fowl'' EEC draft on bottle recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-20

    It is reported that an EEC directive on drinks bottle recycling is expected to be announced shortly. The directive is expected to call for member countries to make arrangements for the compulsory return of beer and soft drinks bottles.

  13. Liquid explosive detection from outside of the bottle by IR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itozaki, Hideo; Yamauchi, Yuji

    2009-05-01

    Liquid explosives have been used in terrorism recently. Inspection of bottles becomes very important, because these liquid explosive or it raw materials can be carried by bottles easily. Hydrogen peroxide is typical raw materials of liquid explosives. It was difficult to evaluate concentration of hydrogen peroxide in the drink in the bottle, because of similarity of its optical properties to those of water. Using near infrared spectrum and multivariate statistical analysis, concentration of percent order of hydrogen peroxide in the bottle can be evaluated from outside of the bottle instantly. Hydrogen peroxide has been detected in not only a clear PET or glass bottle but also a colored glass bottle. Hydrogen peroxide mixed by soft drink such as coke or orange juice with pulp also detected by this method easily. This technique can be applied to inspection of a bottle at airport security so on.

  14. Detection of bottled explosives by near infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itozaki, Hideo; Sato-Akaba, Hideo

    2013-10-01

    Bottled liquids are not allowed through the security gate in the airport, because liquid explosives have been used by the terrorists. However, passengers have a lot of trouble if they cannot bring their own bottles. For example, a mother would like to carry her own milk in the airplane for her baby. Therefore the detection technology of liquid explosives should be developed as soon as possible. This paper shows that near infrared spectroscopy can detect bottled explosives quickly. The transmission method cannot deal with milk in the sense of liquid inspection. Here we examined the reflection method to the test of milk. The inspection method with light cannot make test for the metal can. We also use ultrasonic method to check metal can simultaneously in order to expand test targets.

  15. Water bottle rocket in undergraduate laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, William

    2012-11-01

    In the winter semester of 2012, we implemented the modeling and testing of a water bottle rocket in ME 495, the Senior Laboratory in Mechanical Engineering at the University of Michigan. The four week lab was the most well received by the students in recent memory. There were significant challenges, but the result was a thorough review of their undergraduate fluids class with some advanced concepts such as directional stability of a projectile. The student teams designed their own rockets based on one of many standard 20 ounce soft drink bottles. The culminating contest brought impressive results and a surprise ending.

  16. 27 CFR 10.603 - Liquor bottle records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Liquor bottle records. 10... Liquor bottle records. A proprietor must maintain records of the receipt, use, and disposition of liquor bottles. (26 U.S.C. 5207)...

  17. 27 CFR 5.41 - Bottle cartons, booklets and leaflets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottle cartons, booklets... Requirements for Distilled Spirits § 5.41 Bottle cartons, booklets and leaflets. (a) General. An individual covering, carton, or other container of the bottle used for sale at retail (other than a shipping...

  18. 27 CFR 19.633 - Distinctive liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... TTB officer if the bottles are found to— (1) Meet the requirements of 27 CFR part 5; (2) Be... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distinctive liquor bottles..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Liquor Bottle and Label Requirements...

  19. 27 CFR 19.749 - Bottling and packaging record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottling and packaging record. 19.749 Section 19.749 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Account § 19.749 Bottling and packaging record. The bottling and packaging record shall be prepared...

  20. 27 CFR 28.102 - Bottles to have closures affixed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottles to have closures... Transportation to a Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse § 28.102 Bottles to have closures affixed. Every bottle containing distilled spirits to be withdrawn under the provisions of this subpart shall have a closure...

  1. 27 CFR 31.203 - Possession of used liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Possession of used liquor... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Reuse and Possession of Used Liquor Bottles § 31.203 Possession of used liquor bottles. The possession of used liquor bottles by any...

  2. Teaching Science: "Building" a Balloon in a Bottle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyden, Michael B.

    1993-01-01

    Describes a science experiment in which students place a balloon into an empty plastic soda bottle, some of which have holes in the bottom, pull the open end over the rim and attempt to inflate it. Only students whose bottles have holes in the bottom will be able to inflate the balloon, because of the air in the bottle. (MDM)

  3. 27 CFR 24.256 - Bottle aging wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bottle aging wine. 24.256 Section 24.256 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... of Wine § 24.256 Bottle aging wine. Wine bottled or packed and stored for the purpose of aging...

  4. 27 CFR 24.256 - Bottle aging wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bottle aging wine. 24.256 Section 24.256 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... of Wine § 24.256 Bottle aging wine. Wine bottled or packed and stored for the purpose of aging...

  5. 27 CFR 24.256 - Bottle aging wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bottle aging wine. 24.256 Section 24.256 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... of Wine § 24.256 Bottle aging wine. Wine bottled or packed and stored for the purpose of aging...

  6. 27 CFR 24.256 - Bottle aging wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottle aging wine. 24.256 Section 24.256 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... of Wine § 24.256 Bottle aging wine. Wine bottled or packed and stored for the purpose of aging...

  7. 27 CFR 24.256 - Bottle aging wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bottle aging wine. 24.256 Section 24.256 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... of Wine § 24.256 Bottle aging wine. Wine bottled or packed and stored for the purpose of aging...

  8. 21 CFR 1250.42 - Water systems; constant temperature bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Water systems; constant temperature bottles. 1250...; constant temperature bottles. (a) The water system, whether of the pressure or gravity type, shall be... at all times as to prevent contamination of the water. (e) Constant temperature bottles and...

  9. 21 CFR 1250.42 - Water systems; constant temperature bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Water systems; constant temperature bottles. 1250...; constant temperature bottles. (a) The water system, whether of the pressure or gravity type, shall be... at all times as to prevent contamination of the water. (e) Constant temperature bottles and...

  10. 21 CFR 1250.42 - Water systems; constant temperature bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Water systems; constant temperature bottles. 1250...; constant temperature bottles. (a) The water system, whether of the pressure or gravity type, shall be... at all times as to prevent contamination of the water. (e) Constant temperature bottles and...

  11. [Quality standards and hygienic problems of bottled drinking-water].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qing; Shu, Weiqun; Gao, Jingsheng

    2004-05-01

    The consumption of bottled drinking-water increases worldwide and relevant regulation for inspection and supervision work of bottled drinking-water were established in many countries. However, regulation mentioned above is lower than that for tap water. The hygienic problems of bottled drinking-water is emphasized, especially on microbial contamination. In this paper, some issues in regards were reviewed and discussed.

  12. 27 CFR 19.354 - Bottling or packaging records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bottling or packaging records. 19.354 Section 19.354 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... for Bottling, Packaging, and Removal of Products § 19.354 Bottling or packaging records. A...

  13. Klein tunneling and Dirac potentials in trapped ions

    SciTech Connect

    Casanova, J.; Garcia-Ripoll, J. J.; Gerritsma, R.; Roos, C. F.; Solano, E.

    2010-08-15

    We propose the quantum simulation of the Dirac equation with potentials, allowing the study of relativistic scattering and Klein tunneling. This quantum relativistic effect permits a positive-energy Dirac particle to propagate through a repulsive potential via the population transfer to negative-energy components. We show how to engineer scalar, pseudoscalar, and other potentials in the 1+1 Dirac equation by manipulating two trapped ions. The Dirac spinor is represented by the internal states of one ion, while its position and momentum are described by those of a collective motional mode. The second ion is used to build the desired potentials with high spatial resolution.

  14. Flat Top & rocky terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Flat Top, the rectangular rock at lower right, is part of a stretch of rocky terrain in this image, taken by the deployed Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. Dust has accumulated on the top of Flat Top, but is not present on the sides due to the steep angles of the rock. This dust may have been placed by dust storms moving across the Martian surface. Flat Top has been studied using several different color filters on the IMP camera.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

  15. Flat Focusing Mirror

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Y. C.; Kicas, S.; Trull, J.; Peckus, M.; Cojocaru, C.; Vilaseca, R.; Drazdys, R.; Staliunas, K.

    2014-01-01

    The control of spatial propagation properties of narrow light beams such as divergence, focusing or imaging are main objectives in optics and photonics. In this letter, we propose and demonstrate experimentally a flat focusing mirror, based on an especially designed dielectric structure without any optical axis. More generally, it also enables imaging any light pattern in reflection. The flat focusing mirror with a transversal invariance can largely increase the applicability of structured photonic materials for light beam propagation control in small-dimension photonic circuits. PMID:25228358

  16. Holograms of Flat Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagchi, Arjun; Grumiller, Daniel

    2013-07-01

    The holographic principle has a concrete realization in the Anti-de Sitter/Conformal Field Theory (AdS/CFT) correspondence. If this principle is a true fact about quantum gravity then it must also hold beyond AdS/CFT. In this paper, we address specifically holographic field theory duals of gravitational theories in asymptotically flat spacetimes. We present some evidence of our recent conjecture that three-dimensional (3d) conformal Chern-Simons gravity (CSG) with flat space boundary conditions is dual to an extremal CFT.

  17. Dr. von Braun Discusses 'Bottle Suit' Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1954-01-01

    Dr. Wernher von Braun (center), then Chief of the Guided Missile Development Division at Redstone Arsenal, Alabama, discusses a 'bottle suit' model with Dr. Heinz Haber (left), an expert on aviation medicine, and Willey Ley, a science writer on rocketry and space exploration. The three men were at the Disney studios appearing in the motion picture, entitled 'Man in Space.'

  18. Some developments from the work of Melanie Klein.

    PubMed

    Spillius, E B

    1983-01-01

    This paper discusses four areas of work in which several followers of Melanie Klein in Britain have developed some of the discoveries and ideas she initiated. First, extension of her concept of projective identification is briefly described, with emphasis on Bion's and Rosenfeld's stress on its communicative as well as its pathological aspects. Second, the extension of Klein's ideas about the epistemophilic instinct, on symbolism, and about projective identification is described in the work of Segal, Bion, Money-Kyrle, and Bick on the development of the capacity to think. Third, certain developments in Kleinian technique are described, with emphasis on the use of the concept of projective identification in analysing transference, and on the analysis of acting out in the transference, a trend contributed to by many Kleinian analysts but perhaps most closely associated with Betty Joseph. Finally, continued refinements in the analysis of the death instinct are briefly described, together with discussion of the changes these refinements have led to in ideas about the organization and relations of parts of the self and internal objects.

  19. Extended Klein-Gordon action, gravity and nonrelativistic fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Hassaiene, Mokhtar

    2006-03-15

    We consider a scalar field action for which the Lagrangian density is a power of the massless Klein-Gordon Lagrangian. The coupling of gravity to this matter action is considered. In this case, we show the existence of nontrivial scalar field configurations with vanishing energy-momentum tensor on any static, spherically symmetric vacuum solutions of the Einstein equations. These configurations in spite of being coupled to gravity do not affect the curvature of space-time. The properties of this particular matter action are also analyzed. For a particular value of the exponent, the extended Klein-Gordon action is shown to exhibit a conformal invariance without requiring the introduction of a nonminimal coupling. We also establish a correspondence between this action and a nonrelativistic isentropic fluid in one fewer dimension. This fluid can be identified with the (generalized) Chaplygin gas for a particular value of the power. It is also shown that the nonrelativistic fluid admits, apart from the Galileo symmetry, an additional symmetry whose action is a rescaling of the time.

  20. Dissipative effects in nonlinear Klein-Gordon dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plastino, A. R.; Tsallis, C.

    2016-03-01

    We consider dissipation in a recently proposed nonlinear Klein-Gordon dynamics that admits exact time-dependent solutions of the power-law form e_qi(kx-wt) , involving the q-exponential function naturally arising within the nonextensive thermostatistics (e_qz \\equiv [1+(1-q)z]1/(1-q) , with e_1^z=ez ). These basic solutions behave like free particles, complying, for all values of q, with the de Broglie-Einstein relations p=\\hbar k , E=\\hbar ω and satisfying a dispersion law corresponding to the relativistic energy-momentum relation E2 = c^2p2 + m^2c4 . The dissipative effects explored here are described by an evolution equation that can be regarded as a nonlinear generalization of the celebrated telegraph equation, unifying within one single theoretical framework the nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation, a nonlinear Schrödinger equation, and the power-law diffusion (porous-media) equation. The associated dynamics exhibits physically appealing traveling solutions of the q-plane wave form with a complex frequency ω and a q-Gaussian square modulus profile.

  1. Some developments from the work of Melanie Klein.

    PubMed

    Spillius, E B

    1983-01-01

    This paper discusses four areas of work in which several followers of Melanie Klein in Britain have developed some of the discoveries and ideas she initiated. First, extension of her concept of projective identification is briefly described, with emphasis on Bion's and Rosenfeld's stress on its communicative as well as its pathological aspects. Second, the extension of Klein's ideas about the epistemophilic instinct, on symbolism, and about projective identification is described in the work of Segal, Bion, Money-Kyrle, and Bick on the development of the capacity to think. Third, certain developments in Kleinian technique are described, with emphasis on the use of the concept of projective identification in analysing transference, and on the analysis of acting out in the transference, a trend contributed to by many Kleinian analysts but perhaps most closely associated with Betty Joseph. Finally, continued refinements in the analysis of the death instinct are briefly described, together with discussion of the changes these refinements have led to in ideas about the organization and relations of parts of the self and internal objects. PMID:6194129

  2. Liquid explosive detection from outside of the bottle by NIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itozaki, Hideo; Yamauchi, Yuji

    2009-09-01

    Liquid explosives have recently been used in terrorism. Inspection of bottles has become very important, because these liquid explosives and their raw materials can be easily carried in bottles. Hydrogen peroxide is a typical raw material of liquid explosives. It was difficult to evaluate the concentration of hydrogen peroxide a bottled drink, because of the similarity of its optical properties to those of water. Using the near-infrared spectrum and multivariate statistical analysis, concentrations of a percent order of hydrogen peroxide can be evaluated from outside of the bottle instantly. Hydrogen peroxide has been detected not only in clear PET or glass bottles but also in colored glass bottles. Hydrogen peroxide mixed with soft drink such as coke or orange juice with pulp was also easily detected by this method. This technique can be applied to the inspection of bottles at airport security and so on.

  3. Is flat fair?

    SciTech Connect

    Bunzl, Martin

    2010-07-15

    Dynamic pricing holds out the promise of shifting peak demand as well as reducing overall demand. But it also raises thorny issues of fairness. All practical pricing systems involve tradeoffs between equity and efficiency. I examine the circumstances under which equity ought to be allowed to trump efficiency and whether or not this constitutes a defense of flat pricing. (author)

  4. Flat conductor cable applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angele, W.

    1972-01-01

    Some of the numerous applications of flat conductor cable (FCC) systems are briefly described. Both government and commercial uses were considered, with applications designated as either aerospace, military, or commercial. The number and variety of ways in which FCC is being applied and considered for future designs are illustrated.

  5. Multilayer flat electrical cable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silverman, P. G.

    1973-01-01

    Flat electrical cable is lightweight, flexible over wide temperature range, withstands continuous exposure to high levels of nuclear radiation, and can carry high currents with minimum of temperature rise. Its magnetic cleanliness is equal to or better than twisted pair of wires, and it can be terminated in conventional electrical connector.

  6. Health beliefs about bottled water: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Lorna A; Cain, Owen L; Mullally, Ryan A; Holliday, Kathryn S; Wernham, Aaron GH; Baillie, Paul D; Greenfield, Sheila M

    2009-01-01

    Background There has been a consistent rise in bottled water consumption over the last decade. Little is known about the health beliefs held by the general public about bottled water as this issue is not addressed by the existing quantitative literature. The purpose of this study was to improve understanding of the public's health beliefs concerning bottled mineral water, and the extent to which these beliefs and other views they hold, influence drinking habits. Methods A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews, with 23 users of the Munrow Sports Centre on the University of Birmingham campus. Results Health beliefs about bottled water could be classified as general or specific beliefs. Most participants believed that bottled water conferred general health benefits but were unsure as to the nature of these. In terms of specific health beliefs, the idea that the minerals in bottled water conferred a health benefit was the most commonly cited. There were concerns over links between the plastic bottle itself and cancer. Participants believed that bottled water has a detrimental effect on the environment. Convenience, cost and taste were influential factors when making decisions as to whether to buy bottled water; health beliefs were unimportant motivating factors. Conclusion The majority of participants believed that bottled water has some health benefits. However, these beliefs played a minor role in determining bottled water consumption and are unlikely to be helpful in explaining recent trends in bottled water consumption if generalised to the UK population. The health beliefs elicited were supported by scientific evidence to varying extents. Most participants did not feel that bottled water conferred significant, if any, health benefits over tap water. PMID:19545357

  7. COS NUV Flat Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Elena

    2011-10-01

    This program aims at obtaining COS NUV-MAMA flat-field observations for monitoring purpose only.The program uses the internal deuterium lamp and the MR grism G185M {at the central wavelengths 1835, 1850 and 1864 A}, as during thermal vacuum testing and SMOV4. The estimated SNR reached at the end of the program {13 hr integration during 10 orbits} is 20-25 per 3x3 pixel.

  8. Spray bottle apparatus with pressure multiplying pistons

    DOEpatents

    Moss, Owen R.; Gordon, Norman R.; DeFord, Henry S.

    1990-01-01

    The present invention comprises a spray bottle in which the pressure resulting from the gripping force applied by the user is amplified and this increased pressure used in generating a spray such as an aerosol or fluid stream. In its preferred embodiment, the invention includes a high pressure chamber and a corresponding piston which is operative for driving fluid out of this chamber at high pressure through a spray nozzle and a low pressure chamber and a corresponding piston which is acted upon the hydraulic pressure within the bottle resulting from the gripping force. The low pressure chamber and piston are of larger size than the high pressure chamber and piston. The pistons are rigidly connected so that the force created by the pressure acting on the piston in the low pressure chamber is transmitted to the piston in the high pressure chamber where it is applied over a more limited area thereby generating greater hydraulic pressure for use in forming the spray.

  9. Spray bottle apparatus with force multiply pistons

    DOEpatents

    Eschbach, Eugene A.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention comprises a spray bottle in which the pressure resulting from the gripping force applied by the user is amplified and this increased pressure used in generating a spray such as an aerosol or fluid stream. In its preferred embodiment, the invention includes a high pressure chamber and a corresponding piston which is operative for driving fluid out of this chamber at high pressure through a spray nozzle and a low pressure chamber and corresponding piston which is acted upon by the hydraulic pressure within the bottle resulting from the gripping force. The low pressure chamber and piston are of larger size than the high pressure chamber and piston. The pistons are rigidly connected so that the force created by the pressure acting on the piston in the low pressure chamber is transmitted to the piston in the high pressure chamber where it is applied over a more limited area thereby generating greater hydraulic pressure for use in forming the spray.

  10. Emergence of compact structures in a Klein-Gordon model.

    PubMed

    Rosenau, Philip; Kashdan, Eugene

    2010-01-22

    The Klein-Gordon model (KG) phi=P{'}(|phi|)phi/|phi| is Lorenz invariant and has a finite wave speed, yet its localized modes, whether Q balls or vortices, suffer from the same fundamental flaw as all other solitons-they extend indefinitely. Using the KG model as a case study, we demonstrate that appending the site potential, P{a}(phi|), with a subquadratic part P(|phi|)=b{2}|phi|{1+delta}+P{a}(|phi|), 0

  11. Quantum Simulation of the Klein Paradox with Trapped Ions

    SciTech Connect

    Gerritsma, R.; Lanyon, B. P.; Kirchmair, G.; Zaehringer, F.; Hempel, C.; Blatt, R.; Roos, C. F.; Casanova, J.; Garcia-Ripoll, J. J.; Solano, E.

    2011-02-11

    We report on quantum simulations of relativistic scattering dynamics using trapped ions. The simulated state of a scattering particle is encoded in both the electronic and vibrational state of an ion, representing the discrete and continuous components of relativistic wave functions. Multiple laser fields and an auxiliary ion simulate the dynamics generated by the Dirac equation in the presence of a scattering potential. Measurement and reconstruction of the particle wave packet enables a frame-by-frame visualization of the scattering processes. By precisely engineering a range of external potentials we are able to simulate text book relativistic scattering experiments and study Klein tunneling in an analogue quantum simulator. We describe extensions to solve problems that are beyond current classical computing capabilities.

  12. Long-Term Cognitive Impairment in Kleine-Levin Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Uguccioni, Ginevra; Lavault, Sophie; Chaumereuil, Charlotte; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Gagnon, Jean-François; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: In Kleine-Levin syndrome (KLS), episodes of hypersomnia, cognitive, and behavioral disturbances alternate with asymptomatic periods. Because 50% of patients report decreased academic performances, we evaluated their cognitive status during asymptomatic periods, determinants of deficits, and changes during follow-up. Methods: The cognitive assessment during asymptomatic periods in all consecutive patients with typical KLS and healthy controls included the non-verbal intelligence quotient (Raven Progressive Matrices), the Trail Making Test, the Stroop Color-Word Test, the Wechsler Memory Test, verbal fluencies, the Free and Cued Learning Memory Test, and the Rey-Osterreith Complex Figure. Cognitive status was reevaluated after 0.5 to 2 y in 44 patients. Results: At baseline, compared with the 42 controls, the 122 patients with KLS exhibited lower non-verbal intelligence quotient, speed of processing, attention, and reduced retrieval strategies in episodic memory. Higher episode frequency, shorter episode duration, shorter time since last episode, deeper sleep, and megaphagia during episodes predicted impaired memory. The visuoconstructional abilities and non-verbal memory were intact. After a mean follow-up of 1.7 ± 1.0 y, the episode frequency decreased from 4.6 ± 4.8 to 1.7 ± 1.9/y. The logical reasoning and attention improved, the processing speed remained low, and the retrieval strategies in verbal memory further worsened. Conclusions: In this field study, one-third of patients with KLS have long-term cognitive deficits affecting retrieval and processing speed. Cognitive function should be systematically tested in patients with KLS, which appears important to help patients in their academic studies. Citation: Uguccioni G, Lavault S, Chaumereuil C, Golmard JL, Gagnon JF, Arnulf I. Long-term cognitive impairment in kleine-levin syndrome. SLEEP 2016;39(2):429–438. PMID:26414895

  13. 27 CFR 27.207 - Bottles to be used for display purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bottles to be used for... Requirements for Liquor Bottles § 27.207 Bottles to be used for display purposes. Empty liquor bottles may be imported and furnished to liquor dealers for display purposes, provided each bottle is marked to show...

  14. 27 CFR 19.635 - Bottles to be used for display purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottles to be used for... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Liquor Bottle and Label Requirements Liquor Bottle Requirements § 19.635 Bottles to be used for display purposes. Liquor bottles may...

  15. 27 CFR 27.207 - Bottles to be used for display purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottles to be used for... Requirements for Liquor Bottles § 27.207 Bottles to be used for display purposes. Empty liquor bottles may be imported and furnished to liquor dealers for display purposes, provided each bottle is marked to show...

  16. Flat-plate heat pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcus, B. D.; Fleischman, G. L. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    Flat plate (vapor chamber) heat pipes were made by enclosing metal wicking between two capillary grooved flat panels. These heat pipes provide a unique configuration and have good capacity and conductance capabilities in zero gravity. When these flat plate vapor chamber heat pipes are heated or cooled, the surfaces are essentially isothermal, varying only 3 to 5 C over the panel surface.

  17. Accuracy of bottled drinking water label content.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nazeer B; Chohan, Arham N

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the accuracy of the concentration of fluoride (F), calcium (Ca), pH, and total dissolved solids (TDS) levels mentioned on the labels of the various brands of bottled drinking water available in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Twenty-one different brands of locally produced non-carbonated (still water) bottled drinking water were collected from the supermarkets of Riyadh. The concentration of F, Ca, TDS, and pH values were noted from the labels of the bottles. The samples were analyzed for concentrations in the laboratory using the atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The mean level of F, Ca, and pH were found as 0.86 ppm, 38.47 ppm, and 7.5, respectively, which were significantly higher than the mean concentration of these elements reported in the labels. Whereas, the mean TDS concentration was found 118.87 ppm, which was significantly lower than the mean reported on the labels. In tropical countries like Saudi Arabia, the appropriate level of F concentration in drinking water as recommended by World Health Organization (WHO) should be 0.6-0.7 ppm. Since the level of F was found to be significantly higher than the WHO recommended level, the children exposed to this level could develop objectionable fluorosis. The other findings, like pH value, concentrations of Ca, and TDS, were in the range recommended by the WHO and Saudi standard limits and therefore should have no obvious significant health implications.

  18. Vicious circles of punishment: a reading of Melanie Klein's Envy and gratitude.

    PubMed

    Smith, Henry F

    2008-01-01

    Staged as a moral drama, Melanie Klein's Envy and Gratitude (1957) straddles two eras: one reflecting a simpler more concrete, historical method, and the other an approach of greater complexity, focused on the transferential moment. Embedded within the transference are the vicious circles of envy and punishment that are the hallmark of Klein's text. Punishment itself which is always punishment of both self and other, creates its own vicious circle, set in motion by a single act. In the sadomasochistic enactments that result, the moral force of Klein's categories fuels the countertransference. A detailed clinical hour is presented.

  19. Relativistic quantum effects of confining potentials on the Klein-Gordon oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitória, R. L. L.; Bakke, K.

    2016-02-01

    The behaviour of the Klein-Gordon oscillator under the influence of linear and Coulomb-type potentials is investigated. The introduction of the scalar potentials is made by modifying the mass term of the Klein-Gordon equation, then, by searching for relativistic bound states, a particular quantum effect can be observed: a dependence of the angular frequency of the Klein-Gordon oscillator on the quantum numbers associated with the radial modes and the angular momentum. As an example, we analyse the angular frequency and the energy level associated with the ground state of the relativistic system.

  20. Hawking radiation from squashed Kaluza-Klein black holes: A window to extra dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Ishihara, Hideki; Soda, Jiro

    2007-09-15

    We explore the observability of extra dimensions through five-dimensional squashed Kaluza-Klein black holes residing in the Kaluza-Klein spacetime. With the expectation that the Hawking radiation reflects the five-dimensional nature of the squashed horizon, we study the Hawking radiation of a scalar field in the squashed black hole background. As a result, we show that the luminosity of Hawking radiation tells us the size of the extra dimension, namely, the squashed Kaluza-Klein black holes open a window to extra dimensions.

