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Sample records for flats plant integrated

  1. Comparative risk analysis for the Rocky Flats Plant Integrated Project Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, M.E.; Shain, D.I.

    1994-12-31

    The Rocky Flats Plant is developing a comprehensive planning strategy that will support transition of the Rocky Flats Plant from a nuclear weapons production facility to site cleanup and final disposition. Final disposition of the Rocky Flats Plant materials and contaminants requires consideration of the interrelated nature of sitewide problems, such as material movement and disposition, facility and land use endstates, costs, relative risks to workers and the public, and waste disposition. Comparative Risk Analysis employs both incremental risk and cumulative risk evaluations to compare risk from postulated options or endstates. Comparative Risk Analysis is an analytical tool for the Rocky Flats Plant Integrated Project Planning which can assist a decision-maker in evaluating relative risks among proposed remedial options or future endstates. It addresses the cumulative risks imposed by the Rocky Flats Plant and provides risk information, both human health and ecological, to aid in reducing unnecessary resource and monetary expenditures. Currently, there is no approved methodology that aggregates various risk estimates. Along with academic and field expert review, the Comparative Risk Analysis methodology is being reviewed and refined. A Rocky Flats Plant Risk Assessment Focus Group was established. Stakeholder involvement in the development provides an opportunity to influence the information delivered to a decision-maker. This paper discusses development of the methodology.

  2. Comparative risk analysis for the Rocky Flats Plant integrated project planning

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, M.E.; Shain, D.I.

    1994-05-01

    The Rocky Flats Plant is developing, with active stakeholder a comprehensive planning strategy that will support transition of the Rocky Flats Plant from a nuclear weapons production facility to site cleanup and final disposition. Final disposition of the Rocky Flats Plant materials and contaminants requires consideration of the interrelated nature of sitewide problems, such as material movement and disposition, facility and land use endstates, costs relative risks to workers and the public, and waste disposition. Comparative Risk Analysis employs both incremental risk and cumulative risk evaluations to compare risks from postulated options or endstates. These postulated options or endstates can be various remedial alternatives, or future endstate uses of federal agency land. Currently, there does not exist any approved methodology that aggregates various incremental risk estimates. Comparative Risk Analysis has been developed to aggregate various incremental risk estimates to develop a site cumulative risk estimate. This paper discusses development of the Comparative Risk Analysis methodology, stakeholder participation and lessons learned from these challenges.

  3. Issues evaluation process at Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L.C.

    1992-04-16

    This report describes the issues evaluation process for Rocky Flats Plant as established in July 1990. The issues evaluation process was initiated February 27, 1990 with a Charter and Process Overview for short-term implementation. The purpose of the process was to determine the projects required for completion before the Phased Resumption of Plutonium Operations. To determine which projects were required, the issues evaluation process and emphasized risk mitigation, based on a ranking system. The purpose of this report is to document the early design of the issues evaluation process to record the methodologies used that continue as the basis for the ongoing Issues Management Program at Rocky Flats Plant.

  4. 20. AERIAL VIEW OF THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT LOOKING NORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. AERIAL VIEW OF THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT LOOKING NORTHEAST. THE PLANT WAS COMPOSED OF FOUR WIDELY SEPARATED AREAS, EACH ONE PERFORMING A DIFFERENT TYPE OF WORK. PLANT A (44), SOUTHWEST, FABRICATED PARTS FROM DEPLETED URANIUM, PLANT B (81), SOUTH, WAS ENRICHED URANIUM OPERATIONS, PLANT C (71), NORTH, PLUTONIUM OPERATIONS, AND PLANT D (91), EAST, WAS FINAL ASSEMBLY, SHIPPING AND RECEIVING (2/6/66). - Rocky Flats Plant, Bounded by Indiana Street & Routes 93, 128 & 72, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  5. 12. VIEW OF THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT LOOKING WEST. AFTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW OF THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT LOOKING WEST. AFTER 38 YEARS, WEAPONS PRODUCTION CEASED IN 1989. IN 1992, THE PLANT MISSION CHANGED FROM WEAPONS PRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL CLEAN UP AND RESTORATION. BY 1995, THE SITE HAD BEGUN TO BE DISMANTLED (6/27/95). - Rocky Flats Plant, Bounded by Indiana Street & Routes 93, 128 & 72, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  6. Seismic hazard analysis at Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, R.K.

    1993-10-01

    A probabilistic seismic hazard analysis is being conducted for the DOE Rocky Flats Plant, Jefferson County, Colorado. This is part of the overall review of the seismic exposure to facilities being conducted by DOE. The study has four major elements. (1) The historical seismicity in Colorado is being reviewed and synthesized to estimate historical rates of earthquake activity in the region of the site. (2) The geologic and tectonic evidence in Colorado and along the Front Range is being reviewed to determine appropriate seismic zones, potentially active faults, and constraints on fault slip rates. (3) Earthquake ground motion equations are being derived based on seismological knowledge of the earth`s crust. Site specific soil amplification factors are also being developed using on-site shear wave velocity measurements. (4) The probability of exceedence of various seismic ground motion levels is being calculated based on the inputs developed on tectonic sources, faults, ground motion, and soil amplification. Deterministic ground motion estimates are also being made. This study is a state-of-the-art analysis of seismic hazard. It incorporates uncertainties in the major aspects governing seismic hazard, and has a documented basis founded on solid data interpretations for the ranges of inputs used. The results will be a valid basis on which to evaluate plant structures, equipment, and components for seismic effects.

  7. 29. AERIAL VIEW OF THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT LOOKING SOUTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. AERIAL VIEW OF THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT LOOKING SOUTH. IN 1983, THE PERIMETER SECURITY ZONE SURROUNDING THE PLUTONIUM OPERATIONS WAS COMPLETED. IT CONSISTED OF A DOUBLE PERIMETER FENCE, CLOSED CIRCUIT TELEVISIONS, ALARMS, AND AN UNINTERRUPTED POWER SUPPLY (7/29/83). - Rocky Flats Plant, Bounded by Indiana Street & Routes 93, 128 & 72, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  8. 25. AERIAL VIEW OF THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT LOOKING WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. AERIAL VIEW OF THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT LOOKING WEST - NORTHWEST IN 1974. IN 1972, 4,600 ACRES WERE PURCHASED AROUND THE SITE TO BETTER PROTECT THE BORDERS FROM TERRORISM AND INFILTRATION BY PROTESTORS. ANTI-NUCLEAR DEMONSTRATION BEGAN SHORTLY AFTER THE 1969 FIRE IN BUILDING 776/777, AND CONTINUED UNTIL PRODUCTION CEASED AT THE PLANT IN 1989 (10/7/74). - Rocky Flats Plant, Bounded by Indiana Street & Routes 93, 128 & 72, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  9. 17. Mormon Flat power plant under construction. Notice location of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Mormon Flat power plant under construction. Notice location of spillway gates. Needle valves at lower left are for bypass. Photographer unknown, March 1926. Source: Salt River Project. - Mormon Flat Dam, On Salt River, Eastern Maricopa County, east of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  10. 21. AERIAL VIEW OF THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT LOOKING NORTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. AERIAL VIEW OF THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT LOOKING NORTHWEST. BY THE LATE 1960S, THE SITE HAD UNDERGONE TWO MAJOR EXPANSIONS. THE FIRST EXPANSION IN 1956-57, WHEN THE TRIGGER DESIGN CHANGED AND NECESSITATED THE ADDITION OF SEVEN NEW BUILDINGS. THE SECOND LARGE EXPANSION TOOK PLACE FROM 1964-65, WHEN ROCKY FLATS BECAME THE SOLE PRODUCER OF TRIGGERS. DURING THIS EXPANSION, ELEVEN BUILDINGS WERE ADDED, PRIMARILY IN RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT LABORATORIES, GUARD HOUSES, AND WASTE WATER TREATMENT (7/1/69). - Rocky Flats Plant, Bounded by Indiana Street & Routes 93, 128 & 72, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  11. 13. AERIAL VIEW OF THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT FROM DIRECTLY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. AERIAL VIEW OF THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT FROM DIRECTLY OVERHEAD IN 1954. IN 1950, DOW CHEMICAL COMPANY WAS CHOSEN BY THE ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION TO ESTABLISH THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT AS AN ATOMIC BOMB TRIGGER FABRICATION FACILITY. THE CRITERIA FOR SITING SUCH A PLANT INCLUDED A LOCATION WEST OF THE MISSISSIPPI, NORTH OF TEXAS, SOUTH OF THE NORTHERN BORDER OF COLORADO, AND EAST OF UTAH; A DRY MODERATE CLIMATE; A SUPPORTING POPULATION OF AT LEAST 25,000 PEOPLE; AND ACCESSIBILITY FROM LOS ALAMOS, NM, CHICAGO, IL, AND ST. LOUIS, MO. TWENTY-ONE AREAS IN THE UNITED STATES WERE SUGGESTED; SEVEN LOCATIONS WERE SCREENED IN THE DENVER AREA. THIS FOUR-SQUARE MILE AREA WAS SELECTED AND CONSTRUCTION BEGAN IN 1951 (8/31/54). - Rocky Flats Plant, Bounded by Indiana Street & Routes 93, 128 & 72, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  12. 26. AERIAL VIEW OF THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT LOOKING NORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. AERIAL VIEW OF THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT LOOKING NORTHEAST. IN 1951, A GOOD FRIDAY ISSUE OF THE DENVER POST ANNOUNCED THE ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION'S PLANS TO BUILD THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT. UNDER THE HEADLINE 'THERE'S GOOD NEWS TODAY.' POLITICAL LEADERS EXPRESSED GREAT PRIDE IN THE CHOICE OF THE DENVER-BOULDER AREA AS THE SITE FOR AN ATOMIC PLANT AS QUOTED IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN NEWS: 'WE ARE PROUD THAT THE AREA HAS BEEN CHOSEN FOR ANOTHER IMPORTANT CONTRIBUTION TO THE NATION'S STRENGTH AND FUTURE SECURITY.' BY THE MID 1970S, PUBLIC OPINION OF THE SITE HAD CHANGED (5/4/78). - Rocky Flats Plant, Bounded by Indiana Street & Routes 93, 128 & 72, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  13. 32. AERIAL VIEW OF THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT LOOKING NORTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. AERIAL VIEW OF THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT LOOKING NORTHWEST. DURING THE 1980S, A NUMBER OF COMPLAINTS CONCERNING SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ERRORS SURFACED, CULMINATING IN THE 1989 RAID ON THE PLANT BY THE FBI FOR ALLEGED ENVIRONMENTAL INFRACTIONS. THAT SAME YEAR, PRODUCTION AT THE PLANT WAS HALTED FOR CORRECTION OF SAFETY DEFICIENCIES. BY 1991, A SERIES OF EVENTS WORLDWIDE REDUCED THE COLD WAR THREAT, AND IN 1992, THE SECRETARY OF ENERGY ANNOUNCED THAT THE MISSION AT THE PLANT WOULD BE CHANGED TO ENVIRONMENTAL RESTORATION AND WASTE MANAGEMENT, WITH THE GOAL OF CLEANING UP THE PLANT AND SITE (1989). - Rocky Flats Plant, Bounded by Indiana Street & Routes 93, 128 & 72, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  14. Rocky Flats Plant Site Environmental Report, January--December 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Cirrincione, D.A.; Costain, D.B.

    1990-12-31

    This report provides information to the public about the impact of the Rocky Flats Plant on the environment and public health. The report contains a compliance summary, a description of environmental monitoring programs, and radiation dose estimates for the surrounding population for the period January 1 through December 31, 1990. An environmental surveillance program has been ongoing at the Rocky Flats Plant since the 1950s. Early programs focused on radiological impacts to the environment. The current program examines potential impacts to air, surface water, groundwater, and soils from radiological and nonradiological sources. Environmental operations at Rocky Flats Plant are under the jurisdiction of several local, state, and federal agencies, most notably the Colorado Department of Health, Environmental Protection Agency, and Department of Energy. A variety of reports are prepared at different intervals for these and other agencies in addition to the annual environmental report.

  15. Rocky Flats Plant Site Environmental Report, January--December 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Cirrincione, D.A.; Costain, D.B. . Rocky Flats Plant)

    1990-01-01

    This report provides information to the public about the impact of the Rocky Flats Plant on the environment and public health. The report contains a compliance summary, a description of environmental monitoring programs, and radiation dose estimates for the surrounding population for the period January 1 through December 31, 1990. An environmental surveillance program has been ongoing at the Rocky Flats Plant since the 1950s. Early programs focused on radiological impacts to the environment. The current program examines potential impacts to air, surface water, groundwater, and soils from radiological and nonradiological sources. Environmental operations at Rocky Flats Plant are under the jurisdiction of several local, state, and federal agencies, most notably the Colorado Department of Health, Environmental Protection Agency, and Department of Energy. A variety of reports are prepared at different intervals for these and other agencies in addition to the annual environmental report.

  16. Rocky Flats Plant Site Environmental Report: 1993 Highlights

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    The Rocky Flats Plant Site Environmental Report provides summary information on the plant`s environmental monitoring programs and the results recorded during 1993. The report contains a compliance summary, results of environmental monitoring and other related programs, a review of environmental remediation activities, information on external gamma radiation dose monitoring, and radiation dose estimates for the surrounding population. This section provides an overview of these topics and summarizes more comprehensive discussions found in the main text of this annual report.

  17. Rocky Flats Plant site environmental report, January--December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Cirrncione, D.A.; Erdmann, N.L.

    1991-12-31

    This report provides information to the public about the impact of the Rocky Flats Plant on the environment and public health. The report contains a compliance summary, 4 description of environmental monitoring programs, and radiation dose estimates for the surrounding population for the period January 1 through December 31, 1991. An environmental surveillance program has been ongoing at the Rocky Flats Plant since the 1950s. Early programs focused on radiological impacts to the environment. The current program not only examines potential impacts to air surface water, groundwater, and soils from radiological and nonradiological sources, but also includes ecological studies and environmental remediation programs.

  18. Rocky Flats Plant site environmental report, January--December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Cirrncione, D.A.; Erdmann, N.L.

    1991-01-01

    This report provides information to the public about the impact of the Rocky Flats Plant on the environment and public health. The report contains a compliance summary, 4 description of environmental monitoring programs, and radiation dose estimates for the surrounding population for the period January 1 through December 31, 1991. An environmental surveillance program has been ongoing at the Rocky Flats Plant since the 1950s. Early programs focused on radiological impacts to the environment. The current program not only examines potential impacts to air surface water, groundwater, and soils from radiological and nonradiological sources, but also includes ecological studies and environmental remediation programs.

  19. Site wide integration of the Rocky Flats closure project

    SciTech Connect

    Burdge, L.F.; Golan, P.

    1998-06-01

    The prime contractor for the Rocky Flats Closure Project (RFCP), Kaiser-Hill, in concert with the Department of Energy--Rocky Flats Field Office (DOE-RFFO) has applied a fully integrated, life-cycle, critical path schedule and work planning system to manage the work that is required to close the Site. The closure of the Site is complex, in that it houses over 700 facilities, 19,600 kilograms of Special Nuclear Material (Plutonium and Uranium), and over 160,000 cubic meters of Transuranic, Low Level, and Hazardous Waste. The deactivation, decommissioning, decontaminating, and demolition of this large number of facilities, while at the same time accommodating difficult on-going activities, significantly increases the sophistication required in the planning process. The Rocky Flats team has overcome these difficulties by establishing a money oriented critical path process, to provide a least-cost avenue to supporting on-going activities and a line-of-balance process for production oriented activities. These processes, when integrated with a typical activity-based project planning system, guide the way to the shortest and most cost-effective course for the closure of the Rocky Flats Site.

  20. Groundwater-monitoring program at the Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, N.D.

    1982-01-01

    Groundwater at the Rocky Flats Plant is periodically monitored through the use of 56 monitoring wells. Samples taken from the groundwater monitoring wells are analyzed for both radiological and nonradiological parameters. The radiological parameters include: total alpha, total beta, plutonium, uranium, americium, and tritium. Nonradiological parameters include pH, nitrate, total dissolved solids, and approximately 43 other elements. Samples collected from most of the groundwater monitoring wells indicate that there is no significant contamination of the groundwater. Low concentrations of uranium, tritium and nitrates above the local background concentrations have been found in monitoring wells in the vicinity of the plant site solar evaporation ponds, indicating some seepage from the ponds. These solar evaporation ponds have been used to store process waste water prior to treatment. Sampling techniques for the collection of groundwater samples, interpretation of selected data, and the quality control program at Rocky Flats will also be discussed.

  1. Polymer solidification of mixed wastes at the Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Faucette, A.M.; Logsdon, B.W.; Lucerna, J.J.; Yudnich, R.J.

    1994-02-01

    The Rocky Flats Plant is pursuing polymer solidification as a viable treatment option for several mixed waste streams that are subject to land disposal restrictions within the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act provisions. Tests completed to date using both surrogate and actual wastes indicate that polyethylene microencapsulation is a viable treatment option for several mixed wastes at the Rocky Flats Plant, including nitrate salts, sludges, and secondary wastes such as ash. Treatability studies conducted on actual salt waste demonstrated that the process is capable of producing waste forms that comply with all applicable regulatory criteria, including the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure. Tests have also been conducted to evaluate the feasibility of macroencapsulating certain debris wastes in polymers. Several methods and plastics have been tested for macroencapsulation, including post-consumer recycle and regrind polyethylene.

  2. Tools for Closure Project and Contract Management: Development of the Rocky Flats Integrated Closure Project Baseline

    SciTech Connect

    Gelles, C. M.; Sheppard, F. R.

    2002-02-26

    This paper details the development of the Rocky Flats Integrated Closure Project Baseline - an innovative project management effort undertaken to ensure proactive management of the Rocky Flats Closure Contract in support of the Department's goal for achieving the safe closure of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) in December 2006. The accelerated closure of RFETS is one of the most prominent projects within the Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management program. As the first major former weapons plant to be remediated and closed, it is a first-of-kind effort requiring the resolution of multiple complex technical and institutional challenges. Most significantly, the closure of RFETS is dependent upon the shipment of all special nuclear material and wastes to other DOE sites. The Department is actively working to strengthen project management across programs, and there is increasing external interest in this progress. The development of the Rocky Flats Integrated Closure Project Baseline represents a groundbreaking and cooperative effort to formalize the management of such a complex project across multiple sites and organizations. It is original in both scope and process, however it provides a useful precedent for the other ongoing project management efforts within the Environmental Management program.

  3. Analysis of offsite Emergency Planning Zones for Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Inger, J.R. ); Brown-Strattan, M.A. . Rocky Flats Plant)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this quality assurance program was to ensure the quality and technical adequacy of Phase 2 of the Analysis of Offsite Emergency Planning Zones (EPZ) for the Rocky Flats Plant project. Quality assurance was accomplished by managing and controlling the processes in the development of the product. The quality assurance task team conducted audits, reviews, and surveillances of project and related activities. This process contributed to identifying areas where the quality assurance plan was not fully implemented, areas needing improvement, and/or corrective actions resulting in a improved product. During the reviews and audits, several key areas were identified where quality assurance plan implementation needed to be improved. These areas included maintaining adequate documentation, reviewing technical results, making inputs traceable to technical results, and understanding that all personnel are responsible for quality.

  4. Integrated turbomachine oxygen plant

    DOEpatents

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; DePuy, Richard Anthony; Muthaiah, Veerappan

    2014-06-17

    An integrated turbomachine oxygen plant includes a turbomachine and an air separation unit. One or more compressor pathways flow compressed air from a compressor through one or more of a combustor and a turbine expander to cool the combustor and/or the turbine expander. An air separation unit is operably connected to the one or more compressor pathways and is configured to separate the compressed air into oxygen and oxygen-depleted air. A method of air separation in an integrated turbomachine oxygen plant includes compressing a flow of air in a compressor of a turbomachine. The compressed flow of air is flowed through one or more of a combustor and a turbine expander of the turbomachine to cool the combustor and/or the turbine expander. The compressed flow of air is directed to an air separation unit and is separated into oxygen and oxygen-depleted air.

  5. Supercompaction and Repackaging Facility for Rocky Flats Plant transuranic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Barthel, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The Supercompaction and Repackaging Facility (SaRF) for processing Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) generated transuranic (TRU) waste was conceptualized and has received funding of $1.9 million. The SaRF is scheduled for completion in September, 1989 and will eliminate a labor intensive manual repackaging effort. The semi-automated glovebox-contained SaRF is being designed to process 63,500 cubic feet of TRU waste annually for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Waste will enter the process through an airlock or drum dump and the combustible waste will be precompacted. Drums will be pierced to allow air to escape during supercompaction. Each drum will be supercompacted and transferred to a load out station for final packaging into a 55 gallon drum. Preliminary evaluations indicate an average 5 to 1 volume reduction, 2 to 1 increased processing rate, and 50% reduction in manpower. The SaRF will produce a significant annual savings in labor, material, shipping, and burial costs over the projected 15 year life, and also improve operator safety, reduce personnel exposure, and improve the quality of the waste product. 1 ref., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Integrated Weed Control for Land Stewardship at Legacy Management's Rocky Flats Site in Colorado - 13086

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Jody K.

    2013-07-01

    Land stewardship is one of nine sustainability programs in the U.S. Department of Energy's Environmental Management System. Land stewardship includes maintaining and improving ecosystem health. At the Rocky Flats Site near Westminster, Colorado, land stewardship is an integral component of the Office of Legacy Management's post-closure monitoring and management at the site. Nearly 263 hectares (650 acres) were disturbed and re-vegetated during site cleanup and closure operations. Proactive management of revegetation areas is critical to the successful reestablishment of native grasslands, wetlands, and riparian communities. The undisturbed native plant communities that occur at the site also require active management to maintain the high-quality wetlands and other habitats that are home to numerous species of birds and other wildlife such as elk and deer, rare plant communities, and the federally listed threatened Preble's meadow jumping mouse. Over the past several decades, an increase of Noxious weeds has impacted much of Colorado's Front Range. As a result, weed control is a key component of the land stewardship program at Rocky Flats. Thirty-three species of state-listed Noxious weeds are known to occur in the Central and Peripheral Operable Units at Rocky Flats, along with another five species that are considered invasive at the site. Early detection and rapid response to control new invasive species is crucial to the program. An integrated weed control/vegetation management approach is key to maintaining healthy, sustainable plant communities that are able to resist Noxious weed invasions. Weed mapping, field surveys, and field-staff training sessions (to learn how to identify new potential problem species) are conducted to help detect and prevent new weed problems. The integrated approach at Rocky Flats includes administrative and cultural techniques (prevention), mechanical controls, biological controls, and chemical controls. Several species of biocontrol

  7. Technical Safety Appraisal of the Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Blake P.

    1989-01-01

    This report provides the results of a Technical Safety Appraisal (TSA) of the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) conducted November 14 to 18 and November 28 to December 9, 1988. This appraisal covered the effectiveness and improvements in the RFP safety program across the site, evaluating progress to date against standards of accepted practice. The appraisal included coverage of the timeliness and effectiveness of actions taken in response to the recommendations/concerns in three previous Technical Safety Appraisals (TSAs) of RFP Bldg. 707 conducted in July 1986, Bldgs. 771/774 conducted in October/November 1986, and Bldgs. 776/777 conducted in January/February 1988. Results of this appraisal are given in Section IV for each of 14 technical safety areas at RFP. These results include a discussion, conclusions and any new safety concerns for each technical safety area. Appendix A contains a description of the system for categorizing concerns, and the concerns are tabulated in Appendix B. Appendix C reports on the evaluation of the contractor's actions and the current status of each of the 230 recommendations and concerns contained in the three previous TSA reports.

  8. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Rocky Flats Plant (RFP), conducted August 11 through 22, 1986. The Survey is being conducted by an multidisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team members are outside experts supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with the RFP. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulations. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. The on-site phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data observations of the operations carried on at RFP, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing certain environmental problems identified during its on-site activates. The Sampling and Analysis Plan is being executed by DOE's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. When completed, the results will be incorporated into the RFP Environmental Survey Interim Report. The Interim Report will reflect the final determinations of the RFP Survey. 75 refs., 24 figs., 33 tabs.

  9. Technical safety appraisal: Buildings 776/777 Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Field, H C

    1988-03-01

    Buildings 776/777 at the Rocky Flats Plant are major components of the production complex at the plant site. They have been in operation since 1957. The operations taking place in the buildings are nuclear weapons production support, processing of weapons assemblies returned from Pantex, waste processing, research and development in support of production, special projects, and those generated by support groups, such as maintenance. The appraisal team identified nine deficiencies that it believed required prompt attention. DOE management for EH, the program office (Defense Programs), and the field office analyzed the information provided by the appraisal team and instituted compensatory measures for closer monitoring of contractor activities by knowledgeable DOE staff and staff from other sites. Concurrently, the contractor was requested to address both short-term and long-term remedial measures to correct the identified issues as well as the underlying problems. The contractor has provided his action plan, which is included. This plan was under evaluation by EH and the DOE program office at the time this report was prepared. In addressing the major areas of concern identified above, a well as the specific deficiencies identified by the appraisal team, the contractor and the field office are cautioned to search for the root causes for the problems and to direct corrective actions to those root causes rather than solely to the symptoms to assure the sustainability of the improvements being made. The results of prior TSAs led DOE to conclude that previous corrective actions were not sufficient in that a large number of the individual findings are recurrent. Pending completion of remedial actions over the next few months, enhanced DOE oversight of the contractor is warranted.

  10. Preliminary surficial geologic map of the Rocky Flats Plant and vicinity, Jefferson and Boulder Counties, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Shroba, R.R.; Carrara, P.E.

    1994-11-01

    This report contains a 1:6000 scale map of the 3-mile by 4-mile rectangular area surrounding the Rocky Flats Plant. The map shows the surface deposits estimated to be at least one meter thick. The accompanying report contains a detailed description of the map units, a discussion of the Rocky Flats alluvium and landslides, and cited references. 37 references.

  11. Comparison and evaluation of turbulence estimation schemes at Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Bowen, B.M.; Pamp, S.E.

    1993-10-01

    The Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) routinely measures meteorological data to support Air Quality and Emergency Response activities. These data help to characterize the transport and dispersion of actual or potential airborne releases of radionuclides or other hazardous materials.

  12. Rocky Flats Plant Site Environmental Report for 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Cirrincione, D.A.; Erdmann, N.L.

    1992-12-31

    The Rocky Rats Plant Site Environmental Report provides summary information on the plant`s environmental monitoring programs and the results recorded during 1992. The report contains a compliance summary, results of environmental monitoring and other related programs, a review of environmental remediation activities, information on external gamma radiation dose monitoring, and radiation dose estimates for the surrounding population.

  13. Rocky Flats plant qualification testing for PRES Program

    SciTech Connect

    Kautz, D.D.; Tanaka, G.J.

    1994-06-24

    The authors recently completed several tests for EG&G - Rocky Flats, Inc. (RFP) to qualify welding procedures for the PRESS program. The welds that were tested were the Monel 400 to vanadium friction weld used in the Sail-A and the vanadium electron beam welds from the Mast Inner Subassembly. Tests were performed to determine the structural properties of the parts under conditions similar to those encountered in a weapons handling and storage environment. These tests included impact, tensile and pressure loading. Metallographic analysis was done where appropriate to document weld quality. All results were satisfactory for PRESS program purposes.

  14. Vitrification of plutonium at Rocky Flats the argument for a pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, L.

    1996-05-01

    Current plans for stabilizing and storing the plutonium at Rocky Flats Plant fail to put the material in a form suitable for disposition and resistant to proliferation. Vitrification should be considered as an alternate technology. The vitrification should begin with a small-scale pilot plant.

  15. Deep Integrity: Campus Ethics in the Flat World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Timothy K.; Moore, Thomas F.

    2007-01-01

    A recent cheating scandal at a top business school led at least one commentator to propose recasting cheating as postmodern learning. Paradoxically counterproductive, the proposal represents a special challenge to the academy. As accountable institutions, universities serve students by purposefully integrating integrity initiatives into the most…

  16. Analysis of offsite Emergency Planning Zones (EPZ) for the Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgin, C.R.; Armstrong, C.; Daugherty, N.M.; Foppe, T.L.; Petrocchi, A.J.; Southward, B.

    1990-05-01

    This project plan for Phase II summarizes the design of a project to complete analysis of offsite Emergency Planning Zones (EPZ) for the Rocky Flats Plant. Federal, state, and local governments develop emergency plans for facilities that may affect the public in the event of an accidental release of nuclear or hazardous materials. One of the purposes of these plans is to identify EPZs where actions might be necessary to protect public health. Public protective actions include sheltering, evacuation, and relocation. Agencies use EPZs to develop response plans and to determine needed resources. The State of Colorado, with support from the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Rocky Flats contractors, has developed emergency plans and EPZs for the Rocky Flats Plant periodically beginning in 1980. In Phase II, Interim Emergency Planning Zones Analysis, Maximum Credible Accident'' we will utilize the current Rocky Flats maximum credible accident (MCA), existing dispersion methodologies, and upgraded dosimetry methodologies to update the radiological EPZs. Additionally, we will develop recommendations for EPZs for nonradiological hazardous materials releases and evaluate potential surface water releases from the facility. This project will allow EG G Rocky Flats to meet current commitments to the state of Colorado and make steady, tangible improvements in our understanding of risk to offsite populations during potential emergencies at the Rocky Flats Plant. 8 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Cementation and solidification of Rocky Flats Plant incinerator ash

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, J.A.; Semones, G.B.

    1994-04-01

    Cementation studies on various aqueous waste streams at Rocky Flats have shown this technology to be effective for immobilizing the RCRA constituents in the waste. Cementation is also being evaluated for encapsulation of incinerator ash. Experiments will initially evaluate a surrogate ash waste using a Taguchi experimental design to optimize the cement formulation and waste loading levels for this application. Variables of waste loading, fly ash additions, water/cement ratio, and cement type will be tested at three levels each during the course of this work. Tests will finally be conducted on actual waste using the optimized cement formulation developed from this testing. This progression of tests will evaluate the effectiveness of cement encapsulation for this waste stream without generating any additional wastes.

  18. Rocky Flats Plant Live-Fire Range Risk Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    Nicolosi, S.L.; Rodriguez, M.A.

    1994-04-01

    The objective of the Live-Fire Range Risk Analysis Report (RAR) is to provide an authorization basis for operation as required by DOE 5480.16. The existing Live-Fire Range does not have a safety analysis-related authorization basis. EG&G Rocky Flats, Inc. has worked with DOE and its representatives to develop a format and content description for development of an RAR for the Live-Fire Range. Development of the RAR is closely aligned with development of the design for a baffle system to control risks from errant projectiles. DOE 5480.16 requires either an RAR or a safety analysis report (SAR) for live-fire ranges. An RAR rather than a SAR was selected in order to gain flexibility to more closely address the safety analysis and conduct of operation needs for a live-fire range in a cost-effective manner.

  19. Evaluation of an emergency response model for the Rocky Flats Plant: Charter

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This Charter provides a basis for a cooperative, interagency effort to evaluate the Terrain-Responsive Atmospheric Code for emergency response and emergency planning for the Rocky Flats Plant. This document establishes the foundation for the project entitled, Evaluation of an Emergency Response Model for the Rocky Flats Plant'' (to be referred to as the Project). This document meets the following objectives: Identify the Project; establish the project management structure, organizational responsibilities, and organizational commitments for reaching the goals of the Project, and identify a process for model revision and revelation for acceptance. 2 figs.

  20. Public distrust and hazard management success at the Rocky Flats nuclear weapons plant.

    PubMed

    Hohenemser, C

    1987-06-01

    Based on experience gained while serving a public oversight commission appointed by the governor of Colorado, hazard management at the Department of Energy's Rocky Flats nuclear weapons plant is reviewed. Specific reference is made to the plant's history of controversy, its defense-in-depth strategy of hazard control, occupational health issues, public exposure to plutonium, and the assessment of low-probability, high-consequence risks. This leads to the conclusion that Rocky Flats is, by any objective standard, a hazard management success. It follows that public distrust of Rocky Flats arises as much from fear and loathing of nuclear weapons themselves as from the manufacturing process by which they are made. PMID:3616001

  1. Flat Plate Solar Array Project: Proceedings of the 20th Project Integration Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, R. R.

    1982-01-01

    Progress made by the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project during the period November 1981 to April 1982 is reported. Project analysis and integration, technology research in silicon material, large-area silicon sheet and environmental isolation, cell and module formation, engineering sciences, and module performance and failure analysis are covered.

  2. Groundwater modeling to support risk assessment at Rocky Flats Plant, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Newill, R.J.; Zhang, C.M.; Belcher, W.; Roberts, B.

    1994-12-31

    Operable Unit No. 2 (OU2) of the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP), located west of Denver, Colorado, has been the site of extensive environmental investigations related to contamination from past radioactive and chemical waste storage and disposal practices. As part of the OU2 Phase 2 RCRA Facility Investigation/Remedial Investigation (RFI/RI) process, numerical groundwater fate and transport modeling using the MODFLOW, MT3D, and ONED3 codes was performed to support the data needs of the OU2 Human Health Risk Assessment. Characterization of OU2 physical conditions indicates that complex subsurface geologic conditions dominate the hydrogeology and contaminant distribution and transport within OU2. Because the sole purpose of the groundwater fate and transport modeling for this project was to support the needs of the human health risk assessment, it was adequate to limit the degree of model complexity to that necessary to provide conservative estimates of contaminant loading to local creeks, thus resulting in conservative estimates of human health risk. To accomplish this, the complex, multi-layer, highly transient site conditions were simplified to an equivalent, single-layer, steady-state system that incorporated the large-scale behavior of the integrated OU2 system.

  3. Effect of tidal flat on the thermal effluent dispersion from a power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagi, Tetsuo; Sugimatsu, Koichi; Shibaki, Hidenori; Shin, Hong-Ryeol; Kim, Hong-Sun

    2005-03-01

    The effect of a tidal flat on the dispersion of thermal effluent from the nuclear power plant at YongGwang (5.8 × 106 kW) along the west coast of Korea was investigated using intensive field observations and three-dimensional numerical simulations. The calculated sea surface temperature distribution reproduces well the observed one with a root mean square error of 0.53°C. A water column on the tidal flat area received a heat influx of 168 W m-2 on 17 April 2003 and transported the received heat to the adjacent coastal water at low water. The total heat supply from the tidal flat area to the coastal water was 6.6 × 1010 W, and was larger by about 1 order of magnitude than that from the power plant of 7.0 × 109 W on 17 April 2003, which was a fine day at spring tide. This fact shows that the effect of the tidal flat on the thermal effluent from the power plant is very large.

  4. Atmospheric dispersion modeling at the Rocky Flats Plant. Progress report, December 1981-December 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgin, C.R.

    1986-07-25

    The Rocky Flats Plant applies atmospheric dispersion modeling as a tool for Emergency Response, Risk Assessment, and Regulatory Compliance. Extreme variations in terrain around the facility have necessitated the development of an advanced modeling approach. The Terrain-Responsive Atmospheric Code (TRAC) was developed to treat realistically the changing wind, stability, dispersion, and deposition patterns that are experienced in mountainous areas. The result is a detailed picture of dose and deposition patterns associated with postulated or actual releases. A unified approach was taken to modeling needs at Rocky Flats. This produces consistent dose projections for all applications. A Risk Assessment version of TRAC is now operational. A high-speed version of the code is being implemented for Emergency Response, and development of a regulatory version is under way. Public, scientific, and governmental acceptance of TRAC is critical to successful applications at the Rocky Flats Plant. A program of peer review and regulatory approval was initiated to provide a full outside evaluation of our techniques. Full field validation (tracer testing) is key to demonstrating reliability of the TRAC model. A validation study was planned for implementation beginning in early CY-1986. The necessary funding ($500,000) is being sought. Although the TRAC model development and approval program was developed for site-specific needs at the Rocky Flats Plant, potential exists for wider application within the Department of Energy (DOE). The TRAC model can be easily applied at other sites in complex terrain. A coordinated approach to model validation throughout the Albquerque Operations Office (AL) or DOE complexes could prove more cost effective than site-by-site evaluations. Finally, the model approval procedure developed jointly by Rocky Flats and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is general and could be applied to other models or as the basis for a DOE-wide program.

  5. Cancer incidence patterns in the Denver metropolitan area in relation to the Rocky Flats plant.

    PubMed

    Crump, K S; Ng, T H; Cuddihy, R G

    1987-07-01

    This study considered whether geographic patterns of cancer suggest any relation with Rocky Flats, a facility located near Denver, Colorado that processes plutonium components for nuclear weapons. The study was based upon cancer incidence data for the years 1969 to 1971 and 1979 to 1981, and census tract data for 1970 and 1980. Data for 1979 to 1981 showed little association with Rocky Flats, even though considerations of the timing of releases of radioactivity from the plant and cancer latency indicate that data from this period should be more indicative of an effect of Rocky Flats than data from the earlier period. The explanatory variable found to be most closely associated with cancer incidence was an urban factor measured by distance from the Colorado State Capitol located in downtown Denver. Indications of correlations of cancer incidence with proximity to Rocky Flats largely disappeared for both time periods when analyses were stratified by this urban factor. This negative finding was not surprising because persons living in the vicinity of the plant have been shown to have no more plutonium in their tissues than persons living in other areas of Colorado. PMID:3591777

  6. Cancer incidence patterns in the Denver metropolitan area in relation to the Rocky Flats plant.

    PubMed

    Crump, K S; Ng, T H; Cuddihy, R G

    1987-07-01

    This study considered whether geographic patterns of cancer suggest any relation with Rocky Flats, a facility located near Denver, Colorado that processes plutonium components for nuclear weapons. The study was based upon cancer incidence data for the years 1969 to 1971 and 1979 to 1981, and census tract data for 1970 and 1980. Data for 1979 to 1981 showed little association with Rocky Flats, even though considerations of the timing of releases of radioactivity from the plant and cancer latency indicate that data from this period should be more indicative of an effect of Rocky Flats than data from the earlier period. The explanatory variable found to be most closely associated with cancer incidence was an urban factor measured by distance from the Colorado State Capitol located in downtown Denver. Indications of correlations of cancer incidence with proximity to Rocky Flats largely disappeared for both time periods when analyses were stratified by this urban factor. This negative finding was not surprising because persons living in the vicinity of the plant have been shown to have no more plutonium in their tissues than persons living in other areas of Colorado.

  7. Rocky Flats Plant fluidized-bed incinerator. Engineering design and reference manual

    SciTech Connect

    Meile, L.J.

    1982-11-05

    The information in this manual is being presented to complete the documentation of the fluidized-bed incineration (FBI) process development at the Rocky Flats Plant. The information pertains to the 82-kg/hour demonstration unit at the Rocky Flats Plant. This document continues the presentation of design reference material in the aeas of equipment drawings, space requirements, and unit costs. In addition, appendices contain an operating procedure and an operational safety analysis of the process. The cost figures presented are based on 1978 dollars and have not been converted to a current dollar value. Also, the cost of modifications are not included, since they would be insignificant if they were incorporated into a new installation.

  8. Criticality safety evaluation of Rocky Flats Plant one-gallon shipping containers

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, M.E.

    1991-12-01

    Criticality safety calculations have been performed to provide an analytical basis for handling, storage and transport of Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) one-gallon shipping containers. A mass limit was establish for metal (solid uranium or plutonium) and slurries (undissolved U or Pu solids in a ``mud,`` ``sludge,`` or ``slurry``). A separate volume limit was developed for plutonium solutions (liquids, either aqueous or organic, containing no visible undissolved solids).

  9. Criticality safety evaluation of Rocky Flats Plant one-gallon shipping containers

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, M.E.

    1991-12-01

    Criticality safety calculations have been performed to provide an analytical basis for handling, storage and transport of Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) one-gallon shipping containers. A mass limit was establish for metal (solid uranium or plutonium) and slurries (undissolved U or Pu solids in a mud,'' sludge,'' or slurry''). A separate volume limit was developed for plutonium solutions (liquids, either aqueous or organic, containing no visible undissolved solids).

  10. Structural evaluation of existing plutonium buildings and auxiliary structures at Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-02-01

    Existing plutonium handling and storage buildings at the DOE Rocky Flats Plant were evaluated for their structural resistance to seismic, tornado, and extreme wind loadings and the impact of tornado-driven missiles. This report presents the summary results of the study for all the buildings included in the study and makes preliminary general recommendations for upgrading where needed. Detailed analyses and backup calculations performed for the several buildings are presented in separate reports.

  11. Prognostic atmospheric and dispersion modeling in the vicinity of Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Fast, J.D.

    1995-04-01

    A multiscale four-dimensional data assimilation technique is incorporated into a mesoscale model and evaluated using meteorological and tracer data collected during the Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT) field experiment in the winter of 1991. The mesoscale model is used to predict the interaction of synoptically-driven flows and small-scale circulations influenced by terrain along the Front Range in Colorado in the vicinity of the Rocky Flats Plant for four nocturnal periods during the ASCOT field experiment. Data assimilation is used to create dynamically consistent analysis fields based on the mesoscale forecasts and the special asynoptic data taken during this experiment. The wind and turbulence quantities produced by the mesoscale model are then used to determine the dispersion of a tracer released from the Rocky Flats Plant for each evening. The mesoscale model is able to qualitatively predict the mesobeta-scale drainage flows from the Front Range into the South Platte River basin; however, the largest forecast errors occurred in a region immediately adjacent to the foothills. As expected, the current data assimilation technique reduced the overall errors in the atmospheric and dispersion calculations while the model generated realistic small-scale circulations not resolved by the data. Still, the model did not capture the shallow surface drainage flows just east of the Rocky Flats Plant for two of the evenings during the field experiment.

  12. Analysis of offsite emergency planning zones for the Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgin, C.R.; Daugherty, N.M.; Smith, M.L. . Rocky Flats Plant); Bunch, D.; Toresdahl, J.; Verholek, M.G. )

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this report is to fully document technical data and information that have been developed to support offsite emergency planning by the State of Colorado for potential accidents at the Rocky Flats Plant. Specifically, this report documents information and data that will assist the State of Colorado in upgrading its radiological emergency planning zones for Rocky Flats Plant. The Colorado Division of Disaster Emergency Services (DODES) and the Colorado Department of Health (CDH) represent the primary audience for this report. The secondary audience for this document includes the Rocky Flats Plant; federal, State, and local governmental agencies; the scientific community; and the interested public. Because the primary audience has a pre-existing background on the subject, this report assumes some exposure to emergency planning, health physics, and dispersion modeling on the part of the reader. The authors have limited their assumptions of background knowledge as much as possible, recognizing that the topics addressed in the report may be new to some secondary audiences.

  13. An assessment of radiolytic gas generation: Impacts from Rocky Flats Plant residue elimination alternatives. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-26

    This report evaluates the Sandia National Laboratory-Albuquerque analytical model that is used to support present wattage limit decisions for various matrix forms from the Residue Elimination Project for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant waste acceptability. This study includes (1) a comparison of the SNL-A model to Rocky Flats Plant models for consistency of assumptions and the phenomena considered in the models, and (2) an evaluation of the appropriateness of the Sandia National Laboratory-Albuquerque model to Rocky Flats Plant residues, considering that the original intent was to model wastes rather than residues. The study draws the following conclusions: (1) only real-time gas generation testing of specific waste streams may provide a sound basis for an increase in the transportation wattage limit of specific waste streams, and (2) the radiolytic gas generation rate from Residue Elimination Project waste emplaced at Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, under worst-case conditions, is not a significant factor in comparison to the total gas generation rate due to radiolysis, microbial degradation, and corrosion.

  14. Historical Exposures to Chemicals at the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant: A Pilot Retrospective Exposure Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Janeen Denise Robertson

    1999-02-01

    In a mortality study of white males who had worked at the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant between 1952 and 1979, an increased number of deaths from benign and unspecified intracranial neoplasms was found. A case-control study nested within this cohort investigated the hypothesis that an association existed between brain tumor death and exposure to either internally deposited plutonium or external ionizing radiation. There was no statistically significant association found between estimated radiation exposure from internally deposited plutonium and the development of brain tumors. Exposure by job or work area showed no significant difference between the cohort and the control groups. An update of the study found elevated risk estimates for (1) all lymphopoietic neoplasms, and (2) all causes of death in employees with body burdens greater than or equal to two nanocuries of plutonium. There was an excess of brain tumors for the entire cohort. Similar cohort studies conducted on worker populations from other plutonium handling facilities have not yet shown any elevated risks for brain tumors. Historically, the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant used large quantities of chemicals in their production operations. The use of solvents, particularly carbon tetrachloride, was unique to Rocky Flats. No investigation of the possible confounding effects of chemical exposures was done in the initial studies. The objectives of the present study are to (1) investigate the history of chemical use at the Rocky Flats facility; (2) locate and analyze chemical monitoring information in order to assess employee exposure to the chemicals that were used in the highest volume; and (3) determine the feasibility of establishing a chemical exposure assessment model that could be used in future epidemiology studies.

  15. Can Integrated Micro-Optical Concentrator Technology Revolutionize Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Solar Energy Harvesting?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haney, Michael W.

    2015-12-01

    The economies-of-scale and enhanced performance of integrated micro-technologies have repeatedly delivered disruptive market impact. Examples range from microelectronics to displays to lighting. However, integrated micro-scale technologies have yet to be applied in a transformational way to solar photovoltaic panels. The recently announced Micro-scale Optimized Solar-cell Arrays with Integrated Concentration (MOSAIC) program aims to create a new paradigm in solar photovoltaic panel technology based on the incorporation of micro-concentrating photo-voltaic (μ-CPV) cells. As depicted in Figure 1, MOSAIC will integrate arrays of micro-optical concentrating elements and micro-scale PV elements to achieve the same aggregated collection area and high conversion efficiency of a conventional (i.e., macro-scale) CPV approach, but with the low profile and mass, and hopefully cost, of a conventional non-concentrated PV panel. The reduced size and weight, and enhanced wiring complexity, of the MOSAIC approach provide the opportunity to access the high-performance/low-cost region between the conventional CPV and flat-plate (1-sun) PV domains shown in Figure 2. Accessing this portion of the graph in Figure 2 will expand the geographic and market reach of flat-plate PV. This talk reviews the motivation and goals for the MOSAIC program. The diversity of the technical approaches to micro-concentration, embedded solar tracking, and hybrid direct/diffuse solar resource collection found in the MOSAIC portfolio of projects will also be highlighted.

  16. Systematic Evaluation Program (SEP) at Rocky Flats Plant: An overview of practical management issues for evaluation of natural phenomena hazards

    SciTech Connect

    Badwan, F.M.; Herring, K.S.

    1993-08-01

    Many of the buildings at the Rocky Flats Plant were designed and built before modern standards were developed, including standards for protection against extreme natural phenomenon such as tornadoes, earthquakes, and floods. The purpose of the SEP is to establish an integrated approach to assessing the design adequacy of specific high and moderate hazard Rocky Flats facilities from a safety perspective and to establish a basis for defining any needed facility improvements. The SEP is to be carried out in three Phases. In Phase 1, topics to be evaluated and an evaluation plan for each topic were developed. Any differences between Current Design Requirements (CDR) or acceptance criteria and the design of existing facilities, will be identified during Phase 2 and assessed using an integrated systematic approach during Phase 3. The integrated assessment performed during Phase 3 provides a process for evaluating the differences between existing facility design and CDRs so that decisions on corrective actions can be made on the basis of relative risk reduction and cost effectiveness. These efforts will ensure that a balanced and integrated level of safety is achieved for long-term operation of these buildings. Through appropriate selection of topics and identification of the structures, systems, and components to be evaluated, the SEP will address outstanding design issues related to the prevention and mitigation of design basis accidents, including those arising from natural phenomena. The objective of the SEP is not to bring these buildings into strict compliance with current requirements, but rather to ensure that an adequate level of safety is achieved in an economical fashion.

  17. Flat-Spectrum Radio Sources as Likely Counterparts of Unidentified INTEGRAL Sources (Research Note)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molina, M.; Landi, R.; Bassani, L.; Malizia, A.; Stephen, J. B.; Bazzano, A.; Bird, A. J.; Gehrels, N.

    2012-01-01

    Many sources in the fourth INTEGRAL/IBIS catalogue are still unidentified since they lack an optical counterpart. An important tool that can help in identifying and classifying these sources is the cross-correlation with radio catalogues, which are very sensitive and positionally accurate. Moreover, the radio properties of a source, such as the spectrum or morphology, could provide further insight into its nature. In particular, flat-spectrum radio sources at high Galactic latitudes are likely to be AGN, possibly associated to a blazar or to the compact core of a radio galaxy. Here we present a small sample of 6 sources extracted from the fourth INTEGRAL/IBIS catalogue that are still unidentified or unclassified, but which are very likely associated with a bright, flat-spectrum radio object. To confirm the association and to study the source X-ray spectral parameters, we performed X-ray follow-up observations with Swift/XRT of all objects. We report in this note the overall results obtained from this search and discuss the nature of each individual INTEGRAL source. We find that 5 of the 6 radio associations are also detected in X-rays; furthermore, in 3 cases they are the only counterpart found. More specifically, IGR J06073-0024 is a flat-spectrum radio quasar at z = 1.08, IGR J14488-4008 is a newly discovered radio galaxy, while IGR J18129-0649 is an AGN of a still unknown type. The nature of two sources (IGR J07225-3810 and IGR J19386-4653) is less well defined, since in both cases we find another X-ray source in the INTEGRAL error circle; nevertheless, the flat-spectrum radio source, likely to be a radio loud AGN, remains a viable and, in fact, a more convincing association in both cases. Only for the last object (IGR J11544-7618) could we not find any convincing counterpart since the radio association is not an X-ray emitter, while the only X-ray source seen in the field is a G star and therefore unlikely to produce the persistent emission seen by INTEGRAL.

  18. Hybrid integrated photodetector with flat-top steep-edge spectral response.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xinye; Huang, Yongqing; Ren, Xiaomin; Duan, Xiaofeng; Hu, Fuquan; Wang, Qi; Cai, Shiwei; Zhang, Xia

    2012-08-20

    Hybrid integrated photodetectors with flat-top steep-edge spectral responses that consist of an Si-based multicavity Fabry-Perot (F-P) filter and an InP-based p-i-n absorption structure (with a 0.2 μm In(0.53)Ga(0.47)As absorption layer), have been designed and fabricated. The performance of the hybrid integrated photodetectors is theoretically investigated by including key factors such as the thickness of each cavity, the pairs of each reflecting mirror, and the thickness of the benzocyclobutene bonding layer. The device is fabricated by bonding an Si-based multicavity F-P filter with an InP-based p-i-n absorption structure. A hybrid integrated photodetector with a peak quantum efficiency of 55% around 1549.2 nm, the -0.5 dB band of 0.43 nm, the 25 dB band of 1.06 nm, and 3 dB bandwidth more than 16 GHz, is simultaneously obtained. Based on multicavity F-P structure, this device has good flat-top steep-edge spectral response.

  19. Environment, safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H) Progress Assessment of the DOE Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) in Golden, Colorado. The assessment, which was conducted during the period of May 17 through May 28, 1993, included a selective review of the ES&H management systems and programs of the responsible DOE Headquarters Program Offices (Defense Programs (DP) and Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM)), the DOE Rocky Flats Office (RFO), and the site contractor, EG&G Rocky Flats, Inc. (EG&G). Despite the near constant state of flux under which RFP has been required to operate, the Progress Assessment Team has concluded that significant progress has been made in correcting the deficiencies identified in the 1989 Assessment and in responding responsibly to regulations, and DOE directives and guidance that have been issued since that time. The Team concluded that the improvements have been concentrated in the activities associated with plutonium facilities and in regulatory driven programs. Much remains to be done with respect to implementing on a sitewide basis those management systems that anchor an organization`s pursuit of continuous ES&H improvement. Furthermore the Team concluded that the pace of improvement has been constrained by a combination of factors that have limited the site`s ability to manage change in the pursuit of sitewide ES&H excellence.

  20. Rebaselining seismic risks for resumption of Building 707 plutonium operations at the Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Elia, F. Jr.; Foppe, T.; Stahlnecker, E.

    1993-08-01

    Natural phenomena risks have been assessed for plutonium handling facilities at the Rocky Flats Plant, based on numerous studies performed for the Department of Energy Natural Phenomena Hazards Project. The risk assessment was originally utilized in the facilities Final Safety Analysis Reports and in subsequent risk management decisions. Plutonium production operations were curtailed in 1989 in order for a new operating contractor to implement safety improvements. Since natural phenomena events dominated risks to the public, a re-assessment of these events were undertaken for resumption of plutonium operations.

  1. Evaluation of Rocky Flats Plant stored plutonium inventory at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Clements, T.L. Jr.; Einerson, J.J.

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of this document is to evaluate reported inventories of plutonium contained in stored transuranic (TRU) waste generated by the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). From 1970 to 1989, this waste was shipped to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and placed in aboveground retrievable storage at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC)-Transuranic Storage Area (TSA). This evaluation was initiated to address potential uncertainty in quantities of stored plutonium reported in the Radioactive Waste Management Information System (RWMIS). The RWMIS includes radionuclide information from generators that shipped TRU waste to INEL for storage. Recent evaluations performed on buried TRU waste (1954-1970) resulted in significant revision to the original reported values of plutonium, americium, and enriched uranium. These evaluations were performed based on Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) Inventory Difference (ID) records. This evaluation for stored TRU waste was performed to: (1) identify if significant discrepancies exist between RWMIS reported values and RFP ID records, (2) describe the methodology used to perform the RWMIS evaluation, (3) determine a Best Estimate (BE) and 95% Upper Confidence Bound (UB) on the plutonium inventory, (4) provide conclusions based on this evaluation, and (5) identify recommendations and/or actions that might be needed.

  2. Stochastic estimates of exposure and cancer risk from carbon tetrachloride released to the air from the rocky flats plant.

    PubMed

    Rood, A S; McGavran, P D; Aanenson, J W; Till, J E

    2001-08-01

    Carbon tetrachloride is a degreasing agent that was used at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) in Colorado to clean product components and equipment. The chemical is considered a volatile organic compound and a probable human carcinogen. During the time the plant operated (1953-1989), most of the carbon tetrachloride was released to the atmosphere through building exhaust ducts. A smaller amount was released to the air via evaporation from open-air burn pits and ground-surface discharge points. Airborne releases from the plant were conservatively estimated to be equivalent to the amount of carbon tetrachloride consumed annually by the plant, which was estimated to be between 3.6 and 180 Mg per year. This assumption was supported by calculations that showed that most of the carbon tetrachloride discharged to the ground surface would subsequently be released to the atmosphere. Atmospheric transport of carbon tetrachloride from the plant to the surrounding community was estimated using a Gaussian Puff dispersion model (RATCHET). Time-integrated concentrations were estimated for nine hypothetical but realistic exposure scenarios that considered variation in lifestyle, location, age, and gender. Uncertainty distributions were developed for cancer slope factors and atmospheric dispersion factors. These uncertainties were propagated through to the final risk estimate using Monte Carlo techniques. The geometric mean risk estimates varied from 5.2 x 10(-6) for a hypothetical rancher or laborer working near the RFP to 3.4 x 10(-9) for an infant scenario. The distribution of incremental lifetime cancer incidence risk for the hypothetical rancher was between 1.3 x 10(-6) (5% value) and 2.1 x 10(-5) (95% value). These estimates are similar to or exceed estimated cancer risks posed by releases of radionuclides from the site. PMID:11726020

  3. Cement waste-form development for ion-exchange resins at the Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Veazey, G.W.; Ames, R.L.

    1997-03-01

    This report describes the development of a cement waste form to stabilize ion-exchange resins at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). These resins have an elevated potential for ignition due to inadequate wetness and contact with nitrates. The work focused on the preparation and performance evaluation of several Portland cement/resin formulations. The performance standards were chosen to address Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and Environmental Protection Agency Resource Conservation and Recovery Act requirements, compatibility with Rocky Flats equipment, and throughput efficiency. The work was performed with surrogate gel-type Dowex cation- and anion-exchange resins chosen to be representative of the resin inventory at RFETS. Work was initiated with nonactinide resins to establish formulation ranges that would meet performance standards. Results were then verified and refined with actinide-containing resins. The final recommended formulation that passed all performance standards was determined to be a cement/water/resin (C/W/R) wt % ratio of 63/27/10 at a pH of 9 to 12. The recommendations include the acceptable compositional ranges for each component of the C/W/R ratio. Also included in this report are a recommended procedure, an equipment list, and observations/suggestions for implementation at RFETS. In addition, information is included that explains why denitration of the resin is unnecessary for stabilizing its ignitability potential.

  4. Hydrology of a nuclear-processing plant site, Rocky Flats, Jefferson County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hurr, R. Theodore

    1976-01-01

    Accidental releases of contaminants resulting from the operation of the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration's nuclear-processing and recovery plant located on Rocky Flats will move at different rates through -different parts of the hydrologic system. Rates of movement are dependent upon the magnitude of the accidental release and the hydrologic conditions at the time of the release. For example, during wet periods, a contaminant resulting from a 5,000-gallon (19,000-1itre) release on the land surface would enter the ground-water system in about 2 to 12 hours. Ground-water flow in the Rocky Flats Alluvium might move the contaminant eastward at a rate of about 3 to 11 feet (0.9 to 3.4 metres) per day, if it remains dissolved. Maximum time to a point of discharge would be about 3 years; minimum time could be a few days. A contaminant entering a stream would then move at a rate of about 60 feet (18 metres) per minute under pool-and-riffle conditions. The rate of movement might be about 420 feet (128 metres) per minute under open-channel-flow conditions following intense thunderstorms.

  5. Analysis of offsite Emergency Planning Zones (EPZs) for the Rocky Flats Plant. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    A quality assurance plan (QAP) is a documented description or a listing of the controls to be implemented to assure that an operation or activity is accomplished in a consistent manner and in accordance with requirements. Federal, state, and local governments require emergency planning for facilities that may affect the public in the event of an accidental release of nuclear or hazardous materials. One of the purposes of this EG G Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) Analysis of Offsite Emergency Planning Zones (EPZ) project is to identify the EPZs where actions could be necessary to protect public health. The RFP EPZ project is developing an interim basis for potential sheltering and evacuation recommendations in the event of an accidental release of radionuclides to the atmosphere from this facility. Also, RFP is developing EPZs for accidental releases of major nonradiological hazardous substances to the atmosphere, and will analyze the impacts of an unplanned surface water release from the facility.

  6. Acceptable knowledge document for INEEL stored transuranic waste -- Rocky Flats Plant waste. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-23

    This document and supporting documentation provide a consistent, defensible, and auditable record of acceptable knowledge for waste generated at the Rocky Flats Plant which is currently in the accessible storage inventory at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The inventory consists of transuranic (TRU) waste generated from 1972 through 1989. Regulations authorize waste generators and treatment, storage, and disposal facilities to use acceptable knowledge in appropriate circumstances to make hazardous waste determinations. Acceptable knowledge includes information relating to plant history, process operations, and waste management, in addition to waste-specific data generated prior to the effective date of the RCRA regulations. This document is organized to provide the reader a comprehensive presentation of the TRU waste inventory ranging from descriptions of the historical plant operations that generated and managed the waste to specific information about the composition of each waste group. Section 2 lists the requirements that dictate and direct TRU waste characterization and authorize the use of the acceptable knowledge approach. In addition to defining the TRU waste inventory, Section 3 summarizes the historical operations, waste management, characterization, and certification activities associated with the inventory. Sections 5.0 through 26.0 describe the waste groups in the inventory including waste generation, waste packaging, and waste characterization. This document includes an expanded discussion for each waste group of potential radionuclide contaminants, in addition to other physical properties and interferences that could potentially impact radioassay systems.

  7. Digitization workflows for flat sheets and packets of plants, algae, and fungi.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Gil; Sweeney, Patrick; Wallace, Lisa E; Rabeler, Richard K; Allard, Dorothy; Brown, Herrick; Carter, J Richard; Denslow, Michael W; Ellwood, Elizabeth R; Germain-Aubrey, Charlotte C; Gilbert, Ed; Gillespie, Emily; Goertzen, Leslie R; Legler, Ben; Marchant, D Blaine; Marsico, Travis D; Morris, Ashley B; Murrell, Zack; Nazaire, Mare; Neefus, Chris; Oberreiter, Shanna; Paul, Deborah; Ruhfel, Brad R; Sasek, Thomas; Shaw, Joey; Soltis, Pamela S; Watson, Kimberly; Weeks, Andrea; Mast, Austin R

    2015-09-01

    Effective workflows are essential components in the digitization of biodiversity specimen collections. To date, no comprehensive, community-vetted workflows have been published for digitizing flat sheets and packets of plants, algae, and fungi, even though latest estimates suggest that only 33% of herbarium specimens have been digitally transcribed, 54% of herbaria use a specimen database, and 24% are imaging specimens. In 2012, iDigBio, the U.S. National Science Foundation's (NSF) coordinating center and national resource for the digitization of public, nonfederal U.S. collections, launched several working groups to address this deficiency. Here, we report the development of 14 workflow modules with 7-36 tasks each. These workflows represent the combined work of approximately 35 curators, directors, and collections managers representing more than 30 herbaria, including 15 NSF-supported plant-related Thematic Collections Networks and collaboratives. The workflows are provided for download as Portable Document Format (PDF) and Microsoft Word files. Customization of these workflows for specific institutional implementation is encouraged. PMID:26421256

  8. Digitization workflows for flat sheets and packets of plants, algae, and fungi1

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Gil; Sweeney, Patrick; Wallace, Lisa E.; Rabeler, Richard K.; Allard, Dorothy; Brown, Herrick; Carter, J. Richard; Denslow, Michael W.; Ellwood, Elizabeth R.; Germain-Aubrey, Charlotte C.; Gilbert, Ed; Gillespie, Emily; Goertzen, Leslie R.; Legler, Ben; Marchant, D. Blaine; Marsico, Travis D.; Morris, Ashley B.; Murrell, Zack; Nazaire, Mare; Neefus, Chris; Oberreiter, Shanna; Paul, Deborah; Ruhfel, Brad R.; Sasek, Thomas; Shaw, Joey; Soltis, Pamela S.; Watson, Kimberly; Weeks, Andrea; Mast, Austin R.

    2015-01-01

    Effective workflows are essential components in the digitization of biodiversity specimen collections. To date, no comprehensive, community-vetted workflows have been published for digitizing flat sheets and packets of plants, algae, and fungi, even though latest estimates suggest that only 33% of herbarium specimens have been digitally transcribed, 54% of herbaria use a specimen database, and 24% are imaging specimens. In 2012, iDigBio, the U.S. National Science Foundation’s (NSF) coordinating center and national resource for the digitization of public, nonfederal U.S. collections, launched several working groups to address this deficiency. Here, we report the development of 14 workflow modules with 7–36 tasks each. These workflows represent the combined work of approximately 35 curators, directors, and collections managers representing more than 30 herbaria, including 15 NSF-supported plant-related Thematic Collections Networks and collaboratives. The workflows are provided for download as Portable Document Format (PDF) and Microsoft Word files. Customization of these workflows for specific institutional implementation is encouraged. PMID:26421256

  9. Digitization workflows for flat sheets and packets of plants, algae, and fungi.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Gil; Sweeney, Patrick; Wallace, Lisa E; Rabeler, Richard K; Allard, Dorothy; Brown, Herrick; Carter, J Richard; Denslow, Michael W; Ellwood, Elizabeth R; Germain-Aubrey, Charlotte C; Gilbert, Ed; Gillespie, Emily; Goertzen, Leslie R; Legler, Ben; Marchant, D Blaine; Marsico, Travis D; Morris, Ashley B; Murrell, Zack; Nazaire, Mare; Neefus, Chris; Oberreiter, Shanna; Paul, Deborah; Ruhfel, Brad R; Sasek, Thomas; Shaw, Joey; Soltis, Pamela S; Watson, Kimberly; Weeks, Andrea; Mast, Austin R

    2015-09-01

    Effective workflows are essential components in the digitization of biodiversity specimen collections. To date, no comprehensive, community-vetted workflows have been published for digitizing flat sheets and packets of plants, algae, and fungi, even though latest estimates suggest that only 33% of herbarium specimens have been digitally transcribed, 54% of herbaria use a specimen database, and 24% are imaging specimens. In 2012, iDigBio, the U.S. National Science Foundation's (NSF) coordinating center and national resource for the digitization of public, nonfederal U.S. collections, launched several working groups to address this deficiency. Here, we report the development of 14 workflow modules with 7-36 tasks each. These workflows represent the combined work of approximately 35 curators, directors, and collections managers representing more than 30 herbaria, including 15 NSF-supported plant-related Thematic Collections Networks and collaboratives. The workflows are provided for download as Portable Document Format (PDF) and Microsoft Word files. Customization of these workflows for specific institutional implementation is encouraged.

  10. Flat-plate solar array project. Volume 8: Project analysis and integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguire, P.; Henry, P.

    1986-01-01

    Project Analysis and Integration (PA&I) performed planning and integration activities to support management of the various Flat-Plate Solar Array (FSA) Project R&D activities. Technical and economic goals were established by PA&I for each R&D task within the project to coordinate the thrust toward the National Photovoltaic Program goals. A sophisticated computer modeling capability was developed to assess technical progress toward meeting the economic goals. These models included a manufacturing facility simulation, a photovoltaic power station simulation and a decision aid model incorporating uncertainty. This family of analysis tools was used to track the progress of the technology and to explore the effects of alternative technical paths. Numerous studies conducted by PA&I signaled the achievement of milestones or were the foundation of major FSA project and national program decisions. The most important PA&I activities during the project history are summarized. The PA&I planning function is discussed and how it relates to project direction and important analytical models developed by PA&I for its analytical and assessment activities are reviewed.

  11. An assessment of criticality safety at the Department of Energy Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Colorado, July--September 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Mattson, Roger J.

    1989-09-01

    This is a report on the 1989 independent Criticality Safety Assessment of the Rocky Flats Plant, primarily in response to public concerns that nuclear criticality accidents involving plutonium may have occurred at this nuclear weapon component fabrication and processing plant. The report evaluates environmental issues, fissile material storage practices, ventilation system problem areas, and criticality safety practices. While no evidence of a criticality accident was found, several recommendations are made for criticality safety improvements. 9 tabs.

  12. Evaluation of atmospheric transport models for use in Phase II of the historical public exposures studies at the Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Rood, A.S.; Killough, G.G.; Till, J.E.

    1999-08-01

    Five atmospheric transport models were evaluated for use in Phase II of the Historical Public Exposures Studies at the Rocky Flats Plant. Models included a simple straight-line Gaussian plume model (ISCST2), several integrated puff models (RATCHET, TRIAD, and INPUFF2), and a complex terrain model (TRAC). Evaluations were based on how well model predictions compared with sulfur hexafluoride tracer measurements taken in the vicinity of Rocky Flats in February 1991. Twelve separate tracer experiments were conducted, each lasting 9 hr and measured at 140 samplers in arcs 8 and 16 km from the release point at Rocky Flats. Four modeling objectives were defined based on the endpoints of the overall study: (1) the unpaired maximum hourly average concentration, (2) paired time-averaged concentration, (3) unpaired time-averaged concentration, and (4) arc-integrated concentration. Performance measures were used to evaluate models and focused on the geometric mean and standard deviation of the predicted-to-observed ratio and the correlation coefficient between predicted and observed concentrations. No one model consistently outperformed the others in all modeling objectives and performance measures. The overall performance of the RATCHET model was somewhat better than the other models.