  1. Results of acoustic emission tests on Halon fire bottles

    SciTech Connect

    Beattie, A.G.; Shurtleff, W.W.

    1996-10-01

    An acoustic emission tester for aircraft Halon bottles has been developed. The necessary load is applied by heating the bottles. Acoustic emission is monitored during the heating by six sensors held in position by a special fixture. This fixture was designed to fit spheres with diameters between 5 and 16 inches. A prototype has been undergoing testing in two commercial Halon bottle repair and test facilities. Results to date indicate that about 97 percent of the bottles tested show no indications of any flaws. The other three percent have had indications of flaws in non-critical areas of the bottles. All bottles tested to date have passed the hydrostatic test required by the Department of Transportation (DOT).

  2. Flat conductor cable commercialization project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogarth, P.; Wadsworth, E.

    1977-01-01

    An undercarpet flat conductor cable and a baseboard flat conductor cable system were studied for commercialization. The undercarpet system is designed for use in office and commercial buildings. It employs a flat power cable, protected by a grounded metal shield, that terminates in receptacles mounted on the floor. It is designed to interface with a flat conductor cable telephone system. The baseboard system consists of a flat power cable mounted in a plastic raceway; both the raceway and the receptacles are mounted on the surface of the baseboard. It is designed primarily for use in residential buildings, particularly for renovation and concrete and masonry construction.

  3. 21 CFR 880.6085 - Hot/cold water bottle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hot/cold water bottle. 880.6085 Section 880.6085... Devices § 880.6085 Hot/cold water bottle. (a) Identification. A hot/cold water bottle is a device intended for medical purposes that is in the form of a container intended to be filled with hot or cold...

  4. 21 CFR 880.6085 - Hot/cold water bottle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hot/cold water bottle. 880.6085 Section 880.6085... Devices § 880.6085 Hot/cold water bottle. (a) Identification. A hot/cold water bottle is a device intended for medical purposes that is in the form of a container intended to be filled with hot or cold...

  5. 21 CFR 880.6085 - Hot/cold water bottle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hot/cold water bottle. 880.6085 Section 880.6085... Devices § 880.6085 Hot/cold water bottle. (a) Identification. A hot/cold water bottle is a device intended for medical purposes that is in the form of a container intended to be filled with hot or cold...

  6. Monolithic torpedo bottle lining at Weirton Steel Corporation

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, R.; Griffith, E.

    1996-12-31

    In late 1992 and early 1993 Weirton Steel burned through three torpedo bottles in a three-month period. To determine the cause of the burn throughs, a thorough review of bottle maintenance practices was initiated. Upon identification of contributing factors, changes in operating practices were made. In an effort to increase bottle reliability, lining trials were initiated. Among the trials, a monolithic lining was installed and this paper will discuss results of the lining to date.

  7. 21 CFR 880.6085 - Hot/cold water bottle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hot/cold water bottle. 880.6085 Section 880.6085... Devices § 880.6085 Hot/cold water bottle. (a) Identification. A hot/cold water bottle is a device intended for medical purposes that is in the form of a container intended to be filled with hot or cold...

  8. Using NMR to study full intact wine bottles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weekley, A. J.; Bruins, P.; Sisto, M.; Augustine, M. P.

    2003-03-01

    A nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) probe and spectrometer capable of investigating full intact wine bottles is described and used to study a series of Cabernet Sauvignons with high resolution 1H NMR spectroscopy. Selected examples of full bottle 13C NMR spectra are also provided. The application of this full bottle NMR method to the measurement of acetic acid content, the detection of complex sugars, phenols, and trace elements in wine is discussed.

  9. 21 CFR 880.6085 - Hot/cold water bottle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hot/cold water bottle. 880.6085 Section 880.6085... Devices § 880.6085 Hot/cold water bottle. (a) Identification. A hot/cold water bottle is a device intended for medical purposes that is in the form of a container intended to be filled with hot or cold...

  10. Novel fiber bottle microresonator add-drop filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthil Murugan, Ganapathy; Wilkinson, James S.; Zervas, Michalis N.

    2010-02-01

    Novel bottle microresonators fabricated from standard telecommunications optical fiber were recently shown to support helical whispering gallery modes (WGMs) extending along the bottle length between the bottle necks. Intensity maxima were observed around the turning points on both sides close to the bottle necks where the WGMs are effectively reflected. Selective excitation on one side of the bottle microresonator leads to strong power localization at a symmetrically located turning point for the WGMs and can potentially be exploited to form effective add-drop filters. Channel dropping characteristics have been studied experimentally for the first time in this novel type of microresonator. A tapered optical fiber (drawn down to 2-3 microns in diameter with effective index of approximately 1.2) was placed on one side of the bottle to excite the bottle WGMs. A similar tapered fiber placed symmetrically on the other side of the bottle acted as a probe to extract the excited modes. We have successfully extracted power from all the resonance wavelengths using the probe placed at appropriate positions along the bottle, leading to the potential to construct efficient all fiber add-drop filters.

  11. Helium bottle pressure measurement by portable ultrasonic technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Alden

    1989-02-01

    The report details the application of a portable ultrasonic method to accurately check the pressure in a helium bottle. The subject helium bottle provides an initial launch boost to the Short Range Attack Missile's (SRAM-A, or AGM-69A) hydraulic flight control system. The method described would apply to any pressure vessel, with minor variations from those procedures and equipment detailed in the report. A series of tests was conducted at the Boeing Aerospace facility in Kent, Washington on a SRAM-A helium gas bottle, to determine the feasibility of measuring gas pressure within the helium bottle by ultrasonic technique. The method, based on measurement of the speed of ultrasonic waves transmitted through a medium at constant pressure and temperature, provides the ability to determine bottle pressure without the necessity of removing the bottle from the missile. This bottle had previously been used for pressurizing the Flight Control Actuation System. The ultrasonic waves were introduced into the bottle by a transducer attached to one side of the gas bottle and received by a transducer attached 180 directly opposite the input transducer. The amplitude of the ultrasonic signal decreased with decreasing pressure, proving that the method was feasible.

  12. 77 FR 25721 - Small Entity Compliance Guide: Bottled Water: Quality Standard: Establishing an Allowable Level...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Small Entity Compliance Guide: Bottled Water: Quality... availability of a guidance for industry entitled ``Bottled Water: Quality Standard: Establishing an Allowable... its bottled water standard of quality regulations by establishing an allowable level for...

  13. On the statistical properties of Klein polyhedra in three-dimensional lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Illarionov, A A

    2013-06-30

    We obtain asymptotic formulae for the average values of the number of faces of a fixed type and of vertices of Klein polyhedra of three-dimensional integer lattices with a given determinant. Bibliography: 20 titles.

  14. ["Is it an animal inside? "Melanie Klein's unpublished Don Juan Paper (1939)].

    PubMed

    Frank, Claudia

    2008-01-01

    Klein had been asked to contribute an article to the birthday number of the International Journal for Jones. The author outlines how she hurriedly wrote a text about Don Juan which, however, was rejected by the editor. Essential parts of it are presented in German translation. The manuscript is discussed in the context of Klein's published work as well as of the relevant contemporary literature. In Klein's view, Don Juan's genitality is determined by oral impulses and fears. By his manic acting out he attempts to ward off a depressive break-down. The paper ends with some reflections about why Klein--ontrary to her intention--failed to revise her manuscript for later publication.

  15. Spacetimes with a separable Klein-Gordon equation in higher dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolář, Ivan; Krtouš, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    We study spacetimes that lead to a separable Klein-Gordon equation in a general number of dimensions. We introduce an ansatz for the metric in higher dimensions motivated by analogical work by Carter in four dimensions and find solutions of the Klein-Gordon equation. For such a metric we solve the Einstein equations and regain the Kerr-NUT-(A)dS spacetime as one of our results. Other solutions lead to the Einstein-Kähler metric of a Euclidean signature. Next we investigate a warped geometry of two Klein-Gordon separable spaces with a properly chosen warped factor. We show that the resulting metric leads also to a separable Klein-Gordon equation and we find the corresponding solutions. Finally, we solve the Einstein equations for the warped geometry and obtain new solutions.

  16. ["Is it an animal inside? "Melanie Klein's unpublished Don Juan Paper (1939)].

    PubMed

    Frank, Claudia

    2008-01-01

    Klein had been asked to contribute an article to the birthday number of the International Journal for Jones. The author outlines how she hurriedly wrote a text about Don Juan which, however, was rejected by the editor. Essential parts of it are presented in German translation. The manuscript is discussed in the context of Klein's published work as well as of the relevant contemporary literature. In Klein's view, Don Juan's genitality is determined by oral impulses and fears. By his manic acting out he attempts to ward off a depressive break-down. The paper ends with some reflections about why Klein--ontrary to her intention--failed to revise her manuscript for later publication. PMID:19230330

  17. Wedge and Flat Top

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Flat Top, the rectangular rock at right, is part of a stretch of rocky terrain in this image, taken by the deployed Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. Dust has accumulated on the top of Flat Top, but is not present on the sides due to the steep angles of the rock. This dust may have been placed by dust storms moving across the Martian surface. The rock dubbed 'Wedge' is at left. The objects have been studied using several different color filters on the IMP camera.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  18. Kleine-Levin syndrome in a 14-year-old girl: CSF hypocretin-1 measurements.

    PubMed

    Podestá, Claudio; Ferreras, Mónica; Mozzi, Marcela; Bassetti, Claudio; Dauvilliers, Yves; Billiard, Michel

    2006-12-01

    CSF hypocretin-1 measurements were performed during a period of hypersomnia and during an asymptomatic interval in a 14-year-old girl affected with severe Kleine-Levin syndrome. A twofold decrease in hypocretin-1 was evidenced during the period of hypersomnia in comparison with the asymptomatic interval. Together with previous data, this result is in favour of recurrent dysfunction at the hypothalamic level in Kleine-Levin syndrome.

  19. Cayley-Klein parameters and evolution of two- and three-level systems and squeezed states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dattoli, G.; Torre, A.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper the time behavior of quantum states ruled by Hamiltonians linear in the SU(2), SU(1,1), and SU(3) generators in terms of the Cayley-Klein parameters, originally introduced in classical mechanics is analyzed. Also pointed out is the link between the Cayley-Klein parameters and the Wei-Norman ordering functions, exploited in the context of the Schrödinger representation.

  20. Klein Paradox for the Bosonic Equation in the Presence of Minimal Length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falek, M.; Merad, M.; Moumni, M.

    2015-05-01

    We present an exact solution of the one-dimensional modified Klein Gordon and Duffin Kemmer Petiau (for spins 0 and 1) equations with a step potential in the presence of minimal length in the uncertainty relation, where the expressions of the new transmission and reflection coefficients are determined for all cases. As an application, the Klein paradox in the presence of minimal length is discussed for all equations.

  1. A New Point of View on General Kaluza-Klein Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bejancu, A.

    2012-09-01

    The general Kaluza-Klein theories are physical theories in which both the ``cylinder condition" and the ``compactification condition" from the classical Kaluza-Klein theory are not necessarily satisfied. Our study is developed on a general Kaluza-Klein space (overline{M} = M × K,bar{g})}, whose tangent bundle T overline{M} splits into horizontal and vertical distributions H overline{M} and V overline{M}, respectively. The main tool in our new point of view is what we call the Riemannian horizontal connection nabla on H overline{M}, which plays in a general Kaluza-Klein theory, the same role as the Levi-Civita connection on the spacetime M in the classical Kaluza-Klein theory. This connection enables us to classify the geodesics of (overline{M},bar{g}), to define the horizontal Einstein gravitational tensor field, and to write down in a covariant form, the field equations on (overline{M},bar{g}) In particular, we apply the study to both the theory of Einstein-Bergmann spaces and the theory of general Kaluza-Klein spaces with bundle-like metric.

  2. Treatment of nursing bottle caries with ribbond.

    PubMed

    Jindal, Ritu; Brar, Gurlal Singh

    2013-01-01

    Ribbond is a biocompatible, esthetic material made from high-strength polyethylene fiber. Lenowoven polyethylene ribbon (Ribbond) has been used successfully for tooth splinting, replacement of missing teeth, reinforcement of provisional acrylic resin fixed partial dentures, and orthodontic retention. This article presents the application of this polyethylene ribbon - RIBBOND - for the treatment of nursing bottle caries. To conclude we suggest that this combined technique of polyethylene fibers and composite material could be a very efficient alternative procedure to conventional treatment plans in pedodontic practice, with excellent esthetics and functional results.

  3. Bottle bill loses, nuclear power gains

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-11-01

    The November 3, 1987 elections saw a number of environmental-related referenda defeated for what was seen as economic reasons. Maine voters decided 59 to 41 percent against a proposal which would have closed down the Maine Yankee Nuclear Power Plant. In the District of Columbia, a litter reducing bill that would have required a 5 to 20 cent deposit on cans and bottles was defeated by 55 to 45 percent. Finally, in California, Indian Wells voters supported a project to build a one billion dollar resort in the nearby desert.

  4. Portable NIR bottled liquid explosive detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itozaki, Hideo; Ono, Masaki; Ito, Shiori; Uekawa, Keisuke; Miyato, Yuji; Sato-Akaba, Hideo

    2016-05-01

    A near infrared bottled liquid scanner has been developed for security check at airports for anti-terrorism. A compact handheld liquid scanner has been developed using an LED as a light source, instead of a halogen lamp. An LED has much smaller size, longer life time and lower power consumption than those of the lamp. However, it has narrower wave band. Here, we tried to use LEDs to scan liquids and showed the possibility that LEDs can be used as a light source of liquid detector.

  5. Orbital myiasis caused by green bottle fly.

    PubMed

    Misra, Neeta; Gogri, Pratik; Misra, Somen; Singh, Anil; Ingale, Ashish

    2013-01-01

    An 80-year-old farmer, presented with large, maggot infested ulceration involving the medial part of the right upper lid. The left eye was phthisical. There was history of untreated traumatic laceration of the right upper lid. Mechanical removal of maggots was done under turpentine coverage with regular antibiotic dressing. Microbiological examination of maggots revealed the larvae to be of Lucilia sericata (green bottle fly). The ulceration completely healed in two weeks following manual removal of maggots and regular dressing. Orbital myiasis is an uncommon clinical condition, with isolated case reports in literature.

  6. Filling or Draining a Water Bottle with Two Holes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Rod

    2016-01-01

    Three simple experiments are described using a small water bottle with two holes in the side of the bottle. The main challenge is to predict and then explain the observations, but the arrangements can also be used for quantitative measurements concerning hydrostatic pressure, Bernoulli's equation, surface tension and bubble formation.

  7. 27 CFR 25.158 - Tax computation for bottled beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... bottled beer. 25.158 Section 25.158 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.158 Tax computation for bottled beer. Barrel equivalents for various case sizes are as follows: (a) For U.S....

  8. 27 CFR 19.565 - Shortages of bottled distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shortages of bottled distilled spirits. 19.565 Section 19.565 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Losses and Shortages Shortages § 19.565 Shortages of bottled...

  9. 27 CFR 25.158 - Tax computation for bottled beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... bottled beer. 25.158 Section 25.158 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.158 Tax computation for bottled beer. Barrel equivalents for various case sizes are as follows: (a) For U.S....

  10. 27 CFR 25.158 - Tax computation for bottled beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... bottled beer. 25.158 Section 25.158 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.158 Tax computation for bottled beer. Barrel equivalents for various case sizes are as follows: (a) For U.S....

  11. 27 CFR 25.158 - Tax computation for bottled beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... bottled beer. 25.158 Section 25.158 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.158 Tax computation for bottled beer. Barrel equivalents for various case sizes are as follows: (a) For U.S....

  12. "Bottled or Tap?" A Controversy for Science, Economics, and Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapham, Steven S.

    2009-01-01

    Every year, Americans spend billions of dollars on bottled water. They purchase a bottle from the vending machine or buy a case at the grocery, no longer considering the water that's freely available from their taps. As consumers and as citizens, however, Americans should pause to study the personal and public consequences of this choice. In this…

  13. Filling or draining a water bottle with two holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Rod

    2016-07-01

    Three simple experiments are described using a small water bottle with two holes in the side of the bottle. The main challenge is to predict and then explain the observations, but the arrangements can also be used for quantitative measurements concerning hydrostatic pressure, Bernoulli’s equation, surface tension and bubble formation.

  14. 21 CFR 1250.42 - Water systems; constant temperature bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and protected as to minimize the hazard of contamination of the water supply. (c) On all new or... at all times as to prevent contamination of the water. (e) Constant temperature bottles and other... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water systems; constant temperature bottles....

  15. 21 CFR 1250.42 - Water systems; constant temperature bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and protected as to minimize the hazard of contamination of the water supply. (c) On all new or... at all times as to prevent contamination of the water. (e) Constant temperature bottles and other... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Water systems; constant temperature bottles....

  16. What about the Bottle? Answers to Common Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Valerie

    2001-01-01

    Acknowledges the large amount of confusing information about bottle feeding in areas including nutrition, sanitation, dental health, psychology, and child development. Answers specific questions pertaining to choice of formula and formula preparation, supporting breastfeeding, bottle choice, solid food introduction, feeding position, spitting up,…

  17. Heat Transfer in Glass, Aluminum, and Plastic Beverage Bottles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, William M.; Shevlin, Ryan C.; Soffen, Tanya S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses a controversy regarding the effect of bottle material on the thermal performance of beverage bottles. Experiments and calculations that verify or refute advertising claims and represent an interesting way to teach heat transfer fundamentals are described. Heat transfer coefficients and the resistance to heat transfer offered…

  18. 27 CFR 28.102 - Bottles to have closures affixed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bottles to have closures affixed. 28.102 Section 28.102 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Transportation to a Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse § 28.102 Bottles to have closures affixed. Every...

  19. 27 CFR 25.158 - Tax computation for bottled beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... bottled beer. 25.158 Section 25.158 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.158 Tax computation for bottled beer. Barrel equivalents for various case sizes are as follows: (a) For U.S....

  20. Improvements to the Whoosh Bottle Rocket Car Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Dean J.; Staiger, Felicia A.; Jujjavarapu, Chaitanya N.

    2015-01-01

    The whoosh bottle rocket car has been redesigned to be more reusable and more robust, making it even easier to use as a demonstration. Enhancements of this demonstration, including the use of heat sensitive ink and electronic temperature probes, enable users to find warmer and cooler regions on the surface of the whoosh bottle.

  1. 27 CFR 31.202 - Possession of refilled liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Possession of refilled... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Reuse and Possession of Used Liquor Bottles § 31.202 Possession of refilled liquor bottles. No person who sells, or offers for...

  2. Ashcroft Pressure Switch Monitor for Low SCHe Supply Bottle Pressure

    SciTech Connect

    VAN KATWIJK, C.

    2000-06-21

    These pressure switches are located in the SCHe helium supply lines at the pressure bottles and upstream of the PRV. The switches monitor the SCHe supply bottle pressure and are set to alarm at 2200 psig. There is one switch for each SCHe supply (4). Electronic output signal is NON-SAFETY (GS).

  3. Aschroft Pressure Switch Monitor for Low SCHe Supply Bottle Pressure

    SciTech Connect

    VAN KATWIJK, C.

    2000-09-03

    These pressure switches are located in the SCHe helium supply lines at the pressure bottles and upstream of the PRV. The switches monitor the SCHe supply bottle pressure and are set to alarm at 2200 psig. There is one switch for each SCHe supply (4). Electronic output signal is NON-SAFETY (GS).

  4. Engineering Study of 500 ML Sample Bottle Transportation Methods

    SciTech Connect

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-08-25

    This engineering study reviews and evaluates all available methods for transportation of 500-mL grab sample bottles, reviews and evaluates transportation requirements and schedules and analyzes and recommends the most cost-effective method for transporting 500-mL grab sample bottles.

  5. 27 CFR 24.255 - Bottling or packing wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... need not be labeled, but, if labeled, need not show an accurate statement of net contents. (c) Tax tolerance. The net contents of bottles or other containers of untaxpaid wine in the same tax class filled... test records, shall not vary by more than 0.5 percent from the net contents as stated on the bottles...

  6. 27 CFR 24.255 - Bottling or packing wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bottling or packing wine. 24.255 Section 24.255 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine Bottling, Packing,...

  7. 27 CFR 19.353 - Bottling tank gauge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bottling tank gauge. 19.353 Section 19.353 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU..., or other treatment, and before bottling or packaging begins. The gauge must be made at labeling...

  8. 27 CFR 24.255 - Bottling or packing wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottling or packing wine. 24.255 Section 24.255 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine Bottling, Packing,...

  9. 27 CFR 5.41 - Bottle cartons, booklets and leaflets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...), or any written, printed, graphic, or other matter accompanying the bottle to the consumer buyer shall not contain any statement, design, device, or graphic, pictorial, or emblematic representation that is... (other than a shipping container) is so designed that the bottle is readily removable, it may display...

  10. 27 CFR 5.41 - Bottle cartons, booklets and leaflets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...), or any written, printed, graphic, or other matter accompanying the bottle to the consumer buyer shall not contain any statement, design, device, or graphic, pictorial, or emblematic representation that is... (other than a shipping container) is so designed that the bottle is readily removable, it may display...

  11. 27 CFR 5.41 - Bottle cartons, booklets and leaflets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...), or any written, printed, graphic, or other matter accompanying the bottle to the consumer buyer shall not contain any statement, design, device, or graphic, pictorial, or emblematic representation that is... (other than a shipping container) is so designed that the bottle is readily removable, it may display...

  12. Melanie Klein in Buenos Aires: beginnings and developments.

    PubMed

    Etchegoyen, R Horacio; Zysman, Samuel

    2005-06-01

    In the first decades of the 20th century, Freud was known and quoted in Latin America by an elite of enlightened minds. In the 1940s a convergence took place in Buenos Aires of European exiles with local pioneers, and thus the Argentine Psychoanalytical Association was founded in 1942. Since then psychoanalysis has grown steadily and has spread into hospitals and universities, influencing culture at large. The socioeconomic situation of that time permitted this phenomenon to develop, to the astonishment of observers. In this paper the authors study the strong influence of Kleinian thought during the first 30 years of this development. The original works of local thinkers constitute the intellectual capital that sustains the idea of an 'Argentine psychoanalytic school'. During the 1970s, both society and psychoanalysis endured deep and complex changes. Lacan's teachings gained support and Klein's influence began to decline. At present the Buenos Aires Kleinians keep working, while their relationship with Lacanians and other schools is calmer. Respectful discussions became thus possible, oriented to strictly scientific differences.

  13. The abundance of Kaluza-Klein dark matter with coannihilation

    SciTech Connect

    Burnell, Fiona; Kribs, Graham D.

    2006-01-01

    In universal extra dimension models, the lightest Kaluza-Klein (KK) particle is generically the first KK excitation of the photon and can be stable, serving as particle dark matter. We calculate the thermal relic abundance of the KK photon for a general mass spectrum of KK excitations including full coannihilation effects with all (level-one) KK excitations. We find that including coannihilation can significantly change the relic abundance when the coannihilating particles are within about 20% of the mass of the KK photon. Matching the relic abundance with cosmological data, we find the mass range of the KK photon is much wider than previously found, up to about 2 TeV if the masses of the strongly interacting level-one KK particles are within 5% of the mass of the KK photon. We also find cases where several coannihilation channels compete (constructively and destructively) with one another. The lower bound on the KK photon mass, about 540 GeV when just right-handed KK leptons coannihilate with the KK photon, relaxes upward by several hundred GeV when coannihilation with electroweak KK gauge bosons of the same mass is included.

  14. Melanie Klein in Buenos Aires: beginnings and developments.

    PubMed

    Etchegoyen, R Horacio; Zysman, Samuel

    2005-06-01

    In the first decades of the 20th century, Freud was known and quoted in Latin America by an elite of enlightened minds. In the 1940s a convergence took place in Buenos Aires of European exiles with local pioneers, and thus the Argentine Psychoanalytical Association was founded in 1942. Since then psychoanalysis has grown steadily and has spread into hospitals and universities, influencing culture at large. The socioeconomic situation of that time permitted this phenomenon to develop, to the astonishment of observers. In this paper the authors study the strong influence of Kleinian thought during the first 30 years of this development. The original works of local thinkers constitute the intellectual capital that sustains the idea of an 'Argentine psychoanalytic school'. During the 1970s, both society and psychoanalysis endured deep and complex changes. Lacan's teachings gained support and Klein's influence began to decline. At present the Buenos Aires Kleinians keep working, while their relationship with Lacanians and other schools is calmer. Respectful discussions became thus possible, oriented to strictly scientific differences. PMID:16096079

  15. Is classical flat Kasner spacetime flat in quantum gravity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Parampreet

    2016-05-01

    Quantum nature of classical flat Kasner spacetime is studied using effective spacetime description in loop quantum cosmology (LQC). We find that even though the spacetime curvature vanishes at the classical level, nontrivial quantum gravitational effects can arise. For the standard loop quantization of Bianchi-I spacetime, which uniquely yields universal bounds on expansion and shear scalars and results in a generic resolution of strong singularities, we find that a flat Kasner metric is not a physical solution of the effective spacetime description, except in a limit. The lack of a flat Kasner metric at the quantum level results from a novel feature of the loop quantum Bianchi-I spacetime: quantum geometry induces nonvanishing spacetime curvature components, making it not Ricci flat even when no matter is present. The noncurvature singularity of the classical flat Kasner spacetime is avoided, and the effective spacetime transits from a flat Kasner spacetime in asymptotic future, to a Minkowski spacetime in asymptotic past. Interestingly, for an alternate loop quantization which does not share some of the fine features of the standard quantization, flat Kasner spacetime with expected classical features exists. In this case, even with nontrivial quantum geometric effects, the spacetime curvature vanishes. These examples show that the character of even a flat classical vacuum spacetime can alter in a fundamental way in quantum gravity and is sensitive to the quantization procedure.