  13. Predicting the dynamic impact behaviour of spray droplets on flat plant surfaces.

    PubMed

    Delele, M A; Nuyttens, D; Duga, A T; Ambaw, A; Lebeau, F; Nicolai, B M; Verboven, P

    2016-09-14

    The dynamic impact behaviour of water droplets on plant surfaces was investigated based on a multiphase computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. The study was conducted using the Volume Of Fluid (VOF) approach. The static contact angle of water droplets on leaf surfaces of different plants (apple, pear, leek and cabbage) was measured and found to vary between 54.9 and 138.2°. Impact experiments were conducted by monitoring the flow and impact characteristics of water droplets on leaves in still air with a high speed camera. Droplets were generated by an agricultural flat fan spray nozzle moving across the leaf at constant speed. The nozzle produced droplets with diameters ranging from 20.6 up to 550.8 μm, and droplet velocity values near the impact between 0.03 and 13.2 m s(-1). The CFD model was capable of predicting the observed dynamic impact behaviour of droplets on the plant surfaces. The fate of the droplets after the impact process for adhesion, bouncing or splashing was accurately predicted for Weber numbers (We) in the range of 0.007 to 1096 and droplet Reynolds numbers (Re) between 5 to 8000. The process was highly dependent on the surface and droplet flow characteristics during the impact. Combinations of We, Re and Ohnesorge (Oh) numbers defined the droplet maximum spread factor, the number of secondary droplets generated as a result of the splashing process and the transition between the different impact outcomes. These criteria can then be used in field scale spray deposition and drift models to better understand agricultural spray operations. PMID:27501228

  14. History of Uranium-233(sup233U)Processing at the Rocky Flats Plant. In support of the RFETS Acceptable Knowledge Program

    SciTech Connect

    Moment, R.L.; Gibbs, F.E.; Freiboth, C.J.

    1999-04-01

    This report documents the processing of Uranium-233 at the Rocky Flats Plant (Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site). The information may be used to meet Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC)and for determining potential Uranium-233 content in applicable residue waste streams.

  15. Ecological Consequences of Clonal Integration in Plants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fenghong; Liu, Jian; Dong, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Clonal plants are widespread throughout the plant kingdom and dominate in diverse habitats. Spatiotemporal heterogeneity of environment is pervasive at multiple scales, even at scales relevant to individual plants. Clonal integration refers to resource translocation and information communication among the ramets of clonal plants. Due to clonal integration, clonal plant species possess a series of peculiar attributes: plasticity in response to local and non-local conditions, labor division with organ specialization for acquiring locally abundant resources, foraging behavior by selective placement of ramets in resource-rich microhabitats, and avoidance of intraclonal competition. Clonal integration has very profound ecological consequences for clonal plants. It allows them to efficiently cope with environmental heterogeneity, by alleviating local resource shortages, buffering environmental stresses and disturbances, influencing competitive ability, increasing invasiveness, and altering species composition and invasibility at the community level. In this paper, we present a comprehensive review of research on the ecological consequences of plant clonal integration based on a large body of literature. We also attempt to propose perspectives for future research. PMID:27446093

  16. Ecological Consequences of Clonal Integration in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fenghong; Liu, Jian; Dong, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Clonal plants are widespread throughout the plant kingdom and dominate in diverse habitats. Spatiotemporal heterogeneity of environment is pervasive at multiple scales, even at scales relevant to individual plants. Clonal integration refers to resource translocation and information communication among the ramets of clonal plants. Due to clonal integration, clonal plant species possess a series of peculiar attributes: plasticity in response to local and non-local conditions, labor division with organ specialization for acquiring locally abundant resources, foraging behavior by selective placement of ramets in resource-rich microhabitats, and avoidance of intraclonal competition. Clonal integration has very profound ecological consequences for clonal plants. It allows them to efficiently cope with environmental heterogeneity, by alleviating local resource shortages, buffering environmental stresses and disturbances, influencing competitive ability, increasing invasiveness, and altering species composition and invasibility at the community level. In this paper, we present a comprehensive review of research on the ecological consequences of plant clonal integration based on a large body of literature. We also attempt to propose perspectives for future research. PMID:27446093

  17. Performances and fouling control of a flat sheet membrane in a MBR pilot-plant.

    PubMed

    Grélot, A; Grelier, P; Tazi-Pain, A; Lesjean, B; Brüss, U; Grasmick, A

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the performance and the optimisation of the hydraulic operating conditions of the A3 Water Solutions flat sheet membrane technology in a MBR pilot-plant to achieve a satisfying fouling control and also a reduction in the required aeration. Two vertically stacked modules were tested at pilot-scale at Anjou Recherche under typical biological operating conditions (mixed liquor suspended solids concentration (MLSS) =10 g/l; sludge retention time (SRT) =28 days; food to microorganism ratio (F/M)=0.12 kg COD/kg MLSS/d). The use of a double-deck and of specific backwashes for this membrane technology enabled to achieve satisfying membrane performances for a net flux of 25 L h(-1) m(-2), 20 degrees C at a low specific aeration demand per membrane surface (SADm = 0.2 Nm(3) h(-1) m(-2)) which corresponds to a specific aeration demand per permeate volume unit (SADp) of 8 Nm(3) air/m(3) permeate, which is lower than reported for many commercial membrane systems. The mixed liquor characteristics (foaming, MLSS concentration) appeared to influence the fouling behaviour of the membranes but no correlation was found with the fouling rate. However, with the new operating conditions, the system is robust and can cope with fouling resulting from biological stress and daily peak flows for MLSS concentrations in the membrane tank up to 18 g/l.

  18. Fiscal year 1990 Rocky Flats Plant Environmental Restoration program Current-Year Work Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, T. ); Waage, E.; Miller, D. Corp., Boulder, CO )

    1990-01-01

    The Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) is a nuclear weapons manufacturing facility currently operated by EG G for the US Department of Energy (DOE). RFP is located at the foot of the Rocky Mountains in Jefferson Country, Colorado. The Fiscal Year 1990 (FY90) Current-Year Work Plan (CYWP) is intended to serve as a guidance document for the Environmental Restoration (ER) and RCRA Compliance programs that will be implemented at RFP. The CYWP provides in one document any cross-references necessary to understand the interrelationships between the CYWP and the DOE Five-Year Plan (FYP), Site-Specific Plan (SSP), and other related documents. The scope of this plan includes comparison of planned FY90 ER activities to those actually achieved. The CYWP has been updated to include Colorado Department of Health (CDH), US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and DOE Inter-Agency Agreement ER activities. It addresses hazardous wastes, radioactive wastes, mixed wastes (radioactive and hazardous), and sanitary wastes. The CYWP also addresses facilities and sites contaminated with or used in management of those wastes.

  19. Application of two real-time toxicity tests to monitor Rocky Flats Plant water quality

    SciTech Connect

    Wolaver, H.; Spence, S.; Paton, I.

    1993-01-01

    Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) is part of the Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons complex and fabricated weapon components for the DOE from 1952 to 1989. Like other industrial facilities, RFP is subject to Clean Water Act (CWA) regulations that require surface water discharge monitoring. Unlike most industrial facilities, RFP is also regulated under a Federal Facility Compliance Agreement (FFCA) that requires development of water quality monitoring on a real-time basis. A surface water toxicity monitoring program was initiated in May 1991 to address requirements concerning prevention of toxic effluent discharges. The goal of the program is to determine which methods will provide real-time monitoring, thereby enhancing water management and protection of the aquatic environment downstream. In addition to the traditional whole effluent toxicity (WET) testing required by the FFCA, two other biological instrumentation techniques that may be applicable to real-time monitoring are being implemented. These are the Microtox[trademark] (Microtox[trademark] is a registered trademark of Microbics Corporation, hereinafter referred to as Microtox'') and automated respirometry. Both methods provide frequent sampling compared to WET testing and allow for more timely and frequent water quality measurement.

  20. Application of two real-time toxicity tests to monitor Rocky Flats Plant water quality

    SciTech Connect

    Wolaver, H.; Spence, S.; Paton, I.

    1993-05-01

    Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) is part of the Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons complex and fabricated weapon components for the DOE from 1952 to 1989. Like other industrial facilities, RFP is subject to Clean Water Act (CWA) regulations that require surface water discharge monitoring. Unlike most industrial facilities, RFP is also regulated under a Federal Facility Compliance Agreement (FFCA) that requires development of water quality monitoring on a real-time basis. A surface water toxicity monitoring program was initiated in May 1991 to address requirements concerning prevention of toxic effluent discharges. The goal of the program is to determine which methods will provide real-time monitoring, thereby enhancing water management and protection of the aquatic environment downstream. In addition to the traditional whole effluent toxicity (WET) testing required by the FFCA, two other biological instrumentation techniques that may be applicable to real-time monitoring are being implemented. These are the Microtox{trademark} (Microtox{trademark} is a registered trademark of Microbics Corporation, hereinafter referred to as ``Microtox``) and automated respirometry. Both methods provide frequent sampling compared to WET testing and allow for more timely and frequent water quality measurement.

  1. The Rocky Flats Plant Waste Stream and Residue Identification and Characterization Program (WSRIC): Progress and achievements

    SciTech Connect

    Ideker, V.L.; Doyle, G.M.

    1994-02-01

    The Waste Stream and Residue Identification and Characterization (WSRIC) Program, as described in the WSRIC Program Description delineates the process knowledge used to identify and characterize currently-generated waste from approximately 5404 waste streams originating from 576 processes in 288 buildings at Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). Annual updates to the WSRIC documents are required by the Federal Facilities Compliance Agreement between the US Department of Energy, the Colorado Department of Health and the Environmental Protection Agency. Accurate determination and characterization of waste is a crucial component in RFP`s waste management strategy to assure compliance with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) storage and treatment requirements, as well as disposal acceptance criteria. The WSRIC Program was rebaselined in September 1992, and serves as the linchpin for documenting process knowledge in RFP`s RCRA operating record. Enhancements to the WSRIC include strengthening the waste characterization rationale, expanding WSRIC training for waste generators, and incorporating analytical information into the WSRIC building books. These enhancements will improve credibility with the regulators and increase waste generators` understanding of the basis for credible waste characterizations.

  2. Distribution Integrity Management Plant (DIMP)

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzales, Jerome F.

    2012-05-07

    This document is the distribution integrity management plan (Plan) for the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Natural Gas Distribution System. This Plan meets the requirements of 49 CFR Part 192, Subpart P Distribution Integrity Management Programs (DIMP) for the LANL Natural Gas Distribution System. This Plan was developed by reviewing records and interviewing LANL personnel. The records consist of the design, construction, operation and maintenance for the LANL Natural Gas Distribution System. The records system for the LANL Natural Gas Distribution System is limited, so the majority of information is based on the judgment of LANL employees; the maintenance crew, the Corrosion Specialist and the Utilities and Infrastructure (UI) Civil Team Leader. The records used in this report are: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) 7100.1-1, Report of Main and Service Line Inspection, Natural Gas Leak Survey, Gas Leak Response Report, Gas Leak and Repair Report, and Pipe-to-Soil Recordings. The specific elements of knowledge of the infrastructure used to evaluate each threat and prioritize risks are listed in Sections 6 and 7, Threat Evaluation and Risk Prioritization respectively. This Plan addresses additional information needed and a method for gaining that data over time through normal activities. The processes used for the initial assessment of Threat Evaluation and Risk Prioritization are the methods found in the Simple, Handy Risk-based Integrity Management Plan (SHRIMP{trademark}) software package developed by the American Pipeline and Gas Agency (APGA) Security and Integrity Foundation (SIF). SHRIMP{trademark} uses an index model developed by the consultants and advisors of the SIF. Threat assessment is performed using questions developed by the Gas Piping Technology Company (GPTC) as modified and added to by the SHRIMP{trademark} advisors. This Plan is required to be reviewed every 5 years to be continually refined and improved. Records

  3. Nuclear plants gain integrated information systems

    SciTech Connect

    Villavicencio-Ramirez, A.; Rodriquez-Alvarez, J.M.

    1994-10-01

    With the objective of simplifying the complex mesh of computing devices employed within nuclear power plants, modern technology and integration techniques are being used to form centralized (but backed up) databases and distributed processing and display networks. Benefits are immediate as a result of the integration and the use of standards. The use of a unique data acquisition and database subsystem optimizes the high costs of engineering, as this task is done only once for the life span of the system. This also contributes towards a uniform user interface and allows for graceful expansion and maintenance. This article features an integrated information system, Sistema Integral de Informacion de Proceso (SIIP). The development of this system enabled the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power plant to fully use the already existing universe of signals and its related engineering during all plant conditions, namely, start up, normal operation, transient analysis, and emergency operation. Integrated systems offer many advantages over segregated systems, and this experience should benefit similar development efforts in other electric power utilities, not only for nuclear but also for other types of generating plants.

  4. Resumption of thermal stabilization of plutonium oxide in Building 707, Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Colorado. Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Department of Energy is proposing thermal stabilization to enhance the safe storage of plutonium at Rocky Flats Plant until decisions are made on long-term storage and disposition of the material. The proposed action is to resume thermal stabilization of pyrophoric plutonium in Building 707 at Rocky Flats Plant. Thermal stabilization would heat the pyrophoric plutonium under controlled conditions in a glovebox furnace to promote full oxidation and convert the material into stable plutonium oxide in the form of PuO{sub 2}. Other activities associated with thermal stabilization would include post-stabilization characterization of non-pyrophoric plutonium and on-site movement of pyrophoric and non-pyrophoric plutonium. This report covers; purpose and need; proposed action; alternatives to the proposed action; affected environment; environmental effects of proposed action and no action alternative; agencies and person consulted; and public participation.

  5. Rocky Flats Plant: Test bed for transitioning from weapons production mission to environmental restoration, waste management, and economic development missions

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, A.; Murthy, K.S.; Krenzer, R.W.; Williams, R.E.; Detamore, J.A.; Brown, C.M.; Francis, G.E.; Lucerna, J.J.

    1993-01-07

    Redirection of Rocky Flats Plant`s (RF) mission is an inevitable result of changes in the worldwide social, political, and environmental factors. These changes were exemplified in the cancellation of the W-88 Warhead in January 1992, by the President of the United States. These unprecedented changes have altered the RF`s traditional nuclear weapons production mission to the transition mission, i.e., cleanup, preparation for deactivation and decontamination, decommissioning, dismantlement and demolition, and when appropriate, economic development, of the facilities. The purpose of this paper is to describe the essentials of the technical approach and management actions advanced by EG&G Rocky Flats, Inc., to organize, staff, direct, and control the activities necessary to transition the RF from its historical weapons production mission to the transition mission.

  6. Aerosol sampling from stacks and ducts at the Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect

    McFarlane, A.R.; Anand, N.K.; Ortiz, C.A.

    1995-12-31

    While the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) in Golden, CO is being decommissioned; there is air flow through the ventilation systems in the buildings. Although the air is HEPA filtered, under the requirements of both the U.S. EPA and the U.S. DOE, several of the stacks and ducts must be continuously monitored for radionuclide aerosol particles, where plutonium is the principal radionuclide of concern. The air sampling effort for compliance with EPA requirements is focussed on the acquisition of representative aerosol samples, which are collected on filters and subsequently analyzed in a laboratory. The goal of the DOE sampling is to acquire representative samples that can be analyzed with near-real-time monitors for alarming purposes, where the alarms are used to warn workers that may be affected by elevated concentrations of radionuclides. The air sampling at RFP is based on single point representative sampling with a shrouded probe. For stacks and ducts that are under the cognizance of EPA, the approach is embodied in a set of Alternate Reference Methodologies that EPA has approved for use at DOE facilities. Shrouded probes were designed based on numerical predictions of performance and the efficacy of the probes was verified by wind tunnel tests. Aerosol transport lines were designed using a code, DEPOSITION that provides optimization of aerosol penetration. Adequacy of a location for single point sampling was based on numerical criteria for mixing of both contaminant mass and fluid momentum as manifested by the uniformity of the velocity profile and the profiles of tracer gas and aerosol particles. Scale models were constructed of key ducts and these were tested in the laboratory to determine the proper locations. For ducts and stacks that fall under DOE, but not EPA requirements, similar methodology was used; however, the single point sampling location is based on alarming considerations.

  7. Equipment evaluation for low density polyethylene encapsulated nitrate salt waste at the Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, W.I.; Faucette, A.M.; Jantzen, R.C.; Logsdon, B.W.; Oldham, J.H.; Saiki, D.M.; Yudnich, R.J.

    1993-08-30

    Mixed wastes at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) are subject to regulation by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Polymer solidification is being developed as a final treatment technology for several of these mixed wastes, including nitrate salts. Encapsulation nitrate salts with low density polyethylene (LDPE) has been the preliminary focus of the RFP polymer solidification effort. Literature reviews, industry surveys, and lab-scale and pilot-scale tests have been conducted to evaluate several options for encapsulating nitrate salts with LDPE. Most of the effort has focused on identifying compatible drying and extrusion technologies. Other processing options, specifically meltration and non-heated compounding machines, were also investigated. The best approach appears to be pretreatment of the nitrate salt waste brine in either a vertical or horizontal thin film evaporator followed by compounding of the dried waste with LDPE in an intermeshing, co-rotating, twin-screw extruder. Additional pilot-scale tests planned for the fall of 1993 should further support this recommendation. Preliminary evaluation work indicates that meltration is not possible at atmospheric pressure with the LDPE (Chevron PE-1409) provided by RFP. However, meltration should be possible at atmospheric pressure using another LDPE formulation with altered physical and rheological properties: Lower molecular weight and lower viscosity (Epoline C-15). Contract modifications are now in process to allow a follow-on pilot scale demonstration. Questions regarding changed safety and physical properties of the resultant LDPE waste form due to use of the Epoline C-15 will be addressed. No additional work with non-heated mixer compounder machines is planned at this time.

  8. Analysis of offsite emergency planning zones for the Rocky Flats Plant. Evaluation of radiological materials, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgin, C.R.; Daugherty, N.M.; Smith, M.L.; Bunch, D.; Toresdahl, J.; Verholek, M.G.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this report is to fully document technical data and information that have been developed to support offsite emergency planning by the State of Colorado for potential accidents at the Rocky Flats Plant. Specifically, this report documents information and data that will assist the State of Colorado in upgrading its radiological emergency planning zones for Rocky Flats Plant. The Colorado Division of Disaster Emergency Services (DODES) and the Colorado Department of Health (CDH) represent the primary audience for this report. The secondary audience for this document includes the Rocky Flats Plant; federal, State, and local governmental agencies; the scientific community; and the interested public. Because the primary audience has a pre-existing background on the subject, this report assumes some exposure to emergency planning, health physics, and dispersion modeling on the part of the reader. The authors have limited their assumptions of background knowledge as much as possible, recognizing that the topics addressed in the report may be new to some secondary audiences.

  9. Evaluation of atmospheric transport models for use in phase II of the historical public exposures studies at the Rocky Flats Plant.

    PubMed

    Rood, A S; Killough, G G; Till, J E

    1999-08-01

    Five atmospheric transport models were evaluated for use in Phase II of the Historical Public Exposures Studies at the Rocky Flats Plant. Models included a simple straight-line Gaussian plume model (ISCST2), several integrated puff models (RATCHET, TRIAD, and INPUFF2), and a complex terrain model (TRAC). Evaluations were based on how well model predictions compared with sulfur hexafluoride tracer measurements taken in the vicinity of Rocky Flats in February 1991. Twelve separate tracer experiments were conducted, each lasting 9 hr and measured at 140 samplers in arcs 8 and 16 km from the release point at Rocky Flats. Four modeling objectives were defined based on the endpoints of the overall study: (1) the unpaired maximum hourly average concentration, (2) paired time-averaged concentration, (3) unpaired time-averaged concentration, and (4) arc-integrated concentration. Performance measures were used to evaluate models and focused on the geometric mean and standard deviation of the predicted-to-observed ratio and the correlation coefficient between predicted and observed concentrations. No one model consistently outperformed the others in all modeling objectives and performance measures. About 75% of the maximum hourly concentration predictions were within a factor of 5 of the observations. About 64% of the paired and 80% of the unpaired time-averaged model predictions were within a factor of 5 of the observations. The overall performance of the RATCHET model was somewhat better than the other models. All models appeared to experience difficulty defining plume trajectories, which was attributed to the influence of multilayered flow initiated by terrain complexities and the diurnal flow patterns characteristic of the Colorado Front Range. PMID:10765422

  10. How exotic plants integrate into pollination networks

    PubMed Central

    Stouffer, Daniel B; Cirtwill, Alyssa R; Bascompte, Jordi; Bartomeus, Ignasi

    2014-01-01

    Summary There is increasing world-wide concern about the impact of the introduction of exotic species on ecological communities. Since many exotic plants depend on native pollinators to successfully establish, it is of paramount importance that we understand precisely how exotic species integrate into existing plant–pollinator communities. In this manuscript, we have studied a global data base of empirical pollination networks to determine whether community, network, species or interaction characteristics can help identify invaded communities. We found that a limited number of community and network properties showed significant differences across the empirical data sets – namely networks with exotic plants present are characterized by greater total, plant and pollinator richness, as well as higher values of relative nestedness. We also observed significant differences in terms of the pollinators that interact with the exotic plants. In particular, we found that specialist pollinators that are also weak contributors to community nestedness are far more likely to interact with exotic plants than would be expected by chance alone. Synthesis. By virtue of their interactions, it appears that exotic plants may provide a key service to a community's specialist pollinators as well as fill otherwise vacant ‘coevolutionary niches’. PMID:25558089

  11. Demonstration, testing and evaluation of nonintrusive characterization technologies at operable Unit 2 of Rocky Flats Plant. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D), high-resolution (HR) seismic reflection evaluation was conducted at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP), near Golden, Colorado, to demonstrate the applicability of nonintrusive characterization techniques to detect buried objects, contamination, and geological/hydrological features at RFP. The evaluation was conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) request for demonstration, testing and evaluation (DT&E) of nonintrusive techniques, under DOE Program Research and Development Announcement (PRDA) No. DE-RA05-09OR22000.

  12. Integrated chemical management system: A tool for managing chemical information at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    SciTech Connect

    Costain, D.

    1995-07-01

    The Integrated Chemical Management System is a computer-based chemical information at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site. Chemical containers are identified by bar code labels and information on the type, quantity and location of chemicals are tracked on individual data bases in separate buildings. Chemical inventories from multiple buildings are uploaded to a central sitewide chemical data base where reports are available from Product, Waste, and Chemical Use modules. Hazardous chemical information is provided by a separate Material Safety Data Sheet module and excess chemicals are traded between chemical owners and users with the aid of the Chemical Exchange Module.

  13. In situ remediation of plutonium from glovebox exhaust ducts at the Department of Energy`s Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Dugdale, J.S.; Humiston, T.J.; Omer, G.E.

    1993-10-01

    Plutonium and other miscellaneous hold-up materials have been accumulating in the glovebox exhaust ducts at the Rocky Flats Plant over the 40 years of weapons production at the site. The Duct Remediation Project was undertaken to assess the safety impacts of this material, and to remove it from the ductwork. The project necessitated the development of specialized tools, equipment and methods to remediate the material from continuously operating ventilation systems. Special engineered access locations were also required to provide access to the ductwork, and to ensure that safety and system operability were not degraded as a result of the remediation efforts. Operations personnel underwent significant training and development, and became an important asset to the success of the project. In total, the project succeeded in removing over 40 kilograms of plutonium-bearing material from one of the major weapons production buildings at the plant.

  14. Evaluation of beryllium exposure assessment and control programs at AWE, Cardiff Facility, Rocky Flats Plant, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.S.; Foote, K.L.; Slawski, J.W.; Cogbill, G.

    1995-04-28

    Site visits were made to DOE beryllium handling facilities at the Rocky Flats Plant; Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, LLNL; as well as to the AWE Cardiff Facility. Available historical data from each facility describing its beryllium control program were obtained and summarized in this report. The AWE Cardiff Facility computerized Be personal and area air-sampling database was obtained and a preliminary evaluation was conducted. Further validation and documentation of this database will be very useful in estimating worker Be. exposure as well as in identifying the source potential for a variety of Be fabrication activities. Although all of the Be control programs recognized the toxicity of Be and its compounds, their established control procedures differed significantly. The Cardiff Facility, which was designed for only Be work, implemented a very strict Be control program that has essentially remained unchanged, even to today. LLNL and the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant also implemented a strict Be control program, but personal sampling was not used until the mid 1980s to evaluate worker exposure. The Rocky Flats plant implemented significantly less controls on beryllium processing than the three previous facilities. In addition, records were less available, management and industrial hygiene staff turned over regularly, and less control was evident from a management perspective.

  15. The Department of Energy`s Rocky Flats Plant: A guide to record series useful for health related research. Volume 4: Production and materials handling

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This is the fourth in a series of seven volumes which constitute a guide to records of the Rocky Flats Plant useful for conducting health-related research. The primary purpose of Volume 4 is to describe record series pertaining to production and materials handling activities at the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Rocky Flats Plant, now named the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, near Denver, Colorado. History Associates Incorporated (HAI) prepared this guide as part of its work as the support services contractor for DOE`s Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project. This introduction briefly describes the Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project and HAI`s role in the project, provides a history of production and materials handling practices at Rocky Flats, and identifies organizations contributing to production and materials handling policies and activities. Other topics include the scope and arrangement of the guide and the organization to contact for access to these records.

  16. Integrated wastewater management planning for DOE`s Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, J.; Barthel, J.; Wheeler, M.; Conroy, K.

    1996-02-01

    Rocky Mountain Remediation Services, L.L.C. (RMRS), jointly formed by Morrison Knudsen Corporation and BNFL Inc., provides international experience in the nuclear, environmental, waste management, decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) , and project management industry. The company is currently the environmental restoration, waste management, and D&D subcontractor for Kaiser-Hill Company at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). RMRS offers unique solutions and state-of-the-art technology to assist in resolving the issues that face industries today. RMRS has been working on methods to improve cost savings recognized at RFETS, through application of unique technologies and process engineering. RMRS prepared and is implementing a strategy that focused on identifying an approach to improve cost savings in current wastewater treatment systems and to define a low-cost, safe and versatile wastewater treatment system for the future. Development of this strategy, was targeted by Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters, DOE Rocky Flats Field Office and Kaiser-Hill as a ``Project Breakthrough`` where old concepts were thrown out the door and the project goals and objectives were developed from the groundup. The objectives of the strategy developed in a project break through session with DOE included lower lifecycle costs, shutdown of one of two buildings at RFETS, Building 374 or Building 774, reduced government capital investment, and support of site closure program goals, identified as the site`s Accelerated Site Action Plan (ASAP). The recommended option allows for removal of water treatment functions from Building 374, the existing process wastewater treatment facility. This option affords the lowest capital cost, lowest unit operating cost, lowest technical management risk, greatest support of ASAP phasing and provides the greatest flexibility for design with unforeseen future needs.

  17. Feasibility study of silver iodide smoke as an atmospheric dispersion tracer for Rocky Flats Plant site, July 1983-December 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Langer, G.

    1986-09-22

    At Rocky Flats Plant, we developed a technique that employs the release of silver iodide (AgI) smoke as a very economical tracer for air dispersion around the Plant. In an emergency, the AgI smoke would trace a contaminant plume over long distances, in real time, to guide emergency response. To test this technique, we experimented with first releasing AgI smoke particles, then tracking them up to 50 km from the Plant by vehicle and aircraft under various typical weather conditions. Able to detect single AgI particles as small as 0.01 ..mu..m in real time, a portable cloud chamber operated on either a pickup truck or a small aircraft. For both procedures, a simple smoke generator operating unattended produced up to 1 x 10/sup 15/ particles/g of AgI. Ground tracking of the smoke (1) showed the influence on dispersion by the midday shift from downslope to upslope flow during stable conditions and (2) provided an interesting case study of a nearby thunderstorm as a transient effect. Aerial tracking during eight flights covered a wide range of meteorological conditions. Convective flow often lofted the smoke completely off the ground before it left the Plant boundary. During inversion conditions, the tracer remained within 100 m of the ground.

  18. Application of a one-strip integral method to the unsteady supersonic aerodynamics of an inclined flat surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, R. M.

    1972-01-01

    The method of integral relations is applied in a one-strip approximation to the perturbation equations governing small motions of an inclined, sharp-edged, flat surface about the mean supersonic steady flow. Algebraic expressions for low reduced-frequency aerodynamics are obtained and a set of ordinary differential equations are obtained for general oscillatory motion. Results are presented for low reduced-frequency aerodynamics and for the variation of the unsteady forces with frequency. The method gives accurate results for the aerodynamic forces at low reduced frequency which are in good agreement with available experimental data. However, for cases in which the aerodynamic forces vary rapidly with frequency, the results are qualitatively correct, but of limited accuracy. Calculations indicate that for a range of inclination angles near shock detachment such that the flow in the shock layer is low supersonic, the aerodynamic forces vary rapidly both with inclination angle and with reduced frequency.

  19. Clarifying socio-economic impacts and mitigation measures related to potential changes in missions at the Rocky Flats Plant. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    Research conducted to clarify the socioeconomic impacts on the Denver-Boulder area of potential changes in missions at the Rocky Flats Plant and the mitigation measures taken to contain these impacts are described. Two primary alternatives have been examined, including the relocation of certain activities associated with radioactive materials, as well as a total phase out of the plant over the next decade. These perspectives include an assessment of alternative uses for Rocky Flats by both governmental agencies and private sector developers. Major findings address location, employment, public involvement, private enterprises, community attitudes, employee relocation; land use; and environment. (PSB)

  20. Plant hydraulics as a hub integrating plant and ecosystem function

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water plays a central role in plant biology and the efficiency of water transport throughout the plant (i.e., “plant hydraulics”) affects both photosynthetic rate and growth, an influence that scales up deterministically to the productivity of terrestrial ecosystems. Moreover, hydraulic traits media...

  1. The Department of Energy`s Rocky Flats Plant: A guide to record series useful for health-related research. Volume VI, workplace and environmental monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This is the sixth in a series of seven volumes which constitute a guide to records of the Rocky Flats Plant useful for conducting health-related research. The primary purpose of Volume VI is to describe record series pertaining to workplace and environmental monitoring activities at the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Rocky Flats Plant, now named the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, near Denver, Colorado. History Associates Incorporated (HAI) prepared this guide as part of its work as the support services contractor for DOE`s Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project. This introduction briefly describes the Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project and HAI`s role in the project, provides a history of workplace and environmental monitoring practices at Rocky Flats, and identifies organizations contributing to workplace and environmental monitoring policies and activities. Other topics include the scope and arrangement of this volume and the organization to contact for access to these records. Comprehensive introductory and background information is available in Volume I. Other volumes in the guide pertain to administrative and general subjects, facilities and equipment, production and materials handling, waste management, and employee health. In addition, HAI has produced a subject-specific guide, titled The September 1957 Rocky Flats Fire. A Guide to Record Series of the Department of Energy and Its Contractors, which researchers should consult for further information about records related to this incident.

  2. The Department of Energy`s Rocky Flats Plant: A guide to record series useful for health-related research. Volume VII. Employee occupational exposure and health

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This is the seventh in a series of seven volumes which constitute a guide to records of the Rocky Flats Plant useful for conducting health-related research. The primary purpose of Volume VII is to describe record series pertaining to employee occupational exposure and health at the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Rocky Flats Plant, now named the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, near Denver, Colorado. History Associates Incorporated (HAI) prepared this guide as part of its work as the support services contractor for DOE`s Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project. This introduction briefly describes the Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project and HAI`s role in the project, provides a history of occupational exposure monitoring and health practices at Rocky Flats, and identifies organizations contributing to occupational exposure monitoring and health policies and activities. Other topics include the scope and arrangement of the guide and the organization to contact for access to these records. Comprehensive introductory and background information is available in Volume 1. Other volumes in the guide pertain to administrative and general subjects, facilities and equipment, production and materials handling, environmental and workplace monitoring, and waste management. In addition, HAI has produced a subject-specific guide, titled The September 1957 Rocky Flats Fire: A Guide to Record Series of the Department of Energy and Its Contractors, which researchers should consult for further information about records related to this incident.

  3. The Department of Energy`s Rocky Flats Plant: A guide to record series useful for health-related research. Volume III, facilities and equipment

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This is the third in a series of seven volumes which constitute a guide to records of the Rocky Flats Plant useful for conducting health-related research. The primary purpose of Volume M is to describe record series pertaining to facilities and equipment at the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Rocky Flats Plant, now named the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, near Denver, Colorado. History Associates Incorporated (HAI) prepared this guide as part of its work as the support services contractor for DOE`s Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project. This introduction briefly describes the Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project and HAI`s role in the project, provides a history of facilities and equipment practices at Rocky Flats, and identifies organizations contributing to facilities and equipment policies and activities. Other topics include the scope and arrangement of this volume and the organization to contact for access to these records. Comprehensive introductory and background information is available in Volume I. Other volumes in the guide pertain to administrative and general subjects, production and materials handling, workplace and environmental monitoring, employee health, and waste management. In addition, HAI has produced a subject-specific guide, titled The September 1957 Rocky Flats Fire: A Guide to Record Series of the Department of Energy and Its Contractors, which researchers should consult for further information about records related to this incident.

  4. Fuel cell power plant integrated systems evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonds, T. L.; Dawes, M. H.; Schnacke, A. W.; Spradlin, L. W.

    1981-01-01

    Power plant configurations for a central station (675 MW) fueled by coal and small dispersed plan generation plants fueled by oil were defined. Capital costs and costs for electricity were evaluated for both plants. Parametric variations and the impact on plants and components are discussed. Alternate oil fueled oil fired cycles as well as several alternate coal gasifiers were examined to show effects on plant performance. The economic attractiveness of the coal fired plant was confirmed and a scenario is established for an oil fired plant with reject heat recovery. Performance for the coal fired plant exceeds the study goal of 6800 Btu/kWh. The oil fired plant performance of 7627 Btu/kWh is very close to the study goal of 7500 Btu/kWh. The development of a finite slice computer model of the carbonate fuel cell is reported and an initial parametric cell and plant performance study was performed using the model. Preliminary subsystem description sheets and plant layout arrangements are presented.

  5. Photonic crystal-based flat lens integrated on a Bragg mirror for high-Q external cavity low noise laser.

    PubMed

    Seghilani, M S; Sellahi, M; Devautour, M; Lalanne, P; Sagnes, I; Beaudoin, G; Myara, M; Lafosse, X; Legratiet, L; Yang, J; Garnache, A

    2014-03-10

    We demonstrate a high reflectivity (> 99%), low-loss (< 0.1%) and aberrations-free (2% of λ rms phase fluctuations) concave Bragg mirror (20mm radius of curvature) integrating a photonic crystal with engineered spherical phase and amplitude transfer functions, based on a III-V semiconductors flat photonics technology. This mirror design is of high interest for highly coherent high power stable external cavity semiconductor lasers, exhibiting very low noise. We design the photonic crystal for operation in the pass band. The approach incorporates spatial, spectral (filter bandwidth= 5nm) and polarization filtering capabilities. Thanks to the mirror, a compact single mode TEM(00) 2mm-long air gap high finesse (cold cavity Q-factor 10(6) - 10(7)) stable laser cavity is demonstrated with a GaAs-based quantum-wells 1/2-VCSEL gain structure at 1μm. Excellent laser performances are obtained in single frequency operation: low threshold density of 2kW/cm(2) with high differential efficiency (21%). And high spatial, temporal and polarization coherence: TEM(00) beam close to diffraction limit, linear light polarization (> 60dB), Side Mode Suppression Ratio > 46dB, relative intensity noise at quantum limit (< -150dB) in 1MHz-84GHz radio frequency range, and a theoretical linewidth fundamental limit at 10 Hz (Q-factor ∼ 3.10(13)). PMID:24663933

  6. Photonic crystal-based flat lens integrated on a Bragg mirror for high-Q external cavity low noise laser.

    PubMed

    Seghilani, M S; Sellahi, M; Devautour, M; Lalanne, P; Sagnes, I; Beaudoin, G; Myara, M; Lafosse, X; Legratiet, L; Yang, J; Garnache, A

    2014-03-10

    We demonstrate a high reflectivity (> 99%), low-loss (< 0.1%) and aberrations-free (2% of λ rms phase fluctuations) concave Bragg mirror (20mm radius of curvature) integrating a photonic crystal with engineered spherical phase and amplitude transfer functions, based on a III-V semiconductors flat photonics technology. This mirror design is of high interest for highly coherent high power stable external cavity semiconductor lasers, exhibiting very low noise. We design the photonic crystal for operation in the pass band. The approach incorporates spatial, spectral (filter bandwidth= 5nm) and polarization filtering capabilities. Thanks to the mirror, a compact single mode TEM(00) 2mm-long air gap high finesse (cold cavity Q-factor 10(6) - 10(7)) stable laser cavity is demonstrated with a GaAs-based quantum-wells 1/2-VCSEL gain structure at 1μm. Excellent laser performances are obtained in single frequency operation: low threshold density of 2kW/cm(2) with high differential efficiency (21%). And high spatial, temporal and polarization coherence: TEM(00) beam close to diffraction limit, linear light polarization (> 60dB), Side Mode Suppression Ratio > 46dB, relative intensity noise at quantum limit (< -150dB) in 1MHz-84GHz radio frequency range, and a theoretical linewidth fundamental limit at 10 Hz (Q-factor ∼ 3.10(13)).

  7. Lung cancer and internal lung doses among plutonium workers at the Rocky Flats Plant: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Brown, Shannon C; Schonbeck, Margaret F; McClure, David; Barón, Anna E; Navidi, William C; Byers, Tim; Ruttenber, A James

    2004-07-15

    The authors conducted a nested case-control study of the association between lung cancer mortality and cumulative internal lung doses among a cohort of workers employed at the Rocky Flats Plant in Colorado from 1951 to 1989. Cases (n = 180) were individually matched with controls (n = 720) on age, sex, and birth year. Annual doses to the lung from plutonium, americium, and uranium isotopes were calculated for each worker with an internal dosimetry model. Lung cancer risk was elevated among workers with cumulative internal lung doses of more than 400 mSv in several different analytical models. The dose-response relation was not consistent at high doses. Restricting analysis to those employed for 15-25 years produced a statistically significant linear trend with dose (chi-square = 67.2, p < 0.001), suggesting a strong healthy worker survivor effect. The association between age at first internal lung dose and lung cancer mortality was statistically significant (odds ratio = 1.05, 95% confidence interval: 1.01, 1.10). No associations were found between lung cancer mortality and cumulative external penetrating radiation dose or cumulative exposures to asbestos, beryllium, hexavalent chromium, or nickel. PMID:15234938

  8. Working toward integrated models of alpine plant distribution

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Bradley Z.; Randin, Christophe F.; Boulangeat, Isabelle; Lavergne, Sébastien; Thuiller, Wilfried; Choler, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Species distribution models (SDMs) have been frequently employed to forecast the response of alpine plants to global changes. Efforts to model alpine plant distribution have thus far been primarily based on a correlative approach, in which ecological processes are implicitly addressed through a statistical relationship between observed species occurrences and environmental predictors. Recent evidence, however, highlights the shortcomings of correlative SDMs, especially in alpine landscapes where plant species tend to be decoupled from atmospheric conditions in micro-topographic habitats and are particularly exposed to geomorphic disturbances. While alpine plants respond to the same limiting factors as plants found at lower elevations, alpine environments impose a particular set of scale-dependent and hierarchical drivers that shape the realized niche of species and that require explicit consideration in a modelling context. Several recent studies in the European Alps have successfully integrated both correlative and process-based elements into distribution models of alpine plants, but for the time being a single integrative modelling framework that includes all key drivers remains elusive. As a first step in working toward a comprehensive integrated model applicable to alpine plant communities, we propose a conceptual framework that structures the primary mechanisms affecting alpine plant distributions. We group processes into four categories, including multi-scalar abiotic drivers, gradient dependent species interactions, dispersal and spatial–temporal plant responses to disturbance. Finally, we propose a methodological framework aimed at developing an integrated model to better predict alpine plant distribution. PMID:24790594

  9. FY 1992 Annual report: Mediated electrochemical oxidation treatment for Rocky Flats combustible low-level mixed waste. Final report to Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Chiba, Z.; Lewis, P.R.; Kahle, R.W.

    1993-03-01

    The Mediated Electrochemical Oxidation (MEO) process was studied for destroying low-level combustible mixed wastes at Rocky Flats (RFP). Tests were performed with nonradioactive surrogate materials: Trimsol for the contaminated oils, and reagent-grade cellulose for the cellulosic wastes. Extensive testing was carried out on Trimsol in both small laboratory-scale apparatus and on a large-scale system incorporating an industrial-size electrochemical cell. Preliminary tests were also carried out in the small-scale system with cellulose. The following operating and system parameters were studied: use of a silver-nitric acid versus a cobalt-sulfuric acid system, effect of electrolyte temperature, effect of acid concentration, effect of current density, and use of ultrasonic agitation. Destruction and coulombic efficiencies were calculated using data obtained from continuous carbon dioxide monitors and total organic carbon (TOC) analysis of electrolyte samples. For Trimsol, the best performance was achieved with the silver-nitrate system at high acid concentrations, temperatures, and current densities. Destruction efficiencies of 98% or greater and coulombic efficiencies close to 50% were obtained in both small- and large-scale systems. For the cellulose, high destruction efficiencies and reasonable coulombic efficiencies were obtained for both silver-nitrate and cobalt-sulfate systems.

  10. 75 FR 9377 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the Flat-Tailed Horned Lizard as Threatened

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-02

    ... distinct vertebrate population segments (61 FR 4722). (6) The potential effects global climate change may..., 1993 (58 FR 62624), to list the flat-tailed horned lizard as a threatened species, and reopens the... proposed rule to list the flat-tailed horned lizard as a threatened species under the Act (58 FR 62624)....

  11. Integrated network analysis and effective tools in plant systems biology

    PubMed Central

    Fukushima, Atsushi; Kanaya, Shigehiko; Nishida, Kozo

    2014-01-01

    One of the ultimate goals in plant systems biology is to elucidate the genotype-phenotype relationship in plant cellular systems. Integrated network analysis that combines omics data with mathematical models has received particular attention. Here we focus on the latest cutting-edge computational advances that facilitate their combination. We highlight (1) network visualization tools, (2) pathway analyses, (3) genome-scale metabolic reconstruction, and (4) the integration of high-throughput experimental data and mathematical models. Multi-omics data that contain the genome, transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome and mathematical models are expected to integrate and expand our knowledge of complex plant metabolisms. PMID:25408696

  12. Ontologies as integrative tools for plant science

    PubMed Central

    Walls, Ramona L.; Athreya, Balaji; Cooper, Laurel; Elser, Justin; Gandolfo, Maria A.; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Mungall, Christopher J.; Preece, Justin; Rensing, Stefan; Smith, Barry; Stevenson, Dennis W.

    2012-01-01

    Premise of the study Bio-ontologies are essential tools for accessing and analyzing the rapidly growing pool of plant genomic and phenomic data. Ontologies provide structured vocabularies to support consistent aggregation of data and a semantic framework for automated analyses and reasoning. They are a key component of the semantic web. Methods This paper provides background on what bio-ontologies are, why they are relevant to botany, and the principles of ontology development. It includes an overview of ontologies and related resources that are relevant to plant science, with a detailed description of the Plant Ontology (PO). We discuss the challenges of building an ontology that covers all green plants (Viridiplantae). Key results Ontologies can advance plant science in four keys areas: (1) comparative genetics, genomics, phenomics, and development; (2) taxonomy and systematics; (3) semantic applications; and (4) education. Conclusions Bio-ontologies offer a flexible framework for comparative plant biology, based on common botanical understanding. As genomic and phenomic data become available for more species, we anticipate that the annotation of data with ontology terms will become less centralized, while at the same time, the need for cross-species queries will become more common, causing more researchers in plant science to turn to ontologies. PMID:22847540

  13. 300 MW combined-cycle plant with integrated coal gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Kehlhofer, R.H.

    1984-09-01

    The main obstacle to further expansion of the combined cycle principle is its lack of fuel flexibility. To this day, gas turbines are still limited to gaseous or liquid fuels. This paper shows a viable way to add a cheap solid fuel, coal, to the list. The plant system in question is a 2 X 150 MW combined-cycle plant of BBC Brown Boveri with integrated coal gasification plant of British Gas/Lurgi. The main point of interest is that All the individual components of the power plant described in this paper have proven their worth commercially. It is therefore not a pilot plant but a viable commercial proposition.

  14. Analysis of offsite emergency planning zones (EPZs) for the Rocky Flats Plant. Phase 3, Sitewide spectrum-of-accidents and bounding EPZ analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Petrocchi, A.J.; Smith, M.L.

    1993-10-25

    This Charter provides the basis for a cooperative, interagency effort to conduct Phase III of the ``Analysis of Offsite Emergency Planning Zones (EPZs) for the Rocky Flats Plant`` Project. The purpose of this Charter is to define the Project and establish an Oversight Committee management structure together with responsibilities and commitments. This Charter establishes a commitment on the part of the signing agencies to participate in a Phase III EPZ analysis to refine existing EPZs for the Rocky Flats Plant. These agencies agree to commit resources to this Project to fulfill their identified roles. The specific types and levels of resources committed by each agency will be determined as part of the Project planning process. This Charter does not commit any agency to any specific level of effort or resources. It does, however, commit these agencies to support the Phase III analysis to completion.

  15. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 8): Rocky Flats Plant (USDOE), Operable Unit 2, Golden, CO. (Fourth remedial action), September 1992. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    The Rocky Flats Plant (USDOE) (Operable Unit 2) site is part of the 6,550-acre Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons research, development, production, and plutonium processing complex in Jefferson County Colorado. Since 1951, DOE has used the site for manufacturing components for nuclear weapons, processing plutonium, and fabricating, machining, and assembling components from metals. The ROD addresses OU2, which includes the 903 Pad and Lip Area, Mound Area, and East Trenches Area, which are located southeast of the Rocky Flats Plant, and provides an interim remedy for contaminated soil and ground water. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the soil and ground water are VOCs including PCE, TCE, toluene, and xylenes; inorganics; metals, including arsenic, chromium, and lead; and radioactive materials.

  16. Chronic beryllium disease and cancer risk estimates with uncertainty for beryllium released to the air from the Rocky Flats Plant.

    PubMed Central

    McGavran, P D; Rood, A S; Till, J E

    1999-01-01

    Beryllium was released into the air from routine operations and three accidental fires at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) in Colorado from 1958 to 1989. We evaluated environmental monitoring data and developed estimates of airborne concentrations and their uncertainties and calculated lifetime cancer risks and risks of chronic beryllium disease to hypothetical receptors. This article discusses exposure-response relationships for lung cancer and chronic beryllium disease. We assigned a distribution to cancer slope factor values based on the relative risk estimates from an occupational epidemiologic study used by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to determine the slope factors. We used the regional atmospheric transport code for Hanford emission tracking atmospheric transport model for exposure calculations because it is particularly well suited for long-term annual-average dispersion estimates and it incorporates spatially varying meteorologic and environmental parameters. We accounted for model prediction uncertainty by using several multiplicative stochastic correction factors that accounted for uncertainty in the dispersion estimate, the meteorology, deposition, and plume depletion. We used Monte Carlo techniques to propagate model prediction uncertainty through to the final risk calculations. We developed nine exposure scenarios of hypothetical but typical residents of the RFP area to consider the lifestyle, time spent outdoors, location, age, and sex of people who may have been exposed. We determined geometric mean incremental lifetime cancer incidence risk estimates for beryllium inhalation for each scenario. The risk estimates were < 10(-6). Predicted air concentrations were well below the current reference concentration derived by the EPA for beryllium sensitization. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:10464074

  17. Chronic beryllium disease and cancer risk estimates with uncertainty for beryllium released to the air from the Rocky Flats Plant.

    PubMed

    McGavran, P D; Rood, A S; Till, J E

    1999-09-01

    Beryllium was released into the air from routine operations and three accidental fires at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) in Colorado from 1958 to 1989. We evaluated environmental monitoring data and developed estimates of airborne concentrations and their uncertainties and calculated lifetime cancer risks and risks of chronic beryllium disease to hypothetical receptors. This article discusses exposure-response relationships for lung cancer and chronic beryllium disease. We assigned a distribution to cancer slope factor values based on the relative risk estimates from an occupational epidemiologic study used by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to determine the slope factors. We used the regional atmospheric transport code for Hanford emission tracking atmospheric transport model for exposure calculations because it is particularly well suited for long-term annual-average dispersion estimates and it incorporates spatially varying meteorologic and environmental parameters. We accounted for model prediction uncertainty by using several multiplicative stochastic correction factors that accounted for uncertainty in the dispersion estimate, the meteorology, deposition, and plume depletion. We used Monte Carlo techniques to propagate model prediction uncertainty through to the final risk calculations. We developed nine exposure scenarios of hypothetical but typical residents of the RFP area to consider the lifestyle, time spent outdoors, location, age, and sex of people who may have been exposed. We determined geometric mean incremental lifetime cancer incidence risk estimates for beryllium inhalation for each scenario. The risk estimates were < 10(-6). Predicted air concentrations were well below the current reference concentration derived by the EPA for beryllium sensitization. PMID:10464074

  18. Marinobacterium rhizophilum sp. nov., isolated from the rhizosphere of the coastal tidal-flat plant Suaeda japonica.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoon-Gon; Jin, Yeon-A; Hwang, Chung Yeon; Cho, Byung Cheol

    2008-01-01

    A Gram-negative, strictly aerobic, marine bacterium, designated strain CL-YJ9(T), was isolated from sediment closely associated with the roots of a plant (Suaeda japonica) inhabiting a coastal tidal flat. Cells of the novel strain were straight and rod-shaped and were motile by means of monopolar flagella. A phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain CL-YJ9(T) belongs to the genus Marinobacterium and was most closely related to Marinobacterium halophilum mano11(T) (94.1% sequence similarity) and to other members of the genus Marinobacterium (92.5-93.7% sequence similarity). The strain grew with 1-5% NaCl (optimum, 3%) and at 5-30 degrees C (optimum, approx. 25 degrees C) and pH 6.0-9.0 (optimum, pH 7.0). The predominant cellular fatty acids were summed feature 3 (C(16:1)omega7c and/or iso-C(15:0) 2-OH, 40.3%), C(18:1)omega7c (26.6%), C(16:0) (16.6%) and C(10:0) 3-OH (7.1%). The major isoprenoid quinone was Q-8. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 61 mol%. On the basis of the data from this polyphasic study, strain CL-YJ9(T) belongs to the genus Marinobacterium but is distinguishable from the recognized species. Strain CL-YJ9(T) therefore represents a novel species, for which the name Marinobacterium rhizophilum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CL-YJ9(T) (=KCCM 42386(T) =DSM 18822(T)).

  19. Importance of plant integrity in crop research, breeding, and production

    PubMed Central

    Pazderů, Kateřina; Bláha, Ladislav

    2013-01-01

    Plant integrity looks like a “very easy and expanded topic,” but the reality is totally different. Thanks to the very high specialization of scientists, we are losing a holistic view of plants and are making mistakes in our research due to this drawback. It is necessary to sense a plant in their whole complexity—in both roots and shoot, as well as throughout their life cycles. Only such an integrated approach can allow us to reach correct interpretations of our experimental results. PMID:24301201

  20. Gas turbine integration reduces ethylene plant's energy needs

    SciTech Connect

    Albano, J.V.; Olszewski, E.F. ); Fukushima, T. )

    1992-02-10

    This paper reports on the use of gas turbines to produce power while using their hot, oxygen-poor exhaust gas as combustion air in the cracking furnaces which is an attractive means of reducing energy requirements per unit of ethylene production. At Osaka Petrochemical's (OPC) plant in Japan, ABB Lummus Crest Inc.'s turbine integration system was retrofitted. A Korean plant was newly constructed to utilize the system. The two plants have been operating successfully for approximately 2 years. Two new plants based on Lummus technology started up last year, one is scheduled for start-up in early 1992, and four are in various stages of design and construction.

  1. ITER Construction--Plant System Integration

    SciTech Connect

    Tada, E.; Matsuda, S.

    2009-02-19

    This brief paper introduces how the ITER will be built in the international collaboration. The ITER Organization plays a central role in constructing ITER and leading it into operation. Since most of the ITER components are to be provided in-kind from the member countries, integral project management should be scoped in advance of real work. Those include design, procurement, system assembly, testing, licensing and commissioning of ITER.

  2. Integrated design of sewers and wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Vollertsen, J; Hvitved-Jacobsen, T; Ujang, Z; Talib, S A

    2002-01-01

    Sewer system design must be integrated with wastewater treatment plant design when moving towards a more sustainable urban wastewater management. This integration allows an optimization of the design of both systems to achieve a better and more cost-effective wastewater management. Hitherto integrated process design has not been an option because the tools to predict in-sewer wastewater transformations have been inadequate. In this study the WATS model--being a new and validated tool for in-sewer microbial process simulations--is presented and its application for integrated sewer and treatment plant design is exemplified. A case study on a Malaysian catchment illustrates this integration. The effects of centralization of wastewater treatment and the subsequently longer transport distances are addressed. The layout of the intercepting sewer is optimized to meet the requirements of different treatment scenarios.

  3. A model for a comprehensive assessment of exposure and lifetime cancer incidence risk from plutonium released from the Rocky Flats Plant, 1953-1989.

    PubMed

    Rood, Arthur S; Grogan, Helen A; Till, John E

    2002-02-01

    A model was developed to calculate ambient air concentrations, surface deposition, and lifetime carcinogenic risk with uncertainty from plutonium released to the air from the Rocky Flats Plant between the years 1953 and 1989. The model integrated airborne release estimates and atmospheric dispersion and deposition calculations from 37 years of routine plant operations and episodic releases. Episodic releases included two major fires in 1957 and 1969 that breached the building air filtration systems, and suspension of plutonium contaminated soil from the former 903 waste storage area during high winds. Predicted air concentrations included contributions from site releases and resuspension from contaminated soil. Inhalation was the only exposure pathway considered. Environmental measurements suitable for model validation were lacking for the period when major site releases occurred (1953 to 1970). However, environmental media, such as soil and lake sediment, are natural accumulators and provided evidence of past offsite releases. The geometric mean predicted-to-observed (P/O) ratio for soil was 0.93 with a geometric standard deviation of 1.6. The model systematically underpredicted concentrations near the 903 Area because large, nonrespirable particles that deposited close to the source were not included in release estimates. Plutonium soil inventories for the model domain had P/O ratios ranging from 0.22 to 4.2. The geometric mean P/O ratio for ambient air was 0.90 with a geometric standard deviation of 2.6. Age-dated sediment cores from Standley Lake had a geometric mean P/O ratio of 1.0 with a geometric standard deviation of 1.7. Predicted-to-observed ratios for plutonium inventories in Great Western Reservoir ranged from 0.36 to 1.7. Lifetime cancer incidence risks were calculated for a male laborer scenario who resided in the model domain for the entire assessment time. Maximum cancer risks ranged from 10-6 (5th percentile) to 10(-4) (95th percentile). Most of

  4. A model for a comprehensive assessment of exposure and lifetime cancer incidence risk from plutonium released from the Rocky Flats Plant, 1953-1989.

    PubMed

    Rood, Arthur S; Grogan, Helen A; Till, John E

    2002-02-01

    A model was developed to calculate ambient air concentrations, surface deposition, and lifetime carcinogenic risk with uncertainty from plutonium released to the air from the Rocky Flats Plant between the years 1953 and 1989. The model integrated airborne release estimates and atmospheric dispersion and deposition calculations from 37 years of routine plant operations and episodic releases. Episodic releases included two major fires in 1957 and 1969 that breached the building air filtration systems, and suspension of plutonium contaminated soil from the former 903 waste storage area during high winds. Predicted air concentrations included contributions from site releases and resuspension from contaminated soil. Inhalation was the only exposure pathway considered. Environmental measurements suitable for model validation were lacking for the period when major site releases occurred (1953 to 1970). However, environmental media, such as soil and lake sediment, are natural accumulators and provided evidence of past offsite releases. The geometric mean predicted-to-observed (P/O) ratio for soil was 0.93 with a geometric standard deviation of 1.6. The model systematically underpredicted concentrations near the 903 Area because large, nonrespirable particles that deposited close to the source were not included in release estimates. Plutonium soil inventories for the model domain had P/O ratios ranging from 0.22 to 4.2. The geometric mean P/O ratio for ambient air was 0.90 with a geometric standard deviation of 2.6. Age-dated sediment cores from Standley Lake had a geometric mean P/O ratio of 1.0 with a geometric standard deviation of 1.7. Predicted-to-observed ratios for plutonium inventories in Great Western Reservoir ranged from 0.36 to 1.7. Lifetime cancer incidence risks were calculated for a male laborer scenario who resided in the model domain for the entire assessment time. Maximum cancer risks ranged from 10-6 (5th percentile) to 10(-4) (95th percentile). Most of

  5. DPTEdb, an integrative database of transposable elements in dioecious plants.

    PubMed

    Li, Shu-Fen; Zhang, Guo-Jun; Zhang, Xue-Jin; Yuan, Jin-Hong; Deng, Chuan-Liang; Gu, Lian-Feng; Gao, Wu-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Dioecious plants usually harbor 'young' sex chromosomes, providing an opportunity to study the early stages of sex chromosome evolution. Transposable elements (TEs) are mobile DNA elements frequently found in plants and are suggested to play important roles in plant sex chromosome evolution. The genomes of several dioecious plants have been sequenced, offering an opportunity to annotate and mine the TE data. However, comprehensive and unified annotation of TEs in these dioecious plants is still lacking. In this study, we constructed a dioecious plant transposable element database (DPTEdb). DPTEdb is a specific, comprehensive and unified relational database and web interface. We used a combination of de novo, structure-based and homology-based approaches to identify TEs from the genome assemblies of previously published data, as well as our own. The database currently integrates eight dioecious plant species and a total of 31 340 TEs along with classification information. DPTEdb provides user-friendly web interfaces to browse, search and download the TE sequences in the database. Users can also use tools, including BLAST, GetORF, HMMER, Cut sequence and JBrowse, to analyze TE data. Given the role of TEs in plant sex chromosome evolution, the database will contribute to the investigation of TEs in structural, functional and evolutionary dynamics of the genome of dioecious plants. In addition, the database will supplement the research of sex diversification and sex chromosome evolution of dioecious plants.Database URL: http://genedenovoweb.ticp.net:81/DPTEdb/index.php.

  6. DPTEdb, an integrative database of transposable elements in dioecious plants.

    PubMed

    Li, Shu-Fen; Zhang, Guo-Jun; Zhang, Xue-Jin; Yuan, Jin-Hong; Deng, Chuan-Liang; Gu, Lian-Feng; Gao, Wu-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Dioecious plants usually harbor 'young' sex chromosomes, providing an opportunity to study the early stages of sex chromosome evolution. Transposable elements (TEs) are mobile DNA elements frequently found in plants and are suggested to play important roles in plant sex chromosome evolution. The genomes of several dioecious plants have been sequenced, offering an opportunity to annotate and mine the TE data. However, comprehensive and unified annotation of TEs in these dioecious plants is still lacking. In this study, we constructed a dioecious plant transposable element database (DPTEdb). DPTEdb is a specific, comprehensive and unified relational database and web interface. We used a combination of de novo, structure-based and homology-based approaches to identify TEs from the genome assemblies of previously published data, as well as our own. The database currently integrates eight dioecious plant species and a total of 31 340 TEs along with classification information. DPTEdb provides user-friendly web interfaces to browse, search and download the TE sequences in the database. Users can also use tools, including BLAST, GetORF, HMMER, Cut sequence and JBrowse, to analyze TE data. Given the role of TEs in plant sex chromosome evolution, the database will contribute to the investigation of TEs in structural, functional and evolutionary dynamics of the genome of dioecious plants. In addition, the database will supplement the research of sex diversification and sex chromosome evolution of dioecious plants.Database URL: http://genedenovoweb.ticp.net:81/DPTEdb/index.php. PMID:27173524

  7. DPTEdb, an integrative database of transposable elements in dioecious plants

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shu-Fen; Zhang, Guo-Jun; Zhang, Xue-Jin; Yuan, Jin-Hong; Deng, Chuan-Liang; Gu, Lian-Feng; Gao, Wu-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Dioecious plants usually harbor ‘young’ sex chromosomes, providing an opportunity to study the early stages of sex chromosome evolution. Transposable elements (TEs) are mobile DNA elements frequently found in plants and are suggested to play important roles in plant sex chromosome evolution. The genomes of several dioecious plants have been sequenced, offering an opportunity to annotate and mine the TE data. However, comprehensive and unified annotation of TEs in these dioecious plants is still lacking. In this study, we constructed a dioecious plant transposable element database (DPTEdb). DPTEdb is a specific, comprehensive and unified relational database and web interface. We used a combination of de novo, structure-based and homology-based approaches to identify TEs from the genome assemblies of previously published data, as well as our own. The database currently integrates eight dioecious plant species and a total of 31 340 TEs along with classification information. DPTEdb provides user-friendly web interfaces to browse, search and download the TE sequences in the database. Users can also use tools, including BLAST, GetORF, HMMER, Cut sequence and JBrowse, to analyze TE data. Given the role of TEs in plant sex chromosome evolution, the database will contribute to the investigation of TEs in structural, functional and evolutionary dynamics of the genome of dioecious plants. In addition, the database will supplement the research of sex diversification and sex chromosome evolution of dioecious plants. Database URL: http://genedenovoweb.ticp.net:81/DPTEdb/index.php PMID:27173524

  8. 76 FR 14209 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Withdrawal of Proposed Rule To List the Flat...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... throughout all or a significant portion of its range. DATES: The November 29, 1993 (58 FR 62624), proposal to... follow the description of populations discussed in our January 3, 2003, analysis (68 FR 331), although in... the flat-tailed horned lizard, particularly the 2003 withdrawal (68 FR 331), addressed the...

  9. 77 FR 12594 - Decision To Evaluate a Petition To Designate a Class of Employees From the Rocky Flats Plant in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Decision To Evaluate a Petition To Designate a Class of Employees From the Rocky Flats... Human Services. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: NIOSH gives notice as required by 42 CFR 83.12(e) of a decision..., Colorado, to be included in the Special Exposure Cohort under the Energy Employees Occupational...

  10. Information Integration and Communication in Plant Growth Regulation.

    PubMed

    Chaiwanon, Juthamas; Wang, Wenfei; Zhu, Jia-Ying; Oh, Eunkyoo; Wang, Zhi-Yong

    2016-03-10

    Plants are equipped with the capacity to respond to a large number of diverse signals, both internal ones and those emanating from the environment, that are critical to their survival and adaption as sessile organisms. These signals need to be integrated through highly structured intracellular networks to ensure coherent cellular responses, and in addition, spatiotemporal actions of hormones and peptides both orchestrate local cell differentiation and coordinate growth and physiology over long distances. Further, signal interactions and signaling outputs vary significantly with developmental context. This review discusses our current understanding of the integrated intracellular and intercellular signaling networks that control plant growth.

  11. Information Integration and Communication in Plant Growth Regulation.

    PubMed

    Chaiwanon, Juthamas; Wang, Wenfei; Zhu, Jia-Ying; Oh, Eunkyoo; Wang, Zhi-Yong

    2016-03-10

    Plants are equipped with the capacity to respond to a large number of diverse signals, both internal ones and those emanating from the environment, that are critical to their survival and adaption as sessile organisms. These signals need to be integrated through highly structured intracellular networks to ensure coherent cellular responses, and in addition, spatiotemporal actions of hormones and peptides both orchestrate local cell differentiation and coordinate growth and physiology over long distances. Further, signal interactions and signaling outputs vary significantly with developmental context. This review discusses our current understanding of the integrated intracellular and intercellular signaling networks that control plant growth. PMID:26967291

  12. Transgenic plants as vital components of integrated pest management.

    PubMed

    Kos, Martine; van Loon, Joop J A; Dicke, Marcel; Vet, Louise E M

    2009-11-01

    Although integrated pest management (IPM) strategies have been developed worldwide, further improvement of IPM effectiveness is required. The use of transgenic technology to create insect-resistant plants can offer a solution to the limited availability of highly insect-resistant cultivars. Commercially available insect-resistant transgenic crops show clear benefits for agriculture and there are many exciting new developments such as transgenic plants that enhance biological control. Effective evaluation tools are needed to ascertain that transgenic plants do not result in undesired non-target effects. If these conditions are met, there will be ample opportunities for transgenic plants to become key components of environmentally benign and durable pest management systems. Here we discuss the potential and challenges for incorporating transgenic plants in IPM.

  13. Model validation protocol for determining the performance of the terrain-responsive atmospheric code against the Rocky Flats Plant Winter Validation Study

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgin, C.R.; Smith, M.L.

    1992-04-23

    The objective for this Model Validation Protocol is to establish a plan for quantifying the performance (accuracy and precision) of the Terrain-Responsive Atmospheric Code (TRAC) model. The performance will be determined by comparing model predictions against tracer characteristics observed in the free atmosphere. The Protocol will also be applied to other reference'' dispersion models. The performance of the TRAC model will be compared to the performance of these reference models in order to establish TRAC's acceptance for use in applications at the Rocky Flats Plant.

  14. Using functional–structural plant models to study, understand and integrate plant development and ecophysiology.

    PubMed

    DeJong, Theodore M; Da Silva, David; Vos, Jan; Escobar-Gutiérrez, Abraham J

    2011-10-01

    Functional–structural plant models (FSPMs) explore and integrate relationships between a plant’s structure and processes that underlie its growth and development. In recent years, the range of topics being addressed by scientists interested in functional–structural plant modelling has expanded greatly. FSPM techniques are now being used to dynamically simulate growth and development occurring at the microscopic scale involving cell division in plant meristems to the macroscopic scales of whole plants and plant communities. The plant types studied also cover a broad spectrum from algae to trees. FSPM is highly interdisciplinary and involves scientists with backgrounds in plant physiology, plant anatomy, plant morphology, mathematics, computer science, cellular biology, ecology and agronomy. This special issue of Annals of Botany features selected papers that provide examples of comprehensive functional–structural models, models of key processes such as partitioning of resources, software for modelling plants and plant environments, data acquisition and processing techniques and applications of functional–structural plant models for agronomic purposes.

  15. Plant hormone signaling lightens up: integrators of light and hormones.

    PubMed

    Lau, On Sun; Deng, Xing Wang

    2010-10-01

    Light is an important environmental signal that regulates diverse growth and developmental processes in plants. In these light-regulated processes, multiple hormonal pathways are often modulated by light to mediate the developmental changes. Conversely, hormone levels in plants also serve as endogenous cues in influencing light responsiveness. Although interactions between light and hormone signaling pathways have long been observed, recent studies have advanced our understanding by identifying signaling integrators that connect the pathways. These integrators, namely PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR 3 (PIF3), PIF4, PIF3-LIKE 5 (PIL5)/PIF1 and LONG HYPOCOTYL 5 (HY5), are key light signaling components and they link light signals to the signaling of phytohormones, such as gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), auxin and cytokinin, in regulating seedling photomorphogenesis and seed germination. This review focuses on these integrators in illustrating how light and hormone interact.

  16. Integrated phenotypes: understanding trait covariation in plants and animals

    PubMed Central

    Armbruster, W. Scott; Pélabon, Christophe; Bolstad, Geir H.; Hansen, Thomas F.

    2014-01-01

    Integration and modularity refer to the patterns and processes of trait interaction and independence. Both terms have complex histories with respect to both conceptualization and quantification, resulting in a plethora of integration indices in use. We review briefly the divergent definitions, uses and measures of integration and modularity and make conceptual links to allometry. We also discuss how integration and modularity might evolve. Although integration is generally thought to be generated and maintained by correlational selection, theoretical considerations suggest the relationship is not straightforward. We caution here against uncontrolled comparisons of indices across studies. In the absence of controls for trait number, dimensionality, homology, development and function, it is difficult, or even impossible, to compare integration indices across organisms or traits. We suggest that care be invested in relating measurement to underlying theory or hypotheses, and that summative, theory-free descriptors of integration generally be avoided. The papers that follow in this Theme Issue illustrate the diversity of approaches to studying integration and modularity, highlighting strengths and pitfalls that await researchers investigating integration in plants and animals. PMID:25002693

  17. Flat minima.

    PubMed

    Hochreiter, S; Schmidhuber, J

    1997-01-01

    We present a new algorithm for finding low-complexity neural networks with high generalization capability. The algorithm searches for a "flat" minimum of the error function. A flat minimum is a large connected region in weight space where the error remains approximately constant. An MDL-based, Bayesian argument suggests that flat minima correspond to "simple" networks and low expected overfitting. The argument is based on a Gibbs algorithm variant and a novel way of splitting generalization error into underfitting and overfitting error. Unlike many previous approaches, ours does not require gaussian assumptions and does not depend on a "good" weight prior. Instead we have a prior over input-output functions, thus taking into account net architecture and training set. Although our algorithm requires the computation of second-order derivatives, it has backpropagation's order of complexity. Automatically, it effectively prunes units, weights, and input lines. Various experiments with feedforward and recurrent nets are described. In an application to stock market prediction, flat minimum search outperforms conventional backprop, weight decay, and "optimal brain surgeon/optimal brain damage".