  16. Squeeze bottle apparatus with force multiplying pistons

    DOEpatents

    Moss, Owen R.; Gordon, Norman R.; DeFord, Henry S.; Eschbach, Eugene A.

    1994-01-01

    The present invention comprises a spray bottle in which the pressure resulting from the gripping force applied by the user is amplified and this increased pressure used in generating a spray such as an aerosol or fluid stream. In its preferred embodiment, the invention includes a high pressure chamber and a corresponding piston which is operative for driving fluid out of this chamber at high pressure through a spray nozzle and a low pressure chamber, and a corresponding piston which is acted upon by the hydraulic pressure within the bottle resulting from the gripping force. The low pressure chamber and piston are of larger size than the high pressure chamber and piston. The pistons are rigidly connected so that the force created by the pressure acting on the piston in the low pressure chamber is transmitted to the piston in the high pressure chamber where it is applied over a more limited area, thereby generating greater hydraulic pressure for use in forming the spray.

  17. Screening sealed bottles for liquid explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sankaran; McMichael, W. Casey; Kim, Y.-W.; Sheldon, Alan G.; Magnuson, Erik E.; Ficke, L.; Chhoa, T. K.; Moeller, C. R.; Barrall, Geoffrey A.; Burnett, Lowell J.; Czipott, Peter V.; Pence, J. S.; Skvoretz, David C.

    1997-01-01

    A particularly disturbing development affecting transportation safety and security is the increasing use of terrorist devices which avoid detection by conventional means through the use of liquid explosives and flammables. The hazardous materials are generally hidden in wine or liquor bottles that cannot be opened routinely for inspection. This problem was highlighted by the liquid explosives threat which disrupted air traffic between the US an the Far East for an extended period in 1995. Quantum Magnetics has developed a Liquid Explosives Screening systems capable of scanning unopened bottles for liquid explosives. The system can be operated to detect specific explosives directly or to verify the labeled or bar-coded contents of the container. In this system, magnetic resonance (MR) is used to interrogate the liquid. MR produces an extremely rich data set and many characteristics of the MR response can be determined simultaneously. As a result, multiple MR signatures can be defined for any given set of liquids, and the signature complexity then selected according to the level of threat. The Quantum Magnetics Liquid Explosives Screening System is currently operational. Following extensive laboratory testing, a field trial of the system was carried out at the Los Angeles International Airport.

  18. Computer Simulations of Bottle Brushes: From Melts to Soft Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Zhen; Carrillo, Jan-Michael Y.; Sheiko, Sergei S.; Dobrynin, Andrey V.

    2015-07-13

    We use a combination of Molecular dynamics simulations and analytical calculations, and study dens bottle-brush systems in a melt and network State. Analysis of our simulation results shows that bottle-brush macromolecules in melt behave as ideal chains with effective Kuhn length bK. Simulations show that the bottle-brush-induced bending rigidity is due to an entropy decrease caused by redistribution of the side chains upon backbone bending. The Kuhn length of the bottle:brushes increases with increasing the side-chain degree of polymerization nsc as bK proportional to nsc0.46. Moreover, this model of bottle brush macromolecules is extended to describe mechanical properties of bottle brush networks in linear and nonlinear deformation regimes. In the linear deformation regime, the network shear modulus scales with the degree of polymerization of the side chains as G0 proportional to (nsc + 1)-1 as long as the ratio of the Kuhn length, bK, to the size of the fully extended bottle-brush backbone between cross-links, R-max, is smaller than unity, bK/Rmax << 1. Bottle-brush networks With bK/Rmax proportional to 1 demonstrate behavior similar to that of networks Of semiflexible chains with G0 proportional to nsc-0.5. Finally, in the nonlinear network deformation regime, the deformation-dependent shear modulus is a universal function of the first strain invariant I1 and bottle-brush backbone deformation ratio beta describing stretching ability of the bottle-brush backbone between cross-links.

  19. SDO FlatSat Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amason, David L.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) is to understand and, ideally, predict the solar variations that influence life and society. It's instruments will measure the properties of the Sun and will take hifh definition images of the Sun every few seconds, all day every day. The FlatSat is a high fidelity electrical and functional representation of the SDO spacecraft bus. It is a high fidelity test bed for Integration & Test (I & T), flight software, and flight operations. For I & T purposes FlatSat will be a driver to development and dry run electrical integration procedures, STOL test procedures, page displays, and the command and telemetry database. FlatSat will also serve as a platform for flight software acceptance and systems testing for the flight software system component including the spacecraft main processors, power supply electronics, attitude control electronic, gimbal control electrons and the S-band communications card. FlatSat will also benefit the flight operations team through post-launch flight software code and table update development and verification and verification of new and updated flight operations products. This document highlights the benefits of FlatSat; describes the building of FlatSat; provides FlatSat facility requirements, access roles and responsibilities; and, and discusses FlatSat mechanical and electrical integration and functional testing.

  20. Absolute calibration of optical flats

    DOEpatents

    Sommargren, Gary E.

    2005-04-05

    The invention uses the phase shifting diffraction interferometer (PSDI) to provide a true point-by-point measurement of absolute flatness over the surface of optical flats. Beams exiting the fiber optics in a PSDI have perfect spherical wavefronts. The measurement beam is reflected from the optical flat and passed through an auxiliary optic to then be combined with the reference beam on a CCD. The combined beams include phase errors due to both the optic under test and the auxiliary optic. Standard phase extraction algorithms are used to calculate this combined phase error. The optical flat is then removed from the system and the measurement fiber is moved to recombine the two beams. The newly combined beams include only the phase errors due to the auxiliary optic. When the second phase measurement is subtracted from the first phase measurement, the absolute phase error of the optical flat is obtained.

  1. Microgap flat panel display

    DOEpatents

    Wuest, Craig R.

    1998-01-01

    A microgap flat panel display which includes a thin gas-filled display tube that utilizes switched X-Y "pixel" strips to trigger electron avalanches and activate a phosphor at a given location on a display screen. The panel utilizes the principal of electron multiplication in a gas subjected to a high electric field to provide sufficient electron current to activate standard luminescent phosphors located on an anode. The X-Y conductive strips of a few micron widths may for example, be deposited on opposite sides of a thin insulating substrate, or on one side of the adjacent substrates and function as a cathode. The X-Y strips are separated from the anode by a gap filled with a suitable gas. Electrical bias is selectively switched onto X and Y strips to activate a "pixel" in the region where these strips overlap. A small amount of a long-lived radioisotope is used to initiate an electron avalanche in the overlap region when bias is applied. The avalanche travels through the gas filled gap and activates a luminescent phosphor of a selected color. The bias is adjusted to give a proportional electron multiplication to control brightness for given pixel.

  2. Microgap flat panel display

    DOEpatents

    Wuest, C.R.

    1998-12-08

    A microgap flat panel display is disclosed which includes a thin gas-filled display tube that utilizes switched X-Y ``pixel`` strips to trigger electron avalanches and activate a phosphor at a given location on a display screen. The panel utilizes the principal of electron multiplication in a gas subjected to a high electric field to provide sufficient electron current to activate standard luminescent phosphors located on an anode. The X-Y conductive strips of a few micron widths may for example, be deposited on opposite sides of a thin insulating substrate, or on one side of the adjacent substrates and function as a cathode. The X-Y strips are separated from the anode by a gap filled with a suitable gas. Electrical bias is selectively switched onto X and Y strips to activate a ``pixel`` in the region where these strips overlap. A small amount of a long-lived radioisotope is used to initiate an electron avalanche in the overlap region when bias is applied. The avalanche travels through the gas filled gap and activates a luminescent phosphor of a selected color. The bias is adjusted to give a proportional electron multiplication to control brightness for given pixel. 6 figs.

  3. Fluoride Content of Bottled Drinking Water in Chennai, Tamilnadu

    PubMed Central

    Ravi, Karunya; Rajapandian, K.; Gurunathan, Deepa

    2015-01-01

    Context The optimum level of fluoride in drinking water is 0.7 to 1.2 ppm. Decreased fluoride concentration leads to increased risk of caries and increased concentration can lead to dental or skeletal fluorosis. One crore liters of water is supplied to Chennai and surrounding areas through pouches and bottles which carters about one third of city population. Aim The aim of this study is to determine the fluoride concentration in top 10 bottled waters in Chennai and to check the accuracy of their labelling. Materials and Methods Top selling bottled waters, 6 multinational and 4 Non- multinational brands were selected for the study. Three different batches of each brand were purchased. The labels of the bottled were removed after collecting the details regarding fluoride content. All the bottles were numbered and sent for fluoride content analysis using SPADNS calorimetric method. Results All the brands and batches which were analysed for the study had less than optimal fluoride content and there is a significant variation in fluoride concentration of each brand and among different batches of same brand bottled waters. The range of fluoride level in tested samples was between 0.27 to 0.59. Only one brand’s label had information regarding the fluoride content. Conclusion Standardization of fluoride levels in bottled waters and labelling of fluoride content should become mandatory. PMID:26557612

  4. Melanie Klein and Repression: an examination of some unpublished Notes of 1934.

    PubMed

    Hinshelwood, R D

    2006-01-01

    Fifteen pages of unpublished Notes were found in the Melanie Klein Archives dating from early 1934, a crucial moment in Klein's development. She was at this time, 1934, moving away from child analysis, whilst also rethinking and revising her allegiance to Karl Abraham's theory of the phases of libidinal development. These Notes, entitled "Early Repression Mechanism," show Klein struggling to develop what became her characteristic theories of the depressive position and the paranoid-schizoid position. Although these Notes are precursors of the paper Klein gave later to the IPA Congress in 1934, they also show the origins of the emphasis she and her followers eventually gave to "splitting" rather than repression. The Notes give us an insight into the way that she worked clinically at the time. We see Klein's confidence develop as she diverged from the classical theories and technique. Her ideas were based on close attention to the detail of her clinical material, rather than attacking theoretical problems directly. The Notes show her method of struggling to her own conclusions, and they offer us a chance to grasp the roots of the subsequent controversy over Kleinian thought.

  5. The origins of disquieting discoveries by Melanie Klein: the possible significance of the case of 'Erna'.

    PubMed

    Frank, C; Weiss, H

    1996-12-01

    Using the example of the analysis of 6-year-old Erna, which extended over more than two years and was the longest treatment conducted by Melanie Klein in her Berlin years, the authors demonstrate the importance of her early child analyses for the development of some of her concepts and hence for a decisive advance in psychoanalysis itself. For this purpose they adduce unpublished original documents found among Klein's papers in London, which include autobiographical material, the text of her Würzburg lecture on her obsessional-neurotic little patient, handwritten session notes, and drawings by Erna herself. Although in the author's view Klein attempted to accommodate her findings within Freud's theoretical framework, her clinical experience of the psychic reality of the relational world of early oedipality eventually called for the introduction of new concepts. The combined parent figure, primary sadism, the paranoid-schizoid position, splitting, the relevance of the death drive to the superego, and later formulations on reparation, envy and gratitude are all shown to be foreshadowed in Klein's account of the treatment of Erna. After some retrospective considerations of Erna's analysis and a fleeting glimpse of Erna as an adult, the authors conclude by emphasising the significance of Klein's emigration to England for the subsequent flowering of her work.

  6. Symmetry analysis of the Klein-Gordon equation in Bianchi I spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paliathanasis, A.; Tsamparlis, M.; Mustafa, M. T.

    2015-02-01

    In this work we perform the symmetry classification of the Klein-Gordon equation in Bianchi I spacetime. We apply a geometric method which relates the Lie symmetries of the Klein-Gordon equation with the conformal algebra of the underlying geometry. Furthermore, we prove that the Lie symmetries which follow from the conformal algebra are also Noether symmetries for the Klein-Gordon equation. We use these results in order to determine all the potentials in which the Klein-Gordon admits Lie and Noether symmetries. Due to the large number of cases and for easy reference the results are presented in the form of tables. For some of the potentials we use the Lie admitted symmetries to determine the corresponding invariant solution of the Klein-Gordon equation. Finally, we show that the results also solve the problem of classification of Lie/Noether point symmetries of the wave equation in Bianchi I spacetime and can be used for the determination of invariant solutions of the wave equation.

  7. Melanie Klein and Repression: an examination of some unpublished Notes of 1934.

    PubMed

    Hinshelwood, R D

    2006-01-01

    Fifteen pages of unpublished Notes were found in the Melanie Klein Archives dating from early 1934, a crucial moment in Klein's development. She was at this time, 1934, moving away from child analysis, whilst also rethinking and revising her allegiance to Karl Abraham's theory of the phases of libidinal development. These Notes, entitled "Early Repression Mechanism," show Klein struggling to develop what became her characteristic theories of the depressive position and the paranoid-schizoid position. Although these Notes are precursors of the paper Klein gave later to the IPA Congress in 1934, they also show the origins of the emphasis she and her followers eventually gave to "splitting" rather than repression. The Notes give us an insight into the way that she worked clinically at the time. We see Klein's confidence develop as she diverged from the classical theories and technique. Her ideas were based on close attention to the detail of her clinical material, rather than attacking theoretical problems directly. The Notes show her method of struggling to her own conclusions, and they offer us a chance to grasp the roots of the subsequent controversy over Kleinian thought. PMID:19771670

  8. The origins of disquieting discoveries by Melanie Klein: the possible significance of the case of 'Erna'.

    PubMed

    Frank, C; Weiss, H

    1996-12-01

    Using the example of the analysis of 6-year-old Erna, which extended over more than two years and was the longest treatment conducted by Melanie Klein in her Berlin years, the authors demonstrate the importance of her early child analyses for the development of some of her concepts and hence for a decisive advance in psychoanalysis itself. For this purpose they adduce unpublished original documents found among Klein's papers in London, which include autobiographical material, the text of her Würzburg lecture on her obsessional-neurotic little patient, handwritten session notes, and drawings by Erna herself. Although in the author's view Klein attempted to accommodate her findings within Freud's theoretical framework, her clinical experience of the psychic reality of the relational world of early oedipality eventually called for the introduction of new concepts. The combined parent figure, primary sadism, the paranoid-schizoid position, splitting, the relevance of the death drive to the superego, and later formulations on reparation, envy and gratitude are all shown to be foreshadowed in Klein's account of the treatment of Erna. After some retrospective considerations of Erna's analysis and a fleeting glimpse of Erna as an adult, the authors conclude by emphasising the significance of Klein's emigration to England for the subsequent flowering of her work. PMID:9119579

  9. 49 CFR 192.177 - Additional provisions for bottle-type holders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional provisions for bottle-type holders. 192... Pipeline Components § 192.177 Additional provisions for bottle-type holders. (a) Each bottle-type holder... in accordance with § 192.327. (b) Each bottle-type holder manufactured from steel that is...

  10. 49 CFR 192.177 - Additional provisions for bottle-type holders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional provisions for bottle-type holders. 192... Pipeline Components § 192.177 Additional provisions for bottle-type holders. (a) Each bottle-type holder... in accordance with § 192.327. (b) Each bottle-type holder manufactured from steel that is...

  11. 49 CFR 192.177 - Additional provisions for bottle-type holders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional provisions for bottle-type holders. 192... Pipeline Components § 192.177 Additional provisions for bottle-type holders. (a) Each bottle-type holder... in accordance with § 192.327. (b) Each bottle-type holder manufactured from steel that is...

  12. 49 CFR 192.175 - Pipe-type and bottle-type holders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pipe-type and bottle-type holders. 192.175 Section....175 Pipe-type and bottle-type holders. (a) Each pipe-type and bottle-type holder must be designed so... or bottle-type holder must have minimum clearance from other holders in accordance with the...

  13. 27 CFR 26.317 - Bottles to be used for display purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottles to be used for... ISLANDS Requirements for Liquor Bottles § 26.317 Bottles to be used for display purposes. Empty liquor bottles may be brought into the United States and may be furnished to liquor dealers for display...

  14. 27 CFR 26.317 - Bottles to be used for display purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bottles to be used for... ISLANDS Requirements for Liquor Bottles § 26.317 Bottles to be used for display purposes. Empty liquor bottles may be brought into the United States and may be furnished to liquor dealers for display...

  15. 27 CFR 19.639 - Use and resale of liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... bottles. 19.639 Section 19.639 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Liquor Bottle and Label Requirements Liquor Bottle Requirements § 19.639 Use and resale of liquor bottles. No proprietor shall use any...

  16. 27 CFR 19.638 - Disposition of stocks of liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... liquor bottles. 19.638 Section 19.638 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Liquor Bottle and Label Requirements Liquor Bottle Requirements § 19.638 Disposition of stocks of liquor bottles. When a...

  17. 21 CFR 1250.85 - Drinking fountains and coolers; ice; constant temperature bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... temperature bottles. 1250.85 Section 1250.85 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... Drinking fountains and coolers; ice; constant temperature bottles. (a) Drinking fountains and coolers shall... temperature bottles. (c) Constant temperature bottles and other containers used for storing or...

  18. 21 CFR 1250.85 - Drinking fountains and coolers; ice; constant temperature bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... temperature bottles. 1250.85 Section 1250.85 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... Drinking fountains and coolers; ice; constant temperature bottles. (a) Drinking fountains and coolers shall... temperature bottles. (c) Constant temperature bottles and other containers used for storing or...

  19. 21 CFR 1250.85 - Drinking fountains and coolers; ice; constant temperature bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... temperature bottles. 1250.85 Section 1250.85 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... Drinking fountains and coolers; ice; constant temperature bottles. (a) Drinking fountains and coolers shall... temperature bottles. (c) Constant temperature bottles and other containers used for storing or...

  20. 21 CFR 1250.85 - Drinking fountains and coolers; ice; constant temperature bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... temperature bottles. 1250.85 Section 1250.85 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... Drinking fountains and coolers; ice; constant temperature bottles. (a) Drinking fountains and coolers shall... temperature bottles. (c) Constant temperature bottles and other containers used for storing or...

  1. Computer Simulations of Bottle Brushes: From Melts to Soft Networks

    DOE PAGES

    Cao, Zhen; Carrillo, Jan-Michael Y.; Sheiko, Sergei S.; Dobrynin, Andrey V.

    2015-07-13

    We use a combination of Molecular dynamics simulations and analytical calculations, and study dens bottle-brush systems in a melt and network State. Analysis of our simulation results shows that bottle-brush macromolecules in melt behave as ideal chains with effective Kuhn length bK. Simulations show that the bottle-brush-induced bending rigidity is due to an entropy decrease caused by redistribution of the side chains upon backbone bending. The Kuhn length of the bottle:brushes increases with increasing the side-chain degree of polymerization nsc as bK proportional to nsc0.46. Moreover, this model of bottle brush macromolecules is extended to describe mechanical properties of bottlemore » brush networks in linear and nonlinear deformation regimes. In the linear deformation regime, the network shear modulus scales with the degree of polymerization of the side chains as G0 proportional to (nsc + 1)-1 as long as the ratio of the Kuhn length, bK, to the size of the fully extended bottle-brush backbone between cross-links, R-max, is smaller than unity, bK/Rmax << 1. Bottle-brush networks With bK/Rmax proportional to 1 demonstrate behavior similar to that of networks Of semiflexible chains with G0 proportional to nsc-0.5. Finally, in the nonlinear network deformation regime, the deformation-dependent shear modulus is a universal function of the first strain invariant I1 and bottle-brush backbone deformation ratio beta describing stretching ability of the bottle-brush backbone between cross-links.« less

  2. Microtaper fiber excitation effects in bottle microresonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohd Nasir, M. Narizee; Ding, Ming; Murugan, G. Senthil; Zervas, Michalis N.

    2013-03-01

    We have carried out a systematic study of the effect of microtaper diameter on the spectral characteristics of bottle microresonators. By increasing the microtaper-diameter (Dt) from 2μm to 10μm results in progressively cleaner spectra. The transmission depth at resonance varies from ~15dB (@Dt=2μm) to >3dB (@Dt=10μm). The loaded Q factors were measured to be >10+6 in all cases. However, with microtaper Dt=10μm clearly-resolved single resonance peaks could be observed and free-spectral ranges could be easily identified. At some transmission resonances, we have observed LP01-->LP11 mode transformation at the excitation microtaper waist, for the first time, as the resonance is scanned.

  3. Ship-in-a-bottle catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Haw, James F.; Song, Weiguo

    2006-07-18

    In accordance with the present invention there is provided a novel catalyst system in which the catalytic structure is tailormade at the nanometer scale using the invention's novel ship-in-a-bottle synthesis techniques. The invention describes modified forms of solid catalysts for use in heterogeneous catalysis that have a microporous structure defined by nanocages. Examples include zeolites, SAPOs, and analogous materials that have the controlled pore dimensions and hydrothermal stability required for many industrial processes. The invention provides for modification of these catalysts using reagents that are small enough to pass through the windows used to access the cages. The small reagents are then reacted to form larger molecules in the cages.

  4. Recycling policies and programmes for PET drink bottles in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Schwanse, Elvira

    2011-09-01

    Transition and emerging economies confront a steadily increasing generation of municipal solid waste in the form of disposable packaging. The following article reports the situation of soft drink bottles made of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) in Mexico. Since 2002 schemes following the European Green Dot principle have been partly implemented to place responsibility on the producer, mainly soft drink bottlers. Private stakeholders are responsible for national recovery activities. Meanwhile Government presence to promote recovery is absent. Of post-consumer PET 75% is exported, and the newly created bottle-to-bottle (BTB) PET industry is confronted with bottlenecks in their post-consumer PET supply.

  5. Bottle-makers, bottlers say refillables use more energy

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, M.

    1982-11-01

    Bottle makers and beverage bottlers who oppose recycling initiatives claim the additional energy used for the required extra thickness, hot-water sterilization, and the collection process counteract any energy saved when fewer bottles are made and reused. They agree that aluminum-can recycling eliminates energy-intensive processes. Used cans are melted and used to make new cans in a process requiring less energy than processes using new aluminum. With a national deposit law, supporters of container legislation claim that the purchase of new containers would drop from 90 to 63 billion a year; energy used for manufacturing, filling, and transporting bottles would drop from 377 to 214 trillion Btus. (DCK)

  6. Detection of bottled liquid explosives by near infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itozaki, Hide; Miyamura, Ryu; Sato-Akaba, Hideo

    2012-10-01

    Bottled liquids are limited to be brought in the airplane, because liquid explosives have been used in some terrorist attaches recently. A bottled liquid scanner is expected to be developed. Liquid scanner using near infrared technologies is being developed by us. Many spectrum of liquids have been collected and analyzed by chemometorics in order to separate safe beverage to explosive and dangerous liquids. This bottled liquid scanner had feasibility tests in some international airport in Japan and obtained good review from security people in the airport.

  7. Investigation of carbonyl compounds in bottled waters from Poland.

    PubMed

    Nawrocki, J; Dabrowska, A; Borcz, A

    2002-11-01

    Poly(ethylene terephtalate) (PET) bottles are commonly used for storing mineral water. The migration of carbonyl compounds from PET bottles into mineral water was observed. Carbonation of water, sunlight and high temperature enhance the process of migration. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acetone were the most important carbonyls identified in series of bottled water samples. The concentration of carbonyls can change depending on the time of storage as well as storage conditions. It was identified particularly high concentration of acetaldehyde (more than 100 microg 1(-1)) in samples of mineral water saturated with CO2 gas. PMID:12448533

  8. CESAR at Poker Flat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsiev, D.; Slanger, T. G.; Hedin, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Compact Echelle Spectrograph for Aeronomic Research (CESAR) has been sited at Poker Flat Research Range since November 2013, collecting data over two seasons of the nightglow and the aurora. CESAR has operated with a field of view of seven degrees in the zenith direction, with a resolution of 5000, although a resolution three times greater is available. So far, data collection times have been in the range of 20 minutes, while the wavelength range used has been 500-1050 nm. Detailed studies of a number of optical features have been carried out. 1) It is demonstrated that the v = 2 level of the O2(b) state is best studied by using the weak b-X 2-1 band near 697 nm, it being free of auroral contamination. 2) Similarly, the best uncontaminated feature of the N2+ Meinel system is the complex A-X 0-1 band, which has been accurately simulated for the first time [Dubowsky and McCall, private communication, 2014]. 3) The N(2P-2D) quartet of lines near 1040 nm is an important auroral feature, being the N-atom equivalent of the oxygen green line. These lines are uncontaminated in many of our spectra. For lower altitude auroral excitation, there may be some overlap with the N2 First Positive 0-0 band [Pendleton et al, 1989]. 4) Time series on the O+(2P-2D) lines near 732-733 nm have been studied, showing variable background emission in this region depending on auroral type. Information on OH Meinel band lines is available throughout the region studied, and there is substantial evidence from sky spectra (Keck, VLT) that the attempt to extract kinetic temperatures from OH intensity distributions is strongly influenced by non-LTE effects [Cosby and Slanger, 2007; Noll et al, 2014].

  9. Five-dimensional PPN formalism and experimental test of Kaluza Klein theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Peng; Ma, Yongge

    2007-11-01

    The parametrized post Newtonian formalism for 5-dimensional metric theories with a compact extra dimension is developed. The relation of the 5-dimensional and 4-dimensional formulations is then analyzed, in order to compare the higher dimensional theories of gravity with experiments. It turns out that the value of post Newtonian parameter $\\gamma$ in the reduced 5-dimensional Kaluza-Klein theory is two times smaller than that in 4-dimensional general relativity. The departure is due to the existence of an extra dimension in the Kaluza-Klein theory. Thus the confrontation between the reduced 4-dimensional formalism and Solar system experiments raises a severe challenge to the classical Kaluza-Klein theory.

  10. Familial recurrent hypersomnia: two siblings with Kleine-Levin syndrome and menstrual-related hypersomnia.

    PubMed

    Rocamora, Rodrigo; Gil-Nagel, Antonio; Franch, Oriol; Vela-Bueno, Antonio

    2010-11-01

    Kleine-Levin syndrome and menstrual-related hypersomnia are rare idiopathic sleep disorders occurring primarily in adolescence. They are characterized by intermittent periods of excessive sleepiness, cognitive disturbances, and behavioral abnormalities. In both, the etiology remains unknown but autoinmune, hormonal, infectious, and inflammatory mechanisms have been proposed. The authors describe, for the first time, the association of Kleine-Levin syndrome and menstrual-related hypersomnia in 2 adolescent siblings who shared the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) loci DQB1*0501. The same haplotype has been associated with sleepwalking and with rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder. This gender differences in the manifestation of a probably genetic influenced sleep disorder suggests that hormonal mechanisms could be implicated in the phenotypical expression of this sleep disorder. The male sibling with Kleine-Levin syndrome was easily controlled with carbamazepine in low doses, but his sister could be only efficaciously treated with oral contraceptives. PMID:20404354

  11. Melanie Klein and Anna Freud: the discourse of the early dispute.

    PubMed

    Viner, R

    1996-01-01

    Divisions in the field of the psychoanalysis of children can be traced to a dispute over the infantile super-ego between the theorists Melanie Klein and Anna Freud beginning in 1927. These divisions are understood within the analytic world as the result of scientific disputation between alternative valid theories. An examination of the language, claims, and epistemology of Klein's and Freud's publications in 1927 that marked the public commencement of the conflict, reveals a personalized discourse in which authority was derived from the allegiance, experience, and personal analytic standing of the contestants as much as from theoretical insight. The structure and rhetoric of the debate suggest that, rather than terminating the dispute, the publications of 1927 served to encourage professionalization in child analysis and establish Anna Freud and Melanie Klein as authoritative alternative theorists.

  12. Ferromagnetism, adatom effect, and edge reconstruction induced by Klein boundary in graphene nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Zhi-qiang; Shi, Jun-jie; Zhang, Min

    2013-05-01

    The electronic structure and magnetic characteristics of Klein graphene nanoribbons (KGNRs), as observed by Suenaga and Koshino [K. Suenaga and M. Koshino, Nature 468, 1088 (2010)], are investigated using first-principles calculations. We find three new characteristics induced by the Klein boundary. First, the localized edge states in the KGNRs have a ferromagnetic coupling rather than the antiferromagnetic coupling of the zigzag graphene nanoribbons (ZGNRs). Lieb's theorem is no longer applicable in the KGNRs. Second, the marginal single carbon adatom of the ZGNRs can destroy the edge states nearby. The edge states can recover if the length of the zigzag chains is equal to or greater than five times that of the lattice constant. Finally, we show that the pentagon-heptagon edge can be induced from the Klein boundary.

  13. The Klein-Gordon equation of a rotating charged hairy black hole in (2 + 1) dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourhassan, B.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we consider the Klein-Gordon equation in a 3D charged rotating hairy black hole background to study behavior of a massive scalar field. In the general case, we find periodic-like behavior for the scalar field which may vanish at the black hole horizon or far from the black hole horizon. For the special cases of non-rotating or near horizon approximation, we find radial solution of Klein-Gordon equation in terms of hypergeometric and Kummer functions. Also for the case of uncharged black hole, we find numerical solution of the Klein-Gordon equation as periodic function which may enhance out of the black hole or vanish at horizon. We find allowed boundary conditions which may yield to the identical bosons described by scalar field.

  14. Melanie Klein and Anna Freud: the discourse of the early dispute.

    PubMed

    Viner, R

    1996-01-01

    Divisions in the field of the psychoanalysis of children can be traced to a dispute over the infantile super-ego between the theorists Melanie Klein and Anna Freud beginning in 1927. These divisions are understood within the analytic world as the result of scientific disputation between alternative valid theories. An examination of the language, claims, and epistemology of Klein's and Freud's publications in 1927 that marked the public commencement of the conflict, reveals a personalized discourse in which authority was derived from the allegiance, experience, and personal analytic standing of the contestants as much as from theoretical insight. The structure and rhetoric of the debate suggest that, rather than terminating the dispute, the publications of 1927 served to encourage professionalization in child analysis and establish Anna Freud and Melanie Klein as authoritative alternative theorists. PMID:8929792

  15. Between practice and theory: Melanie Klein, Anna Freud and the development of child analysis.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, G

    1996-04-01

    An examination of the early history of child analysis in the writings of Melanie Klein and Anna Freud reveals how two different and opposing approaches to child analysis arose at the same time. The two methods of child analysis are rooted in a differential emphasis on psychoanalytic theory and practice. The Kleinian method derives from the application of technique while the Anna Freudian method is driven by theory. Furthermore, by holding to the Freudian theory of child development Anna Freud was forced to limit the scope of child analysis, while Klein's application of Freudian practice has led to new discoveries about the development of the infant psyche.

  16. Wigner function for Klein-Gordon oscillator in commutative and noncommutative spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanabadi, S.; Ghominejad, M.

    2016-06-01

    As a quasi-probability distribution function in phase-space and a special representation of the density matrix, the Wigner function is of great significance in physics. In this work, the Wigner function for the Klein-Gordon oscillator is studied in commutative and noncommutative spaces. We first study the Wigner function for Klein-Gordon oscillator in commutative space then, by using a generalized Bopp's shift method, we obtain the corresponding Wigner function in noncommutative space. The additional terms in Wigner function on a NC space is related to the noncommutativity of space.

  17. Hydrodynamic representation of the Klein-Gordon-Einstein equations in the weak field limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suárez, Abril; Chavanis, Pierre-Henri

    2015-11-01

    Using a generalization of the Madelung transformation, we derive the hydrodynamic representation of the Klein-Gordon-Einstein equations in the weak field limit. We consider a complex self-interacting scalar field with an arbitrary potential of the form V(|ϕ|2). We compare the results with simplified models in which the gravitational potential is introduced by hand in the Klein-Gordon equation, and assumed to satisfy a (generalized) Poisson equation. Nonrelativistic hydrodynamic equations based on the Schrodinger-Poisson equations or on the Gross-Pitaevskii-Poisson equations are recovered in the limit c → +∞.

  18. Between practice and theory: Melanie Klein, Anna Freud and the development of child analysis.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, G

    1996-04-01

    An examination of the early history of child analysis in the writings of Melanie Klein and Anna Freud reveals how two different and opposing approaches to child analysis arose at the same time. The two methods of child analysis are rooted in a differential emphasis on psychoanalytic theory and practice. The Kleinian method derives from the application of technique while the Anna Freudian method is driven by theory. Furthermore, by holding to the Freudian theory of child development Anna Freud was forced to limit the scope of child analysis, while Klein's application of Freudian practice has led to new discoveries about the development of the infant psyche. PMID:8642183

  19. Nuclear microprobe and optical investigation of sparkling wine bottles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padayachee, J.; Prozesky, V. M.; Pineda, C. A.

    1999-10-01

    Glass bottles, used for sparkling wine, are treated with freon during manufacturing to harden the inside surface. Although this type of treatment normally improves the properties of the glass, in this case the occurrence of "egg" formations (egg-shaped rough areas) on distinct areas of bottles, as well as yeast sticking to the insides of bottles at specific areas pointed to the possibility of different areas showing different properties in the same bottle. The question was whether the correct gas was used for the treatment, and secondly, whether the process was controlled well enough to obtain the correct properties for the inside of the glass. We present results of an optical microscopy and nuclear microprobe (NMP) investigation.

  20. 8. NORTH ELLIS WORKS LOOKING SOUTHWEST. BOTTLING HOUSE, RIGHT, FIVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. NORTH ELLIS WORKS LOOKING SOUTHWEST. BOTTLING HOUSE, RIGHT, FIVE CHAMBER CONDENSER, AND BURIED NORTH ELLIS THREE PIPE INCLINED RETORT, BACKGROUND LEFT. - Mariscal Quicksilver Mine & Reduction Works, Terlingua, Brewster County, TX

  1. Musical mastery of a Coke™ bottle: Physical modeling by analogy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverman, Mark P.; Worthy, Elizabeth R.

    1998-02-01

    A Coke™ bottle is modeled in analogy to a resonant LC circuit to obtain a theoretical prediction of the fundamental frequency as a function of the length of the air column. Experimental measurements are in excellent accord with our model.

  2. Flat-space chiral gravity.

    PubMed

    Bagchi, Arjun; Detournay, Stéphane; Grumiller, Daniel

    2012-10-12

    We provide the first evidence for a holographic correspondence between a gravitational theory in flat space and a specific unitary field theory in one dimension lower. The gravitational theory is a flat-space limit of topologically massive gravity in three dimensions at a Chern-Simons level of k=1. The field theory is a chiral two-dimensional conformal field theory with a central charge of c=24. PMID:23102291

  3. An ultracold neutron storage bottle for UCN density measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bison, G.; Burri, F.; Daum, M.; Kirch, K.; Krempel, J.; Lauss, B.; Meier, M.; Ries, D.; Schmidt-Wellenburg, P.; Zsigmond, G.

    2016-09-01

    We have developed a storage bottle for ultracold neutrons (UCNs) in order to measure the UCN density at the beamports of the Paul Scherrer Institute's (PSI) UCN source. This paper describes the design, construction and commissioning of the robust and mobile storage bottle with a volume comparable to typical storage experiments (32 L) e.g. searching for an electric dipole moment of the neutron.

  4. Polymer based planar coupling of self-assembled bottle microresonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimaldi, I. A.; Berneschi, S.; Testa, G.; Baldini, F.; Nunzi Conti, G.; Bernini, R.

    2014-12-01

    The investigation of a simple and self-assembling method for realizing polymeric micro-bottle resonators is reported. By dispensing precise amounts of SU-8 onto a cleaved optical fiber, employed as mechanical support, bottle microcavities with different shapes and diameters are fabricated. The balancing of surface energy between glass fiber and polymeric microresonator with surface tension of SU-8 confers different shape to these microstructures. Planar single-mode SU-8 based waveguide, realized on polymethylmethacrylate, is chosen for exciting the micro-bottle resonators by evanescent wave. The reliability of the fabrication process and the shape of the bottle microcavities are investigated through optical analysis. We observe whispering gallery modes in these resonant microstructures by a robust coupling with single mode planar waveguides around 1.5 μm wavelength. The resonance spectra of micro-bottle resonators and the spectral characteristics, such as Quality-factor (Q factor) and free spectral range, are evaluated for all the realized microstructures. SU-8 micro-bottle resonators show high Q-factors up to 3.8 × 104 and present a good mechanical stability. These features make these microcavities attractive for sensing and/or lasing applications in a planar platform.

  5. Trace and ultratrace metals in bottled waters: survey of sources worldwide and comparison with refillable metal bottles.

    PubMed

    Krachler, Michael; Shotyk, William

    2009-01-15

    Bottled waters from diverse natural and industrial sources are becoming increasingly popular worldwide. Several potentially harmful trace metals (Ag, Be, Li, Ge, Sb, Sc, Te, Th, U) are not monitored regularly in such waters. As a consequence, there is extremely limited data on the abundance and potential health impacts of many potentially toxic trace elements. Containers used for the storage of bottled waters might also increase trace metal levels above threshold limits established for human consumption by the EPA or WHO. Applying strict clean room techniques and sector field ICP-MS, 23 elements were determined in 132 brands of bottled water from 28 countries. In addition, leaching experiments with high purity water and various popular metal bottles investigated the release of trace metals from these containers. The threshold limits for elements such as Al, Be, Mn and U in drinking water were clearly exceeded in some waters. Several bottled waters had Li concentrations in the low mg/L range, a level which is comparable to blood plasma levels of patients treated against manic depression with Li-containing drugs. The rate of release of trace metals from metal bottles assessed after 13 days was generally low, with one exception: Substantial amounts of both Sb and Tl were released from a commercially available pewter pocket flask, exceeding international guidelines 5- and 11-fold, respectively. Trace metal levels of most bottled waters are below guideline levels currently considered harmful for human health. The few exceptions that exist, however, clearly reveal that health concerns are likely to manifest through prolonged use of such waters. The investigated coated aluminium and stainless steel bottles are harmless with respect to leaching of trace metals into drinking water. Pocket flasks, in turn, should be selected with great care to avoid contamination of beverages with harmful amounts of potentially toxic trace metals such as Sb and Tl. PMID:18990431

  6. Trace and ultratrace metals in bottled waters: survey of sources worldwide and comparison with refillable metal bottles.

    PubMed

    Krachler, Michael; Shotyk, William

    2009-01-15

    Bottled waters from diverse natural and industrial sources are becoming increasingly popular worldwide. Several potentially harmful trace metals (Ag, Be, Li, Ge, Sb, Sc, Te, Th, U) are not monitored regularly in such waters. As a consequence, there is extremely limited data on the abundance and potential health impacts of many potentially toxic trace elements. Containers used for the storage of bottled waters might also increase trace metal levels above threshold limits established for human consumption by the EPA or WHO. Applying strict clean room techniques and sector field ICP-MS, 23 elements were determined in 132 brands of bottled water from 28 countries. In addition, leaching experiments with high purity water and various popular metal bottles investigated the release of trace metals from these containers. The threshold limits for elements such as Al, Be, Mn and U in drinking water were clearly exceeded in some waters. Several bottled waters had Li concentrations in the low mg/L range, a level which is comparable to blood plasma levels of patients treated against manic depression with Li-containing drugs. The rate of release of trace metals from metal bottles assessed after 13 days was generally low, with one exception: Substantial amounts of both Sb and Tl were released from a commercially available pewter pocket flask, exceeding international guidelines 5- and 11-fold, respectively. Trace metal levels of most bottled waters are below guideline levels currently considered harmful for human health. The few exceptions that exist, however, clearly reveal that health concerns are likely to manifest through prolonged use of such waters. The investigated coated aluminium and stainless steel bottles are harmless with respect to leaching of trace metals into drinking water. Pocket flasks, in turn, should be selected with great care to avoid contamination of beverages with harmful amounts of potentially toxic trace metals such as Sb and Tl.

  7. WHO board endorses battle against bottle.

    PubMed

    Allain, A

    1981-04-01

    At the Executive Board meeting of WHO in Geneva, January, 1981 24 of 30 members spoke up and, in most cases, demanded strong and effective legislative measures concerning the marketing of baby foods. The draft of the International Code on Marketing of Baby Foods prohibits mass media advertising, free samples, the so-called "milk nurses," and the use of health care facilities for the promotion of breast-milk substitutes. The IBFAN "Infant Formula Promotion" brochure documents 682 violations of the WHO/UNICEF recommendations, effectively demonstrating that voluntary guidelines cannot adequately curb the milk industry's practices. At the meeting, the U.S. chose to defend the right to commercial free speech rather than infant health. The U.S. is not on the Board but received special permission to speak on the topic. The draft of the code was submitted to the World Health Assembly (WHA) with the suggestion that it adopt an improved text as a recommendation and review its implementation after a 2-year trial period. The drop in birth rates and the gradual return to breast-feeding in the industrialized countries has led the infant food industry to push heavily into developing countries where the hazards of bottle-feeding are awesome. PMID:12337548

  8. The statistical properties of Klein-Gordon oscillator in noncommutative space

    SciTech Connect

    Hassanabadi, H. Hosseini, S. S.; Boumali, A.; Zarrinkamar, S.

    2014-03-15

    We study the relativistic spin-zero bosons influenced by the Klein-Gordon oscillator and an external magnetic field in noncommutative formulation. The problem is considered in two dimensions and is solved in an exact analytical manner. Having found the spectrum of the system, the statistical properties of an N-boson system are reported.

  9. All but Her Life: Holocaust Survivor Gerda Klein Shares with Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincoln, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    During the 2006-2007 school year, students from Battle Creek, Michigan, high school joined numerous others from across the state in reading holocaust survivor Gerda Klein's memoir, "All But My Life." Published in 57 editions and still in print after 50 years, the book is the inspiring account of a remarkable individual who endured unspeakable…

  10. On Pauli's Invention of Non-Abelian Kaluza-Klein Theory in 1953

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straumann, N.

    2002-12-01

    There are documents which show that Wolfgang Pauli developed in 1953 the first consistent generalization of the five-dimensional theory of Kaluza, Klein, Fock and others to a higher dimensional internal space. Because he saw no way to give masses to the gauge bosons, he refrained from publishing his results formally.

  11. Stability of Schwarzschild-AdS for the Spherically Symmetric Einstein-Klein-Gordon System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzegel, Gustav; Smulevici, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we study the global behavior of solutions to the spherically symmetric coupled Einstein-Klein-Gordon (EKG) system in the presence of a negative cosmological constant. For the Klein-Gordon mass-squared satisfying a ≥ -1 (the Breitenlohner-Freedman bound being a > -9/8), we prove that the Schwarzschild-AdS spacetimes are asymptotically stable: Small perturbations of Schwarzschild-AdS initial data again lead to regular black holes, with the metric on the black hole exterior approaching, at an exponential rate, a Schwarzschild-AdS spacetime. The main difficulties in the proof arise from the lack of monotonicity for the Hawking mass and the asymptotically AdS boundary conditions, which render even (part of) the orbital stability intricate. These issues are resolved in a bootstrap argument on the black hole exterior, with the redshift effect and weighted Hardy inequalities playing the fundamental role in the analysis. Both integrated decay and pointwise decay estimates are obtained. As a corollary of our estimates on the Klein-Gordon field, one obtains in particular exponential decay in time of spherically-symmetric solutions to the linear Klein-Gordon equation on Schwarzschild-AdS.

  12. Confining the scalar field of the Kaluza-Klein wormhole soliton

    SciTech Connect

    Clement, G. )

    1989-08-01

    The Maison five-to-three dimensional reduction, generalized to the case of five-dimensional general relativity with sources, is applied to the problem of confining the scalar field of the Kaluza-Klein wormhole soliton by a very weak perfect fluid source, without affecting the spatial geometry of this localized solution.

  13. Patronage in the dispute over child analysis between Melanie Klein and Anna Freud--1927-1932.

    PubMed

    Aguayo, J

    2000-08-01

    The author investigates the role of patrons and advocates for Melanie Klein's clinical ideas at the British Psycho-Analytical Society against the backdrop of her theoretical and technical differences with Anna Freud from 1927 to 1932. He also outlines the development of Klein and Anna Freud's theories and techniques within the nascent discipline of child psychoanalysis. The London and Viennese patrons/advocates contributed to polarising what initially were clinical differences about how to analyse pre-latency and latency-age children and which technical processes might best facilitate successful treatment. While the author speculates that a diversity of motivations and agendas may have driven the London group's support for Klein--personal and politicised enthusiasm (Jones), genuine conviction (Riviere) and attempts at theoretical rapprochement between the London and Vienna schools (Glover)--he also argues that Freud's diagnosis with cancer in 1923 and suspicion of patricidal son-successors necessitated the choice of a female successor with unquestioning loyalty to his doctrines. From 1932, when Klein's clinical authority was established, her first group of English supporters began to splinter, as she went on to become a training analyst, mentor and patron in her own right to a succeeding generation of adherents who defended her views during the Controversial Discussions.

  14. On 'the fear of death' as the primary anxiety: how and why Klein differs from Freud.

    PubMed

    Blass, Rachel B

    2014-08-01

    It is well known that Melanie Klein held the view that 'fear of death' is the primary source of anxiety and that her position is explicitly opposed to that of Sigmund Freud, who maintained that that fear cannot in any way or form be a source of anxiety. In a previous article on Freud's Inhibitions, Symptoms and Anxiety (Blass, 2013), the author argued that, counter to what is commonly portrayed in the literature, Freud's considerations for rejecting the fear of death as a source of anxiety were based on relational and experiential factors that are usually associated with Kleinian psychoanalysis. In light of this affinity of Freud with Klein a question arises as to the actual source of their differences in this context. The present paper offers an answer to this question. The author first presents some of her earlier findings on what led Freud to reject the fear of death as a source of anxiety and then turns to investigate Klein's considerations for accepting it. This takes us beyond her explicit statements on this matter and sheds new light on the relationship of her views regarding death and anxiety and those of Freud. In turn this deepens the understanding of the relationship of Freud and Klein's conceptualizations of the psyche and its internal object relations, pointing to both surprising common ground and foundational differences.

  15. Scattering theory for the Klein-Gordon equation with nondecreasing potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Cruz, Maximino; Arredondo R, Juan H.

    2008-11-15

    The Klein-Gordon equation is considered in the case of nondecreasing potentials. The energy inner product is nonpositive on a subspace of infinite dimension, not consisting entirely of eigenvectors of the associated operator. A scattering theory for this case is developed and asymptotic completeness for generalized Moeller operators is proven.

  16. Response to "What Do Klein et al. Tell Us about Test Scores in Texas?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Stephen P.; Hamilton, Laura S.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.; Stecher, Brian M.

    2005-01-01

    The authors reviewed the article "What Do Klein et al. Tell Us About Test Scores in Texas?" by Toenjes. A summary of their responses is presented. First, Toenjes incorrectly describes the focus of the authors' study. Second, Toenjes appears to have misunderstood the purpose of their 20-schools analysis. Third, Toenjes misunderstands the…

  17. Scattering and Bound States of Klein-Gordon Particle with Hylleraas Potential Within Effective Mass Formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onyeaju, M. C.; Ikot, A. N.; Chukwuocha, E. O.; Obong, H. P.; Zare, S.; Hassanabadi, H.

    2016-06-01

    Scattering and bound states solution for the one-dimensional Klein-Gordon particle with Hylleraas potential is presented within the frame work of position dependent effective mass formalism. We calculate in detail the reflection and transmission coefficients using the properties of hypergeometric functions and the equation of continuity of the wave functions.

  18. Potential magnetic properties of nanotubes ( n, 0) with Klein and Fujita edges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhavaya, H. M.; Pavlov, M. V.; Ermilov, A. Yu.; Stepanov, N. F.

    2012-08-01

    Analytical solutions for localized states of zigzag-type nanotube (NT) fragments with various combinations of Klein and Fujita borders are considered using the Hückel approach. It is shown that the equations for determining molecular orbitals (MOs) in systems with two Klein edges are similar to equations for systems with two Fujita edges. An analytical formula for the energies of all π MOs is obtained for systems that have a Klein edge on one side and a Fujita edge on the other. It is established that these systems have n orbitals with energy α that are localized on the Fujita and Klein edges in dependence on the MO symmetry. The degeneracy of edge orbitals indicates that there is a tendency toward single occupancy of them and to the appearance of spin (magnetic) properties. In addition, the energies of the states of different multiplicity for NT fragments (8, 0) are calculated using the CASSCF approach. It is shown that the ground state has a multiplicity of 9, as was also indicated by estimates obtained using the density functional method (B3LYP). It is concluded that zigzag-type NTs with asymmetric edges have a tendency to exhibit spin properties. It is noted that the construction of nanoscale magnetic materials based on them is very promising.

  19. The acoustical Klein-Gordon equation: the wave-mechanical step and barrier potential functions.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Barbara J; Pike, E Roy; Sharp, David B

    2003-09-01

    The transformed form of the Webster equation is investigated. Usually described as analogous to the Schrödinger equation of quantum mechanics, it is noted that the second-order time dependency defines a Klein-Gordon problem. This "acoustical Klein-Gordon equation" is analyzed with particular reference to the acoustical properties of wave-mechanical potential functions, U(x), that give rise to geometry-dependent dispersions at rapid variations in tract cross section. Such dispersions are not elucidated by other one-dimensional--cylindrical or conical--duct models. Since Sturm-Liouville analysis is not appropriate for inhomogeneous boundary conditions, the exact solution of the Klein-Gordon equation is achieved through a Green's-function methodology referring to the transfer matrix of an arbitrary string of square potential functions, including a square barrier equivalent to a radiation impedance. The general conclusion of the paper is that, in the absence of precise knowledge of initial conditions on the area function, any given potential function will map to a multiplicity of area functions of identical relative resonance characteristics. Since the potential function maps uniquely to the acoustical output, it is suggested that the one-dimensional wave physics is both most accurately and most compactly described within the Klein-Gordon framework.

  20. Scattering and Bound States of Klein-Gordon Particle with Hylleraas Potential Within Effective Mass Formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onyeaju, M. C.; Ikot, A. N.; Chukwuocha, E. O.; Obong, H. P.; Zare, S.; Hassanabadi, H.

    2016-09-01

    Scattering and bound states solution for the one-dimensional Klein-Gordon particle with Hylleraas potential is presented within the frame work of position dependent effective mass formalism. We calculate in detail the reflection and transmission coefficients using the properties of hypergeometric functions and the equation of continuity of the wave functions.

  1. Exact Analytical Solution of the Klein-Gordon Equation in the Generalized Woods-Saxon Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayrak, O.; Sahin, D.

    2015-09-01

    The exact analytical solution of the Klein-Gordon equation for the spin-0 particles in the generalized Woods-Saxon potential is presented. The bound state energy eigenvalues and corresponding wave functions are obtained in the closed forms. The correlations between the potential parameters and energy eigenvalues are examined for π0 particles.

  2. Scattering solutions of the Klein-Gordon equation for a step potential with hyperbolic tangent potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas, Clara

    2014-09-01

    We solve the Klein-Gordon equation for a step potential with hyperbolic tangent potential. The scattering solutions are derived in terms of hypergeometric functions. The reflection coefficient R and transmission coefficient T are calculated, we observed superradiance and transmission resonances.

  3. Verification of Compton Collision and Klein-Nishina Formulas--An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singhal, R. P.; Burns, A. J.

    1978-01-01

    Describes an experiment to verify the Compton collision formula and the angular dependance of the Klein-Nishina formula. Equipment used is a 1-mCi(137)Cs source, 2x2 in. NaI detector and a multichannel analyzer. Suitable for honor undergraduates. (Author/GA)

  4. Approximate solutions to the nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation in de Sitter spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazici, Muhammet; Şengül, Süleyman

    2016-09-01

    We consider initial value problems for the nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation in de Sitter spacetime. We use the differential transform method for the solution of the initial value problem. In order to show the accuracy of results for the solutions, we use the variational iteration method with Adomian's polynomials for the nonlinearity. We show that the methods are effective and useful.

  5. Deformed phase space Kaluza-Klein cosmology and late time acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabido, M.; Yee-Romero, C.

    2016-06-01

    The effects of phase space deformations on Kaluza-Klein cosmology are studied. The deformation is introduced by modifying the symplectic structure of the minisuperspace variables. In the deformed model, we find an accelerating scale factor and therefore infer the existence of an effective cosmological constant from the phase space deformation parameter β.