  18. Fully integrated safeguards and security for reprocessing plant monitoring.

    SciTech Connect

    Duran, Felicia Angelica; Ward, Rebecca; Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Middleton, Bobby D.

    2011-10-01

    Nuclear fuel reprocessing plants contain a wealth of plant monitoring data including material measurements, process monitoring, administrative procedures, and physical protection elements. Future facilities are moving in the direction of highly-integrated plant monitoring systems that make efficient use of the plant data to improve monitoring and reduce costs. The Separations and Safeguards Performance Model (SSPM) is an analysis tool that is used for modeling advanced monitoring systems and to determine system response under diversion scenarios. This report both describes the architecture for such a future monitoring system and present results under various diversion scenarios. Improvements made in the past year include the development of statistical tests for detecting material loss, the integration of material balance alarms to improve physical protection, and the integration of administrative procedures. The SSPM has been used to demonstrate how advanced instrumentation (as developed in the Material Protection, Accounting, and Control Technologies campaign) can benefit the overall safeguards system as well as how all instrumentation is tied into the physical protection system. This concept has the potential to greatly improve the probability of detection for both abrupt and protracted diversion of nuclear material.

  19. Analysis of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Samples: Integrated Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Britt, Phillip F

    2015-03-01

    Analysis of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Samples: Integrated Summary Report. Summaries of conclusions, analytical processes, and analytical results. Analysis of samples taken from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico in support of the WIPP Technical Assessment Team (TAT) activities to determine to the extent feasible the mechanisms and chemical reactions that may have resulted in the breach of at least one waste drum and release of waste material in WIPP Panel 7 Room 7 on February 14, 2014. This report integrates and summarizes the results contained in three separate reports, described below, and draws conclusions based on those results. Chemical and Radiochemical Analyses of WIPP Samples R-15 C5 SWB and R16 C-4 Lip; PNNL-24003, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, December 2014 Analysis of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Underground and MgO Samples by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL); SRNL-STI-2014-00617; Savannah River National Laboratory, December 2014 Report for WIPP UG Sample #3, R15C5 (9/3/14); LLNL-TR-667015; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, January 2015 This report is also contained in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Technical Assessment Team Report; SRNL-RP-2015-01198; Savannah River National Laboratory, March 17, 2015, as Appendix C: Analysis Integrated Summary Report.

  20. Analysis of offsite Emergency Planning Zones (EPZs) for the Rocky Flats Plant. Phase 3, Sitewide spectrum-of-accidents and bounding EPZ analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Petrocchi, A.J.; Zimmerman, G.A.

    1994-03-14

    During Phase 3 of the EPZ project, a sitewide analysis will be performed applying a spectrum-of-accidents approach to both radiological and nonradiological hazardous materials release scenarios. This analysis will include the MCA but will be wider in scope and will produce options for the State of Colorado for establishing a bounding EPZ that is intended to more comprehensively update the interim, preliminary EPZ developed in Phase 2. EG&G will propose use of a hazards assessment methodology that is consistent with the DOE Emergency Management Guide for Hazards Assessments and other methods required by DOE orders. This will include hazards, accident, safety, and risk analyses. Using this methodology, EG&G will develop technical analyses for a spectrum of accidents. The analyses will show the potential effects from the spectrum of accidents on the offsite population together with identification of offsite vulnerable zones and areas of concern. These analyses will incorporate state-of-the-art technology for accident analysis, atmospheric plume dispersion modeling, consequence analysis, and the application of these evaluations to the general public population at risk. The analyses will treat both radiological and nonradiological hazardous materials and mixtures of both released accidentally to the atmosphere. DOE/RFO will submit these results to the State of Colorado for the State`s use in determining offsite emergency planning zones for the Rocky Flats Plant. In addition, the results will be used for internal Rocky Flats Plant emergency planning.

  1. The Department of Energy`s Rocky Flats Plant: A guide to record series useful for health-related research. Volume I, introduction

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This guide consists of seven volumes which describe records useful for conducting health-related research at the DOE`s Rocky Flats Plant. Volume I is an introduction, and the remaining six volumes are arranged by the following categories: administrative and general, facilities and equipment, production and materials handling, waste management, workplace and environmental monitoring, and employee occupational exposure and health. Volume I briefly describes the Epidemiologic Records Project and provides information on the methodology used to inventory and describe the records series contained in subsequent volumes. Volume II describes records concerning administrative functions and general information. Volume III describes records series relating to the construction and routine maintenance of plant buildings and the purchase and installation of equipment. Volume IV describes records pertaining to the inventory and production of nuclear materials and weapon components. Records series include materials inventories, manufacturing specifications, engineering orders, transfer and shipment records, and War Reserve Bomb Books. Volume V describes records series pertaining to the storage, handling, treatment, and disposal of radioactive, chemical, or mixed materials produced or used at Rocky Flats. Volume VI describes records series pertaining to monitoring of the workplace and of the environment outside of buildings onsite and offsite. Volume VII describes records series pertaining to the health and occupational exposures of employees and visitors.

  2. P(3)DB: An Integrated Database for Plant Protein Phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Yao, Qiuming; Bollinger, Curtis; Gao, Jianjiong; Xu, Dong; Thelen, Jay J

    2012-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation is widely recognized as the most widespread, enzyme-catalyzed post-translational modification in eukaryotes. In particular, plants have appropriated this signaling mechanism as evidenced by the twofold higher frequency of protein kinases within the genome compared to other eukaryotes. While all aspects of plant protein phosphorylation research have grown in the past 10 years; phosphorylation site mapping using high-resolution mass spectrometry has grown exponentially. In Arabidopsis alone there are thousands of experimentally determined phosphorylation sites. To archive these events in a user-intuitive format we have developed P(3)DB, the Plant Protein Phosphorylation Database (p3db.org). This database is a repository for plant protein phosphorylation site data, currently hosting information on 32,963 non-redundant sites collated from 23 experimental studies from six plant species. These data can be queried for a protein-of-interest using an integrated BLAST module to query similar sequences with known phosphorylation sites among the multiple plants currently investigated. The paper demonstrates how this resource can help identify functionally conserved phosphorylation sites in plants using a multi-system approach.

  3. SDO FlatSat Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amason, David L.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) is to understand and, ideally, predict the solar variations that influence life and society. It's instruments will measure the properties of the Sun and will take hifh definition images of the Sun every few seconds, all day every day. The FlatSat is a high fidelity electrical and functional representation of the SDO spacecraft bus. It is a high fidelity test bed for Integration & Test (I & T), flight software, and flight operations. For I & T purposes FlatSat will be a driver to development and dry run electrical integration procedures, STOL test procedures, page displays, and the command and telemetry database. FlatSat will also serve as a platform for flight software acceptance and systems testing for the flight software system component including the spacecraft main processors, power supply electronics, attitude control electronic, gimbal control electrons and the S-band communications card. FlatSat will also benefit the flight operations team through post-launch flight software code and table update development and verification and verification of new and updated flight operations products. This document highlights the benefits of FlatSat; describes the building of FlatSat; provides FlatSat facility requirements, access roles and responsibilities; and, and discusses FlatSat mechanical and electrical integration and functional testing.

  4. Charlie Flats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image from the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's panoramic camera shows a region of the rock outcrop at Meridiani Planum, Mars, dubbed 'Charlie Flats.' This region is a rich science target for Opportunity because it contains a diverse assortment of small grains, pebbles and spherules, as well as both dark and light soil deposits. The area seen here measures approximately 0.6 meters (2 feet) across. The smallest grains visible in this image are only a few millimeters in size. The approximate true color image was acquired on Sol 20 of Opportunity's mission with panoramic camera filters red, green and blue. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for larger view Charlie Flats Spectra The chart above shows examples of spectra, or light wave patterns, extracted from the region of the Meridiani Planum rock outcrop dubbed 'Charlie Flats,' a rich science target for the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity. The spectra were extracted from the similarly colored regions in the image on the left, taken by the rover's panoramic camera. The green circle identifies a bright, dust-like soil deposit. The red circle identifies a dark soil region. The yellow identifies a small, angular rock chip with a strong near-infrared band. The pink identifies a sphere-shaped pebble with a different strong near-infrared band. The cyan circle shows a dark, grayish pebble.

  5. Plant Clonal Integration Mediates the Horizontal Redistribution of Soil Resources, Benefiting Neighboring Plants.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xue-Hua; Zhang, Ya-Lin; Liu, Zhi-Lan; Gao, Shu-Qin; Song, Yao-Bin; Liu, Feng-Hong; Dong, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Resources such as water taken up by plants can be released into soils through hydraulic redistribution and can also be translocated by clonal integration within a plant clonal network. We hypothesized that the resources from one (donor) microsite could be translocated within a clonal network, released into different (recipient) microsites and subsequently used by neighbor plants in the recipient microsite. To test these hypotheses, we conducted two experiments in which connected and disconnected ramet pairs of Potentilla anserina were grown under both homogeneous and heterogeneous water regimes, with seedlings of Artemisia ordosica as neighbors. The isotopes [(15)N] and deuterium were used to trace the translocation of nitrogen and water, respectively, within the clonal network. The water and nitrogen taken up by P. anserina ramets in the donor microsite were translocated into the connected ramets in the recipient microsites. Most notably, portions of the translocated water and nitrogen were released into the recipient microsite and were used by the neighboring A. ordosica, which increased growth of the neighboring A. ordosica significantly. Therefore, our hypotheses were supported, and plant clonal integration mediated the horizontal hydraulic redistribution of resources, thus benefiting neighboring plants. Such a plant clonal integration-mediated resource redistribution in horizontal space may have substantial effects on the interspecific relations and composition of the community and consequently on ecosystem processes.

  6. Plant Clonal Integration Mediates the Horizontal Redistribution of Soil Resources, Benefiting Neighboring Plants

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Xue-Hua; Zhang, Ya-Lin; Liu, Zhi-Lan; Gao, Shu-Qin; Song, Yao-Bin; Liu, Feng-Hong; Dong, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Resources such as water taken up by plants can be released into soils through hydraulic redistribution and can also be translocated by clonal integration within a plant clonal network. We hypothesized that the resources from one (donor) microsite could be translocated within a clonal network, released into different (recipient) microsites and subsequently used by neighbor plants in the recipient microsite. To test these hypotheses, we conducted two experiments in which connected and disconnected ramet pairs of Potentilla anserina were grown under both homogeneous and heterogeneous water regimes, with seedlings of Artemisia ordosica as neighbors. The isotopes [15N] and deuterium were used to trace the translocation of nitrogen and water, respectively, within the clonal network. The water and nitrogen taken up by P. anserina ramets in the donor microsite were translocated into the connected ramets in the recipient microsites. Most notably, portions of the translocated water and nitrogen were released into the recipient microsite and were used by the neighboring A. ordosica, which increased growth of the neighboring A. ordosica significantly. Therefore, our hypotheses were supported, and plant clonal integration mediated the horizontal hydraulic redistribution of resources, thus benefiting neighboring plants. Such a plant clonal integration-mediated resource redistribution in horizontal space may have substantial effects on the interspecific relations and composition of the community and consequently on ecosystem processes. PMID:26904051

  7. Model Predictive Control of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    B. Wayne Bequette; Priyadarshi Mahapatra

    2010-08-31

    The primary project objectives were to understand how the process design of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant affects the dynamic operability and controllability of the process. Steady-state and dynamic simulation models were developed to predict the process behavior during typical transients that occur in plant operation. Advanced control strategies were developed to improve the ability of the process to follow changes in the power load demand, and to improve performance during transitions between power levels. Another objective of the proposed work was to educate graduate and undergraduate students in the application of process systems and control to coal technology. Educational materials were developed for use in engineering courses to further broaden this exposure to many students. ASPENTECH software was used to perform steady-state and dynamic simulations of an IGCC power plant. Linear systems analysis techniques were used to assess the steady-state and dynamic operability of the power plant under various plant operating conditions. Model predictive control (MPC) strategies were developed to improve the dynamic operation of the power plants. MATLAB and SIMULINK software were used for systems analysis and control system design, and the SIMULINK functionality in ASPEN DYNAMICS was used to test the control strategies on the simulated process. Project funds were used to support a Ph.D. student to receive education and training in coal technology and the application of modeling and simulation techniques.

  8. Drug discovery from plant sources: An integrated approach

    PubMed Central

    Katiyar, Chandrakant; Gupta, Arun; Kanjilal, Satyajyoti; Katiyar, Shefali

    2012-01-01

    New drug discovery is facing serious challenges due to reduction in number of new drug approvals coupled with exorbitant rising cost. Advent of combinatorial chemistry provided new hope of higher success rates of new chemical entities (NCEs); however, even this scientific development has failed to improve the success rate in new drug discovery. This scenario has prompted us to come out with a novel approach of integrated drug discovery, where Ayurvedic wisdom can synergize with drug discovery from plant sources. Initial steps in new drug discovery involve identification of NCEs, which can be either sourced through chemical synthesis or can be isolated from natural products through biological activity guided fractionation. The sources of many of the new drugs and active ingredients of medicines are derived from natural products. The starting point for plant-based new drug discovery should be identification of the right candidate plants by applying Ayurvedic wisdom, traditional documented use, tribal non-documented use, and exhaustive literature search. Frequency analysis of the ingredients of the ancient documented formulations and analysis of their Ayurvedic attributes may provide an in-depth idea of the predominance of particular Ayurvedic characteristics based on which appropriate candidate plants may be selected for bioactivity-based fractionation. The integration of Ayurvedic wisdom with drug discovery also brings the need for a paradigm shift in the extraction process from sequential to parallel extraction. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the identified plant may lead to standardized extract or isolated bioactive druggable compound as the new drug. This integrated approach would lead to saving of cost and time, coupled with enhanced success rate in drug discovery. PMID:23049178

  9. Integrating data to acquire new knowledge: Three modes of integration in plant science.

    PubMed

    Leonelli, Sabina

    2013-12-01

    This paper discusses what it means and what it takes to integrate data in order to acquire new knowledge about biological entities and processes. Maureen O'Malley and Orkun Soyer have pointed to the scientific work involved in data integration as important and distinct from the work required by other forms of integration, such as methodological and explanatory integration, which have been more successful in captivating the attention of philosophers of science. Here I explore what data integration involves in more detail and with a focus on the role of data-sharing tools, like online databases, in facilitating this process; and I point to the philosophical implications of focusing on data as a unit of analysis. I then analyse three cases of data integration in the field of plant science, each of which highlights a different mode of integration: (1) inter-level integration, which involves data documenting different features of the same species, aims to acquire an interdisciplinary understanding of organisms as complex wholes and is exemplified by research on Arabidopsis thaliana; (2) cross-species integration, which involves data acquired on different species, aims to understand plant biology in all its different manifestations and is exemplified by research on Miscanthus giganteus; and (3) translational integration, which involves data acquired from sources within as well as outside academia, aims at the provision of interventions to improve human health (e.g. by sustaining the environment in which humans thrive) and is exemplified by research on Phytophtora ramorum. Recognising the differences between these efforts sheds light on the dynamics and diverse outcomes of data dissemination and integrative research; and the relations between the social and institutional roles of science, the development of data-sharing infrastructures and the production of scientific knowledge.

  10. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 8): Rocky Flats Plant (USDOE), Operable Unit 3, Golden, CO, June 3, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedial action/corrective action for the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) Operable Unit (OU) 3: Offsite Areas, located near Broomfield and Westminster, Colorado. OU 3 is comprised of four Individual Hazardous Substance Sites (IHSS`s): Contamination of the Land Surface (IHSS 199), Great Western Reservoir (IHSS 200), Standley Lake (IHSS 201) and Mower Reservoir (IHSS 202). Based upon the Baseline Risk Assessment and the Environmental Risk Assessment contained in the RCRA Facility Investigation/Remedial Investigation (RFI/RI) Report of June 1996, DOE, the lead agency under CERCLA for OU 3, concludes that no action is appropriate for OU 3. The RFI/RI Report concludes that all IHSS`s within OU 3 are already in a state protective of human health and the environment.

  11. Integrating Volume Reduction and Packaging Alternatives to Achieve Cost Savings for Low Level Waste Disposal at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    SciTech Connect

    Church, A.; Gordon, J.; Montrose, J. K.

    2002-02-26

    In order to reduce costs and achieve schedules for Closure of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), the Waste Requirements Group has implemented a number of cost saving initiatives aimed at integrating waste volume reduction with the selection of compliant waste packaging methods for the disposal of RFETS low level radioactive waste (LLW). Waste Guidance Inventory and Shipping Forecasts indicate that over 200,000 m3 of low level waste will be shipped offsite between FY2002 and FY2006. Current projections indicate that the majority of this waste will be shipped offsite in an estimated 40,000 55-gallon drums, 10,000 metal and plywood boxes, and 5000 cargo containers. Currently, the projected cost for packaging, shipment, and disposal adds up to $80 million. With these waste volume and cost projections, the need for more efficient and cost effective packaging and transportation options were apparent in order to reduce costs and achieve future Site packaging a nd transportation needs. This paper presents some of the cost saving initiatives being implemented for waste packaging at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (the Site). There are many options for either volume reduction or alternative packaging. Each building and/or project may indicate different preferences and/or combinations of options.

  12. Integrated simulation of the Escatron PFBC power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Romeo, L.M.; Cortes, C.; Martinez, D.

    1997-12-31

    The study of the phenomena in fluidized beds has a great importance for the knowledge and development of FBC technologies. But nowadays, and from an operational point of view, the interest lies not only in fluidized bed behavior, but also in the influence of fluidized bed variables in the rest of the power plant. Although there is a great variety of designs and studies on FBC power stations (AFBC, CFBC and PFBC, with different types of cycles and first and second generation fluidized beds), there is a lack of detailed studies considering the interactions between the bed variables and the performance of the cycles (steam and gas). In order to improve the knowledge from this particular standpoint, an integrated model of the Escatron PFBC 80 MWe power plant (Spain) has been developed. The model has been validated with actual plant data, being able to predict the behavior of the plant as a whole. To do this, it estimates the most important variables of the fluidized bed (i.e., bed temperature profiles, bed density, fuel feed rate, heat transfer, entrainment, gas and steam flow rates), as well as the operating parameters of the power cycles (i.e., steam and gas turbine loads, temperatures and pressures). A practical application of this model is the evaluation of operational and design changes affecting the response of the fluidized bed, the steam and gas cycles, and, in turn, the power plant efficiency and availability.

  13. Integrating New Technology Solutions to Improve Plant Operations

    SciTech Connect

    HEAVIN, ERIC

    2004-06-29

    Continuing advancements in software and hardware technology are providing facilities the opportunity for improvements in the areas of safety, regulatory compliance, administrative control, data collection, and reporting. Implementing these changes to improve plant operating efficiency can also create many challenges which include but are not limited to: justifying cost, planning for scalability, implementing applications across varied platforms, integrating multitudes of proprietary vendor applications, and creating a common vision for diverse process improvement projects. The Defense Programs (DP) facility at the Savannah River Site meets these challenges on a daily basis. Like many other plants, DP, has room for improvement when it comes to effective and clear communication, data entry, data storage, and system integration. Specific examples of areas targeted for improvement include: shift turnover meetings using system status data one to two hours old, lockouts and alarm inhibits performed on points on the Distributed Control System (DCS) and tracked in a paper logbook, disconnected systems preventing preemptive correction of regulatory compliance issues, and countless examples of additional task and data duplication on independent systems. Investment of time, money, and careful planning addressing these issues are already providing returns in the form of increased efficiency, improved plant tracking and reduced cost of implementing the next process improvement. Specific examples of improving plant operations through thoroughly planned Rapid Application Development of new applications are discussed. Integration of dissimilar and independent data sources (NovaTech D/3 DCS, SQL Server, Access, Filemaker Pro, etc.) is also explored. The tangible benefits of the implementation of the different programs to solve the operational problems previously described are analyzed in an in-depth and comparative manner.

  14. Application technology progress report: Evaluation of PM-10 commercial inlets and development of an inlet for new Rocky Flats Plant surveillance air sampler, January 1986-December 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Langer, G.; Deitesfeld, C.A. (ed.0

    1987-09-10

    Work during 1986 was concerned with developing a new PM-10 inlet for use at Rocky Flats Plant (RFP), Golden, Colorado. The commercial units that we evaluated did not allow for recovery of the >10-..mu..m dust fraction as may be required by EPA and DOE for nuclear installations. One of them, the Wedding PM-10 Inlet, did not meet the PM-10 cut-point requirement, because of the build-up of vegetative fibers in the cyclone type separator. Therefore, we developed a new PM-10 inlet (patent applied for) to meet our needs, and especially one that is adaptable to our existing 60 surveillance air samplers at minimum cost. The inlet utilizes a modified slotted impactor design. This device is directly adaptable to existing EPA high-volume samplers. 9 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  15. COS NUV Flat Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Elena

    2011-10-01

    This program aims at obtaining COS NUV-MAMA flat-field observations for monitoring purpose only.The program uses the internal deuterium lamp and the MR grism G185M {at the central wavelengths 1835, 1850 and 1864 A}, as during thermal vacuum testing and SMOV4. The estimated SNR reached at the end of the program {13 hr integration during 10 orbits} is 20-25 per 3x3 pixel.

  16. Ensembl Plants: Integrating Tools for Visualizing, Mining, and Analyzing Plant Genomics Data.

    PubMed

    Bolser, Dan; Staines, Daniel M; Pritchard, Emily; Kersey, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Ensembl Plants ( http://plants.ensembl.org ) is an integrative resource presenting genome-scale information for a growing number of sequenced plant species (currently 33). Data provided includes genome sequence, gene models, functional annotation, and polymorphic loci. Various additional information are provided for variation data, including population structure, individual genotypes, linkage, and phenotype data. In each release, comparative analyses are performed on whole genome and protein sequences, and genome alignments and gene trees are made available that show the implied evolutionary history of each gene family. Access to the data is provided through a genome browser incorporating many specialist interfaces for different data types, and through a variety of additional methods for programmatic access and data mining. These access routes are consistent with those offered through the Ensembl interface for the genomes of non-plant species, including those of plant pathogens, pests, and pollinators.Ensembl Plants is updated 4-5 times a year and is developed in collaboration with our international partners in the Gramene ( http://www.gramene.org ) and transPLANT projects ( http://www.transplantdb.org ).

  17. PhytoPath: an integrative resource for plant pathogen genomics

    PubMed Central

    Pedro, Helder; Maheswari, Uma; Urban, Martin; Irvine, Alistair George; Cuzick, Alayne; McDowall, Mark D.; Staines, Daniel M.; Kulesha, Eugene; Hammond-Kosack, Kim Elizabeth; Kersey, Paul Julian

    2016-01-01

    PhytoPath (www.phytopathdb.org) is a resource for genomic and phenotypic data from plant pathogen species, that integrates phenotypic data for genes from PHI-base, an expertly curated catalog of genes with experimentally verified pathogenicity, with the Ensembl tools for data visualization and analysis. The resource is focused on fungi, protists (oomycetes) and bacterial plant pathogens that have genomes that have been sequenced and annotated. Genes with associated PHI-base data can be easily identified across all plant pathogen species using a BioMart-based query tool and visualized in their genomic context on the Ensembl genome browser. The PhytoPath resource contains data for 135 genomic sequences from 87 plant pathogen species, and 1364 genes curated for their role in pathogenicity and as targets for chemical intervention. Support for community annotation of gene models is provided using the WebApollo online gene editor, and we are working with interested communities to improve reference annotation for selected species. PMID:26476449

  18. PhytoPath: an integrative resource for plant pathogen genomics.

    PubMed

    Pedro, Helder; Maheswari, Uma; Urban, Martin; Irvine, Alistair George; Cuzick, Alayne; McDowall, Mark D; Staines, Daniel M; Kulesha, Eugene; Hammond-Kosack, Kim Elizabeth; Kersey, Paul Julian

    2016-01-01

    PhytoPath (www.phytopathdb.org) is a resource for genomic and phenotypic data from plant pathogen species, that integrates phenotypic data for genes from PHI-base, an expertly curated catalog of genes with experimentally verified pathogenicity, with the Ensembl tools for data visualization and analysis. The resource is focused on fungi, protists (oomycetes) and bacterial plant pathogens that have genomes that have been sequenced and annotated. Genes with associated PHI-base data can be easily identified across all plant pathogen species using a BioMart-based query tool and visualized in their genomic context on the Ensembl genome browser. The PhytoPath resource contains data for 135 genomic sequences from 87 plant pathogen species, and 1364 genes curated for their role in pathogenicity and as targets for chemical intervention. Support for community annotation of gene models is provided using the WebApollo online gene editor, and we are working with interested communities to improve reference annotation for selected species.

  19. Integrated metabolomics for abiotic stress responses in plants.

    PubMed

    Nakabayashi, Ryo; Saito, Kazuki

    2015-04-01

    Plants are considered to biosynthesize specialized (traditionally called secondary) metabolites to adapt to environmental stresses such as biotic and abiotic stresses. The majority of specialized metabolites induced by abiotic stress characteristically exhibit antioxidative activity in vitro, but their function in vivo is largely yet to be experimentally confirmed. In this review, we highlight recent advances in the identification of the role of abiotic stress-responsive specialized metabolites with an emphasis on flavonoids. Integrated 'omics' analysis, centered on metabolomics with a series of plant resources differing in their flavonoid accumulation, showed experimentally that flavonoids play a major role in antioxidation in vivo. In addition, the results also suggest the role of flavonoids in the vacuole. To obtain more in-depth insights, chemical and biological challenges need to be addressed for the identification of unknown specialized metabolites and their in vivo functions.

  20. Integrated LC-MS/MS system for plant metabolomics

    PubMed Central

    Sawada, Yuji; Hirai, Masami Yokota

    2013-01-01

    Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is highly sensitive, selective, and enables extensive detection of metabolites within a sample. The result allows us to characterize comprehensive metabolite accumulation patterns without dependence on authentic standard compounds and isolation of the individual metabolites. A reference database search is essential for the structural assignment process of un-targeted MS and MS/MS data. Moreover, the characterization of unknown metabolites is challenging, since these cannot be assigned a candidate structure by using a reference database. In this case study, integrated LC-MS/MS based plant metabolomics allows us to detect several hundred metabolites in a sample; and integrated omics analyses, e.g., large-scale reverse genetics, linkage mapping, and association mapping, provides a powerful tool for candidate structure selection or rejection. We also examine emerging technology and applications for LC-MS/MS-based un-targeted plant metabolomics. These activities promote the characterization of massive extended detectable metabolites. PMID:24688692

  1. A research study to determine the effect of Total Quality Management (TQM) on employee morale in Plant Procedures Division at EG&G, Rocky Flats, Inc.

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, E.F.

    1994-01-01

    EG&G at Rocky Flats, Golden, Colorado, experienced a high amount of low morale, due to the plant site having been designated to close, and the uneasiness of the working force was very visible. Some employees accepted early retirement in October 1992, however, all received letters of 120 days notice in March 1993, and were advised several cuts Would be made by October 1, 1993. This information alone caused many insecurities in employees, and caused morale to decrease even more. This is an in depth study of morale, which was upgraded in Plant Procedures Group (PPG), through the effect of TQM. The primary research included a survey of employees with results included. The study also increased additional questions in PPG, some of which were added to the agenda of the Process Improvement Team (PIT) to improve PPG in the eyes of customers. Statistics did show that morale improved, not necessarily because of TQM or the progress of the Process Improvement Team (PIT), but due to efforts of the staff implementing the principles of TQM the best they knew how.

  2. Performance analysis of an OTEC plant and a desalination plant using an integrated hybrid cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Uehara, Haruo; Miyara, Akio; Ikegami, Yasuyuki; Nakaoka, Tsutomu

    1996-05-01

    A performance analysis of an OTEC plant using an integrated hybrid cycle (I-H OTEC Cycle) has been conducted. The I-H OTEC cycle is a combination of a closed-cycle OTEC plant and a spray flash desalination plant. In an I-H OTEC cycle, warm sea water evaporates the liquid ammonia in the OTEC evaporator, then enters the flash chamber and evaporates itself. The evaporated steam enters the desalination condenser and is condensed by the cold sea water passed through the OTEC condenser. The optimization of the I-H OTEC cycle is analyzed by the method of steepest descent. The total heat transfer area of heat exchangers per net power is used as an objective function. Numerical results are reported for a 10 MW I-H OTEC cycle with plate-type heat exchangers and ammonia as working fluid. The results are compared with those of a joint hybrid OTEC cycle (J-H OTEC Cycle).

  3. Ecosystem Engineering by Plants on Wave-Exposed Intertidal Flats Is Governed by Relationships between Effect and Response Traits.

    PubMed

    Heuner, Maike; Silinski, Alexandra; Schoelynck, Jonas; Bouma, Tjeerd J; Puijalon, Sara; Troch, Peter; Fuchs, Elmar; Schröder, Boris; Schröder, Uwe; Meire, Patrick; Temmerman, Stijn

    2015-01-01

    In hydrodynamically stressful environments, some species--known as ecosystem engineers--are able to modify the environment for their own benefit. Little is known however, about the interaction between functional plant traits and ecosystem engineering. We studied the responses of Scirpus tabernaemontani and Scirpus maritimus to wave impact in full-scale flume experiments. Stem density and biomass were used to predict the ecosystem engineering effect of wave attenuation. Also the drag force on plants, their bending angle after wave impact and the stem biomechanical properties were quantified as both responses of stress experienced and effects on ecosystem engineering. We analyzed lignin, cellulose, and silica contents as traits likely effecting stress resistance (avoidance, tolerance). Stem density and biomass were strong predictors for wave attenuation, S. maritimus showing a higher effect than S. tabernaemontani. The drag force and drag force per wet frontal area both differed significantly between the species at shallow water depths (20 cm). At greater depths (35 cm), drag forces and bending angles were significantly higher for S. maritimus than for S. tabernaemontani. However, they do not differ in drag force per wet frontal area due to the larger plant surface of S. maritimus. Stem resistance to breaking and stem flexibility were significantly higher in S. tabernaemontani, having a higher cellulose concentration and a larger cross-section in its basal stem parts. S. maritimus had clearly more lignin and silica contents in the basal stem parts than S. tabernaemontani. We concluded that the effect of biomass seems more relevant for the engineering effect of emergent macrophytes with leaves than species morphology: S. tabernaemontani has avoiding traits with minor effects on wave attenuation; S. maritimus has tolerating traits with larger effects. This implies that ecosystem engineering effects are directly linked with traits affecting species stress resistance and

  4. Ecosystem Engineering by Plants on Wave-Exposed Intertidal Flats Is Governed by Relationships between Effect and Response Traits

    PubMed Central

    Schoelynck, Jonas; Bouma, Tjeerd J.; Puijalon, Sara; Troch, Peter; Fuchs, Elmar; Schröder, Boris; Schröder, Uwe; Meire, Patrick; Temmerman, Stijn

    2015-01-01

    In hydrodynamically stressful environments, some species—known as ecosystem engineers—are able to modify the environment for their own benefit. Little is known however, about the interaction between functional plant traits and ecosystem engineering. We studied the responses of Scirpus tabernaemontani and Scirpus maritimus to wave impact in full-scale flume experiments. Stem density and biomass were used to predict the ecosystem engineering effect of wave attenuation. Also the drag force on plants, their bending angle after wave impact and the stem biomechanical properties were quantified as both responses of stress experienced and effects on ecosystem engineering. We analyzed lignin, cellulose, and silica contents as traits likely effecting stress resistance (avoidance, tolerance). Stem density and biomass were strong predictors for wave attenuation, S. maritimus showing a higher effect than S. tabernaemontani. The drag force and drag force per wet frontal area both differed significantly between the species at shallow water depths (20 cm). At greater depths (35 cm), drag forces and bending angles were significantly higher for S. maritimus than for S. tabernaemontani. However, they do not differ in drag force per wet frontal area due to the larger plant surface of S. maritimus. Stem resistance to breaking and stem flexibility were significantly higher in S. tabernaemontani, having a higher cellulose concentration and a larger cross-section in its basal stem parts. S. maritimus had clearly more lignin and silica contents in the basal stem parts than S. tabernaemontani. We concluded that the effect of biomass seems more relevant for the engineering effect of emergent macrophytes with leaves than species morphology: S. tabernaemontani has avoiding traits with minor effects on wave attenuation; S. maritimus has tolerating traits with larger effects. This implies that ecosystem engineering effects are directly linked with traits affecting species stress resistance

  5. Integrated control algorithms for plant environment in greenhouse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kanyu; Deng, Lujuan; Gong, Youmin; Wang, Shengxue

    2003-09-01

    In this paper a survey of plant environment control in artificial greenhouse was put forward for discussing the future development. Firstly, plant environment control started with the closed loop control of air temperature in greenhouse. With the emergence of higher property computer, the adaptive control algorithm and system identification were integrated into the control system. As adaptation control is more depending on observation of variables by sensors and yet many variables are unobservable or difficult to observe, especially for observation of crop growth status, so model-based control algorithm were developed. In order to evade modeling difficulty, one method is predigesting the models and the other method is utilizing fuzzy logic and neural network technology that realize the models by the black box and gray box theory. Studies on control method of plant environment in greenhouse by means of expert system (ES) and artificial intelligence (AI) have been initiated and developed. Nowadays, the research of greenhouse environment control focus on energy saving, optimal economic profit, enviornment protection and continualy develop.

  6. Plant-integrated measurement of greenhouse gas emissions from a municipal wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Hiroko; Mønster, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2014-09-15

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) contribute to anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Due to its spatial and temporal variation in emissions, whole plant characterization of GHG emissions from WWTPs face a number of obstacles. In this study, a tracer dispersion method was applied to quantify plant-integrated, real-time emissions of methane and nitrous oxides. Two mobile cavity ring-down spectroscopy sampling devices were used to record downwind gas concentrations emitted from a municipal WWTP situated in Copenhagen, Denmark. This plant is equipped to remove biological nitrogen and employs anaerobic digestion for sludge stabilization. Over the course of nine measurement campaigns, a wide range of emissions were detected: methane from 4.99 kg h(-1) up to 92.3 kg h(-1) and nitrous oxide from below the detection limit (0.37 kg h(-1)) up to 10.5 kg h(-1). High emissions were observed during periods experiencing operational problems, such as during foaming events in anaerobic digesters and during sub-optimal operation of biological nitrogen removal in the secondary treatment of wastewater. Methane emissions detected during measurement campaigns corresponded to 2.07-32.7% of the methane generated in the plant. As high as 4.27% of nitrogen entering the WWTP was emitted as nitrous oxide under the sub-optimal operation of biological treatment processes. The study shows that the unit process configuration, as well as the operation of the WWTP, determines the rate of GHG emission. The applied plant-integrated emission measurement method could be used to ease the burden of quantifying GHG emissions from WWTPs for reporting purposes and could contribute to the development of more accurate depictions of environmental performance of WWTPs.

  7. Specification for integrated controls and monitoring for fossil power plants

    SciTech Connect

    McKinley, J.H.; Papilla, R.P.; Shendrikar, U.D. )

    1991-06-01

    This specification was prepared by Southern California Edison Co. and used to bid the contract for a state-of-the-art integrated control and monitoring system for the El Segundo control system retrofit project. The system will be installed on Units 3 and 4 during a 12 week scheduled outage beginning in January, 1991. Since early 1989, EPRI has been cost sharing this project with SCE under research project RP2922-2. This specification is one of seven supplemental EPRI reports that will be generated from the project besides interim and final guidelines for integrated controls and monitoring for fossil power plants. The specification is a first-of-a-kind, requiring bidders to apply enhanced control logic and advanced control algorithms, and integrate various diagnostic, expert systems, performance monitoring, and other condition monitoring applications with a DCS. The proof of the quality and comprehensiveness of this specification is apparent as the project moves forward with only a few months before system delivery: There are few issues that have had to be addressed separately from the specification. The information contained in this report should be useful for any utility launching a control system upgrade project.

  8. PIFs: Systems Integrators in Plant Development[W

    PubMed Central

    Leivar, Pablo; Monte, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Phytochrome-interacting factors (PIFs) are members of the Arabidopsis thaliana basic helix-loop-helix family of transcriptional regulators that interact specifically with the active Pfr conformer of phytochrome (phy) photoreceptors. PIFs are central regulators of photomorphogenic development that act to promote stem growth, and this activity is reversed upon interaction with phy in response to light. Recently, significant progress has been made in defining the transcriptional networks directly regulated by PIFs, as well as the convergence of other signaling pathways on the PIFs to modulate growth. Here, we summarize and highlight these findings in the context of PIFs acting as integrators of light and other signals. We discuss progress in our understanding of the transcriptional and posttranslational regulation of PIFs that illustrates the integration of light with hormonal pathways and the circadian clock, and we review seedling hypocotyl growth as a paradigm of PIFs acting at the interface of these signals. Based on these advances, PIFs are emerging as required factors for growth, acting as central components of a regulatory node that integrates multiple internal and external signals to optimize plant development. PMID:24481072

  9. Integrating fuel cell power systems into building physical plants

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, J.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses the integration of fuel cell power plants and absorption chillers to cogenerate chilled water or hot water/steam for all weather air conditioning as one possible approach to building system applications. Absorption chillers utilize thermal energy in an absorption based cycle to chill water. It is feasible to use waste heat from fuel cells to provide hydronic heating and cooling. Performance regimes will vary as a function of the supply and quality of waste heat. Respective performance characteristics of fuel cells, absorption chillers and air conditioning systems will define relationships between thermal and electrical load capacities for the combined systems. Specifically, this paper develops thermodynamic relationships between bulk electrical power and cooling/heating capacities for combined fuel cell and absorption chiller system in building applications.

  10. Integration of freshwater environmental policies and wastewater treatment plant management.

    PubMed

    Corominas, Lluís; Acuña, Vicenç; Ginebreda, Antoni; Poch, Manel

    2013-02-15

    In the last decade the political awareness of river water quality issues has grown substantially over the world and legislation is accordingly adapting. In the European Union (EU), two different directives regulate separately the characteristics of the discharged water and the chemical status of the receiving freshwater ecosystem. On the one hand, the characteristics of the urban effluents are regulated by the EU Directive 91/271/EEC, which defines limits on different elements set in the form of both static emission limits and minimum percentage load reductions. On the other hand, the characteristics of the receiving freshwater ecosystems are described in the EU Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EEC), which sets minimum 'good' chemical and ecological status in water bodies that should be achieved by 2015, and aims for an ecosystem-based management. With the support of an example, we show that there is a gap in these EU environmental policies leading to non-integrated management, which may result on adverse environmental and economical consequences. We believe that these policies should be updated and tuned to account for an integrated perspective, allowing a more efficient and sustainable management of wastewater treatment plants, maximizing the ecological, economical and social benefits of the system as a whole.

  11. Analyses of combined mortality data on workers at the Hanford Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, E.S.; Fry, S.A.; Wiggs, L.D.; Voelz, G.L.; Cragle, D.L.; Petersen, G.R. )

    1989-10-01

    An important objective of studies of workers exposed occupationally to chronic low doses of ionizing radiation is to provide a direct assessment of health risks resulting from this exposure. This objective is most effectively accomplished by conducting combined analyses that allow evaluation of the totality of evidence from all study populations. In this paper, combined analyses of mortality in workers at the Hanford Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant are presented. These combined analyses provide no evidence of a correlation between radiation exposure and mortality from all cancer or from leukemia. Of 11 other specific types of cancer analyzed, multiple myeloma was the only cancer found to exhibit a statistically significant correlation with radiation exposure. Estimates of the excess risk of all cancer and of leukemia, based on the combined data, were negative. Upper confidence limits based on the combined data were lower than for any single population, and were similar to estimates obtained from recent analyses of A-bomb survivor data. These results strengthen support for the conclusion that estimates obtained through extrapolation from high-dose data do not seriously underestimate risks of low-dose exposure, but leave open the possibility that extrapolation may overestimate risks.

  12. An assessment and evaluation for recycle/reuse of contaminated process and metallurgical equipment at the DOE Rocky Flats Plant Site -- Building 865. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    An economic analysis of the potential advantages of alternatives for recycling and reusing equipment now stored in Building 865 at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) in Colorado has been conducted. The inventory considered in this analysis consists primarily of metallurgical and process equipment used before January 1992, during development and production of nuclear weapons components at the site. The economic analysis consists of a thorough building inventory and cost comparisons for four equipment dispositions alternatives. The first is a baseline option of disposal at a Low Level Waste (LLW) landfill. The three alternatives investigated are metal recycling, reuse with the government sector, and release for unrestricted use. This report provides item-by-item estimates of value, disposal cost, and decontamination cost. The economic evaluation methods documented here, the simple cost comparisons presented, and the data provided as a supplement, should provide a foundation for D&D decisions for Building 865, as well as for similar D&D tasks at RFP and at other sites.

  13. Analyses of combined mortality data on workers at the Hanford Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, E S; Fry, S A; Wiggs, L D; Voelz, G L; Cragle, D L; Petersen, G R

    1989-10-01

    An important objective of studies of workers exposed occupationally to chronic low doses of ionizing radiation is to provide a direct assessment of health risks resulting from this exposure. This objective is most effectively accomplished by conducting combined analyses that allow evaluation of the totality of evidence from all study populations. In this paper, combined analyses of mortality in workers at the Hanford Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant are presented. These combined analyses provide no evidence of a correlation between radiation exposure and mortality from all cancer or from leukemia. Of 11 other specific types of cancer analyzed, multiple myeloma was the only cancer found to exhibit a statistically significant correlation with radiation exposure. Estimates of the excess risk of all cancer and of leukemia, based on the combined data, were negative. Upper confidence limits based on the combined data were lower than for any single population, and were similar to estimates obtained from recent analyses of A-bomb survivor data. These results strengthen support for the conclusion that estimates obtained through extrapolation from high-dose data do not seriously underestimate risks of low-dose exposure, but leave open the possibility that extrapolation may overestimate risks. PMID:2798781

  14. Updated analyses of combined mortality data for workers at the Hanford Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Rocky Flats Weapons Plant.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, E S; Cragle, D L; Wiggs, L D

    1993-12-01

    Updated analyses of mortality data on workers at the Hanford Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Rocky Flats Weapons Plant are presented with the objective of providing a direct assessment of health risks resulting from protracted low-dose exposure to ionizing radiation. For leukemia, the combined excess relative risk estimate was negative (-1.0 per Sv), and confidence limits excluded risks that were more than slightly larger than those forming the basis of ICRP recommendations. For all cancer except leukemia, the excess relative risk estimate was 0.0 per Sv, but confidence limits indicated consistency with estimates several times those forming the basis of ICRP recommendations. Of 24 cancer types tested, 12 showed positive correlations with radiation dose and 12 showed negative correlations, as would be expected by chance fluctuation. Cancer of the esophagus, cancer of the larynx, and Hodgkin's disease showed statistically significant correlations with radiation dose (P < 0.05), but these correlations were interpreted as likely to have resulted from bias or chance fluctuation. Evidence of an increase in the excess relative risk with increasing age at risk was found for all cancer in both Hanford and ORNL, and both populations showed significant correlations of all cancer with radiation dose among those 75 years and older. Although this age effect may have resulted from bias in the data, its presence suggests that risk estimates based on nuclear worker data be interpreted cautiously. PMID:8278584

  15. Evaluation of three analytical techniques used to determine high levels of volatile organic compounds in type IV sludge from Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Parish, K.J.; Applegate, D.V.; Tsai, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Before disposal, radioactive sludge (Type IV) from Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) must be evaluated for volatile organic compound (VOC) content. The Type IV sludge consists of organic solvents, degreasers, cutting oils, and transuranic (TRU) waste mixed with calcium silicate (MicroCel E{reg_sign}) and Oil Dri{reg_sign} to form a grease or paste-like material. For laboratory testing, a simulated Type IV RFP sludge (nonradioactive) was prepared at Argonne National Laboratory-East. This sludge has a composition similar to that expected from field samples. On the basis of historical information, a typical Type IV sludge is expected to contain approximately 1-10 percent of three target VOCs. The objective of this work is to evaluate three proposed methods for the determination of high levels of these three VOCs in Type IV sludge. The three methods are (1) static headspace gas analysis, (2) methanol extraction, and (3) ethylene glycol extraction. All three methods employ gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). They were evaluated regarding general method performance criteria, ease of operation, and amounts of secondary mixed waste generated.

  16. New method of verificating optical flat flatness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hao; Li, Xueyuan; Han, Sen; Zhu, Jianrong; Guo, Zhenglai; Fu, Yuegang

    2014-11-01

    Optical flat is commonly used in optical testing instruments, flatness is the most important parameter of forming errors. As measurement criteria, optical flat flatness (OFF) index needs to have good precision. Current measurement in China is heavily dependent on the artificial visual interpretation, through discrete points to characterize the flatness. The efficiency and accuracy of this method can not meet the demand of industrial development. In order to improve the testing efficiency and accuracy of measurement, it is necessary to develop an optical flat verification system, which can obtain all surface information rapidly and efficiently, at the same time, in accordance with current national metrological verification procedures. This paper reviews current optical flat verification method and solves the problems existing in previous test, by using new method and its supporting software. Final results show that the new system can improve verification efficiency and accuracy, by comparing with JJG 28-2000 metrological verification procedures method.

  17. Integration of photosynthesis, development and stress as an opportunity for plant biology.

    PubMed

    Allahverdiyeva, Yagut; Battchikova, Natalia; Brosché, Mikael; Fujii, Hiroaki; Kangasjärvi, Saijaliisa; Mulo, Paula; Mähönen, Ari Pekka; Nieminen, Kaisa; Overmyer, Kirk; Salojärvi, Jarkko; Wrzaczek, Michael

    2015-11-01

    With the tremendous progress of the past decades, molecular plant science is becoming more unified than ever. We now have the exciting opportunity to further connect subdisciplines and understand plants as whole organisms, as will be required to efficiently utilize them in natural and agricultural systems to meet human needs. The subfields of photosynthesis, plant developmental biology and plant stress are used as examples to discuss how plant science can become better integrated. The challenges, strategies and rich opportunities for the integration of the plant sciences are discussed. In recent years, more and more overlap between various subdisciplines has been inadvertently discovered including tradeoffs that may occur in plants engineered for biotechnological applications. Already important, bioinformatics and computational modelling will become even more central to structuring and understanding the ever growing amounts of data. The process of integrating and overlapping fields in plant biology research is advancing, but plant science will benefit from dedicating more effort and urgency to reach across its boundaries.

  18. Development of a plant-wide dynamic model of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, D.; Turton, R.; Zitney, S.

    2009-01-01

    In this presentation, development of a plant-wide dynamic model of an advanced Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant with CO2 capture will be discussed. The IGCC reference plant generates 640 MWe of net power using Illinois No.6 coal as the feed. The plant includes an entrained, downflow, General Electric Energy (GEE) gasifier with a radiant syngas cooler (RSC), a two-stage water gas shift (WGS) conversion process, and two advanced 'F' class combustion turbines partially integrated with an elevated-pressure air separation unit (ASU). A subcritical steam cycle is considered for heat recovery steam generation. Syngas is selectively cleaned by a SELEXOL acid gas removal (AGR) process. Sulfur is recovered using a two-train Claus unit with tail gas recycle to the AGR. A multistage intercooled compressor is used for compressing CO2 to the pressure required for sequestration. Using Illinois No.6 coal, the reference plant generates 640 MWe of net power. The plant-wide steady-state and dynamic IGCC simulations have been generated using the Aspen Plus{reg_sign} and Aspen Plus Dynamics{reg_sign} process simulators, respectively. The model is generated based on the Case 2 IGCC configuration detailed in the study available in the NETL website1. The GEE gasifier is represented with a restricted equilibrium reactor model where the temperature approach to equilibrium for individual reactions can be modified based on the experimental data. In this radiant-only configuration, the syngas from the Radiant Syngas Cooler (RSC) is quenched in a scrubber. The blackwater from the scrubber bottom is further cleaned in the blackwater treatment plant. The cleaned water is returned back to the scrubber and also used for slurry preparation. The acid gas from the sour water stripper (SWS) is sent to the Claus plant. The syngas from the scrubber passes through a sour shift process. The WGS reactors are modeled as adiabatic plug flow reactors with rigorous kinetics based on the mid

  19. Texas refiner optimizes by integrating units from idle plant

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, A.K.

    1995-03-20

    In 1993, Phibro Energy USA Inc. purchased Dow Chemical Co.`s idle 200,000 b/d refinery at Freeport, TX. The Dow facility, known as the Oyster Creek refinery, was incapable of producing gasoline, and therefore was somewhat incomplete as a stand-alone refinery. By relocating and integrating units from the Dow plant with Phibro`s 130,700 b/d refinery at Texas City, TX, and adding a new residual oil solvent extraction (ROSE) unit, Phibro will optimize its Texas refinery operations. The dismantling, movement, and re-erection phases of the project are all but finished, and installation of piping and new instrumentation for the major relocated units is well under way. When the project is complete, Phibro will drastically reduce fuel oil production at Texas City and increase output of middle distillate. Resid, which the company now produces in excess, will be converted to a heavy fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) feedstock. Most of this stream will be fed to the oversized FCC unit at Phibro`s 71,000 b/d Houston refinery, thus eliminating Phibro`s reliance on purchased FCC feed. The paper discusses the Oyster Creek refinery, the decision to reduce residual fuel oil production company-wide, building versus moving equipment, dismantling and transport, construction, products, operational changes, utilities, process wastes, regulations, preparations, and future prospects. The remaining equipment at Oyster Creek was sold to a South Korean refinery.

  20. Nucleobase and nucleoside transport and integration into plant metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Girke, Christopher; Daumann, Manuel; Niopek-Witz, Sandra; Möhlmann, Torsten

    2014-01-01

    Nucleotide metabolism is an essential process in all living organisms. Besides newly synthesized nucleotides, the recycling (salvage) of partially degraded nucleotides, i.e., nucleosides and nucleobases serves to keep the homeostasis of the nucleotide pool. Both types of metabolites are substrates of at least six families of transport proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) with a total of 49 members. In the last years several members of such transport proteins have been analyzed allowing to present a more detailed picture of nucleoside and nucleobase transport and the physiological function of these processes. Besides functioning in nucleotide metabolism it turned out that individual members of the before named transporters exhibit the capacity to transport a wide range of different substrates including vitamins and phytohormones. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on nucleobase and nucleoside transport processes in plants and integrate this into nucleotide metabolism in general. Thereby, we will focus on those proteins which have been characterized at the biochemical level. PMID:25250038

  1. Integrating planar waveguides doped with light scattering nanoparticles into a flat-plate photobioreactor to improve light distribution and microalgae growth.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yahui; Liao, Qiang; Huang, Yun; Xia, Ao; Fu, Qian; Zhu, Xun; Zheng, Yaping

    2016-11-01

    Industrially manufactured planar waveguides doped with light scattering nanoparticles, which can dilute and redistribute the intense incident light within microalgae suspension more uniformly, were introduced into a flat-plate photobioreactor (PBR) with a width of 25cm to alleviate the adverse effect of poor light penetrability on microalgae growth. Compared with the flat-plate PBR without waveguides, the illumination surface area per unit volume in the proposed PBR was increased by 10.3 times. During the whole cultivation period, the illuminated volume fractions in the proposed PBR were 21.4-410% higher than those in the flat-plate PBR without waveguides. Consequently, attributed to the optimized light distribution in the proposed PBR, a 220% improvement in biomass production was obtained relative to that in the flat-plate PBR without waveguides. Furthermore, higher light output intensities emitted from the planar waveguide surfaces and increased microalgae growth rates were achieved by decreasing the length of planar waveguides.

  2. Integrating planar waveguides doped with light scattering nanoparticles into a flat-plate photobioreactor to improve light distribution and microalgae growth.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yahui; Liao, Qiang; Huang, Yun; Xia, Ao; Fu, Qian; Zhu, Xun; Zheng, Yaping

    2016-11-01

    Industrially manufactured planar waveguides doped with light scattering nanoparticles, which can dilute and redistribute the intense incident light within microalgae suspension more uniformly, were introduced into a flat-plate photobioreactor (PBR) with a width of 25cm to alleviate the adverse effect of poor light penetrability on microalgae growth. Compared with the flat-plate PBR without waveguides, the illumination surface area per unit volume in the proposed PBR was increased by 10.3 times. During the whole cultivation period, the illuminated volume fractions in the proposed PBR were 21.4-410% higher than those in the flat-plate PBR without waveguides. Consequently, attributed to the optimized light distribution in the proposed PBR, a 220% improvement in biomass production was obtained relative to that in the flat-plate PBR without waveguides. Furthermore, higher light output intensities emitted from the planar waveguide surfaces and increased microalgae growth rates were achieved by decreasing the length of planar waveguides. PMID:27573475

  3. Operator Serves as Integral Member of Plant Design Team

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Dan P.; Collins, Floyd W.

    1978-01-01

    It is suggested that plant operators can be useful in designing sewage treatment plants. The advantages of this cooperative arrangement to the consulting engineers and the city, and the pitfalls, are discussed. (BB)

  4. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter FlatSat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the use of FlatSat as a platform for use during flight integration and testing (I&T) of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). Included in the presentations are requirements for the facility, a diagram of the LRO FlatSat lab, and discussion of the operational documentation, facility scheduling, and issues and lessons learned.

  5. Integrating Botany with Chemistry & Art to Improve Elementary School Children's Awareness of Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çil, Emine

    2015-01-01

    Students need to be aware of plants in order to learn about, appreciate, care for, and protect them. However, research has found that many children are not aware of the plants in their environment. A way to address this issue might be integration of plants with various disciplines. I investigated the effectiveness of an instructional approach…

  6. The integrated workstation: A common, consistent link between nuclear plant personnel and plant information and computerized resources

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, R.T.; Knee, H.E.; Mullens, J.A.; Munro, J.K. Jr.; Swail, B.K.; Tapp, P.A.

    1993-05-01

    The increasing use of computer technology in the US nuclear power industry has greatly expanded the capability to obtain, analyze, and present data about the plant to station personnel. Data concerning a power plant`s design, configuration, operational and maintenance histories, and current status, and the information that can be derived from them, provide the link between the plant and plant staff. It is through this information bridge that operations, maintenance and engineering personnel understand and manage plant performance. However, it is necessary to transform the vast quantity of data available from various computer systems and across communications networks into clear, concise, and coherent information. In addition, it is important to organize this information into a consolidated, structured form within an integrated environment so that various users throughout the plant have ready access at their local station to knowledge necessary for their tasks. Thus, integrated workstations are needed to provide the inquired information and proper software tools, in a manner that can be easily understood and used, to the proper users throughout the plant. An effort is underway at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to address this need by developing Integrated Workstation functional requirements and implementing a limited-scale prototype demonstration. The integrated Workstation requirements will define a flexible, expandable computer environment that permits a tailored implementation of workstation capabilities and facilitates future upgrades to add enhanced applications. The functionality to be supported by the integrated workstation and inherent capabilities to be provided by the workstation environment win be described. In addition, general technology areas which are to be addressed in the Integrated Workstation functional requirements will be discussed.

  7. Final Report: RPP-WTP Semi-Integrated Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, M. R.; Adamson, D. J.; Calloway, T. B.; Fowley, M. D.; Qureshi, Z. H.; Steimke, J. L.; Williams, M. R.; Zamecnik, J. R.

    2005-06-01

    In August 2004 the last of the SIPP task testing ended--a task that formally began with the issuance of the RPP-WTP Test Specification in June 2003. The planning for the task was a major effort in itself and culminated with the input of all stakeholders, DOE, Bechtel National, Inc., Washington Group International, in October 2003 at Hanford, WA (Appendix A). This report documents the activities carried out as a result of that planning. Campaign IV, the fourth and final step towards the Semi-Integrated Pilot Plant (SIPP) task, conducted by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) at the Savannah River Site, was to take the several recycle streams produced in Campaign III, the third step of the task, and combine them with other simulated recycle and chosen waste streams. (Campaign III was fed recycles from Campaign II, as Campaign II was fed by Campaign I.) The combined stream was processed in a fashion that mimicked the pretreatment operations of the DOE River Protection Project--Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) with the exception of the Ion Exchange Process. The SIPP task is considered semi-integrated because it only deals with the pretreatment operations of the RPP-WTP. That is, the pilot plant starts by receiving waste from the tank farm and ends when waste is processed to the point of being sent for vitrification. The resulting pretreated LAW and HLW simulants produced by the SIPP were shipped to VSL (Vitreous State Laboratory) and successfully vitrified in pilot WTP melters. Within the SIPP task these steps are referred to as Campaigns and there were four Campaigns in all. Campaign I, which is completely different than other campaigns, subjected a simulant of Hanford Tank 241-AY-102/C-106 (AY102) waste to cross-flow ultrafiltration only and in that process several important recycle streams were produced as a result of washing the simulant and cleaning the cross-flow filter. These streams were fed to subsequent campaigns and that work was

  8. Introducing WISDEM:An Integrated System Modeling for Wind Turbines and Plant (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Dykes, K.; Graf, P.; Scott, G.; Ning, A.; King, R.; Guo, Y.; Parsons, T.; Damiani, R.; Felker, F.; Veers, P.

    2015-01-01

    The National Wind Technology Center wind energy systems engineering initiative has developed an analysis platform to leverage its research capabilities toward integrating wind energy engineering and cost models across wind plants. This Wind-Plant Integrated System Design & Engineering Model (WISDEM) platform captures the important interactions between various subsystems to achieve a better National Wind Technology Center wind energy systems engineering initiative has developed an analysis platform to leverage its research capabilities toward integrating wind energy engineering and cost models across wind plants. This Wind-Plant Integrated System Design & Engineering Model (WISDEM) platform captures the important interactions between various subsystems to achieve a better understanding of how to improve system-level performance and achieve system-level cost reductions. This work illustrates a few case studies with WISDEM that focus on the design and analysis of wind turbines and plants at different system levels.

  9. Flat-package DIP handling tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelou, E.; Fraser, R.

    1977-01-01

    Device, using magnetic attraction, can facilitate handling of integrated-circuit flat packages and prevent contamination and bent leads. Tool lifts packages by their cases and releases them by operation of manual plunger.

  10. The integrated workstation: A common, consistent link between nuclear plant personnel and plant information and computerized resources

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, R.T.; Knee, H.E.; Mullens, J.A.; Munro, J.K. Jr.; Swail, B.K.; Tapp, P.A.

    1993-01-01

    The increasing use of computer technology in the US nuclear power industry has greatly expanded the capability to obtain, analyze, and present data about the plant to station personnel. Data concerning a power plant's design, configuration, operational and maintenance histories, and current status, and the information that can be derived from them, provide the link between the plant and plant staff. It is through this information bridge that operations, maintenance and engineering personnel understand and manage plant performance. However, it is necessary to transform the vast quantity of data available from various computer systems and across communications networks into clear, concise, and coherent information. In addition, it is important to organize this information into a consolidated, structured form within an integrated environment so that various users throughout the plant have ready access at their local station to knowledge necessary for their tasks. Thus, integrated workstations are needed to provide the inquired information and proper software tools, in a manner that can be easily understood and used, to the proper users throughout the plant. An effort is underway at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to address this need by developing Integrated Workstation functional requirements and implementing a limited-scale prototype demonstration. The integrated Workstation requirements will define a flexible, expandable computer environment that permits a tailored implementation of workstation capabilities and facilitates future upgrades to add enhanced applications. The functionality to be supported by the integrated workstation and inherent capabilities to be provided by the workstation environment win be described. In addition, general technology areas which are to be addressed in the Integrated Workstation functional requirements will be discussed.

  11. Integration of distributed plant process computer systems to nuclear power generation facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Bogard, T.; Finlay, K.

    1996-11-01

    Many operating nuclear power generation facilities are replacing their plant process computer. Such replacement projects are driven by equipment obsolescence issues and associated objectives to improve plant operability, increase plant information access, improve man machine interface characteristics, and reduce operation and maintenance costs. This paper describes a few recently completed and on-going replacement projects with emphasis upon the application integrated distributed plant process computer systems. By presenting a few recent projects, the variations of distributed systems design show how various configurations can address needs for flexibility, open architecture, and integration of technological advancements in instrumentation and control technology. Architectural considerations for optimal integration of the plant process computer and plant process instrumentation & control are evident from variations of design features.

  12. The flat antenna - Now a reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Daniel R.

    1989-09-01

    A practical, high-performance, low-cost, consumer-oriented flat antenna is described. Advantages of the flat antenna include a thin profile which is less obtrusive than a parabolic dish, features less expensive shipping and installation costs due to its light weight, has the ability to squint the beam, and has improved aperture control for sidelobe suppression. R&D focuses on development of monolithic microwave integrated circuts which will be embedded into the array, thus adding the potential features of amenability to integrated electronics (which will improve noise performance and avoid the necessity of appending an external low-noise converter), and electronic steerability to the list of flat antenna advantages. The basic construction of the flat panel and the intended market for the first flat antennas and the subsequent effect on product design are discussed. Initial market results in Japan, and planned development of European and American markets are discussed.

  13. Bacterial conjugation protein MobA mediates integration of complex DNA structures into plant cells.

    PubMed

    Bravo-Angel, A M; Gloeckler, V; Hohn, B; Tinland, B

    1999-09-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens transfers T-DNA to plant cells, where it integrates into the genome, a property that is ensured by bacterial proteins VirD2 and VirE2. Under natural conditions, the protein MobA mobilizes its encoding plasmid, RSF1010, between different bacteria. A detailed analysis of MobA-mediated DNA mobilization by Agrobacterium to plants was performed. We compared the ability of MobA to transfer DNA and integrate it into the plant genome to that of pilot protein VirD2. MobA was found to be about 100-fold less efficient than VirD2 in conducting the DNA from the pTi plasmid to the plant cell nucleus. However, interestingly, DNAs transferred by the two proteins were integrated into the plant cell genome with similar efficiencies. In contrast, most of the integrated DNA copies transferred from a MobA-containing strain were truncated at the 5' end. Isolation and analysis of the most conserved 5' ends revealed patterns which resulted from the illegitimate integration of one transferred DNA within another. These complex integration patterns indicate a specific deficiency in MobA. The data conform to a model according to which efficiency of T-DNA integration is determined by plant enzymes and integrity is determined by bacterial proteins. PMID:10482518

  14. MAMA NUV Flats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sana, Hugues

    2013-10-01

    This program is aimed at obtaining NUV-MAMA flat-field observations for the construction of pixel-to-pixel flats {p-flats} with a SNR of 100 per binned pixel. The flats are obtained with the DEUTERIUM-lamp and the MR grisms G230M. The actual choice of central wavelength and slit combination depends on the observed count level within each exposure.Note that STIS NUV-MAMA flats are taken every other cycles{i.e. during odd number cycles} in order to not drain the DEUTERIUMlamp lifetime.

  15. MAMA NUV Flats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Elena

    2011-10-01

    This program is aimed at obtaining NUV-MAMA flat-field observations for the construction of pixel-to-pixel flats {p-flats} with a SNR of 100 per binned pixel. The flats are obtained with the DEUTERIUM-lamp and the MR grisms G230M. The actual choice of central wavelength and slit combination depends on the observed count level within each exposure.Note that STIS NUV-MAMA flats are taken every other cycles{i.e. during odd number cycles} in order to not drain the DEUTERIUMlamp lifetime.

  16. Clonal Integration Enhances the Performance of a Clonal Plant Species under Soil Alkalinity Stress

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Juanjuan; Chen, Jishan; Zhang, Yingjun

    2015-01-01

    Clonal plants have been shown to successfully survive in stressful environments, including salinity stress, drought and depleted nutrients through clonal integration between original and subsequent ramets. However, relatively little is known about whether clonal integration can enhance the performance of clonal plants under alkalinity stress. We investigated the effect of clonal integration on the performance of a typical rhizomatous clonal plant, Leymus chinensis, using a factorial experimental design with four levels of alkalinity and two levels of rhizome connection treatments, connected (allowing integration) and severed (preventing integration). Clonal integration was estimated by comparing physiological and biomass features between the rhizome-connected and rhizome-severed treatments. We found that rhizome-connected treatment increased the biomass, height and leaf water potential of subsequent ramets at highly alkalinity treatments but did not affect them at low alkalinity treatments. However, rhizome-connected treatment decreased the root biomass of subsequent ramets and did not influence the photosynthetic rates of subsequent ramets. The biomass of original ramets was reduced by rhizome-connected treatment at the highest alkalinity level. These results suggest that clonal integration can increase the performance of clonal plants under alkalinity stress. Rhizome-connected plants showed dramatically increased survival of buds with negative effects on root weight, indicating that clonal integration influenced the resource allocation pattern of clonal plants. A cost-benefit analysis based on biomass measures showed that original and subsequent ramets significantly benefited from clonal integration in highly alkalinity stress, indicating that clonal integration is an important adaptive strategy by which clonal plants could survive in local alkalinity soil. PMID:25790352

  17. Clonal integration enhances the performance of a clonal plant species under soil alkalinity stress.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenjun; Yang, Gaowen; Sun, Juanjuan; Chen, Jishan; Zhang, Yingjun

    2015-01-01

    Clonal plants have been shown to successfully survive in stressful environments, including salinity stress, drought and depleted nutrients through clonal integration between original and subsequent ramets. However, relatively little is known about whether clonal integration can enhance the performance of clonal plants under alkalinity stress. We investigated the effect of clonal integration on the performance of a typical rhizomatous clonal plant, Leymus chinensis, using a factorial experimental design with four levels of alkalinity and two levels of rhizome connection treatments, connected (allowing integration) and severed (preventing integration). Clonal integration was estimated by comparing physiological and biomass features between the rhizome-connected and rhizome-severed treatments. We found that rhizome-connected treatment increased the biomass, height and leaf water potential of subsequent ramets at highly alkalinity treatments but did not affect them at low alkalinity treatments. However, rhizome-connected treatment decreased the root biomass of subsequent ramets and did not influence the photosynthetic rates of subsequent ramets. The biomass of original ramets was reduced by rhizome-connected treatment at the highest alkalinity level. These results suggest that clonal integration can increase the performance of clonal plants under alkalinity stress. Rhizome-connected plants showed dramatically increased survival of buds with negative effects on root weight, indicating that clonal integration influenced the resource allocation pattern of clonal plants. A cost-benefit analysis based on biomass measures showed that original and subsequent ramets significantly benefited from clonal integration in highly alkalinity stress, indicating that clonal integration is an important adaptive strategy by which clonal plants could survive in local alkalinity soil. PMID:25790352

  18. Material protection, control and accounting cooperation at the Urals Electrochemical Integrated Plant (UEIP), Novouralsk, Russia

    SciTech Connect

    McAllister, S., LLNL

    1998-07-15

    The Urals Electrochemical Integrated Plant is one of the Russian Ministry of Atomic Energy`s nuclear material production sites participating in the US Department of Energy`s Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) Program. The Urals Electrochemical Integrated Plant is Russia`s largest uranium enrichment facility and blends tons of high-enriched uranium into low enriched uranium each year as part of the US high-enriched uranium purchase. The Electrochemical Integrated Plant and six participating national laboratories are cooperating to implement a series of enhancements to the nuclear material protection, control, and accountability systems at the site This paper outlines the overall objectives of the MPC&A program at Urals Electrochemical Integrated Plant and the work completed as of the date of the presentation.

  19. Integration and scaling of UV-B radiation effects on plants: from molecular interactions to whole plant responses.

    PubMed

    Suchar, Vasile Alexandru; Robberecht, Ronald

    2016-07-01

    A process based model integrating the effects of UV-B radiation to molecular level processes and their consequences to whole plant growth and development was developed from key parameters in the published literature. Model simulations showed that UV-B radiation induced changes in plant metabolic and/or photosynthesis rates can result in plant growth inhibitions. The costs of effective epidermal UV-B radiation absorptive compounds did not result in any significant changes in plant growth, but any associated metabolic costs effectively reduced the potential plant biomass. The model showed significant interactions between UV-B radiation effects and temperature and any factor leading to inhibition of photosynthetic production or plant growth during the midday, but the effects were not cumulative for all factors. Vegetative growth were significantly delayed in species that do not exhibit reproductive cycles during a growing season, but vegetative growth and reproductive yield in species completing their life cycle in one growing season did not appear to be delayed more than 2-5 days, probably within the natural variability of the life cycles for many species. This is the first model to integrate the effects of increased UV-B radiation through molecular level processes and their consequences to whole plant growth and development. PMID:27547319

  20. Integration of photosynthesis, development and stress as an opportunity for plant biology.

    PubMed

    Allahverdiyeva, Yagut; Battchikova, Natalia; Brosché, Mikael; Fujii, Hiroaki; Kangasjärvi, Saijaliisa; Mulo, Paula; Mähönen, Ari Pekka; Nieminen, Kaisa; Overmyer, Kirk; Salojärvi, Jarkko; Wrzaczek, Michael

    2015-11-01

    With the tremendous progress of the past decades, molecular plant science is becoming more unified than ever. We now have the exciting opportunity to further connect subdisciplines and understand plants as whole organisms, as will be required to efficiently utilize them in natural and agricultural systems to meet human needs. The subfields of photosynthesis, plant developmental biology and plant stress are used as examples to discuss how plant science can become better integrated. The challenges, strategies and rich opportunities for the integration of the plant sciences are discussed. In recent years, more and more overlap between various subdisciplines has been inadvertently discovered including tradeoffs that may occur in plants engineered for biotechnological applications. Already important, bioinformatics and computational modelling will become even more central to structuring and understanding the ever growing amounts of data. The process of integrating and overlapping fields in plant biology research is advancing, but plant science will benefit from dedicating more effort and urgency to reach across its boundaries. PMID:26174112

  1. Flatness Control Using Roll Coolant Based on Predicted Flatness Variation in Cold Rolling Mills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dohmae, Yukihiro; Okamura, Yoshihide

    Flatness control for cold rolling mills is one of the important technologies for improving of product quality and productivity. In particular, poor flatness leads to strip tearing in the extreme case and, moreover, it significantly reduces productivity. Therefore, various flatness control system has been developed. The main actuators for flatness control are classified into two types; one is mechanical equipment such as roll bender, the other is roll coolant, which controls thermal expansion of roll. Flatness variation such as center buckle or edge wave is mainly controlled by mechanical actuator which has high response characteristics. On another front, flatness variation of local zone can be controlled by roll coolant although one's response is lower than the response of mechanical actuator. For accomplishing good flatness accuracy in cold rolling mills, it is important to improve the performance of coolant control moreover. In this paper, a new coolant control method based on flatness variation model is described. In proposed method, the state of coolant spray on or off is selected to minimize the flatness deviation by using predicted flatness variation. The effectiveness of developed system has been demonstrated by application in actual plant.

  2. Plants in silico: why, why now and what?--an integrative platform for plant systems biology research.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xin-Guang; Lynch, Jonathan P; LeBauer, David S; Millar, Andrew J; Stitt, Mark; Long, Stephen P

    2016-05-01

    A paradigm shift is needed and timely in moving plant modelling from largely isolated efforts to a connected community endeavour that can take full advantage of advances in computer science and in mechanistic understanding of plant processes. Plants in silico (Psi) envisions a digital representation of layered dynamic modules, linking from gene networks and metabolic pathways through to cellular organization, tissue, organ and whole plant development, together with resource capture and use efficiency in dynamic competitive environments, ultimately allowing a mechanistically rich simulation of the plant or of a community of plants in silico. The concept is to integrate models or modules from different layers of organization spanning from genome to phenome to ecosystem in a modular framework allowing the use of modules of varying mechanistic detail representing the same biological process. Developments in high-performance computing, functional knowledge of plants, the internet and open-source version controlled software make achieving the concept realistic. Open source will enhance collaboration and move towards testing and consensus on quantitative theoretical frameworks. Importantly, Psi provides a quantitative knowledge framework where the implications of a discovery at one level, for example, single gene function or developmental response, can be examined at the whole plant or even crop and natural ecosystem levels.

  3. Plants in silico: why, why now and what?--an integrative platform for plant systems biology research.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xin-Guang; Lynch, Jonathan P; LeBauer, David S; Millar, Andrew J; Stitt, Mark; Long, Stephen P

    2016-05-01

    A paradigm shift is needed and timely in moving plant modelling from largely isolated efforts to a connected community endeavour that can take full advantage of advances in computer science and in mechanistic understanding of plant processes. Plants in silico (Psi) envisions a digital representation of layered dynamic modules, linking from gene networks and metabolic pathways through to cellular organization, tissue, organ and whole plant development, together with resource capture and use efficiency in dynamic competitive environments, ultimately allowing a mechanistically rich simulation of the plant or of a community of plants in silico. The concept is to integrate models or modules from different layers of organization spanning from genome to phenome to ecosystem in a modular framework allowing the use of modules of varying mechanistic detail representing the same biological process. Developments in high-performance computing, functional knowledge of plants, the internet and open-source version controlled software make achieving the concept realistic. Open source will enhance collaboration and move towards testing and consensus on quantitative theoretical frameworks. Importantly, Psi provides a quantitative knowledge framework where the implications of a discovery at one level, for example, single gene function or developmental response, can be examined at the whole plant or even crop and natural ecosystem levels. PMID:26523481

  4. MAMA FUV Flats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Elena

    2012-10-01

    This program aims at obtaining FUV-MAMA flat-field observations to create a new p-flats with a SNR of 100 per {low resolution} pixel. The flats are obtained with the Krypton-lamp and the MR grating G140M, similarly to the cycle 17 and 18 programs. However the exact instrument setup {slit width and central wavelength} might change depending on the desired count level {which will be close to the internally allowed global rate limit}.

  5. Integrated signaling networks in plant responses to sedentary endoparasitic nematodes: a perspective.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruijuan; Rashotte, Aaron M; Singh, Narendra K; Weaver, David B; Lawrence, Kathy S; Locy, Robert D

    2015-01-01

    Sedentary plant endoparasitic nematodes can cause detrimental yield losses in crop plants making the study of detailed cellular, molecular, and whole plant responses to them a subject of importance. In response to invading nematodes and nematode-secreted effectors, plant susceptibility/resistance is mainly determined by the coordination of different signaling pathways including specific plant resistance genes or proteins, plant hormone synthesis and signaling pathways, as well as reactive oxygen signals that are generated in response to nematode attack. Crosstalk between various nematode resistance-related elements can be seen as an integrated signaling network regulated by transcription factors and small RNAs at the transcriptional, posttranscriptional, and/or translational levels. Ultimately, the outcome of this highly controlled signaling network determines the host plant susceptibility/resistance to nematodes.

  6. Integrated gasification-combined-cycle power plants - Performance and cost estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Tsatsaronis, G.; Tawfik, T.; Lin, L. )

    1990-04-01

    Several studies of Integrated Gasification-combined-cycle (IGCC) power plants have indicated that these plants have the potential for providing performance and cost improvements over conventional coal-fired steam power plants with flue gas desulfurization. Generally, IGCC power plants have a higher energy-conversion efficiency, require less water, conform with existing environmental standards at lower cost, and are expected to convert coal to electricity at lower costs than coal-fired steam plants. This study compares estimated costs and performance of various IGCC plant design configurations. A second-law analysis identifies the real energy waste in each design configuration. In addition, a thermoeconomic analysis reveals the potential for reducing the cost of electricity generated by an IGCC power plant.

  7. Integrated operation and management system for a 700MW combined cycle power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Shiroumaru, I. ); Iwamiya, T. ); Fukai, M. )

    1992-03-01

    Yanai Power Plant of the Chugoku Electric Power Co., Inc. (Yamaguchi Pref., Japan) is in the process of constructing a 1400MW state-of-the-art combined cycle power plant. The first phase, a 350MW power plant, started operation on a commercial basis in November, 1990. This power plant has achieved high efficiency and high operability, major features of a combined cycle power plant. The integrated operation and management system of the power plant takes care of operation, maintenance, control of general business, etc., and was built using the latest computer and digital control and communication technologies. This paper reports that it is expected that this system will enhance efficient operation and management for the power plant.

  8. Integration of computer systems for California aqueduct power plant systems

    SciTech Connect

    Delfin, E.L. ); Gaushell, D.J. )

    1993-06-01

    The California State Water Project is one of the largest water and power systems in the world and includes over 130 hydroelectric units. This paper provides an overview of the planning and implementation of the control and communication systems replacement for the entire Project. New control system features include a multi-agency control center, off-site backup control center, four area control systems, ten major pumping/generating plant control systems, and a 400 mile fiber optic communication system.

  9. Integrated Pilot Plant for a Large Cold Crucible Induction Melter

    SciTech Connect

    Do Quang, R.; Jensen, A.; Prod'homme, A.; Fatoux, R.; Lacombe, J.

    2002-02-26

    COGEMA has been vitrifying high-level liquid waste produced during nuclear fuel reprocessing on an industrial scale for over 20 years, with two main objectives: containment of the long lived fission products and reduction of the final volume of waste. Research performed by the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) in the 1950s led to the selection of borosilicate glass as the most suitable containment matrix for waste from spent nuclear fuel and to the development of the induction melter technology. This was followed by the commissioning of the Marcoule Vitrification Facility (AVM) in 1978. The process was implemented at a larger scale in the late 1980s in the R7 and T7 facilities of the La Hague reprocessing plant. COGEMA facilities have produced more than 11,000 high level glass canisters, representing more than 4,500 metric tons of glass and 4.5 billion curies. To further improve the performance of the vitrification lines in the R7 and T7 facilities, the CEA and COGEMA have been developing the Cold Crucible Melter (CCM) technology since the 1980s. This technology benefits from the 20 years of COGEMA HLW vitrification experience and ensures a virtually unlimited equipment service life and extensive flexibility in dealing with different types of waste. The high specific power directly transferred by induction to the melt allows high operating temperatures without any impact on the process equipment. In addition, the mechanical stirring of the melter significantly reduces operating constraints. COGEMA is already providing the CCM technology to international customers for nuclear and non-nuclear applications and plans to implement it in the La Hague vitrification plant for the vitrification of highly concentrated and corrosive solutions produced by uranium/molybdenum fuel reprocessing. The paper presents the CCM project that led to the building and start-up of this evolutionary and flexible pilot plant. It also describes the plant's technical characteristics and

  10. Integrative modelling reveals mechanisms linking productivity and plant species richness.

    PubMed

    Grace, James B; Anderson, T Michael; Seabloom, Eric W; Borer, Elizabeth T; Adler, Peter B; Harpole, W Stanley; Hautier, Yann; Hillebrand, Helmut; Lind, Eric M; Pärtel, Meelis; Bakker, Jonathan D; Buckley, Yvonne M; Crawley, Michael J; Damschen, Ellen I; Davies, Kendi F; Fay, Philip A; Firn, Jennifer; Gruner, Daniel S; Hector, Andy; Knops, Johannes M H; MacDougall, Andrew S; Melbourne, Brett A; Morgan, John W; Orrock, John L; Prober, Suzanne M; Smith, Melinda D

    2016-01-21

    How ecosystem productivity and species richness are interrelated is one of the most debated subjects in the history of ecology. Decades of intensive study have yet to discern the actual mechanisms behind observed global patterns. Here, by integrating the predictions from multiple theories into a single model and using data from 1,126 grassland plots spanning five continents, we detect the clear signals of numerous underlying mechanisms linking productivity and richness. We find that an integrative model has substantially higher explanatory power than traditional bivariate analyses. In addition, the specific results unveil several surprising findings that conflict with classical models. These include the isolation of a strong and consistent enhancement of productivity by richness, an effect in striking contrast with superficial data patterns. Also revealed is a consistent importance of competition across the full range of productivity values, in direct conflict with some (but not all) proposed models. The promotion of local richness by macroecological gradients in climatic favourability, generally seen as a competing hypothesis, is also found to be important in our analysis. The results demonstrate that an integrative modelling approach leads to a major advance in our ability to discern the underlying processes operating in ecological systems. PMID:26760203

  11. Integrative modelling reveals mechanisms linking productivity and plant species richness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grace, James B.; Anderson, T. Michael; Seabloom, Eric W.; Borer, Elizabeth T.; Adler, Peter B.; Harpole, W. Stanley; Hautier, Yann; Hillebrand, Helmut; Lind, Eric M.; Pärtel, Meelis; Bakker, Jonathan D.; Buckley, Yvonne M.; Crawley, Michael J.; Damschen, Ellen I.; Davies, Kendi F.; Fay, Philip A.; Firn, Jennifer; Gruner, Daniel S.; Hector, Andy; Knops, Johannes M. H.; MacDougall, Andrew S.; Melbourne, Brett A.; Morgan, John W.; Orrock, John L.; Prober, Suzanne M.; Smith, Melinda D.

    2016-01-01

    How ecosystem productivity and species richness are interrelated is one of the most debated subjects in the history of ecology. Decades of intensive study have yet to discern the actual mechanisms behind observed global patterns. Here, by integrating the predictions from multiple theories into a single model and using data from 1,126 grassland plots spanning five continents, we detect the clear signals of numerous underlying mechanisms linking productivity and richness. We find that an integrative model has substantially higher explanatory power than traditional bivariate analyses. In addition, the specific results unveil several surprising findings that conflict with classical models. These include the isolation of a strong and consistent enhancement of productivity by richness, an effect in striking contrast with superficial data patterns. Also revealed is a consistent importance of competition across the full range of productivity values, in direct conflict with some (but not all) proposed models. The promotion of local richness by macroecological gradients in climatic favourability, generally seen as a competing hypothesis, is also found to be important in our analysis. The results demonstrate that an integrative modelling approach leads to a major advance in our ability to discern the underlying processes operating in ecological systems.

  12. Evolution of plant virus movement proteins from the 30K superfamily and of their homologs integrated in plant genomes

    SciTech Connect

    Mushegian, Arcady R.; Elena, Santiago F.

    2015-02-15

    Homologs of Tobacco mosaic virus 30K cell-to-cell movement protein are encoded by diverse plant viruses. Mechanisms of action and evolutionary origins of these proteins remain obscure. We expand the picture of conservation and evolution of the 30K proteins, producing sequence alignment of the 30K superfamily with the broadest phylogenetic coverage thus far and illuminating structural features of the core all-beta fold of these proteins. Integrated copies of pararetrovirus 30K movement genes are prevalent in euphyllophytes, with at least one copy intact in nearly every examined species, and mRNAs detected for most of them. Sequence analysis suggests repeated integrations, pseudogenizations, and positive selection in those provirus genes. An unannotated 30K-superfamily gene in Arabidopsis thaliana genome is likely expressed as a fusion with the At1g37113 transcript. This molecular background of endopararetrovirus gene products in plants may change our view of virus infection and pathogenesis, and perhaps of cellular homeostasis in the hosts. - Highlights: • Sequence region shared by plant virus “30K” movement proteins has an all-beta fold. • Most euphyllophyte genomes contain integrated copies of pararetroviruses. • These integrated virus genomes often include intact movement protein genes. • Molecular evidence suggests that these “30K” genes may be selected for function.

  13. Flat Pack Toy Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutcheson, Brian

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author introduces the concept of flat pack toys. Flat pack toys are designed using a template on a single sheet of letter-sized card stock paper. Before being cut out and built into a three-dimensional toy, they are scanned into the computer and uploaded to a website. With the template accessible from the website, anyone with…

  14. Catalytic combustor for integrated gasification combined cycle power plant

    DOEpatents

    Bachovchin, Dennis M.; Lippert, Thomas E.

    2008-12-16

    A gasification power plant 10 includes a compressor 32 producing a compressed air flow 36, an air separation unit 22 producing a nitrogen flow 44, a gasifier 14 producing a primary fuel flow 28 and a secondary fuel source 60 providing a secondary fuel flow 62 The plant also includes a catalytic combustor 12 combining the nitrogen flow and a combustor portion 38 of the compressed air flow to form a diluted air flow 39 and combining at least one of the primary fuel flow and secondary fuel flow and a mixer portion 78 of the diluted air flow to produce a combustible mixture 80. A catalytic element 64 of the combustor 12 separately receives the combustible mixture and a backside cooling portion 84 of the diluted air flow and allows the mixture and the heated flow to produce a hot combustion gas 46 provided to a turbine 48. When fueled with the secondary fuel flow, nitrogen is not combined with the combustor portion.

  15. The plant cell wall integrity maintenance mechanism-concepts for organization and mode of action.

    PubMed

    Hamann, Thorsten

    2015-02-01

    One of the main differences between plant and animal cells are the walls surrounding plant cells providing structural support during development and protection like an adaptive armor against biotic and abiotic stress. During recent years it has become widely accepted that plant cells use a dedicated system to monitor and maintain the functional integrity of their walls. Maintenance of integrity is achieved by modifying the cell wall and cellular metabolism in order to permit tightly controlled changes in wall composition and structure. While a substantial amount of evidence supporting the existence of the mechanism has been reported, knowledge regarding its precise mode of action is still limited. The currently available evidence suggests similarities of the plant mechanism with respect to both design principles and molecular components involved to the very well characterized system active in the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae. There the system has been implicated in cell morphogenesis as well as response to abiotic stresses such as osmotic challenges. Here the currently available knowledge on the yeast system will be reviewed initially to provide a framework for the subsequent discussion of the plant cell wall integrity maintenance mechanism. The review will then end with a discussion on possible design principles for the cell wall integrity maintenance mechanism and the function of the plant turgor pressure in this context.

  16. Flat connection, conformal field theory and quantum group

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Mitsuhiro.

    1989-07-01

    General framework of linear first order differential equation for four-point conformal block is studied by using flat connection. Integrability and SL{sub 2} invariance restrict possible form of flat connection. Under a special ansatz classical Yang-Baxter equation appears as an integrability condition and the WZW model turns to be unique conformal field theory in that case. Monodromy property of conformal block can be easily determined by the flat connection. 11 refs.

  17. Method and system to estimate variables in an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant

    DOEpatents

    Kumar, Aditya; Shi, Ruijie; Dokucu, Mustafa

    2013-09-17

    System and method to estimate variables in an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant are provided. The system includes a sensor suite to measure respective plant input and output variables. An extended Kalman filter (EKF) receives sensed plant input variables and includes a dynamic model to generate a plurality of plant state estimates and a covariance matrix for the state estimates. A preemptive-constraining processor is configured to preemptively constrain the state estimates and covariance matrix to be free of constraint violations. A measurement-correction processor may be configured to correct constrained state estimates and a constrained covariance matrix based on processing of sensed plant output variables. The measurement-correction processor is coupled to update the dynamic model with corrected state estimates and a corrected covariance matrix. The updated dynamic model may be configured to estimate values for at least one plant variable not originally sensed by the sensor suite.

  18. Flowrate targeting for threshold problems and plant-wide integration for water network synthesis.

    PubMed

    Foo, Dominic Chwan Yee

    2008-07-01

    Water reuse/recycle has gained much attention in recent years for environmental sustainability reasons, as well as the rising costs of fresh water and effluent treatment. Process integration techniques for the synthesis of water network have been widely accepted as a promising tool to reduce fresh water and wastewater flowrates via in-plant water reuse/recycle. To date, the focus in this area has been on water network synthesis problems, with little attention dedicated to the rare but realistic cases of so-called threshold problems. In this work, targeting for threshold problems in a water network is addressed using the recently developed numerical tool of water cascade analysis (WCA). Targeting for plant-wide integration is then addressed. By sending water sources across different geographical zones in plant-wide integration, the overall fresh water and wastewater flowrates are reduced simultaneously.

  19. On-Line Monitoring and Diagnostics of the Integrity of Nuclear Plant Steam Generators and Heat Exchangers, Volumes 1, 2

    SciTech Connect

    Upadhyaya, Belle R.; Hines, J. Wesley; Lu, Baofu

    2005-06-03

    The overall purpose of this Nuclear Engineering Education Research (NEER) project was to integrate new, innovative, and existing technologies to develop a fault diagnostics and characterization system for nuclear plant steam generators (SG) and heat exchangers (HX). Issues related to system level degradation of SG and HX tubing, including tube fouling, performance under reduced heat transfer area, and the damage caused by stress corrosion cracking, are the important factors that influence overall plant operation, maintenance, and economic viability of nuclear power systems. The research at The University of Tennessee focused on the development of techniques for monitoring process and structural integrity of steam generators and heat exchangers. The objectives of the project were accomplished by the completion of the following tasks. All the objectives were accomplished during the project period. This report summarizes the research and development activities, results, and accomplishments during June 2001 September 2004. Development and testing of a high-fidelity nodal model of a U-tube steam generator (UTSG) to simulate the effects of fouling and to generate a database representing normal and degraded process conditions. Application of the group method of data handling (GMDH) method for process variable prediction. Development of a laboratory test module to simulate particulate fouling of HX tubes and its effect on overall thermal resistance. Application of the GMDH technique to predict HX fluid temperatures, and to compare with the calculated thermal resistance.Development of a hybrid modeling technique for process diagnosis and its evaluation using laboratory heat exchanger test data. Development and testing of a sensor suite using piezo-electric devices for monitoring structural integrity of both flat plates (beams) and tubing. Experiments were performed in air, and in water with and without bubbly flow. Development of advanced signal processing methods using

  20. Integral control of plant gravitropism through the interplay of hormone signaling and gene regulation.

    PubMed

    Rodrigo, Guillermo; Jaramillo, Alfonso; Blázquez, Miguel A

    2011-08-17

    The interplay between hormone signaling and gene regulatory networks is instrumental in promoting the development of living organisms. In particular, plants have evolved mechanisms to sense gravity and orient themselves accordingly. Here, we present a mathematical model that reproduces plant gravitropic responses based on known molecular genetic interactions for auxin signaling coupled with a physical description of plant reorientation. The model allows one to analyze the spatiotemporal dynamics of the system, triggered by an auxin gradient that induces differential growth of the plant with respect to the gravity vector. Our model predicts two important features with strong biological implications: 1), robustness of the regulatory circuit as a consequence of integral control; and 2), a higher degree of plasticity generated by the molecular interplay between two classes of hormones. Our model also predicts the ability of gibberellins to modulate the tropic response and supports the integration of the hormonal role at the level of gene regulation.

  1. The integrated web service and genome database for agricultural plants with biotechnology information

    PubMed Central

    Kim, ChangKug; Park, DongSuk; Seol, YoungJoo; Hahn, JangHo

    2011-01-01

    The National Agricultural Biotechnology Information Center (NABIC) constructed an agricultural biology-based infrastructure and developed a Web based relational database for agricultural plants with biotechnology information. The NABIC has concentrated on functional genomics of major agricultural plants, building an integrated biotechnology database for agro-biotech information that focuses on genomics of major agricultural resources. This genome database provides annotated genome information from 1,039,823 records mapped to rice, Arabidopsis, and Chinese cabbage. PMID:21887015

  2. Role of CBFs as Integrators of Chloroplast Redox, Phytochrome and Plant Hormone Signaling during Cold Acclimation

    PubMed Central

    Kurepin, Leonid V.; Dahal, Keshav P.; Savitch, Leonid V.; Singh, Jas; Bode, Rainer; Ivanov, Alexander G.; Hurry, Vaughan; Hüner, Norman P. A.

    2013-01-01

    Cold acclimation of winter cereals and other winter hardy species is a prerequisite to increase subsequent freezing tolerance. Low temperatures upregulate the expression of C-repeat/dehydration-responsive element binding transcription factors (CBF/DREB1) which in turn induce the expression of COLD-REGULATED (COR) genes. We summarize evidence which indicates that the integration of these interactions is responsible for the dwarf phenotype and enhanced photosynthetic performance associated with cold-acclimated and CBF-overexpressing plants. Plants overexpressing CBFs but grown at warm temperatures mimic the cold-tolerant, dwarf, compact phenotype; increased photosynthetic performance; and biomass accumulation typically associated with cold-acclimated plants. In this review, we propose a model whereby the cold acclimation signal is perceived by plants through an integration of low temperature and changes in light intensity, as well as changes in light quality. Such integration leads to the activation of the CBF-regulon and subsequent upregulation of COR gene and GA 2-oxidase (GA2ox) expression which results in a dwarf phenotype coupled with increased freezing tolerance and enhanced photosynthetic performance. We conclude that, due to their photoautotrophic nature, plants do not rely on a single low temperature sensor, but integrate changes in light intensity, light quality, and membrane viscosity in order to establish the cold-acclimated state. CBFs appear to act as master regulators of these interconnecting sensing/signaling pathways. PMID:23778089

  3. FLATs: Warming Up - continuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calzetti, Daniela

    1997-07-01

    The purpose of this proposal is to monitor the flat fields during the interval between the end of science observations and the exhaustion of cryogen and subsequent warming of the dewar to > 100K. These flats will provide a monitor for particulate comtamination {GROT} and detector lateral position {from the coronagraphic spot and FDA vignetting}. They will provide some measure of relative {flat field} and absolute QE variation as a function of temperature. When stars are visible they might provide a limited degree of focus determination.

  4. FLATs: Warming Up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calzetti, Daniela

    1997-07-01

    The purpose of this proposal is to monitor the flat fields during the interval between the end of science observations and the exhaustion of cryogen and subsequent warming of the dewar to > 100K. These flats will provide a monitor for particulate comtamination {GROT} and detector lateral position {from the coronagraphic spot and FDA vignetting}. They will provide some measure of relative {flat field} and absolute QE variation as a function of temperature. When stars are visible they might provide a limited degree of focus determination.

  5. Rocky Flats Compliance Program; Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    1994-02-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) established the Office of Technology Development (EM-50) (OTD) as an element of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) in November 1989. The primary objective of the Office of Technology Development, Rocky Flats Compliance Program (RFCP), is to develop altemative treatment technologies for mixed low-level waste (wastes containing both hazardous and radioactive components) to use in bringing the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) into compliance with Federal and state regulations and agreements. Approximately 48,000 cubic feet of untreated low-level mixed waste, for which treatment has not been specified, are stored at the RFP. The cleanup of the Rocky Flats site is driven by agreements between DOE, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Colorado Department of Health (CDH). Under these agreements, a Comprehensive Treatment and Management Plan (CTMP) was drafted to outline the mechanisms by which RFP will achieve compliance with the regulations and agreements. This document describes DOE`s strategy to treat low-level mixed waste to meet Land Disposal Restrictions and sets specific milestones related to the regulatory aspects of technology development. These milestones detail schedules for the development of technologies to treat all of the mixed wastes at the RFP. Under the Federal Facilities Compliance Act (FFCA), the CTMP has been incorporated into Rocky Flats Plant Conceptual Site Treatment Plan (CSTP). The CSTP will become the Rocky Flats Plant site Treatment Plan in 1995 and will supersede the CTMP.

  6. Flat plate solar oven

    SciTech Connect

    Parikh, M.

    1981-01-01

    The construction of an Indian Rs. 186 (US $20.33) flat-plate solar oven is described. Detailed drawings are provided and relevant information on cooking times and temperature for different foods is given.

  7. Villacidro solar demo plant: Integration of small-scale CSP and biogas power plants in an industrial microgrid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camerada, M.; Cau, G.; Cocco, D.; Damiano, A.; Demontis, V.; Melis, T.; Musio, M.

    2016-05-01

    The integration of small scale concentrating solar power (CSP) in an industrial district, in order to develop a microgrid fully supplied by renewable energy sources, is presented in this paper. The plant aims to assess in real operating conditions, the performance, the effectiveness and the reliability of small-scale concentrating solar power technologies in the field of distributed generation. In particular, the potentiality of small scale CSP with thermal storage to supply dispatchable electricity to an industrial microgrid will be investigated. The microgrid will be realized in the municipal waste treatment plant of the Industrial Consortium of Villacidro, in southern Sardinia (Italy), which already includes a biogas power plant. In order to achieve the microgrid instantaneous energy balance, the analysis of the time evolution of the waste treatment plant demand and of the generation in the existing power systems has been carried out. This has allowed the design of a suitable CSP plant with thermal storage and an electrochemical storage system for supporting the proposed microgrid. At the aim of obtaining the expected energy autonomy, a specific Energy Management Strategy, which takes into account the different dynamic performances and characteristics of the demand and the generation, has been designed. In this paper, the configuration of the proposed small scale concentrating solar power (CSP) and of its thermal energy storage, based on thermocline principle, is initially described. Finally, a simulation study of the entire power system, imposing scheduled profiles based on weather forecasts, is presented.

  8. Oligouridylate Binding Protein 1b Plays an Integral Role in Plant Heat Stress Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Cam Chau; Nakaminami, Kentaro; Matsui, Akihiro; Kobayashi, Shuhei; Kurihara, Yukio; Toyooka, Kiminori; Tanaka, Maho; Seki, Motoaki

    2016-01-01

    Stress granules (SGs), which are formed in the plant cytoplasm under stress conditions, are transient dynamic sites (particles) for mRNA storage. SGs are actively involved in protecting mRNAs from degradation. Oligouridylate binding protein 1b (UBP1b) is a component of SGs. The formation of microscopically visible cytoplasmic foci, referred to as UBP1b SG, was induced by heat treatment in UBP1b-overexpressing Arabidopsis plants (UBP1b-ox). A detailed understanding of the function of UBP1b, however, is still not clear. UBP1b-ox plants displayed increased heat tolerance, relative to control plants, while ubp1b mutants were more sensitive to heat stress than control plants. Microarray analysis identified 117 genes whose expression was heat-inducible and higher in the UBP1b-ox plants. RNA decay analysis was performed using cordycepin, a transcriptional inhibitor. In order to determine if those genes serve as targets of UBP1b, the rate of RNA degradation of a DnaJ heat shock protein and a stress-associated protein (AtSAP3) in UBP1b-ox plants was slower than in control plants; indicating that the mRNAs of these genes were protected within the UBP1b SG granule. Collectively, these data demonstrate that UBP1b plays an integral role in heat stress tolerance in plants. PMID:27379136

  9. Oligouridylate Binding Protein 1b Plays an Integral Role in Plant Heat Stress Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Cam Chau; Nakaminami, Kentaro; Matsui, Akihiro; Kobayashi, Shuhei; Kurihara, Yukio; Toyooka, Kiminori; Tanaka, Maho; Seki, Motoaki

    2016-01-01

    Stress granules (SGs), which are formed in the plant cytoplasm under stress conditions, are transient dynamic sites (particles) for mRNA storage. SGs are actively involved in protecting mRNAs from degradation. Oligouridylate binding protein 1b (UBP1b) is a component of SGs. The formation of microscopically visible cytoplasmic foci, referred to as UBP1b SG, was induced by heat treatment in UBP1b-overexpressing Arabidopsis plants (UBP1b-ox). A detailed understanding of the function of UBP1b, however, is still not clear. UBP1b-ox plants displayed increased heat tolerance, relative to control plants, while ubp1b mutants were more sensitive to heat stress than control plants. Microarray analysis identified 117 genes whose expression was heat-inducible and higher in the UBP1b-ox plants. RNA decay analysis was performed using cordycepin, a transcriptional inhibitor. In order to determine if those genes serve as targets of UBP1b, the rate of RNA degradation of a DnaJ heat shock protein and a stress-associated protein (AtSAP3) in UBP1b-ox plants was slower than in control plants; indicating that the mRNAs of these genes were protected within the UBP1b SG granule. Collectively, these data demonstrate that UBP1b plays an integral role in heat stress tolerance in plants. PMID:27379136

  10. PlantMirnaT: miRNA and mRNA integrated analysis fully utilizing characteristics of plant sequencing data.

    PubMed

    Rhee, S; Chae, H; Kim, S

    2015-07-15

    miRNA is known to regulate up to several hundreds coding genes, thus the integrated analysis of miRNA and mRNA expression data is an important problem. Unfortunately, the integrated analysis is challenging since it needs to consider expression data of two different types, miRNA and mRNA, and target relationship between miRNA and mRNA is not clear, especially when microarray data is used. Fortunately, due to the low sequencing cost, small RNA and RNA sequencing are routinely processed and we may be able to infer regulation relationships between miRNAs and mRNAs more accurately by using sequencing data. However, no method is developed specifically for sequencing data. Thus we developed PlantMirnaT, a new miRNA-mRNA integrated analysis system. To fully leverage the power of sequencing data, three major features are developed and implemented in PlantMirnaT. First, we implemented a plant-specific short read mapping tool based on recent discoveries on miRNA target relationship in plant. Second, we designed and implemented an algorithm considering miRNA targets in the full intragenic region, not just 3' UTR. Lastly but most importantly, our algorithm is designed to consider quantity of miRNA expression and its distribution on target mRNAs. The new algorithm was used to characterize rice under drought condition using our proprietary data. Our algorithm successfully discovered that two miRNAs, miRNA1425-5p, miRNA 398b, that are involved in suppression of glucose pathway in a naturally drought resistant rice, Vandana. The system can be downloaded at https://sites.google.com/site/biohealthinformaticslab/resources. PMID:25863133

  11. On-Line Monitoring and Diagnostics of the Integrity of Nuclear Plant Steam Generators and Heat Exchangers.

    SciTech Connect

    Belle R. Upadhyaya; J. Wesley Hines

    2004-09-27

    The overall purpose of this Nuclear Engineering Education Research (NEER) project was to integrate new, innovative, and existing technologies to develop a fault diagnostics and characterization system for nuclear plant steam generators (SG) and heat exchangers (HX). Issues related to system level degradation of SG and HX tubing, including tube fouling, performance under reduced heat transfer area, and the damage caused by stress corrosion cracking, are the important factors that influence overall plant operation, maintenance, and economic viability of nuclear power systems. The research at The University of Tennessee focused on the development of techniques for monitoring process and structural integrity of steam generators and heat exchangers. The objectives of the project were accomplished by the completion of the following tasks. All the objectives were accomplished during the project period. This report summarizes the research and development activities, results, and accomplishments during June 2001-September 2004. (1) Development and testing of a high-fidelity nodal model of a U-tube steam generator (UTSG) to simulate the effects of fouling and to generate a database representing normal and degraded process conditions. Application of the group method of data handling (GMDH) method for process variable prediction. (2) Development of a laboratory test module to simulate particulate fouling of HX tubes and its effect on overall thermal resistance. Application of the GMDH technique to predict HX fluid temperatures, and to compare with the calculated thermal resistance. (3) Development of a hybrid modeling technique for process diagnosis and its evaluation using laboratory heat exchanger test data. (4) Development and testing of a sensor suite using piezo-electric devices for monitoring structural integrity of both flat plates (beams) and tubing. Experiments were performed in air, and in water with and without bubbly flow. (5) Development of advanced signal

  12. 77 FR 36996 - South Mississippi Electric Cooperative: Plant Ratcliff, Kemper County Integrated Gasification...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-20

    ... Gasification Combined-Cycle (IGCC) Project AGENCY: Rural Utilities Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Adoption of...% undivided ownership interest in Plant Ratcliff, an Integrated Gasification Combined-Cycle (IGCC) Project... carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen oxide (NO X ), mercury, and...

  13. 75 FR 60405 - Lincoln National Forest, New Mexico, Integrated Non-Native Invasive Plant Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-30

    ... methods, and adaptive management. Invasive plants designated by the State of New Mexico as noxious weeds are the primary focus of this project. By definition, noxious weeds pose a potential threat to human.... Proposed Action The LNF proposes to implement an integrated weed management (IWM) strategy as defined...

  14. Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, E.S.

    1988-01-01

    This is the first quarterly report of DOE/PETC Contract No. DE-AC22-87PC79864, entitled, Modeling of Integrated Environmental Control Systems for Coal-Fired Power Plants.'' Refining, creating, and documenting of computer models concerning coal/flue gas cleaning and desulfurization are discussed. (VC)

  15. Pivoting from Arabidopsis to wheat to understand how agricultural plants integrate responses to biotic stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Here we argue for a research initiative on gene-for-gene (g-f-g) interactions between wheat and its parasites. One aim is to begin a conversation between the disparate communities of plant pathology and entomology. Another is to understand how responses to biotic stress are integrated in an import...

  16. Operation of Concentrating Solar Power Plants in the Western Wind and Solar Integration Phase 2 Study

    SciTech Connect

    Denholm, P.; Brinkman, G.; Lew, D.; Hummon, M.

    2014-05-01

    The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) explores various aspects of the challenges and impacts of integrating large amounts of wind and solar energy into the electric power system of the West. The phase 2 study (WWSIS-2) is one of the first to include dispatchable concentrating solar power (CSP) with thermal energy storage (TES) in multiple scenarios of renewable penetration and mix. As a result, it provides unique insights into CSP plant operation, grid benefits, and how CSP operation and configuration may need to change under scenarios of increased renewable penetration. Examination of the WWSIS-2 results indicates that in all scenarios, CSP plants with TES provides firm system capacity, reducing the net demand and the need for conventional thermal capacity. The plants also reduced demand during periods of short-duration, high ramping requirements that often require use of lower efficiency peaking units. Changes in CSP operation are driven largely by the presence of other solar generation, particularly PV. Use of storage by the CSP plants increases in the higher solar scenarios, with operation of the plant often shifted to later in the day. CSP operation also becomes more variable, including more frequent starts. Finally, CSP output is often very low during the day in scenarios with significant PV, which helps decrease overall renewable curtailment (over-generation). However, the configuration studied is likely not optimal for High Solar Scenario implying further analysis of CSP plant configuration is needed to understand its role in enabling high renewable scenarios in the Western United States.

  17. VIEW OF INTEGRITY TESTING EQUIPMENT UTILIZING CRYOGENIC BATHS IN BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF INTEGRITY TESTING EQUIPMENT UTILIZING CRYOGENIC BATHS IN BUILDING 991. (6/7/68) - Rocky Flats Plant, Final Assembly & Shipping, Eastern portion of plant site, south of Spruce Avenue, east of Tenth Street & north of Central Avenue, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  18. PIF4 Integrates Multiple Environmental and Hormonal Signals for Plant Growth Regulation in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyunmo; Oh, Eunkyoo

    2016-01-01

    As sessile organisms, plants must be able to adapt to the environment. Plants respond to the environment by adjusting their growth and development, which is mediated by sophisticated signaling networks that integrate multiple environmental and endogenous signals. Recently, increasing evidence has shown that a bHLH transcription factor PIF4 plays a major role in the multiple signal integration for plant growth regulation. PIF4 is a positive regulator in cell elongation and its activity is regulated by various environmental signals, including light and temperature, and hormonal signals, including auxin, gibberellic acid and brassinosteroid, both transcriptionally and post-translationally. Moreover, recent studies have shown that the circadian clock and metabolic status regulate endogenous PIF4 level. The PIF4 transcription factor cooperatively regulates the target genes involved in cell elongation with hormone-regulated transcription factors. Therefore, PIF4 is a key integrator of multiple signaling pathways, which optimizes growth in the environment. This review will discuss our current understanding of the PIF4-mediated signaling networks that control plant growth. PMID:27432188

  19. PIF4 Integrates Multiple Environmental and Hormonal Signals for Plant Growth Regulation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyunmo; Oh, Eunkyoo

    2016-08-31

    As sessile organisms, plants must be able to adapt to the environment. Plants respond to the environment by adjusting their growth and development, which is mediated by sophisticated signaling networks that integrate multiple environmental and endogenous signals. Recently, increasing evidence has shown that a bHLH transcription factor PIF4 plays a major role in the multiple signal integration for plant growth regulation. PIF4 is a positive regulator in cell elongation and its activity is regulated by various environmental signals, including light and temperature, and hormonal signals, including auxin, gibberellic acid and brassinosteroid, both transcriptionally and post-translationally. Moreover, recent studies have shown that the circadian clock and metabolic status regulate endogenous PIF4 level. The PIF4 transcription factor cooperatively regulates the target genes involved in cell elongation with hormone-regulated transcription factors. Therefore, PIF4 is a key integrator of multiple signaling pathways, which optimizes growth in the environment. This review will discuss our current understanding of the PIF4-mediated signaling networks that control plant growth. PMID:27432188

  20. Flat Top & rocky terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Flat Top, the rectangular rock at lower right, is part of a stretch of rocky terrain in this image, taken by the deployed Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. Dust has accumulated on the top of Flat Top, but is not present on the sides due to the steep angles of the rock. This dust may have been placed by dust storms moving across the Martian surface. Flat Top has been studied using several different color filters on the IMP camera.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

  1. PTGBase: an integrated database to study tandem duplicated genes in plants

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jingyin; Ke, Tao; Tehrim, Sadia; Sun, Fengming; Liao, Boshou; Hua, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Tandem duplication is a wide-spread phenomenon in plant genomes and plays significant roles in evolution and adaptation to changing environments. Tandem duplicated genes related to certain functions will lead to the expansion of gene families and bring increase of gene dosage in the form of gene cluster arrays. Many tandem duplication events have been studied in plant genomes; yet, there is a surprising shortage of efforts to systematically present the integration of large amounts of information about publicly deposited tandem duplicated gene data across the plant kingdom. To address this shortcoming, we developed the first plant tandem duplicated genes database, PTGBase. It delivers the most comprehensive resource available to date, spanning 39 plant genomes, including model species and newly sequenced species alike. Across these genomes, 54 130 tandem duplicated gene clusters (129 652 genes) are presented in the database. Each tandem array, as well as its member genes, is characterized in complete detail. Tandem duplicated genes in PTGBase can be explored through browsing or searching by identifiers or keywords of functional annotation and sequence similarity. Users can download tandem duplicated gene arrays easily to any scale, up to the complete annotation data set for an entire plant genome. PTGBase will be updated regularly with newly sequenced plant species as they become available. Database URL: http://ocri-genomics.org/PTGBase/. PMID:25797062

  2. PTGBase: an integrated database to study tandem duplicated genes in plants.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jingyin; Ke, Tao; Tehrim, Sadia; Sun, Fengming; Liao, Boshou; Hua, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Tandem duplication is a wide-spread phenomenon in plant genomes and plays significant roles in evolution and adaptation to changing environments. Tandem duplicated genes related to certain functions will lead to the expansion of gene families and bring increase of gene dosage in the form of gene cluster arrays. Many tandem duplication events have been studied in plant genomes; yet, there is a surprising shortage of efforts to systematically present the integration of large amounts of information about publicly deposited tandem duplicated gene data across the plant kingdom. To address this shortcoming, we developed the first plant tandem duplicated genes database, PTGBase. It delivers the most comprehensive resource available to date, spanning 39 plant genomes, including model species and newly sequenced species alike. Across these genomes, 54 130 tandem duplicated gene clusters (129 652 genes) are presented in the database. Each tandem array, as well as its member genes, is characterized in complete detail. Tandem duplicated genes in PTGBase can be explored through browsing or searching by identifiers or keywords of functional annotation and sequence similarity. Users can download tandem duplicated gene arrays easily to any scale, up to the complete annotation data set for an entire plant genome. PTGBase will be updated regularly with newly sequenced plant species as they become available.

  3. Decreased Polysaccharide Feruloylation Compromises Plant Cell Wall Integrity and Increases Susceptibility to Necrotrophic Fungal Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Reem, Nathan T.; Pogorelko, Gennady; Lionetti, Vincenzo; Chambers, Lauran; Held, Michael A.; Bellincampi, Daniela; Zabotina, Olga A.

    2016-01-01

    The complexity of cell wall composition and structure determines the strength, flexibility, and function of the primary cell wall in plants. However, the contribution of the various components to cell wall integrity (CWI) and function remains unclear. Modifications of cell wall composition can induce plant responses known as CWI control. In this study, we used transgenic expression of the fungal feruloyl esterase AnFAE to examine the effect of post-synthetic modification of Arabidopsis and Brachypodium cell walls. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing AnFAE showed a significant reduction of monomeric ferulic acid, decreased amounts of wall-associated extensins, and increased susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea, compared with wild type. Transgenic Brachypodium showed reductions in monomeric and dimeric ferulic acids and increased susceptibility to Bipolaris sorokiniana. Upon infection, transgenic Arabidopsis and Brachypodium plants also showed increased expression of several defense-related genes compared with wild type. These results demonstrate a role, in both monocot and dicot plants, of polysaccharide feruloylation in plant CWI, which contributes to plant resistance to necrotrophic pathogens. PMID:27242834

  4. Decreased Polysaccharide Feruloylation Compromises Plant Cell Wall Integrity and Increases Susceptibility to Necrotrophic Fungal Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Reem, Nathan T; Pogorelko, Gennady; Lionetti, Vincenzo; Chambers, Lauran; Held, Michael A; Bellincampi, Daniela; Zabotina, Olga A

    2016-01-01

    The complexity of cell wall composition and structure determines the strength, flexibility, and function of the primary cell wall in plants. However, the contribution of the various components to cell wall integrity (CWI) and function remains unclear. Modifications of cell wall composition can induce plant responses known as CWI control. In this study, we used transgenic expression of the fungal feruloyl esterase AnFAE to examine the effect of post-synthetic modification of Arabidopsis and Brachypodium cell walls. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing AnFAE showed a significant reduction of monomeric ferulic acid, decreased amounts of wall-associated extensins, and increased susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea, compared with wild type. Transgenic Brachypodium showed reductions in monomeric and dimeric ferulic acids and increased susceptibility to Bipolaris sorokiniana. Upon infection, transgenic Arabidopsis and Brachypodium plants also showed increased expression of several defense-related genes compared with wild type. These results demonstrate a role, in both monocot and dicot plants, of polysaccharide feruloylation in plant CWI, which contributes to plant resistance to necrotrophic pathogens.

  5. Decreased Polysaccharide Feruloylation Compromises Plant Cell Wall Integrity and Increases Susceptibility to Necrotrophic Fungal Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Reem, Nathan T; Pogorelko, Gennady; Lionetti, Vincenzo; Chambers, Lauran; Held, Michael A; Bellincampi, Daniela; Zabotina, Olga A

    2016-01-01

    The complexity of cell wall composition and structure determines the strength, flexibility, and function of the primary cell wall in plants. However, the contribution of the various components to cell wall integrity (CWI) and function remains unclear. Modifications of cell wall composition can induce plant responses known as CWI control. In this study, we used transgenic expression of the fungal feruloyl esterase AnFAE to examine the effect of post-synthetic modification of Arabidopsis and Brachypodium cell walls. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing AnFAE showed a significant reduction of monomeric ferulic acid, decreased amounts of wall-associated extensins, and increased susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea, compared with wild type. Transgenic Brachypodium showed reductions in monomeric and dimeric ferulic acids and increased susceptibility to Bipolaris sorokiniana. Upon infection, transgenic Arabidopsis and Brachypodium plants also showed increased expression of several defense-related genes compared with wild type. These results demonstrate a role, in both monocot and dicot plants, of polysaccharide feruloylation in plant CWI, which contributes to plant resistance to necrotrophic pathogens. PMID:27242834

  6. Clonal integration facilitates the colonization of drought environments by plant invaders.

    PubMed

    Lechuga-Lago, Yaiza; Sixto-Ruiz, Marta; Roiloa, Sergio R; González, Luís

    2016-01-01

    Biological invasion represents one of the main threats for biodiversity conservation at the global scale. Identifying the mechanisms underlying the process of biological invasions is a crucial objective in the prediction of scenarios of future invasions and the mitigation of their impacts. In this sense, some plant attributes might better explain the success of invasive plant species than others. Recently, clonal growth has been identified as an attribute that could contribute to the invasiveness of plants. In this experiment, we aim to determine the effect of physiological integration (one of the most striking attributes associated with clonal growth) in the performance (at morphological and physiological levels) of the aggressive invader Carpobrotus edulis, when occupying stressful environments. To achieve this objective we performed a greenhouse experiment in which apical ramets of C. edulis were water-stressed and the connection with the basal ramets was either left intact (physiological integration is allowed) or severed (physiological integration is impeded). Our results show that clonal integration allowed apical ramets to buffer drought stress in terms of photochemical activity, and as a consequence, to increase their growth in comparison with severed apical ramets. Interestingly, this increase in biomass was mainly due to the production of aboveground structures, increasing the spread along the soil surface, and consequently having important implications for the colonization success of new environments by this aggressive invader. PMID:27154623

  7. Arabidopsis VIRE2 INTERACTING PROTEIN2 is required for Agrobacterium T-DNA integration in plants.

    PubMed

    Anand, Ajith; Krichevsky, Alexander; Schornack, Sebastian; Lahaye, Thomas; Tzfira, Tzvi; Tang, Yuhong; Citovsky, Vitaly; Mysore, Kirankumar S

    2007-05-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation is an efficient tool for genetic engineering of plants. VirE2 is a single-stranded DNA binding Agrobacterium protein that is transported into the plant cell and presumably protects the T-DNA from degradation. Using a yeast two-hybrid system, we identified Arabidopsis thaliana VIRE2-INTERACTING PROTEIN2 (VIP2) with a NOT domain that is conserved in both plants and animals. Furthermore, we provide evidence supporting VIP2 interaction with VIP1, a basic domain/leucine zipper motif-containing protein required for nuclear import and integration of T-DNA. Virus-induced gene silencing of VIP2 in Nicotiana benthamiana and characterization of the Arabidopsis vip2 mutant (At vip2) demonstrate that VIP2 is required for Agrobacterium-mediated stable transformation but not for transient transformation. Assays based upon a promoter-trap vector and quantification of T-DNA integration further confirmed VIP2 involvement in T-DNA integration. Interestingly, VIP2 transcripts were induced to a greater extent over prolonged periods after infection with a T-DNA transfer-competent Agrobacterium strain compared with the transfer-deficient Agrobacterium strain. Transcriptome analyses of At vip2 suggest that VIP2 is likely a transcriptional regulator, and the recalcitrancy to transformation in At vip2 is probably due to the combination of muted gene expression response upon Agrobacterium infection and repression of histone genes resulting in decreased T-DNA integration events. PMID:17496122

  8. Clonal integration facilitates the colonization of drought environments by plant invaders

    PubMed Central

    Lechuga-Lago, Yaiza; Sixto-Ruiz, Marta; Roiloa, Sergio R.; González, Luís

    2016-01-01

    Biological invasion represents one of the main threats for biodiversity conservation at the global scale. Identifying the mechanisms underlying the process of biological invasions is a crucial objective in the prediction of scenarios of future invasions and the mitigation of their impacts. In this sense, some plant attributes might better explain the success of invasive plant species than others. Recently, clonal growth has been identified as an attribute that could contribute to the invasiveness of plants. In this experiment, we aim to determine the effect of physiological integration (one of the most striking attributes associated with clonal growth) in the performance (at morphological and physiological levels) of the aggressive invader Carpobrotus edulis, when occupying stressful environments. To achieve this objective we performed a greenhouse experiment in which apical ramets of C. edulis were water-stressed and the connection with the basal ramets was either left intact (physiological integration is allowed) or severed (physiological integration is impeded). Our results show that clonal integration allowed apical ramets to buffer drought stress in terms of photochemical activity, and as a consequence, to increase their growth in comparison with severed apical ramets. Interestingly, this increase in biomass was mainly due to the production of aboveground structures, increasing the spread along the soil surface, and consequently having important implications for the colonization success of new environments by this aggressive invader. PMID:27154623

  9. Flat Focusing Mirror

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Y. C.; Kicas, S.; Trull, J.; Peckus, M.; Cojocaru, C.; Vilaseca, R.; Drazdys, R.; Staliunas, K.

    2014-01-01

    The control of spatial propagation properties of narrow light beams such as divergence, focusing or imaging are main objectives in optics and photonics. In this letter, we propose and demonstrate experimentally a flat focusing mirror, based on an especially designed dielectric structure without any optical axis. More generally, it also enables imaging any light pattern in reflection. The flat focusing mirror with a transversal invariance can largely increase the applicability of structured photonic materials for light beam propagation control in small-dimension photonic circuits. PMID:25228358

  10. Holograms of Flat Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagchi, Arjun; Grumiller, Daniel

    2013-07-01

    The holographic principle has a concrete realization in the Anti-de Sitter/Conformal Field Theory (AdS/CFT) correspondence. If this principle is a true fact about quantum gravity then it must also hold beyond AdS/CFT. In this paper, we address specifically holographic field theory duals of gravitational theories in asymptotically flat spacetimes. We present some evidence of our recent conjecture that three-dimensional (3d) conformal Chern-Simons gravity (CSG) with flat space boundary conditions is dual to an extremal CFT.

  11. Radiological/Health physics program assessement at Rocky Flats, the process

    SciTech Connect

    Psomas, P.O.

    1996-06-01

    The Department of Energy, Rocky Flats Office, Safety and Health Group, Health Physics Team (HPT) is responsible for oversight of the Radiation Protection and Health Physics Program (RPHP) of the Integrating Management Contractor (IMC), Kaiser-Hill (K-H) operations at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). As of 1 January 1996 the Rocky Flats Plant employed 300 DOE and 4,300 contractor personnel (K-H and their subcontractors). WSI is a subcontractor and provides plant security. To accomplish the RPHP program oversight HPT personnel developed a systematic methodology for performing a functional RPHP Assessment. The initial process included development of a flow diagram identifying all programmatic elements and assessment criteria documents. Formulation of plans for conducting interviews and performance of assessments constituted the second major effort. The generation of assessment reports was the final step, based on the results of this process. This assessment will be a 6 person-year effort, over the next three years. This process is the most comprehensive assessment of any Radiation Protection and Health Physics (RPHP) Program ever performed at Rocky Flats. The results of these efforts will establish a baseline for future RPHP Program assessments at RFETS. This methodology has been well-received by contractor personnel and creates no Privacy Act violations or other misunderstandings.

  12. An Invasive Clonal Plant Benefits from Clonal Integration More than a Co-Occurring Native Plant in Nutrient-Patchy and Competitive Environments

    PubMed Central

    You, Wenhua; Fan, Shufeng; Yu, Dan; Xie, Dong; Liu, Chunhua

    2014-01-01

    Many notorious invasive plants are clonal, however, little is known about the different roles of clonal integration effects between invasive and native plants. Here, we hypothesize that clonal integration affect growth, photosynthetic performance, biomass allocation and thus competitive ability of invasive and native clonal plants, and invasive clonal plants benefit from clonal integration more than co-occurring native plants in heterogeneous habitats. To test these hypotheses, two stoloniferous clonal plants, Alternanthera philoxeroides (invasive), Jussiaea repens (native) were studied in China. The apical parts of both species were grown either with or without neighboring vegetation and the basal parts without competitors were in nutrient- rich or -poor habitats, with stolon connections were either severed or kept intact. Competition significantly reduced growth and photosynthetic performance of the apical ramets in both species, but not the biomass of neighboring vegetation. Without competition, clonal integration greatly improved the growth and photosynthetic performance of both species, especially when the basal parts were in nutrient-rich habitats. When grown with neighboring vegetation, growth of J. repens and photosynthetic performance of both species were significantly enhanced by clonal integration with the basal parts in both nutrient-rich and -poor habitats, while growth and relative neighbor effect (RNE) of A. philoxeroides were greatly improved by clonal integration only when the basal parts were in nutrient-rich habitats. Moreover, clonal integration increased A. philoxeroides's biomass allocation to roots without competition, but decreased it with competition, especially when the basal ramets were in nutrient-rich sections. Effects of clonal integration on biomass allocation of J. repens was similar to that of A. philoxeroides but with less significance. These results supported our hypothesis that invasive clonal plants A. philoxeroides benefits

  13. Integrated air separation plant-integrated gasification combined cycle power generator

    SciTech Connect

    Allam, R.J.; Topham, A.

    1992-01-21

    This patent describes an integrated gasification combined cycle power generation system, comprising an air separation unit wherein air is compressed, cooled, and separated into an oxygen and nitrogen enriched fractions, a gasification system for generating a fuel gas, an air compressor system for supplying compressed air for use in combusting the fuel gas, a combustion zone for effecting combustion of the compressed air and the fuel gas, and a gas turbine for effecting the generation of power from the resulting combusted gases from the combustion zone in the combined cycle power generation system. It comprises independently compressing feed air to the air separation unit to pressures of from 8 to 20 bar from the compressor system used to compress air for the combustion zone; cryogenically separating the air in the air separation unit having at least one distillation column operating at pressures of between 8 and 20 bar and producing an oxygen enriched fraction consisting of low purity oxygen, and; utilizing at least a portion of the low purity oxygen for effecting gasification of a carbon containing fuel source by partial oxidation in the gasification system and thereby generating a fuel gas stream; removing at least a portion of a nitrogen enriched fraction from the air separation unit and boosting its pressures to a pressure substantially equal to that of the fuel gas stream; and expanding at least another portion of the nitrogen enriched fraction in an expansion engine.

  14. The interrelationship between environmental goals, productivity improvement, and increased energy efficiency in integrated paper and steel plants

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation into the interrelationships between plant-level productivity, energy efficiency, and environmental improvements for integrated pulp and paper mills and integrated steel mills in the US. Integrated paper and steel plants are defined as those facilities that use some form of onsite raw material to produce final products (for example, paper and paperboard or finished steel). Fully integrated pulp and paper mills produce onsite the pulp used to manufacture paper from virgin wood fiber, secondary fiber, or nonwood fiber. Fully integrated steel mills process steel from coal, iron ore, and scrap inputs and have onsite coke oven facilities.

  15. Is flat fair?

    SciTech Connect

    Bunzl, Martin

    2010-07-15

    Dynamic pricing holds out the promise of shifting peak demand as well as reducing overall demand. But it also raises thorny issues of fairness. All practical pricing systems involve tradeoffs between equity and efficiency. I examine the circumstances under which equity ought to be allowed to trump efficiency and whether or not this constitutes a defense of flat pricing. (author)

  16. Flat conductor cable applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angele, W.

    1972-01-01

    Some of the numerous applications of flat conductor cable (FCC) systems are briefly described. Both government and commercial uses were considered, with applications designated as either aerospace, military, or commercial. The number and variety of ways in which FCC is being applied and considered for future designs are illustrated.

  17. Multilayer flat electrical cable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silverman, P. G.

    1973-01-01

    Flat electrical cable is lightweight, flexible over wide temperature range, withstands continuous exposure to high levels of nuclear radiation, and can carry high currents with minimum of temperature rise. Its magnetic cleanliness is equal to or better than twisted pair of wires, and it can be terminated in conventional electrical connector.

  18. Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, E.S.

    1988-10-01

    This is the fourth quarterly report of DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-87PC79864, entitled Modeling of Integrated Environmental Control Systems for Coal-Fired Power Plants.'' This report summarizes accomplishments during the period July 1, 1988 to September 30, 1988. Our efforts during the last quarter focused primarily on the completion, testing and documentation of the NO{sub x}SO process model. The sections below present the details of these developments.

  19. Towards the Integration of APECS and VE-Suite for Virtual Power Plant Co-Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Zitney, S.E.; McCorkle, D.; Yang, C.; Jordan, T.; Swensen, D.; Bryden, M.

    2007-05-01

    Process modeling and simulation tools are widely used for the design and operation of advanced power generation systems. These tools enable engineers to solve the critical process systems engineering problems that arise throughout the lifecycle of a power plant, such as designing a new process, troubleshooting a process unit or optimizing operations of the full process. To analyze the impact of complex thermal and fluid flow phenomena on overall power plant performance, the Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has developed the Advanced Process Engineering Co-Simulator (APECS). The APECS system is an integrated software suite that combines process simulation (e.g., Aspen Plus) and high-fidelity equipment simulations such as those based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD), together with advanced analysis capabilities including case studies, sensitivity analysis, stochastic simulation for risk/uncertainty analysis, and multi-objective optimization. In this paper we discuss the initial phases of the integration of the APECS system with the immersive and interactive virtual engineering software, VE-Suite, developed at Iowa State University and Ames Laboratory. VE-Suite uses the ActiveX (OLE Automation) controls in the Aspen Plus process simulator wrapped by the CASI library developed by Reaction Engineering International to run process/CFD co-simulations and query for results. This integration represents a necessary step in the development of virtual power plant co-simulations that will ultimately reduce the time, cost, and technical risk of developing advanced power generation systems.

  20. Sewage sludge drying process integration with a waste-to-energy power plant.

    PubMed

    Bianchini, A; Bonfiglioli, L; Pellegrini, M; Saccani, C

    2015-08-01

    Dewatered sewage sludge from Waste Water Treatment Plants (WWTPs) is encountering increasing problems associated with its disposal. Several solutions have been proposed in the last years regarding energy and materials recovery from sewage sludge. Current technological solutions have relevant limits as dewatered sewage sludge is characterized by a high water content (70-75% by weight), even if mechanically treated. A Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) with good thermal characteristics in terms of Lower Heating Value (LHV) can be obtained if dewatered sludge is further processed, for example by a thermal drying stage. Sewage sludge thermal drying is not sustainable if the power is fed by primary energy sources, but can be appealing if waste heat, recovered from other processes, is used. A suitable integration can be realized between a WWTP and a waste-to-energy (WTE) power plant through the recovery of WTE waste heat as energy source for sewage sludge drying. In this paper, the properties of sewage sludge from three different WWTPs are studied. On the basis of the results obtained, a facility for the integration of sewage sludge drying within a WTE power plant is developed. Furthermore, energy and mass balances are set up in order to evaluate the benefits brought by the described integration.

  1. Integration of ocean thermal energy conversion power plants with existing power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Arunasalam, N.

    1986-01-01

    The problem of integrating an Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) power plant with existing power systems is studied. A nonlinear model of an OTEC power system is developed. The dynamics of the large local induction motor load, and the coaxial cable connection to the mainland are included in the model. The effect of the motor load and the coaxial cable on the steady-state stability of the OTEC power plant is investigated using linearized analysis. The transient stability of the OTEC system is investigated through simulation. The contribution made by the motor load and the coaxial cable to the transient stability is studied. The occurrence of self excitation phenomena is analyzed using linear methods and simulation. The effects of wave and vessel motion on the electrical power output of the OTEC plant is investigated.

  2. Integrated deterministic and probabilistic safety analysis for safety assessment of nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Di Maio, Francesco; Zio, Enrico; Smith, Curtis; Rychkov, Valentin

    2015-07-06

    The present special issue contains an overview of the research in the field of Integrated Deterministic and Probabilistic Safety Assessment (IDPSA) of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Traditionally, safety regulation for NPPs design and operation has been based on Deterministic Safety Assessment (DSA) methods to verify criteria that assure plant safety in a number of postulated Design Basis Accident (DBA) scenarios. Referring to such criteria, it is also possible to identify those plant Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs) and activities that are most important for safety within those postulated scenarios. Then, the design, operation, and maintenance of these “safety-related” SSCs and activities are controlled through regulatory requirements and supported by Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA).

  3. Expression of Active Subunit of Nitrogenase via Integration into Plant Organelle Genome

    PubMed Central

    Groat, Jeanna; Staub, Jeffrey M.; Stephens, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen availability is crucial for crop yield with nitrogen fertilizer accounting for a large percentage of farmers’ expenses. However, an untimely or excessive application of fertilizer can increase risks of negative environmental effects. These factors, along with the environmental and energy costs of synthesizing nitrogen fertilizer, led us to seek out novel biotechnology-driven approaches to supply nitrogen to plants. The strategy we focused on involves transgenic expression of nitrogenase, a bacterial multi-subunit enzyme that can capture atmospheric nitrogen. Here we report expression of the active Fe subunit of nitrogenase via integration into the tobacco plastid genome of bacterial gene sequences modified for expression in plastid. Our study suggests that it will be possible to engineer plants that are able to produce their own nitrogen fertilizer by expressing nitrogenase genes in plant plastids. PMID:27529475

  4. Integrated deterministic and probabilistic safety analysis for safety assessment of nuclear power plants

    DOE PAGES

    Di Maio, Francesco; Zio, Enrico; Smith, Curtis; Rychkov, Valentin

    2015-07-06

    The present special issue contains an overview of the research in the field of Integrated Deterministic and Probabilistic Safety Assessment (IDPSA) of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Traditionally, safety regulation for NPPs design and operation has been based on Deterministic Safety Assessment (DSA) methods to verify criteria that assure plant safety in a number of postulated Design Basis Accident (DBA) scenarios. Referring to such criteria, it is also possible to identify those plant Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs) and activities that are most important for safety within those postulated scenarios. Then, the design, operation, and maintenance of these “safety-related” SSCs andmore » activities are controlled through regulatory requirements and supported by Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA).« less

  5. Expression of Active Subunit of Nitrogenase via Integration into Plant Organelle Genome.

    PubMed

    Ivleva, Natalia B; Groat, Jeanna; Staub, Jeffrey M; Stephens, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen availability is crucial for crop yield with nitrogen fertilizer accounting for a large percentage of farmers' expenses. However, an untimely or excessive application of fertilizer can increase risks of negative environmental effects. These factors, along with the environmental and energy costs of synthesizing nitrogen fertilizer, led us to seek out novel biotechnology-driven approaches to supply nitrogen to plants. The strategy we focused on involves transgenic expression of nitrogenase, a bacterial multi-subunit enzyme that can capture atmospheric nitrogen. Here we report expression of the active Fe subunit of nitrogenase via integration into the tobacco plastid genome of bacterial gene sequences modified for expression in plastid. Our study suggests that it will be possible to engineer plants that are able to produce their own nitrogen fertilizer by expressing nitrogenase genes in plant plastids. PMID:27529475

  6. Solid waste recycling programs at Rocky Flats

    SciTech Connect

    Millette, R.L.; Blackman, T.E.; Shepard, M.D.

    1994-12-31

    The Rocky Flats (RFP) recycling programs for solid waste materials have been in place for over ten years. Within the last three years, the programs were centralized under the direction of the Rocky Flats Waste Minimization department, with the assistance of various plant organizations (e.g., Trucking, Building Services, Regulated Waste Operations, property Utilization and Disposal and Security). Waste Minimization designs collection and transportation systems for recyclable materials and evaluates recycling markets for opportunities to add new commodities to the existing programs. The Waste Minimization department also promotes employee participation in the Rocky Flats Recycling Programs, and collects all recycling data for publication. A description of the program status as of January 1994 is given.

  7. Structural basis of pathogen recognition by an integrated HMA domain in a plant NLR immune receptor

    PubMed Central

    Maqbool, A; Saitoh, H; Franceschetti, M; Stevenson, CEM; Uemura, A; Kanzaki, H; Kamoun, S; Terauchi, R; Banfield, MJ

    2015-01-01

    Plants have evolved intracellular immune receptors to detect pathogen proteins known as effectors. How these immune receptors detect effectors remains poorly understood. Here we describe the structural basis for direct recognition of AVR-Pik, an effector from the rice blast pathogen, by the rice intracellular NLR immune receptor Pik. AVR-PikD binds a dimer of the Pikp-1 HMA integrated domain with nanomolar affinity. The crystal structure of the Pikp-HMA/AVR-PikD complex enabled design of mutations to alter protein interaction in yeast and in vitro, and perturb effector-mediated response both in a rice cultivar containing Pikp and upon expression of AVR-PikD and Pikp in the model plant Nicotiana benthamiana. These data reveal the molecular details of a recognition event, mediated by a novel integrated domain in an NLR, which initiates a plant immune response and resistance to rice blast disease. Such studies underpin novel opportunities for engineering disease resistance to plant pathogens in staple food crops. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08709.001 PMID:26304198

  8. Creation Of Constructed Tidal Flats Using Ocean Dredged Sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, S.; Yi, B.; Lee, I.; Sung, K.