  6. Patronage in the dispute over child analysis between Melanie Klein and Anna Freud--1927-1932.

    PubMed

    Aguayo, J

    2000-08-01

    The author investigates the role of patrons and advocates for Melanie Klein's clinical ideas at the British Psycho-Analytical Society against the backdrop of her theoretical and technical differences with Anna Freud from 1927 to 1932. He also outlines the development of Klein and Anna Freud's theories and techniques within the nascent discipline of child psychoanalysis. The London and Viennese patrons/advocates contributed to polarising what initially were clinical differences about how to analyse pre-latency and latency-age children and which technical processes might best facilitate successful treatment. While the author speculates that a diversity of motivations and agendas may have driven the London group's support for Klein--personal and politicised enthusiasm (Jones), genuine conviction (Riviere) and attempts at theoretical rapprochement between the London and Vienna schools (Glover)--he also argues that Freud's diagnosis with cancer in 1923 and suspicion of patricidal son-successors necessitated the choice of a female successor with unquestioning loyalty to his doctrines. From 1932, when Klein's clinical authority was established, her first group of English supporters began to splinter, as she went on to become a training analyst, mentor and patron in her own right to a succeeding generation of adherents who defended her views during the Controversial Discussions. PMID:11028236

  7. On 'the fear of death' as the primary anxiety: how and why Klein differs from Freud.

    PubMed

    Blass, Rachel B

    2014-08-01

    It is well known that Melanie Klein held the view that 'fear of death' is the primary source of anxiety and that her position is explicitly opposed to that of Sigmund Freud, who maintained that that fear cannot in any way or form be a source of anxiety. In a previous article on Freud's Inhibitions, Symptoms and Anxiety (Blass, 2013), the author argued that, counter to what is commonly portrayed in the literature, Freud's considerations for rejecting the fear of death as a source of anxiety were based on relational and experiential factors that are usually associated with Kleinian psychoanalysis. In light of this affinity of Freud with Klein a question arises as to the actual source of their differences in this context. The present paper offers an answer to this question. The author first presents some of her earlier findings on what led Freud to reject the fear of death as a source of anxiety and then turns to investigate Klein's considerations for accepting it. This takes us beyond her explicit statements on this matter and sheds new light on the relationship of her views regarding death and anxiety and those of Freud. In turn this deepens the understanding of the relationship of Freud and Klein's conceptualizations of the psyche and its internal object relations, pointing to both surprising common ground and foundational differences. PMID:24773413

  8. Half-flat quantum hair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Compeán, Hugo; Loaiza-Brito, Oscar; Martínez-Merino, Aldo; Santos-Silva, Roberto

    2014-02-01

    By wrapping D3-branes over 3-cycles on a half-flat manifold, we construct an effective supersymmetric black hole in the N=2 low-energy theory in four dimensions. Specifically, we find that the torsion cycles present in a half-flat compactification, corresponding to the mirror symmetric image of electric Neveu-Schwarz flux on a Calabi-Yau manifold, manifest in the half-flat black hole as quantum hair. We compute the electric and magnetic charges related to the quantum hair and also the mass contribution to the effective black hole. We find that by wrapping a number of D3-branes equal to the order of the discrete group associated to the torsional part of the half-flat homology, the effective charge and mass terms vanish. We compute the variation of entropy and the corresponding temperature associated with the loss of quantum hair. We also comment on the equivalence between canceling Freed-Witten anomaly and the assumption of self-duality for the 5-form field strength. Finally from a K-theoretical perspective, we compute the presence of discrete Ramond-Ramond charge of D-branes wrapping torsional cycles in a half-flat manifold.

  9. Modelling of Folding Patterns in Flat Membranes and Cylinders by Origami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nojima, Taketoshi

    This paper describes folding methods of thin flat sheets as well as cylindrical shells by modelling folding patterns through Japanese traditional Origami technique. New folding patterns have been devised in thin flat squared or circular membrane by modifying so called Miura-Ori in Japan (one node with 4 folding lines). Some folding patterns in cylindrical shells have newly been developed including spiral configurations. Devised foldable cylindrical shells were made by using polymer sheets, and it has been assured that they can be folded quite well. The devised models will make it possible to construct foldable/deployable space structures as well as to manufacture foldable industrial products and living goods, e. g., bottles for soft drinks.

  10. Criticality safety requirements for transporting EBR-II fuel bottles stored at INTEC

    SciTech Connect

    Lell, R. M.; Pope, C. L.

    2000-03-14

    Two carrier/shipping cask options are being developed to transport bottles of EBR-II fuel elements stored at INTEC. Some fuel bottles are intact, but some have developed leaks. Reactivity control requirements to maintain subcriticality during the hypothetical transport accident have been examined for both transport options for intact and leaking bottles. Poison rods, poison sleeves, and dummy filler bottles were considered; several possible poison materials and several possible dummy filler materials were studied. The minimum number of poison rods or dummy filler bottles has been determined for each carrier for transport of intact and leaking bottles.

  11. The Fallacies of Flatness: Thomas Friedman's "The World Is Flat"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abowitz, Kathleen Knight; Roberts, Jay

    2007-01-01

    Thomas Friedman's best-selling "The World is Flat" has exerted much influence in the west by providing both an accessible analysis of globalization and its economic and social effects, and a powerful cultural metaphor for globalization. In this review, we more closely examine Friedman's notion of the social contract, the moral center of his…

  12. Simultaneous determination and assessment of 4-nonylphenol, bisphenol A and triclosan in tap water, bottled water and baby bottles.

    PubMed

    Li, Xu; Ying, Guang-Guo; Su, Hao-Chang; Yang, Xiao-Bing; Wang, Li

    2010-08-01

    This study investigated the levels of 4-nonylphenol (4-NP), bisphenol A (BPA) and triclosan (TCS) in bottled water and tap water in Guangzhou and release of these chemicals from baby bottles using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with negative chemical ionization. Results show that 4-NP was present in all the bottled water while 17 out of 21 contained BPA and 18 out of 21 contained TCS. Their concentrations in bottled water ranged from 108 to 298 ng/L, 17.6 to 324 ng/L and 0.6 to 9.7 ng/L, respectively. Five of the tap water samples from six drinking water plants were found to contain 4-NP and BPA both in June and December, while TCS was detected in the same five plants only in June. The highest concentrations in tap water for 4-NP, BPA and TCS were 1987, 317 and 14.5ng/L, respectively. Daily intakes of 4-NP, BPA and TCS of adults by drinking 2L of tap water were estimated to be 1410, 148 and 10 ng/day, respectively. BPA was found to be released within 24h from four brands of baby bottles at room temperature (24 degrees C), 40 degrees C and 100 degrees C. Increased temperature led to higher release of BPA from the baby bottles. Estimated daily intakes of 4-NP, BPA and TCS for infants were 705, 1340 and 5 ng/day, respectively, by drinking 1L of tap water from a baby bottle at 40 degrees C. This study showed that the exposure to the three compounds from drinking water is unlikely to pose a health risk.

  13. High-Q plasmonic bottle microresonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohd Nasir, M. Narizee; Ding, Ming; Murugan, G. Senthil; Zervas, Michalis N.

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a hybrid plasmonic bottle microresonator (PBMR) which supports whispering gallery modes (WGMs) along with surface plasmon waves (SPWs) for high performance optical sensor applications. The BMR was fabricated through "soften-and-compress" technique with a thin gold layer deposited on top of the resonator. A polarization-resolved measurement was set-up in order to fully characterize the fabricated PBMR. Initially, the uncoated BMR with waist diameter of 181 μm, stem diameter of 125 μm and length of 400 μm was fabricated and then gold film was deposited on the surface. Due to surface curvature, the gold film covering half of the BMR had a characteristic meniscus shape and maximum thickness of 30 nm. The meniscus provides appropriately tapered edges which facilitate the adiabatic transformation of BMR WGMs to SPWs and vice versa. This results in low transition losses, which combined with partially-metal-coated resonator, can result in high hybrid-PBMR Q's. The transmission spectra of the hybrid PBMR are dramatically different to the original uncoated BMR. Under TE(TM) excitation, the PBMR showed composite resonances with Q of ~2100(850) and almost identical ~ 3 nm FSR. We have accurately fitted the observed transmission resonances with Lorentzian-shaped curves and showed that the TE and TM excitations are actually composite resonances comprise of two and three partially overlapping resonances with Q's in excess of 2900 and 2500, respectively. To the best of our knowledge these are the highest Qs observed in plasmonic microcavities.

  14. Impact damage in filament wound composite bottles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Highsmith, Alton L.

    1993-01-01

    Increasingly, composite materials are being used in advanced structural applications because of the significant weight savings they offer when compared to more traditional engineering materials. The higher cost of composites must be offset by the increased performance that results from reduced structural weight if these new materials are to be used effectively. At present, there is considerable interest in fabricating solid rocket motor cases out of composite materials, and capitalizing on the reduced structural weight to increase rocket performance. However, one of the difficulties that arises when composite materials are used is that composites can develop significant amounts of internal damage during low velocity impacts. Such low velocity impacts may be encountered in routine handling of a structural component like a rocket motor case. The ability to assess the reduction in structural integrity of composite motor cases that experience accidental impacts is essential if composite rocket motor cases are to be certified for manned flight. While experimental studies of the post-impact performance of filament wound composite motor cases haven been proven performed (2,3), scaling impact data from small specimens to full scale structures has proven difficult. If such a scaling methodology is to be achieved, an increased understanding of the damage processes which influence residual strength is required. The study described herein was part of an ongoing investigation of damage development and reduction of tensile strength in filament wound composites subjected to low velocity impacts. The present study, which focused on documenting the damage that develops in filament wound composites as a result of such impacts, included two distinct tasks. The first task was to experimentally assess impact damage in small, filament wound pressure bottles using x-ray radiography. The second task was to study the feasibility of using digital image processing techniques to assist in

  15. Ergonomics Designs of Aluminum Beverage Cans and Bottles

    SciTech Connect

    Han Jing; Itoh, Ryouiti; Shinguryo, Takuro; Yamazaki, Koetsu; Nishiyama, Sadao

    2005-08-05

    This paper introduced the finite element analyses into the ergonomics designs to evaluate the human feelings numerically and objectively. Two design examples in developing aluminum beverage cans and bottles are presented. The first example describes a design of the tab of the can with better finger access. A simulation of finger pulling up the tab of the can has been performed and a pain in the finger has been evaluated by using the maximum value of the contact stress of a finger model. The finger access comparison of three kinds of tab ring shape designs showed that the finger access of the tab that may have a larger contact area with finger is better. The second example describes a design of rib-shape embossed bottles for hot vending. Analyses of tactile sensation of heat have been performed and the amount of heat transmitted from hot bottles to finger was used to present the hot touch feeling. Comparison results showed that the hot touch feeling of rib-shape embossed bottles is better than that of cylindrical bottles, and that the shape of the rib also influenced the hot touch feeling.

  16. Potential health impacts of consuming desalinated bottled water.

    PubMed

    Rowell, Candace; Kuiper, Nora; Shomar, Basem

    2015-06-01

    This study compared physicochemical properties, anion and carbon content and major and trace elements in desalinated and non-desalinated bottled water available in Qatar, and assessed the potential health risks associated with prolonged consumption of desalinated water. Results indicate that Qatar's population is not at elevated risk of dietary exposure to As (mean = 666 ng/L), Ba (48.0 μg/L), Be (9.27 ng/L), Cd (20.1 ng/L), Cr (874 ng/L), Pb (258 ng/L), Sb (475 ng/L) and U (533 ng/L) from consumption of both desalinated and non-desalinated bottled water types available in the country. Consumers who primarily consume desalinated water brands further minimize risk of exposure to heavy metals as levels were significantly lower than in non-desalinated bottled water. Desalinated bottled water was not a significant contributor to recommended daily intakes for Ca, Mg and F(-) for adults and children and may increase risk of deficiencies. Desalinated bottled water accounted for only 3% of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) adequate intake (AI) for Ca, 5-6% of the recommended daily allowance for Mg and 4% of the AI for F among adults. For children desalinated water contributed 2-3% of the IOM AICa, 3-10% of the RDA(Mg) and 3-9% of the AIF.

  17. Fluid dynamics following flow shut-off in bottle filling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thete, Sumeet; Appathurai, Santosh; Gao, Haijing; Basaran, Osman

    2012-11-01

    Bottle filling is ubiquitous in industry. Examples include filling of bottles with shampoos and cleaners, engine oil and pharmaceuticals. In these examples, fluid flows out of a nozzle to fill bottles in an assembly line. Once the required volume of fluid has flowed out of the nozzle, the flow is shut off. However, an evolving fluid thread or string may remain suspended from the nozzle following flow shut-off and persist. This stringing phenomenon can be detrimental to a bottle filling operation because it can adversely affect line speed and filling accuracy by causing uncertainty in fill volume, product loss and undesirable marring of the bottles' exterior surfaces. The dynamics of stringing are studied numerically primarily by using the 1D, slender-jet approximation of the flow equations. A novel feature entails development and use of a new boundary condition downstream of the nozzle exit to expedite the computations. While the emphasis is on stringing of Newtonian fluids and use of 1D approximations, results will also be presented for situations where (a) the fluids are non-Newtonian and (b) the full set of equations are solved without invoking the 1D approximation. Phase diagrams will be presented that identify conditions for which stringing can be problematic.

  18. Survey of bisphenol A in bottled water products in Canada.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xu-Liang; Corriveau, Jeannette

    2008-01-01

    A method based on isotope dilution headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to assess levels of bisphenol A (BPA) in 56 samples of bottled water products sold in Canada. Levels of BPA in samples of all 51 non-polycarbonate (PC) bottled water products were lower than the method detection limit (0.50 µg l(-1)). Levels of BPA in most bottled water products in PC carboys were low, ranging from <0.50 to 1.4 µg l(-1) with an average of 0.75 µg l(-1). However, BPA was detected at levels of 8.8 and 6.5 µg l(-1) in two bottles of the bottled water products in PC carboys from the same product analysed over a 5-week period, likely due to accidental or careless exposure of the products to heat (e.g. under the sun) during storage and/or transportation for extended periods of time.

  19. Potential health impacts of consuming desalinated bottled water.

    PubMed

    Rowell, Candace; Kuiper, Nora; Shomar, Basem

    2015-06-01

    This study compared physicochemical properties, anion and carbon content and major and trace elements in desalinated and non-desalinated bottled water available in Qatar, and assessed the potential health risks associated with prolonged consumption of desalinated water. Results indicate that Qatar's population is not at elevated risk of dietary exposure to As (mean = 666 ng/L), Ba (48.0 μg/L), Be (9.27 ng/L), Cd (20.1 ng/L), Cr (874 ng/L), Pb (258 ng/L), Sb (475 ng/L) and U (533 ng/L) from consumption of both desalinated and non-desalinated bottled water types available in the country. Consumers who primarily consume desalinated water brands further minimize risk of exposure to heavy metals as levels were significantly lower than in non-desalinated bottled water. Desalinated bottled water was not a significant contributor to recommended daily intakes for Ca, Mg and F(-) for adults and children and may increase risk of deficiencies. Desalinated bottled water accounted for only 3% of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) adequate intake (AI) for Ca, 5-6% of the recommended daily allowance for Mg and 4% of the AI for F among adults. For children desalinated water contributed 2-3% of the IOM AICa, 3-10% of the RDA(Mg) and 3-9% of the AIF. PMID:26042976

  20. [Safety verification for reuse of PET and glass bottles].

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Eiichi; Imai, Toshio; Niimi, Hiroji

    2011-01-01

    In order to verify the safety associated with reusing PET and glass bottles, a challenge test was conducted with five surrogate contaminants: 1,1,1-trichloroethane, chlorobenzene, toluene, benzophenone and phenyl cyclohexane. Bottles were filled with a cocktail solution of these contaminants and stored at 50 °C for 7 days, then washed with water and alkaline solutions. Material and migration tests were conducted at each step. The material test results showed that 430-1,440 µg/g of the contaminants were retained after water washing, and that even after washing with a 3.5% NaOH solution, 225-925 µg/g of the contaminants were retained. The migration tests revealed that 0.095-7.35 µg/mL of the contaminants were eluted. Similar tests were conducted with a soft drink ingredient, limonene. The results revealed that 48 µg/g of limonene was retained even after washing with NaOH solution, and that 0.16 µg/mL of limonene was eluted. Conversely, no contaminants were eluted from glass bottles after washing with the NaOH solution. Thus, from the viewpoint of safety and the preservation of content quality, PET bottles are not considered suitable for reuse when compared with glass bottles. PMID:21515965

  1. Criticality experiments with planar arrays of three-liter bottles containing plutonium nitrate solution

    SciTech Connect

    Durst, B.M.; Clayton, E.D.; Smith, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of these experiments was to provide benchmark data to validate calculational codes used in critically safety assessments of plant configurations. Arrays containing up to as many as sixteen three-liter bottles filled with plutonium nitrate were used in the experiments. A split-table device was used in the final assembly of the arrays. Ths planar arrays were reflected with close fitting plexiglas on each side and on the bottom but not the top surface. The experiments addressed a number of factors effecting criticality: the critical air gap between bottles in an array of fixed number of bottles, the number of bottles required for criticality if the bottles were touching, and the effect on critical array spacing and critical bottle number due to the insertion of an hydrogeneous substance into the air gap between bottles. Each bottle contained about 2.4l of Pu(NO{sub 3}){sub 4} solution at a Pu concentration of 105g Pu/l, with the {sup 240}Pu content being 2.9 wt% at a free acid molarity H{sup +} of 5.1. After the initial series of experiments were performed with bottles separated by air gaps, plexiglas shells of varying thicknesses were placed around each bottle to investigate how moderation between bottles affects both the number of bottles required for criticality and the critical spacing between each bottle. The minimum of bottles required for criticality was found to be 10.9 bottles, occurring for a square array with bottles in contact. As the bottles were spaced apart, the critical number increased. For sixteen bottles in a square array, the critical separation between surfaces in both x and y direction was 0.96 cm. The addition of plexiglas around each bottle decreased the critical bottle number, compared to those separated in air, but the critical bottle number, even with interstitial plastic in place was always greater than 10.9 bottles. The most reactive configuration was a tightly packed array of bottles with no intervening material.

  2. On Spin-Statistics and Bogoliubov Transformations in Flat Space-Time with Acceleration Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Good, Michael R. R.

    2013-01-01

    A single real scalar field of spin zero obeying the Klein-Gordon equation in flat space-time under external conditions is considered in the context of the spin-statistics connection. An imposed accelerated boundary on the field is made to become, in the far future, (1) asymptotically inertial and (2) asymptotically noninertial (with an infinite acceleration). The constant acceleration Unruh effect is also considered. The systems involving nontrivial Bogoliubov transformations contain dynamics which point to commutation relations. Particles described by in-modes obey the same statistics as particles described by out-modes. It is found in the nontrivial systems that the spin-statistics connection can be manifest from the acceleration. The equation of motion for the boundary which forever emits thermal radiation is revealed.

  3. Bottled Water: United States Consumers and Their Perceptions of Water Quality

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zhihua; Morton, Lois Wright; Mahler, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    Consumption of bottled water is increasing worldwide. Prior research shows many consumers believe bottled water is convenient and has better taste than tap water, despite reports of a number of water quality incidents with bottled water. The authors explore the demographic and social factors associated with bottled water users in the U.S. and the relationship between bottled water use and perceptions of the quality of local water supply. They find that U.S. consumers are more likely to report bottled water as their primary drinking water source when they perceive that drinking water is not safe. Furthermore, those who give lower ratings to the quality of their ground water are more likely to regularly purchase bottle water for drinking and use bottle water as their primary drinking water source. PMID:21556204

  4. Safety of Bottled Water Beverages Including Flavored Water and Nutrient-Added Water Beverages

    MedlinePlus

    ... of 26 gallons per person. Today, only carbonated soft drinks out-sell bottled water. Defining "Bottled Water" Under ... and seltzer historically are regulated by FDA as soft drinks. Flavored Water and Nutrient-Added Water Beverages New ...

  5. From Baby Bottle to Cup: Choose Training Cups Carefully, Use Them Temporarily

    MedlinePlus

    ... DENTAL PATIENT ... From baby bottle to cup Choose training cups carefully, use them temporarily T ooth decay ... you make the change from baby bottle to training cup, be very careful about d what kind ...

  6. Bottled water: United States consumers and their perceptions of water quality.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhihua; Morton, Lois Wright; Mahler, Robert L

    2011-02-01

    Consumption of bottled water is increasing worldwide. Prior research shows many consumers believe bottled water is convenient and has better taste than tap water, despite reports of a number of water quality incidents with bottled water. The authors explore the demographic and social factors associated with bottled water users in the U.S. and the relationship between bottled water use and perceptions of the quality of local water supply. They find that U.S. consumers are more likely to report bottled water as their primary drinking water source when they perceive that drinking water is not safe. Furthermore, those who give lower ratings to the quality of their ground water are more likely to regularly purchase bottle water for drinking and use bottle water as their primary drinking water source.

  7. Automatic Flatness Control of Cold Rolling Mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anbe, Yoshiharu; Sekiguchi, Kunio

    One of the subjects of cold rolling is a flatness of the rolled strip. Conventionally, measured strip flatness was approximated by polynomial (2th, 4th, 6th) equation across the entire strip width. This made it difficult to deal with desired loose edge or any desired flatness across the entire strip width. Also conventional flatness control was done for the entire strip width, so if there is a different flatness error among drive side and work side, conventional flatness control can not control properly. We propose independent strip flatness control among drive side and work side, and also automatic flatness control (AFC) system with arbitrary desired strip flatness. Also some applied results to cold mill are shown.

  8. Microbiological quality of water processed and bottled in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Okagbue, R N; Dlamini, N R; Siwela, M; Mpofu, F

    2002-01-01

    A total of sixty samples of bottled water processed in Zimbabwe by three companies, were analysed microbiologically, to assess the relative safety of locally processed bottled water. The samples were from different batches and from different storage conditions and the analyses were for total viable counts and coliforms. Four (6.7%) and seven (11.7%) samples were found to exceed the recommended maximum total viable and coliform counts, respectively. There was a low incidence of Staphylococus aureus (3.3%), Pseudomonas species (6.7%) and Bacillus species (5%). Overall, the work shows that locally bottled water is generally safe, microbiologically, though it is necessary to continue with precautionary measures because any lapse in hygiene may lead to microbial proliferation.

  9. Organochlorine pesticides residues in bottled drinking water from Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Gilberto; Ortiz, Rutilio; Schettino, Beatriz; Vega, Salvador; Gutiérrez, Rey

    2009-06-01

    This work describes concentrations of organochlorine pesticides in bottled drinking water (BDW) in Mexico City. The results of 36 samples (1.5 and 19 L presentations, 18 samples, respectively) showed the presence of seven pesticides (HCH isomers, heptachlor, aldrin, and p,p'-DDE) in bottled water compared with the drinking water standards set by NOM-127-SSA1-1994, EPA, and World Health Organization. The concentrations of the majority of organochlorine pesticides were within drinking water standards (0.01 ng/mL) except for beta-HCH of BW 3, 5, and 6 samples with values of 0.121, 0.136, and 0.192 ng/mL, respectively. It is important monitoring drinking bottled water for protecting human health.

  10. One-bottle silane coupling agent containing 4-META.

    PubMed

    Kitahara, Nobuya; Itoh, Kazuo; Kusunoki, Mizuho; Oikawa, Misa; Miyazaki, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of commercial and experimental silane coupling agents was evaluated by measuring their shear bond strengths to a ceramic disk. Experimental one-bottle silane coupling agents were prepared using 3-MPTS, 4-META, and resin monomers. The surfaces of two ceramic disks (IPS e-max, Ivoclar Vivadent AG, Schaan, Lichtenstein) were treated by a silane coupling agent to bond them to each other; this bonding was mediated by a commercial flowable resin composite (Clearfil Majesty LV, Kuraray, Tokyo, Japan). A commercial silane coupling agent (Clearfil Porcelain Bond Activator, Kuraray, Tokyo, Japan) modified by adding 4-META exhibited a significantly higher bond strength than the unmodified commercial one-bottle silane coupling agent. Among the tested materials, two experimental one-bottle silane coupling agents composed of 5% 4-META, 45% 3-MPTS, and 50% resin monomers exhibited statistically highest bond strengths.

  11. Barotraumatic esophageal perforation by explosion of a carbonated drink bottle.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae Bum; Hwang, Jae Joon; Bang, Seung Ho; Lee, Song Am; Lee, Woo Surng; Kim, Yo Han; Chee, Hyun Keun

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of barotraumatic esophageal perforation caused by the explosion of a carbonated beverage containing plastic bottle into the mouth. A 6-year-old girl presented with sudden sharp pain in her mouth and upper abdomen after outburst of the plastic bottle. A computed tomography scan showed massive pneumomediastinum with diffuse edematous esophageal wall thickening and subcutaneous emphysema primarily in the neck. An esophagogram revealed a perforation of the middle portion of the esophagus with extravasation of contrast on left side. Surgical repair was performed successfully. The patient was discharged on postoperative day 15 after an uneventful postoperative course. PMID:22186459

  12. Cholera in Portugal, 1974. II. Transmission by bottled mineral water.

    PubMed

    Blake, P A; Rosenberg, M L; Florencia, J; Costa, J B; do Prado Quintino, L; Gangarosa, E J

    1977-04-01

    During a cholera epidemic, Vibrio cholerae was isolated from two springs which supplied mineral water to a spa and to a commercial water bottling plant. Epidemiologic investigation found that cholera attack rates were 10-fold greater among visitors to the spa than among non-visitors. A subsequent matched-pair case-control study which excluded persons who had visted the spa showed that a history of consumption of the bottled non-carbonated water was significantly more common among bacteriologically confirmed cholera cases than among paired controls.

  13. Raman and AFM study of gamma irradiated plastic bottle sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Yasir; Kumar, Vijay; Sonkawade, R. G.; Dhaliwal, A. S.

    2013-02-01

    In this investigation, the effects of gamma irradiation on the structural properties of plastic bottle sheet are studied. The Plastic sheets were exposed with 1.25MeV 60Co gamma rays source at various dose levels within the range from 0-670 kGy. The induced modifications were followed by micro-Raman and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The Raman spectrum shows the decrease in Raman intensity and formation of unsaturated bonds with an increase in the gamma dose. AFM image displays rough surface morphology after irradiation. The detailed Raman analysis of plastic bottle sheets is presented here, and the results are correlated with the AFM observations.

  14. Barotraumatic esophageal perforation by explosion of a carbonated drink bottle.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae Bum; Hwang, Jae Joon; Bang, Seung Ho; Lee, Song Am; Lee, Woo Surng; Kim, Yo Han; Chee, Hyun Keun

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of barotraumatic esophageal perforation caused by the explosion of a carbonated beverage containing plastic bottle into the mouth. A 6-year-old girl presented with sudden sharp pain in her mouth and upper abdomen after outburst of the plastic bottle. A computed tomography scan showed massive pneumomediastinum with diffuse edematous esophageal wall thickening and subcutaneous emphysema primarily in the neck. An esophagogram revealed a perforation of the middle portion of the esophagus with extravasation of contrast on left side. Surgical repair was performed successfully. The patient was discharged on postoperative day 15 after an uneventful postoperative course.

  15. Raman and AFM study of gamma irradiated plastic bottle sheets

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, Yasir; Kumar, Vijay; Dhaliwal, A. S.; Sonkawade, R. G.

    2013-02-05

    In this investigation, the effects of gamma irradiation on the structural properties of plastic bottle sheet are studied. The Plastic sheets were exposed with 1.25MeV {sup 60}Co gamma rays source at various dose levels within the range from 0-670 kGy. The induced modifications were followed by micro-Raman and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The Raman spectrum shows the decrease in Raman intensity and formation of unsaturated bonds with an increase in the gamma dose. AFM image displays rough surface morphology after irradiation. The detailed Raman analysis of plastic bottle sheets is presented here, and the results are correlated with the AFM observations.

  16. Shannon information entropies for the three-dimensional Klein-Gordon problem with the Poschl-Teller potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghafourian, M.; Hassanabadi, H.

    2016-06-01

    The Shannon information entropies for the Klein-Gordon equations are evaluated for the Poschl-Teller potential, and the position-space information entropies for the ground and the excited states are calculated.

  17. 10 CFR 429.52 - Refrigerated bottled or canned beverage vending machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Refrigerated bottled or canned beverage vending machines... bottled or canned beverage vending machines. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1) The requirements of § 429.11 are applicable to refrigerated bottled or canned beverage vending machine; and (2)...

  18. 10 CFR 429.52 - Refrigerated bottled or canned beverage vending machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Refrigerated bottled or canned beverage vending machines... bottled or canned beverage vending machines. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1) The requirements of § 429.11 are applicable to refrigerated bottled or canned beverage vending machine; and (2)...

  19. 10 CFR 429.52 - Refrigerated bottled or canned beverage vending machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Refrigerated bottled or canned beverage vending machines... bottled or canned beverage vending machines. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1) The requirements of § 429.11 are applicable to refrigerated bottled or canned beverage vending machine; and (2)...

  20. 27 CFR 25.157 - Determination of tax on bottled beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... bottled beer. 25.157 Section 25.157 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.157 Determination of tax on bottled beer. The quantities of bottled beer removed subject to tax shall be computed...

  1. Detection algorithm for glass bottle mouth defect by continuous wavelet transform based on machine vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Jinfang; Zhang, Changjiang

    2014-11-01

    An efficient algorithm based on continuous wavelet transform combining with pre-knowledge, which can be used to detect the defect of glass bottle mouth, is proposed. Firstly, under the condition of ball integral light source, a perfect glass bottle mouth image is obtained by Japanese Computar camera through the interface of IEEE-1394b. A single threshold method based on gray level histogram is used to obtain the binary image of the glass bottle mouth. In order to efficiently suppress noise, moving average filter is employed to smooth the histogram of original glass bottle mouth image. And then continuous wavelet transform is done to accurately determine the segmentation threshold. Mathematical morphology operations are used to get normal binary bottle mouth mask. A glass bottle to be detected is moving to the detection zone by conveyor belt. Both bottle mouth image and binary image are obtained by above method. The binary image is multiplied with normal bottle mask and a region of interest is got. Four parameters (number of connected regions, coordinate of centroid position, diameter of inner cycle, and area of annular region) can be computed based on the region of interest. Glass bottle mouth detection rules are designed by above four parameters so as to accurately detect and identify the defect conditions of glass bottle. Finally, the glass bottles of Coca-Cola Company are used to verify the proposed algorithm. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can accurately detect the defect conditions of the glass bottles and have 98% detecting accuracy.

  2. 27 CFR 25.157 - Determination of tax on bottled beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... bottled beer. 25.157 Section 25.157 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.157 Determination of tax on bottled beer. The quantities of bottled beer removed subject to tax shall be computed...

  3. 27 CFR 25.157 - Determination of tax on bottled beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... bottled beer. 25.157 Section 25.157 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.157 Determination of tax on bottled beer. The quantities of bottled beer removed subject to tax shall be computed...

  4. 27 CFR 25.157 - Determination of tax on bottled beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... bottled beer. 25.157 Section 25.157 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.157 Determination of tax on bottled beer. The quantities of bottled beer removed subject to tax shall be computed...

  5. 76 FR 64810 - Beverages: Bottled Water Quality Standard; Establishing an Allowable Level for di(2-ethylhexyl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-19

    ... FR 41612), FDA published a proposal (``the 1993 proposed rule'') to revise the bottled water quality... adopting the allowable level for DEHP in the bottled water quality standard as proposed (58 FR 41612... be found in bottled water in levels above the standard. C. Benefits In the Economic Impact...

  6. Community Responses to the Removal of Bottled Water on a University Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikhailovich, Katja; Fitzgerald, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aimed to examine the impact of the removal of bottled water on the campus community. This paper presents the findings of a survey conducted at the first Australian university to remove single-use bottled water from sale on a small regional university campus. The removal of bottled water from sale at the university formed part…

  7. Simple Model of a Rolling Water-Filled Bottle on an Inclined Ramp

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Shihao; Hu, Naiwen; Yao, Tianchen; Chu, Charles; Babb, Simona; Cohen, Jenna; Sangiovanni, Giana; Watt, Summer; Weisman, Danielle; Klep, James; Walecki, Wojciech J.; Walecki, Eve S.; Walecki, Peter S.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate a water-filled bottle rolling down an incline and ask the following question: is a rolling bottle better described by a model ignoring all internal motion where the bottle is approximated by a material point sliding down an incline, or is it better described by a rigid solid cylinder rolling down the incline without skidding? The…

  8. 27 CFR 19.204 - Alternation of distilled spirits plant and taxpaid wine bottling house premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits plant and taxpaid wine bottling house premises. 19.204 Section 19.204 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... distilled spirits plant and taxpaid wine bottling house premises. (a) General. A proprietor of a distilled spirits plant operating a contiguous taxpaid wine bottling house desiring to alternate the use of...

  9. 27 CFR 19.634 - Receipt and storage of liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CFR 31.263. Liquor bottles, including those of less than 200 ml capacity, shall be stored in a safe... liquor bottles. 19.634 Section 19.634 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Liquor Bottle and...

  10. 27 CFR 4.38a - Bottle cartons, booklets and leaflets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottle cartons, booklets... for Wine § 4.38a Bottle cartons, booklets and leaflets. (a) General. An individual covering, carton, or other container of the bottle used for sale at retail (other than a shipping container), or...

  11. 27 CFR 25.157 - Determination of tax on bottled beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... bottled beer. 25.157 Section 25.157 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.157 Determination of tax on bottled beer. The quantities of bottled beer removed subject to tax shall be computed...

  12. 49 CFR 192.175 - Pipe-type and bottle-type holders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pipe-type and bottle-type holders. 192.175 Section....175 Pipe-type and bottle-type holders. (a) Each pipe-type and bottle-type holder must be designed so as to prevent the accumulation of liquids in the holder, in connecting pipe, or in...

  13. 77 FR 43237 - Genome in a Bottle Consortium-Work Plan Review Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Genome in a Bottle Consortium--Work Plan Review Workshop.... SUMMARY: NIST announces the Genome in a Bottle Consortium meeting to be held on Thursday and Friday, August 16 and 17, 2012. The Genome in a Bottle Consortium is planning to develop the reference...

  14. What happens to linear properties as we move from the Klein-Gordon equation to the sine-Gordon equation

    SciTech Connect

    Kovalyov, Mikhail

    2010-06-15

    In this article the sets of solutions of the sine-Gordon equation and its linearization the Klein-Gordon equation are discussed and compared. It is shown that the set of solutions of the sine-Gordon equation possesses a richer structure which partly disappears during linearization. Just like the solutions of the Klein-Gordon equation satisfy the linear superposition principle, the solutions of the sine-Gordon equation satisfy a nonlinear superposition principle.

  15. Particle production and dissipation caused by the Kaluza-Klein tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, Tomohiro

    2013-01-01

    Two-step dissipation is studied in supersymmetric models in which the field in motion couples to bulk fields in the higher-dimensional space. Since the Kaluza-Klein tower of the intermediate field changes its mass spectrum during the evolution, there could be back reaction from the tower. Then the system may eventually cause significant dissipation of the kinetic energy if the tower is coupled to light fields in the thermal bath. To see what happens in the higher-dimensional theory, we consider three models for the scenario, which are carefully prepared. In these models the extension is obvious but it does not disturb the original setups. The third model suggests that the evolution of the volume moduli may feel significant friction from the Kaluza-Klein tower.

  16. Inhibiting Klein Tunneling in a Graphene p-n Junction without an External Magnetic Field.

    PubMed

    Oh, Hyungju; Coh, Sinisa; Son, Young-Woo; Cohen, Marvin L

    2016-07-01

    We study by first-principles calculations a densely packed island of organic molecules (F_{4}TCNQ) adsorbed on graphene. We find that with electron doping the island naturally forms a p-n junction in the graphene sheet. For example, a doping level of ∼3×10^{13}  electrons per cm^{2} results in a p-n junction with an 800 meV electrostatic potential barrier. Unlike in a conventional p-n junction in graphene, in the case of the junction formed by an adsorbed organic molecular island we expect that the Klein tunneling is inhibited, even without an applied external magnetic field. Here Klein tunneling is inhibited by the ferromagnetic order that spontaneously occurs in the molecular island upon doping. We estimate that the magnetic barrier in the graphene sheet is around 10 mT. PMID:27419583

  17. Theories on anxiety in Freud and Melanie Klein. Their metapsychological status.

    PubMed

    De Bianchedi, E T; Scalozub De Boschan, L; De Cortiñas, L P; De Piccolo, E G

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative study of the theories on anxiety formulated by Freud and Melanie Klein, with particular emphasis on the questions of its origin, its meaning for the individual and its function in both theoretical systems. The purpose of this comparative analysis is to offer an instrument which helps frame the theoretical discussions in psychoanalysis in an epistemological context. The authors hold that for Freud anxiety is considered as one more amongst the various manifestations of mental life, which his general theories try to explain, whereas for Melanie Klein anxiety and its destinies occupies a central place in her theories on mental functioning. The differences in both theories, which the authors of this paper describe, especially as to origin, function and meaning of anxiety, respond partially to the different metapsychological points of view with which both authors focus mental life--points of view which they have themselves investigated in a previous paper.

  18. Inhibiting Klein Tunneling in a Graphene p -n Junction without an External Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Hyungju; Coh, Sinisa; Son, Young-Woo; Cohen, Marvin L.

    2016-07-01

    We study by first-principles calculations a densely packed island of organic molecules (F4TCNQ ) adsorbed on graphene. We find that with electron doping the island naturally forms a p -n junction in the graphene sheet. For example, a doping level of ˜3 ×1013 electrons per cm2 results in a p -n junction with an 800 meV electrostatic potential barrier. Unlike in a conventional p -n junction in graphene, in the case of the junction formed by an adsorbed organic molecular island we expect that the Klein tunneling is inhibited, even without an applied external magnetic field. Here Klein tunneling is inhibited by the ferromagnetic order that spontaneously occurs in the molecular island upon doping. We estimate that the magnetic barrier in the graphene sheet is around 10 mT.

  19. Suppressing Klein tunneling in graphene using a one-dimensional array of localized scatterers.

    PubMed

    Walls, Jamie D; Hadad, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Graphene's unique physical and chemical properties make it an attractive platform for use in micro- and nanoelectronic devices. However, electrostatically controlling the flow of electrons in graphene can be challenging as a result of Klein tunneling, where electrons normally incident to a one-dimensional potential barrier of height V are perfectly transmitted even as V → ∞. In this study, theoretical and numerical calculations predict that the transmission probability for an electron wave normally incident to a one-dimensional array of localized scatterers can be significantly less than unity when the electron wavelength is smaller than the spacing between scatterers. In effect, placing periodic openings throughout a potential barrier can, somewhat counterintuitively, decrease transmission in graphene. Our results suggest that electrostatic potentials with spatial variations on the order of the electron wavelength can suppress Klein tunneling and could find applications in developing graphene electronic devices. PMID:25678400

  20. Hoop conjecture and the horizon formation cross section in Kaluza-Klein spacetimes

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, Chul-Moon; Ishihara, Hideki; Kimura, Masashi; Tanzawa, Sugure

    2010-01-15

    We analyze momentarily static initial data sets of the gravitational field produced by two-point sources in five-dimensional Kaluza-Klein spacetimes. These initial data sets are characterized by the mass, the separation of sources and the size of an extra dimension. Using these initial data sets, we discuss the condition for black hole formation, and propose a new conjecture which is a hybrid of the four-dimensional hoop conjecture and the five-dimensional hyperhoop conjecture. By using the new conjecture, we estimate the cross section of black hole formation due to collisions of particles in Kaluza-Klein spacetimes. We show that the mass dependence of the cross section gives us information about the size and the number of the compactified extra dimensions.

  1. Nonlinear self-adjointness and conservation laws of Klein-Gordon-Fock equation with central symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulwahhab, Muhammad Alim

    2015-05-01

    The concept of nonlinear self-adjointness, introduced by Ibragimov, has significantly extends approaches to constructing conservation laws associated with symmetries since it incorporates the strict self-adjointness, the quasi self-adjointness as well as the usual linear self-adjointness. Using this concept, the nonlinear self-adjointness condition for the Klein-Gordon-Fock equation was established and subsequently used to construct simplified but infinitely many nontrivial and independent conserved vectors. The Noether's theorem was further applied to the Klein-Gordon-Fock equation to explore more distinct first integrals, result shows that conservation laws constructed through this approach are exactly the same as those obtained under strict self-adjointness of Ibragimov's method.

  2. Uniqueness theorem for Kaluza-Klein black holes in five-dimensional minimal supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomizawa, Shinya

    2010-11-01

    We show a uniqueness theorem for Kaluza-Klein black holes in the bosonic sector of five-dimensional minimal supergravity. More precisely, under the assumptions of the existence of two commuting axial isometries and a nondegenerate connected event horizon of the cross-section topology S3, or lens space, we prove that a stationary charged rotating Kaluza-Klein black hole in five-dimensional minimal supergravity is uniquely characterized by its mass, two independent angular momenta, electric charge, magnetic flux, and nut charge, provided that there exists neither a nut nor a bolt (a bubble) in the domain of outer communication. We also show that under the assumptions of the same symmetry, same asymptotics, and the horizon cross section of S1×S2, a black ring within the same theory—if it exists—is uniquely determined by its dipole charge and rod intervals besides the charges and magnetic flux.

  3. Theories on anxiety in Freud and Melanie Klein. Their metapsychological status.

    PubMed

    De Bianchedi, E T; Scalozub De Boschan, L; De Cortiñas, L P; De Piccolo, E G

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative study of the theories on anxiety formulated by Freud and Melanie Klein, with particular emphasis on the questions of its origin, its meaning for the individual and its function in both theoretical systems. The purpose of this comparative analysis is to offer an instrument which helps frame the theoretical discussions in psychoanalysis in an epistemological context. The authors hold that for Freud anxiety is considered as one more amongst the various manifestations of mental life, which his general theories try to explain, whereas for Melanie Klein anxiety and its destinies occupies a central place in her theories on mental functioning. The differences in both theories, which the authors of this paper describe, especially as to origin, function and meaning of anxiety, respond partially to the different metapsychological points of view with which both authors focus mental life--points of view which they have themselves investigated in a previous paper. PMID:3063678

  4. Logical inference approach to relativistic quantum mechanics: Derivation of the Klein-Gordon equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donker, H. C.; Katsnelson, M. I.; De Raedt, H.; Michielsen, K.

    2016-09-01

    The logical inference approach to quantum theory, proposed earlier De Raedt et al. (2014), is considered in a relativistic setting. It is shown that the Klein-Gordon equation for a massive, charged, and spinless particle derives from the combination of the requirements that the space-time data collected by probing the particle is obtained from the most robust experiment and that on average, the classical relativistic equation of motion of a particle holds.

  5. Solutions of the Klein-Gordon equation with the improved Rosen-Morse potential energy model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Tao; Lin, Shu-Rong; Jia, Chun-Sheng

    2013-07-01

    We solve the Klein-Gordon equation with the improved Rosen-Morse empirical potential energy model. The bound-state energy equation has been obtained by using the supersymmetric shape invariance approach. The relativistic vibrational transition frequencies for the 33Σg+ state of the Cs2 molecule have been computed by using the improved Rosen-Morse potential model. The relativistic vibrational transition frequencies are in good agreement with the experimental RKR values and DPF values.

  6. Downward relativistic potential step and phenomenological account of Bohmian trajectories of the Klein paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razavi, M.; Mollai, M.; Jami, S.; Ahanj, A.

    2016-09-01

    The Dirac equation has been applied to fermions scattering from the downward potential step. The results show that some particles do not fall off the edge of the step and reflect. Then, based on the de Broglie-Bohm interpretation of quantum mechanics (Bohmian mechanics) and Bohmian trajectories we have resolved the problem. Lastly, a phenomenological study of the Bohmian trajectory of the Klein paradox has been discussed.

  7. Deep-water sponges (Porifera) from Bonaire and Klein Curaçao, Southern Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Van Soest, Rob W M; Meesters, Erik H W G; Becking, Leontine E

    2014-10-29

    Four submersible dives off the coast of Bonaire (Caribbean Netherlands) and Klein Curaçao (Curaçao) to depths of 99.5-242 m, covering lower mesophotic and upper dysphotic zones, yielded 52 sponge specimens belonging to 31 species. Among these we identified 13 species as new to science. These are Plakinastrella stinapa n. sp., Pachastrella pacoi n. sp., Characella pachastrelloides n. sp., Geodia curacaoensis n. sp., Caminus carmabi n. sp., Discodermia adhaerens n. sp., Clathria (Microciona) acarnoides n. sp., Antho (Acarnia) pellita n. sp., Parahigginsia strongylifera n. sp., Calyx magnoculata n. sp., Neopetrosia dutchi n. sp., Neopetrosia ovata n. sp. and Neopetrosia eurystomata n. sp. We also report an euretid hexactinellid, which belongs to the rare genus Verrucocoeloidea, recently described (2014) as V. liberatorii Reiswig & Dohrmann. The remaining 18 already known species are all illustrated by photos of the habit, either in situ or 'on deck', but only briefly characterized in an annotated table to confirm their occurrence in the Southern Caribbean. The habitat investigated-steep limestone rocks, likely representing Pleistocene fossil reefs--is similar to deep-water fossil reefs at Barbados of which the sponges were sampled and studied by Van Soest and Stentoft (1988). A comparison is made between the two localities, showing a high degree of similarity in sponge composition: 53% of the present Bonaire-Klein Curaçao species were also retrieved at Barbados. At the level of higher taxa (genera, families) Bonaire-Klein Curaçao shared approximately 80% of its lower mesophotic and upper dysphotic sponge fauna with Barbados, despite a distance between them of 1000 km, indicating high faunal homogeneity. We also preliminarily compared the shallow-water (euphotic) sponge fauna of Curaçao with the combined data available for the Barbados, Bonaire and Klein Curaçao mesophotic and upper dysphotic sponges, which resulted in the conclusion that the two faunas show only

  8. Generalized Klein-Gordon and Dirac Equations from Nonlocal Kinetic Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Nabulsi, Rami Ahmad

    2016-09-01

    In this note, I generalized the Klein-Gordon and the Dirac equations by using Suykens's nonlocal-in-time kinetic energy approach, which is motivated from Feynman's kinetic energy functional formalism where the position differences are shifted with respect to one another. I proved that these generalized equations are similar to those obtained in literature in the presence of minimal length based on the Quesne-Tkachuk algebra.

  9. Klein-Gordon equations for energy-momentum of the relativistic particle in rapidity space

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaleev, R. M.

    2013-10-15

    The notion of four-rapidity is defined as a four-vector with one time-like and three space-like coordinates. It is proved, the energy and momentum defined in the space of four-rapidity obey Klein-Gordon equations constrained by the classical trajectory of a relativistic particle. It is shown, for small values of a proper mass influence of the constraint is weakened and the classical motion gains features of a wave motion.

  10. Deep-water sponges (Porifera) from Bonaire and Klein Curaçao, Southern Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Van Soest, Rob W M; Meesters, Erik H W G; Becking, Leontine E

    2014-01-01

    Four submersible dives off the coast of Bonaire (Caribbean Netherlands) and Klein Curaçao (Curaçao) to depths of 99.5-242 m, covering lower mesophotic and upper dysphotic zones, yielded 52 sponge specimens belonging to 31 species. Among these we identified 13 species as new to science. These are Plakinastrella stinapa n. sp., Pachastrella pacoi n. sp., Characella pachastrelloides n. sp., Geodia curacaoensis n. sp., Caminus carmabi n. sp., Discodermia adhaerens n. sp., Clathria (Microciona) acarnoides n. sp., Antho (Acarnia) pellita n. sp., Parahigginsia strongylifera n. sp., Calyx magnoculata n. sp., Neopetrosia dutchi n. sp., Neopetrosia ovata n. sp. and Neopetrosia eurystomata n. sp. We also report an euretid hexactinellid, which belongs to the rare genus Verrucocoeloidea, recently described (2014) as V. liberatorii Reiswig & Dohrmann. The remaining 18 already known species are all illustrated by photos of the habit, either in situ or 'on deck', but only briefly characterized in an annotated table to confirm their occurrence in the Southern Caribbean. The habitat investigated-steep limestone rocks, likely representing Pleistocene fossil reefs--is similar to deep-water fossil reefs at Barbados of which the sponges were sampled and studied by Van Soest and Stentoft (1988). A comparison is made between the two localities, showing a high degree of similarity in sponge composition: 53% of the present Bonaire-Klein Curaçao species were also retrieved at Barbados. At the level of higher taxa (genera, families) Bonaire-Klein Curaçao shared approximately 80% of its lower mesophotic and upper dysphotic sponge fauna with Barbados, despite a distance between them of 1000 km, indicating high faunal homogeneity. We also preliminarily compared the shallow-water (euphotic) sponge fauna of Curaçao with the combined data available for the Barbados, Bonaire and Klein Curaçao mesophotic and upper dysphotic sponges, which resulted in the conclusion that the two faunas show only

  11. The fate of the mixmaster behaviour in vacuum inhomogeneous Kaluza-Klein cosmological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demaret, Jacques; Hanquin, Jean-Luc; Henneaux, Marc; Spindel, Philipe; Taormina, Anne

    1986-07-01

    The generic behaviour of vacuum inhomogeneous Kaluza-Klein cosmologies is studied in the vicinity of the cosmological singularity. The collision law for the Kasner exponents is calculated in any number of spatial dimensions d. Its properties are investigated both theoretically and numerically. It is argued that the chaotic oscillatory behaviour disappears for d >= 10. This regime is replaced by the monotonic Kasner behaviour found previously.

  12. Laser illuminated flat panel display

    SciTech Connect

    Veligdan, J.T.

    1995-12-31

    A 10 inch laser illuminated flat panel Planar Optic Display (POD) screen has been constructed and tested. This POD screen technology is an entirely new concept in display technology. Although the initial display is flat and made of glass, this technology lends itself to applications where a plastic display might be wrapped around the viewer. The display screen is comprised of hundreds of planar optical waveguides where each glass waveguide represents a vertical line of resolution. A black cladding layer, having a lower index of refraction, is placed between each waveguide layer. Since the cladding makes the screen surface black, the contrast is high. The prototype display is 9 inches wide by 5 inches high and approximately I inch thick. A 3 milliwatt HeNe laser is used as the illumination source and a vector scanning technique is employed.

  13. Graphene folding on flat substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xiaoming; Zhao, Yadong; Ke, Changhong; Zhang, Liuyang; Wang, Xianqiao

    2014-10-28

    We present a combined experimental-theoretical study of graphene folding on flat substrates. The structure and deformation of the folded graphene sheet are experimentally characterized by atomic force microscopy. The local graphene folding behaviors are interpreted based on nonlinear continuum mechanics modeling and molecular dynamics simulations. Our study on self-folding of a trilayer graphene sheet reports a bending stiffness of about 6.57 eV, which is about four times the reported values for monolayer graphene. Our results reveal that an intriguing free sliding phenomenon occurs at the interlayer van der Waals interfaces during the graphene folding process. This work demonstrates that it is a plausible venue to quantify the bending stiffness of graphene based on its self-folding conformation on flat substrates. The findings reported in this work are useful to a better understanding of the mechanical properties of graphene and in the pursuit of its applications.

  14. Parallel spinors on flat manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadowski, Michał

    2006-05-01

    Let p(M) be the dimension of the vector space of parallel spinors on a closed spin manifold M. We prove that every finite group G is the holonomy group of a closed flat spin manifold M(G) such that p(M(G))>0. If the holonomy group Hol(M) of M is cyclic, then we give an explicit formula for p(M) another than that given in [R.J. Miatello, R.A. Podesta, The spectrum of twisted Dirac operators on compact flat manifolds, Trans. Am. Math. Soc., in press]. We answer the question when p(M)>0 if Hol(M) is a cyclic group of prime order or dim⁡M≤4.