    2007-12-01

    The enforcement of London dumping convention (1972) and protocols (1996) which are comprehensive assessment system for ocean dumping wastes needs environmentally sound treatment and/or reuse of dredged sediment. Creation of constructed tidal flats using dredged sediments could be one of the useful alternatives among other dredged sediment treatments. In this study, the pilot-scale constructed tidal flats with 4 different mixing ratio of ocean dredged sediment were constructed in Nakdong river estuary, Korea. The reed was transplanted from the adjacent reed community after construction, and then the survival and growth rate of the planted reed was measured. Also the changes of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Ignition loss (IL), and the heterotrophic microbial numbers were monitored. The survival rate of the planted reed decreased as the mixing ratio of dredged sediment increased. The survival rate of reed in the constructed tidal flat with 100% dredged sediment was 54% while that in the tidal flat with 0% dredged sediment (original soil of Nakdong river estuary) was 90%. There was little difference of length and diameter of the reed shoot among the 4 different constructed tidal flats. 30% of COD and 9% of IL in the tidal flat with 100% dredged sediment decreased after 202 day, however, the consistent tendency in the change of COD and IL in the other tidal flats was not found possibly due to the open system. It was suggested that the construction of tidal flats using ocean dredged sediment can be possible considering the growth rate of transplanted reeds and the contaminated ocean dredged sediment might be biologically remediated considering the results of decrease of organic matter and increased heterotrophic microbial number in the tidal flat with 100% dredged sediment. However, the continuous monitoring on the vegetation and various environmental factors in the constructed tidal flats should be necessary to evaluate the success of creation of constructed flats using

  9. T-DNA integration: a mode of illegitimate recombination in plants.

    PubMed Central

    Mayerhofer, R; Koncz-Kalman, Z; Nawrath, C; Bakkeren, G; Crameri, A; Angelis, K; Redei, G P; Schell, J; Hohn, B; Koncz, C

    1991-01-01

    Transferred DNA (T-DNA) insertions of Agrobacterium gene fusion vectors and corresponding insertional target sites were isolated from transgenic and wild type Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Nucleotide sequence comparison of wild type and T-DNA-tagged genomic loci showed that T-DNA integration resulted in target site deletions of 29-73 bp. In those cases where integrated T-DNA segments turned out to be smaller than canonical ones, the break-points of target deletions and T-DNA insertions overlapped and consisted of 5-7 identical nucleotides. Formation of precise junctions at the right T-DNA border, and DNA sequence homology between the left termini of T-DNA segments and break-points of target deletions were observed in those cases where full-length canonical T-DNA inserts were very precisely replacing plant target DNA sequences. Aberrant junctions were observed in those transformants where termini of T-DNA segments showed no homology to break-points of target sequence deletions. Homology between short segments within target sites and T-DNA, as well as conversion and duplication of DNA sequences at junctions, suggests that T-DNA integration results from illegitimate recombination. The data suggest that while the left T-DNA terminus and both target termini participate in partial pairing and DNA repair, the right T-DNA terminus plays an essential role in the recognition of the target and in the formation of a primary synapsis during integration. Images PMID:2001683

  10. An integrated database of wood-formation related genes in plants.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ting; Ma, Tao; Hu, Quanjun; Liu, Jianquan

    2015-06-16

    Wood, which consists mainly of plant cell walls, is an extremely important resource in daily lives. Genes whose products participate in the processes of cell wall and wood formation are therefore major subjects of plant science research. The Wood-Formation Related Genes database (WFRGdb, http://me.lzu.edu.cn/woodformation/) serves as a data resource center for genes involved in wood formation. To create this database, we collected plant genome data published in other online databases and predicted all cell wall and wood formation related genes using BLAST and HMMER. To date, 47 gene families and 33 transcription factors from 57 genomes (28 herbaceous, 22 woody and 7 non-vascular plants) have been covered and more than 122,000 genes have been checked and recorded. To provide easy access to these data, we have developed several search methods, which make it easy to download targeted genes or groups of genes free of charge in FASTA format. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses are also available online. WFRGdb brings together cell wall and wood formation related genes from all available plant genomes, and provides an integrative platform for gene inquiry, downloading and analysis. This database will therefore be extremely useful for those who focuses on cell wall and wood research.

  11. Importance of Mediator complex in the regulation and integration of diverse signaling pathways in plants

    PubMed Central

    Samanta, Subhasis; Thakur, Jitendra K.

    2015-01-01

    Basic transcriptional machinery in eukaryotes is assisted by a number of cofactors, which either increase or decrease the rate of transcription. Mediator complex is one such cofactor, and recently has drawn a lot of interest because of its integrative power to converge different signaling pathways before channeling the transcription instructions to the RNA polymerase II machinery. Like yeast and metazoans, plants do possess the Mediator complex across the kingdom, and its isolation and subunit analyses have been reported from the model plant, Arabidopsis. Genetic, and molecular analyses have unraveled important regulatory roles of Mediator subunits at every stage of plant life cycle starting from flowering to embryo and organ development, to even size determination. It also contributes immensely to the survival of plants against different environmental vagaries by the timely activation of its resistance mechanisms. Here, we have provided an overview of plant Mediator complex starting from its discovery to regulation of stoichiometry of its subunits. We have also reviewed involvement of different Mediator subunits in different processes and pathways including defense response pathways evoked by diverse biotic cues. Wherever possible, attempts have been made to provide mechanistic insight of Mediator's involvement in these processes. PMID:26442070

  12. Study of the off-design performance of integrated coal gasification combined-cycle power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, J.N.

    1986-01-01

    An Integrated Coal Gasification Combined-Cycle (IGCC) plant is a combined-cycle plant fueled by coal. A combined-cycle plant consists of one or more gas turbines with a Rankine (i.e., steam) bottoming cycle. The coal is first gasified to produce a synfuel which can be combusted in a gas turbine after particles and sulfur compounds are removed. The exhaust from the gas turbine is then used to raise steam for the Rankine bottoming cycle. A computer simulation model for the steady-state operation of an IGCC plant was developed. The model uses the ASPEN advanced flowsheet simulation software package as a framework. ASPEN's built-in unit operation models were augmented by six component models developed for this study including a numerical finite differencing scheme which used the diffusion approximation to evaluate the radiant heat transfer in the syngas coolers, the Stanford Turbine Evaluation Program (STEP) which extended the algorithms of General Electric for steam turbine performance analysis, and a heat-exchanger model that used Kays and London's methodology and data. The effect of ambient air temperature and part-load operation on a commercial scale IGCC plant was investigated and strategies to mitigate off-design performance penalties were examined.

  13. An integrated database of wood-formation related genes in plants

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ting; Ma, Tao; Hu, Quanjun; Liu, Jianquan

    2015-01-01

    Wood, which consists mainly of plant cell walls, is an extremely important resource in daily lives. Genes whose products participate in the processes of cell wall and wood formation are therefore major subjects of plant science research. The Wood-Formation Related Genes database (WFRGdb, http://me.lzu.edu.cn/woodformation/) serves as a data resource center for genes involved in wood formation. To create this database, we collected plant genome data published in other online databases and predicted all cell wall and wood formation related genes using BLAST and HMMER. To date, 47 gene families and 33 transcription factors from 57 genomes (28 herbaceous, 22 woody and 7 non-vascular plants) have been covered and more than 122,000 genes have been checked and recorded. To provide easy access to these data, we have developed several search methods, which make it easy to download targeted genes or groups of genes free of charge in FASTA format. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses are also available online. WFRGdb brings together cell wall and wood formation related genes from all available plant genomes, and provides an integrative platform for gene inquiry, downloading and analysis. This database will therefore be extremely useful for those who focuses on cell wall and wood research. PMID:26078228

  14. Importance of Mediator complex in the regulation and integration of diverse signaling pathways in plants.

    PubMed

    Samanta, Subhasis; Thakur, Jitendra K

    2015-01-01

    Basic transcriptional machinery in eukaryotes is assisted by a number of cofactors, which either increase or decrease the rate of transcription. Mediator complex is one such cofactor, and recently has drawn a lot of interest because of its integrative power to converge different signaling pathways before channeling the transcription instructions to the RNA polymerase II machinery. Like yeast and metazoans, plants do possess the Mediator complex across the kingdom, and its isolation and subunit analyses have been reported from the model plant, Arabidopsis. Genetic, and molecular analyses have unraveled important regulatory roles of Mediator subunits at every stage of plant life cycle starting from flowering to embryo and organ development, to even size determination. It also contributes immensely to the survival of plants against different environmental vagaries by the timely activation of its resistance mechanisms. Here, we have provided an overview of plant Mediator complex starting from its discovery to regulation of stoichiometry of its subunits. We have also reviewed involvement of different Mediator subunits in different processes and pathways including defense response pathways evoked by diverse biotic cues. Wherever possible, attempts have been made to provide mechanistic insight of Mediator's involvement in these processes.

  15. Economics of gasification integrated power-chemical co-production plants

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, H.; Mohammed-Zadeh, Y.

    1998-07-01

    The use of coal and refinery residual fuels for power generation through integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants have been successfully demonstrated and many large-scale commercial projects are now in various phases of development. The syngas produced from gasification of solid fuels or low-grade refinery residues can be formulated to imitate the syngas produced from the reforming of conventional hydrocarbon feedstocks. With the advancement in the gasification technology, it is technically feasible to produce basic chemicals such as hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methanol, and reducing gas from coal or refinery by-products. While the capital plant cost of a natural gas fired combined cycle power plant is lower than that of an IGCC plant; cogeneration of power and chemicals using the low cost solid or residual fuels can provide better overall economics. Economics is the most important factor in any co-production scheme. In general, all energy facilities are energy intensive. IGCC/chemical cogeneration facilities can reduce the amount of power consumption, and depending on the chemical production rate, excess power may be available for export. This paper provides a review of current industrial syngas applications using the conventional hydrocarbon as a feedstock. An overview of the gasification technology for power/chemical cogeneration that can be used to replace the current technologies is provided. The overview includes the assessment of current syngas generation and cleaning technologies. This paper will also examine various industrial plant operating scenarios and provide economics for co-production schemes.

  16. Non-specific lipid transfer proteins in plants: presenting new advances and an integrated functional analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Zhang, Xiaobo; Lu, Changming; Zeng, Xinhua; Li, Yunjing; Fu, Donghui; Wu, Gang

    2015-09-01

    Plant non-specific lipid-transfer proteins (nsLTPs) are small, basic proteins present in abundance in higher plants. They are involved in key processes of plant cytology, such as the stablization of membranes, cell wall organization, and signal transduction. nsLTPs are also known to play important roles in resistance to biotic and abiotic stress, and in plant growth and development, such as sexual reproduction, seed development and germination. The structures of plant nsLTPs contain an eight-cysteine residue conserved motif, linked by four disulfide bonds, and an internal hydrophobic cavity, which comprises the lipid-binding site. This structure endows stability and increases the ability to bind and/or carry hydrophobic molecules. There is growing interest in nsLTPs, due to their critical roles, resulting in the need for a comprehensive review of their form and function. Relevant topics include: nsLTP structure and biochemical features, their classification, identification, and characterization across species, sub-cellular localization, lipid binding and transfer ability, expression profiling, functionality, and evolution. We present advances, as well as limitations and trends, relating to the different topics of the nsLTP gene family. This review collates a large body of research pertaining to the role of nsLTPs across the plant kingdom, which has been integrated as an in depth functional analysis of this group of proteins as a whole, and their activities across multiple biochemical pathways, based on a large number of reports. This review will enhance our understanding of nsLTP activity in planta, prompting further work and insights into the roles of this multifaceted protein family in plants.

  17. Excision and episomal replication of cauliflower mosaic virus integrated into a plant genome.

    PubMed

    Squires, Julie; Gillespie, Trudi; Schoelz, James E; Palukaitis, Peter

    2011-04-01

    Transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants containing a monomeric copy of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) genome exhibited the generation of infectious, episomally replicating virus. The circular viral genome had been split within the nonessential gene II for integration into the Arabidopsis genome by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Transgenic plants were assessed for episomal infections at flowering, seed set, and/or senescence. The infections were confirmed by western blot for the CaMV P6 and P4 proteins, electron microscopy for the presence of icosahedral virions, and through polymerase chain reaction across the recombination junction. By the end of the test period, a majority of the transgenic Arabidopsis plants had developed episomal infections. The episomal form of the virus was infectious to nontransgenic plants, indicating that no essential functions were lost after release from the Arabidopsis chromosome. An analysis of the viral genomes recovered from either transgenic Arabidopsis or nontransgenic turnip (Brassica rapa var rapa) revealed that the viruses contained deletions within gene II, and in some cases, the deletions extended to the beginning of gene III. In addition, many of the progeny viruses contained small regions of nonviral sequence derived from the flanking transformation vector. The nature of the nucleotide sequences at the recombination junctions in the circular progeny virus indicated that most were generated by nonhomologous recombination during the excision event. The release of the CaMV viral genomes from an integrated copy was not dependent upon the application of environmental stresses but occurred with greater frequency with either age or the late stages of plant maturation.

  18. Preliminary integrated geologic map databases for the United States: Digital data for the generalized bedrock geologic map, Yukon Flats region, east-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Till, Alison B.; Dumoulin, Julie A.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Stanley, Richard G.; Crews, Jessie

    2006-01-01

    The growth in the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has highlighted the need for digital geologic maps that have been attributed with information about age and lithology. Such maps can be conveniently used to generate derivative maps for manifold special purposes such as mineral-resource assessment, metallogenic studies, tectonic studies, and environmental research. This report is part of a series of integrated geologic map databases that cover the entire United States. Three national-scale geologic maps that portray most or all of the United States already exist; for the conterminous U.S., King and Beikman (1974a,b) compiled a map at a scale of 1:2,500,000, Beikman (1980) compiled a map for Alaska at 1:2,500,000 scale, and for the entire U.S., Reed and others (2005a,b) compiled a map at a scale of 1:5,000,000. A digital version of the King and Beikman map was published by Schruben and others (1994). Reed and Bush (2004) produced a digital version of the Reed and others (2005a) map for the conterminous U.S. The present series of maps is intended to provide the next step in increased detail. State geologic maps that range in scale from 1:100,000 to 1:1,000,000 are available for most of the country, and digital versions of these state maps are the basis of this product. The digital geologic maps presented here are in a standardized format as ARC/INFO export files and as ArcView shape files. Data tables that relate the map units to detailed lithologic and age information accompany these GIS files. The map is delivered as a set 1:250,000-scale quadrangle files. To the best of our ability, these quadrangle files are edge-matched with respect to geology. When the maps are merged, the combined attribute tables can be used directly with the merged maps to make derivative maps.

  19. Flat-plate heat pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcus, B. D.; Fleischman, G. L. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    Flat plate (vapor chamber) heat pipes were made by enclosing metal wicking between two capillary grooved flat panels. These heat pipes provide a unique configuration and have good capacity and conductance capabilities in zero gravity. When these flat plate vapor chamber heat pipes are heated or cooled, the surfaces are essentially isothermal, varying only 3 to 5 C over the panel surface.

  20. Integral parameters for characterizing water, energy, and aeration properties of soilless plant growth media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamindu Deepagoda, T. K. K.; Chen Lopez, Jose Choc; Møldrup, Per; de Jonge, Lis Wollesen; Tuller, Markus

    2013-10-01

    Over the last decade there has been a significant shift in global agricultural practice. Because the rapid increase of human population poses unprecedented challenges to production of an adequate and economically feasible food supply for undernourished populations, soilless greenhouse production systems are regaining increased worldwide attention. The optimal control of water availability and aeration is an essential prerequisite to successfully operate plant growth systems with soilless substrates such as aggregated foamed glass, perlite, rockwool, coconut coir, or mixtures thereof. While there are considerable empirical and theoretical efforts devoted to characterize water retention and aeration substrate properties, a holistic, physically-based approach considering water retention and aeration concurrently is lacking. In this study, the previously developed concept of integral water storage and energy was expanded to dual-porosity substrates and an analog integral oxygen diffusivity parameter was introduced to simultaneously characterize aeration properties of four common soilless greenhouse growth media. Integral parameters were derived for greenhouse crops in general, as well as for tomatoes. The integral approach provided important insights for irrigation management and for potential optimization of substrate properties. Furthermore, an observed relationship between the integral parameters for water availability and oxygen diffusivity can be potentially applied for the design of advanced irrigation and management strategies to ensure stress-free growth conditions, while conserving water resources.

  1. The MELiSSA Pilot Plant Facility: Objectives and Integration Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gødia, F.; Pérez, J.; Albiol, J.; Lasseur, C.; Lamaze, B.; Ordónez, L.

    MELiSSA Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative is a closed artificial ecosystem intended as a tool for the development of a bio-regenerative life support system for long-term manned missions i e planetary base For its study and implementation the MELiSSA loop has been divided in five interconnected compartments organized in three different loops solid liquid and gas This compartments are microbial bioreactors and higher plant chambers The MELiSSA Pilot Plant facility an ESA External Laboratory located at Universitat Aut o noma of Barcelona has been conceived to achieve a preliminary terrestrial demonstration of the MELiSSA concept at pilot scale using animals as a model to substitute the crew The experience gained in the operation of such a facility will be highly relevant for planning future life support systems in Space In order to fulfill this challenging objective a number of steps have to be covered from the individual design of each compartment to the continuous operation of the complete loop with all compartments interconnected operating in sterile conditions in controlled conditions and in a biosafe manner A new site for the MELISSA Pilot Plant facility has been recently completed to host the final integration of the complete loop The contribution will cover the general design aspects of the loop including the current state of the different compartments and their interconnection with solid liquid and gas loops and the future plans of how these different elements will be integrated to achieve the final

  2. One System Integrated Project Team Progress in Coordinating Hanford Tank Farms and the Waste Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Skwarek, Raymond J.; Harp, Ben J.; Duncan, Garth M.

    2013-12-18

    The One System Integrated Project Team (IPT) was formed at the Hanford Site in late 2011 as a way to improve coordination and itegration between the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and the Tank Operations Contractor (TOC) on interfaces between the two projects, and to eliminate duplication and exploit opportunities for synergy. The IPT is composed of jointly staffed groups that work on technical issues of mutal interest, front-end design and project definition, nuclear safety, plant engineering system integration, commissioning, planning and scheduling, and environmental, safety, health and quality (ESH&Q) areas. In the past year important progress has been made in a number of areas as the organization has matured and additional opportunities have been identified. Areas covered in this paper include: Support for development of the Office of Envirnmental Management (EM) framework document to progress the Office of River Protection's (ORP) River Protection Project (RPP) mission; Stewardship of the RPP flowsheet; Collaboration with Savannah River Site (SRS), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Operations programs integration; and, Further development of the waste acceptance criteria.

  3. The MELISSA pilot plant facility as as integration test-bed for advanced life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godia, F.; Albiol, J.; Perez, J.; Creus, N.; Cabello, F.; Montras, A.; Masot, A.; Lasseur, Ch

    2004-01-01

    The different advances in the Micro Ecological Life Support System Alternative project (MELISSA), fostered and coordinated by the European Space Agency, as well as in other associated technologies, are integrated and demonstrated in the MELISSA Pilot Plant laboratory. During the first period of operation, the definition of the different compartments at an individual basis has been achieved, and the complete facility is being re-designed to face a new period of integration of all these compartments. The final objective is to demonstrate the potentiality of biological systems such as MELISSA as life support systems. The facility will also serve as a test bed to study the robustness and stability of the continuous operation of a complex biological system. This includes testing of the associated instrumentation and control for a safe operation, characterization of the chemical and microbial safety of the system, as well as tracking the genetic stability of the microbial strains used. The new period is envisaged as a contribution to the further development of more complete biological life support systems for long-term manned missions, that should be better defined from the knowledge to be gained from this integration phase. This contribution summarizes the current status of the Pilot Plant and the planned steps for the new period. c2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Transient studies of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant with CO2 capture

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, D.; Turton, R.; Zitney, S.

    2010-01-01

    Next-generation coal-fired power plants need to consider the option for CO2 capture as stringent governmental mandates are expected to be issued in near future. Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants are more efficient than the conventional coal combustion processes when the option for CO2 capture is considered. However, no IGCC plant with CO2 capture currently exists in the world. Therefore, it is important to consider the operability and controllability issues of such a plant before it is commercially built. To facilitate this objective, a detailed plant-wide dynamic simulation of an IGCC plant with 90% CO2 capture has been developed in Aspen Plus Dynamics{reg_sign}. The plant considers a General Electric Energy (GEE)-type downflow radiant-only gasifier followed by a quench section. A two-stage water gas shift (WGS) reaction is considered for conversion of CO to CO2. A two-stage acid gas removal (AGR) process based on a physical solvent is simulated for selective capture of H2S and CO2. Compression of the captured CO2 for sequestration, an oxy-Claus process for removal of H2S and NH3, black water treatment, and the sour water treatment are also modeled. The tail gas from the Claus unit is recycled to the SELEXOL unit. The clean syngas from the AGR process is sent to a gas turbine followed by a heat recovery steam generator. This turbine is modeled as per published data in the literature. Diluent N2 is used from the elevated-pressure ASU for reducing the NOx formation. The heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) is modeled by considering generation of high-pressure, intermediate-pressure, and low-pressure steam. All of the vessels, reactors, heat exchangers, and the columns have been sized. The basic IGCC process control structure has been synthesized by standard guidelines and existing practices. The steady state results are validated with data from a commercial gasifier. In the future grid-connected system, the plant should satisfy the environmental

  5. Flat conductor cable commercialization project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogarth, P.; Wadsworth, E.

    1977-01-01

    An undercarpet flat conductor cable and a baseboard flat conductor cable system were studied for commercialization. The undercarpet system is designed for use in office and commercial buildings. It employs a flat power cable, protected by a grounded metal shield, that terminates in receptacles mounted on the floor. It is designed to interface with a flat conductor cable telephone system. The baseboard system consists of a flat power cable mounted in a plastic raceway; both the raceway and the receptacles are mounted on the surface of the baseboard. It is designed primarily for use in residential buildings, particularly for renovation and concrete and masonry construction.

  6. Research on estimation crop planting area by integrating the optical and microwave remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiang; Yu, Fan; Liu, Dandan; Tian, Jing; Zhang, Weicheng; Wang, Qiang; Yang, Jinling; Zhang, Lei

    2015-12-01

    Considering the problem in monitoring agricultural condition in the semi-arid areas of Northwest of China, we propose a new method for estimation of crop planting area, using the single phase optical and microwave remote sensing data collaboratively, which have demonstrated their respective advantages in the extraction of surface features. In the model, the ASAR backscatter coefficient is normalized by the incident angle at first, then the classifier based on Bayesian network is developed, and the VV, VH polarization of ASAR and all the 7 TM bands are taken as the input of the classifier to get the class labels of each pixel of the images. Moreover the crop planting areas can be extracted by the classification results. At last, the model is validated for the necessities of normalization by the incident angle and integration of TM and ASAR respectively. It results that the estimation accuracy of crop planting area of corn and other crops garden are 98.47% and 78.25% respectively using the proposed method, with an improvement of estimation accuracy of about 3.28% and 4.18% relative to single TM classification. These illustrate that synthesis of optical and microwave remote sensing data is efficient and potential in estimation crop planting area.

  7. 8th Annual Glycoscience Symposium: Integrating Models of Plant Cell Wall Structure, Biosynthesis and Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Azadi, Paratoo

    2015-09-24

    The Complex Carbohydrate Research Center (CCRC) of the University of Georgia holds a symposium yearly that highlights a broad range of carbohydrate research topics. The 8th Annual Georgia Glycoscience Symposium entitled “Integrating Models of Plant Cell Wall Structure, Biosynthesis and Assembly” was held on April 7, 2014 at the CCRC. The focus of symposium was on the role of glycans in plant cell wall structure and synthesis. The goal was to have world leaders in conjunction with graduate students, postdoctoral fellows and research scientists to propose the newest plant cell wall models. The symposium program closely followed the DOE’s mission and was specifically designed to highlight chemical and biochemical structures and processes important for the formation and modification of renewable plant cell walls which serve as the basis for biomaterial and biofuels. The symposium was attended by both senior investigators in the field as well as students including a total attendance of 103, which included 80 faculty/research scientists, 11 graduate students and 12 Postdoctoral students.

  8. Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, E.S.

    1988-06-01

    This is the third quarterly report of DOE Contract No. DE-AC22- 87PC79864, entitled Modeling of Integrated Environmental Control Systems for Coal-Fired Power Plants.'' This report summarizes accomplishments during the period April 1, 1988 to June 30, 1988. Our efforts during the last quarter focused on, (1) completion of a sulfuric acid plant model (used in conjunction with by-product recovery processes for SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal) and, (2) an update the NOXSO process model. Other accomplishments involved revision and expansion of the enthalpy data algorithms used for process energy balances. The sections below present the details of these developments. References are included at the end of each section.

  9. Microwave solidification development for Rocky Flats waste

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, D.; Erle, R.; Eschen, V.

    1994-04-01

    The Microwave Engineering Team at the Rocky Flats Plant has developed a production-scale system for the treatment of hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes using microwave energy. The system produces a vitreous final form which meets the acceptance criteria for shipment and disposal. The technology also has potential for application on various other waste streams from the public and private sectors. Technology transfer opportunities are being identified and pursued for commercialization of the microwave solidification technology.

  10. The strategic planning initiative for accelerated cleanup of Rocky Flats

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, E.; Timm, C.; Corrigan, W.

    1994-12-31

    The difficulties associated with the congressional funding cycles, regulatory redirection, remediation schedule deadlines, and the lack of a mixed waste (MW) repository have adversely impacted the environmental restoration (ER) program across the entire U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex including Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). In an effort to counteract and reduce the impacts of these difficulties, RFP management saw the need for developing a revised ER Program. The objective of the revised ER approach is to identify an initiative that would accelerate the cleanup process and reduce costs without compromising either protection of human health or the environment. A special analysis with that assigned objective was initiated in June 1993 using a team that included DOE Headquarters and Rocky Flats Field Office (RFFO), EG&G personnel, and experts from nationally recognized ER firms. The analysis relied on recent regulatory and process innovations such as DOE`s Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) and EPA`s Superfund Accelerated Cleanup Model (SACM) and Corrective Action Management Units (CAMU). The analysis also incorporated other ongoing improvements efforts initiated by RFP, such as the Quality Action Team and the Integrated Planning Process.

  11. Integrated coal preparation and CWF processing plant: Conceptual design and costing

    SciTech Connect

    McHale, E.T.; Paul, A.D.; Bartis, J.T. ); Korkmaz, M. )

    1992-12-01

    At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, a study was conducted to provide DOE with a reliable, documented estimate of the cost of producing coal-water fuel (CWF). The approach to the project was to specify a plant capacity and location, identify and analyze a suitable coal, and develop a conceptual design for an integrated coal preparation and CWF processing plant. Using this information, a definitive costing study was then conducted, on the basis of which an economic and sensitivity analysis was performed utilizing a financial evaluation model to determine a price for CWF in 1992. The design output of the integrated plant is 200 tons of coal (dry basis) per hour. Operating at a capacity factor of 83 percent, the baseline design yields approximately 1.5 million tons per year of coal on a dry basis. This is approximately equivalent to the fuel required to continuously generate 500 MW of electric power. The CWF produced by the plant is intended as a replacement for heavy oil or gas in electric utility and large industrial boilers. The particle size distribution, particularly the top size, and the ash content of the coal in the CWF are specified at significantly lower levels than is commonly found in typical pulverized coal grinds. The particle top size is 125 microns (vs typically 300m[mu] for pulverized coal) and the coal ash content is 3.8 percent. The lower top size is intended to promote complete carbon burnout at less derating in boilers that are not designed for coal firing. The reduced mineral matter content will produce ash of very fine particle size during combustion, which leads to less impaction and reduced fouling of tubes in convective passages.

  12. Integrated coal preparation and CWF processing plant: Conceptual design and costing. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    McHale, E.T.; Paul, A.D.; Bartis, J.T.; Korkmaz, M.

    1992-12-01

    At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, a study was conducted to provide DOE with a reliable, documented estimate of the cost of producing coal-water fuel (CWF). The approach to the project was to specify a plant capacity and location, identify and analyze a suitable coal, and develop a conceptual design for an integrated coal preparation and CWF processing plant. Using this information, a definitive costing study was then conducted, on the basis of which an economic and sensitivity analysis was performed utilizing a financial evaluation model to determine a price for CWF in 1992. The design output of the integrated plant is 200 tons of coal (dry basis) per hour. Operating at a capacity factor of 83 percent, the baseline design yields approximately 1.5 million tons per year of coal on a dry basis. This is approximately equivalent to the fuel required to continuously generate 500 MW of electric power. The CWF produced by the plant is intended as a replacement for heavy oil or gas in electric utility and large industrial boilers. The particle size distribution, particularly the top size, and the ash content of the coal in the CWF are specified at significantly lower levels than is commonly found in typical pulverized coal grinds. The particle top size is 125 microns (vs typically 300m{mu} for pulverized coal) and the coal ash content is 3.8 percent. The lower top size is intended to promote complete carbon burnout at less derating in boilers that are not designed for coal firing. The reduced mineral matter content will produce ash of very fine particle size during combustion, which leads to less impaction and reduced fouling of tubes in convective passages.

  13. Thermal energy storage for integrated gasification combined-cycle power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Drost, M.K.; Antoniak, Z.I.; Brown, D.R.; Somasundaram, S.

    1990-07-01

    There are increasingly strong indications that the United States will face widespread electrical power generating capacity constraints in the 1990s; most regions of the country could experience capacity shortages by the year 2000. The demand for new generating capacity occurs at a time when there is increasing emphasis on environmental concerns. The integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power plant is an example of an advanced coal-fired technology that will soon be commercially available. The IGCC concept has proved to be efficient and cost-effective while meeting all current environmental regulations on emissions; however, the operating characteristics of the IGCC system have limited it to base load applications. The integration of thermal energy storage (TES) into an IGCC plant would allow it to meet cyclic loads while avoiding undesirable operating characteristics such as poor turn-down capability, impaired part-load performance, and long startup times. In an IGCC plant with TES, a continuously operated gasifier supplies medium-Btu fuel gas to a continuously operated gas turbine. The thermal energy from the fuel gas coolers and the gas turbine exhaust is stored as sensible heat in molten nitrate salt; heat is extracted during peak demand periods to produce electric power in a Rankine steam power cycle. The study documented in this report was conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and consists of a review of the technical and economic feasibility of using TES in an IGCC power plant to produce intermediate and peak load power. The study was done for the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Energy Storage and Distribution. 11 refs., 5 figs., 18 tabs.

  14. Service experience, structural integrity, severe accidents, and erosion in nuclear and fossil plants. PVP-Volume 303

    SciTech Connect

    Paterson, S.R.; Bamford, W.H; Geraets, L.H.; Okazaki, M.; Cipolla, R.C.; Cowfer, C.D.; Means, K.H.

    1995-12-01

    The objective of this symposium was to disseminate information on service degradation and its prevention. Papers have been divided into the following topical sections: Service experience in nuclear plants; DOE high-level waste tank structural integrity panel--Summary reports; Severe accidents; Service experience in operating fossil power plants; and Erosion. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  15. New integrated gas turbine CHP (combined heat and power) and incinerator plant.

    PubMed

    Briggs, R A; Yates, B

    1990-12-01

    Despite the complex nature of the project, the clients brief of a 14 month design and installation period was achieved within the approved budget of 2.5 million pounds. Early performance figures indicate that the scheme is on target to achieve the original payback of under four years. Queen Elizabeth Hospital: installation of integrated combined heat and power plant. Client: Central Birmingham Health Authority. Consulting Engineers/Project Managers: Yates, Edge and Partners. Architects: Temple Cox and Nichols. Structural Engineers: Peel and Fowler. Quantity Surveyor: West Midlands Regional Health Authority.

  16. Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, E.S.

    1988-04-01

    The general goals of this research project is to enhance and transfer to DOE a new computer simulation model for analyzing the performance and cost of integrated environmental control (IEC) systems for coal-fired power plants. A unique capability of this model is the probabilistic representation of uncertainty in model parameters. This capability allows performance and cost to be quantified stochastically in comparing conventional technologies with advanced systems offering improved cost and/or effectiveness for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal. Several pre-combustion and post-combustion processes of interest to DOE have been selected for detailed modeling and analysis as part of this project.

  17. Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants. Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, E.S.

    1988-04-01

    The general goals of this research project is to enhance and transfer to DOE a new computer simulation model for analyzing the performance and cost of integrated environmental control (IEC) systems for coal-fired power plants. A unique capability of this model is the probabilistic representation of uncertainty in model parameters. This capability allows performance and cost to be quantified stochastically in comparing conventional technologies with advanced systems offering improved cost and/or effectiveness for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal. Several pre-combustion and post-combustion processes of interest to DOE have been selected for detailed modeling and analysis as part of this project.

  18. Coke oven gas treatment and by-product plant of Magnitogorsk Integrated Iron and Steel Works

    SciTech Connect

    Egorov, V.N.; Anikin, G.J.; Gross, M.

    1995-12-01

    Magnitogorsk Integrated Iron and Steel Works, Russia, decided to erect a new coke oven gas treatment and by-product plant to replace the existing obsolete units and to improve the environmental conditions of the area. The paper deals with the technological concept and the design requirements. Commissioning is scheduled at the beginning of 1996. The paper describes H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3} removal, sulfur recovery and ammonia destruction, primary gas cooling and electrostatic tar precipitation, and the distributed control system that will be installed.

  19. Enhanced plant nutrient use efficiency with PGPR and AMF in an integrated nutrient management system.

    PubMed

    Adesemoye, A O; Torbert, H A; Kloepper, J W

    2008-10-01

    A 3 year field study was conducted with field corn from 2005 to 2007 to test the hypothesis that microbial inoculants that increase plant growth and yield can enhance nutrient uptake, and thereby remove more nutrients, especially N, P, and K from the field as part of an integrated nutrient management system. The field trial evaluated microbial inoculants, which include a commercially available plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (AMF), and their combination across 2 tillage systems (no-till and conventional till) and 2 fertilization regimes (poultry litter and ammonium nitrate). Data were collected on plant height, yield (dry mass of ears and silage), and nutrient content of corn grain and silage. In addition, nutrient content of soil was determined, and bioavailability of soil nutrient was measured with plant root simulator probes. Results showed that inoculants promoted plant growth and yield. For example, grain yields (kg.ha(-1)) in 2007 for inoculants were 7717 for AMF, 7260 for PGPR+AMF, 7313 for PGPR, 5725 for the control group, and for fertilizer were 7470 for poultry litter and 6537 for NH4NO3. Nitrogen content per gram of grain tissues was significantly enhanced in 2006 by inoculant, fertilizer, and their interactions. Significantly higher amounts of N, P, and K were removed from the plots with inoculants, based on total nutrient content of grain per plot. These results supported the overall hypothesis and indicate that application of inoculants can lead to reduction in the build up of N, P, and K in agricultural soils. Further studies should be conducted to combine microbial inoculants with reduced rates of fertilizer.

  20. Wedge and Flat Top

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Flat Top, the rectangular rock at right, is part of a stretch of rocky terrain in this image, taken by the deployed Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. Dust has accumulated on the top of Flat Top, but is not present on the sides due to the steep angles of the rock. This dust may have been placed by dust storms moving across the Martian surface. The rock dubbed 'Wedge' is at left. The objects have been studied using several different color filters on the IMP camera.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  1. Pressurized-Flat-Interface Heat Exchanger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voss, F. E.; Howell, H. R.; Winkler, R. V.

    1990-01-01

    High thermal conductance obtained without leakage between loops. Heat-exchanger interface enables efficient transfer of heat between two working fluids without allowing fluids to intermingle. Interface thin, flat, and easy to integrate into thermal system. Possible application in chemical or pharmaceutical manufacturing when even trace contamination of process stream with water or other coolant ruins product. Reduces costs when highly corrosive fluids must be cooled or heated.

  2. PSI: A Comprehensive and Integrative Approach for Accurate Plant Subcellular Localization Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ming

    2013-01-01

    Predicting the subcellular localization of proteins conquers the major drawbacks of high-throughput localization experiments that are costly and time-consuming. However, current subcellular localization predictors are limited in scope and accuracy. In particular, most predictors perform well on certain locations or with certain data sets while poorly on others. Here, we present PSI, a novel high accuracy web server for plant subcellular localization prediction. PSI derives the wisdom of multiple specialized predictors via a joint-approach of group decision making strategy and machine learning methods to give an integrated best result. The overall accuracy obtained (up to 93.4%) was higher than best individual (CELLO) by ∼10.7%. The precision of each predicable subcellular location (more than 80%) far exceeds that of the individual predictors. It can also deal with multi-localization proteins. PSI is expected to be a powerful tool in protein location engineering as well as in plant sciences, while the strategy employed could be applied to other integrative problems. A user-friendly web server, PSI, has been developed for free access at http://bis.zju.edu.cn/psi/. PMID:24194827

  3. Optimisation potential for a SBR plant based upon integrated modelling for dry and wet weather conditions.

    PubMed

    Rönner-Holm, S G E; Kaufmann Alves, I; Steinmetz, H; Holm, N C

    2009-01-01

    Integrated dynamic simulation analysis of a full-scale municipal sequential batch reactor (SBR) wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was performed using the KOSMO pollution load simulation model for the combined sewer system (CSS) and the ASM3 + EAWAG-BioP model for the WWTP. Various optimising strategies for dry and storm weather conditions were developed to raise the purification and hydraulic performance and to reduce operation costs based on simulation studies with the calibrated WWTP model. The implementation of some strategies on the plant led to lower effluent values and an average annual saving of 49,000 euro including sewage tax, which is 22% of the total running costs. Dynamic simulation analysis of CSS for an increased WWTP influent over a period of one year showed high potentials for reducing combined sewer overflow (CSO) volume by 18-27% and CSO loads for COD by 22%, NH(4)-N and P(total) by 33%. In addition, the SBR WWTP could easily handle much higher influents without exceeding the monitoring values. During the integrated simulation of representative storm events, the total emission load for COD dropped to 90%, the sewer system emitted 47% less, whereas the pollution load in the WWTP effluent increased to only 14% with 2% higher running costs.

  4. System approach to the analysis of an integrated oxy-fuel combustion power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziębik, Andrzej; Gładysz, Paweł

    2014-09-01

    Oxy-fuel combustion (OFC) belongs to one of the three commonly known clean coal technologies for power generation sector and other industry sectors responsible for CO2 emissions (e.g., steel or cement production). The OFC capture technology is based on using high-purity oxygen in the combustion process instead of atmospheric air. Therefore flue gases have a high concentration of CO2. Due to the limited adiabatic temperature of combustion some part of CO2 must be recycled to the boiler in order to maintain a proper flame temperature. An integrated oxy-fuel combustion power plant constitutes a system consisting of the following technological modules: boiler, steam cycle, air separation unit, cooling water and water treatment system, flue gas quality control system and CO2 processing unit. Due to the interconnections between technological modules, energy, exergy and ecological analyses require a system approach. The paper present the system approach based on the `input-output' method to the analysis of the: direct energy and material consumption, cumulative energy and exergy consumption, system (local and cumulative) exergy losses, and thermoecological cost. Other measures like cumulative degree of perfection or index of sustainable development are also proposed. The paper presents a complex example of the system analysis (from direct energy consumption to thermoecological cost) of an advanced integrated OFC power plant.

  5. Integral Membrane Protein Sorting to Vacuoles in Plant Cells: Evidence for Two Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Liwen; Rogers, John C.

    1998-01-01

    Plant cells may contain two functionally distinct vacuolar compartments. Membranes of protein storage vacuoles (PSV) are marked by the presence of α-tonoplast intrinsic protein (TIP), whereas lytic vacuoles (LV) are marked by the presence of γ-TIP. Mechanisms for sorting integral membrane proteins to the different vacuoles have not been elucidated. Here we study a chimeric integral membrane reporter protein expressed in tobacco suspension culture protoplasts whose traffic was assessed biochemically by following acquisition of complex Asn-linked glycan modifications and proteolytic processing, and whose intracellular localization was determined with confocal immunofluorescence. We show that the transmembrane domain of the plant vacuolar sorting receptor BP-80 directs the reporter protein via the Golgi to the LV prevacuolar compartment, and attaching the cytoplasmic tail (CT) of γ-TIP did not alter this traffic. In contrast, the α-TIP CT prevented traffic of the reporter protein through the Golgi and caused it to be localized in organelles separate from ER and from Golgi and LV prevacuolar compartment markers. These organelles had a buoyant density consistent with vacuoles, and α-TIP protein colocalized in them with the α-TIP CT reporter protein when the two were expressed together in protoplasts. These results are consistent with two separate pathways to vacuoles for membrane proteins: a direct ER to PSV pathway, and a separate pathway via the Golgi to the LV. PMID:9832548

  6. Analysis of thermodynamics of two-fuel power unit integrated with a carbon dioxide separation plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotowicz, Janusz; Bartela, Łukasz; Mikosz, Dorota

    2014-12-01

    The article presents the results of thermodynamic analysis of the supercritical coal-fired power plant with gross electrical output of 900 MW and a pulverized coal boiler. This unit is integrated with the absorption-based CO2 separation installation. The heat required for carrying out the desorption process, is supplied by the system with the gas turbine. Analyses were performed for two variants of the system. In the first case, in addition to the gas turbine there is an evaporator powered by exhaust gases from the gas turbine expander. The second expanded variant assumes the application of gas turbine combined cycle with heat recovery steam generator and backpressure steam turbine. The way of determining the efficiency of electricity generation and other defined indicators to assess the energy performance of the test block was showed. The size of the gas turbine system was chosen because of the need for heat for the desorption unit, taking the value of the heat demand 4 MJ/kg CO2. The analysis results obtained for the both variants of the installation with integrated CO2 separation plant were compared with the results of the analysis of the block where the separation is not conducted.

  7. A plant scaffold attached region detected close to a T-DNA integration site is active in mammalian cells.

    PubMed Central

    Dietz, A; Kay, V; Schlake, T; Landsmann, J; Bode, J

    1994-01-01

    Integration of foreign genes into plant genomes by the Agrobacterium T-DNA transfer system has been considered to occur at random. It has been speculated that the chromosomal structure of the integration site might affect the expression pattern of the introduced genes. To gain insight into the molecular structure of T-DNA integration sites and its possible impact on gene expression, we have examined plant DNA sequences in the vicinity of T-DNA borders. Analysis of a transgenic petunia plant containing a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene regulated by the hemoglobin promoter (PAR) from Parasponia andersonii revealed a scaffold attachment region (SAR) close to one T-DNA end. In addition to having strong binding affinities for both animal and plant nuclear scaffolds this petunia SAR element is as active in mammalian cells as the authentic elements from mammalian sources. Images PMID:8052530

  8. Integration of decoy domains derived from protein targets of pathogen effectors into plant immune receptors is widespread.

    PubMed

    Kroj, Thomas; Chanclud, Emilie; Michel-Romiti, Corinne; Grand, Xavier; Morel, Jean-Benoit

    2016-04-01

    Plant immune receptors of the class of nucleotide-binding and leucine-rich repeat domain (NLR) proteins can contain additional domains besides canonical NB-ARC (nucleotide-binding adaptor shared by APAF-1, R proteins, and CED-4 (NB-ARC)) and leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domains. Recent research suggests that these additional domains act as integrated decoys recognizing effectors from pathogens. Proteins homologous to integrated decoys are suspected to be effector targets and involved in disease or resistance. Here, we scrutinized 31 entire plant genomes to identify putative integrated decoy domains in NLR proteins using the Interpro search. The involvement of the Zinc Finger-BED type (ZBED) protein containing a putative decoy domain, called BED, in rice (Oryza sativa) resistance was investigated by evaluating susceptibility to the blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae in rice over-expression and knock-out mutants. This analysis showed that all plants tested had integrated various atypical protein domains into their NLR proteins (on average 3.5% of all NLR proteins). We also demonstrated that modifying the expression of the ZBED gene modified disease susceptibility. This study suggests that integration of decoy domains in NLR immune receptors is widespread and frequent in plants. The integrated decoy model is therefore a powerful concept to identify new proteins involved in disease resistance. Further in-depth examination of additional domains in NLR proteins promises to unravel many new proteins of the plant immune system. PMID:26848538

  9. FUNCTION OF PHLOEM-BORNE INFORMATION MACROMOLECULES IN INTEGRATING PLANT GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    William J. Lucas

    2012-11-12

    Studies on higher plants have revealed the operation of cell-to-cell and long-distance communication networks that mediate the transport of information macromolecules, such as proteins and RNA. Based on the findings from this DOE-funded project and results from other groups, it is now well established that the enucleate sieve tube system of the angiosperms contains a complex set of proteins including RNA binding proteins as well as a unique population of RNA molecules, comprised of both mRNA and small RNA species. Hetero-grafting experiments demonstrated that delivery of such RNA molecules, into the scion, is highly correlated with changes in developmental phenotypes. Furthermore, over the course of this project, our studies showed that plasmodesmata and the phloem are intimately involved in the local and systemic spread of sequence-specific signals that underlie gene silencing in plants. Major advances were also made in elucidating the underlying mechanisms that operate to mediate the selective entry and exit of proteins and RNA into and out of the phloem translocation stream. Our pioneering studies identified the first plant protein with the capacity to both bind specifically to small RNA molecules (si-RNA) and mediate in the cell-to-cell movement of such siRNA. Importantly, studies conducted with support from this DOE program also yielded a detailed characterization of the first phloem-mobile RNP complex isolated from pumpkin, namely the CmRBP50-RNP complex. This RNP complex was shown to bind, in a sequence-specific manner, to a set of transcripts encoding for transcription factors. The remarkable stability of this CmRBP50-RNP complex allows for long-distance delivery of bound transcripts from mature leaves into developing tissues and organs. Knowledge gained from this project can be used to exert control over the long-distance signaling networks used by plants to integrate their physiological and developmental programs at a whole plant level. Eventually, this

  10. Integrated genomics and molecular breeding approaches for dissecting the complex quantitative traits in crop plants.

    PubMed

    Kujur, Alice; Saxena, Maneesha S; Bajaj, Deepak; Laxmi; Parida, Swarup K

    2013-12-01

    The enormous population growth, climate change and global warming are now considered major threats to agriculture and world's food security. To improve the productivity and sustainability of agriculture, the development of highyielding and durable abiotic and biotic stress-tolerant cultivars and/climate resilient crops is essential. Henceforth, understanding the molecular mechanism and dissection of complex quantitative yield and stress tolerance traits is the prime objective in current agricultural biotechnology research. In recent years, tremendous progress has been made in plant genomics and molecular breeding research pertaining to conventional and next-generation whole genome, transcriptome and epigenome sequencing efforts, generation of huge genomic, transcriptomic and epigenomic resources and development of modern genomics-assisted breeding approaches in diverse crop genotypes with contrasting yield and abiotic stress tolerance traits. Unfortunately, the detailed molecular mechanism and gene regulatory networks controlling such complex quantitative traits is not yet well understood in crop plants. Therefore, we propose an integrated strategies involving available enormous and diverse traditional and modern -omics (structural, functional, comparative and epigenomics) approaches/resources and genomics-assisted breeding methods which agricultural biotechnologist can adopt/utilize to dissect and decode the molecular and gene regulatory networks involved in the complex quantitative yield and stress tolerance traits in crop plants. This would provide clues and much needed inputs for rapid selection of novel functionally relevant molecular tags regulating such complex traits to expedite traditional and modern marker-assisted genetic enhancement studies in target crop species for developing high-yielding stress-tolerant varieties.

  11. "Agrolistic" transformation of plant cells: integration of T-strands generated in planta.

    PubMed

    Hansen, G; Chilton, M D

    1996-12-10

    We describe a novel plant transformation technique, termed "agrolistic," that combines the advantages of the Agrobacterium transformation system with the high efficiency of biolistic DNA delivery. Agrolistic transformation allows integration of the gene of interest without undesired vector sequence. The virulence genes virD1 and virD2 from Agrobacterium tumefaciens that are required in bacteria for excision of T-strands from the tumor-inducing plasmid were placed under the control of the CaMV35S promoter and codelivered with a target plasmid containing border sequences flanking the gene of interest. Transient expression assays in tobacco and in maize cells indicated that vir gene products caused strand-specific nicking in planta at the right border sequence, similar to VirD1/VirD2-catalyzed T-strand excision observed in Agrobacterium. Agrolistically transformed tobacco calli were obtained after codelivery of virD1 and virD2 genes together with a selectable marker flanked by border sequences. Some inserts exhibited right junctions with plant DNA that corresponded precisely to the sequence expected for T-DNA (portion of the tumor-inducing plasmid that is transferred to plant cells) insertion events. We designate these as "agrolistic" inserts, as distinguished from "biolistic" inserts. Both types of inserts were found in some transformed lines. The frequency of agrolistic inserts was 20% that of biolistic inserts. PMID:8962167

  12. Multiscale integral analysis of a HT leakage in a fusion nuclear power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velarde, M.; Fradera, J.; Perlado, J. M.; Zamora, I.; Martínez-Saban, E.; Colomer, C.; Briani, P.

    2016-05-01

    The present work presents an example of the application of an integral methodology based on a multiscale analysis that covers the whole tritium cycle within a nuclear fusion power plant, from a micro scale, analyzing key components where tritium is leaked through permeation, to a macro scale, considering its atmospheric transport. A leakage from the Nuclear Power Plants, (NPP) primary to the secondary side of a heat exchanger (HEX) is considered for the present example. Both primary and secondary loop coolants are assumed to be He. Leakage is placed inside the HEX, leaking tritium in elementary tritium (HT) form to the secondary loop where it permeates through the piping structural material to the exterior. The Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system removes the leaked tritium towards the NPP exhaust. The HEX is modelled with system codes and coupled to Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) to account for tritium dispersion inside the nuclear power plants buildings and in site environment. Finally, tritium dispersion is calculated with an atmospheric transport code and a dosimetry analysis is carried out. Results show how the implemented methodology is capable of assessing the impact of tritium from the microscale to the atmospheric scale including the dosimetric aspect.

  13. Integrative approach to analyze biodiversity and anti-inflammatory bioactivity of Wedelia medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wen-Ching; Wen, Chih-Chun; Chen, Yung-Hsiang; Hsiao, Pei-Wen; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Peng, Ching-I; Yang, Ning-Sun

    2015-01-01

    For the development of "medical foods" and/or botanical drugs as defined USA FDA, clear and systemic characterizations of the taxonomy, index phytochemical components, and the functional or medicinal bioactivities of the reputed or candidate medicinal plant are needed. In this study, we used an integrative approach, including macroscopic and microscopic examination, marker gene analysis, and chemical fingerprinting, to authenticate and validate various species/varieties of Wedelia, a reputed medicinal plant that grows naturally and commonly used in Asian countries. The anti-inflammatory bioactivities of Wedelia extracts were then evaluated in a DSS-induced murine colitis model. Different species/varieties of Wedelia exhibited distinguishable morphology and histological structures. Analysis of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region revealed significant differences among these plants. Chemical profiling of test Wedelia species demonstrated candidate index compounds and distinguishable secondary metabolites, such as caffeic acid derivatives, which may serve as phytochemical markers or index for quality control and identification of specific Wedelia species. In assessing their effect on treating DSS induced-murine colitis, we observed that only the phytoextract from W. chinensis species exhibited significant anti-inflammatory bioactivity on DSS-induced murine colitis among the various Wedelia species commonly found in Taiwan. Our results provide a translational research approach that may serve as a useful reference platform for biotechnological applications of traditional phytomedicines. Our findings indicate that specific Wedelia species warrant further investigation for potential treatment of human inflammatory bowel disease.

  14. CO2 post-combustion capture in coal-fired power plants integrated with solar systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carapellucci, R.; Giordano, L.; Vaccarelli, M.

    2015-11-01

    The majority of the World's primary energy consumption is still based on fossil fuels, representing the largest source of global CO2 emissions. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), such emissions must be significantly reduced in order to avoid the dramatic consequences of global warming. A potential way to achieve this ambitious goal is represented by the implementation of CCS (Carbon Capture and Storage) technologies. However, the significant amount of energy required by the CCS systems still represents one the major barriers for their deployment. Focusing on post-combustion capture based on amine absorption, several interesting options have been investigated to compensate the energy losses due to solvent regeneration, also using renewable energy sources. One of the most promising is based on the use of concentrating solar power (CSP), providing a part of the energy requirement of the capture island. In this study the integration of a CSP system into a coal-fired power plant with CO2 postcombustion capture is investigated. Basically, a CSP system is used to support the heat requirement for amine regeneration, by producing saturated steam at low temperature. This allows to reduce or even eliminate the conventional steam extraction from the main power plant, affecting positively net power production and efficiency. The energy analysis of the whole system is carried out using the GateCycle software to simulate the coal-fired power plant and ChemCad platform for the CO2 capture process based on amine absorption.

  15. Integrative Approach to Analyze Biodiversity and Anti-Inflammatory Bioactivity of Wedelia Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yung-Hsiang; Hsiao, Pei-Wen; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Peng, Ching-I; Yang, Ning-Sun

    2015-01-01

    For the development of “medical foods” and/or botanical drugs as defined USA FDA, clear and systemic characterizations of the taxonomy, index phytochemical components, and the functional or medicinal bioactivities of the reputed or candidate medicinal plant are needed. In this study, we used an integrative approach, including macroscopic and microscopic examination, marker gene analysis, and chemical fingerprinting, to authenticate and validate various species/varieties of Wedelia, a reputed medicinal plant that grows naturally and commonly used in Asian countries. The anti-inflammatory bioactivities of Wedelia extracts were then evaluated in a DSS-induced murine colitis model. Different species/varieties of Wedelia exhibited distinguishable morphology and histological structures. Analysis of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region revealed significant differences among these plants. Chemical profiling of test Wedelia species demonstrated candidate index compounds and distinguishable secondary metabolites, such as caffeic acid derivatives, which may serve as phytochemical markers or index for quality control and identification of specific Wedelia species. In assessing their effect on treating DSS induced-murine colitis, we observed that only the phytoextract from W. chinensis species exhibited significant anti-inflammatory bioactivity on DSS-induced murine colitis among the various Wedelia species commonly found in Taiwan. Our results provide a translational research approach that may serve as a useful reference platform for biotechnological applications of traditional phytomedicines. Our findings indicate that specific Wedelia species warrant further investigation for potential treatment of human inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:26042672

  16. PRIMe Update: innovative content for plant metabolomics and integration of gene expression and metabolite accumulation.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Tetsuya; Yamada, Yutaka; Sawada, Yuji; Matsuda, Fumio; Akiyama, Kenji; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Hirai, Masami Yokota; Saito, Kazuki

    2013-02-01

    PRIMe (http://prime.psc.riken.jp/), the Platform for RIKEN Metabolomics, is a website that was designed and implemented to support research and analyses ranging from metabolomics to transcriptomics. To achieve functional genomics and annotation of unknown metabolites, we established the following PRIMe contents: MS2T, a library comprising >1 million entries of untargeted tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) data of plant metabolites; AtMetExpress LC-MS, a database of transcriptomics and metabolomics approaches in Arabidopsis developmental stages (AtMetExpress Development LC-MS) and a data set of the composition of secondary metabolites among 20 Arabidopsis ecotypes (AtMetExpress 20 ecotypes LC-MS); and ReSpect, hybrid reference MS/MS data resources (acquisitions and literature). PRIMeLink is a new web application that allows access to the innovative data resources of PRIMe. The MS2T library was generated from a set of MS/MS spectra acquired using the automatic data acquisition function of mass spectrometry. To increase the understanding of mechanisms driving variations in metabolic profiles among plant tissues, we further provided the AtMetExpress Development LC-MS database in PRIMe, facilitating the investigation of relationships between gene expression and metabolite accumulation. This information platform therefore provides an integrative analysis resource by linking Arabidopsis transcriptome and metabolome data. Moreover, we developed the ReSpect database, a plant-specific MS/MS data resource, which allows users to identify candidate structures from the suite of complex phytochemical structures. Finally, we integrated the three databases into PRIMeLink and established a walk-through link between transcriptome and metabolome information. PRIMeLink offers a bi-directional searchable function, from the gene and the metabolite perspective, to search for targets seamlessly and effectively.

  17. Coordinating metabolite changes with our perception of plant abiotic stress responses: emerging views revealed by integrative-omic analyses.

    PubMed

    Radomiljac, Jordan D; Whelan, James; van der Merwe, Margaretha

    2013-09-06

    Metabolic configuration and adaptation under a range of abiotic stresses, including drought, heat, salinity, cold, and nutrient deprivation, are subjected to an intricate span of molecular pathways that work in parallel in order to enhance plant fitness and increase stress tolerance. In recent years, unprecedented advances have been made in identifying and linking different abiotic stresses, and the current challenge in plant molecular biology is deciphering how the signaling responses are integrated and transduced throughout metabolism. Metabolomics have often played a fundamental role in elucidating the distinct and overlapping biochemical changes that occur in plants. However, a far greater understanding and appreciation of the complexity in plant metabolism under specific stress conditions have become apparent when combining metabolomics with other-omic platforms. This review focuses on recent advances made in understanding the global changes occurring in plant metabolism under abiotic stress conditions using metabolite profiling as an integrated discovery platform.

  18. Hydraulic model analysis of water distribution system, Rockwell International, Rocky Flats, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Perstein, J.; Castellano, J.A.

    1989-01-20

    Rockwell International requested an analysis of the existing plant site water supply distribution system at Rocky Flats, Colorado, to determine its adequacy. On September 26--29, 1988, Hughes Associates, Inc., Fire Protection Engineers, accompanied by Rocky Flats Fire Department engineers and suppression personnel, conducted water flow tests at the Rocky Flats plant site. Thirty-seven flows from various points throughout the plant site were taken on the existing domestic supply/fire main installation to assure comprehensive and thorough representation of the Rocky Flats water distribution system capability. The analysis was completed in four phases which are described, together with a summary of general conclusions and recommendations.

  19. Short-term emergency response planning and risk assessment via an integrated modeling system for nuclear power plants in complex terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ni-Bin; Weng, Yu-Chi

    2013-03-01

    Short-term predictions of potential impacts from accidental release of various radionuclides at nuclear power plants are acutely needed, especially after the Fukushima accident in Japan. An integrated modeling system that provides expert services to assess the consequences of accidental or intentional releases of radioactive materials to the atmosphere has received wide attention. These scenarios can be initiated either by accident due to human, software, or mechanical failures, or from intentional acts such as sabotage and radiological dispersal devices. Stringent action might be required just minutes after the occurrence of accidental or intentional release. To fulfill the basic functions of emergency preparedness and response systems, previous studies seldom consider the suitability of air pollutant dispersion models or the connectivity between source term, dispersion, and exposure assessment models in a holistic context for decision support. Therefore, the Gaussian plume and puff models, which are only suitable for illustrating neutral air pollutants in flat terrain conditional to limited meteorological situations, are frequently used to predict the impact from accidental release of industrial sources. In situations with complex terrain or special meteorological conditions, the proposing emergency response actions might be questionable and even intractable to decisionmakers responsible for maintaining public health and environmental quality. This study is a preliminary effort to integrate the source term, dispersion, and exposure assessment models into a Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS) to tackle the complex issues for short-term emergency response planning and risk assessment at nuclear power plants. Through a series model screening procedures, we found that the diagnostic (objective) wind field model with the aid of sufficient on-site meteorological monitoring data was the most applicable model to promptly address the trend of local wind field patterns

  20. Integration of microalgae systems at municipal wastewater treatment plants: implications for energy and emission balances.

    PubMed

    Menger-Krug, Eve; Niederste-Hollenberg, Jutta; Hillenbrand, Thomas; Hiessl, Harald

    2012-11-01

    Integrating microalgae systems (MAS) at municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) to produce of bioenergy offers many potential synergies. Improved energy balances provide a strong incentive for WWTPs to integrate MAS, but it is crucial that WWTPs maintain their barrier function to protect water resources. We perform a prospective analysis of energy and emission balances of a WWTP with integrated MAS, based on a substance flow analysis of the elements carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P). These elements are the main ingredients of wastewater, and the key nutrients for algae growth. We propose a process design which relies solely on resources from wastewater with no external input of water, fertilizer or CO(2). The whole process chain, from cultivation to production of bioelectricity, takes place at the WWTP. Our results show that MAS can considerably improve energy balances of WWTPs without any external resource input. With optimistic assumptions, they can turn WWTPs into net energy producers. While intensive C recycling in MAS considerably improves the energy balance, we show that it also impacts on effluent quality. We discuss the importance of nonharvested biomass for effluent quality and highlight harvesting efficiency as key factor for energy and emission balances of MAS at WWTP.

  1. Integration of microalgae systems at municipal wastewater treatment plants: implications for energy and emission balances.

    PubMed

    Menger-Krug, Eve; Niederste-Hollenberg, Jutta; Hillenbrand, Thomas; Hiessl, Harald

    2012-11-01

    Integrating microalgae systems (MAS) at municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) to produce of bioenergy offers many potential synergies. Improved energy balances provide a strong incentive for WWTPs to integrate MAS, but it is crucial that WWTPs maintain their barrier function to protect water resources. We perform a prospective analysis of energy and emission balances of a WWTP with integrated MAS, based on a substance flow analysis of the elements carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P). These elements are the main ingredients of wastewater, and the key nutrients for algae growth. We propose a process design which relies solely on resources from wastewater with no external input of water, fertilizer or CO(2). The whole process chain, from cultivation to production of bioelectricity, takes place at the WWTP. Our results show that MAS can considerably improve energy balances of WWTPs without any external resource input. With optimistic assumptions, they can turn WWTPs into net energy producers. While intensive C recycling in MAS considerably improves the energy balance, we show that it also impacts on effluent quality. We discuss the importance of nonharvested biomass for effluent quality and highlight harvesting efficiency as key factor for energy and emission balances of MAS at WWTP. PMID:23050661

  2. The energy trilogy: An integrated sustainability model to bridge wastewater treatment plant energy and emissions gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Talibi, A. Adhim

    An estimated 4% of national energy consumption is used for drinking water and wastewater services. Despite the awareness and optimization initiatives for energy conservation, energy consumption is on the rise owing to population and urbanization expansion and to commercial and industrial business advancement. The principal concern is since energy consumption grows, the higher will be the energy production demand, leading to an increase in CO2 footprints and the contribution to global warming potential. This research is in the area of energy-water nexus, focusing on wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) energy trilogy -- the group of three related entities, which includes processes: (1) consuming energy, (2) producing energy, and (3) the resulting -- CO2 equivalents. Detailed and measurable energy information is not readily obtained for wastewater facilities, specifically during facility preliminary design phases. These limitations call for data-intensive research approach on GHG emissions quantification, plant efficiencies and source reduction techniques. To achieve these goals, this research introduced a model integrating all plant processes and their pertinent energy sources. In a comprehensive and "Energy Source-to-Effluent Discharge" pattern, this model is capable of bridging the gaps of WWTP energy, facilitating plant designers' decision-making for meeting energy assessment, sustainability and the environmental regulatory compliance. Protocols for estimating common emissions sources are available such as for fuels, whereas, site-specific emissions for other sources have to be developed and are captured in this research. The dissertation objectives were met through an extensive study of the relevant literature, models and tools, originating comprehensive lists of processes and energy sources for WWTPs, locating estimation formulas for each source, identifying site specific emissions factors, and linking the sources in a mathematical model for site specific CO2 e

  3. Production characteristics of lettuce Lactuca sativa L. in the frame of the first crop tests in the Higher Plant Chamber integrated into the MELiSSA Pilot Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhomirova, Natalia; Lawson, Jamie; Stasiak, Michael; Dixon, Mike; Paille, Christel; Peiro, Enrique; Fossen, Arnaud; Godia, Francesc

    Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) is an artificial closed ecosystem that is considered a tool for the development of a bioregenerative life support system for manned space missions. One of the five compartments of MELiSSA loop -Higher Plant Chamber was recently integrated into the MELiSSA Pilot Plant facility at Universitat Aut`noma deo Barcelona. The main contributions expected by integration of this photosynthetic compartment are oxygen, water, vegetable food production and CO2 consumption. Production characteristics of Lactuca sativa L., as a MELiSSA candidate crop, were investigated in this work in the first crop experiments in the MELiSSA Pilot Plant facility. The plants were grown in batch culture and totaled 100 plants with a growing area 5 m long and 1 m wide in a sealed controlled environment. Several replicates of the experiments were carried out with varying duration. It was shown that after 46 days of lettuce cultivation dry edible biomass averaged 27, 2 g per plant. However accumulation of oxygen in the chamber, which required purging of the chamber, and decrease in the food value of the plants was observed. Reducing the duration of the tests allowed uninterrupted test without opening the system and also allowed estimation of the crop's carbon balance. Results of productivity, tissue composition, nutrient uptake and canopy photosynthesis of lettuce regardless of test duration are discussed in the paper.

  4. CoalFleet RD&D augmentation plan for integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants

    SciTech Connect

    2007-01-15

    To help accelerate the development, demonstration, and market introduction of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and other clean coal technologies, EPRI formed the CoalFleet for Tomorrow initiative, which facilitates collaborative research by more than 50 organizations from around the world representing power generators, equipment suppliers and engineering design and construction firms, the U.S. Department of Energy, and others. This group advised EPRI as it evaluated more than 120 coal-gasification-related research projects worldwide to identify gaps or critical-path activities where additional resources and expertise could hasten the market introduction of IGCC advances. The resulting 'IGCC RD&D Augmentation Plan' describes such opportunities and how they could be addressed, for both IGCC plants to be built in the near term (by 2012-15) and over the longer term (2015-25), when demand for new electric generating capacity is expected to soar. For the near term, EPRI recommends 19 projects that could reduce the levelized cost-of-electricity for IGCC to the level of today's conventional pulverized-coal power plants with supercritical steam conditions and state-of-the-art environmental controls. For the long term, EPRI's recommended projects could reduce the levelized cost of an IGCC plant capturing 90% of the CO{sub 2} produced from the carbon in coal (for safe storage away from the atmosphere) to the level of today's IGCC plants without CO{sub 2} capture. EPRI's CoalFleet for Tomorrow program is also preparing a companion RD&D augmentation plan for advanced-combustion-based (i.e., non-gasification) clean coal technologies (Report 1013221). 7 refs., 30 figs., 29 tabs., 4 apps.

  5. Flat conductor cable for electrical packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angele, W.

    1972-01-01

    Flat conductor cable (FCC) is relatively new, highly promising means for electrical packaging and system integration. FCC offers numerous desirable traits (weight, volume and cost savings, flexibility, high reliability, predictable and repeatable electrical characteristics) which make it extremely attractive as a packaging medium. FCC, today, finds wide application in everything from integration of lunar equipment to the packaging of electronics in nuclear submarines. Described are cable construction and means of termination, applicable specifications and standards, and total FCC systems. A list of additional sources of data is also included for more intensive study.

  6. The Agrobacterium tumefaciens virulence D2 protein is responsible for precise integration of T-DNA into the plant genome.

    PubMed Central

    Tinland, B; Schoumacher, F; Gloeckler, V; Bravo-Angel, A M; Hohn, B

    1995-01-01

    The VirD2 protein of Agrobacterium tumefaciens was shown to pilot T-DNA during its transfer to the plant cell nucleus. We analyze here its participation in the integration of T-DNA by using a virD2 mutant. This mutation reduces the efficiency of T-DNA transfer, but the efficiency of integration of T-DNA per se is unaffected. Southern and sequence analyses of integration events obtained with the mutated VirD2 protein revealed an aberrant pattern of integration. These results indicate that the wild-type VirD2 protein participates in ligation of the 5'-end of the T-strand to plant DNA and that this ligation step is not rate limiting for T-DNA integration. Images PMID:7628458

  7. Is classical flat Kasner spacetime flat in quantum gravity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Parampreet

    2016-05-01

    Quantum nature of classical flat Kasner spacetime is studied using effective spacetime description in loop quantum cosmology (LQC). We find that even though the spacetime curvature vanishes at the classical level, nontrivial quantum gravitational effects can arise. For the standard loop quantization of Bianchi-I spacetime, which uniquely yields universal bounds on expansion and shear scalars and results in a generic resolution of strong singularities, we find that a flat Kasner metric is not a physical solution of the effective spacetime description, except in a limit. The lack of a flat Kasner metric at the quantum level results from a novel feature of the loop quantum Bianchi-I spacetime: quantum geometry induces nonvanishing spacetime curvature components, making it not Ricci flat even when no matter is present. The noncurvature singularity of the classical flat Kasner spacetime is avoided, and the effective spacetime transits from a flat Kasner spacetime in asymptotic future, to a Minkowski spacetime in asymptotic past. Interestingly, for an alternate loop quantization which does not share some of the fine features of the standard quantization, flat Kasner spacetime with expected classical features exists. In this case, even with nontrivial quantum geometric effects, the spacetime curvature vanishes. These examples show that the character of even a flat classical vacuum spacetime can alter in a fundamental way in quantum gravity and is sensitive to the quantization procedure.

  8. Agrobacterium may delay plant nonhomologous end-joining DNA repair via XRCC4 to favor T-DNA integration.

    PubMed

    Vaghchhipawala, Zarir E; Vasudevan, Balaji; Lee, Seonghee; Morsy, Mustafa R; Mysore, Kirankumar S

    2012-10-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a soilborne pathogen that causes crown gall disease in many dicotyledonous plants by transfer of a portion of its tumor-inducing plasmid (T-DNA) into the plant genome. Several plant factors that play a role in Agrobacterium attachment to plant cells and transport of T-DNA to the nucleus have been identified, but the T-DNA integration step during transformation is poorly understood and has been proposed to occur via nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ)-mediated double-strand DNA break (DSB) repair. Here, we report a negative role of X-ray cross complementation group4 (XRCC4), one of the key proteins required for NHEJ, in Agrobacterium T-DNA integration. Downregulation of XRCC4 in Arabidopsis and Nicotiana benthamiana increased stable transformation due to increased T-DNA integration. Overexpression of XRCC4 in Arabidopsis decreased stable transformation due to decreased T-DNA integration. Interestingly, XRCC4 directly interacted with Agrobacterium protein VirE2 in a yeast two-hybrid system and in planta. VirE2-expressing Arabidopsis plants were more susceptible to the DNA damaging chemical bleomycin and showed increased stable transformation. We hypothesize that VirE2 titrates or excludes active XRCC4 protein available for DSB repair, thus delaying the closure of DSBs in the chromosome, providing greater opportunity for T-DNA to integrate. PMID:23064322

  9. The PlaNet Consortium: A Network of European Plant Databases Connecting Plant Genome Data in an Integrated Biological Knowledge Resource

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, R.; Mayer, K. F. X.

    2004-01-01

    The completion of the Arabidopsis genome and the large collections of other plant sequences generated in recent years have sparked extensive functional genomics efforts. However, the utilization of this data is inefficient, as data sources are distributed and heterogeneous and efforts at data integration are lagging behind. PlaNet aims to overcome the limitations of individual efforts as well as the limitations of heterogeneous, independent data collections. PlaNet is a distributed effort among European bioinformatics groups and plant molecular biologists to establish a comprehensive integrated database in a collaborative network. Objectives are the implementation of infrastructure and data sources to capture plant genomic information into a comprehensive, integrated platform. This will facilitate the systematic exploration of Arabidopsis and other plants. New methods for data exchange, database integration and access are being developed to create a highly integrated, federated data resource for research. The connection between the individual resources is realized with BioMOBY. BioMOBY provides an architecture for the discovery and distribution of biological data through web services. While knowledge is centralized, data is maintained at its primary source without a need for warehousing. To standardize nomenclature and data representation, ontologies and generic data models are defined in interaction with the relevant communities.Minimal data models should make it simple to allow broad integration, while inheritance allows detail and depth to be added to more complex data objects without losing integration. To allow expert annotation and keep databases curated, local and remote annotation interfaces are provided. Easy and direct access to all data is key to the project. PMID:18629059

  10. Rocky Flats cleanup receives new deadline

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-30

    The Rocky Flats nuclear weapon plant near Denver narrowly missed a court-ordered shutdown of virtually all cleanup activities when it failed to meet an Aug. 22 deadline for a state permit to store mixed radioactive and hazardous wastes on site. US District Court Judge Lewis Babcock granted a 90-day stay of contempt charges against the US Dept. of Energy, but left open the possibility of civil penalties under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. DOE's problems stem from a lawsuit the Sierra Club won two years ago in which Babcock gave Rocky Flats until Aug. 22 to obtain a RCRA permit or interim status from Colorado to store 600 cu yd of mixed wastes. If DOE failed to do so, the court said it could not generate further hazardous wastes at the site.

  11. Luneburg and flat lens based on graded photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Sun, Xiaohong; Gao, Minglei; Wang, Shuai

    2016-04-01

    Square-lattice graded photonic crystals employed for designing Luneburg and Flat Lens is presented. Comparable simulation of the Luneburg lens with TE and TM polarizations predicts that TM lens possesses of enlarged transmission bandwidth and strengthened focusing ability, in comparison with TE lens. As a typical simplified counterpart, the evolution of focusing intensity and numerical aperture of the flat lens is achieved. What is more, those Luneburg and Flat Lens can withstand imperfect gradients in structure design. This will provide a guidance to produce a high quality focusing lens with small size, short focal length and large numerical aperture applied in the integrated photonic devices.

  12. Cost effective designs for integrating new electronic turbine control systems into existing steam power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, T.V.

    1996-10-01

    Different cost-effective approaches have been developed for integrating new digital turbine control systems into existing power plants. The devices under consideration range from self contained actuators which replace the existing hydraulic and mechanical servomotor components, linear proportional actuators, which mechanically drive the original servomotor pilot relays, to electro-hydraulic converters which provide a control pressure to the existing hydraulic servomotor pilot relays. These devices significantly reduce the implementation cost, while still providing most of the benefits that can be gained through greater utilization of the new electronic control capabilities. These three design approaches are analyzed for control performance, failure modes, long-term maintenance issues, and applicability to specific turbine configurations.

  13. Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, E.S.; Salmento, J.S.; Frey, H.C.; Abu-Baker, A.; Berkenpas, M.

    1991-05-01

    The Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM) was designed to permit the systematic evaluation of environmental control options for pulverized coal-fired (PC) power plants. Of special interest was the ability to compare the performance and cost of advanced pollution control systems to ``conventional`` technologies for the control of particulate, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. Of importance also was the ability to consider pre-combustion, combustion and post-combustion control methods employed alone or in combination to meet tough air pollution emission standards. Finally, the ability to conduct probabilistic analyses is a unique capability of the IECM. Key results are characterized as distribution functions rather than as single deterministic values. (VC)

  14. Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, E.S.; Salmento, J.S.; Frey, H.C.; Abu-Baker, A.; Berkenpas, M.

    1991-05-01

    The Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM) was designed to permit the systematic evaluation of environmental control options for pulverized coal-fired (PC) power plants. Of special interest was the ability to compare the performance and cost of advanced pollution control systems to conventional'' technologies for the control of particulate, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. Of importance also was the ability to consider pre-combustion, combustion and post-combustion control methods employed alone or in combination to meet tough air pollution emission standards. Finally, the ability to conduct probabilistic analyses is a unique capability of the IECM. Key results are characterized as distribution functions rather than as single deterministic values. (VC)

  15. The role of pollinator diversity in the evolution of corolla-shape integration in a pollination-generalist plant clade.

    PubMed

    Gómez, José María; Perfectti, Francisco; Klingenberg, Christian Peter

    2014-08-19

    Flowers of animal-pollinated plants are integrated structures shaped by the action of pollinator-mediated selection. It is widely assumed that pollination specialization increases the magnitude of floral integration. However, empirical evidence is still inconclusive. In this study, we explored the role of pollinator diversity in shaping the evolution of corolla-shape integration in Erysimum, a plant genus with generalized pollination systems. We quantified floral integration in Erysimum using geometric morphometrics and explored its evolution using phylogenetic comparative methods. Corolla-shape integration was low but significantly different from zero in all study species. Spatial autocorrelation and phylogenetic signal in corolla-shape integration were not detected. In addition, integration in Erysimum seems to have evolved in a way that is consistent with Brownian motion, but with frequent convergent evolution. Corolla-shape integration was negatively associated with the number of pollinators visiting the flowers of each Erysimum species. That is, it was lower in those species having a more generalized pollination system. This negative association may occur because the co-occurrence of many pollinators imposes conflicting selection and cancels out any consistent selection on specific floral traits, preventing the evolution of highly integrated flowers.

  16. Anthropogenic plutonium in the North Jiangsu tidal flats of the Yellow Sea in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhiyong; Zheng, Jian; Pan, Shaoming; Gao, Jianhua

    2013-08-01

    The (239+240)Pu activities and (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios were analyzed using a double-focusing SF-ICP-MS for sediment core samples obtained in 2007-2008 from the North Jiangsu tidal flats in the Yellow Sea in China. Particular attention was focused on the (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios in the sediment to identify the origins of Pu isotopes. The profiles of (239+240)Pu activities in the sediment cores are similar to those of the (137)Cs activities. The (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios in the tidal flats showed typical global fallout values, indicating that this area did not receive the possible early direct close-in fallout or oceanic current transported Pu from the Pacific Proving Grounds (PPG). If any, the contribution of the PPG source Pu to the total Pu inventory is negligible. This is different from the sediments in the Yangtze River estuary in the East China Sea, where the PPG source Pu contributed ca. 45 % to the total inventory. In addition, the observation of the global fallout origin Pu in the North Jiangsu tidal flats indicated that the nuclear power plant in the region was not causing any alteration/contamination to the (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios. The (239+240)Pu and (137)Cs activities/inventories in the sediment cores showed correlation to the mean clay sediment compositions (fine particles) in the tidal flats. Therefore, mud deposits are served as sinks for the anthropogenic radionuclides in the tidal flats and the Yellow Sea. Integrated with the previously reported spatial distributions of (239+240)Pu and (137)Cs activities in the surface sediments of the Yellow Sea, the mechanism of Pu transport with the ocean currents and the scavenging characteristics in the Yellow Sea were discussed.

  17. Anthropogenic plutonium in the North Jiangsu tidal flats of the Yellow Sea in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhiyong; Zheng, Jian; Pan, Shaoming; Gao, Jianhua

    2013-08-01

    The (239+240)Pu activities and (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios were analyzed using a double-focusing SF-ICP-MS for sediment core samples obtained in 2007-2008 from the North Jiangsu tidal flats in the Yellow Sea in China. Particular attention was focused on the (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios in the sediment to identify the origins of Pu isotopes. The profiles of (239+240)Pu activities in the sediment cores are similar to those of the (137)Cs activities. The (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios in the tidal flats showed typical global fallout values, indicating that this area did not receive the possible early direct close-in fallout or oceanic current transported Pu from the Pacific Proving Grounds (PPG). If any, the contribution of the PPG source Pu to the total Pu inventory is negligible. This is different from the sediments in the Yangtze River estuary in the East China Sea, where the PPG source Pu contributed ca. 45 % to the total inventory. In addition, the observation of the global fallout origin Pu in the North Jiangsu tidal flats indicated that the nuclear power plant in the region was not causing any alteration/contamination to the (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios. The (239+240)Pu and (137)Cs activities/inventories in the sediment cores showed correlation to the mean clay sediment compositions (fine particles) in the tidal flats. Therefore, mud deposits are served as sinks for the anthropogenic radionuclides in the tidal flats and the Yellow Sea. Integrated with the previously reported spatial distributions of (239+240)Pu and (137)Cs activities in the surface sediments of the Yellow Sea, the mechanism of Pu transport with the ocean currents and the scavenging characteristics in the Yellow Sea were discussed. PMID:23264060

  18. Sagebrush Flat Wildlife Area 2008 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Dan

    2008-11-03

    The Sagebrush Flat Wildlife Area is a 12,718 acre complex located in Douglas County, Washington. Four distinct management units make up the area: Bridgeport, Chester Butte, Dormaier and Sagebrush Flat. The four Units are located across a wide geographic area within Douglas County. The Units are situated roughly along a north/south line from Bridgeport in the north to the Douglas/Grant county line in the south, 60 miles away. The wildlife area was established to conserve and enhance shrubsteppe habitat for the benefit shrubsteppe obligate and dependent wildlife species. In particular, the Sagebrush Flat Wildlife Area is managed to promote the recovery of three state-listed species: Columbian sharp-tailed grouse (threatened), greater sage grouse (threatened) and the pygmy rabbit (endangered). The US Fish and Wildlife Service also list the pygmy rabbit as endangered. Wildlife area staff seeded 250 acres of old agricultural fields located on the Sagebrush Flat, Dormaier and Chester Butte units. This has been a three project to reestablish high quality shrubsteppe habitat on fields that had either been abandoned (Dormaier) or were dominated by non-native grasses. A mix of 17 native grasses and forbs, most of which were locally collected and grown, was used. First year maintenance included spot spraying Dalmatian toadflax on all sites and mowing annual weeds to reduce competition. Photo points were established and will be integral to long term monitoring and evaluation. Additional monitoring and evaluation will come from existing vegetation transects. This year weed control efforts included spot treatment of noxious weeds, particularly Dalmatian toadflax, in previously restored fields on the Bridgeport Unit (150 acres). Spot treatment also took place within fields scheduled for restoration (40 acres) and in areas where toadflax infestations are small and relatively easily contained. Where toadflax is so widespread that chemical treatment would be impractical, we use the

  19. Conceptual design of an integrated hydrothermal liquefaction and biogas plant for sustainable bioenergy production.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Jessica; Rudra, Souman; Toor, Saqib S; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo; Rosendahl, Lasse A

    2013-02-01

    Initial process studies carried out in Aspen Plus on an integrated thermochemical conversion process are presented herein. In the simulations, a hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) plant is combined with a biogas plant (BP), such that the digestate from the BP is converted to a biocrude in the HTL process. This biorefinery concept offers a sophisticated and sustainable way of converting organic residuals into a range of high-value biofuel streams in addition to combined heat and power (CHP) production. The primary goal of this study is to provide an initial estimate of the feasibility of such a process. By adding a diesel-quality-fuel output to the process, the product value is increased significantly compared to a conventional BP. An input of 1000 kg h(-1) manure delivers approximately 30-38 kg h(-1) fuel and 38-61 kg h(-1) biogas. The biogas can be used to upgrade the biocrude, to supply the gas grid or for CHP. An estimated 62-84% of the biomass energy can be recovered in the biofuels.

  20. Integration and optimization of the gas removal system for hybrid-cycle OTEC power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Rabas, T.J.; Panchal, C.B.; Stevens, H.C. )

    1990-02-01

    A preliminary design of the noncondensible gas removal system for a 10 mWe, land-based hybrid-cycle OTEC power plant has been developed and is presented herein. This gas removal system is very different from that used for conventional power plants because of the substantially larger and continuous noncondensible gas flow rates and lower condenser pressure levels which predicate the need for higher-efficiency components. Previous OTEC studies discussed the need for multiple high-efficiency compressors with intercoolers; however, no previous design effort was devoted to the details of the intercoolers, integration and optimization of the intercoolers with the compressors, and the practical design constraints and feasibility issues of these components. The resulting gas removal system design uses centrifugal (radial) compressors with matrix-type crossflow aluminum heat exchangers as intercoolers. Once-through boiling of ammonia is used as the heat sink for the cooling and condensing of the steam-gas mixture. A computerized calculation method was developed for the performance analysis and subsystem optimization. For a specific number of compressor units and the stream arrangement, the method is used to calculate the dimensions, speeds, power requirements, and costs of all the components.

  1. Energy-nutrients-water nexus: integrated resource recovery in municipal wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Mo, Weiwei; Zhang, Qiong

    2013-09-30

    Wastewater treatment consumes large amounts of energy and materials to comply with discharge standards. At the same time, wastewater contains resources, which can be recovered for secondary uses if treated properly. Hence, the goal of this paper is to review the available resource recovery methods onsite or offsite of municipal wastewater treatment plants. These methods are categorized into three major resource recovery approaches: onsite energy generation, nutrient recycling and water reuse. Under each approach, the review provides the advantages and disadvantages, recovery potentials and current application status of each method, as well as the synthesized results of the life cycle studies for each approach. From a comprehensive literature review, it was found that, in addition to technology improvements, there is also a need to evaluate the applications of the resource recovery methods in wastewater treatment plants from a life cycle perspective. Future research should investigate the integration of the resource recovery methods to explore the combined benefits and potential tradeoffs of these methods under different scales.

  2. MEGANTE: a web-based system for integrated plant genome annotation.

    PubMed

    Numa, Hisataka; Itoh, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    The recent advancement of high-throughput genome sequencing technologies has resulted in a considerable increase in demands for large-scale genome annotation. While annotation is a crucial step for downstream data analyses and experimental studies, this process requires substantial expertise and knowledge of bioinformatics. Here we present MEGANTE, a web-based annotation system that makes plant genome annotation easy for researchers unfamiliar with bioinformatics. Without any complicated configuration, users can perform genomic sequence annotations simply by uploading a sequence and selecting the species to query. MEGANTE automatically runs several analysis programs and integrates the results to select the appropriate consensus exon-intron structures and to predict open reading frames (ORFs) at each locus. Functional annotation, including a similarity search against known proteins and a functional domain search, are also performed for the predicted ORFs. The resultant annotation information is visualized with a widely used genome browser, GBrowse. For ease of analysis, the results can be downloaded in Microsoft Excel format. All of the query sequences and annotation results are stored on the server side so that users can access their own data from virtually anywhere on the web. The current release of MEGANTE targets 24 plant species from the Brassicaceae, Fabaceae, Musaceae, Poaceae, Salicaceae, Solanaceae, Rosaceae and Vitaceae families, and it allows users to submit a sequence up to 10 Mb in length and to save up to 100 sequences with the annotation information on the server. The MEGANTE web service is available at https://megante.dna.affrc.go.jp/.

  3. Integration of solar process heat into an existing thermal desalination plant in Qatar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dieckmann, S.; Krishnamoorthy, G.; Aboumadi, M.; Pandian, Y.; Dersch, J.; Krüger, D.; Al-Rasheed, A. S.; Krüger, J.; Ottenburger, U.

    2016-05-01

    The water supply of many countries in the Middle East relies mainly on water desalination. In Qatar, the water network is completely fed with water from desalination plants. One of these power and desalination plants is located in Ras Abu Fontas, 20 km south of the capital Doha. The heat required for thermal desalination is provided by steam which is generated in waste heat recovery boilers (HRB) connected to gas turbines. Additionally, gas fired boilers or auxiliary firing in the HRBs are used in order to decouple the water generation from the electricity generation. In Ras Abu Fontas some auxiliary boilers run 24/7 because the HRB capacity does not match the demand of the desalination units. This paper contains the techno-economic analysis of two large-scale commercial solar field options, which could reduce the fuel consumption significantly. Both options employ parabolic trough technology with a nominal saturated steam output of 350 t/h at 15 bar (198°C, 240 MW). The first option uses direct steam generation without storage while the second relies on common thermal oil in combination with a molten salt thermal storage with 6 hours full-load capacity. The economic benefit of the integration of solar power depends mainly on the cost of the fossil alternative, and thus the price (respectively opportunity costs) of natural gas. At a natural gas price of 8 US-/MMBtu the internal rate of return on equity (IRR) is expected at about 5%.

  4. Evolutionary demography of iteroparous plants: incorporating non-lethal costs of reproduction into integral projection models.

    PubMed

    Miller, Tom E X; Williams, Jennifer L; Jongejans, Eelke; Brys, Rein; Jacquemyn, Hans

    2012-07-22

    Understanding the selective forces that shape reproductive strategies is a central goal of evolutionary ecology. Selection on the timing of reproduction is well studied in semelparous organisms because the cost of reproduction (death) can be easily incorporated into demographic models. Iteroparous organisms also exhibit delayed reproduction and experience reproductive costs, although these are not necessarily lethal. How non-lethal costs shape iteroparous life histories remains unresolved. We analysed long-term demographic data for the iteroparous orchid Orchis purpurea from two habitat types (light and shade). In both the habitats, flowering plants had lower growth rates and this cost was greater for smaller plants. We detected an additional growth cost of fruit production in the light habitat. We incorporated these non-lethal costs into integral projection models to identify the flowering size that maximizes fitness. In both habitats, observed flowering sizes were well predicted by the models. We also estimated optimal parameters for size-dependent flowering effort, but found a strong mismatch with the observed flower production. Our study highlights the role of context-dependent non-lethal reproductive costs as selective forces in the evolution of iteroparous life histories, and provides a novel and broadly applicable approach to studying the evolutionary demography of iteroparous organisms.

  5. Absolute calibration of optical flats

    DOEpatents

    Sommargren, Gary E.

    2005-04-05

    The invention uses the phase shifting diffraction interferometer (PSDI) to provide a true point-by-point measurement of absolute flatness over the surface of optical flats. Beams exiting the fiber optics in a PSDI have perfect spherical wavefronts. The measurement beam is reflected from the optical flat and passed through an auxiliary optic to then be combined with the reference beam on a CCD. The combined beams include phase errors due to both the optic under test and the auxiliary optic. Standard phase extraction algorithms are used to calculate this combined phase error. The optical flat is then removed from the system and the measurement fiber is moved to recombine the two beams. The newly combined beams include only the phase errors due to the auxiliary optic. When the second phase measurement is subtracted from the first phase measurement, the absolute phase error of the optical flat is obtained.

  6. Presence of indicator plant species as a predictor of wetland vegetation integrity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stapanian, Martin A.; Adams, Jean V.; Gara, Brian

    2013-01-01

    We fit regression and classification tree models to vegetation data collected from Ohio (USA) wetlands to determine (1) which species best predict Ohio vegetation index of biotic integrity (OVIBI) score and (2) which species best predict high-quality wetlands (OVIBI score >75). The simplest regression tree model predicted OVIBI score based on the occurrence of three plant species: skunk-cabbage (Symplocarpus foetidus), cinnamon fern (Osmunda cinnamomea), and swamp rose (Rosa palustris). The lowest OVIBI scores were best predicted by the absence of the selected plant species rather than by the presence of other species. The simplest classification tree model predicted high-quality wetlands based on the occurrence of two plant species: skunk-cabbage and marsh-fern (Thelypteris palustris). The overall misclassification rate from this tree was 13 %. Again, low-quality wetlands were better predicted than high-quality wetlands by the absence of selected species rather than the presence of other species using the classification tree model. Our results suggest that a species’ wetland status classification and coefficient of conservatism are of little use in predicting wetland quality. A simple, statistically derived species checklist such as the one created in this study could be used by field biologists to quickly and efficiently identify wetland sites likely to be regulated as high-quality, and requiring more intensive field assessments. Alternatively, it can be used for advanced determinations of low-quality wetlands. Agencies can save considerable money by screening wetlands for the presence/absence of such “indicator” species before issuing permits.

  7. Mosses in Ohio wetlands respond to indices of disturbance and vascular plant integrity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stapanian, Martin A.; Schumacher, William; Gara, Brian; Viau, Nick

    2016-01-01

    We examined the relationships between an index of wetland habitat quality and disturbance (ORAM score) and an index of vascular plant integrity (VIBI-FQ score) with moss species richness and a moss quality assessment index (MQAI) in 45 wetlands in three vegetation types in Ohio, USA. Species richness of mosses and MQAI were positively associated with ORAM and VIBI-FQ scores. VIBI-FQ score was a better predictor of both moss species richness and MQAI than was either ORAM score or vegetation type. This result was consistent with the strict microhabitat requirements for many moss species, which may be better assessed by VIBI-FQ than ORAM. Probability curves as a function of VIBI-FQ score were then generated for presence of groups of moss species having the same degree of fidelity to substrate and plant communities relative to other species in the moss flora (coefficients of conservatism, CCs). Species having an intermediate- or high degree of fidelity to substrate and plant communities (i.e., species with CC ≥ 5) had a 50% probability of presence (P50) and 90% probability of presence (P90) in wetlands with intermediate- and high VIBI-FQ scores, respectively. Although moss species richness, probability of presence of species based on CC, and MQAI may reflect wetland habitat quality, the 95% confidence intervals around P50 and P90 values may be too wide for regulatory use. Moss species richness, MQAI, and presence of groups of mosses may be more useful for evaluating moss habitat quality in wetlands than a set of “indicator species.”

  8. Microgap flat panel display

    DOEpatents

    Wuest, Craig R.

    1998-01-01

    A microgap flat panel display which includes a thin gas-filled display tube that utilizes switched X-Y "pixel" strips to trigger electron avalanches and activate a phosphor at a given location on a display screen. The panel utilizes the principal of electron multiplication in a gas subjected to a high electric field to provide sufficient electron current to activate standard luminescent phosphors located on an anode. The X-Y conductive strips of a few micron widths may for example, be deposited on opposite sides of a thin insulating substrate, or on one side of the adjacent substrates and function as a cathode. The X-Y strips are separated from the anode by a gap filled with a suitable gas. Electrical bias is selectively switched onto X and Y strips to activate a "pixel" in the region where these strips overlap. A small amount of a long-lived radioisotope is used to initiate an electron avalanche in the overlap region when bias is applied. The avalanche travels through the gas filled gap and activates a luminescent phosphor of a selected color. The bias is adjusted to give a proportional electron multiplication to control brightness for given pixel.

  9. Microgap flat panel display

    DOEpatents

    Wuest, C.R.

    1998-12-08

    A microgap flat panel display is disclosed which includes a thin gas-filled display tube that utilizes switched X-Y ``pixel`` strips to trigger electron avalanches and activate a phosphor at a given location on a display screen. The panel utilizes the principal of electron multiplication in a gas subjected to a high electric field to provide sufficient electron current to activate standard luminescent phosphors located on an anode. The X-Y conductive strips of a few micron widths may for example, be deposited on opposite sides of a thin insulating substrate, or on one side of the adjacent substrates and function as a cathode. The X-Y strips are separated from the anode by a gap filled with a suitable gas. Electrical bias is selectively switched onto X and Y strips to activate a ``pixel`` in the region where these strips overlap. A small amount of a long-lived radioisotope is used to initiate an electron avalanche in the overlap region when bias is applied. The avalanche travels through the gas filled gap and activates a luminescent phosphor of a selected color. The bias is adjusted to give a proportional electron multiplication to control brightness for given pixel. 6 figs.

  10. Effects of patch contrast and arrangement on benefits of clonal integration in a rhizomatous clonal plant

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yong-Jian; Shi, Xue-Ping; Wu, Xiao-Jing; Meng, Xue-Feng; Wang, Peng-Cheng; Zhou, Zhi-Xiang; Luo, Fang-Li; Yu, Fei-Hai

    2016-01-01

    The availabilities of light and soil water resources usually spatially co-vary in natural habitats, and the spatial pattern of such co-variation may affect the benefits of physiological integration between connected ramets of clonal plants. In a greenhouse experiment, we grew connected or disconnected ramet pairs [consisting of a proximal (relatively old) and a distal (relative young) ramet] of a rhizomatous herb Iris japonica in four heterogeneous environments differing in patch arrangement (reciprocal vs. parallel patchiness of light and soil water) and patch contrast (high vs. low contrast of light and water). Biomass of the proximal part, distal part and clonal fragment of I. japonica were all significantly greater in the intact than in the severed treatment, in the parallel than in the reciprocal patchiness treatment and in the high than in the low contrast treatment, but the effect of severing the connection between ramet pairs did not depend on patch arrangement or contrast. Severing the connection decreased number of ramets of the distal part and the clonal fragment in the parallel patchiness arrangement, but not in the reciprocal patchiness arrangement. Therefore, the spatial arrangement of resource patches can alter the effects of clonal integration on asexual reproduction in I. japonica. PMID:27759040

  11. Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, E.S.

    1989-04-01

    This is the sixth quarterly report of DOE Contract No. DE-AC22- 87PC79863, entitled Modeling of Integrated Environmental Control Systems for Coal-Fired Power Plants.'' This report summarizes accomplishments during the period January 1, 1989 to March 31, 1989. Efforts this past quarter focused primarily on the preparation of a computer User's Guide for the Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM). Drafts of the first two chapters are now complete. These chapters constitute the bulk of this quarterly report. Drafts of the remaining chapters are in preparation, and will appear in a future report this year. We also have been working closely with DOE/PETC to define the computer configuration to be transferred to PETC as a contract deliverable. That process is now complete and the equipment is on order. Delivery of the IECM to PETC is expected during the next calendar quarter. Finally, we are continuing our efforts to develop and refine a number of clean coal technology process models. These efforts will be summarized and reported at a future date.

  12. Integrating roots into a whole plant network of flowering time genes in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Bouché, Frédéric; D’Aloia, Maria; Tocquin, Pierre; Lobet, Guillaume; Detry, Nathalie; Périlleux, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Molecular data concerning the involvement of roots in the genetic pathways regulating floral transition are lacking. In this study, we performed global analyses of the root transcriptome in Arabidopsis in order to identify flowering time genes that are expressed in the roots and genes that are differentially expressed in the roots during the induction of flowering. Data mining of public microarray experiments uncovered that about 200 genes whose mutations are reported to alter flowering time are expressed in the roots (i.e. were detected in more than 50% of the microarrays). However, only a few flowering integrator genes passed the analysis cutoff. Comparison of root transcriptome in short days and during synchronized induction of flowering by a single 22-h long day revealed that 595 genes were differentially expressed. Enrichment analyses of differentially expressed genes in root tissues, gene ontology categories, and cis-regulatory elements converged towards sugar signaling. We concluded that roots are integrated in systemic signaling, whereby carbon supply coordinates growth at the whole plant level during the induction of flowering. This coordination could involve the root circadian clock and cytokinin biosynthesis as a feed forward loop towards the shoot. PMID:27352932

  13. Local fracture properties and dissimilar weld integrity in nuclear power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guozhen; Wang, Haitao; Xuan, Fuzhen; Tu, Shantung; Liu, Changjun

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, the local fracture properties in a Alloy52M dissimilar metal welded joint (DMWJ) between A508 ferritic steel and 316 L stainless steel in nuclear power plants were investigated by using the single-edge notched bend (SENB) specimens, and their use in integrity assessment of DMWJ structures was analyzed. The results show that the local fracture resistance in the DMWJ is determined by local fracture mechanism, and which is mainly related to the microstructures and local strength mismatches of materials at the crack locations. The initial cracks always grow towards the materials with lower strength, and the crack path deviation is mainly controlled by the local strength mismatch. If the local fracture properties could not be used for cracks in the heat affected zones (HAZs), interface and near interface zones, the use of the fracture properties ( J-resistance curves) of base metals or weld metals following present codes will unavoidably produce non-conservative (unsafe) or excessive conservative assessment results. In most cases, the assessment results will be potentially unsafe. Therefore, it is recommended to obtain and use local mechanical and fracture properties in the integrity assessment of DMWJs.

  14. The Plant Organelles Database 3 (PODB3) update 2014: integrating electron micrographs and new options for plant organelle research.

    PubMed

    Mano, Shoji; Nakamura, Takanori; Kondo, Maki; Miwa, Tomoki; Nishikawa, Shuh-ichi; Mimura, Tetsuro; Nagatani, Akira; Nishimura, Mikio

    2014-01-01

    The Plant Organelles Database 2 (PODB2), which was first launched in 2006 as PODB, provides static image and movie data of plant organelles, protocols for plant organelle research and external links to relevant websites. PODB2 has facilitated plant organellar research and the understanding of plant organelle dynamics. To provide comprehensive information on plant organelles in more detail, PODB2 was updated to PODB3 (http://podb.nibb.ac.jp/Organellome/). PODB3 contains two additional components: the electron micrograph database and the perceptive organelles database. Through the electron micrograph database, users can examine the subcellular and/or suborganellar structures in various organs of wild-type and mutant plants. The perceptive organelles database provides information on organelle dynamics in response to external stimuli. In addition to the extra components, the user interface for access has been enhanced in PODB3. The data in PODB3 are directly submitted by plant researchers and can be freely downloaded for use in further analysis. PODB3 contains all the information included in PODB2, and the volume of data and protocols deposited in PODB3 continue to grow steadily. We welcome contributions of data from all plant researchers to enhance the utility and comprehensiveness of PODB3. PMID:24092884

  15. In-situ nitrogen removal from the eutrophic water by microbial-plant integrated system*

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hui-qing; Yang, Xiao-e; Fang, Yun-ying; Pu, Pei-min; Li, Zheng-kui; Rengel, Zed

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study was to assess the influence of interaction of combination of immobilized nitrogen cycling bacteria (INCB) with aquatic macrophytes on nitrogen removal from the eutrophic waterbody, and to get insight into different mechanisms involved in nitrogen removal. Methods: The aquatic macrophytes used include Eichhornia crassipes (summer-autumn floating macrophyte), Elodea nuttallii (winter-growing submerged macrophyte), and nitrogen cycling bacteria including ammonifying, nitrosating, nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria isolated from Taihu Lake. The immobilization carriers materials were made from hydrophilic monomers 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA) and hydrophobic 2-hydroxyethyl methylacrylate (HEMA). Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the roles of macrophytes combined with INCB on nitrogen removal from eutrophic water during different seasons. Results: Eichhornia crassipes and Elodea nuttallii had different potentials in purification of eutrophic water. Floating macrophyte+bacteria (INCB) performed best in improving water quality (during the first experiment) and decreased total nitrogen (TN) by 70.2%, nitrite and ammonium by 92.2% and 50.9%, respectively, during the experimental period, when water transparency increased from 0.5 m to 1.8 m. When INCB was inoculated into the floating macrophyte system, the populations of nitrosating, nitrifying, and denitrifying bacteria increased by 1 to 2 orders of magnitude compared to the un-inoculated treatments, but ammonifying bacteria showed no obvious difference between different treatments. Lower values of chlorophyll a, CODMn, and pH were found in the microbial-plant integrated system, as compared to the control. Highest reduction in N was noted during the treatment with submerged macrophyte+INCB, being 26.1% for TN, 85.2% for nitrite, and 85.2% for ammonium at the end of 2nd experiment. And in the treatment, the populations of ammonifying, nitrosating, nitrifying, and denitrifying bacteria

  16. Quantifying biological integrity of California sage scrub communities using plant life-form cover.

    SciTech Connect

    Hamada, Y.; Stow, D. A.; Franklin, J.

    2010-01-01

    The California sage scrub (CSS) community type in California's Mediterranean-type ecosystems supports a large number of rare, threatened, and endangered species, and is critically degraded and endangered. Monitoring ecological variables that provide information about community integrity is vital to conserving these biologically diverse communities. Fractional cover of true shrub, subshrub, herbaceous vegetation, and bare ground should fill information gaps between generalized vegetation type maps and detailed field-based plot measurements of species composition and provide an effective means for quantifying CSS community integrity. Remote sensing is the only tool available for estimating spatially comprehensive fractional cover over large extent, and fractional cover of plant life-form types is one of the measures of vegetation state that is most amenable to remote sensing. The use of remote sensing does not eliminate the need for either field surveying or vegetation type mapping; rather it will likely require a combination of approaches to reliably estimate life-form cover and to provide comprehensive information for communities. According to our review and synthesis, life-form fractional cover has strong potential for providing ecologically meaningful intermediate-scale information, which is unattainable from vegetation type maps and species-level field measurements. Thus, we strongly recommend incorporating fractional cover of true shrub, subshrub, herb, and bare ground in CSS community monitoring methods. Estimating life-form cover at a 25 m x 25 m spatial scale using remote sensing would be an appropriate approach for initial implementation. Investigation of remote sensing techniques and an appropriate spatial scale; collaboration of resource managers, biologists, and remote sensing specialists, and refinement of protocols are essential for integrating life-form fractional cover mapping into strategies for sustainable long-term CSS community management.

  17. Rocky Flats Solar Evaporation Ponds RCRA hybrid-closure case study

    SciTech Connect

    Ogg, R.T.; Everett, L.G.; Cullen, S.J.

    1995-12-31

    The Solar Evaporation Ponds (SEP)/Operable Unit 4 (OU 4), located at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) sixteen miles northwest of Denver, Colorado, is currently undergoing remediation/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) closure in accordance with the Rocky Flats Interagency Agreement (IAG) signed by the US Department of Energy (DOE), US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Colorado Department of Health (CDH) on January 22, 1991. Based on the Phase 1 (source and soils) RCRA Facility Investigation/Remedial Investigation (RFI/RI) data and interpretations, the DOE and EG and G Rocky Flats, Inc. (EG and G) have selected a permanent surface engineered/isolation barrier as the technological option for remediation of the SEP. The DOE and EG and G will utilize all natural materials to create an impermeable barrier/structure to isolate the waste being left in place from impacting human health and the environment for a minimum of 1,000 years. The rationale for utilizing natural materials is two fold; (1) optimize long term performance of the barrier and; (2) design a structure which will be near maintenance free (passive remediation) for 1,000 years. The DOE and EG and G have taken a proactive approach in providing post closure performance assessment for this RCRA closure action. An integrated monitoring system has been designed which will include monitoring the engineered barrier, vadose zone and ground water systems. Rocky Flats will integrate instrumentation, into the permanent engineered barrier which will provide early warning of potential liquid migration through the barrier and into the waste zone.

  18. Rocky Flats Solar Evaporation Ponds RCRA hybrid-closure case study

    SciTech Connect

    Ogg, R.T.; Everett, L.G.; Cullen, S.J.

    1994-12-31

    The Solar Evaporation Ponds (SEP)/Operable Unit 4 (OU 4), located at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) sixteen miles northwest of Denver, Colorado, is currently undergoing remediation/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) closure in accordance with the Rocky Flats Interagency Agreement (IAG) signed by the US Department of Energy (DOE), US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Colorado Department of Health (CDH) on January 22, 1991. Based on the ``Phase 1`` (source and soils) RCRA Facility Investigation/Remedial Investigation (RFM data and interpretations), the DOE and EG and G Rocky Flats, Inc. (EG and G) have selected a permanent surface engineered/isolation barrier as the technological option for remediation of the SEP. The DOE and EG and G will utilize all natural materials to create an ``impermeable`` barrier/structure to isolate the waste being left in place from impacting human health and the environment for a minimum of 1,000 years. Their rationale for utilizing natural materials is two fold; (1) optimize long term performance of the barrier and; (2) design a structure which will be near maintenance free (passive remediation) for 1,000 years. The DOE and EG and G have taken a proactive approach in providing post closure performance assessment for this RCRA closure action. An integrated monitoring system has been designed which will include monitoring the engineered barrier, vadose zone and ground water systems. Rocky Flats will integrate instrumentation into the permanent engineered barrier which will provide early warning of potential liquid migration through the barrier and into the waste zone.

  19. Effects of clonal integration on the invasive clonal plant Alternanthera philoxeroides under heterogeneous and homogeneous water availability

    PubMed Central

    You, Wen-Hua; Han, Cui-Min; Liu, Chun-Hua; Yu, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Many notorious invasive plants are clonal, living in heterogeneous or homogeneous habitats. To understand how clonal integration affects the performance of these plants in different habitat conditions, an 8-week greenhouse experiment was conducted: ramet pairs of A. philoxeroides were grown in two habitats, either heterogeneous or homogeneous in water availability, with the stolon connections either severed or kept intact. Under heterogeneous water availability, compared with ramets in homogeneous habitats, clonal integration significantly promoted the growth and photosynthetic performance of water-stressed apical ramets, whereas it only increased the photosynthetic performance but did not affect the growth of water-stressed basal ramets. Moreover, clonal integration markedly increased the root/shoot ratios of ramets grown in habitats with high water supply but decreased it under low water availability. Under homogeneous water availability, stolon connection (clonal integration) did not influence the growth, photosynthetic performance and biomass allocation of water-stressed ramets, but it significantly promoted the growth of well-watered ramets in both apical and basal sections. These findings deepen our understanding of the bidirectional and differentiated (mainly acropetal) clonal integration of A. philoxeroides, suggesting that the invasive plant A. philoxeroides can benefit from clonal integration in both heterogeneous and homogeneous habitats. PMID:27416868

  20. Effects of clonal integration on the invasive clonal plant Alternanthera philoxeroides under heterogeneous and homogeneous water availability.

    PubMed

    You, Wen-Hua; Han, Cui-Min; Liu, Chun-Hua; Yu, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Many notorious invasive plants are clonal, living in heterogeneous or homogeneous habitats. To understand how clonal integration affects the performance of these plants in different habitat conditions, an 8-week greenhouse experiment was conducted: ramet pairs of A. philoxeroides were grown in two habitats, either heterogeneous or homogeneous in water availability, with the stolon connections either severed or kept intact. Under heterogeneous water availability, compared with ramets in homogeneous habitats, clonal integration significantly promoted the growth and photosynthetic performance of water-stressed apical ramets, whereas it only increased the photosynthetic performance but did not affect the growth of water-stressed basal ramets. Moreover, clonal integration markedly increased the root/shoot ratios of ramets grown in habitats with high water supply but decreased it under low water availability. Under homogeneous water availability, stolon connection (clonal integration) did not influence the growth, photosynthetic performance and biomass allocation of water-stressed ramets, but it significantly promoted the growth of well-watered ramets in both apical and basal sections. These findings deepen our understanding of the bidirectional and differentiated (mainly acropetal) clonal integration of A. philoxeroides, suggesting that the invasive plant A. philoxeroides can benefit from clonal integration in both heterogeneous and homogeneous habitats. PMID:27416868

  1. CESAR at Poker Flat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsiev, D.; Slanger, T. G.; Hedin, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Compact Echelle Spectrograph for Aeronomic Research (CESAR) has been sited at Poker Flat Research Range since November 2013, collecting data over two seasons of the nightglow and the aurora. CESAR has operated with a field of view of seven degrees in the zenith direction, with a resolution of 5000, although a resolution three times greater is available. So far, data collection times have been in the range of 20 minutes, while the wavelength range used has been 500-1050 nm. Detailed studies of a number of optical features have been carried out. 1) It is demonstrated that the v = 2 level of the O2(b) state is best studied by using the weak b-X 2-1 band near 697 nm, it being free of auroral contamination. 2) Similarly, the best uncontaminated feature of the N2+ Meinel system is the complex A-X 0-1 band, which has been accurately simulated for the first time [Dubowsky and McCall, private communication, 2014]. 3) The N(2P-2D) quartet of lines near 1040 nm is an important auroral feature, being the N-atom equivalent of the oxygen green line. These lines are uncontaminated in many of our spectra. For lower altitude auroral excitation, there may be some overlap with the N2 First Positive 0-0 band [Pendleton et al, 1989]. 4) Time series on the O+(2P-2D) lines near 732-733 nm have been studied, showing variable background emission in this region depending on auroral type. Information on OH Meinel band lines is available throughout the region studied, and there is substantial evidence from sky spectra (Keck, VLT) that the attempt to extract kinetic temperatures from OH intensity distributions is strongly influenced by non-LTE effects [Cosby and Slanger, 2007; Noll et al, 2014].

  2. Disposal of Rocky Flats residues as waste

    SciTech Connect

    Dustin, D.F.; Sendelweck, V.S.; Rivera, M.A.

    1993-03-01

    Work is underway at the Rocky Flats Plant to evaluate alternatives for the removal of a large inventory of plutonium-contaminated residues from the plant. One alternative under consideration is to package the residues as transuranic wastes for ultimate shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Current waste acceptance criteria and transportation regulations require that approximately 1000 cubic yards of residues be repackaged to produce over 20,000 cubic yards of WIPP certified waste. The major regulatory drivers leading to this increase in waste volume are the fissile gram equivalent, surface radiation dose rate, and thermal power limits. In the interest of waste minimization, analyses have been conducted to determine, for each residue type, the controlling criterion leading to the volume increase, the impact of relaxing that criterion on subsequent waste volume, and the means by which rules changes may be implemented. The results of this study have identified the most appropriate changes to be proposed in regulatory requirements in order to minimize the costs of disposing of Rocky Flats residues as transuranic wastes.

  3. Disposal of Rocky Flats residues as waste

    SciTech Connect

    Dustin, D.F.; Sendelweck, V.S. . Rocky Flats Plant); Rivera, M.A. )

    1993-01-01

    Work is underway at the Rocky Flats Plant to evaluate alternatives for the removal of a large inventory of plutonium-contaminated residues from the plant. One alternative under consideration is to package the residues as transuranic wastes for ultimate shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Current waste acceptance criteria and transportation regulations require that approximately 1000 cubic yards of residues be repackaged to produce over 20,000 cubic yards of WIPP certified waste. The major regulatory drivers leading to this increase in waste volume are the fissile gram equivalent, surface radiation dose rate, and thermal power limits. In the interest of waste minimization, analyses have been conducted to determine, for each residue type, the controlling criterion leading to the volume increase, the impact of relaxing that criterion on subsequent waste volume, and the means by which rules changes may be implemented. The results of this study have identified the most appropriate changes to be proposed in regulatory requirements in order to minimize the costs of disposing of Rocky Flats residues as transuranic wastes.

  4. Integration of Visual and Olfactory Cues in Host Plant Identification by the Asian Longhorned Beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae).

    PubMed

    Yv, Fei L; Hai, Xiaoxia; Wang, Zhigang; Yan, Aihua; Liu, Bingxiang; Bi, Yongguo

    2015-01-01

    Some insects use host and mate cues, including odor, color, and shape, to locate and recognize their preferred hosts and mates. Previous research has shown that the Asian longicorn beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky), uses olfactory cues to locate host plants and differentiate them from non-host plants. However, whether A. glabripennis adults use visual cues or a combination of visual and olfactory cues remains unclear. In this study, we tested the host location and recognition behavior in A. glabripennis, which infests a number of hardwood species and causes considerable economic losses in North America, Europe and Asia. We determined the relative importance of visual and olfactory cues from Acer negundo in host plant location and recognition, as well as in the discrimination of non-host plants (Sabina chinensis and Pinus bungeana), by female and male A. glabripennis. Visual and olfactory cues from the host plants (A. negundo), alone and combined, attracted significantly more females and males than equivalent cues from non-host plants (S. chinensis and P. bungeana). Furthermore, the combination of visual and olfactory cues of host plants attracted more adults than either cue alone, and visual cues alone attracted significantly more adults than olfactory cues alone. This finding suggests that adult A. glabripennis has an innate preference for the visual and/or olfactory cues of its host plants (A. negundo) over those of the non-host plant and visual cues are initially more important than olfactory cues for orientation; furthermore, this finding also suggests that adults integrate visual and olfactory cues to find their host plants. Our results indicate that different modalities of host plant cues should be considered together to understand fully the communication between host plants and Asian longhorned beetles. PMID:26556100

  5. Integration of Visual and Olfactory Cues in Host Plant Identification by the Asian Longhorned Beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)

    PubMed Central

    L.Yv, Fei; Hai, Xiaoxia; Wang, Zhigang; Yan, Aihua; Liu, Bingxiang; Bi, Yongguo

    2015-01-01

    Some insects use host and mate cues, including odor, color, and shape, to locate and recognize their preferred hosts and mates. Previous research has shown that the Asian longicorn beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky), uses olfactory cues to locate host plants and differentiate them from non-host plants. However, whether A. glabripennis adults use visual cues or a combination of visual and olfactory cues remains unclear. In this study, we tested the host location and recognition behavior in A. glabripennis, which infests a number of hardwood species and causes considerable economic losses in North America, Europe and Asia. We determined the relative importance of visual and olfactory cues from Acer negundo in host plant location and recognition, as well as in the discrimination of non-host plants (Sabina chinensis and Pinus bungeana), by female and male A. glabripennis. Visual and olfactory cues from the host plants (A. negundo), alone and combined, attracted significantly more females and males than equivalent cues from non-host plants (S. chinensis and P. bungeana). Furthermore, the combination of visual and olfactory cues of host plants attracted more adults than either cue alone, and visual cues alone attracted significantly more adults than olfactory cues alone. This finding suggests that adult A. glabripennis has an innate preference for the visual and/or olfactory cues of its host plants (A. negundo) over those of the non-host plant and visual cues are initially more important than olfactory cues for orientation; furthermore, this finding also suggests that adults integrate visual and olfactory cues to find their host plants. Our results indicate that different modalities of host plant cues should be considered together to understand fully the communication between host plants and Asian longhorned beetles. PMID:26556100

  6. Integration of Visual and Olfactory Cues in Host Plant Identification by the Asian Longhorned Beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae).

    PubMed

    Yv, Fei L; Hai, Xiaoxia; Wang, Zhigang; Yan, Aihua; Liu, Bingxiang; Bi, Yongguo

    2015-01-01

    Some insects use host and mate cues, including odor, color, and shape, to locate and recognize their preferred hosts and mates. Previous research has shown that the Asian longicorn beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky), uses olfactory cues to locate host plants and differentiate them from non-host plants. However, whether A. glabripennis adults use visual cues or a combination of visual and olfactory cues remains unclear. In this study, we tested the host location and recognition behavior in A. glabripennis, which infests a number of hardwood species and causes considerable economic losses in North America, Europe and Asia. We determined the relative importance of visual and olfactory cues from Acer negundo in host plant location and recognition, as well as in the discrimination of non-host plants (Sabina chinensis and Pinus bungeana), by female and male A. glabripennis. Visual and olfactory cues from the host plants (A. negundo), alone and combined, attracted significantly more females and males than equivalent cues from non-host plants (S. chinensis and P. bungeana). Furthermore, the combination of visual and olfactory cues of host plants attracted more adults than either cue alone, and visual cues alone attracted significantly more adults than olfactory cues alone. This finding suggests that adult A. glabripennis has an innate preference for the visual and/or olfactory cues of its host plants (A. negundo) over those of the non-host plant and visual cues are initially more important than olfactory cues for orientation; furthermore, this finding also suggests that adults integrate visual and olfactory cues to find their host plants. Our results indicate that different modalities of host plant cues should be considered together to understand fully the communication between host plants and Asian longhorned beetles.

  7. Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants. Technical progress report, [period ending December 31, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, E.S.

    1988-01-01

    This is the first quarterly report of DOE/PETC Contract No. DE-AC22-87PC79864, entitled, ``Modeling of Integrated Environmental Control Systems for Coal-Fired Power Plants.`` Refining, creating, and documenting of computer models concerning coal/flue gas cleaning and desulfurization are discussed. (VC)

  8. Small scale spatial gradients of outdoor and indoor benzene in proximity of an integrated steel plant.

    PubMed

    Licen, Sabina; Tolloi, Arianna; Briguglio, Sara; Piazzalunga, Andrea; Adami, Gianpiero; Barbieri, Pierluigi

    2016-05-15

    Benzene is known as a human carcinogen, whose annual mean concentration exceeded the EU limit value (5 μg/m(3)) only in very few locations in Europe during 2012. Nevertheless 10% to 12% of the EU-28 urban population was still exposed to benzene concentrations above the WHO reference level of 1.7 μg/m(3). WHO recommended a wise choice of monitoring stations positioning in proximity of "hot spots" to define and assess the representativeness of each site paying attention to micro-scale conditions. In this context benzene and other VOCs of health concern (toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes) concentrations have been investigated, with weekly passive sampling for one year, both in outdoor and indoor air in inhabited buildings in close proximity (180 m far up to 1100 m) of an integrated steel plant in NE of Italy. Even though the outdoor mean annual benzene concentration was below the EU limit in every site, in the site closest to the works the benzene concentration was above 5 μg/m(3) in 14 weeks. These events were related to a benzene over toluene ratio above one, which is diagnostic for the presence of an industrial source, and to meteorological factors. These information pointed at the identification of the coke ovens of the plant as the dominant outdoor source of benzene. Benzene gradients with the increasing distance from coke ovens have been found for both outdoor and indoor air. Linear models linking outdoor to indoor benzene concentrations have been then identified, allowing to estimate indoor exposure from ambient air benzene data. In the considered period, a narrow area of about 250 m appeared impacted at a higher degree than the other sites both considering outdoor and indoor air. Passive BTEX sampling permits to collect information on both ambient air and daily life settings, allowing to assemble a valuable data support for further environmental cost-benefit analyses. PMID:26930323

  9. Atmospheric mercury pollution around a chlor-alkali plant in Flix (NE Spain): an integrated analysis.

    PubMed

    Esbrí, José M; López-Berdonces, Miguel Angel; Fernández-Calderón, Sergio; Higueras, Pablo; Díez, Sergi

    2015-04-01

    An integrated analysis approach has been applied to a mercury (Hg) case study on a chlor-alkali plant located in the Ebro River basin, close to the town of Flix (NE Spain). The study focused on atmospheric Hg and its incorporation in soils and lichens close to a mercury cell chlor-alkali plant (CAP), which has been operating since the end of the 19th century. Atmospheric Hg present in the area was characterized by means of seven total gaseous mercury (TGM) surveys carried out from 2007 to 2012. Surveys were carried out by car, walking, and at fixed locations, and covered an area of some 12 km(2) (including the CAP area, the village in which workers live, Flix town, and the Sebes Wildlife Reserve). Finally, an atmospheric Hg dispersion model was developed with ISC-AERMOD software validated by a lichen survey of the area. The results for the atmospheric compartment seem to indicate that the Flix area currently has the highest levels of Hg pollution in Spain on the basis of the extremely high average concentrations in the vicinity of the CAP (229 ng m(-3)). Moreover, the Hg(0) plume affects Flix town center to some extent, with values well above the international thresholds for residential areas. Wet and dry Hg deposition reached its highest values on the banks of the Ebro River, and this contributes to increased soil contamination (range 44-12,900 ng g(-1), average 775 ng g(-1)). A good fit was obtained between anomalous areas indicated by lichens and the dispersion model for 1 year.

  10. Tracing pharmaceuticals in a municipal plant for integrated wastewater and organic solid waste treatment.

    PubMed

    Jelic, Aleksandra; Fatone, Francesco; Di Fabio, Silvia; Petrovic, Mira; Cecchi, Franco; Barcelo, Damia

    2012-09-01

    The occurrence and removal of 42 pharmaceuticals, belonging to different therapeutic groups (analgesics and anti-inflammatory drugs, anti-ulcer agent, psychiatric drugs, antiepileptic drug, antibiotics, ß-blockers, diuretics, lipid regulator and cholesterol lowering statin drugs and anti-histamines), were studied in the wastewater and sewage sludge trains of a full scale integrated treatment plant. The plant employs a biological nutrient removal (BNR) process for the treatment of municipal wastewater, and a single-stage mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion for the treatment of wasted activated sludge mixed with the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), followed by a short-cut nitrification-denitrification of the anaerobic supernatant in a sequential batch reactor. Influent and effluent wastewater, as well as thickened, digested and treated sludge were sampled and analyzed for the selected pharmaceuticals in order to study their presence and fate during the treatment. Twenty three compounds were detected in influent and effluent wastewater and eleven in sludge. Infiltration of groundwater in the sewer system led to a dilution of raw sewage, resulting in lower concentrations in wastewater (up to 0.7 μg/L in influent) and sludge (70 ng/g d.w.). Due to the dilution, overall risk quotient for the mixture of pharmaceuticals detected in effluent wastewater was less than one, indicating no direct risk for the aquatic environment. A wide range of removal efficiencies during the treatment was observed, i.e. <20% to 90%. The influent concentrations of the target pharmaceuticals, as polar compounds, were undoubtedly mostly affected by BNR process in the wastewater train, and less by anaerobic-co-digestion. Mass balance calculations showed that less than 2% of the total mass load of the studied pharmaceuticals was removed by sorption. Experimentally estimated distribution coefficients (<500 L/kg) also indicated that the selected pharmaceuticals preferably remain in

  11. Superfluidity in topologically nontrivial flat bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peotta, Sebastiano; Törmä, Päivi

    2015-11-01

    Topological invariants built from the periodic Bloch functions characterize new phases of matter, such as topological insulators and topological superconductors. The most important topological invariant is the Chern number that explains the quantized conductance of the quantum Hall effect. Here we provide a general result for the superfluid weight Ds of a multiband superconductor that is applicable to topologically nontrivial bands with nonzero Chern number C. We find that the integral over the Brillouin-zone of the quantum metric, an invariant calculated from the Bloch functions, gives the superfluid weight in a flat band, with the bound Ds>=|C|. Thus, even a flat band can carry finite superfluid current, provided the Chern number is nonzero. As an example, we provide Ds for the time-reversal invariant attractive Harper-Hubbard model that can be experimentally tested in ultracold gases. In general, our results establish that a topologically nontrivial flat band is a promising concept for increasing the critical temperature of the superconducting transition.

  12. Superfluidity in topologically nontrivial flat bands.

    PubMed

    Peotta, Sebastiano; Törmä, Päivi

    2015-11-20

    Topological invariants built from the periodic Bloch functions characterize new phases of matter, such as topological insulators and topological superconductors. The most important topological invariant is the Chern number that explains the quantized conductance of the quantum Hall effect. Here we provide a general result for the superfluid weight Ds of a multiband superconductor that is applicable to topologically nontrivial bands with nonzero Chern number C. We find that the integral over the Brillouin-zone of the quantum metric, an invariant calculated from the Bloch functions, gives the superfluid weight in a flat band, with the bound Ds⩾|C|. Thus, even a flat band can carry finite superfluid current, provided the Chern number is nonzero. As an example, we provide Ds for the time-reversal invariant attractive Harper-Hubbard model that can be experimentally tested in ultracold gases. In general, our results establish that a topologically nontrivial flat band is a promising concept for increasing the critical temperature of the superconducting transition.

  13. Superfluidity in topologically nontrivial flat bands

    PubMed Central

    Peotta, Sebastiano; Törmä, Päivi

    2015-01-01

    Topological invariants built from the periodic Bloch functions characterize new phases of matter, such as topological insulators and topological superconductors. The most important topological invariant is the Chern number that explains the quantized conductance of the quantum Hall effect. Here we provide a general result for the superfluid weight Ds of a multiband superconductor that is applicable to topologically nontrivial bands with nonzero Chern number C. We find that the integral over the Brillouin-zone of the quantum metric, an invariant calculated from the Bloch functions, gives the superfluid weight in a flat band, with the bound Ds⩾|C|. Thus, even a flat band can carry finite superfluid current, provided the Chern number is nonzero. As an example, we provide Ds for the time-reversal invariant attractive Harper–Hubbard model that can be experimentally tested in ultracold gases. In general, our results establish that a topologically nontrivial flat band is a promising concept for increasing the critical temperature of the superconducting transition. PMID:26586543

  14. Development of a PEMFC Power System with Integrated Balance of Plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wynne, B.; Diffenderfer, C.; Ferguson, S.; Keyser, J.; Miller, M.; Sievers, B.; Ryan, A.; Vasquez, A.

    2012-01-01

    Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV s) have received increasing attention in recent years as military and commercial users look for means to maintain a mobile and persistent presence in the undersea world. Compact, neutrally buoyant power systems are needed for both small and large vehicles. Batteries are usually employed in these applications, but the energy density and therefore the mission duration are limited with current battery technology. At a certain energy or mission duration requirement, other means to get long duration power become feasible. For example, above 10 kW-hrs liquid oxygen and hydrogen have better specific energy than batteries and are preferable for energy storage as long as a compact system of about 100 W/liter is achievable to convert the chemical energy in these reactants into power. Other reactant forms are possible, such as high pressure gas, chemical hydrides or oxygen carriers, but it is essential that the power system be small and light weight. Recent fuel cell work, primarily focused on NASA applications, has developed power systems that can meet this target power density. Passive flow-through systems, using ejector driven reactant (EDR) flow, integrated into a compact balance of plant have been developed. These systems are thermally and functionally integrated in much the same way as are automotive, air breathing fuel cell systems. These systems fit into the small volumes required for AUV and future NASA applications. Designs have been developed for both a 21" diameter and a larger diameter (LD) AUV. These fuel cell systems occupy a very small portion of the overall energy system, allowing most of the system volume to be used for the reactants. The fuel cell systems have been optimized to use reactants efficiently with high stack efficiency and low parasitic losses. The resulting compact, highly efficient fuel cell system provides exceptional reactant utilization and energy density. Key design variables and supporting test data are

  15. Transformation of haploid Datura innoxia protoplasts and analysis of the plasmid integration pattern in regenerated transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Rogge, T; Meixner, M; Srivastava, V; Guha-Mukherjee, S; Schieder, O

    1993-05-01

    We developed a highly efficient transformation protocol for the PEG-mediated direct transfer of plasmid DNA into protoplasts of haploid Datura innoxia. Vectors harbouring a neomycin phosphotransferase II gene or a hygromycin B phosphotransferase gene under the control of different promoters were used in the transformation experiments. Various amounts of plasmid DNA were applied without any carrier DNA to show the direct influence of the plasmid DNA concentration on the transformation efficiency. Approximately 95% of the selected calli were regenerated to plants; 20% of them remained haploid. Total DNA of different transgenic plants was analysed with regard to the integration pattern of the plasmid DNA. Plants carrying only one or two copies of the vector DNA were observed as well as individuals with multi-copy integration (up to ten or more copies).

  16. IGCC power plant integrated to a Finnish pulp and paper mill: IEA bioenergy techno-economic analysis activity. Research notes

    SciTech Connect

    Koljonen, T.; Solantausta, Y.; Salo, K.; Horvath, A.

    1999-02-01

    This site-specific study describes the technical and economic feasibility of a biomass gasification combined cycle producing heat and power for a typical Finish pulp and paper mill. The aim is to replace an old bark boiler by an IGCC (Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle) to enhance the economy and environmental performance of the power plant. The IGCC feasibility study is conducted for a pulp and paper industrial plant because of its suitable infrastructure for IGCC and a large amount of wood waste available at the site. For comparison, the feasibility of an IGCC integrated to a pulp mill is also assessed. The operation and design of the IGCC concept is based on a 20 MW(e) gas turbine (MW151). The heat of gas turbine exhaust gas is utilized in a HRSG (Heat Recovery Steam Generator) of two pressure levels to generate steam for the pulp and paper mill and the steam turbine. The IGCC power plant operates in condensing mode. The techno-economic assessment of the biomass IGCC integrated to a pulp and paper mill or a pulp mill indicated that the IGCC will be competitive compared to the conventional bark boiler steam cycle. The IGCC integrated to a pulp and paper mill was slightly more economical than the IGCC pulp mill integration.

  17. Dynamics of riparian plant communities, a new integrative ecohydrological modelling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Arias, Alicia; Francés, Félix

    2015-04-01

    The Riparian Vegetation Dynamic Model (RVDM) integrates the impacts of the hydrological extremes on the vegetation, the vegetation evolution and the competition between different vegetation classes. Considering a daily time step and a detailed spatial resolution, RVDM allows the analysis of the dynamic vegetation distribution in riverine areas during a simulated period. The riparian vegetation wellbeing and distribution are considered to be conditioned by the river hydrodynamics in RVDM. Using biomass loss functions, the stress caused by hydrological extreme events is translated into changes on the distribution of the vegetation. These extreme events are considered as removal and asphyxia associated to floods, and wilt related to droughts. The variables considered to determine the impacts are water shear stress, water table elevation and the soil moisture, respectively. RVDM includes the modelling of the natural evolution of the vegetation. The potential recruitment in bared areas, the plant growth and the succession/retrogression between plant categories are included in the model conceptualization. The recruitment takes place when seeds presence, germination and seedlings establishment overcome, so it depends on the plant reproductive period and the environmental conditions. Light use efficiency determines the vegetation growth in terms of biomass production while the soil moisture limits this biomass production and the successional evolution. Finally, the competition modelling considers the advantages between successional patterns under the specific soil moisture conditions of each unit area. Several meteorological, morphological, hydrological and hydraulic inputs are required. In addition, an initial vegetation condition is required for RVDM to start the simulation period. The model results on new vegetation maps that are considered as new inputs in the next model step. Following this approach the model simulates iteratively al the processes day by day. This

  18. Flat-space chiral gravity.

    PubMed

    Bagchi, Arjun; Detournay, Stéphane; Grumiller, Daniel

    2012-10-12

    We provide the first evidence for a holographic correspondence between a gravitational theory in flat space and a specific unitary field theory in one dimension lower. The gravitational theory is a flat-space limit of topologically massive gravity in three dimensions at a Chern-Simons level of k=1. The field theory is a chiral two-dimensional conformal field theory with a central charge of c=24. PMID:23102291

  19. From microgravity to osmotic conditions: mechanical integration of plant cells in response to stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojtaszek, Przemyslaw; Kasprowicz, Anna; Michalak, Michal; Janczara, Renata; Volkmann, Dieter; Baluska, Frantisek

    Chemical reactions and interactions between molecules are commonly thought of as being at the basis of Life. Research of recent years, however, is more and more evidently indicating that physical forces are profoundly affecting the functioning of life at all levels of its organiza-tion. To detect and to respond to such forces, plant cells need to be integrated mechanically. Cell walls are the outermost functional zone of plant cells. They surround the individual cells, and also form a part of the apoplast. In cell suspensions, cell walls are embedded in the cul-ture medium which can be considered as a superapoplast. Through physical and chemical interactions they provide a basis for the structural and functional cell wall-plasma membrane-cytoskeleton (WMC) continuum spanning the whole cell. Here, the working of WMC contin-uum, and the participation of signalling molecules, like NO, would be presented in the context of plant responses to stress. In addition, the effects of the changing composition of WMC continuum will be considered, with particular attention paid to the modifications of the WMC components. Plant cells are normally adapted to changing osmotic conditions, resulting from variable wa-ter availability. The appearance of the osmotic stress activates adaptory mechanisms. If the strength of osmotic stress grows relatively slowly over longer period of time, the cells are able to adapt to conditions that are lethal to non-adapted cells. During stepwise adaptation of tobacco BY-2 suspension cells to the presence of various osmotically active agents, cells diverged into independent, osmoticum type-specific lines. In response to ionic agents (NaCl, KCl), the adhe-sive properties were increased and randomly dividing cells formed clumps, while cells adapted to nonionic osmotica (mannitol, sorbitol, PEG) revealed ordered pattern of precisely positioned cell divisions, resulting in the formation of long cell files. Changes in the growth patterns were accompanied by

  20. Integration of a Higher Plant Chamber into the European Space Agency's MELiSSA Pilot Plant: The Canadian Role in Advanced Life Support Test-Bed Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waters, Geoffrey; Lawson, Jamie; Gidzinski, Danuta; Stasiak, Michael; Dixon, Mike; Peiro, Enrique; Godia, Francesc; Paille, Christel; Fossen, Arnaud; Lamaze, Brigitte; Lasseur, Christophe

    The European Space Agency's Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) project has been conceived as a tool for developing the technology of future biological life support systems required for long-term human space exploration missions to the Moon or Mars. The main life support functions of MELiSSA are the recycling of waste (inedible plant biomass, human excrement), carbon dioxide and minerals and the production of food, fresh water and air revitalization. Based on the principle of an aquatic ecosystem, MELiSSA is comprised of four microbial compartments and a higher plant compartment integrated in a closed loop. Each compartment is studied, designed and demonstrated at laboratory scale before being scaled-up for subsequent integration into the MELISSA Pilot Plant (MPP) at the Universitat Aut`noma de Barcelona. Work related to higher plant cultivation systems, o which have been historically focussed at the University of Guelph's Controlled Environment Systems Research Facility (CESRF), has included design of the HPC for the MPP, the metabolic characterization of MELiSSA candidate crops and the validation of theoretical gas exchange and nutrient dynamic models, The presented paper will review some of the recent data and HPC design work of CESRF conducted as part of Canada's involvement in the MELiSSA program and its partnership in the development of the MPP terrestrial demonstration test-bed.