  15. Corrugated cover plate for flat plate collector

    DOEpatents

    Hollands, K. G. Terry; Sibbitt, Bruce

    1978-01-01

    A flat plate radiant energy collector is providing having a transparent cover. The cover has a V-corrugated shape which reduces the amount of energy reflected by the cover away from the flat plate absorber of the collector.

  16. Fluctuations along supersymmetric flat directions during inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enqvist, Kari; Figueroa, Daniel G.; Rigopoulos, Gerasimos

    2012-01-01

    We consider a set of scalar fields, consisting of a single flat direction and one or several non-flat directions. We take our cue from the MSSM, considering separately D-flat and F-flat directions, but our results apply to any supersymmetric scenario containing flat directions. We study the field fluctuations during pure de Sitter inflation, following the evolution of the infrared modes by numerically solving the appropriate Langevin equations. We demonstrate that for the Standard Model U(1)Y, SU(2)L or SU(3)c gauge couplings, as well as for large enough Yukawa couplings, the fluctuations along the non-flat directions effectively block the fluctuations along the flat directions. The usual expected behaviour langlephi2rangleproptoN, with N the number of e-folds, may be strongly violated, depending on the coupling strengths. As a consequence, those cosmological considerations, which are derived assuming that during inflation flat directions fluctuate freely, should be revised.

  17. Flat heat pipe design, construction, and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Voegler, G.; Boughey, B.; Cerza, M.; Lindler, K.W.

    1999-08-02

    This paper details the design, construction and partial analysis of a low temperature flat heat pipe in order to determine the feasibility of implementing flat heat pipes into thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion systems.

  18. Flat panel planar optic display

    SciTech Connect

    Veligdan, J.T.

    1994-11-01

    A prototype 10 inch flat panel Planar Optic Display, (POD), screen has been constructed and tested. This display screen is comprised of hundreds of planar optic class sheets bonded together with a cladding layer between each sheet where each glass sheet represents a vertical line of resolution. The display is 9 inches wide by 5 inches high and approximately 1 inch thick. A 3 milliwatt HeNe laser is used as the illumination source and a vector scanning technique is employed.

  19. Residue management at Rocky Flats

    SciTech Connect

    Olencz, J.

    1995-12-31

    Past plutonium production and manufacturing operations conducted at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) produced a variety of plutonium-contaminated by-product materials. Residues are a category of these materials and were categorized as {open_quotes}materials in-process{close_quotes} to be recovered due to their inherent plutonium concentrations. In 1989 all RFETS plutonium production and manufacturing operations were curtailed. This report describes the management of plutonium bearing liquid and solid wastes.

  20. Flat space physics from holography

    SciTech Connect

    Bousso, Raphael

    2004-02-06

    We point out that aspects of quantum mechanics can be derived from the holographic principle, using only a perturbative limit of classical general relativity. In flat space, the covariant entropy bound reduces to the Bekenstein bound. The latter does not contain Newton's constant and cannot operate via gravitational backreaction. Instead, it is protected by--and in this sense, predicts--the Heisenberg uncertainty principle.

  1. The Einstein-Klein-Gordon Equations, Wave Dark Matter, and the Tully-Fisher Relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goetz, Andrew S.

    2015-01-01

    We examine the Einstein equation coupled to the Klein-Gordon equation for a complex-valued scalar field. These two equations together are known as the Einstein-Klein-Gordon system. In the low-field, non-relativistic limit, the Einstein-Klein-Gordon system reduces to the Poisson-Schrodinger system. We describe the simplest solutions of these systems in spherical symmetry, the spherically symmetric static states, and some scaling properties they obey. We also describe some approximate analytic solutions for these states. The EKG system underlies a theory of wave dark matter, also known as scalar field dark matter (SFDM), boson star dark matter, and Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) dark matter. We discuss a possible connection between the theory of wave dark matter and the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation, which is a scaling relation observed to hold for disk galaxies in the universe across many decades in mass. We show how fixing boundary conditions at the edge of the spherically symmetric static states implies Tully-Fisher-like relations for the states. We also catalog other ``scaling conditions'' one can impose on the static states and show that they do not lead to Tully-Fisher-like relations--barring one exception which is already known and which has nothing to do with the specifics of wave dark matter.

  2. The life and work of Melanie Klein in the British Psycho-Analytical Society.

    PubMed

    King, P H

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes certain aspects of the life and work of Melanie Klein in the British Psycho-Analytical Society. It attempts to highlight the reciprocity of the relationship between Melanie Klein and other members of that Society by showing how the climate of psychoanalytical opinion that was prevalent among members of that Society during the first decade of her stay in London, and which encouraged discussion of clinical work and interest in psychoanalytical discovery, provided a congenial setting for her to become firmly established as an active member of the British Society and to continue her contributions to psychoanalytic theory and clinical expertise. The paper also traces the development of Melanie Klein's main theoretical contributions, together with relevant criticisms of them as they emerged, against the background of the history of the British Psycho-Analytical Society. It describes the controversies that arose as to whether or not her ideas could properly be viewed within the framework of psychoanalytic theory, as formulated by Freud, and the attempted resolution of these controversies, together with some comments on the repercussions of these theoretical disagreements on relationships within the Society. An extensive list of references is included to facilitate a more detailed study of the subject.

  3. The "new" democratic woman of modernity: Georgia O'Keeffe and Melanie Klein.

    PubMed

    Gadt, J C

    1994-06-01

    O'Keeffe put into visual language the psychic splitting that had occurred between the sexes in the United States, attempting to integrate what had formerly been separated as feminine and masculine into the female psyche. In her most important contribution, she explored presence rather than absence and opened up possibilities for thinking about openings. The concept of the female opening in particular had heretofore been assigned a negative meaning, signifying more often than not a gaping wound rather than a space and place of possibilities. Klein's complex and evocative understanding of some of the earliest mental processes of life enabled researchers to delve into the meanings made of the presence of the mother and father and baby, in the context of the baby's body-mind. Klein's female or male baby desires to know from the beginning. She discovered splitting and projective identification, the development of anxiety and guilt under the aegis of these mental processes, the multiple meanings of aggression, and, significantly, she permitted the female baby's body to have its own language. The answers provided by O'Keeffe and Klein bequeathed new possibilities for women's self-invention and remain pivot points for female identity throughout the century, to be confronted again by the second wave of feminism beginning in the late 1960s, by "postfeminist" debates, and by a challenged psychoanalysis. A more careful probing of these issues may help us to better understand our past so as to have greater resources for a more comprehensive reading of our present.

  4. Wave operators to a quadratic nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation in two space dimensions revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Nakao; Naumkin, Pavel I.; Tonegawa, Satoshi

    2012-08-01

    We continue to study the existence of the wave operators for the nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation with quadratic nonlinearity in two space dimensions {(partialt2-Δ+m2) u=λ u2,( t,x) in{R}×{R}2}. We prove that if u1+in{H}^{3/2+3γ,1}( {R}2),{ }u2+in{H}^{1/2+3γ,1}( {R} 2), where {γin( 0,1/4)} and the norm {Vert u1+Vert_{{H}1^{3/2+γ}}+Vert u2+Vert_{{H}1^{1/2+γ}}≤ρ,} then there exist ρ > 0 and T > 1 such that the nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation has a unique global solution {uin{C}( [ T,infty) ;{H}^{1/2}( {R}2) ) } satisfying the asymptotics Vert u( t) -u0 ( t) Vert _{{H}^{1/2}} ≤ Ct^{-1/2-γ} for all t > T, where u 0 denotes the solution of the free Klein-Gordon equation.

  5. Kaluza-Klein theory in the limit of large number of extra dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Canfora, Fabrizio; Giacomini, Alex; Zerwekh, Alfonso R.

    2009-10-15

    The Kaluza-Klein compactification in the limit of a large number of extra dimensions is studied. The starting point is the Einstein-Hilbert action plus cosmological constant in 4+D dimensions. It is shown that in the large D limit the effective four-dimensional cosmological constant is of order 1/D, whereas the size of the extra dimensions remains finite. A 't Hooft-like large D expansion of the effective Lagrangian for the Kaluza-Klein scalar and gauge fields arising from the dimensional reduction is considered. It is shown that the propagator of the scalar field associated to the determinant of the metric of the extra dimensions is strongly suppressed. This is an interesting result as in standard Kaluza-Klein theory this scalar degree of freedom is responsible for the constraint on the gauge fields which makes it impossible to recover the usual Yang-Mills equations. Moreover in the large D limit it turns out that the ultraviolet divergences due to the interactions between gauge and scalar fields are softened.

  6. The life and work of Melanie Klein in the British Psycho-Analytical Society.

    PubMed

    King, P H

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes certain aspects of the life and work of Melanie Klein in the British Psycho-Analytical Society. It attempts to highlight the reciprocity of the relationship between Melanie Klein and other members of that Society by showing how the climate of psychoanalytical opinion that was prevalent among members of that Society during the first decade of her stay in London, and which encouraged discussion of clinical work and interest in psychoanalytical discovery, provided a congenial setting for her to become firmly established as an active member of the British Society and to continue her contributions to psychoanalytic theory and clinical expertise. The paper also traces the development of Melanie Klein's main theoretical contributions, together with relevant criticisms of them as they emerged, against the background of the history of the British Psycho-Analytical Society. It describes the controversies that arose as to whether or not her ideas could properly be viewed within the framework of psychoanalytic theory, as formulated by Freud, and the attempted resolution of these controversies, together with some comments on the repercussions of these theoretical disagreements on relationships within the Society. An extensive list of references is included to facilitate a more detailed study of the subject. PMID:6352537

  7. Whoosh Bottle Safety, Again: What about What Is inside?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Robert B.; Lauber, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Studies regarding the whoosh bottle combustion experiment have largely focused on the detonation hazard of the demonstration, particularly with regards to fuel and container choice. Previous work has suggested that the fuel should be 2-propanol owing to its relatively cool flame characteristics. The current study has found that the combustion of…

  8. Putting Time in a Bottle--Or a Box!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Thomas N.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the problems of teaching time concepts to children. Suggests alternatives to the traditional time line. Describes the use of bottles and boxes as symbols of units of time when encouraging children to visualize and understand time. Provides information which will assist teachers in using these techniques. (KO)

  9. 40 CFR 141.101 - Use of bottled water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Use of bottled water. 141.101 Section 141.101 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Use of Non-Centralized Treatment Devices §...

  10. 40 CFR 141.101 - Use of bottled water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Use of bottled water. 141.101 Section 141.101 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Use of Non-Centralized Treatment Devices §...

  11. 40 CFR 141.101 - Use of bottled water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Use of bottled water. 141.101 Section 141.101 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Use of Non-Centralized Treatment Devices §...

  12. NASA-Enhanced Water Bottles Filter Water on the Go

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    Complex systems on the ISS collect and recycle moisture from every possible source-including sweat and urine-to be filtered for recycled use. Greenbrae, California-based ÖKO now sells a water bottle that employs NASA filtration media to purify water as the user squeezes it through the device.

  13. Perceptions of bottled water consumers in three Brazilian municipalities.

    PubMed

    de Queiroz, Josiane T Matos; Doria, Miguel de França; Rosenberg, Mark W; Heller, Léo; Zhouri, Andréa

    2013-09-01

    This study presents perceptions of consumers of bottled water in their households in three Brazilian municipalities. Data from interviews were analyzed using the Discourse Collective Subject method. Interviewees spent, on average, the equivalent of 40% of their water bill for the public water supply on the purchase of bottled water. The decision about water consumption in the household was predominantly made by women. Interviewees were particularly concerned with health risks and expressed a strong preference for the safety and organoleptic qualities of bottled water, particularly in cases where the tap water supply did not fully meet the regulated water quality standards. Interviewees were largely unaware of the origin, type, storage, and social and environmental impacts of bottled water. Results highlight the importance of water education efforts among the general population and the key role of women in the processes related to drinking water. The need for gender-specific interventions and the empowerment of women on water issues is noted. Results also strongly support the relevance of ensuring the provision of safe drinking water, from the source to the consumption point, with the trust of consumers.

  14. Bottle Babies: A Guide to the Baby Foods Issue. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottingham, Jane, Comp.

    This guide has been compiled as an aide-memoire and resource book about the increasing incidence of malnutrition in infants caused by bottle feeding in the Third World. It deals with four major interrelated issues: (1) the prevalence of protein energy malnutrition, (2) the importance of breast milk, not only in preventing malnutrition and disease…

  15. [Determination of epoxidized soybean oil in bottled foods].

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Yoko; Kanno, Shinji; Mutsuga, Motoh; Tanamoto, Kenichi

    2006-12-01

    A determination method for epoxidized soybean oil (ESBO) in bottled foods was developed and used to survey bottled foods on the Japanese market. The amount of sample required was decreased to 20 g and the standard addition method was adopted for the quantification, because lipid in foods interrupted the hydrolysis of ESBO. The recoveries were 87.1 and 98.9% and the determination limit was 5.0 microg/g for a 20 g sample, be cause lipid in foods interupted the hydrolysis of ESBO. The recoveries using the internal standard method varied widely, because hydrolysis of the internal standard, cis-11,14-eicosadienoic acid ethyl ester, was affected more than that of ESBO by coexisting lipid in the sample. ESBO was not detected in any of the bottled baby food samples examined (14 samples), though it had been frequently detected in previous European surveys. This difference may be related to the low fat content and low fluidity of the bottled baby foods retailed in Japan. On the other hand, ESBO was detected at levels of 25.7-494.0 microg/g in liver paste, pasta sauce, Sungan in spicy oil, and spicy oil. These foods had higher fat content and higher fluidity. However, ESBO intake from these foods appears unlikely to exceed the TDI in the EU (1 mg/kg bw/day). PMID:17228787

  16. 19. MOLTEN IRON FLOWS INTO A 'BOTTLE' AT FURNACE NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. MOLTEN IRON FLOWS INTO A 'BOTTLE' AT FURNACE NO. 1. THE IRON WILL BE TRANSPORTED BY RAIL TO THE OPEN HEARTH OR BASIC OXYGEN FURNACES, WHERE IT IS A MAJOR COMPONENT IN THE PRODUCTION OF STEEL. - Corrigan, McKinney Steel Company, 3100 East Forty-fifth Street, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  17. Reducing Baby Bottle Tooth Decay. A SERVE Research Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southeastern Regional Vision for Education (SERVE), Tallahassee, FL.

    This pamphlet discusses strategies for reducing baby bottle tooth decay (BBTD) among Native American children. BBTD in infants and toddlers is a painful disease characterized by extensive decay of the upper front and side teeth. It is caused by prolonged exposure of teeth to carbohydrates, such as those contained in infant formula, milk, and fruit…

  18. The Use of Plastic Lemonade Bottles as Fermenter Reaction Vessels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, David; Howard, Barry

    1988-01-01

    Describes the construction and uses of a low cost fermenter reaction vessel which is suitable for laboratory growth of microorganisms by continuous and batch cultures from plastic soft drink bottles. Lists materials, discusses modifications that can be made and gives examples of use. (CW)

  19. Painting Cloud Nine: A Study of Magritte's Bottle Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Dianne

    2000-01-01

    Provides background information on Rene Magritte and his work. Offers an activity in which elementary and middle school students can learn about Magritte's sky and silhouette series of painted wine bottles. Explains that the lesson should be used when students are learning about poetry in language arts classes. (CMK)

  20. Water Jets from Bottles, Buckets, Barrels, and Vases with Holes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopac, Vjera

    2015-01-01

    Observation of the water jets flowing from three equidistant holes on the side of a vertical cylindrical bottle is an interesting and widely used didactical experiment illustrating the laws of fluids in motion. In this paper we analyze theoretically and numerically the ranges of the stationary water jets flowing from various rotationally symmetric…

  1. A Computer Model for Soda Bottle Oscillations: "The Bottelator".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soltzberg, Leonard J.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Presents a model to explain the behavior of oscillatory phenomena found in the soda bottle oscillator. Describes recording the oscillations, and the design of the model based on the qualitative explanation of the oscillations. Illustrates a variety of physiochemical concepts including far-from-equilibrium oscillations, feedback, solubility and…

  2. Photocatalytic Coats in Glass Drinking-Water Bottles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andren, Anders W.; Armstrong, David E.; Anderson, Marc A.

    2005-01-01

    According to a proposal, the insides of glass bottles used to store drinking water would be coated with films consisting of or containing TiO2. In the presence of ultraviolet light, these films would help to remove bacteria, viruses, and trace organic contaminants from the water.

  3. Quality assessment of various bottled waters marketed in Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Semerjian, Lucy A

    2011-01-01

    Thirty-two domestic bottled water brands were analyzed for various physico-chemical as well as bacterial water quality parameters. Recorded results were compared with the Lebanese Standards Institution standards of quality and standards of identity as well as various international water standards for bottled waters. Results showed a widespread in the characteristics of investigated bottled waters, yet the majority met the different bottled water standards for physico-chemical parameters except for pH (4 brands), hardness (2 brands), and calcium (2 brands). All samples showed negative growth for fecal coliforms, yet 18.8% (N = 6) and 59.4% (N = 19) of the samples revealed positive results for total coliforms and heterotrophic plate count at 37°C, respectively. Generated Piper diagrams revealed that the majority of investigated waters are of calcium-magnesium bicarbonate type; some brands were rich in sodium-potassium chloride, and few were of the mixed type. Comparison of the study results with reported label values indicated good agreement with stated pH values but considerable variation for dry residue, Mg, Na, K, Ca, Mg, HCO₃, Cl, and SO₄. Identification labels showed varying compliance with the Lebanese Standards Institution standards of identity. PMID:20148363

  4. 40 CFR 141.101 - Use of bottled water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of bottled water. 141.101 Section 141.101 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Use of Non-Centralized Treatment Devices §...

  5. The Blue Bottle Experiment and Pattern Formation in this System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamčíková, L'.; Ševčík, P.

    1997-09-01

    The methylene blue - saccharide - NaOH system, the so-called "Blue Bottle" experiment was investigated. When this system is poured into an open petri dish, spatial structures start to generate after an induction period. The induction period increases in the order of xylose < glucose < galactose < arabinose < mannose.

  6. 49 CFR 231.6 - Flat cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flat cars. 231.6 Section 231.6 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.6 Flat cars. (Cars with sides 12 inches or less above the floor may be equipped the same as flat cars.) (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Same as specified...

  7. 49 CFR 231.6 - Flat cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Flat cars. 231.6 Section 231.6 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.6 Flat cars. (Cars with sides 12 inches or less above the floor may be equipped the same as flat cars.) (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Same as specified...

  8. 49 CFR 231.6 - Flat cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Flat cars. 231.6 Section 231.6 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.6 Flat cars. (Cars with sides 12 inches or less above the floor may be equipped the same as flat cars.) (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Same as specified...

  9. 49 CFR 231.6 - Flat cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flat cars. 231.6 Section 231.6 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.6 Flat cars. (Cars with sides 12 inches or less above the floor may be equipped the same as flat cars.) (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Same as specified...

  10. Flat mites of the world - Edition 2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Flat Mites of the World has an interactive key, fact sheets, descriptions, and images to aid in the identification of flat mites (Acari: Trombidiformes: Tetranychoidea: Tenuipalpidae) worldwide. The tool will help identify 36 genera of flat mites, including specific diagnostics for 13 species of...

  11. 49 CFR 231.6 - Flat cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flat cars. 231.6 Section 231.6 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.6 Flat cars. (Cars with sides 12 inches or less above the floor may be equipped the same as flat cars.) (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Same as specified...

  12. Several properties offilament fibers made from recycled bottles of mineral water using melt spinning method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muslim, Ikhwanul; Mardiyati; Basuki, Arif

    2016-01-01

    Waste mineral water bottles made of PET called post-consumer POSTC-PET packaging with recycling code no. 1 can be made into another material other than the bottle by using a mechanical recycling process. In this experiment carried waste recycling process bottled mineral water bottles of PET into filament fibres with the aid of a melt spinning. From the resulting experimental filament fibres diameter of 14-15 microns, obtained the draw ratio is 1/46, 573,5 - 699,8 MPa tensile strength, modulus of elasticity of 2,01 - 2,45GPa, moisture regain of 2,84. Keywords. PET; Bottle; Fiber; Melt; Spinning; Drawing.

  13. Effect of load carriage on gait due to firefighting air bottle configuration.

    PubMed

    Park, Kiwon; Hur, Pilwon; Rosengren, Karl S; Horn, Gavin P; Hsiao-Wecksler, Elizabeth T

    2010-07-01

    The air bottle configuration (mass and size) used with a firefighter's self-contained breathing apparatus may affect functional gait performance and slip/trip/fall risk, contributing to one of the most common and costly fire ground injuries to this population. To examine the potential effect of bottle mass and size on firefighter gait performance, four 30-min air bottle configurations were tested. To quantify biomechanical gait performance, kinetic and kinematic gait data were collected on 24 male firefighters while walking at normal and fast speeds during three conditions (no obstacle, 10 cm or 30 cm stationary obstacle). Bottle mass, obstacle height and walking speed - but not bottle size - were found to significantly impact gait parameters. Ten subjects (42%) contacted the taller obstacle while wearing heavier bottles, suggesting greater risk for tripping. Heavier bottles also resulted in larger forces by the trailing leg in both the anterior-posterior and vertical directions, suggesting greater risk for slipping. These results suggest that increased bottle weight may result in a decrease in gait performance and an increase in fall risk. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Occupations, such as firefighting, often require use of a self-contained breathing apparatus that includes a pressurised air bottle. No systematic assessment has investigated how modest changes in load carriage due to bottle configuration (mass and size) might affect gait behaviour, especially when crossing obstacles. Bottle mass, but not size, was found to decrease gait performance and increase fall risk.

  14. A New Bottle Design Decreases Hypoxemic Episodes during Feeding in Preterm Infants.

    PubMed

    Jenik, Alejandro; Fustiñana, Carlos; Marquez, Maritza; Mage, David; Fernandez, Gloria; Mariani, Gonzalo

    2012-01-01

    Oxygen saturation is lower during bottle feeding than during breastfeeding in preterm infants. Our objective was to compare two different bottle systems in healthy preterm infants before discharge in terms of SpO(2) and oral feeding efficiency (rate of milk intake). Infants without supplement oxygen needs were evaluated twice on the same day during two consecutive feeds, by the same nurse. Infants served as their own controls for comparison of two systems of bottles, the order of which was randomized. The new bottle's nipple design mimics mom's breast in shape and feel, and the bottle vents to air when the child sucks on the nipple. The other system was the hospital's standard plastic bottle with silicone nipple. The rate of milk intake was calculated as the total volume transferred minus volume lost divided by time of feeding, mL/min. Thirty-four infants (BW: 1, 163 ± 479.1 g) were studied at 35.4 ± 1.3 weeks after-conception. SpO(2) was significantly higher in infants fed with the new bottle design. Milk intake rate was significantly higher with the new bottle than with the standard bottle design. The new bottle design improves oral feeding performance in preterm infants near to discharge when compared to that of a standard bottle.

  15. Soft drink logos on baby bottles: do they influence what is fed to children?

    PubMed

    Siener, K; Rothman, D; Farrar, J

    1997-01-01

    Baby bottle with popular soda pop and soft drink logos are on marked shelves. A descriptive study was conducted to determine their prevalence among families and to determine whether the logos could be influencing what families put in baby bottles. A convenience sample of 314 mothers (and grandmothers if they were primary caregivers) with children using baby bottles was interviewed in three California counties. The results were analyzed for significance, using the chi-square test for independence. The ethnicities and educational levels of the sample population matched the distribution of the State. Overall, 31 percent of the children drank either soda pop or Kool-Aid from baby bottles. Forty-six percent of the respondents owned a baby bottle with a soda pop logo and 17 percent owned a bottle with a Kool-Aid logo. Families who owned bottles with popular beverage logos were four times more likely to give children the respective beverage in bottles than families with "logo bottles." Populations most likely to drink these beverages were those in the black and Hispanic ethnic groups, in the youngest age-group (15-20 years of age), and those without a high school diploma. Health professionals are concerned that the logos could cause an increase in children's consumption of sweetened beverages in baby bottles and consequently an increase in Baby Bottle Tooth Decay and nutritional problems. PMID:9096820

  16. Effect of load carriage on gait due to firefighting air bottle configuration.

    PubMed

    Park, Kiwon; Hur, Pilwon; Rosengren, Karl S; Horn, Gavin P; Hsiao-Wecksler, Elizabeth T

    2010-07-01

    The air bottle configuration (mass and size) used with a firefighter's self-contained breathing apparatus may affect functional gait performance and slip/trip/fall risk, contributing to one of the most common and costly fire ground injuries to this population. To examine the potential effect of bottle mass and size on firefighter gait performance, four 30-min air bottle configurations were tested. To quantify biomechanical gait performance, kinetic and kinematic gait data were collected on 24 male firefighters while walking at normal and fast speeds during three conditions (no obstacle, 10 cm or 30 cm stationary obstacle). Bottle mass, obstacle height and walking speed - but not bottle size - were found to significantly impact gait parameters. Ten subjects (42%) contacted the taller obstacle while wearing heavier bottles, suggesting greater risk for tripping. Heavier bottles also resulted in larger forces by the trailing leg in both the anterior-posterior and vertical directions, suggesting greater risk for slipping. These results suggest that increased bottle weight may result in a decrease in gait performance and an increase in fall risk. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Occupations, such as firefighting, often require use of a self-contained breathing apparatus that includes a pressurised air bottle. No systematic assessment has investigated how modest changes in load carriage due to bottle configuration (mass and size) might affect gait behaviour, especially when crossing obstacles. Bottle mass, but not size, was found to decrease gait performance and increase fall risk. PMID:20582769

  17. A nondestructive test for aircraft Halon bottles, the development of an acoustic emission application

    SciTech Connect

    Beattie, A.G.

    1996-12-01

    An acoustic emission test for aircraft Halon bottles has been developed in response to a need expressed by the US Airline Industry. During this development many choices had to be made about test methods, procedures and analysis techniques. This paper discusses these choices and how successful they were. The test itself was designed to replace the currently required hydrostatic test for these bottles. The necessary load is applied by heating the sealed bottles. Acoustic emission is monitored, during the heating, by six sensors held in position by a special fixture. A prototype of the test apparatus was constructed and used in two commercial Halon bottle repair and test facilities. Results to date indicate that about 97% of the bottles tested show no indications of flaws. The other 3% have had indications of possible flaws in non-critical areas of the bottles. All bottles tested to date have passed the hydrostatic test subsequent to the acoustic emission test.