  1. Operator decision support system for integrated wastewater management including wastewater treatment plants and receiving water bodies.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minsoo; Kim, Yejin; Kim, Hyosoo; Piao, Wenhua; Kim, Changwon

    2016-06-01

    An operator decision support system (ODSS) is proposed to support operators of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in making appropriate decisions. This system accounts for water quality (WQ) variations in WWTP influent and effluent and in the receiving water body (RWB). The proposed system is comprised of two diagnosis modules, three prediction modules, and a scenario-based supporting module (SSM). In the diagnosis modules, the WQs of the influent and effluent WWTP and of the RWB are assessed via multivariate analysis. Three prediction modules based on the k-nearest neighbors (k-NN) method, activated sludge model no. 2d (ASM2d) model, and QUAL2E model are used to forecast WQs for 3 days in advance. To compare various operating alternatives, SSM is applied to test various predetermined operating conditions in terms of overall oxygen transfer coefficient (Kla), waste sludge flow rate (Qw), return sludge flow rate (Qr), and internal recycle flow rate (Qir). In the case of unacceptable total phosphorus (TP), SSM provides appropriate information for the chemical treatment. The constructed ODSS was tested using data collected from Geumho River, which was the RWB, and S WWTP in Daegu City, South Korea. The results demonstrate the capability of the proposed ODSS to provide WWTP operators with more objective qualitative and quantitative assessments of WWTP and RWB WQs. Moreover, the current study shows that ODSS, using data collected from the study area, can be used to identify operational alternatives through SSM at an integrated urban wastewater management level.

  2. Performance evaluation of vinasse treatment plant integrated with physico-chemical methods.

    PubMed

    Ojha, Sanjay Kumar; Mishra, Snehasish; Kumar, Satish; Mohanty, Shakti Shankar; Sarkar, Biplab; Singh, Monika; Chaudhury, Gautam Roy

    2015-11-01

    With an objective to assess environmental management criteria of a vinasse treatment plant (VTP) and to evaluate the critical environmental parameters, a study was undertaken in a multi-product (packaged apple juice, distillery, brewery, packaged drinking water) brewery-cum-distillery unit. The facility with a volumetric loading rate of 11-15 kg COD m(-3).day, 3.6-4.5 h hydraulic retention time and 20 g l(-1) VSS had a scientifically managed technically sound effluent treatment system. While the water quality parameters were found within the acceptable limits, there was 99.07% reduction in BOD, from 43140.0 to 398.0 mg l(-1) and 98.61% reduction in COD from 98003.0 to 1357.0 mg l(-1). There was appreciable improvement in mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS), mixed liquorvolatile suspended solids (MLVSS) and sludge volume index (SVI). A striking feature was the integrated aerobic-anaerobic highly efficient Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) treatment for biodegradation and energy production that reduced energy and space needs, producing utilisable end-products and net savings on the operational cost. The end-point waste management included terminal products such as fertile sludge, cattle feed supplement, recyclable water and biogas. Vast lagoons with combined aerobic-anaerobic approaches, biogasification unit, sludge recovery, remediated irrigable water were the notable attributes. PMID:26688960

  3. Sustainable management and supply of natural and recycled aggregates in a medium-size integrated plant.

    PubMed

    Faleschini, Flora; Zanini, Mariano Angelo; Pellegrino, Carlo; Pasinato, Stefano

    2016-03-01

    The consumption of natural aggregates in civil engineering applications can cause severe environmental impacts on a regional scale, depleting the stock of bulk resources within a territory. Several methods can improve the environmental sustainability of the whole aggregates' supply process, including natural and recycled aggregates' productive chains, for instance promoting the use of recycled aggregates (RA). However, when quarrying and recycling activities are considered as stand-alone processes, also the RA supply chain may not be as sustainable as expected, due to the high environmental loads associated to transportation, if high distances from the production to the use sites are involved. This work gives some insights on the environmental impact assessment of the aggregates' industry in the Italian context, through a comparative assessment of the environmental loads of natural and recycled aggregates' productive chains. An integrated plant for the extraction of virgin aggregates and recycling of construction and demolition waste (C&DW) was analyzed as significant case study, with the aim to identify the influence of sustainable solutions on the overall emissions of the facility. A Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach was used, using site-specific data and paying particular attention on transportation-related impacts, land use, avoided landfill and non-renewable resources preservation. From this work it was possible to evaluate the influence of transportation and PV energy use on the overall environmental emissions of natural and recycled aggregates' productive chains. PMID:26810029

  4. Plants with anti-Leishmania activity: Integrative review from 2000 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Brito, Ana Maria G; Dos Santos, Derivaldo; Rodrigues, Sheyla A; Brito, Renan G; Xavier-Filho, Lauro

    2013-01-01

    The search for more effective new drugs to treat Leishmaniasis is undoubtedly relevant. Our objective in this study was to investigate research publications addressing plants with anti-Leishmaniasis activity. An integrative review of the literature from 2000 to 2011 was carried out in the databases such as Latin-American and Caribbean Health Sciences (LILACS), Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), and Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE). In the initial search, 150 articles were found, with 25 based in LILACS, 68 in SciELO, and 46 in MEDLINE. From these data, after reading the abstracts that were available online, we excluded 12 from LILACS, 39 from SciELO, and 28 from MEDLINE for presenting article duplications. This left 61 articles to be read; however, only 18 of them answered the research questions and determined the final sample of this review. The results showed that research involving the search for new drugs against Leishmaniasis should be intensified, especially for the amastigote form, and studies with in vivo tests could become a great strategy for successfully finding new treatments for Leishmaniasis. It is believed that it is extremely important and urgent to conduct more trials in search of new effective drugs against Leishmaniasis that possess minimal adverse effects and that are easily accessible to the public.

  5. RELAP5-3D Transient Modelling for NGNP Integrated Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Sabharwall, P.; Anderson, N. A.

    2014-06-01

    The High-Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) is designed with outlet temperatures ranging between 750°C and 800°C. These high outlet temperatures enhance the power production efficiency and facilitate a variety of industrial applications. The objective of this study is to understand the response of the primary system to potential transients in the secondary system. For this analysis, the transient condition originates in the Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) or Steam Generator (SG) of the HTGR-integrated plant. The transients analysed are: a loss of pressure; loss of feedwater flow; inadvertent closure of main steam valve; decrease in returning gas temperature and heat load step change. The results show a large dependence on the negative reactivity added to the fuel as a function of increased temperature. The returning gas temperature decrease transient resulted in the highest fuel temperature (1361°C). Fuel temperature was shown to be less than the 1600°C fuel limit for each case analysed.

  6. W-026 integrated engineering cold run operational test report for balance of plant (BOP)

    SciTech Connect

    Kersten, J.K.

    1998-02-24

    This Cold Run test is designed to demonstrate the functionality of systems necessary to move waste drums throughout the plant using approved procedures, and the compatibility of these systems to function as an integrated process. This test excludes all internal functions of the gloveboxes. In the interest of efficiency and support of the facility schedule, the initial revision of the test (rev 0) was limited to the following: Receipt and storage of eight overpacked drums, four LLW and four TRU; Receipt, routing, and staging of eleven empty drums to the process area where they will be used later in this test; Receipt, processing, and shipping of two verification drums (Route 9); Receipt, processing, and shipping of two verification drums (Route 1). The above listed operations were tested using the rev 0 test document, through Section 5.4.25. The document was later revised to include movement of all staged drums to and from the LLW and TRU process and RWM gloveboxes. This testing was performed using Sections 5.5 though 5.11 of the rev 1 test document. The primary focus of this test is to prove the functionality of automatic operations for all mechanical and control processes listed. When necessary, the test demonstrates manual mode operations as well. Though the gloveboxes are listed, only waste and empty drum movement to, from, and between the gloveboxes was tested.

  7. Integrative analyses unveil speciation linked to host plant shift in Spialia butterflies.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Roldán, Juan L; Dapporto, Leonardo; Dincă, Vlad; Vicente, Juan C; Hornett, Emily A; Šíchová, Jindra; Lukhtanov, Vladimir A; Talavera, Gerard; Vila, Roger

    2016-09-01

    Discovering cryptic species in well-studied areas and taxonomic groups can have profound implications in understanding eco-evolutionary processes and in nature conservation because such groups often involve research models and act as flagship taxa for nature management. In this study, we use an array of techniques to study the butterflies in the Spialia sertorius species group (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae). The integration of genetic, chemical, cytogenetic, morphological, ecological and microbiological data indicates that the sertorius species complex includes at least five species that differentiated during the last three million years. As a result, we propose the restitution of the species status for two taxa often treated as subspecies, Spialia ali (Oberthür, 1881) stat. rest. and Spialia therapne (Rambur, 1832) stat. rest., and describe a new cryptic species Spialia rosae Hernández-Roldán, Dapporto, Dincă, Vicente & Vila sp. nov. Spialia sertorius (Hoffmannsegg, 1804) and S. rosae are sympatric and synmorphic, but show constant differences in mitochondrial DNA, chemical profiles and ecology, suggesting that S. rosae represents a case of ecological speciation involving larval host plant and altitudinal shift, and apparently associated with Wolbachia infection. This study exemplifies how a multidisciplinary approach can reveal elusive cases of hidden diversity. PMID:27393640

  8. Plants with anti-Leishmania activity: Integrative review from 2000 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Ana Maria G.; dos Santos, Derivaldo; Rodrigues, Sheyla A.; Brito, Renan G.; Xavier-Filho, Lauro

    2013-01-01

    The search for more effective new drugs to treat Leishmaniasis is undoubtedly relevant. Our objective in this study was to investigate research publications addressing plants with anti-Leishmaniasis activity. An integrative review of the literature from 2000 to 2011 was carried out in the databases such as Latin-American and Caribbean Health Sciences (LILACS), Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), and Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE). In the initial search, 150 articles were found, with 25 based in LILACS, 68 in SciELO, and 46 in MEDLINE. From these data, after reading the abstracts that were available online, we excluded 12 from LILACS, 39 from SciELO, and 28 from MEDLINE for presenting article duplications. This left 61 articles to be read; however, only 18 of them answered the research questions and determined the final sample of this review. The results showed that research involving the search for new drugs against Leishmaniasis should be intensified, especially for the amastigote form, and studies with in vivo tests could become a great strategy for successfully finding new treatments for Leishmaniasis. It is believed that it is extremely important and urgent to conduct more trials in search of new effective drugs against Leishmaniasis that possess minimal adverse effects and that are easily accessible to the public. PMID:23922454

  9. Operator decision support system for integrated wastewater management including wastewater treatment plants and receiving water bodies.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minsoo; Kim, Yejin; Kim, Hyosoo; Piao, Wenhua; Kim, Changwon

    2016-06-01

    An operator decision support system (ODSS) is proposed to support operators of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in making appropriate decisions. This system accounts for water quality (WQ) variations in WWTP influent and effluent and in the receiving water body (RWB). The proposed system is comprised of two diagnosis modules, three prediction modules, and a scenario-based supporting module (SSM). In the diagnosis modules, the WQs of the influent and effluent WWTP and of the RWB are assessed via multivariate analysis. Three prediction modules based on the k-nearest neighbors (k-NN) method, activated sludge model no. 2d (ASM2d) model, and QUAL2E model are used to forecast WQs for 3 days in advance. To compare various operating alternatives, SSM is applied to test various predetermined operating conditions in terms of overall oxygen transfer coefficient (Kla), waste sludge flow rate (Qw), return sludge flow rate (Qr), and internal recycle flow rate (Qir). In the case of unacceptable total phosphorus (TP), SSM provides appropriate information for the chemical treatment. The constructed ODSS was tested using data collected from Geumho River, which was the RWB, and S WWTP in Daegu City, South Korea. The results demonstrate the capability of the proposed ODSS to provide WWTP operators with more objective qualitative and quantitative assessments of WWTP and RWB WQs. Moreover, the current study shows that ODSS, using data collected from the study area, can be used to identify operational alternatives through SSM at an integrated urban wastewater management level. PMID:26893178

  10. Integrative analyses unveil speciation linked to host plant shift in Spialia butterflies.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Roldán, Juan L; Dapporto, Leonardo; Dincă, Vlad; Vicente, Juan C; Hornett, Emily A; Šíchová, Jindra; Lukhtanov, Vladimir A; Talavera, Gerard; Vila, Roger

    2016-09-01

    Discovering cryptic species in well-studied areas and taxonomic groups can have profound implications in understanding eco-evolutionary processes and in nature conservation because such groups often involve research models and act as flagship taxa for nature management. In this study, we use an array of techniques to study the butterflies in the Spialia sertorius species group (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae). The integration of genetic, chemical, cytogenetic, morphological, ecological and microbiological data indicates that the sertorius species complex includes at least five species that differentiated during the last three million years. As a result, we propose the restitution of the species status for two taxa often treated as subspecies, Spialia ali (Oberthür, 1881) stat. rest. and Spialia therapne (Rambur, 1832) stat. rest., and describe a new cryptic species Spialia rosae Hernández-Roldán, Dapporto, Dincă, Vicente & Vila sp. nov. Spialia sertorius (Hoffmannsegg, 1804) and S. rosae are sympatric and synmorphic, but show constant differences in mitochondrial DNA, chemical profiles and ecology, suggesting that S. rosae represents a case of ecological speciation involving larval host plant and altitudinal shift, and apparently associated with Wolbachia infection. This study exemplifies how a multidisciplinary approach can reveal elusive cases of hidden diversity.

  11. Sustainable management and supply of natural and recycled aggregates in a medium-size integrated plant.

    PubMed

    Faleschini, Flora; Zanini, Mariano Angelo; Pellegrino, Carlo; Pasinato, Stefano

    2016-03-01

    The consumption of natural aggregates in civil engineering applications can cause severe environmental impacts on a regional scale, depleting the stock of bulk resources within a territory. Several methods can improve the environmental sustainability of the whole aggregates' supply process, including natural and recycled aggregates' productive chains, for instance promoting the use of recycled aggregates (RA). However, when quarrying and recycling activities are considered as stand-alone processes, also the RA supply chain may not be as sustainable as expected, due to the high environmental loads associated to transportation, if high distances from the production to the use sites are involved. This work gives some insights on the environmental impact assessment of the aggregates' industry in the Italian context, through a comparative assessment of the environmental loads of natural and recycled aggregates' productive chains. An integrated plant for the extraction of virgin aggregates and recycling of construction and demolition waste (C&DW) was analyzed as significant case study, with the aim to identify the influence of sustainable solutions on the overall emissions of the facility. A Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach was used, using site-specific data and paying particular attention on transportation-related impacts, land use, avoided landfill and non-renewable resources preservation. From this work it was possible to evaluate the influence of transportation and PV energy use on the overall environmental emissions of natural and recycled aggregates' productive chains.

  12. Quantitative risk assessment integrated with process simulator for a new technology of methanol production plant using recycled CO₂.

    PubMed

    Di Domenico, Julia; Vaz, Carlos André; de Souza, Maurício Bezerra

    2014-06-15

    The use of process simulators can contribute with quantitative risk assessment (QRA) by minimizing expert time and large volume of data, being mandatory in the case of a future plant. This work illustrates the advantages of this association by integrating UNISIM DESIGN simulation and QRA to investigate the acceptability of a new technology of a Methanol Production Plant in a region. The simulated process was based on the hydrogenation of chemically sequestered carbon dioxide, demanding stringent operational conditions (high pressures and temperatures) and involving the production of hazardous materials. The estimation of the consequences was performed using the PHAST software, version 6.51. QRA results were expressed in terms of individual and social risks. Compared to existing tolerance levels, the risks were considered tolerable in nominal conditions of operation of the plant. The use of the simulator in association with the QRA also allowed testing the risk in new operating conditions in order to delimit safe regions for the plant.

  13. Plant hydraulics as a central hub integrating plant and ecosystem function: meeting report for 'Emerging Frontiers in Plant Hydraulics' (Washington, DC, May 2015).

    PubMed

    Sack, Lawren; Ball, Marilyn C; Brodersen, Craig; Davis, Stephen D; Des Marais, David L; Donovan, Lisa A; Givnish, Thomas J; Hacke, Uwe G; Huxman, Travis; Jansen, Steven; Jacobsen, Anna L; Johnson, Daniel M; Koch, George W; Maurel, Christophe; McCulloh, Katherine A; McDowell, Nate G; McElrone, Andrew; Meinzer, Frederick C; Melcher, Peter J; North, Gretchen; Pellegrini, Matteo; Pockman, William T; Pratt, R Brandon; Sala, Anna; Santiago, Louis S; Savage, Jessica A; Scoffoni, Christine; Sevanto, Sanna; Sperry, John; Tyerman, Stephen D; Way, Danielle; Holbrook, N Michele

    2016-09-01

    Water plays a central role in plant biology and the efficiency of water transport throughout the plant affects both photosynthetic rate and growth, an influence that scales up deterministically to the productivity of terrestrial ecosystems. Moreover, hydraulic traits mediate the ways in which plants interact with their abiotic and biotic environment. At landscape to global scale, plant hydraulic traits are important in describing the function of ecological communities and ecosystems. Plant hydraulics is increasingly recognized as a central hub within a network by which plant biology is connected to palaeobiology, agronomy, climatology, forestry, community and ecosystem ecology and earth-system science. Such grand challenges as anticipating and mitigating the impacts of climate change, and improving the security and sustainability of our food supply rely on our fundamental knowledge of how water behaves in the cells, tissues, organs, bodies and diverse communities of plants. A workshop, 'Emerging Frontiers in Plant Hydraulics' supported by the National Science Foundation, was held in Washington DC, 2015 to promote open discussion of new ideas, controversies regarding measurements and analyses, and especially, the potential for expansion of up-scaled and down-scaled inter-disciplinary research, and the strengthening of connections between plant hydraulic research, allied fields and global modelling efforts.

  14. Plant hydraulics as a central hub integrating plant and ecosystem function: meeting report for 'Emerging Frontiers in Plant Hydraulics' (Washington, DC, May 2015).

    PubMed

    Sack, Lawren; Ball, Marilyn C; Brodersen, Craig; Davis, Stephen D; Des Marais, David L; Donovan, Lisa A; Givnish, Thomas J; Hacke, Uwe G; Huxman, Travis; Jansen, Steven; Jacobsen, Anna L; Johnson, Daniel M; Koch, George W; Maurel, Christophe; McCulloh, Katherine A; McDowell, Nate G; McElrone, Andrew; Meinzer, Frederick C; Melcher, Peter J; North, Gretchen; Pellegrini, Matteo; Pockman, William T; Pratt, R Brandon; Sala, Anna; Santiago, Louis S; Savage, Jessica A; Scoffoni, Christine; Sevanto, Sanna; Sperry, John; Tyerman, Stephen D; Way, Danielle; Holbrook, N Michele

    2016-09-01

    Water plays a central role in plant biology and the efficiency of water transport throughout the plant affects both photosynthetic rate and growth, an influence that scales up deterministically to the productivity of terrestrial ecosystems. Moreover, hydraulic traits mediate the ways in which plants interact with their abiotic and biotic environment. At landscape to global scale, plant hydraulic traits are important in describing the function of ecological communities and ecosystems. Plant hydraulics is increasingly recognized as a central hub within a network by which plant biology is connected to palaeobiology, agronomy, climatology, forestry, community and ecosystem ecology and earth-system science. Such grand challenges as anticipating and mitigating the impacts of climate change, and improving the security and sustainability of our food supply rely on our fundamental knowledge of how water behaves in the cells, tissues, organs, bodies and diverse communities of plants. A workshop, 'Emerging Frontiers in Plant Hydraulics' supported by the National Science Foundation, was held in Washington DC, 2015 to promote open discussion of new ideas, controversies regarding measurements and analyses, and especially, the potential for expansion of up-scaled and down-scaled inter-disciplinary research, and the strengthening of connections between plant hydraulic research, allied fields and global modelling efforts. PMID:27037757

  15. Plant microRNA-Target Interaction Identification Model Based on the Integration of Prediction Tools and Support Vector Machine

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Jun; Shi, Lin; Luan, Yushi

    2014-01-01

    Background Confident identification of microRNA-target interactions is significant for studying the function of microRNA (miRNA). Although some computational miRNA target prediction methods have been proposed for plants, results of various methods tend to be inconsistent and usually lead to more false positive. To address these issues, we developed an integrated model for identifying plant miRNA–target interactions. Results Three online miRNA target prediction toolkits and machine learning algorithms were integrated to identify and analyze Arabidopsis thaliana miRNA-target interactions. Principle component analysis (PCA) feature extraction and self-training technology were introduced to improve the performance. Results showed that the proposed model outperformed the previously existing methods. The results were validated by using degradome sequencing supported Arabidopsis thaliana miRNA-target interactions. The proposed model constructed on Arabidopsis thaliana was run over Oryza sativa and Vitis vinifera to demonstrate that our model is effective for other plant species. Conclusions The integrated model of online predictors and local PCA-SVM classifier gained credible and high quality miRNA-target interactions. The supervised learning algorithm of PCA-SVM classifier was employed in plant miRNA target identification for the first time. Its performance can be substantially improved if more experimentally proved training samples are provided. PMID:25051153

  16. Isolation of Mesophyll Protoplasts from Mediterranean Woody Plants for the Study of DNA Integrity under Abiotic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Kuzminsky, Elena; Meschini, Roberta; Terzoli, Serena; Pavani, Liliana; Silvestri, Cristian; Choury, Zineb; Scarascia-Mugnozza, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Abiotic stresses have considerable negative impact on Mediterranean plant ecosystems and better comprehension of the genetic control of response and adaptation of trees to global changes is urgently needed. The single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay could be considered a good estimator of DNA damage in an individual eukaryotic cell. This method has been mainly employed in animal tissues, because the plant cell wall represents an obstacle for the extraction of nuclei; moreover, in Mediterranean woody species, especially in the sclerophyll plants, this procedure can be quite difficult because of the presence of sclerenchyma and hardened cells. On the other hand, these plants represent an interesting material to be studied because of the ability of these plants to tolerate abiotic stress. For instance, holm oak (Quercus ilex L.) has been selected as the model plant to identify critical levels of O3 for Southern European forests. Consequently, a quantitative method for the evaluation of cell injury of leaf tissues of this species is required. Optimal conditions for high-yield nuclei isolation were obtained by using protoplast technology and a detailed description of the method is provided and discussed. White poplar (Populus alba L.) was used as an internal control for protoplast isolation. Such a method has not been previously reported in newly fully developed leaves of holm oak. This method combined with SCGE assay represents a new tool for testing the DNA integrity of leaf tissues in higher plants under stress conditions. PMID:27574524

  17. Isolation of Mesophyll Protoplasts from Mediterranean Woody Plants for the Study of DNA Integrity under Abiotic Stress.

    PubMed

    Kuzminsky, Elena; Meschini, Roberta; Terzoli, Serena; Pavani, Liliana; Silvestri, Cristian; Choury, Zineb; Scarascia-Mugnozza, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Abiotic stresses have considerable negative impact on Mediterranean plant ecosystems and better comprehension of the genetic control of response and adaptation of trees to global changes is urgently needed. The single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay could be considered a good estimator of DNA damage in an individual eukaryotic cell. This method has been mainly employed in animal tissues, because the plant cell wall represents an obstacle for the extraction of nuclei; moreover, in Mediterranean woody species, especially in the sclerophyll plants, this procedure can be quite difficult because of the presence of sclerenchyma and hardened cells. On the other hand, these plants represent an interesting material to be studied because of the ability of these plants to tolerate abiotic stress. For instance, holm oak (Quercus ilex L.) has been selected as the model plant to identify critical levels of O3 for Southern European forests. Consequently, a quantitative method for the evaluation of cell injury of leaf tissues of this species is required. Optimal conditions for high-yield nuclei isolation were obtained by using protoplast technology and a detailed description of the method is provided and discussed. White poplar (Populus alba L.) was used as an internal control for protoplast isolation. Such a method has not been previously reported in newly fully developed leaves of holm oak. This method combined with SCGE assay represents a new tool for testing the DNA integrity of leaf tissues in higher plants under stress conditions.

  18. Isolation of Mesophyll Protoplasts from Mediterranean Woody Plants for the Study of DNA Integrity under Abiotic Stress.

    PubMed

    Kuzminsky, Elena; Meschini, Roberta; Terzoli, Serena; Pavani, Liliana; Silvestri, Cristian; Choury, Zineb; Scarascia-Mugnozza, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Abiotic stresses have considerable negative impact on Mediterranean plant ecosystems and better comprehension of the genetic control of response and adaptation of trees to global changes is urgently needed. The single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay could be considered a good estimator of DNA damage in an individual eukaryotic cell. This method has been mainly employed in animal tissues, because the plant cell wall represents an obstacle for the extraction of nuclei; moreover, in Mediterranean woody species, especially in the sclerophyll plants, this procedure can be quite difficult because of the presence of sclerenchyma and hardened cells. On the other hand, these plants represent an interesting material to be studied because of the ability of these plants to tolerate abiotic stress. For instance, holm oak (Quercus ilex L.) has been selected as the model plant to identify critical levels of O3 for Southern European forests. Consequently, a quantitative method for the evaluation of cell injury of leaf tissues of this species is required. Optimal conditions for high-yield nuclei isolation were obtained by using protoplast technology and a detailed description of the method is provided and discussed. White poplar (Populus alba L.) was used as an internal control for protoplast isolation. Such a method has not been previously reported in newly fully developed leaves of holm oak. This method combined with SCGE assay represents a new tool for testing the DNA integrity of leaf tissues in higher plants under stress conditions. PMID:27574524

  19. Arabidopsis VIRE2 INTERACTING PROTEIN2 Is Required for Agrobacterium T-DNA Integration in Plants[W

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Ajith; Krichevsky, Alexander; Schornack, Sebastian; Lahaye, Thomas; Tzfira, Tzvi; Tang, Yuhong; Citovsky, Vitaly; Mysore, Kirankumar S.

    2007-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens–mediated genetic transformation is an efficient tool for genetic engineering of plants. VirE2 is a single-stranded DNA binding Agrobacterium protein that is transported into the plant cell and presumably protects the T-DNA from degradation. Using a yeast two-hybrid system, we identified Arabidopsis thaliana VIRE2-INTERACTING PROTEIN2 (VIP2) with a NOT domain that is conserved in both plants and animals. Furthermore, we provide evidence supporting VIP2 interaction with VIP1, a basic domain/leucine zipper motif–containing protein required for nuclear import and integration of T-DNA. Virus-induced gene silencing of VIP2 in Nicotiana benthamiana and characterization of the Arabidopsis vip2 mutant (At vip2) demonstrate that VIP2 is required for Agrobacterium-mediated stable transformation but not for transient transformation. Assays based upon a promoter-trap vector and quantification of T-DNA integration further confirmed VIP2 involvement in T-DNA integration. Interestingly, VIP2 transcripts were induced to a greater extent over prolonged periods after infection with a T-DNA transfer-competent Agrobacterium strain compared with the transfer-deficient Agrobacterium strain. Transcriptome analyses of At vip2 suggest that VIP2 is likely a transcriptional regulator, and the recalcitrancy to transformation in At vip2 is probably due to the combination of muted gene expression response upon Agrobacterium infection and repression of histone genes resulting in decreased T-DNA integration events. PMID:17496122

  20. TGS measurements of pyrochemical salts at Rocky Flats

    SciTech Connect

    Mercer, D. J.; Hansen, J. S.; Lestone, J. P.; Prettyman, T. H.

    2001-01-01

    A new skid-mounted tomographic gamma scanner (TGS) was designed to assist in the decommissioning of Rocky Flats Building 37 1, This instrument was used to assay pyrochemical salts as a prerequisite for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The following paper discusses measurement challenges and results from the first year of operation of the instrument.

  1. Analyzing the possibility of constructing the air heating system for an integrated solid fuel gasification combined-cycle power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikula, V. A.; Ryzhkov, A. F.; Val'tsev, N. V.

    2015-11-01

    Combined-cycle power plants operating on solid fuel have presently been implemented only in demonstration projects. One of possible ways for improving such plants consists in making a shift to hybrid process circuits of integrated gasification combined-cycle plants with external firing of solid fuel. A high-temperature air heater serving to heat compressed air is a key element of the hybrid process circuit. The article describes application of a high-temperature recuperative metal air heater in the process circuit of an integrated gasification combined-cycle power plant (IGCC). The available experience with high-temperature air heating is considered, and possible air heater layout arrangements are analyzed along with domestically produced heat-resistant grades of steel suitable for manufacturing such air heater. An alternative (with respect to the traditional one) design is proposed, according to which solid fuel is fired in a noncooled furnace extension, followed by mixing the combustion products with recirculation gases, after which the mixture is fed to a convective air heater. The use of this design makes it possible to achieve considerably smaller capital outlays and operating costs. The data obtained from thermal and aerodynamic calculations of the high-temperature air heater with a thermal capacity of 258 MW for heating air to a temperature of up to 800°C for being used in the hybrid process circuit of a combined-cycle power plant are presented.

  2. On-Line Monitoring and Diagnostics of the Integrity of Nuclear Plant Steam Generators and Heat Exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Belle R. Upadhyaya; J. Wesley Hines

    2004-09-27

    Integrity monitoring and flaw diagnostics of flat beams and tubular structures was investigated in this research task using guided acoustic signals. A piezo-sensor suite was deployed to activate and collect Lamb wave signals that propagate along metallic specimens. The dispersion curves of Lamb waves along plate and tubular structures are generated through numerical analysis. Several advanced techniques were explored to extract representative features from acoustic time series. Among them, the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) is a recently developed technique for the analysis of non-linear and transient signals. A moving window method was introduced to generate the local peak characters from acoustic time series, and a zooming window technique was developed to localize the structural flaws. The time-frequency analysis and pattern recognition techniques were combined for classifying structural defects in brass tubes. Several types of flaws in brass tubes were tested, both in the air and in water. The techniques also proved to be effective under background/process noise. A detailed theoretical analysis of Lamb wave propagation was performed and simulations were carried out using the finite element software system ABAQUS. This analytical study confirmed the behavior of the acoustic signals acquired from the experimental studies. The report presents the background the analysis of acoustic signals acquired from piezo-electric transducers for structural defect monitoring. A comparison of the use of time-frequency techniques, including the Hilbert-Huang transform, is presented. The report presents the theoretical study of Lamb wave propagation in flat beams and tubular structures, and the need for mode separation in order to effectively perform defect diagnosis. The results of an extensive experimental study of detection, location, and isolation of structural defects in flat aluminum beams and brass tubes are presented. The results of this research show the feasibility of on

  3. The Integrated Safety Management System Verification Enhancement Review of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP)

    SciTech Connect

    BRIGGS, C.R.

    2000-02-09

    The primary purpose of the verification enhancement review was for the DOE Richland Operations Office (RL) to verify contractor readiness for the independent DOE Integrated Safety Management System Verification (ISMSV) on the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). Secondary objectives included: (1) to reinforce the engagement of management and to gauge management commitment and accountability; (2) to evaluate the ''value added'' benefit of direct public involvement; (3) to evaluate the ''value added'' benefit of direct worker involvement; (4) to evaluate the ''value added'' benefit of the panel-to-panel review approach; and, (5) to evaluate the utility of the review's methodology/adaptability to periodic assessments of ISM status. The review was conducted on December 6-8, 1999, and involved the conduct of two-hour interviews with five separate panels of individuals with various management and operations responsibilities related to PFP. A semi-structured interview process was employed by a team of five ''reviewers'' who directed open-ended questions to the panels which focused on: (1) evidence of management commitment, accountability, and involvement; and, (2) consideration and demonstration of stakeholder (including worker) information and involvement opportunities. The purpose of a panel-to-panel dialogue approach was to better spotlight: (1) areas of mutual reinforcement and alignment that could serve as good examples of the management commitment and accountability aspects of ISMS implementation, and, (2) areas of potential discrepancy that could provide opportunities for improvement. In summary, the Review Team found major strengths to include: (1) the use of multi-disciplinary project work teams to plan and do work; (2) the availability and broad usage of multiple tools to help with planning and integrating work; (3) senior management presence and accessibility; (4) the institutionalization of worker involvement; (5) encouragement of self-reporting and self

  4. State estimation of an acid gas removal (AGR) plant as part of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant with CO2 capture

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, P.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Turton, R.; Zitney, S.

    2012-01-01

    An accurate estimation of process state variables not only can increase the effectiveness and reliability of process measurement technology, but can also enhance plant efficiency, improve control system performance, and increase plant availability. Future integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants with CO2 capture will have to satisfy stricter operational and environmental constraints. To operate the IGCC plant without violating stringent environmental emission standards requires accurate estimation of the relevant process state variables, outputs, and disturbances. Unfortunately, a number of these process variables cannot be measured at all, while some of them can be measured, but with low precision, low reliability, or low signal-to-noise ratio. As a result, accurate estimation of the process variables is of great importance to avoid the inherent difficulties associated with the inaccuracy of the data. Motivated by this, the current paper focuses on the state estimation of an acid gas removal (AGR) process as part of an IGCC plant with CO2 capture. This process has extensive heat and mass integration and therefore is very suitable for testing the efficiency of the designed estimators in the presence of complex interactions between process variables. The traditional Kalman filter (KF) (Kalman, 1960) algorithm has been used as a state estimator which resembles that of a predictor-corrector algorithm for solving numerical problems. In traditional KF implementation, good guesses for the process noise covariance matrix (Q) and the measurement noise covariance matrix (R) are required to obtain satisfactory filter performance. However, in the real world, these matrices are unknown and it is difficult to generate good guesses for them. In this paper, use of an adaptive KF will be presented that adapts Q and R at every time step of the algorithm. Results show that very accurate estimations of the desired process states, outputs or disturbances can be

  5. Half-flat quantum hair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Compeán, Hugo; Loaiza-Brito, Oscar; Martínez-Merino, Aldo; Santos-Silva, Roberto

    2014-02-01

    By wrapping D3-branes over 3-cycles on a half-flat manifold, we construct an effective supersymmetric black hole in the N=2 low-energy theory in four dimensions. Specifically, we find that the torsion cycles present in a half-flat compactification, corresponding to the mirror symmetric image of electric Neveu-Schwarz flux on a Calabi-Yau manifold, manifest in the half-flat black hole as quantum hair. We compute the electric and magnetic charges related to the quantum hair and also the mass contribution to the effective black hole. We find that by wrapping a number of D3-branes equal to the order of the discrete group associated to the torsional part of the half-flat homology, the effective charge and mass terms vanish. We compute the variation of entropy and the corresponding temperature associated with the loss of quantum hair. We also comment on the equivalence between canceling Freed-Witten anomaly and the assumption of self-duality for the 5-form field strength. Finally from a K-theoretical perspective, we compute the presence of discrete Ramond-Ramond charge of D-branes wrapping torsional cycles in a half-flat manifold.

  6. Enhancing Integrated Pest Management in GM Cotton Systems Using Host Plant Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Trapero, Carlos; Wilson, Iain W.; Stiller, Warwick N.; Wilson, Lewis J.

    2016-01-01

    Cotton has lost many ancestral defensive traits against key invertebrate pests. This is suggested by the levels of resistance to some pests found in wild cotton genotypes as well as in cultivated landraces and is a result of domestication and a long history of targeted breeding for yield and fiber quality, along with the capacity to control pests with pesticides. Genetic modification (GM) allowed integration of toxins from a bacteria into cotton to control key Lepidopteran pests. Since the mid-1990s, use of GM cotton cultivars has greatly reduced the amount of pesticides used in many cotton systems. However, pests not controlled by the GM traits have usually emerged as problems, especially the sucking bug complex. Control of this complex with pesticides often causes a reduction in beneficial invertebrate populations, allowing other secondary pests to increase rapidly and require control. Control of both sucking bug complex and secondary pests is problematic due to the cost of pesticides and/or high risk of selecting for pesticide resistance. Deployment of host plant resistance (HPR) provides an opportunity to manage these issues in GM cotton systems. Cotton cultivars resistant to the sucking bug complex and/or secondary pests would require fewer pesticide applications, reducing costs and risks to beneficial invertebrate populations and pesticide resistance. Incorporation of HPR traits into elite cotton cultivars with high yield and fiber quality offers the potential to further reduce pesticide use and increase the durability of pest management in GM cotton systems. We review the challenges that the identification and use of HPR against invertebrate pests brings to cotton breeding. We explore sources of resistance to the sucking bug complex and secondary pests, the mechanisms that control them and the approaches to incorporate these defense traits to commercial cultivars. PMID:27148323

  7. Enhancing Integrated Pest Management in GM Cotton Systems Using Host Plant Resistance.

    PubMed

    Trapero, Carlos; Wilson, Iain W; Stiller, Warwick N; Wilson, Lewis J

    2016-01-01

    Cotton has lost many ancestral defensive traits against key invertebrate pests. This is suggested by the levels of resistance to some pests found in wild cotton genotypes as well as in cultivated landraces and is a result of domestication and a long history of targeted breeding for yield and fiber quality, along with the capacity to control pests with pesticides. Genetic modification (GM) allowed integration of toxins from a bacteria into cotton to control key Lepidopteran pests. Since the mid-1990s, use of GM cotton cultivars has greatly reduced the amount of pesticides used in many cotton systems. However, pests not controlled by the GM traits have usually emerged as problems, especially the sucking bug complex. Control of this complex with pesticides often causes a reduction in beneficial invertebrate populations, allowing other secondary pests to increase rapidly and require control. Control of both sucking bug complex and secondary pests is problematic due to the cost of pesticides and/or high risk of selecting for pesticide resistance. Deployment of host plant resistance (HPR) provides an opportunity to manage these issues in GM cotton systems. Cotton cultivars resistant to the sucking bug complex and/or secondary pests would require fewer pesticide applications, reducing costs and risks to beneficial invertebrate populations and pesticide resistance. Incorporation of HPR traits into elite cotton cultivars with high yield and fiber quality offers the potential to further reduce pesticide use and increase the durability of pest management in GM cotton systems. We review the challenges that the identification and use of HPR against invertebrate pests brings to cotton breeding. We explore sources of resistance to the sucking bug complex and secondary pests, the mechanisms that control them and the approaches to incorporate these defense traits to commercial cultivars. PMID:27148323

  8. A FLINN Station at Pinon Flat Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agnew, Duncan Carr; Wyatt, Frank

    1997-01-01

    The main objectives are: (1) To develop Pinon Flat Observatory (PFO) as a prototype 'integrated' FLINN station: one from which many types of data are collected, combined, and made available to the DOSE program to enhance studies of local and regional strains; (2) To develop the theoretical framework and methods to integrate the various types of auxiliary data which are to be collected by NASA at space-geodetic sites of the FLINN network, with the aim of learning as much as possible about the nature of earth deformation; (3) To develop procedures for the efficient and useful storage and retrieval of such auxiliary data so that they may be efficiently utilized by DOSE investigators; (4) To investigate the stability of ground monumentation now used in space-geodetic measurements, including the field testing of existing and new monument designs.

  9. Development and realization of the concept of an integrated system for the improvement of steam turbine plant reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murmanskii, B. E.

    2015-12-01

    Main works performed when implementing the concept of an integrated approach to the improvement of the steam turbine plant (STP) reliability were stated. The technique of an integrated approach to the collection and processing of data on the STP equipment reliability was presented. This technique is based on the information on damages resulting in equipment failures, damages revealed during the routine equipment maintenance, and on data concerning equipment faults occurred when operating the STP. There is an implementation example for the technique of defining main elements specifying the reliability of a specific unit based on the statistical analysis of STP operating data.

  10. Modelling and assessment of advanced processes for integrated environmental control of coal-fired power plants. Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, J.G.; Bloyd, C.N.; McMichael, F.C.; Rubin, E.S.

    1984-07-01

    The key objective of this research is the development of a computer based model for the assessment of integrated environmental control (IEC) systems for conventional and advanced coal fired power plant designs. Efforts during the period April 1-June 30, 1984 focused on, (1) testing of a preliminary integrated model linking pre-combustion and post-combustion control options for conventional plants; (2) documentation of the analytical models of existing control technology options; (3) development and preliminary testing of a second model design for the propagation and analysis of uncertainty; and (4) development of new analytical models needed for IEC assessments. Activities and accomplishments in each of these areas are described. 4 references, 13 figures, 4 tables.

  11. The Fallacies of Flatness: Thomas Friedman's "The World Is Flat"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abowitz, Kathleen Knight; Roberts, Jay

    2007-01-01

    Thomas Friedman's best-selling "The World is Flat" has exerted much influence in the west by providing both an accessible analysis of globalization and its economic and social effects, and a powerful cultural metaphor for globalization. In this review, we more closely examine Friedman's notion of the social contract, the moral center of his…

  12. Propagule Pressure, Habitat Conditions and Clonal Integration Influence the Establishment and Growth of an Invasive Clonal Plant, Alternanthera philoxeroides

    PubMed Central

    You, Wen-Hua; Han, Cui-Min; Fang, Long-Xiang; Du, Dao-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Many notorious invasive plants are clonal, spreading mainly by vegetative propagules. Propagule pressure (the number of propagules) may affect the establishment, growth, and thus invasion success of these clonal plants, and such effects may also depend on habitat conditions. To understand how propagule pressure, habitat conditions and clonal integration affect the establishment and growth of the invasive clonal plants, an 8-week greenhouse with an invasive clonal plant, Alternanthera philoxeroides was conducted. High (five fragments) or low (one fragment) propagule pressure was established either in bare soil (open habitat) or dense native vegetation of Jussiaea repens (vegetative habitat), with the stolon connections either severed from or connected to the relatively older ramets. High propagule pressure greatly increased the establishment and growth of A. philoxeroides, especially when it grew in vegetative habitats. Surprisingly, high propagule pressure significantly reduced the growth of individual plants of A. philoxeroides in open habitats, whereas it did not affect the individual growth in vegetative habitats. A shift in the intraspecific interaction on A. philoxeroides from competition in open habitats to facilitation in vegetative habitats may be the main reason. Moreover, clonal integration significantly improved the growth of A. philoxeroides only in open habitats, especially with low propagule pressure, whereas it had no effects on the growth and competitive ability of A. philoxeroides in vegetative habitats, suggesting that clonal integration may be of most important for A. philoxeroides to explore new open space and spread. These findings suggest that propagule pressure may be crucial for the invasion success of A. philoxeroides, and such an effect also depends on habitat conditions. PMID:27200041

  13. Propagule Pressure, Habitat Conditions and Clonal Integration Influence the Establishment and Growth of an Invasive Clonal Plant, Alternanthera philoxeroides.

    PubMed

    You, Wen-Hua; Han, Cui-Min; Fang, Long-Xiang; Du, Dao-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Many notorious invasive plants are clonal, spreading mainly by vegetative propagules. Propagule pressure (the number of propagules) may affect the establishment, growth, and thus invasion success of these clonal plants, and such effects may also depend on habitat conditions. To understand how propagule pressure, habitat conditions and clonal integration affect the establishment and growth of the invasive clonal plants, an 8-week greenhouse with an invasive clonal plant, Alternanthera philoxeroides was conducted. High (five fragments) or low (one fragment) propagule pressure was established either in bare soil (open habitat) or dense native vegetation of Jussiaea repens (vegetative habitat), with the stolon connections either severed from or connected to the relatively older ramets. High propagule pressure greatly increased the establishment and growth of A. philoxeroides, especially when it grew in vegetative habitats. Surprisingly, high propagule pressure significantly reduced the growth of individual plants of A. philoxeroides in open habitats, whereas it did not affect the individual growth in vegetative habitats. A shift in the intraspecific interaction on A. philoxeroides from competition in open habitats to facilitation in vegetative habitats may be the main reason. Moreover, clonal integration significantly improved the growth of A. philoxeroides only in open habitats, especially with low propagule pressure, whereas it had no effects on the growth and competitive ability of A. philoxeroides in vegetative habitats, suggesting that clonal integration may be of most important for A. philoxeroides to explore new open space and spread. These findings suggest that propagule pressure may be crucial for the invasion success of A. philoxeroides, and such an effect also depends on habitat conditions. PMID:27200041

  14. Flat Surface Damage Detection System (FSDDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha; Lewis, Mark; Gibson, Tracy; Lane, John; Medelius, Pedro; Snyder, Sarah; Ciarlariello, Dan; Parks, Steve; Carrejo, Danny; Rojdev, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    The Flat Surface Damage Detection system (FSDDS} is a sensory system that is capable of detecting impact damages to surfaces utilizing a novel sensor system. This system will provide the ability to monitor the integrity of an inflatable habitat during in situ system health monitoring. The system consists of three main custom designed subsystems: the multi-layer sensing panel, the embedded monitoring system, and the graphical user interface (GUI). The GUI LABVIEW software uses a custom developed damage detection algorithm to determine the damage location based on the sequence of broken sensing lines. It estimates the damage size, the maximum depth, and plots the damage location on a graph. Successfully demonstrated as a stand alone technology during 2011 D-RATS. Software modification also allowed for communication with HDU avionics crew display which was demonstrated remotely (KSC to JSC} during 2012 integration testing. Integrated FSDDS system and stand alone multi-panel systems were demonstrated remotely and at JSC, Mission Operations Test using Space Network Research Federation (SNRF} network in 2012. FY13, FSDDS multi-panel integration with JSC and SNRF network Technology can allow for integration with other complementary damage detection systems.

  15. Conceptual design of a laser fusion power plant. Part I. An integrated facility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-01

    This study is a new preliminary conceptual design and economic analysis of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) power plant performed by Bechtel under the direction of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The purpose of a new conceptual design is to examine alternatives to the LLNL HYLIFE power plant and to incorporate information from the recent liquid metal cooled power plant conceptual design study (CDS) into the reactor system and balance of plant design. A key issue in the design of a laser fusion power plant is the degree of symmetry in the illumination of the target that will be required for a proper burn. Because this matter is expected to remain unresolved for some time, another purpose of this study is to determine the effect of symmetry requirements on the total plant size, layout, and cost.

  16. Integration of Andrographis paniculata as Potential Medicinal Plant in Chir Pine (Pinus roxburghii Sarg.) Plantation of North-Western Himalaya

    PubMed Central

    Sanwal, Chandra Shekher; Bhardwaj, S. D.

    2016-01-01

    The integration of Andrographis paniculata under Pinus roxburghii (Chir pine) plantation has been studied to evaluate the growth and yield for its economic viability and conservation. It was grown on three topographical aspects, namely, northern, north-western, and western, at a spacing of 30 cm × 30 cm, followed by three tillage depths, namely, minimum (0 cm), medium (up to 10 cm), and deep (up to 15 cm) tillage. The growth parameters, namely, plant height and number of branches per plant, were recorded as significantly higher on western aspect and lowest on northern aspect except for leaf area index which was found nonsignificant. However under all tillage practices all the growth parameters in both understorey and open conditions were found to be nonsignificant except for plant height which was found to be significantly highest under deep tillage and lowest under minimum tillage. The study of net returns for Andrographis paniculata revealed that it had positive average annual returns even in understorey conditions which indicate its possible economic viability under integration of Chir pine plantations. Hence net returns can be enhanced by integrating Andrographis paniculata and this silvimedicinal system can be suggested which will help utilizing an unutilized part of land and increase total productivity from such lands besides conservation of the A. paniculata in situ. PMID:27563482

  17. The integrative effects of population density, photoperiod, temperature, and host plant on the induction of alate aphids in Schizaphis graminum.

    PubMed

    An, Chunju; Fei, Xiaodong; Chen, Wenfeng; Zhao, Zhangwu

    2012-04-01

    The wheat aphid Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) displays wing dimorphism with both winged and wingless adult morphs. The winged morph is an adaptive microevolutionary response to undesirable environmental conditions, including undesirable population density, photoperiod, temperature, and host plant. Here we studied the integrative effects of population density, photoperiod, temperature, and host plant on the induction of alate aphids in S. graminum. The present results show that these four factors all play roles in inducing alate aphids in S. graminum but population density is the most important under almost all circumstances. In importance, population density is followed by photoperiod, host plant, and temperature, in that order. These results indicate that ambient environmental factors are highly important to stimulation of alate aphids in S. graminum, especially when population density reaches 64 individuals per leaf.

  18. An examination of heat rate improvements due to waste heat integration in an oxycombustion pulverized coal power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charles, Joshua M.

    Oxyfuel, or oxycombustion, technology has been proposed as one carbon capture technology for coal-fired power plants. An oxycombustion plant would fire coal in an oxidizer consisting primarily of CO2, oxygen, and water vapor. Flue gas with high CO2 concentrations is produced and can be compressed for sequestration. Since this compression generates large amounts of heat, it was theorized that this heat could be utilized elsewhere in the plant. Process models of the oxycombustion boiler, steam cycle, and compressors were created in ASPEN Plus and Excel to test this hypothesis. Using these models, heat from compression stages was integrated to the flue gas recirculation heater, feedwater heaters, and to a fluidized bed coal dryer. All possible combinations of these heat sinks were examined, with improvements in coal flow rate, Qcoal, net power, and unit heat rate being noted. These improvements would help offset the large efficiency impacts inherent to oxycombustion technology.

  19. The origin and early evolution of tracheids in vascular plants: integration of palaeobotanical and neobotanical data.

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, W E; Cook, M E

    2000-01-01

    Although there is clear evidence for the establishment of terrestrial plant life by the end of the Ordovician, the fossil record indicates that land plants remained extremely small and structurally simple until the Late Silurian. Among the events associated with this first major radiation of land plants is the evolution of tracheids, complex water-conducting cells defined by the presence of lignified secondary cell wall thickenings. Recent palaeobotanical analyses indicate that Early Devonian tracheids appear to possess secondary cell wall thickenings composed of two distinct layers: a degradation-prone layer adjacent to the primary cell wall and a degradation-resistant (possibly lignified) layer next to the cell lumen. In order to understand better the early evolution of tracheids, developmental and comparative studies of key basal (and potentially plesiomorphic) extant vascular plants have been initiated. Ultrastructural analysis and enzyme degradation studies of wall structure (to approximate diagenetic alterations of fossil tracheid structure) have been conducted on basal members of each of the two major clades of extant vascular plants: Huperzia (Lycophytina) and Equisetum (Euphyllophytina. This research demonstrates that secondary cell walls of extant basal vascular plants include a degradation-prone layer ('template layer') and a degradation-resistant layer ('resistant layer'). This pattern of secondary cell wall formation in the water-conducting cells of extant vascular plants matches the pattern of wall thickenings in the tracheids of early fossil vascular plants and provides a key evolutionary link between tracheids of living vascular plants and those of their earliest fossil ancestors. Further studies of tracheid development and structure among basal extant vascular plants will lead to a more precise reconstruction of the early evolution of water-conducting tissues in land plants, and will add to the current limited knowledge of spatial, temporal and

  20. Arsenic removal from contaminated groundwater by membrane-integrated hybrid plant: optimization and control using Visual Basic platform.

    PubMed

    Chakrabortty, S; Sen, M; Pal, P

    2014-03-01

    A simulation software (ARRPA) has been developed in Microsoft Visual Basic platform for optimization and control of a novel membrane-integrated arsenic separation plant in the backdrop of absence of such software. The user-friendly, menu-driven software is based on a dynamic linearized mathematical model, developed for the hybrid treatment scheme. The model captures the chemical kinetics in the pre-treating chemical reactor and the separation and transport phenomena involved in nanofiltration. The software has been validated through extensive experimental investigations. The agreement between the outputs from computer simulation program and the experimental findings are excellent and consistent under varying operating conditions reflecting high degree of accuracy and reliability of the software. High values of the overall correlation coefficient (R (2) = 0.989) and Willmott d-index (0.989) are indicators of the capability of the software in analyzing performance of the plant. The software permits pre-analysis, manipulation of input data, helps in optimization and exhibits performance of an integrated plant visually on a graphical platform. Performance analysis of the whole system as well as the individual units is possible using the tool. The software first of its kind in its domain and in the well-known Microsoft Excel environment is likely to be very useful in successful design, optimization and operation of an advanced hybrid treatment plant for removal of arsenic from contaminated groundwater.

  1. Integrating Insect Life History and Food Plant Phenology: Flexible Maternal Choice Is Adaptive.

    PubMed

    Fei, Minghui; Harvey, Jeffrey A; Weldegergis, Berhane T; Huang, Tzeyi; Reijngoudt, Kimmy; Vet, Louise M; Gols, Rieta

    2016-01-01

    Experience of insect herbivores and their natural enemies in the natal habitat is considered to affect their likelihood of accepting a similar habitat or plant/host during dispersal. Growing phenology of food plants and the number of generations in the insects further determines lability of insect behavioural responses at eclosion. We studied the effect of rearing history on oviposition preference in a multivoltine herbivore (Pieris brassicae), and foraging behaviour in the endoparasitoid wasp (Cotesia glomerata) a specialist enemy of P. brassicae. Different generations of the insects are obligatorily associated with different plants in the Brassicaceae, e.g., Brassica rapa, Brassica nigra and Sinapis arvensis, exhibiting different seasonal phenologies in The Netherlands. Food plant preference of adults was examined when the insects had been reared on each of the three plant species for one generation. Rearing history only marginally affected oviposition preference of P. brassicae butterflies, but they never preferred the plant on which they had been reared. C. glomerata had a clear preference for host-infested B. rapa plants, irrespective of rearing history. Higher levels of the glucosinolate breakdown product 3-butenyl isothiocyanate in the headspace of B. rapa plants could explain enhanced attractiveness. Our results reveal the potential importance of flexible plant choice for female multivoltine insects in nature.

  2. Integrating Insect Life History and Food Plant Phenology: Flexible Maternal Choice Is Adaptive

    PubMed Central

    Fei, Minghui; Harvey, Jeffrey A.; Weldegergis, Berhane T.; Huang, Tzeyi; Reijngoudt, Kimmy; Vet, Louise M.; Gols, Rieta

    2016-01-01

    Experience of insect herbivores and their natural enemies in the natal habitat is considered to affect their likelihood of accepting a similar habitat or plant/host during dispersal. Growing phenology of food plants and the number of generations in the insects further determines lability of insect behavioural responses at eclosion. We studied the effect of rearing history on oviposition preference in a multivoltine herbivore (Pieris brassicae), and foraging behaviour in the endoparasitoid wasp (Cotesia glomerata) a specialist enemy of P. brassicae. Different generations of the insects are obligatorily associated with different plants in the Brassicaceae, e.g., Brassica rapa, Brassica nigra and Sinapis arvensis, exhibiting different seasonal phenologies in The Netherlands. Food plant preference of adults was examined when the insects had been reared on each of the three plant species for one generation. Rearing history only marginally affected oviposition preference of P. brassicae butterflies, but they never preferred the plant on which they had been reared. C. glomerata had a clear preference for host-infested B. rapa plants, irrespective of rearing history. Higher levels of the glucosinolate breakdown product 3-butenyl isothiocyanate in the headspace of B. rapa plants could explain enhanced attractiveness. Our results reveal the potential importance of flexible plant choice for female multivoltine insects in nature. PMID:27527153

  3. Integrating Insect Life History and Food Plant Phenology: Flexible Maternal Choice Is Adaptive.

    PubMed

    Fei, Minghui; Harvey, Jeffrey A; Weldegergis, Berhane T; Huang, Tzeyi; Reijngoudt, Kimmy; Vet, Louise M; Gols, Rieta

    2016-01-01

    Experience of insect herbivores and their natural enemies in the natal habitat is considered to affect their likelihood of accepting a similar habitat or plant/host during dispersal. Growing phenology of food plants and the number of generations in the insects further determines lability of insect behavioural responses at eclosion. We studied the effect of rearing history on oviposition preference in a multivoltine herbivore (Pieris brassicae), and foraging behaviour in the endoparasitoid wasp (Cotesia glomerata) a specialist enemy of P. brassicae. Different generations of the insects are obligatorily associated with different plants in the Brassicaceae, e.g., Brassica rapa, Brassica nigra and Sinapis arvensis, exhibiting different seasonal phenologies in The Netherlands. Food plant preference of adults was examined when the insects had been reared on each of the three plant species for one generation. Rearing history only marginally affected oviposition preference of P. brassicae butterflies, but they never preferred the plant on which they had been reared. C. glomerata had a clear preference for host-infested B. rapa plants, irrespective of rearing history. Higher levels of the glucosinolate breakdown product 3-butenyl isothiocyanate in the headspace of B. rapa plants could explain enhanced attractiveness. Our results reveal the potential importance of flexible plant choice for female multivoltine insects in nature. PMID:27527153

  4. Methodology for the optimal design of an integrated first and second generation ethanol production plant combined with power cogeneration.

    PubMed

    Bechara, Rami; Gomez, Adrien; Saint-Antonin, Valérie; Schweitzer, Jean-Marc; Maréchal, François

    2016-08-01

    The application of methodologies for the optimal design of integrated processes has seen increased interest in literature. This article builds on previous works and applies a systematic methodology to an integrated first and second generation ethanol production plant with power cogeneration. The methodology breaks into process simulation, heat integration, thermo-economic evaluation, exergy efficiency vs. capital costs, multi-variable, evolutionary optimization, and process selection via profitability maximization. Optimization generated Pareto solutions with exergy efficiency ranging between 39.2% and 44.4% and capital costs from 210M$ to 390M$. The Net Present Value was positive for only two scenarios and for low efficiency, low hydrolysis points. The minimum cellulosic ethanol selling price was sought to obtain a maximum NPV of zero for high efficiency, high hydrolysis alternatives. The obtained optimal configuration presented maximum exergy efficiency, hydrolyzed bagasse fraction, capital costs and ethanol production rate, and minimum cooling water consumption and power production rate. PMID:27160954

  5. Risk, media, and stigma at Rocky Flats

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, J.; Peters, E.; Mertz, C.K.; Slovic, P.

    1998-12-01

    Public responses to nuclear technologies are often strongly negative. Events, such as accidents or evidence of unsafe conditions at nuclear facilities, receive extensive and dramatic coverage by the news media. These news stories affect public perceptions of nuclear risks and the geographic areas near nuclear facilities. One result of these perceptions, avoidance behavior, is a form of technological stigma that leads to losses in property values near nuclear facilities. The social amplification of risk is a conceptual framework that attempts to explain how stigma is created through media transmission of information about hazardous places and public perceptions and decisions. This paper examines stigma associated with the US Department of energy`s Rocky Flats facility, a major production plant in the nation`s nuclear weapons complex, located near Denver, Colorado. This study, based upon newspaper analyses and a survey of Denver area residents, finds that the social amplification theory provides a reasonable framework for understanding the events and public responses that took place in regard to Rocky Flats during a 6-year period, beginning with an FBI raid of the facility in 1989.

  6. Automatic Flatness Control of Cold Rolling Mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anbe, Yoshiharu; Sekiguchi, Kunio

    One of the subjects of cold rolling is a flatness of the rolled strip. Conventionally, measured strip flatness was approximated by polynomial (2th, 4th, 6th) equation across the entire strip width. This made it difficult to deal with desired loose edge or any desired flatness across the entire strip width. Also conventional flatness control was done for the entire strip width, so if there is a different flatness error among drive side and work side, conventional flatness control can not control properly. We propose independent strip flatness control among drive side and work side, and also automatic flatness control (AFC) system with arbitrary desired strip flatness. Also some applied results to cold mill are shown.

  7. The Conceptual Design of an Integrated Nuclearhydrogen Production Plant Using the Sulfur Cycle Water Decomposition System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farbman, G. H.

    1976-01-01

    A hydrogen production plant was designed based on a hybrid electrolytic-thermochemical process for decomposing water. The sulfur cycle water decomposition system is driven by a very high temperature nuclear reactor that provides 1,283 K helium working gas. The plant is sized to approximately ten million standard cubic meters per day of electrolytically pure hydrogen and has an overall thermal efficiently of 45.2 percent. The economics of the plant were evaluated using ground rules which include a 1974 cost basis without escalation, financing structure and other economic factors. Taking into account capital, operation, maintenance and nuclear fuel cycle costs, the cost of product hydrogen was calculated at $5.96/std cu m for utility financing. These values are significantly lower than hydrogen costs from conventional water electrolysis plants and competitive with hydrogen from coal gasification plants.

  8. Plant host associations of Penthaleus species and Halotydeus destructor (Acari: Penthaleidae) and implications for integrated pest management.

    PubMed

    Umina, Paul A; Hoffmann, Ary A

    2004-01-01

    Integrated pest management programs seek to minimise reliance on pesticides and provide effective long-term control of pests. Cultural control strategies, such as crop rotations, trap and border crops, and weed management, require a thorough understanding of pest host associations. This paper examines the effects of different plant hosts on the persistence and reproduction of blue oat mites, Penthaleus spp., and the redlegged earth mite, Halotydeus destructor (Tucker), which are major agricultural pests in southern Australia. Field and shade-house experiments were conducted testing several crop and plant types. All species survived and reproduced from one mite season to the next when confined to pasture. Canola and a common weed, 'bristly ox-tongue', were suitable hosts for H. destructor and Penthaleus falcatus (Qin and Halliday), whereas Penthaleus sp. x and Penthaleus major (Dugés) failed to persist on these plants. A mixture of wheat and oats sustained P. sp. x and H. destructor, but not P. falcatus or P. major. Lentils were generally a poor host plant for all mite species. These findings show that earth mite species differ in their ability to persist on different plant types, highlighting the importance of distinguishing mite species before implementing control strategies. Results are discussed with respect to cultural control options for the management of these winter pests.

  9. Thermal, High Pressure, and Electric Field Processing Effects on Plant Cell Membrane Integrity and Relevance to Fruit and Vegetable Quality

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Maria E; Barrett, Diane M

    2010-01-01

    Advanced food processing methods that accomplish inactivation of microorganisms but minimize adverse thermal exposure are of great interest to the food industry. High pressure (HP) and pulsed electric field (PEF) processing are commercially applied to produce high quality fruit and vegetable products in the United States, Europe, and Japan. Both microbial and plant cell membranes are significantly altered following exposure to heat, HP, or PEF. Our research group sought to quantify the degree of damage to plant cell membranes that occurs as a result of exposure to heat, HP, or PEF, using the same analytical methods. In order to evaluate whether new advanced processing methods are superior to traditional thermal processing methods, it is necessary to compare them. In this review, we describe the existing state of knowledge related to effects of heat, HP, and PEF on both microbial and plant cells. The importance and relevance of compartmentalization in plant cells as it relates to fruit and vegetable quality is described and various methods for quantification of plant cell membrane integrity are discussed. These include electrolyte leakage, cell viability, and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR). PMID:20492210

  10. Plant host associations of Penthaleus species and Halotydeus destructor (Acari: Penthaleidae) and implications for integrated pest management.

    PubMed

    Umina, Paul A; Hoffmann, Ary A

    2004-01-01

    Integrated pest management programs seek to minimise reliance on pesticides and provide effective long-term control of pests. Cultural control strategies, such as crop rotations, trap and border crops, and weed management, require a thorough understanding of pest host associations. This paper examines the effects of different plant hosts on the persistence and reproduction of blue oat mites, Penthaleus spp., and the redlegged earth mite, Halotydeus destructor (Tucker), which are major agricultural pests in southern Australia. Field and shade-house experiments were conducted testing several crop and plant types. All species survived and reproduced from one mite season to the next when confined to pasture. Canola and a common weed, 'bristly ox-tongue', were suitable hosts for H. destructor and Penthaleus falcatus (Qin and Halliday), whereas Penthaleus sp. x and Penthaleus major (Dugés) failed to persist on these plants. A mixture of wheat and oats sustained P. sp. x and H. destructor, but not P. falcatus or P. major. Lentils were generally a poor host plant for all mite species. These findings show that earth mite species differ in their ability to persist on different plant types, highlighting the importance of distinguishing mite species before implementing control strategies. Results are discussed with respect to cultural control options for the management of these winter pests. PMID:15285134

  11. Introduction to the Special Issue: Beyond traits: integrating behaviour into plant ecology and biology.

    PubMed

    Cahill, James F

    2015-10-26

    The way that plants are conceptualized in the context of ecological understanding is changing. In one direction, a reductionist school is pulling plants apart into a list of measured 'traits', from which ecological function and outcomes of species interactions may be inferred. This special issue offers an alternative, and more holistic, view: that the ecological functions performed by a plant will be a consequence not only of their complement of traits but also of the ways in which their component parts are used in response to environmental and social conditions. This is the realm of behavioural ecology, a field that has greatly advanced our understanding of animal biology, ecology and evolution. Included in this special issue are 10 articles focussing not on the tried and true metaphor that plant growth is similar to animal movement, but instead on how application of principles from animal behaviour can improve our ability to understand plant biology and ecology. The goals are not to draw false parallels, nor to anthropomorphize plant biology, but instead to demonstrate how existing and robust theory based on fundamental principles can provide novel understanding for plants. Key to this approach is the recognition that behaviour and intelligence are not the same. Many organisms display complex behaviours despite a lack of cognition (as it is traditionally understood) or any hint of a nervous system. The applicability of behavioural concepts to plants is further enhanced with the realization that all organisms face the same harsh forces of natural selection in the context of finding resources, mates and coping with neighbours. As these ecological realities are often highly variable in space and time, it is not surprising that all organisms-even plants-exhibit complex behaviours to handle this variability. The articles included here address diverse topics in behavioural ecology, as applied to plants: general conceptual understanding, plant nutrient foraging, root

  12. Integrated Analysis Platform: An Open-Source Information System for High-Throughput Plant Phenotyping1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Klukas, Christian; Chen, Dijun; Pape, Jean-Michel

    2014-01-01

    High-throughput phenotyping is emerging as an important technology to dissect phenotypic components in plants. Efficient image processing and feature extraction are prerequisites to quantify plant growth and performance based on phenotypic traits. Issues include data management, image analysis, and result visualization of large-scale phenotypic data sets. Here, we present Integrated Analysis Platform (IAP), an open-source framework for high-throughput plant phenotyping. IAP provides user-friendly interfaces, and its core functions are highly adaptable. Our system supports image data transfer from different acquisition environments and large-scale image analysis for different plant species based on real-time imaging data obtained from different spectra. Due to the huge amount of data to manage, we utilized a common data structure for efficient storage and organization of data for both input data and result data. We implemented a block-based method for automated image processing to extract a representative list of plant phenotypic traits. We also provide tools for build-in data plotting and result export. For validation of IAP, we performed an example experiment that contains 33 maize (Zea mays ‘Fernandez’) plants, which were grown for 9 weeks in an automated greenhouse with nondestructive imaging. Subsequently, the image data were subjected to automated analysis with the maize pipeline implemented in our system. We found that the computed digital volume and number of leaves correlate with our manually measured data in high accuracy up to 0.98 and 0.95, respectively. In summary, IAP provides a multiple set of functionalities for import/export, management, and automated analysis of high-throughput plant phenotyping data, and its analysis results are highly reliable. PMID:24760818

  13. Development and testing of an integrated signal validation system for nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Upadhyaya, B.R.; Kerlin, T.W.; Gaudio, P.J. Jr.

    1989-09-01

    Since the incident at Three Mile Island unit 2, computerized plant status display, implementation of human factors in control room design, and plant monitoring based on expert system technology have seen a tremendous growth. One such proposed operator assist device is a plant signal validation system. This system is used to check the consistency of redundant measurements (sensors) of selected process variables, estimate their expect values from plant-wide data, and detect, isolate and characterize the type of anomaly in the instrument channel outputs. In large process control systems signals from several hundred instrument channels are routed via data highways to control systems, protection (safety) systems and plant monitoring systems. The need of automated signal validation is necessary because of the large amount of information available, and as a result the operator's inability to validate information from many diverse sources. This is also useful for improved plant control (minimize challenges on control systems), minimizing plant downtime, and for predictive maintenance advising. 107 refs., 56 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. Introduction to the Special Issue: Beyond traits: integrating behaviour into plant ecology and biology

    PubMed Central

    Cahill, James F.