  18. Wine bottle colour and oxidative spoilage: whole bottle light exposure experiments under controlled and uncontrolled temperature conditions.

    PubMed

    Dias, Daniel A; Clark, Andrew C; Smith, Trevor A; Ghiggino, Kenneth P; Scollary, Geoffrey R

    2013-06-15

    Exposure of a Chardonnay wine to light from a mercury vapour lamp under controlled temperature conditions showed that colour enhancement was dependent on bottle colour. The increase in colouration was Antique Greenbottle type. Xanthylium pigments were identified as one component contributing to the observed enhancement of colour. The presence of oxygen was shown to be a critical factor to initiate the formation of these xanthylium pigments during light exposure. Without temperature control, wine colour development was highest in Antique Green and lowest in Flint. This alternate order reflects the ability of the darker bottles to retain heat longer than lighter coloured ones as confirmed by surface temperature decay rates. Specific pigments contributing to the wine colour enhancement in uncontrolled temperature/light exposure experiments could not be identified, although tentative evidence was obtained for the presence of flavan-3-ol based compounds. The different bottle glass surfaces did not influence the rate of loss of dissolved oxygen or oxidation of ascorbic acid. The potential to develop the results obtained in this study to identify markers for light and/or temperature exposure of white wines is discussed.

  19. An extension to flat band ferromagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulacsi, M.; Kovacs, G.; Gulacsi, Z.

    2014-11-01

    From flat band ferromagnetism, we learned that the lowest energy half-filled flat band gives always ferromagnetism if the localized Wannier states on the flat band satisfy the connectivity condition. If the connectivity conditions are not satisfied, ferromagnetism does not appear. We show that this is not always the case namely, we show that ferromagnetism due to flat bands can appear even if the connectivity condition does not hold due to a peculiar behavior of the band situated just above the flat band.

  20. Evaluation function of drinking ease from aluminum beverage bottles relative to optimum bottle opening diameter and beverage type.

    PubMed

    Chihara, Takanori; Yamazaki, Koetsu

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, aluminum beverage bottles having screw tops with opening diameters of 28 and 38 mm have been launched in the Japanese market in keeping with the modern-day drinking habits of consumers. Although Japanese consumers are familiar with such bottles, a majority of them feel that the 28 mm opening is too small and the 38 mm opening is too large. Therefore, we felt the need to develop a method for evaluating consumer feelings when they drink a beverage directly from the bottle opening. For this purpose, we propose an evaluation function of drinking ease that calculates the optimum opening diameter of the bottle. From results of our previous study, we know that there exists an ideal volume of beverage flowing into the mouth, at which consumers feel most comfortable while drinking directly from bottles. Therefore, we define the evaluation function of drinking ease in terms of the difference between the actual volume of fluid in the mouth and the expected ideal volume. If this difference is small, consumers probably feel comfortable while drinking the beverage. We consider a design variable, i.e., the opening diameter, and two state variables, i.e., the volume of beverage remaining in the bottle and the height of consumers, and construct the response surface of the evaluation function by using radial basis function networks. In addition, for investigating the influence of beverage type on the evaluation function, we select green tea and a carbonated beverage (Coke) as test beverages. Results of optimization of the proposed function show that when the opening diameters are 35.4 mm and 34.4 mm in the case of green tea and Coke, respectively, the actual volume of fluid in the mouth is closest to the ideal volume and the participants feel most comfortable. These results are in agreement with results of our previous study that an opening diameter of 33 mm is optimum for young Japanese adults. Thus, we confirm that the proposed function is accurate; it can be used

  1. Cosmological properties and reconstruction of scalar field models of the Holographic Dark Energy model with Granda-Oliveros cut-off in Kaluza-Klein cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasqua, Antonio; Chattopadhyay, Surajit; Assaf, Khudhair A.; Salako, Ines G.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we study the properties of the Holographic Dark Energy (HDE) model in the context of Kaluza-Klein (KK) cosmology with infrared cut-off given by the recently proposed by Granda-Oliveros cut-off, which contains a term proportional to the time derivative of the Hubble parameter and one proportional to the Hubble parameter squared. Moreover, this cut-off is characterized by two free parameters which are the proportional constants of the two terms of the cut-off. We derive the expression of the Equation of State (EoS) parameter ωD and of the deceleration parameter q for both non-interacting and interacting Dark Sectors and in the limiting case of a flat Dark Dominated Universe. Moreover, we study the squared speed of the sound vs2 and the statefinder diagnostic \\{r,s\\} in order to understand the cosmological properties of the model considered. We also develop a correspondence between the model considered and three scalar field models: the tachyon, the k-essence and the quintessence ones.

  2. Investigation of pellicle influence on reticle flatness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Christopher; Racette, Kenneth; Barrett, Monica

    2005-06-01

    In lithography systems, the need for increased resolution requires larger numerical apertures and shorter illumination wavelengths. Both of these requirements cause a reduction in the system"s depth of focus resulting in the need for flatter photomasks with specifications under 0.5 micron. Currently the mask blank substrates are measured after polishing, and all subsequent process steps are assumed to have little or no impact on the final mask flatness. With today"s ever tightening flatness requirements, this assumption can no longer be taken for granted. This paper investigates the distortions seen at the reticle surface induced by the mounting of a standard optical pellicle frame to the photomask and relates these distortions to the pellicle frame flatness. The experiment involves using a set of mask blanks that are better than 0.5 micron flatness with similar form errors before attaching the pellicle. Two groups of pellicles are used to create two distinct frame flatness populations: one set assumed to be within specification as purchased; and a second set of pellicles that are intentionally distorted. Mask flatness is compared before and after mounting the pellicles, and all frames are measured for flatness. Correlation between the frame flatness and form to the measured distortion on the reticle surface are made and discussed, and a practical guideline for selecting an appropriate blank flatness and pellicle flatness to achieve the desired reticle flatness is suggested.

  3. Flat Subduction and Dynamic Topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lithgow-Bertelloni, C. R.; Dávila, F. M.; Eakin, C. M.; Crameri, F.

    2014-12-01

    Mantle dynamics manifests at the surface via the horizontal motions of plates and the vertical deflections that influence topography and the non-hydrostatic geoid. The pioneering work of Mitrovica et al. (1989) and Gurnis (1990) on this dynamic topography revolutionized our understanding of sedimentary basin formation, sea level changes and continental flooding. The temporal evolution of subduction can explain the migration of basins and even the drainage reversal of the Amazon (Shephard et al., 2012; Eakin et al., 2014). Until recently, flat subduction has been seen as enhancing downward deflection of the overriding plate and increasing flooding. However, this interpretation depends crucially on the details of the morphology and density structure of the slab, which controls the loci and amplitude of the deflection. We tend to ignore morphological details in mantle dynamics because flow can smooth out short wavelength variations. We have shown instead that details matter! Using South America as a natural laboratory because of the large changes in morphology of the Nazca slab along strike, we show that downward deflection of the overriding plate and hence basin formation, do not occur over flat segments but at the leading edge, where slabs plunge back into the mantle. This is true in both Argentina and Peru. The temporal evolution from a 'normally' dipplng slab to a flat slab leads to uplift over flat segments rather than enhanced subsidence. Critical for this result is the use of a detailed morphological model of the present-day Nazca slab with a spatial resolution of 50-100 km and based on relocated seismicity and magnetotelluric results. The density structure of the slab, due to age and the presence of overthickened crust from aseismic ridge subduction is essential. Overthickened crust leads to buoyant slabs. We reproduce formation and deposition of the Acres-Solimoes basin and the evolution of the Amazon drainage basin in Peru as well as the Mar Chiquita

  4. Closing Rocky Flats by 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Tuor, N. R.; Schubert, A. L.

    2002-02-26

    Safely accelerating the closure of Rocky Flats to 2006 is a goal shared by many: the State of Colorado, the communities surrounding the site, the U.S. Congress, the Department of Energy, Kaiser-Hill and its team of subcontractors, the site's employees, and taxpayers across the country. On June 30, 2000, Kaiser-Hill (KH) submitted to the Department of Energy (DOE), KH's plan to achieve closure of Rocky Flats by December 15, 2006, for a remaining cost of $3.96 billion (February 1, 2000, to December 15, 2006). The Closure Project Baseline (CPB) is the detailed project plan for accomplishing this ambitious closure goal. This paper will provide a status report on the progress being made toward the closure goal. This paper will: provide a summary of the closure contract completion criteria; give the current cost and schedule variance of the project and the status of key activities; detail important accomplishments of the past year; and discuss the challenges ahead.

  5. Uniqueness of the Fock quantization of scalar fields in spatially flat cosmological spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelló Gomar, Laura; Cortez, Jerónimo; Martín-de Blas, Daniel; Mena Marugán, Guillermo A.; Velhinho, José M.

    2012-11-01

    We study the Fock quantization of scalar fields in (generically) time dependent scenarios, focusing on the case in which the field propagation occurs in -either a background or effective- spacetime with spatial sections of flat compact topology. The discussion finds important applications in cosmology, like e.g. in the description of test Klein-Gordon fields and scalar perturbations in Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetime in the observationally favored flat case. Two types of ambiguities in the quantization are analyzed. First, the infinite ambiguity existing in the choice of a Fock representation for the canonical commutation relations, understandable as the freedom in the choice of inequivalent vacua for a given field. Besides, in cosmological situations, it is customary to scale the fields by time dependent functions, which absorb part of the evolution arising from the spacetime, which is treated classically. This leads to an additional ambiguity, this time in the choice of a canonical pair of field variables. We show that both types of ambiguities are removed by the requirements of (a) invariance of the vacuum under the symmetries of the three-torus, and (b) unitary implementation of the dynamics in the quantum theory. In this way, one arrives at a unique class of unitarily equivalent Fock quantizations for the system. This result provides considerable robustness to the quantum predictions and renders meaningful the confrontation with observation.

  6. Distinctive ultraviolet structure of extra-dimensional Yang-Mills theories by integration of heavy Kaluza-Klein modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Jiménez, I.; Novales-Sánchez, H.; Toscano, J. J.

    2016-05-01

    One-loop Standard Model observables produced by virtual heavy Kaluza-Klein fields play a prominent role in the minimal model of universal extra dimensions. Motivated by this aspect, we integrate out all the Kaluza-Klein heavy modes coming from the Yang-Mills theory set on a spacetime with an arbitrary number, n , of compact extra dimensions. After fixing the gauge with respect to the Kaluza-Klein heavy gauge modes in a covariant manner, we calculate a gauge-independent effective Lagrangian expansion containing multiple Kaluza-Klein sums that entail a bad divergent behavior. We use the Epstein-zeta function to regularize and characterize discrete divergences within such multiple sums, and then we discuss the interplay between the number of extra dimensions and the degree of accuracy of effective Lagrangians to generate or not divergent terms of discrete origin. We find that nonrenormalizable terms with mass dimension k are finite as long as k >4 +n . Multiple Kaluza-Klein sums of nondecoupling logarithmic terms, not treatable by Epstein-zeta regularization, are produced by four-dimensional momentum integration. On the grounds of standard renormalization, we argue that such effects are unobservable.

  7. [Reliability of % vol. declarations on labels of wine bottles].

    PubMed

    Schütz, Harald; Erdmann, Freidoon; Verhoff, Marcel A; Weiler, Günter

    2005-01-01

    The Council Regulation (EC) no. 1493/1999 of 17 May 1999 on the common organisation of the market in wine (Abl. L 179 dated 14/7/1999) and the GMO Wine 2000 (Annex VII A) stipulates that the labels of wine bottles have to indicate, among others, information on the sales designation of the product, the nominal volume and the alcoholic strength. The latter must not differ by more than 0.5% vol. from the alcoholic strength as established by analysis. Only when quality wines are stored in bottles for more than three years, the accepted tolerance limits are +/- 0.8% vol. The presented investigation results show that deviations have to be taken into account which may be highly relevant for forensic practice.

  8. Bacteriological study of bottled drinking water marketed in Mangalore.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishna, M; Haseena, M; Nisha, K V; Maliya, P S

    2003-06-01

    Bottled water is generally accepted as safe for consumption. However, its potability is uncertain. Ninety samples of Six national and 3 local brands marketed in Mangalore City were studied. Seven of these were ISI certified. Bacteriological analysis of these samples were carried out for viable count, presumtive coliform count by multiple tube method, confirmed Esch. coli count by Eijkman test and specific intestinal pathogens, such as Salmonella, Shigella and Vibrios. Thirty out of 90 samples though free from coliforms, had viable count much higher than specified by Bureau of Indian Standard. Three samples of one of the brands which is ISI not certified had Esch. coli with most probable number 18/100 ml and Salmonella typhimurium. It is concluded that bottled water can not be taken for granted to be safe.

  9. Stable isotopic composition of bottled mineral waters from Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bădăluţă, Carmen; Nagavciuc, Viorica; Perșoiu, Aurel

    2015-04-01

    Romania has a high potential of mineral waters resources, featuring one of the largest mineral resources at European and global level. In the last decade, due to increased in consumption of bottled water, numerous brands have appeared on the market, with equally numerous and variable sources of provenance. In this study we have analyzed the isotopic composition of bottled mineral waters from Romania in order to determine their source and authenticity. We have analysed 32 carbonated and 24 non-carbonated mineral waters from Romania. and the results were analysed in comparison with stable isotope data from precipitation and river waters. Generally, the isotopic values of the mineral waters follow those in precipitation; however, differences occur in former volcanic regions (due to deep circulation of meteoric waters and increased exchange with host rock and volcanic CO2), as well as in mountainous regions, where high-altitude recharge occurs.

  10. The plastic bottle: A multi-industry impact

    SciTech Connect

    Noel, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    Recent changes in motor oil packaging project the future rate of change for packaging operations of companies committed to the marketing of motor oil. Highlighted by the widespread conversion to the plastic bottle as a new standard container for motor oil is the need for the development of higher speed, more cost effective packaging machinery which will meet and eventually exceed historical line speeds and operating efficiencies. The significant investments required for evolving equipment and packaging systems require rethinking of traditional manufacturing concepts and relationships; onetime investments in packaging plants are decisions of the past. The plastic bottle for motor oil truly impacts packaging operations, distribution networks, retail outlets and packaging machinery manufacturers. It is a multi-industry impact.

  11. Cavity-enhanced optical bottle beam as a mechanical amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freegarde, Tim; Dholakia, Kishan

    2002-07-01

    We analyze the resonant cavity enhancement of a hollow ``optical bottle beam'' for the dipole-force trapping of dark-field-seeking species. We first improve upon the basic bottle beam by adding further Laguerre-Gaussian components to deepen the confining potential. Each of these components itself corresponds to a superposition of transverse cavity modes, which are then enhanced simultaneously in a confocal cavity to produce a deep optical trap needing only a modest incident power. The response of the trapping field to displacement of the cavity mirrors offers an unusual form of mechanical amplifier in which the Gouy phase shift produces an optical Vernier scale between the Laguerre-Gaussian beam components.

  12. [Reliability of % vol. declarations on labels of wine bottles].

    PubMed

    Schütz, Harald; Erdmann, Freidoon; Verhoff, Marcel A; Weiler, Günter

    2005-01-01

    The Council Regulation (EC) no. 1493/1999 of 17 May 1999 on the common organisation of the market in wine (Abl. L 179 dated 14/7/1999) and the GMO Wine 2000 (Annex VII A) stipulates that the labels of wine bottles have to indicate, among others, information on the sales designation of the product, the nominal volume and the alcoholic strength. The latter must not differ by more than 0.5% vol. from the alcoholic strength as established by analysis. Only when quality wines are stored in bottles for more than three years, the accepted tolerance limits are +/- 0.8% vol. The presented investigation results show that deviations have to be taken into account which may be highly relevant for forensic practice. PMID:15887778

  13. [Dysmenorrhea: patience, pills or hot-water bottle?].

    PubMed

    Graz, Bertrand; Savoy, Mona; Buclin, Thierry; Bonvin, Eric

    2014-11-26

    Which treatments are used for dysmenorrhea and with what reported outcome? A questionnaire was sent to 2400 students and apprentices, following the "retrospective treatment-outcome" method. The response rate was 22%. Most frequent treatments used are ibuprofene (53%), paracetamol (51%), hormonal contraception (40%), hot-water bottle (or hot pad) (35%), food supplements or medicinal plants (23%). Physicians only discuss a tiny proportion of dysmenorrhea treatment in their consultation, because it is mostly a matter of self-treatment, with the family as the source of information in 80% of the cases. Rather surprising because not mentioned in most official guidelines, hot-water bottle (or hot pad) appears as the treatment followed by the best reported outcome (satisfactory in 92% of users). PMID:25562981

  14. Kaluza-Klein Reduction of Pure Gravity and its Implications for K3 Surface Compactifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tammaro, Elliott

    Kaluza demonstrated that a geometrical unification of Einsteinian gravity and Maxwell's equations could occur in five (4+1) dimensions if the dependence on the fourth spatial coordinate is ignorable. Klein noted that the last assumption would be natural for a compact extra dimension (i.e., a circle, rather than a line) of very small size. Since this initial proposal dimensional reduction has been incorporated into string theory, where the compactification manifold of choice is a Calabi-Yau manifold. In this dissertation, we investigate reduction via the Kaluza-Klein mechanism by considering the general compactification from D to d (D>d) dimensions of pure gravity, wherein the internal metric moduli are promoted to moduli fields. An essential point is that D-dimensional equations of motion must be satisfied, even in the effective degrees of freedom (the moduli fields). If the d-dimensional equations of motion imply the D-dimensional equations the effective theory is consistent. As a first pass the truncation to massless modes is made, but with a special gauge choice, transverse/traceless gauge, imposed on the internal metric. Equivalently, compensating fields, which are intended to assure consistency, are included in the metric ansatz. It is concluded that the consistency of the compactification demands that all massless and massive Kaluza-Klein modes be included in the lower dimensional theory. Motivated by the importance and ubiquitousness of K3 compactifications, a review of K3 geometry is presented. The E8 ⊕ E 8 ⊕ U31,1 and Sp(32)/Z2 ⊕ U 31,1 decompositions of the (co)homology lattice of the K3 are exhibited explicitly in terms of a natural orbifold basis, which augments the abstract derivations available in the literature. A novel feature is introduced -- an approximate, but explicit, metric on K3, which exactly generates a K3 metric in the limit of small fiber and large base.

  15. The "new" democratic woman of modernity: Georgia O'Keeffe and Melanie Klein.

    PubMed

    Gadt, J C

    1994-06-01

    O'Keeffe put into visual language the psychic splitting that had occurred between the sexes in the United States, attempting to integrate what had formerly been separated as feminine and masculine into the female psyche. In her most important contribution, she explored presence rather than absence and opened up possibilities for thinking about openings. The concept of the female opening in particular had heretofore been assigned a negative meaning, signifying more often than not a gaping wound rather than a space and place of possibilities. Klein's complex and evocative understanding of some of the earliest mental processes of life enabled researchers to delve into the meanings made of the presence of the mother and father and baby, in the context of the baby's body-mind. Klein's female or male baby desires to know from the beginning. She discovered splitting and projective identification, the development of anxiety and guilt under the aegis of these mental processes, the multiple meanings of aggression, and, significantly, she permitted the female baby's body to have its own language. The answers provided by O'Keeffe and Klein bequeathed new possibilities for women's self-invention and remain pivot points for female identity throughout the century, to be confronted again by the second wave of feminism beginning in the late 1960s, by "postfeminist" debates, and by a challenged psychoanalysis. A more careful probing of these issues may help us to better understand our past so as to have greater resources for a more comprehensive reading of our present. PMID:8042713

  16. Oxalic acid, epsom salt and the poison bottle.

    PubMed

    Campbell, W A

    1982-03-01

    1 During the 19th century inadequate control of the sale of poisons, widespread illiteracy, and the English addiction to self-medication contributed to the high incidence of accidental poisoning by oxalic acid mistaken for Epsom salt. 2 Chemical methods for identifying oxalic acid failed when the product was adulterated. 3 Many mechanical devices were proposed to prevent careless dispensing; designs for poison bottles of distinctive shape, colour and texture appeared regularly for 40 years. PMID:6757103

  17. Oscillons and quasibreathers in the ϕ4 Klein-Gordon model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fodor, Gyula; Forgács, Péter; Grandclément, Philippe; Rácz, István

    2006-12-01

    Strong numerical evidence is presented for the existence of a continuous family of time-periodic solutions with “weak” spatial localization of the spherically symmetric nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation in 3+1 dimensions. These solutions are “weakly” localized in space in that they have slowly decaying oscillatory tails and can be interpreted as localized standing waves (quasibreathers). By a detailed analysis of long-lived metastable states (oscillons) formed during the time evolution, it is demonstrated that the oscillon states can be quantitatively described by the weakly localized quasibreathers. It is found that the quasibreathers and their oscillon counterparts exist for a whole continuum of frequencies.

  18. The XRD Amorphous Component in John Klein Drill Fines at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Richard V.; Ming,, Douglas W.; Blake, David; Vaniman, David; Bish, David L; Chipera, Steve; Downs, Robert; Morrison, Shaunna; Gellert, Ralf; Campbell, Iain; Treiman, Alan H.; Achilles, Cherie; Bristow, Thomas; Crisp, Joy A.; McAdam, Amy; Archer, Paul Douglas; Sutter, Brad; Rampe, Elizabeth B.

    2013-01-01

    Drill fines of mudstone (targets John Klein and Cumberland) from the Sheepbed unit at Yel-lowknife Bay were analyzed by MSL payload elements including the Chemistry and Mineralogy (CheMin), APXS (Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer), and Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instruments. CheMin XRD results show a variety of crystalline phases including feldspar, pyroxene, olivine, oxides, oxyhydroxides, sulfates, sulfides, a tri-octahedral smectite, and XRD amorphous material. The drill fines are distinctly different from corresponding analyses of the global soil (target Rocknest) in that the mudstone samples contained detectable phyllosilicate. Here we focus on John Klein and combine CheMin and APXS data to calculate the chemical composition and concentration of the amorphous component. The chemical composition of the amorphous plus smectite component for John Klein was calculated by subtracting the abundance-weighted chemical composition of the individual XRD crystalline components from the bulk composition of John Kline as measured by APXS. The chemical composition of individual crystalline components was determined either by stoichiometry (e.g., hematite and magnetite) or from their unit cell parameters (e.g., feldspar, olivine, and pyroxene). The chemical composition of the amorphous + smectite component (approx 71 wt.% of bulk sample) and bulk chemical composition are similar. In order to calculate the chemical composition of the amorphous component, a chemical composition for the tri-octahedral smectite must be assumed. We selected two tri-octahedral smectites with very different MgO/(FeO + Fe2O3) ratios (34 and 1.3 for SapCa1 and Griffithite, respectively). Relative to bulk sample, the concentration of amorphous and smectite components are 40 and 29 wt.% for SapCa1 and 33 and 36 wt.% for Griffithite. The amount of smectite was calculated by requiring the MgO concentration to be approx 0 wt.% in the amorphous component. Griffithite is the preferred smectite because

  19. Using the Bem and Klein Grid Scores to Predict Health Services Usage by Men.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Grace L; Fisher, Dennis G; Dyo, Melissa; Huckabay, Loucine M

    2016-01-01

    We examined the association between scores on the Bem Sex Roles Inventory (BSRI), Klein Sexual Orientation Grid, and utilization of hospital inpatient services, emergency departments, and outpatient clinic visits in the past 12 months among 53 men (mean age 39 years). The femininity subscale score on the BSRI, ever having had gonorrhea and age were the three variables identified in a multivariate linear regression significantly predicting use of total health services. This supports the hypothesis that sex roles can assist our understanding of men's use of health services. PMID:27337618

  20. The XRD Amorphous Component in John Klein Drill Fines at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, R. V.; Ming, D. W.; Blake, D.; Vaniman, D.; Bish, D. L.; Chipera, S.; Downs, R.; Morrison, S.; Gellert, R.; Campbell, I.; Treiman, A. H.; Achilles, C.; Bristow, T.; Crisp, J. A.; McAdam, A.; Archer, P. D.; Sutter, B.; Rampe, E. B.; Team, M.

    2013-12-01

    Drill fines of mudstone (targets John Klein and Cumberland) from the Sheepbed unit at Yel-lowknife Bay were analyzed by MSL payload elements including the Chemistry and Mineralogy (CheMin), APXS (Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer), and Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instruments. CheMin XRD results show a variety of crystalline phases including feldspar, pyrox-ene, olivine, oxides, oxyhydroxides, sulfates, sulfides, a tri-octahedral smectite, and XRD amorphous material. The drill fines are distinctly different from corresponding analyses of the global soil (target Rocknest) in that the mudstone samples contained detectable phyllosilicate. Here we focus on John Klein and combine CheMin and APXS data to calculate the chemical composition and concentration of the amorphous component. The chemical composition of the amorphous plus smectite component for John Klein was cal-culated by subtracting the abundance-weighted chemical composition of the individual XRD crystalline components from the bulk composition of John Kline as measured by APXS. The chemical composition of individual crystalline components was determined either by stoichiome-try (e.g., hematite and magnetite) or from their unit cell parameters (e.g., feldspar, olivine, and pyroxene). The chemical composition of the amorphous + smectite component (~71 wt.% of bulk sample) and bulk chemical compositon are similar. In order to calculate the chemical composition of the amorphous component, a chemical composition for the tri-octahedral smectite must be assumed. We selected two tri-octahedral smectites with very different MgO/(FeO + Fe2O3) ratios (34 and 1.3 for SapCa1 and Griffithite, respectively). Relative to bulk sample, the concentration of amorphous and smectite components are 40 and 29 wt.% for SapCa1 and 33 and 36 wt.% for Griffithite. The amount of smectite was calculated by requiring the MgO concentration to be~0 wt.% in the amporphous component. Griffithite is the preferred smectite because the position