    2015-01-01

    The way that plants are conceptualized in the context of ecological understanding is changing. In one direction, a reductionist school is pulling plants apart into a list of measured ‘traits’, from which ecological function and outcomes of species interactions may be inferred. This special issue offers an alternative, and more holistic, view: that the ecological functions performed by a plant will be a consequence not only of their complement of traits but also of the ways in which their component parts are used in response to environmental and social conditions. This is the realm of behavioural ecology, a field that has greatly advanced our understanding of animal biology, ecology and evolution. Included in this special issue are 10 articles focussing not on the tried and true metaphor that plant growth is similar to animal movement, but instead on how application of principles from animal behaviour can improve our ability to understand plant biology and ecology. The goals are not to draw false parallels, nor to anthropomorphize plant biology, but instead to demonstrate how existing and robust theory based on fundamental principles can provide novel understanding for plants. Key to this approach is the recognition that behaviour and intelligence are not the same. Many organisms display complex behaviours despite a lack of cognition (as it is traditionally understood) or any hint of a nervous system. The applicability of behavioural concepts to plants is further enhanced with the realization that all organisms face the same harsh forces of natural selection in the context of finding resources, mates and coping with neighbours. As these ecological realities are often highly variable in space and time, it is not surprising that all organisms—even plants—exhibit complex behaviours to handle this variability. The articles included here address diverse topics in behavioural ecology, as applied to plants: general conceptual understanding, plant nutrient foraging

  15. 77 FR 59166 - South Mississippi Electric Cooperative: Plant Ratcliffe, Kemper County Integrated Gasification...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-26

    ... Integrated Gasification Combined-Cycle (IGCC) Project AGENCY: Rural Utilities Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice... Integrated Gasification Combined-Cycle Facility located in Kemper County, Mississippi (the Project). The... the Clean Water Act. The DOE/USACE Final EIS was issued in May 2010, and DOE issued their Record...

  16. The Critical Mass Laboratory at Rocky Flats

    SciTech Connect

    Rothe, Robert E

    2003-10-15

    The Critical Mass Laboratory (CML) at Rocky Flats northwest of Denver, Colorado, was built in 1964 and commissioned to conduct nuclear experiments on January 28, 1965. It was built to attain more accurate and precise experimental data to ensure nuclear criticality safety at the plant than were previously possible. Prior to its construction, safety data were obtained from long extrapolations of subcritical data (called in situ experiments), calculated parameters from reactor engineering 'models', and a few other imprecise methods. About 1700 critical and critical-approach experiments involving several chemical forms of enriched uranium and plutonium were performed between then and 1988. These experiments included single units and arrays of fissile materials, reflected and 'bare' systems, and configurations with various degrees of moderation, as well as some containing strong neutron absorbers. In 1989, a raid by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) caused the plant as a whole to focus on 'resumption' instead of further criticality safety experiments. Though either not recognized or not admitted for a few years, that FBI raid did sound the death knell for the CML. The plant's optimistic goal of resumption evolved to one of deactivation, decommissioning, and plantwide demolition during the 1990s. The once-proud CML facility was finally demolished in April of 2002.

  17. Shifting effects of physiological integration on performance of a clonal plant during submergence and de-submergence

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Fang-Li; Chen, Yue; Huang, Lin; Wang, Ao; Zhang, Ming-Xiang; Yu, Fei-Hai

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Submergence and de-submergence are common phenomena encountered by riparian plants due to water level fluctuations, but little is known about the role of physiological integration in clonal plants (resource sharing between interconnected ramets) in their adaptation to such events. Using Alternanthera philoxeroides (alligator weed) as an example, this study tested the hypotheses that physiological integration will improve growth and photosynthetic capacity of submerged ramets during submergence and will promote their recovery following de-submergence. Methods Connected clones of A. philoxeroides, each consisting of two ramet systems and a stolon internode connecting them, were grown under control (both ramet systems untreated), half-submerged (one ramet system submerged and the other not submerged), fully submerged (both ramet systems submerged), half-shaded (one ramet system shaded and the other not shaded) and full-shaded (both ramet systems shaded) conditions for 30 d and then de-submerged/de-shaded for 20 d. The submerged plants were also shaded to very low light intensities, mimicking typical conditions in turbid floodwater. Key Results After 30 d of submergence, connections between submerged and non-submerged ramets significantly increased growth and carbohydrate accumulation of the submerged ramets, but decreased the growth of the non-submerged ramets. After 20 d of de-submergence, connections did not significantly affect the growth of either de-submerged or non-submerged ramets, but de-submerged ramets had high soluble sugar concentrations, suggesting high metabolic activities. The shift from significant effects of integration on both submerged and non-submerged ramets during the submergence period to little effect during the de-submergence period was due to the quick recovery of growth and photosynthesis. The effects of physiological integration were not found to be any stronger under submergence/de-submergence than under shading

  18. Integrating drivers influencing the detection of plant pests carried in the international cut flower trade.

    PubMed

    Areal, F J; Touza, J; MacLeod, A; Dehnen-Schmutz, K; Perrings, C; Palmieri, M G; Spence, N J

    2008-12-01

    This paper analyses the cut flower market as an example of an invasion pathway along which species of non-indigenous plant pests can travel to reach new areas. The paper examines the probability of pest detection by assessing information on pest detection and detection effort associated with the import of cut flowers. We test the link between the probability of plant pest arrivals, as a precursor to potential invasion, and volume of traded flowers using count data regression models. The analysis is applied to the UK import of specific genera of cut flowers from Kenya between 1996 and 2004. There is a link between pest detection and the Genus of cut flower imported. Hence, pest detection efforts should focus on identifying and targeting those imported plants with a high risk of carrying pest species. For most of the plants studied, efforts allocated to inspection have a significant influence on the probability of pest detection. However, by better targeting inspection efforts, it is shown that plant inspection effort could be reduced without increasing the risk of pest entry. Similarly, for most of the plants analysed, an increase in volume traded will not necessarily lead to an increase in the number of pests entering the UK. For some species, such as Carthamus and Veronica, the volume of flowers traded has a significant and positive impact on the likelihood of pest detection. We conclude that analysis at the rank of plant Genus is important both to understand the effectiveness of plant pest detection efforts and consequently to manage the risk of introduction of non-indigenous species.

  19. GoMapMan: integration, consolidation and visualization of plant gene annotations within the MapMan ontology.

    PubMed

    Ramsak, Živa; Baebler, Špela; Rotter, Ana; Korbar, Matej; Mozetic, Igor; Usadel, Björn; Gruden, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    GoMapMan (http://www.gomapman.org) is an open web-accessible resource for gene functional annotations in the plant sciences. It was developed to facilitate improvement, consolidation and visualization of gene annotations across several plant species. GoMapMan is based on the MapMan ontology, organized in the form of a hierarchical tree of biological concepts, which describe gene functions. Currently, genes of the model species Arabidopsis and three crop species (potato, tomato and rice) are included. The main features of GoMapMan are (i) dynamic and interactive gene product annotation through various curation options; (ii) consolidation of gene annotations for different plant species through the integration of orthologue group information; (iii) traceability of gene ontology changes and annotations; (iv) integration of external knowledge about genes from different public resources; and (v) providing gathered information to high-throughput analysis tools via dynamically generated export files. All of the GoMapMan functionalities are openly available, with the restriction on the curation functions, which require prior registration to ensure traceability of the implemented changes.

  20. GoMapMan: integration, consolidation and visualization of plant gene annotations within the MapMan ontology

    PubMed Central

    Ramšak, Živa; Baebler, Špela; Rotter, Ana; Korbar, Matej; Mozetič, Igor; Usadel, Björn; Gruden, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    GoMapMan (http://www.gomapman.org) is an open web-accessible resource for gene functional annotations in the plant sciences. It was developed to facilitate improvement, consolidation and visualization of gene annotations across several plant species. GoMapMan is based on the MapMan ontology, organized in the form of a hierarchical tree of biological concepts, which describe gene functions. Currently, genes of the model species Arabidopsis and three crop species (potato, tomato and rice) are included. The main features of GoMapMan are (i) dynamic and interactive gene product annotation through various curation options; (ii) consolidation of gene annotations for different plant species through the integration of orthologue group information; (iii) traceability of gene ontology changes and annotations; (iv) integration of external knowledge about genes from different public resources; and (v) providing gathered information to high-throughput analysis tools via dynamically generated export files. All of the GoMapMan functionalities are openly available, with the restriction on the curation functions, which require prior registration to ensure traceability of the implemented changes. PMID:24194592

  1. Auxin and the integration of environmental signals into plant root development

    PubMed Central

    Kazan, Kemal

    2013-01-01

    Background Auxin is a versatile plant hormone with important roles in many essential physiological processes. In recent years, significant progress has been made towards understanding the roles of this hormone in plant growth and development. Recent evidence also points to a less well-known but equally important role for auxin as a mediator of environmental adaptation in plants. Scope This review briefly discusses recent findings on how plants utilize auxin signalling and transport to modify their root system architecture when responding to diverse biotic and abiotic rhizosphere signals, including macro- and micro-nutrient starvation, cold and water stress, soil acidity, pathogenic and beneficial microbes, nematodes and neighbouring plants. Stress-responsive transcription factors and microRNAs that modulate auxin- and environment-mediated root development are also briefly highlighted. Conclusions The auxin pathway constitutes an essential component of the plant's biotic and abiotic stress tolerance mechanisms. Further understanding of the specific roles that auxin plays in environmental adaptation can ultimately lead to the development of crops better adapted to stressful environments. PMID:24136877

  2. Expression of endogenous para-retroviral genes and molecular analysis of the integration events in its plant host Dahlia variabilis.

    PubMed

    Eid, S; Pappu, H R

    2014-02-01

    The dahlia (Dahlia variabilis) genome contains an endogenous pararetrovirus sequence (EPRS) tentatively designated as DvEPRS. The DvEPRS shares genome structure and organization that is typical of members of the Caulimovirus genus. Studies were carried out to better understand the nature of this integration and to determine the gene expression of this DvEPRS. Genomic Southern hybridization showed multiple and random integration events of the DvEPRS in the dahlia genome. To investigate the presence of DvEPRS transcripts, RT-PCR was done on DNase-treated total RNA from DvEPRS-infected dahlia plants. Results showed the expression of open reading frames I, V, and VI. Direct PCR from sap extracts produced more intense DNA amplicons of Dahlia mosaic virus and Dahlia common mosaic virus which are believed to exist as typical episomal caulimoviruses, whereas significantly less intense amplicon was seen in case of DvEPRS in comparison with internal transcribed spacer region of dahlias amplicon. The DvEPRS in wild and cultivated species of Dahlia offer a model system to study the molecular events underlying the ecology, evolution and spread of DvEPRS within natural and managed ecosystems and the factors affecting integration of these EPRS in the plant genome. PMID:24258394

  3. Flat H Frangible Joint Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diegelman, Thomas E.; Hinkel, Todd J.; Benjamin, Andrew; Rochon, Brian V.; Brown, Christopher W.

    2016-01-01

    Space vehicle staging and separation events require pyrotechnic devices. They are single-use mechanisms that cannot be tested, nor can failure-tolerant performance be demonstrated in actual flight articles prior to flight use. This necessitates the implementation of a robust design and test approach coupled with a fully redundant, failure-tolerant explosive mechanism to ensure that the system functions even in the event of a single failure. Historically, NASA has followed the single failure-tolerant (SFT) design philosophy for all human-rated spacecraft, including the Space Shuttle Program. Following the end of this program, aerospace companies proposed building the next generation human-rated vehicles with off-the-shelf, non-redundant, zero-failure-tolerant (ZFT) separation systems. Currently, spacecraft and launch vehicle providers for both the Orion and Commercial Crew Programs (CCPs) plan to deviate from the heritage safety approach and NASA's SFT human rating requirements. Both programs' partners have base-lined ZFT frangible joints for vehicle staging and fairing separation. These joints are commercially available from pyrotechnic vendors. Non-human-rated missions have flown them numerous times. The joints are relatively easy to integrate structurally within the spacecraft. In addition, the separation event is debris free, and the resultant pyro shock is lower than that of other design solutions. It is, however, a serious deficiency to lack failure tolerance. When used for critical applications on human-rated vehicles, a single failure could potentially lead to loss of crew (LOC) or loss of mission (LOM)). The Engineering and Safety & Mission Assurance directorates within the NASA Johnson Space Center took action to address this safety issue by initiating a project to develop a fully redundant, SFT frangible joint design, known as the Flat H. Critical to the ability to retrofit on launch vehicles being developed, the SFT mechanisms must fit within the same

  4. Laser illuminated flat panel display

    SciTech Connect

    Veligdan, J.T.

    1995-12-31

    A 10 inch laser illuminated flat panel Planar Optic Display (POD) screen has been constructed and tested. This POD screen technology is an entirely new concept in display technology. Although the initial display is flat and made of glass, this technology lends itself to applications where a plastic display might be wrapped around the viewer. The display screen is comprised of hundreds of planar optical waveguides where each glass waveguide represents a vertical line of resolution. A black cladding layer, having a lower index of refraction, is placed between each waveguide layer. Since the cladding makes the screen surface black, the contrast is high. The prototype display is 9 inches wide by 5 inches high and approximately I inch thick. A 3 milliwatt HeNe laser is used as the illumination source and a vector scanning technique is employed.

  5. Graphene folding on flat substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xiaoming; Zhao, Yadong; Ke, Changhong; Zhang, Liuyang; Wang, Xianqiao

    2014-10-28

    We present a combined experimental-theoretical study of graphene folding on flat substrates. The structure and deformation of the folded graphene sheet are experimentally characterized by atomic force microscopy. The local graphene folding behaviors are interpreted based on nonlinear continuum mechanics modeling and molecular dynamics simulations. Our study on self-folding of a trilayer graphene sheet reports a bending stiffness of about 6.57 eV, which is about four times the reported values for monolayer graphene. Our results reveal that an intriguing free sliding phenomenon occurs at the interlayer van der Waals interfaces during the graphene folding process. This work demonstrates that it is a plausible venue to quantify the bending stiffness of graphene based on its self-folding conformation on flat substrates. The findings reported in this work are useful to a better understanding of the mechanical properties of graphene and in the pursuit of its applications.

  6. Parallel spinors on flat manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadowski, Michał

    2006-05-01

    Let p(M) be the dimension of the vector space of parallel spinors on a closed spin manifold M. We prove that every finite group G is the holonomy group of a closed flat spin manifold M(G) such that p(M(G))>0. If the holonomy group Hol(M) of M is cyclic, then we give an explicit formula for p(M) another than that given in [R.J. Miatello, R.A. Podesta, The spectrum of twisted Dirac operators on compact flat manifolds, Trans. Am. Math. Soc., in press]. We answer the question when p(M)>0 if Hol(M) is a cyclic group of prime order or dim⁡M≤4.

  7. Warped Ricci-flat reductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colgáin, E. Ó.; Sheikh-Jabbari, M. M.; Vázquez-Poritz, J. F.; Yavartanoo, H.; Zhang, Z.

    2014-08-01

    We present a simple class of warped-product vacuum (Ricci-flat) solutions to ten- and eleven-dimensional supergravity, where the internal space is flat and noncompact and the warp factor supports de Sitter (dS) and anti-de Sitter (AdS) vacua, in addition to trivial Minkowski vacua with compact internal spaces. We outline the construction of consistent Kaluza-Klein reductions and show that, although our vacuum solutions are nonsupersymmetric, these are closely related to the bosonic part of well-known maximally supersymmetric reductions on spheres. We comment on the stability of our solutions, noting that (A)dS3 vacua pass routine stability tests.

  8. On asymptotic flatness and Lorentz charges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compère, Geoffrey; Dehouck, François; Virmani, Amitabh

    2011-07-01

    In this paper we establish two results concerning four-dimensional asymptotically flat spacetimes at spatial infinity. First, we show that the six conserved Lorentz charges are encoded in two unique, distinct, but mutually dual symmetric divergence-free tensors that we construct from the equations of motion. Second, we show that the integrability of Einstein's equations in the asymptotic expansion is sufficient to establish the equivalence between counter-term charges defined from the variational principle and charges defined by Ashtekar and Hansen. These results clarify earlier constructions of conserved charges in the hyperboloid representation of spatial infinity. In showing this, the parity condition on the mass aspect is not needed. Along the way in establishing these results, we prove two lemmas on tensor fields on three-dimensional de Sitter spacetime stated by Ashtekar-Hansen and Beig-Schmidt and state and prove three additional lemmas. A la mémoire de notre ami et professeur Laurent Houart.

  9. Corrugated cover plate for flat plate collector

    DOEpatents

    Hollands, K. G. Terry; Sibbitt, Bruce

    1978-01-01

    A flat plate radiant energy collector is providing having a transparent cover. The cover has a V-corrugated shape which reduces the amount of energy reflected by the cover away from the flat plate absorber of the collector.

  10. Fluctuations along supersymmetric flat directions during inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enqvist, Kari; Figueroa, Daniel G.; Rigopoulos, Gerasimos

    2012-01-01

    We consider a set of scalar fields, consisting of a single flat direction and one or several non-flat directions. We take our cue from the MSSM, considering separately D-flat and F-flat directions, but our results apply to any supersymmetric scenario containing flat directions. We study the field fluctuations during pure de Sitter inflation, following the evolution of the infrared modes by numerically solving the appropriate Langevin equations. We demonstrate that for the Standard Model U(1)Y, SU(2)L or SU(3)c gauge couplings, as well as for large enough Yukawa couplings, the fluctuations along the non-flat directions effectively block the fluctuations along the flat directions. The usual expected behaviour langlephi2rangleproptoN, with N the number of e-folds, may be strongly violated, depending on the coupling strengths. As a consequence, those cosmological considerations, which are derived assuming that during inflation flat directions fluctuate freely, should be revised.

  11. Flat heat pipe design, construction, and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Voegler, G.; Boughey, B.; Cerza, M.; Lindler, K.W.

    1999-08-02

    This paper details the design, construction and partial analysis of a low temperature flat heat pipe in order to determine the feasibility of implementing flat heat pipes into thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion systems.

  12. Flat panel planar optic display

    SciTech Connect

    Veligdan, J.T.

    1994-11-01

    A prototype 10 inch flat panel Planar Optic Display, (POD), screen has been constructed and tested. This display screen is comprised of hundreds of planar optic class sheets bonded together with a cladding layer between each sheet where each glass sheet represents a vertical line of resolution. The display is 9 inches wide by 5 inches high and approximately 1 inch thick. A 3 milliwatt HeNe laser is used as the illumination source and a vector scanning technique is employed.

  13. Residue management at Rocky Flats

    SciTech Connect

    Olencz, J.

    1995-12-31

    Past plutonium production and manufacturing operations conducted at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) produced a variety of plutonium-contaminated by-product materials. Residues are a category of these materials and were categorized as {open_quotes}materials in-process{close_quotes} to be recovered due to their inherent plutonium concentrations. In 1989 all RFETS plutonium production and manufacturing operations were curtailed. This report describes the management of plutonium bearing liquid and solid wastes.

  14. Flat space physics from holography

    SciTech Connect

    Bousso, Raphael

    2004-02-06

    We point out that aspects of quantum mechanics can be derived from the holographic principle, using only a perturbative limit of classical general relativity. In flat space, the covariant entropy bound reduces to the Bekenstein bound. The latter does not contain Newton's constant and cannot operate via gravitational backreaction. Instead, it is protected by--and in this sense, predicts--the Heisenberg uncertainty principle.

  15. Magnetotelluric Data, Southern Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    J.M. Williams; B.D. Rodriguez, and T.H. Asch

    2005-11-23

    Nuclear weapons are integral to the defense of the United States. The U.S. Department of Energy, as the steward of these devices, must continue to gauge the efficacy of the individual weapons. This could be accomplished by occasional testing at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nevada, northwest of Las Vegas. Yucca Flat Basin is one of the testing areas at the NTS. One issue of concern is the nature of the somewhat poorly constrained pre-Tertiary geology and its effects on ground-water flow in the area subsequent to a nuclear test. Ground-water modelers would like to know more about the hydrostratigraphy and geologic structure to support a hydrostratigraphic framework model that is under development for the Yucca Flat Corrective Action Unit (CAU). During 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected and processed Magnetotelluric (MT) and Audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) data at the Nevada Test Site in and near Yucca Flat to help characterize this pre-Tertiary geology. That work will help to define the character, thickness, and lateral extent of pre-Tertiary confining units. In particular, a major goal has been to define the upper clastic confining unit (UCCU) in the Yucca Flat area. Interpretation will include a three-dimensional (3-D) character analysis and two-dimensional (2-D) resistivity model. The purpose of this report is to release the MT sounding data for Southern Yucca Flat, Profile 4, as shown in Figure 1. No interpretation of the data is included here.

  16. Magnetotelluric Data, Central Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    J.M. Williams; B.D. Rodriguez, and T.H. Asch

    2005-11-23

    Nuclear weapons are integral to the defense of the United States. The U.S. Department of Energy, as the steward of these devices, must continue to gauge the efficacy of the individual weapons. This could be accomplished by occasional testing at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nevada, northwest of Las Vegas. Yucca Flat Basin is one of the testing areas at the NTS. One issue of concern is the nature of the somewhat poorly constrained pre-Tertiary geology and its effects on ground-water flow in the area subsequent to a nuclear test. Ground-water modelers would like to know more about the hydrostratigraphy and geologic structure to support a hydrostratigraphic framework model that is under development for the Yucca Flat Corrective Action Unit (CAU). During 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected and processed Magnetotelluric (MT) and Audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) data at the Nevada Test Site in and near Yucca Flat to help characterize this pre-Tertiary geology. That work will help to define the character, thickness, and lateral extent of pre-Tertiary confining units. In particular, a major goal has been to define the upper clastic confining unit (UCCU) in the Yucca Flat area. Interpretation will include a three-dimensional (3-D) character analysis and two-dimensional (2-D) resistivity model. The purpose of this report is to release the MT sounding data for Central Yucca Flat, Profile 1, as shown in figure 1. No interpretation of the data is included here.

  17. Magnetotelluric Data, Northern Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    J.M. Williams; B.D. Rodriguez, and T. H. Asch

    2005-11-23

    Nuclear weapons are integral to the defense of the United States. The U.S. Department of Energy, as the steward of these devices, must continue to gauge the efficacy of the individual weapons. This could be accomplished by occasional testing at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nevada, northwest of Las Vegas. Yucca Flat Basin is one of the testing areas at the NTS. One issue of concern is the nature of the somewhat poorly constrained pre-Tertiary geology and its effects on ground-water flow in the area subsequent to a nuclear test. Ground-water modelers would like to know more about the hydrostratigraphy and geologic structure to support a hydrostratigraphic framework model that is under development for the Yucca Flat Corrective Action Unit (CAU). During 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected and processed Magnetotelluric (MT) and Audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) data at the Nevada Test Site in and near Yucca Flat to help characterize this pre-Tertiary geology. That work will help to define the character, thickness, and lateral extent of pre-Tertiary confining units. In particular, a major goal has been to define the upper clastic confining unit (UCCU) in the Yucca Flat area. Interpretation will include a three-dimensional (3-D) character analysis and two-dimensional (2-D) resistivity model. The purpose of this report is to release the MT sounding data for Frenchman Flat Profile 3, as shown in Figure 1. No interpretation of the data is included here.

  18. Dynamic Modeling and Plantwide Control of a Hybrid Power and Chemical Plant: An Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Coupled with a Methanol Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Patrick J.

    Gasification has been used in industry on a relatively limited scale for many years, but it is emerging as the premier unit operation in the energy and chemical industries. The switch from expensive and insecure petroleum to solid hydrocarbon sources (coal and biomass) is occurring due to the vast amount of domestic solid resources, national security and global warming issues. Gasification (or partial oxidation) is a vital component of "clean coal" technology. Sulfur and nitrogen emissions can be reduced, overall energy efficiency is increased and carbon dioxide recovery and sequestration are facilitated. Gasification units in an electric power generation plant produce a fuel gas for driving combustion turbines. Gasification units in a chemical plant generate synthesis gas, which can be used to produce a wide spectrum of chemical products. Future plants are predicted to be hybrid power/chemical plants with gasification as the key unit operation. The coupling of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) with a methanol plant can handle swings in power demand by diverting hydrogen gas from a combustion turbine and synthesis gas from the gasifier to a methanol plant for the production of an easily-stored, hydrogen-consuming liquid product. An additional control degree of freedom is provided with this hybrid plant, fundamentally improving the controllability of the process. The idea is to base-load the gasifier and use the more responsive gas-phase units to handle disturbances. During the summer days, power demand can fluctuate up to 50% over a 12-hour period. The winter provides a different problem where spikes of power demand can go up 15% within the hour. The following dissertation develops a hybrid IGCC / methanol plant model, validates the steady-state results with a National Energy Technical Laboratory study, and tests a proposed control structure to handle these significant disturbances. All modeling was performed in the widely used chemical process

  19. Development and modeling of a flat plate serpentine reactor for photocatalytic degradation of 17-ethinylestradiol.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dawei; Li, Yi; Zhang, Wenlong; Wang, Qing; Wang, Peifang; Wang, Chao

    2013-04-01

    A flat plate serpentine reactor modified from ultraviolet disinfection pool in municipal wastewater treatment plants was developed for the removal of 17-ethinylestradiol (EE2) for the first time. The photocatalytic degradation performance of EE2 was investigated in this serpentine reactor under different conditions such as inlet concentrations, loaded catalyst concentrations, incident radiations fluxes, and flow velocities. More than 98% of EE2 was removed under certain conditions within 120 min. An integrated model including a six-flux adsorption-scattering model and a modified flow diffusion model was established to investigate the effect of radiation field and flow velocities, respectively. A satisfactory agreement was observed between the model simulation and experimental results, showing a potential for design and scale-up of photocatalytic reactor for wastewater treatment.

  20. ePlant and the 3D data display initiative: integrative systems biology on the world wide web.

    PubMed

    Fucile, Geoffrey; Di Biase, David; Nahal, Hardeep; La, Garon; Khodabandeh, Shokoufeh; Chen, Yani; Easley, Kante; Christendat, Dinesh; Kelley, Lawrence; Provart, Nicholas J

    2011-01-10

    Visualization tools for biological data are often limited in their ability to interactively integrate data at multiple scales. These computational tools are also typically limited by two-dimensional displays and programmatic implementations that require separate configurations for each of the user's computing devices and recompilation for functional expansion. Towards overcoming these limitations we have developed "ePlant" (http://bar.utoronto.ca/eplant) - a suite of open-source world wide web-based tools for the visualization of large-scale data sets from the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana. These tools display data spanning multiple biological scales on interactive three-dimensional models. Currently, ePlant consists of the following modules: a sequence conservation explorer that includes homology relationships and single nucleotide polymorphism data, a protein structure model explorer, a molecular interaction network explorer, a gene product subcellular localization explorer, and a gene expression pattern explorer. The ePlant's protein structure explorer module represents experimentally determined and theoretical structures covering >70% of the Arabidopsis proteome. The ePlant framework is accessed entirely through a web browser, and is therefore platform-independent. It can be applied to any model organism. To facilitate the development of three-dimensional displays of biological data on the world wide web we have established the "3D Data Display Initiative" (http://3ddi.org).

  1. Plant Omics Data Center: an integrated web repository for interspecies gene expression networks with NLP-based curation.

    PubMed

    Ohyanagi, Hajime; Takano, Tomoyuki; Terashima, Shin; Kobayashi, Masaaki; Kanno, Maasa; Morimoto, Kyoko; Kanegae, Hiromi; Sasaki, Yohei; Saito, Misa; Asano, Satomi; Ozaki, Soichi; Kudo, Toru; Yokoyama, Koji; Aya, Koichiro; Suwabe, Keita; Suzuki, Go; Aoki, Koh; Kubo, Yasutaka; Watanabe, Masao; Matsuoka, Makoto; Yano, Kentaro

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensive integration of large-scale omics resources such as genomes, transcriptomes and metabolomes will provide deeper insights into broader aspects of molecular biology. For better understanding of plant biology, we aim to construct a next-generation sequencing (NGS)-derived gene expression network (GEN) repository for a broad range of plant species. So far we have incorporated information about 745 high-quality mRNA sequencing (mRNA-Seq) samples from eight plant species (Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa, Solanum lycopersicum, Sorghum bicolor, Vitis vinifera, Solanum tuberosum, Medicago truncatula and Glycine max) from the public short read archive, digitally profiled the entire set of gene expression profiles, and drawn GENs by using correspondence analysis (CA) to take advantage of gene expression similarities. In order to understand the evolutionary significance of the GENs from multiple species, they were linked according to the orthology of each node (gene) among species. In addition to other gene expression information, functional annotation of the genes will facilitate biological comprehension. Currently we are improving the given gene annotations with natural language processing (NLP) techniques and manual curation. Here we introduce the current status of our analyses and the web database, PODC (Plant Omics Data Center; http://bioinf.mind.meiji.ac.jp/podc/), now open to the public, providing GENs, functional annotations and additional comprehensive omics resources.

  2. Plant Omics Data Center: An Integrated Web Repository for Interspecies Gene Expression Networks with NLP-Based Curation

    PubMed Central

    Ohyanagi, Hajime; Takano, Tomoyuki; Terashima, Shin; Kobayashi, Masaaki; Kanno, Maasa; Morimoto, Kyoko; Kanegae, Hiromi; Sasaki, Yohei; Saito, Misa; Asano, Satomi; Ozaki, Soichi; Kudo, Toru; Yokoyama, Koji; Aya, Koichiro; Suwabe, Keita; Suzuki, Go; Aoki, Koh; Kubo, Yasutaka; Watanabe, Masao; Matsuoka, Makoto; Yano, Kentaro

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensive integration of large-scale omics resources such as genomes, transcriptomes and metabolomes will provide deeper insights into broader aspects of molecular biology. For better understanding of plant biology, we aim to construct a next-generation sequencing (NGS)-derived gene expression network (GEN) repository for a broad range of plant species. So far we have incorporated information about 745 high-quality mRNA sequencing (mRNA-Seq) samples from eight plant species (Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa, Solanum lycopersicum, Sorghum bicolor, Vitis vinifera, Solanum tuberosum, Medicago truncatula and Glycine max) from the public short read archive, digitally profiled the entire set of gene expression profiles, and drawn GENs by using correspondence analysis (CA) to take advantage of gene expression similarities. In order to understand the evolutionary significance of the GENs from multiple species, they were linked according to the orthology of each node (gene) among species. In addition to other gene expression information, functional annotation of the genes will facilitate biological comprehension. Currently we are improving the given gene annotations with natural language processing (NLP) techniques and manual curation. Here we introduce the current status of our analyses and the web database, PODC (Plant Omics Data Center; http://bioinf.mind.meiji.ac.jp/podc/), now open to the public, providing GENs, functional annotations and additional comprehensive omics resources. PMID:25505034

  3. 49 CFR 231.6 - Flat cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flat cars. 231.6 Section 231.6 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.6 Flat cars. (Cars with sides 12 inches or less above the floor may be equipped the same as flat cars.) (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Same as specified...

  4. 49 CFR 231.6 - Flat cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Flat cars. 231.6 Section 231.6 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.6 Flat cars. (Cars with sides 12 inches or less above the floor may be equipped the same as flat cars.) (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Same as specified...

  5. 49 CFR 231.6 - Flat cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Flat cars. 231.6 Section 231.6 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.6 Flat cars. (Cars with sides 12 inches or less above the floor may be equipped the same as flat cars.) (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Same as specified...

  6. 49 CFR 231.6 - Flat cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flat cars. 231.6 Section 231.6 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.6 Flat cars. (Cars with sides 12 inches or less above the floor may be equipped the same as flat cars.) (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Same as specified...

  7. Flat mites of the world - Edition 2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Flat Mites of the World has an interactive key, fact sheets, descriptions, and images to aid in the identification of flat mites (Acari: Trombidiformes: Tetranychoidea: Tenuipalpidae) worldwide. The tool will help identify 36 genera of flat mites, including specific diagnostics for 13 species of...

  8. 49 CFR 231.6 - Flat cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flat cars. 231.6 Section 231.6 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.6 Flat cars. (Cars with sides 12 inches or less above the floor may be equipped the same as flat cars.) (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Same as specified...

  9. Selecting the process arrangement for preparing the gas turbine working fluid for an integrated gasification combined-cycle power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryzhkov, A. F.; Gordeev, S. I.; Bogatova, T. F.

    2015-11-01

    Introduction of a combined-cycle technology based on fuel gasification integrated in the process cycle (commonly known as integrated gasification combined cycle technology) is among avenues of development activities aimed at achieving more efficient operation of coal-fired power units at thermal power plants. The introduction of this technology is presently facing the following difficulties: IGCC installations are characterized by high capital intensity, low energy efficiency, and insufficient reliability and availability indicators. It was revealed from an analysis of literature sources that these drawbacks are typical for the gas turbine working fluid preparation system, the main component of which is a gasification plant. Different methods for improving the gasification plant chemical efficiency were compared, including blast air high-temperature heating, use of industrial oxygen, and a combination of these two methods implying limited use of oxygen and moderate heating of blast air. Calculated investigations aimed at estimating the influence of methods for achieving more efficient air gasification are carried out taking as an example the gasifier produced by the Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI) with a thermal capacity of 500 MW. The investigation procedure was verified against the known experimental data. Modes have been determined in which the use of high-temperature heating of blast air for gasification and cycle air upstream of the gas turbine combustion chamber makes it possible to increase the working fluid preparation system efficiency to a level exceeding the efficiency of the oxygen process performed according to the Shell technology. For the gasification plant's configuration and the GTU working fluid preparation system be selected on a well-grounded basis, this work should be supplemented with technical-economic calculations.

  10. Integrated plant nutrient system - with special emphasis on mineral nutriton and biofertilizers for Black pepper and cardamom - A review.

    PubMed

    K P, Sangeeth; R, Suseela Bhai

    2016-05-01

    Integrated Plant Nutrition System (IPNS) as a concept and farm management strategy embraces and transcends from single season crop fertilization efforts to planning and management of plant nutrients in crop rotations and farming systems on a long-term basis for enhanced productivity, profitability and sustainability. It is estimated that about two-thirds of the required increase in crop production in developing countries will have to come from yield increases from lands already under cultivation. IPNS enhances soil productivity through a balanced use of soil nutrients, chemical fertilizers, combined with organic sources of plant nutrients, including bio-inoculants and nutrient transfer through agro-forestry systems and has adaptation to farming systems in both irrigated and rainfed agriculture. Horticultural crops, mainly plantation crops, management practices include application of fertilizers and pesticides which become inevitable due to the depletion of soil organic matter and incidence of pests and diseases. The extensive use of chemical fertilizers in these crops deteriorated soil health that in turn affected the productivity. To revitalize soil health and to enhance productivity, it is inexorable to enrich the soil using microorganisms. The lacunae observed here is the lack of exploitation of indigenous microbes having the potential to fix atmospheric nitrogen (N) and to solubilize Phosphorus (P) and Potassium (K). The concept of biofertilizer application appears to be technically simple and financially feasible, but the task of developing biofertilizers with efficient strains in appropriate combinations in a consortia mode is not easier. More than developing consortia, a suitable delivery system to discharge the microbial inoculants warranted much effort. This review focuses on the integrated plant nutrition system incorporating biofertilizer with special emphasis on developing and formulating biofertilizer consortium. PMID:25834919

  11. Integrated plant nutrient system - with special emphasis on mineral nutriton and biofertilizers for Black pepper and cardamom - A review.

    PubMed

    K P, Sangeeth; R, Suseela Bhai

    2016-05-01

    Integrated Plant Nutrition System (IPNS) as a concept and farm management strategy embraces and transcends from single season crop fertilization efforts to planning and management of plant nutrients in crop rotations and farming systems on a long-term basis for enhanced productivity, profitability and sustainability. It is estimated that about two-thirds of the required increase in crop production in developing countries will have to come from yield increases from lands already under cultivation. IPNS enhances soil productivity through a balanced use of soil nutrients, chemical fertilizers, combined with organic sources of plant nutrients, including bio-inoculants and nutrient transfer through agro-forestry systems and has adaptation to farming systems in both irrigated and rainfed agriculture. Horticultural crops, mainly plantation crops, management practices include application of fertilizers and pesticides which become inevitable due to the depletion of soil organic matter and incidence of pests and diseases. The extensive use of chemical fertilizers in these crops deteriorated soil health that in turn affected the productivity. To revitalize soil health and to enhance productivity, it is inexorable to enrich the soil using microorganisms. The lacunae observed here is the lack of exploitation of indigenous microbes having the potential to fix atmospheric nitrogen (N) and to solubilize Phosphorus (P) and Potassium (K). The concept of biofertilizer application appears to be technically simple and financially feasible, but the task of developing biofertilizers with efficient strains in appropriate combinations in a consortia mode is not easier. More than developing consortia, a suitable delivery system to discharge the microbial inoculants warranted much effort. This review focuses on the integrated plant nutrition system incorporating biofertilizer with special emphasis on developing and formulating biofertilizer consortium.

  12. Capping protein integrates multiple MAMP signalling pathways to modulate actin dynamics during plant innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiejie; Henty-Ridilla, Jessica L; Staiger, Benjamin H; Day, Brad; Staiger, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    Plants and animals perceive diverse microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) via pattern recognition receptors and activate innate immune signalling. The actin cytoskeleton has been suggested as a target for innate immune signalling and a key transducer of cellular responses. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying actin remodelling and the precise functions of these rearrangements during innate immunity remain largely unknown. Here we demonstrate rapid actin remodelling in response to several distinct MAMP signalling pathways in plant epidermal cells. The regulation of actin dynamics is a convergence point for basal defence machinery, such as cell wall fortification and transcriptional reprogramming. Our quantitative analyses of actin dynamics and genetic studies reveal that MAMP-stimulated actin remodelling is due to the inhibition of capping protein (CP) by the signalling lipid, phosphatidic acid. In addition, CP promotes resistance against bacterial and fungal phytopathogens. These findings demonstrate that CP is a central target for the plant innate immune response. PMID:26018794

  13. Integration of Biorefineries and Nuclear Cogeneration Power Plants - A Preliminary Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, Sherrell R; Flanagan, George F; Borole, Abhijeet P

    2009-03-01

    Biomass-based ethanol and nuclear power are two viable elements in the path to U.S. energy independence. Numerous studies suggest nuclear power could provide a practical carbon-free heat source alternative for the production of biomass-based ethanol. In order for this coupling to occur, it is necessary to examine the interfacial requirements of both nuclear power plants and bioethanol refineries. This report describes the proposed characteristics of a small cogeneration nuclear power plant, a biochemical process-based cellulosic bioethanol refinery, and a thermochemical process-based cellulosic biorefinery. Systemic and interfacial issues relating to the co-location of either type of bioethanol facility with a nuclear power plant are presented and discussed. Results indicate future co-location efforts will require a new optimized energy strategy focused on overcoming the interfacial challenges identified in the report.

  14. Dichotomous branching: the plant form and integrity upon the apical meristem bifurcation

    PubMed Central

    Gola, Edyta M.

    2014-01-01

    The division of the apical meristem into two independently functioning axes is defined as dichotomous branching. This type of branching typically occurs in non-vascular and non-seed vascular plants, whereas in seed plants it presents a primary growth form only in several taxa. Dichotomy is a complex process, which requires a re-organization of the meristem structure and causes changes in the apex geometry and activity. However, the mechanisms governing the repetitive apex divisions are hardly known. Here, an overview of dichotomous branching is presented, occurring in structurally different apices of phylogenetically distant plants, and in various organs (e.g., shoots, roots, rhizophores). Additionally, morphogenetic effects of dichotomy are reviewed, including its impact on organogenesis and mechanical constraints. At the end, the hormonal and genetic regulation of the dichotomous branching is discussed. PMID:24936206

  15. Thermal Integration of CO{sub 2} Compression Processes with Coal-Fired Power Plants Equipped with Carbon Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Edward Levy

    2012-06-29

    Coal-fired power plants, equipped either with oxycombustion or post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture, will require a CO{sub 2} compression system to increase the pressure of the CO{sub 2} to the level needed for sequestration. Most analyses show that CO{sub 2} compression will have a significant effect on parasitic load, will be a major capital cost, and will contribute significantly to reduced unit efficiency. This project used first principle engineering analyses and computer simulations to determine the effects of utilizing compressor waste heat to improve power plant efficiency and increase net power output of coal-fired power plants with carbon capture. This was done for units with post combustion solvent-based CO{sub 2} capture systems and for oxyfired power plants, firing bituminous, PRB and lignite coals. The thermal integration opportunities analyzed for oxycombustion capture are use of compressor waste heat to reheat recirculated flue gas, preheat boiler feedwater and predry high-moisture coals prior to pulverizing the coal. Among the thermal integration opportunities analyzed for post combustion capture systems are use of compressor waste heat and heat recovered from the stripper condenser to regenerate post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture solvent, preheat boiler feedwater and predry high-moisture coals. The overall conclusion from the oxyfuel simulations is that thermal integration of compressor heat has the potential to improve net unit heat rate by up to 8.4 percent, but the actual magnitude of the improvement will depend on the type of heat sink used and to a lesser extent, compressor design and coal rank. The simulations of a unit with a MEA post combustion capture system showed that thermal integration of either compressor heat or stripper condenser heat to preheat boiler feedwater would result in heat rate improvements from 1.20 percent to 4.19 percent. The MEA capture simulations further showed that partial drying of low rank coals, done in combination

  16. Introducing a computer program devoted to renewable integration assessment of multi-field solar photovoltaic power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Gil, M.A.C.; Arroba, J.P.; Ibanez, J.C.; Criado, J.A.R.

    1996-11-01

    The objectives of this paper are to present a computer program devoted to the simulation of solar photovoltaic power plants, namely the assessment of their power generation technical potential. The most general configuration of a former program devoted to single-field photovoltaic generators has been extended and updated to multi-field systems. This program is also intended to provide capabilities in order to assess the integration of renewable energy resources. Mainly solar and wind energy systems will be considered, as well as pumped-storage stations, of which an example is included.

  17. Integrated validation of modeled plant growth, nitrogen- and water-fluxes in the agricultural used Rur catchment in Western Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korres, Wolfgang; Klar, Christian; Reichenau, Tim; Fiener, Peter; Schneider, Karl

    2010-05-01

    Numerous studies have shown that agricultural management is one of the key drivers for spatio-temporal patterns of soil moisture in agricultural landscapes. The process-based ecohydrological model components of the integrated decision support system DANUBIA are used to identify the important processes and feedbacks determining soil-moisture patterns in agroecosystems. Interactions between plant growth, soil hydrology and soil nitrogen transformation processes are modeled by using a dynamically coupled modeling approach. Integrative validation of all three model components serves as a basis for modeling analysis of spatial soil moisture patterns. DANUBIA is parameterized and validated for the Rur catchment located in Western Germany. For integrative validation, an extensive three year dataset (2007 - 2009) of soil moisture- (TDR, FDR), plant- (LAI, organ specific biomass and N) and soil- (texture, N, C) measurements was acquired. Plant measurements on an arable land test site were carried out biweekly. Measurements were conducted for winter wheat, maize and sugar beet during the growing season. Soil nitrogen and carbon measurements were taken before, during and after the growing season. Field averages of plant and soil parameters are derived from three individual measuring locations within each test field. Soil moisture was measured with three FDR soil moisture stations in 10 and 30 cm depth. In a grassland test site biomass measurements were carried out biweekly in 2009. Soil moisture was monitored at different locations in up to 60 cm soil depth using FDR- and TDR-stations. Meteorological data was measured with an eddy flux (arable land) and energy flux station (grassland test site). First results of point validation are in very good agreement with field measurements. Model results for winter wheat in 2007/2008 match field measurements well for both, the overall biomass (R2= 0.97, rel. RMSE = 16.8%, Nash Sutcliff - model efficiency ME = 0.96) as well as for

  18. Steady-state simulation and optimization of an integrated gasification combined cycle power plant with CO2 capture

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, D.; Turton, R.; Zitney, S.

    2011-01-01

    Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants are a promising technology option for power generation with carbon dioxide (CO2) capture in view of their efficiency and environmental advantages over conventional coal utilization technologies. This paper presents a three-phase, top-down, optimization-based approach for designing an IGCC plant with precombustion CO2 capture in a process simulator environment. In the first design phase, important global design decisions are made on the basis of plant-wide optimization studies with the aim of increasing IGCC thermal efficiency and thereby making better use of coal resources and reducing CO2 emissions. For the design of an IGCC plant with 90% CO2 capture, the optimal combination of the extent of carbon monoxide (CO) conversion in the water-gas shift (WGS) reactors and the extent of CO2 capture in the SELEXOL process, using dimethylether of polyethylene glycol as the solvent, is determined in the first phase. In the second design phase, the impact of local design decisions is explored considering the optimum values of the decision variables from the first phase as additional constraints. Two decisions are made focusing on the SELEXOL and Claus unit. In the third design phase, the operating conditions are optimized considering the optimum values of the decision variables from the first and second phases as additional constraints. The operational flexibility of the plant must be taken into account before taking final design decisions. Two studies on the operational flexibility of the WGS reactors and one study focusing on the operational flexibility of the sour water stripper (SWS) are presented. At the end of the first iteration, after executing all the phases once, the net plant efficiency (HHV basis) increases to 34.1% compared to 32.5% in a previously published study (DOE/NETL-2007/1281; National Energy Technology Laboratory, 2007). The study shows that the three-phase, top-down design approach presented is very

  19. Past radionuclide releases from routine operations at Rocky Flats.

    PubMed

    Ripple, S R; Widner, T E; Mongan, T R

    1996-10-01

    The Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment sponsored a study to reconstruct contaminant doses to the public from operations at the Rocky Flats nuclear weapons facility. This analysis of routine releases of plutonium and uranium, the principal radioactive materials used at the plant, was part of the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment study. Historical radionuclide monitoring and data handling practices are characterized and uncertainties are quantified. Estimates of the annual release of plutonium and uranium are provided for the period from 1953 to 1989. Off-site airborne concentrations and deposition of plutonium and uranium associated with the releases are estimated, along with the highest doses for off-site populations. The predicted effective doses from the routine release of plutonium and uranium from Rocky Flats for a person residing near the plant boundary between 1953 and 1989 are very small. PMID:8830751

  20. Integrating Phytoextraction and Biofortification: Fungal Accumulation of Selenium in Plant Materials from Phytoremediation of Agricultural Drainage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The phytomanagement of Se-polluted soil and water is one strategy that may be environmentally sustainable and cost-effective for soils and waters enriched with natural-occurring Se. Several plant species, including Indian mustard (Brassica juncea), pickleweed (Salicornia bigelovii), and other salt/S...

  1. Integrating plant litter quality, soil organic matter stablilization, and the carbon saturation concept

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent research suggests labile plant litters promote the stabilization of soil organic matter (SOM) in physico-chemically protected fractions with relatively slow turnover. However, the effect of litter quality on SOM stabilization is inconsistent. Labile, ‘high quality’ litters characterized by hi...

  2. Utilizing clad piping to improve process plant piping integrity, reliability, and operations

    SciTech Connect

    Chakravarti, B.

    1996-07-01

    During the past four years carbon steel piping clad with type 304L (UNS S30403) stainless steel has been used to solve the flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) problem in nuclear power plants with exceptional success. The product is designed to allow ``like for like`` replacement of damaged carbon steel components where the carbon steel remains the pressure boundary and type 304L (UNS S30403) stainless steel the corrosion allowance. More than 3000 feet of piping and 500 fittings in sizes from 6 to 36-in. NPS have been installed in the extraction steam and other lines of these power plants to improve reliability, eliminate inspection program, reduce O and M costs and provide operational benefits. This concept of utilizing clad piping in solving various corrosion problems in industrial and process plants by conservatively selecting a high alloy material as cladding can provide similar, significant benefits in controlling corrosion problems, minimizing maintenance cost, improving operation and reliability to control performance and risks in a highly cost effective manner. This paper will present various material combinations and applications that appear ideally suited for use of the clad piping components in process plants.

  3. An extension to flat band ferromagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulacsi, M.; Kovacs, G.; Gulacsi, Z.

    2014-11-01

    From flat band ferromagnetism, we learned that the lowest energy half-filled flat band gives always ferromagnetism if the localized Wannier states on the flat band satisfy the connectivity condition. If the connectivity conditions are not satisfied, ferromagnetism does not appear. We show that this is not always the case namely, we show that ferromagnetism due to flat bands can appear even if the connectivity condition does not hold due to a peculiar behavior of the band situated just above the flat band.

  4. Integrating the costs of plant toxins and predation risk in foraging decisions of a mammalian herbivore.

    PubMed

    Kirmani, Sahar N; Banks, Peter B; McArthur, Clare

    2010-10-01

    Foraging herbivores must satisfy their nutrient requirements in a world of toxic plants while also avoiding predators. Plant toxins and perceived predation risk at food patches should both reduce patch residency time, but the relative strengths of these factors on feeding decisions has rarely been quantified. Using an arboreal generalist herbivore, the common brushtail possum Trichosurus vulpecula, we tested the effects on food intake of the plant toxin, cineole, and regurgitated pellets from one of its predators, the powerful owl Ninox strenua at the small spatial scale of the food patch. We used the giving-up density (GUD) framework, with animals harvesting food items (sultanas) in an inedible matrix (small pebbles). We ran two consecutive field experiments in a eucalypt woodland in eastern Australia, 1 month apart in the same location. In experiment 1, there was a significant interaction between cineole [at 17% of dry matter (DM)] and owl pellets. The GUD was lowest in the absence of both cineole and owl pellet, intermediate in the presence of owl pellet; and highest with cineole ± owl pellet. The effect of owl pellet diminished over time. In experiment 2, only cineole (at 10% DM) increased the GUD significantly. The difference in effect of owl pellet was probably due to both habituation and freshness of the cue. Our study demonstrates the importance of synthesising predator-prey and plant-herbivore ecology to better understand the complex set of constraints influencing foraging herbivores. The greater effect of toxin than fear on possums is likely to be due to its high, but ecologically relevant concentration. This highlights the need to explore the relative and net impacts of a range of concentrations of plant toxins and predation risks. PMID:20652597

  5. Investigation of pellicle influence on reticle flatness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Christopher; Racette, Kenneth; Barrett, Monica

    2005-06-01

    In lithography systems, the need for increased resolution requires larger numerical apertures and shorter illumination wavelengths. Both of these requirements cause a reduction in the system"s depth of focus resulting in the need for flatter photomasks with specifications under 0.5 micron. Currently the mask blank substrates are measured after polishing, and all subsequent process steps are assumed to have little or no impact on the final mask flatness. With today"s ever tightening flatness requirements, this assumption can no longer be taken for granted. This paper investigates the distortions seen at the reticle surface induced by the mounting of a standard optical pellicle frame to the photomask and relates these distortions to the pellicle frame flatness. The experiment involves using a set of mask blanks that are better than 0.5 micron flatness with similar form errors before attaching the pellicle. Two groups of pellicles are used to create two distinct frame flatness populations: one set assumed to be within specification as purchased; and a second set of pellicles that are intentionally distorted. Mask flatness is compared before and after mounting the pellicles, and all frames are measured for flatness. Correlation between the frame flatness and form to the measured distortion on the reticle surface are made and discussed, and a practical guideline for selecting an appropriate blank flatness and pellicle flatness to achieve the desired reticle flatness is suggested.

  6. Flat Subduction and Dynamic Topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lithgow-Bertelloni, C. R.; Dávila, F. M.; Eakin, C. M.; Crameri, F.

    2014-12-01

    Mantle dynamics manifests at the surface via the horizontal motions of plates and the vertical deflections that influence topography and the non-hydrostatic geoid. The pioneering work of Mitrovica et al. (1989) and Gurnis (1990) on this dynamic topography revolutionized our understanding of sedimentary basin formation, sea level changes and continental flooding. The temporal evolution of subduction can explain the migration of basins and even the drainage reversal of the Amazon (Shephard et al., 2012; Eakin et al., 2014). Until recently, flat subduction has been seen as enhancing downward deflection of the overriding plate and increasing flooding. However, this interpretation depends crucially on the details of the morphology and density structure of the slab, which controls the loci and amplitude of the deflection. We tend to ignore morphological details in mantle dynamics because flow can smooth out short wavelength variations. We have shown instead that details matter! Using South America as a natural laboratory because of the large changes in morphology of the Nazca slab along strike, we show that downward deflection of the overriding plate and hence basin formation, do not occur over flat segments but at the leading edge, where slabs plunge back into the mantle. This is true in both Argentina and Peru. The temporal evolution from a 'normally' dipplng slab to a flat slab leads to uplift over flat segments rather than enhanced subsidence. Critical for this result is the use of a detailed morphological model of the present-day Nazca slab with a spatial resolution of 50-100 km and based on relocated seismicity and magnetotelluric results. The density structure of the slab, due to age and the presence of overthickened crust from aseismic ridge subduction is essential. Overthickened crust leads to buoyant slabs. We reproduce formation and deposition of the Acres-Solimoes basin and the evolution of the Amazon drainage basin in Peru as well as the Mar Chiquita

  7. Integrated Safety Management System Phase I Verification for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) [VOL 1 & 2

    SciTech Connect

    SETH, S.S.

    2000-01-10

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Policy 450.4, Safety Management System Policy commits to institutionalizing an Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) throughout the DOE complex as a means of accomplishing its missions safely. DOE Acquisition Regulation 970.5204-2 requires that contractors manage and perform work in accordance with a documented safety management system.

  8. Flat Gauss illumination for the step-and-scan lithographic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ming; Wang, Ying; Zeng, Aijun; Zhu, Jing; Yang, Baoxi; Huang, Huijie

    2016-08-01

    To meet the uniform dose exposure in optical lithography, it is desirable to get uniform illumination in the scanning direction on wafer for the step-and-scan lithographic system. We present a flat Gauss illumination for the step-and-scan lithographic system in this paper. Through flat Gauss illumination in scanning direction, pulse quantization effect could be reduced effectively. Correspondingly, the uniformity of the reticle and wafer is improved. Compared with the trapezoid illumination, flat Gauss illumination could keep the slit edge fixed, and pulse quantization effect will not be enhanced. Moreover flat Gauss illumination could be obtained directly without defocusing and blocking, which results in high energy efficiency and high throughput of the lithography. A design strategy for flat Gauss illumination is also proposed which offers high uniformity illumination, fixed slope and integral energy of flat Gauss illumination in different coherence factors. The strategy describes a light uniform device which contains first microlens array, second microlens array, one-dimensional Gauss diffuser and a Fourier lens. The device produces flat Gauss illumination directly at the scanning slit. The design and simulation results show that the uniformity of flat Gauss illumination in two directions satisfy the requirements of lithographic illumination system and the slope. In addition, slit edge of flat Gauss illumination does not change.

  9. An integrated system to remote monitor and control anaerobic wastewater treatment plants through the internet.

    PubMed

    Bernard, O; Chachuat, B; Hélias, A; Le Dantec, B; Sialve, B; Steyer, J-P; Lardon, L; Neveu, P; Lambert, S; Gallop, J; Dixon, M; Ratini, P; Quintabà, A; Frattesi, S; Lema, J M; Roca, E; Ruiz, G; Rodriguez, J; Franco, A; Vanrolleghem, P; Zaher, U; De Pauw, D J W; De Neve, K; Lievens, K; Dochaine, D; Schoefs, O; Fibrianto, H; Farina, R; Alcaraz Gonzalez, V; Gonzalez Alvarez, V; Lemaire, P; Martinez, J A; Esandi, F; Duclaud, O; Lavigne, J F

    2005-01-01

    The TELEMAC project brings new methodologies from the Information and Science Technologies field to the world of water treatment. TELEMAC offers an advanced remote management system which adapts to most of the anaerobic wastewater treatment plants that do not benefit from a local expert in wastewater treatment. The TELEMAC system takes advantage of new sensors to better monitor the process dynamics and to run automatic controllers that stabilise the treatment plant, meet the depollution requirements and provide a biogas quality suitable for cogeneration. If the automatic system detects a failure which cannot be solved automatically or locally by a technician, then an expert from the TELEMAC Control Centre is contacted via the internet and manages the problem. PMID:16180464

  10. Study of ways of reducing coke use at non-integrated metallurgical plants

    SciTech Connect

    S.A. Feshchenko; V.I. Pleshkov; I.N. Shishchuk; A.V. Buev

    2006-03-15

    To reduce the costs of blast-furnace smelting, the Svobodnyi Sokol plant has devised a comprehensive program of organizational-technical measures that include study of ways of reducing coke consumption. To do this, the plant began operating its blast furnaces with schungite when making foundry and conversion pig irons. Using schungite in the charge employed to make foundry iron makes it possible to save a significant (10-15%) amount of coke. The value of the coefficient that characterizes the replacement of coke by schungite varies broadly and can reach 1.0 or more, depending on the grade of iron being made and the furnace operating regime. The same coefficient has a value of 0.57 kg coke/kg schungite when 12-15 kg schungite/ton pig is used to make conversion pig iron.

  11. Power generation plant integrating concentrated solar power receiver and pressurized heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Sakadjian, Bartev B; Flynn, Thomas J; Hu, Shengteng; Velazquez-Vargas, Luis G; Maryamchik, Mikhail

    2016-10-04

    A power plant includes a solar receiver heating solid particles, a standpipe receiving solid particles from the solar receiver, a pressurized heat exchanger heating working fluid by heat transfer through direct contact with heated solid particles flowing out of the bottom of the standpipe, and a flow path for solid particles from the bottom of the standpipe into the pressurized heat exchanger that is sealed by a pressure P produced at the bottom of the standpipe by a column of heated solid particles of height H. The flow path may include a silo or surge tank comprising a pressure vessel connected to the bottom of the standpipe, and a non-mechanical valve. The power plant may further include a turbine driven by heated working fluid discharged from the pressurized heat exchanger, and a compressor driven by the turbine.

  12. Measurement of plant growth in view of an integrative analysis of regulatory networks.

    PubMed

    Wuyts, Nathalie; Dhondt, Stijn; Inzé, Dirk

    2015-06-01

    As the regulatory networks of growth at the cellular level are elucidated at a fast pace, their complexity is not reduced; on the contrary, the tissue, organ and even whole-plant level affect cell proliferation and expansion by means of development-induced and environment-induced signaling events in growth regulatory processes. Measurement of growth across different levels aids in gaining a mechanistic understanding of growth, and in defining the spatial and temporal resolution of sampling strategies for molecular analyses in the model Arabidopsis thaliana and increasingly also in crop species. The latter claim their place at the forefront of plant research, since global issues and future needs drive the translation from laboratory model-acquired knowledge of growth processes to improvements in crop productivity in field conditions. PMID:26002069

  13. An integrated system to remote monitor and control anaerobic wastewater treatment plants through the internet.

    PubMed

    Bernard, O; Chachuat, B; Hélias, A; Le Dantec, B; Sialve, B; Steyer, J-P; Lardon, L; Neveu, P; Lambert, S; Gallop, J; Dixon, M; Ratini, P; Quintabà, A; Frattesi, S; Lema, J M; Roca, E; Ruiz, G; Rodriguez, J; Franco, A; Vanrolleghem, P; Zaher, U; De Pauw, D J W; De Neve, K; Lievens, K; Dochaine, D; Schoefs, O; Fibrianto, H; Farina, R; Alcaraz Gonzalez, V; Gonzalez Alvarez, V; Lemaire, P; Martinez, J A; Esandi, F; Duclaud, O; Lavigne, J F

    2005-01-01

    The TELEMAC project brings new methodologies from the Information and Science Technologies field to the world of water treatment. TELEMAC offers an advanced remote management system which adapts to most of the anaerobic wastewater treatment plants that do not benefit from a local expert in wastewater treatment. The TELEMAC system takes advantage of new sensors to better monitor the process dynamics and to run automatic controllers that stabilise the treatment plant, meet the depollution requirements and provide a biogas quality suitable for cogeneration. If the automatic system detects a failure which cannot be solved automatically or locally by a technician, then an expert from the TELEMAC Control Centre is contacted via the internet and manages the problem.

  14. Integral approaches to wastewater treatment plant upgrading for odor prevention: Activated Sludge and Oxidized Ammonium Recycling.

    PubMed

    Estrada, José M; Kraakman, N J R; Lebrero, R; Muñoz, R

    2015-11-01

    Traditional physical/chemical end-of-the-pipe technologies for odor abatement are relatively expensive and present high environmental impacts. On the other hand, biotechnologies have recently emerged as cost-effective and environmentally friendly alternatives but are still limited by their investment costs and land requirements. A more desirable approach to odor control is the prevention of odorant formation before being released to the atmosphere, but limited information is available beyond good design and operational practices of the wastewater treatment process. The present paper reviews two widely applicable and economic alternatives for odor control, Activated Sludge Recycling (ASR) and Oxidized Ammonium Recycling (OAR), by discussing their fundamentals, key operating parameters and experience from the available pilot and field studies. Both technologies present high application potential using readily available plant by-products with a minimum plant upgrading, and low investment and operating costs, contributing to the sustainability and economic efficiency of odor control at wastewater treatment facilities. PMID:26316402

  15. Plant response to the soil environment: An analytical model integrating yield, water, soil type, and salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shani, Uri; Ben-Gal, Alon; Tripler, Effi; Dudley, Lynn M.

    2007-08-01

    An accessible solution capable of reliably predicting plant-environmental interrelationships for variable species, climates, soils, and management options is a necessary tool for creating sustainable agriculture and environmental preservation. A mechanism-based analytical solution, the first of its kind that considers multiple environmental variables and their combined effects on plant response, was developed and tested. Water uptake by plants, water and salt leakage below the roots, and yield are calculated by solving for transpiration in a single mathematical expression according to limitations imposed by root zone salinity and water status. Input variables include the quantity and salinity of applied water, terms for plant sensitivity to salinity and to water stress, potential evapotranspiration, and soil hydraulic parameters. Where water was not limiting, regression of predicted versus measured data resulted in r2 = 0.96 with slope of 0.937 and intercept of 0.033 (not different from 1 and 0 at 99% confidence), where irrigation varied and salinity was not limiting the r2 = 0.94 with slope of 0.906 and intercept of 0.044 (not different from 1 and 0 at 99% confidence), where both salinity and water levels varied r2 = 0.94 with slope of 0.966 and intercept of 0.033 (not different from 1 and 0 at 99% confidence). Application of the model for agricultural and environmental management and economic analysis is discussed. For example, a farmer in the Arava in Israel where irrigation water salinity is high (electrical conductivity of 3 dS m-1) cannot expect to reach greater than 70% of the potential yield for a pepper crop with any amount of irrigation. By choosing melon, the farmer can achieve 90% of potential yield with the same quality and quantity of water.

  16. Integrated airborne lidar and multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis (MESMA) for plant species mapping across multiple functional groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlin, K.; Asner, G. P.

    2010-12-01

    The ability to map plant species distributions has long been one of the key goals of terrestrial remote sensing. Achieving this goal has been challenging, however, due to technical constraints and the difficulty in relating remote observations to ground measurements. Advances in both the types of data that can be collected remotely and in available analytical tools like multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis (MESMA) are allowing for rapid improvements in this field. In 2007 the Carnegie Airborne Observatory (CAO) acquired high resolution lidar and hyperspectral imagery of Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve (Woodside, California). The site contains a mosaic of vegetation types, from grassland to chaparral to evergreen forest. To build a spectral library, 415 GPS points were collected in the field, made up of 44 plant species, six plant categories (for nonphotosynthetic vegetation), and four substrate types. Using the lidar data to select the most illuminated pixels as seen from the aircraft (based on canopy shape and viewing angle), we then reduced the spectral library to only the most fully lit pixels. To identify individual plant species in the imagery, first the hyperspectral data was used to calculate the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and then pixels with an NDVI less than 0.15 were removed from further analysis. The remaining image was stratified into five classes based on vegetation height derived from the lidar data. For each class, a suite of possible endmembers was identified and then three endmember selection procedures (endmember average RMS, minimum average spectral angle, and count based endmember selection) were employed to select the most representative endmembers from each species in each class. Two and three endmember models were then applied and each pixel was assigned a species or plant category based on the highest endmember fraction. To validate the approach, an independent set of 200 points was collected throughout the

  17. Rocky Flats Closure Unit Cost Data

    SciTech Connect

    Sanford, P.C.; Skokan, B.

    2007-07-01

    The Rocky Flats Closure Project has completed the process of stabilizing residual nuclear materials, decommissioning nuclear facilities, remediating environmental media and closing the Rocky Flats Site (Site). The project cost approximately $4.1 B and included the decommissioning of over 700 structures including 5 major plutonium facilities and 5 major uranium facilities, shipping over 14,600 cubic meters of transuranic and 565,000 cubic meters of low level radioactive waste, and remediating a 385-acre industrial area and the surrounding land. Actual costs were collected for a large variety of closure activities. These costs can be correlated with metrics associated with the facilities and environmental media to capture cost factors from the project that could be applicable to a variety of other closure projects both within and outside of the Department of Energy's weapons complex. The paper covers four general topics: the process to correlate the actual costs and metrics, an example of the correlated data for one large sub-project, a discussion of the results, and the additional activities that are planned to correlate and make this data available to the public. The process to collect and arrange the project control data of the Closure Project relied on the actual Closure Project cost information. It was used to correlate these actual costs with the metrics for the physical work, such as building area or waste generated, to support the development of parametric cost factors. The example provides cost factors for the Industrial Sites Project. The discussion addresses the strengths and weaknesses of the data, followed by a section identifying future activities to improve and extend the analyses and integrate it within the Department's Environmental Cost Analysis System. (authors)

  18. Closing Rocky Flats by 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Tuor, N. R.; Schubert, A. L.

    2002-02-26

    Safely accelerating the closure of Rocky Flats to 2006 is a goal shared by many: the State of Colorado, the communities surrounding the site, the U.S. Congress, the Department of Energy, Kaiser-Hill and its team of subcontractors, the site's employees, and taxpayers across the country. On June 30, 2000, Kaiser-Hill (KH) submitted to the Department of Energy (DOE), KH's plan to achieve closure of Rocky Flats by December 15, 2006, for a remaining cost of $3.96 billion (February 1, 2000, to December 15, 2006). The Closure Project Baseline (CPB) is the detailed project plan for accomplishing this ambitious closure goal. This paper will provide a status report on the progress being made toward the closure goal. This paper will: provide a summary of the closure contract completion criteria; give the current cost and schedule variance of the project and the status of key activities; detail important accomplishments of the past year; and discuss the challenges ahead.

  19. Economic value of biological control in integrated pest management of managed plant systems.

    PubMed

    Naranjo, Steven E; Ellsworth, Peter C; Frisvold, George B

    2015-01-01

    Biological control is an underlying pillar of integrated pest management, yet little focus has been placed on assigning economic value to this key ecosystem service. Setting biological control on a firm economic foundation would help to broaden its utility and adoption for sustainable crop protection. Here we discuss approaches and methods available for valuation of biological control of arthropod pests by arthropod natural enemies and summarize economic evaluations in classical, augmentative, and conservation biological control. Emphasis is placed on valuation of conservation biological control, which has received little attention. We identify some of the challenges of and opportunities for applying economics to biological control to advance integrated pest management. Interaction among diverse scientists and stakeholders will be required to measure the direct and indirect costs and benefits of biological control that will allow farmers and others to internalize the benefits that incentivize and accelerate adoption for private and public good.

  20. Advances in BAC-Based Physical Mapping and Map Integration Strategies in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Ariyadasa, Ruvini; Stein, Nils

    2012-01-01

    In the advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS) platforms, map-based sequencing strategy has been recently suppressed being too expensive and laborious. The detailed studies on NGS drafts alone indicated these assemblies remain far from gold standard reference quality, especially when applied on complex genomes. In this context the conventional BAC-based physical mapping has been identified as an important intermediate layer in current hybrid sequencing strategy. BAC-based physical map construction and its integration with high-density genetic maps have benefited from NGS and high-throughput array platforms. This paper addresses the current advancements of BAC-based physical mapping and high-throughput map integration strategies to obtain densely anchored well-ordered physical maps. The resulted maps are of immediate utility while providing a template to harness the maximum benefits of the current NGS platforms. PMID:22500080